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Sample records for cell-free endosome fusion

  1. Zn2+ depletion blocks endosome fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Aballay, A; Sarrouf, M N; Colombo, M I; Stahl, P D; Mayorga, L S

    1995-01-01

    Fusion among endosomes is an important step for transport and sorting of internalized macromolecules. Working in a cell-free system, we previously reported that endosome fusion requires cytosol and ATP, and is sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide. Fusion is regulated by monomeric and heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. We now report that fusion can proceed at very low Ca2+ concentrations, i.e. < 30 nM. Moreover, fusion is not affected when intravesicular Ca2+ is depleted by preincubation of vesicles with calcium ionophores (5 microM ionomycin or A23187) in the presence of calcium chelators (5 mM EGTA or 60 mM EDTA). The results indicate that fusion can proceed at extremely low concentrations of intravesicular and extravesicular Ca2+. However, BAPTA [1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid], a relatively specific Ca2+ chelator, inhibits fusion. BAPTA binds other metals besides Ca2+. We present evidence that BAPTA inhibition is due not to Ca2+ chelation but to Zn2+ depletion. TPEN [N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine], another metal-ion chelator with low affinity for Ca2+, also inhibited fusion. TPEN- and BAPTA-inhibited fusions were restored by addition of Zn2+. Zn(2+)-dependent fusion presents the same characteristics as control fusion. In intact cells, TPEN inhibited transport along the endocytic pathway. The results indicate that Zn2+ depletion blocks endosome fusion, suggesting that this ion is necessary for the function of one or more factors involved in the fusion process. Images Figure 1 PMID:8554539

  2. Lysosomes can fuse with a late endosomal compartment in a cell-free system from rat liver

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The passage of pulse doses of asialoglycoproteins through the endosomal compartments of rat liver hepatocytes was studied by subcellular fractionation and EM. The kinetics of disappearance of radiolabeled asialofetuin from light endosomes prepared on Ficoll gradients were the same as the kinetics of disappearance of asialoorosomucoid-horse radish peroxidase reaction products from intracellular membrane-bound structures in the blood sinusoidal regions of hepatocytes. The light endosomes were therefore identifiable as being derived from the peripheral early endosome compartment. In contrast, the labeling of dense endosomes from the middle of the Ficoll gradient correlated with EM showing large numbers of reaction product-containing structures in the nonsinusoidal parts of the hepatocyte. In cell-free, postmitochondrial supernatants, we have previously observed that dense endosomes, but not light endosomes, interact with lysosomes. Cell-free interaction between isolated dense endosomes and lysosomes has now been reconstituted and analyzed in three ways: by transfer of radiolabeled ligand from endosomal to lysosomal densities, by a fluorescence dequenching assay which can indicate membrane fusion, and by measurement of content mixing. Maximum transfer of radiolabel to lysosomal densities required ATP and GTP plus cytosolic components, including N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor(s). Dense endosomes incubated in the absence of added lysosomes did not mature into vesicles of lysosomal density. Content mixing, and hence fusion, between endosomes and lysosomes was maximal in the presence of cytosol and ATP and also showed inhibition by N-ethyl-maleimide. Thus, we have demonstrated that a fusion step is involved in the transfer of radiolabeled ligand from an isolated endosome fraction derived from the nonsinusoidal regions of the hepatocyte to preexisting lysosomes in a cell-free system. PMID:7520447

  3. Fusion of Enveloped Viruses in Endosomes.

    PubMed

    White, Judith M; Whittaker, Gary R

    2016-06-01

    Ari Helenius launched the field of enveloped virus fusion in endosomes with a seminal paper in the Journal of Cell Biology in 1980. In the intervening years, a great deal has been learned about the structures and mechanisms of viral membrane fusion proteins as well as about the endosomes in which different enveloped viruses fuse and the endosomal cues that trigger fusion. We now recognize three classes of viral membrane fusion proteins based on structural criteria and four mechanisms of fusion triggering. After reviewing general features of viral membrane fusion proteins and viral fusion in endosomes, we delve into three characterized mechanisms for viral fusion triggering in endosomes: by low pH, by receptor binding plus low pH and by receptor binding plus the action of a protease. We end with a discussion of viruses that may employ novel endosomal fusion-triggering mechanisms. A key take-home message is that enveloped viruses that enter cells by fusing in endosomes traverse the endocytic pathway until they reach an endosome that has all of the environmental conditions (pH, proteases, ions, intracellular receptors and lipid composition) to (if needed) prime and (in all cases) trigger the fusion protein and to support membrane fusion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Fusion of Enveloped Viruses in Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    White, Judith M.; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2016-01-01

    Ari Helenius launched the field of enveloped virus fusion in endosomes with a seminal paper in the Journal of Cell Biology in 1980. In the intervening years a great deal has been learned about the structures and mechanisms of viral membrane fusion proteins as well as about the endosomes in which different enveloped viruses fuse and the endosomal cues that trigger fusion. We now recognize three classes of viral membrane fusion proteins based on structural criteria and four mechanisms of fusion triggering. After reviewing general features of viral membrane fusion proteins and viral fusion in endosomes, we delve into three characterized mechanisms for viral fusion triggering in endosomes: by low pH, by receptor binding plus low pH, and by receptor binding plus the action of a protease. We end with a discussion of viruses that may employ novel endosomal fusion triggering mechanisms. A key take home message is that enveloped viruses that enter cells by fusing in endosomes traverse the endocytic pathway until they reach an endosome that has all of the environmental conditions (pH, proteases, ions, intracellular receptors, and lipid composition) to (if needed) prime and (in all cases) trigger the fusion protein and to support membrane fusion. PMID:26935856

  5. Fusion of Endosomes Involved in Synaptic Vesicle Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Holroyd, Claudia; Kistner, Ute; Annaert, Wim; Jahn, Reinhard

    1999-01-01

    Recycling of vesicles of the regulated secretory pathway presumably involves passage through an early endosomal compartment as an intermediate step. To learn more about the involvement of endosomes in the recycling of synaptic and secretory vesicles we studied in vitro fusion of early endosomes derived from pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Fusion was not affected by cleavage of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins synaptobrevin and syntaxin 1 that operate at the exocytotic limb of the pathway. Furthermore, fusion was inhibited by the fast Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetra-acetic acid but not by the slow Ca2+ chelator EGTA. Endosome fusion was restored by the addition of Ca2+ with an optimum at a free Ca2+ concentration of 0.3 × 10−6 M. Other divalent cations did not substitute for Ca2+. A membrane-permeant EGTA derivative caused inhibition of fusion, which was reversed by addition of Ca2+. We conclude that the fusion of early endosomes participating in the recycling of synaptic and neurosecretory vesicles is mediated by a set of SNAREs distinct from those involved in exocytosis and requires the local release of Ca2+ from the endosomal interior. PMID:10473644

  6. Substance P dependence of endosomal fusion during bladder inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hammond, T G; Saban, R; Bost, K L; Harris, H W; Kaysen, J H; Goda, F O; Wang, X C; Lewis, F C; Navar, G L; Campbell, W C; Bjorling, D E; Saban, M; Zeidel, M L

    2000-03-01

    Urinary bladder instillation of ovalbumin into presensitized guinea pigs stimulates rapid development of local bladder inflammation. Substance P is an important mediator of this inflammatory response, as substance P antagonists largely reverse the process. Vacuolization of the subapical endosomal compartment of the transitional epithelial cells lining the bladder suggests that changes in endosomal trafficking and fusion are also part of the inflammatory response. To test directly for substance P mediation of changes in endosomal fusion, we reconstituted fusion of transitional cell endosomes in vitro using both cuvette-based and flow cytometry energy transfer assays. Bladders were loaded with fluorescent dyes by a hypotonic withdrawal protocol before endosomal isolation by gradient centrifugation. Endosomal fusion assayed by energy transfer during in vitro reconstitution was both cytosol and ATP dependent. Fusion was confirmed by the increase in vesicle size on electron micrographs of fused endosomal preparations compared with controls. In inflamed bladders, dye uptake was inhibited 20% and endosomal fusion was inhibited 50%. These changes are partly mediated by the neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor (NK1R), as 4 mg/kg of CP-96,345, a highly selective NK1 antagonist, increased fusion in inflamed bladders but had no effect on control bladders. The receptor-mediated nature of this effect was demonstrated by the expression of substance P receptor mRNA in rat bladder lumen scrapings and by the detection of the NK1R message in guinea pig subapical endosomes by Western blot analysis. The NK1Rs were significantly upregulated following induction of an inflammatory response in the bladder. These results demonstrate that 1) in ovalbumin-induced inflammation in the guinea pig bladder, in vitro fusion of apical endosomes is inhibited, showing endocytotic processes are altered in inflammation; 2) pretreatment in vivo with an NK1R antagonist blocks this inhibition of in vitro fusion

  7. The R-SNARE Endobrevin/VAMP-8 Mediates Homotypic Fusion of Early Endosomes and Late Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Antonin, Wolfram; Holroyd, Claudia; Tikkanen, Ritva; Höning, Stefan; Jahn, Reinhard

    2000-01-01

    Endobrevin/VAMP-8 is an R-SNARE localized to endosomes, but it is unknown in which intracellular fusion step it operates. Using subcellular fractionation and quantitative immunogold electron microscopy, we found that endobrevin/VAMP-8 is present on all membranes known to communicate with early endosomes, including the plasma membrane, clathrin-coated pits, late endosomes, and membranes of the trans-Golgi network. Affinity-purified antibodies that block the ability of endobrevin/VAMP-8 to form SNARE core complexes potently inhibit homotypic fusion of both early and late endosomes in vitro. Fab fragments were as active as intact immunoglobulin Gs. Recombinant endobrevin/VAMP-8 inhibited both fusion reactions with similar potency. We conclude that endobrevin/VAMP-8 operates as an R-SNARE in the homotypic fusion of early and late endosomes. PMID:11029036

  8. Cbl controls EGFR fate by regulating early endosome fusion.

    PubMed

    Visser Smit, Gina D; Place, Trenton L; Cole, Sara L; Clausen, Kathryn A; Vemuganti, Soumya; Zhang, Guojuan; Koland, John G; Lill, Nancy L

    2009-12-22

    Amino acid residues 1 to 434 of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl control signaling of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by enhancing its ubiquitination, down-regulation, and lysosomal degradation. This region of Cbl comprises a tyrosine kinase-binding domain, a linker region, a really interesting new gene finger (RF), and a subset of the residues of the RF tail. In experiments with full-length alanine substitution mutants, we demonstrated that the RF tail of Cbl regulated biochemically distinct checkpoints in the endocytosis of EGFR. The Cbl- and ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the regulator of internalization hSprouty2 was compromised by the Val(431)--> Ala mutation, whereas the Cbl- and EGFR-dependent dephosphorylation or degradation of the endosomal trafficking regulator Hrs was compromised by the Phe(434)--> Ala mutation. Deregulated phosphorylation of Hrs correlated with inhibition of the fusion of early endosomes and of the degradation of EGFR. This study provides the first evidence that Cbl regulates receptor fate by controlling the fusion of sorting endosomes. We postulate that it does so by modulating the abundance of tyrosine-phosphorylated Hrs.

  9. CBL CONTROLS EGF RECEPTOR FATE BY REGULATING EARLY ENDOSOME FUSION#

    PubMed Central

    Visser Smit, Gina D.; Place, Trenton L.; Cole, Sara L.; Clausen, Kathryn A.; Vemuganti, Soumya; Zhang, Guojuan; Koland, John G.; Lill, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Residues 1-434 of the ubiquitin ligase Cbl control epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) signaling by enhancing receptor ubiquitination, downregulation, and lysosomal degradation. Cbl 1-434 comprises a tyrosine kinase-binding domain, linker region, RING finger (RF), and a subset of the RF tail amino acids 420-436. Using full-length alanine substitution mutants, we demonstrate that the Cbl RF tail regulates biochemically distinct EGF-R endocytosis checkpoints: 1) Cbl- and ubiquitin-dependent degradation of hSprouty2 upstream of EGF-R ubiquitination (compromised by Cbl V431A); and 2) Cbl- and EGF-R-dependent dephosphorylation or degradation of the endosomal trafficking regulator Hrs (compromised by Cbl F434A). Deregulated Hrs phosphorylation correlates with the inhibition of both early endosome fusion and EGF-R degradation. This is the first evidence that Cbl can regulate receptor fate by controlling the fusion of sorting endosomes. We postulate that it does so by modulating the generation and loss of tyrosine phosphorylated Hrs. PMID:20029031

  10. In vitro fusion of endocytic vesicles: effects of reagents that alter endosomal pH.

    PubMed

    Pless, D D; Wellner, R B

    1996-07-01

    Ricin, a plant toxin that binds to galactose-terminated glycoproteins and glycolipids on the cell surface, is internalized into endosomes before reaching the cytosol where it exerts its toxic activity. Fusion of early endosomes containing ricin or transferrin was demonstrated by using postnuclear supernatant fractions from K-562 cells. For both ligands, fusion depended on time, temperature, and ATP and was blocked by preincubation with N-ethylmaleimide. Some reagents that increase endosomal pH, the ionophores monensin and nigericin and the weak base chloroquine, stimulated the rate of fusion. However, bafilomycin A1, a specific inhibitor of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases, did not alter the rate of fusion. Moreover, it reduced or eliminated stimulation caused by monensin, nigericin, or chloroquine. Thus, the increased rate of fusion did not correlate with the higher lumenal pH of the endosome. The results suggest instead that fusion was stimulated by reagents that promoted accumulation of cations within the vesicles.

  11. Dengue Virus Ensures Its Fusion in Late Endosomes Using Compartment-Specific Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Melikov, Kamran; Pourmal, Sergei; Chernomordik, Leonid V.

    2010-01-01

    Many enveloped viruses invade cells via endocytosis and use different environmental factors as triggers for virus-endosome fusion that delivers viral genome into cytosol. Intriguingly, dengue virus (DEN), the most prevalent mosquito-borne virus that infects up to 100 million people each year, fuses only in late endosomes, while activation of DEN protein fusogen glycoprotein E is triggered already at pH characteristic for early endosomes. Are there any cofactors that time DEN fusion to virion entry into late endosomes? Here we show that DEN utilizes bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate, a lipid specific to late endosomes, as a co-factor for its endosomal acidification-dependent fusion machinery. Effective virus fusion to plasma- and intracellular- membranes, as well as to protein-free liposomes, requires the target membrane to contain anionic lipids such as bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate and phosphatidylserine. Anionic lipids act downstream of low-pH-dependent fusion stages and promote the advance from the earliest hemifusion intermediates to the fusion pore opening. To reach anionic lipid-enriched late endosomes, DEN travels through acidified early endosomes, but we found that low pH-dependent loss of fusogenic properties of DEN is relatively slow in the presence of anionic lipid-free target membranes. We propose that anionic lipid-dependence of DEN fusion machinery protects it against premature irreversible restructuring and inactivation and ensures viral fusion in late endosomes, where the virus encounters anionic lipids for the first time during entry. Currently there are neither vaccines nor effective therapies for DEN, and the essential role of the newly identified DEN-bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate interactions in viral genome escape from the endosome suggests a novel target for drug design. PMID:20949067

  12. The role of intraorganellar Ca(2+) in late endosome-lysosome heterotypic fusion and in the reformation of lysosomes from hybrid organelles.

    PubMed

    Pryor, P R; Mullock, B M; Bright, N A; Gray, S R; Luzio, J P

    2000-05-29

    We have investigated the requirement for Ca(2+) in the fusion and content mixing of rat hepatocyte late endosomes and lysosomes in a cell-free system. Fusion to form hybrid organelles was inhibited by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), but not by EGTA, and this inhibition was reversed by adding additional Ca(2+). Fusion was also inhibited by methyl ester of EGTA (EGTA-AM), a membrane permeable, hydrolyzable ester of EGTA, and pretreatment of organelles with EGTA-AM showed that the chelation of lumenal Ca(2+) reduced the amount of fusion. The requirement for Ca(2+) for fusion was a later event than the requirement for a rab protein since the system became resistant to inhibition by GDP dissociation inhibitor at earlier times than it became resistant to BAPTA. We have developed a cell-free assay to study the reformation of lysosomes from late endosome-lysosome hybrid organelles that were isolated from the rat liver. The recovery of electron dense lysosomes was shown to require ATP and was inhibited by bafilomycin and EGTA-AM. The data support a model in which endocytosed Ca(2+) plays a role in the fusion of late endosomes and lysosomes, the reformation of lysosomes, and the dynamic equilibrium of organelles in the late endocytic pathway.

  13. VAMP8-dependent fusion of recycling endosomes with the plasma membrane facilitates T lymphocyte cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Misty R.; Pattu, Varsha; Halimani, Mahantappa; Maier-Peuschel, Monika; Müller, Martha-Lena; Becherer, Ute; Hong, Wanjin; Hoth, Markus; Tschernig, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) eliminate infected and neoplastic cells through directed release of cytotoxic granule contents. Although multiple SNARE proteins have been implicated in cytotoxic granule exocytosis, the role of vesicular SNARE proteins, i.e., vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs), remains enigmatic. VAMP8 was posited to represent the cytotoxic granule vesicular SNARE protein mediating exocytosis in mice. In primary human CTLs, however, VAMP8 colocalized with Rab11a-positive recycling endosomes. Upon stimulation, these endosomes rapidly trafficked to and fused with the plasma membrane, preceding fusion of cytotoxic granules. Knockdown of VAMP8 blocked both recycling endosome and cytotoxic granule fusion at immune synapses, without affecting activating signaling. Mechanistically, VAMP8-dependent recycling endosomes deposited syntaxin-11 at immune synapses, facilitating assembly of plasma membrane SNARE complexes for cytotoxic granule fusion. Hence, cytotoxic granule exocytosis is a sequential, multivesicle fusion process requiring VAMP8-mediated recycling endosome fusion before cytotoxic granule fusion. Our findings imply that secretory granule exocytosis pathways in other cell types may also be more complex than previously appreciated. PMID:26124288

  14. Live Salmonella Recruits N-Ethylmaleimide–Sensitive Fusion Protein on Phagosomal Membrane and Promotes Fusion with Early Endosome

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Konark; Siddiqi, Shadab A.; Hashim, Shehla; Raje, Manoj; Basu, Sandip K.; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha

    2000-01-01

    To understand intracellular trafficking modulations by live Salmonella, we investigated the characteristics of in vitro fusion between endosomes and phagosomes containing live (LSP) or dead Salmonella (DSP). We observed that fusion of both DSP and LSP were time, temperature and cytosol dependent. GTPγS and treatment of the phagosomes with Rab-GDI inhibited fusion, indicating involvement of Rab-GTPases. LSP were rich in rab5, α-SNAP, and NSF, while DSP mainly contained rab7. Fusion of endosomes with DSP was inhibited by ATP depletion, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) treatment, and in NEM-sensitive factor (NSF)–depleted cytosol. In contrast, fusion of endosomes with LSP was not inhibited by ATP depletion or NEM treatment, and occurred in NSF-depleted cytosol. However, ATPγS inhibited both fusion events. Fusion of NEM-treated LSP with endosomes was abrogated in NSF- depleted cytosol and was restored by adding purified NSF, whereas no fusion occurred with NEM-treated DSP, indicating that NSF recruitment is dependent on continuous signals from live Salmonella. Binding of NSF with LSP required prior presence of rab5 on the phagosome. We have also shown that rab5 specifically binds with Sop E, a protein from Salmonella. Our results indicate that live Salmonella help binding of rab5 on the phagosomes, possibly activate the SNARE which leads to further recruitment of α-SNAP for subsequent binding with NSF to promote fusion of the LSP with early endosomes and inhibition of their transport to lysosomes. PMID:10684255

  15. Imaging Single Retrovirus Entry through Alternative Receptor Isoforms and Intermediates of Virus-Endosome Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Naveen K.; Latinovic, Olga; Martin, Erik; Novitskiy, Gennadiy; Marin, Mariana; Miyauchi, Kosuke; Naughton, John; Young, John A. T.; Melikyan, Gregory B.

    2011-01-01

    A large group of viruses rely on low pH to activate their fusion proteins that merge the viral envelope with an endosomal membrane, releasing the viral nucleocapsid. A critical barrier to understanding these events has been the lack of approaches to study virus-cell membrane fusion within acidic endosomes, the natural sites of virus nucleocapsid capsid entry into the cytosol. Here we have investigated these events using the highly tractable subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus envelope glycoprotein (EnvA)-TVA receptor system. Through labeling EnvA pseudotyped viruses with a pH-sensitive fluorescent marker, we imaged their entry into mildly acidic compartments. We found that cells expressing the transmembrane receptor (TVA950) internalized the virus much faster than those expressing the GPI-anchored receptor isoform (TVA800). Surprisingly, TVA800 did not accelerate virus uptake compared to cells lacking the receptor. Subsequent steps of virus entry were visualized by incorporating a small viral content marker that was released into the cytosol as a result of fusion. EnvA-dependent fusion with TVA800-expressing cells occurred shortly after endocytosis and delivery into acidic endosomes, whereas fusion of viruses internalized through TVA950 was delayed. In the latter case, a relatively stable hemifusion-like intermediate preceded the fusion pore opening. The apparent size and stability of nascent fusion pores depended on the TVA isoforms and their expression levels, with TVA950 supporting more robust pores and a higher efficiency of infection compared to TVA800. These results demonstrate that surface receptor density and the intracellular trafficking pathway used are important determinants of efficient EnvA-mediated membrane fusion, and suggest that early fusion intermediates play a critical role in establishing low pH-dependent virus entry from within acidic endosomes. PMID:21283788

  16. Formation of Tubulovesicular Carriers from Endosomes and Their Fusion to the trans-Golgi Network.

    PubMed

    Hierro, Aitor; Gershlick, David C; Rojas, Adriana L; Bonifacino, Juan S

    2015-01-01

    Endosomes undergo extensive spatiotemporal rearrangements as proteins and lipids flux through them in a series of fusion and fission events. These controlled changes enable the concentration of cargo for eventual degradation while ensuring the proper recycling of other components. A growing body of studies has now defined multiple recycling pathways from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) which differ in their molecular machineries. The recycling process requires specific sets of lipids, coats, adaptors, and accessory proteins that coordinate cargo selection with membrane deformation and its association with the cytoskeleton. Specific tethering factors and SNARE (SNAP (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein) Receptor) complexes are then required for the docking and fusion with the acceptor membrane. Herein, we summarize some of the current knowledge of the machineries that govern the retrograde transport from endosomes to the TGN.

  17. Homotypic Fusion of Immature Secretory Granules during Maturation in a Cell-free Assay

    PubMed Central

    Urbé, Sylvie; Page, Lesley J.; Tooze, Sharon A.

    1998-01-01

    The biogenesis of secretory granules embodies several morphological and biochemical changes. In particular, in neuroendocrine cells maturation of secretory granules is characterized by an increase in size which has been proposed to reflect homotypic fusion of immature secretory granules (ISGs). Here we describe an assay that provides the first biochemical evidence for such a fusion event and allows us to analyze its regulation. The assay reconstitutes homotypic fusion between one population of ISGs containing a [35S]sulfate-labeled substrate, secretogranin II (SgII), and a second population containing the prohormone convertase PC2. Both substrate and enzyme are targeted exclusively to ISGs. Fusion is measured by quantification of a cleavage product of SgII produced by PC2. With this assay we show that fusion only occurs between ISGs and not between ISGs and MSGs, is temperature dependent, and requires ATP and GTP and cytosolic proteins. NSF (N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive fusion protein) is amongst the cytosolic proteins required, whereas we could not detect a requirement for p97. The ability to reconstitute ISG fusion in a cell-free assay is an important advance towards the identification of molecules involved in the maturation of secretory granules and will increase our understanding of this process. PMID:9864358

  18. ESCRTs and associated proteins in lysosomal fusion with endosomes and autophagosomes.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Priyanka; Chakrabarti, Oishee

    2016-07-22

    Endolysosomal and autophagosomal degradation pathways are highly connected at various levels, sharing multiple molecular effectors that modulate them individually or simultaneously. These two lysosomal degradative pathways are primarily involved in the disposal of cargo internalized from the cell surface or long-lived proteins or aggregates and aged organelles present in the cytosol. Both of these pathways involve a number of carefully regulated vesicular fusion events that are dependent on ESCRT proteins. The ESCRT proteins especially ESCRT-I and III participate in the regulation of fusion events between autophagosome/amphisome and lysosome. Along with these, a number of functionally diverse ESCRT associated and regulatory proteins such as, endosomal PtdIns (3) P 5-kinase Fab1, ALIX, mahogunin ring finger 1, atrogin 1, syntaxin 17, ATG12-ATG3 complex, and protein kinase CK2α are involved in fusion events in either or both the lysosomal degradative pathways.

  19. IFITM3 Restricts Influenza A Virus Entry by Blocking the Formation of Fusion Pores following Virus-Endosome Hemifusion

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Christopher R.; Savidis, George; Brass, Abraham L.; Melikyan, Gregory B.

    2014-01-01

    Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) inhibit infection of diverse enveloped viruses, including the influenza A virus (IAV) which is thought to enter from late endosomes. Recent evidence suggests that IFITMs block virus hemifusion (lipid mixing in the absence of viral content release) by altering the properties of cell membranes. Consistent with this mechanism, excess cholesterol in late endosomes of IFITM-expressing cells has been reported to inhibit IAV entry. Here, we examined IAV restriction by IFITM3 protein using direct virus-cell fusion assay and single virus imaging in live cells. IFITM3 over-expression did not inhibit lipid mixing, but abrogated the release of viral content into the cytoplasm. Although late endosomes of IFITM3-expressing cells accumulated cholesterol, other interventions leading to aberrantly high levels of this lipid did not inhibit virus fusion. These results imply that excess cholesterol in late endosomes is not the mechanism by which IFITM3 inhibits the transition from hemifusion to full fusion. The IFITM3's ability to block fusion pore formation at a post-hemifusion stage shows that this protein stabilizes the cytoplasmic leaflet of endosomal membranes without adversely affecting the lumenal leaflet. We propose that IFITM3 interferes with pore formation either directly, through partitioning into the cytoplasmic leaflet of a hemifusion intermediate, or indirectly, by modulating the lipid/protein composition of this leaflet. Alternatively, IFITM3 may redirect IAV fusion to a non-productive pathway, perhaps by promoting fusion with intralumenal vesicles within multivesicular bodies/late endosomes. PMID:24699674

  20. pH regulation in early endosomes and interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins control avian retrovirus fusion.

    PubMed

    Desai, Tanay M; Marin, Mariana; Mason, Caleb; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2017-05-12

    Enveloped viruses infect host cells by fusing their membranes with those of the host cell, a process mediated by viral glycoproteins upon binding to cognate host receptors or entering into acidic intracellular compartments. Whereas the effect of receptor density on viral infection has been well studied, the role of cell type-specific factors/processes, such as pH regulation, has not been characterized in sufficient detail. Here, we examined the effects of cell-extrinsic factors (buffer environment) and cell-intrinsic factors (interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins, IFITMs), on the pH regulation in early endosomes and on the efficiency of acid-dependent fusion of the avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV), with endosomes. First, we found that a modest elevation of external pH can raise the pH in early endosomes in a cell type-dependent manner and thereby delay the acid-induced fusion of endocytosed ASLV. Second, we observed a cell type-dependent delay between the low pH-dependent and temperature-dependent steps of viral fusion, consistent with the delayed enlargement of the fusion pore. Third, ectopic expression of IFITMs, known to potently block influenza virus fusion with late compartments, was found to only partially inhibit ASLV fusion with early endosomes. Interestingly, IFITM expression promoted virus uptake and the acidification of endosomal compartments, resulting in an accelerated fusion rate when driven by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored, but not by the transmembrane isoform of the ASLV receptor. Collectively, these results highlight the role of cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic factors in regulating the efficiency and kinetics of virus entry and fusion with target cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Inhibition of endosomal fusion activity of influenza virus by Rheum tanguticum (da-huang)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ta-Jen; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lee, Ming-Chung; Horng, Jim-Tong

    2016-01-01

    Rhubarb (Rheum tanguticum; da-huang in Chinese medicine) is a herbal medicine that has been used widely for managing fever and removing toxicity. In this study, we investigated how rhubarb inhibits influenza virus during the early stage of the infectious cycle using different functional assays. A non-toxic ethanolic extract of rhubarb (Rex) inhibited several H1N1 subtypes of influenza A viruses in Madin–Darby canine kidney cells, including strains that are clinically resistant to oseltamivir. Time course analysis of Rex addition showed that viral entry was one of the steps that was inhibited by Rex. We also confirmed that Rex effectively inhibited viral attachment and penetration into the host cells. The inhibition of red blood cell haemolysis and cell–cell fusion by Rex suggests that Rex may block haemagglutinin-mediated fusion (virus–endosome fusion) during the fusion/uncoating step. Rex has the capacity to inhibit influenza viruses by blocking viral endocytosis. Thus, rhubarb might provide an alternative therapeutic approach when resistant viruses become more prevalent. PMID:27302738

  2. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based approach for investigating late endosome-lysosome retrograde fusion events.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, A M; Goldman, S D B; Krise, J P

    2009-03-01

    Traditionally, lysosomes have been considered to be a terminal endocytic compartment. Recent studies suggest that lysosomes are quite dynamic, being able to fuse with other late endocytic compartments as well as with the plasma membrane. Here we describe a quantitative fluorescence energy transfer (FRET)-based method for assessing rates of retrograde fusion between terminal lysosomes and late endosomes in living cells. Late endosomes were specifically labeled with 800-nm latex beads that were conjugated with streptavidin and Alexa Fluor 555 (FRET donor). Terminal lysosomes were specifically labeled with 10,000-MW dextran polymers conjugated with biotin and Alexa Fluor 647 (FRET acceptor). Following late endosome-lysosome fusion, the strong binding affinity between streptavidin and biotin brought the donor and acceptor fluorophore molecules into close proximity, thereby facilitating the appearance of a FRET emission signal. Because apparent size restrictions in the endocytic pathway do not permit endocytosed latex beads from reaching terminal lysosomes in an anterograde fashion, the appearance of the FRET signal is consistent with retrograde transport of lysosomal cargo back to late endosomes. We assessed the efficiency of this transport step in fibroblasts affected by different lysosome storage disorders-Niemann-Pick type C, mucolipidosis type IV, and Sandhoff's disease, all of which have a similar lysosomal lipid accumulation phenotype. We report here, for the first time, that these disorders can be distinguished by their rate of transfer of lysosome cargos to late endosomes, and we discuss the implications of these findings for developing new therapeutic strategies.

  3. Cell-free mitochondrial fusion assay detected by specific protease reaction revealed Ca2+ as regulator of mitofusin-dependent mitochondrial fusion.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Naotada; Maeda, Maki; Ban, Tadato; Mihara, Katsuyoshi

    2017-04-27

    Mitochondrial dynamic by frequent fusion and fission have important roles in various cellular signaling processes and pathophysiology in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial fusion, especially in mammalian cells, are not well understood. Accordingly, we developed a novel biochemical cell-free mitochondrial fusion assay system using isolated human mitochondria. We used a protease and its specific substrate that are essential for yeast autophagy; Atg4 protease is required for maturation and the de-conjugation of the ubiquitin-like modifier Atg8. Atg4-FLAG and Atg8-GFP were separately expressed in the mitochondrial matrix of HeLa cells. Isolated mitochondria were then mixed and packed in the presence of energy regeneration mix. Immunoblotting with an anti-GFP antibody revealed Atg8 processing, suggesting that the double membranes of isolated mitochondria were indeed fused. The mitochondrial fusion reaction required GTP hydrolysis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and intact outer membrane proteins containing two mitofusin isoforms. Using this assay, we searched for stimulators of mitochondrial fusion and found that rabbit reticulocyte lysate and Ca2+ chelator EGTA stimulate mitochondrial fusion. This novel cell-free assay system using isolated human mitochondria is simple, sensitive, and reproducible; thus, it is useful for screening proteins and molecules that modulate mitochondrial fusion. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  4. African Swine Fever Virus Undergoes Outer Envelope Disruption, Capsid Disassembly and Inner Envelope Fusion before Core Release from Multivesicular Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Hernáez, Bruno; Guerra, Milagros; Salas, María L.

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) that causes a highly lethal disease in domestic pigs. As other NCLDVs, the extracellular form of ASFV possesses a multilayered structure consisting of a genome-containing nucleoid successively wrapped by a thick protein core shell, an inner lipid membrane, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. This structural complexity suggests an intricate mechanism of internalization in order to deliver the virus genome into the cytoplasm. By using flow cytometry in combination with pharmacological entry inhibitors, as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy approaches, we have dissected the entry and uncoating pathway used by ASFV to infect the macrophage, its natural host cell. We found that purified extracellular ASFV is internalized by both constitutive macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, ASFV particles move from early endosomes or macropinosomes to late, multivesicular endosomes where they become uncoated. Virus uncoating requires acidic pH and involves the disruption of the outer membrane as well as of the protein capsid. As a consequence, the inner viral membrane becomes exposed and fuses with the limiting endosomal membrane to release the viral core into the cytosol. Interestingly, virus fusion is dependent on virus protein pE248R, a transmembrane polypeptide of the inner envelope that shares sequence similarity with some members of the poxviral entry/fusion complex. Collective evidence supports an entry model for ASFV that might also explain the uncoating of other multienveloped icosahedral NCLDVs. PMID:27110717

  5. African Swine Fever Virus Undergoes Outer Envelope Disruption, Capsid Disassembly and Inner Envelope Fusion before Core Release from Multivesicular Endosomes.

    PubMed

    Hernáez, Bruno; Guerra, Milagros; Salas, María L; Andrés, Germán

    2016-04-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) that causes a highly lethal disease in domestic pigs. As other NCLDVs, the extracellular form of ASFV possesses a multilayered structure consisting of a genome-containing nucleoid successively wrapped by a thick protein core shell, an inner lipid membrane, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. This structural complexity suggests an intricate mechanism of internalization in order to deliver the virus genome into the cytoplasm. By using flow cytometry in combination with pharmacological entry inhibitors, as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy approaches, we have dissected the entry and uncoating pathway used by ASFV to infect the macrophage, its natural host cell. We found that purified extracellular ASFV is internalized by both constitutive macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, ASFV particles move from early endosomes or macropinosomes to late, multivesicular endosomes where they become uncoated. Virus uncoating requires acidic pH and involves the disruption of the outer membrane as well as of the protein capsid. As a consequence, the inner viral membrane becomes exposed and fuses with the limiting endosomal membrane to release the viral core into the cytosol. Interestingly, virus fusion is dependent on virus protein pE248R, a transmembrane polypeptide of the inner envelope that shares sequence similarity with some members of the poxviral entry/fusion complex. Collective evidence supports an entry model for ASFV that might also explain the uncoating of other multienveloped icosahedral NCLDVs.

  6. The Vps13p–Cdc31p complex is directly required for TGN late endosome transport and TGN homotypic fusion

    PubMed Central

    De, Mithu; Oleskie, Austin N.; Ayyash, Mariam; Dutta, Somnath; Mancour, Liliya; Brace, Eddy J.; Skiniotis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Yeast VPS13 is the founding member of a eukaryotic gene family of growing interest in cell biology and medicine. Mutations in three of four human VPS13 genes cause autosomal recessive neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental disease, making yeast Vps13p an important structural and functional model. Using cell-free reconstitution with purified Vps13p, we show that Vps13p is directly required both for transport from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the late endosome/prevacuolar compartment (PVC) and for TGN homotypic fusion. Vps13p must be in complex with the small calcium-binding protein Cdc31p to be active. Single-particle electron microscopic analysis of negatively stained Vps13p indicates that this 358-kD protein is folded into a compact rod-shaped density (20 × 4 nm) with a loop structure at one end with a circular opening ∼6 nm in diameter. Vps13p exhibits ATP-stimulated binding to yeast membranes and specific interactions with phosphatidic acid and phosphorylated forms of phosphatidyl inositol at least in part through the binding affinities of conserved N- and C-terminal domains. PMID:28122955

  7. Multi-layered nanoparticles for penetrating the endosome and nuclear membrane via a step-wise membrane fusion process.

    PubMed

    Akita, Hidetaka; Kudo, Asako; Minoura, Arisa; Yamaguti, Masaya; Khalil, Ikramy A; Moriguchi, Rumiko; Masuda, Tomoya; Danev, Radostin; Nagayama, Kuniaki; Kogure, Kentaro; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2009-05-01

    Efficient targeting of DNA to the nucleus is a prerequisite for effective gene therapy. The gene-delivery vehicle must penetrate through the plasma membrane, and the DNA-impermeable double-membraned nuclear envelope, and deposit its DNA cargo in a form ready for transcription. Here we introduce a concept for overcoming intracellular membrane barriers that involves step-wise membrane fusion. To achieve this, a nanotechnology was developed that creates a multi-layered nanoparticle, which we refer to as a Tetra-lamellar Multi-functional Envelope-type Nano Device (T-MEND). The critical structural elements of the T-MEND are a DNA-polycation condensed core coated with two nuclear membrane-fusogenic inner envelopes and two endosome-fusogenic outer envelopes, which are shed in stepwise fashion. A double-lamellar membrane structure is required for nuclear delivery via the stepwise fusion of double layered nuclear membrane structure. Intracellular membrane fusions to endosomes and nuclear membranes were verified by spectral imaging of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between donor and acceptor fluorophores that had been dually labeled on the liposome surface. Coating the core with the minimum number of nucleus-fusogenic lipid envelopes (i.e., 2) is essential to facilitate transcription. As a result, the T-MEND achieves dramatic levels of transgene expression in non-dividing cells.

  8. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (flimscopy). Methodology development and application to studies of endosome fusion in single cells.

    PubMed Central

    Oida, T; Sako, Y; Kusumi, A

    1993-01-01

    A new method of fluorescence microscopy for cell imaging has been developed that takes advantage of the spatial variations of fluorescence lifetimes in single cells as a source of image contrast, and thus it is named "fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (flimscopy)". Since time-resolved fluorescence measurements are sensitive to molecular dynamics and interactions, flimscopy allows the molecular information to be visualized in single cells. In flimscopy measurements, several (nanosecond) time-resolved fluorescence images of a sample are obtained at various delay times after pulsed laser excitation of the microscope's entire field of view. Lifetimes are calculated pixel-by-pixel from these time-resolved images, and the spatial variations of the lifetimes are then displayed in a pseudocolor format (flimscopy image). The total data acquisition time needed to obtain a flimscopy image with the diffraction-limited spatial resolution (approximately 250 nm) is decreased to just approximately 30 s for approximately 300 fluorescent molecules/micron2. This was achieved by developing a high-frequency (400 kHz) nanosecond-gating (9 ns full width at half height)-signal accumulation system. This technique allows the extent of resonance energy transfer to be visualized in single living cells, and is free from the errors due to variations in path length, light scattering, and the number of fluorophores that necessitate complex corrections in steady-state microfluorometry and fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy. Flimscopy was applied here to observe the extent of fusion of individual endosomes in single cells. Results revealed the occurrence of extensive fusion between primary endocytic vesicles and/or sorting endosomes, thereby raising the possibility that the biogenesis of sorting endosomes involves multiple fusions of primary endocytic vesicles. Images FIGURE 6 FIGURE 4 PMID:8471720

  9. Vanadate from Air Pollutant Inhibits Hrs-Dependent Endosome Fusion and Augments Responsiveness to Toll-Like Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zelnikar, Mojca; Benčina, Mojca; Jerala, Roman; Manček-Keber, Mateja

    2014-01-01

    There is a well-established association between exposure to air pollutants and pulmonary injuries. For example, metals found in ROFA (residual oil fly ash) increase susceptibility of mice as well as humans to microbial infections. In our research, we have found that vanadate substantially increased the response of several Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to stimulation with their ligands. Although vanadate caused generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the addition of ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) had no effect on augmented lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. We further showed that vanadate inhibits endosome fusion. This effect was determined by measuring the size of endosomes, NF-κB activity and TLR4 degradation in Hrs (hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate) overexpressed cells. Moreover, we identified the role of Hrs phosphorylation in these processes. Based on our findings, we can conclude that vanadate potentiates TLR4 activity by increasing Hrs phosphorylation status, reducing the size of Hrs/TLR4-positive endosomes and impacting TLR4 degradation, thus contributing to the detrimental effects of air pollutants on human health. PMID:24901993

  10. A Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Regulates Lysosomal Fusion with Endosomes and Autophagosomes and Is Required for Neuronal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongping; Shang, Weina; Nagarkar Jaiswal, Sonal; di Ronza, Alberto; Jaiswal, Manish; Yamamoto, Shinya; Sandoval, Hector; Duraine, Lita; Sardiello, Marco; Sillitoe, Roy V.; Venkatachalam, Kartik; Fan, Hengyu; Bellen, Hugo J.; Tong, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy helps deliver sequestered intracellular cargo to lysosomes for proteolytic degradation and thereby maintains cellular homeostasis by preventing accumulation of toxic substances in cells. In a forward mosaic screen in Drosophila designed to identify genes required for neuronal function and maintenance, we identified multiple cacophony (cac) mutant alleles. They exhibit an age-dependent accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AVs) in photoreceptor terminals and eventually a degeneration of the terminals and surrounding glia. cac encodes an α1 subunit of a Drosophila voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) that is required for synaptic vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane and neurotransmitter release. Here, we show that cac mutant photoreceptor terminals accumulate AV-lysosomal fusion intermediates, suggesting that Cac is necessary for the fusion of AVs with lysosomes, a poorly defined process. Loss of another subunit of the VGCC, α2δ or straightjacket (stj), causes phenotypes very similar to those caused by the loss of cac, indicating that the VGCC is required for AV-lysosomal fusion. The role of VGCC in AV-lysosomal fusion is evolutionarily conserved, as the loss of the mouse homologues, Cacna1a and Cacna2d2, also leads to autophagic defects in mice. Moreover, we find that CACNA1A is localized to the lysosomes and that loss of lysosomal Cacna1a in cerebellar cultured neurons leads to a failure of lysosomes to fuse with endosomes and autophagosomes. Finally, we show that the lysosomal CACNA1A but not the plasma-membrane resident CACNA1A is required for lysosomal fusion. In summary, we present a model in which the VGCC plays a role in autophagy by regulating the fusion of AVs with lysosomes through its calcium channel activity and hence functions in maintaining neuronal homeostasis. PMID:25811491

  11. Heterotypic endosomal fusion as an initial trigger for insulin-induced glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2017-08-15

    Comprehensive imaging analyses of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) behaviour in mouse skeletal muscle was conducted. Quantum dot-based single molecule nanometry revealed that GLUT4 molecules in skeletal myofibres are governed by regulatory systems involving 'static retention' and 'stimulus-dependent liberation'. Vital imaging analyses and super-resolution microscopy-based morphometry demonstrated that insulin liberates the GLUT4 molecule from its static state by triggering acute heterotypic endomembrane fusion arising from the very small GLUT4-containing vesicles in skeletal myofibres. Prior exposure to exercise-mimetic stimuli potentiated this insulin-responsive endomembrane fusion event involving GLUT4-containing vesicles, suggesting that this endomembranous regulation process is a potential site related to the effects of exercise. Skeletal muscle is the major systemic glucose disposal site. Both insulin and exercise facilitate translocation of the glucose transporter glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) via distinct signalling pathways and exercise also enhances insulin sensitivity. However, the trafficking mechanisms controlling GLUT4 mobilization in skeletal muscle remain poorly understood as a resuly of technical limitations. In the present study, which employs various imaging techniques on isolated skeletal myofibres, we show that one of the initial triggers of insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation is heterotypic endomembrane fusion arising from very small static GLUT4-containing vesicles with a subset of transferrin receptor-containing endosomes. Importantly, pretreatment with exercise-mimetic stimuli potentiated the susceptibility to insulin responsiveness, as indicated by these acute endomembranous activities. We also found that AS160 exhibited stripe-like localization close to sarcomeric α-actinin and that insulin induced a reduction of the stripe-like localization accompanying changes in its detergent solubility. The results of the present study thus provide a

  12. Expression Screening of Fusion Partners from an E. coli Genome for Soluble Expression of Recombinant Proteins in a Cell-Free Protein Synthesis System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Myung

    2011-01-01

    While access to soluble recombinant proteins is essential for a number of proteome studies, preparation of purified functional proteins is often limited by the protein solubility. In this study, potent solubility-enhancing fusion partners were screened from the repertoire of endogenous E. coli proteins. Based on the presumed correlation between the intracellular abundance and folding efficiency of proteins, PCR-amplified ORFs of a series of highly abundant E. coli proteins were fused with aggregation-prone heterologous proteins and then directly expressed for quantitative estimation of the expression efficiency of soluble translation products. Through two-step screening procedures involving the expression of 552 fusion constructs targeted against a series of cytokine proteins, we were able to discover a number of endogenous E. coli proteins that dramatically enhanced the soluble expression of the target proteins. This strategy of cell-free expression screening can be extended to quantitative, global analysis of genomic resources for various purposes. PMID:22073212

  13. On the entry of an emerging arbovirus into host cells: Mayaro virus takes the highway to the cytoplasm through fusion with early endosomes and caveolae-derived vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Carlos A.M.; Silva, Jerson L.; Oliveira, Andréa C.

    2017-01-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an emergent sylvatic alphavirus in South America, related to sporadic outbreaks of a chikungunya-like human febrile illness accompanied by severe arthralgia. Despite its high potential for urban emergence, MAYV is still an obscure virus with scarce information about its infection cycle, including the corresponding early events. Even for prototypical alphaviruses, the cell entry mechanism still has some rough edges to trim: although clathrin-mediated endocytosis is quoted as the putative route, alternative paths as distinct as direct virus genome injection through the cell plasma membrane seems to be possible. Our aim was to clarify crucial details on the entry route exploited by MAYV to gain access into the host cell. Tracking the virus since its first contact with the surface of Vero cells by fluorescence microscopy, we show that its entry occurs by a fast endocytic process and relies on fusion with acidic endosomal compartments. Moreover, blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis or depleting cholesterol from the cell membrane leads to a strong inhibition of viral infection, as assessed by plaque assays. Following this clue, we found that early endosomes and caveolae-derived vesicles are both implicated as target membranes for MAYV fusion. Our findings unravel the very first events that culminate in a productive infection by MAYV and shed light on potential targets for a rational antiviral therapy, besides providing a better comprehension of the entry routes exploited by alphaviruses to get into the cell. PMID:28462045

  14. On the entry of an emerging arbovirus into host cells: Mayaro virus takes the highway to the cytoplasm through fusion with early endosomes and caveolae-derived vesicles.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Carlos A M; Silva, Jerson L; Oliveira, Andréa C; Gomes, Andre M O

    2017-01-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an emergent sylvatic alphavirus in South America, related to sporadic outbreaks of a chikungunya-like human febrile illness accompanied by severe arthralgia. Despite its high potential for urban emergence, MAYV is still an obscure virus with scarce information about its infection cycle, including the corresponding early events. Even for prototypical alphaviruses, the cell entry mechanism still has some rough edges to trim: although clathrin-mediated endocytosis is quoted as the putative route, alternative paths as distinct as direct virus genome injection through the cell plasma membrane seems to be possible. Our aim was to clarify crucial details on the entry route exploited by MAYV to gain access into the host cell. Tracking the virus since its first contact with the surface of Vero cells by fluorescence microscopy, we show that its entry occurs by a fast endocytic process and relies on fusion with acidic endosomal compartments. Moreover, blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis or depleting cholesterol from the cell membrane leads to a strong inhibition of viral infection, as assessed by plaque assays. Following this clue, we found that early endosomes and caveolae-derived vesicles are both implicated as target membranes for MAYV fusion. Our findings unravel the very first events that culminate in a productive infection by MAYV and shed light on potential targets for a rational antiviral therapy, besides providing a better comprehension of the entry routes exploited by alphaviruses to get into the cell.

  15. P2X-selective purinergic antagonists are strong inhibitors of HIV-1 fusion during both cell-to-cell and cell-free infection.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Talia H; Esposito, Anthony M; Durham, Natasha D; Hartmann, Boris M; Chen, Benjamin K

    2014-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is chronic and presently still incurable. Antiretroviral drugs effectively suppress replication; however, persistent activation of inflammatory pathways remains a key cause of morbidity. Recent studies proposed that purinergic signaling is required for HIV-1 infection. Purinergic receptors are distributed throughout a wide variety of tissue types and detect extracellular ATP as a danger signal released from dying cells. We have explored how these pathways are involved in the transmission of HIV-1 from cell to cell through virological synapses. Infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes with HIV-1 in the presence of an inhibitor of P2X receptors effectively inhibited HIV-1 infection through both cell-free and cell-to-cell contact in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of direct cell-to-cell infection did not affect the formation of virological synapses or the subsequent cell-to-cell transfer of HIV-1. During both cell-free and cell-to-cell CD4+ T lymphocyte infection, purinergic antagonists blocked infection at the level of viral membrane fusion. During cell-to-cell transmission, we observed CXCR4 colocalization with the newly internalized virus particles within target lymphocytes and found that the purinergic antagonists did not impair the recruitment of the coreceptor CXCR4 to the site of Gag internalization in the target cell. In a screen of a library of purinergic antagonists, we found that the most potent inhibitors of HIV-1 fusion were those that target P2X receptors, while P2Y-selective receptor antagonists or adenosine receptor antagonists were ineffective. Our results suggest that P2X receptors may provide a therapeutic target and that purinergic antagonists may have potent activity against viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes by both cell-free and cell-to-cell transmission. This study identifies purinergic antagonists to be potent inhibitors of HIV-1 cell-free and cell-to-cell-mediated infection and provides a

  16. Intra-endosomal membrane traffic.

    PubMed

    van der Goot, F Gisou; Gruenberg, Jean

    2006-10-01

    Following endocytosis, ubiquitinated signaling receptors are incorporated within intraluminal vesicles of forming multivesicular endosomes. These vesicles then follow the pathway from early to late endosomes, remaining within the endosomal lumen, and are eventually delivered to lysosomes, where they are degraded together with their protein cargo. However, intraluminal vesicles do not always end up in lysosomes for degradation; they can also fuse back with the limiting membrane of late endosomes. This route, which might be regulated by lyso-bisphosphatidic acid and its putative effector Alix, can be hijacked by the anthrax toxin and vesicular stomatitis virus and is presumably exploited by proteins and lipids that transit through intraluminal vesicles. Alternatively, these vesicles can be released extracellularly, like HIV in macrophages, upon fusion of endosomes or lysosomes with the plasma membrane.

  17. Tri-membrane nanoparticles produced by combining liposome fusion and a novel patchwork of bicelles to overcome endosomal and nuclear membrane barriers to cargo delivery.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Asako; Mitsueda, Asako; Hasan, Mahadi; Ueda, Miho; Hama, Susumu; Warashina, Shota; Nakamura, Takashi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kogure, Kentaro

    2016-03-01

    Membrane fusion is a rational strategy for crossing intracellular membranes that present barriers to liposomal nanocarrier-mediated delivery of plasmid DNA into the nucleus of non-dividing cells, such as dendritic cells. Based on this strategy, we previously developed nanocarriers consisting of a nucleic acid core particle coated with four lipid membranes [Akita, et al., Biomaterials, 2009, 30, 2940-2949]. However, including the endosomal membrane and two nuclear membranes, cells possess three intracellular membranous barriers. Thus, after entering the nucleus, nanoparticles coated with four membranes would still have one lipid membrane remaining, and could impede cargo delivery. Until now, coating a core particle with an odd number of lipid membranes was challenging. To produce nanocarriers with an odd number of lipid membranes, we developed a novel coating method involving lipid nano-discs, also known as bicelles, as a material for packaging DNA in a carrier with an odd number of lipid membranes. In this procedure, bicelles fuse to form an outer coating that resembles a patchwork quilt, which allows the preparation of nanoparticles coated with only three lipid membranes. Moreover, the transfection activity of dendritic cells with these three-membrane nanoparticles was higher than that for nanoparticles coated with four lipid membranes. In summary, we developed novel nanoparticles coated with an odd number of lipid membranes using the novel "patchwork-packaging method" to deliver plasmid DNA into the nucleus via membrane fusion.

  18. Recycling endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Goldenring, James R

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal membrane recycling system represents a dynamic conduit for sorting and re-exporting internalized membrane constituents. The recycling system is composed of multiple tubulovesicular recycling pathways that likely confer distinct trafficking pathways for individual cargoes. In addition, elements of the recycling system are responsible for assembly and maintenance of apical membrane specializations including primary cilia and apical microvilli. The existence of multiple intersecting and diverging recycling tracks likely accounts for specificity in plasma membrane recycling trafficking. PMID:26022676

  19. Membrane Tethering Complexes in the Endosomal System

    PubMed Central

    Spang, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Vesicles that are generated by endocytic events at the plasma membrane are destined to early endosomes. A prerequisite for proper fusion is the tethering of two membrane entities. Tethering of vesicles to early endosomes is mediated by the class C core vacuole/endosome tethering (CORVET) complex, while fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes depends on the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) complex. Recycling through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and to the plasma membrane is facilitated by the Golgi associated retrograde protein (GARP) and endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complexes, respectively. However, there are other tethering functions in the endosomal system as there are multiple pathways through which proteins can be delivered from endosomes to either the TGN or the plasma membrane. Furthermore, proteins that may be part of novel tethering complexes have been recently identified. Thus, it is likely that more tethering factors exist. In this review, I will provide an overview of different tethering complexes of the endosomal system and discuss how they may provide specificity in membrane traffic. PMID:27243003

  20. Endosomal Interactions during Root Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    von Wangenheim, Daniel; Rosero, Amparo; Komis, George; Šamajová, Olga; Ovečka, Miroslav; Voigt, Boris; Šamaj, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic localization of endosomal compartments labeled with targeted fluorescent protein tags is routinely followed by time lapse fluorescence microscopy approaches and single particle tracking algorithms. In this way trajectories of individual endosomes can be mapped and linked to physiological processes as cell growth. However, other aspects of dynamic behavior including endosomal interactions are difficult to follow in this manner. Therefore, we characterized the localization and dynamic properties of early and late endosomes throughout the entire course of root hair formation by means of spinning disc time lapse imaging and post-acquisition automated multitracking and quantitative analysis. Our results show differential motile behavior of early and late endosomes and interactions of late endosomes that may be specified to particular root hair domains. Detailed data analysis revealed a particular transient interaction between late endosomes—termed herein as dancing-endosomes—which is not concluding to vesicular fusion. Endosomes preferentially located in the root hair tip interacted as dancing-endosomes and traveled short distances during this interaction. Finally, sizes of early and late endosomes were addressed by means of super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM) to corroborate measurements on the spinning disc. This is a first study providing quantitative microscopic data on dynamic spatio-temporal interactions of endosomes during root hair tip growth. PMID:26858728

  1. Kinetic timing: a novel mechanism that improves the accuracy of GTPase timers in endosome fusion and other biological processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangpu; Qian, Hong

    2002-04-01

    The GTPase superfamily contains a large number of proteins that function as molecular switches by binding and hydrolyzing GTP molecules. They are localized at various intracellular organelles and control diverse cellular processes. For many GTPases, the lifetime of the activated, GTP-bound state is believed to serve as a timer in determining the activation time of a biological event such as membrane fusion and signal transduction. However, such a timer is intrinsically stochastic due to thermal noise at the level of single GTPase molecules. Here, we describe a mathematical model that shows how a directional GTPase cycle, in a nonequilibrium steady-state driven by GTP hydrolysis, can significantly reduce the variance in the lifetime of an activated GTPase molecule and thereby increase the accuracy and efficiency of the timer. This mechanism, termed kinetic timing, articulates a clear function for the energy consumption in GTPase-controlled biological processes. It provides a rationale for why biological timers utilize a GTP hydrolysis cycle rather than a simple GTP binding-dissociation equilibrium, and why the GTP-bound state is a better timer than the GDP-bound state. It also explains the necessity for the existence of multiple GTP-bound intermediates identified by fluorescence spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance studies.

  2. Enhanced functional expression of aquaporin Z via fusion of in situ cleavable leader peptides in Escherichia coli cell-free system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Lian, Jiazhang; Kai, Lei; Huang, Lei; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

    2014-02-05

    Aquaporin Z (AqpZ) is a water channel protein from Escherichia coli and has attracted many attentions to develop the biomimetic water filtration technology. Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) system, one of the most complex multi-enzymatic systems, has the ability of producing the integral membrane protein in vitro. To enhance the synthesis of AqpZ in E. coli cell-free system, several natural leader peptides were respectively fused at the N-terminus and were verified to enhance the expression level significantly. Moreover, the supplementation of detergents or liposome could activate leader peptidase from the cell-free extract and provide hydrophobic environment for proper folding of AqpZ. Thus, the release of mature AqpZ via the in situ removal of leader peptide was achieved, with a specific water transport activity of (2.1 ± 0.1) × 10⁻¹⁴ cm³ s⁻¹ monomer⁻¹. Using this in situ removable leader peptide strategy, the transcription-translation, leader sequence cleavage and membrane protein folding were integrated into a simple process in the cell-free system, providing a convenient approach to enhance the expression of target proteins, especially those membrane proteins difficult to achieve.

  3. In AtT20 and HeLa cells brefeldin A induces the fusion of tubular endosomes and changes their distribution and some of their endocytic properties

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the effects of brefeldin A (BFA) on the tubular endosomes in AtT20 and HeLa cells (Tooze, J., and M. Hollinshead. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 115:635-653) by electron microscopy of cells labeled with three endocytic tracers, HRP, BSA-gold, and transferrin conjugated to HRP, and by immunofluorescence microscopy. For the latter we used antibodies specific for transferrin receptor, and, in the case of AtT20 cells, also antibodies specific for synaptophysin. In HeLa cells BFA at concentrations ranging from 1 micrograms to 10 micrograms/ml causes the dispersed patches of network of preexisting tubular early endosomes to be incorporated within 5 min into tubules approximately 50 nm in diameter but up to 40-50 microns long. These long, straight tubular endosomes are aligned along microtubules; they branch relatively infrequently to form an open network or reticulum extending from the cell periphery to the microtubule organizing center (MTOC). As the incubation with BFA is prolonged beyond 5 min, a steady state is reached in which many tubules are located in a dense network enclosing the centrioles, with branches extending in a more open network to the periphery. This effect of BFA, which is fully reversed within 15-30 min of washing out, is inhibited by pre-incubating the cells with sodium azide and 2-deoxy-D-glucose. In AtT20 cells BFA at 5 micrograms/ml or above causes the same sorts of changes, preexisting tubular endosomes are recruited into a more continuous endosomal network, and there is a massive accumulation of this network around the MTOC. Maintenance of the BFA-induced endosomal reticulum in both cell types is dependent upon the integrity of microtubules. In AtT20 cells BFA at 1 microgram/ml has no detectable effect on the early endosomal system but the Golgi stacks are converted to clusters of tubules and vesicles that remain in the region of the MTOC during prolonged incubations. Therefore, the Golgi apparatus in these cells is more sensitive to BFA

  4. The structure and function of presynaptic endosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Jähne, Sebastian; Rizzoli, Silvio O.; Helm, Martin S.

    2015-07-15

    The function of endosomes and of endosome-like structures in the presynaptic compartment is still controversial. This is in part due to the absence of a consensus on definitions and markers for these compartments. Synaptic endosomes are sometimes seen as stable organelles, permanently present in the synapse. Alternatively, they are seen as short-lived intermediates in synaptic vesicle recycling, arising from the endocytosis of large vesicles from the plasma membrane, or from homotypic fusion of small vesicles. In addition, the potential function of the endosome is largely unknown in the synapse. Some groups have proposed that the endosome is involved in the sorting of synaptic vesicle proteins, albeit others have produced data that deny this possibility. In this review, we present the existing evidence for synaptic endosomes, we discuss their potential functions, and we highlight frequent technical pitfalls in the analysis of this elusive compartment. We also sketch a roadmap to definitely determine the role of synaptic endosomes for the synaptic vesicle cycle. Finally, we propose a common definition of synaptic endosome-like structures.

  5. Late Endosomal Cholesterol Accumulation Leads to Impaired Intra-Endosomal Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Sobo, Komla; Le Blanc, Isabelle; Luyet, Pierre-Philippe; Fivaz, Marc; Ferguson, Charles; Parton, Robert G.; Gruenberg, Jean; van der Goot, F. Gisou

    2007-01-01

    Background Pathological accumulation of cholesterol in late endosomes is observed in lysosomal storage diseases such as Niemann-Pick type C. We here analyzed the effects of cholesterol accumulation in NPC cells, or as phenocopied by the drug U18666A, on late endosomes membrane organization and dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings Cholesterol accumulation did not lead to an increase in the raft to non-raft membrane ratio as anticipated. Strikingly, we observed a 2–3 fold increase in the size of the compartment. Most importantly, properties and dynamics of late endosomal intralumenal vesicles were altered as revealed by reduced late endosomal vacuolation induced by the mutant pore-forming toxin ASSP, reduced intoxication by the anthrax lethal toxin and inhibition of infection by the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that back fusion of intralumenal vesicles with the limiting membrane of late endosomes is dramatically perturbed upon cholesterol accumulation. PMID:17786222

  6. Late endosomal cholesterol accumulation leads to impaired intra-endosomal trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sobo, Komla; Le Blanc, Isabelle; Luyet, Pierre-Philippe; Fivaz, Marc; Ferguson, Charles; Parton, Robert G; Gruenberg, Jean; van der Goot, F Gisou

    2007-09-05

    Pathological accumulation of cholesterol in late endosomes is observed in lysosomal storage diseases such as Niemann-Pick type C. We here analyzed the effects of cholesterol accumulation in NPC cells, or as phenocopied by the drug U18666A, on late endosomes membrane organization and dynamics. Cholesterol accumulation did not lead to an increase in the raft to non-raft membrane ratio as anticipated. Strikingly, we observed a 2-3 fold increase in the size of the compartment. Most importantly, properties and dynamics of late endosomal intralumenal vesicles were altered as revealed by reduced late endosomal vacuolation induced by the mutant pore-forming toxin ASSP, reduced intoxication by the anthrax lethal toxin and inhibition of infection by the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. These results suggest that back fusion of intralumenal vesicles with the limiting membrane of late endosomes is dramatically perturbed upon cholesterol accumulation.

  7. Selective degradation of insulin within rat liver endosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, J.J. II; Kay, D.G.; Lai, W.H.; Posner, B.I.; Bergeron, J.J. )

    1990-01-01

    To characterize the role of the endosome in the degradation of insulin in liver, we employed a cell-free system in which the degradation of internalized 125I-insulin within isolated intact endosomes was evaluated. Incubation of endosomes containing internalized 125I-insulin in the cell-free system resulted in a rapid generation of TCA soluble radiolabeled products (t1/2, 6 min). Sephadex G-50 chromatography of radioactivity extracted from endosomes during the incubation showed a time dependent increase in material eluting as radioiodotyrosine. The apparent Vmax of the insulin degrading activity was 4 ng insulin degraded.min-1.mg cell fraction protein-1 and the apparent Km was 60 ng insulin.mg cell fraction protein-1. The endosomal protease(s) was insulin-specific since neither internalized 125I-epidermal growth factor (EGF) nor 125I-prolactin was degraded within isolated endosomes as assessed by TCA precipitation and Sephadex G-50 chromatography. Significant inhibition of degradation was observed after inclusion of p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (PCMB), 1,10-phenanthroline, bacitracin, or 0.1% Triton X-100 into the system. Maximal insulin degradation required the addition of ATP to the cell-free system that resulted in acidification as measured by acridine orange accumulation. Endosomal insulin degradation was inhibited markedly in the presence of pH dissipating agents such as nigericin, monensin, and chloroquine or the proton translocase inhibitors N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation of insulin-receptor complexes revealed that endosomal degradation augmented the dissociation of insulin from its receptor and that dissociated insulin was serving as substrate to the endosomal protease(s). The results suggest that as insulin is internalized it rapidly but incompletely dissociates from its receptor.

  8. Peptide Synthesis through Cell-Free Expression of Fusion Proteins Incorporating Modified Amino Acids as Latent Cleavage Sites for Peptide Release.

    PubMed

    Liutkus, Mantas; Fraser, Samuel A; Caron, Karine; Stigers, Dannon J; Easton, Christopher J

    2016-05-17

    Chlorinated analogues of Leu and Ile are incorporated during cell-free expression of peptides fused to protein, by exploiting the promiscuity of the natural biosynthetic machinery. They then act as sites for clean and efficient release of the peptides simply by brief heat treatment. Dehydro analogues of Leu and Ile are similarly incorporated as latent sites for peptide release through treatment with iodine under cold conditions. These protocols complement enzyme-catalyzed methods and have been used to prepare calcitonin, gastrin-releasing peptide, cholecystokinin-7, and prolactin-releasing peptide prohormones, as well as analogues substituted with unusual amino acids, thus illustrating their practical utility as alternatives to more traditional chemical peptide synthesis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Redistribution of Endosomal Membranes to the African Swine Fever Virus Replication Site.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Geijo, Miguel Ángel; Barrado-Gil, Lucía; Galindo, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Moreno, Raquel; Alonso, Covadonga

    2017-06-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection causes endosomal reorganization. Here, we show that the virus causes endosomal congregation close to the nucleus as the infection progresses, which is necessary to build a compact viral replication organelle. ASFV enters the cell by the endosomal pathway and reaches multivesicular late endosomes. Upon uncoating and fusion, the virus should exit to the cytosol to start replication. ASFV remodels endosomal traffic and redistributes endosomal membranes to the viral replication site. Virus replication also depends on endosomal membrane phosphoinositides (PtdIns) synthesized by PIKfyve. Endosomes could act as platforms providing membranes and PtdIns, necessary for ASFV replication. Our study has revealed that ASFV reorganizes endosome dynamics, in order to ensure a productive infection.

  10. Redistribution of Endosomal Membranes to the African Swine Fever Virus Replication Site

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta-Geijo, Miguel Ángel; Barrado-Gil, Lucía; Galindo, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Moreno, Raquel; Alonso, Covadonga

    2017-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection causes endosomal reorganization. Here, we show that the virus causes endosomal congregation close to the nucleus as the infection progresses, which is necessary to build a compact viral replication organelle. ASFV enters the cell by the endosomal pathway and reaches multivesicular late endosomes. Upon uncoating and fusion, the virus should exit to the cytosol to start replication. ASFV remodels endosomal traffic and redistributes endosomal membranes to the viral replication site. Virus replication also depends on endosomal membrane phosphoinositides (PtdIns) synthesized by PIKfyve. Endosomes could act as platforms providing membranes and PtdIns, necessary for ASFV replication. Our study has revealed that ASFV reorganizes endosome dynamics, in order to ensure a productive infection. PMID:28587154

  11. Role of TSPAN9 in Alphavirus Entry and Early Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Stiles, Katie M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alphaviruses are small enveloped RNA viruses that infect cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and low-pH-triggered fusion in the early endosome. Using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen in human cells, we previously identified TSPAN9 as a host factor that promotes infection by the alphaviruses Sindbis virus (SINV), Semliki Forest virus (SFV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Depletion of TSPAN9 specifically decreases SFV membrane fusion in endosomes. TSPAN9 is a member of the tetraspanin family of multipass membrane proteins, but its cellular function is currently unknown. Here we used U-2 OS cells stably overexpressing TSPAN9 to show that TSPAN9 is localized at the plasma membrane and in early and late endosomes. Internalized SFV particles colocalized with TSPAN9 in vesicles early during infection. Depletion of TSPAN9 led to reductions in the amounts of the late endosomal proteins LAMP1 and CD63 and an increase in the amount of LAMP2. However, TSPAN9 depletion did not alter the delivery of SFV to early endosomes or change their pH or protease activity. Comparative studies showed that TSPAN9 depletion strongly inhibited infection by several viruses that fuse in early endosomes (SFV, SINV, CHIKV, and vesicular stomatitis virus [VSV]), while viruses that fuse in the late endosome (recombinant VSV-Lassa and VSV-Junin), including an SFV point mutant with a lower pH threshold for fusion (SFV E2 T12I), were relatively resistant. Our data suggest that TSPAN9 modulates the early endosome compartment to make it more permissive for membrane fusion of early-penetrating viruses. IMPORTANCE Alphaviruses are spread by mosquitoes and can cause serious human diseases such as arthritis and encephalitis. Recent outbreaks of CHIKV infection are responsible for millions of cases of acute illness and long-term complications. There are no vaccines or antiviral treatments for these important human pathogens. Alphaviruses infect host cells by utilizing the endocytic

  12. Molecular assemblies and membrane domains in multivesicular endosome dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Falguieres, Thomas; Luyet, Pierre-Philippe; Gruenberg, Jean

    2009-05-15

    Along the degradation pathway, endosomes exhibit a characteristic multivesicular organization, resulting from the budding of vesicles into the endosomal lumen. After endocytosis and transport to early endosomes, activated signaling receptors are incorporated into these intralumenal vesicles through the action of the ESCRT machinery, a process that contributes to terminate signaling. Then, the vesicles and their protein cargo are further transported towards lysosomes for degradation. Evidence also shows that intralumenal vesicles can undergo 'back-fusion' with the late endosome limiting membrane, a route exploited by some pathogens and presumably followed by proteins and lipids that need to be recycled from within the endosomal lumen. This process depends on the late endosomal lipid lysobisphosphatidic acid and its putative effector Alix/AIP1, and is presumably coupled to the invagination of the endosomal limiting membrane at the molecular level via ESCRT proteins. In this review, we discuss the intra-endosomal transport routes in mammalian cells, and in particular the different mechanisms involved in membrane invagination, vesicle formation and fusion in a space inaccessible to proteins known to control intracellular membrane traffic.

  13. Clathrin regenerates synaptic vesicles from endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shigeki; Trimbuch, Thorsten; Camacho-Pérez, Marcial; Rost, Benjamin R.; Brokowski, Bettina; Söhl-Kielczynski, Berit; Felies, Annegret; Davis, M. Wayne; Rosenmund, Christian; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Ultrafast endocytosis can retrieve a single large endocytic vesicle as fast as 50-100 ms after synaptic vesicle fusion. However, the fate of the large endocytic vesicles is not known. Here we demonstrate that these vesicles transition to a synaptic endosome about one second after stimulation. The endosome is resolved into coated vesicles after 3 seconds, which in turn become small-diameter synaptic vesicles 5-6 seconds after stimulation. We disrupted clathrin function using RNAi and found that clathrin is not required for ultrafast endocytosis but is required to generate synaptic vesicles from the endosome. Ultrafast endocytosis fails when actin polymerization is disrupted, or when neurons are stimulated at room temperature instead of physiological temperature. In the absence of ultrafast endocytosis, synaptic vesicles are retrieved directly from the plasma membrane by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. These results explain in large part discrepancies among published experiments concerning the role of clathrin in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. PMID:25296249

  14. Combinatorial SNARE complexes with VAMP7 or VAMP8 define different late endocytic fusion events.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Paul R; Mullock, Barbara M; Bright, Nicholas A; Lindsay, Margaret R; Gray, Sally R; Richardson, Simon C W; Stewart, Abigail; James, David E; Piper, Robert C; Luzio, J Paul

    2004-06-01

    Both heterotypic and homotypic fusion events are required to deliver endocytosed macromolecules to lysosomes and remodel late endocytic organelles. A trans-SNARE complex consisting of Q-SNAREs syntaxin 7, Vti1b and syntaxin 8 and the R-SNARE VAMP8 has been shown by others to be responsible for homotypic fusion of late endosomes. Using antibody inhibition experiments in rat liver cell-free systems, we confirmed this result, but found that the same Q-SNAREs can combine with an alternative R-SNARE, namely VAMP7, for heterotypic fusion between late endosomes and lysosomes. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated separate syntaxin 7 complexes with either VAMP7 or VAMP8 in solubilized rat liver membranes. Additionally, overexpression of the N-terminal domain of VAMP7, in cultured fibroblastic cells, inhibited the mixing of a preloaded lysosomal content marker with a marker delivered to late endosomes. These data show that combinatorial interactions of SNAREs determine whether late endosomes undergo homotypic or heterotypic fusion events.

  15. The Role of Intraorganellar Ca2+In Late Endosome–Lysosome Heterotypic Fusion and in the Reformation of Lysosomes from Hybrid Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, Paul R.; Mullock, Barbara M.; Bright, Nicholas A.; Gray, Sally R.; Luzio, J. Paul

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the requirement for Ca2+ in the fusion and content mixing of rat hepatocyte late endosomes and lysosomes in a cell-free system. Fusion to form hybrid organelles was inhibited by 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), but not by EGTA, and this inhibition was reversed by adding additional Ca2+. Fusion was also inhibited by methyl ester of EGTA (EGTA-AM), a membrane permeable, hydrolyzable ester of EGTA, and pretreatment of organelles with EGTA-AM showed that the chelation of lumenal Ca2+ reduced the amount of fusion. The requirement for Ca2+ for fusion was a later event than the requirement for a rab protein since the system became resistant to inhibition by GDP dissociation inhibitor at earlier times than it became resistant to BAPTA. We have developed a cell-free assay to study the reformation of lysosomes from late endosome–lysosome hybrid organelles that were isolated from the rat liver. The recovery of electron dense lysosomes was shown to require ATP and was inhibited by bafilomycin and EGTA-AM. The data support a model in which endocytosed Ca2+ plays a role in the fusion of late endosomes and lysosomes, the reformation of lysosomes, and the dynamic equilibrium of organelles in the late endocytic pathway. PMID:10831609

  16. Acidification triggers Andes hantavirus membrane fusion and rearrangement of Gc into a stable post-fusion homotrimer.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Rodrigo; Bignon, Eduardo A; Mancini, Roberta; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2015-11-01

    The hantavirus membrane fusion process is mediated by the Gc envelope glycoprotein from within endosomes. However, little is known about the specific mechanism that triggers Gc fusion activation, and its pre- and post-fusion conformations. We established cell-free in vitro systems to characterize hantavirus fusion activation. Low pH was sufficient to trigger the interaction of virus-like particles with liposomes. This interaction was dependent on a pre-fusion glycoprotein arrangement. Further, low pH induced Gc multimerization changes leading to non-reversible Gc homotrimers. These trimers were resistant to detergent, heat and protease digestion, suggesting characteristics of a stable post-fusion structure. No acid-dependent oligomerization rearrangement was detected for the trypsin-sensitive Gn envelope glycoprotein. Finally, acidification induced fusion of glycoprotein-expressing effector cells with non-susceptible CHO cells. Together, the data provide novel information on the Gc fusion trigger and its non-reversible activation involving lipid interaction, multimerization changes and membrane fusion which ultimately allow hantavirus entry into cells.

  17. The intact structural form of LLO in endosomes cannot protect against listeriosis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Del Rio, Estela; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Tobes, Raquel; Pareja, Eduardo; Lecea-Cuello, M. Jesús; Ruiz-Sáez, Marta; Carrasco-Marín, Eugenio; Alvarez-Dominguez, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    LLO is the major immuno-dominant antigen in listeriosis and is also required for protective immunity. Two forms of LLO can be observed in endosomal membranes, a LLO intact form and a Ctsd-processed LLO1-491 form. Endosomes obtained from resting macrophages contained only LLO intact forms, while endosomes obtained from IFN-activated macrophages contained both forms. Both types of endosomes elicited LLO90-91/CD8+ and LLO189-201/CD4+ specific immune responses. However, only endosomes containing the Ctsd-processed LLO1-491 form showed significant CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses similar to LM infected bone marrow derived macrophages and characteristic of protective Listeria immunity. Moreover, endosomes with intact LLO could not confer protection as vaccine carriers against murine listeriosis. While endosomes with Ctsd-processed LLO1-491 form showed a moderate ability, slightly lower than high efficiency vaccine vectors as MØ infected with LM. These studies argue that all cell-free membrane vesicles might serve as valid vaccine carriers against infectious agents. Exclusively those cell-free vesicles MIIC competent for LLO processing are protective vaccines vectors since they recruit significant numbers of mature dendritic cells to the vaccination sites and contain a LLO1-491 form that might be accessible for MHC class I and class II antigen presentation. PMID:22003433

  18. deep-orange and carnation define distinct stages in late endosomal biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sriram, V; Krishnan, K S; Mayor, Satyajit

    2003-05-12

    Endosomal degradation is severely impaired in primary hemocytes from larvae of eye color mutants of Drosophila. Using high resolution imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy in these cells, products of eye color genes, deep-orange (dor) and carnation (car), are localized to large multivesicular Rab7-positive late endosomes containing Golgi-derived enzymes. These structures mature into small sized Dor-negative, Car-positive structures, which subsequently fuse to form tubular lysosomes. Defective endosomal degradation in mutant alleles of dor results from a failure of Golgi-derived vesicles to fuse with morphologically arrested Rab7-positive large sized endosomes, which are, however, normally acidified and mature with wild-type kinetics. This locates the site of Dor function to fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles with the large Rab7-positive endocytic compartments. In contrast, endosomal degradation is not considerably affected in car1 mutant; fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles and maturation of large sized endosomes is normal. However, removal of Dor from small sized Car-positive endosomes is slowed, and subsequent fusion with tubular lysosomes is abolished. Overexpression of Dor in car1 mutant aggravates this defect, implicating Car in the removal of Dor from endosomes. This suggests that, in addition to an independent role in fusion with tubular lysosomes, the Sec1p homologue, Car, regulates Dor function.

  19. Diverse Autophagosome Membrane Sources Coalesce in Recycling Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Claudia; Renna, Maurizio; Bento, Carla F.; Moreau, Kevin; Rubinsztein, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Autophagic protein degradation is mediated by autophagosomes that fuse with lysosomes, where their contents are degraded. The membrane origins of autophagosomes may involve multiple sources. However, it is unclear if and where distinct membrane sources fuse during autophagosome biogenesis. Vesicles containing mATG9, the only transmembrane autophagy protein, are seen in many sites, and fusions with other autophagic compartments have not been visualized in mammalian cells. We observed that mATG9 traffics from the plasma membrane to recycling endosomes in carriers that appear to be routed differently from ATG16L1-containing vesicles, another source of autophagosome membrane. mATG9- and ATG16L1-containing vesicles traffic to recycling endosomes, where VAMP3-dependent heterotypic fusions occur. These fusions correlate with autophagosome formation, and both processes are enhanced by perturbing membrane egress from recycling endosomes. Starvation, a primordial autophagy activator, reduces membrane recycling from recycling endosomes and enhances mATG9-ATG16L1 vesicle fusion. Thus, this mechanism may fine-tune physiological autophagic responses. PMID:24034251

  20. A coat of filamentous actin prevents clustering of late-endosomal vacuoles in vivo.

    PubMed

    Drengk, Anja; Fritsch, Jürgen; Schmauch, Christian; Rühling, Harald; Maniak, Markus

    2003-10-14

    The endocytic pathway depends on the actin cytoskeleton. Actin contributes to internalization at the plasma membrane and to subsequent trafficking steps like propulsion through the cytoplasm, fusion of phagosomes with early endosomes, and transport from early to late endosomes. In vitro studies with mammalian endosomes and yeast vacuoles implicate actin in membrane fusion. Here, we investigate the function of the actin coat that surrounds late endosomes in Dictyostelium. Latrunculin treatment leads to aggregation of these endosomes into grape-like clusters and completely blocks progression of endocytic marker. In addition, the cells round up and stop moving. Because this drug treatment perturbs all actin assemblies in the cell simultaneously, we used a novel targeting approach to specifically study the function of the cytoskeleton in one subcellular location. To this end, we constructed a hybrid protein targeting cofilin, an actin depolymerizing protein, to late endosomes. As a consequence, the endosomal compartments lost their actin coats and aggregated, but these cells remained morphologically normal, and the kinetics of endocytic marker trafficking were unaltered. Therefore, the actin coat prevents the clustering of endosomes, which could be one safeguard mechanism precluding their docking and fusion.

  1. TSSC1 is novel component of the endosomal retrieval machinery

    PubMed Central

    Gershlick, David C.; Schindler, Christina; Chen, Yu; Bonifacino, Juan S.

    2016-01-01

    Endosomes function as a hub for multiple protein-sorting events, including retrograde transport to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and recycling to the plasma membrane. These processes are mediated by tubular-vesicular carriers that bud from early endosomes and fuse with a corresponding acceptor compartment. Two tethering complexes named GARP (composed of ANG2, VPS52, VPS53, and VPS54 subunits) and EARP (composed of ANG2, VPS52, VPS53, and Syndetin subunits) were previously shown to participate in SNARE-dependent fusion of endosome-derived carriers with the TGN and recycling endosomes, respectively. Little is known, however, about other proteins that function with GARP and EARP in these processes. Here we identify a protein named TSSC1 as a specific interactor of both GARP and EARP and as a novel component of the endosomal retrieval machinery. TSSC1 is a predicted WD40/β-propeller protein that coisolates with both GARP and EARP in affinity purification, immunoprecipitation, and gel filtration analyses. Confocal fluorescence microscopy shows colocalization of TSSC1 with both GARP and EARP. Silencing of TSSC1 impairs transport of internalized Shiga toxin B subunit to the TGN, as well as recycling of internalized transferrin to the plasma membrane. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching shows that TSSC1 is required for efficient recruitment of GARP to the TGN. These studies thus demonstrate that TSSC1 plays a critical role in endosomal retrieval pathways as a regulator of both GARP and EARP function. PMID:27440922

  2. Protein kinase A dependent membrane protein phosphorylation and chloride conductance in endosomal vesicles from kidney cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Reenstra, W.W.; Bae, H.R.; Verkman, A.S. Univ. of California, San Francisco ); Sabolic, I. Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA )

    1992-01-14

    Regulation of Cl conductance by protein kinase A action, cell-free measurements of Cl transport and membrane protein phosphorylation were carried out in apical endocytic vesicles from rabbit kidney proximal tubule. Cl transport was measured by a stopped-flow quenching assay in endosomes labeled in vivo with the fluorescent Cl indicator 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium. Phosphorylation was studied in a purified endosomal preparation by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography of membrane proteins labeled by ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP. These results suggest that, in a cell-free system, protein kinase A increases Cl conductance in endosomes from kidney proximal tubule by a phosphorylation mechanism. The labeled protein has a size similar to that of the 64-kDa putative kidney Cl channel reported by Landry et al. but is much smaller than the {approximately}170-kDa cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatory protein.

  3. Negative regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate levels in early-to-late endosome conversion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai; Jian, Youli; Sun, Xiaojuan; Yang, Chengkui; Gao, Zhiyang; Zhang, Zhili; Liu, Xuezhao; Li, Yang; Xu, Jing; Jing, Yudong; Mitani, Shohei; He, Sudan

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) plays a central role in endosome fusion, recycling, sorting, and early-to-late endosome conversion, but the mechanisms that determine how the correct endosomal PtdIns3P level is achieved remain largely elusive. Here we identify two new factors, SORF-1 and SORF-2, as essential PtdIns3P regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans. Loss of sorf-1 or sorf-2 leads to greatly elevated endosomal PtdIns3P, which drives excessive fusion of early endosomes. sorf-1 and sorf-2 function coordinately with Rab switching genes to inhibit synthesis of PtdIns3P, allowing its turnover for endosome conversion. SORF-1 and SORF-2 act in a complex with BEC-1/Beclin1, and their loss causes elevated activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) complex. In mammalian cells, inactivation of WDR91 and WDR81, the homologs of SORF-1 and SORF-2, induces Beclin1-dependent enlargement of PtdIns3P-enriched endosomes and defective degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor. WDR91 and WDR81 interact with Beclin1 and inhibit PI3K complex activity. These findings reveal a conserved mechanism that controls appropriate PtdIns3P levels in early-to-late endosome conversion. PMID:26783301

  4. Misdirection of endosomal trafficking mediated by herpes simplex virus-encoded glycoprotein B.

    PubMed

    Niazy, Naima; Temme, Sebastian; Bocuk, Derya; Giesen, Carmen; König, Angelika; Temme, Nadine; Ziegfeld, Angelique; Gregers, Tone F; Bakke, Oddmund; Lang, Thorsten; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M; Koch, Norbert

    2017-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-encoded glycoprotein B (gB) is the most abundant protein in the viral envelope and promotes fusion of the virus with the cellular membrane. In the present study, we found that gB impacts on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II pathway of antigen presentation by fostering homotypic fusion of early endosomes and trapping MHC-II molecules in these altered endosomes. By using an overexpression approach, we demonstrated that transient expression of gB induces giant vesicles of early endosomal origin, which contained Rab5, early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA1), and large amounts of MHC-II molecules [human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, and HLA-DM], but no CD63. In HSV-1-infected and stably transfected cell lines that expressed lower amounts of gB, giant endosomes were not observed, but strongly increased amounts of HLA-DR and HLA-DM were found in EEA1(+) early endosomes. We used these giant vesicles as a model system and revealed that gB interacts with Rab5 and EEA1, and that gB-induced homotypic fusion of early endosomes to giant endosomes requires phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, the activity of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors, and the cytosolic gB sequence (889)YTQVPN(894) We conclude that gB expression alters trafficking of molecules of the HLA-II processing pathway, which leads to increased retention of MHC-II molecules in early endosomal compartments, thereby intercepting antigen presentation.-Niazy, N., Temme, S., Bocuk, D., Giesen, C., König, A., Temme, N., Ziegfeld, A., Gregers, T. F., Bakke, O., Lang, T., Eis-Hübinger, A. M., Koch, N. Misdirection of endosomal trafficking mediated by herpes simplex virus-encoded glycoprotein B. © FASEB.

  5. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  6. Aggregation of endosomal-vacuolar compartments in the Aovps24-deleted strain in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae

    SciTech Connect

    Tatsumi, Akinori; Shoji, Jun-ya; Kikuma, Takashi; Arioka, Manabu; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2007-10-19

    Previously, we found that deletion of Aovps24, an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae VPS24, that encodes an ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport)-III component required for late endosomal function results in fragmented and aggregated vacuoles. Although defective late endosomal function is likely responsible for this phenotype, critical lack of our knowledge on late endosomes in filamentous fungi prevented us from further characterization. In this study, we identified late endosomes of Aspergillus oryzae, by expressing a series of fusion proteins of fluorescent proteins with orthologs of late endosomal proteins. Using these fusion proteins as markers, we observed late endosomes in the wild type strain and the Aovps24 disruptant and demonstrated that late endosomes are aberrantly aggregated in the Aovps24 disruptant. Moreover, we revealed that the aggregated late endosomes have features of vacuoles as well. As deletion of another ESCRT-III component-encoding gene, Aovps2, resulted in similar phenotypes to that in the Aovps24 disruptant, phenotypes of the Aovps24 disruptant are probably due to defective late endosomal function.

  7. Integrin endosomal signalling suppresses anoikis

    PubMed Central

    Alanko, Jonna; Mai, Anja; Jacquemet, Guillaume; Schauer, Kristine; Kaukonen, Riina; Saari, Markku; Goud, Bruno; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Integrin containing focal adhesions (FAs) transmit extracellular signals across the plasma membrane to modulate cell adhesion, signalling and survival. Although integrins are known to undergo continuous endo/exocytic traffic, potential impact of endocytic traffic on integrin-induced signals is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that integrin signalling is not restricted to cell-ECM adhesions and identify an endosomal signalling platform that supports integrin signalling away from the plasma membrane. We show that active focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an established marker of integrin-ECM downstream signalling, localises with active integrins on endosomes. Integrin endocytosis positively regulates adhesion-induced FAK activation, which is early endosome antigen-1 (EEA1) and small GTPase Rab21 dependent. FAK binds directly to purified endosomes and becomes activated on them, suggesting a role for endocytosis in enhancing distinct integrin downstream signalling events. Finally, endosomal integrin signalling contributes to cancer-related processes such as anoikis resistance, anchorage-independence and metastasis. Integrins are heterodimeric cell surface adhesion receptors functioning as integrators of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) driven cues, the cellular cytoskeleton and the cellular signalling apparatus 1.Upon adhesion, integrins trigger the formation of plasma-membrane proximal large mechanosensing and signal-transmitting protein clusters depicted as “adhesomes” 2, 3. In addition, integrins undergo constant endocytic traffic to facilitate focal adhesion turnover, cell migration, invasion and cytokinesis 4. For other receptor systems it is well established that endocytic membrane traffic regulates bioavailability of cell-surface molecules and therefore the intensity and/or specificity of receptor-initiated signals 5, 6. Although active integrins and their ligands have been detected in endosomes 7–9 and increased integrin recycling to the plasma membrane contributes

  8. Kinetics of endosome acidification detected by mutant and wild-type Semliki Forest virus.

    PubMed Central

    Kielian, M C; Marsh, M; Helenius, A

    1986-01-01

    The fusogenic properties of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and its mutants were used to follow the kinetics of acidification during the endocytic uptake of virus by BHK-21 cells. It has previously been shown that the low pH of endocytic vacuoles triggers a conformational change in the SFV spike glycoprotein, activating membrane fusion and initiating virus infection. This conformational alteration was here shown to occur in endosomes and to follow the same time course as the intracellular fusion reaction, demonstrating that fusion occurs rapidly after virus exposure to endosome acidity. The kinetics of endosome acidification were monitored using wild type (wt) SFV and fus-1, an SFV mutant with a lower fusion pH threshold. The results presented here demonstrated that wt and mutant virus were internalized with a t1/2 of 10 min, and that endosomes were acidified to the wt threshold of pH 6.2 with a t1/2 of 15 min. In contrast, endosome pH reached the fus-1 threshold of 5.3 with a much longer t1/2 of 45 min. The subsequent degradation of SFV in lysosomes had a t1/2 of 90 min. It was found that after the initial uptake of virus from the plasma membrane, its transit through the endocytic pathway, exposure to endosome acidity and eventual delivery to lysosomes were markedly asynchronous. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 6. PMID:3816755

  9. PIKfyve Regulation of Endosome-Linked Pathways

    PubMed Central

    de Lartigue, Jane; Polson, Hannah; Feldman, Morri; Shokat, Kevan; Tooze, Sharon A; Urbé, Sylvie; Clague, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The phosphoinositide 5-kinase (PIKfyve) is a critical enzyme for the synthesis of PtdIns(3,5)P2, that has been implicated in various trafficking events associated with the endocytic pathway. We have now directly compared the effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown of PIKfyve in HeLa cells with a specific pharmacological inhibitor of enzyme activity. Both approaches induce changes in the distribution of CI-M6PR and trans-Golgi network (TGN)-46 proteins, which cycles between endosomes and TGN, leading to their accumulation in dispersed punctae, whilst the TGN marker golgin-245 retains a perinuclear disposition. Trafficking of CD8-CI-M6PR (retromer-dependent) and CD8-Furin (retromer-independent) chimeras from the cell surface to the TGN is delayed following drug administration, as is the transport of the Shiga toxin B-subunit. siRNA knockdown of PIKfyve produced no defect in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) degradation, unless combined with knockdown of its activator molecule Vac14, suggesting that a low threshold of PtdIns(3,5)P2 is necessary and sufficient for this pathway. Accordingly pharmacological inhibition of PIKfyve results in a profound block to the lysosomal degradation of activated epidermal growth factor (EGF) and Met receptors. Immunofluorescence revealed EGF receptors to be trapped in the interior of a swollen endosomal compartment. In cells starved of amino acids, PIKfyve inhibition leads to the accumulation of the lipidated form of GFP-LC3, a marker of autophagosomal structures, which can be visualized as fluorescent punctae. We suggest that PIKfyve inhibition may render the late endosome/lysosome compartment refractory to fusion with both autophagosomes and with EGFR-containing multivesicular bodies. PMID:19582903

  10. The phosphoinositide-associated protein Rush hour regulates endosomal trafficking in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Gailite, Ieva; Egger-Adam, Diane; Wodarz, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Endocytosis regulates multiple cellular processes, including the protein composition of the plasma membrane, intercellular signaling, and cell polarity. We have identified the highly conserved protein Rush hour (Rush) and show that it participates in the regulation of endocytosis. Rush localizes to endosomes via direct binding of its FYVE (Fab1p, YOTB, Vac1p, EEA1) domain to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Rush also directly binds to Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor (Gdi), which is involved in the activation of Rab proteins. Homozygous rush mutant flies are viable but show genetic interactions with mutations in Gdi, Rab5, hrs, and carnation, the fly homologue of Vps33. Overexpression of Rush disrupts progression of endocytosed cargo and increases late endosome size. Lysosomal marker staining is decreased in Rush-overexpressing cells, pointing to a defect in the transition between late endosomes and lysosomes. Rush also causes formation of endosome clusters, possibly by affecting fusion of endosomes via an interaction with the class C Vps/homotypic fusion and vacuole protein-sorting (HOPS) complex. These results indicate that Rush controls trafficking from early to late endosomes and from late endosomes to lysosomes by modulating the activity of Rab proteins. PMID:22160599

  11. Prenatal Cell-Free DNA Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Prenatal cell-free DNA screening Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Prenatal cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening, also known as noninvasive prenatal screening, is ... in a developing baby. During prenatal cell-free DNA screening, DNA from the mother and fetus is ...

  12. Munc13-4 interacts with syntaxin 7 and regulates late endosomal maturation, endosomal signaling, and TLR9-initiated cellular responses

    PubMed Central

    He, Jing; Johnson, Jennifer L.; Monfregola, Jlenia; Ramadass, Mahalakshmi; Pestonjamasp, Kersi; Napolitano, Gennaro; Zhang, Jinzhong; Catz, Sergio D.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that regulate late endosomal maturation and function are not completely elucidated, and direct evidence of a calcium sensor is lacking. Here we identify a novel mechanism of late endosomal maturation that involves a new molecular interaction between the tethering factor Munc13-4, syntaxin 7, and VAMP8. Munc13-4 binding to syntaxin 7 was significantly increased by calcium. Colocalization of Munc13-4 and syntaxin 7 at late endosomes was demonstrated by high-resolution and live-cell microscopy. Munc13-4–deficient cells show increased numbers of significantly enlarged late endosomes, a phenotype that was mimicked by the fusion inhibitor chloroquine in wild-type cells and rescued by expression of Munc13-4 but not by a syntaxin 7–binding–deficient mutant. Late endosomes from Munc13-4-KO neutrophils show decreased degradative capacity. Munc13-4–knockout neutrophils show impaired endosomal-initiated, TLR9-dependent signaling and deficient TLR9-specific CD11b up-regulation. Thus we present a novel mechanism of late endosomal maturation and propose that Munc13-4 regulates the late endocytic machinery and late endosomal–associated innate immune cellular functions. PMID:26680738

  13. Local cytoskeletal and organelle interactions impact molecular motor-driven early endosomal trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Allison L.; Goldman, Yale E.; Holzbaur, Erika L.F.; Ostap, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Background In the intracellular environment, motor-driven cargo must navigate a dense cytoskeletal network among abundant organelles. Results We investigated the effects of the crowded intracellular environment on early endosomal trafficking. Live-cell imaging of an endosomal cargo (endocytosed epidermal growth factor-conjugated quantum dots) combined with high-resolution tracking was used to analyze the heterogeneous motion of individual endosomes. The motile population of endosomes moved towards the perinuclear region in directed bursts of microtubule-based, dynein-dependent transport interrupted by longer periods of diffusive motion. Actin network density did not affect motile endosomes during directed runs or diffusive interruptions. Simultaneous two-color imaging was used to correlate changes in endosomal movement with potential obstacles to directed runs. Termination of directed runs spatially correlated with microtubule-dense regions, encounters with other endosomes, and interactions with the endoplasmic reticulum. During a subset of run terminations, we also observed merging and splitting of endosomes, deformation of the endoplasmic reticulum, and directional reversals at speeds up to ten-fold greater than characteristic in vitro motor velocities. These observations suggest endosomal membrane tension is high during directed run termination. Conclusions Our results indicate that the crowded cellular environment significantly impacts the motor-driven motility of organelles. Rather than simply acting as impediments to movement, interactions of trafficking cargos with intracellular obstacles may facilitate communication between membrane-bound compartments or contribute to the generation of membrane tension necessary for fusion and fission of endosomal membranes or remodeling of the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:23770188

  14. Biogenesis of endosome-derived transport carriers.

    PubMed

    Chi, Richard J; Harrison, Megan S; Burd, Christopher G

    2015-09-01

    Sorting of macromolecules within the endosomal system is vital for physiological control of nutrient homeostasis, cell motility, and proteostasis. Trafficking routes that export macromolecules from the endosome via vesicle and tubule transport carriers constitute plasma membrane recycling and retrograde endosome-to-Golgi pathways. Proteins of the sorting nexin family have been discovered to function at nearly every step of endosomal transport carrier biogenesis and it is becoming increasingly clear that they form the core machineries of cargo-specific transport pathways that are closely integrated with cellular physiology. Here, we summarize recent progress in elucidating the pathways that mediate the biogenesis of endosome-derived transport carriers.

  15. Characterization of the Mammalian CORVET and HOPS Complexes and Their Modular Restructuring for Endosome Specificity.

    PubMed

    van der Kant, Rik; Jonker, Caspar T H; Wijdeven, Ruud H; Bakker, Jeroen; Janssen, Lennert; Klumperman, Judith; Neefjes, Jacques

    2015-12-18

    Trafficking of cargo through the endosomal system depends on endosomal fusion events mediated by SNARE proteins, Rab-GTPases, and multisubunit tethering complexes. The CORVET and HOPS tethering complexes, respectively, regulate early and late endosomal tethering and have been characterized in detail in yeast where their sequential membrane targeting and assembly is well understood. Mammalian CORVET and HOPS subunits significantly differ from their yeast homologues, and novel proteins with high homology to CORVET/HOPS subunits have evolved. However, an analysis of the molecular interactions between these subunits in mammals is lacking. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of interactions within the mammalian CORVET and HOPS as well as an additional endosomal-targeting complex (VIPAS39-VPS33B) that does not exist in yeast. We show that core interactions within CORVET and HOPS are largely conserved but that the membrane-targeting module in HOPS has significantly changed to accommodate binding to mammalian-specific RAB7 interacting lysosomal protein (RILP). Arthrogryposis-renal dysfunction-cholestasis (ARC) syndrome-associated mutations in VPS33B selectively disrupt recruitment to late endosomes by RILP or binding to its partner VIPAS39. Within the shared core of CORVET/HOPS, we find that VPS11 acts as a molecular switch that binds either CORVET-specific TGFBRAP1 or HOPS-specific VPS39/RILP thereby allowing selective targeting of these tethering complexes to early or late endosomes to time fusion events in the endo/lysosomal pathway.

  16. Goliath family E3 ligases regulate the recycling endosome pathway via VAMP3 ubiquitylation.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yasuo; Schönherr, Christina; Varshney, Gaurav K; Dogru, Murat; Hallberg, Bengt; Palmer, Ruth H

    2013-02-20

    Diverse cellular processes depend on endocytosis, intracellular vesicle trafficking, sorting and exocytosis, processes regulated post-transcriptionally by modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. In addition to sorting to the lysosome, cargo is recycled to the plasma membrane via recycling endosomes. Here, we describe a role of the goliath gene family of protease-associated (PA) domain E3 ligases in regulating recycling endosome trafficking. The two Drosophila members of this family--Goliath and Godzilla(CG10277)--are located on endosomes, and both ectopic expression and loss-of-function lead to the accumulation of Rab5-positive giant endosomes. Furthermore, the human homologue RNF167 exhibits similar behaviour. We show that the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein VAMP3 is a target of these ubiquitin ligases, and that recycling endosome trafficking is abrogated in response to their activity. Furthermore, mutation of the Godzilla ubiquitylation target lysines on VAMP3 abrogates the formation of enlarged endosomes induced by either Godzilla or RNF167. Thus, Goliath ubiquitin ligases play a novel role in regulating recycling endosome trafficking via ubiquitylation of the VAMP3 SNARE protein.

  17. Exosomes and HIV Gag bud from endosome-like domains of the T cell plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Amy M.; Fang, Yi; Fallon, Jonathan K.; Yang, Jr-Ming; Hildreth, James E.K.; Gould, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    Exosomes are secreted, single membrane organelles of ∼100 nm diameter. Their biogenesis is typically thought to occur in a two-step process involving (1) outward vesicle budding at limiting membranes of endosomes (outward = away from the cytoplasm), which generates intralumenal vesicles, followed by (2) endosome–plasma membrane fusion, which releases these internal vesicles into the extracellular milieu as exosomes. In this study, we present evidence that certain cells, including Jurkat T cells, possess discrete domains of plasma membrane that are enriched for exosomal and endosomal proteins, retain the endosomal property of outward vesicle budding, and serve as sites of immediate exosome biogenesis. It has been hypothesized that retroviruses utilize the exosome biogenesis pathway for the formation of infectious particles. In support of this, we find that Jurkat T cells direct the key budding factor of HIV, HIV Gag, to these endosome-like domains of plasma membrane and secrete HIV Gag from the cell in exosomes. PMID:16533950

  18. The Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E5 Oncoprotein Inhibits Epidermal Growth Factor Trafficking Independently of Endosome Acidification ▿

    PubMed Central

    Suprynowicz, Frank A.; Krawczyk, Ewa; Hebert, Jess D.; Sudarshan, Sawali R.; Simic, Vera; Kamonjoh, Christopher M.; Schlegel, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The human papillomavirus type 16 E5 oncoprotein (16E5) enhances acute, ligand-dependent activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and concomitantly alkalinizes endosomes, presumably by binding to the 16-kDa “c” subunit of the V-ATPase proton pump (16K) and inhibiting V-ATPase function. However, the relationship between 16K binding, endosome alkalinization, and altered EGFR signaling remains unclear. Using an antibody that we generated against 16K, we found that 16E5 associated with only a small fraction of endogenous 16K in keratinocytes, suggesting that it was unlikely that E5 could significantly affect V-ATPase function by direct inhibition. Nevertheless, E5 inhibited the acidification of endosomes, as determined by a new assay using a biologically active, pH-sensitive fluorescent EGF conjugate. Since we also found that 16E5 did not alter cell surface EGF binding, the number of EGFRs on the cell surface, or the endocytosis of prebound EGF, we postulated that it might be blocking the fusion of early endosomes with acidified vesicles. Our studies with pH-sensitive and -insensitive fluorescent EGF conjugates and fluorescent dextran confirmed that E5 prevented endosome maturation (acidification and enlargement) by inhibiting endosome fusion. The E5-dependent defect in vesicle fusion was not due to detectable disruption of actin, tubulin, vimentin, or cytokeratin filaments, suggesting that membrane fusion was being directly affected rather than vesicle transport. Perhaps most importantly, while bafilomycin A1 (like E5) binds to 16K and inhibits endosome acidification, it did not mimic the ability of E5 to inhibit endosome enlargement or the trafficking of EGF. Thus, 16E5 alters EGF endocytic trafficking via a pH-independent inhibition of vesicle fusion. PMID:20686024

  19. Vicenistatin induces early endosome-derived vacuole formation in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yuko; Ohmichi, Tomohiro; Kazami, Sayaka; Iwasaki, Hiroki; Mano, Kousuke; Nagumo, Yoko; Kudo, Fumitaka; Ichikawa, Sosaku; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu; Kanoh, Naoki; Eguchi, Tadashi; Osada, Hiroyuki; Usui, Takeo

    2016-05-01

    Homotypic fusion of early endosomes is important for efficient protein trafficking and sorting. The key controller of this process is Rab5 which regulates several effectors and PtdInsPs levels, but whose mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we report that vicenistatin, a natural product, enhanced homotypic fusion of early endosomes and induced the formation of large vacuole-like structures in mammalian cells. Unlike YM201636, another early endosome vacuolating compound, vicenistatin did not inhibit PIKfyve activity in vitro but activated Rab5-PAS pathway in cells. Furthermore, vicenistatin increased the membrane surface fluidity of cholesterol-containing liposomes in vitro, and cholesterol deprivation from the plasma membrane stimulated vicenistatin-induced vacuolation in cells. These results suggest that vicenistatin is a novel compound that induces the formation of vacuole-like structures by activating Rab5-PAS pathway and increasing membrane fluidity.

  20. Viral membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. PMID:25866377

  1. Rab Proteins and the Compartmentalization of the Endosomal System

    PubMed Central

    Wandinger-Ness, Angela; Zerial, Marino

    2014-01-01

    Of the approximately 70 human Rab GTPases, nearly three-quarters are involved in endocytic trafficking. Significant plasticity in endosomal membrane transport pathways is closely coupled to receptor signaling and Rab GTPase-regulated scaffolds. Here we review current literature pertaining to endocytic Rab GTPase localizations, functions, and coordination with regulatory proteins and effectors. The roles of Rab GTPases in (1) compartmentalization of the endocytic pathway into early, recycling, late, and lysosomal routes; (2) coordination of individual transport steps from vesicle budding to fusion; (3) effector interactomes; and (4) integration of GTPase and signaling cascades are discussed. PMID:25341920

  2. Overexpression of Rab22a hampers the transport between endosomes and the Golgi apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mesa, Rosana; Magadan, Javier; Barbieri, Alejandro; Lopez, Cecilia; Stahl, Philip D.; Mayorga, Luis S. . E-mail: lmayorga@fcm.uncu.edu.ar

    2005-04-01

    The transport and sorting of soluble and membrane-associated macromolecules arriving at endosomal compartments require a complex set of Rab proteins. Rab22a has been localized to the endocytic compartment; however, very little is known about the function of Rab22a and inconsistent results have been reported in studies performed in different cell lines. To characterize the function of Rab22a in endocytic transport, the wild-type protein (Rab22a WT), a hydrolysis-deficient mutant (Rab22a Q64L), and a mutant with reduced affinity for GTP (Rab22a S19N) were expressed in CHO cells. None of the three Rab22a constructs affected the transport of rhodamine-dextran to lysosomes, the digestion of internalized proteins, or the lysosomal localization of cathepsin D. In contrast with the mild effect of Rab22a on the endosome-lysosome route, cells expressing Rab22a WT and Rab22a Q64L presented a strong delay in the retrograde transport of cholera toxin from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. Moreover, these cells accumulated the cation independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor in endosomes. These observations indicate that Rab22a can affect the trafficking from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus probably by promoting fusion among endosomes and impairing the proper segregation of membrane domains required for targeting to the trans-Golgi network (TGN)

  3. Ferlins Show Tissue-Specific Expression and Segregate as Plasma Membrane/Late Endosomal or Trans-Golgi/Recycling Ferlins.

    PubMed

    Redpath, Gregory M I; Sophocleous, Reece A; Turnbull, Lynne; Whitchurch, Cynthia B; Cooper, Sandra T

    2016-03-01

    Ferlins are a family of transmembrane-anchored vesicle fusion proteins uniquely characterized by 5-7 tandem cytoplasmic C2 domains, Ca(2+)-regulated phospholipid-binding domains that regulate vesicle fusion in the synaptotagmin family. In humans, dysferlin mutations cause limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B) due to defective Ca(2+)-dependent, vesicle-mediated membrane repair and otoferlin mutations cause non-syndromic deafness due to defective Ca(2+)-triggered auditory neurotransmission. In this study, we describe the tissue-specific expression, subcellular localization and endocytic trafficking of the ferlin family. Studies of endosomal transit together with 3D-structured illumination microscopy reveals dysferlin and myoferlin are abundantly expressed at the PM and cycle to Rab7-positive late endosomes, supporting potential roles in the late-endosomal pathway. In contrast, Fer1L6 shows concentrated localization to a specific compartment of the trans-Golgi/recycling endosome, cycling rapidly between this compartment and the PM via Rab11 recycling endosomes. Otoferlin also shows trans-Golgi to PM cycling, with very low levels of PM otoferlin suggesting either brief PM residence, or rare incorporation of otoferlin molecules into the PM. Thus, type-I and type-II ferlins segregate as PM/late-endosomal or trans-Golgi/recycling ferlins, consistent with different ferlins mediating vesicle fusion events in specific subcellular locations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Hepatitis C virus is primed by CD81 protein for low pH-dependent fusion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nishi R; Mateu, Guaniri; Dreux, Marlene; Grakoui, Arash; Cosset, François-Loïc; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2011-09-02

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into permissive cells is a complex process that involves interactions with at least four co-factors followed by endocytosis and low pH-dependent fusion with endosomes. The precise sequence of receptor engagement and their roles in promoting HCV E1E2 glycoprotein-mediated fusion are poorly characterized. Because cell-free HCV tolerates an acidic environment, we hypothesized that binding to one or more receptors on the cell surface renders E1E2 competent to undergo low pH-induced conformational changes and promote fusion with endosomes. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of low pH and of the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of CD81, one of the four entry factors, on HCV infectivity. Pretreatment with an acidic buffer or with ECL2 enhanced infection through changing the E1E2 conformation, as evidenced by the altered reactivity of these proteins with conformation-specific antibodies and stable association with liposomes. However, neither of the two treatments alone permitted direct fusion with the cell plasma membrane. Sequential HCV preincubation with ECL2 and acidic buffer in the absence of target cells resulted in a marked loss of infectivity, implying that the receptor-bound HCV is primed for low pH-dependent conformational changes. Indeed, soluble receptor-pretreated HCV fused with the cell plasma membrane at low pH under conditions blocking an endocytic entry pathway. These findings suggest that CD81 primes HCV for low pH-dependent fusion early in the entry process. The simple triggering paradigm and intermediate conformations of E1E2 identified in this study could help guide future vaccine and therapeutic efforts to block HCV infection.

  5. GPCR sorting at multivesicular endosomes.

    PubMed

    Dores, Michael Robert; Trejo, JoAnn

    2015-01-01

    The lysosomal degradation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is essential for receptor signaling and down regulation. Once internalized, GPCRs are sorted within the endocytic pathway and packaged into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) that bud inward to form the multivesicular endosome (MVE). The mechanisms that control GPCR sorting and ILV formation are poorly understood. Quantitative strategies are important for evaluating the function of adaptor and scaffold proteins that regulate sorting of GPCRs at MVEs. In this chapter, we outline two strategies for the quantification and visualization of GPCR sorting into the lumen of MVEs. The first protocol utilizes a biochemical approach to assay the sorting of GPCRs in a population of cells, whereas the second strategy examines GPCR sorting in individual cells using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Combined, these assays can be used to establish the kinetics of activated GPCR lysosomal trafficking in response to specific ligands, as well as evaluate the contribution of endosomal adaptors to GPCR sorting at MVEs. The protocols presented in this chapter can be adapted to analyze GPCR sorting in a myriad of cell types and tissues, and expanded to analyze the mechanisms that regulate MVE sorting of other cargoes.

  6. Dynamics of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase in the contractile vacuole complex and the endosomal pathway of Dictyostelium cells.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Margaret; Köhler, Jana; Arana, Quyen; Liu, Tongyao; Heuser, John; Gerisch, Günther

    2002-07-15

    The vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a multi-subunit enzyme that plays important roles in eukaryotic cells. In Dictyostelium, it is found primarily in membranes of the contractile vacuole complex, where it energizes fluid accumulation by this osmoregulatory organelle and also in membranes of endolysosomes, where it serves to acidify the endosomal lumen. In the present study, a fusion was created between vatM, the gene encoding the 100 kDa transmembrane subunit of the V-ATPase, and the gene encoding Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). When expressed in Dictyostelium cells, this fusion protein, VatM-GFP, was correctly targeted to contractile vacuole and endolysosomal membranes and was competent to direct assembly of the V-ATPase enzyme complex. Protease treatment of isolated endosomes indicated that the GFP moiety, located on the C-terminus of VatM, was exposed to the cytoplasmic side of the endosomal membrane rather than to the lumenal side. VatM-GFP labeling of the contractile vacuole complex revealed clearly the dynamics of this pleiomorphic vesiculotubular organelle. VatM-GFP labeling of endosomes allowed direct visualization of the trafficking of vacuolar proton pumps in this pathway, which appeared to be entirely independent from the contractile vacuole membrane system. In cells whose endosomes were pre-labeled with TRITC-dextran and then fed yeast particles, VatM-GFP was delivered to newly formed yeast phagosomes with the same time course as TRITC-dextran, consistent with transfer via a direct fusion of endosomes with phagosomes. Several minutes were required before the intensity of the VatM-GFP labeling of new phagosomes reached the level observed in older phagosomes, suggesting that this fusion process was progressive and continuous. VatM-GFP was retrieved from the phagosome membrane prior to exocytosis of the indigestible remnants of the yeast particle. These data suggest that vacuolar proton pumps are recycled by fusion of advanced with newly formed

  7. Cell-free biosystems for biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    You, Chun; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2013-01-01

    Although cell-free biosystems have been used as a tool for investigating fundamental aspects of biological systems for more than 100 years, they are becoming an emerging biomanufacturing platform in the production of low-value biocommodities (e.g., H(2), ethanol, and isobutanol), fine chemicals, and high-value protein and carbohydrate drugs and their precursors. Here we would like to define the cell-free biosystems containing more than three catalytic components in a single reaction vessel, which although different from one-, two-, or three-enzyme biocatalysis can be regarded as a straightforward extension of multienzymatic biocatalysis. In this chapter, we compare the advantages and disadvantages of cell-free biosystems versus living organisms, briefly review the history of cell-free biosystems, highlight a few examples, analyze any remaining obstacles to the scale-up of cell-free biosystems, and suggest potential solutions. Cell-free biosystems could become a disruptive technology to microbial fermentation, especially in the production of high-impact low-value biocommodities mainly due to the very high product yields and potentially low production costs.

  8. Developmental strategies and regulation of cell-free enzyme system for ethanol production: a molecular prospective.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Ullah, Muhammad Wajid; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Khan, Shaukat; Kim, Minah; Kim, Yeji; Park, Joong Kon

    2014-12-01

    Most biomanufacturing systems developed for the production of biocommodities are based on whole-cell systems. However, with the advent of innovative technologies, the focus has shifted from whole-cell towards cell-free enzyme system. Since more than a century, researchers are using the cell-free extract containing the required enzymes and their respective cofactors in order to study the fundamental aspects of biological systems, particularly fermentation. Although yeast cell-free enzyme system is known since long ago, it is rarely been studied and characterized in detail. In this review, we hope to describe the major pitfalls encountered by whole-cell system and introduce possible solutions to them using cell-free enzyme systems. We have discussed the glycolytic and fermentative pathways and their regulation at both transcription and translational levels. Moreover, several strategies employed for development of cell-free enzyme system have been described with their potential merits and shortcomings associated with these developmental approaches. We also described in detail the various developmental approaches of synthetic cell-free enzyme system such as compartmentalization, metabolic channeling, protein fusion, and co-immobilization strategies. Additionally, we portrayed the novel cell-free enzyme technologies based on encapsulation and immobilization techniques and their development and commercialization. Through this review, we have presented the basics of cell-free enzyme system, the strategies involved in development and operation, and the advantages over conventional processes. Finally, we have addressed some potential directions for the future development and industrialization of cell-free enzyme system.

  9. STX13 regulates cargo delivery from recycling endosomes during melanosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jani, Riddhi Atul; Purushothaman, Latha Kallur; Rani, Shikha; Bergam, Ptissam; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi

    2015-09-01

    Melanosomes are a class of lysosome-related organelles produced by melanocytes. Biogenesis of melanosomes requires the transport of melanin-synthesizing enzymes from tubular recycling endosomes to maturing melanosomes. The SNARE proteins involved in these transport or fusion steps have been poorly studied. We found that depletion of syntaxin 13 (STX13, also known as STX12), a recycling endosomal Qa-SNARE, inhibits pigment granule maturation in melanocytes by rerouting the melanosomal proteins such as TYR and TYRP1 to lysosomes. Furthermore, live-cell imaging and electron microscopy studies showed that STX13 co-distributed with melanosomal cargo in the tubular-vesicular endosomes that are closely associated with the maturing melanosomes. STX family proteins contain an N-terminal regulatory domain, and deletion of this domain in STX13 increases both the SNARE activity in vivo and melanosome cargo transport and pigmentation, suggesting that STX13 acts as a fusion SNARE in melanosomal trafficking pathways. In addition, STX13-dependent cargo transport requires the melanosomal R-SNARE VAMP7, and its silencing blocks the melanosome maturation, reflecting a defect in endosome-melanosome fusion. Moreover, we show mutual dependency between STX13 and VAMP7 in regulating their localization for efficient cargo delivery to melanosomes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Endosome-lysosomes and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Mayer, R J; Tipler, C; Laszlo, L; Arnold, J; Lowe, J; Landon, M

    1994-01-01

    A number of the major human and animal neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and sheep scrapie, are characterised by deposits of amyloid, arising through incomplete breakdown of membrane proteins. Although our knowledge concerning these diseases is increasing, they remain largely untreatable. Recently, attention has focussed on the mechanisms of production of different types of amyloid and the likely involvement within cells of acid compartments called endosome-lysosomes. These organelles may be 'bioreactor' sites for the unfolding and partial degradation of membrane proteins to generate the amyloid materials. These subsequently become expelled from the cell, or are released from dead cells, and accumulate as pathological entities. Common features of the disease processes give new direction to therapeutic intervention.

  11. Actin-Dependent Propulsion of Endosomes and Lysosomes by Recruitment of N-Wasp✪

    PubMed Central

    Taunton, Jack; Rowning, Brian A.; Coughlin, Margaret L.; Wu, Michael; Moon, Randall T.; Mitchison, Timothy J.; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the spatial and temporal control of actin assembly in living Xenopus eggs. Within minutes of egg activation, dynamic actin-rich comet tails appeared on a subset of cytoplasmic vesicles that were enriched in protein kinase C (PKC), causing the vesicles to move through the cytoplasm. Actin comet tail formation in vivo was stimulated by the PKC activator phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and this process could be reconstituted in a cell-free system. We used this system to define the characteristics that distinguish vesicles associated with actin comet tails from other vesicles in the extract. We found that the protein, N-WASP, was recruited to the surface of every vesicle associated with an actin comet tail, suggesting that vesicle movement results from actin assembly nucleated by the Arp2/3 complex, the immediate downstream target of N-WASP. The motile vesicles accumulated the dye acridine orange, a marker for endosomes and lysosomes. Furthermore, vesicles associated with actin comet tails had the morphological features of multivesicular endosomes as revealed by electron microscopy. Endosomes and lysosomes from mammalian cells preferentially nucleated actin assembly and moved in the Xenopus egg extract system. These results define endosomes and lysosomes as recruitment sites for the actin nucleation machinery and demonstrate that actin assembly contributes to organelle movement. Conversely, by nucleating actin assembly, intracellular membranes may contribute to the dynamic organization of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:10662777

  12. Actin-dependent propulsion of endosomes and lysosomes byrecruitment of n-wasp

    SciTech Connect

    Taunton J; Rowning BA; Coughlin ML; Wu M; Moon RT; Mitchison TJ; Larabell CA

    2000-02-07

    We examined the spatial and temporal control of actin assembly in living Xenopus eggs. Within minutes of egg activation,dynamic actin-rich comet tails appeared on a subset of cytoplasmic vesicles that were enriched in protein kinase C (PKC), causing the vesicles to move through the cytoplasm. Actin comet tail formation in vivo was stimulated by the PKC activator phorbol myristate acetate (PMA),and this process could be reconstituted in a cell-free system. We used this system to define the characteristics that distinguish vesicles associated with actin comet tails from other vesicles in the extract. We found that the protein, N-WASP, was recruited to the surface of every vesicle associated with an actin comet tail, suggesting that vesicle movement results from actin assembly nucleated by the Arp2/3 complex, the immediate downstream target of N-WASP, The motile vesicles accumulated the dye acridine orange, a marker for endosomes and lysosomes. Furthermore, vesicles associated with actin comet tails had the morphological features of multivesicular endosomes as revealed by electron microscopy. Endosomes and lysosomes from mammalian cells preferentially nucleated actin assembly and moved in the Xenopus egg extract system. These results define endosomes and lysosomes as recruitment sites for the actin nucleation machinery and demonstrate that actin assembly contributes to organelle movement. Conversely, by nucleating actin assembly, intracellular membranes may contribute to the dynamic organization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum–endosome contact increases as endosomes traffic and mature

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Jonathan R.; DiBenedetto, Jared R.; West, Matthew; Rowland, Ashley A.; Voeltz, Gia K.

    2013-01-01

    The endosomal pathway is responsible for plasma membrane cargo uptake, sorting, and, in many cases, lysosome targeting. Endosome maturation is complex, requiring proper spatiotemporal recruitment of factors that regulate the size, maturity, and positioning of endosomal compartments. In animal cells, it also requires trafficking of endosomes on microtubules. Recent work has revealed the presence of contact sites between some endosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although these contact sites are believed to have multiple functions, the frequency, dynamics, and physical attributes of these contacts are poorly understood. Here we use high-resolution three-dimensional electron microscopy to reveal that ER tubules wrap around endosomes and find that both organelles contact microtubules at or near membrane contact sites. As endosomes traffic, they remain bound to the ER, which causes the tubular ER to rearrange its structure around dynamic endosomes at contact sites. Finally, as endosomes transition through steps of maturation, they become more tightly associated with the ER. The major implication of these results is that endosomes mature and traffic while coupled to the ER membrane rather than in isolation. PMID:23389631

  14. Cytoplasmic dynein and early endosome transport

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Xin; Qiu, Rongde; Yao, Xuanli; Arst, Herbert N.; Peñalva, Miguel A.; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Microtubule-based distribution of organelles/vesicles is crucial for the function of many types of eukaryotic cells and the molecular motor cytoplasmic dynein is required for transporting a variety of cellular cargos toward the microtubule minus ends. Early endosomes represent a major cargo of dynein in filamentous fungi, and dynein regulators such as LIS1 and the dynactin complex are both required for early endosome movement. In fungal hyphae, kinesin-3 and dynein drive bi-directional movements of early endosomes. Dynein accumulates at microtubule plus ends; this accumulation depends on kinesin-1 and dynactin, and it is important for early endosome movements towards the microtubule minus ends. The physical interaction between dynein and early endosome requires the dynactin complex, and in particular, its p25 component. The FTS-Hook-FHIP (FHF) complex links dynein-dynactin to early endosomes, and within the FHF complex, Hook interacts with dynein-dynactin, and Hook-early endosome interaction depends on FHIP and FTS. PMID:26001903

  15. Cell-free translation of biofuel enzymes.

    PubMed

    Takasuka, Taichi E; Walker, Johnnie A; Bergeman, Lai F; Vander Meulen, Kirk A; Makino, Shin-ichi; Elsen, Nathaniel L; Fox, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    In nature, bacteria and fungi are able to utilize recalcitrant plant materials by secreting a diverse set of enzymes. While genomic sequencing efforts offer exhaustive lists of genes annotated as potential polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, biochemical and functional characterizations of the encoded proteins are still needed to realize the full potential of this natural genomic diversity. This chapter outlines an application of wheat germ cell-free translation to the study of biofuel enzymes using genes from Clostridium thermocellum, a model cellulolytic organism. Since wheat germ extract lacks enzymatic activities that can hydrolyze insoluble polysaccharide substrates and is likewise devoid of enzymes that consume the soluble sugar products, the cell-free translation reactions provide a clean background for production and study of the reactions of biofuel enzymes. Examples of assays performed with individual enzymes or with small sets of enzymes obtained directly from cell-free translation are provided.

  16. Modulation of Endosomal Escape of IRQ-PEGylated Nano-carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudhakir, Diky; Akita, Hidetaka; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2011-12-01

    The novel IRQ peptide is one of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) that has ability to induce endosomal escape. It has been demonstrated that IRQ ligand had ability to facilitate an escape of liposomes encapsulating siRNA from the endosomes presumably by fusion-independent mechanism [1,2]. In the present study, we attempted to modulate the intracellular trafficking of IRQ-modified nano-carrier in term of escaping process by changing the lipid composition. The peptide was attached to the terminal end of maleimide group of polyethylene glycol-modified liposomes (IRQ-PEG-Lip). The liposomes were composed of DOTAP, DOPE and cholesterol and it was labeled by water soluble sulpho-rhodamine B (Sr-B). The escape of PEG-coated liposomes was then observed by confocal laser scanning microscope after the endosomes were stained with Lysosensor. The results exhibited that IRQ-PEG-Lip was escaped from endosomal compartment after 1 h transfection when 40% of DOPE was incorporated into the nanostructure comparing to that of PEG-Lip. These results are consistent with the previous results that the IRQ facilitates endosomal escape via independent-mechanism. However, IRQ-PEG-Lip were then completely co-localized in the acidic compartment when density of DOPE was reduced approximately 20%. These results indicated that the utilizing of DOPE is important for the escape process even in the presence of hydrophilic PEG polymer. In conclusion, the regulation of endosomal escape ability of the PEGylated-IRQ nano-carrier was induced by fusion-independent manner as well as fusogenic lipid.

  17. ER contact sites direct late endosome transport.

    PubMed

    Wijdeven, Ruud H; Jongsma, Marlieke L M; Neefjes, Jacques; Berlin, Ilana

    2015-12-01

    Endosomes shuttle select cargoes between cellular compartments and, in doing so, maintain intracellular homeostasis and enable interactions with the extracellular space. Directionality of endosomal transport critically impinges on cargo fate, as retrograde (microtubule minus-end directed) traffic delivers vesicle contents to the lysosome for proteolysis, while the opposing anterograde (plus-end directed) movement promotes recycling and secretion. Intriguingly, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is emerging as a key player in spatiotemporal control of late endosome and lysosome transport, through the establishment of physical contacts with these organelles. Earlier studies have described how minus-end-directed motor proteins become discharged from vesicles engaged at such contact sites. Now, Raiborg et al. implicate ER-mediated interactions, induced by protrudin, in loading plus-end-directed motor kinesin-1 onto endosomes, thereby stimulating their transport toward the cell's periphery. In this review, we recast the prevailing concepts on bidirectional late endosome transport and discuss the emerging paradigm of inter-compartmental regulation from the ER-endosome interface viewpoint. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Analysis of vesicle subpopulations carrying early endosomal autoantigen EEA1].

    PubMed

    Zlobina, M V; Kamentseva, R S; Kornilova, E S; Kharchenko, M V

    2014-01-01

    Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of interphase HeLa cells has demonstrated that involved in regulation of homotypic fusions early endosomal autoantigene EEA1 is associated with vesicles represented by two populations differing in apparent size, localization and the level of bound EEA1. Before analysis the cells have been preincubated in serum-deprived medium for 12 h to minimize ligand-dependent endocytosis of serum growth factors. The first subpopulation is mainly represented by large vesicles strongly decorated with EEA1. These vesicles are localized presumably in juxtanuclear region. Microtubule depolimerization experiments have shown that this localization is maintained by tubulin cytoskeleton. The second subpopulation consists of numerous small vesicles slightly stained by EEA1 antibody and localized more peripherally. Double indirect immunofluorescent ananlysis of fixed cell images has revealed that juxtanuclear vesicles enriched in EEA1 are fully colocalized with key protein of early endosomes small GTPase Rab5, whereas about 50% of slightly decorated peripheral vesicles are Rab5-negative. It is found that the number of Rab5-positive vesicles per cell is higher than that of EEA1-positive vesicles. Thus, in serum-deprivated HeLa cells with low endocytic activity two subpopulations of EEA1-vesicles are revealed: the first one carries the both EEA1 at high level and Rab5 (EEA1+++/Rab5+), and the second subpopulation oconsists of weakly decorated EEA1-vesicles, that can be both Rab5-positive and -negative (EEA1+/Rab5- and EEA1+/Rab5+). Besides, there are vesicles carrying Rab5 only (EEA1-/Rab5+). The data obtained favor different functional role of all these subpopulations, which are associated with proteins widely considered as equivalent markers of early endosomes.

  19. Structural determinants allowing endolysosomal sorting and degradation of endosomal GTPases.

    PubMed

    Valero, Ruth A; Oeste, Clara L; Stamatakis, Konstantinos; Ramos, Irene; Herrera, Mónica; Boya, Patricia; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2010-09-01

    Rapid control of protein degradation is usually achieved through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. We recently found that the short-lived GTPase RhoB is degraded in lysosomes. Moreover, the fusion of the RhoB C-terminal sequence CINCCKVL, containing the isoprenylation and palmitoylation sites, to other proteins directs their sorting into multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and rapid lysosomal degradation. Here, we show that this process is highly specific for RhoB. Alteration of late endosome lipid dynamics produced the accumulation of RhoB, but not of other endosomal GTPases, including Rab5, Rab7, Rab9 or Rab11, into enlarged MVB. Other isoprenylated and bipalmitoylated GTPases, such as H-Ras, Rap2A, Rap2B and TC10, were not accumulated into MVB and were stable. Remarkably, although TC10, which is highly homologous to RhoB, was stable, a sequence derived from its C-terminus (CINCCLIT) elicited MVB sorting and degradation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-chimeric protein. This led us to identify a cluster of basic amino acids (KKH) in the TC10 hypervariable region, constituting a secondary signal potentially involved in electrostatic interactions with membrane lipids. Mutation of this cluster allowed TC10 MVB sorting and degradation, whereas inserting it into RhoB hypervariable region rescued this protein from its lysosomal degradation pathway. These findings define a highly specific structural module for entering the MVB pathway and rapid lysosomal degradation.

  20. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  1. Proximity Labeling Reveals Molecular Determinants of FGFR4 Endosomal Transport.

    PubMed

    Haugsten, Ellen Margrethe; Sørensen, Vigdis; Kunova Bosakova, Michaela; de Souza, Gustavo Antonio; Krejci, Pavel; Wiedlocha, Antoni; Wesche, Jørgen

    2016-10-07

    The fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are important oncogenes promoting tumor progression in many types of cancer, such as breast, bladder, and lung cancer as well as multiple myeloma and rhabdomyosarcoma. However, little is known about how these receptors are internalized and down-regulated in cells. We have here applied proximity biotin labeling to identify proteins involved in FGFR4 signaling and trafficking. For this purpose we fused a mutated biotin ligase, BirA*, to the C-terminal tail of FGFR4 (FGFR4-BirA*) and the fusion protein was stably expressed in U2OS cells. Upon addition of biotin to these cells, proteins in proximity to the FGFR4-BirA* fusion protein became biotinylated and could be isolated and identified by quantitative mass spectrometry. We identified in total 291 proteins, including 80 proteins that were enriched in samples where the receptor was activated by the ligand (FGF1), among them several proteins previously found to be involved in FGFR signaling (e.g., FRS2, PLCγ, RSK2 and NCK2). Interestingly, many of the identified proteins were implicated in endosomal transport, and by precise annotation we were able to trace the intracellular pathways of activated FGFR4. Validating the data by confocal and three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy analysis, we concluded that FGFR4 uses clathrin-mediated endocytosis for internalization and is further sorted from early endosomes to the recycling compartment and the trans-Golgi network. Depletion of cells for clathrin heavy chain led to accumulation of FGFR4 at the cell surface and increased levels of active FGFR4 and PLCγ, while AKT and ERK signaling was diminished, demonstrating that functional clathrin-mediated endocytosis is required for proper FGFR4 signaling. Thus, this study reveals proteins and pathways involved in FGFR4 transport and signaling that provide possible targets and opportunities for therapeutic intervention in FGFR4 aberrant cancer.

  2. Harnessing the power of the endosome to regulate neural development

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Chan Choo; Winckler, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Endocytosis and endosomal trafficking play a multitude of roles in cellular function beyond regulating entry of essential nutrients. In this review, we discuss the cell biological principles of endosomal trafficking, the neuronal adaptations to endosomal organization, and the role of endosomal trafficking in neural development. In particular, we consider how cell fate decisions, polarity, migration, and axon outgrowth and guidance are influenced by five endosomal tricks: dynamic modulation of receptor levels by endocytosis and recycling, cargo-specific responses via cargo-specific endocytic regulators, cell type-specific endocytic regulation, ligand-specific endocytic regulation, and endosomal regulation of ligand processing and trafficking. PMID:22578496

  3. Endotoxin priming of neutrophils requires endocytosis and NADPH oxidase-dependent endosomal reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Fred S; Hook, Jessica S; Hilkin, Brieanna M; Huber, Jody N; Volk, A Paige Davis; Moreland, Jessica G

    2012-04-06

    NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical for neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)) microbicidal function. Nox2 also plays a role in intracellular signaling, but the site of oxidase assembly is unknown. It has been proposed to occur on secondary granules. We previously demonstrated that intracellular NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production is required for endotoxin priming. We hypothesized that endotoxin drives Nox2 assembly on endosomes. Endotoxin induced ROS generation within an endosomal compartment as quantified by flow cytometry (dihydrorhodamine 123 and Oxyburst Green). Inhibition of endocytosis by the dynamin-II inhibitor Dynasore blocked endocytosis of dextran, intracellular generation of ROS, and priming of PMN by endotoxin. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a ROS-containing endosomal compartment that co-labeled with gp91(phox), p40(phox), p67(phox), and Rab5, but not with the secondary granule marker CD66b. To further characterize this compartment, PMNs were fractionated by nitrogen cavitation and differential centrifugation, followed by free flow electrophoresis. Specific subfractions made superoxide in the presence of NADPH by cell-free assay (cytochrome c). Subfraction content of membrane and cytosolic subunits of Nox2 correlated with ROS production. Following priming, there was a shift in the light membrane subfractions where ROS production was highest. CD66b was not mobilized from the secondary granule compartment. These data demonstrate a novel, nonphagosomal intracellular site for Nox2 assembly. This compartment is endocytic in origin and is required for PMN priming by endotoxin.

  4. Recycling Endosomes Supply AMPA Receptors for LTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Mikyoung; Penick, Esther C.; Edwards, Jeffrey G.; Kauer, Julie A.; Ehlers, Michael D.

    2004-09-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength, the most established cellular model of information storage in the brain, is expressed by an increase in the number of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. However, the source of AMPA receptors mobilized during LTP is unknown. We report that AMPA receptors are transported from recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane for LTP. Stimuli that triggered LTP promoted not only AMPA receptor insertion but also generalized recycling of cargo and membrane from endocytic compartments. Thus, recycling endosomes supply AMPA receptors for LTP and provide a mechanistic link between synaptic potentiation and membrane remodeling during synapse modification.

  5. Cooperative endocytosis of the endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1.

    PubMed

    Renigunta, Vijay; Fischer, Thomas; Zuzarte, Marylou; Kling, Stefan; Zou, Xinle; Siebert, Kai; Limberg, Maren M; Rinné, Susanne; Decher, Niels; Schlichthörl, Günter; Daut, Jürgen

    2014-06-15

    The endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 interacts with the acid-sensitive potassium channel TASK-1. The functional relevance of this interaction was studied by heterologous expression of these proteins (and mutants thereof) in Xenopus oocytes and in mammalian cell lines. Coexpression of syntaxin-8 caused a fourfold reduction in TASK-1 current, a corresponding reduction in the expression of TASK-1 at the cell surface, and a marked increase in the rate of endocytosis of the channel. TASK-1 and syntaxin-8 colocalized in the early endosomal compartment, as indicated by the endosomal markers 2xFYVE and rab5. The stimulatory effect of the SNARE protein on the endocytosis of the channel was abolished when both an endocytosis signal in TASK-1 and an endocytosis signal in syntaxin-8 were mutated. A syntaxin-8 mutant that cannot assemble with other SNARE proteins had virtually the same effect as wild-type syntaxin-8. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed formation and endocytosis of vesicles containing fluorescence-tagged clathrin, TASK-1, and/or syntaxin-8. Our results suggest that the unassembled form of syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1 are internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a cooperative manner. This implies that syntaxin-8 regulates the endocytosis of TASK-1. Our study supports the idea that endosomal SNARE proteins can have functions unrelated to membrane fusion.

  6. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus entry mechanism requires late endosome formation and resists cell membrane cholesterol depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Kolokoltsov, Andrey A.; Fleming, Elisa H.; Davey, Robert A. . E-mail: radavey@utmb.edu

    2006-04-10

    Virus envelope proteins determine receptor utilization and host range. The choice of receptor not only permits specific targeting of cells that express it, but also directs the virus into specific endosomal trafficking pathways. Disrupting trafficking can result in loss of virus infectivity due to redirection of virions to non-productive pathways. Identification of the pathway or pathways used by a virus is, thus, important in understanding virus pathogenesis mechanisms and for developing new treatment strategies. Most of our understanding of alphavirus entry has focused on the Old World alphaviruses, such as Sindbis and Semliki Forest virus. In comparison, very little is known about the entry route taken by more pathogenic New World alphaviruses. Here, we use a novel contents mixing assay to identify the cellular requirements for entry of a New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Expression of dominant negative forms of key endosomal trafficking genes shows that VEEV must access clathrin-dependent endocytic vesicles for membrane fusion to occur. Unexpectedly, the exit point is different from Old World alphaviruses that leave from early endosomes. Instead, VEEV also requires functional late endosomes. Furthermore, unlike the Old World viruses, VEEV entry is insensitive to cholesterol sequestration from cell membranes and may reflect a need to access an endocytic compartment that lacks cholesterol. This indicates fundamental differences in the entry route taken by VEEV compared to Old World alphaviruses.

  7. Cooperative endocytosis of the endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1

    PubMed Central

    Renigunta, Vijay; Fischer, Thomas; Zuzarte, Marylou; Kling, Stefan; Zou, Xinle; Siebert, Kai; Limberg, Maren M.; Rinné, Susanne; Decher, Niels; Schlichthörl, Günter; Daut, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 interacts with the acid-sensitive potassium channel TASK-1. The functional relevance of this interaction was studied by heterologous expression of these proteins (and mutants thereof) in Xenopus oocytes and in mammalian cell lines. Coexpression of syntaxin-8 caused a fourfold reduction in TASK-1 current, a corresponding reduction in the expression of TASK-1 at the cell surface, and a marked increase in the rate of endocytosis of the channel. TASK-1 and syntaxin-8 colocalized in the early endosomal compartment, as indicated by the endosomal markers 2xFYVE and rab5. The stimulatory effect of the SNARE protein on the endocytosis of the channel was abolished when both an endocytosis signal in TASK-1 and an endocytosis signal in syntaxin-8 were mutated. A syntaxin-8 mutant that cannot assemble with other SNARE proteins had virtually the same effect as wild-type syntaxin-8. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed formation and endocytosis of vesicles containing fluorescence-tagged clathrin, TASK-1, and/or syntaxin-8. Our results suggest that the unassembled form of syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1 are internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a cooperative manner. This implies that syntaxin-8 regulates the endocytosis of TASK-1. Our study supports the idea that endosomal SNARE proteins can have functions unrelated to membrane fusion. PMID:24743596

  8. Clinical Isolates of Human Coronavirus 229E Bypass the Endosome for Cell Entry.

    PubMed

    Shirato, Kazuya; Kanou, Kazuhiko; Kawase, Miyuki; Matsuyama, Shutoku

    2017-01-01

    Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), a causative agent of the common cold, enters host cells via two distinct pathways: one is mediated by cell surface proteases, particularly transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and the other by endosomal cathepsin L. Thus, specific inhibitors of these proteases block virus infection. However, it is unclear which of these pathways is actually utilized by HCoV-229E in the human respiratory tract. Here, we examined the mechanism of cell entry used by a pseudotyped virus bearing the HCoV-229E spike (S) protein in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors. We found that, compared with a laboratory strain isolated in 1966 and passaged for a half century, clinical isolates of HCoV-229E were less likely to utilize cathepsin L; rather, they showed a preference for TMPRSS2. Two amino acid substitutions (R642M and N714K) in the S protein of HCoV-229E clinical isolates altered their sensitivity to a cathepsin L inhibitor, suggesting that these amino acids were responsible for cathepsin L use. After 20 passages in HeLa cells, the ability of the isolate to use cathepsin increased so that it was equal to that of the laboratory strain; this increase was caused by an amino acid substitution (I577S) in the S protein. The passaged virus showed a reduced ability to replicate in differentiated airway epithelial cells cultured at an air-liquid interface. These results suggest that the endosomal pathway is disadvantageous for HCoV-229E infection of human airway epithelial cells; therefore, clinical isolates are less able to use cathepsin. Many enveloped viruses enter cells through endocytosis. Viral spike proteins drive the fusion of viral and endosomal membranes to facilitate insertion of the viral genome into the cytoplasm. Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) utilizes endosomal cathepsin L to activate the spike protein after receptor binding. Here, we found that clinical isolates of HCoV-229E preferentially utilize the cell surface protease

  9. Distinct effects of endosomal escape and inhibition of endosomal trafficking on gene delivery via electrotransfection.

    PubMed

    Cervia, Lisa D; Chang, Chun-Chi; Wang, Liangli; Yuan, Fan

    2017-01-01

    A recent theory suggests that endocytosis is involved in uptake and intracellular transport of electrotransfected plasmid DNA (pDNA). The goal of the current study was to understand if approaches used previously to improve endocytosis of gene delivery vectors could be applied to enhancing electrotransfection efficiency (eTE). Results from the study showed that photochemically induced endosomal escape, which could increase poly-L-lysine (PLL)-mediated gene delivery, decreased eTE. The decrease could not be blocked by treatment of cells with endonuclease inhibitors (aurintricarboxylic acid and zinc ion) or antioxidants (L-glutamine and ascorbic acid). Chemical treatment of cells with an endosomal trafficking inhibitor that blocks endosome progression, bafilomycin A1, resulted in a significant decrease in eTE. However, treatment of cells with lysosomotropic agents (chloroquine and ammonium chloride) had little effects on eTE. These data suggested that endosomes played important roles in protecting and intracellular trafficking of electrotransfected pDNA.

  10. Heterologous and cell free protein expression systems.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Naser; Hrmova, Maria; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2009-01-01

    In recognition of the fact that a relatively small percentage of 'named' genes in databases have any experimental proof for their annotation, attention is shifting towards the more accurate assignment of functions to individual genes in a genome. The central objective will be to reduce our reliance on nucleotide or amino acid sequence similarities as a means to define the functions of genes and to annotate genome sequences. There are many unsolved technical difficulties associated with the purification of specific proteins from extracts of biological material, especially where the protein is present in low abundance, has multiple isoforms or is found in multiple post-translationally modified forms. The relative ease with which cDNAs can be cloned has led to the development of methods through which cDNAs from essentially any source can be expressed in a limited range of suitable host organisms, so that sufficient levels of the encoded proteins can be generated for functional analysis. Recently, these heterologous expression systems have been supplemented by more robust prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell-free protein synthesis systems. In this chapter, common host systems for heterologous expression are reviewed and the current status of cell-free expression systems will be presented. New approaches to overcoming the special problems encountered during the expression of membrane-associated proteins will also be addressed. Methodological considerations, including the characteristics of codon usage in the expressed DNA, peptide tags that facilitate subsequent purification of the expressed proteins and the role of post-translational modifications, are examined.

  11. Automated production of functional membrane proteins using eukaryotic cell-free translation systems.

    PubMed

    Quast, Robert B; Kortt, Oliver; Henkel, Jörg; Dondapati, Srujan K; Wüstenhagen, Doreen A; Stech, Marlitt; Kubick, Stefan

    2015-06-10

    Due to their high abundance and pharmacological relevance there is a growing demand for the efficient production of functional membrane proteins. In this context, cell-free protein synthesis represents a valuable alternative that allows for the high-throughput synthesis of functional membrane proteins. Here, we demonstrate the potential of our cell-free protein synthesis system, based on lysates from cultured Spodoptera frugiperda 21 cells, to produce pro- and eukaryotic membrane proteins with individual topological characteristics in an automated fashion. Analytical techniques, including confocal laser scanning microscopy, fluorescence detection of eYFP fusion proteins in a microplate reader and in-gel fluorescence of statistically incorporated fluorescent amino acid derivatives were employed. The reproducibility of our automated synthesis approach is underlined by coefficients of variation below 7.2%. Moreover, the functionality of the cell-free synthesized potassium channel KcsA was analyzed electrophysiologically. Finally, we expanded our cell-free membrane protein synthesis system by an orthogonal tRNA/synthetase pair for the site-directed incorporation of p-Azido-l-phenylalanine based on stop codon suppression. Incorporation was optimized by performance of a two-dimensional screening with different Mg(2+) and lysate concentrations. Subsequently, the selective modification of membrane proteins with incorporated p-Azido-l-phenylalanine was exemplified by Staudinger ligation with a phosphine-based fluorescence dye. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Phagosome maturation during endosome interaction revealed by partial rhodopsin processing in retinal pigment epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Wavre-Shapton, Silène T.; Meschede, Ingrid P.; Seabra, Miguel C.; Futter, Clare E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Defects in phagocytosis and degradation of photoreceptor outer segments (POS) by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are associated with aging and retinal disease. The daily burst of rod outer segment (ROS) phagocytosis by the RPE provides a unique opportunity to analyse phagosome processing in vivo. In mouse retinae, phagosomes containing stacked rhodopsin-rich discs were identified by immuno-electron microscopy. Early apical phagosomes stained with antibodies against both cytoplasmic and intradiscal domains of rhodopsin. During phagosome maturation, a remarkably synchronised loss of the cytoplasmic epitope coincided with movement to the cell body and preceded phagosome–lysosome fusion and disc degradation. Loss of the intradiscal rhodopsin epitope and disc digestion occurred upon fusion with cathepsin-D-positive lysosomes. The same sequential stages of phagosome maturation were identified in cultured RPE and macrophages challenged with isolated POS. Loss of the cytoplasmic rhodopsin epitope was insensitive to pH but sensitive to protease inhibition and coincided with the interaction of phagosomes with endosomes. Thus, during pre-lysosomal maturation of ROS-containing phagosomes, limited rhodopsin processing occurs upon interaction with endosomes. This potentially provides a sensitive readout of phagosome–endosome interactions that is applicable to multiple phagocytes. PMID:25074813

  13. Fluorescent In Situ Folding Control for Rapid Optimization of Cell-Free Membrane Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Lucks, Annika; Bock, Sinja; Wu, Binghua; Beitz, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Cell-free synthesis is an open and powerful tool for high-yield protein production in small reaction volumes predestined for high-throughput structural and functional analysis. Membrane proteins require addition of detergents for solubilization, liposomes, or nanodiscs. Hence, the number of parameters to be tested is significantly higher than with soluble proteins. Optimization is commonly done with respect to protein yield, yet without knowledge of the protein folding status. This approach contains a large inherent risk of ending up with non-functional protein. We show that fluorophore formation in C-terminal fusions with green fluorescent protein (GFP) indicates the folding state of a membrane protein in situ, i.e. within the cell-free reaction mixture, as confirmed by circular dichroism (CD), proteoliposome reconstitution and functional assays. Quantification of protein yield and in-gel fluorescence intensity imply suitability of the method for membrane proteins of bacterial, protozoan, plant, and mammalian origin, representing vacuolar and plasma membrane localization, as well as intra- and extracellular positioning of the C-terminus. We conclude that GFP-fusions provide an extension to cell-free protein synthesis systems eliminating the need for experimental folding control and, thus, enabling rapid optimization towards membrane protein quality. PMID:22848743

  14. Viral membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Stephen C

    2015-05-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a "fusion loop" or "fusion peptide") engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell-Free Fetal DNA and Cell-Free Total DNA Levels in Spontaneous Abortion with Fetal Chromosomal Aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji Hyae; Kim, Min Hyoung; Han, You Jung; Lee, Da Eun; Park, So Yeon; Han, Jung Yeol; Kim, Moon Young; Ryu, Hyun Mee

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in maternal circulation have been proposed as potential markers for noninvasive monitoring of the placental condition during the pregnancy. However, the correlation of and change in cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in spontaneous abortion (SA) with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy have not yet been reported. Therefore, we investigated cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. Methodology/Principal Findings A nested case-control study was conducted with maternal plasma collected from 268 women in their first trimester of pregnancy. Subjects included 41 SA with normal fetal karyotype, 26 SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy, and 201 normal controls. The unmethylated PDE9A gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free fetal DNA. The GAPDH gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free total DNA. The diagnostic accuracy was measured using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were significantly higher in both SA women with normal fetal karyotype and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy in comparison with the normal controls (P<0.001 in both). The correlation between cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels was stronger in the normal controls (r = 0.843, P<0.001) than in SA women with normal karyotype (r = 0.465, P = 0.002) and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy (r = 0.412, P = 0.037). The area under the ROC curve for cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA was 0.898 (95% CI, 0.852–0.945) and 0.939 (95% CI, 0.903–0.975), respectively. Conclusions Significantly high levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were found in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. Our findings suggest that cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA may be useful biomarkers for the prediction of SA with fetal

  16. Cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels in spontaneous abortion with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji Hyae; Kim, Min Hyoung; Han, You Jung; Lee, Da Eun; Park, So Yeon; Han, Jung Yeol; Kim, Moon Young; Ryu, Hyun Mee

    2013-01-01

    Cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in maternal circulation have been proposed as potential markers for noninvasive monitoring of the placental condition during the pregnancy. However, the correlation of and change in cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in spontaneous abortion (SA) with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy have not yet been reported. Therefore, we investigated cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. A nested case-control study was conducted with maternal plasma collected from 268 women in their first trimester of pregnancy. Subjects included 41 SA with normal fetal karyotype, 26 SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy, and 201 normal controls. The unmethylated PDE9A gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free fetal DNA. The GAPDH gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free total DNA. The diagnostic accuracy was measured using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were significantly higher in both SA women with normal fetal karyotype and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy in comparison with the normal controls (P<0.001 in both). The correlation between cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels was stronger in the normal controls (r = 0.843, P<0.001) than in SA women with normal karyotype (r = 0.465, P = 0.002) and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy (r = 0.412, P = 0.037). The area under the ROC curve for cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA was 0.898 (95% CI, 0.852-0.945) and 0.939 (95% CI, 0.903-0.975), respectively. Significantly high levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were found in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. Our findings suggest that cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA may be useful biomarkers for the prediction of SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy, regardless of fetal gender.

  17. Internalization of the TGF-β type I receptor into caveolin-1 and EEA1 double-positive early endosomes.

    PubMed

    He, Kangmin; Yan, Xiaohua; Li, Nan; Dang, Song; Xu, Li; Zhao, Bing; Li, Zijian; Lv, Zhizhen; Fang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Youyi; Chen, Ye-Guang

    2015-06-01

    Endocytosis and intracellular sorting of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptors play an important regulatory role in TGF-β signaling. Two major endocytic pathways, clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, have been reported to independently mediate the internalization of TGF-β receptors. In this study, we demonstrate that the clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytic pathways can converge during TGF-β receptor endocytic trafficking. By tracking the intracellular dynamics of fluorescently-labeled TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI), we found that after mediating TβRI internalization, certain clathrin-coated vesicles and caveolar vesicles are fused underneath the plasma membrane, forming a novel type of caveolin-1 and clathrin double-positive vesicles. Under the regulation of Rab5, the fused vesicles are targeted to early endosomes and thus deliver the internalized TβRI to the caveolin-1 and EEA1 double-positive early endosomes (caveolin-1-positive early endosomes). We further showed that the caveolin-1-positive early endosomes are positive for Smad3/SARA, Rab11 and Smad7/Smurf2, and may act as a multifunctional device for TGF-β signaling and TGF-β receptor recycling and degradation. Therefore, these findings uncover a novel scenario of endocytosis, the direct fusion of clathrin-coated and caveolae vesicles during TGF-β receptor endocytic trafficking, which leads to the formation of the multifunctional sorting device, caveolin-1-positive early endosomes, for TGF-β receptors.

  18. Internalization of the TGF-β type I receptor into caveolin-1 and EEA1 double-positive early endosomes

    PubMed Central

    He, Kangmin; Yan, Xiaohua; Li, Nan; Dang, Song; Xu, Li; Zhao, Bing; Li, Zijian; Lv, Zhizhen; Fang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Youyi; Chen, Ye-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis and intracellular sorting of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptors play an important regulatory role in TGF-β signaling. Two major endocytic pathways, clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, have been reported to independently mediate the internalization of TGF-β receptors. In this study, we demonstrate that the clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytic pathways can converge during TGF-β receptor endocytic trafficking. By tracking the intracellular dynamics of fluorescently-labeled TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI), we found that after mediating TβRI internalization, certain clathrin-coated vesicles and caveolar vesicles are fused underneath the plasma membrane, forming a novel type of caveolin-1 and clathrin double-positive vesicles. Under the regulation of Rab5, the fused vesicles are targeted to early endosomes and thus deliver the internalized TβRI to the caveolin-1 and EEA1 double-positive early endosomes (caveolin-1-positive early endosomes). We further showed that the caveolin-1-positive early endosomes are positive for Smad3/SARA, Rab11 and Smad7/Smurf2, and may act as a multifunctional device for TGF-β signaling and TGF-β receptor recycling and degradation. Therefore, these findings uncover a novel scenario of endocytosis, the direct fusion of clathrin-coated and caveolae vesicles during TGF-β receptor endocytic trafficking, which leads to the formation of the multifunctional sorting device, caveolin-1-positive early endosomes, for TGF-β receptors. PMID:25998683

  19. The novel endosomal membrane protein Ema interacts with the class C Vps-HOPS complex to promote endosomal maturation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungsu; Wairkar, Yogesh P; Daniels, Richard W; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2010-03-08

    Endosomal maturation is critical for accurate and efficient cargo transport through endosomal compartments. Here we identify a mutation of the novel Drosophila gene, ema (endosomal maturation defective) in a screen for abnormal synaptic overgrowth and defective protein trafficking. Ema is an endosomal membrane protein required for trafficking of fluid-phase and receptor-mediated endocytic cargos. In the ema mutant, enlarged endosomal compartments accumulate as endosomal maturation fails, with early and late endosomes unable to progress into mature degradative late endosomes and lysosomes. Defective endosomal down-regulation of BMP signaling is responsible for the abnormal synaptic overgrowth. Ema binds to and genetically interacts with Vps16A, a component of the class C Vps-HOPS complex that promotes endosomal maturation. The human orthologue of ema, Clec16A, is a candidate susceptibility locus for autoimmune disorders, and its expression rescues the Drosophila mutant demonstrating conserved function. Characterizing this novel gene family identifies a new component of the endosomal pathway and provides insights into class C Vps-HOPS complex function.

  20. Conformational biosensors reveal GPCR signalling from endosomes.

    PubMed

    Irannejad, Roshanak; Tomshine, Jin C; Tomshine, Jon R; Chevalier, Michael; Mahoney, Jacob P; Steyaert, Jan; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Sunahara, Roger K; El-Samad, Hana; Huang, Bo; von Zastrow, Mark

    2013-03-28

    A long-held tenet of molecular pharmacology is that canonical signal transduction mediated by G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) coupling to heterotrimeric G proteins is confined to the plasma membrane. Evidence supporting this traditional view is based on analytical methods that provide limited or no subcellular resolution. It has been subsequently proposed that signalling by internalized GPCRs is restricted to G-protein-independent mechanisms such as scaffolding by arrestins, or GPCR activation elicits a discrete form of persistent G protein signalling, or that internalized GPCRs can indeed contribute to the acute G-protein-mediated response. Evidence supporting these various latter hypotheses is indirect or subject to alternative interpretation, and it remains unknown if endosome-localized GPCRs are even present in an active form. Here we describe the application of conformation-specific single-domain antibodies (nanobodies) to directly probe activation of the β2-adrenoceptor, a prototypical GPCR, and its cognate G protein, Gs (ref. 12), in living mammalian cells. We show that the adrenergic agonist isoprenaline promotes receptor and G protein activation in the plasma membrane as expected, but also in the early endosome membrane, and that internalized receptors contribute to the overall cellular cyclic AMP response within several minutes after agonist application. These findings provide direct support for the hypothesis that canonical GPCR signalling occurs from endosomes as well as the plasma membrane, and suggest a versatile strategy for probing dynamic conformational change in vivo.

  1. The conserved SNARE SEC-22 localizes to late endosomes and negatively regulates RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yani; Holmgren, Benjamin T.

    2017-01-01

    Small RNA pathways, including RNA interference (RNAi), play crucial roles in regulation of gene expression. Initially considered to be cytoplasmic, these processes have later been demonstrated to associate with membranes. For example, maturation of late endosomes/multivesicular bodies (MVBs) is required for efficient RNAi, whereas fusion of MVBs to lysosomes appears to reduce silencing efficiency. SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) mediate membrane fusion and are thus at the core of membrane trafficking. In spite of this, no SNARE has previously been reported to affect RNAi. Here, we demonstrate that in Caenorhabditis elegans, loss of the conserved SNARE SEC-22 results in enhanced RNAi upon ingestion of double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, SEC-22 overexpression inhibits RNAi in wild-type animals. We find that overexpression of SEC-22 in the target tissue (body wall muscle) strongly suppresses the sec-22(−) enhanced RNAi phenotype, supporting a primary role for SEC-22 in import of RNAi silencing signals or cell autonomous RNAi. A functional mCherry::SEC-22 protein localizes primarily to late endosomes/MVBs and these compartments are enlarged in animals lacking sec-22. SEC-22 interacts with late endosome-associated RNA transport protein SID-5 in a yeast two-hybrid assay and functions in a sid-5-dependent manner. Taken together, our data indicate that SEC-22 reduces RNAi efficiency by affecting late endosome/MVB function, for example, by promoting fusion between late endosomes/MVBs and lysosomes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a SNARE with a function in small RNA-mediated gene silencing. PMID:27974622

  2. The conserved SNARE SEC-22 localizes to late endosomes and negatively regulates RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yani; Holmgren, Benjamin T; Hinas, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Small RNA pathways, including RNA interference (RNAi), play crucial roles in regulation of gene expression. Initially considered to be cytoplasmic, these processes have later been demonstrated to associate with membranes. For example, maturation of late endosomes/multivesicular bodies (MVBs) is required for efficient RNAi, whereas fusion of MVBs to lysosomes appears to reduce silencing efficiency. SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) mediate membrane fusion and are thus at the core of membrane trafficking. In spite of this, no SNARE has previously been reported to affect RNAi. Here, we demonstrate that in Caenorhabditis elegans, loss of the conserved SNARE SEC-22 results in enhanced RNAi upon ingestion of double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, SEC-22 overexpression inhibits RNAi in wild-type animals. We find that overexpression of SEC-22 in the target tissue (body wall muscle) strongly suppresses the sec-22(-) enhanced RNAi phenotype, supporting a primary role for SEC-22 in import of RNAi silencing signals or cell autonomous RNAi. A functional mCherry::SEC-22 protein localizes primarily to late endosomes/MVBs and these compartments are enlarged in animals lacking sec-22 SEC-22 interacts with late endosome-associated RNA transport protein SID-5 in a yeast two-hybrid assay and functions in a sid-5-dependent manner. Taken together, our data indicate that SEC-22 reduces RNAi efficiency by affecting late endosome/MVB function, for example, by promoting fusion between late endosomes/MVBs and lysosomes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a SNARE with a function in small RNA-mediated gene silencing.

  3. Cell-free protein synthesis: applications in proteomics and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    He, Mingyue

    2008-01-01

    Protein production is one of the key steps in biotechnology and functional proteomics. Expression of proteins in heterologous hosts (such as in E. coli) is generally lengthy and costly. Cell-free protein synthesis is thus emerging as an attractive alternative. In addition to the simplicity and speed for protein production, cell-free expression allows generation of functional proteins that are difficult to produce by in vivo systems. Recent exploitation of cell-free systems enables novel development of technologies for rapid discovery of proteins with desirable properties from very large libraries. This article reviews the recent development in cell-free systems and their application in the large scale protein analysis.

  4. Altered Endosome Biogenesis in Prostate Cancer has Biomarker Potential

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ian R D; Parkinson-Lawrence, Emma J; Shandala, Tetyana; Weigert, Roberto; Butler, Lisa M; Brooks, Doug A

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common form of cancer in males, affecting one in eight men by the time they reach the age of 70. Current diagnostic tests for prostate cancer have significant problems with both false negatives and false positives, necessitating the search for new molecular markers. A recent investigation of endosomal and lysosomal proteins revealed that the critical process of endosomal biogenesis might be altered in prostate cancer. Here, a panel of endosomal markers was evaluated in prostate cancer and non-malignant cells and a significant increase in gene and protein expression was found for early, but not late endosomal proteins. There was also a differential distribution of early endosomes, and altered endosomal traffic and signalling of the transferrin receptors (TFRC and TFR2) in prostate cancer cells. These findings support the concept that endosome biogenesis and function is altered in prostate cancer. Microarray analysis of a clinical cohort confirmed the altered endosomal gene expression observed in cultured prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, in prostate cancer patient tissue specimens, the early endosomal marker and adaptor protein APPL1 showed consistently altered basement membrane histology in the vicinity of tumours and concentrated staining within tumour masses. These novel observations on altered early endosome biogenesis provide a new avenue for prostate cancer biomarker investigation and suggest new methods for the early diagnosis and accurate prognosis of prostate cancer. PMID:25080433

  5. Effects of Endosomal Photodamage on Membrane Recycling and Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, David; Santiago, Ann Marie; Andrzejak, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The flux of receptor-independent endocytosis can be estimated by addition of wortmannin to cell cultures. Membrane influx is unaffected but traffic out of late endosomes is impaired, resulting in a substantial enlargement of these organelles. Using the 1c1c7 murine hepatoma, we investigated the effect of endosomal photodamage on this endocytic pathway. We previously reported that photodamage catalyzed by the lysosomal photosensitizer NPe6 prevented wortmannin-induced endosomal swelling, indicating an earlier block in the process. In this study, we show that endosomal photodamage, initiated by photodamage from an asymmetrically-substituted porphine or a phthalocyanine, also prevents wortmannin-induced endosomal swelling, even when the PDT dose is insufficient to cause endosomal disruption. As the PDT dose is increased, endosomal breakage occurs, as does apoptosis and cell death. Very high PDT doses result in necrosis. We propose that photodamage to endosomes results in alterations in the endosomal structure such that influx of new material is inhibited and receptor-independent endocytosis is prevented. In an additional series of studies, we found that the swollen late endosomes induced by wortmannin are unable to retain previously accumulated fluorescent probes or photosensitizers. PMID:21208213

  6. Plant RNA processing: soybean pre-mRNA in a pea cell-free extract

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, M.A.; Hanley, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    Using a pea cell-free extract they have demonstrated the splicing of an SP6 fusion transcript containing an intron derived from the soybean seed storage protein ..beta..-subunit gene. Intron 115 from the conglycinin gene was cloned into a SP6 vector and transcribed using standard recombinant DNA techniques. Incubation of radioactively labeled fusion transcripts in the cell-free system produced a number of products which were identified by primer extension and S1 nuclease analysis. All the products are linear RNA molecules. Lariat intermediates, similar to those found in the yeast and HeLa cell RNA processing systems, have not been detected. The linear RNA products detected in their plant in vitro processing system have various portions of the intron removed which suggests that alternative splice sites are used in processing of this plant intron due to activation of cryptic splice sites or creation of splice sites in the fusion construction. The kinetics of the reactions and parameters of the extract are similar to those determined for the HeLa cell system. Sucrose gradient analysis has demonstrated that the plant RNA products sedimented in a 30S particle, similar in size to that found for the spliceosome of the HeLa cell system.

  7. Translation in cell-free systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jagus, R.

    1987-01-01

    The simplest, unambiguous identification of a particular mRNA is the identification of its protein product. This can be established by translation of the mRNA of interest in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system. Messenger RNA protein product identification is important in the isolation of a particular mRNA species for cDNA cloning and in the identification of positive cDNA clones. The two high-activity translation systems in common use are those prepared from rabbit reticulocytes and from wheat germ. Both systems are easy to prepare, and both are available commercially. Each has advantages and disadvantages over the other and a choice between the two will depend on the type of mRNAs to be translated, the prejudices of experience, and availability. The main disadvantage of the reticulocyte system is that it requires removal of endogenous mRNA. However, this is a relatively simple procedure. The wheat germ system does not require removal of endogenous mRNA and may translate weakly initiating mRNAs more efficiently. However, ionic optima for translation in the wheat germ system are more sensitive to the nature and concentration of mRNA and may need to be determined for each template. The biggest problem with the use of the wheat germ system is its tendency to produce incomplete translation products due to premature termination.

  8. Cathepsin W Is Required for Escape of Influenza A Virus from Late Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Edinger, Thomas O.; Pohl, Marie O.; Yángüez, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human cathepsin W (CtsW) is a cysteine protease, which was identified in a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen to be required for influenza A virus (IAV) replication. In this study, we show that reducing the levels of expression of CtsW reduces viral titers for different subtypes of IAV, and we map the target step of CtsW requirement to viral entry. Using a set of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting CtsW, we demonstrate that knockdown of CtsW results in a decrease of IAV nucleoprotein accumulation in the nuclei of infected cells at 3 h postinfection. Assays specific for the individual stages of IAV entry further show that attachment, internalization, and early endosomal trafficking are not affected by CtsW knockdown. However, we detected impaired escape of viral particles from late endosomes in CtsW knockdown cells. Moreover, fusion analysis with a dual-labeled influenza virus revealed a significant reduction in fusion events, with no detectable impact on endosomal pH, suggesting that CtsW is required at the stage of viral fusion. The defect in IAV entry upon CtsW knockdown could be rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type CtsW but not by the expression of a catalytically inactive mutant of CtsW, suggesting that the proteolytic activity of CtsW is required for successful entry of IAV. Our results establish CtsW as an important host factor for entry of IAV into target cells and suggest that CtsW could be a promising target for the development of future antiviral drugs. PMID:26060270

  9. Probing cell-free gene expression noise in femtoliter volumes.

    PubMed

    Karig, David K; Jung, Seung-Yong; Srijanto, Bernadeta; Collier, C Patrick; Simpson, Michael L

    2013-09-20

    Cell-free systems offer a simplified and flexible context that enables important biological reactions while removing complicating factors such as fitness, division, and mutation that are associated with living cells. However, cell-free expression in unconfined spaces is missing important elements of expression in living cells. In particular, the small volume of living cells can give rise to significant stochastic effects, which are negligible in bulk cell-free reactions. Here, we confine cell-free gene expression reactions to cell-relevant 20 fL volumes (between the volumes of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ), in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) containers. We demonstrate that expression efficiency varies widely among different containers, likely due to non-Poisson distribution of expression machinery at the observed scale. Previously, this phenomenon has been observed only in liposomes. In addition, we analyze gene expression noise. This analysis is facilitated by our use of cell-free systems, which allow the mapping of the measured noise properties to intrinsic noise models. In contrast, previous live cell noise analysis efforts have been complicated by multiple noise sources. Noise analysis reveals signatures of translational bursting, while noise dynamics suggest that overall cell-free expression is limited by a diminishing translation rate. In addition to offering a unique approach to understanding noise in gene circuits, our work contributes to a deeper understanding of the biophysical properties of cell-free expression systems, thus aiding efforts to harness cell-free systems for synthetic biology applications.

  10. Cell-free expression of G-protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Orbán, Erika; Proverbio, Davide; Haberstock, Stefan; Dötsch, Volker; Bernhard, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free expression has emerged as a new standard for the production of membrane proteins. The reduction of expression complexity in cell-free systems eliminates central bottlenecks and allows the reliable and efficient synthesis of many different types of membrane proteins. Furthermore, the open accessibility of cell-free reactions enables the co-translational solubilization of cell-free expressed membrane proteins in a large variety of supplied additives. Hydrophobic environments can therefore be adjusted according to the requirements of individual membrane protein targets. We present different approaches for the preparative scale cell-free production of G-protein-coupled receptors using the extracts of Escherichia coli cells. We exemplify expression conditions implementing detergents, nanodiscs, or liposomes. The generated protein samples could be directly used for further functional characterization.

  11. mTORC1 phosphorylates UVRAG to negatively regulate autophagosome and endosome maturation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Mi; Jung, Chang Hwa; Seo, Minchul; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Park, Ji-Man; Bae, Sun Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-22

    mTORC1 plays a key role in autophagy as a negative regulator. The currently known targets of mTORC1 in the autophagy pathway mainly function at early stages of autophagosome formation. Here, we identify that mTORC1 inhibits later stages of autophagy by phosphorylating UVRAG. Under nutrient-enriched conditions, mTORC1 binds and phosphorylates UVRAG. The phosphorylation positively regulates the association of UVRAG with RUBICON, thereby enhancing the antagonizing effect of RUBICON on UVRAG-mediated autophagosome maturation. Upon dephosphorylation, UVRAG is released from RUBICON to interact with the HOPS complex, a component for the late endosome and lysosome fusion machinery, and enhances autophagosome and endosome maturation. Consequently, the dephosphorylation of UVRAG facilitates the lysosomal degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), reduces EGFR signaling, and suppresses cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. These results demonstrate that mTORC1 engages in late stages of autophagy and endosome maturation, defining a broader range of mTORC1 functions in the membrane-associated processes.

  12. Interferon-γ-inducible Rab20 regulates endosomal morphology and EGFR degradation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pei, Gang; Schnettger, Laura; Bronietzki, Marc; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the molecular players that regulate changes in the endocytic pathway during immune activation. Here we investigate the role of Rab20 in the endocytic pathway during activation of macrophages. Rab20 is associated with endocytic structures, but the function of this Rab GTPase in the endocytic pathway remains poorly characterized. We find that in macrophages, Rab20 expression and endosomal association significantly increase after interferon-γ (IFN-γ) treatment. Moreover, IFN-γ and Rab20 expression induce a dramatic enlargement of endosomes. These enlarged endosomes are the result of homotypic fusion promoted by Rab20 expression. The expression of Rab20 or the dominant-negative mutant Rab20T19N does not affect transferrin or dextran 70 kDa uptake. However, knockdown of Rab20 accelerates epidermal growth factor (EGF) trafficking to LAMP-2-positive compartments and EGF receptor degradation. Thus this work defines a function for Rab20 in the endocytic pathway during immune activation of macrophages.

  13. Distinct effects of endosomal escape and inhibition of endosomal trafficking on gene delivery via electrotransfection

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Chi; Wang, Liangli; Yuan, Fan

    2017-01-01

    A recent theory suggests that endocytosis is involved in uptake and intracellular transport of electrotransfected plasmid DNA (pDNA). The goal of the current study was to understand if approaches used previously to improve endocytosis of gene delivery vectors could be applied to enhancing electrotransfection efficiency (eTE). Results from the study showed that photochemically induced endosomal escape, which could increase poly-L-lysine (PLL)-mediated gene delivery, decreased eTE. The decrease could not be blocked by treatment of cells with endonuclease inhibitors (aurintricarboxylic acid and zinc ion) or antioxidants (L-glutamine and ascorbic acid). Chemical treatment of cells with an endosomal trafficking inhibitor that blocks endosome progression, bafilomycin A1, resulted in a significant decrease in eTE. However, treatment of cells with lysosomotropic agents (chloroquine and ammonium chloride) had little effects on eTE. These data suggested that endosomes played important roles in protecting and intracellular trafficking of electrotransfected pDNA. PMID:28182739

  14. Cholesterol Flux Is Required for Endosomal Progression of African Swine Fever Virions during the Initial Establishment of Infection.

    PubMed

    Cuesta-Geijo, Miguel Ángel; Chiappi, Michele; Galindo, Inmaculada; Barrado-Gil, Lucía; Muñoz-Moreno, Raquel; Carrascosa, José L; Alonso, Covadonga

    2015-11-25

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a major threat for porcine production that has been slowly spreading in Eastern Europe since its first appearance in the Caucasus in 2007. ASFV enters the cell by endocytosis and gains access to the cytosol to start replication from late endosomes and multivesicular bodies. Cholesterol associated with low-density lipoproteins entering the cell by endocytosis also follows a trafficking pathway similar to that of ASFV. Here we show that cholesterol plays an essential role in the establishment of infection as the virus traffics through the endocytic pathway. In contrast to the case for other DNA viruses, such as vaccinia virus or adenovirus 5, cholesterol efflux from endosomes is required for ASFV release/entry to the cytosol. Accumulation of cholesterol in endosomes impairs fusion, resulting in retention of virions inside endosomes. ASFV also remodels intracellular cholesterol by increasing its cellular uptake and redistributes free cholesterol to viral replication sites. Our analysis reveals that ASFV manipulates cholesterol dynamics to ensure an appropriate lipid flux to establish productive infection. Since its appearance in the Caucasus in 2007, African swine fever (ASF) has been spreading westwards to neighboring European countries, threatening porcine production. Due to the lack of an effective vaccine, ASF control relies on early diagnosis and widespread culling of infected animals. We investigated early stages of ASFV infection to identify potential cellular targets for therapeutic intervention against ASF. The virus enters the cell by endocytosis, and soon thereafter, viral decapsidation occurs in the acid pH of late endosomes. We found that ASFV infection requires and reorganizes the cellular lipid cholesterol. ASFV requires cholesterol to exit the endosome to gain access to the cytoplasm to establish productive replication. Our results indicate that there is a differential requirement for cholesterol efflux for vaccinia

  15. Rab24 interacts with the Rab7/Rab interacting lysosomal protein complex to regulate endosomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Celina; Militello, Rodrigo D; Calligaris, Sebastián D; Colombo, María I

    2016-11-01

    Endocytosis is a multistep process engaged in extracellular molecules internalization. Several proteins including the Rab GTPases family coordinate the endocytic pathway. The small GTPase Rab7 is present in late endosome (LE) compartments being a marker of endosome maturation. The Rab interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) is a downstream effector of Rab7 that recruits the functional dynein/dynactin motor complex to late compartments. In the present study, we have found Rab24 as a component of the endosome-lysosome degradative pathway. Rab24 is an atypical protein of the Rab GTPase family, which has been attributed a function in vesicle trafficking and autophagosome maturation. Using a model of transiently expressed proteins in K562 cells, we found that Rab24 co-localizes in vesicular structures labeled with Rab7 and LAMP1. Moreover, using a dominant negative mutant of Rab24 or a siRNA-Rab24 we showed that the distribution of Rab7 in vesicles depends on a functional Rab24 to allow DQ-BSA protein degradation. Additionally, by immunoprecipitation and pull down assays, we have demonstrated that Rab24 interacts with Rab7 and RILP. Interestingly, overexpression of the Vps41 subunit from the homotypic fusion and protein-sorting (HOPS) complex hampered the co-localization of Rab24 with RILP or with the lysosomal GTPase Arl8b, suggesting that Vps41 would affect the Rab24/RILP association. In summary, our data strongly support the hypothesis that Rab24 forms a complex with Rab7 and RILP on the membranes of late compartments. Our work provides new insights into the molecular function of Rab24 in the last steps of the endosomal degradative pathway.

  16. Probing cell-free gene expression noise in femtoliter volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Karig, David K; Jung, Seung-Yong; Srijanto, Bernadeta R; Collier, Pat; Simpson, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    Cell-free systems offer a simplified and flexible context that enables important biological reactions while removing complicating factors such as fitness, division, and mutation that are associated with living cells. However, cell-free expression in unconfined spaces is missing important elements of expression in living cells. In particular, the small volume of living cells can give rise to significant stochastic effects, which are negligible in bulk cell-free reactions. Here, we confine cell-free gene expression reactions to cell relevant 20 fL volumes (between the volumes of E. coli and S. cerevisiae), in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) containers. We demonstrate that expression efficiency varies widely at this volume, and we analyze gene expression noise. Noise analysis reveals signatures of translational bursting while noise dynamics suggest that overall cell-free expression is limited by a diminishing translation rate. In addition to offering a unique approach to understanding noise in gene circuits, our work contributes to a deeper understanding of the biophysical properties of cell-free expression systems, thus aiding efforts to harness cell-free systems for synthetic biology applications.

  17. Comparative analysis of eukaryotic cell-free expression systems.

    PubMed

    Hartsough, Emily M; Shah, Pankti; Larsen, Andrew C; Chaput, John C

    2015-09-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) allows researchers to rapidly generate functional proteins independent of cell culture. Although advances in eukaryotic lysates have increased the amount of protein that can be produced, the nuances of different translation systems lead to variability in protein production. To help overcome this problem, we have compared the relative yield and template requirements for three commonly used commercial cell-free translation systems: wheat germ extract (WGE), rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL), and HeLa cell lysate (HCL). Our results provide a general guide for researchers interested in using cell-free translation to generate recombinant protein for biomedical applications.

  18. An Automated Image Analysis System to Quantify Endosomal Tubulation

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    Recycling of cargos from early endosomes requires regulation of endosomal tubule formation and fission. This regulation is disrupted in cells depleted of the microtubule severing enzyme spastin, causing elongation of endosomal tubules and mis-trafficking of recycling endosomal cargos such as the transferrin receptor. Spastin is encoded by SPAST, mutations in which are the most frequent cause of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia, a condition characterised by a progressive loss of lower limb function resulting from upper motor neuron axonopathy. Investigation of molecular factors involved in endosomal tubule regulation is hindered by the need for manual counting of endosomal tubules. We report here the development of an open source automated system for the quantification of endosomal tubules, using ImageJ and R. We validate the method in cells depleted of spastin and its binding partner IST1. The additional speed and reproducibility of this system compared with manual counting makes feasible screens of candidates to further understand the mechanisms of endosomal tubule formation and fission. PMID:28006827

  19. Microtubule motors mediate endosomal sorting by maintaining functional domain organization.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Sylvie D; Townley, Anna K; Danson, Chris M; Cullen, Peter J; Stephens, David J

    2013-06-01

    Many microtubule motors have been shown to couple to endosomal membranes. These motors include dynein in addition to many different kinesin family members. Sorting nexins (SNXs) are central to the organization and function of endosomes. These proteins can actively shape endosomal membranes and couple directly or indirectly to the minus-end microtubule motor dynein. Motor proteins acting on endosomes drive their motility, dictate their morphology and affect cargo segregation. We have used well-characterized members of the SNX family to elucidate motor coupling using high-resolution light microscopy coupled with depletion of specific microtubule motors. Endosomal domains labelled with SNX1, SNX4 and SNX8 couple to discrete combinations of dynein and kinesin motors. These specific combinations govern the structure and motility of each SNX-coated membrane in addition to the segregation of distinct functional endosomal subdomains. Taken together, our data show that these key features of endosome dynamics are governed by the same set of opposing microtubule motors. Thus, microtubule motors help to define the mosaic layout of endosomes that underpins cargo sorting.

  20. A Novel Type III Endosome Transmembrane Protein, TEMP

    PubMed Central

    Aturaliya, Rajith N.; Kerr, Markus C.; Teasdale, Rohan D.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a high-throughput subcellular localisation project, the protein encoded by the RIKEN mouse cDNA 2610528J11 was expressed and identified to be associated with both endosomes and the plasma membrane. Based on this, we have assigned the name TEMP for Type III Endosome Membrane Protein. TEMP encodes a short protein of 111 amino acids with a single, alpha-helical transmembrane domain. Experimental analysis of its membrane topology demonstrated it is a Type III membrane protein with the amino-terminus in the lumenal, or extracellular region, and the carboxy-terminus in the cytoplasm. In addition to the plasma membrane TEMP was localized to Rab5 positive early endosomes, Rab5/Rab11 positive recycling endosomes but not Rab7 positive late endosomes. Video microscopy in living cells confirmed TEMP’s plasma membrane localization and identified the intracellular endosome compartments to be tubulovesicular. Overexpression of TEMP resulted in the early/recycling endosomes clustering at the cell periphery that was dependent on the presence of intact microtubules. The cellular function of TEMP cannot be inferred based on bioinformatics comparison, but its cellular distribution between early/recycling endosomes and the plasma membrane suggests a role in membrane transport. PMID:24710541

  1. Moesin and cortactin control actin-dependent multivesicular endosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Muriel, Olivia; Tomas, Alejandra; Scott, Cameron C.; Gruenberg, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We used in vivo and in vitro strategies to study the mechanisms of multivesicular endosome biogenesis. We found that, whereas annexinA2 and ARP2/3 mediate F-actin nucleation and branching, respectively, the ERM protein moesin supports the formation of F-actin networks on early endosomes. We also found that moesin plays no role during endocytosis and recycling to the plasma membrane but is absolutely required, much like actin, for early-to-late-endosome transport and multivesicular endosome formation. Both actin network formation in vitro and early-to-late endosome transport in vivo also depend on the F-actin–binding protein cortactin. Our data thus show that moesin and cortactin are necessary for formation of F-actin networks that mediate endosome biogenesis or maturation and transport through the degradative pathway. We propose that the primary function of endosomal F-actin is to control the membrane remodeling that accompanies endosome biogenesis. We also speculate that this mechanism helps segregate tubular and multivesicular membranes along the recycling and degradation pathways, respectively. PMID:27605702

  2. The retromer complex - endosomal protein recycling and beyond.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Matthew N J

    2012-10-15

    The retromer complex is a vital element of the endosomal protein sorting machinery that is conserved across all eukaryotes. Retromer is most closely associated with the endosome-to-Golgi retrieval pathway and is necessary to maintain an active pool of hydrolase receptors in the trans-Golgi network. Recent progress in studies of retromer have identified new retromer-interacting proteins, including the WASH complex and cargo such as the Wntless/MIG-14 protein, which now extends the role of retromer beyond the endosome-to-Golgi pathway and has revealed that retromer is required for aspects of endosome-to-plasma membrane sorting and regulation of signalling events. The interactions between the retromer complex and other macromolecular protein complexes now show how endosomal protein sorting is coordinated with actin assembly and movement along microtubules, and place retromer squarely at the centre of a complex set of protein machinery that governs endosomal protein sorting. Dysregulation of retromer-mediated endosomal protein sorting leads to various pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease and spastic paraplegia and the mechanisms underlying these pathologies are starting to be understood. In this Commentary, I will highlight recent advances in the understanding of retromer-mediated endosomal protein sorting and discuss how retromer contributes to a diverse set of physiological processes.

  3. The protein transportation pathway from Golgi to vacuoles via endosomes plays a role in enhancement of methylmercury toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Gi-Wook; Murai, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Naganuma, Akira

    2014-07-01

    Methylmercury causes serious damage to the central nervous system, but the molecular mechanisms of methylmercury toxicity are only marginally understood. In this study, we used a gene-deletion mutant library of budding yeast to conduct genome-wide screening for gene knockouts affecting the sensitivity of methylmercury toxicity. We successfully identified 31 genes whose deletions confer resistance to methylmercury in yeast, and 18 genes whose deletions confer hypersensitivity to methylmercury. Yeast genes whose deletions conferred resistance to methylmercury included many gene encoding factors involved in protein transport to vacuoles. Detailed examination of the relationship between the factors involved in this transport system and methylmercury toxicity revealed that mutants with loss of the factors involved in the transportation pathway from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosome, protein uptake into the endosome, and endosome-vacuole fusion showed higher methylmercury resistance than did wild-type yeast. The results of our genetic engineering study suggest that this vesicle transport system (proteins moving from the TGN to vacuole via endosome) is responsible for enhancing methylmercury toxicity due to the interrelationship between the pathways. There is a possibility that there may be proteins in the cell that enhance methylmercury toxicity through the protein transport system.

  4. FIP1/RCP Binding to Golgin-97 Regulates Retrograde Transport from Recycling Endosomes to the trans-Golgi Network

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Jian; Junutula, Jagath R.; Wu, Christine; Burden, Jemima; Matern, Hugo; Peden, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Many proteins are retrieved to the trans-Golgi Network (TGN) from the endosomal system through several retrograde transport pathways to maintain the composition and function of the TGN. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these distinct retrograde pathways remain to be fully understood. Here we have used fluorescence and electron microscopy as well as various functional transport assays to show that Rab11a/b and its binding protein FIP1/RCP are both required for the retrograde delivery of TGN38 and Shiga toxin from early/recycling endosomes to the TGN, but not for the retrieval of mannose-6-phosphate receptor from late endosomes. Furthermore, by proteomic analysis we identified Golgin-97 as a FIP1/RCP-binding protein. The FIP1/RCP-binding domain maps to the C-terminus of Golgin-97, adjacent to its GRIP domain. Binding of FIP1/RCP to Golgin-97 does not affect Golgin-97 recruitment to the TGN, but appears to regulate the targeting of retrograde transport vesicles to the TGN. Thus, we propose that FIP1/RCP binding to Golgin-97 is required for tethering and fusion of recycling endosome-derived retrograde transport vesicles to the TGN. PMID:20610657

  5. FIP1/RCP binding to Golgin-97 regulates retrograde transport from recycling endosomes to the trans-Golgi network.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian; Junutula, Jagath R; Wu, Christine; Burden, Jemima; Matern, Hugo; Peden, Andrew A; Prekeris, Rytis

    2010-09-01

    Many proteins are retrieved to the trans-Golgi Network (TGN) from the endosomal system through several retrograde transport pathways to maintain the composition and function of the TGN. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in these distinct retrograde pathways remain to be fully understood. Here we have used fluorescence and electron microscopy as well as various functional transport assays to show that Rab11a/b and its binding protein FIP1/RCP are both required for the retrograde delivery of TGN38 and Shiga toxin from early/recycling endosomes to the TGN, but not for the retrieval of mannose-6-phosphate receptor from late endosomes. Furthermore, by proteomic analysis we identified Golgin-97 as a FIP1/RCP-binding protein. The FIP1/RCP-binding domain maps to the C-terminus of Golgin-97, adjacent to its GRIP domain. Binding of FIP1/RCP to Golgin-97 does not affect Golgin-97 recruitment to the TGN, but appears to regulate the targeting of retrograde transport vesicles to the TGN. Thus, we propose that FIP1/RCP binding to Golgin-97 is required for tethering and fusion of recycling endosome-derived retrograde transport vesicles to the TGN.

  6. IL4/PGE{sub 2} induction of an enlarged early endosomal compartment in mouse macrophages is Rab5-dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Wainszelbaum, Marisa J.; Proctor, Brandon M.; Pontow, Suzanne E.; Stahl, Philip D. . E-mail: pstahl@cellbiology.wustl.edu; Barbieri, M. Alejandro

    2006-07-15

    The endosomal compartment and the plasma membrane form a complex partnership that controls signal transduction and trafficking of different molecules. The specificity and functionality of the early endocytic pathway are regulated by a growing number of Rab GTPases, particularly Rab5. In this study, we demonstrate that IL4 (a Th-2 cytokine) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) synergistically induce Rab5 and several Rab effector proteins, including Rin1 and EEA1, and promote the formation of an enlarged early endocytic (EEE) compartment. Endosome enlargement is linked to a substantial induction of the mannose receptor (MR), a well-characterized macrophage endocytic receptor. Both MR levels and MR-mediated endocytosis are enhanced approximately 7-fold. Fluid-phase endocytosis is also elevated in treated cells. Light microscopy and fractionation studies reveal that MR colocalizes predominantly with Rab5a and partially with Rab11, an endosomal recycling pathway marker. Using retroviral expression of Rab5a:S34N, a dominant negative mutant, and siRNA Rab5a silencing, we demonstrate that Rab5a is essential for the large endosome phenotype and for localization of MR in these structures. We speculate that the EEE is maintained by activated Rab5, and that the EEE phenotype is part of some macrophage developmental program such as cell fusion, a characteristic of IL4-stimulated cells.

  7. Cell-free synthetic biology for environmental sensing and remediation.

    PubMed

    Karig, David K

    2017-02-19

    The fields of biosensing and bioremediation leverage the phenomenal array of sensing and metabolic capabilities offered by natural microbes. Synthetic biology provides tools for transforming these fields through complex integration of natural and novel biological components to achieve sophisticated sensing, regulation, and metabolic function. However, the majority of synthetic biology efforts are conducted in living cells, and concerns over releasing genetically modified organisms constitute a key barrier to environmental applications. Cell-free protein expression systems offer a path towards leveraging synthetic biology, while preventing the spread of engineered organisms in nature. Recent efforts in the areas of cell-free approaches for sensing, regulation, and metabolic pathway implementation, as well as for preserving and deploying cell-free expression components, embody key steps towards realizing the potential of cell-free systems for environmental sensing and remediation.

  8. The emerging age of cell-free synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark Thomas; Wilding, Kristen M; Hunt, Jeremy M; Bennett, Anthony M; Bundy, Bradley C

    2014-08-25

    The engineering of and mastery over biological parts has catalyzed the emergence of synthetic biology. This field has grown exponentially in the past decade. As increasingly more applications of synthetic biology are pursued, more challenges are encountered, such as delivering genetic material into cells and optimizing genetic circuits in vivo. An in vitro or cell-free approach to synthetic biology simplifies and avoids many of the pitfalls of in vivo synthetic biology. In this review, we describe some of the innate features that make cell-free systems compelling platforms for synthetic biology and discuss emerging improvements of cell-free technologies. We also select and highlight recent and emerging applications of cell-free synthetic biology.

  9. The cell-free protein synthesis system from wheat germ.

    PubMed

    Takai, Kazuyuki; Endo, Yaeta

    2010-01-01

    The wheat-germ cell-free protein synthesis system had been one of the most efficient eukaryotic cell-free systems since it was first developed in 1964. However, radio-labeled amino acids had long been essential for detection of the products. Since the discovery of a method for prevention of the contamination by a protein synthesis inhibitor originated from endosperm, the wheat cell-free system has found a wide variety of applications in postgenomic high-throughput screening, structural biology, medicine, and so on. In this chapter, we describe a method for preparation of the cell-free extract and a standard protein synthesis method, as the methods for the applications are found in later chapters.

  10. The wheat-germ cell-free expression system.

    PubMed

    Takai, Kazuyuki; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Endo, Yaeta

    2010-04-01

    We have made a dramatic improvement of the wheat cell-free protein synthesis system. The first key improvement is the method for preparation of the cell-free extract that is free of inhibitory factors of translation reaction. Additional improvements include a method for preparation of transcription-ready templates by PCR, an expression vector for the cell-free system, and the "bilayer" mode reaction method that is much more efficient than the batch mode method and at the same time easy to be performed by human hands and by liquid handling machines. We review here the history of the development and describe the protocols for the most handy "bilayer" method and a more efficient but complicated methods. Information on many examples and variations of the wheat cell-free protein synthesis methods already published elsewhere is then provided so that the readers can understand the power and potential applications of the methods.

  11. Entry of Bluetongue Virus Capsid Requires the Late Endosome-specific Lipid Lysobisphosphatidic Acid*

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Avnish; Mohl, Bjorn-Patrick; Roy, Polly

    2016-01-01

    The entry of viruses into host cells is one of the key processes of infection. The mechanisms of cellular entry for enveloped virus have been well studied. The fusion proteins as well as the facilitating cellular lipid factors involved in the viral fusion entry process have been well characterized. The process of non-enveloped virus cell entry, in comparison, remains poorly defined, particularly for large complex capsid viruses of the family Reoviridae, which comprises a range of mammalian pathogens. These viruses enter cells without the aid of a limiting membrane and thus cannot fuse with host cell membranes to enter cells. Instead, these viruses are believed to penetrate membranes of the host cell during endocytosis. However, the molecular mechanism of this process is largely undefined. Here we show, utilizing an in vitro liposome penetration assay and cell biology, that bluetongue virus (BTV), an archetypal member of the Reoviridae, utilizes the late endosome-specific lipid lysobisphosphatidic acid for productive membrane penetration and viral entry. Further, we provide preliminary evidence that lipid lysobisphosphatidic acid facilitates pore expansion during membrane penetration, suggesting a mechanism for lipid factor requirement of BTV. This finding indicates that despite the lack of a membrane envelope, the entry process of BTV is similar in specific lipid requirements to enveloped viruses that enter cells through the late endosome. These results are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that a large non-enveloped virus of the Reoviridae has specific lipid requirements for membrane penetration and host cell entry. PMID:27036941

  12. Bioinformatics analysis of circulating cell-free DNA sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Chan, Landon L; Jiang, Peiyong

    2015-10-01

    The discovery of cell-free DNA molecules in plasma has opened up numerous opportunities in noninvasive diagnosis. Cell-free DNA molecules have become increasingly recognized as promising biomarkers for detection and management of many diseases. The advent of next generation sequencing has provided unprecedented opportunities to scrutinize the characteristics of cell-free DNA molecules in plasma in a genome-wide fashion and at single-base resolution. Consequently, clinical applications of circulating cell-free DNA analysis have not only revolutionized noninvasive prenatal diagnosis but also facilitated cancer detection and monitoring toward an era of blood-based personalized medicine. With the remarkably increasing throughput and lowering cost of next generation sequencing, bioinformatics analysis becomes increasingly demanding to understand the large amount of data generated by these sequencing platforms. In this Review, we highlight the major bioinformatics algorithms involved in the analysis of cell-free DNA sequencing data. Firstly, we briefly describe the biological properties of these molecules and provide an overview of the general bioinformatics approach for the analysis of cell-free DNA. Then, we discuss the specific upstream bioinformatics considerations concerning the analysis of sequencing data of circulating cell-free DNA, followed by further detailed elaboration on each key clinical situation in noninvasive prenatal diagnosis and cancer management where downstream bioinformatics analysis is heavily involved. We also discuss bioinformatics analysis as well as clinical applications of the newly developed massively parallel bisulfite sequencing of cell-free DNA. Finally, we offer our perspectives on the future development of bioinformatics in noninvasive diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Creating a completely "cell-free" system for protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark Thomas; Bennett, Anthony M; Hunt, Jeremy M; Bundy, Bradley C

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis is a promising tool to take biotechnology outside of the cell. A cell-free approach provides distinct advantages over in vivo systems including open access to the reaction environment and direct control over all chemical components for facile optimization and synthetic biology integration. Promising applications of cell-free systems include portable diagnostics, biotherapeutics expression, rational protein engineering, and biocatalyst production. The highest yielding and most economical cell-free systems use an extract composed of the soluble component of lysed Escherichia coli. Although E. coli lysis can be highly efficient (>99.999%), one persistent challenge is that the extract remains contaminated with up to millions of cells per mL. In this work, we examine the potential of multiple decontamination strategies to further reduce or eliminate bacteria in cell-free systems. Two strategies, sterile filtration and lyophilization, effectively eliminate contaminating cells while maintaining the systems' protein synthesis capabilities. Lyophilization provides the additional benefit of long-term stability at storage above freezing. Technologies for personalized, portable medicine and diagnostics can be expanded based on these foundational sterilized and completely "cell-free" systems. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Alteration of Lysosome Fusion and Low-grade Inflammation Mediated by Super-low-dose Endotoxin*

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Bianca; Geng, Shuo; Chen, Keqiang; Diao, Na; Yuan, Ruoxi; Xu, Xiguang; Dougherty, Sean; Stephenson, Caroline; Xiong, Huabao; Chu, Hong Wei; Li, Liwu

    2015-01-01

    Subclinical super-low-dose endotoxin LPS is a risk factor for the establishment of low-grade inflammation during the pathogenesis and progression of chronic diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. At the cellular level, a disruption of lysosome fusion with endosomes or autophagosomes may contribute to the potentiation of low-grade inflammation. In this study, we identified that subclinical super-low-dose endotoxin LPS can potently inhibit the process of endosome acidification and lysosome fusion with endosomes or autophagosomes in primary macrophages. Super-low-dose LPS induced the inhibitory phosphorylation of VPS34, thus leading to the disruption of endosome-lysosome fusion. This effect may depend upon the clearance and relocation of Tollip in macrophages by super-low-dose LPS. Consistent with this notion, Tollip-deficient macrophages had constitutively elevated levels of VPS34 inhibitory phosphorylation and constitutive disruption of endosome-lysosome fusion. By employing a skin excision wound-healing model, we observed that Tollip-deficient mice had significantly elevated levels of cell stress and reduced wound repair. This study reveals a novel mechanism responsible for the modulation of endosome-lysosome fusion and low-grade inflammation in innate macrophages. PMID:25586187

  15. Separation of endosomes by aqueous two-phase partition and free-flow electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Morré, D J; Morré, D M; Van Alstine, J M

    1998-06-26

    We have developed two endosome models to evaluate the separation of endosome populations by aqueous two-phase partition. In the first model, bovine kidney endosomes were used. In the second model. HeLa endosomes were identified in homogenates by means of a latent drug-(capsaicin-)inhibited NADH oxidase (NOX). Endosomes were first isolated by aqueous two-phase partition. To separate early and late endosomes, the endosomes were incubated with ATP to acidify the endosome interiors by activating a proton-translocating ATPase. Thus far, we have been able to resolve the early and late endosomes from any source only by preparative free-flow electrophoresis and not by phase-partition. Previous studies have shown that gravitational forces may be important for separation of endosomes by phase partition. Low-speed centrifugation (< or =12.5 g) during phase resolution altered the activity of the latent NADH oxidase used as a marker for HeLa cell endosomes.

  16. Cell-free production of transducible transcription factors for nuclear reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Yang, William C.; Patel, Kedar G.; Lee, Jieun; Ghebremariam, Yohannes T.; Wong, H. Edward; Cooke, John P.; Swartz, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic expression of a defined set of transcription factors chosen from Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, Klf4, Nanog, and Lin28 can directly reprogram somatic cells to pluripotency. These reprogrammed cells are referred to as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). To date, iPSCs have been successfully generated using lentiviruses, retroviruses, adenoviruses, plasmids, transposons, and recombinant proteins. Nucleic acid-based approaches raise concerns about genomic instability. In contrast, a protein-based approach for iPSC generation can avoid DNA integration concerns as well as provide greater control over the concentration, timing, and sequence of transcription factor stimulation. Researchers recently demonstrated that polyarginine peptide conjugation can deliver recombinant protein reprogramming factor (RF) cargoes into cells and reprogram somatic cells into iPSCs. However, the protein-based approach requires a significant amount of protein for the reprogramming process. Producing fusion reprogramming factors in the large amounts required for this approach using traditional heterologous in vivo production methods is difficult and cumbersome since toxicity, product aggregation, and proteolysis by endogenous proteases limit yields. In this work, we show that cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) is a viable option for producing soluble and functional transducible transcription factors for nuclear reprogramming. We used an E. coli-based cell-free protein synthesis system to express the above set of six human RFs as fusion proteins, each with a nona-arginine (R9) protein transduction domain. Using the flexibility offered by the CFPS platform, we successfully addressed proteolysis and protein solubility problems to produce full-length and soluble R9-RF fusions. We subsequently showed that R9-Oct3/4, R9-Sox2, and R9-Nanog exhibit cognate DNA binding activities, R9-Nanog translocates across the plasma and nuclear membranes, and R9-Sox2 exerts transcriptional activity on a known

  17. Retromer guides STxB and CD8-M6PR from early to recycling endosomes, EHD1 guides STxB from recycling endosome to Golgi

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jenna E.; Raisley, Brent; Zhou, Xin; Naslavsky, Naava; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Caplan, Steve; Sheff, David

    2012-01-01

    Retrograde trafficking transports proteins, lipids and toxins from the plasma membrane to the Golgi and ER. To reach the Golgi, these cargos must transit the endosomal system, consisting of early endosomes, recycling endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes. All cargos pass through early endosomes, but may take different routes to the Golgi. Retromer dependent cargos bypass the late endosomes to reach the Golgi. We compared how two very different retromer dependent cargos negotiate the endosomal sorting system. Shiga toxin B, bound to the external layer of the plasma membrane, and chimeric CD8-Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor, which is anchored via a transmembrane domain. Both appear to pass through the recycling endosome. Ablation of the recycling endosome diverted both of these cargos to an aberrant compartment and prevented them from reaching the Golgi. Once in the recycling endosome, Shiga toxin required EHD1 to traffic to the TGN, while the CD8-Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor was not significantly dependent on EHD1. Knockdown of retromer components left cargo in the early endosomes, suggesting that it is required for retrograde exit from this compartment. This work establishes the recycling endosome as a required step in retrograde traffic of at least these two retromer dependent cargos. Along this pathway, retromer is associated with EE to recycling endosome traffic, while EHD1 is associated with recycling endosome to TGN traffic of STxB. PMID:22540229

  18. A cell-free system for reconstitution of transport between prevacuolar compartments and vacuoles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Vida, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    Genetic approaches have revealed more than 50 genes involved in the delivery of soluble zymogens like carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) to the lysosome-like vacuole in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. At least 20 of these genes function in transport between the prevacuolar endosome-like compartment (PVC) and the vacuole. To gain biochemical access to these functions, the authors developed a cell-free assay that measures transport-coupled proteolytic maturation of soluble zymogens in vitro. A polycarbonate filter with a defined pore size is used to lyse yeast spheroplasts after pulse-chase radiolabeling. Differential centrifugation enriches for PVCs containing proCPY (p2CPY) in a 125,000 g membrane pellet and is used as donor membranes. Nonradiolabeled spheroplasts are also lysed with a polycarbonate filter but a 15,000 g membrane pellet enriched for vacuoles is collected and used as acceptor membranes. When these two crude membrane pellets are incubated together with adenosine triphosphate and cytosolic protein extracts, nearly 50% of the radiolabeled p2CPY can be processed to the mature vacuolar form, mCPY. This cell-free system allows reconstitution of intercompartmental transport coupled to the function of VPS gene products.

  19. Melanosomes – dark organelles enlighten endosomal membrane transport

    PubMed Central

    Raposo, Graça; Marks, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Melanosomes are tissue-specific “lysosome-related” organelles of pigment cells in which melanins are synthesized and stored. Analyses of the trafficking and fate of melanosomal components are beginning to reveal how melanosomes are formed through novel pathways from early endosomal intermediates. These studies unveil generalized structural and functional modifications of the endosomal system in specialized cells, and provide unexpected insights into the biogenesis of multivesicular bodies and how compartmentalization regulates protein refolding. Moreover, genetic disorders that affect the biogenesis of melanosomes and other lysosome-related organelles have shed light into the molecular machinery that controls specialized endosomal sorting events. PMID:17878918

  20. ARF1 and ARF4 regulate recycling endosomal morphology and retrograde transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Waka; Kondo, Yumika; Saitoh, Akina; Naito, Tomoki; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Shin, Hye-Won

    2013-08-01

    Small GTPases of the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family, except for ARF6, mainly localize to the Golgi apparatus, where they trigger formation of coated carrier vesicles. We recently showed that class I ARFs (ARF1 and ARF3) localize to recycling endosomes, as well as to the Golgi, and are redundantly required for recycling of endocytosed transferrin. On the other hand, the roles of class II ARFs (ARF4 and ARF5) are not yet fully understood, and the complementary or overlapping functions of class I and class II ARFs have been poorly characterized. In this study, we find that simultaneous depletion of ARF1 and ARF4 induces extensive tubulation of recycling endosomes. Moreover, the depletion of ARF1 and ARF4 inhibits retrograde transport of TGN38 and mannose-6-phosphate receptor from early/recycling endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) but does not affect the endocytic/recycling pathway of transferrin receptor or inhibit retrograde transport of CD4-furin from late endosomes to the TGN. These observations indicate that the ARF1+ARF4 and ARF1+ARF3 pairs are both required for integrity of recycling endosomes but are involved in distinct transport pathways: the former pair regulates retrograde transport from endosomes to the TGN, whereas the latter is required for the transferrin recycling pathway from endosomes to the plasma membrane.

  1. Importance of the N-terminal domain of the Qb-SNARE Vti1p for different membrane transport steps in the yeast endosomal system.

    PubMed

    Gossing, Michael; Chidambaram, Subbulakshmi; Fischer von Mollard, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) on transport vesicles and target membranes are crucial for vesicle targeting and fusion. They form SNARE complexes, which contain four α-helical SNARE motifs contributed by three or four different SNAREs. Most SNAREs function only in a single transport step. The yeast SNARE Vti1p participates in four distinct SNARE complexes in transport from the trans Golgi network to late endosomes, in transport to the vacuole, in retrograde transport from endosomes to the trans Golgi network and in retrograde transport within the Golgi. So far, all vti1 mutants investigated had mutations within the SNARE motif. Little is known about the function of the N-terminal domain of Vti1p, which forms a three helix bundle called H(abc) domain. Here we generated a temperature-sensitive mutant of this domain to study the effects on different transport steps. The secondary structure of wild type and vti1-3 H(abc) domain was analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The amino acid exchanges identified in the temperature-sensitive vti1-3 mutant caused unfolding of the H(abc) domain. Transport pathways were investigated by immunoprecipitation of newly synthesized proteins after pulse-chase labeling and by fluorescence microscopy of a GFP-tagged protein cycling between plasma membrane, early endosomes and Golgi. In vti1-3 cells transport to the late endosome and assembly of the late endosomal SNARE complex was blocked at 37°C. Retrograde transport to the trans Golgi network was affected while fusion with the vacuole was possible but slower. Steady state levels of SNARE complexes mediating these steps were less affected than that of the late endosomal SNARE complex. As different transport steps were affected our data demonstrate the importance of a folded Vti1p H(abc) domain for transport.

  2. Cell-Free Synthetic Biology: Thinking Outside the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Hodgman, C. Eric; Jewett, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Cell-free synthetic biology is emerging as a powerful technology aimed to understand, harness, and expand the capabilities of natural biological systems without using intact cells. Cell-free systems bypass cell walls and remove genetic regulation to enable direct access to the inner workings of the cell. The unprecedented level of control and freedom of design, relative to in vivo systems, has inspired the rapid development of engineering foundations for cell-free systems in recent years. These efforts have led to programmed circuits, spatially organized pathways, co-activated catalytic ensembles, rational optimization of synthetic multi-enzyme pathways, and linear scalability from the micro-liter to the 100-liter scale. It is now clear that cell-free systems offer a versatile test-bed for understanding why nature’s designs work the way they do and also for enabling biosynthetic routes to novel chemicals, sustainable fuels, and new classes of tunable materials. While challenges remain, the emergence of cell-free systems is poised to open the way to novel products that until now have been impractical—if not impossible—to produce by other means. PMID:21946161

  3. Cell-free protein production for NMR studies.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2012-01-01

    The cell-free expression system using an Escherichia coli extract is a practical method for producing isotope-labeled proteins. The advantage of the cell-free system over cellular expression is that any isotope-labeled amino acid can be incorporated into the target protein with minimal scrambling, thus providing opportunities for advanced isotope labeling of proteins. We have modified the standard protocol for E. coli cell-free expression to cope with two problems specific to NMR sample preparation. First, endogenous amino acids present in the E. coli S30 extract lead to dilution of the added isotope. To minimize the content of the remaining amino acids, a gel filtration step is included in the preparation of the E. coli extract. Second, proteins produced by the cell-free system are not necessarily homogeneous due to incomplete processing of the N-terminal formyl-methionine residue, which complicates NMR spectra. Therefore, the protein of interest is engineered to contain a cleavable N-terminal histidine-tag, which generates a homogeneous protein after the digestion of the tag. Here, we describe the protocol for modified E. coli cell-free expression.

  4. Wheat germ systems for cell-free protein expression.

    PubMed

    Harbers, Matthias

    2014-08-25

    Cell-free protein expression plays an important role in biochemical research. However, only recent developments led to new methods to rapidly synthesize preparative amounts of protein that make cell-free protein expression an attractive alternative to cell-based methods. In particular the wheat germ system provides the highest translation efficiency among eukaryotic cell-free protein expression approaches and has a very high success rate for the expression of soluble proteins of good quality. As an open in vitro method, the wheat germ system is a preferable choice for many applications in protein research including options for protein labeling and the expression of difficult-to-express proteins like membrane proteins and multiple protein complexes. Here I describe wheat germ cell-free protein expression systems and give examples how they have been used in genome-wide expression studies, preparation of labeled proteins for structural genomics and protein mass spectroscopy, automated protein synthesis, and screening of enzymatic activities. Future directions for the use of cell-free expression methods are discussed.

  5. Cell-free synthetic biology: thinking outside the cell.

    PubMed

    Hodgman, C Eric; Jewett, Michael C

    2012-05-01

    Cell-free synthetic biology is emerging as a powerful approach aimed to understand, harness, and expand the capabilities of natural biological systems without using intact cells. Cell-free systems bypass cell walls and remove genetic regulation to enable direct access to the inner workings of the cell. The unprecedented level of control and freedom of design, relative to in vivo systems, has inspired the rapid development of engineering foundations for cell-free systems in recent years. These efforts have led to programmed circuits, spatially organized pathways, co-activated catalytic ensembles, rational optimization of synthetic multi-enzyme pathways, and linear scalability from the micro-liter to the 100-liter scale. It is now clear that cell-free systems offer a versatile test-bed for understanding why nature's designs work the way they do and also for enabling biosynthetic routes to novel chemicals, sustainable fuels, and new classes of tunable materials. While challenges remain, the emergence of cell-free systems is poised to open the way to novel products that until now have been impractical, if not impossible, to produce by other means.

  6. Molecular basis of endosomal-membrane association for the dengue virus envelope protein

    DOE PAGES

    Rogers, David M.; Kent, Michael S.; Rempe, Susan B.

    2015-01-02

    Dengue virus is coated by an icosahedral shell of 90 envelope protein dimers that convert to trimers at low pH and promote fusion of its membrane with the membrane of the host endosome. We provide the first estimates for the free energy barrier and minimum for two key steps in this process: host membrane bending and protein–membrane binding. Both are studied using complementary membrane elastic, continuum electrostatics and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. The predicted host membrane bending required to form an initial fusion stalk presents a 22–30 kcal/mol free energy barrier according to a constrained membrane elastic model. Combined continuummore » and molecular dynamics results predict a 15 kcal/mol free energy decrease on binding of each trimer of dengue envelope protein to a membrane with 30% anionic phosphatidylglycerol lipid. The bending cost depends on the preferred curvature of the lipids composing the host membrane leaflets, while the free energy gained for protein binding depends on the surface charge density of the host membrane. The fusion loop of the envelope protein inserts exactly at the level of the interface between the membrane's hydrophobic and head-group regions. As a result, the methods used in this work provide a means for further characterization of the structures and free energies of protein-assisted membrane fusion.« less

  7. Sorting nexin (MoVps17) is required for fungal development and plant infection by regulating endosome dynamics in the rice blast fungus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huawei; Guo, Zhongkun; Xi, Yang; Yuan, Mingyue; Lin, Yahong; Wu, Congxian; Abubakar, Yakubu Saddeeq; Dou, Xianying; Li, Guangpu; Wang, Zonghua; Zheng, Wenhui; Zhou, Jie

    2017-08-24

    Vps17 is a sorting nexin (SNX) and a component of the retromer, a protein complex mediating retrograde vesicle transport between endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. However, its role in the development and pathogenicity of filamentous fungi such as the rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae) remains unclear. We investigate the functional relationship between the SNX and the cargo-selective complex (CSC) of the fungal retromer by genetic analysis, live cell imaging and immunological assay. Our data show that the MoVps17 null mutation causes defects in growth, development and pathogenicity in M. oryzae. MoVps17 is localized to endosomes depending on the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), a key enzyme for fungal development and infection. Both PX and BAR domains of MoVps17 are essential for its endosomal localization and function. Furthermore, our yeast two-hybrid assays show that MoVps17 and MoVps5 can interact. Lastly, live cell imaging suggests that MoVps17 can regulate early endosome fusion and budding as well as endocytosis. Taken together, our results suggest that MoVps17 specifically functions as a retromer component with CSC and also plays a distinct role in the regulation of endosome dynamics during fungal development and plant infection. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Live cell imaging of endosomal trafficking in fungi.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Sebastian; Takeshita, Norio; Grün, Nathalie; Fischer, Reinhard; Feldbrügge, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Endosomes are multipurpose membranous carriers important for endocytosis and secretion. During membrane trafficking, endosomes transport lipids, proteins, and even RNAs. In highly polarized cells such as fungal hyphae, they shuttle bidirectionally along microtubules mediated by molecular motors like kinesins and dynein. For in vivo studies of these highly dynamic protein/membrane complexes, advanced fluorescence microscopy is instrumental. In this chapter, we describe live cell imaging of endosomes in two distantly related fungal model systems, the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis and the ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans. We provide insights into live cell imaging of dynamic endosomal proteins and RNA, dual-color detection for colocalization studies, as well as fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) for quantification and photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM) for super-resolution. These methods described in two well-studied fungal model systems are applicable to a broad range of other organisms.

  9. Diversity of raft-like domains in late endosomes.

    PubMed

    Sobo, Komla; Chevallier, Julien; Parton, Robert G; Gruenberg, Jean; van der Goot, F Gisou

    2007-04-25

    Late endosomes, the last sorting station in the endocytic pathway before lysosomes, are pleiomorphic organelles composed of tubular elements as well as vesicular regions with a characteristic multivesicular appearance, which play a crucial role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we have investigated whether, in addition to these morphologically distinguishable regions, late endosomal membranes are additionally sub-compartmentalized into membrane microdomains. Using sub-organellar fractionation techniques, both with and without detergents, combined with electron microscopy, we found that both the limiting membrane of the organel and the intraluminal vesicles contain raft-type membrane domains. Interestingly, these differentially localized domains vary in protein composition and physico-chemical properties. In addition to the multivesicular organization, we find that late endosomes contain cholesterol rich microdomains both on their limiting membrane and their intraluminal vesicles that differ in composition and properties. Implications of these findings for late endosomal functions are discussed.

  10. Diversity of Raft-Like Domains in Late Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sobo, Komla; Chevallier, Julien; Parton, Robert G.; Gruenberg, Jean; van der Goot, F. Gisou

    2007-01-01

    Background Late endosomes, the last sorting station in the endocytic pathway before lysosomes, are pleiomorphic organelles composed of tubular elements as well as vesicular regions with a characteristic multivesicular appearance, which play a crucial role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we have investigated whether, in addition to these morphologically distinguishable regions, late endosomal membranes are additionally sub-compartmentalized into membrane microdomains. Methodology/Principal Findings Using sub-organellar fractionation techniques, both with and without detergents, combined with electron microscopy, we found that both the limiting membrane of the organel and the intraluminal vesicles contain raft-type membrane domains. Interestingly, these differentially localized domains vary in protein composition and physico-chemical properties. Conclusions/Significance In addition to the multivesicular organization, we find that late endosomes contain cholesterol rich microdomains both on their limiting membrane and their intraluminal vesicles that differ in composition and properties. Implications of these findings for late endosomal functions are discussed. PMID:17460758

  11. Cell-free synthetic biology for in vitro prototype engineering

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Simon J.; MacDonald, James T.

    2017-01-01

    Cell-free transcription–translation is an expanding field in synthetic biology as a rapid prototyping platform for blueprinting the design of synthetic biological devices. Exemplar efforts include translation of prototype designs into medical test kits for on-site identification of viruses (Zika and Ebola), while gene circuit cascades can be tested, debugged and re-designed within rapid turnover times. Coupled with mathematical modelling, this discipline lends itself towards the precision engineering of new synthetic life. The next stages of cell-free look set to unlock new microbial hosts that remain slow to engineer and unsuited to rapid iterative design cycles. It is hoped that the development of such systems will provide new tools to aid the transition from cell-free prototype designs to functioning synthetic genetic circuits and engineered natural product pathways in living cells. PMID:28620040

  12. Membrane protein production in Escherichia coli cell-free lysates.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Erik; Hein, Christopher; Dötsch, Volker; Bernhard, Frank

    2015-07-08

    Cell-free protein production has become a core technology in the rapidly spreading field of synthetic biology. In particular the synthesis of membrane proteins, highly problematic proteins in conventional cellular production systems, is an ideal application for cell-free expression. A large variety of artificial as well as natural environments for the optimal co-translational folding and stabilization of membrane proteins can rationally be designed. The high success rate of cell-free membrane protein production allows to focus on individually selected targets and to modulate their functional and structural properties with appropriate supplements. The efficiency and robustness of lysates from Escherichia coli strains allow a wide diversity of applications and we summarize current strategies for the successful production of high quality membrane protein samples.

  13. Cell-free synthetic biology for in vitro prototype engineering.

    PubMed

    Moore, Simon J; MacDonald, James T; Freemont, Paul S

    2017-06-15

    Cell-free transcription-translation is an expanding field in synthetic biology as a rapid prototyping platform for blueprinting the design of synthetic biological devices. Exemplar efforts include translation of prototype designs into medical test kits for on-site identification of viruses (Zika and Ebola), while gene circuit cascades can be tested, debugged and re-designed within rapid turnover times. Coupled with mathematical modelling, this discipline lends itself towards the precision engineering of new synthetic life. The next stages of cell-free look set to unlock new microbial hosts that remain slow to engineer and unsuited to rapid iterative design cycles. It is hoped that the development of such systems will provide new tools to aid the transition from cell-free prototype designs to functioning synthetic genetic circuits and engineered natural product pathways in living cells. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Cell-free DNA fetal fraction and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Dugoff, Lorraine; Barberio, Andrea; Whittaker, Paul G; Schwartz, Nadav; Sehdev, Harish; Bastek, Jamie A

    2016-08-01

    Cell-free deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is increasingly being used to screen for fetal aneuploidy. The majority of fetal cell-free DNA in the maternal blood results from release from the syncytiotrophoblast as a result of cellular apoptosis and necrosis. Elevated levels of fetal cell-free DNA may be indicative of underlying placental dysfunction, which has been associated with preterm birth. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that fetal cell-free DNA is increased in pregnancies complicated by spontaneous preterm birth. There are limited data on the association between fetal cell-free DNA levels and fetal fraction and preterm birth in asymptomatic women in the first and second trimesters. Preliminary studies have failed to find an association between first-trimester cell-free DNA levels and preterm birth, whereas there is conflicting evidence as to whether elevated second-trimester cell-free DNA is associated with a subsequent spontaneous preterm birth clinical event. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between first- and second-trimester cell-free DNA fetal fraction and preterm birth. This was a retrospective cohort study of women with singleton pregnancies at increased risk for aneuploidy who had cell-free DNA testing at 10-20 weeks' gestation between October 2011 and May 2014. The cohort was subdivided by gestational age at the time of cell-free DNA testing (10-14 weeks or 14.1-20 weeks). The primary outcome was preterm birth less than 37 weeks' gestation, and the secondary outcomes were preterm birth at less than 34 weeks' gestation and spontaneous preterm birth at less than 37 and 34 weeks' gestation. Among 1349 pregnancies meeting inclusion criteria 119 (8.8 %) had a preterm birth prior to 37 weeks with 49 cases (3.6 %) delivering prior to 34 weeks. Whereas there was no significant association between fetal fraction and the preterm birth outcomes for those who underwent cell-free DNA testing at 10-14 weeks' gestation, there were

  15. Conceptual and methodological advances in cell-free directed evolution

    PubMed Central

    Dodevski, Igor; Markou, George C.; Sarkar, Casim A.

    2015-01-01

    Although cell-free directed evolution methods have been used to engineer proteins for nearly two decades, selections on more complex phenotypes have largely remained in the domain of cell-based engineering approaches. Here, we review recent conceptual advances that now enable in vitro display of multimeric proteins, integral membrane proteins, and proteins with an expanded amino acid repertoire. Additionally, we discuss methodological improvements that have enhanced the accessibility, efficiency, and robustness of cell-free approaches. Coupling these advances with the in vitro advantages of creating exceptionally large libraries and precisely controlling all experimental conditions, cell-free directed evolution is poised to contribute significantly to our understanding and engineering of more complex protein phenotypes. PMID:26093059

  16. Decoupling Internalization, Acidification and Phagosmal-Endosomal/Iysosomal Phagocytosis of Internalin A coated Beads in epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchette, C D; Woo, Y; Thomas, C; Shen, N; Sulchek, T A; Hiddessen, A L

    2008-12-22

    Phagocytosis has been extensively examined in 'professional' phagocytic cells using pH sensitive dyes. However, in many of the previous studies, a separation between the end of internalization, beginning of acidification and completion of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was not clearly established, and in several cases, it was treated as a one-step process. In addition, very little work has been done to systematically examine phagosomal maturation in 'non-professional' phagocytic cells, such as epithelial cells. Therefore, in this study, we developed a simple and novel method to decouple and accurately measure particle internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) and Caco-2 epithelial cells. Our method was developed using a pathogen mimetic system consisting of polystyrene beads coated with Internalin A (InlA), a membrane surface protein from Listeria monocytogenes known to trigger receptor-mediated internalization. We achieved independent measurements of the rates of internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in epithelial cells by combining the InlA-coated beads (InlA-beads) with antibody quenching, pH sensitive dyes and endosomal/lysosomal dyes, as follows: the rate of InlA bead internalization was measured via antibody quenching of a pH independent dye (Alexa488) conjugated to InlA-beads, the rate at which phagosomes containing internalized InlA beads became acidified was measured using a pH dependent dye (FITC) conjugated to the beads and the rate of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was measured using a combination of unlabeled InlA-beads and an endosomal/lysosomal dye. By performing these independent measurements under identical experimental conditions, we were able to decouple the three processes and establish time scales for each. In a separate set of experiments, we also exploited the phagosomal acidification process to demonstrate

  17. Endosome-lysosomes, ubiquitin and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Mayer, R J; Tipler, C; Arnold, J; Laszlo, L; Al-Khedhairy, A; Lowe, J; Landon, M

    1996-01-01

    Before the advent of ubiquitin immunochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy, there was no known intracellular molecular commonality between neurodegenerative diseases. The application of antibodies which primarily detect ubiquitin protein conjugates has shown that all of the human and animal idiopathic and transmissible chronic neurodegenerative diseases, (including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lewy body disease (LBD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and scrapie) are related by some form of intraneuronal inclusion which contains ubiquitin protein conjugates. In addition, disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, CJD and sheep scrapie, are characterised by deposits of amyloid, arising through incomplete breakdown of membrane proteins which may be associated with cytoskeletal reorganisation. Although our knowledge about these diseases is increasing, they remain largely untreatable. Recently, attention has focused on the mechanisms of production of different types of amyloid and the likely involvement within cells of the endosome-lysosome system, organelles which are immuno-positive for ubiquitin protein conjugates. These organelles may be 'bioreactor' sites for the unfolding and partial degradation of membrane proteins to generate the amyloid materials or their precursors which subsequently become expelled from the cell, or are released from dead cells, and accumulate as pathological entities. Such common features of the disease processes give new direction to therapeutic intervention.

  18. Signaling Components of Redox Active Endosomes: The Redoxosomes

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Fredrick D.; Abbott, Duane; Li, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Subcellular compartmentalization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a critical role in transmitting cell signals in response to environmental stimuli. In this regard, signals at the plasma membrane have been shown to trigger NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production within the endosomal compartment and this step can be required for redox-dependent signal transduction. Unique features of redox-active signaling endosomes can include NADPH oxidase complex components (Nox1, Noxo1, Noxa1, Nox2, p47phox, p67phox, and/or Rac1), ROS processing enzymes (SOD1 and/or peroxiredoxins), chloride channels capable of mediating superoxide transport and/or membrane gradients required for Nox activity, and novel redox-dependent sensors that control Nox activity. This review will discuss the cytokine and growth factor receptors that likely mediate signaling through redox-active endosomes, and the common mechanisms whereby they act. Additionally, the review will cover ligand-independent environmental injuries, such as hypoxia/reoxygenation injury, that also appear to facilitate cell signaling through NADPH oxidase at the level of the endosome. We suggest that redox-active endosomes encompass a subset of signaling endosomes that we have termed redoxosomes. Redoxosomes are uniquely equipped with redox-processing proteins capable of transmitting ROS signals from the endosome interior to redox-sensitive effectors on the endosomal surface. In this manner, redoxosomes can control redox-dependent effector functions through the spatial and temporal regulation of ROS as second messengers. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1313–1333. PMID:19072143

  19. Vps1 in the late endosome-to-vacuole traffic.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Jacob; Williams, Michelle; Granich, Ann; Ahn, Hyoeun; Tenay, Brandon; Lukehart, Joshua; Highfill, Chad; Dobard, Sarah; Kim, Kyoungtae

    2013-03-01

    Vacuolar protein sorting 1 (Vps1), the yeast homolog to human dynamin, is a GTP hydrolyzing protein, which plays an important role in protein sorting and targeting between the Golgi and late endosomal compartments. In this study, we assessed the functional significance of Vps1 in the membrane traffic towards the vacuole. We show here that vps1 delta cells accumulated FM4-64 to a greater extent than wild-type (WT))cells, suggesting slower endocytic degradation traffic toward the vacuole. In addition, we observed that two endosome-to-vacuole traffic markers, DsRed-FYVE and Ste2-GFP, were highly accumulated in Vps1-deficient cells, further supporting Vps1's implication in efficient trafficking of endocytosed materials to the vacuole. Noteworthy, a simultaneous imaging analysis in conjunction with FM4-64 pulse-chase experiment further revealed that Vps1 plays a role in late endosome to the vacuole transport. Consistently, our subcellular localization analysis showed that Vps1 is present at the late endosome. The hyperaccumulation of endosomal intermediates in the vps1 mutant cells appears to be caused by the disruption of integrity of HOPS tethering complexes, manifested by mislocalization of Vps39 to the cytoplasm. Finally, we postulate that Vps1 functions together with the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) complex at the late endosomal compartments, based on the observation that the double mutants, in which VPS1 along with singular ESCRT I, II and III genes have been disrupted, exhibited synthetic lethality. Together, we propose that Vps1 is required for correct and efficient trafficking from the late endosomal compartments to the vacuole.

  20. Induction of Cell-Cell Fusion by Ebola Virus Glycoprotein: Low pH Is Not a Trigger

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yi-Min; Melikyan, Gregory B.; Liu, Shan-Lu; Cohen, Fredric S.

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is a highly pathogenic filovirus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and animals. Currently, how EBOV fuses its envelope membrane within an endosomal membrane to cause infection is poorly understood. We successfully measure cell-cell fusion mediated by the EBOV fusion protein, GP, assayed by the transfer of both cytoplasmic and membrane dyes. A small molecule fusion inhibitor, a neutralizing antibody, as well as mutations in EBOV GP known to reduce viral infection, all greatly reduce fusion. By monitoring redistribution of small aqueous dyes between cells and by electrical capacitance measurements, we discovered that EBOV GP-mediated fusion pores do not readily enlarge—a marked difference from the behavior of other viral fusion proteins. EBOV GP must be cleaved by late endosome-resident cathepsins B or L in order to become fusion-competent. Cleavage of cell surface-expressed GP appears to occur in endosomes, as evidenced by the fusion block imposed by cathepsin inhibitors, agents that raise endosomal pH, or an inhibitor of anterograde trafficking. Treating effector cells with a recombinant soluble cathepsin B or thermolysin, which cleaves GP into an active form, increases the extent of fusion, suggesting that a fraction of surface-expressed GP is not cleaved. Whereas the rate of fusion is increased by a brief exposure to acidic pH, fusion does occur at neutral pH. Importantly, the extent of fusion is independent of external pH in experiments in which cathepsin activity is blocked and EBOV GP is cleaved by thermolysin. These results imply that low pH promotes fusion through the well-known pH-dependent activity of cathepsins; fusion induced by cleaved EBOV GP is a process that is fundamentally independent of pH. The cell-cell fusion system has revealed some previously unappreciated features of EBOV entry, which could not be readily elucidated in the context of endosomal entry. PMID:26730950

  1. Induction of Cell-Cell Fusion by Ebola Virus Glycoprotein: Low pH Is Not a Trigger.

    PubMed

    Markosyan, Ruben M; Miao, Chunhui; Zheng, Yi-Min; Melikyan, Gregory B; Liu, Shan-Lu; Cohen, Fredric S

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) is a highly pathogenic filovirus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and animals. Currently, how EBOV fuses its envelope membrane within an endosomal membrane to cause infection is poorly understood. We successfully measure cell-cell fusion mediated by the EBOV fusion protein, GP, assayed by the transfer of both cytoplasmic and membrane dyes. A small molecule fusion inhibitor, a neutralizing antibody, as well as mutations in EBOV GP known to reduce viral infection, all greatly reduce fusion. By monitoring redistribution of small aqueous dyes between cells and by electrical capacitance measurements, we discovered that EBOV GP-mediated fusion pores do not readily enlarge-a marked difference from the behavior of other viral fusion proteins. EBOV GP must be cleaved by late endosome-resident cathepsins B or L in order to become fusion-competent. Cleavage of cell surface-expressed GP appears to occur in endosomes, as evidenced by the fusion block imposed by cathepsin inhibitors, agents that raise endosomal pH, or an inhibitor of anterograde trafficking. Treating effector cells with a recombinant soluble cathepsin B or thermolysin, which cleaves GP into an active form, increases the extent of fusion, suggesting that a fraction of surface-expressed GP is not cleaved. Whereas the rate of fusion is increased by a brief exposure to acidic pH, fusion does occur at neutral pH. Importantly, the extent of fusion is independent of external pH in experiments in which cathepsin activity is blocked and EBOV GP is cleaved by thermolysin. These results imply that low pH promotes fusion through the well-known pH-dependent activity of cathepsins; fusion induced by cleaved EBOV GP is a process that is fundamentally independent of pH. The cell-cell fusion system has revealed some previously unappreciated features of EBOV entry, which could not be readily elucidated in the context of endosomal entry.

  2. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Adenovirus Membrane Rupture and Endosomal Escape

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Oana; Marvin, Shauna A.; Wodrich, Harald; Campbell, Edward M.

    2012-01-01

    A key step in adenovirus cell entry is viral penetration of cellular membranes to gain access to the cytoplasm and deliver the genome to the nucleus. Yet little is known about this important event in the adenoviral life cycle. Using the cytosolic protein galectin-3 (gal3) as a marker of membrane rupture with both live- and fixed-cell imaging, we demonstrate that in the majority of instances, exposure of pVI and recruitment of gal3 to ruptured membranes occur early at or near the cell surface and occur minimally in EEA-1-positive (EEA-1+) early endosomes or LAMP-1+ late endosomes/lysosomes. Live-cell imaging of Ad5 egress from gal3+ endosomes occurs most frequently from perinuclear locations. While the Ad5 capsid is observed escaping from gal3+ endosomes, pVI appears to remain associated with the gal3+ ruptured endosomes. Thus, Ad5 membrane rupture and endosomal escape appear to be both spatially and temporally distinct events. PMID:22855481

  3. Transport to Late Endosomes Is Required for Efficient Reovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mainou, Bernardo A.

    2012-01-01

    Rab GTPases play an essential role in vesicular transport by coordinating the movement of various types of cargo from one cellular compartment to another. Individual Rab GTPases are distributed to specific organelles and thus serve as markers for discrete types of endocytic vesicles. Mammalian reovirus binds to cell surface glycans and junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) and enters cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis in a process dependent on β1 integrin. Within organelles of the endocytic compartment, reovirus undergoes stepwise disassembly catalyzed by cathepsin proteases, which allows the disassembly intermediate to penetrate endosomal membranes and release the transcriptionally active viral core into the cytoplasm. The pathway used by reovirus to traverse the endocytic compartment is largely unknown. In this study, we found that reovirus particles traffic through early, late, and recycling endosomes during cell entry. After attachment to the cell surface, reovirus particles and JAM-A codistribute into each of these compartments. Transfection of cells with constitutively active and dominant-negative Rab GTPases that affect early and late endosome biogenesis and maturation influenced reovirus infectivity. In contrast, reovirus infectivity was not altered in cells expressing mutant Rab GTPases that affect recycling endosomes. Thus, reovirus virions localize to early, late, and recycling endosomes during entry into host cells, but only those that traverse early and late endosomes yield a productive infection. PMID:22674975

  4. Cell-Free Protein Synthesis Approach to Biosensing hTRβ-Specific Endocrine Disruptors.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Amin S M; Shakalli Tang, Miriam J; Smith, Mark T; Hunt, Jeremy M; Law, Robert A; Wood, David W; Bundy, Bradley C

    2017-03-21

    Here we introduce a Rapid Adaptable Portable In vitro Detection biosensor platform (RAPID) for detecting ligands that interact with nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs). The RAPID platform can be adapted for field use, allowing rapid evaluation of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) presence or absence in environmental samples, and can also be applied for drug screening. The biosensor is based on an engineered, allosterically activated fusion protein, which contains the ligand binding domain from a target NHR (human thyroid receptor β in this work). In vitro expression of this protein using cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) technology in the presence of an EDC leads to activation of a reporter enzyme, reported through a straightforward colorimetric assay output. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of this biosensor platform to be used in a portable "just-add-sample" format for near real-time detection. We also demonstrate the robust nature of the cell-free protein synthesis component in the presence of a variety of environmental and human samples, including sewage, blood, and urine. The presented RAPID biosensor platform is significantly faster and less labor intensive than commonly available technologies, making it a promising tool for detecting environmental EDC contamination and screening potential NHR-targeted pharmaceuticals.

  5. Characterization of purified endosomes containing the antidiuretic hormone-sensitive water channel from rat renal papilla.

    PubMed

    Harris, H W; Zeidel, M L; Jo, I; Hammond, T G

    1994-04-22

    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) stimulation of renal epithelial cells elicits a large increase in apical membrane osmotic water permeability (Pf) produced by the fusion of water channel containing vesicles with the apical membrane. Removal of ADH stimulation results in retrieval of apical water channels into a specialized non-acidic endosomal compartment. Previous studies (Sabolic, I., Wuarin, F., and Shi, L. B. (1992) J. Cell Biol. 119, 111-122) have shown that water channel containing papillary endosomes labeled with fluorescein-dextran can be isolated from rat renal papilla. We have utilized small particle flow sorting methodology to both monitor and improve upon the purification of these water channel containing endosomes (WCV). Flow cytometry analysis on a vesicle-by-vesicle basis demonstrates that WCV are homogeneous with respect to entrapped fluorescein-dextran, the apical membrane enzyme marker leucine amino peptidase and ultrastructural morphology. WCV do not acidify their luminal contents after addition of Mg-ATP but contain abundant functional water channels (Pf0.28 cm/s at 23 degrees C) as determined by stopped flow fluorimetry. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis shows that purified WCV are composed of 20 major protein bands. To determine the identity of WCV water channels, WCV proteins were probed with affinity purified antisera recognizing two renal water channel proteins. These include Aquaporin-CHIP found in the proximal tubule and thin descending limb of Henle and the candidate ADH water channel protein WCH-1 or Aquaporin- (AQP) CD present in the ADH-responsive epithelial cells of the collecting duct. These data reveal that WCV contained little or no AQP-CHIP protein. In contrast, WCV are highly enriched for AQP-CD protein. Together, these data define the protein composition of the papillary WCV and link directly the presence of functional apical membrane water channels with the presence of the AQP-CD protein.

  6. Cell-free selection of domain antibodies by in vitro compartmentalization.

    PubMed

    Sepp, Armin; Griffiths, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Efficient identification of antibodies, or any fragments thereof, displaying desired specificity and affinity is critical for the development of novel immunotherapeutics. Here we describe the adaptation of in vitro compartmentalization for the cell-free selection of Vκ and VH domain antibodies (dAbs™) from large combinatorial libraries. The dAbs™ are in vitro expressed in fusion to the N-terminus of single-chain variant of phage P22 Arc repressor DNA-binding domain that links the compartmentally expressed protein molecules to their encoding PCR fragment-based genes via cognate operator sites present on the DNA. Libraries of up to 10(10) in size can be rapidly assembled and selected for improved affinity in equilibrium and off-rate conditions.

  7. VZV infection of keratinocytes: production of cell-free infectious virions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Michael D; Gershon, Anne A

    2010-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the cause of varicella (chickenpox) and zoster (shingles). Varicella is a primary infection that spreads rapidly in epidemics while zoster is a secondary infection that occurs sporadically as a result of the reactivation of previously acquired VZV. Reactivation is made possible by the establishment of latency during the initial episode of varicella. The signature lesions of both varicella and zoster are cutaneous vesicles, which are filled with a clear fluid that is rich in infectious viral particles. It has been postulated that the skin is the critical organ in which both host-to-host transmission of VZV and the infection of neurons to establish latency occur. This hypothesis is built on evidence that the large cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR(ci)) interacts with VZV in virtually all infected cells, except those of the suprabasal epidermis, in a way that prevents the release of infectious viral particles. Specifically, the virus is diverted in an MPR(ci)-dependent manner from the secretory pathway to late endosomes where VZV is degraded. Because nonepidermal cells are thus prevented from releasing infectious VZV, a slow process, possibly involving fusion of infected cells with their neighbors, becomes the means by which VZV is disseminated. In the epidermis, however, the maturation of keratinocytes to give rise to corneocytes in the suprabasal epidermis is associated uniquely with a downregulation of the MPR(ci). As a result, the diversion of VZV to late endosomes does not occur in the suprabasal epidermis where vesicular lesions occur. The formation of the waterproof, chemically resistant barrier of the epidermis, however, requires that constitutive secretion outlast the downregulation of the endosomal pathway. Infectious VZV is therefore secreted by default, accounting for the presence of infectious virions in vesicular fluid. Sloughing of corneocytes, aided by scratching, then aerosolizes the virus, which can

  8. Endosome-ER Contacts Control Actin Nucleation and Retromer Function through VAP-Dependent Regulation of PI4P.

    PubMed

    Dong, Rui; Saheki, Yasunori; Swarup, Sharan; Lucast, Louise; Harper, J Wade; De Camilli, Pietro

    2016-07-14

    VAP (VAPA and VAPB) is an evolutionarily conserved endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored protein that helps generate tethers between the ER and other membranes through which lipids are exchanged across adjacent bilayers. Here, we report that by regulating PI4P levels on endosomes, VAP affects WASH-dependent actin nucleation on these organelles and the function of the retromer, a protein coat responsible for endosome-to-Golgi traffic. VAP is recruited to retromer budding sites on endosomes via an interaction with the retromer SNX2 subunit. Cells lacking VAP accumulate high levels of PI4P, actin comets, and trans-Golgi proteins on endosomes. Such defects are mimicked by downregulation of OSBP, a VAP interactor and PI4P transporter that participates in VAP-dependent ER-endosomes tethers. These results reveal a role of PI4P in retromer-/WASH-dependent budding from endosomes. Collectively, our data show how the ER can control budding dynamics and association with the cytoskeleton of another membrane by direct contacts leading to bilayer lipid modifications.

  9. Lipids as modulators of membrane fusion mediated by viral fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Teissier, Elodie; Pécheur, Eve-Isabelle

    2007-11-01

    Enveloped viruses infect host cells by fusion of viral and target membranes. This fusion event is triggered by specific glycoproteins in the viral envelope. Fusion glycoproteins belong to either class I, class II or the newly described third class, depending upon their arrangement at the surface of the virion, their tri-dimensional structure and the location within the protein of a short stretch of hydrophobic amino acids called the fusion peptide, which is able to induce the initial lipid destabilization at the onset of fusion. Viral fusion occurs either with the plasma membrane for pH-independent viruses, or with the endosomal membranes for pH-dependent viruses. Although, viral fusion proteins are parted in three classes and the subcellular localization of fusion might vary, these proteins have to act, in common, on lipid assemblies. Lipids contribute to fusion through their physical, mechanical and/or chemical properties. Lipids can thus play a role as chemically defined entities, or through their preferential partitioning into membrane microdomains called "rafts", or by modulating the curvature of the membranes involved in the fusion process. The purpose of this review is to make a state of the art on recent findings on the contribution of cholesterol, sphingolipids and glycolipids in cell entry and membrane fusion of a number of viral families, whose members bear either class I or class II fusion proteins, or fusion proteins of the recently discovered third class.

  10. Multivesicular Bodies Mature from the Trans-Golgi Network/Early Endosome in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Scheuring, David; Viotti, Corrado; Krüger, Falco; Künzl, Fabian; Sturm, Silke; Bubeck, Julia; Hillmer, Stefan; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Robinson, David G.; Pimpl, Peter; Schumacher, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The plant trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE) is a major hub for secretory and endocytic trafficking with complex molecular mechanisms controlling sorting and transport of cargo. Vacuolar transport from the TGN/EE to multivesicular bodies/late endosomes (MVBs/LEs) is assumed to occur via clathrin-coated vesicles, although direct proof for their participation is missing. Here, we present evidence that post-TGN transport toward lytic vacuoles occurs independently of clathrin and that MVBs/LEs are derived from the TGN/EE through maturation. We show that the V-ATPase inhibitor concanamycin A significantly reduces the number of MVBs and causes TGN and MVB markers to colocalize in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Ultrastructural analysis reveals the formation of MVBs from the TGN/EE and their fusion with the vacuole. The localization of the ESCRT components VPS28, VPS22, and VPS2 at the TGN/EE and MVBs/LEs indicates that the formation of intraluminal vesicles starts already at the TGN/EE. Accordingly, a dominant-negative mutant of VPS2 causes TGN and MVB markers to colocalize and blocks vacuolar transport. RNA interference–mediated knockdown of the annexin ANNAT3 also yields the same phenotype. Together, these data indicate that MVBs originate from the TGN/EE in a process that requires the action of ESCRT for the formation of intraluminal vesicles and annexins for the final step of releasing MVBs as a transport carrier to the vacuole. PMID:21934143

  11. Multivesicular endosomes containing internalized EGF-EGF receptor complexes mature and then fuse directly with lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We have followed the transfer of EGF-EGF receptor (EGFR) complexes from endosomal vacuoles that contain transferrin receptors (TfR) to lysosome vacuoles identified by their content of HRP loaded as a 15-min pulse 4 h previously. We show that the HRP-loaded lysosomes are lysosomal- associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) positive, mannose-6-phosphate receptor (M6PR) negative. and contain active acid hydrolase. EGF-EGFR complexes are delivered to these lysosomes intact and are then rapidly degraded. Preactivating the HRP contained within the preloaded lysosomes inhibits the delivery of EGFR and degradation of EGF, and results in the accumulation of EGFR-containing multivesicular bodies (MVB). With time these accumulating MVB undergo a series of maturation changes that include the loss of TfR, the continued recruitment of EGFR, and the accumulation of internal vesicles, but they remain LAMP-1 and M6PR negative. The mature MVB are often seen to make direct contact with lysosomes containing preactivated HRP, but their perimeter membranes remain intact. Together our observations suggest that the transfer of EGF-EGFR complexes from the TfR-containing endosome compartment to the lysosomes that degrade them employs a single vacuolar intermediate, the maturing MVB, and can be achieved by a single heterotypic fusion step. PMID:8601581

  12. Disrupting vesicular trafficking at the endosome attenuates transcriptional activation by Gcn4.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Gaur, Naseem A; Hasek, Jiri; Kim, Soon-ja; Qiu, Hongfang; Swanson, Mark J; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2008-11-01

    The late endosome (MVB) plays a key role in coordinating vesicular transport of proteins between the Golgi complex, vacuole/lysosome, and plasma membrane. We found that deleting multiple genes involved in vesicle fusion at the MVB (class C/D vps mutations) impairs transcriptional activation by Gcn4, a global regulator of amino acid biosynthetic genes, by decreasing the ability of chromatin-bound Gcn4 to stimulate preinitiation complex assembly at the promoter. The functions of hybrid activators with Gal4 or VP16 activation domains are diminished in class D mutants as well, suggesting a broader defect in activation. Class E vps mutations, which impair protein sorting at the MVB, also decrease activation by Gcn4, provided they elicit rapid proteolysis of MVB cargo proteins in the aberrant late endosome. By contrast, specifically impairing endocytic trafficking from the plasma membrane, or vesicular transport to the vacuole, has a smaller effect on Gcn4 function. Thus, it appears that decreasing cargo proteins in the MVB through impaired delivery or enhanced degradation, and not merely the failure to transport cargo properly to the vacuole or downregulate plasma membrane proteins by endocytosis, is required to attenuate substantially transcriptional activation by Gcn4.

  13. Endosomal sorting of VAMP3 is regulated by PI4K2A.

    PubMed

    Jović, Marko; Kean, Michelle J; Dubankova, Anna; Boura, Evzen; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Brill, Julie A; Balla, Tamas

    2014-09-01

    Specificity of membrane fusion in vesicular trafficking is dependent on proper subcellular distribution of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs). Although SNARE complexes are fairly promiscuous in vitro, substantial specificity is achieved in cells owing to the spatial segregation and shielding of SNARE motifs prior to association with cognate Q-SNAREs. In this study, we identified phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIα (PI4K2A) as a binding partner of vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP3), a small R-SNARE involved in recycling and retrograde transport, and found that the two proteins co-reside on tubulo-vesicular endosomes. PI4K2A knockdown inhibited VAMP3 trafficking to perinuclear membranes and impaired the rate of VAMP3-mediated recycling of the transferrin receptor. Moreover, depletion of PI4K2A significantly decreased association of VAMP3 with its cognate Q-SNARE Vti1a. Although binding of VAMP3 to PI4K2A did not require kinase activity, acute depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) on endosomes significantly delayed VAMP3 trafficking. Modulation of SNARE function by phospholipids had previously been proposed based on in vitro studies, and our study provides mechanistic evidence in support of these claims by identifying PI4K2A and PtdIns4P as regulators of an R-SNARE in intact cells.

  14. Sealable femtoliter chamber arrays for cell-free biology

    SciTech Connect

    Retterer, Scott T.; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Collier, Charles Patrick; Simpson, Michael L.; Norred, Sarah Elizabeth; Caveney, Patrick M.; Boreyko, Jonathan B.

    2015-03-11

    Cell-free systems provide a flexible platform for probing specific networks of biological reactions isolated from the complex resource sharing (e.g. global gene expression, cell division) encountered within living cells. However, such systems, used in conventional macro-scale bulk reactors, often fail to exhibit the dynamic behaviors and efficiencies characteristic of their living micro-scale counterparts. Understanding the impact of internal cell structure and scale on reaction dynamics is crucial to understanding complex gene networks. Here we report a microfabricated device that confines cell-free reactions in cellular scale volumes while allowing flexible characterization of the enclosed molecular system. This multilayered poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) device contains femtoliter-scale reaction chambers on an elastomeric membrane which can be actuated (open and closed). When actuated, the chambers confine Cell-Free Protein Synthesis (CFPS) reactions expressing a fluorescent protein, allowing for the visualization of the reaction kinetics over time using time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. Lastly, we demonstrate how this device may be used to measure the noise structure of CFPS reactions in a manner that is directly analogous to those used to characterize cellular systems, thereby enabling the use of noise biology techniques to characterize CFPS gene circuits and their interactions with the cell-free environment.

  15. Sealable Femtoliter Chamber Arrays for Cell-free Biology

    PubMed Central

    Norred, Sarah Elizabeth; Caveney, Patrick M.; Retterer, Scott T.; Boreyko, Jonathan B.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Collier, Charles Patrick; Simpson, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free systems provide a flexible platform for probing specific networks of biological reactions isolated from the complex resource sharing (e.g., global gene expression, cell division) encountered within living cells. However, such systems, used in conventional macro-scale bulk reactors, often fail to exhibit the dynamic behaviors and efficiencies characteristic of their living micro-scale counterparts. Understanding the impact of internal cell structure and scale on reaction dynamics is crucial to understanding complex gene networks. Here we report a microfabricated device that confines cell-free reactions in cellular scale volumes while allowing flexible characterization of the enclosed molecular system. This multilayered poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) device contains femtoliter-scale reaction chambers on an elastomeric membrane which can be actuated (open and closed). When actuated, the chambers confine Cell-Free Protein Synthesis (CFPS) reactions expressing a fluorescent protein, allowing for the visualization of the reaction kinetics over time using time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. Here we demonstrate how this device may be used to measure the noise structure of CFPS reactions in a manner that is directly analogous to those used to characterize cellular systems, thereby enabling the use of noise biology techniques used in cellular systems to characterize CFPS gene circuits and their interactions with the cell-free environment. PMID:25867144

  16. Sealable femtoliter chamber arrays for cell-free biology

    DOE PAGES

    Retterer, Scott T.; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Collier, Charles Patrick; ...

    2015-03-11

    Cell-free systems provide a flexible platform for probing specific networks of biological reactions isolated from the complex resource sharing (e.g. global gene expression, cell division) encountered within living cells. However, such systems, used in conventional macro-scale bulk reactors, often fail to exhibit the dynamic behaviors and efficiencies characteristic of their living micro-scale counterparts. Understanding the impact of internal cell structure and scale on reaction dynamics is crucial to understanding complex gene networks. Here we report a microfabricated device that confines cell-free reactions in cellular scale volumes while allowing flexible characterization of the enclosed molecular system. This multilayered poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) devicemore » contains femtoliter-scale reaction chambers on an elastomeric membrane which can be actuated (open and closed). When actuated, the chambers confine Cell-Free Protein Synthesis (CFPS) reactions expressing a fluorescent protein, allowing for the visualization of the reaction kinetics over time using time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. Lastly, we demonstrate how this device may be used to measure the noise structure of CFPS reactions in a manner that is directly analogous to those used to characterize cellular systems, thereby enabling the use of noise biology techniques to characterize CFPS gene circuits and their interactions with the cell-free environment.« less

  17. Sealable femtoliter chamber arrays for cell-free biology.

    PubMed

    Norred, Sarah Elizabeth; Caveney, Patrick M; Retterer, Scott T; Boreyko, Jonathan B; Fowlkes, Jason D; Collier, Charles Patrick; Simpson, Michael L

    2015-03-11

    Cell-free systems provide a flexible platform for probing specific networks of biological reactions isolated from the complex resource sharing (e.g., global gene expression, cell division) encountered within living cells. However, such systems, used in conventional macro-scale bulk reactors, often fail to exhibit the dynamic behaviors and efficiencies characteristic of their living micro-scale counterparts. Understanding the impact of internal cell structure and scale on reaction dynamics is crucial to understanding complex gene networks. Here we report a microfabricated device that confines cell-free reactions in cellular scale volumes while allowing flexible characterization of the enclosed molecular system. This multilayered poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) device contains femtoliter-scale reaction chambers on an elastomeric membrane which can be actuated (open and closed). When actuated, the chambers confine Cell-Free Protein Synthesis (CFPS) reactions expressing a fluorescent protein, allowing for the visualization of the reaction kinetics over time using time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. Here we demonstrate how this device may be used to measure the noise structure of CFPS reactions in a manner that is directly analogous to those used to characterize cellular systems, thereby enabling the use of noise biology techniques used in cellular systems to characterize CFPS gene circuits and their interactions with the cell-free environment.

  18. Cell-free cloning using φ29 DNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Clyde A.; Smith, Hamilton O.; Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Venter, J. Craig

    2005-01-01

    We describe conditions for rolling-circle amplification (RCA) of individual DNA molecules 5–7 kb in size by >109-fold, using φ29 DNA polymerase. The principal difficulty with amplification of small amounts of template by RCA using φ29 DNA polymerase is “background” DNA synthesis that usually occurs when template is omitted, or at low template concentrations. Reducing the reaction volume while keeping the amount of template fixed increases the template concentration, resulting in a suppression of background synthesis. Cell-free cloning of single circular molecules by using φ29 DNA polymerase was achieved by carrying out the amplification reactions in very small volumes, typically 600 nl. This procedure allows cell-free cloning of individual synthetic DNA molecules that cannot be cloned in Escherichia coli, for example synthetic phage genomes carrying lethal mutations. It also allows cell-free cloning of genomic DNA isolated from bacteria. This DNA can be sequenced directly from the φ29 DNA polymerase reaction without further amplification. In contrast to PCR amplification, RCA using φ29 DNA polymerase does not produce mutant jackpots, and the high processivity of the enzyme eliminates stuttering at homopolymer tracts. Cell-free cloning has many potential applications to both natural and synthetic DNA. These include environmental DNA samples that have proven difficult to clone and synthetic genes encoding toxic products. The method may also speed genome sequencing by eliminating the need for biological cloning. PMID:16286637

  19. Cell-free cloning using phi29 DNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Clyde A; Smith, Hamilton O; Pfannkoch, Cynthia; Venter, J Craig

    2005-11-29

    We describe conditions for rolling-circle amplification (RCA) of individual DNA molecules 5-7 kb in size by >10(9)-fold, using phi29 DNA polymerase. The principal difficulty with amplification of small amounts of template by RCA using phi29 DNA polymerase is "background" DNA synthesis that usually occurs when template is omitted, or at low template concentrations. Reducing the reaction volume while keeping the amount of template fixed increases the template concentration, resulting in a suppression of background synthesis. Cell-free cloning of single circular molecules by using phi29 DNA polymerase was achieved by carrying out the amplification reactions in very small volumes, typically 600 nl. This procedure allows cell-free cloning of individual synthetic DNA molecules that cannot be cloned in Escherichia coli, for example synthetic phage genomes carrying lethal mutations. It also allows cell-free cloning of genomic DNA isolated from bacteria. This DNA can be sequenced directly from the phi29 DNA polymerase reaction without further amplification. In contrast to PCR amplification, RCA using phi29 DNA polymerase does not produce mutant jackpots, and the high processivity of the enzyme eliminates stuttering at homopolymer tracts. Cell-free cloning has many potential applications to both natural and synthetic DNA. These include environmental DNA samples that have proven difficult to clone and synthetic genes encoding toxic products. The method may also speed genome sequencing by eliminating the need for biological cloning.

  20. The dengue virus type 2 envelope protein fusion peptide is essential for membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Butrapet, Siritorn; Moss, Kelly J.; Childers, Thomas; Erb, Steven M.; Calvert, Amanda E.; Silengo, Shawn J.; Kinney, Richard M.; Blair, Carol D.; Roehrig, John T.

    2010-01-20

    The flaviviral envelope (E) protein directs virus-mediated membrane fusion. To investigate membrane fusion as a requirement for virus growth, we introduced 27 unique mutations into the fusion peptide of an infectious cDNA clone of dengue 2 virus and recovered seven stable mutant viruses. The fusion efficiency of the mutants was impaired, demonstrating for the first time the requirement for specific FP AAs in optimal fusion. Mutant viruses exhibited different growth kinetics and/or genetic stabilities in different cell types and adult mosquitoes. Virus particles could be recovered following RNA transfection of cells with four lethal mutants; however, recovered viruses could not re-infect cells. These viruses could enter cells, but internalized virus appeared to be retained in endosomal compartments of infected cells, thus suggesting a fusion blockade. Mutations of the FP also resulted in reduced virus reactivity with flavivirus group-reactive antibodies, confirming earlier reports using virus-like particles.

  1. An endosomal tether undergoes an entropic collapse to bring vesicles together.

    PubMed

    Murray, David H; Jahnel, Marcus; Lauer, Janelle; Avellaneda, Mario J; Brouilly, Nicolas; Cezanne, Alice; Morales-Navarrete, Hernán; Perini, Enrico D; Ferguson, Charles; Lupas, Andrei N; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Parton, Robert G; Grill, Stephan W; Zerial, Marino

    2016-09-01

    An early step in intracellular transport is the selective recognition of a vesicle by its appropriate target membrane, a process regulated by Rab GTPases via the recruitment of tethering effectors. Membrane tethering confers higher selectivity and efficiency to membrane fusion than the pairing of SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) alone. Here we address the mechanism whereby a tethered vesicle comes closer towards its target membrane for fusion by reconstituting an endosomal asymmetric tethering machinery consisting of the dimeric coiled-coil protein EEA1 (refs 6, 7) recruited to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate membranes and binding vesicles harbouring Rab5. Surprisingly, structural analysis reveals that Rab5:GTP induces an allosteric conformational change in EEA1, from extended to flexible and collapsed. Through dynamic analysis by optical tweezers, we confirm that EEA1 captures a vesicle at a distance corresponding to its extended conformation, and directly measure its flexibility and the forces induced during the tethering reaction. Expression of engineered EEA1 variants defective in the conformational change induce prominent clusters of tethered vesicles in vivo. Our results suggest a new mechanism in which Rab5 induces a change in flexibility of EEA1, generating an entropic collapse force that pulls the captured vesicle towards the target membrane to initiate docking and fusion.

  2. An endosomal tether undergoes an entropic collapse to bring vesicles together

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Janelle; Avellaneda, Mario J.; Brouilly, Nicolas; Cezanne, Alice; Morales-Navarrete, Hernán; Perini, Enrico D.; Ferguson, Charles; Lupas, Andrei N.; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Parton, Robert G.; Grill, Stephan W.; Zerial, Marino

    2016-01-01

    An early step in intracellular transport is the selective recognition of a vesicle by its appropriate target membrane, a process regulated by Rab GTPases via the recruitment of tethering effectors1–4. Membrane tethering confers higher selectivity and efficiency to membrane fusion than the pairing of SNAREs alone5,6,7. Here, we addressed the mechanism whereby a tethered vesicle comes closer towards its target membrane for fusion by reconstituting an endosomal asymmetric tethering machinery consisting of the dimeric coiled-coil protein EEA16,7 recruited to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate membranes and binding vesicles harboring Rab5. Surprisingly, structural analysis revealed that Rab5:GTP induces an allosteric conformational change in EEA1, from extended to flexible and collapsed. Through dynamic analysis by optical tweezers we confirmed that EEA1 captures a vesicle at a distance corresponding to its extended conformation, and directly measured its flexibility and the forces induced during the tethering reaction. Expression of engineered EEA1 variants defective in the conformational change induced prominent clusters of tethered vesicles in vivo. Our results suggest a new mechanism in which Rab5 induces a change in flexibility of EEA1, generating an entropic collapse force that pulls the captured vesicle toward the target membrane to initiate docking and fusion. PMID:27556945

  3. Pep7p provides a novel protein that functions in vesicle-mediated transport between the yeast Golgi and endosome.

    PubMed

    Webb, G C; Zhang, J; Garlow, S J; Wesp, A; Riezman, H; Jones, E W

    1997-05-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae pep7 mutants are defective in transport of soluble vacuolar hydrolases to the lysosome-like vacuole. PEP7 is a nonessential gene that encodes a hydrophilic protein of 515 amino acids. A cysteine-rich tripartite motif in the N-terminal half of the polypeptide shows striking similarity to sequences found in many other eukaryotic proteins. Several of these proteins are thought to function in the vacuolar/lysosomal pathway. Mutations that change highly conserved cysteine residues in this motif lead to a loss of Pep7p function. Kinetic studies demonstrate that Pep7p function is required for the transport of the Golgi-precursors of the soluble hydrolases carboxypeptidase Y, proteinase A, and proteinase B to the endosome. Integral membrane hydrolase alkaline phosphatase is transported to the vacuole by a parallel intracellular pathway that does not require Pep7p function. pep7 mutants accumulate a 40-60-nm vesicle population, suggesting that Pep7p functions in a vesicle consumption step in vesicle-mediated transport of soluble hydrolases to the endosome. Whereas pep7 mutants demonstrate no defects in endocytic uptake at the plasma membrane, the mutants demonstrate defects in transport of receptor-mediated macromolecules through the endocytic pathway. Localization studies indicate that Pep7p is found both as a soluble cytoplasmic protein and associated with particulate fractions. We conclude that Pep7p functions as a novel regulator of vesicle docking and/or fusion at the endosome.

  4. Pep7p provides a novel protein that functions in vesicle-mediated transport between the yeast Golgi and endosome.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, G C; Zhang, J; Garlow, S J; Wesp, A; Riezman, H; Jones, E W

    1997-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae pep7 mutants are defective in transport of soluble vacuolar hydrolases to the lysosome-like vacuole. PEP7 is a nonessential gene that encodes a hydrophilic protein of 515 amino acids. A cysteine-rich tripartite motif in the N-terminal half of the polypeptide shows striking similarity to sequences found in many other eukaryotic proteins. Several of these proteins are thought to function in the vacuolar/lysosomal pathway. Mutations that change highly conserved cysteine residues in this motif lead to a loss of Pep7p function. Kinetic studies demonstrate that Pep7p function is required for the transport of the Golgi-precursors of the soluble hydrolases carboxypeptidase Y, proteinase A, and proteinase B to the endosome. Integral membrane hydrolase alkaline phosphatase is transported to the vacuole by a parallel intracellular pathway that does not require Pep7p function. pep7 mutants accumulate a 40-60-nm vesicle population, suggesting that Pep7p functions in a vesicle consumption step in vesicle-mediated transport of soluble hydrolases to the endosome. Whereas pep7 mutants demonstrate no defects in endocytic uptake at the plasma membrane, the mutants demonstrate defects in transport of receptor-mediated macromolecules through the endocytic pathway. Localization studies indicate that Pep7p is found both as a soluble cytoplasmic protein and associated with particulate fractions. We conclude that Pep7p functions as a novel regulator of vesicle docking and/or fusion at the endosome. Images PMID:9168472

  5. Lipid peroxidation causes endosomal antigen release for cross-presentation

    PubMed Central

    Dingjan, Ilse; Verboogen, Daniëlle RJ; Paardekooper, Laurent M; Revelo, Natalia H; Sittig, Simone P; Visser, Linda J; Mollard, Gabriele Fischer von; Henriet, Stefanie SV; Figdor, Carl G; ter Beest, Martin; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) present foreign antigen in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules to cytotoxic T cells in a process called cross-presentation. An important step in this process is the release of antigen from the lumen of endosomes into the cytosol, but the mechanism of this step is still unclear. In this study, we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the NADPH-oxidase complex NOX2 cause lipid peroxidation, a membrane disrupting chain-reaction, which in turn results in antigen leakage from endosomes. Antigen leakage and cross-presentation were inhibited by blocking ROS production or scavenging radicals and induced when using a ROS-generating photosensitizer. Endosomal antigen release was impaired in DCs from chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients with dysfunctional NOX2. Thus, NOX2 induces antigen release from endosomes for cross-presentation by direct oxidation of endosomal lipids. This constitutes a new cellular function for ROS in regulating immune responses against pathogens and cancer. PMID:26907999

  6. Enhancing Endosomal Escape for Intracellular Delivery of Macromolecular Biologic Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lönn, Peter; Kacsinta, Apollo D.; Cui, Xian-Shu; Hamil, Alexander S.; Kaulich, Manuel; Gogoi, Khirud; Dowdy, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive macromolecular peptides and oligonucleotides have significant therapeutic potential. However, due to their size, they have no ability to enter the cytoplasm of cells. Peptide/Protein transduction domains (PTDs), also called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), can promote uptake of macromolecules via endocytosis. However, overcoming the rate-limiting step of endosomal escape into the cytoplasm remains a major challenge. Hydrophobic amino acid R groups are known to play a vital role in viral escape from endosomes. Here we utilize a real-time, quantitative live cell split-GFP fluorescence complementation phenotypic assay to systematically analyze and optimize a series of synthetic endosomal escape domains (EEDs). By conjugating EEDs to a TAT-PTD/CPP spilt-GFP peptide complementation assay, we were able to quantitatively measure endosomal escape into the cytoplasm of live cells via restoration of GFP fluorescence by intracellular molecular complementation. We found that EEDs containing two aromatic indole rings or one indole ring and two aromatic phenyl groups at a fixed distance of six polyethylene glycol (PEG) units from the TAT-PTD-cargo significantly enhanced cytoplasmic delivery in the absence of cytotoxicity. EEDs address the critical rate-limiting step of endosomal escape in delivery of macromolecular biologic peptide, protein and siRNA therapeutics into cells. PMID:27604151

  7. Enhancing Endosomal Escape for Intracellular Delivery of Macromolecular Biologic Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lönn, Peter; Kacsinta, Apollo D; Cui, Xian-Shu; Hamil, Alexander S; Kaulich, Manuel; Gogoi, Khirud; Dowdy, Steven F

    2016-09-08

    Bioactive macromolecular peptides and oligonucleotides have significant therapeutic potential. However, due to their size, they have no ability to enter the cytoplasm of cells. Peptide/Protein transduction domains (PTDs), also called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), can promote uptake of macromolecules via endocytosis. However, overcoming the rate-limiting step of endosomal escape into the cytoplasm remains a major challenge. Hydrophobic amino acid R groups are known to play a vital role in viral escape from endosomes. Here we utilize a real-time, quantitative live cell split-GFP fluorescence complementation phenotypic assay to systematically analyze and optimize a series of synthetic endosomal escape domains (EEDs). By conjugating EEDs to a TAT-PTD/CPP spilt-GFP peptide complementation assay, we were able to quantitatively measure endosomal escape into the cytoplasm of live cells via restoration of GFP fluorescence by intracellular molecular complementation. We found that EEDs containing two aromatic indole rings or one indole ring and two aromatic phenyl groups at a fixed distance of six polyethylene glycol (PEG) units from the TAT-PTD-cargo significantly enhanced cytoplasmic delivery in the absence of cytotoxicity. EEDs address the critical rate-limiting step of endosomal escape in delivery of macromolecular biologic peptide, protein and siRNA therapeutics into cells.

  8. Lipid peroxidation causes endosomal antigen release for cross-presentation.

    PubMed

    Dingjan, Ilse; Verboogen, Daniëlle Rj; Paardekooper, Laurent M; Revelo, Natalia H; Sittig, Simone P; Visser, Linda J; Mollard, Gabriele Fischer von; Henriet, Stefanie Sv; Figdor, Carl G; Ter Beest, Martin; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2016-02-24

    Dendritic cells (DCs) present foreign antigen in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules to cytotoxic T cells in a process called cross-presentation. An important step in this process is the release of antigen from the lumen of endosomes into the cytosol, but the mechanism of this step is still unclear. In this study, we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the NADPH-oxidase complex NOX2 cause lipid peroxidation, a membrane disrupting chain-reaction, which in turn results in antigen leakage from endosomes. Antigen leakage and cross-presentation were inhibited by blocking ROS production or scavenging radicals and induced when using a ROS-generating photosensitizer. Endosomal antigen release was impaired in DCs from chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients with dysfunctional NOX2. Thus, NOX2 induces antigen release from endosomes for cross-presentation by direct oxidation of endosomal lipids. This constitutes a new cellular function for ROS in regulating immune responses against pathogens and cancer.

  9. Rubicon controls endosome maturation as a Rab7 effector.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiming; Westphal, Wiebke; Wong, Kwun Ngok; Tan, Irena; Zhong, Qing

    2010-11-09

    The activation and recruitment of the small GTPase Rab7 to early endosome is a critical step for early to late endosome maturation, a process that requires the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3KC3) and GTPase regulators. However, the molecular mechanism underlying Rab7 activation and endosome maturation is still poorly defined. Here we report that Rubicon, a component of the PI3KC3 complex, prevents endosome maturation through differential interactions with Rab7 and UVRAG. UVRAG activates PI3KC3 and C-VPS/HOPS, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP on Rab7. We demonstrate that Rubicon sequesters UVRAG from C-VPS/HOPS. Active GTP-bound Rab7 competes for Rubicon binding and releases UVRAG to associate with C-VPS/HOPS, which in turn promotes further loading of Rab7 with GTP. This feed-forward loop ensures rapid amplification of GTP-bound Rab7 and consequent stimulation of endosome maturation. Hence, Rubicon serves as a previously unknown Rab7 effector to ensure the proper progression of the endocytic pathway.

  10. Autophagy Induced by Calcium Phosphate Precipitates Targets Damaged Endosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Khambu, Bilon; Zhang, Hao; Gao, Wentao; Li, Min; Chen, Xiaoyun; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Yin, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate precipitates (CPPs) form complexes with DNA, which enter cells via endocytosis. Under this condition CPPs induce autophagy via the canonic autophagy machinery. Here we showed that CPP-induced autophagy was also dependent on endocytosis as the process was significantly inhibited by methyl-β-cyclodextrin and dynasore, which suppress clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Consistently, CPP treatment triggered the formation of filipin-positive intracellular vesicles whose membranes are rich in cholesterol. Unexpectedly, these vesicles were also positive for galectin 3, suggesting that they were damaged and the membrane glycans became accessible to galectins to bind. Endosome damage was caused by endocytosis of CPPs and was reversed by calcium chelators or by endocytosis inhibitors. Notably, CPP-induced LC3-positive autophagosomes were colocalized with galectin 3, ubiquitin, and p62/SQSTM1. Inhibition of galectin 3 reduced p62 puncta and autophagosome formation. Knockdown of p62 additionally inhibited the colocalization of autophagosomes with galectins. Furthermore, most of the galectin 3-positive vesicles were colocalized with Rab7 or LAMP1. Agents that affect endosome/lysosome maturation and function, such as bafilomycin A1, also significantly affected CPP-induced tubulovesicular autophagosome formation. These findings thus indicate that endocytosed CPPs caused endosome damage and recruitment of galectins, particularly at the later endosome stage, which led to the interaction of the autophagosomal membranes with the damaged endosome in the presence of p62. PMID:24619419

  11. Rab11-endosomes contribute to mitotic spindle orientation

    PubMed Central

    Hehnly, Heidi; Doxsey, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    During interphase, Rab11-GTPase-containing endosomes recycle endocytic cargo. However, little is known about Rab11 and endosomes in mitosis. Here we show that Rab11 localizes to the mitotic spindle and regulates dynein-dependent endosome localization at poles. We found that mitotic recycling endosomes bind γ-TuRC components and associate with tubulin in vitro. Rab11-depletion or dominant-negative Rab11 expression disrupts astral microtubules, delays mitosis, and redistributes spindle pole proteins. Reciprocally, constitutively-active Rab11 increases astral microtubules, restores γ-tubulin spindle pole localization and generates robust spindles. This suggests a fundamental role for Rab11 activity in spindle pole maturation during mitosis. Rab11 depletion causes misorientation of the mitotic spindle and the plane of cell division. These findings suggest a molecular mechanism for the organization of astral microtubules and the mitotic spindle through Rab11-dependent control of spindle pole assembly and function. We propose that Rab11 and its associated endosomes co-contribute to these processes through retrograde transport to poles by dynein. PMID:24561039

  12. Enhancing endosomal escape for nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Da

    2014-05-01

    Gene therapy with siRNA is a promising biotechnology to treat cancer and other diseases. To realize siRNA-based gene therapy, a safe and efficient delivery method is essential. Nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery is of great importance to overcome biological barriers for systemic delivery in vivo. Based on recent discoveries, endosomal escape is a critical biological barrier to be overcome for siRNA delivery. This feature article focuses on endosomal escape strategies used for nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery, including cationic polymers, pH sensitive polymers, calcium phosphate, and cell penetrating peptides. Work has been done to develop different endosomal escape strategies based on nanoparticle types, administration routes, and target organ/cell types. Also, enhancement of endosomal escape has been considered along with other aspects of siRNA delivery to ensure target specific accumulation, high cell uptake, and low toxicity. By enhancing endosomal escape and overcoming other biological barriers, great progress has been achieved in nanoparticle mediated siRNA delivery.

  13. Rice SCAMP1 defines clathrin-coated, trans-golgi-located tubular-vesicular structures as an early endosome in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sheung Kwan; Siu, Ching Lung; Hillmer, Stefan; Jang, Seonghoe; An, Gynheung; Robinson, David G; Jiang, Liwen

    2007-01-01

    We recently identified multivesicular bodies (MVBs) as prevacuolar compartments (PVCs) in the secretory and endocytic pathways to the lytic vacuole in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells. Secretory carrier membrane proteins (SCAMPs) are post-Golgi, integral membrane proteins mediating endocytosis in animal cells. To define the endocytic pathway in plants, we cloned the rice (Oryza sativa) homolog of animal SCAMP1 and generated transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-SCAMP1 or SCAMP1-YFP fusions. Confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy studies demonstrated that YFP-SCAMP1 fusions and native SCAMP1 localize to the plasma membrane and mobile structures in the cytoplasm of transgenic BY-2 cells. Drug treatments and confocal immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that the punctate cytosolic organelles labeled by YFP-SCAMP1 or SCAMP1 were distinct from the Golgi apparatus and PVCs. SCAMP1-labeled organelles may represent an early endosome because the internalized endocytic markers FM4-64 and AM4-64 reached these organelles before PVCs. In addition, wortmannin caused the redistribution of SCAMP1 from the early endosomes to PVCs, probably as a result of fusions between the two compartments. Immunogold electron microscopy with high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted samples identified the SCAMP1-positive organelles as tubular-vesicular structures at the trans-Golgi with clathrin coats. These early endosomal compartments resemble the previously described partially coated reticulum and trans-Golgi network in plant cells.

  14. Influenza Virus-Mediated Membrane Fusion: Determinants of Hemagglutinin Fusogenic Activity and Experimental Approaches for Assessing Virus Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Brian S.; Whittaker, Gary R.; Daniel, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) is the viral protein that facilitates the entry of influenza viruses into host cells. This protein controls two critical aspects of entry: virus binding and membrane fusion. In order for HA to carry out these functions, it must first undergo a priming step, proteolytic cleavage, which renders it fusion competent. Membrane fusion commences from inside the endosome after a drop in lumenal pH and an ensuing conformational change in HA that leads to the hemifusion of the outer membrane leaflets of the virus and endosome, the formation of a stalk between them, followed by pore formation. Thus, the fusion machinery is an excellent target for antiviral compounds, especially those that target the conserved stem region of the protein. However, traditional ensemble fusion assays provide a somewhat limited ability to directly quantify fusion partly due to the inherent averaging of individual fusion events resulting from experimental constraints. Inspired by the gains achieved by single molecule experiments and analysis of stochastic events, recently-developed individual virion imaging techniques and analysis of single fusion events has provided critical information about individual virion behavior, discriminated intermediate fusion steps within a single virion, and allowed the study of the overall population dynamics without the loss of discrete, individual information. In this article, we first start by reviewing the determinants of HA fusogenic activity and the viral entry process, highlight some open questions, and then describe the experimental approaches for assaying fusion that will be useful in developing the most effective therapies in the future. PMID:22852045

  15. Endosomal Escape and Transfection Efficiency of PEGylated Cationic Lipid–DNA Complexes Prepared with an Acid-Labile PEG-Lipid

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chia-Ling; Majzoub, Ramsey N.; Shirazi, Rahau S.; Ewert, Kai K.; Chen, Yen-Ju; Liang, Keng S.

    2012-01-01

    Cationic liposome–DNA (CL–DNA) complexes are being pursued as nonviral gene delivery systems for use in applications that include clinic trials. However, to compete with viral vectors for systemic delivery in vivo, their efficiencies and pharmacokinetics need to be improved. The addition of poly (ethylene glycol)-lipids (PEGylation) prolongs circulation lifetimes of liposomes, but inhibits cellular uptake and endosomal escape of CL–DNA complexes. We show that this limits their transfection efficiency (TE) in a manner dependent on the amount of PEG-lipid, the lipid/DNA charge ratio, and the lipid membrane charge density. To improve endosomal escape of PEGylated CL–DNA complexes, we prepared an acid-labile PEG-lipid (HPEG2K-lipid, PEG MW 2000) which is designed to lose its PEG chains at the pH of late endosomes. The HPEG2K-lipid and a similar but acid-stable PEG-lipid were used to prepare PEGylated CL–DNA complexes. TLC and dynamic light scattering showed that HPEG2K-CL–DNA complexes are stable at pH 7.4 for more than 24 hours, but the PEG chains are cleaved at pH 5 within one hour, leading to complex aggregation. The acid-labile HPEG2K-CL–DNA complexes showed enhanced TE over complexes stabilized with the acid-stable PEG-lipid. Live-cell imaging showed that both types of complexes were internalized to quantitatively similar particle distributions within the first 2 hours of incubation with cells. Thus, we attribute the increased TE of the HPEG2K-CL–DNA complexes to efficient endosomal escape, enabled by the acid-labile HPEG2K-lipid which sheds its PEG chains in the low-pH environment of late endosomes, effectively switching on the electrostatic interactions that promote fusion of the membranes of complex and endosome. PMID:22469293

  16. Old world arenaviruses enter the host cell via the multivesicular body and depend on the endosomal sorting complex required for transport.

    PubMed

    Pasqual, Giulia; Rojek, Jillian M; Masin, Mark; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Kunz, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    The highly pathogenic Old World arenavirus Lassa virus (LASV) and the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) use α-dystroglycan as a cellular receptor and enter the host cell by an unusual endocytotic pathway independent of clathrin, caveolin, dynamin, and actin. Upon internalization, the viruses are delivered to acidified endosomes in a Rab5-independent manner bypassing classical routes of incoming vesicular trafficking. Here we sought to identify cellular factors involved in the unusual and largely unknown entry pathway of LASV and LCMV. Cell entry of LASV and LCMV required microtubular transport to late endosomes, consistent with the low fusion pH of the viral envelope glycoproteins. Productive infection with recombinant LCMV expressing LASV envelope glycoprotein (rLCMV-LASVGP) and LCMV depended on phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K) as well as lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), an unusual phospholipid that is involved in the formation of intraluminal vesicles (ILV) of the multivesicular body (MVB) of the late endosome. We provide evidence for a role of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) in LASV and LCMV cell entry, in particular the ESCRT components Hrs, Tsg101, Vps22, and Vps24, as well as the ESCRT-associated ATPase Vps4 involved in fission of ILV. Productive infection with rLCMV-LASVGP and LCMV also critically depended on the ESCRT-associated protein Alix, which is implicated in membrane dynamics of the MVB/late endosomes. Our study identifies crucial cellular factors implicated in Old World arenavirus cell entry and indicates that LASV and LCMV invade the host cell passing via the MVB/late endosome. Our data further suggest that the virus-receptor complexes undergo sorting into ILV of the MVB mediated by the ESCRT, possibly using a pathway that may be linked to the cellular trafficking and degradation of the cellular receptor.

  17. The Salih ataxia mutation impairs Rubicon endosomal localization.

    PubMed

    Assoum, M; Salih, M A; Drouot, N; Hnia, K; Martelli, A; Koenig, M

    2013-12-01

    We previously described a new form of recessive ataxia, Salih ataxia, in a large consanguineous Saudi Arabian family with three affected children carrying a new identified mutation in the KIAA0226 gene (c.2624delC; p.Ala875ValfsX146) coding for Rubicon. The pathogenicity of such mutation remains to be identified. Hence, we address the cellular impact of Rubicon p.Ala875ValfsX146 on endosomal/lysosomal machinery on cultured cells. We confirm that Rubicon colocalizes with the late endosome marker Rab7 and demonstrate that it also colocalizes with LampI at lysosomes. The Salih ataxia mutation leads to a diffuse cytosolic distribution and mislocalized protein from the late endosomes, indicating that deletion of the diacylglycerol binding-like motif in the mutant protein interferes with normal Rubicon subcellular localization and confirming the pathogenicity of the mutation.

  18. Sara endosomes and the asymmetric division of intestinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Montagne, Chrystelle; Gonzalez-Gaitan, Marcos

    2014-05-01

    Tissue homeostasis is maintained by adult stem cells, which self-renew and give rise to differentiating cells. The generation of daughter cells with different fates is mediated by signalling molecules coming from an external niche or being asymmetrically dispatched between the two daughters upon stem cell mitosis. In the adult Drosophila midgut, the intestinal stem cell (ISC) divides to generate a new ISC and an enteroblast (EB) differentiating daughter. Notch signalling activity restricted to the EB regulates intestinal cell fate decision. Here, we show that ISCs divide asymmetrically, and Sara endosomes in ISCs are specifically dispatched to the presumptive EB. During ISC mitosis, Notch and Delta traffic through Sara endosomes, thereby contributing to Notch signalling bias, as revealed in Sara mutants: Sara itself contributes to the control of the ISC asymmetric division. Our data uncover an intrinsic endosomal mechanism during ISC mitosis, which participates in the maintenance of the adult intestinal lineage.

  19. Cell-free reconstitution of vacuole membrane fragmentation reveals regulation of vacuole size and number by TORC1

    PubMed Central

    Michaillat, Lydie; Baars, Tonie Luise; Mayer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Size and copy number of organelles are influenced by an equilibrium of membrane fusion and fission. We studied this equilibrium on vacuoles—the lysosomes of yeast. Vacuole fusion can readily be reconstituted and quantified in vitro, but it had not been possible to study fission of the organelle in a similar way. Here we present a cell-free system that reconstitutes fragmentation of purified yeast vacuoles (lysosomes) into smaller vesicles. Fragmentation in vitro reproduces physiological aspects. It requires the dynamin-like GTPase Vps1p, V-ATPase pump activity, cytosolic proteins, and ATP and GTP hydrolysis. We used the in vitro system to show that the vacuole-associated TOR complex 1 (TORC1) stimulates vacuole fragmentation but not the opposing reaction of vacuole fusion. Under nutrient restriction, TORC1 is inactivated, and the continuing fusion activity then dominates the fusion/fission equilibrium, decreasing the copy number and increasing the volume of the vacuolar compartment. This result can explain why nutrient restriction not only induces autophagy and a massive buildup of vacuolar/lysosomal hydrolases, but also leads to a concomitant increase in volume of the vacuolar compartment by coalescence of the organelles into a single large compartment. PMID:22238359

  20. Cell-free reconstitution of vacuole membrane fragmentation reveals regulation of vacuole size and number by TORC1.

    PubMed

    Michaillat, Lydie; Baars, Tonie Luise; Mayer, Andreas

    2012-03-01

    Size and copy number of organelles are influenced by an equilibrium of membrane fusion and fission. We studied this equilibrium on vacuoles-the lysosomes of yeast. Vacuole fusion can readily be reconstituted and quantified in vitro, but it had not been possible to study fission of the organelle in a similar way. Here we present a cell-free system that reconstitutes fragmentation of purified yeast vacuoles (lysosomes) into smaller vesicles. Fragmentation in vitro reproduces physiological aspects. It requires the dynamin-like GTPase Vps1p, V-ATPase pump activity, cytosolic proteins, and ATP and GTP hydrolysis. We used the in vitro system to show that the vacuole-associated TOR complex 1 (TORC1) stimulates vacuole fragmentation but not the opposing reaction of vacuole fusion. Under nutrient restriction, TORC1 is inactivated, and the continuing fusion activity then dominates the fusion/fission equilibrium, decreasing the copy number and increasing the volume of the vacuolar compartment. This result can explain why nutrient restriction not only induces autophagy and a massive buildup of vacuolar/lysosomal hydrolases, but also leads to a concomitant increase in volume of the vacuolar compartment by coalescence of the organelles into a single large compartment.

  1. Identification of Regulatory and Cargo Proteins of Endosomal and Secretory Pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana by Proteomic Dissection*

    PubMed Central

    Heard, William; Sklenář, Jan; Tomé, Daniel F. A.; Robatzek, Silke; Jones, Alexandra M. E.

    2015-01-01

    The cell's endomembranes comprise an intricate, highly dynamic and well-organized system. In plants, the proteins that regulate function of the various endomembrane compartments and their cargo remain largely unknown. Our aim was to dissect subcellular trafficking routes by enriching for partially overlapping subpopulations of endosomal proteomes associated with endomembrane markers. We selected RABD2a/ARA5, RABF2b/ARA7, RABF1/ARA6, and RABG3f as markers for combinations of the Golgi, trans-Golgi network (TGN), early endosomes (EE), secretory vesicles, late endosomes (LE), multivesicular bodies (MVB), and the tonoplast. As comparisons we used Golgi transport 1 (GOT1), which localizes to the Golgi, clathrin light chain 2 (CLC2) labeling clathrin-coated vesicles and pits and the vesicle-associated membrane protein 711 (VAMP711) present at the tonoplast. We developed an easy-to-use method by refining published protocols based on affinity purification of fluorescent fusion constructs to these seven subcellular marker proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. We present a total of 433 proteins, only five of which were shared among all enrichments, while many proteins were common between endomembrane compartments of the same trafficking route. Approximately half, 251 proteins, were assigned to one enrichment only. Our dataset contains known regulators of endosome functions including small GTPases, SNAREs, and tethering complexes. We identify known cargo proteins such as PIN3, PEN3, CESA, and the recently defined TPLATE complex. The subcellular localization of two GTPase regulators predicted from our enrichments was validated using live-cell imaging. This is the first proteomic dataset to discriminate between such highly overlapping endomembrane compartments in plants and can be used as a general proteomic resource to predict the localization of proteins and identify the components of regulatory complexes and provides a useful tool for the identification of new protein

  2. Big fusion, little fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Frank; ddtuttle

    2016-08-01

    In reply to correspondence from George Scott and Adam Costley about the Physics World focus issue on nuclear energy, and to news of construction delays at ITER, the fusion reactor being built in France.

  3. Cell-free vascular grafts: Recent developments and clinical potential.

    PubMed

    Row, Sindhu; Santandreu, Ana; Swartz, Daniel D; Andreadis, Stelios T

    2017-03-01

    Recent advances in vascular tissue engineering have led to the development of cell-free grafts that are available off-the-shelf for on demand surgery. Challenges associated with cell-based technologies including cell sourcing, cell expansion and long-term bioreactor culture motivated the development of completely cell-free vascular grafts. These are based on decellularized arteries, decellularized cultured cell-based tissue engineered grafts or biomaterials functionalized with biological signals that promote in situ tissue regeneration. Clinical trials undertaken to demonstrate the applicability of these grafts are also discussed. This comprehensive review summarizes recent developments in vascular graft technologies, with potential applications in coronary artery bypass procedures, lower extremity bypass, vascular injury and trauma, congenital heart diseases and dialysis access shunts, to name a few.

  4. Cell-Free, De Nova Synthesis of Poliovirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molla, Akhteruzzaman; Paul, Aniko V.; Wimmer, Eckard

    1991-12-01

    Cell-free translation of poliovirus RNA in an extract of uninfected human (HeLa) cells yielded viral proteins through proteolysis of the polyprotein. In the extract, newly synthesized proteins catalyzed poliovirus-specific RNA synthesis, and formed infectious poliovirus de novo. Newly formed virions were neutralized by type-specific antiserum, and infection of human cells with them was prevented by poliovirus receptor-specific antibodies. Poliovirus synthesis was increased nearly 70-fold when nucleoside triphosphates were added, but it was abolished in the presence of inhibitors of translation or viral genome replication. The ability to conduct cell-free synthesis of poliovirus will aid in the study of picornavirus proliferation and in the search for the control of picornaviral disease.

  5. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-06-01

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds’ escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds’ cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier.

  6. Physiology and pathology of endosome-to-Golgi retrograde sorting.

    PubMed

    Burd, Christopher G

    2011-08-01

    Bidirectional traffic between the Golgi apparatus and the endosomal system sustains the functions of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in secretion and organelle biogenesis. Export of cargo from the TGN via anterograde trafficking pathways depletes the organelle of sorting receptors, processing proteases, SNARE molecules, and other factors, and these are subsequently retrieved from endosomes via the retrograde pathway. Recent studies indicate that retrograde trafficking is vital to early metazoan development, nutrient homeostasis, and for processes that protect against Alzheimer's and other neurological diseases.

  7. Cryptosporidium parvum DNA replication in cell-free culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Sheoran, A S; Widmer, G

    2009-10-01

    The lack of robust methods for culturing Cryptosporidium parasites remains a major challenge and is hampering efforts to screen for anti-cryptosporidial drugs. In existing culture methods, monolayers of mammalian epithelial cells are inoculated with oocysts. The system supports an initial phase of asexual proliferation of the parasite. For reasons that are not clear, development rapidly declines within 2-3 days. The unexpected report of Cryptosporidium parvum culture in the absence of host cells, and the failure of others to reproduce the method, prompted us to apply quantitative PCR to measure changes in C. parvum DNA levels in cell-free cultures, and parasite-specific antibodies to identify different life cycle stages. Based on this approach, which has not been applied previously to analyze C. parvum growth in cell-free culture, we found that the concentration of C. parvum DNA increased by about 5-fold over 5 days of culture. Immuno-labeling of cultured organisms revealed morphologically distinct stages, only some of which reacted with Cryptosporidium-specific monoclonal antibodies. These observations are indicative of a modest proliferation of C. parvum in cell-free culture.

  8. AP-1 and KIF13A coordinate endosomal sorting and positioning during melanosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Delevoye, Cédric; Hurbain, Ilse; Tenza, Danièle; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Uzan-Gafsou, Stéphanie; Ohno, Hiroshi; Geerts, Willie J C; Verkleij, Arie J; Salamero, Jean; Marks, Michael S; Raposo, Graça

    2009-10-19

    Specialized cell types exploit endosomal trafficking to deliver protein cargoes to cell type-specific lysosome-related organelles (LROs), but how endosomes are specified for this function is not known. In this study, we show that the clathrin adaptor AP-1 and the kinesin motor KIF13A together create peripheral recycling endosomal subdomains in melanocytes required for cargo delivery to maturing melanosomes. In cells depleted of AP-1 or KIF13A, a subpopulation of recycling endosomes redistributes to pericentriolar clusters, resulting in sequestration of melanosomal enzymes like Tyrp1 in vacuolar endosomes and consequent inhibition of melanin synthesis and melanosome maturation. Immunocytochemistry, live cell imaging, and electron tomography reveal AP-1- and KIF13A-dependent dynamic close appositions and continuities between peripheral endosomal tubules and melanosomes. Our results reveal that LRO protein sorting is coupled to cell type-specific positioning of endosomes that facilitate endosome-LRO contacts and are required for organelle maturation.

  9. Biomechanics and Thermodynamics of Nanoparticle Interactions with Plasma and Endosomal Membrane Lipids in Cellular Uptake and Endosomal Escape

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To be effective for cytoplasmic delivery of therapeutics, nanoparticles (NPs) taken up via endocytic pathways must efficiently transport across the cell membrane and subsequently escape from the secondary endosomes. We hypothesized that the biomechanical and thermodynamic interactions of NPs with plasma and endosomal membrane lipids are involved in these processes. Using model plasma and endosomal lipid membranes, we compared the interactions of cationic NPs composed of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) modified with the dichain surfactant didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) or the single-chain surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) vs anionic unmodified NPs of similar size. We validated our hypothesis in doxorubicin-sensitive (MCF-7, with relatively fluid membranes) and resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR, with rigid membranes). Despite their cationic surface charges, DMAB- and CTAB-modified NPs showed different patterns of biophysical interaction: DMAB-modified NPs induced bending of the model plasma membrane, whereas CTAB-modified NPs condensed the membrane, thereby resisted bending. Unmodified NPs showed no effects on bending. DMAB-modified NPs also induced thermodynamic instability of the model endosomal membrane, whereas CTAB-modified and unmodified NPs had no effect. Since bending of the plasma membrane and destabilization of the endosomal membrane are critical biophysical processes in NP cellular uptake and endosomal escape, respectively, we tested these NPs for cellular uptake and drug efficacy. Confocal imaging showed that in both sensitive and resistant cells DMAB-modified NPs exhibited greater cellular uptake and escape from endosomes than CTAB-modified or unmodified NPs. Further, paclitaxel-loaded DMAB-modified NPs induced greater cytotoxicity even in resistant cells than CTAB-modified or unmodified NPs or drug in solution, demonstrating the potential of DMAB-modified NPs to overcome the transport barrier in resistant cells. In

  10. A new Rab7 effector controls phosphoinositide conversion in endosome maturation.

    PubMed

    Casanova, James E; Winckler, Bettina

    2017-10-02

    Endosome maturation requires a coordinated change in the Rab GTPase and phosphoinositide composition of the endosomal membrane. In this issue, Liu et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201705151) identify WDR91 as a ubiquitous Rab7 effector that inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity on endosomes and is critical for endosome maturation, viability, and dendrite growth of neurons in vivo. © 2017 Casanova and Winckler.

  11. High-yield cell-free synthesis of human EGFR by IRES-mediated protein translation in a continuous exchange cell-free reaction format

    PubMed Central

    Quast, Robert B.; Sonnabend, Andrei; Stech, Marlitt; Wüstenhagen, Doreen A.; Kubick, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis systems derived from eukaryotic sources often provide comparatively low amounts of several μg per ml of de novo synthesized membrane protein. In order to overcome this, we herein demonstrate the high-yield cell-free synthesis of the human EGFR in a microsome-containing system derived from cultured Sf21 cells. Yields were increased more than 100-fold to more than 285 μg/ml by combination of IRES-mediated protein translation with a continuous exchange cell-free reaction format that allowed for prolonged reaction lifetimes exceeding 24 hours. In addition, an orthogonal cell-free translation system is presented that enabled the site-directed incorporation of p-Azido-L-phenylalanine by amber suppression. Functionality of cell-free synthesized receptor molecules is demonstrated by investigation of autophosphorylation activity in the absence of ligand and interaction with the cell-free synthesized adapter molecule Grb2. PMID:27456041

  12. Viral Membrane Fusion and Nucleocapsid Delivery into the Cytoplasm are Distinct Events in Some Flaviviruses

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Adel M.; Li, Yue; Wolenski, Joseph; Modis, Yorgo

    2013-01-01

    Flaviviruses deliver their genome into the cell by fusing the viral lipid membrane to an endosomal membrane. The sequence and kinetics of the steps required for nucleocapsid delivery into the cytoplasm remain unclear. Here we dissect the cell entry pathway of virions and virus-like particles from two flaviviruses using single-particle tracking in live cells, a biochemical membrane fusion assay and virus infectivity assays. We show that the virus particles fuse with a small endosomal compartment in which the nucleocapsid remains trapped for several minutes. Endosomal maturation inhibitors inhibit infectivity but not membrane fusion. We propose a flavivirus cell entry mechanism in which the virus particles fuse preferentially with small endosomal carrier vesicles and depend on back-fusion of the vesicles with the late endosomal membrane to deliver the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm. Virus entry modulates intracellular calcium release and phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate kinase signaling. Moreover, the broadly cross-reactive therapeutic antibody scFv11 binds to virus-like particles and inhibits fusion. PMID:24039574

  13. Viral membrane fusion and nucleocapsid delivery into the cytoplasm are distinct events in some flaviviruses.

    PubMed

    Nour, Adel M; Li, Yue; Wolenski, Joseph; Modis, Yorgo

    2013-01-01

    Flaviviruses deliver their genome into the cell by fusing the viral lipid membrane to an endosomal membrane. The sequence and kinetics of the steps required for nucleocapsid delivery into the cytoplasm remain unclear. Here we dissect the cell entry pathway of virions and virus-like particles from two flaviviruses using single-particle tracking in live cells, a biochemical membrane fusion assay and virus infectivity assays. We show that the virus particles fuse with a small endosomal compartment in which the nucleocapsid remains trapped for several minutes. Endosomal maturation inhibitors inhibit infectivity but not membrane fusion. We propose a flavivirus cell entry mechanism in which the virus particles fuse preferentially with small endosomal carrier vesicles and depend on back-fusion of the vesicles with the late endosomal membrane to deliver the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm. Virus entry modulates intracellular calcium release and phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate kinase signaling. Moreover, the broadly cross-reactive therapeutic antibody scFv11 binds to virus-like particles and inhibits fusion.

  14. Endosomal system genetics and autism spectrum disorders: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Patak, Jameson; Zhang-James, Yanli; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of debilitating neurodevelopmental disorders thought to have genetic etiology, due to their high heritability. The endosomal system has become increasingly implicated in ASD pathophysiology. In an attempt to summarize the association between endosomal system genes and ASDs we performed a systematic review of the literature. We searched PubMed for relevant articles. Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative (SFARI) gene database was used to exclude articles regarding genes with less than minimal evidence for association with ASDs. Our search retained 55 articles reviewed in two categories: genes that regulate and genes that are regulated by the endosomal system. Our review shows that the endosomal system is a novel pathway implicated in ASDs as well as other neuropsychiatric disorders. It plays a central role in aspects of cellular physiology on which neurons and glial cells are particularly reliant, due to their unique metabolic and functional demands. The system shows potential for biomarkers and pharmacological intervention and thus more research into this pathway is warranted.

  15. A proteomic approach to identify endosomal cargoes controlling cancer invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Vera, Jesica; Palmer, Sarah; Hernandez-Fernaud, Juan Ramon; Dornier, Emmanuel; Mitchell, Louise E.; Macpherson, Iain; Edwards, Joanne; Zanivan, Sara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have previously shown that Rab17, a small GTPase associated with epithelial polarity, is specifically suppressed by ERK2 (also known as MAPK1) signalling to promote an invasive phenotype. However, the mechanisms through which Rab17 loss permits invasiveness, and the endosomal cargoes that are responsible for mediating this, are unknown. Using quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we have found that knockdown of Rab17 leads to a highly selective reduction in the cellular levels of a v-SNARE (Vamp8). Moreover, proteomics and immunofluorescence indicate that Vamp8 is associated with Rab17 at late endosomes. Reduced levels of Vamp8 promote transition between ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and a more invasive phenotype. We developed an unbiased proteomic approach to elucidate the complement of receptors that redistributes between endosomes and the plasma membrane, and have pin-pointed neuropilin-2 (NRP2) as a key pro-invasive cargo of Rab17- and Vamp8-regulated trafficking. Indeed, reduced Rab17 or Vamp8 levels lead to increased mobilisation of NRP2-containing late endosomes and upregulated cell surface expression of NRP2. Finally, we show that NRP2 is required for the basement membrane disruption that accompanies the transition between DCIS and a more invasive phenotype. PMID:28062852

  16. Structural Basis for Endosomal Targeting by the Bro1 Domain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaewon; Sitaraman, Sujatha; Hierro, Aitor; Beach, Bridgette M.; Odorizzi, Greg; Hurley, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Proteins delivered to the lysosome or the yeast vacuole via late endosomes are sorted by the ESCRT complexes and by associated proteins, including Alix and its yeast homolog Bro1. Alix, Bro1, and several other late endosomal proteins share a conserved 160 residue Bro1 domain whose boundaries, structure, and function have not been characterized. The crystal structure of the Bro1 domain of Bro1 reveals a folded core of 367 residues. The extended Bro1 domain is necessary and sufficient for binding to the ESCRT-III subunit Snf7 and for the recruitment of Bro1 to late endosomes. The structure resembles a boomerang with its concave face filled in and contains a triple tetratricopeptide repeat domain as a substructure. Snf7 binds to a conserved hydrophobic patch on Bro1 that is required for protein complex formation and for the protein-sorting function of Bro1. These results define a conserved mechanism whereby Bro1 domain-containing proteins are targeted to endosomes by Snf7 and its orthologs. PMID:15935782

  17. Structural basis for endosomal targeting by the Bro1 domain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaewon; Sitaraman, Sujatha; Hierro, Aitor; Beach, Bridgette M; Odorizzi, Greg; Hurley, James H

    2005-06-01

    Proteins delivered to the lysosome or the yeast vacuole via late endosomes are sorted by the ESCRT complexes and by associated proteins, including Alix and its yeast homolog Bro1. Alix, Bro1, and several other late endosomal proteins share a conserved 160 residue Bro1 domain whose boundaries, structure, and function have not been characterized. The crystal structure of the Bro1 domain of Bro1 reveals a folded core of 367 residues. The extended Bro1 domain is necessary and sufficient for binding to the ESCRT-III subunit Snf7 and for the recruitment of Bro1 to late endosomes. The structure resembles a boomerang with its concave face filled in and contains a triple tetratricopeptide repeat domain as a substructure. Snf7 binds to a conserved hydrophobic patch on Bro1 that is required for protein complex formation and for the protein-sorting function of Bro1. These results define a conserved mechanism whereby Bro1 domain-containing proteins are targeted to endosomes by Snf7 and its orthologs.

  18. Endosomal Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Is Essential for Canonical GPCR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yasunori; Rutaganira, Florentine U; Jullié, Damien; Shokat, Kevan M; von Zastrow, Mark

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the largest family of signaling receptors, are critically regulated by endosomal trafficking, suggesting that endosomes might provide new strategies for manipulating GPCR signaling. Here we test this hypothesis by focusing on class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (Vps34), which is an essential regulator of endosomal trafficking. We verify that Vps34 is required for recycling of the β2-adrenoceptor (β2AR), a prototypical GPCR, and then investigate the effects of Vps34 inhibition on the canonical cAMP response elicited by β2AR activation. Vps34 inhibition impairs the ability of cells to recover this response after prolonged activation, which is in accord with the established role of recycling in GPCR resensitization. In addition, Vps34 inhibition also attenuates the short-term cAMP response, and its effect begins several minutes after initial agonist application. These results establish Vps34 as an essential determinant of both short-term and long-term canonical GPCR signaling, and support the potential utility of the endosomal system as a druggable target for signaling.

  19. Isolation and characterization of endosomes from rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    Three fractions of rat liver endosomes, called 50 Kg Light, 50 Kg Heavy, and 150 Kg have been isolated on 16% Percoll gradients. The 50 Kg Heavy fraction accumulates ligand as a function of time after injection, using either /sup 125/I-asialoorosomucoid (/sup 125/I-ASOR) or /sup 125/I-immunoglobulin A (/sup 125/I-IgA) as ligands. A pulse-chase protocol was also used to study the kinetics of ligand entry into the endosomal compartments. A double-label, 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB)-induced density shift protocol was used to study the internalization of two ligands with different destinations in the hepatocyte. Rats were injected intraportally with /sup 125/I-ASOR-HRP and /sup 131/I-IgA and the liver was fractionated at various times post-injection. The three ligand-containing endosomal fractions were isolated and each subjected to the DAB shift procedure. This treatment causes organelles containing /sup 125/I-ASOR-HRP and another ligand occupying the same compartment to shift to a higher density. Thus, information on whether the /sup 131/I-IgA is colocalized or segregated from the /sup 125/I-ASOR-HRP can be obtained. The authors have used an instantaneous pulse, temperature shift protocol to study the heterogeneity of these three endosomal fractions isolated from rat liver.

  20. Selective endosomal microautophagy is starvation-inducible in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Anindita; Patel, Bindi; Koga, Hiroshi; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Jenny, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy delivers cytosolic components to lysosomes for degradation and is thus essential for cellular homeostasis and to cope with different stressors. As such, autophagy counteracts various human diseases and its reduction leads to aging-like phenotypes. Macroautophagy (MA) can selectively degrade organelles or aggregated proteins, whereas selective degradation of single proteins has only been described for chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and endosomal microautophagy (eMI). These 2 autophagic pathways are specific for proteins containing KFERQ-related targeting motifs. Using a KFERQ-tagged fluorescent biosensor, we have identified an eMI-like pathway in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that this biosensor localizes to late endosomes and lysosomes upon prolonged starvation in a KFERQ- and Hsc70-4- dependent manner. Furthermore, fly eMI requires endosomal multivesicular body formation mediated by ESCRT complex components. Importantly, induction of Drosophila eMI requires longer starvation than the induction of MA and is independent of the critical MA genes atg5, atg7, and atg12. Furthermore, inhibition of Tor signaling induces eMI in flies under nutrient rich conditions, and, as eMI in Drosophila also requires atg1 and atg13, our data suggest that these genes may have a novel, additional role in regulating eMI in flies. Overall, our data provide the first evidence for a novel, starvation-inducible, catabolic process resembling endosomal microautophagy in the Drosophila fat body. PMID:27487474

  1. Selective endosomal microautophagy is starvation-inducible in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anindita; Patel, Bindi; Koga, Hiroshi; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Jenny, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Autophagy delivers cytosolic components to lysosomes for degradation and is thus essential for cellular homeostasis and to cope with different stressors. As such, autophagy counteracts various human diseases and its reduction leads to aging-like phenotypes. Macroautophagy (MA) can selectively degrade organelles or aggregated proteins, whereas selective degradation of single proteins has only been described for chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and endosomal microautophagy (eMI). These 2 autophagic pathways are specific for proteins containing KFERQ-related targeting motifs. Using a KFERQ-tagged fluorescent biosensor, we have identified an eMI-like pathway in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that this biosensor localizes to late endosomes and lysosomes upon prolonged starvation in a KFERQ- and Hsc70-4- dependent manner. Furthermore, fly eMI requires endosomal multivesicular body formation mediated by ESCRT complex components. Importantly, induction of Drosophila eMI requires longer starvation than the induction of MA and is independent of the critical MA genes atg5, atg7, and atg12. Furthermore, inhibition of Tor signaling induces eMI in flies under nutrient rich conditions, and, as eMI in Drosophila also requires atg1 and atg13, our data suggest that these genes may have a novel, additional role in regulating eMI in flies. Overall, our data provide the first evidence for a novel, starvation-inducible, catabolic process resembling endosomal microautophagy in the Drosophila fat body.

  2. Bacterial toxins and small molecules elucidate endosomal trafficking.

    PubMed

    Slater, Louise H; Clatworthy, Anne E; Hung, Deborah T

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial toxins and small molecules are useful tools for studying eukaryotic cell biology. In a recent issue of PNAS, Gillespie and colleagues describe a novel small molecule inhibitor of bacterial toxins and virus trafficking through the endocytic pathway, 4-bromobenzaldehyde N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)semicarbazone (EGA), that prevents transport from early to late endosomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Principles of cell-free genetic circuit assembly

    PubMed Central

    Noireaux, Vincent; Bar-Ziv, Roy; Libchaber, Albert

    2003-01-01

    Cell-free genetic circuit elements were constructed in a transcription–translation extract. We engineered transcriptional activation and repression cascades, in which the protein product of each stage is the input required to drive or block the following stage. Although we can find regions of linear response for single stages, cascading to subsequent stages requires working in nonlinear regimes. Substantial time delays and dramatic decreases in output production are incurred with each additional stage because of a bottleneck at the translation machinery. Faster turnover of RNA message can relieve competition between genes and stabilize output against variations in input and parameters. PMID:14559971

  4. On-Chip Integration of Cell-Free Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxboim, Amnon; Morpurgo, Margherita; Bar-Dagan, Maya; Frydman, Veronica; Zbaida, David; Bar-Ziv, Roy

    2006-03-01

    We present a synthetic approach for the study of gene networks in vitro which is complementary to traditional in vivo methodologies. We have developed a technology for submicron integration of functional genes and on-chip protein synthesis using a cell-free transcription/translation system. The interaction between genes is facilitated by diffusion of on-chip gene expression products from `source' genes towards `acceptor' genes. Our technology is simple and inexpensive and can serve as an improved platform for a wide variety of protein and DNA biochip applications.

  5. Optimizing Immobilized Enzyme Performance in Cell-Free Environments to Produce Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Belfort, Georges; Grimaldi, Joseph J.

    2015-01-27

    Limitations on biofuel production using cell culture (Escherichia coli, Clostridium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, brown microalgae, blue-green algae and others) include low product (alcohol) concentrations (≤0.2 vol%) due to feedback inhibition, instability of cells, and lack of economical product recovery processes. To overcome these challenges, an alternate simplified biofuel production scheme was tested based on a cell-free immobilized enzyme system. Using this cell free system, we were able to obtain about 2.6 times higher concentrations of iso-butanol using our non-optimized system as compared with live cell systems. This process involved two steps: (i) converts acid to aldehyde using keto-acid decarboxylase (KdcA), and (ii) produces alcohol from aldehyde using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) with a cofactor (NADH) conversion from inexpensive formate using a third enzyme, formate dehydrogenase (FDH). To increase stability and conversion efficiency with easy separations, the first two enzymes were immobilized onto methacrylate resin. Fusion proteins of labile KdcA (fKdcA) were expressed to stabilize the covalently immobilized KdcA. Covalently immobilized ADH exhibited long-term stability and efficient conversion of aldehyde to alcohol over multiple batch cycles without fusions. High conversion rates and low protein leaching were achieved by covalent immobilization of enzymes on methacrylate resin. The complete reaction scheme was demonstrated by immobilizing both ADH and fKdcA and using FDH free in solution. The new system without in situ removal of isobutanol achieved a 55% conversion of ketoisovaleric acid to isobutanol at a concentration of 0.5 % (v/v). Further increases in titer will require continuous removal of the isobutanol using our novel brush membrane system that exhibits a 1.5 fold increase in the separation factor of isobutanol from water versus that obtained for commercial silicone rubber membranes. These bio-inspired brush membranes are based on the

  6. Visualization of Endosome Dynamics in Living Nerve Terminals with Four-dimensional Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Richard S.; Kiss, Ilona M.; Wilkinson, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) light imaging has been used to study behavior of small structures within motor nerve terminals of the thin transversus abdominis muscle of the garter snake. Raw data comprises time-lapse sequences of 3D z-stacks. Each stack contains 4-20 images acquired with epifluorescence optics at focal planes separated by 400-1,500 nm. Steps in the acquisition of image stacks, such as adjustment of focus, switching of excitation wavelengths, and operation of the digital camera, are automated as much as possible to maximize image rate and minimize tissue damage from light exposure. After acquisition, a set of image stacks is deconvolved to improve spatial resolution, converted to the desired 3D format, and used to create a 4D "movie" that is suitable for variety of computer-based analyses, depending upon the experimental data sought. One application is study of the dynamic behavior of two classes of endosomes found in nerve terminals-macroendosomes (MEs) and acidic endosomes (AEs)-whose sizes (200-800 nm for both types) are at or near the diffraction limit. Access to 3D information at each time point provides several advantages over conventional time-lapse imaging. In particular, size and velocity of movement of structures can be quantified over time without loss of sharp focus. Examples of data from 4D imaging reveal that MEs approach the plasma membrane and disappear, suggesting that they are exocytosed rather than simply moving vertically away from a single plane of focus. Also revealed is putative fusion of MEs and AEs, by visualization of overlap between the two dye-containing structures as viewed in each three orthogonal projections. PMID:24799002

  7. Cytoplasmic Delivery of Liposomes into MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Mediated by Cell-Specific Phage Fusion Coat Protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Yang, Shenghong; Petrenko, Valery A; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2010-01-01

    Earlier, we have shown that doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (Doxil) modified with a chimeric phage fusion coat protein specific towards MCF-7 breast cancer cells identified from a phage landscape library demonstrated a significantly enhanced association with target cells and an increased cytotoxicity. Based on some structural similarities between the N-terminus of the phage potein and known fusogenic peptides, we hypothesized that, in addition to the specific targeting, the phage protein may possess endosome-escaping potential and an increased cytotoxicity of drug-loaded phage protein-targeted liposomes may be explained by an advantageous combination of both, cell targeting and endosomal escape of drug-loaded nanocarrier. The use of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique allowed us to clearly demonstrate the pH-dependent membrane fusion activity of the phage protein. Endosomal escape and cytosolic delivery of phage-liposomes was visualized with fluorescence microscopy. Endosome acidification inhibition by bafilomycin A 1 resulted in decreased cytotoxicity of the phage-Doxil, while the endosome disruption by chloroquine had a negligible effect on efficacy of phage-Doxil, confirming its endosomal escape. Our results demonstrated an endosome-escaping property of the phage protein and provided an insight on mechanism of the enhanced cytotoxicity of phage-Doxil. PMID:20438086

  8. A Comparison of Cell-Free DNA Isolation Kits: Isolation and Quantification of Cell-Free DNA in Plasma.

    PubMed

    Sorber, Laure; Zwaenepoel, Karen; Deschoolmeester, Vanessa; Roeyen, Geert; Lardon, Filip; Rolfo, Christian; Pauwels, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a sensitive biomarker for cancer diagnosis and monitoring has resulted in a need for efficient and standardized cfDNA isolation. In this study, we compared the isolation efficiency of the QIAamp circulating nucleic acid kit (QIA) with four other cfDNA isolation kits: the PME free-circulating DNA Extraction Kit (PME), the Maxwell RSC ccfDNA Plasma Kit (RSC), the EpiQuick Circulating Cell-Free DNA Isolation Kit (EQ), and two consecutive versions of the NEXTprep-Mag cfDNA Isolation Kit (NpMV1/2). cfDNA was isolated from 10 plasma samples, of which five contained KRAS mutated cell-free tumor DNA (ctDNA). Digital droplet PCR was used to quantify the total cfDNA concentration as well as the KRAS mutated ctDNA fraction. cfDNA integrity was assessed with real-time quantitative PCR. The QIA and the RSC kits displayed similar isolation efficiencies of both KRAS mutated ctDNA and nonmutated cfDNA, whereas the yield generated by the PME and NpMV2 kits was significantly lower. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated the presence of digital droplet PCR inhibiting agents in the eluates of the NpMV1 and EQ kits. To conclude, this study presents two highly efficient isolation kits for cfDNA isolation, of which the RSC kit has the advantage of a fully automated protocol over the labor-intensive QIA kit. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Developing cell-free biology for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Jim

    2006-07-01

    Although cell-free protein synthesis has been practiced for decades as a research tool, only recently have advances suggested its feasibility for commercial protein production. This focused review, based on the 2005 Amgen Award lecture, summarizes the relevant progress from the Swartz laboratory. When our program began, projected costs were much too high, proteins with disulfide bonds could not be folded effectively, and no economical scale-up technologies were available. By focusing on basic biochemical reactions and by controlling cell-free metabolism, these limitations have been methodically addressed. Amino acid supply has been stabilized and central metabolism activated to dramatically reduce substrate costs. Control of the sulfhydral redox potential has been gained and a robust disulfide isomerase added to facilitate oxidative protein folding. Finally, simple scale-up technologies have been developed. These advances not only suggest production feasibility for pharmaceutical proteins, they also provide enabling technology for producing patient-specific vaccines, for evolving new enzymes to enable biological hydrogen production from sunlight, and for developing new and highly effective water filters. Although many challenges remain, this newly expanded ability to activate and control protein production holds much promise for both research and commercial applications.

  10. Cell-free metabolic engineering: biomanufacturing beyond the cell.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Quentin M; Karim, Ashty S; Jewett, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology and microbial metabolic engineering are poised to help meet the growing demand for sustainable, low-cost commodity chemicals and natural products, yet the fraction of biochemicals amenable to commercial production remains limited. Common problems afflicting the current state-of-the-art include low volumetric productivities, build-up of toxic intermediates or products, and byproduct losses via competing pathways. To overcome these limitations, cell-free metabolic engineering (CFME) is expanding the scope of the traditional bioengineering model by using in vitro ensembles of catalytic proteins prepared from purified enzymes or crude lysates of cells for the production of target products. In recent years, the unprecedented level of control and freedom of design, relative to in vivo systems, has inspired the development of engineering foundations for cell-free systems. These efforts have led to activation of long enzymatic pathways (>8 enzymes), near theoretical conversion yields, productivities greater than 100 mg L(-1) h(-1) , reaction scales of >100 L, and new directions in protein purification, spatial organization, and enzyme stability. In the coming years, CFME will offer exciting opportunities to: (i) debug and optimize biosynthetic pathways; (ii) carry out design-build-test iterations without re-engineering organisms; and (iii) perform molecular transformations when bioconversion yields, productivities, or cellular toxicity limit commercial feasibility.

  11. Cell-Free Metabolic Engineering: Biomanufacturing beyond the cell

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Quentin M.; Karim, Ashty S.; Jewett, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology and microbial metabolic engineering are poised to help meet the growing demand for sustainable, low-cost commodity chemicals and natural products, yet the fraction of biochemicals amenable to commercial production remains limited. Common problems afflicting the current state-of-the-art include low volumetric productivities, build-up of toxic intermediates or products, and byproduct losses via competing pathways. To overcome these limitations, cell-free metabolic engineering (CFME) is expanding the scope of the traditional bioengineering model by using in vitro ensembles of catalytic proteins prepared from purified enzymes or crude lysates of cells for the production of target products. In recent years, the unprecedented level of control and freedom of design, relative to in vivo systems, has inspired the development of engineering foundations for cell-free systems. These efforts have led to activation of long enzymatic pathways (>8 enzymes), near theoretical conversion yields, productivities greater than 100 mg L−1 hr−1, reaction scales of >100L, and new directions in protein purification, spatial organization and enzyme stability. In the coming years, CFME will offer exciting opportunities to (i) debug and optimize biosynthetic pathways, (ii) carry out design-build-test iterations without re-engineering organisms, and (iii) perform molecular transformations when bioconversion yields, productivities, or cellular toxicity limit commercial feasibility. PMID:25319678

  12. Cell-free metabolic engineering: Biomanufacturing beyond the cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dudley, QM; Karim, AS; Jewett, MC

    2014-10-15

    Industrial biotechnology and microbial metabolic engineering are poised to help meet the growing demand for sustainable, low-cost commodity chemicals and natural products, yet the fraction of biochemicals amenable to commercial production remains limited. Common problems afflicting the current state-of-the-art include low volumetric productivities, build-up of toxic intermediates or products, and byproduct losses via competing pathways. To overcome these limitations, cell-free metabolic engineering (CFME) is expanding the scope of the traditional bioengineering model by using in vitro ensembles of catalytic proteins prepared from purified enzymes or crude lysates of cells for the production of target products. In recent years, the unprecedented level of control and freedom of design, relative to in vivo systems, has inspired the development of engineering foundations for cell-free systems. These efforts have led to activation of long enzymatic pathways (>8 enzymes), near theoretical conversion yields, productivities greater than 100 mg L-1 h(-1), reaction scales of >100 L, and new directions in protein purification, spatial organization, and enzyme stability. In the coming years, CFME will offer exciting opportunities to: (i) debug and optimize biosynthetic pathways; (ii) carry out design-build-test iterations without re-engineering organisms; and (iii) perform molecular transformations when bioconversion yields, productivities, or cellular toxicity limit commercial feasibility.

  13. Cell-free fetal nucleic acids in amniotic fluid

    PubMed Central

    Hui, L.; Bianchi, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research into cell-free fetal (cff) nucleic acids has primarily focused on maternal plasma; however, cff DNA and RNA are also detectable in other body fluids such as amniotic fluid (AF). In AF, cff DNA is present in much greater concentrations than in maternal plasma and represents a pure fetal sample uncontaminated by maternal- and trophoblast-derived nucleic acids. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge on cff nucleic acids in AF and to outline future research directions. METHODS MEDLINE and PREMEDLINE were searched up to August 2010 for original investigations of cell-free RNA or DNA in AF. Sixteen studies were included in the review. RESULTS AF cff DNA represents a physiologically separate pool from cff DNA in maternal plasma. The placenta is not a major source of nucleic acids in AF. It is feasible to isolate cff nucleic acids from small volumes of discarded AF supernatant in sufficient quality and quantity to perform microarray studies and downstream applications such as pathway analysis. This ‘discovery-driven approach’ has resulted in new information on the pathogenesis of Down syndrome and polyhydramnios. There is otherwise a paucity of information relating to the basic biology and clinical applications of cff nucleic acids in AF. CONCLUSIONS AF supernatant is a valuable and widely available but under-utilized biological resource. Further studies of cff nucleic acids in AF may lead to new insights into human fetal development and ultimately new approaches to antenatal treatment of human disease. PMID:20923874

  14. Endosomal Signaling of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Stimulates Signal Transduction Pathways Leading to Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Pennock, Steven; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2002-01-01

    In spite of intensified efforts to understand cell signaling from endosomes, there is no direct evidence demonstrating that endosomal signaling is sufficient to activate signal transduction pathways and no evidence to demonstrate that endosomal signaling is able to produce a biological outcome. The lack of breakthrough is due in part to the lack of means to generate endosomal signals without plasma membrane signaling. In this paper, we report the establishment of a system to specifically activate epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) when it endocytoses into endosomes. We treated cells with EGF in the presence of AG-1478, a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and monensin, which blocks the recycling of EGFR. This treatment led to the internalization of nonactivated EGF-EGFR complexes into endosomes. The endosome-associated EGFR was then activated by removing AG-1478 and monensin. During this procedure we did not observe any surface EGFR phosphorylation. We also achieved specific activation of endosome-associated EGFR without using monensin. By using this system, we provided original evidence demonstrating that (i) the endosome can serve as a nucleation site for the formation of signaling complexes, (ii) endosomal EGFR signaling is sufficient to activate the major signaling pathways leading to cell proliferation and survival, and (iii) endosomal EGFR signaling is sufficient to suppress apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal. PMID:12242303

  15. AP-1 and KIF13A coordinate endosomal sorting and positioning during melanosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Delevoye, Cédric; Hurbain, Ilse; Tenza, Danièle; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Uzan-Gafsou, Stéphanie; Ohno, Hiroshi; Geerts, Willie J.C.; Verkleij, Arie J.; Salamero, Jean; Marks, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Specialized cell types exploit endosomal trafficking to deliver protein cargoes to cell type–specific lysosome-related organelles (LROs), but how endosomes are specified for this function is not known. In this study, we show that the clathrin adaptor AP-1 and the kinesin motor KIF13A together create peripheral recycling endosomal subdomains in melanocytes required for cargo delivery to maturing melanosomes. In cells depleted of AP-1 or KIF13A, a subpopulation of recycling endosomes redistributes to pericentriolar clusters, resulting in sequestration of melanosomal enzymes like Tyrp1 in vacuolar endosomes and consequent inhibition of melanin synthesis and melanosome maturation. Immunocytochemistry, live cell imaging, and electron tomography reveal AP-1– and KIF13A-dependent dynamic close appositions and continuities between peripheral endosomal tubules and melanosomes. Our results reveal that LRO protein sorting is coupled to cell type–specific positioning of endosomes that facilitate endosome–LRO contacts and are required for organelle maturation. PMID:19841138

  16. ER contact sites define the position and timing of endosome fission

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Ashley A.; Chitwood, Patrick J.; Phillips, Melissa J.; Voeltz, Gia K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Endocytic cargo and Rab GTPases are segregated to distinct domains of an endosome. These domains maintain their identity until they undergo fission to traffic cargo. It is not fully understood how segregation of cargo or Rab proteins is maintained along the continuous endosomal membrane, or what machinery is required for fission. Endosomes form contact sites with the ER that are maintained during trafficking. Here, we show that stable contacts form between the ER and endosome at constricted sorting domains and that free diffusion of cargo is limited at these positions. We demonstrate that the site of constriction and fission for early and late endosomes is spatially and temporally linked to contact sites with the ER. Lastly, we show that altering ER structure and dynamics reduces the efficiency of endosome fission. Together these data reveal a surprising role for ER contact in defining the timing and position of endosome fission. PMID:25416943

  17. The Arabidopsis AAA ATPase SKD1 is involved in multivesicular endosome function and interacts with its positive regulator LYST-INTERACTING PROTEIN5.

    PubMed

    Haas, Thomas J; Sliwinski, Marek K; Martínez, Dana E; Preuss, Mary; Ebine, Kazuo; Ueda, Takashi; Nielsen, Erik; Odorizzi, Greg; Otegui, Marisa S

    2007-04-01

    In yeast and mammals, the AAA ATPase Vps4p/SKD1 (for Vacuolar protein sorting 4/SUPPRESSOR OF K(+) TRANSPORT GROWTH DEFECT1) is required for the endosomal sorting of secretory and endocytic cargo. We identified a VPS4/SKD1 homolog in Arabidopsis thaliana, which localizes to the cytoplasm and to multivesicular endosomes. In addition, green fluorescent protein-SKD1 colocalizes on multivesicular bodies with fluorescent fusion protein endosomal Rab GTPases, such as ARA6/RabF1, RHA1/RabF2a, and ARA7/RabF2b, and with the endocytic marker FM4-64. The expression of SKD1(E232Q), an ATPase-deficient version of SKD1, induces alterations in the endosomal system of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow 2 cells and ultimately leads to cell death. The inducible expression of SKD1(E232Q) in Arabidopsis resulted in enlarged endosomes with a reduced number of internal vesicles. In a yeast two-hybrid screen using Arabidopsis SKD1 as bait, we isolated a putative homolog of mammalian LYST-INTERACTING PROTEIN5 (LIP5)/SKD1 BINDING PROTEIN1 and yeast Vta1p (for Vps twenty associated 1 protein). Arabidopsis LIP5 acts as a positive regulator of SKD1 by increasing fourfold to fivefold its in vitro ATPase activity. We isolated a knockout homozygous Arabidopsis mutant line with a T-DNA insertion in LIP5. lip5 plants are viable and show no phenotypic alterations under normal growth conditions, suggesting that basal SKD1 ATPase activity is sufficient for plant development and growth.

  18. TVP23 interacts genetically with the yeast SNARE VTI1 and functions in retrograde transport from the early endosome to the late Golgi.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ivar S; Gottfried, Anna; Zimmermann, Jana; Fischer von Mollard, Gabriele

    2009-04-01

    SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein-attachment protein receptor) proteins contribute to specific recognition between transport vesicles and target membranes and are required for fusion of membranes. The SNARE Vti1p is required for several transport steps between late Golgi, endosomes and the vacuole in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we identified the late Golgi membrane protein TVP23 as a multicopy suppressor of the growth defect in vti1-2 cells. By contrast, the growth defect in vti1-11 cells was not suppressed by TVP23 overexpression. Deletion of TVP23 aggravated the growth defect in vti1-2 cells. Genetic interactions between TVP23 and vti1-2 were not found in transport from the late Golgi via the late endosome to the vacuole or in transport from the Golgi directly to the vacuole. These results suggest that Tvp23p is not involved in forward transport from the late Golgi. Therefore retrograde traffic to the late Golgi was analysed. vti1-2 cells accumulated GFP (green fluorescent protein)-Snc1p within the cell, indicating that retrograde transport from the early endosome to the late Golgi was defective in these cells. Deletion of TVP23 in vti1-2 cells resulted in a synthetic defect in GFP-Snc1p recycling, whereas tvp23Delta cells had a slight defect. These results indicate that Tvp23p performs a partially redundant function in retrograde transport from the early endosome to the late Golgi. This transport step was unaffected in vti1-11 cells, providing an explanation for the allele-specific multicopy suppression by TVP23.

  19. Promyelocytic leukemia bodies tether to early endosomes during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Palibrk, Vuk; Lång, Emma; Lång, Anna; Schink, Kay Oliver; Rowe, Alexander D; Bøe, Stig Ove

    2014-01-01

    During mitosis the nuclear envelope breaks down, leading to potential interactions between cytoplasmic and nuclear components. PML bodies are nuclear structures with tumor suppressor and antiviral functions. Early endosomes, on the other hand, are cytoplasmic vesicles involved in transport and growth factor signaling. Here we demonstrate that PML bodies form stable interactions with early endosomes immediately following entry into mitosis. The 2 compartments remain stably associated throughout mitosis and dissociate in the cytoplasm of newly divided daughter cells. We also show that a minor subset of PML bodies becomes anchored to the mitotic spindle poles during cell division. The study demonstrates a stable mitosis-specific interaction between a cytoplasmic and a nuclear compartment.

  20. Rab32 subfamily small GTPases: pleiotropic Rabs in endosomal trafficking.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Norihiko; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Kanaho, Yasunori

    2017-08-01

    Rab small GTPases, well-known regulators of membrane trafficking pathways in eukaryotic cells, comprise approximately 60 different members in mammals. During the past decade, our understanding of the functions of mammalian Rab32 subfamily members (Rab32 and Rab38) have deepened, especially on the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles, such as melanosomes, and the protection mechanisms against several pathogenic microbial infections. Endosome-mediated membrane trafficking by Rab32 subfamily members plays pivotal roles in these events. In this review, we provide an overview of the regulatory mechanisms of mammalian Rab32-family members in endosomal trafficking, especially focusing on their GEF, GAP and effector molecules, and describe the latest findings on physiological and pathological functions regulated by these molecules. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  1. YEAST Dynamin interaction with ESCRT proteins at the endosome.

    PubMed

    Banh, Bryan T; McDermott, Hyoeun; Woodman, Sara; Gadila, Shiva Kumar Goud; Saimani, Uma; Short, John Cw; Kim, Kyoungtae

    2017-02-09

    The dynamin-like protein, Vps1, is a GTPase involved in cargo sorting and membrane remodeling in multiple cellular trafficking pathways. Recently, Vps1 has been shown to genetically interact with ESCRT subunits. We tested the hypothesis that the functional connection of Vps1 with some of these subunits of ESCRT complexes occurs via a physical interaction. By utilizing the yeast two-hybrid system, we revealed that Vps1 physically interacts with the ESCRT-II subunits, Vps22 and Vps36, and the ESCRT-III subunit Vps24. We found that Vps1 and ESCRT-II components colocalize with Pep12, an endosomal marker. Additionally, loss of Vps1 or depletion of the GTPase activity of Vps1 results in a moderate defect in Cps1 targeting to the vacuole. Here, we discussed the potential implications of Vps1 and ESCRT interaction and their roles in the endosome-to-vacuole traffic.

  2. Action in the axon: generation and transport of signaling endosomes.

    PubMed

    Cosker, Katharina E; Courchesne, Stephanie L; Segal, Rosalind A

    2008-06-01

    Neurons extend axonal processes over long distances, necessitating efficient transport mechanisms to convey target-derived neurotrophic survival signals from remote distal axons to cell bodies. Retrograde transport, powered by dynein motors, supplies cell bodies with survival signals in the form of 'signaling endosomes'. In this review, we will discuss new advances in our understanding of the motor proteins that bind to and move signaling components in a retrograde direction and discuss mechanisms that might specify distinct neuronal responses to spatially restricted neurotrophin signals. Disruption of retrograde transport leads to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, highlighting the role of retrograde transport of signaling endosomes for axonal maintenance and the importance of efficient transport for neuronal survival and function.

  3. Expression platforms for producing eukaryotic proteins: a comparison of E. coli cell-based and wheat germ cell-free synthesis, affinity and solubility tags, and cloning strategies.

    PubMed

    Aceti, David J; Bingman, Craig A; Wrobel, Russell L; Frederick, Ronnie O; Makino, Shin-Ichi; Nichols, Karl W; Sahu, Sarata C; Bergeman, Lai F; Blommel, Paul G; Cornilescu, Claudia C; Gromek, Katarzyna A; Seder, Kory D; Hwang, Soyoon; Primm, John G; Sabat, Grzegorz; Vojtik, Frank C; Volkman, Brian F; Zolnai, Zsolt; Phillips, George N; Markley, John L; Fox, Brian G

    2015-06-01

    Vectors designed for protein production in Escherichia coli and by wheat germ cell-free translation were tested using 21 well-characterized eukaryotic proteins chosen to serve as controls within the context of a structural genomics pipeline. The controls were carried through cloning, small-scale expression trials, large-scale growth or synthesis, and purification. Successfully purified proteins were also subjected to either crystallization trials or (1)H-(15)N HSQC NMR analyses. Experiments evaluated: (1) the relative efficacy of restriction/ligation and recombinational cloning systems; (2) the value of maltose-binding protein (MBP) as a solubility enhancement tag; (3) the consequences of in vivo proteolysis of the MBP fusion as an alternative to post-purification proteolysis; (4) the effect of the level of LacI repressor on the yields of protein obtained from E. coli using autoinduction; (5) the consequences of removing the His tag from proteins produced by the cell-free system; and (6) the comparative performance of E. coli cells or wheat germ cell-free translation. Optimal promoter/repressor and fusion tag configurations for each expression system are discussed.

  4. Expression Platforms for Producing Eukaryotic Proteins: A Comparison of E. coli Cell-Based and Wheat Germ Cell-Free Synthesis, Affinity and Solubility Tags, and Cloning Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Aceti, David J.; Bingman, Craig A.; Wrobel, Russell L.; Frederick, Ronnie O.; Makino, Shin-ichi; Nichols, Karl W.; Sahu, Sarata C.; Bergeman, Lai F.; Blommel, Paul G.; Cornilescu, Claudia C.; Gromek, Katarzyna A.; Seder, Kory D.; Hwang, Soyoon; Primm, John G.; Sabat, Grzegorz; Vojtik, Frank C.; Volkman, Brian F.; Zolnai, Zsolt; Phillips, George N.; Markley, John L.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    Vectors designed for protein production in Escherichia coli and by wheat germ cell-free translation were tested using 21 well-characterized eukaryotic proteins chosen to serve as controls within the context of a structural genomics pipeline. The controls were carried through cloning, small-scale expression trials, large-scale growth or synthesis, and purification. Successfully purified proteins were also subjected to either crystallization trials or 1H-15N HSQC NMR analyses. Experiments evaluated: (1) the relative efficacy of restriction/ligation and recombinational cloning systems; (2) the value of maltose-binding protein (MBP) as a solubility enhancement tag; (3) the consequences of in vivo proteolysis of the MBP fusion as an alternative to post-purification proteolysis; (4) the effect of the level of LacI repressor on the yields of protein obtained from E. coli using autoinduction; (5) the consequences of removing the His tag from proteins produced by the cell-free system; and (6) the comparative performance of E. coli cells or wheat germ cell-free translation. Optimal promoter/repressor and fusion tag configurations for each expression system are discussed. PMID:25854603

  5. Engagement of the Small GTPase Rab31 Protein and Its Effector, Early Endosome Antigen 1, Is Important for Trafficking of the Ligand-bound Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor from the Early to the Late Endosome*

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Christelle En Lin; Tang, Bor Luen

    2014-01-01

    Rab31 is a member of the Rab5 subfamily of Rab GTPases. Although localized largely to the trans-Golgi network, it shares common guanine nucleotide exchange factors and effectors with other Rab5 subfamily members that have been implicated in endocytic membrane traffic. We investigated whether Rab31 also has a role in the trafficking of the ligand-bound EGF receptor (EGFR) internalized through receptor-mediated endocytosis. We found that loss of Rab31 inhibits, but overexpression enhances, EGFR trafficking to the late endosomes and that the effect of Rab31 silencing could be specifically rescued by overexpression of a silencing-resistant form of Rab31. Rab31 was found to interact with the EGFR by coimmunoprecipitation and affinity pulldown analyses, and the primarily trans-Golgi network-localized Rab31 has increased colocalization with the EGFR in A431 cells 30 min after pulsing with EGF. A glycerol gradient sedimentation assay suggested that Rab31 is sequestered into a high molecular weight complex after stimulation with EGF, as was early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1), a factor responsible for endosomal tethering and fusion events. We found that loss of EEA1 reduced the interaction between Rab31 and the EGFR and abrogated the effect of Rab31 overexpression on the trafficking of the EGFR. Likewise, loss of GAPex5, a Rab31 guanine nucleotide exchange factor that has a role in ubiquitination and degradation of the EGFR, reduced the interaction of Rab31 with the EGFR and its effect on EGFR trafficking. Taken together, our results suggest that Rab31 is an important regulator of endocytic trafficking of the EGFR and functions in an EGFR trafficking complex that includes EEA1 and GAPex5. PMID:24644286

  6. Development of a Kinetic Assay for Late Endosome Movement.

    PubMed

    Esner, Milan; Meyenhofer, Felix; Kuhn, Michael; Thomas, Melissa; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Bickle, Marc

    2014-08-01

    Automated imaging screens are performed mostly on fixed and stained samples to simplify the workflow and increase throughput. Some processes, such as the movement of cells and organelles or measuring membrane integrity and potential, can be measured only in living cells. Developing such assays to screen large compound or RNAi collections is challenging in many respects. Here, we develop a live-cell high-content assay for tracking endocytic organelles in medium throughput. We evaluate the added value of measuring kinetic parameters compared with measuring static parameters solely. We screened 2000 compounds in U-2 OS cells expressing Lamp1-GFP to label late endosomes. All hits have phenotypes in both static and kinetic parameters. However, we show that the kinetic parameters enable better discrimination of the mechanisms of action. Most of the compounds cause a decrease of motility of endosomes, but we identify several compounds that increase endosomal motility. In summary, we show that kinetic data help to better discriminate phenotypes and thereby obtain more subtle phenotypic clustering.

  7. Copy number variations in urine cell free DNA as biomarkers in advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Dittmar, Rachel; Du, Meijun; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Hongyan; Shenoy, Niraj; Wang, Liang; Kohli, Manish

    2016-06-14

    Genetic profiling of urine cell free DNA (cfDNA) has not been evaluated in advanced prostate cancer. We performed whole genome sequencing of urine cfDNAs to identify tumor-associated copy number variations in urine before and after initiating androgen deprivation therapy in HSPC stage and docetaxel chemotherapy in CRPC stage. A log2 ratio-based copy number analysis detected common genomic abnormalities in prostate cancer including AR amplification in 5/10 CRPC patients. Other abnormalities identified included TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, PTEN gene deletion, NOTCH1 locus amplification along with genomic amplifications at 8q24.3, 9q34.3, 11p15.5 and 14q11.2, and deletions at 4q35.2, 5q31.3, 7q36.3, 12q24.33, and 16p11.2. By comparing copy number between pre- and post-treatment, we found significant copy number changes in 34 genomic loci. To estimate the somatic tumor DNA fraction in urine cfDNAs, we developed a Urine Genomic Abnormality (UGA) score algorithm that summed the top ten most significant segments with copy number changes. The UGA scores correlated with tumor burden and the change in UGA score after stage-specific therapies reflected disease progression status and overall survival. The study demonstrates the potential clinical utility of urine cfDNAs in predicting treatment response and monitoring disease progression.

  8. Towards cell-free isobutanol production: Development of a novel immobilized enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Joseph; Collins, Cynthia H; Belfort, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Producing fuels and chemical intermediates with cell cultures is severely limited by low product concentrations (≤0.2%(v/v)) due to feedback inhibition, cell instability, and lack of economical product recovery processes. We have developed an alternate simplified production scheme based on a cell-free immobilized enzyme system. Two immobilized enzymes (keto-acid decarboxylase (KdcA) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)) and one enzyme in solution (formate dehydrogenase (FDH) for NADH recycle) produced isobutanol titers 8 to 20 times higher than the highest reported titers with S. cerevisiae on a mol/mol basis. These high conversion rates and low protein leaching were achieved by covalent immobilization of enzymes (ADH) and enzyme fusions (fKdcA) on methacrylate resin. The new enzyme system without in situ removal of isobutanol achieved a 55% conversion of ketoisovaleric acid to isobutanol at a concentration of 0.135 (mole isobutanol produced for each mole ketoisovaleric acid consumed). Further increasing titer will require continuous removal of the isobutanol using an in situ recovery system.

  9. Improved Cell-Free RNA and Protein Synthesis System

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Gu, Liangcai; Aach, John; Church, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Cell-free RNA and protein synthesis (CFPS) is becoming increasingly used for protein production as yields increase and costs decrease. Advances in reconstituted CFPS systems such as the Protein synthesis Using Recombinant Elements (PURE) system offer new opportunities to tailor the reactions for specialized applications including in vitro protein evolution, protein microarrays, isotopic labeling, and incorporating unnatural amino acids. In this study, using firefly luciferase synthesis as a reporter system, we improved PURE system productivity up to 5 fold by adding or adjusting a variety of factors that affect transcription and translation, including Elongation factors (EF-Ts, EF-Tu, EF-G, and EF4), ribosome recycling factor (RRF), release factors (RF1, RF2, RF3), chaperones (GroEL/ES), BSA and tRNAs. The work provides a more efficient defined in vitro transcription and translation system and a deeper understanding of the factors that limit the whole system efficiency. PMID:25180701

  10. Cell Free Translation in Engineered Picoliter Volume Containers

    PubMed Central

    Siuti, Piro; Retterer, Scott T.; Choi, Chang Kyoung; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.

    2010-01-01

    Engineers seek to use biological design principles to manipulate information and import new functionality to synthetic devices. Such devices inspired by natural systems could, in turn, play a crucial role in allowing biologists to explore the effects of physical transport and extreme conditions of temperature and pH on reaction systems. For example, engineered reaction containers can be physically and chemically defined to control the flux of molecules of different sizes and charge. The design and testing of such a container is described here. It has a volume of 19pL with defined slits of 200nm. The device successfully contained DNA and protein molecules and is evaluated for carrying out cell-free protein synthesis. The effect of DNA concentration and slit size on protein yield is discussed. PMID:21278819

  11. Uses of cell free fetal DNA in maternal circulation.

    PubMed

    Hill, Melissa; Barrett, Angela N; White, Helen; Chitty, Lyn S

    2012-10-01

    For over a decade, researchers have focused their attention on the development of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis tests based on cell-free fetal DNA circulating in maternal blood. With the possibility of earlier and safer testing, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis has the potential to bring many positive benefits to prenatal diagnosis. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for fetal sex determination for women who are carriers of sex-linked conditions is now firmly established in clinical practice. Other non-invasive prenatal diagnosis-based tests are set to follow, as future applications, such as the detection of single-gene disorders and chromosomal abnormalities, are now well within reach. Here, we review recent developments in non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for genetic conditions and chromosomal abnormalities, and provide an overview of research into ethical concerns, social issues and stakeholder view points. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Emerging technology of in situ cell free expression protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Nand, Amita; Gautam, Anju; Pérez, Javier Batista; Merino, Alejandro; Zhu, Jinsong

    2012-02-01

    Recently, in situ protein microarrays have been developed for large scale analysis and high throughput studies of proteins. In situ protein microarrays produce proteins directly on the solid surface from pre-arrayed DNA or RNA. The advances in in situ protein microarrays are exemplified by the ease of cDNA cloning and cell free protein expression. These technologies can evaluate, validate and monitor protein in a cost effective manner and address the issue of a high quality protein supply to use in the array. Here we review the importance of recently employed methods: PISA (protein in situ array), DAPA (DNA array to protein array), NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array) and TUSTER microarrays and the role of these methods in proteomics.

  13. Cell-free DNA screening and sex chromosome aneuploidies.

    PubMed

    Mennuti, Michael T; Chandrasekaran, Suchitra; Khalek, Nahla; Dugoff, Lorraine

    2015-10-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) testing is increasingly being used to screen pregnant women for fetal aneuploidies. This technology may also identify fetal sex and can be used to screen for sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs). Physicians offering this screening will need to be prepared to offer comprehensive prenatal counseling about these disorders to an increasing number of patients. The purpose of this article is to consider the source of information to use for counseling, factors in parental decision-making, and the performance characteristics of cfDNA testing in screening for SCAs. Discordance between ultrasound examination and cfDNA results regarding fetal sex is also discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Energizing eukaryotic cell-free protein synthesis with glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark J; Stark, Jessica C; Hodgman, C Eric; Jewett, Michael C

    2015-07-08

    Eukaryotic cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) is limited by the dependence on costly high-energy phosphate compounds and exogenous enzymes to power protein synthesis (e.g., creatine phosphate and creatine kinase, CrP/CrK). Here, we report the ability to use glucose as a secondary energy substrate to regenerate ATP in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae crude extract CFPS platform. We observed synthesis of 3.64±0.35 μg mL(-1) active luciferase in batch reactions with 16 mM glucose and 25 mM phosphate, resulting in a 16% increase in relative protein yield (μg protein/$ reagents) compared to the CrP/CrK system. Our demonstration provides the foundation for development of cost-effective eukaryotic CFPS platforms.

  15. Spinal Fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... concept of fusion is similar to that of welding in industry. Spinal fusion surgery, however, does not ... bone taken from the patient has a long history of use and results in predictable healing. Autograft ...

  16. Spinal Fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... concept of fusion is similar to that of welding in industry. Spinal fusion surgery, however, does not ... bone taken from the patient has a long history of use and results in predictable healing. Autograft ...

  17. Performance benchmarking of four cell-free protein expression systems.

    PubMed

    Gagoski, Dejan; Polinkovsky, Mark E; Mureev, Sergey; Kunert, Anne; Johnston, Wayne; Gambin, Yann; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2016-02-01

    Over the last half century, a range of cell-free protein expression systems based on pro- and eukaryotic organisms have been developed and have found a range of applications, from structural biology to directed protein evolution. While it is generally accepted that significant differences in performance among systems exist, there is a paucity of systematic experimental studies supporting this notion. Here, we took advantage of the species-independent translation initiation sequence to express and characterize 87 N-terminally GFP-tagged human cytosolic proteins of different sizes in E. coli, wheat germ (WGE), HeLa, and Leishmania-based (LTE) cell-free systems. Using a combination of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot analysis, we assessed the expression yields, the fraction of full-length translation product, and aggregation propensity for each of these systems. Our results demonstrate that the E. coli system has the highest expression yields. However, we observe that high expression levels are accompanied by production of truncated species-particularly pronounced in the case of proteins larger than 70 kDa. Furthermore, proteins produced in the E. coli system display high aggregation propensity, with only 10% of tested proteins being produced in predominantly monodispersed form. The WGE system was the most productive among eukaryotic systems tested. Finally, HeLa and LTE show comparable protein yields that are considerably lower than the ones achieved in the E. coli and WGE systems. The protein products produced in the HeLa system display slightly higher integrity, whereas the LTE-produced proteins have the lowest aggregation propensity among the systems analyzed. The high quality of HeLa- and LTE-produced proteins enable their analysis without purification and make them suitable for analysis of multi-domain eukaryotic proteins.

  18. Accumulation of dsRNA in endosomes contributes to inefficient RNA interference in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Yoon, June-Sun; Gurusamy, Dhandapani; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2017-09-23

    RNA interference (RNAi) efficiency varies among insects studied. The barriers for successful RNAi include the presence of double-stranded ribonucleases (dsRNase) in the lumen and hemolymph that could potentially digest double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and the variability in the transport of dsRNA into and within the cells. We recently showed that the dsRNAs are transported into lepidopteran cells, but they are not processed into small interference RNAs (siRNAs) because they are trapped in acidic bodies. In the current study, we focused on the identification of acidic bodies in which dsRNAs accumulate in Sf9 cells. Time-lapse imaging studies showed that dsRNAs enter Sf9 cells and accumulate in acidic bodies within 20 min after their addition to the medium. CypHer-5E-labeled dsRNA also accumulated in the midgut and fat body dissected from Spodoptera frugiperda larvae with similar patterns observed in Sf9 cells. Pharmacological inhibitor assays showed that the dsRNAs use clathrin mediated endocytosis pathway for transport into the cells. We investigated the potential dsRNA accumulation sites employing LysoTracker and double labeling experiments using the constructs to express a fusion of green fluorescence protein with early or late endosomal marker proteins and CypHer-5E-labeled dsRNA. Interestingly, CypHer-5E-labeled dsRNA accumulated predominantly in early and late endosomes. These data suggest that entrapment of internalized dsRNA in endosomes is one of the major factors contributing to inefficient RNAi response in lepidopteran insects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fluorescent biosensors illuminate calcium levels within defined beta-cell endosome subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Tobias; Zhao, Yongxin; Nguyen, Trang Hai; Campbell, Robert E; Johnson, James D

    2015-04-01

    Live cell imaging has revealed that calcium ions (Ca(2+)) pass in and out of many cellular organelles. However, technical hurdles have limited measurements of Ca(2+) in acidic organelles, such as endosomes. Although evidence hints that endosomes play a role in Ca(2+) signaling, direct measurements within endosomal lumina represent one of the final frontiers in organelle imaging. To measure Ca(2+) in a TiVAMP-positive endosome sub-population, the pH-resistant ratiometric Ca(2+) biosensor GEM-GECO1 and the ratiometric pH biosensor mKeima were used. A positive correlation between acidic endosomal pH and higher Ca(2+) was observed within these Rab5a- and Rab7-positive compartments. Ca(2+) concentration in most endosomes was estimated to be below 2μM, lower than Ca(2+) levels in several other intracellular stores, indicating that endosomes may take up Ca(2+) during physiological stimulation. Indeed, endosomes accumulated Ca(2+) during glucose-stimulation, a condition where endosomal pH did not change. Our biosensors permitted the first measurements revealing a role for endosomes in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis during physiological stimulation.

  20. Endosome-mitochondria interactions are modulated by iron release from transferrin.

    PubMed

    Das, Anupam; Nag, Sagarika; Mason, Anne B; Barroso, Margarida M

    2016-09-26

    Transient "kiss and run" interactions between endosomes containing iron-bound transferrin (Tf) and mitochondria have been shown to facilitate direct iron transfer in erythroid cells. In this study, we used superresolution three-dimensional (3D) direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy to show that Tf-containing endosomes directly interact with mitochondria in epithelial cells. We used live-cell time-lapse fluorescence microscopy, followed by 3D rendering, object tracking, and a distance transformation algorithm, to track Tf-endosomes and characterize the dynamics of their interactions with mitochondria. Quenching of iron sensor RDA-labeled mitochondria confirmed functional iron transfer by an interacting Tf-endosome. The motility of Tf-endosomes is significantly reduced upon interaction with mitochondria. To further assess the functional role of iron in the ability of Tf-endosomes to interact with mitochondria, we blocked endosomal iron release by using a Tf K206E/K534A mutant. Blocking intraendosomal iron release led to significantly increased motility of Tf-endosomes and increased duration of endosome-mitochondria interactions. Thus, intraendosomal iron regulates the kinetics of the interactions between Tf-containing endosomes and mitochondria in epithelial cells. © 2016 Das et al.

  1. Neuronal early endosomes require EHD1 for L1/NgCAM trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Lasiecka, Z. M.; Yap, C. C.; Caplan, S.; Winckler, B.

    2010-01-01

    In neurons, the endosomal system is essential for membrane receptor trafficking to dendrites and axons, and thereby participates in various neuronal functions, such as neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity. A multitude of regulators coordinates trafficking through endosomes, but most of them have not been studied in detail in neurons. In non-neuronal cells, EHD1 (Eps15 homology-domain containing protein 1) functions in the recycling endosome and is required for endosome-to-plasma membrane transport of multiple cargos. In this study, we analyze the role of EHD1 in neurons. In particular, we investigate whether EHD1 is required for polarized trafficking of the dendritically-targeted transferrin and the axonal adhesion molecule L1/NgCAM, and if so, in what compartment it is required. We find that endosomal recycling of both L1/NgCAM and transferrin is impaired when EHD1 is downregulated. We show that EHD1 co-localizes with L1/NgCAM and transferrin mostly in EEA1 (early endosome antigen 1)-positive early endosomes and less extensively with recycling endosomes. Using live imaging, we observe that EHD1 is stably associated with endosomal membranes during their maturation into EEA1-positive compartments and often persists on them longer than EEA1. Finally we show that downregulation of EHD1 causes a delay of L1/NgCAM in exiting EEA1-positive endosomes, resulting in impaired targeting of L1/NgCAM to the axonal membrane. We conclude that in neurons EHD1 functions in early endosomes rather than (or possibly in addition to) recycling endosomes. These findings point to the existence of neuronal adaptations of the endosomal system. PMID:21147988

  2. Cell-free eukaryotic systems for the production, engineering, and modification of scFv antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Stech, Marlitt; Hust, Michael; Schulze, Corina; Dübel, Stefan; Kubick, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    Open cell-free translation systems based on Escherichia coli cell lysates have successfully been used to produce antibodies and antibody fragments. In this study, we demonstrate the cell-free expression of functional single-chain antibody variable fragments (scFvs) in a eukaryotic and endotoxin-free in vitro translation system based on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cell extracts. Three scFv candidates with different specificities were chosen as models. The first scFv candidate SH527-IIA4 specifically discriminates between its phosphorylated (SMAD2-P) and nonphosphorylated antigens (SMAD2) (where SMAD is mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2), whereas the second scFv candidate SH527-IIC10 recognizes both, SMAD2-P and SMAD2. The third scFv candidate SH855-C11 binds specifically to a linear epitope of the CXC chemokine receptor type 5. The translocation of antibody fragments into the lumen of endogenous microsomal vesicles, which are contained in the lysate, was facilitated by fusion of scFv genes to the insect cell specific signal sequence of honeybee melittin. We compared the binding capabilities of scFv fragments with and without melittin signal peptide and detected that translocated scFv fragments were highly functional, whereas scFvs synthesized in the cytosol of the cell extract showed strongly decreased binding capabilities. Additionally, we describe a cell-free protein synthesis method for the incorporation of noncanonical amino acids into scFv molecules in eukaryotic cell lysates. We demonstrate the successful cotranslational labeling of de novo synthesized scFv molecules with fluorescent amino acids, using residue-specific as well as site-specific labeling.

  3. Cell-free eukaryotic systems for the production, engineering, and modification of scFv antibody fragments

    PubMed Central

    Stech, Marlitt; Hust, Michael; Schulze, Corina; Dübel, Stefan; Kubick, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Open cell-free translation systems based on Escherichia coli cell lysates have successfully been used to produce antibodies and antibody fragments. In this study, we demonstrate the cell-free expression of functional single-chain antibody variable fragments (scFvs) in a eukaryotic and endotoxin-free in vitro translation system based on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cell extracts. Three scFv candidates with different specificities were chosen as models. The first scFv candidate SH527-IIA4 specifically discriminates between its phosphorylated (SMAD2-P) and nonphosphorylated antigens (SMAD2) (where SMAD is mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2), whereas the second scFv candidate SH527-IIC10 recognizes both, SMAD2-P and SMAD2. The third scFv candidate SH855-C11 binds specifically to a linear epitope of the CXC chemokine receptor type 5. The translocation of antibody fragments into the lumen of endogenous microsomal vesicles, which are contained in the lysate, was facilitated by fusion of scFv genes to the insect cell specific signal sequence of honeybee melittin. We compared the binding capabilities of scFv fragments with and without melittin signal peptide and detected that translocated scFv fragments were highly functional, whereas scFvs synthesized in the cytosol of the cell extract showed strongly decreased binding capabilities. Additionally, we describe a cell-free protein synthesis method for the incorporation of noncanonical amino acids into scFv molecules in eukaryotic cell lysates. We demonstrate the successful cotranslational labeling of de novo synthesized scFv molecules with fluorescent amino acids, using residue-specific as well as site-specific labeling. PMID:25821419

  4. OCRL controls trafficking through early endosomes via PtdIns4,5P2-dependent regulation of endosomal actin

    PubMed Central

    Vicinanza, Mariella; Di Campli, Antonella; Polishchuk, Elena; Santoro, Michele; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Godi, Anna; Levtchenko, Elena; De Leo, Maria Giovanna; Polishchuk, Roman; Sandoval, Lisette; Marzolo, Maria-Paz; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns4,5P2) 5-phosphatase OCRL cause Lowe syndrome, which is characterised by congenital cataracts, central hypotonia, and renal proximal tubular dysfunction. Previous studies have shown that OCRL interacts with components of the endosomal machinery; however, its role in endocytosis, and thus the pathogenic mechanisms of Lowe syndrome, have remained elusive. Here, we show that via its 5-phosphatase activity, OCRL controls early endosome (EE) function. OCRL depletion impairs the recycling of multiple classes of receptors, including megalin (which mediates protein reabsorption in the kidney) that are retained in engorged EEs. These trafficking defects are caused by ectopic accumulation of PtdIns4,5P2 in EEs, which in turn induces an N-WASP-dependent increase in endosomal F-actin. Our data provide a molecular explanation for renal proximal tubular dysfunction in Lowe syndrome and highlight that tight control of PtdIns4,5P2 and F-actin at the EEs is essential for exporting cargoes that transit this compartment. PMID:21971085

  5. Efficient expression and immunoaffinity purification of human trace amine-associated receptor 5 from E. coli cell-free system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqiang; Cui, Ying; Wang, Jiqian

    2013-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent attractive targets for bioactive and drug discovery programs. The availability of purified receptors in milligram quantities is essential to spur the advancement of protein-based analyses in these programs, although it is still a challenging goal to achieve. Here we report the production of a bioengineered GPCR of human trace amine-associated receptor 5 (hTAAR5) from an E. coli cell-free system. Both the hTAAR5 and hTAAR5-T4 lysozyme fusion proteins (hTAAR5-T4L) were cloned and expressed in this process, with the latter designed for further protein crystallization trials. The detergent Brij-35 was found to solubilize the produced hTAAR5 and hTAAR5-T4L effectively. Immunoaffinity purification in combination with gel filtration was employed to purify the receptors to high homogeneity. The final yields of monomeric hTAAR5 and hTAAR5-T4L from a 1 mL cell-free reaction were 0.4 mg and 0.5 mg, respectively. Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy indicated that both hTAAR5 and hTAAR5- T4L were correctly folded after purification, with characteristic high α-helical contents ( > 45%).

  6. Intra-endosomal trafficking mediated by lysobisphosphatidic acid contributes to intracellular release of phosphorothioate-modified antisense oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Tanowitz, Michael; Liang, Xue-hai; Crooke, Stanley T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) with phosphorothioate (PS) linkages are broadly used as research tools and therapeutic agents. Chemically modified PS-ASOs can mediate efficient target reduction by site-specific cleavage of RNA through RNase H1. PS-ASOs are known to be internalized via a number of endocytotic pathways and are released from membrane-enclosed endocytotic organelles, mainly late endosomes (LEs). This study was focused on the details of PS-ASO trafficking through endocytic pathways. It was found that lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) is required for release of PS-ASOs from LEs. PS-ASOs exited early endosomes (EEs) rapidly after internalization and became co-localized with LBPA by 2 hours in LEs. Inside LEs, PS-ASOs and LBPA were co-localized in punctate, dot-like structures, likely intraluminal vesicles (ILVs). Deactivation of LBPA using anti-LBPA antibody significantly decreased PS-ASO activities without affecting total PS-ASO uptake. Reduction of Alix also substantially decreased PS-ASO activities without affecting total PS-ASO uptake. Furthermore, Alix reduction decreased LBPA levels and limited co-localization of LBPA with PS-ASOs at ILVs inside LEs. Thus, the fusion properties of ILVs, which are supported by LBPA, contribute to PS-ASO intracellular release from LEs. PMID:28379543

  7. Intra-endosomal trafficking mediated by lysobisphosphatidic acid contributes to intracellular release of phosphorothioate-modified antisense oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiyu; Sun, Hong; Tanowitz, Michael; Liang, Xue-Hai; Crooke, Stanley T

    2017-05-19

    Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) with phosphorothioate (PS) linkages are broadly used as research tools and therapeutic agents. Chemically modified PS-ASOs can mediate efficient target reduction by site-specific cleavage of RNA through RNase H1. PS-ASOs are known to be internalized via a number of endocytotic pathways and are released from membrane-enclosed endocytotic organelles, mainly late endosomes (LEs). This study was focused on the details of PS-ASO trafficking through endocytic pathways. It was found that lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) is required for release of PS-ASOs from LEs. PS-ASOs exited early endosomes (EEs) rapidly after internalization and became co-localized with LBPA by 2 hours in LEs. Inside LEs, PS-ASOs and LBPA were co-localized in punctate, dot-like structures, likely intraluminal vesicles (ILVs). Deactivation of LBPA using anti-LBPA antibody significantly decreased PS-ASO activities without affecting total PS-ASO uptake. Reduction of Alix also substantially decreased PS-ASO activities without affecting total PS-ASO uptake. Furthermore, Alix reduction decreased LBPA levels and limited co-localization of LBPA with PS-ASOs at ILVs inside LEs. Thus, the fusion properties of ILVs, which are supported by LBPA, contribute to PS-ASO intracellular release from LEs. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Prolonged cell-free protein synthesis in a batch system using wheat germ extract.

    PubMed

    Kawarasaki, Y; Nakano, H; Yamane, T

    1994-10-01

    Reaction conditions of cell-free protein synthesis using wheat germ extract were examined to prolong the period of protein synthesis in a batch reaction. By optimizing conditions for ATP regeneration system involved in the cell-free system, protein synthesis continued about 4 hours, so that about 17 micrograms dihydrofolate reductase protein was obtained in 1 ml of a reaction mixture. It suggests that maintaining ATP concentration is the primary requirement for long-life cell-free protein synthesis.

  9. Radioscapholunate Fusions

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Duncan Thomas; Bain, Gregory Ian

    2012-01-01

    Radiocarpal fusions are performed for a variety of indications, most commonly for debilitating painful arthritis. The goal of a wrist fusion is to fuse the painful, diseased joints and to preserve motion through the healthy joints. Depending on the extent of the disease process, radiocarpal fusions may take the form of radiolunate, radioscapholunate, or total wrist fusions. Surgical techniques and instrumentation have advanced over the last few decades, and consequently the functional outcomes have improved and complications decreased. Techniques for partial carpal fusions have improved and now include distal scaphoid and triquetrum excision, which improves range of motion and fusion rates. In this article we discuss the various surgical techniques and fixation methods available and review the corresponding evidence in the literature. The authors' preferred surgical technique of radioscapholunate fusion with distal scaphoid and triquetrum excision is outlined. New implants and new concepts are also discussed. PMID:24179717

  10. Stop or Go? Endosome Positioning in the Establishment of Compartment Architecture, Dynamics, and Function.

    PubMed

    Neefjes, Jacques; Jongsma, Marlieke M L; Berlin, Ilana

    2017-03-28

    The endosomal system constitutes a key negotiator between the environment of a cell and its internal affairs. Comprised of a complex membranous network, wherein each vesicle can in principle move autonomously throughout the cell, the endosomal system operates as a coherent unit to optimally face external challenges and maintain homeostasis. Our appreciation of how individual endosomes are controlled in time and space to best serve their collective purpose has evolved dramatically in recent years. In light of these efforts, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - with its expanse of membranes permeating the cytoplasmic space - has emerged as a potent spatiotemporal organizer of endosome biology. We review the latest advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning endosomal transport and positioning, with emphasis on the contributions from the ER, and offer a perspective on how the interplay between these aspects shapes the architecture and dynamics of the endosomal system and drives its myriad cellular functions.

  11. Ceramide Formation Mediated by Acid Sphingomyelinase Facilitates Endosomal Escape of Caliciviruses

    PubMed Central

    Shivanna, Vinay; Kim, Yunjeong; Chang, Kyeong-Ok

    2015-01-01

    Our recent results demonstrated that bile acids facilitate virus escape from the endosomes into the cytoplasm for successful replication of porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC). We report a novel finding that bile acids can be substituted by cold treatment for endosomal escape and virus replication. This endosomal escape by cold treatment or bile acids is associated with ceramide formation by acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). ASM catalyzes hydrolysis of sphingomyelin into ceramide, which is known to destabilize lipid bilayer. Treatment of LLC-PK cells with bile acids or cold led to ceramide formation, and small molecule antagonists or siRNA of ASM blocked ceramide formation in the endosomes and significantly reduced PEC replication. Inhibition of ASM resulted in the retention of PEC, feline calicivirus or murine norovirus in the endosomes in correlation with reduced viral replication. These results suggest the importance of viral escape from the endosomes for the replication of various caliciviruses. PMID:25985440

  12. DEGRADATION OF ERGOTHIONEINE BY CELL-FREE EXTRACTS OF ALCALIGENES FAECALIS II.

    PubMed Central

    Booth, James S.; Appleman, Milo D.

    1963-01-01

    Booth, James S. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles) and Milo D. Appleman. Degradation of ergothioneine by cell-free extracts of Alcaligenes faecalis. II. Production of glutamic acid. J. Bacteriol. 85:654–657. 1963.—On the basis of oxidation and paper chromatographic procedures, glutamic acid was identified as the end product of ergothioneine degradation by cell-free extracts of Alcaligenes faecalis. Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia yields were determined. Several differences between the metabolism of whole cells and cell-free extracts were noted. Cleavage of the imidazole ring by cell-free extracts appeared to be hydrolytic rather than oxidative. PMID:14042946

  13. Localization of BiP to translating ribosomes increases soluble accumulation of secreted eukaryotic proteins in an E. coli cell-free system

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, John P.; Bonomo, Jeanne; Swartz, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident Hsp70 chaperone, BiP, docks to the Sec translocon and interacts co-translationally with polypeptides entering the ER to encourage proper folding. In order to recreate this interaction in E. coli cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) reactions, a fusion protein was formed between the ribosome binding portion of the E. coli protein Trigger Factor (TF) and BiP. The biophysical affinity to ribosomes as well as the characteristic Hsp70 ATPase activity were both verified for the fusion protein. When added to E. coli-based CFPS reactions, the TF-BiP fusion chaperone increased soluble yields of several protein fragments that are normally secreted through the ER and have poor solubility in typical CFPS reactions. For comparison, a fusion between TF and the native E. coli Hsp70, DnaK, was also constructed. This fusion was also biologically active and increased soluble yields of certain protein targets in CFPS. The TF-BiP fusion described in this study can be seen as a first step in reconstituting and better understanding ER folding pathways in the prokaryotic environment of E. coli CFPS. PMID:21351069

  14. Localization of BiP to translating ribosomes increases soluble accumulation of secreted eukaryotic proteins in an Escherichia coli cell-free system.

    PubMed

    Welsh, John P; Bonomo, Jeanne; Swartz, James R

    2011-08-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident Hsp70 chaperone, BiP, docks to the Sec translocon and interacts co-translationally with polypeptides entering the ER to encourage proper folding. In order to recreate this interaction in Escherichia coli cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) reactions, a fusion protein was formed between the ribosome-binding portion of the E. coli protein trigger factor (TF) and BiP. The biophysical affinity to ribosomes as well as the characteristic Hsp70 ATPase activity were both verified for the fusion protein. When added to E. coli-based CFPS reactions, the TF-BiP fusion chaperone increased soluble yields of several protein fragments that are normally secreted through the ER and have poor solubility in typical CFPS reactions. For comparison, a fusion between TF and the native E. coli Hsp70, DnaK, was also constructed. This fusion was also biologically active and increased soluble yields of certain protein targets in CFPS. The TF-BiP fusion described in this study can be seen as a first step in reconstituting and better understanding ER folding pathways in the prokaryotic environment of E. coli CFPS. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Drug Delivery via Cell Membrane Fusion Using Lipopeptide Modified Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Efficient delivery of drugs to living cells is still a major challenge. Currently, most methods rely on the endocytotic pathway resulting in low delivery efficiency due to limited endosomal escape and/or degradation in lysosomes. Here, we report a new method for direct drug delivery into the cytosol of live cells in vitro and invivo utilizing targeted membrane fusion between liposomes and live cells. A pair of complementary coiled-coil lipopeptides was embedded in the lipid bilayer of liposomes and cell membranes respectively, resulting in targeted membrane fusion with concomitant release of liposome encapsulated cargo including fluorescent dyes and the cytotoxic drug doxorubicin. Using a wide spectrum of endocytosis inhibitors and endosome trackers, we demonstrate that the major site of cargo release is at the plasma membrane. This method thus allows for the quick and efficient delivery of drugs and is expected to have many invitro, ex vivo, and invivo applications. PMID:27725960

  16. Structural changes of envelope proteins during alphavirus fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Long; Jose, Joyce; Xiang, Ye; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-12-08

    Alphaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that have a diameter of about 700 {angstrom} and can be lethal human pathogens. Entry of virus into host cells by endocytosis is controlled by two envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2. The E2-E1 heterodimers form 80 trimeric spikes on the icosahedral virus surface, 60 with quasi-three-fold symmetry and 20 coincident with the icosahedral three-fold axes arranged with T = 4 quasi-symmetry. The E1 glycoprotein has a hydrophobic fusion loop at one end and is responsible for membrane fusion. The E2 protein is responsible for receptor binding and protects the fusion loop at neutral pH. The lower pH in the endosome induces the virions to undergo an irreversible conformational change in which E2 and E1 dissociate and E1 forms homotrimers, triggering fusion of the viral membrane with the endosomal membrane and then releasing the viral genome into the cytoplasm. Here we report the structure of an alphavirus spike, crystallized at low pH, representing an intermediate in the fusion process and clarifying the maturation process. The trimer of E2-E1 in the crystal structure is similar to the spikes in the neutral pH virus except that the E2 middle region is disordered, exposing the fusion loop. The amino- and carboxy-terminal domains of E2 each form immunoglobulin-like folds, consistent with the receptor attachment properties of E2.

  17. Dual Wavelength Imaging Allows Analysis of Membrane Fusion of Influenza Virus inside Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Tatsuya; Ohuchi, Masanobu; Imai, Masaki; Mizuno, Takafumi; Kawasaki, Kazunori; Kuroda, Kazumichi; Yamashina, Shohei

    2006-01-01

    Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is a determinant of virus infectivity. Therefore, it is important to determine whether HA of a new influenza virus, which can potentially cause pandemics, is functional against human cells. The novel imaging technique reported here allows rapid analysis of HA function by visualizing viral fusion inside cells. This imaging was designed to detect fusion changing the spectrum of the fluorescence-labeled virus. Using this imaging, we detected the fusion between a virus and a very small endosome that could not be detected previously, indicating that the imaging allows highly sensitive detection of viral fusion. PMID:16439557

  18. Counting molecules in single organelles with superresolution microscopy allows tracking of the endosome maturation trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Puchner, Elias M.; Walter, Jessica M.; Kasper, Robert; Huang, Bo; Lim, Wendell A.

    2013-01-01

    Cells tightly regulate trafficking of intracellular organelles, but a deeper understanding of this process is technically limited by our inability to track the molecular composition of individual organelles below the diffraction limit in size. Here we develop a technique for intracellularly calibrated superresolution microscopy that can measure the size of individual organelles as well as accurately count absolute numbers of molecules, by correcting for undercounting owing to immature fluorescent proteins and overcounting owing to fluorophore blinking. Using this technique, we characterized the size of individual vesicles in the yeast endocytic pathway and the number of accessible phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate binding sites they contain. This analysis reveals a characteristic vesicle maturation trajectory of composition and size with both stochastic and regulated components. The trajectory displays some cell-to-cell variability, with smaller variation between organelles within the same cell. This approach also reveals mechanistic information on the order of events in this trajectory: Colocalization analysis with known markers of different vesicle maturation stages shows that phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate production precedes fusion into larger endosomes. This single-organelle analysis can potentially be applied to a range of small organelles to shed light on their precise composition/structure relationships, the dynamics of their regulation, and the noise in these processes. PMID:24043832

  19. Herpesvirus Entry into Host Cells Mediated by Endosomal Low pH.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Anthony V

    2016-09-01

    Herpesviral pathogenesis stems from infection of multiple cell types including the site of latency and cells that support lytic replication. Herpesviruses utilize distinct cellular pathways, including low pH endocytic pathways, to enter different pathophysiologically relevant target cells. This review details the impact of the mildly acidic milieu of endosomes on the entry of herpesviruses, with particular emphasis on herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Epithelial cells, the portal of primary HSV-1 infection, support entry via low pH endocytosis mechanisms. Mildly acidic pH triggers reversible conformational changes in the HSV-1 class III fusion protein glycoprotein B (gB). In vitro treatment of herpes simplex virions with a similar pH range inactivates infectivity, likely by prematurely activating the viral entry machinery in the absence of a target membrane. How a given herpesvirus mediates both low pH and pH-independent entry events is a key unresolved question. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Counting molecules in single organelles with superresolution microscopy allows tracking of the endosome maturation trajectory.

    PubMed

    Puchner, Elias M; Walter, Jessica M; Kasper, Robert; Huang, Bo; Lim, Wendell A

    2013-10-01

    Cells tightly regulate trafficking of intracellular organelles, but a deeper understanding of this process is technically limited by our inability to track the molecular composition of individual organelles below the diffraction limit in size. Here we develop a technique for intracellularly calibrated superresolution microscopy that can measure the size of individual organelles as well as accurately count absolute numbers of molecules, by correcting for undercounting owing to immature fluorescent proteins and overcounting owing to fluorophore blinking. Using this technique, we characterized the size of individual vesicles in the yeast endocytic pathway and the number of accessible phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate binding sites they contain. This analysis reveals a characteristic vesicle maturation trajectory of composition and size with both stochastic and regulated components. The trajectory displays some cell-to-cell variability, with smaller variation between organelles within the same cell. This approach also reveals mechanistic information on the order of events in this trajectory: Colocalization analysis with known markers of different vesicle maturation stages shows that phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate production precedes fusion into larger endosomes. This single-organelle analysis can potentially be applied to a range of small organelles to shed light on their precise composition/structure relationships, the dynamics of their regulation, and the noise in these processes.

  1. MYO6 Regulates Spatial Organization of Signaling Endosomes Driving AKT Activation and Actin Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Masters, Thomas A; Tumbarello, David A; Chibalina, Margarita V; Buss, Folma

    2017-06-06

    APPL1- and RAB5-positive signaling endosomes play a crucial role in the activation of AKT in response to extracellular stimuli. Myosin VI (MYO6) and two of its cargo adaptor proteins, GIPC and TOM1/TOM1L2, localize to these peripheral endosomes and mediate endosome association with cortical actin filaments. Loss of MYO6 leads to the displacement of these endosomes from the cell cortex and accumulation in the perinuclear space. Depletion of this myosin not only affects endosome positioning, but also induces actin and lipid remodeling consistent with endosome maturation, including accumulation of F-actin and the endosomal lipid PI(3)P. These processes acutely perturb endosome function, as both AKT phosphorylation and RAC-dependent membrane ruffling were markedly reduced by depletion of either APPL1 or MYO6. These results place MYO6 and its binding partners at a central nexus in cellular signaling linking actin dynamics at the cell surface and endosomal signaling in the cell cortex. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rab9-dependent retrograde transport and endosomal sorting of the endopeptidase furin

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl; Gasnereau, Isabelle; Lieu, Zi Zhao; Gleeson, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The endopeptidase furin and the trans-Golgi network protein TGN38 are membrane proteins that recycle between the TGN and plasma membrane. TGN38 is transported by a retromer-dependent pathway from early endosomes to the TGN, whereas the intracellular transport of furin is poorly defined. Here we have identified the itinerary and transport requirements of furin. Using internalisation assays, we show that furin transits the early and late endosomes en route to the TGN. The GTPase Rab9 and the TGN golgin GCC185, components of the late endosome-to-TGN pathway, were required for efficient TGN retrieval of furin. By contrast, TGN38 trafficking was independent of Rab9 and GCC185. To identify the sorting signals for the early endosome-to-TGN pathway, the trafficking of furin–TGN38 chimeras was investigated. The diversion of furin from the Rab9-dependent late-endosome-to-TGN pathway to the retromer-dependent early-endosome-to-TGN pathway required both the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of TGN38. We present evidence to suggest that the length of the transmembrane domain is a contributing factor in endosomal sorting. Overall, these data show that furin uses the Rab9-dependent pathway from late endosomes and that retrograde transport directly from early endosomes is dependent on both the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. PMID:21693586

  3. Protein Synthesis Using A Reconstituted Cell-Free System

    PubMed Central

    Tuckey, Corinna; Asahara, Haruichi; Zhou, Ying; Chong, Shaorong

    2014-01-01

    Most cell free protein synthesis systems are based on cell extracts, which often contain undesirable activities. The reconstituted systems, by contrast, are composed of a defined number of purified and recombinant components with minimal nuclease and protease activities. This unit describes the use of a particular commercial reconstituted system, "PURExpress®" This system allows in vitro synthesis of proteins from mRNA and circular and linear DNA templates, as well as co-translational labeling of proteins. Unique to this system, all recombinant protein components of the system are His-tagged, allowing purification of the synthesized untagged protein by removing the rest of the system’s components. Newly synthesized proteins can often be visible on a SDS-PAGE gel and directly assayed for their functions without labeling and purification. Certain components of the system, such as ribosomes or release factors, can be omitted for specific applications. Such "delta" versions of the system are well suited for studies of bacterial translation, assays of ribosome functions, incorporation of unnatural amino acids and ribosome display of protein libraries. PMID:25271715

  4. Probiotic Properties of Lyophilized Cell Free Extract of Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Saadatzadeh, Afrooz; Fazeli, Mohamma Reza; Jamalifar, Hossein; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2013-08-01

    In recent years there have been considerable interests in the use of probiotic live cells for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. This strategy can be concomitant with some limitations such as survival of live cell during the GI-transit and their effective delivery to target tissues upon ingestion. Several attempts have been made to overcome these limitations such as their microencapsulation, spray-drying and lyophilization. In this study extract of cultured probiotics without cells was evaluated for its antimicrobial effects, antioxidant activity, and its stability. In this work the potential of lyophilized-cell-free-probiotic-extract (LPE) as a suitable alternative strategy for the preparation of probiotic-products was investigated. The main aim of this study was to find out the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of LPE and also its stability. LPE was obtained by centrifugation and subsequent lyophilization of the collected supernatant from culture media of Lactobacillus casei. An enzymatic reagent-kit was used for detection of its content of lactic acid. Antibacterial test was performed using agar cup-plat-method, the DPPH scavenging -assay was used to determine its antioxidant activity and during a storage course, LPE was under a long-term stability study. Results showed that, LPE had more antipathogenic effects, antioxidant activity, and stability during storage-time when compared to fresh probiotic-extract. Employing the LPE as a new approach, gives novel concept of probiotic-products in food and medical marketing.

  5. Probiotic Properties of Lyophilized Cell Free Extract of Lactobacillus casei

    PubMed Central

    Saadatzadeh, Afrooz; Fazeli, Mohamma Reza; Jamalifar, Hossein; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years there have been considerable interests in the use of probiotic live cells for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. This strategy can be concomitant with some limitations such as survival of live cell during the GI-transit and their effective delivery to target tissues upon ingestion. Several attempts have been made to overcome these limitations such as their microencapsulation, spray-drying and lyophilization. Objectives In this study extract of cultured probiotics without cells was evaluated for its antimicrobial effects, antioxidant activity, and its stability. Materials and Methods In this work the potential of lyophilized-cell-free-probiotic-extract (LPE) as a suitable alternative strategy for the preparation of probiotic-products was investigated. The main aim of this study was to find out the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of LPE and also its stability. LPE was obtained by centrifugation and subsequent lyophilization of the collected supernatant from culture media of Lactobacillus casei. An enzymatic reagent-kit was used for detection of its content of lactic acid. Antibacterial test was performed using agar cup-plat-method, the DPPH scavenging -assay was used to determine its antioxidant activity and during a storage course, LPE was under a long-term stability study. Results Results showed that, LPE had more antipathogenic effects, antioxidant activity, and stability during storage-time when compared to fresh probiotic-extract. Conclusions Employing the LPE as a new approach, gives novel concept of probiotic-products in food and medical marketing. PMID:24624202

  6. Circulating Cell Free DNA in the Diagnosis of Trophoblastic Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Openshaw, Mark R.; Harvey, Richard A.; Sebire, Neil J.; Kaur, Baljeet; Sarwar, Naveed; Seckl, Michael J.; Fisher, Rosemary A.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) represents a group of diseases characterized by production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Since non-gestational tumors may occasionally secrete hCG, histopathological diagnosis is important for appropriate clinical management. However, a histopathological diagnosis is not always available. We therefore investigated the feasibility of extracting cell free DNA (cfDNA) from the plasma of women with GTN for use as a “liquid biopsy” in patients without histopathological diagnosis. cfDNA was prepared from the plasma of 20 women with a diagnosis of GTN and five with hCG-secreting tumors of unknown origin. Genotyping of cfDNA from the patient, genomic DNA from her and her partner and DNA from the tumor tissue identified circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) (from 9% to 53% of total cfDNA) in 12 of 20 patients with GTN. In one case without a tissue diagnosis, ctDNA enabled a diagnosis of GTN originating in a non-molar conception and in another a diagnosis of non-gestational tumor, based on the high degree of allelic instability and loss of heterozygosity in the ctDNA. In summary ctDNA can be detected in the plasma of women with GTN and can facilitate the diagnosis of both gestational and non-gestational trophoblastic tumors in cases without histopathological diagnosis. PMID:26981554

  7. Cell-free Circulating miRNA Biomarkers in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Meng-Hsuan; Chen, Liang; Fu, Yebo; Wang, Wendy; Fu, Sidney W.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable attention and an enormous amount of resources have been dedicated to cancer biomarker discovery and validation. However, there are still a limited number of useful biomarkers available for clinical use. An ideal biomarker should be easily assayed with minimally invasive medical procedures but possess high sensitivity and specificity. Commonly used circulating biomarkers are proteins in serum, most of which require labor-intensive analysis hindered by low sensitivity in early tumor detection. Since the deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) is associated with cancer development and progression, profiling of circulating miRNAs has been used in a number of studies to identify novel minimally invasive miRNA biomarkers. In this review, we discuss the origin of the circulating cell-free miRNAs and their carriers in blood. We summarize the clinical use and function of potentially promising miRNA biomarkers in a variety of different cancers, along with their downstream target genes in tumor initiation and development. Additionally, we analyze some technical challenges in applying miRNA biomarkers to clinical practice. PMID:23074383

  8. Circulating Cell Free DNA in the Diagnosis of Trophoblastic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, Mark R; Harvey, Richard A; Sebire, Neil J; Kaur, Baljeet; Sarwar, Naveed; Seckl, Michael J; Fisher, Rosemary A

    2016-02-01

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) represents a group of diseases characterized by production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Since non-gestational tumors may occasionally secrete hCG, histopathological diagnosis is important for appropriate clinical management. However, a histopathological diagnosis is not always available. We therefore investigated the feasibility of extracting cell free DNA (cfDNA) from the plasma of women with GTN for use as a "liquid biopsy" in patients without histopathological diagnosis. cfDNA was prepared from the plasma of 20 women with a diagnosis of GTN and five with hCG-secreting tumors of unknown origin. Genotyping of cfDNA from the patient, genomic DNA from her and her partner and DNA from the tumor tissue identified circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) (from 9% to 53% of total cfDNA) in 12 of 20 patients with GTN. In one case without a tissue diagnosis, ctDNA enabled a diagnosis of GTN originating in a non-molar conception and in another a diagnosis of non-gestational tumor, based on the high degree of allelic instability and loss of heterozygosity in the ctDNA. In summary ctDNA can be detected in the plasma of women with GTN and can facilitate the diagnosis of both gestational and non-gestational trophoblastic tumors in cases without histopathological diagnosis.

  9. Effect of plasma expander viscosity on the cell free layer.

    PubMed

    Hightower, C Makena; Yalcin, Ozlem; Vázquez, Beatriz Y Salazar; Johnson, Paul C; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    The effect of low and high viscosity hemodilution with plasma expanders on the extent of the cell free layer (CFL) width was analyzed in the microcirculation of the exteriorized cremaster muscle preparation of Sprague-Dawley male rats. Anesthetized animals were subjected to 40% hemodilution by blood volume, using 5% human serum albumin (HSA) or 6% Hetastarch (hydroxyethyl starch 670 kDa). Arterioles (n=5 for each treatment) were investigated. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, vessel flow velocity and CFL width were measured at baseline and 5, 20 and 40 min post-exchange transfusion. Blood and plasma viscosity was determined from terminal blood collections. CFL width and pseudoshear rate, diameter and flow, normalized to baseline, were significantly elevated at all post-exchange assessments. Peripheral vascular resistance decreased. The increase of the CFL width was greater with HSA by comparison with Hetastarch hemodilution (p<0.05). Hetastarch blood and plasma viscosities increased significantly compared to those of HSA (p<0.05). This study shows that CFL widths are influenced by plasma expander viscosity, a phenomenon proportional to the increase in molecular weight of the colloids in solution.

  10. Cell-free protein synthesis and assembly on a biochip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyman, Yael; Buxboim, Amnon; Wolf, Sharon G.; Daube, Shirley S.; Bar-Ziv, Roy H.

    2012-06-01

    Biologically active complexes such as ribosomes and bacteriophages are formed through the self-assembly of proteins and nucleic acids. Recapitulating these biological self-assembly processes in a cell-free environment offers a way to develop synthetic biodevices. To visualize and understand the assembly process, a platform is required that enables simultaneous synthesis, assembly and imaging at the nanoscale. Here, we show that a silicon dioxide grid, used to support samples in transmission electron microscopy, can be modified into a biochip to combine in situ protein synthesis, assembly and imaging. Light is used to pattern the biochip surface with genes that encode specific proteins, and antibody traps that bind and assemble the nascent proteins. Using transmission electron microscopy imaging we show that protein nanotubes synthesized on the biochip surface in the presence of antibody traps efficiently assembled on these traps, but pre-assembled nanotubes were not effectively captured. Moreover, synthesis of green fluorescent protein from its immobilized gene generated a gradient of captured proteins decreasing in concentration away from the gene source. This biochip could be used to create spatial patterns of proteins assembled on surfaces.

  11. Cell-Free Fetal DNA Testing for Prenatal Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Drury, S; Hill, M; Chitty, L S

    Prenatal diagnosis and screening have undergone rapid development in recent years, with advances in molecular technology driving the change. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down syndrome as a highly sensitive screening test is now available worldwide through the commercial sector with many countries moving toward implementation into their publically funded maternity systems. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) can now be performed for definitive diagnosis of some recessive and X-linked conditions, rather than just paternally inherited dominant and de novo conditions. NIPD/T offers pregnant couples greater choice during their pregnancy as these safer methods avoid the risk of miscarriage associated with invasive testing. As the cost of sequencing falls and technology develops further, there may well be potential for whole exome and whole genome sequencing of the unborn fetus using cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma. How such assays can or should be implemented into the clinical setting remain an area of significant debate, but it is clear that the progress made to date for safer prenatal testing has been welcomed by expectant couples and their healthcare professionals. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-04-20

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  13. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-02-22

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  14. "Polarized" Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieck, Hans Paetz Gen.

    Increasing energy demand in view of limited supply, as well as environmental and nuclear-safety concerns leading to increased emphasis on renewable energy sources such as solar or wind energy are expected to focus public and scientific interest increasingly also on fusion energy. With the decision to build ITER (low-density magnetic confinement) and also continuing research on (high-density) inertial-confinement fusion (cf. the inauguration of the laser fusion facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) prospects of fusion energy have probably entered a new era.

  15. Characterization of the late endosomal ESCRT machinery in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jason S; Muratore, Katherine A; Bangs, James D

    2013-10-01

    The multivesicular body (MVB) is a specialized Rab7+ late endosome (LE) containing multiple intralumenal vesicles that function in targeting ubiquitinylated cell surface proteins to the lysosome for degradation. African trypanosomes lack a morphologically well-defined MVB, but contain orthologs of the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport) machinery that mediates MVB formation. We investigate the role of TbVps23, an early ESCRT component, and TbVps4, the terminal ESCRT ATPase, in lysosomal trafficking in bloodstream form trypanosomes. Both localize to the TbRab7+ LE and RNAi silencing of each rapidly blocks growth. TbVps4 silencing results in approximately threefold accumulation of TbVps23 at the LE, consistent with blocking terminal ESCRT disassembly. Trafficking of endocytic and biosynthetic cargo, but not default lysosomal reporters, is also negatively affected. Others reported that TbVps23 mediates ubiquitin-dependent lysosomal degradation of invariant surface glycoproteins (ISG65) (Leung et al., Traffic 2008;9:1698-1716). In contrast, we find that TbVps23 ablation does not affect ISG65 turnover, while TbVps4 silencing markedly enhances lysosomal degradation. We propose several models to accommodate these results, including that the ESCRT machinery actually retrieves ISG65 from the LE to earlier endocytic compartments, and in its absence ISG65 traffics more efficiently to the lysosome. Overall, these results confirm that the ESCRT machinery is essential in Trypanosoma brucei and plays important and novel role(s) in LE function in trypanosomes.

  16. ESCRT-III on endosomes: new functions, new activation pathway.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Philip

    2016-01-15

    The multivesicular body (MVB) pathway sorts ubiquitinated membrane cargo to intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) within the endosome, en route to the lysosomal lumen. The pathway involves the sequential action of conserved protein complexes [endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs)], culminating in the activation by ESCRT-II of ESCRT-III, a membrane-sculpting complex. Although this linear pathway of ESCRT activation is widely accepted, a study by Luzio and colleagues in a recent issue of the Biochemical Journal suggests that there is greater complexity in ESCRT-III activation, at least for some MVB cargoes. They show that ubiquitin-dependent sorting of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I to the MVB requires the central ESCRT-III complex but does not involve either ESCRT-II or functional links between ESCRT-II and ESCRT-III. Instead, they propose that MHC class I utilizes histidine-domain protein tyrosine phosphatase (HD-PTP), a non-canonical ESCRT interactor, to promote ESCRT-III activation.

  17. Dynamic imaging of the recycling endosomal network in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wall, Adam A; Condon, Nicholas D; Yeo, Jeremy C; Hamilton, Nicholas A; Stow, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Recycling endosomes (REs) form an extensive and complex network of subcompartmentalized vesicular and tubular elements that connect with the cell surface and other endosomes in macrophages. As surveillance and defense cells of the innate immune system, macrophages are highly dependent on REs for their active and voluminous cell surface turnover and endocytic, exocytic, and recycling of membrane and cargo. Here we set out three approaches for imaging and analyzing REs in macrophages, based on the expression of fluorescently labeled RE-associated proteins and the uptake of fluorescent cargo. Subcompartments of the REs are identified by co-expression and co-localization analysis of RE associated Rab GTPases. Transferrin is a well-known cargo marker as it recycles through REs and it is compared here to other cargo, revealing how different endocytic routes intersect with REs. We show how the movement of transferrin through REs can be modeled and quantified in live cells. Finally, since phagosomes are a signature organelle for macrophages, and REs fuse with the maturing phagosome, we show imaging of REs with phagosomes using a genetically encoded pH-sensitive SNARE-based probe. Together these approaches provide multiple ways to comprehensively analyze REs and the important roles they play in these immune cells and more broadly in other cell types.

  18. ARHGAP22 Localizes at Endosomes and Regulates Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Mamiko; Saito, Koji; Ohta, Yasutaka

    2014-01-01

    Rho small GTPases control cell morphology and motility through the rearrangement of actin cytoskeleton. We have previously shown that FilGAP, a Rac-specific GAP, binds to the actin-cross-linking protein Filamin A (FLNa) and suppresses Rac-dependent lamellae formation and cell spreading. ARHGAP22 is a member of FilGAP family, and implicated in the regulation of tumor cell motility. However, little is known concerning the cellular localization and mechanism of regulation at the molecular level. Whereas FilGAP binds to FLNa and localizes to lamellae, we found that ARHGAP22 did not bind to FLNa. Forced expression of ARHGAP22 induced enlarged vesicular structures containing the endocytic markers EEA1, Rab5, and Rab11. Moreover, endogenous ARHGAP22 is co-localized with EEA1- and Rab11-positive endosomes but not with trans-Golgi marker TNG46. When constitutively activated Rac Q61L mutant was expressed, ARHGAP22 is co-localized with Rac Q61L at membrane ruffles, suggesting that ARHGAP22 is translocated from endosomes to membrane ruffles to inactivate Rac. Forced expression of ARHGAP22 suppressed lamellae formation and cell spreading. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous ARHGAP22 stimulated cell spreading. Thus, our findings suggest that ARHGAP22 controls cell morphology by inactivating Rac but its localization is not mediated by its interaction with FLNa. PMID:24933155

  19. Cytomegalovirus immune evasion by perturbation of endosomal trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Lučin, Pero; Mahmutefendić, Hana; Blagojević Zagorac, Gordana; Ilić Tomaš, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs), members of the herpesvirus family, have evolved a variety of mechanisms to evade the immune response to survive in infected hosts and to establish latent infection. They effectively hide infected cells from the effector mechanisms of adaptive immunity by eliminating cellular proteins (major histocompatibility Class I and Class II molecules) from the cell surface that display viral antigens to CD8 and CD4 T lymphocytes. CMVs also successfully escape recognition and elimination of infected cells by natural killer (NK) cells, effector cells of innate immunity, either by mimicking NK cell inhibitory ligands or by downregulating NK cell-activating ligands. To accomplish these immunoevasion functions, CMVs encode several proteins that function in the biosynthetic pathway by inhibiting the assembly and trafficking of cellular proteins that participate in immune recognition and thereby, block their appearance at the cell surface. However, elimination of these proteins from the cell surface can also be achieved by perturbation of their endosomal route and subsequent relocation from the cell surface into intracellular compartments. Namely, the physiological route of every cellular protein, including immune recognition molecules, is characterized by specific features that determine its residence time at the cell surface. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of endocytic trafficking of immune recognition molecules and perturbations of the endosomal system during infection with CMVs and other members of the herpesvirus family that contribute to their immune evasion mechanisms. PMID:25263490

  20. Structure of the ESCRT-II endosomal trafficking complex.

    PubMed

    Hierro, Aitor; Sun, Ji; Rusnak, Alexander S; Kim, Jaewon; Prag, Gali; Emr, Scott D; Hurley, James H

    2004-09-09

    The multivesicular-body (MVB) pathway delivers transmembrane proteins and lipids to the lumen of the endosome. The multivesicular-body sorting pathway has crucial roles in growth-factor-receptor downregulation, developmental signalling, regulation of the immune response and the budding of certain enveloped viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus. Ubiquitination is a signal for sorting into the MVB pathway, which also requires the functions of three protein complexes, termed ESCRT-I, -II and -III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport). Here we report the crystal structure of the core of the yeast ESCRT-II complex, which contains one molecule of the Vps protein Vps22, the carboxy-terminal domain of Vps36 and two molecules of Vps25, and has the shape of a capital letter 'Y'. The amino-terminal coiled coil of Vps22 and the flexible linker leading to the ubiquitin-binding NZF domain of Vps36 both protrude from the tip of one branch of the 'Y'. Vps22 and Vps36 form nearly equivalent interactions with the two Vps25 molecules at the centre of the 'Y'. The structure suggests how ubiquitinated cargo could be passed between ESCRT components of the MVB pathway through the sequential transfer of ubiquitinated cargo from one complex to the next.

  1. EHD1 Functions in Endosomal Recycling and Confers Salt Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Maya; Leibman, Meirav; Schuster, Silvia; Pitzhadza, Hilla; Avni, Adi

    2013-01-01

    Endocytosis is a crucial process in all eukaryotic organisms including plants. We have previously shown that two Arabidopsis proteins, AtEHD1 and AtEHD2, are involved in endocytosis in plant systems. Knock-down of EHD1 was shown to have a delayed recycling phenotype in mammalians. There are many works in mammalian systems detailing the importance of the various domains in EHDs but, to date, the domains of plant EHD1 that are required for its activity have not been characterized. In this work we demonstrate that knock-down of EHD1 causes a delayed recycling phenotype and reduces Brefeldin A sensitivity in Arabidopsis seedlings. The EH domain of EHD1 was found to be crucial for the localization of EHD1 to endosomal structures. Mutant EHD1 lacking the EH domain did not localize to endosomal structures and showed a phenotype similar to that of EHD1 knock-down seedlings. Mutants lacking the coiled-coil domain, however, showed a phenotype similar to wild-type or EHD1 overexpression seedlings. Salinity stress is a major problem in current agriculture. Microarray data demonstrated that salinity stress enhances the expression of EHD1, and this was confirmed by semi quantitative RT-PCR. We demonstrate herein that transgenic plants over expressing EHD1 possess enhanced tolerance to salt stress, a property which also requires an intact EH domain. PMID:23342166

  2. G Protein–Coupled Receptor Sorting to Endosomes and Lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Marchese, Adriano; Paing, May M.; Temple, Brenda R.S.; Trejo, JoAnn

    2010-01-01

    The heptahelical G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) belong to the largest family of cell surface signaling receptors encoded in the human genome. GPCRs signal to diverse extracellular stimuli and control a vast number of physiological responses, making this receptor class the target of nearly half the drugs currently in use. In addition to rapid desensitization, receptor trafficking is crucial for the temporal and spatial control of GPCR signaling. Sorting signals present in the intracytosolic domains of GPCRs regulate trafficking through the endosomal-lysosomal system. GPCR internalization is mediated by serine and threonine phosphorylation and arrestin binding. Short, linear peptide sequences including tyrosine- and dileucine-based motifs, and PDZ ligands that are recognized by distinct endocytic adaptor proteins also mediate internalization and endosomal sorting of GPCRs. We present new data from bioinformatic searches that reveal the presence of these types of sorting signals in the cytoplasmic tails of many known GPCRs. Several recent studies also indicate that the covalent modification of GPCRs with ubiquitin serves as a signal for internalization and lysosomal sorting, expanding the diversity of mechanisms that control trafficking of mammalian GPCRs. PMID:17995450

  3. Cellular Uptake Mechanisms and Endosomal Trafficking of Supercharged Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, David B.; Villaseñor, Roberto; Dorr, Brent M.; Zerial, Marino; Liu, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Supercharged proteins can deliver functional macromolecules into the cytoplasm of mammalian cells with potencies that exceed those of cationic peptides. The structural features of supercharged proteins that determine their delivery effectiveness and the intracellular fate of supercharged proteins once they enter cells have not yet been studied. Using a large set of supercharged GFP (scGFP) variants, we found that the level of cellular uptake is sigmoidally related to net charge, and that scGFPs enter cells through multiple pathways including clathrin-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Supercharged proteins activate Rho and ERK1/2, and also alter the endocytic transport of transferrin and EGF. Finally, we discovered that the intracellular trafficking of endosomes containing scGFPs is altered in a manner that correlates with protein delivery potency. Collectively, our findings establish basic structure-activity relationships of supercharged proteins and implicate the modulation of endosomal trafficking as a determinant of cell-penetration and macromolecule-delivery efficiency. PMID:22840771

  4. Circulating cell-free DNA in hemodialysis patients predicts mortality.

    PubMed

    Tovbin, David; Novack, Victor; Wiessman, Maya Paryente; Abd Elkadir, Amir; Zlotnik, Moshe; Douvdevani, Amos

    2012-10-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (CFD) appears following cell damage and DNA release, and increases in hemodialysis (HD) patients particularly following HD. We hypothesized that CFD is an integrative marker of tissue damage and can be an independent predictor for all-cause mortality in HD patients. In a prospective study, CFD levels before and after HD were evaluated in 31 chronic HD patients with no acute disease, using the reported rapid non-cumbersome inexpensive fluorometric assay developed in our laboratory. Follow-up levels were assessed at 18 months in 22 patients. All-cause mortality was a primary endpoint. During 42 months of follow-up, 13 of the 31 (41.9%) patients died. The decedents were older than the survivors (mean age 69.9 versus 61.5 years, P = 0.06), but did not differ in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) duration, gender, albumin and hemoglobin, diabetes mellitus and weight. Post-dialysis CFD levels were significantly lower in survivors (median 688 versus 880 ng/mL, P = 0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of CFD levels of 850 ng/mL to predict 42 months (3.5 years) mortality were 73 and 75%, respectively, and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-0.94]. The Cox proportional hazard regression model showed that CFD higher than 850 ng/mL adjusted for age, ESRD duration, weight and creatinine (stepwise model) was highly predictive of all-cause death with a hazard ratio of 8.0 (95% CI 2.3-28.5, P = 0.001). Post-dialysis CFD level is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in patients undergoing HD. We propose that CFD detection is an inexpensive applicable tool for identifying patients at risk and their follow-up.

  5. Cell-Free DNA and Active Rejection in Kidney Allografts.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Roy D; Bromberg, Jonathan S; Poggio, Emilio D; Bunnapradist, Suphamai; Langone, Anthony J; Sood, Puneet; Matas, Arthur J; Mehta, Shikha; Mannon, Roslyn B; Sharfuddin, Asif; Fischbach, Bernard; Narayanan, Mohanram; Jordan, Stanley C; Cohen, David; Weir, Matthew R; Hiller, David; Prasad, Preethi; Woodward, Robert N; Grskovic, Marica; Sninsky, John J; Yee, James P; Brennan, Daniel C

    2017-07-01

    Histologic analysis of the allograft biopsy specimen is the standard method used to differentiate rejection from other injury in kidney transplants. Donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA) is a noninvasive test of allograft injury that may enable more frequent, quantitative, and safer assessment of allograft rejection and injury status. To investigate this possibility, we prospectively collected blood specimens at scheduled intervals and at the time of clinically indicated biopsies. In 102 kidney recipients, we measured plasma levels of dd-cfDNA and correlated the levels with allograft rejection status ascertained by histology in 107 biopsy specimens. The dd-cfDNA level discriminated between biopsy specimens showing any rejection (T cell-mediated rejection or antibody-mediated rejection [ABMR]) and controls (no rejection histologically), P<0.001 (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [AUC], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.61 to 0.86). Positive and negative predictive values for active rejection at a cutoff of 1.0% dd-cfDNA were 61% and 84%, respectively. The AUC for discriminating ABMR from samples without ABMR was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.97). Positive and negative predictive values for ABMR at a cutoff of 1.0% dd-cfDNA were 44% and 96%, respectively. Median dd-cfDNA was 2.9% (ABMR), 1.2% (T cell-mediated types ≥IB), 0.2% (T cell-mediated type IA), and 0.3% in controls (P=0.05 for T cell-mediated rejection types ≥IB versus controls). Thus, dd-cfDNA may be used to assess allograft rejection and injury; dd-cfDNA levels <1% reflect the absence of active rejection (T cell-mediated type ≥IB or ABMR) and levels >1% indicate a probability of active rejection. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Circulating Cell-Free DNA Differentiates Severity of Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Frank, Mayu O

    2016-10-01

    As the U.S. population ages, the incidence of chronic disease will rise. Chronic diseases have been linked to chronic inflammation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature on cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in relation to inflammation. PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched. Inclusion criteria were noninterventional studies on acute and chronic inflammation, autoimmunity, and infection published in English after 2000, conducted in humans using the fluorescence method of quantifying DNA. Of the 442 articles retrieved, 83 were identified for full-text review and 13 remained after application of inclusion criteria. Of the reviewed studies, three involved acute inflammation, six involved chronic inflammation, and four involved infection. Healthy controls with interpretable results were included in six studies, three of which used the Quant-iT high-sensitivity DNA kit and found cfDNA quantities near 800 ng/ml, while the other three used other fluorescence methods and found quantities below 100 ng/ml. All 13 studies compared groups, and all but 1 found statistically significant differences between them. Among studies using the Quant-iT reagent, levels were higher in infection than in chronic inflammation. Among studies that used other reagents, levels increased from chronic to acute inflammation to severe infection. CfDNA levels were associated with mortality and with clinical outcomes in acute inflammation and infection. Most studies assessed cfDNA's correlation with other inflammation biomarkers and found inconclusive results. There appears to be an association between inflammation and cfDNA. Further research is necessary before cfDNA can be used clinically as a measure of inflammation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Plasma fusion and cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hideo, Kozima

    1996-12-31

    Fundamental problems of plasma fusion (controlled thermonuclear fusion) due to the contradicting demands of the magnetic confinement of plasma and suppression of instabilities occurring on and in plasma are surveyed in contrast with problems of cold fusion. Problems in cold fusion due to the complicated constituents and types of force are explained. Typical cold fusion events are explained by a model based on the presence of trapped neutrons in cold fusion materials. The events include Pons-Fleishmann effect, tritium anomaly, helium 4 production, and nuclear transmutation. Fundamental hypothesis of the model is an effectiveness of a new concept--neutron affinity of elements. The neutron affinity is defined and some bases supporting it are explained. Possible justification of the concept by statistical approach is given.

  8. Exocytosis of Varicella-Zoster Virus Virions Involves a Convergence of Endosomal and Autophagy Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, Erin M.; Jarosinski, Keith W.; Jackson, Wallen; Carpenter, John E.

    2016-01-01

    intersection of viral exocytosis and autophagy pathways. Specifically, both LC3-II and Rab11 proteins copurified with some infectious VZV particles. The results suggested that a subpopulation of VZV particles were carried to the cell surface in single-walled vesicles with attributes of an amphisome, an organelle formed from the fusion of an endosome and an autophagosome. Our results also addressed the interpretation of autophagy/xenophagy results with mutated herpes simplex virus lacking its ICP34.5 neurovirulence gene (HSVΔ34.5). The VZV genome lacks an ICP34.5 ortholog, yet we found no evidence of VZV particles housed in a double-membraned autophagosome. In other words, xenophagy, a degradative process documented after infection with HSVΔ34.5, was not observed in VZV-infected cells. PMID:27440906

  9. An Endosomal NAADP-Sensitive Two-Pore Ca(2+) Channel Regulates ER-Endosome Membrane Contact Sites to Control Growth Factor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Bethan S; Eden, Emily R; Hockey, Leanne N; Yates, Elizabeth; Futter, Clare E; Patel, Sandip

    2017-02-14

    Membrane contact sites are regions of close apposition between organelles that facilitate information transfer. Here, we reveal an essential role for Ca(2+) derived from the endo-lysosomal system in maintaining contact between endosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Antagonizing action of the Ca(2+)-mobilizing messenger NAADP, inhibiting its target endo-lysosomal ion channel, TPC1, and buffering local Ca(2+) fluxes all clustered and enlarged late endosomes/lysosomes. We show that TPC1 localizes to ER-endosome contact sites and is required for their formation. Reducing NAADP-dependent contacts delayed EGF receptor de-phosphorylation consistent with close apposition of endocytosed receptors with the ER-localized phosphatase PTP1B. In accord, downstream MAP kinase activation and mobilization of ER Ca(2+) stores by EGF were exaggerated upon NAADP blockade. Membrane contact sites between endosomes and the ER thus emerge as Ca(2+)-dependent hubs for signaling.

  10. Temperature and UV light affect the activity of marine cell-free enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Blair; Hepburn, Christopher David; Lamare, Miles; Baltar, Federico

    2017-09-01

    Microbial extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) is the rate-limiting step in the degradation of organic matter in the oceans. These extracellular enzymes exist in two forms: cell-bound, which are attached to the microbial cell wall, and cell-free, which are completely free of the cell. Contrary to previous understanding, cell-free extracellular enzymes make up a substantial proportion of the total marine EEA. Little is known about these abundant cell-free enzymes, including what factors control their activity once they are away from their sites (cells). Experiments were run to assess how cell-free enzymes (excluding microbes) respond to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and temperature manipulations, previously suggested as potential control factors for these enzymes. The experiments were done with New Zealand coastal waters and the enzymes studied were alkaline phosphatase (APase), β-glucosidase, (BGase), and leucine aminopeptidase (LAPase). Environmentally relevant UVR (i.e. in situ UVR levels measured at our site) reduced cell-free enzyme activities by up to 87 % when compared to controls, likely a consequence of photodegradation. This effect of UVR on cell-free enzymes differed depending on the UVR fraction. Ambient levels of UV radiation were shown to reduce the activity of cell-free enzymes for the first time. Elevated temperatures (15 °C) increased the activity of cell-free enzymes by up to 53 % when compared to controls (10 °C), likely by enhancing the catalytic activity of the enzymes. Our results suggest the importance of both UVR and temperature as control mechanisms for cell-free enzymes. Given the projected warming ocean environment and the variable UVR light regime, it is possible that there could be major changes in the cell-free EEA and in the enzymes contribution to organic matter remineralization in the future.

  11. Committee Opinion Summary No. 640: Cell-Free DNA Screening For Fetal Aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    Noninvasive prenatal screening that uses cell-free DNA from the plasma of pregnant women offers tremendous potential as a screening method for fetal aneuploidy. A number of laboratories have validated different techniques for the use of cell-free DNA as a screening test for fetal aneuploidy. All tests have a high sensitivity and specificity for trisomy 18 and trisomy 21, regardless of which molecular technique is used. Women whose results are not reported, indeterminate, or uninterpretable (a "no call" test result) from cell-free DNA screening should receive further genetic counseling and be offered comprehensive ultrasound evaluation and diagnostic testing because of an increased risk of aneuploidy. Patients should be counseled that cell-free DNA screening does not replace the precision obtained with diagnostic tests, such as chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis and, therefore, is limited in its ability to identify all chromosome abnormalities. Cell-free DNA screening does not assess risk of fetal anomalies such as neural tube defects or ventral wall defects. Patients who are undergoing cell-free DNA screening should be offered maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening or ultrasound evaluation for risk assessment. The cell-free DNA screening test should not be considered in isolation from other clinical findings and test results. Management decisions, including termination of the pregnancy, should not be based on the results of the cell-free DNA screening alone. Patients should be counseled that a negative cell-free DNA test result does not ensure an unaffected pregnancy. Given the performance of conventional screening methods, the limitations of cell-free DNA screening performance, and the limited data on cost-effectiveness in the low-risk obstetric population, conventional screening methods remain the most appropriate choice for first-line screening for most women in the general obstetric population.

  12. Committee Opinion No. 640: Cell-Free DNA Screening For Fetal Aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    Noninvasive prenatal screening that uses cell-free DNA from the plasma of pregnant women offers tremendous potential as a screening method for fetal aneuploidy. A number of laboratories have validated different techniques for the use of cell-free DNA as a screening test for fetal aneuploidy. All tests have a high sensitivity and specificity for trisomy 18 and trisomy 21, regardless of which molecular technique is used. Women whose results are not reported, indeterminate, or uninterpretable (a "no call" test result) from cell-free DNA screening should receive further genetic counseling and be offered comprehensive ultrasound evaluation and diagnostic testing because of an increased risk of aneuploidy. Patients should be counseled that cell-free DNA screening does not replace the precision obtained with diagnostic tests, such as chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis and, therefore, is limited in its ability to identify all chromosome abnormalities. Cell-free DNA screening does not assess risk of fetal anomalies such as neural tube defects or ventral wall defects. Patients who are undergoing cell-free DNA screening should be offered maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening or ultrasound evaluation for risk assessment. The cell-free DNA screening test should not be considered in isolation from other clinical findings and test results. Management decisions, including termination of the pregnancy, should not be based on the results of the cell-free DNA screening alone. Patients should be counseled that a negative cell-free DNA test result does not ensure an unaffected pregnancy. Given the performance of conventional screening methods, the limitations of cell-free DNA screening performance, and the limited data on cost-effectiveness in the low-risk obstetric population, conventional screening methods remain the most appropriate choice for first-line screening for most women in the general obstetric population.

  13. Image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  14. An ESCRT–spastin interaction promotes fission of recycling tubules from the endosome

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Rachel; Lumb, Jennifer H.; Fassier, Coralie; Connell, James W.; Ten Martin, Daniel; Seaman, Matthew N.J.; Hazan, Jamilé

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms coordinating endosomal degradation and recycling are poorly understood, as are the cellular roles of microtubule (MT) severing. We show that cells lacking the MT-severing protein spastin had increased tubulation of and defective receptor sorting through endosomal tubular recycling compartments. Spastin required the ability to sever MTs and to interact with ESCRT-III (a complex controlling cargo degradation) proteins to regulate endosomal tubulation. Cells lacking IST1 (increased sodium tolerance 1), an endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) component to which spastin binds, also had increased endosomal tubulation. Our results suggest that inclusion of IST1 into the ESCRT complex allows recruitment of spastin to promote fission of recycling tubules from the endosome. Thus, we reveal a novel cellular role for MT severing and identify a mechanism by which endosomal recycling can be coordinated with the degradative machinery. Spastin is mutated in the axonopathy hereditary spastic paraplegia. Zebrafish spinal motor axons depleted of spastin or IST1 also had abnormal endosomal tubulation, so we propose this phenotype is important for axonal degeneration. PMID:23897888

  15. Close encounter of the third kind: the ER meets endosomes at fission sites.

    PubMed

    van der Goot, F Gisou; Gruenberg, Jean

    2014-12-22

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms functional contacts with several cellular organelles and regulates processes such as mitochondrial fission. In a recent issue of Cell, Rowland et al. (2014) extend these findings to endosomes, showing that the ER contacts endosomes at sites containing the WASH subunit FAM21, where it forecasts fission events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell-free protein synthesis of a cytotoxic cancer therapeutic: Onconase production and a just-add-water cell-free system.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Amin S M; Smith, Mark Thomas; Bennett, Anthony M; Williams, Jacob B; Pitt, William G; Bundy, Bradley C

    2016-02-01

    Biotherapeutics have many promising applications, such as anti-cancer treatments, immune suppression, and vaccines. However, due to their biological nature, some biotherapeutics can be challenging to rapidly express and screen for activity through traditional recombinant methods. For example, difficult-to-express proteins may be cytotoxic or form inclusion bodies during expression, increasing the time, labor, and difficulty of purification and downstream characterization. One potential pathway to simplify the expression and screening of such therapeutics is to utilize cell-free protein synthesis. Cell-free systems offer a compelling alternative to in vivo production, due to their open and malleable reaction environments. In this work, we demonstrate the use of cell-free systems for the expression and direct screening of the difficult-to-express cytotoxic protein onconase. Using cell-free systems, onconase can be rapidly expressed in soluble, active form. Furthermore, the open nature of the reaction environment allows for direct and immediate downstream characterization without the need of purification. Also, we report the ability of a "just-add-water" lyophilized cell-fee system to produce onconase. This lyophilized system remains viable after being stored above freezing for up to one year. The beneficial features of these cell-free systems make them compelling candidates for future biotherapeutic screening and production.

  17. Myosin Ib modulates the morphology and the protein transport within multi-vesicular sorting endosomes.

    PubMed

    Salas-Cortes, Laura; Ye, Fei; Tenza, Danièle; Wilhelm, Claire; Theos, Alexander; Louvard, Daniel; Raposo, Graça; Coudrier, Evelyne

    2005-10-15

    Members of at least four classes of myosin (I, II, V and VI) have been implicated in the dynamics of a large variety of organelles. Despite their common motor domain structure, some of these myosins, however, are non processive and cannot move organelles along the actin tracks. Here, we demonstrate in the human pigmented MNT-1 cell line that, (1) the overexpression of one of these myosins, myosin 1b, or the addition of cytochalasin D affects the morphology of the sorting multivesicular endosomes; (2) the overexpression of myosin 1b delays the processing of Pmel17 (the product of murine silver locus also named GP100), which occurs in these multivesicular endosomes; (3) myosin 1b associated with endosomes coimmunoprecipitates with Pmel17. All together, these observations suggest that myosin 1b controls the traffic of protein cargo in multivesicular endosomes most probably through its ability to modulate with actin the morphology of these sorting endosomes.

  18. Improving the Endosomal Escape of Cell-Penetrating Peptides and Their Cargos: Strategies and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Erazo-Oliveras, Alfredo; Muthukrishnan, Nandhini; Baker, Ryan; Wang, Ting-Yi; Pellois, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) can deliver cell-impermeable therapeutic cargos into cells. In particular, CPP-cargo conjugates tend to accumulate inside cells by endocytosis. However, they often remain trapped inside endocytic organelles and fail to reach the cytosolic space of cells efficiently. In this review, the evidence for CPP-mediated endosomal escape is discussed. In addition, several strategies that have been utilized to enhance the endosomal escape of CPP-cargos are described. The recent development of branched systems that display multiple copies of a CPP is presented. The use of viral or synthetic peptides that can disrupt the endosomal membrane upon activation by the low pH of endosomes is also discussed. Finally, we survey how CPPs labeled with chromophores can be used in combination with light to stimulate endosomal lysis. The mechanisms and challenges associated with these intracellular delivery methodologies are discussed. PMID:24223492

  19. Retromer-mediated endosomal protein sorting: The role of unstructured domains.

    PubMed

    Mukadam, Aamir S; Seaman, Matthew N J

    2015-09-14

    The retromer complex is a key element of the endosomal protein sorting machinery that is conserved through evolution and has been shown to play a role in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Through sorting various membrane proteins (cargo), the function of retromer complex has been linked to physiological processes such as lysosome biogenesis, autophagy, down regulation of signalling receptors and cell spreading. The cargo-selective trimer of retromer recognises membrane proteins and sorts them into two distinct pathways; endosome-to-Golgi retrieval and endosome-to-cell surface recycling and additionally the cargo-selective trimer functions as a hub to recruit accessory proteins to endosomes where they may regulate and/or facilitate retromer-mediated endosomal proteins sorting. Unstructured domains present in cargo proteins or accessory factors play key roles in both these aspects of retromer function and will be discussed in this review.

  20. FHIP and FTS proteins are critical for dynein-mediated transport of early endosomes in Aspergillus

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xuanli; Wang, Xiangfeng; Xiang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The minus end–directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein transports various cellular cargoes, including early endosomes, but how dynein binds to its cargo remains unclear. Recently fungal Hook homologues were found to link dynein to early endosomes for their transport. Here we identified FhipA in Aspergillus nidulans as a key player for HookA (A. nidulans Hook) function via a genome-wide screen for mutants defective in early-endosome distribution. The human homologue of FhipA, FHIP, is a protein in the previously discovered FTS/Hook/FHIP (FHF) complex, which contains, besides FHIP and Hook proteins, Fused Toes (FTS). Although this complex was not previously shown to be involved in dynein-mediated transport, we show here that loss of either FhipA or FtsA (A. nidulans FTS homologue) disrupts HookA–early endosome association and inhibits early endosome movement. Both FhipA and FtsA associate with early endosomes, and interestingly, while FtsA–early endosome association requires FhipA and HookA, FhipA–early endosome association is independent of HookA and FtsA. Thus FhipA is more directly linked to early endosomes than HookA and FtsA. However, in the absence of HookA or FtsA, FhipA protein level is significantly reduced. Our results indicate that all three proteins in the FtsA/HookA/FhipA complex are important for dynein-mediated early endosome movement. PMID:24870033

  1. Loss of the Sec1/Munc18-family proteins VPS-33.2 and VPS-33.1 bypasses a block in endosome maturation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Solinger, Jachen A.; Spang, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The end of the life of a transport vesicle requires a complex series of tethering, docking, and fusion events. Tethering complexes play a crucial role in the recognition of membrane entities and bringing them into close opposition, thereby coordinating and controlling cellular trafficking events. Here we provide a comprehensive RNA interference analysis of the CORVET and HOPS tethering complexes in metazoans. Knockdown of CORVET components promoted RAB-7 recruitment to subapical membranes, whereas in HOPS knockdowns, RAB-5 was found also on membrane structures close to the cell center, indicating the RAB conversion might be impaired in the absence of these tethering complexes. Unlike in yeast, metazoans have two VPS33 homologues, which are Sec1/Munc18 (SM)-family proteins involved in the regulation of membrane fusion. We assume that in wild type, each tethering complex contains a specific SM protein but that they may be able to substitute for each other in case of absence of the other. Of importance, knockdown of both SM proteins allowed bypass of the endosome maturation block in sand-1 mutants. We propose a model in which the SM proteins in tethering complexes are required for coordinated flux of material through the endosomal system. PMID:25273556

  2. α-Hemolysin pore formation into a supported phospholipid bilayer using cell-free expression.

    PubMed

    Chalmeau, Jerome; Monina, Nadezda; Shin, Jonghyeon; Vieu, Christophe; Noireaux, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis is becoming a serious alternative to cell-based protein expression. Cell-free systems can deliver large amounts of cytoplasmic recombinant proteins after a few hours of incubation. Recent studies have shown that membrane proteins can be also expressed in cell-free reactions and directly inserted into phospholipid membranes. In this work, we present a quantitative method to study in real time the concurrent cell-free expression and insertion of membrane proteins into phospholipid bilayers. The pore-forming protein α-hemolysin, fused to the reporter protein eGFP, was used as a model of membrane protein. Cell-free expression of the toxin in solution and inside large synthetic phospholipid vesicles was measured by fluorometry and fluorescence microscopy respectively. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation was used to characterize the interaction of the protein with a supported phospholipid bilayer. The cell-free reaction was directly incubated onto the bilayer inside the microbalance chamber while the frequency and the dissipation signals were monitored. The presence of pores in the phospholipid bilayer was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. A model is presented which describes the kinetics of adsorption of the expressed protein on the phospholipid bilayer. The combination of cell-free expression, fluorescence microscopy and quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation is a new quantitative approach to study the interaction of membrane proteins with phospholipid bilayers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of cell-free circulating DNA in plasma in patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Pâmela Oliveira; Alves, Beatriz Costa A; Gehrke, Flávia de Sousa; Kuniyoshi, Renata Kelly; Wroclavski, Marcelo Langer; Del Giglio, Auro; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2013-04-01

    Cell-free circulating DNA in plasma and serum may serve as a biomarker for malignant tumor detection and follow up in patients with a variety of solid tumors including prostate cancer. In healthy patients, DNA is normally released from an apoptotic source which generates small fragments of cell-free DNA, whereas cancer patients have cell-free circulating DNA that originated from necrosis, autophagy, or mitotic catastrophe. Cell-free circulating DNA levels were measured by a quantitative real-time PCR method with a set of primers targeted to amplify the consensus ALU apoptotic versus necrotic origin. Prostate cancer patients before and 3 months after diagnosis showed cell-free circulating DNA released at apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, all patients after 6 months demonstrated DNA released at non-apoptotic cell. The principal source of cell-free circulating DNA is of apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell death. However, during treatment, this feature could change. Therefore, the study of cell-free circulating DNA would be important to follow the evolution of the disease during the treatment.

  4. Expression optimization and synthetic gene networks in cell-free systems.

    PubMed

    Karig, David K; Iyer, Sukanya; Simpson, Michael L; Doktycz, Mitchel J

    2012-04-01

    Synthetic biology offers great promise to a variety of applications through the forward engineering of biological function. Most efforts in this field have focused on employing living cells, yet cell-free approaches offer simpler and more flexible contexts. Here, we evaluate cell-free regulatory systems based on T7 promoter-driven expression by characterizing variants of TetR and LacI repressible T7 promoters in a cell-free context and examining sequence elements that determine expression efficiency. Using the resulting constructs, we then explore different approaches for composing regulatory systems, leading to the implementation of inducible negative feedback in Escherichia coli extracts and in the minimal PURE system, which consists of purified proteins necessary for transcription and translation. Despite the fact that negative feedback motifs are common and essential to many natural and engineered systems, this simple building block has not previously been implemented in a cell-free context. As a final step, we then demonstrate that the feedback systems developed using our cell-free approach can be implemented in live E. coli as well, illustrating the potential for using cell-free expression to fast track the development of live cell systems in synthetic biology. Our quantitative cell-free component characterizations and demonstration of negative feedback embody important steps on the path to harnessing biological function in a bottom-up fashion.

  5. Herpesvirus Glycoproteins Undergo Multiple Antigenic Changes before Membrane Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Daniel L.; Kratz, Anne-Sophie; Stevenson, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Herpesvirus entry is a complicated process involving multiple virion glycoproteins and culminating in membrane fusion. Glycoprotein conformation changes are likely to play key roles. Studies of recombinant glycoproteins have revealed some structural features of the virion fusion machinery. However, how the virion glycoproteins change during infection remains unclear. Here using conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies we show in situ that each component of the Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) entry machinery—gB, gH/gL and gp150—changes in antigenicity before tegument protein release begins. Further changes then occurred upon actual membrane fusion. Thus virions revealed their final fusogenic form only in late endosomes. The substantial antigenic differences between this form and that of extracellular virions suggested that antibodies have only a limited opportunity to block virion membrane fusion. PMID:22253913

  6. Cell-free DNA induced apoptosis of granulosa cells by oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yichun; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Xingling; Cai, Pengfei; Jia, Qi; Zhao, Wenjie

    2017-10-01

    Cell-free DNA is a DNA fragment that is produced by cell apoptosis which can affect the micro-environment of cell apoptosis. The levels of Cell-free DNA have been associated with successful rate of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) and embryonic development. Our aim is to determine the relationship between cell-free DNA and embryo quality. The mechanisms of cell-free DNA in granulose and the apoptosis will be determined also. The study enrolled patients who were undergone IVF for the first time and grouped the patients as pregnant (n=130) and non-pregnant (n=59). The relationship was determined by statistical analysis between the levels of cell-free DNA in the follicular fluid and clinical data of IVF patients. Flow cytometry was done to detect the rate of granulosa cell apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Western blotting and fluorescent quantitative PCR detected the apoptosis-related gene expressions. Clinical data statistics showed that cell-free DNA levels were positively correlated with granulosa cell apoptosis and negatively correlated with embryo quality and pregnancy rates. High levels of cell-free DNA lead to increased ROS in granulosa cells and activated caspase through Fas/FasL that induced apoptosis. High levels of cell-free DNA triggers granulosa cell apoptosis and influences oocyte maturation embryo development and pregnancy rates in IVF treatments. Cell-free DNA can be as a secondary criteria and predictive marker for the quality control of IVF embryo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of Endosomes and Lysosomes in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Frederick R.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to their roles in normal cell physiology, endocytic processes play a key role in many diseases. In this review, three diseases are discussed as examples of the role of endocytic processes in disease. The uptake of cholesterol via LDL is central to our understanding of atherosclerosis, and the study of this disease led to many of the key breakthroughs in understanding receptor-mediated endocytosis. Alzheimer’s disease is a growing burden as the population ages. Endosomes and lysosomes play important but only partially understood roles in both the formation and the degradation of the amyloid fibrils that are associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Inherited lysosomal storage diseases are individually rare, but collectively they affect many individuals. Recent advances are leading to improved enzyme replacement therapy and are also leading to small-molecule drugs to treat some of these diseases. PMID:24789821

  8. Age-related oxidative stress compromises endosomal proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Cannizzo, Elvira S; Clement, Cristina C; Morozova, Kateryna; Valdor, Rut; Kaushik, Susmita; Almeida, Larissa N; Follo, Carlo; Sahu, Ranjit; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Macian, Fernando; Santambrogio, Laura

    2012-07-26

    A hallmark of aging is an imbalance between production and clearance of reactive oxygen species and increased levels of oxidatively damaged biomolecules. Herein, we demonstrate that splenic and nodal antigen-presenting cells purified from aging mice accumulate oxidatively modified proteins with side-chain carbonylation, advanced glycation end products, and lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, we show that the endosomal accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins interferes with the efficient processing of exogenous antigens and degradation of macroautophagy-delivered proteins. In support of a causative role for oxidized products in the inefficient immune response, a decrease in oxidative stress improved the adaptive immune response to immunizing antigens. These findings underscore a previously unrecognized negative effect of age-dependent changes in cellular proteostasis on the immune response.

  9. Age-related Oxidative Stress Compromises Endosomal Proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Cannizzo, Elvira S.; Clement, Cristina C.; Morozova, Kateryna; Valdor, Rut; Kaushik, Susmita; Almeida, Larissa N.; Follo, Carlo; Sahu, Ranjit; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Macian, Fernando; Santambrogio, Laura

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of aging is an imbalance between production and clearance of reactive oxygen species and increased levels of oxidatively damaged biomolecules. Herein we demonstrate that splenic and nodal antigen presenting cells purified from old mice accumulate oxidatively modified proteins with side chain carbonylation, advanced glycation end products and lipid peroxidation. We show further that the endosomal accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins interferes with the efficient processing of exogenous antigens and degradation of macroautophagy-delivered proteins. In support of a causative role for oxidized products in the inefficient immune response, a decrease in oxidative stress improved the adaptive immune response to immunizing antigens. These findings underscore a previously unrecognized negative effect of age-dependent changes in cellular proteostasis on the immune response. PMID:22840404

  10. Low pH and Anionic Lipid-dependent Fusion of Uukuniemi Phlebovirus to Liposomes*

    PubMed Central

    Bitto, David; Halldorsson, Steinar; Caputo, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Many phleboviruses (family Bunyaviridae) are emerging as medically important viruses. These viruses enter target cells by endocytosis and low pH-dependent membrane fusion in late endosomes. However, the necessary and sufficient factors for fusion have not been fully characterized. We have studied the minimal fusion requirements of a prototypic phlebovirus, Uukuniemi virus, in an in vitro virus-liposome assay. We show that efficient lipid mixing between viral and liposome membranes requires close to physiological temperatures and phospholipids with negatively charged headgroups, such as the late endosomal phospholipid bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate. We further demonstrate that bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate increases Uukuniemi virus fusion beyond the lipid mixing stage. By using electron cryotomography of viral particles in the presence or absence of liposomes, we observed that the conformation of phlebovirus glycoprotein capsomers changes from the native conformation toward a more elongated conformation at a fusion permissive pH. Our results suggest a rationale for phlebovirus entry in late endosomes. PMID:26811337

  11. Internalization and fusion mechanism of vesicular stomatitis virus and related rhabdoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiangjie; Roth, Shoshannah L; Bialecki, Michele A; Whittaker, Gary R

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Rhabdoviridae infect a wide variety of animals and plants, and are the causative agents of many important diseases. Rhabdoviruses enter host cells following internalization into endosomes, with the glycoprotein (G protein) mediating both receptor binding to host cells and fusion with the cellular membrane. The recently solved crystal structure of vesicular stomatitis virus G has allowed considerable insight into the mechanism of rhabdovirus entry, in particular the low pH-dependent conformational changes that lead to fusion activation. Rhabdovirus entry shows several distinct features compared with other enveloped viruses; first, the entry process appears to consist of two distinct fusion events, initial fusion into vesicles within endosomes followed by back-fusion into the cytosol; second, the conformational changes in the G protein that lead to fusion activation are reversible; and third, the G protein is structurally distinct from other viral fusion proteins and is not proteolytically cleaved. The internalization and fusion mechanisms of rhabdoviruses are discussed in this article, with a focus on viral systems where the G protein has been studied extensively: vesicular stomatitis virus and rabies virus, as well as viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus. PMID:23516023

  12. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  13. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  14. Fusion induced by a class II viral fusion protein, semliki forest virus E1, is dependent on the voltage of the target cell.

    PubMed

    Markosyan, Ruben M; Kielian, Margaret; Cohen, Fredric S

    2007-10-01

    Cells expressing the low pH-triggered class II viral fusion protein E1 of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) were fused to target cells. Fusion was monitored by electrical capacitance and aqueous dye measurements. Electrical voltage-clamp measurements showed that SFV E1-induced cell-cell fusion occurred quickly after acidification for a trans-negative potential across the target membrane (i.e., negative potential inside the target cell) but that a trans-positive potential eliminated all fusion. Use of an ionophore to control potentials for a large population of cells confirmed the dependence of fusion on voltage polarity. In contrast, fusion induced by the class I fusion proteins of human immunodeficiency virus, avian sarcoma leukosis virus, and influenza virus was independent of the voltage polarity across the target cell. Initial pore size and pore growth were also independent of voltage polarity for the class I proteins. An intermediate of SFV E1-induced fusion was created by transient acidification at low temperature. Membranes were hemifused at this intermediate state, and raising the temperature at neutral pH allowed full fusion to occur. Capacitance measurements showed that maintaining a trans-positive potential definitely blocked fusion at steps following the creation of the hemifusion intermediate and may have inhibited fusion at prior steps. It is proposed that the trans-negative voltage across the endosomal membrane facilitates fusion after low-pH-induced conformational changes of SFV E1 have occurred.

  15. A Rab5 endosomal pathway mediates Parkin-dependent mitochondrial clearance

    PubMed Central

    Hammerling, Babette C.; Najor, Rita H.; Cortez, Melissa Q.; Shires, Sarah E.; Leon, Leonardo J.; Gonzalez, Eileen R.; Boassa, Daniela; Phan, Sébastien; Thor, Andrea; Jimenez, Rebecca E.; Li, Hong; Kitsis, Richard N.; Dorn II, Gerald W.; Sadoshima, Junichi; Ellisman, Mark H.; Gustafsson, Åsa B.

    2017-01-01

    Damaged mitochondria pose a lethal threat to cells that necessitates their prompt removal. The currently recognized mechanism for disposal of mitochondria is autophagy, where damaged organelles are marked for disposal via ubiquitylation by Parkin. Here we report a novel pathway for mitochondrial elimination, in which these organelles undergo Parkin-dependent sequestration into Rab5-positive early endosomes via the ESCRT machinery. Following maturation, these endosomes deliver mitochondria to lysosomes for degradation. Although this endosomal pathway is activated by stressors that also activate mitochondrial autophagy, endosomal-mediated mitochondrial clearance is initiated before autophagy. The autophagy protein Beclin1 regulates activation of Rab5 and endosomal-mediated degradation of mitochondria, suggesting cross-talk between these two pathways. Abrogation of Rab5 function and the endosomal pathway results in the accumulation of stressed mitochondria and increases susceptibility to cell death in embryonic fibroblasts and cardiac myocytes. These data reveal a new mechanism for mitochondrial quality control mediated by Rab5 and early endosomes. PMID:28134239

  16. Coronin-1 is a neurotrophin endosomal effector required for developmental competition for survival

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Dong; Park, Juyeon; Harrington, Anthony W.; Zweifel, Larry S.; Mihalas, Stefan; Deppmann, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Retrograde communication from axonal targets to neuronal cell bodies is critical for both development and function of the nervous system. Much progress has been made in recent years linking long-distance, retrograde signaling to a signaling endosome, yet the mechanisms governing the trafficking and signaling of these endosomes remain mainly uncharacterized. Here we report that in mouse sympathetic neurons the target-derived NGF-TrkA signaling endosome, upon arrival at the cell body, induces the expression and recruitment of a novel effector protein known as Coronin-1. In the absence of Coronin-1, the NGF-TrkA signaling endosome fuses to lysosomes 6–10 fold faster than when Coronin-1 is intact. We also define a novel Coronin-1-dependent trafficking event where signaling endosomes recycle and re-internalize upon arrival at the cell body. Beyond influencing endosomal trafficking, Coronin-1 is also required for several NGF-TrkA dependent-signaling events including calcium release, calcineurin activation, and CREB phosphorylation. These results establish Coronin-1 as an essential component of a novel feedback loop mediating NGF-TrkA endosome stability, recycling, and signaling as a critical mechanism governing developmental competition for survival. PMID:24270184

  17. Modifications of the endosomal compartment in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and fibroblasts from Alzheimer's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Corlier, F; Rivals, I; Lagarde, J; Hamelin, L; Corne, H; Dauphinot, L; Ando, K; Cossec, J-C; Fontaine, G; Dorothée, G; Malaplate-Armand, C; Olivier, J-L; Dubois, B; Bottlaender, M; Duyckaerts, C; Sarazin, M; Potier, M-C; Alnajjar-Carpentier, Dr Amer; Logak, Dr Michel; Leder, Dr Sara; Marchal, Dr Dominique; Pitti-Ferandi, Dr Hélène; Brugeilles, Dr Hélene; Roualdes, Dr Brigitte; Michon, Dr Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Identification of blood-based biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a challenge. Neuropathological studies have identified enlarged endosomes in post-mortem brains as the earliest cellular change associated to AD. Here the presence of enlarged endosomes was investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 48 biologically defined AD patients (25 with mild cognitive impairment and 23 with dementia (AD-D)), and 23 age-matched healthy controls using immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. The volume and number of endosomes were not significantly different between AD and controls. However, the percentage of cells containing enlarged endosomes was significantly higher in the AD-D group as compared with controls. Furthermore, endosomal volumes significantly correlated to [C11]PiB cortical index measured by positron emission tomography in the AD group, independently of the APOE genotype, but not to the levels of amyloid-beta, tau and phosphorylated tau measured in the cerebrospinal fluid. Importantly, we confirmed the presence of enlarged endosomes in fibroblasts from six unrelated AD-D patients as compared with five cognitively normal controls. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to report morphological alterations of the endosomal compartment in peripheral cells from AD patients correlated to amyloid load that will now be evaluated as a possible biomarker. PMID:26151923

  18. The retromer complex and clathrin define an early endosomal retrograde exit site.

    PubMed

    Popoff, Vincent; Mardones, Gonzalo A; Tenza, Danièle; Rojas, Raúl; Lamaze, Christophe; Bonifacino, Juan S; Raposo, Graça; Johannes, Ludger

    2007-06-15

    Previous studies have indicated a role for clathrin, the clathrin adaptors AP1 and epsinR, and the retromer complex in retrograde sorting from early/recycling endosomes to the trans Golgi network (TGN). However, it has remained unclear whether these protein machineries function on the same or parallel pathways. We show here that clathrin and the retromer subunit Vps26 colocalize at the ultrastructural level on early/recycling endosomes containing Shiga toxin B-subunit, a well-studied retrograde transport cargo. As previously described for clathrin, we find that interfering with Vps26 expression inhibits retrograde transport of the Shiga toxin B-subunit to the TGN. Under these conditions, endosomal tubules that take the Shiga toxin B-subunit out of transferrin-containing early/recycling endosomes appear to be stabilized. This situation differs from that previously described for low-temperature incubation and clathrin-depletion conditions under which Shiga toxin B-subunit labeling was found to overlap with that of the transferrin receptor. In addition, we find that the Shiga toxin B-subunit and the transferrin receptor accumulate close to multivesicular endosomes in clathrin-depleted cells, suggesting that clathrin initiates retrograde sorting on vacuolar early endosomes, and that retromer is then required to process retrograde tubules. Our findings thus establish a role for the retromer complex in retrograde transport of the B-subunit of Shiga toxin, and strongly suggest that clathrin and retromer function in consecutive retrograde sorting steps on early endosomes.

  19. ER network homeostasis is critical for plant endosome streaming and endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, Giovanni; Renna, Luciana; Lai, YaShiuan; Slabaugh, Erin; Mannino, Nicole; Buono, Rafael A; Otegui, Marisa S; Brandizzi, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells internalize cargo at the plasma membrane via endocytosis, a vital process that is accomplished through a complex network of endosomal organelles. In mammalian cells, the ER is in close association with endosomes and regulates their fission. Nonetheless, the physiological role of such interaction on endocytosis is yet unexplored. Here, we probed the existence of ER–endosome association in plant cells and assayed its physiological role in endocytosis. Through live-cell imaging and electron microscopy studies, we established that endosomes are extensively associated with the plant ER, supporting conservation of interaction between heterotypic organelles in evolutionarily distant kingdoms. Furthermore, by analyzing ER–endosome dynamics in genetic backgrounds with defects in ER structure and movement, we also established that the ER network integrity is necessary for homeostasis of the distribution and streaming of various endosome populations as well as for efficient endocytosis. These results support a novel model that endocytosis homeostasis depends on a spatiotemporal control of the endosome dynamics dictated by the ER membrane network. PMID:27462431

  20. ER network homeostasis is critical for plant endosome streaming and endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Stefano, Giovanni; Renna, Luciana; Lai, YaShiuan; Slabaugh, Erin; Mannino, Nicole; Buono, Rafael A; Otegui, Marisa S; Brandizzi, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells internalize cargo at the plasma membrane via endocytosis, a vital process that is accomplished through a complex network of endosomal organelles. In mammalian cells, the ER is in close association with endosomes and regulates their fission. Nonetheless, the physiological role of such interaction on endocytosis is yet unexplored. Here, we probed the existence of ER-endosome association in plant cells and assayed its physiological role in endocytosis. Through live-cell imaging and electron microscopy studies, we established that endosomes are extensively associated with the plant ER, supporting conservation of interaction between heterotypic organelles in evolutionarily distant kingdoms. Furthermore, by analyzing ER-endosome dynamics in genetic backgrounds with defects in ER structure and movement, we also established that the ER network integrity is necessary for homeostasis of the distribution and streaming of various endosome populations as well as for efficient endocytosis. These results support a novel model that endocytosis homeostasis depends on a spatiotemporal control of the endosome dynamics dictated by the ER membrane network.

  1. Image-based and biochemical assays to investigate endosomal protein sorting.

    PubMed

    Breusegem, Sophia Y; Seaman, Matthew N J

    2014-01-01

    The sorting of membrane proteins within the endosomal system occurs through a panoply of highly dynamic sequential molecular interactions that together govern many physiologically important processes. A key component of the endosomal protein sorting machinery is the retromer complex. Through two distinct subcomplexes, retromer operates to select cargo for endosome-to-Golgi retrieval and also drives membrane tubule formation. Many accessory proteins associate with retromer to facilitate protein sorting and/or tubule formation. The experience we have gained from studying retromer-mediated endosomal protein sorting and the assays developed and applied in the course of these studies can provide a template for researchers interested in related endosomal trafficking pathways. Herein we describe image-based assays that can be applied to study endosomal protein sorting through the use of antibody-uptake assays in low-, medium-, and high-throughput formats. We additionally detail simple but effective native immunoprecipitation methods that can be employed to identify novel proteins that may interact transiently with a protein of interest within the endosomal pathway.

  2. High-throughput cell-free systems for synthesis of functionally active proteins.

    PubMed

    Spirin, Alexander S

    2004-10-01

    Continuous cell-free translation systems with perpetual supply of consumable substrates and removal of reaction products made the process of in vitro synthesis of individual proteins sustainable and productive. Improvements of cell-free reaction mixtures, including new ways for efficient energy generation, had an additional impact on progress in cell-free protein synthesis technology. The requirement for gene-product identification in genomic studies, the development of high-throughput structural proteomics, the need for protein engineering without cell constraints (including the use of unnatural amino acids), and the need to produce cytotoxic, poorly expressed and unstable proteins have caused increased interest in cell-free protein synthesis technologies for molecular biologists, biotechnologists and pharmacologists.

  3. Presence and potential of cell free DNA in different types of forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Vandewoestyne, Mado; Van Hoofstat, David; Franssen, Aimée; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-02-01

    Extracellular or cell free DNA has been found to exist in many biological media such as blood and saliva. To check whether cell free DNA is present in the supernatant which is normally discarded during several DNA extraction processes, such as Chelex(®) extraction, DNA profiles of cell pellet and concentrated supernatant from 30 artificial case like samples and from 100 real forensic samples were compared. Presence of cell free DNA was shown in all investigated sample types. Moreover, in some samples additional alleles, not detected during analysis of the cell pellet, were detected, offering valuable information which would normally have been discarded together with the supernatant. The results presented here indicate that cell free DNA deserves further consideration since it has the potential to increase the DNA yield in forensic casework samples in general and in contact traces in particular.

  4. Modifications of wheat germ cell-free system for functional proteomics of plant membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Akira; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    Functional proteomics of plant membrane proteins is an important approach to understand the comprehensive architecture of each metabolic pathway in plants. One bottleneck in the characterization of membrane proteins is the difficulty in producing sufficient quantities of functional protein for analysis. Here, we describe three methods for membrane protein production utilizing a wheat germ cell-free protein expression system. Owing to the open nature of cell-free synthesis reaction, protein synthesis can be modified with components necessary to produce functional protein. In this way we have developed modifications to a wheat germ cell-free system for the production of functional membrane proteins. Supplementation of liposomes or detergents allows the synthesis of functional integral membrane proteins. Furthermore, supplementation of myristic acid enables synthesis of N-myristylated peripheral membrane proteins. These modified cell-free synthesis methods facilitate the preparation and subsequent functional analyses of a wide variety of membrane proteins.

  5. Double Aneuploidy Detected by Cell-Free DNA Testing and Confirmed by Fetal Tissue Analysis.

    PubMed

    Echague, Charlene G; Petersen, Scott M

    2016-06-01

    Double aneuploidies account for 0.21-2.8% of spontaneous abortions resulting from chromosomal abnormalities. Rarely, cell-free DNA testing detects multiple aneuploidies; however, to discern among maternal, placental, and fetal origin, further evaluation is required. A 49-year-old woman, gravida 5 para 0, underwent cell-free DNA testing at 11 4/7 weeks of gestation, which revealed a fetus that was high risk for trisomies 18 and 21. On ultrasonography at 14 weeks of gestation, she was diagnosed with a missed abortion and underwent surgical management. Fetal and placental tissues were sent for analysis and were positive for trisomies 18 and 21, confirming the results of cell-free DNA testing. Our case highlights the ability of cell-free DNA testing to recognize a double aneuploidy confirmed by fetal tissue analysis.

  6. Interactions between Rab and Arf GTPases regulate endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate during endocytic recycling

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Anbing; Grant, Barth D.

    2013-01-01

    After endocytosis, a selective endocytic recycling process returns many endocytosed molecules back to the plasma membrane. The RAB-10/Rab10 GTPase is known to be a key recycling regulator for specific cargo molecules. New evidence, focused on C. elegans RAB-10 in polarized epithelia, points to a key role of RAB-10 in the regulation of endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) levels. In turn, PI(4,5)P2 levels strongly influence the recruitment of many peripheral membrane proteins, including those important for vesicle budding through their membrane bending activities. Part of the effect of RAB-10 on endosomal PI(4,5)P2 is through its newly identified effector CNT-1, a predicted GTPase activating protein (GAP) of the small GTPase ARF-6/Arf6. In mammals PI(4,5)P2 generating enzymes are known Arf6 effectors. In C. elegans we found that RAB-10, CNT-1 and ARF-6 are present on the same endosomes, that RAB-10 recruits CNT-1 to endosomes, and that loss of CNT-1 or RAB-10 leads to overaccumulation of endosomal PI(4,5)P2, presumably via hyperactivation of endosomal ARF-6. In turn this leads to over-recruitment of PI(4,5)P2-dependent membrane-bending proteins RME-1/Ehd and SDPN-1/Syndapin/PACSIN. Conversely, in arf-6 mutants, endosomal PI(4,5)P2 levels were reduced and endosomal recruitment of RME-1 and SDPN-1 failed. This work makes an unexpected link between distinct classes of small GTPases that control endocytic recycling, and provides insight into how this interaction affects endosome function at the level of lipid phosphorylation. PMID:23392104

  7. Trisomy for Synaptojanin1 in Down syndrome is functionally linked to the enlargement of early endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Cossec, Jack-Christophe; Lavaur, Jérémie; Berman, Diego E.; Rivals, Isabelle; Hoischen, Alexander; Stora, Samantha; Ripoll, Clémentine; Mircher, Clotilde; Grattau, Yann; OlivoMarin, Jean-Christophe; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Lecourtois, Magalie; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Veltman, Joris A.; Delabar, Jean M.; Duyckaerts, Charles; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Potier, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Enlarged early endosomes have been observed in neurons and fibroblasts in Down syndrome (DS). These endosome abnormalities have been implicated in the early development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in these subjects. Here, we show the presence of enlarged endosomes in blood mononuclear cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from individuals with DS using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Genotype–phenotype correlations in LCLs carrying partial trisomies 21 revealed that triplication of a 2.56 Mb locus in 21q22.11 is associated with the endosomal abnormalities. This locus contains the gene encoding the phosphoinositide phosphatase synaptojanin 1 (SYNJ1), a key regulator of the signalling phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate that has been shown to regulate clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We found that SYNJ1 transcripts are increased in LCLs from individuals with DS and that overexpression of SYNJ1 in a neuroblastoma cell line as well as in transgenic mice leads to enlarged endosomes. Moreover, the proportion of enlarged endosomes in fibroblasts from an individual with DS was reduced after silencing SYNJ1 expression with RNA interference. In LCLs carrying amyloid precursor protein (APP) microduplications causing autosomal dominant early-onset AD, enlarged endosomes were absent, suggesting that APP overexpression alone is not involved in the modification of early endosomes in this cell type. These findings provide new insights into the contribution of SYNJ1 overexpression to the endosomal changes observed in DS and suggest an attractive new target for rescuing endocytic dysfunction and lipid metabolism in DS and in AD. PMID:22511594

  8. Interactions between Rab and Arf GTPases regulate endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate during endocytic recycling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Anbing; Grant, Barth D

    2013-01-01

    After endocytosis, a selective endocytic recycling process returns many endocytosed molecules back to the plasma membrane. The RAB-10/Rab10 GTPase is known to be a key recycling regulator for specific cargo molecules. New evidence, focused on C. elegans RAB-10 in polarized epithelia, points to a key role of RAB-10 in the regulation of endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) levels. In turn, PI(4,5)P2 levels strongly influence the recruitment of many peripheral membrane proteins, including those important for vesicle budding through their membrane bending activities. Part of the effect of RAB-10 on endosomal PI(4,5)P2 is through its newly identified effector CNT-1, a predicted GTPase activating protein (GAP) of the small GTPase ARF-6/Arf6. In mammals PI(4,5)P2 generating enzymes are known Arf6 effectors. In C. elegans we found that RAB-10, CNT-1 and ARF-6 are present on the same endosomes, that RAB-10 recruits CNT-1 to endosomes, and that loss of CNT-1 or RAB-10 leads to overaccumulation of endosomal PI(4,5)P2, presumably via hyperactivation of endosomal ARF-6. In turn this leads to over-recruitment of PI(4,5)P2-dependent membrane-bending proteins RME-1/Ehd and SDPN-1/Syndapin/PACSIN. Conversely, in arf-6 mutants, endosomal PI(4,5)P2 levels were reduced and endosomal recruitment of RME-1 and SDPN-1 failed. This work makes an unexpected link between distinct classes of small GTPases that control endocytic recycling, and provides insight into how this interaction affects endosome function at the level of lipid phosphorylation.

  9. Escherichia coli cell-free protein synthesis and isotope labeling of mammalian proteins.

    PubMed

    Terada, Takaho; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the cell-free protein synthesis method, using an Escherichia coli cell extract. This is a cost-effective method for milligram-scale protein production and is particularly useful for the production of mammalian proteins, protein complexes, and membrane proteins that are difficult to synthesize by recombinant expression methods, using E. coli and eukaryotic cells. By adjusting the conditions of the cell-free method, zinc-binding proteins, disulfide-bonded proteins, ligand-bound proteins, etc., may also be produced. Stable isotope labeling of proteins can be accomplished by the cell-free method, simply by using stable isotope-labeled amino acid(s) in the cell-free reaction. Moreover, the cell-free protein synthesis method facilitates the avoidance of stable isotope scrambling and dilution over the recombinant expression methods and is therefore advantageous for amino acid-selective stable isotope labeling. Site-specific stable isotope labeling is also possible with a tRNA molecule specific to the UAG codon. By the cell-free protein synthesis method, coupled transcription-translation is performed from a plasmid vector or a PCR-amplified DNA fragment encoding the protein. A milligram quantity of protein can be produced with a milliliter-scale reaction solution in the dialysis mode. More than a thousand solution structures have been determined by NMR spectroscopy for uniformly labeled samples of human and mouse functional domain proteins, produced by the cell-free method. Here, we describe the practical aspects of mammalian protein production by the cell-free method for NMR spectroscopy. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell-free extract for in vitro translation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng; Sachs, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell-free in vitro translation systems have been in use since the 1970s. These systems can faithfully synthesize polypeptides when programmed with mRNA, enabling the production of polypeptides for analysis as well as permitting analyses of the cis- and trans-acting factors that regulate translation. Here we describe the preparation and use of cell-free translation systems from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  11. Dynamic Modeling of Cell-Free Biochemical Networks Using Effective Kinetic Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-03

    1984, 26, 203–216. 3. Steinmeyer, D.; Shuler, M. Structured model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Chem. Eng. Sci. 1989, 44, 2017–2030. 4. Wu, P.; Ray...consider cell growth . Thus, cell-free operation holds several significant advantages for model development, identification The views, opinions and/or...longer have to consider cell growth . Thus, cell-free operation holds several significant advantages for model development, identification and validation

  12. Circulating cell-free DNA in sickle cell disease: is it a potentially useful biomarker?

    PubMed

    Al-Humood, Salah; Zueriq, Rajaa; Al-Faris, Lama; Marouf, Rajaa; Al-Mulla, Fahd

    2014-05-01

    Vascular occlusion in sickle cell disease causes increased levels of plasma cell-free DNA as a result of cell death and tissue damage. This study investigates plasma cell-free DNA concentrations in sickle cell disease patients, and aims at exploring the significance of plasma cell-free DNA as a potential biomarker in predicting its complications. Plasma cell-free DNA levels were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to quantitatively measure β-globin gene in blood samples from 57 sickle cell disease patients with acute vaso-occlusive crisis, 42 patients in steady state, 16 individuals with sickle cell trait, and 40 healthy controls. Plasma cell-free DNA level was significantly elevated in samples from patients with acute vaso-occlusive crisis when compared with those in steady state (P = .002), and was significantly higher both in crisis and in steady state when compared with individuals with sickle cell trait and healthy controls (P < .001). There was no difference in cell-free DNA levels between individuals with sickle cell trait and healthy controls. There was no association between plasma cell-free DNA levels and various clinical complications of sickle cell disease and comorbidity. Plasma cell-free DNA, as quantified by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the β-globin and human telomerase reverse transcriptase genes, is increased in sickle cell disease patients in vaso-occlusive crisis and in steady state compared with individuals with sickle cell trait and healthy controls, and may be used as a tool to diagnose and monitor the sickle cell crisis and differentiate post-packed red cell transfusion sickle cell disease patients from individuals with sickle cell trait.

  13. Distinct Requirements for HIV-Cell Fusion and HIV-mediated Cell-Cell Fusion*

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Naoyuki; Marin, Mariana; Kim, Jeong Hwa; Desai, Tanay M.; Melikyan, Gregory B.

    2015-01-01

    Whether HIV-1 enters cells by fusing with the plasma membrane or with endosomes is a subject of active debate. The ability of HIV-1 to mediate fusion between adjacent cells, a process referred to as “fusion-from-without” (FFWO), shows that this virus can fuse with the plasma membrane. To compare FFWO occurring at the cell surface with HIV-cell fusion through a conventional entry route, we designed an experimental approach that enabled the measurements of both processes in the same sample. The following key differences were observed. First, a very small fraction of viruses fusing with target cells participated in FFWO. Second, whereas HIV-1 fusion with adherent cells was insensitive to actin inhibitors, post-CD4/coreceptor binding steps during FFWO were abrogated. A partial dependence of HIV-cell fusion on actin remodeling was observed in CD4+ T cells, but this effect appeared to be due to the actin dependence of virus uptake. Third, deletion of the cytoplasmic tail of HIV-1 gp41 dramatically enhanced the ability of the virus to promote FFWO, while having a modest effect on virus-cell fusion. Distinct efficiencies and actin dependences of FFWO versus HIV-cell fusion are consistent with the notion that, except for a minor fraction of particles that mediate fusion between the plasma membranes of adjacent cells, HIV-1 enters through an endocytic pathway. We surmise, however, that cell-cell contacts enabling HIV-1 fusion with the plasma membrane could be favored at the sites of high density of target cells, such as lymph nodes. PMID:25589785

  14. Role of LBPA and Alix in multivesicular liposome formation and endosome organization.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Hirotami; Chevallier, Julien; Mayran, Nathalie; Le Blanc, Isabelle; Ferguson, Charles; Fauré, Julien; Blanc, Nathalie Sartori; Matile, Stefan; Dubochet, Jacques; Sadoul, Rémy; Parton, Robert G; Vilbois, Francis; Gruenberg, Jean

    2004-01-23

    What are the components that control the assembly of subcellular organelles in eukaryotic cells? Although membranes can clearly be distorted by cytosolic factors, very little is known about the intrinsic mechanisms that control the biogenesis, shape, and organization of organellar membranes. Here, we found that the unconventional phospholipid lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) could induce the formation of multivesicular liposomes that resembled the multivesicular endosomes that exist where this lipid is found in vivo. This process depended on the same pH gradient that exists across endosome membranes in vivo and was selectively controlled by Alix. In turn, Alix regulated the organization of LBPA-containing endosomes in vivo.

  15. ROM-1 potentiates photoreceptor specific membrane fusion processes.

    PubMed

    Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen; Stefano, Frank P; Fitzgerald, Catherine; Muller-Weeks, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Photoreceptor outer segment (OS) renewal requires a series of tightly regulated membrane fusion events which are mediated by a fusion complex containing protein and lipid components. The best characterized of these components, is a unique photoreceptor specific tetraspanin, peripherin/rds (P/rds, a.k.a., peripherin-2, Rds and Prph). In these studies we investigated the role of peripherin's non-glycosylated homolog, ROM-1, in OS fusion using a COS cell heterologous expression system and a well characterized cell free fusion assay system. Membranes isolated from COS-7 cells transfected with either FLAG-tagged P/rds or HA-tagged ROM-1 or both proteins were assayed for their ability to merge with fluorescently labeled OS plasma membrane (PM). Such membrane merger is one measure of membrane fusogenicity. The highest percent fusion was observed when the proteins were co-expressed. Furthermore detailed analysis of the fusion kinetics between fluorescently labeled PM and proteo-liposomes containing either, pure P/rds, pure ROM-1 or the ROM-1-P/rds complex clearly demonstrated that optimal fusion requires an ROM-1/P/rds complex. Proteo-liposomes composed of ROM-1 alone were not fusogenic. Peptide competition studies suggest that optimization of fusion may be due to the formation of a fusion competent peripherin/rds C-terminus in the presence of ROM-1. These studies provide further support for the hypothesis that a P/rds dependent membrane fusion complex is involved in photoreceptor renewal processes.

  16. Cell-Free Protein Synthesis: Pros and Cons of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Systems.

    PubMed

    Zemella, Anne; Thoring, Lena; Hoffmeister, Christian; Kubick, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    From its start as a small-scale in vitro system to study fundamental translation processes, cell-free protein synthesis quickly rose to become a potent platform for the high-yield production of proteins. In contrast to classical in vivo protein expression, cell-free systems do not need time-consuming cloning steps, and the open nature provides easy manipulation of reaction conditions as well as high-throughput potential. Especially for the synthesis of difficult to express proteins, such as toxic and transmembrane proteins, cell-free systems are of enormous interest. The modification of the genetic code to incorporate non-canonical amino acids into the target protein in particular provides enormous potential in biotechnology and pharmaceutical research and is in the focus of many cell-free projects. Many sophisticated cell-free systems for manifold applications have been established. This review describes the recent advances in cell-free protein synthesis and details the expanding applications in this field. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  17. Plasma Cell-Free DNA in Paediatric Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Mussolin, Lara; Burnelli, Roberta; Pillon, Marta; Carraro, Elisa; Farruggia, Piero; Todesco, Alessandra; Mascarin, Maurizio; Rosolen, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Extracellular circulating DNA (cfDNA) can be found in small amounts in plasma of healthy individuals. Increased levels of cfDNA have been reported in patients with cancer of breast, cervix, colon, liver and it was shown that cfDNA can originate from both tumour and non-tumour cells. Objectives: Levels of cfDNA of a large series of children with lymphoma were evaluated and analyzed in relation with clinical characteristics. Methods: plasma cfDNA levels obtained at diagnosis in 201 paediatric lymphoma patients [43 Hodgkin lymphomas (HL), 45 anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL), 88 Burkitt lymphomas (BL), 17 lymphoblastic (LBL), 8 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL)] and 15 healthy individuals were determined using a quantitative PCR assay for POLR2 gene and, in addition, for NPM-ALK fusion gene in ALCL patients. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare plasma levels among different patient subgroups and controls and to analyze relationship between levels of cfDNA and clinical characteristics. Results: Levels of cfDNA in lymphoma patients were significantly higher compared with controls (p<0.0001). CfDNA was associated with median age (p=0.01) in HL, and with stage in ALCL (p=0.01). In HL patients high cfDNA levels were correlated with poor prognosis (p=0.03). In ALCL we found that most of the cfDNA (77%) was non-tumor DNA. Conclusion: level of plasma cfDNA might constitute an important non-invasive tool at diagnosis in lymphoma patients' management; in particular in patients with HL, cfDNA seems to be a promising prognostic biomarker. PMID:23678368

  18. Validation of cell-free culture using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, R; Elankumaran, Y; Hijjawi, N; Ryan, U

    2015-06-01

    A cell-free culture system for Cryptosporidium parvum was analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to characterise life cycle stages and compare gene expression in cell-free culture and cell culture using HCT-8 cells. Cryptosporidium parvum samples were harvested at 2 h, 8 h, 14 h, 26 h, 50 h, 74 h, 98 h, 122 h and 170 h, chemically fixed and specimens were observed using a Zeiss 1555 scanning electron microscope. The presence of sporozoites, trophozoites and type I merozoites were identified by SEM. Gene expression in cell culture and cell-free culture was studied using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of the sporozoite surface antigen protein (cp15), the glycoprotein 900 (gp900), the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in both cell free and conventional cell culture. In cell culture, cp15 expression peaked at 74 h, gp900 expression peaked at 74 h and 98 h and COWP expression peaked at 50 h. In cell-free culture, CP15 expression peaked at 98 h, gp900 expression peaked at 74 h and COWP expression peaked at 122 h. The present study is the first to compare gene expression of C. parvum in cell culture and cell-free culture and to characterise life cycle stages of C. parvum in cell-free culture using SEM. Findings from this study showed that gene expression patterns in cell culture and cell-free culture were similar but in cell-free culture, gene expression was delayed for CP15 and COWP in cell free culture compared with the cell culture system and was lower. Although three life cycle stageswere conclusively identified, improvements in SEM methodology should lead to the detection of more life cycle stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, W.A.; Boskma, P.

    1980-12-01

    Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons physics, simulating weapons effects, and applications for new weapons, the military interest shifted from developing a laser-ignited hydrogen bomb to more sophisticated weapons and civilian applications for power generation. Civilian and military research now overlap, making it possible for several countries to continue weapons activities and permitting proliferation of nuclear weapons. These countries are reluctant to include inertial confinement fusion research in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. 16 references. (DCK)

  20. Semiconductor quantum dot/albumin complex is a long-life and highly photostable endosome marker.

    PubMed

    Hanaki, Ken-ichi; Momo, Asami; Oku, Taisuke; Komoto, Atsushi; Maenosono, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2003-03-14

    For the purpose of selecting the efficient dispersion condition of hydrophilic semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in biological buffers, the dispersion of the QDs mixed with a serum albumin from 9 different species or an ovalbumin was compared by a fluorescence intensity analysis. The QDs mixed with sheep serum albumin (SSA) showed the highest fluorescence of all when the mixtures were dissolved in Dulbecco's MEM. QD/SSA complexes were accumulated in the endosome/lysosome of Vero cells and the fluorescence could be detected over a 5-day post-incubation period. The photostability of QD/SSA complexes associated with the endosomes was detectable, at least, 30 times as long as that of fluorescein-labeled dextran involved in endosomes. QD/SSA complex, therefore, can be used as a long-life and highly photostable endosome marker.

  1. Facilitation of Endosomal Recycling by an IRG Protein Homolog Maintains Apical Tubule Structure in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Grussendorf, Kelly A.; Trezza, Christopher J.; Salem, Alexander T.; Al-Hashimi, Hikmat; Mattingly, Brendan C.; Kampmeyer, Drew E.; Khan, Liakot A.; Hall, David H.; Göbel, Verena; Ackley, Brian D.; Buechner, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Determination of luminal diameter is critical to the function of small single-celled tubes. A series of EXC proteins, including EXC-1, prevent swelling of the tubular excretory canals in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, cloning of exc-1 reveals it to encode a homolog of mammalian IRG proteins, which play roles in immune response and autophagy and are associated with Crohn’s disease. Mutants in exc-1 accumulate early endosomes, lack recycling endosomes, and exhibit abnormal apical cytoskeletal structure in regions of enlarged tubules. EXC-1 interacts genetically with two other EXC proteins that also affect endosomal trafficking. In yeast two-hybrid assays, wild-type and putative constitutively active EXC-1 binds to the LIM-domain protein EXC-9, whose homolog, cysteine-rich intestinal protein, is enriched in mammalian intestine. These results suggest a model for IRG function in forming and maintaining apical tubule structure via regulation of endosomal recycling. PMID:27334269

  2. Endosomal recycling controls plasma membrane area during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Boucrot, Emmanuel; Kirchhausen, Tomas

    2007-05-08

    The shape and total surface of a cell and its daughters change during mitosis. Many cells round up during prophase and metaphase and reacquire their extended and flattened shape during cytokinesis. How does the total area of plasma membrane change to accommodate these morphological changes and by what mechanism is control of total membrane area achieved? Using single-cell imaging methods, we have found that the amount of plasma membrane in attached cells in culture decreases at the beginning of mitosis and recovers rapidly by the end. Clathrin-based endocytosis is normal throughout all phases of cell division, whereas recycling of internalized membranes back to the cell surface slows considerably during the rounding up period and resumes at the time at which recovery of cell membrane begins. Interference with either one of these processes by genetic or chemical means impairs cell division. The total cell-membrane area recovers even in the absence of a functional Golgi apparatus, which would be needed for export of newly synthesized membrane lipids and proteins. We propose a mechanism by which modulation of endosomal recycling controls cell area and surface expression of membrane-bound proteins during cell division.

  3. Securin and separase modulate membrane traffic by affecting endosomal acidification.

    PubMed

    Bacac, Marina; Fusco, Carlo; Planche, Anne; Santodomingo, Jaime; Demaurex, Nicolas; Leemann-Zakaryan, Ruzanna; Provero, Paolo; Stamenkovic, Ivan

    2011-05-01

    Securin and separase play a key role in sister chromatid separation during anaphase. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that in addition to regulating chromosome segregation, securin and separase display functions implicated in membrane traffic in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila. Here we show that in mammalian cells both securin and separase associate with membranes and that depletion of either protein causes robust swelling of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) along with the appearance of large endocytic vesicles in the perinuclear region. These changes are accompanied by diminished constitutive protein secretion as well as impaired receptor recycling and degradation. Unexpectedly, cells depleted of securin or separase display defective acidification of early endosomes and increased membrane recruitment of vacuolar (V-) ATPase complexes, mimicking the effect of the specific V-ATPase inhibitor Bafilomycin A1. Taken together, our findings identify a new functional role of securin and separase in the modulation of membrane traffic and protein secretion that implicates regulation of V-ATPase assembly and function.

  4. Transport from late endosomes to lysosomes, but not sorting of integral membrane proteins in endosomes, depends on the vacuolar proton pump

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Endocytosed proteins are sorted in early endosomes to be recycled to the plasma membrane or transported further into the degradative pathway. We studied the role of endosomes acidification on the endocytic trafficking of the transferrin receptor (TfR) as a representative for the recycling pathway, the cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR) as a prototype for transport to late endosomes, and fluid-phase endocytosed HRP as a marker for transport to lysosomes. Toward this purpose, bafilomycin A1 (Baf), a specific inhibitor of the vacuolar proton pump, was used to inhibit acidification of the vacuolar system. Microspectrofluorometric measurement of the pH of fluorescein-rhodamine-conjugated transferrin (Tf)-containing endocytic compartments in living cells revealed elevated endosomal pH values (pH > 7.0) within 2 min after addition of Baf. Although recycling of endocytosed Tf to the plasma membrane continued in the presence of Baf, recycled Tf did not dissociate from its receptor, indicating failure of Fe3+ release due to a neutral endosomal pH. In the presence of Baf, the rates of internalization and recycling of Tf were reduced by a factor of 1.40 +/- 0.08 and 1.57 +/- 0.25, respectively. Consequently, little if any in TfR expression at the cell surface was measured during Baf treatment. Sorting between endocytosed TfR and MPR was analyzed by the HRP-catalyzed 3,3'- diaminobenzidine cross-linking technique, using transferrin conjugated to HRP to label the endocytic pathway of the TfR. In the absence of Baf, endocytosed surface 125I-labeled MPR was sorted from the TfR pathway starting at 10 min after uptake, reaching a plateau of 40% after 45 min. In the presence of Baf, sorting was initiated after 20 min of uptake, reaching approximately 40% after 60 min. Transport of fluid-phase endocytosed HRP to late endosomes and lysosomes was measured using cell fractionation and immunogold electron microscopy. Baf did not interfere with transport of HRP to MPR

  5. IRES-Mediated Translation of Membrane Proteins and Glycoproteins in Eukaryotic Cell-Free Systems

    PubMed Central

    Brödel, Andreas K.; Sonnabend, Andrei; Roberts, Lisa O.; Stech, Marlitt; Wüstenhagen, Doreen A.; Kubick, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements found in the 5′ untranslated region of mRNAs enable translation initiation in a cap-independent manner, thereby representing an alternative to cap-dependent translation in cell-free protein expression systems. However, IRES function is largely species-dependent so their utility in cell-free systems from different species is rather limited. A promising approach to overcome these limitations would be the use of IRESs that are able to recruit components of the translation initiation apparatus from diverse origins. Here, we present a solution to this technical problem and describe the ability of a number of viral IRESs to direct efficient protein expression in different eukaryotic cell-free expression systems. The IRES from the intergenic region (IGR) of the Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) genome was shown to function efficiently in four different cell-free systems based on lysates derived from cultured Sf21, CHO and K562 cells as well as wheat germ. Our results suggest that the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector is universally applicable for a broad range of eukaryotic cell lysates. Sf21, CHO and K562 cell-free expression systems are particularly promising platforms for the production of glycoproteins and membrane proteins since they contain endogenous microsomes that facilitate the incorporation of membrane-spanning proteins and the formation of post-translational modifications. We demonstrate the use of the CrPV IGR IRES-based expression vector for the enhanced synthesis of various target proteins including the glycoprotein erythropoietin and the membrane proteins heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor receptor as well as epidermal growth factor receptor in the above mentioned eukaryotic cell-free systems. CrPV IGR IRES-mediated translation will facilitate the development of novel eukaryotic cell-free expression platforms as well as the high-yield synthesis of desired proteins in already established systems. PMID

  6. The E. coli S30 lysate proteome: A prototype for cell-free protein production.

    PubMed

    Foshag, Daniel; Henrich, Erik; Hiller, Ekkehard; Schäfer, Miriam; Kerger, Christian; Burger-Kentischer, Anke; Diaz-Moreno, Irene; García-Mauriño, Sofía M; Dötsch, Volker; Rupp, Steffen; Bernhard, Frank

    2017-09-21

    Protein production using processed cell lysates is a core technology in synthetic biology and these systems are excellent to produce difficult toxins or membrane proteins. However, the composition of the central lysate of cell-free systems is still a "black box". Escherichia coli lysates are most productive for cell-free expression, yielding several mgs of protein per ml of reaction. Their preparation implies proteome fractionation, resulting in strongly biased and yet unknown lysate compositions. Many metabolic pathways are expected to be truncated or completely removed. The lack of knowledge of basic cell-free lysate proteomes is a major bottleneck for directed lysate engineering approaches as well as for assay design using non-purified reaction mixtures. This study is starting to close this gap by providing a blueprint of the S30 lysate proteome derived from the commonly used E. coli strain A19. S30 lysates are frequently used for cell-free protein production and represent the basis of most commercial E. coli cell-free expression systems. A fraction of 821 proteins was identified as the core proteome in S30 lysates, representing approximately a quarter of the known E. coli proteome. Its classification into functional groups relevant for transcription/translation, folding, stability and metabolic processes will build the framework for tailored cell-free reactions. As an example, we show that SOS response induction during cultivation results in tuned S30 lysate with better folding capacity, and improved solubility and activity of synthesized proteins. The presented data and protocols can serve as a platform for the generation of customized cell-free systems and product analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Membrane binding sites for plasma lipoproteins on endosomes from rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Jaeckle, S; Brady, S E; Havel, R J

    1989-01-01

    Highly purified endosomal membranes from rat liver, enriched in receptors for a number of macromolecules taken up into hepatocytes via the coated pit/endosome/lysosome pathway [including the receptor for low density lipoproteins (LDL)], were used to characterize binding sites for lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein E. In endosomal membranes from livers of estradiol-treated rats, in which LDL receptors are induced manyfold, two high-affinity binding sites were found for two apolipoprotein E-rich lipoproteins: very low density beta-lipoproteins (beta-VLDL) from cholesterol-fed rabbits and rat chylomicron remnants. One of these sites, binding to which is inhibited by 30 mM EDTA, appears identical to the LDL receptor by ligand and immunoblotting and other characteristics. The other site, highly resistant to EDTA, does not bind LDL. Binding to the EDTA-resistant site, however, is readily inhibited by heparin (as is the LDL receptor) and also by antisera prepared against rat or bovine LDL receptor. The distribution of the EDTA-resistant site among early endosomes, late endosomes, and endosome-derived receptor-recycling membranes is similar to that of the LDL receptor and other recycling receptors. The LDL receptor was present in endosomal membranes from livers of untreated rats at about 10% of the level found in membranes from estradiol-treated rats, but the EDTA-resistant site was barely detectable. No saturable binding of beta-VLDL that could not be inhibited by antisera to the LDL receptor could be detected in endosomal membranes from livers of either untreated or estradiol-treated rats. The EDTA-resistant site may be a modified form of the LDL receptor that recognizes apolipoprotein E but not the B apolipoprotein of LDL. Alternatively, it may be a distinct receptor sharing immunological determinants with the LDL receptor, specialized for the endocytosis of certain lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein E, including chylomicron remnants. Images PMID:2538819

  8. Analysis of Signaling Endosome Composition and Dynamics Using SILAC in Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons*

    PubMed Central

    Debaisieux, Solène; Encheva, Vesela; Chakravarty, Probir; Snijders, Ambrosius P.; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2016-01-01

    Neurons require efficient transport mechanisms such as fast axonal transport to ensure neuronal homeostasis and survival. Neurotrophins and their receptors are conveyed via fast axonal retrograde transport of signaling endosomes to the soma, where they elicit transcriptional responses. Despite the essential roles of signaling endosomes in neuronal differentiation and survival, little is known about their molecular identity, dynamics, and regulation. Gaining a better mechanistic understanding of these organelles and their kinetics is crucial, given the growing evidence linking vesicular trafficking deficits to neurodegeneration. Here, we exploited an affinity purification strategy using the binding fragment of tetanus neurotoxin (HCT) conjugated to monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONs), which in motor neurons, is transported in the same carriers as neurotrophins and their receptors. To quantitatively assess the molecular composition of HCT-containing signaling endosomes, we have developed a protocol for triple Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) in embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons. After HCT internalization, retrograde carriers were magnetically isolated at different time points and subjected to mass-spectrometry and Gene Ontology analyses. This purification strategy is highly specific, as confirmed by the presence of essential regulators of fast axonal transport in the make-up of these organelles. Our results indicate that signaling endosomes undergo a rapid maturation with the acquisition of late endosome markers following a specific time-dependent kinetics. Strikingly, signaling endosomes are specifically enriched in proteins known to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases and neuroinfection. Moreover, we highlighted the presence of novel components, whose precise temporal recruitment on signaling endosomes might be essential for proper sorting and/or transport of these organelles. This study provides the first

  9. Apical endosomes isolated from kidney collecting duct principal cells lack subunits of the proton pumping ATPase.

    PubMed

    Sabolić, I; Wuarin, F; Shi, L B; Verkman, A S; Ausiello, D A; Gluck, S; Brown, D

    1992-10-01

    Endocytic vesicles that are involved in the vasopressin-stimulated recycling of water channels to and from the apical membrane of kidney collecting duct principal cells were isolated from rat renal papilla by differential and Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Fluorescence quenching measurements showed that the isolated vesicles maintained a high, HgCl2-sensitive water permeability, consistent with the presence of vasopressin-sensitive water channels. They did not, however, exhibit ATP-dependent luminal acidification, nor any N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive ATPase activity, properties that are characteristic of most acidic endosomal compartments. Western blotting with specific antibodies showed that the 31- and 70-kD cytoplasmically oriented subunits of the vacuolar proton pump were not detectable in these apical endosomes from the papilla, whereas they were present in endosomes prepared in parallel from the cortex. In contrast, the 56-kD subunit of the proton pump was abundant in papillary endosomes, and was localized at the apical pole of principal cells by immunocytochemistry. Finally, an antibody that recognizes the 16-kD transmembrane subunit of oat tonoplast ATPase cross-reacted with a distinct 16-kD band in cortical endosomes, but no 16-kD band was detectable in endosomes from the papilla. This antibody also recognized a 16-kD band in affinity-purified H+ ATPase preparations from bovine kidney medulla. Therefore, early endosomes derived from the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct principal cells fail to acidify because they lack functionally important subunits of a vacuolar-type proton pumping ATPase, including the 16-kD transmembrane domain that serves as the proton-conducting channel, and the 70-kD cytoplasmic subunit that contains the ATPase catalytic site. This specialized, non-acidic early endosomal compartment appears to be involved primarily in the hormonally induced recycling of water channels to and from the apical plasma membrane of

  10. Apical endosomes isolated from kidney collecting duct principal cells lack subunits of the proton pumping ATPase

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Endocytic vesicles that are involved in the vasopressin-stimulated recycling of water channels to and from the apical membrane of kidney collecting duct principal cells were isolated from rat renal papilla by differential and Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Fluorescence quenching measurements showed that the isolated vesicles maintained a high, HgCl2-sensitive water permeability, consistent with the presence of vasopressin-sensitive water channels. They did not, however, exhibit ATP-dependent luminal acidification, nor any N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive ATPase activity, properties that are characteristic of most acidic endosomal compartments. Western blotting with specific antibodies showed that the 31- and 70-kD cytoplasmically oriented subunits of the vacuolar proton pump were not detectable in these apical endosomes from the papilla, whereas they were present in endosomes prepared in parallel from the cortex. In contrast, the 56-kD subunit of the proton pump was abundant in papillary endosomes, and was localized at the apical pole of principal cells by immunocytochemistry. Finally, an antibody that recognizes the 16-kD transmembrane subunit of oat tonoplast ATPase cross-reacted with a distinct 16-kD band in cortical endosomes, but no 16-kD band was detectable in endosomes from the papilla. This antibody also recognized a 16-kD band in affinity- purified H+ ATPase preparations from bovine kidney medulla. Therefore, early endosomes derived from the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct principal cells fail to acidify because they lack functionally important subunits of a vacuolar-type proton pumping ATPase, including the 16-kD transmembrane domain that serves as the proton-conducting channel, and the 70-kD cytoplasmic subunit that contains the ATPase catalytic site. This specialized, non-acidic early endosomal compartment appears to be involved primarily in the hormonally induced recycling of water channels to and from the apical plasma membrane of

  11. Imaging and Quantitation Techniques for Tracking Cargo along Endosome-to-Golgi Transport Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl; Gleeson, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent improvements in the resolution of light microscopy, coupled with the development of a range of fluorescent-based probes, have provided new approaches to dissecting membrane domains and the regulation of membrane trafficking. Here, we review these advances, as well as highlight developments in quantitative image analysis and novel unbiased analytical approaches to quantitate protein localization. The application of these approaches to endosomal sorting and endosome-to-Golgi transport is discussed. PMID:24709647

  12. Mis-trafficking of endosomal urokinase proteins triggers drug-induced glioma nonapoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Pasupuleti, Nagarekha; Grodzki, Ana Cristina; Gorin, Fredric

    2015-04-01

    5-Benzylglycinyl-amiloride (UCD38B) is the parent molecule of a class of anticancer small molecules that kill proliferative and nonproliferative high-grade glioma cells by programmed necrosis. UCD38B intracellularly triggers endocytosis, causing 40-50% of endosomes containing proteins of the urokinase plasminogen activator system (uPAS) to relocate to perinuclear mitochondrial regions. Endosomal "mis-trafficking" caused by UCD38B in human glioma cells corresponds to mitochondrial depolarization with the release and nuclear translocation of apoptotis-inducing factor (AIF) followed by irreversible caspase-independent cell demise. High-content quantification of immunocytochemical colocalization studies identified that UCD38B treatment increased endocytosis of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), its receptor (uPAR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) into the early and late endosomes by 4- to 5-fold prior to AIF nuclear translocation and subsequent glioma demise. PAI-1 was found to comparably relocate with a subset of early and late endosomes in four different human glioma cell lines after UCD38B treatment, followed by caspase-independent, nonapoptotic cell death. Following UCD38B treatment, the receptor guidance protein LRP-1, which is required for endosomal recycling of the uPA receptor to the plasmalemma, remained abnormally associated with PAI-1 in early and late endosomes. The resultant aberrant endosomal recycling increased the total cellular content of the uPA-PAI-1 protein complex. Reversible inhibition of cellular endocytosis demonstrated that UCD38B bypasses the plasmalemmal uPAS complex and directly acts intracellularly to alter uPAS endocytotic trafficking. UCD38B represents a class of small molecules whose anticancer cytotoxicity is a consequence of causing the mis-trafficking of early and late endosomes containing uPAS cargo and leading to AIF-mediated necrotic cell death. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and

  13. Erythroid cell mitochondria receive endosomal iron by a "kiss-and-run" mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Amel; Roshan, Tariq M; Kahawita, Tanya M; Mason, Anne B; Sheftel, Alex D; Ponka, Prem

    2016-12-01

    In erythroid cells, more than 90% of transferrin-derived iron enters mitochondria where ferrochelatase inserts Fe(2+) into protoporphyrin IX. However, the path of iron from endosomes to mitochondrial ferrochelatase remains elusive. The prevailing opinion is that, after its export from endosomes, the redox-active metal spreads into the cytosol and mysteriously finds its way into mitochondria through passive diffusion. In contrast, this study supports the hypothesis that the highly efficient transport of iron toward ferrochelatase in erythroid cells requires a direct interaction between transferrin-endosomes and mitochondria (the "kiss-and-run" hypothesis). Using a novel method (flow sub-cytometry), we analyze lysates of reticulocytes after labeling these organelles with different fluorophores. We have identified a double-labeled population definitively representing endosomes interacting with mitochondria, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Moreover, we conclude that this endosome-mitochondrion association is reversible, since a "chase" with unlabeled holotransferrin causes a time-dependent decrease in the size of the double-labeled population. Importantly, the dissociation of endosomes from mitochondria does not occur in the absence of holotransferrin. Additionally, mutated recombinant holotransferrin, that cannot release iron, significantly decreases the uptake of (59)Fe by reticulocytes and diminishes (59)Fe incorporation into heme. This suggests that endosomes, which are unable to provide iron to mitochondria, cause a "traffic jam" leading to decreased endocytosis of holotransferrin. Altogether, our results suggest that a molecular mechanism exists to coordinate the iron status of endosomal transferrin with its trafficking. Besides its contribution to the field of iron metabolism, this study provides evidence for a new intracellular trafficking pathway of organelles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mutations in the endosomal ESCRTIII-complex subunit CHMP2B in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Skibinski, Gaia; Parkinson, Nicholas J; Brown, Jeremy M; Chakrabarti, Lisa; Lloyd, Sarah L; Hummerich, Holger; Nielsen, Jørgen E; Hodges, John R; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Thusgaard, Tove; Brandner, Sebastian; Brun, Arne; Rossor, Martin N; Gade, Anders; Johannsen, Peter; Sørensen, Sven Asger; Gydesen, Susanne; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Collinge, John

    2005-08-01

    We have previously reported a large Danish pedigree with autosomal dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD) linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3). Here we identify a mutation in CHMP2B, encoding a component of the endosomal ESCRTIII complex, and show that it results in aberrant mRNA splicing in tissue samples from affected members of this family. We also describe an additional missense mutation in an unrelated individual with FTD. Aberration in the endosomal ESCRTIII complex may result in FTD and neurodegenerative disease.

  15. Direct endosomal acidification by the outwardly rectifying CLC-5 Cl−/H+ exchanger

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew J; Lippiat, Jonathan D

    2010-01-01

    The voltage-gated Cl− channel (CLC) family comprises cell surface Cl− channels and intracellular Cl−/H+ exchangers. CLCs in organelle membranes are thought to assist acidification by providing a passive chloride conductance that electrically counterbalances H+ accumulation. Following recent descriptions of Cl−/H+ exchange activity in endosomal CLCs we have re-evaluated their role. We expressed human CLC-5 in HEK293 cells, recorded currents under a range of Cl− and H+ gradients by whole-cell patch clamp, and examined the contribution of CLC-5 to endosomal acidification using a targeted pH-sensitive fluorescent protein. We found that CLC-5 only conducted outward currents, corresponding to Cl− flux into the cytoplasm and H+ from the cytoplasm. Inward currents were never observed, despite the range of intracellular and extracellular Cl− concentrations and pH used. Endosomal acidification in HEK293 cells was prevented by 25 μm bafilomycin-A1, an inhibitor of vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase), which actively pumps H+ into the endosomal lumen. Overexpression of CLC-5 in HEK293 cells conferred an additional bafilomycin-insensitive component to endosomal acidification. This effect was abolished by making mutations in CLC-5 that remove H+ transport, which result in either no current (E268A) or bidirectional Cl− flux (E211A). Endosomal acidification in a proximal tubule cell line was partially sensitive to inhibition of v-ATPase by bafilomycin-A1. Furthermore, in the presence of bafilomycin-A1, acidification was significantly reduced and nearly fully ablated by partial and near-complete knockdown of endogenous CLC-5 by siRNA. These data suggest that CLC-5 is directly involved in endosomal acidification by exchanging endosomal Cl− for H+. PMID:20421284

  16. Antigen Processing and Remodeling of the Endosomal Pathway: Requirements for Antigen Cross-Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Compeer, Ewoud Bernardus; Flinsenberg, Thijs Willem Hendrik; van der Grein, Susanna Geertje; Boes, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I major histocompatibility complex complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8+ T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells capable of antigen cross-presentation, identification of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC), there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlights DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, maturation-induced endosomal sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell surface-directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with the description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation. PMID:22566920

  17. The small GTP-binding protein rab4 is associated with early endosomes

    SciTech Connect

    van der Sluijs, P.; Hull, M.; Mellman, I. ); Zahraoui, A.; Tavitian, A. ); Goud, B. )

    1991-07-15

    Small GTP-binding proteins of the rab family have been implicated as playing important roles in controlling membrane traffic on the biosynthetic and endocytic pathways. The authors demonstrate that a distinct rab protein, rab4p, is associated with the population of early endosomes involved in transferrin-receptor recycling. An antibody to human rab4p was found to detect a doublet of {approx} 24-kDa proteins on immunoblots from various cell types. Seventy-five percent of these proteins were tightly membrane bound and could be released only by detergent treatment. Upon isolation of early endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes, by free-flow electrophoresis and Percoll density-gradient centrifugation, most (70%) of the rab4p was found to cofractionate with early endosomes and endocytic vesicles containing {sup 125}-labeled transferrin. The rab proteins previously localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and/or Golgi apparatus were not found in these fractions. They also localized rab4p to tansferrin-receptor-containing early endosomes by immunofluorescence after expression of rab4p cDNA. The association of rab4p with early endosomes and other vesicles involved in the intracellular tansport of transferrin receptor suggests that rab4p may play a role in regulating the pathway of receptor recycling.

  18. Peroxisomes move by hitchhiking on early endosomes using the novel linker protein PxdA.

    PubMed

    Salogiannis, John; Egan, Martin J; Reck-Peterson, Samara L

    2016-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells use microtubule-based intracellular transport for the delivery of many subcellular cargos, including organelles. The canonical view of organelle transport is that organelles directly recruit molecular motors via cargo-specific adaptors. In contrast with this view, we show here that peroxisomes move by hitchhiking on early endosomes, an organelle that directly recruits the transport machinery. Using the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans we found that hitchhiking is mediated by a novel endosome-associated linker protein, PxdA. PxdA is required for normal distribution and long-range movement of peroxisomes, but not early endosomes or nuclei. Using simultaneous time-lapse imaging, we find that early endosome-associated PxdA localizes to the leading edge of moving peroxisomes. We identify a coiled-coil region within PxdA that is necessary and sufficient for early endosome localization and peroxisome distribution and motility. These results present a new mechanism of microtubule-based organelle transport in which peroxisomes hitchhike on early endosomes and identify PxdA as the novel linker protein required for this coupling. © 2016 Salogiannis et al.

  19. Peroxisomes move by hitchhiking on early endosomes using the novel linker protein PxdA

    PubMed Central

    Salogiannis, John; Egan, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells use microtubule-based intracellular transport for the delivery of many subcellular cargos, including organelles. The canonical view of organelle transport is that organelles directly recruit molecular motors via cargo-specific adaptors. In contrast with this view, we show here that peroxisomes move by hitchhiking on early endosomes, an organelle that directly recruits the transport machinery. Using the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans we found that hitchhiking is mediated by a novel endosome-associated linker protein, PxdA. PxdA is required for normal distribution and long-range movement of peroxisomes, but not early endosomes or nuclei. Using simultaneous time-lapse imaging, we find that early endosome-associated PxdA localizes to the leading edge of moving peroxisomes. We identify a coiled-coil region within PxdA that is necessary and sufficient for early endosome localization and peroxisome distribution and motility. These results present a new mechanism of microtubule-based organelle transport in which peroxisomes hitchhike on early endosomes and identify PxdA as the novel linker protein required for this coupling. PMID:26811422

  20. Functions of adaptor protein (AP)-3 and AP-1 in tyrosinase sorting from endosomes to melanosomes.

    PubMed

    Theos, Alexander C; Tenza, Danièle; Martina, José A; Hurbain, Ilse; Peden, Andrew A; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Stewart, Abigail; Robinson, Margaret S; Bennett, Dorothy C; Cutler, Daniel F; Bonifacino, Juan S; Marks, Michael S; Raposo, Graça

    2005-11-01

    Specialized cells exploit adaptor protein complexes for unique post-Golgi sorting events, providing a unique model system to specify adaptor function. Here, we show that AP-3 and AP-1 function independently in sorting of the melanocyte-specific protein tyrosinase from endosomes to the melanosome, a specialized lysosome-related organelle distinguishable from lysosomes. AP-3 and AP-1 localize in melanocytes primarily to clathrin-coated buds on tubular early endosomes near melanosomes. Both adaptors recognize the tyrosinase dileucine-based melanosome sorting signal, and tyrosinase largely colocalizes with each adaptor on endosomes. In AP-3-deficient melanocytes, tyrosinase accumulates inappropriately in vacuolar and multivesicular endosomes. Nevertheless, a substantial fraction still accumulates on melanosomes, concomitant with increased association with endosomal AP-1. Our data indicate that AP-3 and AP-1 function in partially redundant pathways to transfer tyrosinase from distinct endosomal subdomains to melanosomes and that the AP-3 pathway ensures that tyrosinase averts entrapment on internal membranes of forming multivesicular bodies.

  1. AtSNX1 defines an endosome for auxin-carrier trafficking in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jaillais, Yvon; Fobis-Loisy, Isabelle; Miège, Christine; Rollin, Claire; Gaude, Thierry

    2006-09-07

    Polarized cellular distribution of the phytohormone auxin and its carriers is essential for normal plant growth and development. Polar auxin transport is maintained by a network of auxin influx (AUX) and efflux (PIN) carriers. Both auxin transport and PIN protein cycling between the plasma membrane and endosomes require the activity of the endosomal GNOM; however, intracellular routes taken by these carriers remain largely unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana SORTING NEXIN 1 (AtSNX1) is involved in the auxin pathway and that PIN2, but not PIN1 or AUX1, is transported through AtSNX1-containing endosomes. We demonstrate that the snx1-null mutant exhibits multiple auxin-related defects and that loss of function of AtSNX1 severely enhances the phenotype of a weak gnom mutant. In root cells, we further show that AtSNX1 localizes to an endosomal compartment distinct from GNOM-containing endosomes, and that PIN2 accumulates in this compartment after treatment with the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase inhibitor wortmannin or after a gravity stimulus. Our data reveal the existence of a novel endosomal compartment involved in PIN2 endocytic sorting and plant development.

  2. Enhanced Endosomal Escape by Light-Fueled Liquid-Metal Transformer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yue; Lin, Yiliang; Chen, Zhaowei; Hu, Quanyin; Liu, Yang; Yu, Shuangjiang; Gao, Wei; Dickey, Michael D; Gu, Zhen

    2017-04-12

    Effective endosomal escape remains as the "holy grail" for endocytosis-based intracellular drug delivery. To date, most of the endosomal escape strategies rely on small molecules, cationic polymers, or pore-forming proteins, which are often limited by the systemic toxicity and lack of specificity. We describe here a light-fueled liquid-metal transformer for effective endosomal escape-facilitated cargo delivery via a chemical-mechanical process. The nanoscale transformer can be prepared by a simple approach of sonicating a low-toxicity liquid-metal. When coated with graphene quantum dots (GQDs), the resulting nanospheres demonstrate the ability to absorb and convert photoenergy to drive the simultaneous phase separation and morphological transformation of the inner liquid-metal core. The morphological transformation from nanospheres to hollow nanorods with a remarkable change of aspect ratio can physically disrupt the endosomal membrane to promote endosomal escape of payloads. This metal-based nanotransformer equipped with GQDs provides a new strategy for facilitating effective endosomal escape to achieve spatiotemporally controlled drug delivery with enhanced efficacy.

  3. Identification of an endosomal antigen specific to absorptive cells of suckling rat ileum

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    A membrane fraction enriched in apical endosomal tubules was isolated from absorptive cells of suckling rat ileum and used as an immunogen to generate anti-endosome monoclonal antibodies. By immunofluorescence, one of these antibodies bound exclusively to the region of the apical endocytic complex in ileal absorptive cells, but not to other cell types. Immunoblot analysis showed the antigen as a diffuse 55-61-kD band which was highly enriched in the endosome fraction over whole-cell homogenate. The antigen appears to be an intramembrane glycoprotein: it partitioned primarily in the detergent phase after TX-114 extraction, and shifted to 44 kD after chemical deglycosylation. EM immunocytochemistry showed that the antibody bound to the luminal side of endosomal tubule membranes, a portion of endosomal vesicle membranes, and in endocytic pits of apical plasma membranes. However, it did not bind to multivesicular bodies, the giant lysosome, or other organelles. Immunocytochemistry after uptake with adsorbed or soluble tracer proteins showed that the antigen labeled portions of both prelysosomal pathways previously described in these cells (Gonnella, P.A., and M. R. Neutra, 1984, J. Cell Biol., 99:909-917). The function of this glycoprotein is not known, but inasmuch as it has been detected only in absorptive cells of suckling rat ileum, it may serve a function specific to these cells. Nevertheless, this endosomal antigen, designated glycoprotein (gp) 55-61, will serve as a useful marker for exploring membrane dynamics in early stages of the endocytic pathway. PMID:3305521

  4. Regulation of EGFR signal transduction by analogue-to-digital conversion in endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Villaseñor, Roberto; Nonaka, Hidenori; Del Conte-Zerial, Perla; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Zerial, Marino

    2015-01-01

    An outstanding question is how receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) determine different cell-fate decisions despite sharing the same signalling cascades. Here, we uncovered an unexpected mechanism of RTK trafficking in this process. By quantitative high-resolution FRET microscopy, we found that phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (p-EGFR) is not randomly distributed but packaged at constant mean amounts in endosomes. Cells respond to higher EGF concentrations by increasing the number of endosomes but keeping the mean p-EGFR content per endosome almost constant. By mathematical modelling, we found that this mechanism confers both robustness and regulation to signalling output. Different growth factors caused specific changes in endosome number and size in various cell systems and changing the distribution of p-EGFR between endosomes was sufficient to reprogram cell-fate decision upon EGF stimulation. We propose that the packaging of p-RTKs in endosomes is a general mechanism to ensure the fidelity and specificity of the signalling response. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06156.001 PMID:25650738

  5. Post-Golgi anterograde transport requires GARP-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Fujita, Morihisa; Nakamura, Shota; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2015-09-01

    The importance of endosome-to-trans-Golgi network (TGN) retrograde transport in the anterograde transport of proteins is unclear. In this study, genome-wide screening of the factors necessary for efficient anterograde protein transport in human haploid cells identified subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, a tethering factor involved in endosome-to-TGN transport. Knockout (KO) of each of the four GARP subunits, VPS51-VPS54, in HEK293 cells caused severely defective anterograde transport of both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the TGN. Overexpression of VAMP4, v-SNARE, in VPS54-KO cells partially restored not only endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport, but also anterograde transport of both GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins. Further screening for genes whose overexpression normalized the VPS54-KO phenotype identified TMEM87A, encoding an uncharacterized Golgi-resident membrane protein. Overexpression of TMEM87A or its close homologue TMEM87B in VPS54-KO cells partially restored endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport and anterograde transport. Therefore GARP- and VAMP4-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport is required for recycling of molecules critical for efficient post-Golgi anterograde transport of cell-surface integral membrane proteins. In addition, TMEM87A and TMEM87B are involved in endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport.

  6. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

    PubMed

    Compeer, Ewoud Bernardus; Flinsenberg, Thijs Willem Hendrik; van der Grein, Susanna Geertje; Boes, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I major histocompatibility complex complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8(+) T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells capable of antigen cross-presentation, identification of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC), there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlights DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, maturation-induced endosomal sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell surface-directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with the description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.

  7. Post-Golgi anterograde transport requires GARP-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Fujita, Morihisa; Nakamura, Shota; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2015-01-01

    The importance of endosome-to–trans-Golgi network (TGN) retrograde transport in the anterograde transport of proteins is unclear. In this study, genome-wide screening of the factors necessary for efficient anterograde protein transport in human haploid cells identified subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, a tethering factor involved in endosome-to-TGN transport. Knockout (KO) of each of the four GARP subunits, VPS51–VPS54, in HEK293 cells caused severely defective anterograde transport of both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the TGN. Overexpression of VAMP4, v-SNARE, in VPS54-KO cells partially restored not only endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport, but also anterograde transport of both GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins. Further screening for genes whose overexpression normalized the VPS54-KO phenotype identified TMEM87A, encoding an uncharacterized Golgi-resident membrane protein. Overexpression of TMEM87A or its close homologue TMEM87B in VPS54-KO cells partially restored endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport and anterograde transport. Therefore GARP- and VAMP4-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport is required for recycling of molecules critical for efficient post-Golgi anterograde transport of cell-surface integral membrane proteins. In addition, TMEM87A and TMEM87B are involved in endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport. PMID:26157166

  8. Avian Influenza Virus Infection of Immortalized Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells Depends upon a Delicate Balance between Hemagglutinin Acid Stability and Endosomal pH.

    PubMed

    Daidoji, Tomo; Watanabe, Yohei; Ibrahim, Madiha S; Yasugi, Mayo; Maruyama, Hisataka; Masuda, Taisuke; Arai, Fumihito; Ohba, Tomoyuki; Honda, Ayae; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Nakaya, Takaaki

    2015-04-24

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) virus, H5N1, is a serious threat to public health worldwide. Both the currently circulating H5N1 and previously circulating AI viruses recognize avian-type receptors; however, only the H5N1 is highly infectious and virulent in humans. The mechanism(s) underlying this difference in infectivity remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the difference in infectivity between the current and previously circulating strains. Primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) were transformed with the SV40 large T-antigen to establish a series of clones (SAEC-Ts). These clones were then used to test the infectivity of AI strains. Human SAEC-Ts could be broadly categorized into two different types based on their susceptibility (high or low) to the viruses. SAEC-T clones were poorly susceptible to previously circulating AI but were completely susceptible to the currently circulating H5N1. The hemagglutinin (HA) of the current H5N1 virus showed greater membrane fusion activity at higher pH levels than that of previous AI viruses, resulting in broader cell tropism. Moreover, the endosomal pH was lower in high susceptibility SAEC-T clones than that in low susceptibility SAEC-T clones. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the infectivity of AI viruses, including H5N1, depends upon a delicate balance between the acid sensitivity of the viral HA and the pH within the endosomes of the target cell. Thus, one of the mechanisms underlying H5N1 pathogenesis in humans relies on its ability to fuse efficiently with the endosomes in human airway epithelial cells.

  9. Serum cell-free DNA in renal cell carcinoma: a diagnostic and prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    de Martino, Michela; Klatte, Tobias; Haitel, Andrea; Marberger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there are no established diagnostic and prognostic serum markers for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The objective of this study was to evaluate the putative significance of serum cell-free DNA. Preoperative serum samples from 200 consecutive patients with sporadic, solid renal tumors were analyzed (157 patients with RCC and 43 patients with benign renal tumors). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess total cell-free DNA (ring finger protein 185 [RNF185]) and CpG island methylation of Ras association domain family member 1A (RASSF1A) von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), prostaglandin-endoperoxidase synthase 2 (PTGS2), and P16 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A). Associations with RCC, pathologic variables, and disease-specific survival were evaluated. Total cell-free DNA levels and CpG island methylation of RASSF1A and VHL were highly diagnostic for RCC with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.755, 0.705, and 0.694, respectively. VHL methylation was detected more frequently in patients with clear cell RCC than in those with other subtypes (P = .007). Total cell-free DNA levels were higher in patients with metastatic RCC (P < .001) and necrotic RCC (P = .003) and were associated with poorer disease-specific survival (P < .001). In multivariate analysis, the tumor stage, size, grade, and necrosis (SSIGN) score (P < .001) and categorized total cell-free DNA levels (P = .028) were retained as independent prognostic factors. The current results indicated that cell-free DNA represents a novel serum-based diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for RCC. Total serum cell-free DNA levels and CpG island methylation of RASSF1A and VHL may be useful diagnostic biomarkers for RCC. VHL methylation of cell-free DNA is suggestive of clear cell RCC. Total serum cell-free DNA may be a useful prognostic biomarker that may assist in tailoring postoperative surveillance and therapy. External prospective validation of these data will be

  10. A WASp-binding type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase required for actin polymerization-driven endosome motility

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Fanny S.; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M.; Blumer, Kendall J.

    2005-01-01

    Endosomes in yeast have been hypothesized to move through the cytoplasm by the momentum gained after actin polymerization has driven endosome abscision from the plasma membrane. Alternatively, after abscission, ongoing actin polymerization on endosomes could power transport. Here, we tested these hypotheses by showing that the Arp2/3 complex activation domain (WCA) of Las17 (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein [WASp] homologue) fused to an endocytic cargo protein (Ste2) rescued endosome motility in las17ΔWCA mutants, and that capping actin filament barbed ends inhibited endosome motility but not endocytic internalization. Motility therefore requires continual actin polymerization on endosomes. We also explored how Las17 is regulated. Endosome motility required the Las17-binding protein Lsb6, a type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase. Catalytically inactive Lsb6 interacted with Las17 and promoted endosome motility. Lsb6 therefore is a novel regulator of Las17 that mediates endosome motility independent of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate synthesis. Mammalian type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases may regulate WASp proteins and endosome motility. PMID:16216926

  11. A WASp-binding type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase required for actin polymerization-driven endosome motility.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fanny S; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M; Blumer, Kendall J

    2005-10-10

    Endosomes in yeast have been hypothesized to move through the cytoplasm by the momentum gained after actin polymerization has driven endosome abscision from the plasma membrane. Alternatively, after abscission, ongoing actin polymerization on endosomes could power transport. Here, we tested these hypotheses by showing that the Arp2/3 complex activation domain (WCA) of Las17 (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein [WASp] homologue) fused to an endocytic cargo protein (Ste2) rescued endosome motility in las17DeltaWCA mutants, and that capping actin filament barbed ends inhibited endosome motility but not endocytic internalization. Motility therefore requires continual actin polymerization on endosomes. We also explored how Las17 is regulated. Endosome motility required the Las17-binding protein Lsb6, a type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase. Catalytically inactive Lsb6 interacted with Las17 and promoted endosome motility. Lsb6 therefore is a novel regulator of Las17 that mediates endosome motility independent of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate synthesis. Mammalian type II phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases may regulate WASp proteins and endosome motility.

  12. Modulation of RAB5A early endosome trafficking in response to KRas mediated macropinocytic fluxes in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Teske, Christian; Schweitzer, Christine; Palamidessi, Andrea; Aust, Daniela E; Scita, Giorgio; Weitz, Jürgen; Welsch, Thilo

    2017-09-01

    KRAS is the key mutated gene in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Emerging evidence indicates that KRas modulates endocytic uptake. The present study aimed to explore the fate of early endosomal trafficking under the control of KRas expression in PDAC. Surprisingly, PANC-1 cells lacking KRas exhibited significantly enlarged early and late endosomes containing internalized dextran and epidermal growth factor. Endosome enlargement was accompanied by reduced endosomal degradation. Both KRas silencing and lysosomal blockade caused an upregulation of the master regulator of early endosome biogenesis, RAB5A, which is likely responsible for the expansion of the early endosomal compartment, because simultaneous KRAS/RAB5A knockdown abolished endosome enlargement. In contrast, early endosome shrinkage was seen in MIA PaCa-2 cells despite RAB5A upregulation, indicating that distinct KRas-modulated responses operate in different metabolic subtypes of PDAC. In conclusion, mutant KRAS promotes endosomal degradation in PDAC cell lines, which is impaired by KRAS silencing. Moreover, KRAS silencing activates RAB5A upregulation and drives PDAC subtype-dependent modulation of endosome trafficking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Preparation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins using an insect cell-free protein synthesis system.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takashi; Ezure, Toru; Ando, Eiji; Nishimura, Osamu; Utsumi, Toshihiko; Tsunasawa, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitination is one of the most significant posttranslational modifications (PTMs). To evaluate the ability of an insect cell-free protein synthesis system to carry out ubiquitin (Ub) conjugation to in vitro translated proteins, poly-Ub chain formation was studied in an insect cell-free protein synthesis system. Poly-Ub was generated in the presence of Ub aldehyde (UA), a de-ubiquitinating enzyme inhibitor. In vitro ubiquitination of the p53 tumor suppressor protein was also analyzed, and p53 was poly-ubiquitinated when Ub, UA, and Mdm2, an E3 Ub ligase (E3) for p53, were added to the in vitro reaction mixture. These results suggest that the insect cell-free protein synthesis system contains enzymatic activities capable of carrying out ubiquitination. CBB-detectable ubiquitinated p53 was easily purified from the insect cell-free protein synthesis system, allowing analysis of the Ub-conjugated proteins by mass spectrometry (MS). Lys 305 of p53 was identified as one of the Ub acceptor sites using this strategy. Thus, we conclude that the insect cell-free protein synthesis system is a powerful tool for studying various PTMs of eukaryotic proteins including ubiqutination presented here.

  14. Rapid cell-free forward engineering of novel genetic ring oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Niederholtmeyer, Henrike; Sun, Zachary Z; Hori, Yutaka; Yeung, Enoch; Verpoorte, Amanda; Murray, Richard M; Maerkl, Sebastian J

    2015-01-01

    While complex dynamic biological networks control gene expression in all living organisms, the forward engineering of comparable synthetic networks remains challenging. The current paradigm of characterizing synthetic networks in cells results in lengthy design-build-test cycles, minimal data collection, and poor quantitative characterization. Cell-free systems are appealing alternative environments, but it remains questionable whether biological networks behave similarly in cell-free systems and in cells. We characterized in a cell-free system the ‘repressilator’, a three-node synthetic oscillator. We then engineered novel three, four, and five-gene ring architectures, from characterization of circuit components to rapid analysis of complete networks. When implemented in cells, our novel 3-node networks produced population-wide oscillations and 95% of 5-node oscillator cells oscillated for up to 72 hr. Oscillation periods in cells matched the cell-free system results for all networks tested. An alternate forward engineering paradigm using cell-free systems can thus accurately capture cellular behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09771.001 PMID:26430766

  15. Content of intrinsic disorder influences the outcome of cell-free protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tokmakov, Alexander A; Kurotani, Atsushi; Ikeda, Mariko; Terazawa, Yumiko; Shirouzu, Mikako; Stefanov, Vasily; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-09-11

    Cell-free protein synthesis is used to produce proteins with various structural traits. Recent bioinformatics analyses indicate that more than half of eukaryotic proteins possess long intrinsically disordered regions. However, no systematic study concerning the connection between intrinsic disorder and expression success of cell-free protein synthesis has been presented until now. To address this issue, we examined correlations of the experimentally observed cell-free protein expression yields with the contents of intrinsic disorder bioinformatically predicted in the expressed sequences. This analysis revealed strong relationships between intrinsic disorder and protein amenability to heterologous cell-free expression. On the one hand, elevated disorder content was associated with the increased ratio of soluble expression. On the other hand, overall propensity for detectable protein expression decreased with disorder content. We further demonstrated that these tendencies are rooted in some distinct features of intrinsically disordered regions, such as low hydrophobicity, elevated surface accessibility and high abundance of sequence motifs for proteolytic degradation, including sites of ubiquitination and PEST sequences. Our findings suggest that identification of intrinsically disordered regions in the expressed amino acid sequences can be of practical use for predicting expression success and optimizing cell-free protein synthesis.

  16. Unique Features of Hepatitis C Virus Capsid Formation Revealed by De Novo Cell-Free Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Kevin C.; Polyak, Stephen J.; Lingappa, Jaisri R.

    2004-01-01

    The assembly of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is poorly understood, largely due to the lack of mammalian cell culture systems that are easily manipulated and produce high titers of virus. This problem is highlighted by the inability of the recently established HCV replicon systems to support HCV capsid assembly despite high levels of structural protein synthesis. Here we demonstrate that up to 80% of HCV core protein synthesized de novo in cell-free systems containing rabbit reticulocyte lysate or wheat germ extracts assembles into HCV capsids. This contrasts with standard primate cell culture systems, in which almost no core assembles into capsids. Cell-free HCV capsids, which have a sedimentation value of ≈100S, have a buoyant density (1.28 g/ml) on cesium chloride similar to that of HCV capsids from other systems. Capsids produced in cell-free systems are also indistinguishable from capsids isolated from HCV-infected patient serum when analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Using these cell-free systems, we show that HCV capsid assembly is independent of signal sequence cleavage, is dependent on the N terminus but not the C terminus of HCV core, proceeds at very low nascent chain concentrations, is independent of intact membrane surfaces, and is partially inhibited by cultured liver cell lysates. By allowing reproducible and quantitative assessment of viral and cellular requirements for capsid formation, these cell-free systems make a mechanistic dissection of HCV capsid assembly possible. PMID:15308720

  17. Rapid and Scalable Preparation of Bacterial Lysates for Cell-Free Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Didovyk, Andriy; Tonooka, Taishi; Tsimring, Lev; Hasty, Jeff

    2017-08-21

    Cell-free gene expression systems are emerging as an important platform for a diverse range of synthetic biology and biotechnology applications, including production of robust field-ready biosensors. Here, we combine programmed cellular autolysis with a freeze-thaw or freeze-dry cycle to create a practical, reproducible, and a labor- and cost-effective approach for rapid production of bacterial lysates for cell-free gene expression. Using this method, robust and highly active bacterial cell lysates can be produced without specialized equipment at a wide range of scales, making cell-free gene expression easily and broadly accessible. Moreover, live autolysis strain can be freeze-dried directly and subsequently lysed upon rehydration to produce active lysate. We demonstrate the utility of autolysates for synthetic biology by regulating protein production and degradation, implementing quorum sensing, and showing quantitative protection of linear DNA templates by GamS protein. To allow versatile and sensitive β-galactosidase (LacZ) based readout we produce autolysates with no detectable background LacZ activity and use them to produce sensitive mercury(II) biosensors with LacZ-mediated colorimetric and fluorescent outputs. The autolysis approach can facilitate wider adoption of cell-free technology for cell-free gene expression as well as other synthetic biology and biotechnology applications, such as metabolic engineering, natural product biosynthesis, or proteomics.

  18. Cerebellar Exposure to Cell-Free Hemoglobin Following Preterm Intraventricular Hemorrhage: Causal in Cerebellar Damage?

    PubMed

    Agyemang, Alex Adusei; Sveinsdóttir, Kristbjörg; Vallius, Suvi; Sveinsdóttir, Snjolaug; Bruschettini, Matteo; Romantsik, Olga; Hellström, Ann; Smith, Lois E H; Ohlsson, Lennart; Holmqvist, Bo; Gram, Magnus; Ley, David

    2017-06-10

    Decreased cerebellar volume is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in very preterm infants and may be a principal component in neurodevelopmental impairment. Cerebellar deposition of blood products from the subarachnoid space has been suggested as a causal mechanism in cerebellar underdevelopment following IVH. Using the preterm rabbit pup IVH model, we evaluated the effects of IVH induced at E29 (3 days prior to term) on cerebellar development at term-equivalent postnatal day 0 (P0), term-equivalent postnatal day 2 (P2), and term-equivalent postnatal day 5 (P5). Furthermore, the presence of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) in cerebellar tissue was characterized, and cell-free Hb was evaluated as a causal factor in the development of cerebellar damage following preterm IVH. IVH was associated with a decreased proliferative (Ki67-positive) portion of the external granular layer (EGL), delayed Purkinje cell maturation, and activated microglia in the cerebellar white matter. In pups with IVH, immunolabeling of the cerebellum at P0 demonstrated a widespread presence of cell-free Hb, primarily distributed in the white matter and the molecular layer. Intraventricular injection of the Hb scavenger haptoglobin (Hp) resulted in a corresponding distribution of immunolabeled Hp in the cerebellum and a partial reversal of the damaging effects observed following IVH. The results suggest that cell-free Hb is causally involved in cerebellar damage following IVH and that blocking cell-free Hb may have protective effects.

  19. Expression Optimization and Inducible Negative Feedback in Cell-Free Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Karig, David K; Iyer, Sukanya; Simpson, Michael L; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology offers great promise to a variety of applications through the forward engineering of biological function. Most efforts in this field have focused on employing living cells. Cell-free approaches, on the other hand, offer simpler and more flexible contexts, but few synthetic systems based on cell-free protein expression have been constructed. Here, we evaluate cell-free regulatory systems based on T7 promoter driven expression, and we demonstrate negative feedback, an essential motif in many natural and engineered systems. First, we characterize variants of TetR and LacI repressible T7 promoters in a cell-free context and examine sequence elements that determine expression efficiency. Then, we explore different approaches for composing regulatory systems, leading to the implementation of inducible negative feedback in E. coli extracts and in the minimal PURE system, which consists of purified proteins necessary for transcription and translation. Our quantitative cell-free component characterizations and demonstration of negative feedback embody important steps on the path to harnessing biological function in a bottom up fashion.

  20. Cell-free Expression and In Meso Crystallisation of an Integral Membrane Kinase for Structure Determination

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Syed Tasadaque Ali; Haberstock, Stefan; Dötsch, Volker; Bernhard, Frank; Caffrey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Membrane proteins are key elements in cell physiology and drug targeting, but getting a high-resolution structure by crystallographic means is still enormously challenging. Novel strategies are in big demand to facilitate the structure determination process that will ultimately hasten the day when sequence information alone can provide a 3-dimensional model. Cell-free or in vitro expression enables rapid access to large quantities of high quality membrane proteins suitable for an array of applications. Despite its impressive efficiency, to date only two membrane proteins produced by the in vitro approach have yielded crystal structures. Here, we have analysed synergies of cell-free expression and crystallisation in lipidic mesophases for generating an X-ray structure of the integral membrane enzyme diacylglycerol kinase to 2.28 Å resolution. The quality of cellular and cell-free expressed kinase samples have been evaluated systematically by comparing i) spectroscopic properties, ii) purity and oligomer formation, iii) lipid content and iv) functionality. DgkA is the first membrane enzyme crystallised based on cell-free expression. The study provides a basic standard for the crystallisation of cell-free expressed membrane proteins and the methods detailed here should prove generally useful and contribute to accelerating the pace at which membrane protein structures are solved. PMID:25012698

  1. Cell free fetal DNA in the plasma of pregnant women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Seval, M M; Karabulut, H G; Tükün, A; Koç, A

    2015-01-01

    Insufficient cytotrophoblast invasion to the myometrium is associated with preeclampsia, especially with the early-onset preeclampsia (before 34 gestational weeks). Several investigations have marked changes in the concentration of cell free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation of women with preeclampsia. However, these studies were not performed for early or late preeclampsia subgroups individually. The present authors planned to determine the levels of the cell free both fetal and maternal DNA in the maternal circulation in early preeclampsia subgroup and compare it with normotensive control cohort. A total of 16 women; eight of these with preeclampsia and eight normotensive control cohorts with singleton male pregnancy between 28 and 32 gestational weeks were included in the study. Real-time PCR analysis was performed for determining the circulating cell free DNA levels. Cell free fetal DNA concentrations were higher in early preeclamptic women than control subjects. The authors found no statistically significant difference in each levels of maternal and total DNA between hypertensive and normotensive groups. The present findings suggest that the levels of cell free fetal DNA in maternal circulation were higher in pregnancies which are complicated with early preeclampsia than normotensive controls.

  2. Dynamic imaging of cell-free and cell-associated viral capture in mature dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Esteban, Olga; Rodriguez-Plata, Maria T; Erkizia, Itziar; Prado, Julia G; Blanco, Julià; García-Parajo, Maria F; Martinez-Picado, Javier

    2011-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) capture human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through a non-fusogenic mechanism that enables viral transmission to CD4(+) T cells, contributing to in vivo viral dissemination. Although previous studies have provided important clues to cell-free viral capture by mature DCs (mDCs), dynamic and kinetic insight on this process is still missing. Here, we used three-dimensional video microscopy and single-particle tracking approaches to dynamically dissect both cell-free and cell-associated viral capture by living mDCs. We show that cell-free virus capture by mDCs operates through three sequential phases: virus binding through specific determinants expressed in the viral particle, polarized or directional movements toward concrete regions of the cell membrane and virus accumulation in a sac-like structure where trapped viral particles display a hindered diffusive behavior. Moreover, real-time imaging of cell-associated viral transfer to mDCs showed a similar dynamics to that exhibited by cell-free virus endocytosis leading to viral accumulation in compartments. However, cell-associated HIV type 1 transfer to mDCs was the most effective pathway, boosted throughout enhanced cellular contacts with infected CD4(+) T cells. Our results suggest that in lymphoid tissues, mDC viral uptake could occur either by encountering cell-free or cell-associated virus produced by infected cells generating the perfect scenario to promote HIV pathogenesis and impact disease progression.

  3. Increased translocation of antigens to endosomes and TLR4 mediated endosomal recruitment of TAP contribute to nicotine augmented cross-presentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan Yan; Hu, Chun Fang; Li, Juan; You, Xiang; Gao, Feng Guang

    2016-06-21

    Cross-presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) requires surface molecules such as lectin, CD40, langerin, heat shock protein, mannose receptor, mediated endocytosis, the endosomal translocation of internalized antigen, and the relocation of transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). Although the activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAchR) up-regulate surface molecule expression, augment endocytosis, and enhance cross-presentation, the molecular mechanism of α7 nAchR activation-increased cross-presentation is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of mannose receptor in nicotine-increased cross-presentation and the mechanism that endotoxins orchestrating the recruitment of TAP toward endosomes. We demonstrated that nicotine increase the expressiones of mannose receptor and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) via PI3K-Akt-mTOR-p70S6 pathway. Both endosomal translocation of mannose receptor-internalized antigens and TLR4 sig- naling are necessary for nicotine-augmented cross-presentation and cross-priming. Importantly, the recruitment of TAP toward endosomes via TLR4-MyD88-IRAK4 signaling contributes to nicotine-increased cross-presentation and cross-activation of T cells. Thus, these data suggest that increased recruitment of TAP to Ag-containing vesicles contributes to the superior cross-presentation efficacy of α7 nAchR activated DCs.

  4. Flexible programming of cell-free protein synthesis using magnetic bead-immobilized plasmids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ka-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ho; Park, Ji-Woong; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2012-01-01

    The use of magnetic bead-immobilized DNA as movable template for cell-free protein synthesis has been investigated. Magnetic microbeads containing chemically conjugated plasmids were used to direct cell-free protein synthesis, so that protein generation could be readily programmed, reset and reprogrammed. Protein synthesis by using this approach could be ON/OFF-controlled through repeated addition and removal of the microbead-conjugated DNA and employed in sequential expression of different genes in a same reaction mixture. Since the incubation periods of individual template plasmids are freely controllable, relative expression levels of multiple proteins can be tuned to desired levels. We expect that the presented results will find wide application to the flexible design and execution of synthetic pathways in cell-free chassis.

  5. Cell-free expression of G-protein coupled receptors: new pipelines for challenging targets.

    PubMed

    Rues, Ralf-Bernhardt; Orbán, Erika; Dötsch, Volker; Bernhard, Frank

    2014-12-01

    Based on their eminent importance for medical applications, G-protein coupled receptors are currently amongst the most frequently membrane protein targets analyzed by cell-free expression. The cell-free expression approach removes most bottlenecks known from conventional cell-based protein production pipelines and ensures fast access to a selected receptor target. In addition, receptors can be synthesized in presence of a large variety of artificial solubilization environments comprising detergents, lipids, nanodiscs and other amphiphilic compounds. The currently accumulated data based on a variety of analyzed receptors already opens promising perspectives for applications of cell-free synthesized samples in functional characterization and drug screening. Structural evaluation still suffers from high conformational dynamics causing sample instability and might be addressed in future by molecular engineering or immuno-stabilization approaches.

  6. Origin of the transmitted virus in HIV infection: infected cells versus cell-free virus.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Manish

    2014-12-15

    All human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected inocula, such as genital secretions, breast milk, and blood, contain both cell-free virus and infected cells. The relative contributions of cell-free and/or cell-associated virus in establishing an infection in a naive host during the different modes of HIV-1 acquisition remains unclear. Studies aim to elucidate the source of the acquired virus because strategies to prevent acquisition may have differential efficacy against the different modes of transmission. In this review, I will detail some of the challenges in identifying the source of the transmitted virus, genotypic and phenotypic differences among cell-free compared with cell-associated HIV-1, and implications on the efficacy for prevention strategies.

  7. Wheat germ cell-free protein production system for post-genomic research.

    PubMed

    Madono, Masaki; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Morishita, Ryo; Endo, Yaeta

    2011-04-30

    Genomic information becomes useful knowledge only when the structures and functions of gene products are understood. In spite of a vast array of analytical tools developed for biological studies in recent years, producing proteins at will is still a bottleneck in post-genomic studies. The cell-free protein production system we developed using wheat embryos has enabled us to produce high quality proteins for genome-wide functional and structural analyses and at the same time circumvent almost all the limitations, such as biohazards and costs, that have hampered conventional cell-free protein synthesis systems. In the present article, we introduce examples of our new wheat germ cell-free protein production system and its application to functional and structural analyses, with the focus on the former.

  8. Ribosome-mediated synthesis of natural product-like peptides via cell-free translation.

    PubMed

    Maini, Rumit; Umemoto, Shiori; Suga, Hiroaki

    2016-10-01

    Peptide natural products (PNPs) represent a unique class of compounds known for their fascinating structural motifs with important biological activities. Lately, PNPs have garnered a lot of interest for their application in drug discovery. Nevertheless, lack of diversity oriented synthetic/biosynthetic platforms to generate large natural product-like libraries has limited their development as peptide therapeutics. The promiscuity of cell-free translation has allowed for the synthesis of artificial PNPs having complex structural features. Modified cell-free translation systems coupled with the display technologies have generated diverse natural product-like peptide libraries and led to the discovery of several biologically active molecules. Such technologies have drastically decreased the time to obtain peptide drug leads and therefore, revolutionized the field of peptide drug discovery. In this account, we review recent developments in the synthesis of natural product-like peptides via cell-free translation.

  9. [Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21, 18 and 13 using cell-free fetal DNA].

    PubMed

    Gorzelnik, Katarzyna; Bijok, Julia; Zimowski, Janusz G; Jakiel, Grzegorz; Roszkowski, Tomasz

    2013-08-01

    Trisomy 21, 18 and 13 are the most common trisomies diagnosed in newborns. Screening methods consist of ultrasound and maternal serum markers. High risk for fetal aneuploidies is an indication for routine karyotyping, which requires collection of fetal tissue through amniocentesis or chorionic villous sampling. They are invasive procedures and carry a potential risk of miscarriage. The discovery of cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal blood offered new opportunities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. The fraction of cell-free fetal DNA in total pool of cell-free DNA in maternal plasma is very low, therefore the analysis of cffDNA is very challenging. The introduction of massive parallel sequencing has enabled the application of noninvasive prenatal testing in the clinical practice and a variety of recent studies have proven its high efficacy in diagnosing common aneuploidies.

  10. Paradigm Shift from Stem Cells to Cell-Free Regenerative Endodontic Procedures: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Žižka, Radovan; Šedý, Jiří

    2017-02-01

    Regenerative endodontic procedures of immature teeth with necrotic pulp have become a part of therapeutic endodontic spectrum and are considered as an alternative to calcium hydroxide or mineral trioxide aggregate apexification. In last decade, numerous case reports and series with usage of cell-free approaches known as revascularization, revitalization, or maturogenesis have been published. This cell-free approach prevails in clinical regenerative endodontics because of its relative ease of performance, lower financial demands, and absence of complications such as tumorigenesis of used stem cells. In this article, the integral steps of cell-free treatment approaches such as source of stem cells, possible endogenous scaffolds, sources of growth factors, and width of apical foramen in the context of sufficient disinfection of root canal system and outcome of treatment are discussed. Despite not being a fully established treatment protocol, the achieved outcomes are promising regardless of it having a reparative character than a regenerative one.

  11. The role of ultrasound in women who undergo cell-free DNA screening.

    PubMed

    Norton, Mary E; Biggio, Joseph R; Kuller, Jeffrey A; Blackwell, Sean C

    2017-03-01

    The introduction of cell-free DNA screening for aneuploidy into obstetric practice in 2011 revolutionized the strategies utilized for prenatal testing. The purpose of this document is to review the current data on the role of ultrasound in women who have undergone or are considering cell-free DNA screening. The following are Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine recommendations: (1) in women who have already received a negative cell-free DNA screening screen, ultrasound at 11-14 weeks of gestation solely for the purpose of nuchal translucency measurement (Current Procedural Terminology code 76813) is not recommended (grade 1B); (2) we recommend that diagnostic testing should not be recommended to patients solely for the indication of an isolated soft marker in the setting of a negative cell-free DNA screen (grade 2B); (3) in women with an isolated soft marker without other clinical implications (ie, choroid plexus cyst or echogenic intracardiac focus) and a negative cell-free DNA screen, we recommend describing the finding as not clinically significant or as a normal variant (grade 2B); (4) in women with an isolated soft marker that has no other clinical implication (ie, choroid plexus cyst or echogenic intracardiac focus) and a negative first- or second-trimester screening result, we recommend describing the finding as not clinically significant or as a normal variant (grade 2B); (5) we recommend that all women in whom a structural abnormality is identified by ultrasound should be offered diagnostic testing with chromosomal microarray (grade 1A); and (6) we recommend against routine screening for microdeletions with cell-free DNA screening (grade 1B). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation and its future uses in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R Douglas

    2005-01-01

    To provide an introduction to new technologies involving maternal plasma cell-free fetal DNA for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis and screening in obstetrics. Limited to introductory discussion of maternal plasma cell-free fetal DNA. MEDLINE was searched to identify publications related to the topic after 1996. This document represents an abstraction of the information. This update is a consensus of the Genetics Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC). This update educates about new technology and its future use in obstetrics. At present, there is no harm or cost (research with limited clinical application) identified. 1. Significant and measurable amounts of cell-free fetal DNA are present in the maternal circulation and increase throughout pregnancy. 2. Different fetal (trisomy 21, trisomy 13) and placental abnormalities can affect the levels of cell-free fetal DNA within the maternal plasma. 3. Diagnostic and screening techniques may be able to utilize this cell-free fetal DNA in the future to provide non-invasive screening and diagnosis opportunities. This DNA technique is already well established for fetal sexing in pregnancies at risk of an X-linked disorder and fetal rhesus-D evaluation. Other conditions with well-identified unique paternal mutations can also reliably apply this cell-free fetal DNA technology for prenatal diagnosis. 4. The overall use of this molecular technology is still limited and requires the identification of sex-independent DNA markers so that female fetal DNA can be distinguished from maternal DNA, allowing its use in the screening or diagnosis of fetal and placental disease in pregnancies of either fetal sex.

  13. Cell-free DNA for diagnosing myocardial infarction: not ready for prime time.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2015-11-01

    A modest amount of cell-free DNA is constantly present in human blood, originating from programmed cell death, apoptosis and rupture of blood cells or pathogens. Acute or chronic cell injury contributes to enhance the pool of circulating nucleic acids, so that their assessment may be regarded as an appealing perspective for diagnosing myocardial ischemia. We performed a search in Medline, Web of Science and Scopus to identify clinical studies that investigated the concentration of cell-free DNA in patients with myocardial ischemia. Overall, eight case-control studies could be detected and reviewed. Although the concentration of cell-free DNA was found to be higher in the diseased than in the healthy population, the scenario was inconclusive due to the fact that the overall number of subjects studied was modest, the populations were unclearly defined, cases and controls were not adequately matched, the methodology for measuring the reference cardiac biomarkers was inadequately described, and the diagnostic performance of cell-free DNA was not benchmarked against highly sensitive troponin immunoassays. Several biological and technical hurdles were also identified in cell-free DNA testing, including the lack of specificity and unsuitable kinetics for early diagnosis of myocardial ischemia, the long turnaround time and low throughput, the need for specialized instrumentation and dedicated personnel, the lack of standardization or harmonization of analytical techniques, the incremental costs and the high vulnerability to preanalytical variables. Hence it seems reasonable to conclude that the analysis of cell-free DNA is not ready for prime time in diagnostics of myocardial ischemia.

  14. Value of urinary topoisomerase-IIA cell-free DNA for diagnosis of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye-Hwan; Yan, Chunri; Lee, Il-Seok; Piao, Xuan-Mei; Byun, Young Joon; Jeong, Pildu; Kim, Won Tae; Yun, Seok-Joong; Kim, Wun-Jae

    2016-03-01

    Topoisomerase-II alpha (TopoIIA ), a DNA gyrase isoform that plays an important role in the cell cycle, is present in normal tissues and various human cancers, and can show altered expression in both. The aim of the current study was to examine the value of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA as a noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer (BC). Two patient cohorts were examined. Cohort 1 (73 BC patients and seven controls) provided bladder tissue samples, whereas cohort 2 (83 BC patients, 54 nonmalignant hematuric patients, and 61 normal controls) provided urine samples. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression of TopoIIA mRNA in tissues and TopoIIA cell-free DNA in urine samples. The results showed that expression of TopoIIA mRNA in BC tissues was significantly higher than that in noncancer control tissues (p<0.001). The expression of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA in BC patients was also significantly higher than that in noncancer patient controls and hematuria patients (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). High expression of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA was also detected in muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) when compared with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) (p=0.002). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity/specificity of urinary TopoIIA cell-free DNA for diagnosing BC, NMIBC, and MIBC. The areas under the ROC curve for BC, NMIBC, and MIBC were 0.741, 0.701, and 0.838, respectively. In summary, the results of this study provide evidence that cell-free TopoIIA DNA may be a potential biomarker for BC.

  15. Association between Cell-free Hemoglobin, Acetaminophen, and Mortality in Patients with Sepsis: an Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Janz, David R; Bastarache, Julie A; Peterson, Josh F; Sills, Gillian; Wickersham, Nancy; May, Addison K; Roberts, L Jackson; Ware, Lorraine B

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of circulating cell-free hemoglobin with poor clinical outcomes in patients with sepsis and to characterize the potential protective effects of acetaminophen, an inhibitor of hemoprotein-mediated oxidation. Design Retrospective observational study. Patients A total of 391 critically ill patients with sepsis in multiple intensive care units in an academic tertiary care hospital. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Nonsurvivors had significantly higher plasma cell-free hemoglobin concentrations (median 20 mg/dl, IQR 10–40) measured on enrollment compared to survivors (10 mg/dl, IQR 10–30, p = 0.002). After controlling for potential confounders, patients with higher cell-free hemoglobin concentrations were significantly more likely to die in the hospital (OR 1.078, 95% CI 1.012–1.149, p = 0.02). In addition, receiving acetaminophen in the setting of increased cell-free hemoglobin was independently associated with a protective effect against death (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.25–0.91, p = 0.026) and lower plasma concentrations of the lipid peroxidation product F2-isoprostanes (18.5 pg/ml IQR 9–22.2) compared to no acetaminophen (42 pg/ml, IQR 29.7–86, p = 0.009). Conclusions In critically ill patients with sepsis, elevated concentrations of circulating cell-free hemoglobin are independently associated with an increased risk of death. Acetaminophen may exert a protective effect by reducing cell-free hemoglobin-induced induced oxidative injury. PMID:23314583

  16. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  17. Rab family proteins regulate the endosomal trafficking and function of RGS4.

    PubMed

    Bastin, Guillaume; Heximer, Scott P

    2013-07-26

    RGS4, a heterotrimeric G-protein inhibitor, localizes to plasma membrane (PM) and endosomal compartments. Here, we examined Rab-mediated control of RGS4 internalization and recycling. Wild type and constitutively active Rab5 decreased RGS4 PM levels while increasing its endosomal targeting. Rab5, however, did not appreciably affect the PM localization or function of the M1 muscarinic receptor (M1R)/Gq signaling cascade. RGS4-containing endosomes co-localized with subsets of Rab5-, transferrin receptor-, and Lamp1/Lysotracker-marked compartments suggesting RGS4 traffics through PM recycling or acidified endosome pathways. Rab7 activity promoted TGN association, whereas Rab7(dominant negative) trapped RGS4 in late endosomes. Furthermore, RGS4 was found to co-localize with an endosomal pool marked by Rab11, the protein that mediates recycling/sorting of proteins to the PM. The Cys-12 residue in RGS4 appeared important for its Rab11-mediated trafficking to the PM. Rab11(dominant negative) decreased RGS4 PM levels and increased the number of RGS4-containing endosomes. Inhibition of Rab11 activity decreased RGS4 function as an inhibitor of M1R activity without affecting localization and function of the M1R/Gq signaling complex. Thus, both Rab5 activation and Rab11 inhibition decreased RGS4 function in a manner that is independent from their effects on the localization and function of the M1R/Gq signaling complex. This is the first study to implicate Rab GTPases in the intracellular trafficking of an RGS protein. Thus, Rab GTPases may be novel molecular targets for the selective regulation of M1R-mediated signaling via their specific effects on RGS4 trafficking and function.

  18. Bioreducible polymers with cell penetrating and endosome buffering functionality for gene delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-il; Rothmund, Thomas; Kissel, Thomas; Kim, Sung Wan

    2011-05-30

    Bioreducible cationic polymers (p(DAH(a)-R/API(b))s) composed of different ratios (a:b=2:1, 1:1, 1:2) between arginine-grafted diaminohexane (DAH-R) (cell penetrating functionality) and 1-(3-aminopropyl) imidazole (API) (endosome buffering functionality) monomers were synthesized by Michael reaction of N,N'-cystaminebisacrylamide (CBA) with them, in order to study the effect of endosome buffering moiety on arginine-grafted bioreducible polymeric gene carriers. Several experiments displayed a distinct correlation between monomer composition ratios of p(DAH-R/API)s and the polymer features. Increased endosome buffering capacities proportional to API portions was evaluated for p(DAH-R/API)s due to the imidazole group (pKa=6) of API. Increased portions of API non-ionized at physiological pH and resultant decrease of arginine residues also reduced cytotoxicities of the polymers due to less interaction of cellular compartments with less positively charged polymers but decreased pDNA condensing abilities, Zeta-potential values, cellular uptakes of polyplexes, and finally transfection efficiencies as well. Thus, the predominance of arginine residues over endosome buffering moieties was revealed regarding efficient gene delivery for p(DAH-R/API)s. From transfection results with chloroquine or nigericin, it can be deduced that the endosomal escape of p(DAH-R/API) polyplexes occurs by direct endosome membrane penetration of arginine moieties as well as endosome buffering of the polymers after cellular uptake, which emphasizes the importance of arginine moieties for polymeric gene delivery systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rab Family Proteins Regulate the Endosomal Trafficking and Function of RGS4*

    PubMed Central

    Bastin, Guillaume; Heximer, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    RGS4, a heterotrimeric G-protein inhibitor, localizes to plasma membrane (PM) and endosomal compartments. Here, we examined Rab-mediated control of RGS4 internalization and recycling. Wild type and constitutively active Rab5 decreased RGS4 PM levels while increasing its endosomal targeting. Rab5, however, did not appreciably affect the PM localization or function of the M1 muscarinic receptor (M1R)/Gq signaling cascade. RGS4-containing endosomes co-localized with subsets of Rab5-, transferrin receptor-, and Lamp1/Lysotracker-marked compartments suggesting RGS4 traffics through PM recycling or acidified endosome pathways. Rab7 activity promoted TGN association, whereas Rab7(dominant negative) trapped RGS4 in late endosomes. Furthermore, RGS4 was found to co-localize with an endosomal pool marked by Rab11, the protein that mediates recycling/sorting of proteins to the PM. The Cys-12 residue in RGS4 appeared important for its Rab11-mediated trafficking to the PM. Rab11(dominant negative) decreased RGS4 PM levels and increased the number of RGS4-containing endosomes. Inhibition of Rab11 activity decreased RGS4 function as an inhibitor of M1R activity without affecting localization and function of the M1R/Gq signaling complex. Thus, both Rab5 activation and Rab11 inhibition decreased RGS4 function in a manner that is independent from their effects on the localization and function of the M1R/Gq signaling complex. This is the first study to implicate Rab GTPases in the intracellular trafficking of an RGS protein. Thus, Rab GTPases may be novel molecular targets for the selective regulation of M1R-mediated signaling via their specific effects on RGS4 trafficking and function. PMID:23733193

  20. Production of membrane proteins through the wheat-germ cell-free technology.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Akira; Nanamiya, Hideaki; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2010-01-01

    Membrane proteins play crucial roles in various processes. However, biochemical characterization of the membrane proteins remains challenging due to the difficulty in producing membrane proteins in a functional state. Here, we describe a novel method for the production of functional membrane proteins based on a wheat germ cell-free translation system. Using this method, functional membrane proteins are successfully synthesized in the presence of liposomes and a detergent. In addition, the synthesized membrane proteins are easily purified from the cell-free translation mixture as proteoliposomes by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. These advantages over conventional approaches are very helpful for the clarification of the function of membrane proteins.

  1. Cell-free system responsible for internal radiolabeling of glycopeptidolipids of the Mycobacterium avium complex.

    PubMed Central

    Ramasesh, N; Wright, E L; Barrow, W W

    1992-01-01

    Internal radiolabeling of serotype-specific glycopeptidolipids with [14C]mannose was accomplished with a cell-free system derived from serotype 20 of the Mycobacterium avium complex. Similar radiolabeling was not apparent with a cell-free system derived from the rough colony variant, previously shown to be devoid of glycopeptidolipids. Although a comparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein analysis of the parent and rough variant strains revealed a close similarity, there were some proteins unique to the parent strain. Images PMID:1729193

  2. SMFM Statement: clarification of recommendations regarding cell-free DNA aneuploidy screening.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this statement is to clarify that the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) does not recommend that cell-free DNA aneuploidy screening be offered to all pregnant women, nor does it suggest a requirement for insurance coverage for cell-free DNA screening in women at low risk of aneuploidy. However, SMFM believes, due to the ethics of patient autonomy, that the option should be available to women who request additional testing beyond what is currently recommended by professional societies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro translation in a hybrid cell free lysate with exogenous cellular ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Panthu, Baptiste; Décimo, Didier; Balvay, Laurent; Ohlmann, Théophile

    2015-05-01

    Cell free protein synthesis systems (CFPS) have been widely used to express proteins and to explore the pathways of gene expression. In the present manuscript, we describe the design of a novel adaptable hybrid in vitro translation system which is assembled with ribosomes isolated from many different origins. We first show that this hybrid system exhibits all important features such as efficiency, sensitivity, reproducibility and the ability to translate specialized mRNAs in less than 1 h. In addition, the unique design of this cell free assay makes it highly adaptable to utilize ribosomes isolated from many different organs, tissues or cell types.

  4. The Roles of Histidines and Charged Residues as Potential Triggers of a Conformational Change in the Fusion Loop of Ebola Virus Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwoo; Gregory, Sonia M; Nelson, Elizabeth A; White, Judith M; Tamm, Lukas K

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) enters cells from late endosomes/lysosomes under mildly acidic conditions. Entry by fusion with the endosomal membrane requires the fusion loop (FL, residues 507-560) of the EBOV surface glycoprotein to undergo a pH-dependent conformational change. To find the pH trigger for this reaction we mutated multiple conserved histidines and charged and uncharged hydrophilic residues in the FL and measured their activity by liposome fusion and cell entry of virus-like particles. The FL location in the membrane was assessed by NMR using soluble and lipid-bound paramagnetic relaxation agents. While we could not identify a single residue to be alone responsible for pH triggering, we propose that a distributed pH effect over multiple residues induces the conformational change that enhances membrane insertion and triggers the fusion activity of the EBOV FL.

  5. The Roles of Histidines and Charged Residues as Potential Triggers of a Conformational Change in the Fusion Loop of Ebola Virus Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinwoo; Gregory, Sonia M.; Nelson, Elizabeth A.; White, Judith M.; Tamm, Lukas K.

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) enters cells from late endosomes/lysosomes under mildly acidic conditions. Entry by fusion with the endosomal membrane requires the fusion loop (FL, residues 507–560) of the EBOV surface glycoprotein to undergo a pH-dependent conformational change. To find the pH trigger for this reaction we mutated multiple conserved histidines and charged and uncharged hydrophilic residues in the FL and measured their activity by liposome fusion and cell entry of virus-like particles. The FL location in the membrane was assessed by NMR using soluble and lipid-bound paramagnetic relaxation agents. While we could not identify a single residue to be alone responsible for pH triggering, we propose that a distributed pH effect over multiple residues induces the conformational change that enhances membrane insertion and triggers the fusion activity of the EBOV FL. PMID:27023721

  6. Microtubule-dependent balanced cell contraction and luminal-matrix modification accelerate epithelial tube fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kagayaki; Dong, Bo; Wada, Housei; Tanaka-Matakatsu, Miho; Yagi, Yoshimasa; Hayashi, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Connection of tubules into larger networks is the key process for the development of circulatory systems. In Drosophila development, tip cells of the tracheal system lead the migration of each branch and connect tubules by adhering to each other and simultaneously changing into a torus-shape. We show that as adhesion sites form between fusion cells, myosin and microtubules form polarized bundles that connect the new adhesion site to the cells' microtubule-organizing centres, and that E-cadherin and retrograde recycling endosomes are preferentially deposited at the new adhesion site. We demonstrate that microtubules help balancing tip cell contraction, which is driven by myosin, and is required for adhesion and tube fusion. We also show that retrograde recycling and directed secretion of a specific matrix protein into the fusion-cell interface promote fusion. We propose that microtubule bundles connecting these cell–cell interfaces coordinate cell contractility and apical secretion to facilitate tube fusion. PMID:27067650

  7. Crystal Structure of Glycoprotein C from a Hantavirus in the Post-fusion Conformation.

    PubMed

    Willensky, Shmuel; Bar-Rogovsky, Hagit; Bignon, Eduardo A; Tischler, Nicole D; Modis, Yorgo; Dessau, Moshe

    2016-10-01

    Hantaviruses are important emerging human pathogens and are the causative agents of serious diseases in humans with high mortality rates. Like other members in the Bunyaviridae family their M segment encodes two glycoproteins, GN and GC, which are responsible for the early events of infection. Hantaviruses deliver their tripartite genome into the cytoplasm by fusion of the viral and endosomal membranes in response to the reduced pH of the endosome. Unlike phleboviruses (e.g. Rift valley fever virus), that have an icosahedral glycoprotein envelope, hantaviruses display a pleomorphic virion morphology as GN and GC assemble into spikes with apparent four-fold symmetry organized in a grid-like pattern on the viral membrane. Here we present the crystal structure of glycoprotein C (GC) from Puumala virus (PUUV), a representative member of the Hantavirus genus. The crystal structure shows GC as the membrane fusion effector of PUUV and it presents a class II membrane fusion protein fold. Furthermore, GC was crystallized in its post-fusion trimeric conformation that until now had been observed only in Flavi- and Togaviridae family members. The PUUV GC structure together with our functional data provides intriguing evolutionary and mechanistic insights into class II membrane fusion proteins and reveals new targets for membrane fusion inhibitors against these important pathogens.

  8. Crystal Structure of Glycoprotein C from a Hantavirus in the Post-fusion Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Willensky, Shmuel; Bignon, Eduardo A.; Tischler, Nicole D.; Dessau, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses are important emerging human pathogens and are the causative agents of serious diseases in humans with high mortality rates. Like other members in the Bunyaviridae family their M segment encodes two glycoproteins, GN and GC, which are responsible for the early events of infection. Hantaviruses deliver their tripartite genome into the cytoplasm by fusion of the viral and endosomal membranes in response to the reduced pH of the endosome. Unlike phleboviruses (e.g. Rift valley fever virus), that have an icosahedral glycoprotein envelope, hantaviruses display a pleomorphic virion morphology as GN and GC assemble into spikes with apparent four-fold symmetry organized in a grid-like pattern on the viral membrane. Here we present the crystal structure of glycoprotein C (GC) from Puumala virus (PUUV), a representative member of the Hantavirus genus. The crystal structure shows GC as the membrane fusion effector of PUUV and it presents a class II membrane fusion protein fold. Furthermore, GC was crystallized in its post-fusion trimeric conformation that until now had been observed only in Flavi- and Togaviridae family members. The PUUV GC structure together with our functional data provides intriguing evolutionary and mechanistic insights into class II membrane fusion proteins and reveals new targets for membrane fusion inhibitors against these important pathogens. PMID:27783673

  9. Cell-free DNA screening in clinical practice: abnormal autosomal aneuploidy and microdeletion results.

    PubMed

    Valderramos, Stephanie G; Rao, Rashmi R; Scibetta, Emily W; Silverman, Neil S; Han, Christina S; Platt, Lawrence D

    2016-11-01

    Since its commercial release in 2011 cell-free DNA screening has been rapidly adopted as a routine prenatal genetic test. However, little is known about its performance in actual clinical practice. We sought to investigate factors associated with the accuracy of abnormal autosomal cell-free DNA results. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 121 patients with abnormal cell-free DNA results from a referral maternal-fetal medicine practice from March 2013 through July 2015. Patients were included if cell-free DNA results for trisomy 21, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, or microdeletions (if reported by the laboratory) were positive or nonreportable. The primary outcome was confirmed aneuploidy or microarray abnormality on either prenatal or postnatal karyotype or microarray. Secondary outcomes were identifiable associations with in vitro fertilization, twins, ultrasound findings, testing platform, and testing laboratory. Kruskal-Wallis or Fisher exact tests were used as appropriate. A total of 121 patients had abnormal cell-free DNA results for trisomy 21, trisomy 18, trisomy 13, and/or microdeletions. In all, 105 patients had abnormal cell-free DNA results for trisomy 21, trisomy 18, and trisomy 13. Of these, 92 (87.6%) were positive and 13 (12.4%) were nonreportable. The results of the 92 positive cell-free DNA were for trisomy 21 (48, 52.2%), trisomy 18 (22, 23.9%), trisomy 13 (17, 18.5%), triploidy (2, 2.2%), and positive for >1 parameter (3, 3.3%). Overall, the positive predictive value of cell-free DNA was 73.5% (61/83; 95% confidence interval, 63-82%) for all trisomies (by chromosome: trisomy 21, 83.0% [39/47; 95% confidence interval, 69-92%], trisomy 18, 65.0% [13/20; 95% confidence interval, 41-84%], and trisomy 13, 43.8% [7/16; 95% confidence interval, 21-70%]). Abnormal cell-free DNA results were associated with positive serum screening (by group: trisomy 21 [17/48, 70.8%]; trisomy 18 [7/22, 77.8%]; trisomy 13 [3/17, 37.5%]; nonreportable [2/13, 16.7%]; P

  10. Yeast Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-Ribosylation Factor-binding Proteins Are but Adaptor Protein-1 Is Not Required for Cell-free Transport of Membrane Proteins from the Trans-Golgi Network to the Prevacuolar Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Abazeed, Mohamed E.

    2008-01-01

    Golgi-localized, γ-Ear–containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins (GGAs) and adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) mediate clathrin-dependent trafficking of transmembrane proteins between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. In yeast, the vacuolar sorting receptor Vps10p follows a direct pathway from the TGN to the late endosome/prevacuolar compartment (PVC), whereas, the processing protease Kex2p partitions between the direct pathway and an indirect pathway through the early endosome. To examine the roles of the Ggas and AP-1 in TGN–PVC transport, we used a cell-free assay that measures delivery to the PVC of either Kex2p or a chimeric protein (K-V), in which the Vps10p cytosolic tail replaces the Kex2p tail. Either antibody inhibition or dominant-negative Gga2p completely blocked K-V transport but only partially blocked Kex2p transport. Deletion of APL2, encoding the β subunit of AP-1, did not affect K-V transport but partially blocked Kex2p transport. Residual Kex2p transport seen with apl2Δ membranes was insensitive to dominant-negative Gga2p, suggesting that the apl2Δ mutation causes Kex2p to localize to a compartment that precludes Gga-dependent trafficking. These results suggest that yeast Ggas facilitate the specific and direct delivery of Vps10p and Kex2p from the TGN to the PVC and that AP-1 modulates Kex2p trafficking through a distinct pathway, presumably involving the early endosome. PMID:18784256

  11. Deconstruction of biophysical function in the HIV fusion peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bong, Dennis

    2011-03-01

    We have synthesized a library of variants of the 23-residue fusion peptide domain found at the N -terminus of gp-41 glycoprotein of HIV. This sequence is critical for viral infectivity and is thought to be central in the membrane fusion of viral envelope with the host endosomal membrane. There has been extensive discussion in the literature regarding the mechanism by which this viral fusion sequence initiates membrane fusion, with importance placed on glycine-content, particular oligomeric states and secondary structure; both helical and sheet structures have been proposed to be the active fusogenic structure. Our library was designed to address the biophysical importance of secondary structure, peptide flexibility, glycine content and location as well as the nature of the membrane anchor. Each member of this library also bears a positively charged hexapeptide at the C -terminus for solubility and to facilitate binding to negatively charged membranes. We assayed each peptide for its ability to induce lipid-mixing and lysis in both large and giant unilamellar vesicles, and searched for correlations between aggregated peptides and heightened activity. We find that the information encoded in the viral fusion peptide required for may be greatly simplified: glycine is not required for fusion, aggregation is not correlated with activity, and any peptide within a window of hydrophobicity can be an effective fusion catalyst. Given the wide range of sequences which may be effective in catalyzing vesicle membrane fusion, it appears highly unlikely that a particular stably folded secondary structure is important for fusion. Rather, our data show that many flexible, linear, minimally hydrophobic peptides may achieve the biophysical function of fusion. This research was supported in part by an NSF-CAREER award to D.B.

  12. TLR Signals Induce Phagosomal MHC-I Delivery from the Endosomal Recycling Compartment to Allow Cross-Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Nair-Gupta, Priyanka; Baccarini, Alessia; Tung, Navpreet; Seyffer, Fabian; Florey, Oliver; Huang, Yunjie; Huang, Meenakshi; Overholtzer, Michael; Roche, Paul A.; Tampé, Robert; Brown, Brian D.; Amsen, Derk; Whiteheart, Sidney W.; Blander, J. Magarian

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Adaptation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathway for MHC class I (MHC-I) presentation in dendritic cells enables cross-presentation of peptides derived from phagocytosed microbes, infected cells, or tumor cells to CD8 T cells. How these peptides intersect with MHC-I molecules remains poorly understood. Here, we show that MHC-I selectively accumulate within phagosomes carrying microbial components, which engage Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Although cross-presentation requires Sec22b-mediated phagosomal recruitment of the peptide loading complex from the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), this step is independent of TLR signaling and does not deliver MHC-I. Instead, MHC-I are recruited from an endosomal recycling compartment (ERC), which is marked by Rab11a, VAMP3/cellubrevin, and VAMP8/endobrevin and holds large reserves of MHC-I. While Rab11a activity stocks ERC stores with MHC-I, MyD88-dependent TLR signals drive IκB-kinase (IKK)2-mediated phosphorylation of phagosome-associated SNAP23. Phospho-SNAP23 stabilizes SNARE complexes orchestrating ERC-phagosome fusion, enrichment of phagosomes with ERC-derived MHC-I, and subsequent cross-presentation during infection. PMID:25083866

  13. The phospholipid flippase ATP9A is required for the recycling pathway from the endosomes to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshiki; Ono, Natsuki; Shima, Takahiro; Tanaka, Gaku; Katoh, Yohei; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Takatsu, Hiroyuki; Shin, Hye-Won

    2016-01-01

    Type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) are phospholipid flippases that translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic (or luminal) to the cytoplasmic leaflet of lipid bilayers. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, P4-ATPases are localized to specific subcellular compartments and play roles in compartment-mediated membrane trafficking; however, roles of mammalian P4-ATPases in membrane trafficking are poorly understood. We previously reported that ATP9A, one of 14 human P4-ATPases, is localized to endosomal compartments and the Golgi complex. In this study, we found that ATP9A is localized to phosphatidylserine (PS)-positive early and recycling endosomes, but not late endosomes, in HeLa cells. Depletion of ATP9A delayed the recycling of transferrin from endosomes to the plasma membrane, although it did not affect the morphology of endosomal structures. Moreover, depletion of ATP9A caused accumulation of glucose transporter 1 in endosomes, probably by inhibiting their recycling. By contrast, depletion of ATP9A affected neither the early/late endosomal transport and degradation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) nor the transport of Shiga toxin B fragment from early/recycling endosomes to the Golgi complex. Therefore ATP9A plays a crucial role in recycling from endosomes to the plasma membrane. PMID:27733620

  14. Syndapin/SDPN-1 is required for endocytic recycling and endosomal actin association in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestine

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Adenrele M.; Nguyen, Ken C. Q.; Hall, David H.; Grant, Barth D.

    2016-01-01

    Syndapin/pascin-family F-BAR domain proteins bind directly to membrane lipids and are associated with actin dynamics at the plasma membrane. Previous reports also implicated mammalian syndapin 2 in endosome function during receptor recycling, but precise analysis of a putative recycling function for syndapin in mammalian systems is difficult because of its effects on the earlier step of endocytic uptake and potential redundancy among the three separate genes that encode mammalian syndapin isoforms. Here we analyze the endocytic transport function of the only Caenorhabditis elegans syndapin, SDPN-1. We find that SDPN-1 is a resident protein of the early and basolateral recycling endosomes in the C. elegans intestinal epithelium, and sdpn-1 deletion mutants display phenotypes indicating a block in basolateral recycling transport. sdpn-1 mutants accumulate abnormal endosomes positive for early endosome and recycling endosome markers that are normally separate, and such endosomes accumulate high levels of basolateral recycling cargo. Furthermore, we observed strong colocalization of endosomal SDPN-1 with the F-actin biosensor Lifeact and found that loss of SDPN-1 greatly reduced Lifeact accumulation on early endosomes. Taken together, our results provide strong evidence for an in vivo function of syndapin in endocytic recycling and suggest that syndapin promotes transport via endosomal fission. PMID:27630264

  15. Syndapin/SDPN-1 is required for endocytic recycling and endosomal actin association in the C. elegans intestine.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Adenrele M; Nguyen, Ken C Q; Hall, David H; Grant, Barth D

    2016-09-14

    Syndapin/Pascin family F-BAR domain proteins bind directly to membrane lipids and are associated with actin dynamics at the plasma membrane. Previous reports have also implicated mammalian syndapin 2 in endosome function during receptor recycling, but precise analysis of a putative recycling function for syndapin in mammalian systems is difficult because of syndapin effects on the earlier step of endocytic uptake, and potential redundancy among the three separate genes that encode mammalian syndapin isoforms. Here we analyze the endocytic transport function of the only C. elegans syndapin, SDPN-1. We find that SDPN-1 is a resident protein of the early and basolateral recycling endosomes in the C. elegans intestinal epithelium, and sdpn-1 deletion mutants display phenotypes indicating a block in basolateral recycling transport. sdpn-1 mutants accumulate abnormal endosomes positive for early endosome and recycling endosome markers that are normally separate, and such endosomes accumulate high levels of basolateral recycling cargo. Furthermore, we observed strong colocalization of endosomal SDPN-1 with the F-actin biosensor Lifeact, and found that loss of SDPN-1 greatly reduced Lifeact accumulation on early endosomes. Taken together our results provide strong evidence for an in vivo function of syndapin in endocytic recycling, and suggest that syndapin promotes transport via endosomal fission. © 2016 by The American Society for Cell Biology.

  16. RACK-1 Directs Dynactin-dependent RAB-11 Endosomal Recycling during Mitosis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Erkang; Poole, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    Membrane trafficking pathways are necessary for the addition and removal of membrane during cytokinesis. In animal cells, recycling endosomes act as a major source of the additional membranes during furrow progression and abscission. However, the mechanisms and factors that regulate recycling endosomes during the cell cycle remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans Receptor of Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK-1) is required for cytokinesis, germline membrane organization, and the recruitment of RAB-11–labeled recycling endosomes to the pericentrosomal region and spindle. RACK-1 is also required for proper chromosome separation and astral microtubule length. RACK-1 localizes to the centrosomes, kinetochores, the midbody, and nuclear envelopes during the cell cycle. We found that RACK-1 directly binds to DNC-2, the C. elegans p50/dynamitin subunit of the dynactin complex. Last, RACK-1 may facilitate the sequestration of recycling endosomes by targeting DNC-2 to centrosomes and the spindle. Our findings suggest a mechanism by which RACK-1 directs the dynactin-dependent redistribution of recycling endosomes during the cell cycle, thus ensuring proper membrane trafficking events during cytokinesis. PMID:19158384

  17. Cargo-dependent degradation of ESCRT-I as a feedback mechanism to modulate endosomal sorting.

    PubMed

    Malerød, Lene; Pedersen, Nina Marie; Sem Wegner, Catherine Elisabeth; Lobert, Viola Hélène; Leithe, Edward; Brech, Andreas; Rivedal, Edgar; Liestøl, Knut; Stenmark, Harald

    2011-09-01

    Ligand-mediated lysosomal degradation of growth factor receptors, mediated by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, is a mechanism that attenuates the cellular response to growth factors. In this article, we present a novel regulatory mechanism that involves ligand-mediated degradation of a key component of the sorting machinery itself. We have investigated the endosomal localization of subunits of the four ESCRTs-Hrs (ESCRT-0), Tsg101 (ESCRT-I), EAP30/Vps22 (ESCRT-II) and charged multivesicular body protein 3/Vps24 (ESCRT-III). All the components were detected on the limiting membrane of multivesicular endosomes (MVEs). Surprisingly, however, Tsg101 and other ESCRT-I subunits were also detected within intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of MVEs. Tsg101 was sequestered along with cargo during endosomal sorting into ILVs and further degraded in lysosomes. Importantly, ESCRT-mediated downregulation of two distinct cargoes, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and connexin43, mutually made cells refractory to degradation of the other cargo. Our observations indicate that the degradation of a key ESCRT component along with cargo represents a novel feedback control of endosomal sorting by preventing collateral degradation of cell surface receptors following stimulation of one specific pathway.

  18. The Myopic-Ubpy-Hrs nexus enables endosomal recycling of Frizzled

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan-Sundd, Tirthadipa; Verheyen, Esther M.

    2015-01-01

    Endosomal trafficking of signaling proteins plays an essential role in cellular homeostasis. The seven-pass transmembrane protein Frizzled (Fz) is a critical component of Wnt signaling. Although Wnt signaling is proposed to be regulated by endosomal trafficking of Fz, the molecular events that enable this regulation are not completely understood. Here we show that the endosomal protein Myopic (Mop) regulates Fz trafficking in the Drosophila wing disk by inhibiting the ubiquitination and degradation of Hrs. Deletion of Mop or Hrs results in endosomal accumulation of Fz and therefore reduced Wnt signaling. The in situ proximity ligation assay revealed a strong association between Mop and Hrs in the Drosophila wing disk. Overexpression of Hrs rescues the trafficking defect caused by mop knockdown. Mop aids in the maintenance of Ubpy, which deubiquitinates (and thus stabilizes) Hrs. In the absence of the ubiquitin ligase Cbl, Mop is dispensable. These findings support a previously unknown role for Mop in endosomal trafficking of Fz in Wnt-receiving cells. PMID:26224310

  19. RAB-10 Promotes EHBP-1 Bridging of Filamentous Actin and Tubular Recycling Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Liu, Ou; Zhang, Jing; Gleason, Adenrele; Yang, Zhenrong; Wang, Hui; Shi, Anbing; Grant, Barth D.

    2016-01-01

    EHBP-1 (Ehbp1) is a conserved regulator of endocytic recycling, acting as an effector of small GTPases including RAB-10 (Rab10). Here we present evidence that EHBP-1 associates with tubular endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] enriched membranes through an N-terminal C2-like (NT-C2) domain, and define residues within the NT-C2 domain that mediate membrane interaction. Furthermore, our results indicate that the EHBP-1 central calponin homology (CH) domain binds to actin microfilaments in a reaction that is stimulated by RAB-10(GTP). Loss of any aspect of this RAB-10/EHBP-1 system in the C. elegans intestinal epithelium leads to retention of basolateral recycling cargo in endosomes that have lost their normal tubular endosomal network (TEN) organization. We propose a mechanism whereby RAB-10 promotes the ability of endosome-bound EHBP-1 to also bind to the actin cytoskeleton, thereby promoting endosomal tubulation. PMID:27272733

  20. Retrogradely trafficked TrkA endosomes signal locally within dendrites to maintain sympathetic neuron synapses

    PubMed Central

    Lehigh, Kathryn M.; West, Katherine M.; Ginty, David D.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Sympathetic neurons require NGF from their target fields for survival, axonal target innervation, dendritic growth and formation, and maintenance of synaptic inputs from preganglionic neurons. Target-derived NGF signals are propagated retrogradely, from distal axons to somata of sympathetic neurons via TrkA signaling endosomes. We report that a subset of TrkA endosomes that are transported from distal axons to cell bodies also translocate into dendrites, where they are signaling-competent and move bidirectionally, in close proximity to synaptic protein clusters. Using a strategy for spatially-confined inhibition of TrkA kinase activity, we found that distal axon-derived TrkA signaling endosomes are necessary specifically within sympathetic neuron dendrites for maintenance of synapses. Thus, TrkA signaling endosomes have unique functions in different cellular compartments. Moreover, target-derived NGF mediates circuit formation and synapse maintenance through TrkA endosome signaling within dendrites to promote aggregation of postsynaptic protein complexes. PMID:28380365

  1. Neuropilin-2 Regulates Endosome Maturation and EGFR trafficking to Support Cancer Cell Pathobiology

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Samikshan; Roy, Sohini; Polavaram, Navatha Shree; Stanton, Marissa J.; Zhang, Heyu; Bhola, Tanvi; Hönscheid, Pia; Donohue, Terrence M.; Band, Hamid; Batra, Surinder K.; Muders, Michael H.; Datta, Kaustubh

    2015-01-01

    Neuropilin-2 (NRP2) is a non-tyrosine kinase receptor frequently overexpressed in various malignancies where it has been implicated in promoting many protumorigenic behaviors, such as imparting therapeutic resistance to metastatic cancer cells. Here, we report a novel function of NRP2 as a regulator of endocytosis, which is enhanced in cancer cells and is often associated with increased metastatic potential and drug resistance. We found that NRP2 depletion in human prostate and pancreatic cancer cells resulted in the accumulation of EEA1/Rab5-positive early endosomes concomitant with a decrease in Rab7-positive late endosomes, suggesting a delay in early-to-late endosome maturation. NRP2 depletion also impaired the endocytic transport of cell surface epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), arresting functionally active EGFR in endocytic vesicles that consequently led to aberrant ERK activation and cell death. Mechanistic investigations revealed that WD-repeat and FYVE-domain-containing protein 1 (WDFY1) functioned downstream of NRP2 to promote endosome maturation, thereby influencing the endosomal trafficking of EGFR and the formation of autolysosomes responsible for the degradation of internalized cargo. Overall, our results indicate that the NRP2/WDFY1 axis is required for maintaining endocytic activity in cancer cells, which supports their oncogenic activities and confers drug resistance. Therefore, therapeutically targeting endocytosis may represent an attractive strategy to selectively target cancer cells in multiple malignancies. PMID:26560516

  2. Neuropilin-2 Regulates Endosome Maturation and EGFR Trafficking to Support Cancer Cell Pathobiology.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Samikshan; Roy, Sohini; Polavaram, Navatha S; Stanton, Marissa J; Zhang, Heyu; Bhola, Tanvi; Hönscheid, Pia; Donohue, Terrence M; Band, Hamid; Batra, Surinder K; Muders, Michael H; Datta, Kaustubh

    2016-01-15

    Neuropilin-2 (NRP2) is a non-tyrosine kinase receptor frequently overexpressed in various malignancies, where it has been implicated in promoting many protumorigenic behaviors, such as imparting therapeutic resistance to metastatic cancer cells. Here, we report a novel function of NRP2 as a regulator of endocytosis, which is enhanced in cancer cells and is often associated with increased metastatic potential and drug resistance. We found that NRP2 depletion in human prostate and pancreatic cancer cells resulted in the accumulation of EEA1/Rab5-positive early endosomes concomitant with a decrease in Rab7-positive late endosomes, suggesting a delay in early-to-late endosome maturation. NRP2 depletion also impaired the endocytic transport of cell surface EGFR, arresting functionally active EGFR in endocytic vesicles that consequently led to aberrant ERK activation and cell death. Mechanistic investigations revealed that WD-repeat- and FYVE-domain-containing protein 1 (WDFY1) functioned downstream of NRP2 to promote endosome maturation, thereby influencing the endosomal trafficking of EGFR and the formation of autolysosomes responsible for the degradation of internalized cargo. Overall, our results indicate that the NRP2/WDFY1 axis is required for maintaining endocytic activity in cancer cells, which supports their oncogenic activities and confers drug resistance. Therefore, therapeutically targeting endocytosis may represent an attractive strategy to selectively target cancer cells in multiple malignancies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. In Vitro Budding of Intralumenal Vesicles into Late Endosomes Is Regulated by Alix and Tsg101

    PubMed Central

    Falguières, Thomas; Luyet, Pierre-Philippe; Bissig, Christin; Scott, Cameron C.; Velluz, Marie-Claire

    2008-01-01

    Endosomes along the degradation pathway leading to lysosomes accumulate membranes in their lumen and thus exhibit a characteristic multivesicular appearance. These lumenal membranes typically incorporate down-regulated EGF receptor destined for degradation, but the mechanisms that control their formation remain poorly characterized. Here, we describe a novel quantitative biochemical assay that reconstitutes the formation of lumenal vesicles within late endosomes in vitro. Vesicle budding into the endosome lumen was time-, temperature-, pH-, and energy-dependent and required cytosolic factors and endosome membrane components. Our light and electron microscopy analysis showed that the compartment supporting the budding process was accessible to endocytosed bulk tracers and EGF receptor. We also found that the EGF receptor became protected against trypsin in our assay, indicating that it was sorted into the intraendosomal vesicles that were formed in vitro. Our data show that the formation of intralumenal vesicles is ESCRT-dependent, because the process was inhibited by the K173Q dominant negative mutant of hVps4. Moreover, we find that the ESCRT-I subunit Tsg101 and its partner Alix control intralumenal vesicle formation, by acting as positive and negative regulators, respectively. We conclude that budding of the limiting membrane toward the late endosome lumen, which leads to the formation of intraendosomal vesicles, is controlled by the positive and negative functions of Tsg101 and Alix, respectively. PMID:18768755

  4. A FYVE zinc finger domain protein specifically links mRNA transport to endosome trafficking.

    PubMed

    Pohlmann, Thomas; Baumann, Sebastian; Haag, Carl; Albrecht, Mario; Feldbrügge, Michael

    2015-05-18

    An emerging theme in cellular logistics is the close connection between mRNA and membrane trafficking. A prominent example is the microtubule-dependent transport of mRNAs and associated ribosomes on endosomes. This coordinated process is crucial for correct septin filamentation and efficient growth of polarised cells, such as fungal hyphae. Despite detailed knowledge on the key RNA-binding protein and the molecular motors involved, it is unclear how mRNAs are connected to membranes during transport. Here, we identify a novel factor containing a FYVE zinc finger domain for interaction with endosomal lipids and a new PAM2-like domain required for interaction with the MLLE domain of the key RNA-binding protein. Consistently, loss of this FYVE domain protein leads to specific defects in mRNA, ribosome, and septin transport without affecting general functions of endosomes or their movement. Hence, this is the first endosomal component specific for mRNP trafficking uncovering a new mechanism to couple mRNPs to endosomes.

  5. AGAP2 regulates retrograde transport between early endosomes and the TGN

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Yoko; Römer, Winfried; Mardones, Gonzalo A.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Lamaze, Christophe; Johannes, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    The retrograde transport route links early endosomes and the TGN. Several endogenous and exogenous cargo proteins use this pathway, one of which is the well-explored bacterial Shiga toxin. ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) are ~20 kDa GTP-binding proteins that are required for protein traffic at the level of the Golgi complex and early endosomes. In this study, we expressed mutants and protein fragments that bind to Arf-GTP to show that Arf1, but not Arf6 is required for transport of Shiga toxin from early endosomes to the TGN. We depleted six Arf1-specific ARF-GTPase-activating proteins and identified AGAP2 as a crucial regulator of retrograde transport for Shiga toxin, cholera toxin and the endogenous proteins TGN46 and mannose 6-phosphate receptor. In AGAP2-depleted cells, Shiga toxin accumulates in transferrin-receptor-positive early endosomes, suggesting that AGAP2 functions in the very early steps of retrograde sorting. A number of other intracellular trafficking pathways are not affected under these conditions. These resu