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Sample records for cell-independent antiviral antibody

  1. Humanized Antibodies for Antiviral Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Man Sung; Deschamps, Marguerite; Whitley, Richard J.; Queen, Cary

    1991-04-01

    Antibody therapy holds great promise for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune disorders, and viral infections. Murine monoclonal antibodies are relatively easy to produce but are severely restricted for therapeutic use by their immunogenicity in humans. Production of human monoclonal antibodies has been problematic. Humanized antibodies can be generated by introducing the six hypervariable regions from the heavy and light chains of a murine antibody into a human framework sequence and combining it with human constant regions. We humanized, with the aid of computer modeling, two murine monoclonal antibodies against herpes simplex virus gB and gD glycoproteins. The binding, virus neutralization, and cell protection results all indicate that both humanized antibodies have retained the binding activities and the biological properties of the murine monoclonal antibodies.

  2. Leaf proteome analysis of transgenic plants expressing antiviral antibodies.

    PubMed

    Di Carli, Mariasole; Villani, Maria Elena; Renzone, Giovanni; Nardi, Luca; Pasquo, Alessandra; Franconi, Rosella; Scaloni, Andrea; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Desiderio, Angiola

    2009-02-01

    The expression of exogenous antibodies in plant is an effective strategy to confer protection against viral infection or to produce molecules with pharmaceutical interest. However, the acceptance of the transgenic technology to obtain self-protecting plants depends on the assessment of their substantial equivalence compared to non-modified crops with an established history of safe use. In fact, the possibility exists that the introduction of transgenes in plants may alter expression of endogenous genes and/or normal production of metabolites. In this study, we investigated whether the expression in plant of recombinant antibodies directed against viral proteins may influence the host leaf proteome. Two transgenic plant models, generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, were analyzed for this purpose, namely, Lycopersicon esculentum cv. MicroTom and Nicotiana benthamiana, expressing recombinant antibodies against cucumber mosaic virus and tomato spotted wilt virus, respectively. To obtain a significant representation of plant proteomes, optimized extraction procedures have been devised for each plant species. The proteome repertoire of antibody-expressing and control plants was compared by 2-DE associated to DIGE technology. Among the 2000 spots detected within the gels, about 10 resulted differentially expressed in each transgenic model and were identified by MALDI-TOF PMF and muLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS procedures. Protein variations were restricted to a limited number of defined differences with an average ratio below 2.4. Most of the differentially expressed proteins were related to photosynthesis or defense function. The overall results suggest that the expression of recombinant antibodies in both systems does not significantly alter the leaf proteomic profile, contributing to assess the biosafety of resistant plants expressing antiviral antibodies.

  3. Development of Tetravalent, Bispecific CCR5 Antibodies with Antiviral Activity against CCR5 Monoclonal Antibody-Resistant HIV-1 Strains▿

    PubMed Central

    Schanzer, Jürgen; Jekle, Andreas; Nezu, Junichi; Lochner, Adriane; Croasdale, Rebecca; Dioszegi, Marianna; Zhang, Jun; Hoffmann, Eike; Dormeyer, Wilma; Stracke, Jan; Schäfer, Wolfgang; Ji, Changhua; Heilek, Gabrielle; Cammack, Nick; Brandt, Michael; Umana, Pablo; Brinkmann, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we describe novel tetravalent, bispecific antibody derivatives that bind two different epitopes on the HIV coreceptor CCR5. The basic protein formats that we applied were derived from Morrison-type bispecific antibodies: whole IgGs to which we connected single-chain antibodies (scFvs) via (Gly4Ser)n sequences at either the C or N terminus of the light chain or heavy chain. By design optimization, including disulfide stabilization of scFvs or introduction of 30-amino-acid linkers, stable molecules could be obtained in amounts that were within the same range as or no less than 4-fold lower than those observed with monoclonal antibodies in transient expression assays. In contrast to monospecific CCR5 antibodies, bispecific antibody derivatives block two alternative docking sites of CCR5-tropic HIV strains on the CCR5 coreceptor. Consequently, these molecules showed 18- to 57-fold increased antiviral activities compared to the parent antibodies. Most importantly, one prototypic tetravalent CCR5 antibody had antiviral activity against virus strains resistant to the single parental antibodies. In summary, physical linkage of two CCR5 antibodies targeting different epitopes on the HIV coreceptor CCR5 resulted in tetravalent, bispecific antibodies with enhanced antiviral potency against wild-type and CCR5 antibody-resistant HIV-1 strains. PMID:21300827

  4. Control of Toll-like receptor-mediated T cell-independent type 1 antibody responses by the inducible nuclear protein IκB-ζ.

    PubMed

    Hanihara-Tatsuzawa, Fumito; Miura, Hanae; Kobayashi, Shuhei; Isagawa, Takayuki; Okuma, Atsushi; Manabe, Ichiro; MaruYama, Takashi

    2014-11-07

    Antibody responses have been classified as being either T cell-dependent or T cell-independent (TI). TI antibody responses are further classified as being either type 1 (TI-1) or type 2 (TI-2), depending on their requirement for B cell-mediated antigen receptor signaling. Although the mechanistic basis of antibody responses has been studied extensively, it remains unclear whether different antibody responses share similarities in their transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that mice deficient in IκB-ζ, specifically in their B cells, have impaired TI-1 antibody responses but normal T cell-dependent and TI-2 antibody responses. The absence of IκB-ζ in B cells also impaired proliferation triggered by Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, plasma cell differentiation, and class switch recombination (CSR). Mechanistically, IκB-ζ-deficient B cells could not induce TLR-mediated induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a class-switch DNA recombinase. Retroviral transduction of AID in IκB-ζ-deficient B cells restored CSR activity. Furthermore, acetylation of histone H3 in the vicinity of the transcription start site of the gene that encodes AID was reduced in IκB-ζ-deficient B cells relative to IκB-ζ-expressing B cells. These results indicate that IκB-ζ regulates TLR-mediated CSR by inducing AID. Moreover, IκB-ζ defines differences in the transcriptional regulation of different antibody responses.

  5. Lipophilicity is a key factor to increase the antiviral activity of HIV neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Marcelo T; Hollmann, Axel; Troise, Fulvia; Veiga, Ana S; Pessi, Antonello; Santos, Nuno C

    2017-04-01

    The HIV broadly neutralizing antibody 2F5 targets the transiently exposed epitope in the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of HIV-1 gp41, by a two-step mechanism involving the viral membrane and this viral glycoprotein. It was recently shown that 2F5 conjugation with a cholesterol moiety outside of the antibody paratope substantially increases its antiviral activity. Additionally, the antiviral activity of D5, a human antibody that binds to the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) of gp41 and lacks membrane binding, was boosted by the same cholesterol conjugation. In this work, we evaluated the membrane affinity of both antibodies towards membranes of different compositions, using surface plasmon resonance. A correlation was found between membrane affinity and antiviral activity against HIV-1. We propose that the conjugation of cholesterol to 2F5 or D5 allows a higher degree of antibody pre-concentration at the viral membrane. This way, the antibodies become more available to bind efficiently to the gp41 epitope, blocking viral fusion faster than the unconjugated antibody. These results set up a relevant strategy to improve the rational design of therapeutic antibodies against HIV.

  6. Opposite effects of total lymphoid irradiation on T cell-dependent and T cell-independent antibody responses

    SciTech Connect

    Tanay, A.; Strober, S.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the primary antibody response to the dinitrophenylated heterologous protein, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH), in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and to the trinitrophenylated polysaccharide antigen, Brucella abortus (TNP-BA), was studied in BALB/c mice. The antibody response to both antigens was diminished in comparison with nonirradiated mice when antigens were injected within 3 days after TLI. When the mice were immunized 30 days after completion of TLI the antibody response to DNP-KLH in CFA was still diminished, but the antibody response to TNP-BA was enhanced 5- to 10-fold as compared with that of control animals. The opposite effect of TLI on the two antibody responses was also observed in a syngeneic primary adoptive transfer system.

  7. Antiviral Therapy by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing and Inhibitory Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiqing; Li, Shaowei; Gu, Ying; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-11-18

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART) but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. In this review, we describe the key epitopes on the HIV-1 Env protein and the reciprocal broadly neutralizing antibodies, and discuss the ongoing clinical trials of broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibody therapy as well as antibody combinations, bispecific antibodies, and methods that improve therapeutic efficacy by combining broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) with latency reversing agents. Compared with ART, HIV-1 therapeutics that incorporate these broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies offer the advantage of decreasing virus load and clearing infected cells, which is a promising prospect in HIV-1 prevention and treatment.

  8. Antiviral Therapy by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing and Inhibitory Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiqing; Li, Shaowei; Gu, Ying; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART) but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. In this review, we describe the key epitopes on the HIV-1 Env protein and the reciprocal broadly neutralizing antibodies, and discuss the ongoing clinical trials of broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibody therapy as well as antibody combinations, bispecific antibodies, and methods that improve therapeutic efficacy by combining broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) with latency reversing agents. Compared with ART, HIV-1 therapeutics that incorporate these broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies offer the advantage of decreasing virus load and clearing infected cells, which is a promising prospect in HIV-1 prevention and treatment. PMID:27869733

  9. The effect of infliximab on antiviral antibody profiles in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Ilana; Moscovici, Yolanda Braun; Abudi, Yair; Sofer, Denit; Mendelson, Ella; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra; Caspi, Dan; Elkayam, Ori

    2010-01-01

    The duration of humoral immunity in patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs is poorly defined. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of infliximab on the levels of antiviral antibodies against poliomyelitis, rubella and measles in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Fifty-two consecutive RA patients being treated with 3 mg/kg infliximab were prospectively studied. The antiviral antibody profiles for measles, rubella and three serotypes of poliomyelitis were tested on the day of the first infusion of infliximab and 6 months later. The study group comprised 36 women and 16 men (mean age 54 years, range 33-81) with a mean disease duration of 15 +/- 9 years. Forty-two (81%) patients were being treated with methotrexate and 22 (42%) were receiving prednisone. All patients had baseline protective levels of antibodies against measles and the three strains of polio, while 48 (92%) patients had protective antibodies against rubella. No significant change in the levels of antiviral antibodies was observed after 6 months of treatment with infliximab: from 3.67 at baseline to 3.87 IU/ml for measles, 169.50-197.0 IU/ml for rubella. No change was noticed for the geometric mean concentrations of antibodies against strains of poliomyelitis: 366-478 IU/ml for the Mahoney polio strain, 906-845 IU/ml for the MEF strain and 175-196 IU/ml for the Sauket strain. Patients with longstanding RA conserve long-term immunity to common viruses despite the use of immunosuppressive drugs. Levels of antiviral antibodies against measles, rubella and polio remain stable under treatment with infliximab.

  10. Antibody response to a T-cell-independent antigen is preserved after splenic artery embolization for trauma.

    PubMed

    Olthof, D C; Lammers, A J J; van Leeuwen, E M M; Hoekstra, J B L; ten Berge, I J M; Goslings, J C

    2014-11-01

    Splenic artery embolization (SAE) is increasingly being used as a nonoperative management strategy for patients with blunt splenic injury following trauma. The aim of this study was to assess the splenic function of patients who were embolized. A clinical study was performed, with splenic function assessed by examining the antibody response to polysaccharide antigens (pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine), B-cell subsets, and the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB). The data were compared to those obtained from splenectomized patients and healthy controls (HC) who had been included in a previously conducted study. A total of 30 patients were studied: 5 who had proximal SAE, 7 who had distal SAE, 8 who had a splenectomy, and 10 HC. The median vaccine-specific antibody response of the SAE patients (fold increase, 3.97) did not differ significantly from that of the HC (5.29; P = 0.90); however, the median response of the splenectomized patients (2.30) did differ (P = 0.003). In 2 of the proximally embolized patients and none of the distally embolized patients, the ratio of the IgG antibody level postvaccination compared to that prevaccination was <2. There were no significant differences in the absolute numbers of lymphocytes or B-cell subsets between the SAE patients and the HC. HJB were not observed in the SAE patients. The splenic immune function of embolized patients was preserved, and therefore routine vaccination appears not to be indicated. Although the median antibody responses did not differ between the patients who underwent proximal SAE and those who underwent distal SAE, 2 of the 5 proximally embolized patients had insufficient responses to vaccination, whereas none of the distally embolized patients exhibited an insufficient response. Further research should be done to confirm this finding.

  11. Characterization of immobilization methods of antiviral antibodies in serum for electrochemical biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huy, Tran Quang; Hanh, Nguyen Thi Hong; Van Chung, Pham; Anh, Dang Duc; Nga, Phan Thi; Tuan, Mai Anh

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we describes different methods to immobilize Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antibodies in human serum onto the interdigitated surface of a microelectrode sensor for optimizing electrochemical detection: (1) direct covalent binding to the silanized surface, (2) binding to the silanized surface via a cross-linker of glutaraldehyde (GA), (3) binding to glutaraldehyde/silanized surface via goat anti-human IgG polyclonal antibody and (4) binding to glutaraldehyde/silanized surface via protein A (PrA). Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and fluorescence microscopy are used to verify the characteristics of antibodies on the interdigitated surface after the serum antibodies immobilization. The analyzed results indicate that the use of protein A is an effective choice for immobilization and orientation of antibodies in serum for electrochemical biosensors. This study provides an advantageous immobilization method of serum containing antiviral antibodies to develop electrochemical biosensors for preliminary screening of viruses in clinical samples from outbreaks.

  12. Antiviral Monoclonal Antibodies: Can They Be More Than Simple Neutralizing Agents?

    PubMed

    Pelegrin, Mireia; Naranjo-Gomez, Mar; Piechaczyk, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are increasingly being considered as agents to fight severe viral diseases. So far, they have essentially been selected and used on the basis of their virus-neutralizing activity and/or cell-killing activity to blunt viral propagation via direct mechanisms. There is, however, accumulating evidence that they can also induce long-lasting protective antiviral immunity by recruiting the endogenous immune system of infected individuals during the period of immunotherapy. Exploiting this property may revolutionize antiviral mAb-based immunotherapies, with benefits for both patients and healthcare systems.

  13. Inhibition of HIV replication by pokeweed antiviral protein targeted to CD4+ cells by monoclonal antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarling, Joyce M.; Moran, Patricia A.; Haffar, Omar; Sias, Joan; Richman, Douglas D.; Spina, Celsa A.; Myers, Dorothea E.; Kuebelbeck, Virginia; Ledbetter, Jeffrey A.; Uckun, Fatih M.

    1990-09-01

    FUNCTIONAL impairment and selective depletion of CD4+ T cells, the hallmark of AIDS, are at least partly caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) type 1 binding to the CD4 molecule and infecting CD4+ cells1,2. It may, therefore, be of therapeutic value to target an antiviral agent to CD4+ cells to prevent infection and to inhibit HIV-1 production in patients' CD4+ cells which contain proviral DNA3,4. We report here that HIV-1 replication in normal primary CD4+ T cells can be inhibited by pokeweed antiviral protein, a plant protein of relative molecular mass 30,000 (ref. 5), which inhibits replication of certain plant RNA viruses6-8, and of herpes simplex virus, poliovirus and influenza virus9-11. Targeting pokeweed antiviral protein to CD4+ T cells by conjugating it to monoclonal antibodies reactive with CDS, CD7 or CD4 expressed on CD4+ cells, increased its anti-HIV potency up to 1,000-fold. HIV-1 replication is inhibited at picomolar concentrations of conjugates of pokeweed antiviral protein and monoclonal antibodies, which do not inhibit proliferation of normal CD4+ T cells or CD4-dependent responses. These conjugates inhibit HIV-1 protein synthesis and also strongly inhibit HIV-1 production in activated CD4+ T cells from infected patients.

  14. Impact of thiamine deficiency on T-cell dependent and T-cell independent antibody production in lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, Christopher A.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Densmore, Christine L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush on thiamine-replete and thiamine-depleted diets were evaluated for the effects of thiamine status on in vivo responses to the T-dependent antigen trinitophenol (TNP)-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (TNP-KLH), the T-independent antigen trinitrophenol-lipolysaccaharide (TNP-LPS), or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS; negative control fish). Plasma antibody concentrations were evaluated for possible differences in total anti-TNP activity as well as differences in response kinetics. Associations between anti-TNP activity and muscle and liver thiamine concentrations as well as ratios of muscle-to-liver thiamine to anti-TNP activity were also examined. Thiamine-depleted lake trout that were injected with TNP-LPS exhibited significantly more anti-TNP activity than thiamine-replete fish. The depleted fish injected with TNP-LPS also exhibited significantly different response kinetics relative to thiamine-replete lake trout. No differences in activity or kinetics were observed between the thiamine-replete and -depleted fish injected with TNP-KLH or in the DPBS negative controls. Anti-TNP activity in thiamine-depleted lake trout injected with TNP-KLH was positively associated with muscle thiamine pyrophosphate (thiamine diphosphate; TPP) concentration. A negative association was observed between the ratio of muscle-to-liver TPP and T-independent responses. No significant associations between anti-TNP activity and tissue thiamine concentration were observed in the thiamine-replete fish. We demonstrated that thiamine deficiency leads to alterations in both T-dependent and T-independent immune responses in lake trout.

  15. Impact of thiamine deficiency on T-cell dependent and T-cell independent antibody production in lake trout.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, Christopher A; Honeyfield, Dale C; Densmore, Christine L; Iwanowicz, Luke R

    2012-12-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush on thiamine-replete and thiamine-depleted diets were evaluated for the effects of thiamine status on in vivo responses to the T-dependent antigen trinitophenol (TNP)-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (TNP-KLH), the T-independent antigen trinitrophenol-lipolysaccaharide (TNP-LPS), or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS; negative control fish). Plasma antibody concentrations were evaluated for possible differences in total anti-TNP activity as well as differences in response kinetics. Associations between anti-TNP activity and muscle and liver thiamine concentrations as well as ratios of muscle-to-liver thiamine to anti-TNP activity were also examined. Thiamine-depleted lake trout that were injected with TNP-LPS exhibited significantly more anti-TNP activity than thiamine-replete fish. The depleted fish injected with TNP-LPS also exhibited significantly different response kinetics relative to thiamine-replete lake trout. No differences in activity or kinetics were observed between the thiamine-replete and -depleted fish injected with TNP-KLH or in the DPBS negative controls. Anti-TNP activity in thiamine-depleted lake trout injected with TNP-KLH was positively associated with muscle thiamine pyrophosphate (thiamine diphosphate; TPP) concentration. A negative association was observed between the ratio of muscle-to-liver TPP and T-independent responses. No significant associations between anti-TNP activity and tissue thiamine concentration were observed in the thiamine-replete fish. We demonstrated that thiamine deficiency leads to alterations in both T-dependent and T-independent immune responses in lake trout.

  16. The Antiviral Mechanism of an Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein-Specific Single-Domain Antibody Fragment

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, Leo; Knockenhauer, Kevin E.; Brewer, R. Camille; van Diest, Eline; Schmidt, Florian I.; Schwartz, Thomas U.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alpaca-derived single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that target the influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) can protect cells from infection when expressed in the cytosol. We found that one such VHH, αNP-VHH1, exhibits antiviral activity similar to that of Mx proteins by blocking nuclear import of incoming viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) and viral transcription and replication in the nucleus. We determined a 3.2-Å crystal structure of αNP-VHH1 in complex with influenza A virus NP. The VHH binds to a nonconserved region on the body domain of NP, which has been associated with binding to host factors and serves as a determinant of host range. Several of the NP/VHH interface residues determine sensitivity of NP to antiviral Mx GTPases. The structure of the NP/αNP-VHH1 complex affords a plausible explanation for the inhibitory properties of the VHH and suggests a rationale for the antiviral properties of Mx proteins. Such knowledge can be leveraged for much-needed novel antiviral strategies. PMID:27965447

  17. Immunoproteomic Profiling of Antiviral Antibodies in New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Using Protein Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Xiaofang; Wallstrom, Garrick; Davis, Amy; Wang, Jie; Park, Jin; Throop, Andrea; Steel, Jason; Yu, Xiaobo; Wasserfall, Clive; Schatz, Desmond; Atkinson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The rapid rise in the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) suggests the involvement of environmental factors including viral infections. We evaluated the association between viral infections and T1D by profiling antiviral antibodies using a high-throughput immunoproteomics approach in patients with new-onset T1D. We constructed a viral protein array comprising the complete proteomes of seven viruses associated with T1D and open reading frames from other common viruses. Antibody responses to 646 viral antigens were assessed in 42 patients with T1D and 42 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (mean age 12.7 years, 50% males). Prevalence of antiviral antibodies agreed with known infection rates for the corresponding virus based on epidemiological studies. Antibody responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were significantly higher in case than control subjects (odds ratio 6.6; 95% CI 2.0–25.7), whereas the other viruses showed no differences. The EBV and T1D association was significant in both sex and age subgroups (≤12 and >12 years), and there was a trend toward early EBV infections among the case subjects. These results suggest a potential role for EBV in T1D development. We believe our innovative immunoproteomics platform is useful for understanding the role of viral infections in T1D and other disorders where associations between viral infection and disease are unclear. PMID:26450993

  18. Antiviral antibody-producing cells in parenchymatous organs during persistent virus infection

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    In mice persistently infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), the parenchymatous organs contain infiltrates of mononuclear cells, the sizes and numbers of which vary between strains and become more numerous and extensive when the animals grow older. Histologically, these were found to possess a tissue-like structure, and by use of immunohistologic procedures they were shown to contain plasma cells secreting IgM and IgG. Cells of kidneys, livers, brains, and spleens of LCMV carrier mice were dispersed by digestion with trypsin, leukocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation, and numbers of cells producing antibodies against LCMV were determined by use of a solid-phase immunoenzymatic technique. In all these organs, cells producing LCMV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were demonstrated, the latter more numerous than the former. Their numbers correlated with numbers and extent of the lymphoid cell infiltrates. The blood of the same mice was essentially free of antiviral antibody-forming cell. The proportion of cells producing LCMV-specific antibodies to all cells producing Ig of any specificity varied between organs, being lowest in spleen, intermediate in liver and kidney, and highest in the brain, where in individual mice up to 90% of all active cells produced virus- specific antibodies. The LCMV carrier mouse should prove to be a useful animal model to investigate antibody production in parenchymatous organs during persistent virus infections. PMID:3546579

  19. Crystal structure of HIV-1 primary receptor CD4 in complex with a potent antiviral antibody.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael M; Seaman, Michael S; Rits-Volloch, Sophia; Hong, Xinguo; Kao, Chia-Ying; Ho, David D; Chen, Bing

    2010-12-08

    Ibalizumab is a humanized, anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. It potently blocks HIV-1 infection and targets an epitope in the second domain of CD4 without interfering with immune functions mediated by interaction of CD4 with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. We report here the crystal structure of ibalizumab Fab fragment in complex with the first two domains (D1-D2) of CD4 at 2.2 Å resolution. Ibalizumab grips CD4 primarily by the BC-loop (residues 121-125) of D2, sitting on the opposite side of gp120 and MHC-II binding sites. No major conformational change in CD4 accompanies binding to ibalizumab. Both monovalent and bivalent forms of ibalizumab effectively block viral infection, suggesting that it does not need to crosslink CD4 to exert antiviral activity. While gp120-induced structural rearrangements in CD4 are probably minimal, CD4 structural rigidity is dispensable for ibalizumab inhibition. These results could guide CD4-based immunogen design and lead to a better understanding of HIV-1 entry.

  20. Crystal structure of HIV-1 primary receptor CD4 in complex with a potent antiviral antibody

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Michael M.; Seaman, Michael S.; Rits-Volloch, Sophia; Hong, Xinguo; Kao, Chia-Ying; Ho, David D.; Chen, Bing

    2010-01-01

    Summary Ibalizumab is a humanized, anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. It potently blocks HIV-1 infection and targets an epitope in the second domain of CD4 without interfering with immune functions mediated by interaction of CD4 with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. We report here the crystal structure of ibalizumab Fab fragment in complex with the first two domains (D1-D2) of CD4 at 2.2 Å resolution. Ibalizumab grips CD4 primarily by the BC-loop (residues 121-125) of D2, sitting on the opposite side of gp120 and MHC-II binding sites. No major conformational change in CD4 accompanies binding to ibalizumab. Both monovalent and bivalent forms of ibalizumab effectively block viral infection, suggesting that it does not need to crosslink CD4 to exert antiviral activity. While gp120-induced structural rearrangements in CD4 are probably minimal, CD4 structural rigidity is dispensable for ibalizumab inhibition. These results could guide CD4-based immunogen design and lead to a better understanding of HIV-1 entry. PMID:21134642

  1. Antibody Complementarity-Determining Regions (CDRs) Can Display Differential Antimicrobial, Antiviral and Antitumor Activities

    PubMed Central

    Polonelli, Luciano; Pontón, José; Elguezabal, Natalia; Moragues, María Dolores; Casoli, Claudio; Pilotti, Elisabetta; Ronzi, Paola; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Rodrigues, Elaine G.; Juliano, Maria A.; Maffei, Domenico Leonardo; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Travassos, Luiz R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) are immunoglobulin (Ig) hypervariable domains that determine specific antibody (Ab) binding. We have shown that synthetic CDR-related peptides and many decapeptides spanning the variable region of a recombinant yeast killer toxin-like antiidiotypic Ab are candidacidal in vitro. An alanine-substituted decapeptide from the variable region of this Ab displayed increased cytotoxicity in vitro and/or therapeutic effects in vivo against various bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. The possibility that isolated CDRs, represented by short synthetic peptides, may display antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumor activities irrespective of Ab specificity for a given antigen is addressed here. Methodology/Principal Findings CDR-based synthetic peptides of murine and human monoclonal Abs directed to: a) a protein epitope of Candida albicans cell wall stress mannoprotein; b) a synthetic peptide containing well-characterized B-cell and T-cell epitopes; c) a carbohydrate blood group A substance, showed differential inhibitory activities in vitro, ex vivo and/or in vivo against C. albicans, HIV-1 and B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells, conceivably involving different mechanisms of action. Antitumor activities involved peptide-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Engineered peptides, obtained by alanine substitution of Ig CDR sequences, and used as surrogates of natural point mutations, showed further differential increased/unaltered/decreased antimicrobial, antiviral and/or antitumor activities. The inhibitory effects observed were largely independent of the specificity of the native Ab and involved chiefly germline encoded CDR1 and CDR2 of light and heavy chains. Conclusions/Significance The high frequency of bioactive peptides based on CDRs suggests that Ig molecules are sources of an unlimited number of sequences potentially active against infectious agents and tumor cells. The easy production and low cost of small sized synthetic

  2. Antiviral antibodies target adenovirus to phagolysosomes and amplify the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Zaiss, Anne K; Vilaysane, Akosua; Cotter, Matthew J; Clark, Sharon A; Meijndert, H Christopher; Colarusso, Pina; Yates, Robin M; Petrilli, Virginie; Tschopp, Jurg; Muruve, Daniel A

    2009-06-01

    Adenovirus is a nonenveloped dsDNA virus that activates intracellular innate immune pathways. In vivo, adenovirus-immunized mice displayed an enhanced innate immune response and diminished virus-mediated gene delivery following challenge with the adenovirus vector AdLacZ suggesting that antiviral Abs modulate viral interactions with innate immune cells. Under naive serum conditions in vitro, adenovirus binding and internalization in macrophages and the subsequent activation of innate immune mechanisms were inefficient. In contrast to the neutralizing effect observed in nonhematopoietic cells, adenovirus infection in the presence of antiviral Abs significantly increased FcR-dependent viral internalization in macrophages. In direct correlation with the increased viral internalization, antiviral Abs amplified the innate immune response to adenovirus as determined by the expression of NF-kappaB-dependent genes, type I IFNs, and caspase-dependent IL-1beta maturation. Immune serum amplified TLR9-independent type I IFN expression and enhanced NLRP3-dependent IL-1beta maturation in response to adenovirus, confirming that antiviral Abs specifically amplify intracellular innate pathways. In the presence of Abs, confocal microscopy demonstrated increased targeting of adenovirus to LAMP1-positive phagolysosomes in macrophages but not epithelial cells. These data show that antiviral Abs subvert natural viral tropism and target the adenovirus to phagolysosomes and the intracellular innate immune system in macrophages. Furthermore, these results illustrate a cross-talk where the adaptive immune system positively regulates the innate immune system and the antiviral state.

  3. Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Infection in Primary Human Macrophages; Balancing Higher Fusion against Antiviral Responses

    PubMed Central

    Flipse, Jacky; Diosa-Toro, Mayra A.; Hoornweg, Tabitha E.; van de Pol, Denise P. I.; Urcuqui-Inchima, Silvio; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2016-01-01

    The dogma is that the human immune system protects us against pathogens. Yet, several viruses, like dengue virus, antagonize the hosts’ antibodies to enhance their viral load and disease severity; a phenomenon called antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. This study offers novel insights in the molecular mechanism of antibody-mediated enhancement (ADE) of dengue virus infection in primary human macrophages. No differences were observed in the number of bound and internalized DENV particles following infection in the absence and presence of enhancing concentrations of antibodies. Yet, we did find an increase in membrane fusion activity during ADE of DENV infection. The higher fusion activity is coupled to a low antiviral response early in infection and subsequently a higher infection efficiency. Apparently, subtle enhancements early in the viral life cycle cascades into strong effects on infection, virus production and immune response. Importantly, and in contrast to other studies, the antibody-opsonized virus particles do not trigger immune suppression and remain sensitive to interferon. Additionally, this study gives insight in how human macrophages interact and respond to viral infections and the tight regulation thereof under various conditions of infection. PMID:27380892

  4. Protective antiviral antibody responses in a mouse model of influenza virus infection require TACI.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Amaya I; Mozdzanowska, Krystyna; Quinn, William J; Metzgar, Michele; Williams, Katie L; Caton, Andrew J; Meffre, Eric; Bram, Richard J; Erickson, Loren D; Allman, David; Cancro, Michael P; Erikson, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Antiviral Abs, for example those produced in response to influenza virus infection, are critical for virus neutralization and defense against secondary infection. While the half-life of Abs is short, Ab titers can last a lifetime due to a subset of the Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) that is long lived. However, the mechanisms governing ASC longevity are poorly understood. Here, we have identified a critical role for extrinsic cytokine signals in the survival of respiratory tract ASCs in a mouse model of influenza infection. Irradiation of mice at various time points after influenza virus infection markedly diminished numbers of lung ASCs, suggesting that they are short-lived and require extrinsic factors in order to persist. Neutralization of the TNF superfamily cytokines B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS; also known as BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) reduced numbers of antiviral ASCs in the lungs and bone marrow, whereas ASCs in the spleen and lung-draining lymph node were surprisingly unaffected. Mice deficient in transmembrane activator and calcium-modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI), a receptor for BLyS and APRIL, mounted an initial antiviral B cell response similar to that generated in WT mice but failed to sustain protective Ab titers in the airways and serum, leading to increased susceptibility to secondary viral challenge. These studies highlight the importance of TACI signaling for the maintenance of ASCs and protection against influenza virus infection.

  5. Protective antiviral antibody responses in a mouse model of influenza virus infection require TACI

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Amaya I.; Mozdzanowska, Krystyna; J. Quinn, William; Metzgar, Michele; Williams, Katie L.; Caton, Andrew J.; Meffre, Eric; Bram, Richard J.; Erickson, Loren D.; Allman, David; Cancro, Michael P.; Erikson, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Antiviral Abs, for example those produced in response to influenza virus infection, are critical for virus neutralization and defense against secondary infection. While the half-life of Abs is short, Ab titers can last a lifetime due to a subset of the Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) that is long lived. However, the mechanisms governing ASC longevity are poorly understood. Here, we have identified a critical role for extrinsic cytokine signals in the survival of respiratory tract ASCs in a mouse model of influenza infection. Irradiation of mice at various time points after influenza virus infection markedly diminished numbers of lung ASCs, suggesting that they are short-lived and require extrinsic factors in order to persist. Neutralization of the TNF superfamily cytokines B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS; also known as BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) reduced numbers of antiviral ASCs in the lungs and bone marrow, whereas ASCs in the spleen and lung-draining lymph node were surprisingly unaffected. Mice deficient in transmembrane activator and calcium-modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI), a receptor for BLyS and APRIL, mounted an initial antiviral B cell response similar to that generated in WT mice but failed to sustain protective Ab titers in the airways and serum, leading to increased susceptibility to secondary viral challenge. These studies highlight the importance of TACI signaling for the maintenance of ASCs and protection against influenza virus infection. PMID:21881204

  6. Antiviral antibodies and T cells are present in the foreskin of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Rothaeusler, Kristina; Ma, Zhong-Min; Qureshi, Huma; Carroll, Timothy D; Rourke, Tracy; McChesney, Michael B; Miller, Christopher J

    2012-07-01

    No information exists regarding immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the foreskin or glans of the human penis, although this is a key tissue for HIV transmission. To address this gap, we characterized antiviral immune responses in foreskin of male rhesus macaques (RMs) inoculated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strain SIVmac251 by penile foreskin exposure. We found a complete population of immune cells in the foreskin and glans of normal RMs, although B cells were less common than CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. IgG-secreting cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay in cell suspensions made from the foreskin. In the foreskin and glans of SIV-infected RMs, although B cells were less common than CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, SIV-specific IgG antibody was present in foreskin secretions. In addition, cytokine-secreting SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells were readily found in cell suspensions made from the foreskin. Although potential HIV target cells were found in and under the epithelium covering all penile surfaces, the presence of antiviral effector B and T cells in the foreskin suggests that vaccines may be able to elicit immunity in this critical site to protect men from acquiring HIV.

  7. Cellular impedance measurement as a new tool for poxvirus titration, antibody neutralization testing and evaluation of antiviral substances

    SciTech Connect

    Witkowski, Peter T.; Schuenadel, Livia; Wiethaus, Julia; Bourquain, Daniel R.; Kurth, Andreas; Nitsche, Andreas

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Real-time data acquisition by RT-CES requires low operative effort. {yields} Time to result is reduced by using RT-CES instead of conventional methods. {yields} RT-CES enables quantification of virus titers in unknown samples. {yields} RT-CES is a useful tool for high-throughput characterization of antiviral agents. {yields} An RT-CES-based virus neutralization test was established. -- Abstract: Impedance-based biosensing known as real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) belongs to an emerging technology for analyzing the status of cells in vitro. In the present study protocols were developed for an RT-CES-based system (xCELLigence{sup TM}, Roche Applied Science, ACEA Biosciences Inc.) to supplement conventional techniques in pox virology. First, proliferation of cells susceptible to orthopoxviruses was monitored. For virus titration cells were infected with vaccinia virus and cell status, represented by the dimensionless impedance-based cell index (CI), was monitored. A virus-dose dependent decrease in electrical impedance could be shown. Calculation of calibration curves at a suitable CI covering a dynamic range of 4 log enabled the quantification of virus titers in unknown samples. Similarly, antiviral effects could be determined as shown for anti-poxviral agents ST-246 and Cidofovir. Published values for the in vitro concentration that inhibited virus replication by 50% (IC{sub 50}) could be confirmed while cytotoxicity in effective concentrations was excluded in long-term incubation experiments. Finally, an RT-CES-based virus neutralization test was established. Various poxvirus-specific antibodies were examined for their neutralizing activity and a calculation mode for the neutralizing antibody titer was introduced. In summary, the presented RT-CES-based methods outmatch end-point assays by observing the cell population throughout the entire experiment while workload and time to result are reduced.

  8. Complement inhibition enables tumor delivery of LCMV glycoprotein pseudotyped viruses in the presence of antiviral antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Evgin, Laura; Ilkow, Carolina S; Bourgeois-Daigneault, Marie-Claude; de Souza, Christiano Tanese; Stubbert, Lawton; Huh, Michael S; Jennings, Victoria A; Marguerie, Monique; Acuna, Sergio A; Keller, Brian A; Lefebvre, Charles; Falls, Theresa; Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Auer, Rebecca A; Lambris, John D; McCart, J Andrea; Stojdl, David F; Bell, John C

    2016-01-01

    The systemic delivery of therapeutic viruses, such as oncolytic viruses or vaccines, is limited by the generation of neutralizing antibodies. While pseudotyping of rhabdoviruses with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoprotein has previously allowed for multiple rounds of delivery in mice, this strategy has not translated to other animal models. For the first time, we provide experimental evidence that antibodies generated against the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoprotein mediate robust complement-dependent viral neutralization via activation of the classical pathway. We show that this phenotype can be capitalized upon to deliver maraba virus pseudotyped with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoprotein in a Fischer rat model in the face of neutralizing antibody through the use of complement modulators. This finding changes the understanding of the humoral immune response to arenaviruses, and also describes methodology to deliver viral vectors to their therapeutic sites of action without the interference of neutralizing antibody. PMID:27909702

  9. Preserved antiviral adaptive immunity following polyclonal antibody immunotherapy for severe murine influenza infection

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Natalie E.; Hatjopolous, Antoinette; Fraser, Cara K.; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Hayball, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy may have particular benefits for the treatment of severe influenza infection in at-risk populations, however little is known of the impact of passive immunotherapy on the formation of memory responses to the virus. Ideally, passive immunotherapy should attenuate the severity of infection while still allowing the formation of adaptive responses to confer protection from future exposure. In this study, we sought to determine if administration of influenza-specific ovine polyclonal antibodies could inhibit adaptive immune responses in a murine model of lethal influenza infection. Ovine polyclonal antibodies generated against recombinant PR8 (H1N1) hemagglutinin exhibited potent prophylactic capacity and reduced lethality in an established influenza infection, particularly when administered intranasally. Surviving mice were also protected against reinfection and generated normal antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to the virus. The longevity of ovine polyclonal antibodies was explored with a half-life of over two weeks following a single antibody administration. These findings support the development of an ovine passive polyclonal antibody therapy for treatment of severe influenza infection which does not affect the formation of subsequent acquired immunity to the virus. PMID:27380890

  10. Lack of antiviral antibody response in koalas infected with koala retroviruses (KoRV).

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Uwe; Keller, Martina; Möller, Annekatrin; Timms, Peter; Denner, Joachim

    2015-02-16

    Many wild koalas are infected with the koala retrovirus, KoRV, some of which suffer from lymphoma and chlamydial disease. Three subgroups, KoRV-A, KoRV-B and KoRV-J, have so far been described. It is well known that other closely related gammaretroviruses can induce tumours and severe immunodeficiencies in their respective hosts and a possible role for KoRV infection in lymphoma and chlamydial disease in koalas has been suggested. In many wild koalas, KoRV-A has become endogenised, i.e., it is integrated in the germ-line and is passed on with normal cellular genes. In this study, sera from koalas in European zoos and from wild animals in Australia were screened for antibodies against KoRV-A. These naturally infected animals all carry endogenous KoRV-A and two zoo animals are also infected with KoRV-B. The antibody response is generally an important diagnostic tool for detecting retrovirus infections. However, when Western blot analyses were performed using purified virus or recombinant proteins corresponding to KoRV-A, none of the koalas tested positive for specific antibodies, suggesting a state of tolerance. These results have implications for koala vaccination, as they suggest that therapeutic immunisation of animals carrying and expressing endogenous KoRV-A will not be successful. However, it remains unclear whether these animals can be immunised against KoRV-B and immunisation of uninfected koalas could still be worthwhile.

  11. Intracellular Reprogramming of Expression, Glycosylation, and Function of a Plant-Derived Antiviral Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Young-Kwan; So, Yang-Kang; Ryu, Jae-Sung; Oh, Seung-Han; Han, Yeon-Soo; Ko, Kinarm; Choo, Young-Kug; Park, Sung-Joo; Brodzik, Robert; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Hwang, Kyung-A; Koprowski, Hilary; Lee, Yong Seong; Ko, Kisung

    2013-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering, which has led to the production of plant-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbPs), provides a safe and economically effective alternative to conventional antibody expression methods. In this study, the expression levels and biological properties of the anti-rabies virus mAbP SO57 with or without an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-retention peptide signal (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu; KDEL) in transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) were analyzed. The expression levels of mAbP SO57 with KDEL (mAbPK) were significantly higher than those of mAbP SO57 without KDEL (mAbP) regardless of the transcription level. The Fc domains of both purified mAbP and mAbPK and hybridoma-derived mAb (mAbH) had similar levels of binding activity to the FcγRI receptor (CD64). The mAbPK had glycan profiles of both oligomannose (OM) type (91.7%) and Golgi type (8.3%), whereas the mAbP had mainly Golgi type glycans (96.8%) similar to those seen with mAbH. Confocal analysis showed that the mAbPK was co-localized to ER-tracker signal and cellular areas surrounding the nucleus indicating accumulation of the mAbP with KDEL in the ER. Both mAbP and mAbPK disappeared with similar trends to mAbH in BALB/c mice. In addition, mAbPK was as effective as mAbH at neutralizing the activity of the rabies virus CVS-11. These results suggest that the ER localization of the recombinant mAbP by KDEL reprograms OM glycosylation and enhances the production of the functional antivirus therapeutic antibody in the plant. PMID:23967055

  12. Lamivudine compared with newer antivirals for prophylaxis of hepatitis B core antibody positive livers: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Wright, A J; Fishman, J A; Chung, R T

    2014-03-01

    There is concern over the development of de novo hepatitis B in patients receiving liver transplants from hepatitis B surface antigen negative, hepatitis B core antibody positive donors. Current practice is to place such patients on indefinite lamivudine prophylaxis; however, there is a small risk of breakthrough infection and newer antivirals for hepatitis B are available. The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of lamivudine compared with the newer agents, tenofovir and entecavir, in the prophylaxis setting using a Markov model. Three strategies were examined which consisted of either lamivudine or entecavir monoprophylaxis with tenofovir add-on therapy after breakthrough or tenofovir monoprophylaxis with emtricitabine add-on therapy after breakthrough. In the base case scenario, lamivudine was the most cost-effective option at a threshold of $100 000 per quality-adjusted life-year and this remained robust despite parameter uncertainty. Tenofovir had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $3 540 194.77 while other strategies were superior to entecavir therapy. Until drug costs decrease, lamivudine remains the most cost-effective option for hepatitis B prophylaxis in the liver transplant setting.

  13. Persistence of arboviruses and antiviral antibodies in vertebrate hosts: its occurrence and impacts.

    PubMed

    Kuno, G

    2001-01-01

    The recent isolation of West Nile virus from a bird in mid-winter in New York immediately raised, as one of a few explanations, the possibility of long-term persistence of arboviruses in vertebrate hosts. Although it was a highly popular topic for research many years ago, generally it has since been neglected and its meaning under appreciated. This comprehensive survey of literature worldwide uncovered, contrary to the general perception that it is a rather infrequent phenomenon, a large number of important observations involving all groups of arboviruses that have been accumulating over the years without drawing much attention. In this review, the data and observations were analysed in terms of the occurrence, role in natural transmission, mechanisms and genesis of persistence, source of problems in research and impact. The outcome of the analyses clearly demonstrates that asymptomatic, long-term infection in the absence of viraemia with or without the induction of neutralising antibody, the most frequent characteristics of arboviral persistence, presents a serious question about the validity of some of the past animal experiments that were conducted without the consideration of such a possibility. Likewise, significant impacts are felt on diverse fields ranging from epidemiology to diagnostic virology and from veterinary medicine to agricultural commerce. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Heterosubtypic antiviral activity of hemagglutinin-specific antibodies induced by intranasal immunization with inactivated influenza viruses in mice.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Mieko; Yoshida, Reiko; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Kajihara, Masahiro; Maruyama, Junki; Kimura, Takashi; Manzoor, Rashid; Ito, Kimihito; Takada, Ayato

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus subtypes are classified on the basis of the antigenicity of their envelope glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA; H1-H17) and neuraminidase. Since HA-specific neutralizing antibodies are predominantly specific for a single HA subtype, the contribution of antibodies to the heterosubtypic immunity is not fully understood. In this study, mice were immunized intranasally or subcutaneously with viruses having the H1, H3, H5, H7, H9, or H13 HA subtype, and cross-reactivities of induced IgG and IgA antibodies to recombinant HAs of the H1-H16 subtypes were analyzed. We found that both subcutaneous and intranasal immunizations induced antibody responses to multiple HAs of different subtypes, whereas IgA was not detected remarkably in mice immunized subcutaneously. Using serum, nasal wash, and trachea-lung wash samples of H9 virus-immunized mice, neutralizing activities of cross-reactive antibodies were then evaluated by plaque-reduction assays. As expected, no heterosubtypic neutralizing activity was detected by a standard neutralization test in which viruses were mixed with antibodies prior to inoculation into cultured cells. Interestingly, however, a remarkable reduction of plaque formation and extracellular release of the H12 virus, which was bound by the H9-induced cross-reactive antibodies, was observed when infected cells were subsequently cultured with the samples containing HA-specific cross-reactive IgA. This heterosubtypic plaque reduction was interfered when the samples were pretreated with anti-mouse IgA polyclonal serum. These results suggest that the majority of HA-specific cross-reactive IgG and IgA antibodies produced by immunization do not block cellular entry of viruses, but cross-reactive IgA may have the potential to inhibit viral egress from infected cells and thus to play a role in heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A viruses.

  15. Heterosubtypic Antiviral Activity of Hemagglutinin-Specific Antibodies Induced by Intranasal Immunization with Inactivated Influenza Viruses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, Mieko; Yoshida, Reiko; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Kajihara, Masahiro; Maruyama, Junki; Kimura, Takashi; Manzoor, Rashid; Ito, Kimihito; Takada, Ayato

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus subtypes are classified on the basis of the antigenicity of their envelope glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA; H1–H17) and neuraminidase. Since HA-specific neutralizing antibodies are predominantly specific for a single HA subtype, the contribution of antibodies to the heterosubtypic immunity is not fully understood. In this study, mice were immunized intranasally or subcutaneously with viruses having the H1, H3, H5, H7, H9, or H13 HA subtype, and cross-reactivities of induced IgG and IgA antibodies to recombinant HAs of the H1–H16 subtypes were analyzed. We found that both subcutaneous and intranasal immunizations induced antibody responses to multiple HAs of different subtypes, whereas IgA was not detected remarkably in mice immunized subcutaneously. Using serum, nasal wash, and trachea-lung wash samples of H9 virus-immunized mice, neutralizing activities of cross-reactive antibodies were then evaluated by plaque-reduction assays. As expected, no heterosubtypic neutralizing activity was detected by a standard neutralization test in which viruses were mixed with antibodies prior to inoculation into cultured cells. Interestingly, however, a remarkable reduction of plaque formation and extracellular release of the H12 virus, which was bound by the H9-induced cross-reactive antibodies, was observed when infected cells were subsequently cultured with the samples containing HA-specific cross-reactive IgA. This heterosubtypic plaque reduction was interfered when the samples were pretreated with anti-mouse IgA polyclonal serum. These results suggest that the majority of HA-specific cross-reactive IgG and IgA antibodies produced by immunization do not block cellular entry of viruses, but cross-reactive IgA may have the potential to inhibit viral egress from infected cells and thus to play a role in heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A viruses. PMID:23977065

  16. Antiviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stalder, Hans

    1977-01-01

    The current status of antiviral therapy is reviewed, including discussion of older approaches together with more recently developed chemotherapy. Following the introduction dealing with pathophysiological aspects of virus disease, the different approaches to antiviral therapy are presented. The reasons for the slow progress in antiviral therapy are discussed. These include: 1. the necessity of intracellular penetration of drugs acting on viral replication; 2. the severe toxicity of most antiviral drugs; 3. the narrow antiviral spectrum of most of these agents; 4. the difficulty of making a rapid etiological diagnosis in view of the necessity of starting (specific?) treatment early in the course of the disease; 5. the difficult evaluation of beneficial as compared with deleterious effects of antiviral therapy. After a detailed review of clinically tested substances, including immunoglobulins, synthetic antiviral drugs (amantadine, nucleoside analogs, thiosemicarbazones and photodynamic dyes) and interferon, a guide concerning indications and application of specific antiviral therapy is presented. Although at present there are few indications, clinicians should be aware of the (present and future) possibilities of antiviral therapy. PMID:341538

  17. Accelerating Influenza Research: Vaccines, Antivirals, Immunomodulators and Monoclonal Antibodies. The Manufacture of a New Wild-Type H3N2 Virus for the Human Viral Challenge Model

    PubMed Central

    Fullen, Daniel J.; Noulin, Nicolas; Catchpole, Andrew; Fathi, Hosnieh; Murray, Edward J.; Mann, Alex; Eze, Kingsley; Balaratnam, Ganesh; Borley, Daryl W.; Gilbert, Anthony; Lambkin-Williams, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza and its associated diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends influenza vaccination for everyone over 6 months of age. The failure of the flu vaccine in 2014–2015 demonstrates the need for a model that allows the rapid development of novel antivirals, universal/intra-seasonal vaccines, immunomodulators, monoclonal antibodies and other novel treatments. To this end we manufactured a new H3N2 influenza virus in compliance with Good Manufacturing Practice for use in the Human Viral Challenge Model. Methods and Strain Selection We chose an H3N2 influenza subtype, rather than H1N1, given that this strain has the most substantial impact in terms of morbidity or mortality annually as described by the Centre for Disease Control. We first subjected the virus batch to rigorous adventitious agent testing, confirmed the virus to be wild-type by Sanger sequencing and determined the virus titres appropriate for human use via the established ferret model. We built on our previous experience with other H3N2 and H1N1 viruses to develop this unique model. Human Challenge and Conclusions We conducted an initial safety and characterisation study in healthy adult volunteers, utilising our unique clinical quarantine facility in London, UK. In this study we demonstrated this new influenza (H3N2) challenge virus to be both safe and pathogenic with an appropriate level of disease in volunteers. Furthermore, by inoculating volunteers with a range of different inoculum titres, we established the minimum infectious titre required to achieve reproducible disease whilst ensuring a sensitive model that can be translated to design of subsequent field based studies. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02525055 PMID:26761707

  18. Antibody

    MedlinePlus

    An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples ... microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly ...

  19. Prevention of allograft HCV recurrence with peri-transplant human monoclonal antibody MBL-HCV1 combined with a single oral direct-acting antiviral: A proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Smith, H L; Chung, R T; Mantry, P; Chapman, W; Curry, M P; Schiano, T D; Boucher, E; Cheslock, P; Wang, Y; Molrine, D C

    2017-03-01

    Patients with active hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection at transplantation experience rapid allograft infection, increased risk of graft failure and accelerated fibrosis. MBL-HCV1, a neutralizing human monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting the HCV envelope, was combined with a licensed oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) to prevent HCV recurrence post-transplant in an open-label exploratory efficacy trial. Eight subjects received MBL-HCV1 beginning on the day of transplant with telaprevir initiated between days 3 and 7 post-transplantation. Following FDA approval of sofosbuvir, two subjects received MBL-HCV1 starting on the day of transplant with sofosbuvir initiated on day 3. Combination treatment was administered for 8-12 weeks or until the stopping rule for viral rebound was met. The primary endpoint was undetectable HCV RNA at day 56 with exploratory endpoints of sustained virologic response (SVR) at 12 and 24 weeks post-treatment. Both subjects receiving mAb and sofosbuvir achieved SVR24. Four of eight subjects in the mAb and telaprevir group met the primary endpoint; one subject achieved SVR24 and three subjects relapsed 2-12 weeks post-treatment. The other four subjects experienced viral breakthrough. There were no serious adverse events related to study treatment. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that peri-transplant immunoprophylaxis combined with a single oral direct-acting antiviral in the immediate post-transplant period can prevent HCV recurrence.

  20. Inhibitory Effect of Individual or Combinations of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies and Antiviral Reagents against Cell-Free and Cell-to-Cell HIV-1 Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kolodkin-Gal, Dror; Eslamizar, Leila; Owuor, Joshua O.; Mazzola, Emanuele; Gonzalez, Ana M.; Korioth-Schmitz, Birgit; Gelman, Rebecca S.; Montefiori, David C.; Haynes, Barton F.; Schmitz, Joern E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To date, most therapeutic and vaccine candidates for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are evaluated preclinically for efficacy against cell-free viral challenges. However, cell-associated HIV-1 is suggested to be a major contributor to sexual transmission by mucosal routes. To determine if neutralizing antibodies or inhibitors block cell-free and cell-associated virus transmission of diverse HIV-1 strains with different efficiencies, we tested 12 different antibodies and five inhibitors against four green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled HIV-1 envelope (Env) variants from transmitted/founder (T/F) or chronic infection isolates. We evaluated antibody/inhibitor-mediated virus neutralization using either TZM-bl target cells, in which infectivity was determined by virus-driven luciferase expression, or A3R5 lymphoblastoid target cells, in which infectivity was evaluated by GFP expression. In both the TZM-bl and A3R5 assays, cell-free virus or infected CD4+ lymphocytes were used as targets for neutralization. We further hypothesized that the combined use of specific neutralizing antibodies targeting HIV-1 Env would more effectively prevent cell-associated virus transmission than the use of individual antibodies. The tested antibody combinations included two gp120-directed antibodies, VRC01 and PG9, or VRC01 with the gp41-directed antibody 10E8. Our results demonstrated that cell-associated virus was less sensitive to neutralizing antibodies and inhibitors, particularly using the A3R5 neutralization assay, and the potencies of these neutralizing agents differed among Env variants. A combination of different neutralizing antibodies that target specific sites on gp120 led to a significant reduction in cell-associated virus transmission. These assays will help identify ideal combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies to use for passive preventive antibody administration and further characterize targets for the most effective neutralizing antibodies

  1. West Nile virus-specific CD4 T cells exhibit direct anti-viral cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity and are sufficient for antiviral protection

    PubMed Central

    Brien, James D.; Uhrlaub, Jennifer L.; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko

    2012-01-01

    CD4 T cells have been shown to be necessary for the prevention of encephalitis during West Nile virus infection. However, the mechanisms used by antigen-specific CD4 T cells to protect mice from West Nile virus encephalitis remain incompletely understood. Contrary to the belief that CD4 T cells are protective because they merely maintain the CD8 T cell response and improve antibody production, we here provide evidence for the direct anti-viral activity of CD4 T cells which functions to protect the host from WNV encephalitis. In adoptive transfers, naïve CD4 T cells protected a significant number of lethally infected RAG−/− mice, demonstrating the protective effect of CD4 T cells independent of B cells and CD8 T cells. To shed light on the mechanism of this protection, we defined the peptide specificities of the CD4 T cells responding to West Nile virus infection in C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice, and used these peptides to characterize the in vivo function of antiviral CD4 T cells. WNV-specific CD4 T cells produced IFN-γ and IL-2, but also showed potential for in vivo and ex vivo cytotoxicity. Furthermore, peptide vaccination using CD4 epitopes conferred protection against lethal West Nile virus infection in immunocompetent mice. These results demonstrate the role of direct effector function of antigen-specific CD4 T cell in preventing severe West Nile virus disease. PMID:19050276

  2. Henipavirus pathogenesis and antiviral approaches.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Cyrille; Horvat, Branka

    2015-03-01

    Hendra virus and Nipah virus are closely related, recently emerged zoonotic paramyxoviruses, belonging to the Henipavirus genus. Both viruses induce generalized vasculitis affecting particularly the respiratory tract and CNS. The exceptionally broad species tropism of Henipavirus, the high case fatality rate and person-to-person transmission associated with Nipah virus outbreaks emphasize the necessity of effective antiviral strategies for these intriguing threatening pathogens. Current therapeutic approaches, validated in animal models, target early steps in viral infection; they include the use of neutralizing virus-specific antibodies and blocking membrane fusion with peptides that bind the viral fusion protein. A better understanding of Henipavirus pathogenesis is critical for the further advancement of antiviral treatment, and we summarize here the recent progress in the field.

  3. Safety and antiviral activity of motavizumab, a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific humanized monoclonal antibody, when administered to RSV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Rosanna; DeVincenzo, John P; Muñoz, Alma; Hultquist, Micki; Suzich, Joann; Connor, Edward M; Losonsky, Genevieve A

    2009-09-01

    Previously healthy children hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) received motavizumab (3, 15, or 30 mg/kg intravenously), an RSV-specific monoclonal antibody, or placebo. Safety, tolerability, motavizumab concentrations, and immunogenicity were assessed. Cultivatable RSV in the upper respiratory tract was significantly reduced with motavizumab compared with placebo day 1 post-treatment. No adverse events were considered motavizumab-related by site investigators.

  4. Antivirals against animal viruses.

    PubMed

    Villa, T G; Feijoo-Siota, L; Rama, J L R; Ageitos, J M

    2016-09-30

    Antivirals are compounds used since the 1960s that can interfere with viral development. Some of these antivirals can be isolated from a variety of sources, such as animals, plants, bacteria or fungi, while others must be obtained by chemical synthesis, either designed or random. Antivirals display a variety of mechanisms of action, and while some of them enhance the animal immune system, others block a specific enzyme or a particular step in the viral replication cycle. As viruses are mandatory intracellular parasites that use the host's cellular machinery to survive and multiply, it is essential that antivirals do not harm the host. In addition, viruses are continually developing new antiviral resistant strains, due to their high mutation rate, which makes it mandatory to continually search for, or develop, new antiviral compounds. This review describes natural and synthetic antivirals in chronological order, with an emphasis on natural compounds, even when their mechanisms of action are not completely understood, that could serve as the basis for future development of novel and/or complementary antiviral treatments.

  5. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2013-04-16

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  6. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Andrew M

    2011-12-20

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  7. Antiviral therapy: a perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shahidi Bonjar, Amir Hashem

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses extracorporeal removal of viral particles and their antigens from the blood as an auxiliary therapy. This hypothesis has not been reported before. In some chronic blood-borne viral infections, the virus remains systemic and persistent for extended periods of time, with adverse effects that weaken the immune system. Blood titers of virus and its toxins are proportional to the severity of the disease, and their reduction can alleviate symptoms, leading to improved health. Several blood-borne viral infections can be overcome by the young, but are life-threatening in the elderly. It is known that some older people have extreme difficulty tolerating viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. Further, several types of viral infection persist throughout the life of the individual and cannot be eliminated by conventional treatments. Well-known infections of this type include HIV and hepatitis B. In the case of Ebola virus, patients remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus. According to the present hypothesis, an extracorporeal viral antibody column (EVAC) is proposed for elimination or reduction of the blood viral titer when treating blood-borne viral infection. EVAC would selectively trap viral antigens and toxins in the blood into an extracorporeal circuit, while returning detoxified blood back to the patient’s body. It is anticipated that EVAC would reduce mortality caused by blood-borne viral infections in the elderly since reduction of blood virus titers would improve health, leading to improved overall patient performance. Such enhancement would also make conventional therapies even more effective. EVAC could have a lifesaving role in treatment of viral illness, especially those involving lethal viruses such as Ebola, where the patient’s recovery to a large extent depends on their general health status. EVAC would be for single use and appropriately disposed of after each detoxification procedure. When

  8. Reaction of germinal centers in the T-cell-independent response to the bacterial polysaccharide alpha(1-->6)dextran.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, D; Wells, S M; Stall, A M; Kabat, E A

    1994-01-01

    Primary immunization of BALB/c mice with alpha(1-->6)dextran (DEX), a native bacterial polysaccharide, induces an unexpected pattern of splenic B-cell responses. After a peak of antibody-secreting B-cell response at day 4, deposition of dextran-anti-dextran immune complexes, as revealed by staining with both dextran and antibodies to dextran, occurs and persists in splenic follicles until at least the fourth week after immunization. Antigen-specific B cells appear and proliferate in such follicles, leading by day 11 to development of DEX-specific germinal centers as characterized by the presence of distinct regions of DEX+ peanut agglutinin-positive (PNA+) cells. At this time, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis also reveals the appearance of a distinct population of DEX+ PNA+ splenic B cells. In contrast, DEX+ PNA- cells, characterized by intense cytoplasmic staining, are present outside of splenic follicles, peak at day 4 to day 5, and persist until at least day 28. The frequency of these cells correlates with DEX-specific antibody-secreting cells, as detected by the ELISA-spot assay. Thus, in addition to the expected plasma cellular response, the typical T-cell-independent type II antigen, DEX, surprisingly also elicits the formation of antigen-specific germinal centers. These observations raise fundamental questions about the roles of germinal centers in T-cell-independent immune responses. Images PMID:7511812

  9. Hemolysin-producing Listeria monocytogenes affects the immune response to T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Hage-Chahine, C M; Del Giudice, G; Lambert, P H; Pechere, J C

    1992-01-01

    A murine experimental infection with a hemolysin-producing (Hly+) strain of Listeria monocytogenes and a non-hemolysin-producing (Hly-) mutant was used as an in vivo model to evaluate the role of hemolysin production in the immune response. No antilisterial antibodies were detectable following sublethal infection with Hly+ bacteria, but consistent antilisterial immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibody production was observed following sublethal infection with the Hly- mutant. Hly+ but not Hly- L. monocytogenes induced transient inhibition of antibody response to Hly- bacteria and to unrelated T-cell-dependent (tetanus toxoid) and T-cell-independent (pneumococcal polysaccharide 3) antigens. Transient inhibition of the activation of an antigen-specific T-cell clone was also observed following Hly+ infection of antigen-presenting cells but not following Hly- infection. These results suggest that hemolysin production by L. monocytogenes is an important factor in modulating the immune response to T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent antigens in infected individuals. Images PMID:1548067

  10. Advances in Antiviral vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Barney S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Antiviral vaccines have been the most successful biomedical intervention for preventing epidemic viral disease. Vaccination for smallpox in humans and rinderpest in cattle was the basis for disease eradication, and recent progress in polio eradication is promising. While early vaccines were developed empirically by passage in live animals or eggs, more recent vaccines have been developed because of the advent of new technologies, particularly cell culture and molecular biology. Recent technological advances in gene delivery and expression, nanoparticles, protein manufacturing, and adjuvants have created the potential for new vaccine platforms that may provide solutions for vaccines against viral pathogens for which no interventions currently exist. In addition, the technological convergence of human monoclonal antibody isolation, structural biology, and high throughput sequencing is providing new opportunities for atomic-level immunogen design. Selection of human monoclonal antibodies can identify immunodominant antigenic sites associated with neutralization and provide reagents for stabilizing and solving the structure of viral surface proteins. Understanding the structural basis for neutralization can guide selection of vaccine targets. Deep sequencing of the antibody repertoire and defining the ontogeny of the desired antibody responses can reveal the junctional recombination and somatic mutation requirements for B-cell recognition and affinity maturation. Collectively, this information will provide new strategic approaches for selecting vaccine antigens, formulations, and regimens. Moreover, it creates the potential for rational vaccine design and establishing a catalogue of vaccine technology platforms that would be effective against any given family or class of viral pathogens and improve our readiness to address new emerging viral threats. PMID:23947359

  11. Antiviral immunity in crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haipeng; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2009-08-01

    Viral diseases of shrimp have caused negative effects on the economy in several countries in Asia, South America and America, where they have numerous shrimp culture industries. The studies on the immunity of shrimp and other crustaceans have mainly focused on general aspects of immunity and as a consequence little is known about the antiviral responses in crustaceans. The aim of this review is to update recent knowledge of innate immunity against viral infections in crustaceans. Several antiviral molecules have been isolated and characterized recently from decapods. Characterization and identification of these molecules might provide a promising strategy for protection and treatment of these viral diseases. In addition dsRNA-induced antiviral immunity is also included.

  12. Antithyroglobulin antibody

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Hypothyroidism - thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Graves disease - thyroglobulin antibody; Underactive thyroid - thyroglobulin antibody

  13. Inflammatory monocytes hinder antiviral B cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Sammicheli, Stefano; Kuka, Mirela; Di Lucia, Pietro; de Oya, Nereida Jimenez; De Giovanni, Marco; Fioravanti, Jessica; Cristofani, Claudia; Maganuco, Carmela G.; Fallet, Benedict; Ganzer, Lucia; Sironi, Laura; Mainetti, Marta; Ostuni, Renato; Larimore, Kevin; Greenberg, Philip D.; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Guidotti, Luca G.; Iannacone, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies are critical for protection against viral infections. However, several viruses, such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), avoid the induction of early protective antibody responses by poorly understood mechanisms. Here we analyzed the spatiotemporal dynamics of B cell activation to show that, upon subcutaneous infection, LCMV-specific B cells readily relocate to the interfollicular and T cell areas of the draining lymph node where they extensively interact with CD11b+Ly6Chi inflammatory monocytes. These myeloid cells were recruited to lymph nodes draining LCMV infection sites in a type I interferon-, CCR2-dependent fashion and they suppressed antiviral B cell responses by virtue of their ability to produce nitric oxide. Depletion of inflammatory monocytes, inhibition of their lymph node recruitment or impairment of their nitric oxide-producing ability enhanced LCMV-specific B cell survival and led to robust neutralizing antibody production. In conclusion, our results identify inflammatory monocytes as critical gatekeepers that prevent antiviral B cell responses and suggest that certain viruses take advantage of these cells to prolong their persistence within the host. PMID:27868108

  14. Release of nitric oxide during the T cell-independent pathway of macrophage activation

    SciTech Connect

    Beckerman, K.P.; Rogers, H.W.; Corbett, J.A.; Schreiber, R.D.; McDaniel, M.L.; Unanue, E.R. )

    1993-02-01

    Immunodeficient mice are remarkably resistant to Listeria monocytogenes (LM) infection. The authors examined the role that nitric oxide (NO) plays in the CB-17/lcr SCID (SCID) response to LM. SCID spleen cells produced large quantities of NO (as measured by nitrite formation) when incubated in the presence of heat-killed LM. NO produced large quantities of nitrite in response to LM, but only in the presence of IFN-[gamma]. The production of NO induced by LM was not affected by neutralizing antibodies to TNF or IL-1. The production of NO was inhibited by addition of either of two inhibitors of NO synthase, N[sup G]-monomethyl arginine, or aminoguanidine. In a different situation, NK cells that were stimulated by TNF and Listeria products to release IFN-[gamma] did not produce NO. Macrophages cultured with IFN-[gamma] killed live LM. This increased killing of LM was significantly inhibited by amino-guanidine. In vivo, administration of aminoguanidine resulted in a marked increase in the mortality and spleen bacterial loads of LM-infected SCID or immunocompetent control mice. It is concluded that NO is a critical effector molecule of T cell-independent natural resistence of LM as studied in the SCID mouse, and that the NO-mediated response is essential for both SCID and immunocompetent host to survive after LM infection. 37 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Antiviral treatment of Argentine hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Enria, D A; Maiztegui, J I

    1994-01-01

    Argentine hemorrhagic fever is a systemic viral disease caused by Junin virus, with a mortality of 15-30% in untreated individuals. Current specific therapy is highly effective in reducing mortality, and consists of the early administration of immune plasma in defined doses of specific neutralizing antibodies per kg of body weight. However, several reasons suggest the need to investigate alternative therapies. Ribavirin, a broad spectrum antiviral agent, is effective in the treatment of other viral hemorrhagic fevers, and the studies done with Junin virus infections to date indicate that this drug may also have a beneficial effect in Argentine hemorrhagic fever.

  16. Smallpox Antiviral Drug

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Nevirapine 1996 HIV Delavirdine 1997 HIV Abacavir 1998 HIV Efavirenz 1998 HIV Tenofovir 2001 HIV Adefovirn dipivoxil 2002 HBV Emtricitabine 2003 HIV Acyclovir...toxicity, hair loss, and skin changes [De Benedittis et al., 2004]. The other approach to orthopoxvirus antiviral drug discovery is to screen new...Rouzioux C. 2004. Penetration of enfuvirtide, tenofovir, efavirenz , and protease inhibitors in the genital tract of HIV-1-infected men. Aids 18:1958

  17. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun-Da; Meng, Wen; Wang, Xiao-Jia; Wang, Hwa-Chain R.

    2015-01-01

    Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents. PMID:26052325

  18. [Antiviral therapy in herpetic keratitis].

    PubMed

    Popa, D P; Ivaşcu, M; Ristea, L

    1994-01-01

    The frequency of ocular herpes has increased in the last time. The pathogenic mechanisms of herpetic ocular inflammation consist in cells degeneration produced by intracell virus accumulation, and immunopathological processes. It is presented the antiviral treatment in ocular herpes and antiviral efficacity of acyclovir, in comparison with other chemotherapeutics.

  19. Antiviral activities of photoactive perylenequinones.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J B; Imperial, V; Haugland, R P; Diwu, Z

    1997-02-01

    Nine perylenequinones (PQ), including some familiar naturally occurring pigments, were compared for their light-mediated antiviral efficacies. Calphostin C was the most active compound against the two target viruses, herpes simplex virus type 1 and Sindbis virus. Hypocrellins A and B were also very active. However, three cercosporin-like PQ were substantially less active in spite of their high quantum yields of singlet oxygen, whereas phleichrome, another efficient singlet oxygen producer, showed no detectable antiviral activity. One other PQ, which was a very weak singlet oxygen producer, also showed no antiviral activity. None of the active compounds showed significant antiviral activity in the dark. Thus, for some groups of PQ there was correlation between quantum yield of singlet oxygen (1O2) and antiviral efficacy, but there are evidently other structural features of PQ that influence activity.

  20. Antiviral Actions of Interferons

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Charles E.

    2001-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of the antiviral actions of interferons (IFNs), as well as strategies evolved by viruses to antagonize the actions of IFNs. Furthermore, advances made while elucidating the IFN system have contributed significantly to our understanding in multiple areas of virology and molecular cell biology, ranging from pathways of signal transduction to the biochemical mechanisms of transcriptional and translational control to the molecular basis of viral pathogenesis. IFNs are approved therapeutics and have moved from the basic research laboratory to the clinic. Among the IFN-induced proteins important in the antiviral actions of IFNs are the RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), the 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) and RNase L, and the Mx protein GTPases. Double-stranded RNA plays a central role in modulating protein phosphorylation and RNA degradation catalyzed by the IFN-inducible PKR kinase and the 2′-5′-oligoadenylate-dependent RNase L, respectively, and also in RNA editing by the IFN-inducible RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1). IFN also induces a form of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS2) and the major histocompatibility complex class I and II proteins, all of which play important roles in immune response to infections. Several additional genes whose expression profiles are altered in response to IFN treatment and virus infection have been identified by microarray analyses. The availability of cDNA and genomic clones for many of the components of the IFN system, including IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ, their receptors, Jak and Stat and IRF signal transduction components, and proteins such as PKR, 2′,5′-OAS, Mx, and ADAR, whose expression is regulated by IFNs, has permitted the generation of mutant proteins, cells that overexpress different forms of the proteins, and animals in which their expression has been disrupted by targeted gene disruption. The use of these IFN system

  1. Antiviral immunity in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guangchun; Robert, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    Although a variety of virus species can infect amphibians, diseases caused by ranaviruses ([RVs]; Iridoviridae) have become prominent, and are a major concern for biodiversity, agriculture and international trade. The relatively recent and rapid increase in prevalence of RV infections, the wide range of host species infected by RVs, the variability in host resistance among population of the same species and among different developmental stages, all suggest an important involvement of the amphibian immune system. Nevertheless, the roles of the immune system in the etiology of viral diseases in amphibians are still poorly investigated. We review here the current knowledge of antiviral immunity in amphibians, focusing on model species such as the frog Xenopus and the salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum), and on recent progress in generating tools to better understand how host immune defenses control RV infections, pathogenicity, and transmission.

  2. Autoimmune disease: A role for new anti-viral therapies?

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, David H

    2011-12-01

    Many chronic human diseases may have an underlying autoimmune mechanism. In this review, the author presents a case of autoimmune CIU (chronic idiopathic urticaria) in stable remission after therapy with a retroviral integrase inhibitor, raltegravir (Isentress). Previous reports located using the search terms "autoimmunity" and "anti-viral" and related topics in the pubmed data-base are reviewed suggesting that novel anti-viral agents such as retroviral integrase inhibitors, gene silencing therapies and eventually vaccines may provide new options for anti-viral therapy of autoimmune diseases. Cited epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that increased replication of epigenomic viral pathogens such as Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in chronic human autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus Erythematosus (SLE), and multiple sclerosis (MS) may activate endogenous human retroviruses (HERV) as a pathologic mechanism. Memory B cells are the reservoir of infection of EBV and also express endogenous retroviruses, thus depletion of memory b-lymphocytes by monoclonal antibodies (Rituximab) may have therapeutic anti-viral effects in addition to effects on B-lymphocyte presentation of both EBV and HERV superantigens. Other novel anti-viral therapies of chronic autoimmune diseases, such as retroviral integrase inhibitors, could be effective, although not without risk.

  3. Hibernation is associated with depression of T-cell independent humoral immune responses in the 13-lined ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Bouma, Hjalmar R; Henning, Robert H; Kroese, Frans G M; Carey, Hannah V

    2013-03-01

    Mammalian hibernation consists of periods of low metabolism and body temperature (torpor), interspersed by euthermic arousal periods. The function of both the innate and adaptive immune system is suppressed during hibernation. In this study, we analyzed the humoral adaptive immune response to a T-cell independent (TI-2) and a T-cell dependent (TD) antigen. Thirteen-lined ground squirrels were immunized in summer or during hibernation with either a TI-2 or TD antigen on day 0 and day 14. Blood was drawn on day 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Both types of antigens induced a significant rise in antibody titer in summer animals. Much to our surprise, however, only immunization with the TD antigen, and not with the TI-2 antigen induced a humoral response in hibernators. Flow cytometric analysis of CD4 (helper T-lymphocytes), CD8 (cytotoxic T-lymphocytes) and CD45RA (B-lymphocytes) in blood, spleen and lymph nodes ruled out massive apoptosis as explanation of the absent TI humoral response during hibernation. Rather, reduced TI-2 stimulation of B-lymphocytes, possibly due to lowered serum complement during torpor, may explain the reduced antibody production in response to a TI-2 antigen. These results demonstrate that hibernation diminishes the capacity to induce a TI-2 humoral immune response, while the capacity to induce a humoral response to a TD antigen is maintained.

  4. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Luis P.

    2011-01-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features. PMID:22069523

  5. Antivirals in the transplant setting.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Paul D

    2006-09-01

    Over the past quarter of a century, antiviral drugs have moved from an experimental adventure in transplant patients to a situation where they are used routinely to prevent diseases caused by several viruses. Furthermore, they have significantly reduced several medical complications of transplantation, such as graft rejection, thereby implicating viruses as components of their pathogenesis. By controlling these major complication, the development of these antiviral drugs and their prodrugs, has therefore greatly facilitated the clinical expansion of transplantation, allowing life saving procedures to be offered to more patients who could potentially benefit. This article will briefly summaries which viruses are important following transplantation and outline the evidence-base from randomized controlled clinical trails for the deployment of antiviral drugs to prevent viral diseases.

  6. Viral ancestors of antiviral systems.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Luis P

    2011-10-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the 'Big Bang' theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  7. Carrier-Mediated Antiviral Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    encapsulat- ed nbavirin (3 mg per mouse) on days 0 and 2. " %.. - V % % CARRIER- MEDIATED ANTIVIRAL THERAPY 245 Table 2. Effect or MTP-PE Treatment on the...illustrates the effect of IV MTP-PE on the survival of mice injected int’a- .. - ,.,.,.. nasally with HSV- 1 . A small but significant enhancement of...dosage of interferon was marginally effective when given in %%’. CARRIER- MEDIATED ANTIVIRAL THERAPY 251 only two or three injections (on days I and 6 or

  8. Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure Suppresses T-independent Antibody Responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to  3.75mg/kg of perfluoroocatnoic acid (PFOA) for 15d suppresses T-dependent antibody responses (TDAR), suggesting that T helper cells and/or B cells/plasma cells may be impacted. This study evaluated effects of PFOA exposure on the T cell-independent antibody response...

  9. Novel antiviral activity of chemokines

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Takashi; Shirane, Jumi; Hieshima, Kunio; Shibano, Michiko; Watanabe, Masayasu; Jin, Zhe; Nagakubo, Daisuke; Saito, Takuya; Shimomura, Yoshikazu; Yoshie, Osamu . E-mail: o.yoshie@med.kindai.ac.jp

    2006-07-05

    Antimicrobial peptides are a diverse family of small, mostly cationic polypeptides that kill bacteria, fungi and even some enveloped viruses, while chemokines are a group of mostly cationic small proteins that induce directed migration of leukocytes through interactions with a group of seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors. Recent studies have shown that antimicrobial peptides and chemokines have substantially overlapping functions. Thus, while some antimicrobial peptides are chemotactic for leukocytes, some chemokines can kill a wide range of bacteria and fungi. Here, we examined a possible direct antiviral activity of chemokines against an enveloped virus HSV-1. Among 22 human chemokines examined, chemokines such as MIP-1{alpha}/CCL3, MIP-1{beta}/CCL4 and RANTES/CCL5 showed a significant direct antiviral activity against HSV-1. It is intriguing that these chemokines are mostly known to be highly expressed by effector CD8{sup +} T cells. The chemokines with a significant anti-HSV-1 activity commonly bound to HSV-1 virions via envelope glycoprotein gB. Electron microscopy revealed that the chemokines with a significant anti-HSV-1 activity were commonly capable of generating pores in the envelope of HSV-1. Thus, some chemokines have a significant direct antiviral activity against HSV-1 in vitro and may have a potential role in host defense against HSV-1 as a direct antiviral agent.

  10. Optimization of Influenza Antiviral Response in Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    antiviral, vaccine , and social interventions. Mathematical models can guide policies to saves lives. In this thesis, we create an optimization model...and Prevention down to state and local regions, are prepared to respond to potential influenza pandemics with antiviral, vaccine , and social...model with vaccination and antivirals (V and T respectively) (from Coburn et al., 2009). .........................................................20

  11. Diagnostic value of anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin in comparison to anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide and anti-viral citrullinated peptide 2 antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: an Italian multicentric study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bartoloni, Elena; Alunno, Alessia; Bistoni, Onelia; Bizzaro, Nicola; Migliorini, Paola; Morozzi, Gabriella; Doria, Andrea; Mathieu, Alessandro; Lotzniker, Milvia; Allegri, Flavio; Riccieri, Valeria; Alpini, Claudia; Gabrielli, Armando; Tampoia, Marilina; Gerli, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    In the last years, the detection of antibodies (Abs) against citrullinated peptides (ACPA) has largely replaced rheumatoid factor (RF) as the most helpful biomarker in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Current assays detect ACPA reactivity with epitopes on various different citrullinated proteins. Among these, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) Abs have been widely demonstrated to be an important diagnostic and prognostic tool because of their high specificity. Recently, citrullinated vimentin, a protein highly released in synovial microenvironment, has been identified as potential autoantigen in the pathophysiology of RA and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Abs directed against a mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) was developed. Several recent studies evaluating the characteristics of anti-MCV in comparison to anti-CCP Abs, have given conflicting results. Anti-MCV have been demonstrated to perform better than anti-CCP as predictor of radiographic damage. Conversely, its additional diagnostic and prognostic role in comparison to anti-CCP in both early and established RA is controversial. Aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of anti-MCV in RA and to compare it to anti-CCP and the recently developed assay targeting viral citrullinated peptide 2 (VCP2) in a large cohort of RA patients (n=285), healthy subjects and other disease controls (n=227). Anti-MCV resulted to have a sensitivity of 59% and a specificity of 92%. In comparison, anti-CCP and anti-VCP2 displayed a sensitivity of 77% and 61% and a specificity of 96% and 95%, respectively. Of interest, at the manufacturer recommended cutoff value of 20U/mL, a high percentage of healthy subjects as well as Epstein Barr (EBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) virus infected patients resulted anti-MCV positive. In our large cohort of RA patients, anti-MCV demonstrated lower sensitivity than anti-CCP and VCP2 test, thus not allowing to confirm previously

  12. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in nude mice: studies with isolates differing in virulence and definition of their T cell-dependent and T cell-independent components.

    PubMed

    Burger, E; Vaz, C C; Sano, A; Calich, V L; Singer-Vermes, L M; Xidieh, C F; Kashino, S S; Nishimura, K; Miyaji, M

    1996-10-01

    Athymic and euthymic BALB/c mice infected with highly (Pb18) or slightly (Pb265) virulent Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates were compared regarding mortality, presence of viable yeasts, specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG titers, and the antigen recognition patterns of these antibodies. Isolate Pb18 caused a more severe disease in athymic mice, as supported by higher number of infected organs and shorter survival times. These animals, however, were resistant to Pb265 infection. High titers of antibodies were found only in euthymic mice, seven weeks after Pb18 infection. At this time, euthymic animals presented IgG antibodies to numerous protein bands that were not detected at four weeks postinfection or after Pb265 inoculation. In contrast, antibodies from athymic mice always reacted with few antigen bands. Although the majority of P. brasiliensis antigens are T cell-dependent, the immunodominant gp43 and also the 41.5- and 27.5-kD antigens are here, for the first time, characterized as T cell-independent antigens of P. brasiliensis.

  13. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride.

    PubMed

    Cernescu, C; Popescu, L; Constantinescu, S; Cernescu, S

    1988-01-01

    Studies in human embryo fibroblasts infected with measles or herpes simplex virus showed a reduction in virus yield when cultures were pretreated with 1-10 mM lithium chloride doses. Maximum effect was obtained by a 1 h treatment with 10 mM lithium chloride, preceding viral infection by 19-24 hours. A specific antiviral effect against measles virus was manifest immediately after culture pretreatment. Intermittent treatment with 10 mM lithium chloride of cultures persistently infected with measles or herpes virus obtained from human myeloid K-562 cell line shows a reduction in the extracellular virus yield. In the K-562/herpes virus system, the culture treatment with lithium chloride and acyclovir (10 microM) has an additive inhibitory effect on virus production. The paper is focused on the mechanism of lithium chloride antiviral action and the expediency of lithium therapy in SSPE (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis).

  14. The potential of antiviral agents to control classical swine fever: a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Backer, Jantien A; Vrancken, Robert; Neyts, Johan; Goris, Nesya

    2013-09-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) represents a continuous threat to pig populations that are free of disease without vaccination. When CSF virus is introduced, the minimal control strategy imposed by the EU is often insufficient to mitigate the epidemic. Additional measures such as preemptive culling encounter ethical objections, whereas emergency vaccination leads to prolonged export restrictions. Antiviral agents, however, provide instantaneous protection without inducing an antibody response. The use of antiviral agents to contain CSF epidemics is studied with a model describing within- and between-herd virus transmission. Epidemics are simulated in a densely populated livestock area in The Netherlands, with farms of varying sizes and pig types (finishers, piglets and sows). Our results show that vaccination and/or antiviral treatment in a 2 km radius around an infected herd is more effective than preemptive culling in a 1 km radius. However, the instantaneous but temporary protection provided by antiviral treatment is slightly less effective than the delayed but long-lasting protection offered by vaccination. Therefore, the most effective control strategy is to vaccinate animals when allowed (finishers and piglets) and to treat with antiviral agents when vaccination is prohibited (sows). As independent control measure, antiviral treatment in a 1 km radius presents an elevated risk of epidemics running out of control. A 2 km control radius largely eliminates this risk.

  15. Oral-nasopharyngeal dendritic cells mediate T cell-independent IgA class switching on B-1 B cells.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Kosuke; Fujihashi, Keiko; Terao, Yutaka; Gilbert, Rebekah S; Sekine, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Ryoki; Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Kawabata, Shigetada; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

    2011-01-01

    Native cholera toxin (nCT) as a nasal adjuvant was shown to elicit increased levels of T-independent S-IgA antibody (Ab) responses through IL-5- IL-5 receptor interactions between CD4+ T cells and IgA+ B-1 B cells in murine submandibular glands (SMGs) and nasal passages (NPs). Here, we further investigate whether oral-nasopharyngeal dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the induction of B-1 B cell IgA class switch recombination (CSR) for the enhancement of T cell-independent (TI) mucosal S-IgA Ab responses. High expression levels of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, Iα-Cμ circulation transcripts and Iμ-Cα transcripts were seen on B-1 B cells purified from SMGs and NPs of both TCRβ⁻/⁻ mice and wild-type mice given nasal trinitrophenyl (TNP)-LPS plus nCT, than in the same tissues of mice given nCT or TNP-LPS alone. Further, DCs from SMGs, NPs and NALT of mice given nasal TNP-LPS plus nCT expressed significantly higher levels of a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) than those in mice given TNP-LPS or nCT alone, whereas the B-1 B cells in SMGs and NPs showed elevated levels of transmembrane activator and calcium modulator cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) expression. Interestingly, high frequencies of IgA+ B-1 B cells were induced when peritoneal IgA⁻ IgM+ B cells were stimulated with mucosal DCs from mice given nasal TNP-LPS plus nCT. Taken together, these findings show that nasal nCT plays a key role in the enhancement of mucosal DC-mediated TI IgA CSR by B-1 B cells through their interactions with APRIL and TACI.

  16. Antiviral immunity following smallpox virus infection: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hammarlund, Erika; Lewis, Matthew W; Hanifin, Jon M; Mori, Motomi; Koudelka, Caroline W; Slifka, Mark K

    2010-12-01

    Outbreaks of smallpox (i.e., caused by variola virus) resulted in up to 30% mortality, but those who survived smallpox infection were regarded as immune for life. Early studies described the levels of neutralizing antibodies induced after infection, but smallpox was eradicated before contemporary methods for quantifying T-cell memory were developed. To better understand the levels and duration of immunity after smallpox infection, we performed a case-control study comparing antiviral CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses and neutralizing antibody levels of 24 smallpox survivors with the antiviral immunity observed in 60 smallpox-vaccinated (i.e., vaccinia virus-immune) control subjects. We found that the duration of immunity following smallpox infection was remarkably similar to that observed after smallpox vaccination, with antiviral T-cell responses that declined slowly over time and antiviral antibody responses that remained stable for decades after recovery from infection. These results indicate that severe, potentially life-threatening disease is not required for the development of sustainable long-term immunity. This study shows that the levels of immunity induced following smallpox vaccination are comparable in magnitude to that achieved through natural variola virus infection, and this may explain the notable success of vaccination in eradicating smallpox, one of the world's most lethal diseases.

  17. Antiviral effects of Glycyrrhiza species.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Cristina; Eisenhut, Michael; Krausse, Rea; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Pellati, Donatella; Armanini, Decio; Bielenberg, Jens

    2008-02-01

    Historical sources for the use of Glycyrrhiza species include ancient manuscripts from China, India and Greece. They all mention its use for symptoms of viral respiratory tract infections and hepatitis. Randomized controlled trials confirmed that the Glycyrrhiza glabra derived compound glycyrrhizin and its derivatives reduced hepatocellular damage in chronic hepatitis B and C. In hepatitis C virus-induced cirrhosis the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma was reduced. Animal studies demonstrated a reduction of mortality and viral activity in herpes simplex virus encephalitis and influenza A virus pneumonia. In vitro studies revealed antiviral activity against HIV-1, SARS related coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, arboviruses, vaccinia virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. Mechanisms for antiviral activity of Glycyrrhiza spp. include reduced transport to the membrane and sialylation of hepatitis B virus surface antigen, reduction of membrane fluidity leading to inhibition of fusion of the viral membrane of HIV-1 with the cell, induction of interferon gamma in T-cells, inhibition of phosphorylating enzymes in vesicular stomatitis virus infection and reduction of viral latency. Future research needs to explore the potency of compounds derived from licorice in prevention and treatment of influenza A virus pneumonia and as an adjuvant treatment in patients infected with HIV resistant to antiretroviral drugs.

  18. Oligonucleotide-based antiviral strategies.

    PubMed

    Schubert, S; Kurreck, J

    2006-01-01

    In the age of extensive global traffic systems, the close neighborhood of man and livestock in some regions of the world, as well as inadequate prevention measures and medical care in poorer countries, greatly facilitates the emergence and dissemination of new virus strains. The appearance of avian influenza viruses that can infect humans, the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus, and the unprecedented raging of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) illustrate the threat of a global virus pandemic. In addition, viruses like hepatitis B and C claim more than one million lives every year for want of efficient therapy. Thus, new approaches to prevent virus propagation are urgently needed. Antisense strategies are considered a very attractive means of inhibiting viral replication, as oligonucleotides can be designed to interact with any viral RNA, provided its sequence is known. The ensuing targeted destruction of viral RNA should interfere with viral replication without entailing negative effects on ongoing cellular processes. In this review, we will give some examples of the employment of antisense oligonucleotides, ribozymes, and RNA interference strategies for antiviral purposes. Currently, in spite of encouraging results in preclinical studies, only a few antisense oligonucleotides and ribozymes have turned out to be efficient antiviral compounds in clinical trials. The advent of RNA interference now seems to be refueling hopes for decisive progress in the field of therapeutic employment of antisense strategies.

  19. What You Should Know about Flu Antiviral Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsletters What You Should Know About Flu Antiviral Drugs Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... used to treat flu illness. What are antiviral drugs? Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid, an ...

  20. Hepatitis C Virus and Antiviral Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungtaek; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1989, hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been intensively investigated to understand its biology and develop effective antiviral therapies. The efforts of the previous 25 years have resulted in a better understanding of the virus, and this was facilitated by the development of in vitro cell culture systems for HCV replication. Antiviral treatments and sustained virological responses have also improved from the early interferon monotherapy to the current all-oral regimens using direct-acting antivirals. However, antiviral resistance has become a critical issue in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, similar to other chronic viral infections, and retreatment options following treatment failure have become important questions. Despite the clinical challenges in the management of chronic hepatitis C, substantial progress has been made in understanding HCV, which may facilitate the investigation of other closely related flaviviruses and lead to the development of antiviral agents against these human pathogens. PMID:27784846

  1. Broad-spectrum antivirals against viral fusion

    PubMed Central

    Vigant, Frederic; Santos, Nuno C.; Lee, Benhur

    2015-01-01

    Effective antivirals have been developed against specific viruses, such as HIV, Hepatitis C virus and influenza virus. This ‘one bug–one drug’ approach to antiviral drug development can be successful, but it may be inadequate for responding to an increasing diversity of viruses that cause significant diseases in humans. The majority of viral pathogens that cause emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are membrane-enveloped viruses, which require the fusion of viral and cell membranes for virus entry. Therefore, antivirals that target the membrane fusion process represent new paradigms for broad-spectrum antiviral discovery. In this Review, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for the fusion between virus and cell membranes and explore how broad-spectrum antivirals target this process to prevent virus entry. PMID:26075364

  2. Cell-cycle quiescence maintains Caenorhabditis elegans germline stem cells independent of GLP-1/Notch.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Hannah S; Kimble, Judith

    2015-11-09

    Many types of adult stem cells exist in a state of cell-cycle quiescence, yet it has remained unclear whether quiescence plays a role in maintaining the stem cell fate. Here we establish the adult germline of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for facultative stem cell quiescence. We find that mitotically dividing germ cells--including germline stem cells--become quiescent in the absence of food. This quiescence is characterized by a slowing of S phase, a block to M-phase entry, and the ability to re-enter M phase rapidly in response to re-feeding. Further, we demonstrate that cell-cycle quiescence alters the genetic requirements for stem cell maintenance: The signaling pathway required for stem cell maintenance under fed conditions--GLP-1/Notch signaling--becomes dispensable under conditions of quiescence. Thus, cell-cycle quiescence can itself maintain stem cells, independent of the signaling pathway otherwise essential for such maintenance.

  3. Recent Progress toward Engineering HIV-1-Specific Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ming; Li, Yue; Zheng, Huiwen; Shao, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    The recent discoveries of broadly potent neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies represent a new generation of antiretrovirals for the treatment and prophylaxis. Antibodies are generally considered more effective and safer and have been proved to provide passive protection against mucosal challenge in humanized mice and macaques. Several neutralizing Abs could protect animals against HIV-1 but are not effective when used in an established infected model for therapy. In order to overcome the limitation of antiviral activities, multiple antibody-engineering technologies have been explored to generate “the better” neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 since bNAbs attack viral entry by various mechanisms. Thus, a promising direction of research is to discover and exploit rational antibody combination or engineered antibodies (eAbs) as potential candidate therapeutics against HIV-1. It has been reported that inclusion of fusion-neutralizing antibodies in a set of bNAbs could improve their overall activities and neutralizing spectrum. Here, we review several routes for engineering bNAbs, such as design and generation of bispecific antibodies, specific glycosylation of antibodies to enhance antiviral activity, and variable region-specific modification guided by structure and computer, as well as reviewing antibody-delivery technologies by non-viral vector, viral vector, and human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells transduced with a lentiviral construct. We also discuss the optimized antiviral activities and benefits of these strategy and potential mechanisms. PMID:27746780

  4. Antiviral Perspectives for Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Cherian, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that has a major health impact in humans and causes acute febrile illness in humans accompanied by joint pains and, in many cases, persistent arthralgia lasting for weeks to years. CHIKV reemerged in 2005-2006 in several parts of the Indian Ocean islands and India after a gap of 32 years, causing millions of cases. The re-emergence of CHIKV has also resulted in numerous outbreaks in several countries in the eastern hemisphere, with a threat to further expand in the near future. However, there is no vaccine against CHIKV infection licensed for human use, and therapy for CHIKV infection is still mainly limited to supportive care as antiviral agents are yet in different stages of testing or development. In this review we explore the different perspectives for chikungunya treatment and the effectiveness of these treatment regimens and discuss the scope for future directions. PMID:24955364

  5. Antiviral active peptide from oyster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Cui, Wenxuan; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Dong, Shiyuan; Guo, Yao

    2008-08-01

    An active peptide against herpes virus was isolated from the enzymic hydrolysate of oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and purified with the definite direction hydrolysis technique in the order of alcalase and bromelin. The hydrolysate was fractioned into four ranges of molecular weight (>10 kDa, 10 5 kDa, 5 1 kDa and <1 kDa) using ultrafiltration membranes and dialysis. The fraction of 10 5 kDa was purified using consecutive chromatographic methods including DEAE Sephadex A-25 column, Sephadex G-25 column, and high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) by activity-guided isolation. The antiviral effect of the obtained peptide on herpetic virus was investigated in Vero cells by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). The result shows that the peptide has high inhibitory activity on herpetic virus.

  6. Antimitochondrial antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003529.htm Antimitochondrial antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are substances ( antibodies ) that form against mitochondria. ...

  7. Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines. PMID:24872930

  8. Effective binding of a phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody to Ebola virus infected cells and purified virions.

    PubMed

    Dowall, S D; Graham, V A; Corbin-Lickfett, K; Empig, C; Schlunegger, K; Bruce, C B; Easterbrook, L; Hewson, R

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is responsible for causing severe hemorrhagic fevers, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, no antiviral or vaccine is licensed against Ebola virus. A phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody (PGN401, bavituximab) has previously been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Here, we demonstrate that PGN401 specifically binds to Ebola virus and recognizes infected cells. Our study provides the first evidence of phosphatidylserine-targeting antibody reactivity against Ebola virus.

  9. Antiviral treatment of influenza in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Young June; Lee, Hyunju; Lee, Hoan Jong; Choi, Eun Hwa

    2015-06-01

    Antiviral therapy has an important role in the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza. At present, two classes of antiviral agents, adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors, are available for the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza in Korea. Because of the widespread resistance against adamantanes, neuraminidase inhibitors are mainly used. Because each country has a unique epidemiology of influenza, the proper use of antiviral agents should be determined based on local data. Decisions on the clinical practice in the treatment of influenza in South Korea are guided by the local surveillance data, practice guidelines, health insurance system and the resistance patterns of the circulating influenza viruses. This review highlights the role of antiviral agents in the treatment and outcome of influenza in Korea by providing comprehensive information of their clinical usage in Korea.

  10. Developing Novel Antimicrobial and Antiviral Textile Products.

    PubMed

    Iyigundogdu, Zeynep Ustaoglu; Demir, Okan; Asutay, Ayla Burcin; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2017-03-01

    In conjunction with an increasing public awareness of infectious diseases, the textile industry and scientists are developing hygienic fabrics by the addition of various antimicrobial and antiviral compounds. In the current study, sodium pentaborate pentahydrate and triclosan are applied to cotton fabrics in order to gain antimicrobial and antiviral properties for the first time. The antimicrobial activity of textiles treated with 3 % sodium pentaborate pentahydrate, 0.03 % triclosan, and 7 % Glucapon has been investigated against a broad range of microorganisms including bacteria, yeast, and fungi. Moreover, modified cotton fabrics were tested against adenovirus type 5 and poliovirus type 1. According to the test results, the modified textile goods attained very good antimicrobial and antiviral properties. Thus, the results of the present study clearly suggest that sodium pentaborate pentahydrate and triclosan solution-treated textiles can be considered in the development of antimicrobial and antiviral textile finishes.

  11. Fluorinated nucleosides as antiviral and antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wei-Dong; Qing, Feng-Ling

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of nucleosides and analogues with fluoride modifications on the surgar moiety are reviewed, and their biological activities as potential antiviral and anti-tumor agents are also discussed.

  12. Modulation by gamma interferon of antiviral cell-mediated immune responses in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Utermöhlen, O; Dangel, A; Tárnok, A; Lehmann-Grube, F

    1996-01-01

    Mice were infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and injected once 24 h later with a monoclonal antibody directed against gamma interferon. In comparison with controls, the increase of numbers of CD8+ T cells and the generation of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in spleens and virus clearance from organs were diminished, as was the ability of spleen cells to transmit adoptive immunity to infected recipients. The same treatment slightly but consistently lessened rather than augmented the virus titers early in infection, which was also observed in thymusless nu/nu mice. Injection into infected mice of the lymphokine itself in quantities probably higher than are produced endogenously resulted in lower virus titers in spleens but higher titers in livers. The adoptive immunity in infected mice achieved by infusion of immune spleen cells was not altered by treating the recipients with gamma interferon monoclonal antibody. Such treatment did not measurably affect the production of antiviral serum antibodies. We conclude that in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-infected mice, gamma interferon is needed for the generation of antivirally active CD8+ T lymphocytes, and furthermore that in this experimental model, direct antiviral effects of the lymphokine elude detection. PMID:8627670

  13. Antiviral Drugs: Molecular Modeling and QSAR.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-10

    questions related to drug design and our areas of expertise; (3) provide general education to USAMRII)D personnel in our methods and capabilities. In...terms of drug design effort, the antiviral drug development effortat US AMRIrID is in its infancy. Little is known of the structure or biology of the...because of the dearth of information about the viruses, for the antiviral work this approach to drug design is currently unavailable to USAMRIID and to

  14. Cell-cycle quiescence maintains Caenorhabditis elegans germline stem cells independent of GLP-1/Notch

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Hannah S; Kimble, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Many types of adult stem cells exist in a state of cell-cycle quiescence, yet it has remained unclear whether quiescence plays a role in maintaining the stem cell fate. Here we establish the adult germline of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for facultative stem cell quiescence. We find that mitotically dividing germ cells—including germline stem cells—become quiescent in the absence of food. This quiescence is characterized by a slowing of S phase, a block to M-phase entry, and the ability to re-enter M phase rapidly in response to re-feeding. Further, we demonstrate that cell-cycle quiescence alters the genetic requirements for stem cell maintenance: The signaling pathway required for stem cell maintenance under fed conditions—GLP-1/Notch signaling—becomes dispensable under conditions of quiescence. Thus, cell-cycle quiescence can itself maintain stem cells, independent of the signaling pathway otherwise essential for such maintenance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10832.001 PMID:26551561

  15. Prominent role for plasmacytoid dendritic cells in mucosal T cell-independent IgA induction.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Hiroyuki; Abe, Yukiko; Asano, Jumpei; Sato, Taku; Liu, Jiajia; Iwata, Makoto; Ohteki, Toshiaki

    2011-02-25

    Although both conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are present in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), the roles of pDCs in the gut remain largely unknown. Here we show a critical role for pDCs in T cell-independent (TI) IgA production by B cells in the GALT. When pDCs of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and Peyer's patches (PPs) (which are representative GALT) were cultured with naive B cells to induce TI IgA class switch recombination (CSR), IgA production was substantially higher than in cocultures of these cells with cDCs. IgA production was dependent on APRIL and BAFF production by pDCs. Importantly, pDC expression of APRIL and BAFF was dependent on stromal cell-derived type I IFN signaling under steady-state conditions. Our findings provide insight into the molecular basis of pDC conditioning to induce mucosal TI IgA production, which may lead to improvements in vaccination strategies and treatment for mucosal-related disorders.

  16. Antiviral symposium and workshop--eighth international meeting.

    PubMed

    Schang, L

    2001-02-01

    The invited speakers for this exciting meeting could be loosely classified into three categories: (i) pre-eminent academic researchers on antivirals; (ii) academic researchers working on basic aspects of virology but whose work may lead to the development of novel antivirals; and, (iii) academic clinicians working with experimental antivirals or with diseases that require new antivirals. As expected from this selection, this meeting explored the future of antivirals, while still paying attention to the development of improved derivatives of currently available drugs.

  17. Alpha-Particle Emitting 213Bi-Anti-EGFR Immunoconjugates Eradicate Tumor Cells Independent of Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Florian C.; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Essler, Markus; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia is a central problem in tumor treatment because hypoxic cells are less sensitive to chemo- and radiotherapy than normoxic cells. Radioresistance of hypoxic tumor cells is due to reduced sensitivity towards low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation. High LET α-emitters are thought to eradicate tumor cells independent of cellular oxygenation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to demonstrate that cell-bound α-particle emitting 213Bi immunoconjugates kill hypoxic and normoxic CAL33 tumor cells with identical efficiency. For that purpose CAL33 cells were incubated with 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb or irradiated with photons with a nominal energy of 6 MeV both under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Oxygenation of cells was checked via the hypoxia-associated marker HIF-1α. Survival of cells was analysed using the clonogenic assay. Cell viability was monitored with the WST colorimetric assay. Results were evaluated statistically using a t-test and a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM). Survival and viability of CAL33 cells decreased both after incubation with increasing 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb activity concentrations (9.25 kBq/ml–1.48 MBq/ml) and irradiation with increasing doses of photons (0.5–12 Gy). Following photon irradiation survival and viability of normoxic cells were significantly lower than those of hypoxic cells at all doses analysed. In contrast, cell death induced by 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb turned out to be independent of cellular oxygenation. These results demonstrate that α-particle emitting 213Bi-immunoconjugates eradicate hypoxic tumor cells as effective as normoxic cells. Therefore, 213Bi-radioimmunotherapy seems to be an appropriate strategy for treatment of hypoxic tumors. PMID:23724085

  18. Glomerular common gamma chain confers B- and T-cell-independent protection against glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Luque, Yosu; Cathelin, Dominique; Vandermeersch, Sophie; Xu, Xiaoli; Sohier, Julie; Placier, Sandrine; Xu-Dubois, Yi-Chun; Louis, Kevin; Hertig, Alexandre; Bories, Jean-Christophe; Vasseur, Florence; Campagne, Fabien; Di Santo, James P; Vosshenrich, Christian; Rondeau, Eric; Mesnard, Laurent

    2017-01-19

    Crescentic glomerulonephritis is a life-threatening renal disease that has been extensively studied by the experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM-GN) model. Although T cells have a significant role in this model, athymic/nude mice and rats still develop severe renal disease. Here we further explored the contribution of intrinsic renal cells in the development of T-cell-independent GN lesions. Anti-GBM-GN was induced in three strains of immune-deficient mice (Rag2(-/-), Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-), and Rag2(-/-)Il2rb(-/-)) that are devoid of either T/B cells or T/B/NK cells. The Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) or Rag2(-/-)Il2rb(-/-) mice harbor an additional deletion of either the common gamma chain (γC) or the interleukin-2 receptor β subunit (IL-2Rβ), respectively, impairing IL-15 signaling in particular. As expected, all these strains developed severe anti-GBM-GN. Additionally, bone marrow replenishment experiments allowed us to deduce a protective role for the glomerular-expressed γC during anti-GBM-GN. Given that IL-15 has been found highly expressed in nephritic kidneys despite the absence of lymphocytes, we then studied this cytokine in vitro on primary cultured podocytes from immune-deficient mice (Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) and Rag2(-/-)Il2rb(-/-)) compared to controls. IL-15 induced downstream activation of JAK1/3 and SYK in primary cultured podocytes. IL-15-dependent JAK/SYK induction was impaired in the absence of γC or IL-2Rβ. We found γC largely induced on podocytes during human glomerulonephritis. Thus, renal lesions are indeed modulated by intrinsic glomerular cells through the γC/IL-2Rβ receptor response, to date classically described only in immune cells.

  19. A Generalized Kinetic Model of the T-Cell Independent Primary Immune Response.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    invading antigens, the lymphatic * system , through its network of lymph nodes, lymph ducts, and the spleen, filters the antigen-antibody complexes out of the...understand the direction of investigation of those questions which remain unsolved. The immune system itself, with all the cels, cellular products...and lymph system , is very complex, second only to the nervous system for complexity in the human body. (OVER i , DD I JANඑ 1473 EDITION OF 1 NOVS 6 IS

  20. 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, William M

    2005-08-01

    The 18th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held at the Princess Sofia Hotel in Barcelona, Spain, from 11th-14th April, 2005. This is a yearly international meeting sponsored by the International Society for Antiviral Research (ISAR). The current president of ISAR is John A Secrest 3rd of the Southern Research Institute. The scientific programme committee was chaired by John C Drach from the University of Michigan. ISAR was founded in 1987 to exchange prepublication basic, applied and clinical information on the development of antiviral, chemical and biological agents as well as to promote collaborative research. The ISAR has had a major role in the significant advances of the past decade in the reduction of the societal burdens of viral diseases by the focus of ICAR on the discovery and clinical application of antiviral agents. The 18th ICAR was organised as a series of focus presentations on specific viral groups consisting of oral and poster presentations of original research findings. In addition, the conference included plenary speakers, award presentations, a minisymposium on bioterrorism, and a satellite symposium on clinical antiviral drug developments. The size of the conference (> 50 oral and 250 poster presentations) necessitates limitation to the most noteworthy in the judgment of this reviewer. The current membership of the ISAR is approximately 700 with approximately 50% the membership in attendance.

  1. Antiviral activities of heated dolomite powder.

    PubMed

    Motoike, Koichi; Hirano, Shozo; Yamana, Hideaki; Onda, Tetsuhiko; Maeda, Takayoshi; Ito, Toshihiro; Hayakawa, Motozo

    2008-12-01

    The effect of the heating conditions of dolomite powder on its antiviral activity was studied against the H5N3 avian influenza virus. Calcium oxide (CaO) and magnesium oxide (MgO), obtained by the thermal decomposition of dolomite above 800 degrees C, were shown to have strong antiviral activity, but the effect was lessened when the heating temperature exceeded 1400 degrees C. Simultaneous measurement of the crystallite size suggested that the weakening of the activity was due to the considerable grain growth of the oxides. It was found that the presence of Mg in dolomite contributed to the deterrence of grain growth of the oxides during the heating process. Although both CaO and MgO exhibited strong antiviral activity, CaO had the stronger activity but quickly hydrated in the presence of water. On the other hand, the hydration of MgO took place gradually under the same conditions. Separate measurements using MgO and Mg(OH)2 revealed that MgO had a higher antiviral effect than Mg(OH)2. From the overall experiments, it was suggested that the strong antiviral activity of dolomite was related to the hydration reaction of CaO.

  2. Monoclonal Antibodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killington, R. A.; Powell, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have provided an exciting addition to the "armory" of the molecular biologist and immunologist. This article discusses briefly the concept of, techniques available for, production of, and possible uses of monoclonal antibodies. (Author)

  3. Antithyroid microsomal antibody

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid antimicrosomal antibody; Antimicrosomal antibody; Microsomal antibody; Thyroid peroxidase antibody; TPOAb ... Granulomatous thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis High levels of these antibodies have also been linked with an increased risk ...

  4. Current Landscape of Antiviral Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Wade; Cox, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Continued discovery and development of new antiviral medications are paramount for global human health, particularly as new pathogens emerge and old ones evolve to evade current therapeutic agents. Great success has been achieved in developing effective therapies to suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV); however, the therapies are not curative and therefore current efforts in HIV and HBV drug discovery are directed toward longer-acting therapies and/or developing new mechanisms of action that could potentially lead to cure, or eradication, of the virus. Recently, exciting early clinical data have been reported for novel antivirals targeting respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza (flu). Preclinical data suggest that these new approaches may be effective in treating high-risk patients afflicted with serious RSV or flu infections. In this review, we highlight new directions in antiviral approaches for HIV, HBV, and acute respiratory virus infections. PMID:26962437

  5. Antiviral Defense Mechanisms in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Brutscher, Laura M.; Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees are significant pollinators of agricultural crops and other important plant species. High annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and in some parts of Europe have profound ecological and economic implications. Colony losses have been attributed to multiple factors including RNA viruses, thus understanding bee antiviral defense mechanisms may result in the development of strategies that mitigate colony losses. Honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms include RNA-interference, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered signal transduction cascades, and reactive oxygen species generation. However, the relative importance of these and other pathways is largely uncharacterized. Herein we review the current understanding of honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms and suggest important avenues for future investigation. PMID:26273564

  6. Combined Treatment with Antiviral Therapy and Rituximab in Patients with Mixed Cryoglobulinemia: Review of the Literature and Report of a Case Using Direct Antiviral Agents-Based Antihepatitis C Virus Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Urraro, Teresa; Gragnani, Laura; Piluso, Alessia; Fabbrizzi, Alessio; Monti, Monica; Boldrini, Barbara; Ranieri, Jessica; Zignego, Anna Linda

    2015-01-01

    Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) is an autoimmune/B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder associated with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection, manifesting as a systemic vasculitis. In the last decade, antiviral treatment (AT) with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) was considered the first therapeutic option for HCV-MC. In MC patients ineligible or not responsive to antivirals, the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab (RTX) is effective. A combined AT plus RTX was also suggested. Since the introduction of direct acting antivirals (DAAs), few data were published about MC and no data about a combined schedule. Here, we report a complete remission of MC after a sustained virological response following a combined RTX/Peg-IFN+RBV+DAA (boceprevir) treatment and review the literature about the combined RTX/AT. PMID:25815218

  7. Antibody-Mediated Internalization of Infectious HIV-1 Virions Differs among Antibody Isotypes and Subclasses

    PubMed Central

    McRaven, Michael D; Sawant, Sheetal; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Xu, Thomas T.; Dennison, S. Moses; Liao, Hua-Xin; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence; Alam, S. Munir; Haynes, Barton F.; Tomaras, Georgia D.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging data support a role for antibody Fc-mediated antiviral activity in vaccine efficacy and in the control of HIV-1 replication by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Antibody-mediated virus internalization is an Fc-mediated function that may act at the portal of entry whereby effector cells may be triggered by pre-existing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Understanding the capacity of HIV-1 antibodies in mediating internalization of HIV-1 virions by primary monocytes is critical to understanding their full antiviral potency. Antibody isotypes/subclasses differ in functional profile, with consequences for their antiviral activity. For instance, in the RV144 vaccine trial that achieved partial efficacy, Env IgA correlated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. decreased vaccine efficacy), whereas V1-V2 IgG3 correlated with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. increased vaccine efficacy). Thus, understanding the different functional attributes of HIV-1 specific IgG1, IgG3 and IgA antibodies will help define the mechanisms of immune protection. Here, we utilized an in vitro flow cytometric method utilizing primary monocytes as phagocytes and infectious HIV-1 virions as targets to determine the capacity of Env IgA (IgA1, IgA2), IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to mediate HIV-1 infectious virion internalization. Importantly, both broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. PG9, 2G12, CH31, VRC01 IgG) and non-broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. 7B2 mAb, mucosal HIV-1+ IgG) mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions. Furthermore, we found that Env IgG3 of multiple specificities (i.e. CD4bs, V1-V2 and gp41) mediated increased infectious virion internalization over Env IgG1 of the same specificity, while Env IgA mediated decreased infectious virion internalization compared to IgG1. These data demonstrate that antibody-mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions depends on antibody specificity and isotype. Evaluation of the phagocytic potency of vaccine

  8. Antibody-Mediated Internalization of Infectious HIV-1 Virions Differs among Antibody Isotypes and Subclasses.

    PubMed

    Tay, Matthew Zirui; Liu, Pinghuang; Williams, LaTonya D; McRaven, Michael D; Sawant, Sheetal; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Xu, Thomas T; Dennison, S Moses; Liao, Hua-Xin; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence; Alam, S Munir; Moody, M Anthony; Hope, Thomas J; Haynes, Barton F; Tomaras, Georgia D

    2016-08-01

    Emerging data support a role for antibody Fc-mediated antiviral activity in vaccine efficacy and in the control of HIV-1 replication by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Antibody-mediated virus internalization is an Fc-mediated function that may act at the portal of entry whereby effector cells may be triggered by pre-existing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Understanding the capacity of HIV-1 antibodies in mediating internalization of HIV-1 virions by primary monocytes is critical to understanding their full antiviral potency. Antibody isotypes/subclasses differ in functional profile, with consequences for their antiviral activity. For instance, in the RV144 vaccine trial that achieved partial efficacy, Env IgA correlated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. decreased vaccine efficacy), whereas V1-V2 IgG3 correlated with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. increased vaccine efficacy). Thus, understanding the different functional attributes of HIV-1 specific IgG1, IgG3 and IgA antibodies will help define the mechanisms of immune protection. Here, we utilized an in vitro flow cytometric method utilizing primary monocytes as phagocytes and infectious HIV-1 virions as targets to determine the capacity of Env IgA (IgA1, IgA2), IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to mediate HIV-1 infectious virion internalization. Importantly, both broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. PG9, 2G12, CH31, VRC01 IgG) and non-broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. 7B2 mAb, mucosal HIV-1+ IgG) mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions. Furthermore, we found that Env IgG3 of multiple specificities (i.e. CD4bs, V1-V2 and gp41) mediated increased infectious virion internalization over Env IgG1 of the same specificity, while Env IgA mediated decreased infectious virion internalization compared to IgG1. These data demonstrate that antibody-mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions depends on antibody specificity and isotype. Evaluation of the phagocytic potency of vaccine

  9. Diminished Innate Antiviral Response to Adenovirus Vectors in cGAS/STING-Deficient Mice Minimally Impacts Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Anghelina, Daniela; Lam, Eric

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection by adenovirus, a nonenveloped DNA virus, induces antiviral innate and adaptive immune responses. Studies of transformed human and murine cell lines using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown strategies identified cyclic guanine adenine synthase (cGAS) as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that contributes to the antiadenovirus response. Here we demonstrate how the cGAS/STING cascade influences the antiviral innate and adaptive immune responses in a murine knockout model. Using knockout bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMOs), we determined that cGAS and STING are essential to the induction of the antiadenovirus response in these antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in vitro. We next determined how the cGAS/STING cascade impacts the antiviral response following systemic administration of a recombinant adenovirus type 5 vector (rAd5V). Infection of cGAS−/− and STING−/− mice results in a compromised early antiviral innate response compared to that in wild-type (WT) controls: significantly lower levels of beta interferon (IFN-β) secretion, low levels of proinflammatory chemokine induction, and reduced levels of antiviral transcript induction in hepatic tissue. At 24 h postinfection, levels of viral DNA and reporter gene expression in the liver were similar in all strains. At 28 days postinfection, clearance of infected hepatocytes in cGAS or STING knockout mice was comparable to that in WT C57BL/6 mice. Levels of neutralizing anti-Ad5V antibody were modestly reduced in infected cGAS mice. These data support a dominant role for the cGAS/STING cascade in the early innate antiviral inflammatory response to adenovirus vectors. However, loss of the cGAS/STING pathway did not affect viral clearance, and cGAS deficiency had a modest influence on the magnitude of the antiviral humoral immune response to adenovirus infections. IMPORTANCE The detection of viral infection by host sentinel immune cells

  10. Antiviral therapy: current concepts and practices.

    PubMed Central

    Bean, B

    1992-01-01

    Drugs capable of inhibiting viruses in vitro were described in the 1950s, but real progress was not made until the 1970s, when agents capable of inhibiting virus-specific enzymes were first identified. The last decade has seen rapid progress in both our understanding of antiviral therapy and the number of antiviral agents on the market. Amantadine and ribavirin are available for treatment of viral respiratory infections. Vidarabine, acyclovir, ganciclovir, and foscarnet are used for systemic treatment of herpesvirus infections, while ophthalmic preparations of idoxuridine, trifluorothymidine, and vidarabine are available for herpes keratitis. For treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infections, zidovudine and didanosine are used. Immunomodulators, such as interferons and colony-stimulating factors, and immunoglobulins are being used increasingly for viral illnesses. While resistance to antiviral drugs has been seen, especially among AIDS patients, it has not become widespread and is being intensely studied. Increasingly, combinations of agents are being used: to achieve synergistic inhibition of viruses, to delay or prevent resistance, and to decrease dosages of toxic drugs. New approaches, such as liposomes carrying antiviral drugs and computer-aided drug design, are exciting and promising prospects for the future. PMID:1576586

  11. Interferon induced IFIT family genes in host antiviral defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Secretion of interferons (IFNs) from virus-infected cells is a hallmark of host antiviral immunity and in fact, IFNs exert their antiviral activities through the induction of antiviral proteins. The IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) family is among hundreds of IF stimulated ...

  12. Sensitive radioimmunoassay for the broad-spectrum antiviral agent ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Austin, R K; Trefts, P E; Hintz, M; Connor, J D; Kagnoff, M F

    1983-11-01

    Ribavirin, 1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxyamide (Virazole; Viratek, Inc., Covina, Calif.), has a broad spectrum of antiviral activity. However, the study of the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of this compound has been limited by the lack of an appropriate assay for ribavirin and its metabolites. Since ribavirin has definite potential for therapeutic use, we developed a radioimmunoassay to measure ribavirin levels in clinical specimens. To prepare an effective immunogen, ribavirin was monosuccinylated and coupled to ovalbumin. The competitive binding radioimmunoassay, in which tritium-labeled ribavirin and rabbit antiribavirin serum were used, was quantitative for ribavirin at concentrations of 1 pmol/100 microliter in urine or plasma samples. The rabbit antibody cross-reacted with the major metabolite of ribavirin, 1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide, at a low level (2 to 5%) which did not interfere with ribavirin binding until concentrations of 1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide 10- to 100-fold higher than ribavirin were present in mock samples, a condition not present in biological specimens. We used the ribavirin radioimmunoassay to determine the ribavirin concentration in mouse plasma after intraperitoneal administration, in the sera of adults from Sierra Leone after oral or intravenous administration for treatment of suspected Lassa fever, and in the sera of children in the United States after small-particle aerosol administration. Our experience with the radioimmunoassay indicates that it is sensitive, accurate, and reproducible. The assay will permit studies leading to a better understanding of the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of this potentially useful antiviral drug.

  13. Antiviral properties of quinolone-based drugs.

    PubMed

    Richter, Sara; Parolin, Cristina; Palumbo, Manlio; Palù, Giorgio

    2004-06-01

    Quinolones represent an important class of broad-spectrum antibacterials, the main structural features of which are a 1,4 dihydro-4-oxo-quinolinyl moiety bearing an essential carboxyl group at position 3. Quinolones inhibit prokaryotic type II topoisomerases, namely DNA gyrase and, in a few cases, topoisomerase IV, through direct binding to the bacterial chromosome. Based on the hypothesis that these drugs could also bind to the viral nucleic acids or nucleoprotein-complexes, several quinolone derivatives were tested for their antiviral activity. Indeed, antibacterial fluoroquinolones were shown to be effective against vaccinia virus and papovaviruses; these preliminary results prompted the synthesis of modified quinolones to optimize antiviral action and improve selectivity index. The introduction of an aryl group at the piperazine moiety of the fluoroquinolone shifted the activity from antibacterial to antiviral, with a specific action against HIV. The antiviral activity seemed to be related to an inhibitory effect at the transcriptional level, and further evidence suggested a mechanism of action mediated by inhibition of Tat functions. Substitution of the fluorine at position 6 with an amine group to give aryl-piperazinyl-6-amino-quinolones improved the activity and selectivity against HIV-1: the most potent compound of this series was shown to inhibit virus replication through interference with Tat-TAR interaction. A comprehensive SAR investigation was performed based on additional chemical intervention to the quinolone template moiety, such as the introduction of nucleoside derivative functions. The information gained so far will be useful for future rational drug design aimed at developing new compounds with optimized antiviral activity.

  14. TRIM25 Enhances the Antiviral Action of Zinc-Finger Antiviral Protein (ZAP)

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Zerlina; Cheung, Pamela; Schneider, William M.; Bozzacco, Leonia; Buehler, Eugen; Takaoka, Akinori; Rice, Charles M.; Felsenfeld, Dan P.; MacDonald, Margaret R.

    2017-01-01

    The host factor and interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene (ISG) product, zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP), inhibits a number of diverse viruses by usurping and intersecting with multiple cellular pathways. To elucidate its antiviral mechanism, we perform a loss-of-function genome-wide RNAi screen to identify cellular cofactors required for ZAP antiviral activity against the prototype alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SINV). In order to exclude off-target effects, we carry out stringent confirmatory assays to verify the top hits. Important ZAP-liaising partners identified include proteins involved in membrane ion permeability, type I IFN signaling, and post-translational protein modification. The factor contributing most to the antiviral function of ZAP is TRIM25, an E3 ubiquitin and ISG15 ligase. We demonstrate here that TRIM25 interacts with ZAP through the SPRY domain, and TRIM25 mutants lacking the RING or coiled coil domain fail to stimulate ZAP’s antiviral activity, suggesting that both TRIM25 ligase activity and its ability to form oligomers are critical for its cofactor function. TRIM25 increases the modification of both the short and long ZAP isoforms by K48- and K63-linked polyubiquitin, although ubiquitination of ZAP does not directly affect its antiviral activity. However, TRIM25 is critical for ZAP’s ability to inhibit translation of the incoming SINV genome. Taken together, these data uncover TRIM25 as a bona fide ZAP cofactor that leads to increased ZAP modification enhancing its translational inhibition activity. PMID:28060952

  15. Synergy of entry inhibitors with direct-acting antivirals uncovers novel combinations for prevention and treatment of hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fei; Fofana, Isabel; Thumann, Christine; Mailly, Laurent; Alles, Roxane; Robinet, Eric; Meyer, Nicolas; Schaeffer, Mickaël; Habersetzer, François; Doffoël, Michel; Leyssen, Pieter; Neyts, Johan; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Baumert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have markedly improved the outcome of treatment in chronic HCV infection, there continues to be an unmet medical need for improved therapies in difficult-to-treat patients as well as liver graft infection. Viral entry is a promising target for antiviral therapy. Design Aiming to explore the role of entry inhibitors for future clinical development, we investigated the antiviral efficacy and toxicity of entry inhibitors in combination with DAAs or other host-targeting agents (HTAs). Screening a large series of combinations of entry inhibitors with DAAs or other HTAs, we uncovered novel combinations of antivirals for prevention and treatment of HCV infection. Results Combinations of DAAs or HTAs and entry inhibitors including CD81-, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)- or claudin-1 (CLDN1)-specific antibodies or small-molecule inhibitors erlotinib and dasatinib were characterised by a marked and synergistic inhibition of HCV infection over a broad range of concentrations with undetectable toxicity in experimental designs for prevention and treatment both in cell culture models and in human liver-chimeric uPA/SCID mice. Conclusions Our results provide a rationale for the development of antiviral strategies combining entry inhibitors with DAAs or HTAs by taking advantage of synergy. The uncovered combinations provide perspectives for efficient strategies to prevent liver graft infection and novel interferon-free regimens. PMID:24848265

  16. Antiviral potential of lactic acid bacteria and their bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    Al Kassaa, I; Hober, D; Hamze, M; Chihib, N E; Drider, D

    2014-12-01

    Emerging resistance to antiviral agents is a growing public health concern worldwide as it was reported for respiratory, sexually transmitted and enteric viruses. Therefore, there is a growing demand for new, unconventional antiviral agents which may serve as an alternative to the currently used drugs. Meanwhile, published literature continues shedding the light on the potency of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their bacteriocins as antiviral agents. Health-promoting LAB probiotics may exert their antiviral activity by (1) direct probiotic-virus interaction; (2) production of antiviral inhibitory metabolites; and/or (3) via stimulation of the immune system. The aim of this review was to highlight the antiviral activity of LAB and substances they produce with antiviral activity.

  17. Effect of Complement on HIV-2 Plasma Antiviral Activity Is Intratype Specific and Potent

    PubMed Central

    Özkaya Şahin, Gülşen; Holmgren, Birgitta; Sheik-Khalil, Enas; da Silva, Zacarias; Nielsen, Jens; Nowroozalizadeh, Salma; Månsson, Fredrik; Norrgren, Hans; Aaby, Peter; Fenyö, Eva Maria

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)-infected individuals develop immunodeficiency with a considerable delay and transmit the virus at rates lower than HIV-1-infected persons. Conceivably, comparative studies on the immune responsiveness of HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected hosts may help to explain the differences in pathogenesis and transmission between the two types of infection. Previous studies have shown that the neutralizing antibody response is more potent and broader in HIV-2 than in HIV-1 infection. In the present study, we have examined further the function of the humoral immune response and studied the effect of complement on the antiviral activity of plasma from singly HIV-1- or HIV-2-infected individuals, as well as HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected individuals. The neutralization and antibody-dependent complement-mediated inactivation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates were tested in a plaque reduction assay using U87.CD4.CCR5 cells. The results showed that the addition of complement increased intratype antiviral activities of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 plasma samples, although the complement effect was more pronounced with HIV-2 than HIV-1 plasma. Using an area-under-the-curve (AUC)-based readout, multivariate statistical analysis confirmed that the type of HIV infection was independently associated with the magnitude of the complement effect. The analyses carried out with purified IgG indicated that the complement effect was largely exerted through the classical complement pathway involving IgG in both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. In summary, these findings suggest that antibody binding to HIV-2 structures facilitates the efficient use of complement and thereby may be one factor contributing to a strong antiviral activity present in HIV-2 infection. PMID:23077299

  18. Antiviral herbs--present and future.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Su, Dan; Feng, Yulin; Liu, Kuangyi; Song, Yonggui

    2014-01-01

    Viral disease is a calamity which absolutely can not be ignored for human health. The emergence of drug resistance and spread of new virus will be the new challenge against viral disease. To find and develop new antivirus agents with properties of safety, significant effect and low toxicity is the pressing question facing humans today. Because of its advantages, including rich resources, low price, less adverse effect, Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have become the research focus in antiviral treatment. In recent years, there are numerous articles about the studies from separation of active ingredients to the antiviral mechanism. In this paper, the progress in experimental study was illustrated on the basis of active ingredients, species of virus, mechanism, clinical application. Obviously, TCM have obvious advantages in the treatment of virus infectious disease and has a broad prospect of application.

  19. Glycodendritic structures: promising new antiviral drugs.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Javier; Delgado, Rafael

    2004-09-01

    DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin expressed by dendritic cells, is able to recognize high mannosylated glycoproteins at the surface of a broad range of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. For at least some of these agents this interaction appears to be an important part of the infection process. Therefore, this lectin might be considered in the design of new antiviral drugs. In this manner, multivalent carbohydrate systems based on dendrimers and dendritic polymers are promising candidates as antiviral drugs. Boltorn hyperbranched dendritic polymers functionalized with mannose have been used to inhibit DC-SIGN-mediated infection in an Ebola-pseudotyped viral model. Their physiological solubility, lack of toxicity and especially their low price suggest the application of these glycodendritic polymers for possible formulation as microbicides.

  20. Antiviral and antiretroviral use in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Money, Deborah M

    2003-12-01

    The history of antiviral and antiretroviral therapy is recent compared with many other medical therapies, including traditional antibiotics in pregnancy. There are few long-term data on which to base decisions of management in pregnancy. Accessing up-to-date information is critical to optimizing the safety of care for mothers and their infants. Exposure to medications in pregnancy can be toxic to a fetus in a gestational age-dependent manner. Determination of safe medications for pregnancy must take into consideration the need for certain medications and the possibility of inadvertent exposure in early pregnancy because of unplanned pregnancies. This article reviews the most commonly used antiviral and antiretroviral agents and places emphasis on the issues regarding use in pregnancy.

  1. Clinical Implications of Antiviral Resistance in Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Li, Timothy C. M.; Chan, Martin C. W.; Lee, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is a major cause of severe respiratory infections leading to excessive hospitalizations and deaths globally; annual epidemics, pandemics, and sporadic/endemic avian virus infections occur as a result of rapid, continuous evolution of influenza viruses. Emergence of antiviral resistance is of great clinical and public health concern. Currently available antiviral treatments include four neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir, laninamivir), M2-inibitors (amantadine, rimantadine), and a polymerase inhibitor (favipiravir). In this review, we focus on resistance issues related to the use of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). Data on primary resistance, as well as secondary resistance related to NAI exposure will be presented. Their clinical implications, detection, and novel therapeutic options undergoing clinical trials are discussed. PMID:26389935

  2. Clinical Implications of Antiviral Resistance in Influenza.

    PubMed

    Li, Timothy C M; Chan, Martin C W; Lee, Nelson

    2015-09-14

    Influenza is a major cause of severe respiratory infections leading to excessive hospitalizations and deaths globally; annual epidemics, pandemics, and sporadic/endemic avian virus infections occur as a result of rapid, continuous evolution of influenza viruses. Emergence of antiviral resistance is of great clinical and public health concern. Currently available antiviral treatments include four neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir, laninamivir), M2-inibitors (amantadine, rimantadine), and a polymerase inhibitor (favipiravir). In this review, we focus on resistance issues related to the use of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). Data on primary resistance, as well as secondary resistance related to NAI exposure will be presented. Their clinical implications, detection, and novel therapeutic options undergoing clinical trials are discussed.

  3. Polyomavirus T Antigens Activate an Antiviral State

    PubMed Central

    Giacobbi, Nicholas S.; Gupta, Tushar; Coxon, Andrew; Pipas, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic expression of Simian Virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LT) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) increased levels of mRNAs encoding interferon stimulated genes (ISGs). The mechanism by which T antigen increases levels of ISGs in MEFs remains unclear. We present evidence that expression of T antigen from SV40, Human Polyomaviruses BK (BKV) or JC (JCV) upregulate production of ISGs in MEFs, and subsequently result in an antiviral state, as determined by inhibition of VSV or EMCV growth. The first 136 amino acids of LT are sufficient for these activities. Furthermore, increased ISG expression and induction of the antiviral state requires STAT1. Finally, the RB binding motif of LT is necessary for activation of STAT1. We conclude that the induction of the STAT1 mediated innate immune response in MEFs is a common feature shared by SV40, BKV and JCV. PMID:25589241

  4. An antiviral furanoquinone from Paulownia tomentosa Steud.

    PubMed

    Kang, K H; Huh, H; Kim, B K; Lee, C K

    1999-11-01

    A methanol extract of the stem bark of Paulownia tomentosa showed antiviral activity against poliovirus types 1 and 3. Sequential liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane, chloroform and water, and a silicagel column chromatography resulted in the purification of a compound. The compound was identified as methyl-5-hydroxy-dinaphthol[1,2-2',3']furan-7,12-dione-6-carbox yla te on the basis of spectroscopic data. The component caused a significant reduction of viral cytopathic effect when it was subjected to a standard antiviral assay by using HeLa cells. The EC(50) of the compound against poliovirus type 1 strain Brunhilde, and type 3 strain Leon were 0.3 microg/mL and 0.6 microg/mL, respectively.

  5. Antiviral Lead Compounds from Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Minneman, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed. PMID:21116410

  6. Antiviral activities of atractylon from Atractylodis Rhizoma

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yang; Mai, Jing-Yin; Hou, Tian-Lu; Ping, Jian; Chen, Jian-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Atractylodis Rhizoma is a traditional medicinal herb, which has antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic, anticancer, gastroprotective and neuroprotective activities. It is widely used for treating fever, cold, phlegm, edema and arthralgia syndrome in South-East Asian nations. In this study, 6 chemical compositions of Atractylodis Rhizoma were characterized by spectral analysis and their antiviral activities were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Among them, atractylon showed most significant antiviral activities. Atractylon treatment at doses of 10–40 mg/kg for 5 days attenuated influenza A virus (IAV)-induced pulmonary injury and decreased the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1β, but increased interferon-β (IFN-β) levels. Atractylon treatment upregulated the expression of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), MyD88, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 and IFN-β mRNA but downregulated nuclear factor-κB p65 protein expression in the lung tissues of IAV-infected mice. These results demonstrated that atractylon significantly alleviated IAV-induced lung injury via regulating the TLR7 signaling pathway, and may warrant further evaluation as a possible agent for IAV treatment. PMID:27600871

  7. Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Geskin, Larisa J

    2015-10-01

    Use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has revolutionized cancer therapy. Approaches targeting specific cellular targets on the malignant cells and in tumor microenvironment have been proved to be successful in hematologic malignancies, including cutaneous lymphomas. mAb-based therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma has demonstrated high response rates and a favorable toxicity profile in clinical trials. Several antibodies and antibody-based conjugates are approved for use in clinical practice, and many more are in ongoing and planned clinical trials. In addition, these safe and effective drugs can be used as pillars for sequential therapies in a rational stepwise manner.

  8. Bone cell-independent benefits of raloxifene on the skeleton: a novel mechanism for improving bone material properties.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Maxime A; Brown, Drew M; Hammond, Max; Wallace, Joseph M; Du, Jiang; Deymier-Black, Alix C; Almer, Jonathan D; Stock, Stuart R; Allen, Matthew R; Burr, David B

    2014-04-01

    Raloxifene is an FDA approved agent used to treat bone loss and decrease fracture risk. In clinical trials and animal studies, raloxifene reduces fracture risk and improves bone mechanical properties, but the mechanisms of action remain unclear because these benefits occur largely independent of changes to bone mass. Using a novel experimental approach, machined bone beams, both from mature male canine and human male donors, were depleted of living cells and then exposed to raloxifene ex vivo. Our data show that ex vivo exposure of non-viable bone to raloxifene improves intrinsic toughness, both in canine and human cortical bone beams tested by 4-point bending. These effects are cell-independent and appear to be mediated by an increase in matrix bound water, assessed using basic gravimetric weighing and sophisticated ultrashort echo time magnetic resonance imaging. The hydroxyl groups (OH) on raloxifene were shown to be important in both the water and toughness increases. Wide and small angle X-ray scattering patterns during 4-pt bending show that raloxifene alters the transfer of load between the collagen matrix and the mineral crystals, placing lower strains on the mineral, and allowing greater overall deformation prior to failure. Collectively, these findings provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the therapeutic effect of raloxifene and more importantly identify a cell-independent mechanism that can be utilized for novel pharmacological approaches for enhancing bone strength.

  9. Bone cell-independent benefits of raloxifene on the skeleton: A novel mechanism for improving bone material properties

    PubMed Central

    Gallant, Maxime A.; Brown, Drew M.; Hammond, Max; Wallace, Joseph M.; Du, Jiang; Deymier-Black, Alix C.; Almer, Jonathan D.; Stock, Stuart R.; Allen, Matthew R.; Burr, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Raloxifene is an FDA approved agent used to treat bone loss and decrease fracture risk. In clinical trials and animal studies, raloxifene reduces fracture risk and improves bone mechanical properties, but the mechanisms of action remain unclear because these benefits occur largely independent of changes to bone mass. Using a novel experimental approach, machined bone beams, both from mature male canine and human male donors, were depleted of living cells and then exposed to raloxifene ex vivo. Our data show that ex vivo exposure of non-viable bone to raloxifene improves intrinsic toughness, both in canine and human cortical bone beams tested by 4-point bending. These effects are cell-independent and appear to be mediated by an increase in matrix bound water, assessed using basic gravimetric weighing and sophisticated ultrashort echo time magnetic resonance imaging. The hydroxyl groups (−OH) on raloxifene were shown to be important in both the water and toughness increases. Wide and small angle x-ray scattering patterns during 4-pt bending show that raloxifene alters the transfer of load between the collagen matrix and the mineral crystals, placing lower strains on the mineral, and allowing greater overall deformation prior to failure. Collectively, these findings provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the therapeutic effect of raloxifene and more importantly identify a cell-independent mechanism that can be utilized for novel pharmacological approaches for enhancing bone strength. PMID:24468719

  10. Defining the Recognition Elements of Lewis Y-Reactive Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Somdutta; Pashov, Anastas; Siegel, Eric R.; Murali, Ramachandran; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Antibody response to carbohydrate antigens is often independent of T cells and the process of affinity/specificity improvement is considered strictly dependent on the germinal centers. Antibodies induced during a T cell-independent type 2 (TI-2) response are less variable and less functionally versatile than those induced with T cell help. The antigen specificity consequences of accumulation of somatic mutations in antibodies during TI-2 responses of Marginal Zone (MZ) B cells is a fact that still needs explanation. Germline genes that define carbohydrate-reactive antibodies are known to sculpt antibody-combining sites containing innate, key side-chain contacts that define the antigen recognition step. However, substitutions associated with MZ B cell derived antibodies might affect the mobility and polyspecificity of the antibody. To examine this hypothesis, we analyzed antibodies reactive with the neolactoseries antigen Lewis Y (LeY) to define the residue subset required for the reactive repertoire for the LeY antigen. Our molecular simulation studies of crystallographically determined and modeled antibody-LeY complexes suggests that the heavy-chain germline gene VH7183.a13.20 and the light-chain Vκ cr1 germline gene are sufficient to account for the recognition of the trisaccharide-H determinant Types 1–4, while the specificity for LeY is driven by the CDR3 backbone conformation of the heavy chain and not the side chain interactions. These results confirm that these monoclonals use germline-encoded amino acids to recognize simple carbohydrate determinants like trisaccharide-H but relies on somatic mutations in the periphery of the combining site to modify affinity for LeY through electrostatic interactions that leads to their optimized binding. These observations bring further attention to the role of mutations in T-cell independent antibodies to distinguish self from non-self carbohydrate antigens. PMID:25117628

  11. Chemokine receptors as new molecular targets for antiviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, F; Vassena, L; Lusso, P

    2004-04-01

    Extraordinary advancements have been made over the past decade in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry into cells. The external HIV envelope glycoprotein, gp120, sequentially interacts with two cellular receptor molecules, the CD4 glycoprotein and a chemokine receptor, such as CCR5 or CXCR4, leading to the activation of the fusogenic domain of the transmembrane viral glycoprotein, gp41, which changes its conformation to create a hairpin structure that eventually triggers fusion between the viral and cellular membranes. Each of these discrete steps in the viral entry process represents a potential target for new antiviral agents. Current efforts to develop safe and effective HlV entry inhibitors are focused on naturally occurring proteins (e.g., chemokines, antibodies), engineered or modified derivatives of natural proteins (e.g., multimerized soluble CD4, gp41--or chemokine--derived synthetic peptides), as well as small synthetic compounds obtained either by high-throughput screening of large compound libraries or by structure-guided rational design. The recent introduction in therapy of the first fusion inhibitor, the gp41-derived synthetic peptide T20, heralds a new era in the treatment of AIDS, which will hopefully lead to more effective multi-drug regimens with reduced adverse effects for the patients.

  12. Non-Canonical Role of IKKα in the Regulation of STAT1 Phosphorylation in Antiviral Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Fei; Matsumiya, Tomoh; Shiba, Yuko; Hayakari, Ryo; Yoshida, Hidemi; Imaizumi, Tadaatsu

    2016-01-01

    Non-self RNA is recognized by retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), inducing type I interferons (IFNs). Type I IFN promotes the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), which requires the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1). We previously reported that dsRNA induced STAT1 phosphorylation via a type I IFN-independent pathway in addition to the well-known type I IFN-dependent pathway. IκB kinase α (IKKα) is involved in antiviral signaling induced by dsRNA; however, its role is incompletely understood. Here, we explored the function of IKKα in RLR-mediated STAT1 phosphorylation. Silencing of IKKα markedly decreased the level of IFN-β and STAT1 phosphorylation inHeH response to dsRNA. However, the inhibition of IKKα did not alter the RLR signaling-mediated dimerization of interferon responsive factor 3 (IRF3) or the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB). These results suggest a non-canonical role of IKKα in RLR signaling. Furthermore, phosphorylation of STAT1 was suppressed by IKKα knockdown in cells treated with a specific neutralizing antibody for the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) and in IFNAR-deficient cells. Collectively, the dual regulation of STAT1 by IKKα in antiviral signaling suggests a role for IKKα in the fine-tuning of antiviral signaling in response to non-self RNA. PMID:27992555

  13. Antiviral activity of Thiosemicarbazones derived from α-amino acids against Dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Padmapriya; Khaleefathullah, Sheriff; Kaveri, Krishansamy; Palani, Gunasekaran; Ramanathan, Giriprasath; Thennarasu, Sathiah; Tirichurapalli Sivagnanam, Uma

    2017-03-01

    The endemicity and seasonal outbreaks of Dengue disease in most tropical and subtropical countries underscores an urgent need to develop effective prevention and control measures. Development of a Dengue vaccine, which is complicated by the Antibody Dependent Enhancement effect (ADE), a viral inhibitor, seems prudent as it would inhibit the spread of the virus. In vitro methods such as MTT assay and plaque formation unit reduction assays were employed for screening the viral inhibitory property of α-amino acid based Thiosemicarbazides. The results elicits that at concentrations not exceeding the maximum non cytotoxic concentration (MNCC), these compounds completely prevented Dengue virus infection in vero cells as indicated by the absence of cytopathic effects in a dose-dependent manner. The high potency of Bz-Trp-TSC against all four types of Dengue virus infection elevates Thiosemicarbazide as a lead antiviral agent for Dengue disease. Screening small molecules for antiviral activity against the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease is being explored by several research groups. Our findings would help to augment the efforts to identify the lead compounds for antiviral therapy to combat the Dengue disease. J. Med. Virol. 89:546-552, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cloning, expression and antiviral activity of IFNγ from the Australian fruit bat, Pteropus alecto.

    PubMed

    Janardhana, Vijaya; Tachedjian, Mary; Crameri, Gary; Cowled, Chris; Wang, Lin-Fa; Baker, Michelle L

    2012-03-01

    Bats are natural reservoir hosts to a variety of viruses, many of which cause morbidity and mortality in other mammals. Currently there is a paucity of information regarding the nature of the immune response to viral infections in bats, partly due to a lack of appropriate bat specific reagents. IFNγ plays a key role in controlling viral replication and coordinating a response for long term control of viral infection. Here we describe the cloning and expression of IFNγ from the Australian flying fox, Pteropus alecto and the generation of mouse monoclonal and chicken egg yolk antibodies specific to bat IFNγ. Our results demonstrate that P. alecto IFNγ is conserved with IFNγ from other species and is induced in bat splenocytes following stimulation with T cell mitogens. P. alecto IFNγ has antiviral activity on Semliki forest virus in cell lines from P. alecto and the microbat, Tadarida brasiliensis. Additionally recombinant bat IFNγ was able to mitigate Hendra virus infection in P. alecto cells. These results provide the first evidence for an antiviral role for bat IFNγin vitro in addition to the application of important immunological reagents for further studies of bat antiviral immunity.

  15. Docking Studies of Pakistani HCV NS3 Helicase: A Possible Antiviral Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Kaneez; Mathew, Shilu; Suhail, Mohd; Ali, Ashraf; Damanhouri, Ghazi; Azhar, Esam; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2014-01-01

    The nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase is believed to be essential for viral replication and has become an attractive target for the development of antiviral drugs. The study of helicase is useful for elucidating its involvement in positive sense single-stranded RNA virus replication and to serve as templates for the design of novel antiviral drugs. In recent years, several models have been proposed on the conformational change leading to protein movement and RNA unwinding. Some compounds have been recently reported to inhibit the helicase and these include small molecules, RNA aptamers and antibodies. The current study is designed to help gain insights for the consideration of potential inhibitors for Pakistani HCV NS3 helicase protein. We have cloned, expressed and purified HCV NS3 helicase from Pakistani HCV serum samples and determined its 3D structure and employed it further in computational docking analysis to identify inhibitors against HCV genotype 3a (GT3a),including six antiviral key molecules such as quercetin, beta-carotene, resveratrol, catechins, lycopene and lutein. The conformation obtained after docking showed good hydrogen bond (HBond) interactions with best docking energy for quercetin and catechins followed by resveratrol and lutein. These anti-helicase key molecules will offer an alternative attraction to target the viral helicase, due to the current limitation with the interferon resistance treatment and presences of high rate of resistance in anti-protease inhibitor classes. PMID:25188400

  16. B Lymphocyte Subpopulation Defined by a Rat Monoclonal Antibody, 14G8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Bethesda. MO). Proprtis an exresion f mmbrae atigns (, 2 In The goat anti-p antiserum from which the specifically purified antibodies and xpresio of embane...cell * Independent responses in B-cell defective CsA/N mice to Brucella abortus cycle by ProPiumn iodide staining. J. Cell. Bil. 66:188. and to TNP

  17. Antibody-based concepts for multipurpose prevention technologies

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, Kevin J; Zeitlin, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Because of the versatility and specificity of monoclonal antibodies, they are candidates for multipurpose prevention technologies when formulated as topical (gels, films, rings) or injectable drugs and as vaccines. This review focuses on antibody-based proof of concept studies for the human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus and sperm. Opportunities and challenges in antibody evasion/resistance, manufacturing, regulatory, and pharmacoeconomics are discussed. This article is based on a presentation at the “Product Development Workshop 2013: HIV and Multipurpose Prevention Technologies,” held in Arlington, Virginia on February 21-22, 2013. It forms part of a special supplement to Antiviral Research. PMID:24188703

  18. Genetic polymorphisms in host antiviral genes: associations with humoral and cellular immunity to measles vaccine.

    PubMed

    Haralambieva, Iana H; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Umlauf, Benjamin J; Vierkant, Robert A; Shane Pankratz, V; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2011-11-08

    Host antiviral genes are important regulators of antiviral immunity and plausible genetic determinants of immune response heterogeneity after vaccination. We genotyped and analyzed 307 common candidate tagSNPs from 12 antiviral genes in a cohort of 745 schoolchildren immunized with two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Associations between SNPs/haplotypes and measles virus-specific immune outcomes were assessed using linear regression methodologies in Caucasians and African-Americans. Genetic variants within the DDX58/RIG-I gene, including a coding polymorphism (rs3205166/Val800Val), were associated as single-SNPs (p≤0.017; although these SNPs did not remain significant after correction for false discovery rate/FDR) and in haplotype-level analysis, with measles-specific antibody variations in Caucasians (haplotype allele p-value=0.021; haplotype global p-value=0.076). Four DDX58 polymorphisms, in high LD, demonstrated also associations (after correction for FDR) with variations in both measles-specific IFN-γ and IL-2 secretion in Caucasians (p≤0.001, q=0.193). Two intronic OAS1 polymorphisms, including the functional OAS1 SNP rs10774671 (p=0.003), demonstrated evidence of association with a significant allele-dose-related increase in neutralizing antibody levels in African-Americans. Genotype and haplotype-level associations demonstrated the role of ADAR genetic variants, including a non-synonymous SNP (rs2229857/Arg384Lys; p=0.01), in regulating measles virus-specific IFN-γ Elispot responses in Caucasians (haplotype global p-value=0.017). After correction for FDR, 15 single-SNP associations (11 SNPs in Caucasians and 4 SNPs in African-Americans) still remained significant at the q-value<0.20. In conclusion, our findings strongly point to genetic variants/genes, involved in antiviral sensing and antiviral control, as critical determinants, differentially modulating the adaptive immune responses to live attenuated measles vaccine in Caucasians and

  19. HIV/HCV Antiviral Drug Interactions in the Era of Direct-acting Antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Donald P.; Faragon, John J.; Banks, Sarah; Chirch, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and chronic hepatitis C has evolved over the past decade, resulting in better control of infection and clinical outcomes; however, drug-drug interactions remain a significant hazard. Joint recommendations from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the Infectious Diseases Society of America regarding drug-drug interactions between HIV antiretroviral agents and direct-acting antiviral agents for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are reviewed here. This review is oriented to facilitate appropriate selection of an antiviral therapy regimen for HCV infection based on the choice of antiretroviral therapy being administered and, if necessary, switching antiretroviral regimens. PMID:27777891

  20. Inducible Interleukin 32 (IL-32) Exerts Extensive Antiviral Function via Selective Stimulation of Interferon λ1 (IFN-λ1)*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongkui; Xie, Jiajia; Xu, Xiupeng; Liu, Li; Wan, Yushun; Liu, Yingle; Zhu, Chengliang; Zhu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-32 has been recognized as a proinflammatory cytokine that participates in responses to viral infection. However, little is known about how IL-32 is induced in response to viral infection and the mechanisms of IL-32-mediated antiviral activities. We discovered that IL-32 is elevated by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection both in vitro and in vivo and that HBV induced IL-32 expression at the level of both transcription and post-transcription. Furthermore, microRNA-29b was found to be a key factor in HBV-regulated IL-32 expression by directly targeting the mRNA 3′-untranslated region of IL-32. Antiviral analysis showed that IL-32 was not sufficient to alter HBV replication in HepG2.2.15 cells. To mimic the viremic phase of viral infection, freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with IL-32γ, the secretory isoform, and the supernatants were used for antiviral assays. Surprisingly, these supernatants exhibited extensive antiviral activity against multiplex viruses besides HBV. Thus, we speculated that the IL-32γ-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells produced and secreted an unknown antiviral factor. Using antibody neutralization assays, we identified the factor as interferon (IFN)-λ1 and not IFN-α. Further studies indicated that IL-32γ effectively inhibited HBV replication in a hydrodynamic injection mouse model. Clinical data showed that elevated levels of IFN-λ1 both in serum and liver tissue of HBV patients were positively correlated to the increased levels of IL-32. Our results demonstrate that elevated IL-32 levels during viral infection mediate antiviral effects by stimulating the expression of IFN-λ1. PMID:23729669

  1. Determining Mechanism of Action of Antivirals for Respiratory Illness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Irma; Dobrovolny, Hana

    2015-03-01

    Viral infections in the respiratory tract are common in humans and can cause serious illness and death. Drug treatment is the principal line of protection against many of these illnesses and many compounds are tested as antivirals. Often the efficacy of these antivirals are determined before a mechanism of action is understood. We use mathematical models to represent the evolution of these diseases and establish which experiments can help determine the mechanism of action of antivirals.

  2. Hydrogen bonds and antiviral activity of benzaldehyde derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Belkov, M. V.; Shadyro, O. I.; Brinkevich, S. D.; Samovich, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    We have obtained the Fourier transform IR spectra of solutions of benzaldehyde derivatives having different antiviral activities against a herpes virus. We observe a correlation between the presence of hydrogen bonds in the benzaldehyde molecules and the appearance of antiviral properties in the compounds. For compounds having antiviral activity, we have obtained spectral data suggesting the existence of hydrogen bonds of the type C=OṡṡṡH-O and O-HṡṡṡO in the molecules. When the hydrogen atom in the hydroxyl groups are replaced by a methyl group, no intramolecular hydrogen bonds are formed and the compounds lose their antiviral activity.

  3. Antiviral potential of a diterpenoid compound sugiol from Metasequoia glyptostroboides.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Kim, Na-Hyung; Kim, Kangmin; Kang, Sun Chul

    2016-05-01

    This research reports first time antiviral activity of sugiol, a diterpenoid isolated from Metasequoia glyptostroboides in terms of its ability to inhibit in vitro growth of H1N1 influenza virus. Antiviral potential of sugiol was evaluated through hcytopathogenic reduction assay using Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. Sugiol (500 μg/ml) was found to exhibit considerable anti-cytopathic effect on MDCK cell line confirming its antiviral efficacy against H1N1 influenza virus. These findings strongly reinforce the suggestion that sugiol could be a candidate of choice in combinational regimen with potential antiviral efficacy.

  4. Fc-optimized NKG2D-Fc constructs induce NK cell antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells independently of HER2/neu expression status.

    PubMed

    Raab, Stefanie; Steinbacher, Julia; Schmiedel, Benjamin J; Kousis, Philaretos C; Steinle, Alexander; Jung, Gundram; Grosse-Hovest, Ludger; Salih, Helmut R

    2014-10-15

    The ability of NK cells to mediate Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) largely contributes to the clinical success of antitumor Abs, including trastuzumab, which is approved for the treatment of breast cancer with HER2/neu overexpression. Notably, only ∼25% of breast cancer patients overexpress HER2/neu. Moreover, HER2/neu is expressed on healthy cells, and trastuzumab application is associated with side effects. In contrast, the ligands of the activating immunoreceptor NKG2D (NKG2DL) are selectively expressed on malignant cells. In this study, we took advantage of the tumor-associated expression of NKG2DL by using them as target Ags for NKG2D-IgG1 fusion proteins optimized by amino acid exchange S239D/I332E in their Fc part. Compared to constructs with wild-type Fc parts, fusion proteins carrying the S239D/I332E modification (NKG2D-Fc-ADCC) mediated highly enhanced degranulation, ADCC, and IFN-γ production of NK cells in response to breast cancer cells. NKG2D-Fc-ADCC substantially enhanced NK reactivity also against HER2/neu-low targets that were unaffected by trastuzumab, as both compounds mediated their immunostimulatory effects in strict dependence of target Ag expression levels. Thus, in line with the hierarchically organized potential of the various activating receptors governing NK reactivity and due to its highly increased affinity to CD16, NKG2D-Fc-ADCC potently enhances NK cell reactivity despite the inevitable reduction of activating signals upon binding to NKG2DL. Due to the tumor-restricted expression of NKG2DL, NKG2D-Fc-ADCC may constitute an attractive means for immunotherapy especially of HER2/neu-low or -negative breast cancer.

  5. Phenotypic lentivirus screens to identify functional single domain antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Florian I.; Hanke, Leo; Morin, Benjamin; Brewer, Rebeccah; Brusic, Vesna; Whelan, Sean P.J.; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of proteins is key in assessing their in vivo function. While genetic ablation is straightforward, reversible and specific perturbation of protein function remains a challenge. Single domain antibody fragments, such as camelid-derived VHHs, can serve as inhibitors or activators of intracellular protein function, but functional testing of identified VHHs is laborious. To address this challenge, we developed a lentiviral screening approach to identify VHHs that elicit a phenotype when expressed intracellularly. We identified 19 antiviral VHHs that protect human A549 cells from lethal infection with influenza A virus (IAV) or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), respectively. Both negative-sense RNA viruses are vulnerable to VHHs uniquely specific for their respective nucleoproteins. Antiviral VHHs prevented nuclear import of viral ribonucleoproteins or mRNA transcription, respectively, and may provide clues for novel antiviral reagents. In principle, the screening approach described here should be applicable to identify inhibitors of any pathogen or biological pathway. PMID:27573105

  6. Isolation and immunizations with hepatitis A viral structural proteins: induction of antiprotein, antiviral, and neutralizing responses.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J V; Stanton, L W

    1985-08-01

    An immune affinity purification procedure for hepatitis A virus (HAV) was designed which yielded milligram quantities of the virus with greater than 95% purity. The major structural proteins VP-1, VP-2, and VP-3 were isolated from the purified virus by electroelution from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and used to immunize Lewis rats (three to four doses, 10 to 15 micrograms per dose). The two Lewis rats immunized with VP-1 developed a strong antibody response to VP-1, as determined by Western blot analysis and immune precipitation of the denatured protein. These animals also developed a good antibody response to the whole virus, as demonstrated by a positive response in a competitive radioimmunoassay (HAV antibody test) and by precipitation of the whole virus. In addition, both animals developed a low titer neutralizing antibody to HAV, as demonstrated by an in vitro cell culture assay. While the two rats receiving VP-2 developed only minimal responses to the protein and to the virus by the same assays described above, one of the two developed a significant neutralizing antibody to HAV. The immunization of one Lewis rat with VP-3 induced a good antibody response to both denatured protein and the whole virus. This serum sample was also demonstrated to neutralize the viral infectivity. Finally, two rabbits that had received inoculations of sodium dodecyl sulfate and heat-disrupted HAV (containing 20 to 30 micrograms of each protein per dose) developed good antiprotein responses to all of the proteins and good antiviral responses, including a consistently significant neutralizing activity. The neutralizing antibody responses suggest that the structural proteins of HAV, or a portion of them, could provide the basis for a subunit vaccine for HAV.

  7. Antiviral Defenses in Plants through Genome Editing

    PubMed Central

    Romay, Gustavo; Bragard, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Plant–virus interactions based-studies have contributed to increase our understanding on plant resistance mechanisms, providing new tools for crop improvement. In the last two decades, RNA interference, a post-transcriptional gene silencing approach, has been used to induce antiviral defenses in plants with the help of genetic engineering technologies. More recently, the new genome editing systems (GES) are revolutionizing the scope of tools available to confer virus resistance in plants. The most explored GES are zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 endonuclease. GES are engineered to target and introduce mutations, which can be deleterious, via double-strand breaks at specific DNA sequences by the error-prone non-homologous recombination end-joining pathway. Although GES have been engineered to target DNA, recent discoveries of GES targeting ssRNA molecules, including virus genomes, pave the way for further studies programming plant defense against RNA viruses. Most of plant virus species have an RNA genome and at least 784 species have positive ssRNA. Here, we provide a summary of the latest progress in plant antiviral defenses mediated by GES. In addition, we also discuss briefly the GES perspectives in light of the rebooted debate on genetic modified organisms (GMOs) and the current regulatory frame for agricultural products involving the use of such engineering technologies. PMID:28167937

  8. Avian Interferons and Their Antiviral Effectors.

    PubMed

    Santhakumar, Diwakar; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Munir, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) responses, mediated by a myriad of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), are the most profound innate immune responses against viruses. Cumulatively, these IFN effectors establish a multilayered antiviral state to safeguard the host against invading viral pathogens. Considerable genetic and functional characterizations of mammalian IFNs and their effectors have been made, and our understanding on the avian IFNs has started to expand. Similar to mammalian counterparts, three types of IFNs have been genetically characterized in most avian species with available annotated genomes. Intriguingly, chickens are capable of mounting potent innate immune responses upon various stimuli in the absence of essential components of IFN pathways including retinoic acid-inducible gene I, IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and possibility IRF9. Understanding these unique properties of the chicken IFN system would propose valuable targets for the development of potential therapeutics for a broader range of viruses of both veterinary and zoonotic importance. This review outlines recent developments in the roles of avian IFNs and ISGs against viruses and highlights important areas of research toward our understanding of the antiviral functions of IFN effectors against viral infections in birds.

  9. Cell senescence is an antiviral defense mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Baz-Martínez, Maite; Da Silva-Álvarez, Sabela; Rodríguez, Estefanía; Guerra, Jorge; El Motiam, Ahmed; Vidal, Anxo; García-Caballero, Tomás; González-Barcia, Miguel; Sánchez, Laura; Muñoz-Fontela, César; Collado, Manuel; Rivas, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence is often considered a protection mechanism triggered by conditions that impose cellular stress. Continuous proliferation, DNA damaging agents or activated oncogenes are well-known activators of cell senescence. Apart from a characteristic stable cell cycle arrest, this response also involves a proinflammatory phenotype known as senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). This, together with the widely known interference with senescence pathways by some oncoviruses, had led to the hypothesis that senescence may also be part of the host cell response to fight virus. Here, we evaluate this hypothesis using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as a model. Our results show that VSV replication is significantly impaired in both primary and tumor senescent cells in comparison with non-senescent cells, and independently of the stimulus used to trigger senescence. Importantly, we also demonstrate a protective effect of senescence against VSV in vivo. Finally, our results identify the SASP as the major contributor to the antiviral defense exerted by cell senescence in vitro, and points to a role activating and recruiting the immune system to clear out the infection. Thus, our study indicates that cell senescence has also a role as a natural antiviral defense mechanism. PMID:27849057

  10. Avian Interferons and Their Antiviral Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Santhakumar, Diwakar; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Munir, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) responses, mediated by a myriad of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), are the most profound innate immune responses against viruses. Cumulatively, these IFN effectors establish a multilayered antiviral state to safeguard the host against invading viral pathogens. Considerable genetic and functional characterizations of mammalian IFNs and their effectors have been made, and our understanding on the avian IFNs has started to expand. Similar to mammalian counterparts, three types of IFNs have been genetically characterized in most avian species with available annotated genomes. Intriguingly, chickens are capable of mounting potent innate immune responses upon various stimuli in the absence of essential components of IFN pathways including retinoic acid-inducible gene I, IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and possibility IRF9. Understanding these unique properties of the chicken IFN system would propose valuable targets for the development of potential therapeutics for a broader range of viruses of both veterinary and zoonotic importance. This review outlines recent developments in the roles of avian IFNs and ISGs against viruses and highlights important areas of research toward our understanding of the antiviral functions of IFN effectors against viral infections in birds. PMID:28197148

  11. Bell's Palsy: Treatment with Steroids and Antiviral Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Evidence-based Guideline for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES BELL’S PALSY: TREATMENT WITH STEROIDS AND ANTIVIRAL DRUGS This information ... role of steroids and antiviral drugs for treating Bell’s palsy. Neurologists from the AAN are doctors who identify ...

  12. Potential applications for antiviral therapy and prophylaxis in bovine medicine.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Walz, Paul H; Givens, M Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Viral disease is one of the major causes of financial loss and animal suffering in today's cattle industry. Increases in global commerce and average herd size, urbanization, vertical integration within the industry and alterations in global climate patterns have allowed the spread of pathogenic viruses, or the introduction of new viral species, into regions previously free of such pathogens, creating the potential for widespread morbidity and mortality in naïve cattle populations. Despite this, no antiviral products are currently commercially licensed for use in bovine medicine, although significant progress has been made in the development of antivirals for use against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and bovine herpesvirus (BHV). BVDV is extensively studied as a model virus for human antiviral studies. Consequently, many compounds with efficacy have been identified and a few have been successfully used to prevent infection in vivo although commercial development is still lacking. FMDV is also the subject of extensive antiviral testing due to the importance of outbreak containment for maintenance of export markets. Thirdly, BHV presents an attractive target for antiviral development due to its worldwide presence. Antiviral studies for other bovine viral pathogens are largely limited to preliminary studies. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of antiviral compounds against several key bovine pathogens and the potential for commercial antiviral applications in the prevention and control of several selected bovine diseases.

  13. Protein kinase C and the antiviral effect of human interferon.

    PubMed

    Cernescu, C; Constantinescu, S N; Baltă, F; Popescu, L M; Cajal, N

    1989-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors: Hidaka's compounds H-7 (10 microM) and H-8 (20 microM), palmitoyl-carnitine (10 microM) and phloretin (50 microM), did not modify the antiviral effect of human natural or recombinant interferon alpha and of natural interferon beta. The tumor promoter 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (200 nM), known as activator of PKC induced an antiviral state when tested on human embryo fibroblasts challenged with the vesicular stomatitis virus. The battery of PKC inhibitors used inhibited the antiviral effect induced by TPA. Palmitoyl-carnitine (10 microM) exerted a toxic effect that was reversed by interferon treatment (2,000 IU/ml interferon alpha). These results suggest that PKC, possibly activated by interferon-receptor interaction, is not essential for inducing the antiviral effect of interferon, but, probably, mediates the antiviral effect of TPA.

  14. What Lies Beneath: Antibody Dependent Natural Killer Cell Activation by Antibodies to Internal Influenza Virus Proteins.

    PubMed

    Vanderven, Hillary A; Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Fernanda; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Rockman, Steven; Laurie, Karen; Barr, Ian; Chen, Weisan; Wines, Bruce; Hogarth, P Mark; Lambe, Teresa; Gilbert, Sarah C; Parsons, Matthew S; Kent, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    The conserved internal influenza proteins nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix 1 (M1) are well characterised for T cell immunity, but whether they also elicit functional antibodies capable of activating natural killer (NK) cells has not been explored. We studied NP and M1-specific ADCC activity using biochemical, NK cell activation and killing assays with plasma from healthy and influenza-infected subjects. Healthy adults had antibodies to M1 and NP capable of binding dimeric FcγRIIIa and activating NK cells. Natural symptomatic and experimental influenza infections resulted in a rise in antibody dependent NK cell activation post-infection to the hemagglutinin of the infecting strain, but changes in NK cell activation to M1 and NP were variable. Although antibody dependent killing of target cells infected with vaccinia viruses expressing internal influenza proteins was not detected, opsonising antibodies to NP and M1 likely contribute to an antiviral microenvironment by stimulating innate immune cells to secrete cytokines early in infection. We conclude that effector cell activating antibodies to conserved internal influenza proteins are common in healthy and influenza-infected adults. Given the significance of such antibodies in animal models of heterologous influenza infection, the definition of their importance and mechanism of action in human immunity to influenza is essential.

  15. The chemical bases of the various AIDS epidemics: recreational drugs, anti-viral chemotherapy and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Duesberg, Peter; Koehnlein, Claus; Rasnick, David

    2003-06-01

    In 1981 a new epidemic of about two-dozen heterogeneous diseases began to strike non-randomly growing numbers of male homosexuals and mostly male intravenous drug users in the US and Europe. Assuming immunodeficiency as the common denominator the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) termed the epidemic, AIDS, for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. From 1981-1984 leading researchers including those from the CDC proposed that recreational drug use was the cause of AIDS, because of exact correlations and of drug-specific diseases. However, in 1984 US government researchers proposed that a virus, now termed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is the cause of the non-random epidemics of the US and Europe but also of a new, sexually random epidemic in Africa. The virus-AIDS hypothesis was instantly accepted, but it is burdened with numerous paradoxes, none of which could be resolved by 2003: Why is there no HIV in most AIDS patients, only antibodies against it? Why would HIV take 10 years from infection to AIDS? Why is AIDS not self-limiting via antiviral immunity? Why is there no vaccine against AIDS? Why is AIDS in the US and Europe not random like other viral epidemics? Why did AIDS not rise and then decline exponentially owing to antiviral immunity like all other viral epidemics? Why is AIDS not contagious? Why would only HIV carriers get AIDS who use either recreational or anti-HIV drugs or are subject to malnutrition? Why is the mortality of HIV-antibody-positives treated with anti-HIV drugs 7-9%, but that of all (mostly untreated) HIV-positives globally is only 1.4%? Here we propose that AIDS is a collection of chemical epidemics, caused by recreational drugs, anti-HIV drugs, and malnutrition. According to this hypothesis AIDS is not contagious, not immunogenic, not treatable by vaccines or antiviral drugs, and HIV is just a passenger virus. The hypothesis explains why AIDS epidemics strike non-randomly if caused by drugs and randomly if caused by malnutrition

  16. Progress in RNAi-based antiviral therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiehua; Rossi, John J

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) refers to the conserved sequence-specific degradation of message RNA mediated by small interfering (si)RNA duplexes 21-25 nucleotides in length. Given the ability to specifically silence any gene of interest, siRNAs offers several advantages over conventional drugs as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of human maladies including cancers, genetic disorders, and infectious diseases. Antiviral RNAi strategies have received much attention and several compounds are currently being tested in clinical trials. In particular, the development of siRNA-based HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) therapeutics has progressed rapidly and many recent studies have shown that the use of RNAi could inhibit HIV-1 replication by targeting a number of viral or cellular genes. Therefore, the present chapter mainly focuses on the recent progress of RNAi-based anti-HIV gene therapeutics, with particular attention to molecular targets and delivery strategies of the siRNAs.

  17. Cytoplasmic nucleic acid sensors in antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Priya; Bowzard, J Bradford; Schwerzmann, Joy W; Jeisy-Scott, Victoria; Fujita, Takashi; Sambhara, Suryaprakash

    2009-08-01

    The innate immune system uses pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to sense invading microbes and initiate a rapid protective response. PRRs bind and are activated by structural motifs, such as nucleic acids or bacterial and fungal cell wall components, collectively known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. PRRs that recognize pathogen-derived nucleic acids are present in vesicular compartments and in the cytosol of most cell types. Here, we review recent studies of these cytosolic sensors, focusing on the nature of the ligands for DNA-dependent activator of interferon (DAI)-regulatory factors, absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), and the retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like helicase (RLH) family of receptors, the basis of ligand recognition and the signaling pathways triggered by the activation of these receptors. An increased understanding of these molecular aspects of innate immunity will guide the development of novel antiviral therapeutics.

  18. Contribution of autophagy to antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Rey-Jurado, Emma; Riedel, Claudia A; González, Pablo A; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2015-11-14

    Although identified in the 1960's, interest in autophagy has significantly increased in the past decade with notable research efforts oriented at understanding as to how this multi-protein complex operates and is regulated. Autophagy is commonly defined as a "self-eating" process evolved by eukaryotic cells to recycle senescent organelles and expired proteins, which is significantly increased during cellular stress responses. In addition, autophagy can also play important roles during human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative and autoimmune disorders. Furthermore, novel findings suggest that autophagy contributes to the host defense against microbial infections. In this article, we review the role of macroautophagy in antiviral immune responses and discuss molecular mechanisms evolved by viral pathogens to evade this process. A role for autophagy as an effector mechanism used both, by innate and adaptive immunity is also discussed.

  19. RNA degradation in antiviral immunity and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Rigby, Rachel E.; Rehwinkel, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional control determines the fate of cellular RNA molecules. Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) provides quality control of mRNA, targeting faulty cellular transcripts for degradation by multiple nucleases including the RNA exosome. Recent findings have revealed a role for NMD in targeting viral RNA molecules, thereby restricting virus infection. Interestingly, NMD is also linked to immune responses at another level: mutations affecting the NMD or RNA exosome machineries cause chronic activation of defence programmes, resulting in autoimmune phenotypes. Here we place these observations in the context of other links between innate antiviral immunity and type I interferon mediated disease and examine two models: one in which expression or function of pathogen sensors is perturbed and one wherein host-derived RNA molecules with a propensity to activate such sensors accumulate. PMID:25709093

  20. Antifungal and antiviral products of marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Pan, Wen Liang; Chan, Yau Sang; Yin, Cui Ming; Dan, Xiu Li; Wang, He Xiang; Fang, Evandro Fei; Lam, Sze Kwan; Ngai, Patrick Hung Kui; Xia, Li Xin; Liu, Fang; Ye, Xiu Yun; Zhang, Guo Qing; Liu, Qing Hong; Sha, Ou; Lin, Peng; Ki, Chan; Bekhit, Adnan A; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Wan, David Chi Cheong

    2017-01-01

    Marine organisms including bacteria, fungi, algae, sponges, echinoderms, mollusks, and cephalochordates produce a variety of products with antifungal activity including bacterial chitinases, lipopeptides, and lactones; fungal (−)-sclerotiorin and peptaibols, purpurides B and C, berkedrimane B and purpuride; algal gambieric acids A and B, phlorotannins; 3,5-dibromo-2-(3,5-dibromo-2-methoxyphenoxy)phenol, spongistatin 1, eurysterols A and B, nortetillapyrone, bromotyrosine alkaloids, bis-indole alkaloid, ageloxime B and (−)-ageloxime D, haliscosamine, hamigeran G, hippolachnin A from sponges; echinoderm triterpene glycosides and alkene sulfates; molluscan kahalalide F and a 1485-Da peptide with a sequence SRSELIVHQR; and cepalochordate chitotriosidase and a 5026.9-Da antifungal peptide. The antiviral compounds from marine organisms include bacterial polysaccharide and furan-2-yl acetate; fungal macrolide, purpurester A, purpurquinone B, isoindolone derivatives, alterporriol Q, tetrahydroaltersolanol C and asperterrestide A, algal diterpenes, xylogalactofucan, alginic acid, glycolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, sulfated polysaccharide p-KG03, meroditerpenoids, methyl ester derivative of vatomaric acid, lectins, polysaccharides, tannins, cnidarian zoanthoxanthin alkaloids, norditerpenoid and capilloquinol; crustacean antilipopolysaccharide factors, molluscan hemocyanin; echinoderm triterpenoid glycosides; tunicate didemnin B, tamandarins A and B and; tilapia hepcidin 1–5 (TH 1–5), seabream SauMx1, SauMx2, and SauMx3, and orange-spotted grouper β-defensin. Although the mechanisms of antifungal and antiviral activities of only some of the afore-mentioned compounds have been elucidated, the possibility to use those known to have distinctly different mechanisms, good bioavailability, and minimal toxicity in combination therapy remains to be investigated. It is also worthwhile to test the marine antimicrobials for possible synergism with existing drugs. The

  1. AN ANTIVIRAL SUBSTANCE FROM PENICILLIUM FUNICULOSUM

    PubMed Central

    Shope, Richard E.

    1966-01-01

    1. Helenine injected intraperitoneally 24 hr prior to a regularly fatal dose of Semliki Forest virus saves most of the mice to which it is administered. 2. Mice saved by helenine develop no viral immunity and regularly succumb when rechallenged 2 wk later with the same dose of virus from which they were originally saved. 3. The time during which helenine is optimally effective in protecting mice from death by Semliki Forest virus covers a period of approximately 36 hr beginning after about 12 hr and extending to 48 hr before virus infection. When periods of less than 12 hr, or more than 48 hr, elapse between the time of helenine administration and virus inoculation, its protective effectiveness diminishes progressively. 4. Repeated injections of helenine at 2- or 3-day intervals, if continued long enough, exhaust the capacity of a host to respond favorably to helenine administered 24 hr before virus inoculation. 5. Helenine injections at intervals of 4, 3, and 2 wk before its administration 24 hr prior to infection do not decrease the effectiveness of this final dose in protecting mice from fatal infection by the virus. The experimental results here reported indicate that, as suggested by the findings of earlier work, helenine does not act directly as an antiviral substance, but instead exerts its effect through some substance that it induces the host to elaborate. The nature of this induced antiviral substance is as yet unknown though, to judge from the failure of spared mice to acquire viral immunity, it appears to act at a stage in viral replication prior to that at which antigenic viral protein is produced. The findings with helenine and those thus far reported for interferon afford no factual basis for judging the relationship of the two, if any. PMID:5905239

  2. Cherry Valley Ducks Mitochondrial Antiviral-Signaling Protein-Mediated Signaling Pathway and Antiviral Activity Research

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Li, Rong; Wang, Yao; Guo, Mengjiao; Cao, Zongxi; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum. The expression of duMAVS was significantly upregulated after infection with duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV). Overexpression of duMAVS could drive the activation of interferon (IFN)-β, nuclear factor-κB, interferon regulatory factor 7, and many downstream factors (such as Mx, PKR, OAS, and IL-8) in duck embryo fibroblast cells. What is more, RNA interference further confirmed that duMAVS was an important adaptor for IFN-β activation. The antiviral assay showed that duMAVS could suppress the various viral replications (DTMUV, novel reovirus, and duck plague virus) at early stages of infection. Overall, these results showed that the main signal pathway mediated by duMAVS and it had a broad-spectrum antiviral ability. This research will be helpful to better understanding the innate immune system of ducks. PMID:27708647

  3. Intracellular Neutralization of Virus by Immunoglobulin A Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazanec, Mary B.; Kaetzel, Charlotte S.; Lamm, Michael E.; Fletcher, David; Nedrud, John G.

    1992-08-01

    IgA is thought to neutralize viruses at the epithelial surface of mucous membranes by preventing their attachment. Since IgA, a polymeric immunoglobulin, is transported through the lining of epithelial cells by the polymeric-immunoglobulin receptor and since viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, we hypothesized that IgA antibodies may also interfere with viral replication by binding to newly synthesized viral proteins within infected cells. Polarized monolayers of Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells expressing the polymeric-immunoglobulin receptor were infected on the apical surface with Sendai virus. Anti-Sendai virus IgA monoclonal antibody delivered from the basolateral surface colocalized with viral protein within the cell, as documented by immunofluorescence. More importantly, anti-viral IgA reduced virus titers >1000-fold (P < 0.0001) in apical supernatants and >10-fold (P < 0.0001) in cell lysates from monolayers treated with anti-viral IgA compared with those treated with either anti-viral IgG or an irrelevant IgA monoclonal antibody. We believe that the differences in viral titers between cell layers treated with specific IgA, which enters the epithelial cell by binding to the polymeric-immunoglobulin receptor, and those treated with specific IgG, which does not enter the cells, or irrelevant IgA indicate that specific intracellular IgA antibodies can inhibit viral replication. Thus, in addition to the classical role of humoral antibodies in extracellular defense, IgA antibody may be able to neutralize microbial pathogens intracellularly, giving IgA a role in host defense that has traditionally been reserved for cell-mediated immunity.

  4. Hepatitis C Virus Experimental Model Systems and Antiviral drug Research*

    PubMed Central

    Uprichard, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 130 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) making it a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. Because the currently available therapy of pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin is only effective in a subset of patients, the development of new HCV antivirals is a healthcare imperative. This review discusses the experimental models available for HCV antiviral drug research, recent advances in HCV antiviral drug development, as well as active research being pursued to facilitate development of new HCV-specific therapeutics. PMID:20960298

  5. Effects of pseudorabies virus infection upon cytotoxicity and antiviral activities of porcine alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, G; Pijoan, C; Molitor, T

    1992-10-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) infected with Pseudorabies virus (PRV) were compared to noninfected AM for cytotoxicity against foreign or transformed cells and production of interferon (IFN). Five PRV strains were used to infect AM including strains that are known to be highly virulent for pigs, i.e. strain 4892 and strain S-62 as well as strains that are regarded as mild or nonvirulent, i.e. BUK and Bartha. The multiplicity of infection ranged from 0.005 to 0.05 TCID50/cell. The target cells in the cytotoxicity assays were either chicken red blood cells, PRV-infected vero cells, or human myeloblastoma cells (K562 cell line). For the production of IFN, AM cultures were treated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) diluted in tissue culture media at a concentration of 5 micrograms/10(6) cells. Culture supernatants were collected at various times poststimulation and tested for antiviral activity using the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus replication inhibition test. Swine AM were able to lyse chicken red blood cells in an antibody-independent way but not in an antibody-dependent way, whereas lysis of PRV-infected vero cells was accomplished both ways. The cytotoxicity against chicken red blood cells was reduced in the PRV-infected AM as compared to noninfected cells, particularly in AM infected with virulent PRV strains. Specific 51Cr release values for AM infected with S-62 and 4892 strains were 14 and 19, while the noninfected AM had values of 36. Similarly, in the antibody-dependent cytotoxicity assay against PRV-infected vero cells there was no activity of AM against K562 cells. The production of IFN was readily stimulated with Poly I:C. The optimal time for supernatant collection was between 12 and 16 h poststimulation. The antiviral activity was abrogated by treatment of the supernatant with antiserum against human leukocyte IFN; it was therefore considered to be due to interferon-alpha (IFN alpha) released from the macrophages. The antiviral activity present in

  6. Production of Potent Fully Human Polyclonal Antibodies Against Zaire Ebola Virus in Transchromosomal Cattle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    recombinant glycoprotein (GP) vaccine consisting of the 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV)-Makona isolate. Serum collected from these hyperimmunized Tc...countermeasures for EBOV infections in humans. Effective countermeasures that include vaccines , antivirals, and other prophylactic and therapeutic...traditional animal systems used to produce polyclonal antibodies, Tc bovines can be hyperimmunized over a long period of time with vaccines containing strong

  7. IDENTITY OF "INHIBITOR" AND ANTIBODY IN EXTRACTS OF VIRUS-INDUCED RABBIT PAPILLOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Friedewald, William F.

    1940-01-01

    The "inhibitor" demonstrable in extracts of the virus-induced rabbit papillomas is identical with the antiviral antibody found in the blood of hosts bearing the growths. The conditions in these latter are frequently favorable to its extravasation in considerable amount into them. Its significance and its influence upon the recovery of virus from the papillomas are discussed. PMID:19871016

  8. Metformin and AICAR regulate NANOG expression via the JNK pathway in HepG2 cells independently of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen; Ka, Sun-O; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Byung-Hyun; Park, Ji Hyun

    2016-08-01

    NANOG, a marker of stemness, impacts tumor progression and therapeutic resistance in cancer cells. In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), upregulation of NANOG is associated with metastasis and a low survival rate, while its downregulation results in a lower colony formation rate and enhanced chemosensitivity. Metformin, an agent widely used for diabetes treatment, and AICAR, another AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, have been reported to inhibit the growth of several types of cancer. Although inhibitory effects of metformin on NANOG in pancreatic cancer cells and of AICAR in mouse embryonic stem cells have been described, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain uncertain in HCC. In this study, we used the HepG2 cell line and found that metformin/AICAR downregulated NANOG expression with decreased cell viability and enhanced chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Moreover, metformin/AICAR inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity, and blockade of either the JNK MAPK pathway or knockdown of JNK1 gene expression reduced NANOG levels. The upregulation of NANOG and phospho-JNK by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was abrogated by metformin/AICAR. Additionally, although transient upregulation of NANOG within 2 h of treatment with metformin/AICAR was concordant with both JNK and AMPK activation, increased NANOG expression with activation of JNK was also observed following AMPK inhibition with compound C. Taken together, our data suggest that metformin/AICAR regulate NANOG expression via the JNK MAPK pathway in HepG2 cells independently of AMPK, and that this JNK/NANOG signaling pathway may offer new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of HCC.

  9. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Breden, Felix; Scott, Jamie K; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Reichert, Janice M; Helguera, Gustavo; Andrabi, Raiees; Mabry, Robert; Bléry, Mathieu; Voss, James E; Laurén, Juha; Abuqayyas, Lubna; Barghorn, Stefan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Crowe, James E; Huston, James S; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Krauland, Eric; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Marasco, Wayne A; Parren, Paul WHI; Xu, Kai Y

    2014-01-01

    The 24th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting brought together a broad range of participants who were updated on the latest advances in antibody research and development. Organized by IBC Life Sciences, the gathering is the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, which serves as the scientific sponsor. Preconference workshops on 3D modeling and delineation of clonal lineages were featured, and the conference included sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to researchers, including systems biology; antibody deep sequencing and repertoires; the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on antibody response; directed evolution; knowledge-based design; antibodies in a complex environment; polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity; the interface between antibody therapy and cellular immunity in cancer; antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; polyclonals, oligoclonals and bispecifics; antibody discovery platforms; and antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:24589717

  10. Antiviral chemotherapy in veterinary medicine: current applications and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dal Pozzo, F; Thiry, E

    2014-12-01

    The current situation in the use of antiviral drugs in veterinary medicine is characterised by a novel and optimistic approach.Viruses of veterinary importance are still used as animal models in the developmentof human therapeutics, but there is growing interest in many of these viruses in the identification of antiviral molecules for use in both livestock and companion animals. The use of antiviral drugs in livestock animals is envisaged for the treatment or control of disease on a large scale (mass treatment), whereas in companion animals an individual approach is favoured. An overview of the most recent examples of research in the use of antivirals in veterinary medicine is presented, with particular emphasis on their in vivo applications.

  11. International society for antiviral research - 23rd international conference.

    PubMed

    Mason, Vicki L

    2010-06-01

    The 23rd International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR), organized by the International Society for Antiviral Research (ISAR) and held in San Francisco, included topics covering new therapeutic developments in the field of antivirals. This conference report highlights selected presentations on CD4-BFFI (Roche Holding AG), a CD4 mAb-based bifunctional HIV entry inhibitor; a CLDC-HBsAg vaccine (Juvaris BioTherapeutics Inc/China National Biotec Group) against HBV; ODE-(S)-MPMPA (University of California San Diego), a potent anti-HCV compound; the anti-human CMV activity exhibited by tricin; the protective activity of Ingavirin against influenza A; and Prosetta Bioconformatics's approach to identifying small-molecule antivirals.

  12. Antiviral agents against equid alphaherpesviruses: Current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vissani, María A; Thiry, Etienne; Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; Barrandeguy, María

    2016-01-01

    Equid herpesvirus infections cause respiratory, neurological and reproductive syndromes. Despite preventive and control measures and the availability of vaccines and immunostimulants, herpesvirus infections still constitute a major threat to equine health and for the equine industry worldwide. Antiviral drugs, particularly nucleoside analogues and foscarnet, are successfully used for the treatment of human alphaherpesvirus infections. In equine medicine, the use of antiviral medications in alphaherpesvirus infections would decrease the excretion of virus and diminish the risk of contagion and the convalescent time in affected horses, and would also improve the clinical outcome of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy. The combined use of antiviral compounds, along with vaccines, immune modulators, and effective preventive and control measures, might be beneficial in diminishing the negative impact of alphaherpesvirus infections in horses. The purpose of this review is to analyse the available information regarding the use of antiviral agents against alphaherpesviruses, with particular emphasis on equine alphaherpesvirus infections.

  13. Dengue Virus Entry as Target for Antiviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alen, Marijke M. F.; Schols, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infections are expanding worldwide and, because of the lack of a vaccine, the search for antiviral products is imperative. Four serotypes of DENV are described and they all cause a similar disease outcome. It would be interesting to develop an antiviral product that can interact with all four serotypes, prevent host cell infection and subsequent immune activation. DENV entry is thus an interesting target for antiviral therapy. DENV enters the host cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Several cellular receptors have been proposed, and DC-SIGN, present on dendritic cells, is considered as the most important DENV receptor until now. Because DENV entry is a target for antiviral therapy, various classes of compounds have been investigated to inhibit this process. In this paper, an overview is given of all the putative DENV receptors, and the most promising DENV entry inhibitors are discussed. PMID:22529868

  14. Zika virus: a race in search for antivirals.

    PubMed

    Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A

    2017-03-27

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes, was an almost neglected pathogen until its introduction in the Americas in 2015, and its subsequent explosive spread throughout the continent, where it has infected millions of people. The virus has caused social and sanitary alarm, mainly due to its association with severe neurological disorders (Guillain-Barré syndrome, and microcephaly in fetus and newborns). Nowadays, no specific antiviral therapy is available against ZIKV. However, during the past months, a great effort has been made in search for antiviral candidates by using different approaches and methodologies, from testing specific compounds with known antiviral activity to screenings of libraries with hundreds of bioactive molecules. The identified antiviral candidates include drugs targeting viral components, as well as cellular ones. Here, an updated review of what has been done in this line is presented.

  15. Potential Antiviral Agents from Marine Fungi: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Nikzad, Sonia; Kadir, Habsah Abdul; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-07-22

    Biodiversity of the marine world is only partially subjected to detailed scientific scrutiny in comparison to terrestrial life. Life in the marine world depends heavily on marine fungi scavenging the oceans of lifeless plants and animals and entering them into the nutrient cycle by. Approximately 150 to 200 new compounds, including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, polyketides, and aromatic compounds, are identified from marine fungi annually. In recent years, numerous investigations demonstrated the tremendous potential of marine fungi as a promising source to develop new antivirals against different important viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, the human immunodeficiency virus, and the influenza virus. Various genera of marine fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were subjected to compound isolation and antiviral studies, which led to an illustration of the strong antiviral activity of a variety of marine fungi-derived compounds. The present review strives to summarize all available knowledge on active compounds isolated from marine fungi with antiviral activity.

  16. Potential Antiviral Agents from Marine Fungi: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Nikzad, Sonia; Abdul Kadir, Habsah; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity of the marine world is only partially subjected to detailed scientific scrutiny in comparison to terrestrial life. Life in the marine world depends heavily on marine fungi scavenging the oceans of lifeless plants and animals and entering them into the nutrient cycle by. Approximately 150 to 200 new compounds, including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, polyketides, and aromatic compounds, are identified from marine fungi annually. In recent years, numerous investigations demonstrated the tremendous potential of marine fungi as a promising source to develop new antivirals against different important viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, the human immunodeficiency virus, and the influenza virus. Various genera of marine fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were subjected to compound isolation and antiviral studies, which led to an illustration of the strong antiviral activity of a variety of marine fungi-derived compounds. The present review strives to summarize all available knowledge on active compounds isolated from marine fungi with antiviral activity. PMID:26204947

  17. Human Cytomegaloviruses Expressing Yellow Fluorescent Fusion Proteins - Characterization and Use in Antiviral Screening

    PubMed Central

    Straschewski, Sarah; Warmer, Martin; Frascaroli, Giada; Hohenberg, Heinrich; Mertens, Thomas; Winkler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant viruses labelled with fluorescent proteins are useful tools in molecular virology with multiple applications (e.g., studies on intracellular trafficking, protein localization, or gene activity). We generated by homologous recombination three recombinant cytomegaloviruses carrying the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) fused with the viral proteins IE-2, ppUL32 (pp150), and ppUL83 (pp65). In growth kinetics, the three viruses behaved all like wild type, even at low multiplicity of infection (MOI). The expression of all three fusion proteins was detected, and their respective localizations were the same as for the unmodified proteins in wild-type virus–infected cells. We established the in vivo measurement of fluorescence intensity and used the recombinant viruses to measure inhibition of viral replication by neutralizing antibodies or antiviral substances. The use of these viruses in a pilot screen based on fluorescence intensity and high-content analysis identified cellular kinase inhibitors that block viral replication. In summary, these viruses with individually EYFP-tagged proteins will be useful to study antiviral substances and the dynamics of viral infection in cell culture. PMID:20161802

  18. Impact of Desensitization on Antiviral Immunity in HLA-Sensitized Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Bong-Ha; Ge, Shili; Mirocha, James; Thomas, David; Chu, Maggie; Rodriguez, Edgar; Chao, Christine; Petrosyan, Anna; Galera, Odette A.; Vo, Ashley; Choi, Jua; Peng, Alice; Kahwaji, Joseph; Jordan, Stanley C.

    2017-01-01

    Viral infections represent significant morbidity and mortality factors in kidney transplant recipients, with CMV, EBV, and BKV infections being most common. Desensitization (DES) with IVIg and rituximab with/without plasma exchange followed by kidney transplantation with alemtuzumab induction increased successful transplant rates in HLA-sensitized patients but may represent an increased risk for viral infections due to severe lymphocyte depletion. Here, we report on the posttransplant viral infection status in 372 DES versus 538 non-DES patients. CMV and EBV viremia were significantly lower in DES patients, while BKV viremia was similar. This trend was observed primarily in CMV sero(−), EBV sero(+), and sero(−) patients. No patient developed PTLD. The incidence of BKAN, allograft, and patient survival was similar in both groups. These viral infections were not associated with subsequent allograft rejection which occurred within 6 months after the infection. Conclusions. The IVIg + rituximab desensitization combined with alemtuzumab induction with triple immunosuppression maintenance does not increase the risk for CMV, EBV, and BKV infections. Possible factors include, in addition to posttransplant antiviral prophylaxis and PCR monitoring, presence of memory T cells and antibodies specific to CMV and likely EBV, NK cell-mediated ADCC despite lymphocyte depletion, elimination of EBV and CMV reservoirs by rituximab and alemtuzumab, and use of IVIg with antiviral properties. PMID:28265581

  19. Antigen-Specific Antibody Glycosylation Is Regulated via Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Alison E; Jennewein, Madeleine F; Suscovich, Todd; Dionne, Kendall; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; Chung, Amy W; Streeck, Hendrik; Pau, Maria; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Francis, Don; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna; Walker, Bruce D; Baden, Lindsey; Barouch, Dan H; Alter, Galit

    2016-03-01

    Antibody effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, play a critical role in immunity against multiple pathogens, particularly in the absence of neutralizing activity. Two modifications to the IgG constant domain (Fc domain) regulate antibody functionality: changes in antibody subclass and changes in a single N-linked glycan located in the CH2 domain of the IgG Fc. Together, these modifications provide a specific set of instructions to the innate immune system to direct the elimination of antibody-bound antigens. While it is clear that subclass selection is actively regulated during the course of natural infection, it is unclear whether antibody glycosylation can be tuned, in a signal-specific or pathogen-specific manner. Here, we show that antibody glycosylation is determined in an antigen- and pathogen-specific manner during HIV infection. Moreover, while dramatic differences exist in bulk IgG glycosylation among individuals in distinct geographical locations, immunization is able to overcome these differences and elicit antigen-specific antibodies with similar antibody glycosylation patterns. Additionally, distinct vaccine regimens induced different antigen-specific IgG glycosylation profiles, suggesting that antibody glycosylation is not only programmable but can be manipulated via the delivery of distinct inflammatory signals during B cell priming. These data strongly suggest that the immune system naturally drives antibody glycosylation in an antigen-specific manner and highlights a promising means by which next-generation therapeutics and vaccines can harness the antiviral activity of the innate immune system via directed alterations in antibody glycosylation in vivo.  .

  20. Antigen-Specific Antibody Glycosylation Is Regulated via Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Suscovich, Todd; Dionne, Kendall; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; Chung, Amy W.; Streeck, Hendrik; Pau, Maria; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Francis, Don; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna; Walker, Bruce D.; Baden, Lindsey; Barouch, Dan H.; Alter, Galit

    2016-01-01

    Antibody effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, play a critical role in immunity against multiple pathogens, particularly in the absence of neutralizing activity. Two modifications to the IgG constant domain (Fc domain) regulate antibody functionality: changes in antibody subclass and changes in a single N-linked glycan located in the CH2 domain of the IgG Fc. Together, these modifications provide a specific set of instructions to the innate immune system to direct the elimination of antibody-bound antigens. While it is clear that subclass selection is actively regulated during the course of natural infection, it is unclear whether antibody glycosylation can be tuned, in a signal-specific or pathogen-specific manner. Here, we show that antibody glycosylation is determined in an antigen- and pathogen-specific manner during HIV infection. Moreover, while dramatic differences exist in bulk IgG glycosylation among individuals in distinct geographical locations, immunization is able to overcome these differences and elicit antigen-specific antibodies with similar antibody glycosylation patterns. Additionally, distinct vaccine regimens induced different antigen-specific IgG glycosylation profiles, suggesting that antibody glycosylation is not only programmable but can be manipulated via the delivery of distinct inflammatory signals during B cell priming. These data strongly suggest that the immune system naturally drives antibody glycosylation in an antigen-specific manner and highlights a promising means by which next-generation therapeutics and vaccines can harness the antiviral activity of the innate immune system via directed alterations in antibody glycosylation in vivo.   PMID:26982805

  1. Antiviral Efficacy of Pyrazofurin against Selected RNA Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-24

    DTIC Antiviral Research, 2 (1982) 33-337 ELECTE31 Elsevier Biomedical Press JUN t4 s ANTIVIRAL EFFICACY OF PYRAZOFURIN AGAINST SELECTED RNA VIRUSES ...hydroxypyrazole-5-carboxamide, markedly inhibited the in vitro replication of a number of RNA viruses including Rift Valley fever (RVF), S Venezuelan equine...encephalomyelitis (VEE), Sandfly, Pichinde, Lassa and LCM virus . Plaque forma- tion was reduced by 80% or more with 2-10 pg/ml of pyrazofurin while 2 ug

  2. Probiotics as antiviral agents in shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Viswanath, Buddolla; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  3. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

  4. Antiviral activities of coffee extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Ichinose, Masao; Uozaki, Misao; Tsujimoto, Kazuko; Yamasaki, Hisashi; Koyama, A Hajime

    2008-06-01

    Both hot water extracts of coffee grinds and instant coffee solutions inhibited the multiplication of herpes simplex virus type 1, a representative enveloped DNA virus, when they were added to the culture medium of the virus-infected cells at a dose of one fifth the concentration suitable for drinking. The antiherpetic activity was independent of the suppliers (companies) of the coffee grinds and of the locations where the coffee beans were produced. Further characterization revealed that there are two different mechanisms, by which the coffee extracts exert inhibitory activities on the virus infection; (1) a direct inactivation of the infectivity of virus particle (i.e., a virucidal activity) and (2) the inhibition of progeny infectious virus formation at the late stage of viral multiplication in the infected cells. Caffeine, but not quinic acid and chlorogenic acid, inhibited the virus multiplication to some extent, but none of them showed the virucidal activity, suggesting that other component(s) in the coffee extracts must play a role in the observed antiviral activity. In addition, the coffee extracts inhibited the multiplication of poliovirus, a non-enveloped RNA virus, but showed no virucidal effect on this virus.

  5. Protein modification during antiviral heat bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Smales, C M; Pepper, D S; James, D C

    2000-01-20

    Heat treatment is routinely used in the preparation of therapeutic protein biopharmaceuticals as a means of viral inactivation. However, in undertaking virucidal heat treatments, a balance must be found between the bioprocessing conditions, virus kill, and the maintenance of protein integrity. In this study, we utilize a simple model protein, hen egg-white lysozyme, to investigate the relationship between antiviral bioprocess conditions (protein formulation and temperature) and the extent and type of protein modification. A variety of industrially relevant wet- and dry-heat treatments were undertaken, using formulations that included sucrose as a thermostabilizing excipient. Although there was no evidence of lysozyme aggregation or crosslinking during any of the heat treatments, using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-MS) and peptide mapping we show that protein modifications do occur with increasingly harsh heat treatment. Modifications were predominantly found after wet-heat treatment, the major covalent modification of lysozyme under these conditions being glycation of Lys(97), by either glucose or fructose derived from hydrolyzed sucrose. The extent of sucrose hydrolysis was itself dependent on both the duration of heat treatment and formulation composition. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and additional unidentified products were also present in protein samples subjected to extended heat treatment. AGEs were derived primarily from initial glycation by fructose and not glucose. These findings have implications for the improvement of bioprocesses to ensure protein product quality.

  6. Perspective of Use of Antiviral Peptides against Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Skalickova, Sylvie; Heger, Zbynek; Krejcova, Ludmila; Pekarik, Vladimir; Bastl, Karel; Janda, Jozef; Kostolansky, Frantisek; Vareckova, Eva; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The threat of a worldwide influenza pandemic has greatly increased over the past decade with the emergence of highly virulent avian influenza strains. The increased frequency of drug-resistant influenza strains against currently available antiviral drugs requires urgent development of new strategies for antiviral therapy, too. The research in the field of therapeutic peptides began to develop extensively in the second half of the 20th century. Since then, the mechanisms of action for several peptides and their antiviral prospect received large attention due to the global threat posed by viruses. Here, we discussed the therapeutic properties of peptides used in influenza treatment. Peptides with antiviral activity against influenza can be divided into three main groups. First, entry blocker peptides such as a Flupep that interact with influenza hemagglutinin, block its binding to host cells and prevent viral fusion. Second, several peptides display virucidal activity, disrupting viral envelopes, e.g., Melittin. Finally, a third set of peptides interacts with the viral polymerase complex and act as viral replication inhibitors such as PB1 derived peptides. Here, we present a review of the current literature describing the antiviral activity, mechanism and future therapeutic potential of these influenza antiviral peptides. PMID:26492266

  7. Killer peptide: a novel paradigm of antimicrobial, antiviral and immunomodulatory auto-delivering drugs.

    PubMed

    Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Ciociola, Tecla; Giovati, Laura; Zanello, Pier Paolo; Pertinhez, Thelma; Spisni, Alberto; Polonelli, Luciano

    2011-07-01

    The incidence of life-threatening viral and microbial infections has dramatically increased over recent decades. Despite significant developments in anti-infective chemotherapy, many issues have increasingly narrowed the therapeutic options, making it imperative to discover new effective molecules. Among them, small peptides are arousing great interest. This review will focus in particular on a killer peptide, engineered from an anti-idiotypic recombinant antibody that mimics the activity of a wide-spectrum antimicrobial yeast killer toxin targeting β-glucan cell-wall receptors. The in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial, antiviral and immunomodulatory activities of killer peptide and its ability to spontaneously and reversibly self-assemble and slowly release its active dimeric form over time will be discussed as a novel paradigm of targeted auto-delivering drugs.

  8. The Role of Cytokine PF4 in the Antiviral Immune Response of Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulei; Cao, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    During viral infection in vertebrates, cytokines play important roles in the host defense against the virus. However, the function of cytokines in invertebrates has not been well characterized. In this study, shrimp cytokines involved in viral infection were screened using a cytokine antibody microarray. The results showed that three cytokines, the Fas receptor (Fas), platelet factor 4 (PF4) and interleukin-22 (IL-22), were significantly upregulated in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-challenged shrimp, suggesting that these cytokines played positive regulatory roles in the immune response of shrimp against the virus. Further experiments revealed that PF4 had positive effects on the antiviral immunity of shrimp by enhancing the shrimp phagocytic activity and inhibiting the apoptotic activity of virus-infected hemocytes. Therefore, our study presented a novel mechanism of cytokines in the innate immunity of invertebrates. PMID:27631372

  9. Phosphocholine-Specific Antibodies Improve T-Dependent Antibody Responses against OVA Encapsulated into Phosphatidylcholine-Containing Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Leal, Yoelys; López-Requena, Alejandro; Lopetegui-González, Isbel; Machado, Yoan; Alvarez, Carlos; Pérez, Rolando; Lanio, María E.

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes containing phosphatidylcholine have been widely used as adjuvants. Recently, we demonstrated that B-1 cells produce dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-specific IgM upon immunization of BALB/c mice with DPPC-liposomes encapsulating ovalbumin (OVA). Although this preparation enhanced the OVA-specific humoral response, the contribution of anti-DPPC antibodies to this effect was unclear. Here, we demonstrate that these antibodies are secreted by B-1 cells independently of the presence of OVA in the formulation. We also confirm that these antibodies are specific for phosphocholine. The anti-OVA humoral response was partially restored in B-1 cells-deficient BALB/xid mice by immunization with the liposomes opsonized with the serum total immunoglobulin (Ig) fraction containing anti-phosphocholine antibodies, generated in wild-type animals. This result could be related to the increased phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages of the particles opsonized with the serum total Ig or IgM fractions, both containing anti-phosphocholine antibodies. In conclusion, in the present work, it has been demonstrated that phosphocholine-specific antibodies improve T-dependent antibody responses against OVA carried by DPPC-liposomes. PMID:27713745

  10. Generation of a recombinant classical swine fever virus stably expressing the firefly luciferase gene for quantitative antiviral assay.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Li, Yongfeng; Chen, Jianing; Li, Chao; Huang, Junhua; Luo, Yuzi; Sun, Yuan; Li, Su; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2014-09-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is a highly contagious swine disease leading to significant economic losses worldwide. Vaccines are widely used to control the disease, and no CSFV-specific antivirals are currently available. To facilitate anti-CSFV molecule discovery, we developed a reporter virus CSFV-N(pro)Fluc stably expressing the firefly luciferase (Fluc) gene in the N(pro) gene. The reporter virus enabled more sensitive and convenient detection of the N(pro) protein expression and the viral replication by luciferase reporter assay than by traditional methods. The CSFV N(pro) protein was detectable as early as 4.5h post-infection. As a proof-of-concept for its utility in rapid antiviral screening, this reporter virus was used to quantify anti-CSFV neutralizing antibodies of 50 swine sera and to assess 12 small interfering RNAs targeting different regions of the CSFV genome. The results were comparable to those obtained by traditional methods. Taken together, the reporter virus CSFV-N(pro)Fluc represents a useful tool for rapid and quantitative screening and evaluation of antivirals against CSFV.

  11. High antiviral effects of hibiscus tea extract on the H5 subtypes of low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    BAATARTSOGT, Tugsbaatar; BUI, Vuong N.; TRINH, Dai Q.; YAMAGUCHI, Emi; GRONSANG, Dulyatad; THAMPAISARN, Rapeewan; OGAWA, Haruko; IMAI, Kunitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors are widely used as synthetic anti-influenza drugs for the prevention and treatment of influenza. However, drug-resistant influenza A virus variants, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), have been reported. Therefore, the discovery of novel and effective antiviral agents is warranted. We screened the antiviral effects of 11 herbal tea extracts (hibiscus, black tea, tencha, rosehip tea, burdock tea, green tea, jasmine tea, ginger tea, lavender tea, rose tea and oak tea) against the H5N1 HPAIV in vitro. Among the tested extracts, only the hibiscus extract and its fractionated extract (frHibis) highly and rapidly reduced the titers of all H5 HPAIVs and low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) used in the pre-treatment tests of Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were inoculated with a mixture of the virus and the extract. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that anti-H5 monoclonal antibodies could not bind to the deformed H5 virus particles pretreated with frHibis. In post-treatment tests of MDCK cells cultured in the presence of frHibis after infection with H5N1 HPAIV, the frHibis inhibited viral replication and the expression of viral antigens and genes. Among the plants tested, hibiscus showed the most prominent antiviral effects against both H5 HPAIV and LPAIV. PMID:27193820

  12. High antiviral effects of hibiscus tea extract on the H5 subtypes of low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Bui, Vuong N; Trinh, Dai Q; Yamaguchi, Emi; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Thampaisarn, Rapeewan; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2016-10-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors are widely used as synthetic anti-influenza drugs for the prevention and treatment of influenza. However, drug-resistant influenza A virus variants, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), have been reported. Therefore, the discovery of novel and effective antiviral agents is warranted. We screened the antiviral effects of 11 herbal tea extracts (hibiscus, black tea, tencha, rosehip tea, burdock tea, green tea, jasmine tea, ginger tea, lavender tea, rose tea and oak tea) against the H5N1 HPAIV in vitro. Among the tested extracts, only the hibiscus extract and its fractionated extract (frHibis) highly and rapidly reduced the titers of all H5 HPAIVs and low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) used in the pre-treatment tests of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were inoculated with a mixture of the virus and the extract. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that anti-H5 monoclonal antibodies could not bind to the deformed H5 virus particles pretreated with frHibis. In post-treatment tests of MDCK cells cultured in the presence of frHibis after infection with H5N1 HPAIV, the frHibis inhibited viral replication and the expression of viral antigens and genes. Among the plants tested, hibiscus showed the most prominent antiviral effects against both H5 HPAIV and LPAIV.

  13. The SARS-coronavirus papain-like protease: structure, function and inhibition by designed antiviral compounds.

    PubMed

    Báez-Santos, Yahira M; St John, Sarah E; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2015-03-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the deadly human coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) emerged from the Guangdong Province of China. Despite the fact that the SARS-CoV pandemic infected over 8500 individuals, claimed over 800 lives and cost billions of dollars in economic loss worldwide, there still are no clinically approved antiviral drugs, vaccines or monoclonal antibody therapies to treat SARS-CoV infections. The recent emergence of the deadly human coronavirus that causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) is a sobering reminder that new and deadly coronaviruses can emerge at any time with the potential to become pandemics. Therefore, the continued development of therapeutic and prophylactic countermeasures to potentially deadly coronaviruses is warranted. The coronaviral proteases, papain-like protease (PLpro) and 3C-like protease (3CLpro), are attractive antiviral drug targets because they are essential for coronaviral replication. Although the primary function of PLpro and 3CLpro are to process the viral polyprotein in a coordinated manner, PLpro has the additional function of stripping ubiquitin and ISG15 from host-cell proteins to aid coronaviruses in their evasion of the host innate immune responses. Therefore, targeting PLpro with antiviral drugs may have an advantage in not only inhibiting viral replication but also inhibiting the dysregulation of signaling cascades in infected cells that may lead to cell death in surrounding, uninfected cells. This review provides an up-to-date discussion on the SARS-CoV papain-like protease including a brief overview of the SARS-CoV genome and replication followed by a more in-depth discussion on the structure and catalytic mechanism of SARS-CoV PLpro, the multiple cellular functions of SARS-CoV PLpro, the inhibition of SARS-CoV PLpro by small molecule inhibitors, and the prospect of inhibiting papain-like protease from other coronaviruses. This paper forms part of a series of

  14. Alteration of Antiviral Signalling by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of Mitochondrial Antiviral Signalling Protein (MAVS)

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Fei; Matsumiya, Tomoh; Hayakari, Ryo; Yoshida, Hidemi; Kawaguchi, Shogo; Takahashi, Ippei; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Imaizumi, Tadaatsu

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation is associated with diseases. As a type of genetic variation occurring with certain regularity and frequency, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is attracting more and more attention because of its great value for research and real-life application. Mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS) acts as a common adaptor molecule for retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), which can recognize foreign RNA, including viral RNA, leading to the induction of type I interferons (IFNs). Therefore, MAVS is thought to be a crucial molecule in antiviral innate immunity. We speculated that genetic variation of MAVS may result in susceptibility to infectious diseases. To assess the risk of viral infection based on MAVS variation, we tested the effects of twelve non-synonymous MAVS coding-region SNPs from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database that result in amino acid substitutions. We found that five of these SNPs exhibited functional alterations. Additionally, four resulted in an inhibitory immune response, and one had the opposite effect. In total, 1,032 human genomic samples obtained from a mass examination were genotyped at these five SNPs. However, no homozygous or heterozygous variation was detected. We hypothesized that these five SNPs are not present in the Japanese population and that such MAVS variations may result in serious immune diseases. PMID:26954674

  15. PEGylated recombinant human interferon-ω as a long-acting antiviral agent: structure, antiviral activity and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weili; Yu, Changming; Wu, Ling; Fang, Ting; Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Jinlong; Yu, Ting; Fu, Ling; Chen, Wei; Hu, Tao

    2014-08-01

    Recombinant human interferon-ω (rhIFN-ω) exhibits a potent antiviral activity. Because of poor pharmacokinetics (PK) of rhIFN-ω, frequent dosing of rhIFN-ω is necessitated to achieve the sustained antiviral efficacy. PEGylation can efficiently improve the PK of rhIFN-ω while substantially decrease its bioactivity. The structure, antiviral activity and PK of the PEGylated rhIFN-ω were measured to establish their relationship with PEGylation sites, polyethylene glycol (PEG) mass and PEG structure. Accordingly, N-terminus and the lysine residues were selected as the PEGylation sites. PEGs with Mw of 20kDa and 40kDa were used to investigate the effect of PEG mass. Linear and branched PEGs were used to investigate the effect of PEG structure. PEGylation decreased the antiviral activity of rhIFN-ω and improved its PK. The PEGylation sites determine the bioactivity of the PEGylated rhIFN-ω and the conjugated PEG mass determines the PK. N-terminally PEGylated rhIFN-ω with 40kDa linear PEG maintains 21.7% of the rhIFN-ω antiviral activity with a half-life of 139.6h. Thus, N-terminally PEGylated rhIFN-ω with linear 40kDa PEG is a potential antiviral agent for long-acting treatment of the viral diseases.

  16. Antiviral effect of ranpirnase against Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Thomas; Draper, Ken; Brasel, Trevor; Freiberg, Alexander; Squiquera, Luis; Sidransky, David; Sulley, Jamie; Taxman, Debra J

    2016-08-01

    The recent epidemic of Ebola has intensified the need for the development of novel antiviral therapeutics that prolong and improve survival against deadly viral diseases. We sought to determine whether ranpirnase, an endoribonuclease from Rana pipiens with a demonstrated human safety profile in phase III oncology trials, can reduce titers of Ebola virus (EBOV) in infected cells, protect mice against mouse-adapted EBOV challenge, and reduce virus levels in infected mice. Our results demonstrate that 0.50 μg/ml ranpirnase is potently effective at reducing EBOV Zaire Kikwit infection in cultured Vero E6 cells (Selectivity Index 47.8-70.2). In a prophylactic study, a single intravenous dose of 0.1 mg/kg ranpirnase protected 70% of mice from progressive infection. Additionally, in a post-exposure prophylactic study, 100% of female mice survived infection after intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 mg/kg ranpirnase for ten days beginning 1 h post challenge. Most of the male counterparts were sacrificed due to weight loss by Study Day 8 or 9; however, the Clinical Activity/Behavior scores of these mice remained low and no significant microscopic pathologies could be detected in the kidneys, livers or spleens. Furthermore, live virus could not be detected in the sera of ranpirnase-treated mice by Study Day 8 or in the kidneys, livers or spleens by Study Day 12, and viral RNA levels declined exponentially by Study Day 12. Because ranpirnase is exceptionally stable and has a long track record of safe intravenous administration to humans, this drug provides a promising new candidate for clinical consideration in the treatment of Ebola virus disease alone or in combination with other therapeutics.

  17. Management of direct antiviral agent failures

    PubMed Central

    Buti, María; Esteban, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The current standard of care for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). Most HCV patients treated with these drugs achieve viral elimination, but 1% to 15% fail to attain this objective. Treatment failures are usually related to relapse, and less often to on-treatment viral breakthrough. HCV drug resistant associated substitutions are detected in most patients who do not eliminate the virus. The risk of developing these variants depends on host- and virus-related factors, the properties of the drugs used, and the treatment strategies applied. Patients who carry Resistant Associated Substitutions (RASs) may not obtain benefits from treatment, and are at a risk of disease progression. Whether HCV RASs persist depends on their type: NS3-4A variants often disappear gradually after DAA therapy is stopped, whereas NS5A variants tend to persist for more than 2 years. The best way to prevent emergence of resistant variants is to eliminate the virus at the first treatment using highly potent DAAs with genetic barriers to resistance. For those who fail an NS5A inhibitor, deferral of treatment is recommended pending the availability of additional data if they do not have cirrhosis or reasons for urgent re-treatment. If re-treatment is needed, the most commonly used strategy is sofosbuvir as backbone therapy plus a drug from a class other than that previously used, for 24 weeks. Unless it is contraindicated, weight-based ribavirin should also be added. If available, nucleotide-based (eg, sofosbuvir) triple or quadruple DAA regimens may be considered. The optimal treatment for patients who fail an NS5A inhibitor and those with multidrug-resistant variants remains to be defined, and research efforts should continue to focus on treatment for these patients. PMID:28081594

  18. Viral antibody dynamics in a chiropteran host.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kate S; Suu-Ire, Richard; Barr, Jennifer; Hayman, David T S; Broder, Christopher C; Horton, Daniel L; Durrant, Christopher; Murcia, Pablo R; Cunningham, Andrew A; Wood, James L N

    2014-03-01

    Bats host many viruses that are significant for human and domestic animal health, but the dynamics of these infections in their natural reservoir hosts remain poorly elucidated. In these, and other, systems, there is evidence that seasonal life-cycle events drive infection dynamics, directly impacting the risk of exposure to spillover hosts. Understanding these dynamics improves our ability to predict zoonotic spillover from the reservoir hosts. To this end, we followed henipavirus antibody levels of >100 individual E. helvum in a closed, captive, breeding population over a 30-month period, using a powerful novel antibody quantitation method. We demonstrate the presence of maternal antibodies in this system and accurately determine their longevity. We also present evidence of population-level persistence of viral infection and demonstrate periods of increased horizontal virus transmission associated with the pregnancy/lactation period. The novel findings of infection persistence and the effect of pregnancy on viral transmission, as well as an accurate quantitation of chiropteran maternal antiviral antibody half-life, provide fundamental baseline data for the continued study of viral infections in these important reservoir hosts.

  19. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003352.htm Serum herpes simplex antibodies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Serum herpes simplex antibodies is a blood test that looks for antibodies ...

  20. Targeting viral dsRNA for antiviral prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Zhou; Liu, Yang; Yan, Zhen; Fan, Daiming; Alexander, Alice; Yang, Jing-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Double-stranded (ds)RNA in the infected cells is a trait shared by most if not all viruses. While humans have developed variable immune responses, viruses have also developed countermeasures to defeat dsRNA-induced antiviral strategies. Thus, we proposed a broad antiviral strategy to antagonize the countermeasures of viruses and bypass the dsRNA-induced signals that are readily defeated by viruses. By rewiring the dsRNA-binding proteins in the dsRNA complex and reconnecting them to apoptosis signaling, we created several dsRNA-dependent caspase recruiters, termed dsCAREs, to bypass dsRNA-induced antiviral signals that would otherwise be targeted by viruses. Adenovirus and vesicular stomatitis virus, representing viruses of the dsDNA and negative-stranded RNA viral groups, were used to infect HEK293 cells. The dsCARE chimera was added in medium to evaluate its antiviral activity. The truncated dsCAREs were used as controls. We demonstrate that dsCARE suppresses viral infection starting at 0.1 μg/ml and reaches the peak at 2 μg/ml. The EC50 was ∼0.2 μg/ml. However, it had an undetectable effect on uninfected cells. Further data show that both dsRNA binding and apoptosis activation of dsCARE are essential for its antiviral activity. We conclude that dsRNA is a practical virus-associated molecular pattern that can be targeted for broad and rapid antiviral prophylaxis.—Fei, Z., Liu, Y., Yan, Z., Fan, D., Alexander, A., Yang, J.-H. Targeting viral dsRNA for antiviral prophylaxis. PMID:19880628

  1. Turning an antiviral into an anticancer drug: nanoparticle delivery of acyclovir monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jing; Zhang, Yuan; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Wang, Yuhua; Huang, Leaf

    2013-09-28

    Anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) drug acyclovir (ACV) is phosphorylated by the viral thymidine kinase (TK), but not the cellular TK. Phosphorylated ACV inhibits cellular DNA synthesis and kills the infected cells. We hypothesize that ACV monophosphate (ACVP), which is an activated metabolite of ACV, should be efficient in killing cells independent of HSV-TK. If so, ACVP should be a cytotoxic agent if properly delivered to the cancer cells. The Lipid/Calcium/Phosphate (LCP) nanoparticles (NPs) with a membrane/core structure were used to encapsulate ACVP to facilitate the targeted delivery of ACVP to the tumor. The LCP NPs showed entrapment efficiency of ~70%, the nano-scaled particle size and positive zeta potential. Moreover, ACVP-loaded LCP NPs (A-LCP NPs) exhibited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against H460 cells and increased S-phase arrest. More importantly, a significant reduction of the tumor volume over 4 days following administration (p<0.05-0.005) of A-LCP NPs, suggests excellent in vivo efficacy. Whereas, two free drugs (ACV and ACVP) and blank LCP NPs showed little or no therapeutic effect. It was also found that the high efficacy of A-LCP NPs was associated with the ability to induce dramatic apoptosis of the tumor cells, as well as significantly inhibit tumor cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. In conclusion, with the help of LCP NPs, monophosphorylation modification of ACV can successfully modify an HSV-TK-dependent antiviral drug into an anti-tumor drug.

  2. [Antinuclear antibodies].

    PubMed

    Cabiedes, Javier; Núñez-Álvarez, Carlos A

    2010-01-01

    Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) are immunoglobulin directed against autologous cell nuclear and cytoplasmic components. Besides the autoimmune ANA there are other ANA that can be detected in circulation, like natural and infectious ANA. Because of its high sensibility, detection of the ANA must be done by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) as screening test and all of those positive samples are convenient to confirm its specificity by ELISA, western blot or other techniques. Positive ANA detected by IIF must be evaluated taking in to account the pattern and titer. The following recommended step is the specificity characterization (reactivity against extractable nuclear antigens [ENA], dsDNA, etc.) which is useful for the diagnosis and follow up of patients with autoimmune diseases, and by such reasoning, its detection must be performed in an orderly and reasonable way using guides or strategies focused to the good use and interpretation of the autoantibodies. The objective of this review is to present a compilation of the literature and our experience in the detection and study of the ANA.

  3. Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils.

    PubMed

    Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60-80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40-98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV.

  4. Recent developments in antiviral agents against enterovirus 71 infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is the main etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Recent EV-71 outbreaks in Asia-Pacific were not limited to mild HFMD, but were associated with severe neurological complications such as aseptic meningitis and brainstem encephalitis, which may lead to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The absence of licensed therapeutics for clinical use has intensified research into anti-EV-71 development. This review highlights the potential antiviral agents targeting EV-71 attachment, entry, uncoating, translation, polyprotein processing, virus-induced formation of membranous RNA replication complexes, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The strategies for antiviral development include target-based synthetic compounds, anti-rhinovirus and poliovirus libraries screening, and natural compound libraries screening. Growing knowledge of the EV-71 life cycle will lead to successful development of antivirals. The continued effort to develop antiviral agents for treatment is crucial in the absence of a vaccine. The coupling of antivirals with an effective vaccine will accelerate eradication of the disease. PMID:24521134

  5. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis B virus-related decompensated cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji Yao

    2012-11-01

    Antiviral therapy is important in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related decompensated cirrhosis. This therapy is beneficial in most patients for the stabilization or improvement of liver disease; however, advanced cirrhosis with a high Child-Pugh or model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score may have progressed and does not benefit from antiviral therapy. It is important to identify patients with severe decompensated cirrhosis who will not improve under antiviral therapy and who require liver transplantation as early as possible. Entecavir (ETV) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is the first-line therapy for nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA)-naive patients with decompensated cirrhosis due to their potent and prompt HBV suppressive effect and low rate of drug-resistant mutations. Patients on antiviral therapy should be monitored for virological and clinical response, compliance, drug resistance and adverse effects as well as surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Additional studies of TDF and ETV are necessary to determine the optimal agent(s) for treating naive patients and those with drug-resistant decompensated cirrhosis. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of NA for the treatment of decompensated cirrhotic patients in the real world, high quality observational studies such as registration studies of antiviral therapy for HBV-related cirrhosis and a long-term follow-up in China, where a large number of such patients are found, are recommended.

  6. Antiviral Screening of Multiple Compounds against Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dowall, Stuart D.; Bewley, Kevin; Watson, Robert J.; Vasan, Seshadri S.; Ghosh, Chandradhish; Konai, Mohini M.; Gausdal, Gro; Lorens, James B.; Long, Jason; Barclay, Wendy; Garcia-Dorival, Isabel; Hiscox, Julian; Bosworth, Andrew; Taylor, Irene; Easterbrook, Linda; Pitman, James; Summers, Sian; Chan-Pensley, Jenny; Funnell, Simon; Vipond, Julia; Charlton, Sue; Haldar, Jayanta; Hewson, Roger; Carroll, Miles W.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the recent outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) disease in West Africa, there have been renewed efforts to search for effective antiviral countermeasures. A range of compounds currently available with broad antimicrobial activity have been tested for activity against EBOV. Using live EBOV, eighteen candidate compounds were screened for antiviral activity in vitro. The compounds were selected on a rational basis because their mechanisms of action suggested that they had the potential to disrupt EBOV entry, replication or exit from cells or because they had displayed some antiviral activity against EBOV in previous tests. Nine compounds caused no reduction in viral replication despite cells remaining healthy, so they were excluded from further analysis (zidovudine; didanosine; stavudine; abacavir sulphate; entecavir; JB1a; Aimspro; celgosivir; and castanospermine). A second screen of the remaining compounds and the feasibility of appropriateness for in vivo testing removed six further compounds (ouabain; omeprazole; esomeprazole; Gleevec; D-LANA-14; and Tasigna). The three most promising compounds (17-DMAG; BGB324; and NCK-8) were further screened for in vivo activity in the guinea pig model of EBOV disease. Two of the compounds, BGB324 and NCK-8, showed some effect against lethal infection in vivo at the concentrations tested, which warrants further investigation. Further, these data add to the body of knowledge on the antiviral activities of multiple compounds against EBOV and indicate that the scientific community should invest more effort into the development of novel and specific antiviral compounds to treat Ebola virus disease. PMID:27801778

  7. Zika antiviral chemotherapy: identification of drugs and promising starting points for drug discovery from an FDA-approved library

    PubMed Central

    Pascoalino, Bruno S.; Courtemanche, Gilles; Cordeiro, Marli T.; Gil, Laura H. V. G.; Freitas-Junior, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The recent epidemics of Zika virus (ZIKV) implicated it as the cause of serious and potentially lethal congenital conditions such microcephaly and other central nervous system defects, as well as the development of the Guillain-Barré syndrome in otherwise healthy patients. Recent findings showed that anti-Dengue antibodies are capable of amplifying ZIKV infection by a mechanism similar to antibody-dependent enhancement, increasing the severity of the disease. This scenario becomes potentially catastrophic when the global burden of Dengue and the advent of the newly approved anti-Dengue vaccines in the near future are taken into account. Thus, antiviral chemotherapy should be pursued as a priority strategy to control the spread of the virus and prevent the complications associated with Zika. Methods Here we describe a fast and reliable cell-based, high-content screening assay for discovery of anti-ZIKV compounds. This methodology has been used to screen the National Institute of Health Clinical Collection compound library, a small collection of FDA-approved drugs. Results and conclusion From 725 FDA-approved compounds triaged, 29 (4%) were found to have anti-Zika virus activity, of which 22 had confirmed (76% of confirmation) by dose-response curves. Five candidates presented selective activity against ZIKV infection and replication in a human cell line. These hits have abroad spectrum of chemotypes and therapeutic uses, offering valuable opportunities for selection of leads for antiviral drug discovery. PMID:27909576

  8. AN ANTIVIRAL SUBSTANCE FROM PENICILLIUM FUNICULOSUM

    PubMed Central

    Shope, Richard E.

    1953-01-01

    A culture of P. funiculosum isolated on Guam proved capable of elaborating a substance which exerted a favorable therapeutic effect against swine influenza virus infections in white mice. The culture was extremely variable and irregular in its production of the antiviral substance, and during maintenance in the laboratory for several years gradually lost this property. Efforts to restore it were unsuccessful. Subsequently it was found that the mold elaborated a substance, now designated helenine, which is therapeutically effective against Columbia SK encephalomyelitis virus infections in mice. Helenine appears to differ from the substance earlier procured from the mold, which was active against swine influenza virus infections in mice. It is frequently present in greater or lesser amount in the fluid portions of stationary cultures of P. funiculosum but is more regularly obtained and in larger amount, from the cellular components of the pellicles. When liberated from these latter by mechanical bruising and fracturing, it goes into solution in the culture fluids. It is precipitable from aqueous solution by 50 per cent acetone. Infected mice injected with helenine in amounts less than the amount which produces a maximal therapeutic effect exhibit a dosage response. Increasing the dose above the optimum fails to increase the therapeutic effect. Helenine exerts its maximum effect when given within the first 10 hours after viral infection but its influence is apparent even when treatment is delayed for up to 24 hours. It is not effective against massive amounts of virus and gives the best therapeutic results when used in the treatment of animals infected with from 10 to 1000 fatal doses of virus. Treatment of infected mice with helenine delays the entrance of virus into their brains for from 24 to 48 hours. The mechanism by which helenine exerts its therapeutic effect against SK virus is not known but the findings presented suggest either that it causes an inhibition or

  9. Selection of antibodies from synthetic antibody libraries.

    PubMed

    Harel Inbar, Noa; Benhar, Itai

    2012-10-15

    More than 2 dozen years had passed since the field of antibody engineering was established, with the first reports of bacterial [1-3] and mammalian cells [4] expression of recombinant antibody fragments, and in that time a lot of effort was dedicated to the development of efficient technological means, intended to assist in the creation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Research focus was given to two intertwined technological aspects: the selection platform and the recombinant antibody repertoires. In accordance with these areas of interest, it is the goal of this chapter to describe the various selection tools and antibody libraries existing, with emphasis on the later, and their applications. This chapter gives a far from exhaustive, subjective "historic account" of the field, describing the selection platforms, the different formats of antibody repertoires and the applications of both for selecting recombinant antibodies. Several excellent books provide detailed protocols for constructing antibody libraries and selecting antibodies from those libraries [5-13]. Such books may guide a newcomer to the field in the fine details of antibody engineering. We would like to offer advice to the novice: although seemingly simple, effective library construction and antibody isolation provide best benefits in the hands of professionals. It is an art as much as it is science.

  10. Antiviral selection in the management of acute retinal necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Patrick MK; Hooper, Claire Y; Lightman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    There is no consensus on the optimal antiviral regimen in the management of acute retinal necrosis, a disease caused by herpetic viruses with devastating consequences for the eye. The current gold standard is based on retrospective case series. Because the incidence of disease is low, few well-designed, randomized trials have evaluated treatment dosage and duration. Newer oral antiviral agents are emerging as alternatives to high-dose intravenous acyclovir, avoiding the need for inpatient intravenous treatment. Drug resistance is uncommon but may also be difficult to identify. Antiviral drugs have few side effects, but special attention needs to be paid to patients who have underlying renal disease, are pregnant or are immunocompromised. PMID:20169044

  11. Host cell factors as antiviral targets in arenavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Linero, Florencia N; Sepúlveda, Claudia S; Giovannoni, Federico; Castilla, Viviana; García, Cybele C; Scolaro, Luis A; Damonte, Elsa B

    2012-09-01

    Among the members of the Arenaviridae family, Lassa virus and Junin virus generate periodic annual outbreaks of severe human hemorrhagic fever (HF) in endemic areas of West Africa and Argentina, respectively. Given the human health threat that arenaviruses represent and the lack of a specific and safe chemotherapy, the search for effective antiviral compounds is a continuous demanding effort. Since diverse host cell pathways and enzymes are used by RNA viruses to fulfill their replicative cycle, the targeting of a host process has turned an attractive antiviral approach in the last years for many unrelated virus types. This strategy has the additional benefit to reduce the serious challenge for therapy of RNA viruses to escape from drug effects through selection of resistant variants triggered by their high mutation rate. This article focuses on novel strategies to identify inhibitors for arenavirus therapy, analyzing the potential for antiviral developments of diverse host factors essential for virus infection.

  12. The Antiviral Effect of Baicalin on Enterovirus 71 In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Tingting; Jin, Yue; Cheng, Jianpin; Wan, Changbiao; Qian, Weihe; Xing, Fei; Shi, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    Baicalin is a flavonoid compound extracted from Scutellaria roots that has been reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral activities. However, the antiviral effect of baicalin on enterovirus 71 (EV71) is still unknown. In this study, we found that baicalin showed inhibitory activity on EV71 infection and was independent of direct virucidal or prophylactic effect and inhibitory viral absorption. The expressions of EV71/3D mRNA and polymerase were significantly blocked by baicalin treatment at early stages of EV71 infection. In addition, baicalin could decrease the expressions of FasL and caspase-3, as well as inhibit the apoptosis of EV71-infected human embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. Altogether, these results indicate that baicalin exhibits potent antiviral effect on EV71 infection, probably through inhibiting EV71/3D polymerase expression and Fas/FasL signaling pathways. PMID:26295407

  13. Cationic phenylene ethynylene polymers and oligomers exhibit efficient antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Canady, Taylor D; Zhou, Zhijun; Tang, Yanli; Price, Dominique N; Bear, David G; Chi, Eva Y; Schanze, Kirk S; Whitten, David G

    2011-07-01

    The antiviral activities of poly(phenylene ethynylene) (PPE)-based cationic conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPE) and oligo-phenylene ethynylenes (OPE) were investigated using two model viruses, the T4 and MS2 bacteriophages. Under UV/visible light irradiation, significant antiviral activity was observed for all of the CPEs and OPEs; without irradiation, most of these compounds exhibited high inactivation activity against the MS2 phage and moderate inactivation ability against the T4 phage. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) reveal that the CPEs and OPEs exert their antiviral activity by partial disassembly of the phage particle structure in the dark and photochemical damage of the phage capsid protein under UV/visible light irradiation.

  14. Favipiravir elicits antiviral mutagenesis during virus replication in vivo.

    PubMed

    Arias, Armando; Thorne, Lucy; Goodfellow, Ian

    2014-10-21

    Lethal mutagenesis has emerged as a novel potential therapeutic approach to treat viral infections. Several studies have demonstrated that increases in the high mutation rates inherent to RNA viruses lead to viral extinction in cell culture, but evidence during infections in vivo is limited. In this study, we show that the broad-range antiviral nucleoside favipiravir reduces viral load in vivo by exerting antiviral mutagenesis in a mouse model for norovirus infection. Increased mutation frequencies were observed in samples from treated mice and were accompanied with lower or in some cases undetectable levels of infectious virus in faeces and tissues. Viral RNA isolated from treated animals showed reduced infectivity, a feature of populations approaching extinction during antiviral mutagenesis. These results suggest that favipiravir can induce norovirus mutagenesis in vivo, which in some cases leads to virus extinction, providing a proof-of-principle for the use of favipiravir derivatives or mutagenic nucleosides in the clinical treatment of noroviruses.

  15. Antiviral defense in shrimp: from innate immunity to viral infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Huang, Tianzhi; Zhang, Xiaobo; He, Jian-Guo

    2014-08-01

    The culture of penaeid shrimp is rapidly developing as a major business endeavor worldwide. However, viral diseases have caused huge economic loss in penaeid shrimp culture industries. Knowledge of shrimp innate immunity and antiviral responses has made important progress in recent years, allowing the design of better strategies for the prevention and control of shrimp diseases. In this study, we have updated information on shrimp antiviral immunity and interactions between shrimp hosts and viral pathogens. Current knowledge and recent progress in immune signaling pathways (e.g., Toll/IMD-NF-κB and JAK-STAT signaling pathways), RNAi, phagocytosis, and apoptosis in shrimp antiviral immunity are discussed. The mechanism of viral infection in shrimp hosts and the interactions between viruses and shrimp innate immune systems are also analyzed.

  16. Vitamin D and the anti-viral state

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Jeremy A.; Bearden, Allison; Striker, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D has long been recognized as essential to the skeletal system. Newer evidence suggests that it also plays a major role regulating the immune system, perhaps including immune responses to viral infection. Interventional and observational epidemiological studies provide evidence that vitamin D deficiency may confer increased risk of influenza and respiratory tract infection. Vitamin D deficiency is also prevalent among patients with HIV infection. Cell culture experiments support the thesis that vitamin D has direct anti-viral effects particularly against enveloped viruses. Though vitamin D’s anti-viral mechanism has not been fully established, it may be linked to vitamin D’s ability to up-regulate the anti-microbial peptides LL-37 and human beta defensin 2. Additional studies are necessary to fully elucidate the efficacy and mechanism of vitamin D as an anti-viral agent. PMID:21242105

  17. [Favipiravir, a new concept of antiviral drug against influenza viruses].

    PubMed

    Reina, J; Reina, N

    2017-04-01

    Favipiravir (T-705) is a new antiviral drug with strong inhibitory activity on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of most RNA virus genome. All the influenza viruses have been shown fully sensitive to this new antiviral, including genetic strains to neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir) resistance. Its mechanism of action lies in blocking viral replication and induction of lethal mutagenesis which determines the loss of infective activity of influenza viruses. Its activity is particularly intense in the respiratory tract, decreasing the viral load to non-infectious levels. Clinical trials in humans have not yet completed but have very favourable results. It seems that the best therapy would be the combination of favipiravir with oseltamivir; both antivirals are synergistic and avoid the emergence of resistance.

  18. Commensal bacteria calibrate the activation threshold of innate antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Abt, Michael C; Osborne, Lisa C; Monticelli, Laurel A; Doering, Travis A; Alenghat, Theresa; Sonnenberg, Gregory F; Paley, Michael A; Antenus, Marcelo; Williams, Katie L; Erikson, Jan; Wherry, E John; Artis, David

    2012-07-27

    Signals from commensal bacteria can influence immune cell development and susceptibility to infectious or inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms by which commensal bacteria regulate protective immunity after exposure to systemic pathogens remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that antibiotic-treated (ABX) mice exhibit impaired innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses and substantially delayed viral clearance after exposure to systemic LCMV or mucosal influenza virus. Furthermore, ABX mice exhibited severe bronchiole epithelial degeneration and increased host mortality after influenza virus infection. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of macrophages isolated from ABX mice revealed decreased expression of genes associated with antiviral immunity. Moreover, macrophages from ABX mice exhibited defective responses to type I and type II IFNs and impaired capacity to limit viral replication. Collectively, these data indicate that commensal-derived signals provide tonic immune stimulation that establishes the activation threshold of the innate immune system required for optimal antiviral immunity.

  19. Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iberahim, Rashidah; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Goose grass also known as Eleusine indica (EI) is a local medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The present study is to determine the phytochemical constituents, cytotoxicity and antiviral activities for both crude extract and fraction obtained from the plant. The crude extract contained more secondary metabolites compared to the hexane fraction as gauged using standard phytochemical tests. Cytotoxicity screening against Vero cells using MTT assay showed that the CC50 values for crude extract and hexane fraction were 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml respectively. The antiviral activity towards Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using plaque reduction assay. The selective indices (SI = CC50 / EC50) for both methanol extract and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2 respectively. These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from E. indica possesses phytochemical compound that was non cytotoxic to the cell with potential antiviral activity.

  20. Commensal Bacteria Calibrate the Activation Threshold of Innate Antiviral Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Abt, Michael C.; Osborne, Lisa C.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Doering, Travis A.; Alenghat, Theresa; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Paley, Michael A.; Antenus, Marcelo; Williams, Katie L.; Erikson, Jan; Wherry, E. John; Artis, David

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Signals from commensal bacteria can influence immune cell development and susceptibility to infectious or inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms by which commensal bacteria regulate protective immunity after exposure to systemic pathogens remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that antibiotic-treated (ABX) mice exhibit impaired innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses and substantially delayed viral clearance after exposure to systemic LCMV or mucosal influenza virus. Furthermore, ABX mice exhibited severe bronchiole epithelial degeneration and increased host mortality after influenza virus infection. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of macrophages isolated from ABX mice revealed decreased expression of genes associated with antiviral immunity. Moreover, macrophages from ABX mice exhibited defective responses to type I and type II IFNs and impaired capacity to limit viral replication. Collectively, these data indicate that commensal-derived signals provide tonic immune stimulation that establishes the activation threshold of the innate immune system required for optimal antiviral immunity. PMID:22705104

  1. Evaluation of Antiviral Activities of Four Local Malaysian Phyllanthus Species against Herpes Simplex Viruses and Possible Antiviral Target

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wee Chee; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Manikam, Rishya; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2013-01-01

    Nucleoside analogues such as acyclovir are effective antiviral drugs against herpes simplex virus infections since its introduction. However, with the emergence of acyclovir-resistant HSV strains particularly in immunocompromised patients, there is a need to develop an alternative antiherpetic drug and plants could be the potential lead. In this study, the antiviral activity of the aqueous extract of four Phyllanthus species were evaluated against herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 in Vero cells by quantitative PCR. The protein expressions of untreated and treated infected Vero cells were studied by 2D-gel electrophoresis and Western blot. This is the first study that reported the antiviral activity of P. watsonii. P. urinaria was shown to demonstrate the strongest antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2, with SI >33.6. Time-of-addition studies suggested that the extract may act against the early infection stage and the replication stage. Protein expression studies indicated that cellular proteins that are involved in maintaining cytoskeletal structure could be potential target for development of antiviral drugs. Preliminary findings indicated that P. urinaria demonstrated potent inhibitory activity against HSV. Hence, further studies such as in vivo evaluation are required for the development of effective antiherpetic drug. PMID:24324358

  2. Antiviral Biologic Produced in DNA Vaccine/Goose Platform Protects Hamsters Against Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome When Administered Post-exposure.

    PubMed

    Haese, Nicole; Brocato, Rebecca L; Henderson, Thomas; Nilles, Matthew L; Kwilas, Steve A; Josleyn, Matthew D; Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Schiltz, James; Royals, Michael; Ballantyne, John; Hooper, Jay W; Bradley, David S

    2015-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) and ANDV-like viruses are responsible for most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in South America. Recent studies in Chile indicate that passive transfer of convalescent human plasma shows promise as a possible treatment for HPS. Unfortunately, availability of convalescent plasma from survivors of this lethal disease is very limited. We are interested in exploring the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce antiviral biologics, including polyclonal neutralizing antibodies for use in humans. Geese produce IgY and an alternatively spliced form, IgYΔFc, that can be purified at high concentrations from egg yolks. IgY lacks the properties of mammalian Fc that make antibodies produced in horses, sheep, and rabbits reactogenic in humans. Geese were vaccinated with an ANDV DNA vaccine encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins. All geese developed high-titer neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination, and maintained high-levels of neutralizing antibodies as measured by a pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA) for over 1 year. A booster vaccination resulted in extraordinarily high levels of neutralizing antibodies (i.e., PsVNA80 titers >100,000). Analysis of IgY and IgYΔFc by epitope mapping show these antibodies to be highly reactive to specific amino acid sequences of ANDV envelope glycoproteins. We examined the protective efficacy of the goose-derived antibody in the hamster model of lethal HPS. α-ANDV immune sera, or IgY/IgYΔFc purified from eggs, were passively transferred to hamsters subcutaneously starting 5 days after an IM challenge with ANDV (25 LD50). Both immune sera, and egg-derived purified IgY/IgYΔFc, protected 8 of 8 and 7 of 8 hamsters, respectively. In contrast, all hamsters receiving IgY/IgYΔFc purified from normal geese (n=8), or no-treatment (n=8), developed lethal HPS. These findings demonstrate that the DNA vaccine/goose platform can be used to produce a candidate antiviral biological product

  3. Antiviral Biologic Produced in DNA Vaccine/Goose Platform Protects Hamsters Against Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome When Administered Post-exposure

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Thomas; Nilles, Matthew L.; Kwilas, Steve A.; Josleyn, Matthew D.; Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Schiltz, James; Royals, Michael; Ballantyne, John; Hooper, Jay W.; Bradley, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) and ANDV-like viruses are responsible for most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in South America. Recent studies in Chile indicate that passive transfer of convalescent human plasma shows promise as a possible treatment for HPS. Unfortunately, availability of convalescent plasma from survivors of this lethal disease is very limited. We are interested in exploring the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce antiviral biologics, including polyclonal neutralizing antibodies for use in humans. Geese produce IgY and an alternatively spliced form, IgYΔFc, that can be purified at high concentrations from egg yolks. IgY lacks the properties of mammalian Fc that make antibodies produced in horses, sheep, and rabbits reactogenic in humans. Geese were vaccinated with an ANDV DNA vaccine encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins. All geese developed high-titer neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination, and maintained high-levels of neutralizing antibodies as measured by a pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA) for over 1 year. A booster vaccination resulted in extraordinarily high levels of neutralizing antibodies (i.e., PsVNA80 titers >100,000). Analysis of IgY and IgYΔFc by epitope mapping show these antibodies to be highly reactive to specific amino acid sequences of ANDV envelope glycoproteins. We examined the protective efficacy of the goose-derived antibody in the hamster model of lethal HPS. α-ANDV immune sera, or IgY/IgYΔFc purified from eggs, were passively transferred to hamsters subcutaneously starting 5 days after an IM challenge with ANDV (25 LD50). Both immune sera, and egg-derived purified IgY/IgYΔFc, protected 8 of 8 and 7 of 8 hamsters, respectively. In contrast, all hamsters receiving IgY/IgYΔFc purified from normal geese (n=8), or no-treatment (n=8), developed lethal HPS. These findings demonstrate that the DNA vaccine/goose platform can be used to produce a candidate antiviral biological product

  4. Candidate antibody-based therapeutics against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Gong, Rui; Chen, Weizao; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2012-06-01

    Antibody-based therapeutics have been successfully used for the treatment of various diseases and as research tools. Several well characterized, broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnmAbs) targeting HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins or related host cell surface proteins show sterilizing protection of animals, but they are not effective when used for therapy of an established infection in humans. Recently, a number of novel bnmAbs, engineered antibody domains (eAds), and multifunctional fusion proteins have been reported which exhibit exceptionally potent and broad neutralizing activity against a wide range of HIV-1 isolates from diverse genetic subtypes. eAds could be more effective in vivo than conventional full-size antibodies generated by the human immune system. Because of their small size (12∼15 kD), they can better access sterically restricted epitopes and penetrate densely packed tissue where HIV-1 replicates than the larger full-size antibodies. HIV-1 possesses a number of mechanisms to escape neutralization by full-size antibodies but could be less likely to develop resistance to eAds. Here, we review the in vitro and in vivo antiviral efficacies of existing HIV-1 bnmAbs, summarize the development of eAds and multispecific fusion proteins as novel types of HIV-1 inhibitors, and discuss possible strategies to generate more potent antibody-based candidate therapeutics against HIV-1, including some that could be used to eradicate the virus.

  5. Comparison of Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Virus Neutralization by HIV-1 Env-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    von Bredow, Benjamin; Arias, Juan F.; Heyer, Lisa N.; Moldt, Brian; Le, Khoa; Robinson, James E.; Burton, Dennis R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein have been studied extensively for their ability to block viral infectivity, little data are currently available on nonneutralizing functions of these antibodies, such as their ability to eliminate virus-infected cells by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). HIV-1 Env-specific antibodies of diverse specificities, including potent broadly neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies, were therefore tested for ADCC against cells infected with a lab-adapted HIV-1 isolate (HIV-1NL4-3), a primary HIV-1 isolate (HIV-1JR-FL), and a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) adapted for pathogenic infection of rhesus macaques (SHIVAD8-EO). In accordance with the sensitivity of these viruses to neutralization, HIV-1NL4-3-infected cells were considerably more sensitive to ADCC, both in terms of the number of antibodies and magnitude of responses, than cells infected with HIV-1JR-FL or SHIVAD8-EO. ADCC activity generally correlated with antibody binding to Env on the surfaces of virus-infected cells and with viral neutralization; however, neutralization was not always predictive of ADCC, as instances of ADCC in the absence of detectable neutralization, and vice versa, were observed. These results reveal incomplete overlap in the specificities of antibodies that mediate these antiviral activities and provide insights into the relationship between ADCC and neutralization important for the development of antibody-based vaccines and therapies for combating HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE This study provides fundamental insights into the relationship between antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and virus neutralization that may help to guide the development of antibody-based vaccines and immunotherapies for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:27122574

  6. Antiviral drugs for viruses other than human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Razonable, Raymund R

    2011-10-01

    Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are self-limited illnesses that do not require specific antiviral therapy. The currently available antiviral drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, all antiherpes drugs inhibit viral replication by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M(2) protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with Interferon-α and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combination of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess anti-human immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antiviral drugs possess multiple potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the viral DNA polymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyclovir and ganciclovir. Widespread antiviral resistance has limited the clinical utility of M(2) inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects.

  7. Antiviral Drugs for Viruses Other Than Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Razonable, Raymund R.

    2011-01-01

    Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are self-limited illnesses that do not require specific antiviral therapy. The currently available antiviral drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, all antiherpes drugs inhibit viral replication by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M2 protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with Interferon-α and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combination of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess anti–human immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antiviral drugs possess multiple potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the viral DNA polymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyclovir and ganciclovir. Widespread antiviral resistance has limited the clinical utility of M2 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects. PMID

  8. Optimizing antiviral agents for hepatitis B management in malignant lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Ozoya, Oluwatobi O.; Chavez, Julio; Sokol, Lubomir

    2017-01-01

    The global scale of hepatitis B infection is well known but its impact is still being understood. Missed hepatitis B infection impacts lymphoma therapy especially increased risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation and poor treatment outcomes. The presence of undiagnosed chronic hepatitis also undermines chronic HBV screening methods that are based on a positive HBsAg alone. The goal of this review is to evaluate the literature for optimizing antiviral therapy for lymphoma patients with HBV infection or at risk of HBV reactivation. Relevant articles for this review were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Ovid Medline, and Scopus using the following terms, alone and in combination: “chronic hepatitis B”, “occult hepatitis B”, ”special groups”, “malignant lymphoma”, “non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma”, “Hodgkin’s lymphoma”, “immunocompromised host”, “immunosuppressive agents”, “antiviral”, “HBV reactivation”. The period of the search was restricted to a 15-year period to limit the search to optimizing antiviral agents for HBV infection in malignant lymphomas [2001–2016]. Several clinical practice guidelines recommend nucleos(t)ide analogues-entecavir, tenofovir and lamivudine among others. These agents are best initiated along with or prior to immunosuppressive therapy. Additional methods recommended for optimizing antiviral therapy include laboratory modalities such as HBV genotyping, timed measurements of HBsAg and HBV DNA levels to measure and predict antiviral treatment response. In conclusion, optimizing antiviral agents for these patients require consideration of geographic prevalence of HBV, cost of antiviral therapy or testing, screening modality, hepatitis experts, type of immunosuppressive therapy and planned duration of therapy. PMID:28251118

  9. Development of Methods for Carrier-Mediated Targeted Delivery of Antiviral Compounds Using Monoclonal Antibodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    below 50°C to give a syrup, which was dissolved in 600 ml of hot anhydrous ethanol. After decolorizing with activated charcoal, the solution was...portions of activated Barnaby- Cheney 00 1064 carbon until TLC Indicated that 43_ was no longer present In the solution. The 30 g of activated carbon had...and watar (100-ml volumes). After adsorption of the uucleotide, tha carbon was »uction-filtered and washed with five 50-nl portions of watar until

  10. Interferon: signal molecules involved in its antiviral effect.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, S N; Cernescu, C; Baltă, F; Popescu, L M

    1989-01-01

    A major problem concerning interferon (IFN)-cell interaction is the second messenger system that transduces the IFN signal. We discuss the evidences existing in literature and our arguments which suggest that the antiviral effect of IFNs alpha and beta are mediated by a membrane mechanism including a phospholipase C dependent hydrolysis of phosphoinositides. The resulting two second messengers: diacylglycerol and inositol triphosphate and subsequent, separate but interacting, signal pathways: activation of protein kinase C and ionic events are tested in respect with the antiviral effect of IFN.

  11. Antiviral evaluation of plants from Brazilian Atlantic Tropical Forest.

    PubMed

    Andrighetti-Fröhner, C R; Sincero, T C M; da Silva, A C; Savi, L A; Gaido, C M; Bettega, J M R; Mancini, M; de Almeida, M T R; Barbosa, R A; Farias, M R; Barardi, C R M; Simões, C M O

    2005-06-01

    The antiviral activity of six medicinal plants from Brazilian Atlantic Tropical Forest was investigated against two viruses: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and poliovirus type 2 (PV-2). Cuphea carthagenensis and Tillandsia usneoides extracts showed the best antiherpes activity. T. usneoides dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts, and Lippia alba n-butanol extract showed inhibition of HSV-1, strain 29R/acyclovir resistant. In addition, only L. alba ethyl acetate extract showed antipoliovirus activity. These results corroborate that medicinal plants can be a rich source of potential antiviral compounds.

  12. RNA interference-mediated intrinsic antiviral immunity in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Arabinda; Tassetto, Michel; Kunitomi, Mark; Andino, Raul

    2013-01-01

    In invertebrates such as insects and nematodes, RNA interference (RNAi) provides RNA-based protection against viruses. This form of immunity restricts viral replication and dissemination from infected cells and viruses, in turn, have evolved evasion mechanisms or RNAi suppressors to counteract host defenses. Recent advances indicate that, in addition to RNAi, other related small RNA pathways contribute to antiviral functions in invertebrates. This has led to a deeper understanding of fundamental aspects of small RNA-based antiviral immunity in invertebrates and its contribution to viral spread and pathogenesis.

  13. Enhanced antiviral activity of acyclovir loaded into nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Roberta; Donalisio, Manuela; Bisazza, Agnese; Civra, Andrea; Ranucci, Elisabetta; Ferruti, Paolo; Lembo, David

    2012-01-01

    The activity of antivirals can be enhanced by their incorporation in nanoparticulate delivery systems. Peculiar polymeric nanoparticles, based on a β-cyclodextrin-poly(4-acryloylmorpholine) monoconjugate (β-CD-PACM), are proposed as acyclovir carriers. The experimental procedure necessary to obtain the acyclovir-loaded nanoparticles using the solvent displacement preparation method will be described in this chapter. Fluorescent labeled nanoparticles are prepared using the same method for cellular trafficking studies. The biocompatibility assays necessary to obtain safe nanoparticles are reported. Section 4 of this chapter describes the assessment of the antiviral activity of the acyclovir-loaded nanoparticles.

  14. Novel antiviral fucoidan from sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida (Mekabu).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Bum; Hayashi, Kyoko; Hashimoto, Minoru; Nakano, Takahisa; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2004-09-01

    Structural characterization and antiviral activities of fucoidan from sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida (Mekabu) was examined. The fucoidan was composed of fucose and galactose with an approximately ratio of 1.0:1.1. Degree of substitution of sulfate was 0.72 and its apparent molecular weight was 9,000. Methylation analyses showed that fucoidan had various sugar linkages, and revealed that the fucoidan might have complicated structure. This fucoidan showed potent antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, and human cytomegalovirus.

  15. Quasispecies, error catastrophe, and the antiviral activity of ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Graci, Jason D; Cameron, Craig E

    2002-07-05

    Ribavirin is the first synthetic, broad-spectrum antiviral nucleoside. Despite its more than 30 year history, the mechanism of action of this compound remains unclear and somewhat controversial. Recent data suggest the possibility that the activity of ribavirin against RNA viruses is a reflection of incorporation of ribavirin into the viral genome. Because ribavirin incorporation is not specific, this event leads to lethal mutagenesis of the virus population. The data supporting this new proposal for the mechanism of action of ribavirin are reviewed herein. In addition, we discuss briefly the challenges that remain for development of lethal mutagenesis as an effective antiviral strategy.

  16. Modelling Virus and Antibody Dynamics during Dengue Virus Infection Suggests a Role for Antibody in Virus Clearance.

    PubMed

    Clapham, Hannah E; Quyen, Than Ha; Kien, Duong Thi Hue; Dorigatti, Ilaria; Simmons, Cameron P; Ferguson, Neil M

    2016-05-01

    Dengue is an infection of increasing global importance, yet uncertainty remains regarding critical aspects of its virology, immunology and epidemiology. One unanswered question is how infection is controlled and cleared during a dengue infection. Antibody is thought to play a role, but little past work has examined the kinetics of both virus and antibody during natural infections. We present data on multiple virus and antibody titres measurements recorded sequentially during infection from 53 Vietnamese dengue patients. We fit mechanistic mathematical models of the dynamics of viral replication and the host immune response to these data. These models fit the data well. The model with antibody removing virus fits the data best, but with a role suggested for ADCC or other infected cell clearance mechanisms. Our analysis therefore shows that the observed viral and antibody kinetics are consistent with antibody playing a key role in controlling viral replication. This work gives quantitative insight into the relationship between antibody levels and the efficiency of viral clearance. It will inform the future development of mechanistic models of how vaccines and antivirals might modify the course of natural dengue infection.

  17. Claudin-4 Undergoes Age-Dependent Change in Cellular Localization on Pig Jejunal Villous Epithelial Cells, Independent of Bacterial Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Van Kessel, Andrew G.; Wilson, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    Newborn piglets are immunologically naïve and must receive passive immunity via colostrum within 24 hours to survive. Mechanisms by which the newborn piglet gut facilitates uptake of colostral cells, antibodies, and proteins may include FcRn and pIgR receptor-mediated endocytosis and paracellular transport between tight junctions (TJs). In the present study, FcRn gene (FCGRT) was minimally expressed in 6-week-old gut and newborn jejunum but it was expressed at significantly higher levels in the ileum of newborn piglets. pIgR was highly expressed in the jejunum and ileum of 6-week-old animals but only minimally in neonatal gut. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Claudin-5 localized to blood vessel endothelial cells. Claudin-4 was strongly localized to the apical aspect of jejunal epithelial cells for the first 2 days of life after which it was redistributed to the lateral surface between adjacent enterocytes. Claudin-4 was localized to ileal lateral surfaces within 24 hours after birth indicating regional and temporal differences. Tissue from gnotobiotic piglets showed that commensal microbiota did not influence Claudin-4 surface localization on jejunal or ileal enterocytes. Regulation of TJs by Claudin-4 surface localization requires further investigation. Understanding the factors that regulate gut barrier maturation may yield protective strategies against infectious diseases. PMID:25948883

  18. Claudin-4 undergoes age-dependent change in cellular localization on pig jejunal villous epithelial cells, independent of bacterial colonization.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, J Alex; Kent-Dennis, Coral; Van Kessel, Andrew G; Wilson, Heather L

    2015-01-01

    Newborn piglets are immunologically naïve and must receive passive immunity via colostrum within 24 hours to survive. Mechanisms by which the newborn piglet gut facilitates uptake of colostral cells, antibodies, and proteins may include FcRn and pIgR receptor-mediated endocytosis and paracellular transport between tight junctions (TJs). In the present study, FcRn gene (FCGRT) was minimally expressed in 6-week-old gut and newborn jejunum but it was expressed at significantly higher levels in the ileum of newborn piglets. pIgR was highly expressed in the jejunum and ileum of 6-week-old animals but only minimally in neonatal gut. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Claudin-5 localized to blood vessel endothelial cells. Claudin-4 was strongly localized to the apical aspect of jejunal epithelial cells for the first 2 days of life after which it was redistributed to the lateral surface between adjacent enterocytes. Claudin-4 was localized to ileal lateral surfaces within 24 hours after birth indicating regional and temporal differences. Tissue from gnotobiotic piglets showed that commensal microbiota did not influence Claudin-4 surface localization on jejunal or ileal enterocytes. Regulation of TJs by Claudin-4 surface localization requires further investigation. Understanding the factors that regulate gut barrier maturation may yield protective strategies against infectious diseases.

  19. Antiviral nucleoside analogs phosphorylation by nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Gallois-Montbrun, S; Veron, M; Deville-Bonne, D

    2004-05-01

    The reaction of NDP kinase was studied in vitro with several antiviral derivatives, using kinetic steady state and presteady state analysis. The enzyme is highly efficient with natural nucleotides but most of the analogs are slow substrates. The catalytic efficiency, also related to the affinity of the analog, is mainly dependent on the presence of a 3'-OH group on the ribose moiety.

  20. De novo computer-aided design of novel antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Massarotti, Alberto; Coluccia, Antonio; Sorba, Giovanni; Silvestri, Romano; Brancale, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Computer-aided drug design techniques have become an integral part of the drug discovery process. In particular, de novo methodologies can be useful to identify putative ligands for a specific target relying only on the structural information of the target itself. Here we discuss the basic de novo approaches available and their application in antiviral drug design.:

  1. Liposomal Systems as Nanocarriers for the Antiviral Agent Ivermectin

    PubMed Central

    Croci, Romina; Bottaro, Elisabetta; Chan, Kitti Wing Ki; Watanabe, Satoru; Pezzullo, Margherita; Mastrangelo, Eloise; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    RNA virus infections can lead to the onset of severe diseases such as fever with haemorrhage, multiorgan failure, and mortality. The emergence and reemergence of RNA viruses continue to pose a significant public health threat worldwide with particular attention to the increasing incidence of flaviviruses, among others Dengue, West Nile Virus, and Yellow Fever viruses. Development of new and potent antivirals is thus urgently needed. Ivermectin, an already known antihelminthic drug, has shown potent effects in vitro on Flavivirus helicase, with EC50 values in the subnanomolar range for Yellow Fever and submicromolar EC50 for Dengue Fever, Japanese encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. However ivermectin is hampered in its application by pharmacokinetic problems (little solubility and high cytotoxicity). To overcome such problems we engineered different compositions of liposomes as ivermectin carriers characterizing and testing them on several cell lines for cytotoxicity. The engineered liposomes were less cytotoxic than ivermectin alone and they showed a significant increase of the antiviral activity in all the Dengue stains tested (1, 2, and S221). In the current study ivermectin is confirmed to be an effective potential antiviral and liposomes, as drug carriers, are shown to modulate the drug activity. All together the results represent a promising starting point for future improvement of ivermectin as antiviral and its delivery. PMID:27242902

  2. Novel drug delivery approaches on antiviral and antiretroviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pooja; Chawla, Anuj; Arora, Sandeep; Pawar, Pravin

    2012-01-01

    Viruses have the property to replicate very fast in host cell. It can attack any part of host cell. Therefore, the clinical efficacy of antiviral drugs and its bioavailability is more important concern taken into account to treat viral infections. The oral and parenteral routes of drug administration have several shortcomings, however, which could lead to the search for formulating better delivery systems. Now, a day's novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) proved to be a better approach to enhance the effectiveness of the antivirals and improve the patient compliance and decrease the adverse effect. The NDDS have reduced the dosing frequency and shorten the duration of treatment, thus, which could lead the treatment more cost-effective. The development of NDDS for antiviral and antiretroviral therapy aims to deliver the drug devoid of toxicity, with high compatibility and biodegradability, targeting the drug to specific sites for viral infection and in some instances it also avoid the first pass metabolism effect. This article aims to discuss the usefulness of novel delivery approaches of antiviral agents such as niosomes, microspheres, microemulsions, nanoparticles that are used in the treatment of various Herpes viruses and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. PMID:23057001

  3. Mitochondrial DNA Stress Primes the Antiviral Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    West, A. Phillip; Khoury-Hanold, William; Staron, Matthew; Tal, Michal C.; Pineda, Cristiana M.; Lang, Sabine M.; Bestwick, Megan; Duguay, Brett A.; Raimundo, Nuno; MacDuff, Donna A.; Kaech, Susan M.; Smiley, James R.; Means, Robert E.; Iwasaki, Akiko; Shadel, Gerald S.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is normally present at thousands of copies per cell and is packaged into several hundred higher-order structures termed nucleoids1. The abundant mtDNA-binding protein, transcription factor A mitochondrial (TFAM), regulates nucleoid architecture, abundance, and segregation2. Complete mtDNA depletion profoundly impairs oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), triggering calcium-dependent stress signaling and adaptive metabolic responses3. However, the cellular responses to mtDNA instability, a physiologically relevant stress observed in many human diseases and aging, remain ill-defined4. Here we show that moderate mtDNA stress elicited by TFAM deficiency engages cytosolic antiviral signaling to enhance the expression of a subset of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG). Mechanistically, we have found that aberrant mtDNA packaging promotes escape of mtDNA into the cytosol, where it engages the DNA sensor cGAS and promotes STING-IRF3-dependent signaling to elevate ISG expression, potentiate type I interferon responses, and confer broad viral resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that herpesviruses induce mtDNA stress, which potentiates antiviral signaling and type I interferon responses during infection. Our results further demonstrate that mitochondria are central participants in innate immunity, identify mtDNA stress as a cell-intrinsic trigger of antiviral signaling, and suggest that cellular monitoring of mtDNA homeostasis cooperates with canonical virus sensing mechanisms to fully license antiviral innate immunity. PMID:25642965

  4. 75 FR 16151 - Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to...

  5. 76 FR 62418 - Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to...

  6. 78 FR 57166 - Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Antiviral Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to...

  7. Adenovirus infection reverses the antiviral state induced by human interferon.

    PubMed

    Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    1987-04-06

    HeLa cells treated with human lymphoblastoid interferon do not synthesize poliovirus proteins. The antiviral state against poliovirus is reversed if cells are previously infected with adenovirus type 5. A late gene product seems to be involved in this reversion, since no effect is observed at early stages of infection or in the presence of aphidicolin.

  8. Platinum(II)-Acyclovir Complexes: Synthesis, Antiviral and Antitumour Activity

    PubMed Central

    Coluccia, M.; Boccarelli, A.; Cermelli, C.; Portolani, M.; Natile, G.

    1995-01-01

    A platinum(II) complex with the antiviral drug acyclovir was synthesized and its antiviral and anticancer properties were investigated in comparison to those of acyclovir and cisplatin. The platinum-acyclovir complex maintained the antiviral activity of the parent drug acyclovir, though showing a minor efficacy on a molar basis (ID50  =   7.85 and 1.02 μΜ for platinum-acyclovir and cisplatin, respectively). As anticancer agent, the platinum-acyclovir complex was markedly less potent than cisplatin on a mole-equivalent basis, but it was as effective as cisplatin when equitoxic dosages were administered in vivo to P388 leukaemia-bearing mice (%T/C = 209 and 211 for platinum-acyclovir and cisplatin, respectively). The platinum-acyclovir complex was also active against a cisplatin-resistant subline of the P388 leukaemia (%T/C = 140), thus suggesting a different mechanism of action. The DNA interaction properties (sequence specificity and interstrand cross-linking ability) of platinum-acyclovir were also investigated in comparison to those of cisplatin and [Pt(dien)Cl]+, an antitumour-inactive platinum-triamine compound. The results of this study point to a potential new drug endowed, at the same time, with antiviral and anticancer activity and characterized by DNA interaction properties different from those of cisplatin. PMID:18472776

  9. Synergistic antiviral activity of gemcitabine and ribavirin against enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyunju; Kim, Chonsaeng; Kim, Dong-eun; Song, Jae-Hyoung; Choi, Miri; Choi, Kwangman; Kang, Mingu; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Hae Soo; Shin, Jin Soo; Kim, Janghwan; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Mi-Young; Lee, Su Ui; Lee, Chong-Kyo; Kim, Meehyein; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Cho, Sungchan

    2015-12-01

    Enteroviruses are major causative agents of various human diseases, and some of them are currently considered to be an enormous threat to public health. However, no effective therapy is currently available for the treatment of these infections. We identified gemcitabine, a nucleoside-analog drug used for cancer treatment, from a screen of bioactive chemicals as a novel inhibitor of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and enterovirus 71 (EV71). Gemcitabine potently inhibited the proliferation of CVB3 and EV71, as well as the replication of CVB3 and EV71 replicons, in cells with a low micromolar IC50 (1-5 μM). Its strong inhibitory effect was also observed in cells infected with human rhinoviruses, demonstrating broad-spectrum antiviral effects on enteroviruses. Mechanistically, an extensive analysis excluded the involvement of 2C, 3A, IRES-dependent translation, and also that of polyprotein processing in the antiviral effects of gemcitabine. Importantly, gemcitabine in combination with ribavirin, an antiviral drug currently being used against a few RNA viruses, exhibited a synergistic antiviral effect on the replication of CVB3 and EV71 replicons. Consequently, our results clearly demonstrate a new indication for gemcitabine as an effective broad-spectrum inhibitor of enteroviruses and strongly suggest a new therapeutic strategy using gemcitabine alone or in combination with ribavirin for the treatment of various diseases associated with enterovirus infection.

  10. Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of bisnoradamantane sulfites and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Elena; Torres, Eva; Guardiola, Salvador; Naesens, Lieve; Vázquez, Santiago

    2011-03-01

    The reaction of a series of 1,2-diols with thionyl chloride led to bisnoradamantane sulfites in very good yields. The reaction has also been applied to related polycyclic scaffolds. The compounds have been tested for antiviral activity but none of them showed to be active. Several attempts to generate and trap SO from these polycyclic sulfites have been unsuccessful.

  11. Modeling rotavirus infection and antiviral therapy using primary intestinal organoids.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yuebang; Bijvelds, Marcel; Dang, Wen; Xu, Lei; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Knipping, Karen; Tuysuz, Nesrin; Dekkers, Johanna F; Wang, Yijin; de Jonge, Jeroen; Sprengers, Dave; van der Laan, Luc J W; Beekman, Jeffrey M; Ten Berge, Derk; Metselaar, Herold J; de Jonge, Hugo; Koopmans, Marion P G; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Pan, Qiuwei

    2015-11-01

    Despite the introduction of oral vaccines, rotavirus still kills over 450,000 children under five years of age annually. The absence of specific treatment prompts research aiming at further understanding of pathogenesis and the development of effective antiviral therapy, which in turn requires advanced experimental models. Given the intrinsic limitations of the classical rotavirus models using immortalized cell lines infected with laboratory-adapted strains in two dimensional cultures, our study aimed to model infection and antiviral therapy of both experimental and patient-derived rotavirus strains using three dimensional cultures of primary intestinal organoids. Intestinal epithelial organoids were successfully cultured from mouse or human gut tissues. These organoids recapitulate essential features of the in vivo tissue architecture, and are susceptible to rotavirus. Human organoids are more permissive to rotavirus infection, displaying an over 10,000-fold increase in genomic RNA following 24h of viral replication. Furthermore, infected organoids are capable of producing infectious rotavirus particles. Treatment of interferon-alpha or ribavirin inhibited viral replication in organoids of both species. Importantly, human organoids efficiently support the infection of patient-derived rotavirus strains and can be potentially harnessed for personalized evaluation of the efficacy of antiviral medications. Therefore, organoids provide a robust model system for studying rotavirus-host interactions and assessing antiviral medications.

  12. Antiviral effect of mefloquine on feline calicivirus in vitro.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Phillip; Sheehy, Paul A; Fawcett, Anne; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2015-04-17

    Feline calicivirus (FCV) is an important viral pathogen of domestic cats causing clinical signs ranging from mild to severe oral ulceration or upper respiratory tract disease through to a severe fatal systemic disease. Current therapeutic options are limited, with no direct acting antivirals available for treatment. This study screened a panel of 19 compounds for potential antiviral activity against FCV strain F9 and recent field isolates in vitro. Using a resazurin-based cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assay, mefloquine demonstrated a marked inhibitory effect on FCV induced CPE, albeit with a relatively low selectivity index. Orthogonal assays confirmed inhibition of CPE was associated with a significant reduction in viral replication. Mefloquine exhibited a strong inhibitory effect against a panel of seven recent FCV isolates from Australia, with calculated IC50 values for the field isolates approximately 50% lower than against the reference strain FCV F9. In vitro combination therapy with recombinant feline interferon-ω, a biological response modifier currently registered for the treatment of FCV, demonstrated additive effects with a concurrent reduction in the IC50 of mefloquine. These results are the first report of antiviral effects of mefloquine against a calicivirus and support further in vitro and in vivo evaluation of this compound as an antiviral therapeutic for FCV.

  13. Cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of methanol extract from Polygonum minus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Noor Zarina Abd; Bunawan, Hamidun; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    A study was carried out to test the cytotoxicity and antiviral effects of methanolic extracts from the leaves and stem of Polygonum minus or kesum. Cytotoxicity tests were performed on Vero cells indicates the LC50 value for leaf extract towards the Vero cells was 875 mg/L and the LC50 value for stem extract was 95 mg/L. The LC50 values indidcate the non-cytotoxic effect of the extracts and worth for further testing. Antiviral test were carried out towards herpes simplex virus infected Vero cells using three concentration of extract which were equivalent to 1.0 LC50, 0.1 LC50 and 0.01 LC50. Three different treatments to detect antiviral activity were used. Mild antiviral activity of the stem extract was detected when cells were treated for 24 hours with plant extract before viral infection. This demonstrates the capability of the test compound to protect the cells from viral attachment and of the possible prophylactic effect of the P. minus stem methanol extract.

  14. Preparation of Recombinant Viral Glycoproteins for Novel and Therapeutic Antibody Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yee-Peng; Yan, Lianying; Feng, Yan-Ru; Broder, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies are a critical component in the protection or recovery from viral infections. In the absence of available vaccines or antiviral drugs for many important human viral pathogens, the identification and characterization of new human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) able to neutralize viruses offers the possibility for effective pre- and/or post-exposure therapeutic modalities. Such hmAbs may also help in our understanding of the virus entry process, the mechanisms of virus neutralization and in the eventual development of specific entry inhibitors, vaccines and research tools. The majority of the more recently developed antiviral hmAbs have come from the use of antibody phage-display technologies using both naïve and immune libraries. Many of these agents are also enveloped viruses possessing important neutralizing determinants within their membrane-anchored envelope glycoproteins and the use of recombinant, soluble versions of these viral glycoproteins is often critical in the isolation and development of antiviral hmAbs. This chapter will detail several methods that have been successfully employed to produce, purify and characterize soluble and secreted versions of several viral envelope glycoproteins which have been successfully used as antigens to capture and isolate human phage-displayed monoclonal antibodies. PMID:19252850

  15. Discovery of potent broad spectrum antivirals derived from marine actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Raveh, Avi; Delekta, Phillip C; Dobry, Craig J; Peng, Weiping; Schultz, Pamela J; Blakely, Pennelope K; Tai, Andrew W; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Irani, David N; Sherman, David H; Miller, David J

    2013-01-01

    Natural products provide a vast array of chemical structures to explore in the discovery of new medicines. Although secondary metabolites produced by microbes have been developed to treat a variety of diseases, including bacterial and fungal infections, to date there has been limited investigation of natural products with antiviral activity. In this report, we used a phenotypic cell-based replicon assay coupled with an iterative biochemical fractionation process to identify, purify, and characterize antiviral compounds produced by marine microbes. We isolated a compound from Streptomyces kaviengensis, a novel actinomycetes isolated from marine sediments obtained off the coast of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, which we identified as antimycin A1a. This compound displays potent activity against western equine encephalitis virus in cultured cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of less than 4 nM and a selectivity index of greater than 550. Our efforts also revealed that several antimycin A analogues display antiviral activity, and mechanism of action studies confirmed that these Streptomyces-derived secondary metabolites function by inhibiting the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain, thereby suppressing de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Furthermore, we found that antimycin A functions as a broad spectrum agent with activity against a wide range of RNA viruses in cultured cells, including members of the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Paramyxoviridae families. Finally, we demonstrate that antimycin A reduces central nervous system viral titers, improves clinical disease severity, and enhances survival in mice given a lethal challenge with western equine encephalitis virus. Our results provide conclusive validation for using natural product resources derived from marine microbes as source material for antiviral drug discovery, and they indicate that host mitochondrial electron transport is a viable target for the

  16. Antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B: a review.

    PubMed

    Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2004-03-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a well-recognized risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is becoming a more prevalent clinical problem, especially in HBV-endemic areas. It is estimated that 1.25 million people in the United States and more than 300 million people worldwide are chronically infected with HBV. Despite the introduction of universal vaccination against hepatitis B in over 100 countries, persistent HBV infection is still a serious problem worldwide, causing an estimated annual death rate of one million. It may take several decades until the effect of vaccination will be translated into reduced transmission and morbidity. Meanwhile, patients with persistent HBV infection require better antiviral therapeutic modalities than are currently available. It is well accepted that antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B is effective to improve prognosis of patients with HBV by preventing development of hepatitis state and HCC. The therapeutic endpoints for hepatitis B treatment are: 1) sustained suppression of HBV replication, as indicated by HBsAg and HBeAg loss, 2) decrease of serum HBV DNA of an undetectable level by a non-PCR method, 3) remission of disease, as shown by normalization of ALT, 4) improvement in liver histology, and 5) reduction of the acute exacerbation, cirrhosis, and HCC. In the present, the antiviral treatment of hepatitis B consists of either interferon alpha or oral lamivudine alone or in combination with existing therapy. Each major antiviral drug of interferon alpha and lamivudine has pros and cons, and effect of combination therapy of both drugs is also still limited. More powerful and safe new antiviral therapies are required to achieve final goal of these therapeutic endpoints. Management of chronic hepatitis B requires significant knowledge of approved pharmacotherapeutic agents and their limitations. Therapeutic options for managing hepatitis infection after liver transplantation (LT

  17. Antiviral Effect of Methylated Flavonol Isorhamnetin against Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Choi, Hye Yeon; Kim, Young Bong; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is an infectious respiratory disease with frequent seasonal epidemics that causes a high rate of mortality and morbidity in humans, poultry, and animals. Influenza is a serious economic concern due to the costly countermeasures it necessitates. In this study, we compared the antiviral activities of several flavonols and other flavonoids with similar, but distinct, hydroxyl or methyl substitution patterns at the 3, 3′, and 4′ positions of the 15-carbon flavonoid skeleton, and found that the strongest antiviral effect was induced by isorhamnetin. Similar to quercetin and kaempferol, isorhamnetin possesses a hydroxyl group on the C ring, but it has a 3′-methyl group on the B ring that is absent in quercetin and kaempferol. Co-treatment and pre-treatment with isorhamnetin produced a strong antiviral effect against the influenza virus A/PR/08/34(H1N1). However, isorhamnetin showed the most potent antiviral potency when administered after viral exposure (post-treatment method) in vitro. Isorhamnetin treatment reduced virus-induced ROS generation and blocked cytoplasmic lysosome acidification and the lipidation of microtubule associated protein1 light chain 3-B (LC3B). Oral administration of isorhamnetin in mice infected with the influenza A virus significantly decreased lung virus titer by 2 folds, increased the survival rate which ranged from 70–80%, and decreased body weight loss by 25%. In addition, isorhamnetin decreased the virus titer in ovo using embryonated chicken eggs. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of isorhamnetin could explain its strong anti-influenza virus potency; the methyl group located on the B ring of isorhamnetin may contribute to its strong antiviral potency against influenza virus in comparison with other flavonoids. PMID:25806943

  18. Antiviral effect of methylated flavonol isorhamnetin against influenza.

    PubMed

    Abdal Dayem, Ahmed; Choi, Hye Yeon; Kim, Young Bong; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is an infectious respiratory disease with frequent seasonal epidemics that causes a high rate of mortality and morbidity in humans, poultry, and animals. Influenza is a serious economic concern due to the costly countermeasures it necessitates. In this study, we compared the antiviral activities of several flavonols and other flavonoids with similar, but distinct, hydroxyl or methyl substitution patterns at the 3, 3', and 4' positions of the 15-carbon flavonoid skeleton, and found that the strongest antiviral effect was induced by isorhamnetin. Similar to quercetin and kaempferol, isorhamnetin possesses a hydroxyl group on the C ring, but it has a 3'-methyl group on the B ring that is absent in quercetin and kaempferol. Co-treatment and pre-treatment with isorhamnetin produced a strong antiviral effect against the influenza virus A/PR/08/34(H1N1). However, isorhamnetin showed the most potent antiviral potency when administered after viral exposure (post-treatment method) in vitro. Isorhamnetin treatment reduced virus-induced ROS generation and blocked cytoplasmic lysosome acidification and the lipidation of microtubule associated protein1 light chain 3-B (LC3B). Oral administration of isorhamnetin in mice infected with the influenza A virus significantly decreased lung virus titer by 2 folds, increased the survival rate which ranged from 70-80%, and decreased body weight loss by 25%. In addition, isorhamnetin decreased the virus titer in ovo using embryonated chicken eggs. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of isorhamnetin could explain its strong anti-influenza virus potency; the methyl group located on the B ring of isorhamnetin may contribute to its strong antiviral potency against influenza virus in comparison with other flavonoids.

  19. Discovery of Potent Broad Spectrum Antivirals Derived from Marine Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Raveh, Avi; Delekta, Phillip C.; Dobry, Craig J.; Peng, Weiping; Schultz, Pamela J.; Blakely, Pennelope K.; Tai, Andrew W.; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Irani, David N.; Sherman, David H.; Miller, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Natural products provide a vast array of chemical structures to explore in the discovery of new medicines. Although secondary metabolites produced by microbes have been developed to treat a variety of diseases, including bacterial and fungal infections, to date there has been limited investigation of natural products with antiviral activity. In this report, we used a phenotypic cell-based replicon assay coupled with an iterative biochemical fractionation process to identify, purify, and characterize antiviral compounds produced by marine microbes. We isolated a compound from Streptomyces kaviengensis, a novel actinomycetes isolated from marine sediments obtained off the coast of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, which we identified as antimycin A1a. This compound displays potent activity against western equine encephalitis virus in cultured cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of less than 4 nM and a selectivity index of greater than 550. Our efforts also revealed that several antimycin A analogues display antiviral activity, and mechanism of action studies confirmed that these Streptomyces-derived secondary metabolites function by inhibiting the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain, thereby suppressing de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Furthermore, we found that antimycin A functions as a broad spectrum agent with activity against a wide range of RNA viruses in cultured cells, including members of the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Paramyxoviridae families. Finally, we demonstrate that antimycin A reduces central nervous system viral titers, improves clinical disease severity, and enhances survival in mice given a lethal challenge with western equine encephalitis virus. Our results provide conclusive validation for using natural product resources derived from marine microbes as source material for antiviral drug discovery, and they indicate that host mitochondrial electron transport is a viable target for the

  20. Epimedium koreanum Nakai Displays Broad Spectrum of Antiviral Activity in Vitro and in Vivo by Inducing Cellular Antiviral State

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seol; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Epimedium koreanum Nakai has been extensively used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the plant’s known immune modulatory potential and chemical make-up, scientific information on its antiviral properties and mode of action have not been completely investigated. In this study, the broad antiviral spectrum and mode of action of an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated in vitro, and moreover, the protective effect against divergent influenza A subtypes was determined in BALB/c mice. An effective dose of Epimedium koreanum Nakaimarkedly reduced the replication of Influenza A Virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells. Mechanically, we found that an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai induced the secretion of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent stimulation of the antiviral state in cells. Among various components present in the extract, quercetin was confirmed to have striking antiviral properties. The oral administration of Epimedium koreanum Nakai exhibited preventive effects on BALB/c mice against lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2). Therefore, an extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its components play roles as immunomodulators in the innate immune response, and may be potential candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic treatments against diverse viruses in animal and humans. PMID:25609307

  1. Antibodies and antibody-derived analytical biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shikha; Byrne, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    The rapid diagnosis of many diseases and timely initiation of appropriate treatment are critical determinants that promote optimal clinical outcomes and general public health. Biosensors are now being applied for rapid diagnostics due to their capacity for point-of-care use with minimum need for operator input. Antibody-based biosensors or immunosensors have revolutionized diagnostics for the detection of a plethora of analytes such as disease markers, food and environmental contaminants, biological warfare agents and illicit drugs. Antibodies are ideal biorecognition elements that provide sensors with high specificity and sensitivity. This review describes monoclonal and recombinant antibodies and different immobilization approaches crucial for antibody utilization in biosensors. Examples of applications of a variety of antibody-based sensor formats are also described. PMID:27365031

  2. Converting monoclonal antibody-based immunotherapies from passive to active: bringing immune complexes into play

    PubMed Central

    Lambour, Jennifer; Naranjo-Gomez, Mar; Piechaczyk, Marc; Pelegrin, Mireia

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which currently constitute the main class of biotherapeutics, are now recognized as major medical tools that are increasingly being considered to fight severe viral infections. Indeed, the number of antiviral mAbs developed in recent years has grown exponentially. Although their direct effects on viral blunting have been studied in detail, their potential immunomodulatory actions have been overlooked until recently. The ability of antiviral mAbs to modulate antiviral immune responses in infected organisms has recently been revealed. More specifically, upon recognition of their cognate antigens, mAbs form immune complexes (ICs) that can be recognized by the Fc receptors expressed on different immune cells of infected individuals. This binding may be followed by the modulation of the host immune responses. Harnessing this immunomodulatory property may facilitate improvements in the therapeutic potential of antiviral mAbs. This review focuses on the role of ICs formed with different viral determinants and mAbs in the induction of antiviral immune responses in the context of both passive immunotherapies and vaccination strategies. Potential deleterious effects of ICs on the host immune response are also discussed. PMID:27530750

  3. Platelet associated antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003552.htm Platelet-associated antibodies blood test To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a ...

  4. Lyme disease antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript. The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes ... needed. A laboratory specialist looks for Lyme disease antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . ...

  5. Antiparietal cell antibody test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Vitamin B12 - anti- ... may use this test to help diagnose pernicious anemia. Pernicious anemia is a decrease in red blood ...

  6. Monoclonal Antibody Shows Promise as Potential Therapeutic for MERS | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    A monoclonal antibody has proven effective in preventing Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in lab animals, suggesting further development as a potential intervention for the deadly disease in humans, according to new research. MERS is a newly emerged coronavirus first detected in humans in 2012. Most cases have occurred in the Middle East, but the disease has appeared elsewhere. In all, MERS has infected more than 1,700 individuals and killed more than 600, according to the World Health Organization. No vaccines or antiviral therapies currently exist. Several candidate vaccines are being developed, and some have been tested in animal models, a prerequisite to human clinical trials.

  7. Modeling Antibody Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Moore, Cathy Ronstadt

    1998-01-01

    Understanding antibody structure and function is difficult for many students. The rearrangement of constant and variable regions during antibody differentiation can be effectively simulated using a paper model. Describes a hands-on laboratory exercise which allows students to model antibody diversity using readily available resources. (PVD)

  8. RBC Antibody Screen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cell Antibody Screen Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; Blood Typing ; RBC Antibody Identification ; Type and Screen; Crossmatch All content on Lab Tests Online has been reviewed and approved by our Editorial Review Board . At a ... screen is used to screen an individual's blood for antibodies directed against red blood cell (RBC) ...

  9. Anti-insulin antibody test

    MedlinePlus

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies ... Normally, there are no antibodies against insulin in your blood. ... different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or ...

  10. Microbiota-Dependent Priming of Antiviral Intestinal Immunity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Christine L; Cohen, Jonathan; Yasunaga, Ari; Xu, Jie; Osborn, Greg; Subramanian, Harry; Gold, Beth; Buchon, Nicolas; Cherry, Sara

    2015-11-11

    Enteric pathogens must overcome intestinal defenses to establish infection. In Drosophila, the ERK signaling pathway inhibits enteric virus infection. The intestinal microflora also impacts immunity but its role in enteric viral infection is unknown. Here we show that two signals are required to activate antiviral ERK signaling in the intestinal epithelium. One signal depends on recognition of peptidoglycan from the microbiota, particularly from the commensal Acetobacter pomorum, which primes the NF-kB-dependent induction of a secreted factor, Pvf2. However, the microbiota is not sufficient to induce this pathway; a second virus-initiated signaling event involving release of transcriptional paused genes mediated by the kinase Cdk9 is also required for Pvf2 production. Pvf2 stimulates antiviral immunity by binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase PVR, which is necessary and sufficient for intestinal ERK responses. These findings demonstrate that sensing of specific commensals primes inflammatory signaling required for epithelial responses that restrict enteric viral infections.

  11. Direct versus sequential immunoglobulin switch in allergy and antiviral responses.

    PubMed

    Svirshchevskaya, E; Fattakhova, G; Khlgatian, S; Chudakov, D; Kashirina, E; Ryazantsev, D; Kotsareva, O; Zavriev, S

    2016-09-01

    Allergy is characterized by IgE production to innocuous antigens. The question whether the switch to IgE synthesis occurs via direct or sequential pathways is still unresolved. The aim of this work was to analyze the distribution of immunoglobulins (Ig) to house dust mite D. farinae and A. alternata fungus in allergic children with primarily established diagnosis and compare it to Epstein-Barr antiviral (EBV) response in the same patients. In allergy patients the only significant difference was found in allergen specific IgE, likely mediated by a direct isotype switch, while antiviral response was dominated by EBV specific IgG and low level of concordant IgA and IgG4 production consistent with a minor sequential Ig switches. Taken collectively, we concluded that sequential isotype switch is likely to be a much rarer event than a direct one.

  12. Toll-like receptors in antiviral innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Sandra N.; Li, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are fundamental sensor molecules of the host innate immune system, which detect conserved molecular signatures of a wide range of microbial pathogens and initiate innate immune responses via distinct signaling pathways. Various TLRs are implicated in the early interplay of host cells with invading viruses, which regulates viral replication and/or host responses, ultimately impacting on viral pathogenesis. To survive the host innate defense mechanisms, many viruses have developed strategies to evade or counteract signaling through the TLR pathways, creating an advantageous environment for their propagation. Here we review the current knowledge of the roles TLRs play in antiviral innate immune responses, discuss examples of TLR-mediated viral recognition, and describe strategies used by viruses to antagonize the host antiviral innate immune responses. PMID:24316048

  13. Antiviral Activity of Resveratrol against Human and Animal Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Abba, Yusuf; Hassim, Hasliza; Hamzah, Hazilawati; Noordin, Mohamed Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a potent polyphenolic compound that is being extensively studied in the amelioration of viral infections both in vitro and in vivo. Its antioxidant effect is mainly elicited through inhibition of important gene pathways like the NF-κβ pathway, while its antiviral effects are associated with inhibitions of viral replication, protein synthesis, gene expression, and nucleic acid synthesis. Although the beneficial roles of resveratrol in several viral diseases have been well documented, a few adverse effects have been reported as well. This review highlights the antiviral mechanisms of resveratrol in human and animal viral infections and how some of these effects are associated with the antioxidant properties of the compound. PMID:26693226

  14. Screening of Australian medicinal plants for antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Semple, S J; Reynolds, G D; O'Leary, M C; Flower, R L

    1998-03-01

    Extracts of 40 different plant species used in the traditional medicine of the Australian Aboriginal people have been investigated for antiviral activity. The extracts have been tested for activity against one DNA virus, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and two RNA viruses, Ross River virus (RRV) and poliovirus type 1, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The most active extracts were the aerial parts of Pterocaulon sphacelatum (Asteraceae) and roots of Dianella longifolia var. grandis (Liliaceae), which inhibited poliovirus at concentrations of 52 and 250 microg/ml, respectively. The extracts of Euphorbia australis (Euphorbiaceae) and Scaevola spinescens (Goodeniaceae) were the most active against HCMV. Extracts of Eremophila latrobei subsp. glabra (Myoporaceae) and Pittosporum phylliraeoides var. microcarpa (Pittosporaceae) exhibited antiviral activity against RRV.

  15. 5th Antiviral Drug Discovery and Development Summit.

    PubMed

    Blair, Wade; Perros, Manos

    2004-08-01

    The 5th Antiviral Drug Discovery and Development Summit provided an up-to-date snapshot of the ongoing developments in the area. The topics covered ranged from updates on recently launched drugs (Kaletra), Fuzeon) and new investigational inhibitors (T-1249, Reverset, UK-427857, L-870810, PA-457, remofovir, VX-950), to the discovery of new antiviral targets and advances in technologies that may provide the substrate for the next generation of therapeutics. It is apparent from the range of presentations that much of today's efforts are focused on developing new classes of HIV inhibitors (gp41, integrase), while there is also considerable progress in hepatitis C, where a number of inhibitors have or should reach proof-of-concept studies in the coming months. Here we provide the highlights of this meeting, with particular emphasis on the new developments in HIV and hepatitis C virus.

  16. Peptide-Induced Antiviral Protection by Cytotoxic T Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Manfred; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.; Hengartner, Hans

    1991-02-01

    A specific antiviral cytotoxic immune response in vivo could be induced by the subcutaneous injection of the T-cell epitope of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) nucleoprotein as an unmodified free synthetic peptide (Arg-Pro-Gln-Ala-Ser-Gly-Val-Tyr-Met-Gly-Asn-Leu-Thr-Ala-Gln) emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. This immunization rendered mice into a LCMV-specific protective state as shown by the inhibition of LCMV replication in spleens of such mice. The protection level of these mice correlated with the ability to respond to the peptide challenge by CD8^+ virus-specific cytotoxic T cells. This is a direct demonstration that peptide vaccines can be antivirally protective in vivo, thus encouraging further search for appropriate mixtures of stable peptides that may be used as T-cell vaccines.

  17. Preventing and treating secondary bacterial infections with antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    McCullers, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bacterial super-infections contribute to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with influenza and other respiratory virus infections. There are robust animal model data but only limited clinical information on the effectiveness of licensed antiviral agents for the treatment of bacterial complications of influenza. The association of secondary bacterial pathogens with fatal pneumonia during the recent H1N1 influenza pandemic highlights the need for new development in this area. Basic and clinical research into viral-bacterial interactions over the last decade has revealed several mechanisms that underlie this synergism. By applying these insights to antiviral drug development, the potential exists to improve outcomes by means other than direct inhibition of the virus. PMID:21447860

  18. Novel drugs targeting Toll-like receptors for antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mira C; Shirey, Kari Ann; Pletneva, Lioubov M; Boukhvalova, Marina S; Garzino-Demo, Alfredo; Vogel, Stefanie N; Blanco, Jorge CG

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are sentinel receptors of the host innate immune system that recognize conserved ‘pathogen-associated molecular patterns’ of invading microbes, including viruses. The activation of TLRs establishes antiviral innate immune responses and coordinates the development of long-lasting adaptive immunity in order to control viral pathogenesis. However, microbe-induced damage to host tissues may release ‘danger-associated molecular patterns’ that also activate TLRs, leading to an overexuberant inflammatory response and, ultimately, to tissue damage. Thus, TLRs have proven to be promising targets as therapeutics for the treatment of viral infections that result in inflammatory damage or as adjuvants in order to enhance the efficacy of vaccines. Here, we explore recent advances in TLR biology with a focus on novel drugs that target TLRs (agonists and antagonists) for antiviral therapy. PMID:25620999

  19. Mx proteins: antiviral proteins by chance or by necessity?

    PubMed

    Arnheiter, H; Meier, E

    1990-10-01

    The interferon-inducible Mx1 protein is responsible for inborn resistance of mice to influenza. It is now recognized that this protein is a member of a family of interferon-inducible, putative GTP-binding proteins found in many organisms. Thus, these proteins, called the Mx proteins, are found in species that are naturally infected with influenza virus, and also in species that are not. Some Mx proteins display a broader antiviral profile than the one observed for Mx1 in mice. Others, however, may not be antiviral. Two recently discovered GTP-binding proteins, Vps1p in yeast and dynamin in rat, are also related to Mx1. These proteins are synthesized constitutively and serve basic cellular functions.

  20. Senataxin suppresses the antiviral transcriptional response and controls viral biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew S; Rialdi, Alexander; Ho, Jessica Sook Yuin; Tilove, Micah; Martinez-Gil, Luis; Moshkina, Natasha P; Peralta, Zuleyma; Noel, Justine; Melegari, Camilla; Maestre, Ana M; Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Madrenas, Joaquín; Heinz, Sven; Benner, Chris; Young, John A T; Feagins, Alicia R; Basler, Christopher F; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Becherel, Olivier J; Lavin, Martin F; van Bakel, Harm; Marazzi, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    The human helicase senataxin (SETX) has been linked to the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS4) and ataxia with oculomotor apraxia (AOA2). Here we identified a role for SETX in controlling the antiviral response. Cells that had undergone depletion of SETX and SETX-deficient cells derived from patients with AOA2 had higher expression of antiviral mediators in response to infection than did wild-type cells. Mechanistically, we propose a model whereby SETX attenuates the activity of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) at genes stimulated after a virus is sensed and thus controls the magnitude of the host response to pathogens and the biogenesis of various RNA viruses (e.g., influenza A virus and West Nile virus). Our data indicate a potentially causal link among inborn errors in SETX, susceptibility to infection and the development of neurologic disorders.

  1. Emerging Role of Ubiquitination in Antiviral RIG-I Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Maelfait, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Detection of viruses by the innate immune system involves the action of specialized pattern recognition receptors. Intracellular RIG-I receptors sense the presence of viral nucleic acids in infected cells and trigger signaling pathways that lead to the production of proinflammatory and antiviral proteins. Over the past few years, posttranslational modification of RIG-I and downstream signaling proteins by different types of ubiquitination has been found to be a key event in the regulation of RIG-I-induced NF-κB and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation. Multiple ubiquitin ligases, deubiquitinases, and ubiquitin binding scaffold proteins contribute to both positive and negative regulation of the RIG-I-induced antiviral immune response. A better understanding of the function and activity of these proteins might eventually lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches for management of viral diseases. PMID:22390971

  2. Protein modifications during antiviral heat bioprocessing and subsequent storage.

    PubMed

    Smales, C M; Pepper, D S; James, D C

    2001-01-01

    Antiviral heat treatment is routinely used in the bioprocessing of therapeutic proteins as a means of reducing viral load. However, in protein formulations containing sucrose this form of bioprocessing can lead to protein modifications. Using a model protein, hen egg white lysozyme, we investigated the effects of antiviral heat treatments in the presence of sucrose on protein integrity during subsequent long-term protein storage. Although heat treatment alone resulted in protein modification, subsequent medium- to long-term storage of both lyophilized and liquid samples at room temperature or above led to further protein modifications. The majority of these modifications were due to the formation of glycation and advanced glycation end products via the reaction of reducing sugars and their autoxidation products (derived from hydrolyzed sucrose) with function groups on the protein surface. These findings have implications for the improvement of therapeutic protein bioprocessing to ensure protein product quality.

  3. HCV RNA Activates APCs via TLR7/TLR8 While Virus Selectively Stimulates Macrophages Without Inducing Antiviral Responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuwei; El-Far, Mohamed; Dupuy, Franck P; Abdel-Hakeem, Mohamed S; He, Zhong; Procopio, Francesco Andrea; Shi, Yu; Haddad, Elias K; Ancuta, Petronela; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Said, Elias A

    2016-07-07

    The innate and adaptive immune systems fail to control HCV infection in the majority of infected individuals. HCV is an ssRNA virus, which suggests a role for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7 and 8 in initiating the anti-viral response. Here we demonstrate that HCV genomic RNA harbours specific sequences that initiate an anti-HCV immune response through TLR7 and TLR8 in various antigen presenting cells. Conversely, HCV particles are detected by macrophages, but not by monocytes and DCs, through a TLR7/8 dependent mechanism; this leads to chloroquine sensitive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, while the antiviral type I Interferon response is not triggered in these cells. Antibodies to DC-SIGN, a c-type lectin selectively expressed by macrophages but not pDCs or mDCs, block the production of cytokines. Novel anti-HCV vaccination strategies should target the induction of TLR7/8 stimulation in APCs in order to establish potent immune responses against HCV.

  4. HCV RNA Activates APCs via TLR7/TLR8 While Virus Selectively Stimulates Macrophages Without Inducing Antiviral Responses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuwei; El-Far, Mohamed; Dupuy, Franck P.; Abdel-Hakeem, Mohamed S.; He, Zhong; Procopio, Francesco Andrea; Shi, Yu; Haddad, Elias K.; Ancuta, Petronela; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Said, Elias A.

    2016-01-01

    The innate and adaptive immune systems fail to control HCV infection in the majority of infected individuals. HCV is an ssRNA virus, which suggests a role for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7 and 8 in initiating the anti-viral response. Here we demonstrate that HCV genomic RNA harbours specific sequences that initiate an anti-HCV immune response through TLR7 and TLR8 in various antigen presenting cells. Conversely, HCV particles are detected by macrophages, but not by monocytes and DCs, through a TLR7/8 dependent mechanism; this leads to chloroquine sensitive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, while the antiviral type I Interferon response is not triggered in these cells. Antibodies to DC-SIGN, a c-type lectin selectively expressed by macrophages but not pDCs or mDCs, block the production of cytokines. Novel anti-HCV vaccination strategies should target the induction of TLR7/8 stimulation in APCs in order to establish potent immune responses against HCV. PMID:27385120

  5. Development of a FACS-based assay for evaluating antiviral potency of compound in dengue infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yilong; Chen, Yen-Liang; Herve, Maxime; Gu, Feng; Shi, Pei-Yong; Blasco, Francesca

    2014-02-01

    Dengue fever is the most important arthropod-transmitted viral disease affecting humans. It is a blood-borne disease characterized by persistent fever and joint pain. In the blood, primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), in particular monocytes, are the main target of the dengue virus (DENV). These cells are poorly permissive for in vitro dengue virus infection and their infectivity varies from donor to donor. To overcome this barrier, an anti-dengue antibody was used to improve the infectivity of DENV-2 clinical isolates to PBMCs, the monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1 and the granulocyte cell line, KU812. A higher throughput 96-well-format assay based on a fluorescent-activated cell sorter could potentially be developed to evaluate the antiviral potency of compounds in DENV-infected PBMCs in vitro. The results correlate well with data obtained by a standard plaque assay. Altogether, an assay has been developed that enables evaluation of the antiviral activity of test compounds in a physiologically-relevant cell system (PBMCs). These screening processes are urgently needed for dengue drug discovery.

  6. Phospholipid scramblase 1 potentiates the antiviral activity of interferon.

    PubMed

    Dong, Beihua; Zhou, Quansheng; Zhao, Ji; Zhou, Aimin; Harty, Ronald N; Bose, Santanu; Banerjee, Amiya; Slee, Roger; Guenther, Jeanna; Williams, Bryan R G; Wiedmer, Therese; Sims, Peter J; Silverman, Robert H

    2004-09-01

    Phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) is an interferon (IFN)- and growth factor-inducible, calcium-binding protein that either inserts into the plasma membrane or binds DNA in the nucleus depending on its state of palmyitoylation. In certain hematopoietic cells, PLSCR1 is required for normal maturation and terminal differentiation from progenitor cells as regulated by select growth factors, where it promotes recruitment and activation of Src kinases. PLSCR1 is a substrate of Src (and Abl) kinases, and transcription of the PLSCR1 gene is regulated by the same growth factor receptor pathways in which PLSCR1 potentiates afferent signaling. The marked transcriptional upregulation of PLSCR1 by IFNs led us to explore whether PLSCR1 plays an analogous role in cellular responses to IFN, with specific focus on antiviral activities. Accordingly, human cells in which PLSCR1 expression was decreased with short interfering RNA were rendered relatively insensitive to the antiviral activity of IFNs, resulting in higher titers of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and encephalomyocarditis virus. Similarly, VSV replicated to higher titers in mouse PLSCR1(-/-) embryonic fibroblasts than in identical cells transduced to express PLSCR1. PLSCR1 inhibited accumulation of primary VSV transcripts, similar to the effects of IFN against VSV. The antiviral effect of PLSCR1 correlated with increased expression of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), including ISG15, ISG54, p56, and guanylate binding proteins. Our results suggest that PLSCR1, which is itself an ISG-encoded protein, provides a mechanism for amplifying and enhancing the IFN response through increased expression of a select subset of potent antiviral genes.

  7. Mechanisms of antiviral action of plant antimicrobials against murine norovirus.

    PubMed

    Gilling, Damian H; Kitajima, Masaaki; Torrey, Jason R; Bright, Kelly R

    2014-08-01

    Numerous plant compounds have antibacterial or antiviral properties; however, limited research has been conducted with nonenveloped viruses. The efficacies of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral were evaluated against the nonenveloped murine norovirus (MNV), a human norovirus surrogate. The antiviral mechanisms of action were also examined using an RNase I protection assay, a host cell binding assay, and transmission electron microscopy. All three antimicrobials produced significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in viral infectivity within 6 h of exposure (0.90 log10 to 1.88 log10). After 24 h, the reductions were 2.74, 3.00, and 3.41 log10 for lemongrass oil, citral, and allspice oil, respectively. The antiviral effect of allspice oil was both time and concentration dependent; the effects of lemongrass oil and citral were time dependent. Based on the RNase I assay, allspice oil appeared to act directly upon the viral capsid and RNA. The capsids enlarged from ≤ 35 nm to up to 75 nm following treatment. MNV adsorption to host cells was not significantly affected. Alternatively, the capsid remained intact following exposure to lemongrass oil and citral, which appeared to coat the capsid, causing nonspecific and nonproductive binding to host cells that did not lead to successful infection. Such contrasting effects between allspice oil and both lemongrass oil and citral suggest that though different plant compounds may yield similar reductions in virus infectivity, the mechanisms of inactivation may be highly varied and specific to the antimicrobial. This study demonstrates the antiviral properties of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral against MNV and thus indicates their potential as natural food and surface sanitizers to control noroviruses.

  8. Antiviral Strategies for Emerging Influenza Viruses in Remote Communities

    PubMed Central

    Laskowski, Marek; Greer, Amy L.; Moghadas, Seyed M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the lack of timely access to resources for critical care, strategic use of antiviral drugs is crucial for mitigating the impact of novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential in remote and isolated communities. We sought to evaluate the effect of antiviral treatment and prophylaxis of close contacts in a Canadian remote northern community. Methods We used an agent-based, discrete-time simulation model for disease spread in a remote community, which was developed as an in-silico population using population census data. Relative and cumulative age-specific attack rates, and the total number of infections in simulated model scenarios were obtained. Results We found that early initiation of antiviral treatment is more critical for lowering attack rates in a remote setting with a low population-average age compared to an urban population. Our results show that a significant reduction in the relative, age-specific attack rates due to increasing treatment coverage does not necessarily translate to a significant reduction in the overall arrack rate. When treatment coverage varies from low to moderate, targeted prophylaxis has a very limited impact in reducing attack rates and should be offered at a low level (below 10%) to avoid excessive waste of drugs. Conclusions In contrast to previous work, for conservative treatment coverages, our results do not provide any convincing evidence for the implementation of targeted prophylaxis. The findings suggest that public health strategies in remote communities should focus on the wider availability (higher coverage) and timely distribution of antiviral drugs for treatment of clinically ill individuals. PMID:24586937

  9. Mechanisms of Antiviral Action of Plant Antimicrobials against Murine Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Gilling, Damian H.; Kitajima, Masaaki; Torrey, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous plant compounds have antibacterial or antiviral properties; however, limited research has been conducted with nonenveloped viruses. The efficacies of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral were evaluated against the nonenveloped murine norovirus (MNV), a human norovirus surrogate. The antiviral mechanisms of action were also examined using an RNase I protection assay, a host cell binding assay, and transmission electron microscopy. All three antimicrobials produced significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in viral infectivity within 6 h of exposure (0.90 log10 to 1.88 log10). After 24 h, the reductions were 2.74, 3.00, and 3.41 log10 for lemongrass oil, citral, and allspice oil, respectively. The antiviral effect of allspice oil was both time and concentration dependent; the effects of lemongrass oil and citral were time dependent. Based on the RNase I assay, allspice oil appeared to act directly upon the viral capsid and RNA. The capsids enlarged from ≤35 nm to up to 75 nm following treatment. MNV adsorption to host cells was not significantly affected. Alternatively, the capsid remained intact following exposure to lemongrass oil and citral, which appeared to coat the capsid, causing nonspecific and nonproductive binding to host cells that did not lead to successful infection. Such contrasting effects between allspice oil and both lemongrass oil and citral suggest that though different plant compounds may yield similar reductions in virus infectivity, the mechanisms of inactivation may be highly varied and specific to the antimicrobial. This study demonstrates the antiviral properties of allspice oil, lemongrass oil, and citral against MNV and thus indicates their potential as natural food and surface sanitizers to control noroviruses. PMID:24907316

  10. Antiviral and antimicrobial assessment of some selected flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, Berrin; Orhan, Ilkay; Toker, Gülnur

    2006-01-01

    In the current study, the results of antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activity tests of four flavonoid derivatives, scandenone (1), tiliroside (2), quercetin-3,7-O-alpha-L-dirhamnoside (3), and kaempferol-3,7-O-alpha-L-dirhamnoside (4), are presented. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of these compounds were tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Enterococcus faecalis, as well as the fungus Candida albicans by a micro-dilution method. On the other hand, both DNA virus Herpes simplex (HSV) and RNA virus Parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) were employed for antiviral assessment of the compounds using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines. According to our data, all of the compounds tested were found to be quite active against S. aureus and E. faecalis with MIC values of 0.5 microg/ml, followed by E. coli (2 microg/ml), K. pneumoniae (4 microg/ml), A. baumannii (8 micro/g/ml), and B. subtilis (8 microg/ml), while they inhibited C. albicans at 1 microg/ml as potent as ketoconazole. However, only compound 3 displayed an antiviral effect towards PI-3 in the range of 8-32 microg/ml of inhibitory concentration for cytopathogenic effect (CPE).

  11. Human enterovirus 71 protein interaction network prompts antiviral drug repositioning

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lu; Li, Kang; Jin, Chaozhi; Wang, Jian; Li, Qingjun; Zhang, Qiling; Cheng, Qiyue; Yang, Jing; Bo, Xiaochen; Wang, Shengqi

    2017-01-01

    As a predominant cause of human hand, foot, and mouth disease, enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection may lead to serious diseases and result in severe consequences that threaten public health and cause widespread panic. Although the systematic identification of physical interactions between viral proteins and host proteins provides initial information for the recognition of the cellular mechanism involved in viral infection and the development of new therapies, EV71-host protein interactions have not been explored. Here, we identified interactions between EV71 proteins and host cellular proteins and confirmed the functional relationships of EV71-interacting proteins (EIPs) with virus proliferation and infection by integrating a human protein interaction network and by functional annotation. We found that most EIPs had known interactions with other viruses. We also predicted ATP6V0C as a broad-spectrum essential host factor and validated its essentiality for EV71 infection in vitro. EIPs and their interacting proteins were more likely to be targets of anti-inflammatory and neurological drugs, indicating their potential to serve as host-oriented antiviral targets. Thus, we used a connectivity map to find drugs that inhibited EIP expression. We predicted tanespimycin as a candidate and demonstrated its antiviral efficiency in vitro. These findings provide the first systematic identification of EV71-host protein interactions, an analysis of EIP protein characteristics and a demonstration of their value in developing host-oriented antiviral therapies. PMID:28220872

  12. Improving nucleoside diphosphate kinase for antiviral nucleotide analogs activation.

    PubMed

    Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Schneider, Benoit; Chen, Yuxing; Giacomoni-Fernandes, Veronique; Mulard, Laurence; Morera, Solange; Janin, Joel; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Veron, Michel

    2002-10-18

    Antiviral nucleoside analog therapies rely on their incorporation by viral DNA polymerases/reverse transcriptase leading to chain termination. The analogs (3'-deoxy-3'-azidothymidine (AZT), 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (d4T), and other dideoxynucleosides) are sequentially converted into triphosphate by cellular kinases of the nucleoside salvage pathway and are often poor substrates of these enzymes. Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase phosphorylates the diphosphate derivatives of the analogs with an efficiency some 10(4) lower than for its natural substrates. Kinetic and structural studies of Dictyostelium and human NDP kinases show that the sugar 3'-OH, absent from all antiviral analogs, is required for catalysis. To improve the catalytic efficiency of NDP kinase on the analogs, we engineered several mutants with a protein OH group replacing the sugar 3'-OH. The substitution of Asn-115 in Ser and Leu-55 in His results in an NDP kinase mutant with an enhanced ability to phosphorylate antiviral derivatives. Transfection of the mutant enzyme in Escherichia coli results in an increased sensitivity to AZT. An x-ray structure at 2.15-A resolution of the Dictyostelium enzyme bearing the serine substitution in complex with the R(p)-alpha-borano-triphosphate derivative of AZT shows that the enhanced activity reflects an improved geometry of binding and a favorable interaction of the 3'-azido group with the engineered serine.

  13. Broad specificity of human phosphoglycerate kinase for antiviral nucleoside analogs.

    PubMed

    Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Faraj, Abdesslem; Seclaman, Edward; Sommadossi, Jean-Pierre; Deville-Bonne, Dominique; Véron, Michel

    2004-11-01

    Nucleoside analogs used in antiviral therapies need to be phosphorylated to their tri-phospho counterparts in order to be active on their cellular target. Human phosphoglycerate kinase (hPGK) was recently reported to participate in the last step of phosphorylation of cytidine L-nucleotide derivatives [Krishnan PGE, Lam W, Dutschman GE, Grill SP, Cheng YC. Novel role of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, a glycolytic enzyme, in the activation of L-nucleoside analogs, a new class of anticancer and antiviral agents. J Biol Chem 2003;278:36726-32]. In the present work, we extended the enzymatic study of human PGK specificity to purine and pyrimidine nucleotide derivatives in both D- and L-configuration. Human PGK demonstrated catalytic efficiencies in the 10(4)-10(5)M(-1)s(-1) range for purine ribo-, deoxyribo- and dideoxyribonucleotide derivatives, either in D- or L-configuration. In contrast, it was poorly active with natural pyrimidine D-nucleotides (less than 10(3)M(-1)s(-1)). Pyrimidine L-enantiomers, which are promising therapeutic analogs against B hepatitis, were 2-25 times better substrates than their D-counterparts. The broad specificity of substrate of human PGK suggests that this enzyme may be involved in the cellular activation of several antiviral nucleoside analogs including dideoxyinosine, acyclovir, L-2'-deoxycytosine and L-2'-deoxythymidine.

  14. Antiviral activity of lanatoside C against dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Yan Yi; Chen, Karen Caiyun; Chen, Huixin; Seng, Eng Khuan; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2014-11-01

    Dengue infection poses a serious threat globally due to its recent rapid spread and rise in incidence. Currently, there is no approved vaccine or effective antiviral drug for dengue virus infection. In response to the urgent need for the development of an effective antiviral for dengue virus, the US Drug Collection library was screened in this study to identify compounds with anti-dengue activities. Lanatoside C, an FDA approved cardiac glycoside was identified as a candidate anti-dengue compound. Our data revealed that lanatoside C has an IC50 of 0.19μM for dengue virus infection in HuH-7 cells. Dose-dependent reduction in dengue viral RNA and viral proteins synthesis were also observed upon treatment with increasing concentrations of lanatoside C. Time of addition study indicated that lanatoside C inhibits the early processes of the dengue virus replication cycle. Furthermore, lanatoside C can effectively inhibit all four serotypes of dengue virus, flavivirus Kunjin, alphavirus Chikungunya and Sindbis virus as well as the human enterovirus 71. These findings suggest that lanatoside C possesses broad spectrum antiviral activity against several groups of positive-sense RNA viruses.

  15. Design, synthesis and antiviral activity of novel quinazolinones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziwen; Wang, Mingxiao; Yao, Xue; Li, Yue; Tan, Juan; Wang, Lizhong; Qiao, Wentao; Geng, Yunqi; Liu, Yuxiu; Wang, Qingmin

    2012-07-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is a validated therapeutic target for antiviral drug design. However, the emergence of viral strains resistant to clinically studied IN inhibitors demands the discovery of novel inhibitors that are structurally as well as mechanistically different. Herein, a series of quinazolinones were designed and synthesized as novel HIV-1 inhibitors. The new synthetic route provides a practical method for the preparation of 5-hydroxy quinazolinones. Primary bioassay results indicated that most of the quinazolinones possess anti-HIV activity, especially for compound 11b with 77.5% inhibition rate at 10 μM emerged as a new active lead. Most of the synthesized compounds were also found to exhibit good anti-TMV activity, of which compo und 9a showed similar in vivo anti-TMV activity to commercial plant virucide Ribavirin. This work provides a new and efficient approach to evolve novel multi-functional antiviral agents by rational integration and optimization of previously reported antiviral agents.

  16. Insect antiviral innate immunity: pathways, effectors, and connections.

    PubMed

    Kingsolver, Megan B; Huang, Zhijing; Hardy, Richard W

    2013-12-13

    Insects are infected by a wide array of viruses some of which are insect restricted and pathogenic, and some of which are transmitted by biting insects to vertebrates. The medical and economic importance of these viruses heightens the need to understand the interaction between the infecting pathogen and the insect immune system in order to develop transmission interventions. The interaction of the virus with the insect host innate immune system plays a critical role in the outcome of infection. The major mechanism of antiviral defense is the small, interfering RNA pathway that responds through the detection of virus-derived double-stranded RNA to suppress virus replication. However, other innate antimicrobial pathways such as Imd, Toll, and Jak-STAT and the autophagy pathway have also been shown to play important roles in antiviral immunity. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the main insect antiviral pathways and examine recent findings that further our understanding of the roles of these pathways in facilitating a systemic and specific response to infecting viruses.

  17. Insect antiviral innate immunity: pathways, effectors, and connections

    PubMed Central

    Kingsolver, Megan B.; Huang, Zhijing; Hardy, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Insects are infected by a wide array of viruses some of which are insect-restricted and pathogenic, and some of which are transmitted by biting insects to vertebrates. The medical and economic importance of these viruses heightens the need to understand the interaction between the infecting pathogen and the insect immune system in order to develop transmission interventions. The interaction of the virus with the insect host innate immune system plays a critical role in the outcome of infection. The major mechanism of antiviral defense is the siRNA pathway that responds through the detection of virus-derived dsRNA to suppress virus replication. However, other innate antimicrobial pathways such as Imd, Toll, Jak-STAT, and the autophagy pathway have also been shown to play important roles in antiviral immunity. In this review we provide an overview of the current understanding of the main insect antiviral pathways and examine recent findings that further our understanding of the roles of these pathways in facilitating a systemic and specific response to infecting viruses. PMID:24120681

  18. Antiviral response dictated by choreographed cascade of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Zaslavsky, Elena; Hershberg, Uri; Seto, Jeremy; Pham, Alissa M.; Marquez, Susanna; Duke, Jamie L.; Wetmur, James G.; tenOever, Benjamin R.; Sealfon, Stuart C.; Kleinstein, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    The dendritic cell (DC) is a master regulator of immune responses. Pathogenic viruses subvert normal immune function in DCs through the expression of immune antagonists. Understanding how these antagonists interact with the host immune system requires knowledge of the underlying genetic regulatory network that operates during an uninhibited antiviral response. In order to isolate and identify this network, we studied DCs infected with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), which is able to stimulate innate immunity and DC maturation through activation of RIG-I signaling, but lacks the ability to evade the human interferon response. To analyze this experimental model, we developed a new approach integrating genome-wide expression kinetics and time-dependent promoter analysis. We found that the genetic program underlying the antiviral cell-state transition during the first 18-hours post-infection could be explained by a single convergent regulatory network. Gene expression changes were driven by a step-wise multi-factor cascading control mechanism, where the specific transcription factors controlling expression changed over time. Within this network, most individual genes are regulated by multiple factors, indicating robustness against virus-encoded immune evasion genes. In addition to effectively recapitulating current biological knowledge, we predicted, and validated experimentally, antiviral roles for several novel transcription factors. More generally, our results show how a genetic program can be temporally controlled through a single regulatory network to achieve the large-scale genetic reprogramming characteristic of cell state transitions. PMID:20164420

  19. Immunoenhancing properties and antiviral activity of 7-deazaguanosine in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Smee, D F; Alaghamandan, H A; Gilbert, J; Burger, R A; Jin, A; Sharma, B S; Ramasamy, K; Revankar, G R; Cottam, H B; Jolley, W B

    1991-01-01

    The nucleotide analog 7-deazaguanosine has not previously been reported to possess biological (antiviral or antitumor) properties in cell culture or in vivo. Up to 10(5) U of interferon per ml was detected in mouse sera 1 to 4 h following oral (200-mg/kg of body weight) and intraperitoneal (50-mg/kg) doses of the compound. 7-Deazaguanosine also caused significant activation of natural killer and phagocytic cells but did not augment T- and B-cell blastogenesis. Intraperitoneal treatments of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day administered 24 and 18 h before virus inoculation were highly protective in mice inoculated with lethal doses of Semliki Forest or San Angelo viruses. Less but still significant survivor increases were evident in treated mice infected with banzi or encephalomyocarditis viruses. In most cases, the degree of antiviral activity was similar to that exhibited by the biological response modifier 7-thia-8-oxoguanosine. 7-Thia-8-oxoguanosine was more potent than 7-deazaguanosine against encephalomyocarditis virus in mice, however. Oral efficacy was achieved with 7-deazaguanosine treatments of greater than or equal to 100 mg/kg against all virus infections, whereas 7-thia-8-oxoguanosine is reported to be devoid of oral activity in rodents. Thus, 7-deazaguanosine represents the first reported orally active nucleoside biological response modifier exhibiting broad-spectrum antiviral activity against particular types of RNA viruses. PMID:1707603

  20. Human enterovirus 71 protein interaction network prompts antiviral drug repositioning.

    PubMed

    Han, Lu; Li, Kang; Jin, Chaozhi; Wang, Jian; Li, Qingjun; Zhang, Qiling; Cheng, Qiyue; Yang, Jing; Bo, Xiaochen; Wang, Shengqi

    2017-02-21

    As a predominant cause of human hand, foot, and mouth disease, enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection may lead to serious diseases and result in severe consequences that threaten public health and cause widespread panic. Although the systematic identification of physical interactions between viral proteins and host proteins provides initial information for the recognition of the cellular mechanism involved in viral infection and the development of new therapies, EV71-host protein interactions have not been explored. Here, we identified interactions between EV71 proteins and host cellular proteins and confirmed the functional relationships of EV71-interacting proteins (EIPs) with virus proliferation and infection by integrating a human protein interaction network and by functional annotation. We found that most EIPs had known interactions with other viruses. We also predicted ATP6V0C as a broad-spectrum essential host factor and validated its essentiality for EV71 infection in vitro. EIPs and their interacting proteins were more likely to be targets of anti-inflammatory and neurological drugs, indicating their potential to serve as host-oriented antiviral targets. Thus, we used a connectivity map to find drugs that inhibited EIP expression. We predicted tanespimycin as a candidate and demonstrated its antiviral efficiency in vitro. These findings provide the first systematic identification of EV71-host protein interactions, an analysis of EIP protein characteristics and a demonstration of their value in developing host-oriented antiviral therapies.

  1. [Griseochelin methyl ester, a new polyether derivative with antiviral activity].

    PubMed

    Tonew, E; Tonew, M; Graefe, U; Zöpel, P

    1988-10-01

    The methylester of griseochelin (1) is a new chemically-made antiviral derivate of the antibiotic griseochelin isolated from fermentations of Streptomyces griseus. It belongs to the polyether group and possesses antiviral activity against enveloped RNA and DNA viruses cultivated in chicken embryo cells (CEC), namely influenzavirus A/WSN, vesicularstomatitis virus (Indiana), vaccinia virus (Lister) and herpes simplex hominis virus type 1 (Kupka). The methylester of griseochelin failed to show virucidal effects on extracellular influenza vacciniavirus particles or to influence virus adsorption and penetration processes. The antibiotic in concentrations of 125-15 micrograms/ml inhibited the virus-induced cytopathic effect of the above mentioned viruses and caused over 90 per cent plaque reduction. Addition of 1 during a one-step growth cycle of influenzavirus A at 4 and 6 h p.i. resulted in complete suppression of virus multiplication at the control niveau of the virus yield accumulated to the same time point. A partial reversibility of the antiviral action against influenzavirus A could be achieved. Coxsackie A9 virus growth in human fibroblast cells was not affected by the inhibitor. Electron-optical observations showed a failure of the formation of the viral capside proteins of HSV type 1 at the second halftime of the replication cycle in CEC-infected and 1-treated cultures.

  2. Antiviral and antiproliferative effects of canine interferon-λ1.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Tomonori; Asano, Atsushi; Usui, Tatsufumi; Takeuchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Yasuko; Yamano, Yoshiaki

    2013-11-15

    Interferon (IFN)-λs, members of the type III IFN group, were recently identified in several vertebrates. Although IFN-λs have the potential to be utilized as antiviral and antitumor agents in veterinary medicine, the biological properties of IFN-λs have not yet been studied in companion animals. In this study, we analyzed the expression of canine IFN-λs and their receptors, produced a recombinant canine IFN-λ1 protein, and investigated its antiviral and antiproliferative activities using a canine kidney epithelial cell line, MDCK cells. MDCK cells were found to express type III IFN molecules, IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ3, and the receptors, IFNλR1 and IL10R2. IFN-λ1 was induced faster than IFN-λ3 by stimulation with poly (I:C). His-tagged IFN-λ1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli inhibited cytolytic plaque formation by influenza A virus infection, and induced the expression of interferon-stimulated genes, Mx1 and OAS1, in MDCK cells. In addition, recombinant IFN-λ1 inhibited the proliferation of MDCK cells slightly. These effects were observed in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that canine IFN-λ1 has antiviral effect, and suggest the potential applicability of canine IFN-λ1 as a therapeutic agent.

  3. Favipiravir elicits antiviral mutagenesis during virus replication in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Armando; Thorne, Lucy; Goodfellow, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis has emerged as a novel potential therapeutic approach to treat viral infections. Several studies have demonstrated that increases in the high mutation rates inherent to RNA viruses lead to viral extinction in cell culture, but evidence during infections in vivo is limited. In this study, we show that the broad-range antiviral nucleoside favipiravir reduces viral load in vivo by exerting antiviral mutagenesis in a mouse model for norovirus infection. Increased mutation frequencies were observed in samples from treated mice and were accompanied with lower or in some cases undetectable levels of infectious virus in faeces and tissues. Viral RNA isolated from treated animals showed reduced infectivity, a feature of populations approaching extinction during antiviral mutagenesis. These results suggest that favipiravir can induce norovirus mutagenesis in vivo, which in some cases leads to virus extinction, providing a proof-of-principle for the use of favipiravir derivatives or mutagenic nucleosides in the clinical treatment of noroviruses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03679.001 PMID:25333492

  4. Arbidol as a broad-spectrum antiviral: an update.

    PubMed

    Blaising, Julie; Polyak, Stephen J; Pécheur, Eve-Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    Arbidol (ARB) is a Russian-made small indole-derivative molecule, licensed in Russia and China for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza and other respiratory viral infections. It also demonstrates inhibitory activity against other viruses, enveloped or not, responsible for emerging or globally prevalent infectious diseases such as hepatitis B and C, gastroenteritis, hemorrhagic fevers or encephalitis. In this review, we will explore the possibility and pertinence of ARB as a broad-spectrum antiviral, after a careful examination of its physico-chemical properties, pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and molecular mechanisms of action. Recent studies suggest that ARB's dual interactions with membranes and aromatic amino acids in proteins may be central to its broad-spectrum antiviral activity. This could impact on the virus itself, and/or on cellular functions or critical steps in virus-cell interactions, thereby positioning ARB as both a direct-acting antiviral (DAA) and a host-targeting agent (HTA). In the context of recent studies in animals and humans, we will discuss the prospective clinical use of ARB in various viral infections.

  5. Polar profile of antiviral peptides from AVPpred Database.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Carlos; Samaniego, José Lino; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Buhse, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Diseases of viral origin in humans are among the most serious threats to health and the global economy. As recent history has shown the virus has a high pandemic potential, among other reasons, due to its ability to spread by air, hence the identification, investigation, containment, and treatment of viral diseases should be considered of paramount importance. In this sense, the bioinformatics research has focused on finding fast and efficient algorithms that can identify highly toxic antiviral peptides and to serve as a first filter, so that trials in the laboratory are substantially reduced. The work presented here contributes to this effort through the use of an algorithm already published by this team, called polarity index method, which identifies with high efficiency antiviral peptides from the exhaustive analysis of the polar profile, using the linear sequence of the peptide. The test carried out included all peptides in APD2 Database and 60 antiviral peptides identified by Kumar and co-workers (Nucleic Acids Res 40:W199-204, 2012), to build its AVPpred algorithm. The validity of the method was focused on its discriminating capacity so we included the 15 sub-classifications of both Databases.

  6. Hepatitis C Virus and Natural Compounds: a New Antiviral Approach?

    PubMed Central

    Calland, Noémie; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves; Séron, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden with an estimated 160 million infected individuals worldwide. This long-term disease evolves slowly, often leading to chronicity and potentially to liver failure. There is no anti-HCV vaccine, and, until recently, the only treatment available, based on pegylated interferon and ribavirin, was partially effective, and had considerable side effects. With recent advances in the understanding of the HCV life cycle, the development of promising direct acting antivirals (DAAs) has been achieved. Their use in combination with the current treatment has led to encouraging results for HCV genotype 1 patients. However, this therapy is quite expensive and will probably not be accessible for all patients worldwide. For this reason, constant efforts are being made to identify new antiviral molecules. Recent reports about natural compounds highlight their antiviral activity against HCV. Here, we aim to review the natural molecules that interfere with the HCV life cycle and discuss their potential use in HCV therapy. PMID:23202460

  7. IFN-λ determines the intestinal epithelial antiviral host defense

    PubMed Central

    Pott, Johanna; Mahlakõiv, Tanel; Mordstein, Markus; Duerr, Claudia U.; Michiels, Thomas; Stockinger, Silvia; Staeheli, Peter; Hornef, Mathias W.

    2011-01-01

    Type I and type III IFNs bind to different cell-surface receptors but induce identical signal transduction pathways, leading to the expression of antiviral host effector molecules. Despite the fact that type III IFN (IFN-λ) has been shown to predominantly act on mucosal organs, in vivo infection studies have failed to attribute a specific, nonredundant function. Instead, a predominant role of type I IFN was observed, which was explained by the ubiquitous expression of the type I IFN receptor. Here we comparatively analyzed the role of functional IFN-λ and type I IFN receptor signaling in the innate immune response to intestinal rotavirus infection in vivo, and determined viral replication and antiviral gene expression on the cellular level. We observed that both suckling and adult mice lacking functional receptors for IFN-λ were impaired in the control of oral rotavirus infection, whereas animals lacking functional receptors for type I IFN were similar to wild-type mice. Using Mx1 protein accumulation as marker for IFN responsiveness of individual cells, we demonstrate that intestinal epithelial cells, which are the prime target cells of rotavirus, strongly responded to IFN-λ but only marginally to type I IFN in vivo. Systemic treatment of suckling mice with IFN-λ repressed rotavirus replication in the gut, whereas treatment with type I IFN was not effective. These results are unique in identifying a critical role of IFN-λ in the epithelial antiviral host defense. PMID:21518880

  8. Antiviral agents and HIV prevention: controversies, conflicts, and consensus

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Myron S.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Smith, M. Kumi; Powers, Kimberly A.; Kashuba, Angela D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Antiviral agents can be used to prevent HIV transmission before exposure as preexpo-sure prophylaxis (PrEP), after exposure as postexposure prophylaxis, and as treatment of infected people for secondary prevention. Considerable research has shed new light on antiviral agents for PrEP and for prevention of secondary HIV transmission. While promising results have emerged from several PrEP trials, the challenges of poor adherence among HIV-negative clients and possible increase in sexual risk behaviors remain a concern. In addition, a broader pipeline of antiviral agents for PrEP that focuses on genital tract pharmacology and safety and resistance issues must be developed. Antiretroviral drugs have also been used to prevent HIV transmission from HIV-infected patients to their HIV-discordant sexual partners. The HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 trial demonstrated nearly complete prevention of HIV transmission by early treatment of infection, but the generalizability of the results to other risk groups – including intravenous drug users and MSM – has not been determined. Most importantly, the best strategy for use of antiretroviral agents to reduce the spread of HIV at either the individual level or the population level has not been developed, and remains the ultimate goal of this area of investigation. PMID:22507927

  9. Discovery of a Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Compound That Inhibits Pyrimidine Biosynthesis and Establishes a Type 1 Interferon-Independent Antiviral State

    PubMed Central

    Adcock, Robert S.; Schroeder, Chad E.; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Sotsky, Julie B.; Cramer, Daniel E.; Chilton, Paula M.; Song, Chisu; Anantpadma, Manu; Davey, Robert A.; Prodhan, Aminul I.; Yin, Xinmin; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Viral emergence and reemergence underscore the importance of developing efficacious, broad-spectrum antivirals. Here, we report the discovery of tetrahydrobenzothiazole-based compound 1, a novel, broad-spectrum antiviral lead that was optimized from a hit compound derived from a cytopathic effect (CPE)-based antiviral screen using Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Compound 1 showed antiviral activity against a broad range of RNA viruses, including alphaviruses, flaviviruses, influenza virus, and ebolavirus. Mechanism-of-action studies with metabolomics and molecular approaches revealed that the compound inhibits host pyrimidine synthesis and establishes an antiviral state by inducing a variety of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Notably, the induction of the ISGs by compound 1 was independent of the production of type 1 interferons. The antiviral activity of compound 1 was cell type dependent with a robust effect observed in human cell lines and no observed antiviral effect in mouse cell lines. Herein, we disclose tetrahydrobenzothiazole compound 1 as a novel lead for the development of a broad-spectrum, antiviral therapeutic and as a molecular probe to study the mechanism of the induction of ISGs that are independent of type 1 interferons. PMID:27185801

  10. Discovery of a Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Compound That Inhibits Pyrimidine Biosynthesis and Establishes a Type 1 Interferon-Independent Antiviral State.

    PubMed

    Chung, Dong-Hoon; Golden, Jennifer E; Adcock, Robert S; Schroeder, Chad E; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Sotsky, Julie B; Cramer, Daniel E; Chilton, Paula M; Song, Chisu; Anantpadma, Manu; Davey, Robert A; Prodhan, Aminul I; Yin, Xinmin; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Viral emergence and reemergence underscore the importance of developing efficacious, broad-spectrum antivirals. Here, we report the discovery of tetrahydrobenzothiazole-based compound 1, a novel, broad-spectrum antiviral lead that was optimized from a hit compound derived from a cytopathic effect (CPE)-based antiviral screen using Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Compound 1 showed antiviral activity against a broad range of RNA viruses, including alphaviruses, flaviviruses, influenza virus, and ebolavirus. Mechanism-of-action studies with metabolomics and molecular approaches revealed that the compound inhibits host pyrimidine synthesis and establishes an antiviral state by inducing a variety of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Notably, the induction of the ISGs by compound 1 was independent of the production of type 1 interferons. The antiviral activity of compound 1 was cell type dependent with a robust effect observed in human cell lines and no observed antiviral effect in mouse cell lines. Herein, we disclose tetrahydrobenzothiazole compound 1 as a novel lead for the development of a broad-spectrum, antiviral therapeutic and as a molecular probe to study the mechanism of the induction of ISGs that are independent of type 1 interferons.

  11. Structure and Function of the Non-Structural Protein of Dengue Virus and its Applications in Antiviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qian; Zhang, Bao; Yu, JianHai; Wu, Qinghua; Yang, Fangji; Cao, Hong; Zhao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Dengue fever, a type of global and tropical infectious disease, and its prevention has become a challenging issue worldwide. Antibody-dependent enhancement effects and the virus pathogenic mechanism have not yet been fully elucidated, hindering the development of dengue fever prevention and suitable drug treatment. There is currently no specific prevention and therapy in clinical trials, however, in recent years, studies have focused on the pathogenesis and treatment of dengue. Research focusing on dengue virus nonstructural protein in special drugs for the prevention and control of dengue fever is a new progress leading to improved understanding regarding the prevention and control of dengue fever and suitable drugs for the treatment. The main challenges regarding the structure of dengue virus nonstructural protein and the drugs for antiviral therapy are summarized in this paper.

  12. Monoclonal antibody-based candidate therapeutics against HIV type 1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weizao; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2012-05-01

    Treatment of HIV-1 infection has been highly successful with small molecule drugs. However, resistance still develops. In addition, long-term use can lead to toxicity with unpredictable effects on health. Finally, current drugs do not lead to HIV-1 eradication. The presence of the virus leads to chronic inflammation, which can result in increased morbidity and mortality after prolonged periods of infection. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been highly successful during the past two decades for therapy of many diseases, primarily cancers and immune disorders. They are relatively safe, especially human mAbs that have evolved in humans at high concentrations to fight diseases and long-term use may not lead to toxicities. Several broadly neutralizing mAbs (bnmAbs) against HIV-1 can protect animals but are not effective when used for therapy of an established infection. We have hypothesized that HIV-1 has evolved strategies to effectively escape neutralization by full-size antibodies in natural infections but not by smaller antibody fragments. Therefore, a promising direction of research is to discover and exploit antibody fragments as potential candidate therapeutics against HIV-1. Here we review several bnmAbs and engineered antibody domains (eAds), their in vitro and in vivo antiviral efficacy, mechanisms used by HIV-1 to escape them, and strategies that could be effective to develop more powerful mAb-based HIV-1 therapeutics.

  13. Monoclonal Antibody-Based Candidate Therapeutics Against HIV Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Treatment of HIV-1 infection has been highly successful with small molecule drugs. However, resistance still develops. In addition, long-term use can lead to toxicity with unpredictable effects on health. Finally, current drugs do not lead to HIV-1 eradication. The presence of the virus leads to chronic inflammation, which can result in increased morbidity and mortality after prolonged periods of infection. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been highly successful during the past two decades for therapy of many diseases, primarily cancers and immune disorders. They are relatively safe, especially human mAbs that have evolved in humans at high concentrations to fight diseases and long-term use may not lead to toxicities. Several broadly neutralizing mAbs (bnmAbs) against HIV-1 can protect animals but are not effective when used for therapy of an established infection. We have hypothesized that HIV-1 has evolved strategies to effectively escape neutralization by full-size antibodies in natural infections but not by smaller antibody fragments. Therefore, a promising direction of research is to discover and exploit antibody fragments as potential candidate therapeutics against HIV-1. Here we review several bnmAbs and engineered antibody domains (eAds), their in vitro and in vivo antiviral efficacy, mechanisms used by HIV-1 to escape them, and strategies that could be effective to develop more powerful mAb-based HIV-1 therapeutics. PMID:21827278

  14. Antibody-antigen kinetics constrain intracellular humoral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bottermann, Maria; Lode, Heidrun Elisabeth; Watkinson, Ruth E.; Foss, Stian; Sandlie, Inger; Andersen, Jan Terje; James, Leo C.

    2016-01-01

    During infection with non-enveloped viruses, antibodies stimulate immunity from inside cells by activating the cytosolic Fc receptor TRIM21. This intracellular humoral response relies on opsonized viral particles reaching the cytosol intact but the antigenic and kinetic constraints involved are unknown. We have solved the structure of a potent TRIM21-dependent neutralizing antibody in complex with human adenovirus 5 hexon and show how these properties influence immune activity. Structure-guided mutagenesis was used to generate antibodies with 20,000-fold variation in affinity, on-rates that differ by ~50-fold and off-rates by >175-fold. Characterization of these variants during infection revealed that TRIM21-dependent neutralization and NFκB activation was largely unaffected by on-rate kinetics. In contrast, TRIM21 antiviral activity was exquisitely dependent upon off-rate, with sub-μM affinity antibodies nevertheless unable to stimulate signaling because of fast dissociation kinetics. These results define the antibody properties required to elicit an efficient intracellular immune response during viral infection. PMID:27881870

  15. Conjugation of a nonspecific antiviral sapogenin with a specific HIV fusion inhibitor: a promising strategy for discovering new antiviral therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Lu, Lu; Na, Heya; Li, Xiangpeng; Wang, Qian; Jiang, Xifeng; Xu, Xiaoyu; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Tianhong; Li, Jinglai; Zhang, Zhenqing; Zheng, Baohua; Liang, Guodong; Cai, Lifeng; Jiang, Shibo; Liu, Keliang

    2014-09-11

    Triterpene saponins are a major group of active components in natural products with nonspecific antiviral activities, while T20 peptide (enfuvirtide), which contains a helix zone-binding domain (HBD), is a gp41-specific HIV-1 fusion inhibitor. In this paper, we report the design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a group of hybrid molecules in which bioactive triterpene sapogenins were covalently attached to the HBD-containing peptides via click chemistry. We found that either the triterpenes or peptide part alone showed weak activity against HIV-1 Env-mediated cell-cell fusion, while the hybrids generated a strong cooperative effect. Among them, P26-BApc exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity against both T20-sensitive and -resistant HIV-1 strains and improved pharmacokinetic properties. These results suggest that this scaffold design is a promising strategy for developing new HIV-1 fusion inhibitors and possibly novel antiviral therapeutics against other viruses with class I fusion proteins.

  16. Effectiveness of direct-acting antivirals in Hepatitis C virus infection in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Abad, Soraya; Vega, Almudena; Rincón, Diego; Hernández, Eduardo; Mérida, Evangelina; Macías, Nicolás; Muñoz, Raquel; Milla, Mónica; Luño, Jose; López-Gómez, Juan Manuel

    2016-11-30

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among patients on haemodialysis and leads to a poorer prognosis compared to patients who do not have said infection. Treatment with interferon and ribavirin is poorly tolerated and there are limited data on the experience with new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyse the current prevalence of HCV infection and efficacy and safety results with different DAA regimens in the haemodialysis population of 2hospital areas. This is a multicentre, retrospective and observational study in which HCV antibodies were analysed in 465 patients, with positive antibody findings in 54 of them (11.6%). Among these, 29 cases (53.7%) with genotypes 1 and 4 were treated with different DAA regimens, including combinations of paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir, dasabuvir, sofosbuvir, simeprevir, daclatasvir and ledipasvir, with/without ribavirin. Mean age was 53.3±7.9 years, 72.4% of patients were male and the most important aetiology of chronic kidney disease involved glomerular abnormalities. In 100% of cases, a sustained viral response was achieved after 24 weeks, regardless of DAA regimen received. Adverse effects were not relevant and no case required stopping treatment. In 15 cases, ribavirin was combined with the DAA. In these cases, the most significant adverse effect was anaemic tendency, which was reflected in the increase of the dose of erythropoietin stimulating agents, although none required transfusions. In summary, we conclude that new DAAs for the treatment of HCV in haemodialysis patients are highly effective with minimal adverse effects; it is a very important advance in HCV management. These patients are therefore expected to have a much better prognosis than they have had until very recently.

  17. The Synthetic Antiviral Drug Arbidol Inhibits Globally Prevalent Pathogenic Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Pécheur, Eve-Isabelle; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Halfmann, Peter; Morrey, John D.; Smee, Donald F.; Prichard, Mark; Mire, Chad E.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Geisbert, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arbidol (ARB) is a synthetic antiviral originally developed to combat influenza viruses. ARB is currently used clinically in several countries but not in North America. We have previously shown that ARB inhibits in vitro hepatitis C virus (HCV) by blocking HCV entry and replication. In this report, we expand the list of viruses that are inhibited by ARB and demonstrate that ARB suppresses in vitro infection of mammalian cells with Ebola virus (EBOV), Tacaribe arenavirus, and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). We also confirm suppression of hepatitis B virus and poliovirus by ARB. ARB inhibited EBOV Zaire Kikwit infection when added before or at the same time as virus infection and was less effective when added 24 h after EBOV infection. Experiments with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing the EBOV Zaire glycoprotein showed that infection was inhibited by ARB at early stages, most likely at the level of viral entry into host cells. ARB inhibited HHV-8 replication to a similar degree as cidofovir. Our data broaden the spectrum of antiviral efficacy of ARB to include globally prevalent viruses that cause significant morbidity and mortality. IMPORTANCE There are many globally prevalent viruses for which there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral medicines. Some of these viruses, such as Ebola virus or members of the arenavirus family, rapidly cause severe hemorrhagic diseases that can be fatal. Other viruses, such as hepatitis B virus or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), establish persistent infections that cause chronic illnesses, including cancer. Thus, finding an affordable, effective, and safe drug that blocks many viruses remains an unmet medical need. The antiviral drug arbidol (ARB), already in clinical use in several countries as an anti-influenza treatment, has been previously shown to suppress the growth of many viruses. In this report, we expand the list of viruses that are blocked by ARB in a laboratory setting to include Ebola virus

  18. Ontogeny of anti-viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) immunity in developing Japanese flounder.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Tomomasa; Nakayasu, Chihaya; Fujiwara, Atsushi; Kurita, Jun; Takano, Tomokazu; Ito, Takafumi; Sano, Motohiko

    2012-07-01

    We examined the ability of developing Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) to acquire protective immunity after exposure to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Juveniles measuring 9.8 cm average body length were not susceptible to infection with VHSV at 20 °C, while the smaller fish were susceptible. Mortality was not observed after secondary infection at 15 °C in the 9.8 cm cohort that had previously been exposed to the virus at 20 °C, while the smaller fish were susceptible to secondary infection. The expression of interferon (IFN)-related genes was shown to be better developed in larger fish upon virus infection and basal expression levels of the virus recognition proteins were higher in larger fish. Virus-specific antibody was detected in the larger fish, but not in smaller fish. These data indicate that the largest juvenile (9.8 cm) acquired immunity against VHSV infection at the first virus challenge, but smaller fish did not. The anti-viral immune system in the Japanese flounder matures when juveniles reach approximately 10 cm.

  19. Structural basis of influenza virus fusion inhibition by the antiviral drug Arbidol

    SciTech Connect

    Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2016-12-21

    The broad-spectrum antiviral drug Arbidol shows efficacy against influenza viruses by targeting the hemagglutinin (HA) fusion machinery. However, the structural basis of the mechanism underlying fusion inhibition by Arbidol has remained obscure, thereby hindering its further development as a specific and optimized influenza therapeutic. We determined crystal structures of Arbidol in complex with influenza virus HA from pandemic 1968 H3N2 and recent 2013 H7N9 viruses. Arbidol binds in a hydrophobic cavity in the HA trimer stem at the interface between two protomers. This cavity is distal to the conserved epitope targeted by broadly neutralizing stem antibodies and is ~16 Å from the fusion peptide. Arbidol primarily makes hydrophobic interactions with the binding site but also induces some conformational rearrangements to form a network of inter- and intraprotomer salt bridges. By functioning as molecular glue, Arbidol stabilizes the prefusion conformation of HA that inhibits the large conformational rearrangements associated with membrane fusion in the low pH of the endosome. This unique binding mode compared with the small-molecule inhibitors of other class I fusion proteins enhances our understanding of how small molecules can function as fusion inhibitors and guides the development of broad-spectrum therapeutics against influenza virus.

  20. Vaccine and antiviral strategies against infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Wainberg, M A; Kendall, O; Gilmore, N

    1988-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been clearly associated with a variety of new illnesses, including profound immunodeficiency (acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS]), wasting syndromes (formerly termed AIDS-related complex [ARC]) and neurologic syndromes, including neuropathy, myelopathy and encephalopathy (often termed subacute encephalitis or AIDS dementia complex). HIV-1 preferentially infects T lymphocytes by binding to a membrane receptor protein, CD4, associated with helper function. The virus can also attack macrophages and, possibly, other cells such as neuronal cells, colonic epithelial cells and B lymphocytes. Infection of macrophages or monocytes may be involved in neurologic disease. Knowledge about HIV-1 has rapidly increased, and investigators have characterized its structure, ways in which it infects cells, replicates and is cytopathic for certain cells, and how the immune system responds to it. The ideal vaccine would prevent adsorption of the virus into the cell, but it is difficult to develop stable resistance because the virus has many antigenic patterns and mutates frequently. The results of vaccine trials in animals have not been promising, but work is being done with monoclonal antibodies. Antiviral therapies being investigated include those to prevent virus binding and entry, to inhibit reverse transcription, to inhibit the virus's life cycle and to restore immune competence in immunocompromised patients. PMID:3282628

  1. Antiviral activity of tenofovir against Cauliflower mosaic virus and its metabolism in Brassica pekinensis plants.

    PubMed

    Spak, Josef; Votruba, Ivan; Pavingerová, Daniela; Holý, Antonín; Spaková, Vlastimila; Petrzik, Karel

    2011-11-01

    The antiviral effect of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate tenofovir (R)-PMPA on double-stranded DNA Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) in Brassica pekinensis plants grown in vitro on liquid medium was evaluated. Double antibody sandwich ELISA and PCR were used for relative quantification of viral protein and detecting nucleic acid in plants. (R)-PMPA at concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/l significantly reduced CaMV titers in plants within 6-9 weeks to levels detectable neither by ELISA nor by PCR. Virus-free plants were obtained after 3-month cultivation of meristem tips on semisolid medium containing 50 mg/l (R)-PMPA and their regeneration to whole plants in the greenhouse. Studying the metabolism of (R)-PMPA in B. pekinensis revealed that mono- and diphosphate, structural analogs of NDP and/or NTP, are the only metabolites formed. The data indicate very low substrate activity of the enzymes toward (R)-PMPA as substrate. The extent of phosphorylation in the plant's leaves represents only 4.5% of applied labeled (R)-PMPA. In roots, we detected no radioactive peaks of phosphorylated metabolites of (R)-PMPAp or (R)-PMPApp.

  2. The antiviral protein cyanovirin-N: the current state of its production and applications.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Sheng; Fan, Jun; Kitazato, Kaio

    2010-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS continues to spread worldwide, and most of the HIV-infected people living in developing countries have little or no access to highly active antiretroviral therapy. The development of efficient and low-cost microbicides to prevent sexual transmission of HIV should be given high priority because there is no vaccine available yet. Cyanovirin-N (CVN) is an entry inhibitor of HIV and many other viruses, and it represents a new generation of microbicide that has specific and potent activity, a different mechanism of action, and unusual chemicophysical stability. In vitro and in vivo antiviral tests suggested that the anti-HIV effect of CVN is stronger than a well-known gp120-targeted antibody (2G12) and another microbicide candidate, PRO2000. CVN is a cyanobacteria-derived protein that has special structural features, making the artificial production of this protein very difficult. In order to develop an efficient and relatively low-cost approach for large-scale production of recombinant CVN to satisfy medical use, this protein has been expressed in many systems by trial and error. Here, to summarize the potential and remaining challenges for the development of this protein into an HIV prevention agent, the progress in the structural mechanism determination, heterologous production and pharmacological evaluation of CVN is reviewed.

  3. Associations between polymorphisms in the antiviral TRIM genes and measles vaccine immunity.

    PubMed

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Haralambieva, Iana H; Vierkant, Robert A; O'Byrne, Megan M; Poland, Gregory A

    2013-06-01

    The role of polymorphisms within the antiviral tripartite motif (TRIM) genes in measles vaccine adaptive immune responses was examined. A limited association was found between TRIM5 (rs7122620) and TRIM25 (rs205499) gene polymorphisms and measles-specific antibody levels. However, many associations were found between TRIM gene SNPs and variations in cellular responses (IFN-γ Elispot and secreted cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α). TRIM22 rs2291841 was significantly associated with an increased IFN-γ Elispot response (35 vs. 102 SFC per 2×10(5)PBMC, p=0.009, q=0.71) in Caucasians. A non-synonymous TRIM25 rs205498 (in LD with other SNPs, r(2)≥0.56), as well as the TRIM25 AAAGGAAAGGAGT haplotype, was associated with a decreased IFN-γ Elispot response (t-statistic -2.32, p=0.02) in African-Americans. We also identified polymorphisms in the TRIM5, TRIM22, and TRIM25 genes that were associated with significant differences in cytokine responses. Additional studies are necessary to replicate our findings and to examine the functional consequences of these associations.

  4. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum glucosidases is required for in vitro and in vivo dengue antiviral activity by the iminosugar UV-4.

    PubMed

    Warfield, Kelly L; Plummer, Emily M; Sayce, Andrew C; Alonzi, Dominic S; Tang, William; Tyrrell, Beatrice E; Hill, Michelle L; Caputo, Alessandro T; Killingbeck, Sarah S; Beatty, P Robert; Harris, Eva; Iwaki, Ren; Kinami, Kyoko; Ide, Daisuke; Kiappes, J L; Kato, Atsushi; Buck, Michael D; King, Kevin; Eddy, William; Khaliq, Mansoora; Sampath, Aruna; Treston, Anthony M; Dwek, Raymond A; Enterlein, Sven G; Miller, Joanna L; Zitzmann, Nicole; Ramstedt, Urban; Shresta, Sujan

    2016-05-01

    The antiviral activity of UV-4 was previously demonstrated against dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) in multiple mouse models. Herein, step-wise minimal effective dose and therapeutic window of efficacy studies of UV-4B (UV-4 hydrochloride salt) were conducted in an antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) mouse model of severe DENV2 infection in AG129 mice lacking types I and II interferon receptors. Significant survival benefit was demonstrated with 10-20 mg/kg of UV-4B administered thrice daily (TID) for seven days with initiation of treatment up to 48 h after infection. UV-4B also reduced infectious virus production in in vitro antiviral activity assays against all four DENV serotypes, including clinical isolates. A set of purified enzyme, in vitro, and in vivo studies demonstrated that inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) α-glucosidases and not the glycosphingolipid pathway appears to be responsible for the antiviral activity of UV-4B against DENV. Along with a comprehensive safety package, these and previously published data provided support for an Investigational New Drug (IND) filing and Phases 1 and 2 clinical trials for UV-4B with an indication of acute dengue disease.

  5. Antibody Therapeutics in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Wold, Erik D; Smider, Vaughn V; Felding, Brunhilde H

    2016-01-01

    One of the newer classes of targeted cancer therapeutics is monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibody therapeutics are a successful and rapidly expanding drug class due to their high specificity, activity, favourable pharmacokinetics, and standardized manufacturing processes. Antibodies are capable of recruiting the immune system to attack cancer cells through complement-dependent cytotoxicity or antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In an ideal scenario the initial tumor cell destruction induced by administration of a therapeutic antibody can result in uptake of tumor associated antigens by antigen-presenting cells, establishing a prolonged memory effect. Mechanisms of direct tumor cell killing by antibodies include antibody recognition of cell surface bound enzymes to neutralize enzyme activity and signaling, or induction of receptor agonist or antagonist activity. Both approaches result in cellular apoptosis. In another and very direct approach, antibodies are used to deliver drugs to target cells and cause cell death. Such antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) direct cytotoxic compounds to tumor cells, after selective binding to cell surface antigens, internalization, and intracellular drug release. Efficacy and safety of ADCs for cancer therapy has recently been greatly advanced based on innovative approaches for site-specific drug conjugation to the antibody structure. This technology enabled rational optimization of function and pharmacokinetics of the resulting conjugates, and is now beginning to yield therapeutics with defined, uniform molecular characteristics, and unprecedented promise to advance cancer treatment. PMID:27081677

  6. Longitudinal survey of T-lymphocytes and viral antibodies in MS patients.

    PubMed

    Caputo, D; Ferrante, P; Zaffaroni, M; Ghezzi, A; Cazzullo, C L

    1987-06-01

    Our study focused on the relationship between lymphocyte H/S ratios and antiviral antibodies. We have concluded a longitudinal survey of 29 clinically definite MS patients for 8 months seeking a possible correlation among clinical modifications, fluctuations of T-cell subsets and antiviral antibody titers. For this purpose in each patient the following parameters were recorded monthly:--clinical history and neurological examination;--blood T-cell subpopulation as defined by monoclonal antibodies of the OKT series;--serum antibody titers against measles, herpes simplex type 1 and 2, HTLV-1 viruses. All these data were compared with the different MS subgroups as defined by clinical course: stable, relapsing, progressive. We found that constantly normal OKT4+/OKT8+ ratios correlate with a stable clinical course; that highly fluctuating ratios parallel clinical exacerbation; that constantly high ratios are associated with a chronic-progressive course. These results are discussed with special reference to the correlation between OKT8+ lymphocyte percentages and anti-HTLV-1 antibodies, since this last virus has recently been claimed to be of pathogenetic importance in MS.

  7. Antibodies in Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs from one individual to another can incite the production of antibodies specific for foreign antigens, especially major histocompatibility antigens, in the graft. Antibodies specific for a graft provide an index of immunity and a potential trigger for injury and rejection. However, the index of immunity can sometimes miss antibody-mediated rejection and besides causing injury the antibodies against a graft can also protect a graft from injury by blocking immune recognition, called enhancement, regulating activation of complement, and inducing changes in the graft that resist damage. Reviewed here are potential limitations in the use of antibodies as an index of immunity and the ways antibodies cause and/or prevent injury. PMID:20807473

  8. Cell-based antiviral screening against coronaviruses: Developing virus-specific and broad-spectrum inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kilianski, Andy; Baker, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    To combat the public health threat from emerging coronaviruses (CoV), the development of antiviral therapies with either virus-specific or pan-CoV activities is necessary. An important step in antiviral drug development is the screening of potential inhibitors in cell-based systems. The recent emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV necessitates adapting methods that have been used to identify antivirals against the severe, acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and developing new approaches to more efficiently screen antiviral drugs. In this article we review cell-based assays using infectious virus (BSL-3) and surrogate assays (BSL-2) that can be implemented to accelerate antiviral development against MERS-CoV and future emergent coronaviruses. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on “From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.” PMID:24269477

  9. Antibodies Targeting EMT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0381 TITLE: Antibodies Targeting EMT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Vaughn Smider CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Scripps...REPORT DATE October 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Antibodies Targeting EMT 5a. CONTRACT ...ABSTRACT Monoclonal antibodies are drugs that can specifically bind targets present on tumor cells. The highly aggressive triple-negative subtype of

  10. Immune inhibition of virus release from human and nonhuman cells by antibody to viral and host cell determinants.

    PubMed

    Shariff, D M; Davies, J; Desperbasques, M; Billstrom, M; Geerligs, H J; Welling, G W; Welling-Wester, S; Buchan, A; Skinner, G R

    1991-01-01

    Immune inhibition of release of the DNA viruses, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and pseudorabies virus by anti-viral and anti-host cell sera occurred while two RNA viruses, influenza and encephalomyocarditis, were inhibited only by anti-viral sera (not anti-host cell sera). Simian virus 40 and surprisingly two herpes viruses, bovine mamillitis and equine abortion, were not inhibited by either anti-viral or anti-host sera. Using the herpes simplex virus model, inhibition of virus release was detected in different cells of human and nonhuman origin with cross-inhibition between cell lines of different origin; thus, this form of immunotherapy may not require antibody to be tissue or organ specific. Evidence of inhibition of virus release from neoplastic and leukemic cell lines suggests possible application of this approach to control of virus-mediated leukoproliferative pathology (e.g. Burkitt's lymphoma or adult T cell leukemia).

  11. Novel cycloalkylthiophene-imine derivatives bearing benzothiazole scaffold: synthesis, characterization and antiviral activity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ke, Shaoyong; Wei, Yanhong; Yang, Ziwen; Wang, Kaimei; Liang, Ying; Shi, Liqiao

    2013-09-15

    A series of novel cycloalkylthiophene-imine derivatives containing benzothiazole unit were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-viral activities. The bio-evaluation results indicated that some of the target compounds (such as 5g, 5i, 5u) exhibited good to moderate antiviral effect on CVB5, ADV7 and EV71 viruses, however, these compounds did not have inhibition activity against H1N1 virus. Especially, the compounds 4c and 4d also exhibited high antiviral activities, which provide a new and efficient approach to evolve novel multi-functional antiviral agents by rational integration of active pharmacophores.

  12. Impact of Helicobacter pylori eradication on refractory thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic HCV awaiting antiviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Hanafy, A S; El Hawary, A T; Hamed, E F; Hassaneen, A M

    2016-07-01

    The possibility of delaying treatment of HCV due to severe thrombocytopenia is challenging. This study aimed to detect the prevalence of active helicobacter infection as a claimed cause of thrombocytopenia in a cohort of Egyptian patients with chronic active HCV awaiting combined anti-viral therapy. The study included 400 chronic HCV patients with thrombocytopenia. Laboratory investigations included liver function tests, real time quantitative PCR, reticulocytic count, ESR, ANA, bone marrow aspiration, measurement of anti-helicobacter antibodies, and helicobacter stool antigen. Positive cases for active H. pylori were given the standard triple therapy for 2 weeks. Helicobacter stool antigen was detected 4 weeks after termination of therapy and the change in platelet count was detected 1 month after eradication. A total of 248 out of 281 seropositive patients for H. pylori (88.3 %) showed positive stool antigen (p = 0.01). Eradication was achieved in 169 (68.1 %) patients with platelet mean count 114.9 ± 18.8 × 10(3)/μl with highly significant statistical difference from pretreatment value (49.7 ± 9.2 × 10(3)/μl, p = 0.000). Seventy-nine patients were resistant to conventional triple therapy and given a 7-day course of moxifloxacin-based therapy; 61 patients responded (77.1 %) with mean platelet improvement from 76.4 ± 17.4 × 10(3)/μl to 104.2 ± 15.2 × 10(3)/μl (p = 0.000). The non-responders showed no improvement in their platelet count (74.6 ± 20.5 vs. 73.6 ± 15.3 × 10(3)/ul, P = 0.5). Eradication of active H. pylori in HCV augments platelet count and enhances the early start of antiviral therapy.

  13. Synthesis and antiviral activity of azoles obtained from carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Barradas, José Sebastián; Errea, María Inés; D'Accorso, Norma B; Sepúlveda, Claudia S; Talarico, Laura B; Damonte, Elsa B

    2008-09-22

    Herein we describe the synthesis of 1,2,4-triazolyl-3-thione;1,3,4-oxadiazole, and imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole derivatives from carbohydrates. The antiviral activity of these compounds was tested against Dengue and Junin virus (the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever). The 3-(p-bromobenzoyl)-5-(1,2-O-isopropylidene-3-O-methyl-alpha-d-xylofuranos-5-ulos-5-yl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole was able to inhibit the replication of both viruses in Vero cells at concentration significantly lower than the CC(50).

  14. Henipavirus outbreaks to antivirals: the current status of potential therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Broder, Christopher C

    2012-04-01

    The henipaviruses, Hendra virus and Nipah virus, are classic examples of recently emerged viral zoonoses. In a relatively short time since their discoveries in the mid and late 1990s, respectively, a great deal of new information has been accumulated detailing their biology and certain unique characteristics. Their broad species tropism and abilities to cause severe and often fatal respiratory and/or neurologic disease in both animals and humans has sparked considerable interest in developing effective antiviral strategies to prevent or treat henipavirus infection and disease. Here, recent findings on the few most advanced henipavirus countermeasures are summarized and discussed.

  15. In Vitro Efficacy of Antiviral Compounds against Enterovirus D68

    PubMed Central

    Rhoden, Eric; Zhang, Mingyu; Nix, W. Allan

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the United States experienced a large outbreak of severe respiratory illness associated with enterovirus D68 (EV-D68). We used a homogeneous, cell-based assay to assess the antiviral activity of compounds developed for EV/rhinovirus infection or other indications. Three of 15 compounds were highly active against all four strains tested (the prototype and three 2014 strains), with 50% effective concentrations of 0.0012 to 0.027 μM. Additional studies are needed to assess their in vivo efficacy against EV-D68. PMID:26149998

  16. Effect of New Antiviral Agent Camphecin on Behavior of Mice.

    PubMed

    Babina, A V; Lavrinenko, V A; Yarovaya, O I; Salakhutdinov, N F

    2017-01-01

    We studied the effect of camphecin (1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ylidene-aminoethanol) on mouse behavior in the open-field test. Camphecin possesses antiviral activity and inhibits viral replication, but its influence on the nervous system is poorly studied. Single camphecin injection produced no significant changes in behavioral patterns. Chronic camphecin administration (5 times over 2 weeks) to mice of different strains had no significant influence on open field behavior (motor, exploratory activity, anxiety, emotional state and vegetative functions). The findings are discussed in the context of neutral influence of camphecin on animal behavior.

  17. Ergotism associated with HIV antiviral protease inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Zachary K; Ceraldi, Chris C

    2003-03-01

    Ergotism is a rare condition of acute vasospasm found classically in young and middle-aged women taking ergot alkaloid agents to treat migraine headache. We report the case of a young man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positivity and describe the drug interaction between protease inhibitors and ergot alkaloid agents, which most likely predisposed to development of ergot toxicity. The HIV-positive population receiving antiviral therapy may be an under-recognized group at risk for ergotism through decreased hepatic metabolism of ergot preparations.

  18. Antibody-dependent SARS coronavirus infection is mediated by antibodies against spike proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Yen, Chia-Hung; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Tsao, Ching-Han; Shen, Chun-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Hsuan; Liu, Fu-Tong; Liu, Wu-Tse; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Huang, Jason C

    2014-08-22

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) still carries the potential for reemergence, therefore efforts are being made to create a vaccine as a prophylactic strategy for control and prevention. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is a mechanism through which dengue viruses, feline coronaviruses, and HIV viruses take advantage of anti-viral humoral immune responses to infect host target cells. Here we describe our observations of SARS-CoV using ADE to enhance the infectivity of a HL-CZ human promonocyte cell line. Quantitative-PCR and immunofluorescence staining results indicate that SARS-CoV is capable of replication in HL-CZ cells, and of displaying virus-induced cytopathic effects and increased levels of TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-6 two days post-infection. According to flow cytometry data, the HL-CZ cells also expressed angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2, a SARS-CoV receptor) and higher levels of the FcγRII receptor. We found that higher concentrations of anti-sera against SARS-CoV neutralized SARS-CoV infection, while highly diluted anti-sera significantly increased SARS-CoV infection and induced higher levels of apoptosis. Results from infectivity assays indicate that SARS-CoV ADE is primarily mediated by diluted antibodies against envelope spike proteins rather than nucleocapsid proteins. We also generated monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV spike proteins and observed that most of them promoted SARS-CoV infection. Combined, our results suggest that antibodies against SARS-CoV spike proteins may trigger ADE effects. The data raise new questions regarding a potential SARS-CoV vaccine, while shedding light on mechanisms involved in SARS pathogenesis.

  19. Expression of recombinant antibodies.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with "human-like" post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications.

  20. Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Fortunato; D'Angelo, Sara; Gaiotto, Tiziano; Naranjo, Leslie; Tian, Hongzhao; Gräslund, Susanne; Dobrovetsky, Elena; Hraber, Peter; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Saragozza, Silvia; Sblattero, Daniele; Kiss, Csaba; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2015-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products.

  1. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  2. Affinity purification of antibodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibodies are provided in a variety of formats that includes antiserum, hybridoma culture supernatant or ascites. They can all be used successfully in crude form for the detection of target antigens by immunoassay. However, it is advantageous to use purified antibody in defined quantity to facil...

  3. Production Of Human Antibodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.; Neil, Garry A.

    1993-01-01

    Process for making human monoclonal antibodies based on combination of techniques. Antibodies made active against specific antigen. Process involves in vivo immunization of human B lymphocyte cells in mice. B cells of interest enriched in vitro before fusion. Method potentially applicable to any antigen. Does not rely on use of Epstein-Barr virus at any step. Human lymphocytes taken from any source.

  4. Expression of Recombinant Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with “human-like” post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications. PMID:23908655

  5. Structural basis for antibody cross-neutralization of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaolin; Mousa, Jarrod J; Bates, John T; Lamb, Robert A; Crowe, James E; Jardetzky, Theodore S

    2017-01-30

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two closely related viruses that cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and the elderly(1), with a significant health burden(2-6). There are no licensed vaccines or small-molecule antiviral treatments specific to these two viruses at present. A humanized murine monoclonal antibody (palivizumab) is approved to treat high-risk infants for RSV infection(7,8), but other treatments, as well as vaccines, for both viruses are still in development. Recent epidemiological modelling suggests that cross-immunity between RSV, HMPV and human parainfluenzaviruses may contribute to their periodic outbreaks(9), suggesting that a deeper understanding of host immunity to these viruses may lead to enhanced strategies for their control. Cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies to the RSV and HMPV fusion (F) proteins have been identified(10,11). Here, we examine the structural basis for cross-reactive antibody binding to RSV and HMPV F protein by two related, independently isolated antibodies, MPE8 and 25P13. We solved the structure of the MPE8 antibody bound to RSV F protein and identified the 25P13 antibody from an independent blood donor. Our results indicate that both antibodies use germline residues to interact with a conserved surface on F protein that could guide the emergence of cross-reactivity. The induction of similar cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies using structural vaccinology approaches could enhance intrinsic cross-immunity to these paramyxoviruses and approaches to controlling recurring outbreaks.

  6. Antibodies for biodefense

    PubMed Central

    Froude, Jeffrey W; Stiles, Bradley; Pelat, Thibaut

    2011-01-01

    Potential bioweapons are biological agents (bacteria, viruses and toxins) at risk of intentional dissemination. Biodefense, defined as development of therapeutics and vaccines against these agents, has seen an increase, particularly in the US, following the 2001 anthrax attack. This review focuses on recombinant antibodies and polyclonal antibodies for biodefense that have been accepted for clinical use. These antibodies aim to protect against primary potential bioweapons or category A agents as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, botulinum neurotoxins, smallpox virus and certain others causing viral hemorrhagic fevers) and certain category B agents. Potential for prophylactic use is presented, as well as frequent use of oligoclonal antibodies or synergistic effect with other molecules. Capacities and limitations of antibodies for use in biodefense are discussed, and are generally applicable to the field of infectious diseases. PMID:22123065

  7. Dengue virus compartmentalization during antibody-enhanced infection

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Eugenia Z.; Zhang, Summer L.; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Gan, Esther S.; Chan, Kuan Rong; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2017-01-01

    Secondary infection with a heterologous dengue virus (DENV) serotype increases the risk of severe dengue, through a process termed antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). During ADE, DENV is opsonized with non- or sub-neutralizing antibody levels that augment entry into monocytes and dendritic cells through Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs). We previously reported that co-ligation of leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor-B1 (LILRB1) by antibody-opsonized DENV led to recruitment of SH2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) to dephosphorylate spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and reduce interferon stimulated gene induction. Here, we show that LILRB1 also signals through SHP-1 to attenuate the otherwise rapid acidification for lysosomal enzyme activation following FcγR-mediated uptake of DENV. Reduced or slower trafficking of antibody-opsonized DENV to lytic phagolysosomal compartments, demonstrates how co-ligation of LILRB1 also permits DENV to overcome a cell-autonomous immune response, enhancing intracellular survival of DENV. Our findings provide insights on how antiviral drugs that modify phagosome acidification should be used for viruses such as DENV. PMID:28084461

  8. Selection of Recombinant Human Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tomszak, Florian; Weber, Susanne; Zantow, Jonas; Schirrmann, Thomas; Hust, Michael; Frenzel, André

    2016-01-01

    Since the development of therapeutic antibodies the demand of recombinant human antibodies is steadily increasing. Traditionally, therapeutic antibodies were generated by immunization of rat or mice, the generation of hybridoma clones, cloning of the antibody genes and subsequent humanization and engineering of the lead candidates. In the last few years, techniques were developed that use transgenic animals with a human antibody gene repertoire. Here, modern recombinant DNA technologies can be combined with well established immunization and hybridoma technologies to generate already affinity maturated human antibodies. An alternative are in vitro technologies which enabled the generation of fully human antibodies from antibody gene libraries that even exceed the human antibody repertoire. Specific antibodies can be isolated from these libraries in a very short time and therefore reduce the development time of an antibody drug at a very early stage.In this review, we describe different technologies that are currently used for the in vitro and in vivo generation of human antibodies.

  9. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    MedlinePlus

    ... name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC Antibody Screen ; Blood Typing ; Type ... a positive RBC antibody screen or a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) . It is used to identify ...

  10. Human antibodies reveal a protective epitope that is highly conserved among human and nonhuman influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Grandea, Andres G; Olsen, Ole A; Cox, Thomas C; Renshaw, Mark; Hammond, Philip W; Chan-Hui, Po-Ying; Mitcham, Jennifer L; Cieplak, Witold; Stewart, Shaun M; Grantham, Michael L; Pekosz, Andrew; Kiso, Maki; Shinya, Kyoko; Hatta, Masato; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Moyle, Matthew

    2010-07-13

    Influenza remains a serious public health threat throughout the world. Vaccines and antivirals are available that can provide protection from infection. However, new viral strains emerge continuously because of the plasticity of the influenza genome, which necessitates annual reformulation of vaccine antigens, and resistance to antivirals can appear rapidly and become entrenched in circulating virus populations. In addition, the spread of new pandemic strains is difficult to contain because of the time required to engineer and manufacture effective vaccines. Monoclonal antibodies that target highly conserved viral epitopes might offer an alternative protection paradigm. Herein we describe the isolation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies derived from the IgG(+) memory B cells of healthy, human subjects that recognize a previously unknown conformational epitope within the ectodomain of the influenza matrix 2 protein, M2e. This antibody binding region is highly conserved in influenza A viruses, being present in nearly all strains detected to date, including highly pathogenic viruses that infect primarily birds and swine, and the current 2009 swine-origin H1N1 pandemic strain (S-OIV). Furthermore, these human anti-M2e monoclonal antibodies protect mice from lethal challenges with either H5N1 or H1N1 influenza viruses. These results suggest that viral M2e can elicit broadly cross-reactive and protective antibodies in humans. Accordingly, recombinant forms of these human antibodies may provide useful therapeutic agents to protect against infection from a broad spectrum of influenza A strains.

  11. Management of Antiviral Resistance in Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Young-Suk

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is to prevent liver disease progression. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance or seroconversion is regarded as an optimal endpoint to discontinue treatment. However, HBsAg seroclearance occurs very rarely with nucleos(t)ide analog (NUC) treatment, and long-term, almost indefinite, NUC treatment is required for the majority of patients. In patients with drug-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV), a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV), which is currently regarded as the strongest combination therapy against HBV, would be potentially safe to prevent the emergence of additional HBV resistance mutations. However, long-term tolerance data are lacking, and cost may be an issue for combination therapies. Several recent, well-designed, randomized controlled trials have shown that TDF mono-therapy provides similar antiviral efficacy compared with the combination of TDF and ETV. Furthermore, no additional HBV resistance mutations emerged during TDF monotherapy for up to 96 weeks. Considering a comparable antiviral efficacy, extremely low risk of TDF-resistance, lower cost, and better safety potential, TDF monotherapy would be a reasonable choice for the treatment of drug-resistant patients with CHB. PMID:28183162

  12. Engineering a Therapeutic Lectin by Uncoupling Mitogenicity from Antiviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Michael D.; Boudreaux, Daniel M.; Salmon, Loïc; Chugh, Jeetender; Winter, Harry C.; Meagher, Jennifer L.; André, Sabine; Murphy, Paul V.; Oscarson, Stefan; Roy, René; King, Steven; Kaplan, Mark H.; Goldstein, Irwin J.; Tarbet, E. Bart; Hurst, Brett L.; Smee, Donald F.; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Hoffmann, Hans-Heinrich; Xue, Yi; Rice, Charles M.; Schols, Dominique; Garcia, J. Victor; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.; Markovitz, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A key effector route of the Sugar Code involves lectins that exert crucial regulatory controls by targeting distinct cellular glycans. We demonstrate that a single amino acid substitution in a banana lectin, replacing histidine 84 with a threonine, significantly reduces its mitogenicity while preserving its broad-spectrum antiviral potency. X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and glycocluster assays reveal that loss of mitogenicity is strongly correlated with loss of pi-pi stacking between aromatic amino acids H84 and Y83, which removes a wall separating two carbohydrate binding sites, thus diminishing multivalent interactions. On the other hand, monovalent interactions and antiviral activity are preserved by retaining other wild-type conformational features and possibly through unique contacts involving the T84 side chain. Through such fine-tuning, target selection and downstream effects of a lectin can be modulated so as to knock down one activity while preserving another, thus providing tools for therapeutics and for understanding the Sugar Code. PMID:26496612

  13. RNAi and Antiviral Defense in the Honey Bee.

    PubMed

    Brutscher, Laura M; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees play an important agricultural and ecological role as pollinators of numerous agricultural crops and other plant species. Therefore, investigating the factors associated with high annual losses of honey bee colonies in the US is an important and active area of research. Pathogen incidence and abundance correlate with Colony Collapse Disorder- (CCD-) affected colonies in the US and colony losses in the US and in some European countries. Honey bees are readily infected by single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses. Largely dependent on the host immune response, virus infections can either remain asymptomatic or result in deformities, paralysis, or death of adults or larvae. RNA interference (RNAi) is an important antiviral defense mechanism in insects, including honey bees. Herein, we review the role of RNAi in honey bee antiviral defense and highlight some parallels between insect and mammalian immune systems. A more thorough understanding of the role of pathogens on honey bee health and the immune mechanisms bees utilize to combat infectious agents may lead to the development of strategies that enhance honey bee health and result in the discovery of additional mechanisms of immunity in metazoans.

  14. Arenaviruses and hantaviruses: from epidemiology and genomics to antivirals.

    PubMed

    Charrel, R N; Coutard, B; Baronti, C; Canard, B; Nougairede, A; Frangeul, A; Morin, B; Jamal, S; Schmidt, C L; Hilgenfeld, R; Klempa, B; de Lamballerie, X

    2011-05-01

    The arenaviruses and hantaviruses are segmented genome RNA viruses that are hosted by rodents. Due to their association with rodents, they are globally widespread and can infect humans via direct or indirect routes of transmission, causing considerable human morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, despite their obvious and emerging importance as pathogens, there are currently no effective antiviral drugs (except ribavirin which proved effective against Lassa virus) with which to treat humans infected by any of these viruses. The EU-funded VIZIER project (Comparative Structural Genomics of Viral Enzymes Involved in Replication) was instigated with an ultimate view of contributing to the development of antiviral therapies for RNA viruses, including the arenaviruses and bunyaviruses. This review highlights some of the major features of the arenaviruses and hantaviruses that have been investigated during recent years. After describing their classification and epidemiology, we review progress in understanding the genomics as well as the structure and function of replicative enzymes achieved under the VIZIER program and the development of new disease control strategies.

  15. Antiviral Cystine Knot α-Amylase Inhibitors from Alstonia scholaris*

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong Quoc Thuc; Ooi, Justin Seng Geap; Nguyen, Ngan Thi Kim; Wang, Shujing; Huang, Mei; Liu, Ding Xiang; Tam, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Cystine knot α-amylase inhibitors are cysteine-rich, proline-rich peptides found in the Amaranthaceae and Apocynaceae plant species. They are characterized by a pseudocyclic backbone with two to four prolines and three disulfides arranged in a knotted motif. Similar to other knottins, cystine knot α-amylase inhibitors are highly resistant to degradation by heat and protease treatments. Thus far, only the α-amylase inhibition activity has been described for members of this family. Here, we show that cystine knot α-amylase inhibitors named alstotides discovered from the Alstonia scholaris plant of the Apocynaceae family display antiviral activity. The alstotides (As1–As4) were characterized by both proteomic and genomic methods. All four alsotides are novel, heat-stable and enzyme-stable and contain 30 residues. NMR determination of As1 and As4 structures reveals their conserved structural fold and the presence of one or more cis-proline bonds, characteristics shared by other cystine knot α-amylase inhibitors. Genomic analysis showed that they contain a three-domain precursor, an arrangement common to other knottins. We also showed that alstotides are antiviral and cell-permeable to inhibit the early phase of infectious bronchitis virus and Dengue infection, in addition to their ability to inhibit α-amylase. Taken together, our results expand membership of cystine knot α-amylase inhibitors in the Apocynaceae family and their bioactivity, functional promiscuity that could be exploited as leads in developing therapeutics. PMID:26546678

  16. Antiviral activity of hemolymph of Podalia against rubella virus.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, N D; Mendonça, R Z; Oliveira, M I; Curti, S P; Barbosa, T F; Silva, P E; Taniwaki, N N; Tonelotto, M; Giovanni, D N S; Moraes, R H P; Figueiredo, C A

    2017-02-01

    Many active principles produced by animals, plants and microorganisms have been employed in the development of new drugs for the treatment of human diseases. Among animals known to produce pharmacologically active molecules that interfere in human cell physiology. Rubella virus (genus Rubivirus, family Togaviridae) is a single stranded RNA virus of positive genome polarity. Rubella virus infection of susceptible women during the first trimester of pregnancy often results in long-term virus persistence in the fetus causing multiple organ abnormalities. Potent antiviral activity against rubella virus (RV) has been observed in the hemolymph of Podalia sp. (Lepidoptera: Megalopygidae). This study evaluated the effect of hemolymph on RV infected Statens Serum Institute Rabbit Cornea (SIRC) cells. Results of cell viability and cell proliferation assays indicated that hemolymph was not toxic to cultured SIRC cells. Viral binding assay, antiviral assay, PCR, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy were used to demonstrate that hemolymph in post-treatment could inhibit the production of infectious RV particles. Specifically, hemolymph was found to inhibit RV adsorption to the SIRC cells.

  17. Experimental rhinovirus infection in COPD: implications for antiviral therapies.

    PubMed

    Gunawardana, Natasha; Finney, Lydia; Johnston, Sebastian L; Mallia, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem and will be one of the leading global causes of mortality over the coming decades. Much of the morbidity, mortality and health care costs of COPD are attributable to acute exacerbations, the commonest causes of which are respiratory infections. Respiratory viruses are frequently detected in COPD exacerbations but direct proof of a causative relationship has been lacking. We have developed a model of COPD exacerbation using experimental rhinovirus infection in COPD patients and this has established a causative relationship between virus infection and exacerbations. In addition it has determined some of the molecular mechanisms linking virus infections to COPD exacerbations and identified potential new therapeutic targets. This new data should stimulate research into the role of antiviral agents as potential treatments for COPD exacerbations. Testing of antiviral agents has been hampered by the lack of a small animal model for rhinovirus infection and experimental rhinovirus infection in healthy volunteers has been used to test treatments for the common cold. Experimental rhinovirus infection in COPD subjects offers the prospect of a model that can be used to evaluate the effects of new treatments for virus-induced COPD exacerbations, and provide essential data that can be used in making decisions regarding large scale clinical trials.

  18. Flexibility as a Strategy in Nucleoside Antiviral Drug Design.

    PubMed

    Peters, H L; Ku, T C; Seley-Radtke, K L

    2015-01-01

    As far back as Melville Wolfrom's acyclic sugar synthesis in the 1960's, synthesis of flexible nucleoside analogues have been an area of interest. This concept, however, went against years of enzyme-substrate binding theory. Hence, acyclic methodology in antiviral drug design did not take off until the discovery and subsequent FDA approval of such analogues as Acyclovir and Tenofovir. More recently, the observation that flexible nucleosides could overcome drug resistance spawned a renewed interest in the field of nucleoside drug design. The next generation of flexible nucleosides shifted the focus from the sugar moiety to the nucleobase. With analogues such as Seley-Radtke "fleximers", and Herdewijn's C5 substituted 2'-deoxyuridines, the area of base flexibility has seen great expansion. More recently, the marriage of these methodologies with acyclic sugars has resulted in a series of acyclic flex-base nucleosides with a wide range of antiviral properties, including some of the first to exhibit anti-coronavirus activity. Various flexible nucleosides and their corresponding nucleobases will be compared in this review.

  19. Danger, diversity and priming in innate antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Collins, Susan E; Mossman, Karen L

    2014-10-01

    The prototypic response to viral infection involves the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to the activation of transcription factors such as IRF3 and NFkB and production of type 1 IFN. While this response can lead to the induction of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and recruitment and activation of immune cells, such a comprehensive response is likely inappropriate for routine low level virus exposure. Moreover, viruses have evolved a plethora of immune evasion strategies to subvert antiviral signalling. There is emerging evidence that cells have developed very sensitive methods of detecting not only specific viral PAMPS, but also more general danger or stress signals associated with viral entry and replication. Such stress-induced cellular responses likely serve to prime cells to respond to further PAMP stimulation or allow for a rapid and localized intracellular response independent of IFN production and its potential immune sequelae. This review discusses diversity in innate antiviral players and pathways, the role of "danger" sensing, and how alternative pathways, such as the IFN-independent pathway, may serve to prime cells for further pathogen attack.

  20. Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. Part II: HIV.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Anna; Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Majewski, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

    This is a second part of a review under a main title Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. In the part we published in Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013,13(13):1837-45, we have described mechanisms of action and mechanism of resistance to antiviral agents used in genital herpes and genital HPV infection. The Part II review focuses on therapeutic options in HIV infection. In 1987, 6 years after the recognition of AIDS, the FDA approved the first drug against HIV--zidovudine. Since then a lot of antiretroviral drugs are available. The most effective treatment for HIV is highly active antiretroviral therapy--a combination of several antiretroviral medicines that cause a reduction of HIV blood concentration and often results in substantial recovery of impaired immunologic function. At present, there are over 20 drugs licensed and used for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, and these drugs are divided into one of six classes. Investigational agents include GS-7340, the prodrug of tenofovir and BMS-663068--the first in a novel class of drugs that blocks the binding of the HIV gp120 to the CD4 receptor.

  1. RNAi and Antiviral Defense in the Honey Bee

    PubMed Central

    Brutscher, Laura M.; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees play an important agricultural and ecological role as pollinators of numerous agricultural crops and other plant species. Therefore, investigating the factors associated with high annual losses of honey bee colonies in the US is an important and active area of research. Pathogen incidence and abundance correlate with Colony Collapse Disorder- (CCD-) affected colonies in the US and colony losses in the US and in some European countries. Honey bees are readily infected by single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses. Largely dependent on the host immune response, virus infections can either remain asymptomatic or result in deformities, paralysis, or death of adults or larvae. RNA interference (RNAi) is an important antiviral defense mechanism in insects, including honey bees. Herein, we review the role of RNAi in honey bee antiviral defense and highlight some parallels between insect and mammalian immune systems. A more thorough understanding of the role of pathogens on honey bee health and the immune mechanisms bees utilize to combat infectious agents may lead to the development of strategies that enhance honey bee health and result in the discovery of additional mechanisms of immunity in metazoans. PMID:26798663

  2. Pandemic influenza: overview of vaccines and antiviral drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Manon M. J.

    2005-01-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a high priority item for all public health authorities. An influenza pandemic is believed to be imminent, and scientists agree that it will be a matter of when, where, and what will be the causative agent. Recently, most attention has been directed to human cases of avian influenza caused by a H5N1 avian influenza virus. An effective vaccine will be needed to substantially reduce the impact of an influenza pandemic. Current influenza vaccine manufacturing technology is not adequate to support vaccine production in the event of an avian influenza outbreak, and it has now become clear that new innovative production technology is required. Antiviral drugs, on the other hand, can play a very important role in slowing the disease spread but are in short supply and resistance has been a major issue. Here, we provide an update on the status of pandemic vaccine development and antiviral drugs. Finally, we conclude with some proposed areas of focus in pandemic vaccine preparedness. PMID:17132338

  3. Evasion of early antiviral responses by herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Suazo, Paula A; Ibañez, Francisco J; Retamal-Díaz, Angello R; Paz-Fiblas, Marysol V; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M; González, Pablo A

    2015-01-01

    Besides overcoming physical constraints, such as extreme temperatures, reduced humidity, elevated pressure, and natural predators, human pathogens further need to overcome an arsenal of antimicrobial components evolved by the host to limit infection, replication and optimally, reinfection. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infect humans at a high frequency and persist within the host for life by establishing latency in neurons. To gain access to these cells, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) must replicate and block immediate host antiviral responses elicited by epithelial cells and innate immune components early after infection. During these processes, infected and noninfected neighboring cells, as well as tissue-resident and patrolling immune cells, will sense viral components and cell-associated danger signals and secrete soluble mediators. While type-I interferons aim at limiting virus spread, cytokines and chemokines will modulate resident and incoming immune cells. In this paper, we discuss recent findings relative to the early steps taking place during HSV infection and replication. Further, we discuss how HSVs evade detection by host cells and the molecular mechanisms evolved by these viruses to circumvent early antiviral mechanisms, ultimately leading to neuron infection and the establishment of latency.

  4. Antiviral activity of natural products extracted from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Uzair, Bushra; Mahmood, Zahra; Tabassum, Sobia

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemics have broken out over the centuries. Hundreds and thousands of humans have died over a disease. Available treatments for infectious diseases have always been limited. Some infections are more deadly than the others, especially viral pathogens. These pathogens have continuously resisted all kinds of medical treatment, due to a need for new treatments to be developed. Drugs are present in nature and are also synthesized in vitro and they help in combating diseases and restoring health. Synthesizing drugs is a hard and time consuming task, which requires a lot of man power and financial aid. However, the natural compounds are just lying around on the earth, may it be land or water. Over a thousand novel compounds isolated from marine organisms are used as antiviral agents. Others are being pharmacologically tested. Today, over forty antiviral compounds are present in the pharmacological market. Some of these compounds are undergoing clinical and preclinical stages. Marine compounds are paving the way for a new trend in modern medicine.

  5. Antiviral Effects of Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate on Human Rhinoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gaudernak, Elisabeth; Seipelt, Joachim; Triendl, Andrea; Grassauer, Andreas; Kuechler, Ernst

    2002-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the predominant cause of the common cold. The frequency of HRV infections in industrial countries and the lack of effective therapeutical treatment underline the importance of research for new antiviral substances. As viral infections are often accompanied by the generation of oxidative stress inside the infected cells, several redox-active substances were tested as potential antivirals. In the course of these studies it was discovered that pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is an extremely potent compound against HRV and poliovirus infection in cell culture. Besides the ability to dramatically reduce HRV production by interfering with viral protein expression, PDTC promotes cell survival and abolishes cytopathic effects in infected cells. PDTC also protects cells against poliovirus infection. These effects were highly specific, as several other antioxidants (vitamin C, Trolox, 2-mercaptoethanol, and N-acetyl-l-cysteine) are inactive against HRV infection. Synthesis of HRV proteins and cleavage of eucaryotic initiation factor 4G responsible for host cell shutoff of cellular protein synthesis are severely inhibited in the presence of PDTC. PMID:12021333

  6. The consequences of the intracellular retention of pathogen-derived T-cell-independent antigens on protein presentation to T cells.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Cobián, F; Outschoorn, I M; Carrasco-Marín, E; Alvarez-Domínguez, C

    1997-10-01

    Intracellular pathogens can be considered as particulate antigens chemically composed of a complex mixture of T-cell-dependent antigens (TD) (peptides and proteins) and T-cell-independent antigens (TI) (glycolipids and complex polysaccharides). A large range of saccharides (from oligosaccharides to complex polysaccharides) derived from pathogenic microorganisms are being isolated and characterized. They are currently implicated in signaling systems and concomitant host-parasite relationships. However, there are not many structure-function relationships described for these pathogens. This is particularly true of polysaccharides. In this report we have reviewed the role of defined TI antigens in the processing and presentation of defined TD antigens to specific T cells by antigen-presenting cells (APC). We also considered the importance of some of the chemical characteristics shared by different carbohydrates implicated in the inhibition of antigen presentation. These findings are discussed in relation to the clear immunopathological consequences of long retention periods of complex carbohydrate molecules derived from intracellular parasites inside certain APC and the absence of antigen presentation impairment in physiological situations such as the removal of senescent or damaged red blood cells by splenic macrophages or intracellular accumulation of carbohydrates in colostrum and milk macrophages during lactation.

  7. HIV-derived lentiviral particles promote T-cell independent activation and differentiation of naïve cognate conventional B2-cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gardt, Oliver; Grewe, Bastian; Tippler, Bettina G; Überla, Klaus; Temchura, Vladimir V

    2013-10-17

    In animal models, lentiviral particles (LP) were shown to be promising HIV vaccine candidates. Since little is known about the direct impact of LP on antigen-specific B cells, we incorporated Hen Egg Lysozyme (HEL) into LP (HEL-LP) derived from HIV to study their effect on HEL-specific, B cell receptor-transgenic B-cells (HEL(+)B-cells) in vitro. We observed preferential binding of HEL-LP to HEL(+)B-cells and their efficient internalization. HEL-LP were able to effectively cross-link B-cell receptors as indicated by the loss of surface CD62L. In the absence of CD4(+) T-cells, other activation events induced by LP in cognate naïve B-cells included increased expression of activation and co-stimulatory molecules as well as an enhanced proliferative response. Additionally, the B-cell phenotype shifted toward a germinal center pattern with further differentiation into memory and IgG3- and IgA-producing cells. The observed CD4(+) T-cell independent activation and differentiation may be due to LP-induced expression of CD40L by a subset of cognate B-cells. Thus, even in the absence of CD4(+) T-cells LP provide strong direct activation signals to cognate naïve B-cells, which may contribute to the strong humoral immune responses observed after LP immunization.

  8. T cell-independent development and induction of somatic hypermutation in human IgM+ IgD+ CD27+ B cells.

    PubMed

    Scheeren, Ferenc A; Nagasawa, Maho; Weijer, Kees; Cupedo, Tom; Kirberg, Jörg; Legrand, Nicolas; Spits, Hergen

    2008-09-01

    IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells from peripheral blood have been described as circulating marginal zone B cells. It is still unknown when and where these cells develop. These IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells exhibit somatic hypermutations (SHMs) in their B cell receptors, but the exact nature of the signals leading to induction of these SHMs remains elusive. Here, we show that IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells carrying SHMs are observed during human fetal development. To examine the role of T cells in human IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cell development we used an in vivo model in which Rag2(-/-)gamma(C)(-/-) mice were repopulated with human hematopoietic stem cells. Using Rag2(-/-)gamma(C)(-/-) mice on a Nude background, we demonstrated that development and induction of SHMs of human IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells can occur in a T cell-independent manner.

  9. Detection of Viral Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies Directed Against EBV or VCP: In Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients of Indian Origin

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Sudha S; Shetty, Rashmi R; Mistry, Kejal J; Chogle, Arun R

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Study was undertaken to analyze the frequency of anti-viral citrullinated peptide (anti-VCP) antibodies in sera from patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA). Materials and Methods: Viral citrullinated peptide (VCP) and Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA-1) peptide were commercially prepared and antibodies to these were determined in 25 patients of ERA, 40 disease control patients constituting 25 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 7 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 2 scleroderma, 1 spondyloarthritis (SpA), 1 juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), 1 osteoarthritis (OA), 1 psoriatic arthritis (PsA), 1 undifferentiated arthritis (UA), and 1 gout and 25 healthy controls (HCs) were taken for comparison. In-house ELISA was established for both the antibodies while cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody was detected by commercial ELISA kit. Results: Significant increase in VCP antibody by ERA and disease controls than healthy normal was observed. VCP IgM antibody was significantly increased in RA patients than HC. The presence of VCP antibody signifies a good marker for ERA. We observed significant difference in the VCP IgG and IgM antibody when compared to EBNA-1. In-house ELISA established for EBNA-1 and VCP antibodies showed low sensitivity but 96% specificity. Conclusions: We observed that sera from early RA patients reacted to the deiminated protein encoded by Epstain Barr Virus (EBV). Thus a possible role of virus in inducing an anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) response reveals viral etiology in this disease. PMID:21346905

  10. NMDA receptor antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ramberger, Melanie; Bsteh, Gabriel; Schanda, Kathrin; Höftberger, Romana; Rostásy, Kevin; Baumann, Matthias; Aboulenein-Djamshidian, Fahmy; Lutterotti, Andreas; Deisenhammer, Florian; Berger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the frequency of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antibodies in patients with various inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS and to determine their clinical correlates. Methods: Retrospective case-control study from 2005 to 2014 with the detection of serum IgG antibodies to NMDAR, aquaporin-4, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein by recombinant live cell-based immunofluorescence assays. Fifty-one patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, 41 with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, 34 with clinically isolated syndrome, and 89 with multiple sclerosis (MS) were included. Due to a known association of NMDAR antibodies with seizures and behavioral symptoms, patients with those clinical manifestations were preferentially included and are therefore overrepresented in our cohort. Nine patients with NMDAR encephalitis, 94 patients with other neurologic diseases, and 48 healthy individuals were used as controls. Results: NMDAR antibodies were found in all 9 patients with NMDAR encephalitis but in only 1 of 215 (0.5%) patients with inflammatory demyelination and in none of the controls. This patient had relapsing-remitting MS with NMDAR antibodies present at disease onset, with an increase in NMDAR antibody titer with the onset of psychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits. Conclusion: In demyelinating disorders, NMDAR antibodies are uncommon, even in those with symptoms seen in NMDAR encephalitis. PMID:26309901

  11. Therapeutic antibody technology 97.

    PubMed

    Larrick, J W; Gavilondo, J

    1998-01-01

    Almost 200 antibody aficionados attended the Therapeutic Antibody Technology 97 meeting, held September 21-24, 1997 at the Holiday Inn, Union Square in the heart of San Francisco, CA. The meeting was sponsored by the Palo Alto Institute of Molecular Medicine and organized by James W. Larrick (PAIMM) and Dennis R. Burton (Scripps Research Institute). The meeting featured excellent discussions on many interesting talks and a number of poster presentations. It is likely that another meeting will be organized in 2 years, however in the meantime, an effort is underway to organize a 'Virtual Antibody Society' to be set up on the web server at Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA (Questions and comments on this project can be sent to: Jwlarrick@aol.com or Burton@scripps.edu). Richard Lerner (Scripps) gave the keynote address on 'Catalytic Antibodies', describing recent work with Carlos Barbas on so-called reactive immunization to generate a high activity aldolase catalytic antibody. This antibody, soon to be described in an article in Science, is the first commercially available catalytic antibody.

  12. Antibody discovery: sourcing of monoclonal antibody variable domains.

    PubMed

    Strohl, William R

    2014-03-01

    Historically, antibody variable domains for therapeutic antibodies have been sourced primarily from the mouse IgG repertoire, and typically either chimerized or humanized. More recently, human antibodies from transgenic mice producing human IgG, phage display libraries, and directly from human B lymphocytes have been used more broadly as sources of antibody variable domains for therapeutic antibodies. Of the total 36 antibodies approved by major maket regulatory agencies, the variable domain sequences of 26 originate from the mouse. Of these, four are marketed as murine antibodies (of which one is a mouse-rat hybrid IgG antibody), six are mouse-human chimeric antibodies, and 16 are humanized. Ten marketed antibodies have originated from human antibody genes, three isolated from phage libraries of human antibody genes and seven from transgenic mice producing human antibodies. Five antibodies currently in clinical trials have been sourced from camelids, as well as two from non-human primates, one from rat, and one from rabbit. Additional sources of antibody variable domains that may soon find their way into the clinic are potential antibodies from sharks and chickens. Finally, the various methods for retrieval of antibodies from humans, mouse and other sources, including various display technologies and amplification directly from B cells, are described.

  13. Hypericum in Infection: Identification of Anti-viral and Anti-inflammatory Constituents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Iowa Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements seeks to optimize Echinacea, Hypericum and Prunella supplements for human-health benefit, focusing on anti-viral, anti-inflammatory and anti-pain effects. This paper reports on ongoing anti-viral and anti-inflammatory studies on Hypericu...

  14. Antiviral effect of diammonium glycyrrhizinate on cell infection by porcine parvovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) can cause reproductive failure in swine resulting in economic losses to the industry. Antiviral effects of diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG) have been reported on several animal viruses; however, to date it has yet to be tested on PPV. In this study, the antiviral activity of ...

  15. Monoclonal antibody "gold rush".

    PubMed

    Maggon, Krishan

    2007-01-01

    The market, sales and regulatory approval of new human medicines, during the past few years, indicates increasing number and share of new biologics and emergence of new multibillion dollar molecules. The global sale of monoclonal antibodies in 2006 were $20.6 billion. Remicade had annual sales gain of $1 billion during the past 3 years and five brands had similar increase in 2006. Rituxan with 2006 sales of $4.7 billion was the best selling monoclonal antibody and biological product and the 6th among the top selling medicinal brand. It may be the first biologic and monoclonal antibody to reach $10 billion annual sales in the near future. The strong demand from cancer and arthritis patients has surpassed almost all commercial market research reports and sales forecast. Seven monoclonal antibody brands in 2006 had sales exceeding $1 billion. Humanized or fully human monoclonal antibodies with low immunogenicity, enhanced antigen binding and reduced cellular toxicity provide better clinical efficacy. The higher technical and clinical success rate, overcoming of technical hurdles in large scale manufacturing, low cost of market entry and IND filing, use of fully human and humanized monoclonal antibodies has attracted funds and resources towards R&D. Review of industry research pipeline and sales data during the past 3 years indicate a real paradigm shift in industrial R&D from pharmaceutical to biologics and monoclonal antibodies. The antibody bandwagon has been joined by 200 companies with hundreds of new projects and targets and has attracted billions of dollars in R&D investment, acquisitions and licensing deals leading to the current Monoclonal Antibody Gold Rush.

  16. Healthcare system cost evaluation of antiviral stockpiling for pandemic influenza preparedness.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Hsu, Edbert B; Links, Jonathan M

    2010-06-01

    Healthcare workers need to be protected during a severe influenza outbreak; therefore, we evaluated 4 different antiviral strategies: (1) using antiviral medication for outbreak prophylaxis of all hospital employees; (2) using antiviral medication for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) or treatment of all hospital employees; (3) using a combination of antiviral medication for outbreak prophylaxis of high-risk clinical staff and postexposure prophylaxis or treatment for all other staff; and (4) using antiviral medication for postexposure prophylaxis or treatment of high-risk clinical staff only. Three different purchasing options were applied to each of the 4 antiviral strategies: (1) just-in-time purchase during a severe influenza outbreak, (2) prepandemic stockpiling, or (3) stockpiling through contracts with pharmaceutical manufacturers to reserve a predetermined antiviral supply. Although outbreak prophylaxis of all hospital employees would offer the maximum protection, the large costs associated with such a purchase make this option unrealistic and impractical. In addition, even though postexposure prophylaxis or treatment of only high-risk clinical staff would incur the least expense, the assumed level of protection if these options were offered only to high-risk clinical staff may not be sufficient to maintain routine hospital operations, since needed non-high-risk staff would not be protected. Considering the potential benefits and drawbacks of stockpiling antiviral medication from a cost perspective, it does not appear feasible for hospitals to stockpile antiviral medication in large quantities prior to a severe influenza outbreak. This article focuses on the financial viability of stockpiling antiviral medication, but the potential impact of other factors on the decision to stockpile was also considered and will be explored in future analyses. While legal hurdles related to prescribing, storing, and dispensing antiviral medication can be addressed

  17. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kutteh, William H; Hinote, Candace D

    2014-03-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) are acquired antibodies directed against negatively charged phospholipids. Obstetric antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is diagnosed in the presence of certain clinical features in conjunction with positive laboratory findings. Obstetric APS is one of the most commonly identified causes of recurrent pregnancy loss. Thus, obstetric APS is distinguished from APS in other organ systems where the most common manifestation is thrombosis. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms of action of aPLs have been described. This article discusses the diagnostic and obstetric challenges of obstetric APS, proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms of APS during pregnancy, and the management of women during and after pregnancy.

  18. Further iinvestigations on the antiviral activities of medicinal plants of togo.

    PubMed

    Hudson, J B; Anani, K; Lee, M K; de Souza, C; Arnason, J T; Gbeassor, M

    2000-01-01

    Further studies were done on the antiviral activities of 10 species of Togolese medicinal plants, previously shown to possess activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV). The dominant activity in all cases was virucidal (direct inactivation of virus particles), although Adansonia digitata extracts also appeared to have intracellular antiviral activities as well, which could indicate the presence of multiple antiviral compounds, or a single compound with multiple actions. In the seven most active extracts, the anti-HSV activity was considerably enhanced by light, especially UVA (long wavelength UV), although they all showed "dark" antiviral activity as well. Thus, all the extracts contained antiviral photosensitizers. In all tests, the root-bark and leaf extracts of A. digitata were the most potent.

  19. Spectroscopic investigation of herpes simplex viruses infected cells and their response to antiviral therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to evaluate the antiviral activity of known antiviral agents against herpes viruses. The antiviral activity of Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) (which is an active compound of propolis) against herpes simplex type 1 and 2 was examined in cell culture. The advantage of microscopic FTIR spectroscopy over conventional FTIR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell culture or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and non-infected cells, and between infected cells treated with the used antiviral agent and those not treated. In infected cells, there was a considerable increase in phosphate levels. Our results show that treatment with used antiviral agent considerably abolish the spectral changes induced by the viral infection. In addition, it is possible to track by FTIR microscopy method the deferential effect of various doses of the drug.

  20. Cytokine Synergy: an underappreciated contributor to innate anti-viral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bartee, Eric; McFadden, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor and the members of the interferon family, are potent mediators of the innate anti-viral immune response. The intracellular anti-viral states resulting from treatment of cultured cells with each of these molecules independently has been well studied; but, within complex tissues, the early inflammatory response is likely mediated by simultaneously expressed mixures of these, and other, protective anti-viral cytokines. Such cytokine mixtures have been shown to induce potently synergistic anti-viral responses in vitro which are more complex than the simple summation of the individual cytokine response profiles. The physiological role of this ‘cytokine synergy’, however, remains largely unappreciated in vivo. This brief commentary will attempt to summarize the potential effects and mechanisms of anti-viral cytokine synergy as well as present several ‘real-world’ applications where this phenomenon might play an important role. PMID:23693158

  1. Viral evasion mechanisms of early antiviral responses involving regulation of ubiquitin pathways.

    PubMed

    Rajsbaum, Ricardo; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2013-08-01

    Early innate and cell-intrinsic responses are essential to protect host cells against pathogens. In turn, viruses have developed sophisticated mechanisms to establish productive infections by counteracting host innate immune responses. Increasing evidence indicates that these antiviral factors may have a dual role by directly inhibiting viral replication as well as by sensing and transmitting signals to induce antiviral cytokines. Recent studies have pointed at new, unappreciated mechanisms of viral evasion of host innate protective responses including manipulating the host ubiquitin (Ub) system. Virus-mediated inhibition of antiviral factors by Ub-dependent degradation is emerging as a crucial mechanism for evading the antiviral response. In addition, recent studies have uncovered new mechanisms by which virus-encoded proteins inhibit Ub and Ub-like (Ubl) modification of host proteins involved in innate immune signaling pathways. Here we discuss recent findings and novel strategies that viruses have developed to counteract these early innate antiviral defenses.

  2. Studies on the role of neutralizing antibodies against envelope genes in resolving HCV pseudo-particles infection.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Shazia; Idrees, Muhammad; Ali, Amjad; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2014-06-01

    Characterization of antibodies targeting the attachment and entry of the viral particles into host cells is important for studding antibody mediated neutralization. Antibodies against the envelope glycoproteins (EGP) have neutralizing capacity and can prevent HCV infections. System based on HCV pseudo typed-particles (HCVpp) stably expressing EGP can be used for screening of HCV anti envelope neutralizing antibodies in the serum of patients with acute and chronic HCV infections. The aim of the current study was to check HCVpp as a useful tool for the detection of anti-HCV envelope antibodies in the serum of HCV infected patients and to test the binding potential of these antiviral molecules to EGP of HCV 3a. Previously developed HCVpp harboring unmodified glycoproteins from local isolates in 293T cell line were used in this study. HCVpp were pre incubated with different concentrations of anti E1 antibody and different E2 antibodies to check antiviral activity. Further we used serum samples with low/medium (≤800,000 IU/mL), and high (>800,000 IU/mL) viral titer from chronic HCV male and female patients. Infection was done in Huh-7 cells for 1 h at 37 oC. Infectivity was checked through Luciferase assay. Considerable decrease in HCVpp infectivity with anti-envelope antibodies was observed in dose dependent manner. Maximum inhibition was seen when 5 µg/ml of monoclonal anti E1 antibody used. Further increase in concentration exhibited no decrease in infectivity which suggests that other factors are also involved in causing infection. Various well characterized E2-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been screened for their capability to reduce infection in Huh-7 cells. Three of the four mAbs specific for the E2 had no effect on the infectivity of HCVpp. Confirmation sensitive antibody H53 showed maximum inhibition of infectivity. HCV ELISA positive samples from both male and female patients were used to neutralize the HCVpp. The neutralizing antibody response

  3. Murine cytomegalovirus resistant to antivirals has genetic correlates with human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Scott, G M; Ng, H-L; Morton, C J; Parker, M W; Rawlinson, W D

    2005-08-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) resistance to antivirals is a significant clinical problem. Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection of mice is a well-described animal model for in vivo studies of CMV pathogenesis, although the mechanisms of MCMV antiviral susceptibility need elucidation. Mutants resistant to nucleoside analogues aciclovir, adefovir, cidofovir, ganciclovir, penciclovir and valaciclovir, and the pyrophosphate analogue foscarnet were generated by in vitro passage of MCMV (Smith) in increasing concentrations of antiviral. All MCMV antiviral resistant mutants contained DNA polymerase mutations identical or similar to HCMV DNA polymerase mutations known to confer antiviral resistance. Mapping of the mutations onto an MCMV DNA polymerase three-dimensional model generated using the Thermococcus gorgonarius Tgo polymerase crystal structure showed that the DNA polymerase mutations potentially confer resistance through changes in regions surrounding a catalytic aspartate triad. The ganciclovir-, penciclovir- and valaciclovir-resistant isolates also contained mutations within MCMV M97 identical or similar to recognized GCV-resistant mutations of HCMV UL97 protein kinase, and demonstrated cross-resistance to antivirals of the same class. This strongly suggests that MCMV M97 has a similar role to HCMV UL97 in the phosphorylation of nucleoside analogue antivirals. All MCMV mutants demonstrated replication-impaired phenotypes, with the lowest titre and plaque size observed for isolates containing mutations in both DNA polymerase and M97. These findings indicate DNA polymerase and protein kinase regions of potential importance for antiviral susceptibility and replication. The similarities between MCMV and HCMV mutations that arise under antiviral selective pressure increase the utility of MCMV as a model for in vivo studies of CMV antiviral resistance.

  4. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antibody Mediated Neurologic Relapse Post Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Sarah; Walsh, Aoibhinn; King, Mary D; Lynch, Bryan; Webb, David; Twomey, Eilish; Ronan Leahy, T; Butler, Karina; Gavin, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Despite the advent of antiviral therapy, herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) remains a devastating condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Neurologic relapse after initial improvement is generally attributed to herpes simplex virus reactivation. In 2013, inflammation caused by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies was reported in association with cases of neurologic relapse after herpes simplex encephalitis. We present 3 such cases and discuss diagnostic and management dilemmas.

  5. Mining human antibody repertoires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become drugs of choice for the management of an increasing number of human diseases. Human antibody repertoires provide a rich source for human mAbs. Here we review the characteristics of natural and non-natural human antibody repertoires and their mining with non-combinatorial and combinatorial strategies. In particular, we discuss the selection of human mAbs from naïve, immune, transgenic and synthetic human antibody repertoires using methods based on hybridoma technology, clonal expansion of peripheral B cells, single-cell PCR, phage display, yeast display and mammalian cell display. Our reliance on different strategies is shifting as we gain experience and refine methods to the efficient generation of human mAbs with superior pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. PMID:20505349

  6. Anti-sulfotyrosine antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Kehoe, John; Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2009-09-15

    The invention provides anti-sulfotyrosine specific antibodies capable of detecting and isolating polypeptides that are tyrosine-sulfated. The sulfotyrosine antibodies and antibody fragments of the invention may be used to discriminate between the non-sulfated and sulfated forms of such proteins, using any number of immunological assays, such ELISAs, immunoblots, Western Blots, immunoprecipitations, and the like. Using a phage-display system, single chain antibodies (scFvs) were generated and screened against tyrosine-sulfated synthetic peptide antigens, resulting in the isolation of scFvs that specifically recognize sulfotyrosine-containing peptides and/or demonstrate sulfotyrosine-specific binding in tyrosine sulfated proteins. The VH and VL genes from one such sulfotyrosine-specific scFv were employed to generate a full length, sulfotyrosine-specific immunoglobulin.

  7. T cell regulation of the thymus-independent antibody response to trinitrophenylated-Brucella abortus (TNP-BA)

    SciTech Connect

    Tanay, A.; Strober, S.

    1985-06-01

    The authors have previously observed a reduction of the T cell-dependent primary antibody response to dinitrophenylated keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and an enhancement of the T cell-independent response to trinitrophenylated Brucella abortus (TNP-BA) in BALB/c mice after treatment with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). To elucidate the relative contribution of T and B cells to the enhanced T cell-independent antibody responses after TLI, a syngeneic primary adoptive transfer system was utilized whereby irradiated hosts were reconstituted with unfractionated spleen cells or a combination of purified T and B cells from TLI-treated and untreated control mice. Antibody responses of purified splenic B cells from TLI-treated BALB/c mice (TLI/B) to TNP-BA were enhanced 10-fold as compared with those of unfractionated (UF) spleen cells or B cells from normal (NL) BALB/c mice (NL/UF and NL/B, respectively). Splenic T cells from normal animals (NL/T) suppressed the anti-TNP-BA response of TLI/B by more than 100-fold. NL/T neither suppressed nor enhanced the response of NL/B. On the other hand, T cells from TLI-treated mice (TLI/T) enhanced by 100-fold the anti-TNP-BA response of NL/B, but neither suppressed nor enhanced the response of TLI/B. Thus, T cells can regulate the T cell-independent antibody response to TNP-BA. However, experimental manipulation of the T and B cell populations is needed to demonstrate the regulatory functions.

  8. β-Thymosins participate in antiviral immunity of red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii).

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Shi, Li-Jie; Zhao, Yan-Ran; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2015-08-01

    β-Thymosins participate in numerous biological activities, including cell proliferation and differentiation, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. Many studies have investigated vertebrate β-thymosins, whereas few reports have focused on invertebrate β-thymosins. In this study, nine isoforms of β-thymosins (PcThy-1 to PcThy-8) were identified from the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. The isoforms contained different numbers of the thymosin β actin-binding motif. PcThy-1 contained one thymosin β actin-binding motif, whereas PcThy-8 contained eight motifs. Western blot analysis with anti-PcThy-4 antibody showed that three to six isoforms were present in one tissue, and PcThy-4, PcThy-5, PcThy-6, and PcThy-7 were the main isoforms in several tissues. Time course expression analysis of PcThys at the protein level showed that PcThy-4 was upregulated in hemocytes and gills after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. PcThy-4, which contained four thymosin β actin-binding motifs, was selected for further research. Tissue distribution analysis by quantitative real-time PCR showed that PcThy-4 was present in tissues of the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine at the transcriptional level. Transcriptional expression profiles showed that PcThy-4 was upregulated after WSSV challenge. In vivo RNAi and protein injection assay results showed that PcThy-4 inhibited the replication of WSSV in crayfish and enhanced the survival rate after WSSV infection. Furthermore, PcThy-4 promoted hemocyte phagocytosis of WSSV. Overall, results suggested that PcThys protected crayfish from WSSV infection and played an important role in antiviral immune response.

  9. Antibody tumor penetration

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  10. Antibodies Targeting EMT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0382 TITLE: Antibodies Targeting EMT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Brunhilde H Felding CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The... CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0382 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Vaughn Smider, Brunhilde Felding 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...14. ABSTRACT Monoclonal antibodies are drugs that can specifically bind targets present on tumor cells. The highly aggressive triple-negative subtype

  11. Therapeutic antibodies and infectious diseases, Tours, France, November 20−22, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Daguet, Arnaud; Watier, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    The Therapeutic Antibodies and Infectious Diseases international congress was held in Tours, France on November 20−22, 2012. The first session was devoted to the development of antibodies directed against bacterial toxins or viruses that could be used in a potential bioterrorist threat situation. The second session dealt with the effector functions of anti-microbial antibodies, while the third was oriented toward anti-viral antibodies, with a special emphasis on antibodies directed against the human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C viruses. After a lecture by a speaker from the US Food and Drug Administration on antibody cocktails, the second day ended with a special session dedicated to discussions regarding the involvement of French biotechnology industries in the field. On the last day, the congress concluded with talks about current antibody treatments for infectious diseases, with a particular focus on their adverse events. Participants enjoyed this very stimulating and convivial meeting, which gathered scientists from various countries who had different scientific research interests. PMID:23883703

  12. Monoclonal antibodies to human interferon-gamma: production, affinity purification and radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Novick, D; Eshhar, Z; Fischer, D G; Friedlander, J; Rubinstein, M

    1983-01-01

    Human interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by a cation exchange h.p.l.c., was used for the development of monoclonal antibodies. Following immunization, spleen lymphocytes of two mice showing the highest binding and neutralizing titers were isolated, fused with NSO mouse myeloma cells and cloned. The screening of hybridomas was based on precipitation of the immune complexes with a second antibody and recovery of the biological activity of IFN-gamma from the precipitate. Twenty nine independent hybridomas secreting antibodies specific to IFN-gamma were obtained. Twelve out of these 29 hybridomas produced antibodies that neutralized the antiviral activity of pure as well as crude IFN-gamma. Moreover, IFN-gamma obtained by various induction procedures was neutralized as well, indicating that these various IFN-gamma subtypes are immunologically cross-reactive. Immune precipitation of partially purified 125I-labelled IFN-gamma by several monoclonal antibodies revealed two protein bands of 26,000 and 21,000 daltons. Immunoaffinity chromatography of IFN-gamma gave a 50-fold purification to a specific activity > or = 4 x 10(7) units/mg. Two of the monoclonal antibodies were found suitable for a sensitive and rapid double antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay, allowing the detection of IFN-gamma at concentrations of at least 4 ng/ml (150 units/ml) within 8 h. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:11892806

  13. Recombinant multi-epitope vaccine induce predefined epitope-specific antibodies against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Liu, Zu-Qiang; Ding, Jian; Chen, Ying-Hua

    2002-11-01

    Monoclonal antibody 2F5 recognizing ELDKWA-epitope on HIV-1 gp41 has significant neutralization potency against 90% of the investigated viruses of African, Asia, American and European strains, but antibodies responses to ELDKWA-epitope in HIV-1 infected individuals were very low. Based on the epitope-vaccine strategy suggested by us, a recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein (GST-MELDKWAGELDKWAGELDKWAVDIGPGRAFYGPGRAFYGPGRAFY) as vaccine antigen containing three repeats of neutralizing epitope ELDKWA on gp41 and GPGRAFY on gp120 was designed and expressed in Escherichia coli. After vaccination course, the recombinant multi-epitope vaccine could induce high levels of predefined multi-epitope-specific antibodies in mice. These antibodies in sera could bind to both neutralizing epitopes on gp41 peptide, V3 loop peptide and recombinant soluble gp41 (aa539-684) in ELISA assay (antisera dilution: 1:1,600-25,600), while normal sera did not. Moreover, these antibodies in sera could recognize the CHO-WT cells which expressed HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein on the cell surfaces, indicating that the predefined epitope-specific antibodies could recognize natural envelope protein of HIV-1 though these antibodies were induced by recombinant multi-epitope-vaccine. These experimental results suggested a possible way to develop recombinant multi-epitope vaccine inducing multi-antiviral activities against HIV-1.

  14. T cell-independent IgA class switch recombination is restricted to the GALT and occurs prior to manifest germinal center formation.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, Peter; Stensson, Anneli; Lycke, Nils Y; Bemark, Mats

    2010-04-01

    Recently, we reported that CD40(-/-) mice, exhibiting exclusively T cell-independent IgA class switch recombination (CSR), demonstrated near normal levels of IgA plasma cells in the gut lamina propria (LP), despite the complete lack of germinal centers (GCs). In this study, we have extended our analysis focusing on how to reconcile these findings using flow cytometry and molecular markers for IgA CSR. In agreement with our previous results with small intestinal LP, the colon LP was found to host IgA CSR only when lymphoid follicles were present. Thus, no IgA CSR was observed in the nonorganized colon LP. By contrast, the Peyer's patch (PP) was the dominant IgA CSR site in both CD40(-/-) and wild type (WT) mice, and they both hosted similar levels of mRNA expression for B cell activating factor of the TNF family, a proliferation inducing ligand, and inducible NO synthase, potential switch-factors for IgA. Unexpectedly, we found that PP B cells undergoing IgA CSR were GL7-intermediate. These cells had not undergone somatic hypermutations (SHMs), whereas GL7-high cells in WT PP, which exhibited GCs, were heavily mutated. Moreover, IgA plasma cells in the LP of CD40(-/-) mice demonstrated few mutations in their Ig V regions, whereas WT LP B cells from different sites showed extensive SHMs, which were also clonally related. Therefore, IgA CSR can occur in PP at a stage preceding manifest GC (GL7-intermediate), whereas SHM require GC formations (GL7-high). These findings reconcile that IgA CSR can occur in PP in the absence of GC with the fact that CD40(-/-) mice host near normal levels of IgA plasma cells in the LP.

  15. Griffithsin: An Antiviral Lectin with Outstanding Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Lusvarghi, Sabrina; Bewley, Carole A.

    2016-01-01

    Griffithsin (GRFT), an algae-derived lectin, is one of the most potent viral entry inhibitors discovered to date. It is currently being developed as a microbicide with broad-spectrum activity against several enveloped viruses. GRFT can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection at picomolar concentrations, surpassing the ability of most anti-HIV agents. The potential to inhibit other viruses as well as parasites has also been demonstrated. Griffithsin’s antiviral activity stems from its ability to bind terminal mannoses present in high-mannose oligosaccharides and crosslink these glycans on the surface of the viral envelope glycoproteins. Here, we review structural and biochemical studies that established mode of action and facilitated construction of GRFT analogs, mechanisms that may lead to resistance, and in vitro and pre-clinical results that support the therapeutic potential of this lectin. PMID:27783038

  16. Antiviral activity of squalamine: Role of electrostatic membrane binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckerman, Bernard; Qu, Wei; Mishra, Abhijit; Zasloff, Michael; Wong, Gerard; Luijten, Erik

    2012-02-01

    Recent workootnotetextM. Zasloff et al., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 108, 15978 (2011). has demonstrated that squalamine, a molecule found in the liver of sharks, exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral properties. It has been proposed that this activity results from the charge-density matching of squalamine and phospholipid membranes, causing squalamine to bind to membranes and displace proteins such as Rac1 that are crucial for the viral replication cycle. Here we investigate this hypothesis by numerical simulation of a coarse-grained model for the competition between Rac1 and squalamine in binding affinity to a flat lipid bilayer. We perform free-energy calculations to test the ability of squalamine to condense stacked bilayer systems and thereby displace bulkier Rac1 molecules. We directly compare our findings to small-angle x-ray scattering results for the same setup.

  17. Mucin biopolymers as broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Lieleg, Oliver; Lieleg, Corinna; Bloom, Jesse; Buck, Christopher B.; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Mucus is a porous biopolymer matrix that coats all wet epithelia in the human body and serves as the first line of defense against many pathogenic bacteria and viruses. However, under certain conditions viruses are able to penetrate this infection barrier, which compromises the protective function of native mucus. Here, we find that isolated porcine gastric mucin polymers, key structural components of native mucus, can protect an underlying cell layer from infection by small viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), or a strain of influenza A virus. Single particle analysis of virus mobility inside the mucin barrier reveals that this shielding effect is in part based on a retardation of virus diffusion inside the biopolymer matrix. Our findings suggest that purified mucins may be used as a broad-range antiviral supplement to personal hygiene products, baby formula or lubricants to support our immune system. PMID:22475261

  18. Atomic- Resolution Crystal Structure of the Antiviral Lectin Scytovirin

    SciTech Connect

    Moulaei,T.; Botos, I.; Ziolkowska, N.; Bokesch, H.; Krumpe, L.; McKee, T.; O'Keefe, B.; Dauter, Z.; Wlodawer, A.

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structures of the natural and recombinant antiviral lectin scytovirin (SVN) were solved by single-wavelength anomalous scattering and refined with data extending to 1.3 Angstroms and 1.0 Angstroms resolution, respectively. A molecule of SVN consists of a single chain 95 amino acids long, with an almost perfect sequence repeat that creates two very similar domains (RMS deviation 0.25 Angstroms for 40 pairs of Ca atoms). The crystal structure differs significantly from a previously published NMR structure of the same protein, with the RMS deviations calculated separately for the N- and C-terminal domains of 5.3 Angstroms and 3.7 Angstroms, respectively, and a very different relationship between the two domains. In addition, the disulfide bonding pattern of the crystal structures differs from that described in the previously published mass spectrometry and NMR studies.

  19. The priorities for antiviral drug resistance surveillance and research.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Deenan

    2007-08-01

    The number of available antiviral drugs is growing fast. The emergence of drug-resistant viruses is well documented as a cause for drug failure. Such viruses also carry the potential for transmission, the risks for which vary according to specific viral transmission dynamics. This potential is best described for HIV and influenza. Resistance to the new generation of hepatitis C virus inhibitors is also likely to become a cause for concern. The priorities for future action to limit resistance include application of sophisticated surveillance mechanisms linked to detailed virological data, development of optimal treatment regimens (e.g. combination therapies) to limit emergence of resistance, and a focus on prevention strategies to prevent transmission.

  20. DOCK8 regulates lymphocyte shape integrity for skin antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Dove, Christopher G; Hor, Jyh Liang; Murdock, Heardley M; Strauss-Albee, Dara M; Garcia, Jordan A; Mandl, Judith N; Grodick, Rachael A; Jing, Huie; Chandler-Brown, Devon B; Lenardo, Timothy E; Crawford, Greg; Matthews, Helen F; Freeman, Alexandra F; Cornall, Richard J; Germain, Ronald N; Mueller, Scott N; Su, Helen C

    2014-12-15

    DOCK8 mutations result in an inherited combined immunodeficiency characterized by increased susceptibility to skin and other infections. We show that when DOCK8-deficient T and NK cells migrate through confined spaces, they develop cell shape and nuclear deformation abnormalities that do not impair chemotaxis but contribute to a distinct form of catastrophic cell death we term cytothripsis. Such defects arise during lymphocyte migration in collagen-dense tissues when DOCK8, through CDC42 and p21-activated kinase (PAK), is unavailable to coordinate cytoskeletal structures. Cytothripsis of DOCK8-deficient cells prevents the generation of long-lived skin-resident memory CD8 T cells, which in turn impairs control of herpesvirus skin infections. Our results establish that DOCK8-regulated shape integrity of lymphocytes prevents cytothripsis and promotes antiviral immunity in the skin.

  1. Attacked from All Sides: RNA Decay in Antiviral Defense

    PubMed Central

    Molleston, Jerome M.; Cherry, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The innate immune system has evolved a number of sensors that recognize viral RNA (vRNA) to restrict infection, yet the full spectrum of host-encoded RNA binding proteins that target these foreign RNAs is still unknown. The RNA decay machinery, which uses exonucleases to degrade aberrant RNAs largely from the 5′ or 3′ end, is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in antiviral defense. The 5′ degradation pathway can directly target viral messenger RNA (mRNA) for degradation, as well as indirectly attenuate replication by limiting specific pools of endogenous RNAs. The 3′ degradation machinery (RNA exosome) is emerging as a downstream effector of a diverse array of vRNA sensors. This review discusses our current understanding of the roles of the RNA decay machinery in controlling viral infection. PMID:28054965

  2. The clinically approved antiviral drug sofosbuvir inhibits Zika virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Sacramento, Carolina Q.; de Melo, Gabrielle R.; de Freitas, Caroline S.; Rocha, Natasha; Hoelz, Lucas Villas Bôas; Miranda, Milene; Fintelman-Rodrigues, Natalia; Marttorelli, Andressa; Ferreira, André C.; Barbosa-Lima, Giselle; Abrantes, Juliana L.; Vieira, Yasmine Rangel; Bastos, Mônica M.; de Mello Volotão, Eduardo; Nunes, Estevão Portela; Tschoeke, Diogo A.; Leomil, Luciana; Loiola, Erick Correia; Trindade, Pablo; Rehen, Stevens K.; Bozza, Fernando A.; Bozza, Patrícia T.; Boechat, Nubia; Thompson, Fabiano L.; de Filippis, Ana M. B.; Brüning, Karin; Souza, Thiago Moreno L.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family, along with other agents of clinical significance such as dengue (DENV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses. Since ZIKV causes neurological disorders during fetal development and in adulthood, antiviral drugs are necessary. Sofosbuvir is clinically approved for use against HCV and targets the protein that is most conserved among the members of the Flaviviridae family, the viral RNA polymerase. Indeed, we found that sofosbuvir inhibits ZIKV RNA polymerase, targeting conserved amino acid residues. Sofosbuvir inhibited ZIKV replication in different cellular systems, such as hepatoma (Huh-7) cells, neuroblastoma (SH-Sy5y) cells, neural stem cells (NSC) and brain organoids. In addition to the direct inhibition of the viral RNA polymerase, we observed that sofosbuvir also induced an increase in A-to-G mutations in the viral genome. Together, our data highlight a potential secondary use of sofosbuvir, an anti-HCV drug, against ZIKV. PMID:28098253

  3. The clinically approved antiviral drug sofosbuvir inhibits Zika virus replication.

    PubMed

    Sacramento, Carolina Q; de Melo, Gabrielle R; de Freitas, Caroline S; Rocha, Natasha; Hoelz, Lucas Villas Bôas; Miranda, Milene; Fintelman-Rodrigues, Natalia; Marttorelli, Andressa; Ferreira, André C; Barbosa-Lima, Giselle; Abrantes, Juliana L; Vieira, Yasmine Rangel; Bastos, Mônica M; de Mello Volotão, Eduardo; Nunes, Estevão Portela; Tschoeke, Diogo A; Leomil, Luciana; Loiola, Erick Correia; Trindade, Pablo; Rehen, Stevens K; Bozza, Fernando A; Bozza, Patrícia T; Boechat, Nubia; Thompson, Fabiano L; de Filippis, Ana M B; Brüning, Karin; Souza, Thiago Moreno L

    2017-01-18

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family, along with other agents of clinical significance such as dengue (DENV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses. Since ZIKV causes neurological disorders during fetal development and in adulthood, antiviral drugs are necessary. Sofosbuvir is clinically approved for use against HCV and targets the protein that is most conserved among the members of the Flaviviridae family, the viral RNA polymerase. Indeed, we found that sofosbuvir inhibits ZIKV RNA polymerase, targeting conserved amino acid residues. Sofosbuvir inhibited ZIKV replication in different cellular systems, such as hepatoma (Huh-7) cells, neuroblastoma (SH-Sy5y) cells, neural stem cells (NSC) and brain organoids. In addition to the direct inhibition of the viral RNA polymerase, we observed that sofosbuvir also induced an increase in A-to-G mutations in the viral genome. Together, our data highlight a potential secondary use of sofosbuvir, an anti-HCV drug, against ZIKV.

  4. DOCK8 regulates lymphocyte shape integrity for skin antiviral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Dove, Christopher G.; Hor, Jyh Liang; Murdock, Heardley M.; Strauss-Albee, Dara M.; Garcia, Jordan A.; Mandl, Judith N.; Grodick, Rachael A.; Jing, Huie; Chandler-Brown, Devon B.; Lenardo, Timothy E.; Crawford, Greg; Matthews, Helen F.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Cornall, Richard J.; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    DOCK8 mutations result in an inherited combined immunodeficiency characterized by increased susceptibility to skin and other infections. We show that when DOCK8-deficient T and NK cells migrate through confined spaces, they develop cell shape and nuclear deformation abnormalities that do not impair chemotaxis but contribute to a distinct form of catastrophic cell death we term cytothripsis. Such defects arise during lymphocyte migration in collagen-dense tissues when DOCK8, through CDC42 and p21-activated kinase (PAK), is unavailable to coordinate cytoskeletal structures. Cytothripsis of DOCK8-deficient cells prevents the generation of long-lived skin-resident memory CD8 T cells, which in turn impairs control of herpesvirus skin infections. Our results establish that DOCK8-regulated shape integrity of lymphocytes prevents cytothripsis and promotes antiviral immunity in the skin. PMID:25422492

  5. Recent Advances in Antiviral Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Tamori, Akihiro; Enomoto, Masaru; Kawada, Norifumi

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major worldwide health problem. Chronic infection induces continuous inflammation in the liver, progression of hepatic fibrosis, eventual cirrhosis, and possible hepatocellular carcinoma. Eradication of the virus is one of the most important treatment aims. A number of promising new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been developed over the past 10 years. Due to their increased efficacy, safety, and tolerability, interferon-free oral therapies with DAAs have been approved for patients with HCV, including those with cirrhosis. This review introduces the characteristics and results of recent clinical trials of several DAAs: NS3/4A protease inhibitors, NS5A inhibitors, and NS5B inhibitors. DAA treatment failure and prognosis after DAA therapy are also discussed. PMID:27022210

  6. Identification and Analysis of Antiviral Compounds Against Poliovirus.

    PubMed

    Leyssen, Pieter; Franco, David; Tijsma, Aloys; Lacroix, Céline; De Palma, Armando; Neyts, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, had as its goal the eradication of polio worldwide by the year 2000 through large-scale vaccinations campaigns with the live attenuated oral PV vaccine (OPV) (Griffiths et al., Biologicals 34:73-74, 2006). Despite substantial progress, polio remains endemic in several countries and new imported cases are reported on a regular basis ( http://www.polioeradication.org/casecount.asp ).It was recognized by the poliovirus research community that developing antivirals against poliovirus would be invaluable in the post-OPV era. Here, we describe three methods essential for the identification of selective inhibitors of poliovirus replication and for determining their mode of action by time-of-drug-addition studies as well as by the isolation of compound-resistant poliovirus variants.

  7. Monitoring the antiviral effect of alpha interferon on individual cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chon Saeng; Jung, Jong Ha; Wakita, Takaji; Yoon, Seung Kew; Jang, Sung Key

    2007-08-01

    An infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) cDNA clone (JFH1) was generated recently. However, quantitative analysis of HCV infection and observation of infected cells have proved to be difficult because the yield of HCV in cell cultures is fairly low. We generated infectious HCV clones containing the convenient reporters green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Renilla luciferase in the NS5a-coding sequence. The new viruses responded to antiviral agents in a dose-dependent manner. Responses of individual cells containing HCV to alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) were monitored using GFP-tagged HCV and time-lapse confocal microscopy. Marked variations in the response to IFN-alpha were observed among HCV-containing cells.

  8. Antiviral activities of hybrids of two major human leukocyte interferons.

    PubMed Central

    Weck, P K; Apperson, S; Stebbing, N; Gray, P W; Leung, D; Shepard, H M; Goeddel, D V

    1981-01-01

    Four hybrid human leukocyte interferon (LeIF or IFN-alpha) genes have been constructed by in vitro recombination of LeIF-A (IFN-alpha 2) and LeIF-D (IFN-alpha 1) genes at common restriction endonuclease sites located within their coding regions. These hybrid genes have been expressed in E. coli under trp promoter control. The interferons produced [LeIF-AD (BglII), -AD (PvuII), -DA (BglII), -DA (PvuII)] have antiviral properties distinct from the parental molecules LeIF-A and -D, varying considerably in their abilities to inhibit plaque formation by different viruses in a range of mammalian cells. All six of the cloned LeIFs exhibit the heat stability, pH 2 stability and antigenic specificity of natural leukocyte interferons. PMID:6171779

  9. Optimal Antiviral Switching to Minimize Resistance Risk in HIV Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Rutao; Piovoso, Michael J.; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Zurakowski, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The development of resistant strains of HIV is the most significant barrier to effective long-term treatment of HIV infection. The most common causes of resistance development are patient noncompliance and pre-existence of resistant strains. In this paper, methods of antiviral regimen switching are developed that minimize the risk of pre-existing resistant virus emerging during therapy switches necessitated by virological failure. Two distinct cases are considered; a single previous virological failure and multiple virological failures. These methods use optimal control approaches on experimentally verified mathematical models of HIV strain competition and statistical models of resistance risk. It is shown that, theoretically, order-of-magnitude reduction in risk can be achieved, and multiple previous virological failures enable greater success of these methods in reducing the risk of subsequent treatment failures. PMID:22073250

  10. An Antiviral Defense Role of AGO2 in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Jagger J. W.; Lewsey, Mathew G.; Patel, Kanu; Westwood, Jack; Heimstädt, Susanne; Carr, John P.; Baulcombe, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Argonaute (AGO) proteins bind to small-interfering (si)RNAs and micro (mi)RNAs to target RNA silencing against viruses, transgenes and in regulation of mRNAs. Plants encode multiple AGO proteins but, in Arabidopsis, only AGO1 is known to have an antiviral role. Methodology/Principal Findings To uncover the roles of specific AGOs in limiting virus accumulation we inoculated turnip crinkle virus (TCV) to Arabidopsis plants that were mutant for each of the ten AGO genes. The viral symptoms on most of the plants were the same as on wild type plants although the ago2 mutants were markedly hyper-susceptible to this virus. ago2 plants were also hyper-susceptible to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), confirming that the antiviral role of AGO2 is not specific to a single virus. For both viruses, this phenotype was associated with transient increase in virus accumulation. In wild type plants the AGO2 protein was induced by TCV and CMV infection. Conclusions/Significance Based on these results we propose that there are multiple layers to RNA-mediated defense and counter-defense in the interactions between plants and their viruses. AGO1 represents a first layer. With some viruses, including TCV and CMV, this layer is overcome by viral suppressors of silencing that can target AGO1 and a second layer involving AGO2 limits virus accumulation. The second layer is activated when the first layer is suppressed because AGO2 is repressed by AGO1 via miR403. The activation of the second layer is therefore a direct consequence of the loss of the first layer of defense. PMID:21305057

  11. Curious discoveries in antiviral drug development: the role of serendipity.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik

    2015-07-01

    Antiviral drug development has often followed a curious meandrous route, guided by serendipity rather than rationality. This will be illustrated by ten examples. The polyanionic compounds (i) polyethylene alanine (PEA) and (ii) suramin were designed as an antiviral agent (PEA) or known as an antitrypanosomal agent (suramin), before they emerged as, respectively, a depilatory agent, or reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides (ddNs analogues) (iii) have been (and are still) used in the "Sanger" DNA sequencing technique, although they are now commercialized as nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in the treatment of HIV infections. (E)-5-(2-Bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (iv) was discovered as a selective anti-herpes simplex virus compound and is now primarily used for the treatment of varicella-zoster virus infections. The prototype of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine [(S)-HPMPA], (v) was never commercialized, although it gave rise to several marketed products (cidofovir, adefovir, and tenofovir). 1-[2-(Hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine (vi) and TIBO (tetrahydroimidazo[4,5,1-jk][1,4-benzodiazepin-2(1H)]-one and -thione) (vii) paved the way to a number of compounds (i.e., nevirapine, delavirdine, etravirine, and rilpivirine), which are now collectively called non-NRTIs. The bicyclam AMD3100 (viii) was originally described as an anti-HIV agent before it became later marketed as a stem cell mobilizer. The S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors (ix), while active against a broad range of (-)RNA viruses and poxviruses may be particularly effective against Ebola virus, and for (x) the O-ANP derivatives, the potential application range encompasses virtually all DNA viruses.

  12. Antiviral Natural Products Against Chronic Hepatitis B: Recent Developments.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Mohammad K; Arbab, Ahmed H; Al-Dosari, Mohammed S; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is inherently a hepatotropic virus that causes acute and chronic hepatitis in about one-third of world population. Of the estimated 360 million chronically infected individuals, more than one million die of liver cirrhosis, fulminant liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) every year. Though there is an effective vaccine available, failure to protection because of vaccine-escape viral mutants in some population is also reported. Moreover, all the currently approved antiviral drugs have their limitations, too. Interferon (IFN-α) has limited efficacy and a high incidence of adverse side-effects in a proportion of chronic patients. Nucleos(t)ide analogs like, lamivudine, adefovir, tenofovir and entecavir are very effective in treating chronic hepatitis B (CHB), but long-term therapy eventually leads to drug-resistance. As an alternative approach, natural or plant products have provided promising therapeutics in modern pharma industry. Owing to their characteristics of high chemical diversity and biochemical specificity, natural products offer great promises as potentially effective antiviral drugs. A broad spectrum of phytochemicals including flavonoids (e.g., Vogonin), terpenes (e.g., Artemisinin), alkaloids (e.g., Oxymatrine), polyphenolics (e.g., geraniin), saponins (e.g., Astragaloside IV) and lignans (e.g., Helioxanthin) has been isolated and investigated for anti-HBV activities in vitro as well as in vivo. Nevertheless, these promising compounds have different and overlapping mechanisms of action by either inhibiting viral antigens secretion or suppression of DNA replication. The present article reviews the recent developments in anti-HBV natural products.

  13. General pharmacology of the new antiviral agent SK 1899.

    PubMed

    Ryu, K H; Rhee, H I; Jung, I; Kim, T S; Lee, S J; Im, G J; Lee, N; Ryu, D H; Kim, Y W; Kim, J J; Chang, K; Lee, B H; Shin, H S; Kim, E J; Kim, K H; Kim, D K

    2000-04-01

    The general pharmacological properties of 2-amino-9-(3-acetoxymethyl-4-isopropoxycarbonyloxybut-1-yl)purine (CAS 247081-81-8, SK 1899), a new potential antiviral agent, were investigated in mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, and dogs. The oral administration of 50, 150, and 500 mg/kg of SK 1899 had no effects on the central nervous system except that it slightly increased the spontaneous locomotor activity in mice at a dose of 500 mg/kg. SK 1899 did not disturb either the spontaneous motility or contractor-induced contraction of the isolated organs such as guinea pig ileum, rat uterus, guinea pig vas deferens, and guinea pig trachea at concentrations up to 10(-4) mol/l. It slightly increased the contractile force in the isolated guinea pig atrium at a concentration of 10(-4) mol/l. Following intravenous infusion of 5, 15, and 50 mg/kg of SK 1899 to anesthetized dogs, it did not change the mean arterial pressure, heart rate, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), and respiratory rate, while it slightly increased the left ventricular positive dP/dtmax (LV + dP/dtmax) at a dose of 50 mg/kg. SK 1899 did not induce any significant changes in the intestinal charcoal meal transit in mice, basal gastric juice secretion in rats, and renal function in rats. It did not affect the blood coagulation system and phenolsulfonphthalein secretion in rats. These findings suggest that SK 1899 has a very low potential to induce any adverse pharmacological effects at the doses showing antiviral activity.

  14. Evasion of the interferon-mediated antiviral response by filoviruses.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Washington B

    2010-01-01

    The members of the filoviruses are recognized as some of the most lethal viruses affecting human and non-human primates. The only two genera of the Filoviridae family, Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus (EBOV), comprise the main etiologic agents of severe hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in central Africa, with case fatality rates ranging from 25 to 90%. Fatal outcomes have been associated with a late and dysregulated immune response to infection, very likely due to the virus targeting key host immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) that are necessary to mediate effective innate and adaptive immune responses. Despite major progress in the development of vaccine candidates for filovirus infections, a licensed vaccine or therapy for human use is still not available. During the last ten years, important progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms of filovirus pathogenesis. Several lines of evidence implicate the impairment of the host interferon (IFN) antiviral innate immune response by MARV or EBOV as an important determinant of virulence. In vitro and in vivo experimental infections with recombinant Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV), the best characterized filovirus, demonstrated that the viral protein VP35 plays a key role in inhibiting the production of IFN-α/β. Further, the action of VP35 is synergized by the inhibition of cellular responses to IFN-α/β by the minor matrix viral protein VP24. The dual action of these viral proteins may contribute to an efficient initial virus replication and dissemination in the host. Noticeably, the analogous function of these viral proteins in MARV has not been reported. Because the IFN response is a major component of the innate immune response to virus infection, this chapter reviews recent findings on the molecular mechanisms of IFN-mediated antiviral evasion by filovirus infection.

  15. Predictive factors associated with hepatitis C antiviral therapy response

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, Lourianne Nascimento; Lyra, André Castro

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may lead to significant liver injury, and viral, environmental, host, immunologic and genetic factors may contribute to the differences in the disease expression and treatment response. In the early 2000s, dual therapy using a combination of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (PR) became the standard of care for HCV treatment. In this PR era, predictive factors of therapy response related to virus and host have been identified. In 2010/2011, therapeutic regimens for HCV genotype 1 patients were modified, and the addition of NS3/4a protease inhibitors (boceprevir or telaprevir) to dual therapy increased the effectiveness and chances of sustained virologic response (SVR). Nevertheless, the first-generation triple therapy is associated with many adverse events, some of which are serious and associated with death, particularly in cirrhotic patients. This led to the need to identify viral and host predictive factors that might influence the SVR rate to triple therapy and avoid unnecessary exposure to these drugs. Over the past four years, hepatitis C treatment has been rapidly changing with the development of new therapies and other developments. Currently, with the more recent generations of pangenotipic antiviral therapies, there have been higher sustained virologic rates, and prognostic factors may not have the same importance and strength as before. Nonetheless, some variables may still be consistent with the low rates of non-response with regimens that include sofosbuvir, daclatasvir and ledipasvir. In this manuscript, we review the predictive factors of therapy response across the different treatment regimens over the last decade including the new antiviral drugs. PMID:26140082

  16. A case for developing antiviral drugs against polio.

    PubMed

    Collett, Marc S; Neyts, Johan; Modlin, John F

    2008-09-01

    Polio eradication is within sight. In bringing the world close to this ultimate goal, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has relied exclusively on the live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). However, as eradication nears, continued OPV use becomes less tenable due to the incidence of vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in vaccine recipients and disease caused by circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) in contacts. Once wild poliovirus transmission has been interrupted globally, OPV use will stop. This will leave the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) as the only weapon to defend a polio-free world. Outbreaks caused by cVDPVs are expected post-OPV cessation, and accidental or deliberate releases of virus could also occur. There are serious doubts regarding the ability of IPV alone to control outbreaks. Here, we argue that antiviral drugs against poliovirus be added to the arsenal. Anti-poliovirus drugs could be used to treat the infected and protect the exposed, acting rapidly on their own to contain an outbreak and used as a complement to IPV. While there are no polio antiviral drugs today, the technological feasibility of developing such drugs and their probability of clinical success have been established by over three decades of drug development targeting the related rhinoviruses and non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs). Because of this history, there are known compounds with anti-poliovirus activity in vitro that represent excellent starting points for polio drug development. Stakeholders must come to understand the potential public health benefits of polio drugs, the feasibility of their development, and the relatively modest costs involved. Given the timelines for eradication and those for drug development, the time for action is now.

  17. Monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Reisfeld, R.A.; Sell, S.

    1985-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on the subject of monoclonal antibodies. Topics include: Monoclonal antibody, biochemical effects and cancer therapeutic potential of tunicamycin, use of monoclonal antibodies for detection of lymph node metastases, active specific immunotherapy, and applications of monoclonal antibodies to investigations of growth factors.

  18. Potent single-domain antibodies that arrest respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein in its prefusion state

    PubMed Central

    Rossey, Iebe; Gilman, Morgan S. A.; Kabeche, Stephanie C.; Sedeyn, Koen; Wrapp, Daniel; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Chen, Man; Mas, Vicente; Spitaels, Jan; Melero, José A.; Graham, Barney S.; Schepens, Bert; McLellan, Jason S.; Saelens, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children. The RSV fusion protein (F) is highly conserved and is the only viral membrane protein that is essential for infection. The prefusion conformation of RSV F is considered the most relevant target for antiviral strategies because it is the fusion-competent form of the protein and the primary target of neutralizing activity present in human serum. Here, we describe two llama-derived single-domain antibodies (VHHs) that have potent RSV-neutralizing activity and bind selectively to prefusion RSV F with picomolar affinity. Crystal structures of these VHHs in complex with prefusion F show that they recognize a conserved cavity formed by two F protomers. In addition, the VHHs prevent RSV replication and lung infiltration of inflammatory monocytes and T cells in RSV-challenged mice. These prefusion F-specific VHHs represent promising antiviral agents against RSV. PMID:28194013

  19. The Complexity of a Dengue Vaccine: A Review of the Human Antibody Response.

    PubMed

    Flipse, Jacky; Smit, Jolanda M

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. Yet, there are no vaccines or specific antivirals available to prevent or treat the disease. Several dengue vaccines are currently in clinical or preclinical stages. The most advanced vaccine is the chimeric tetravalent CYD-TDV vaccine of Sanofi Pasteur. This vaccine has recently cleared Phase III, and efficacy results have been published. Excellent tetravalent seroconversion was seen, yet the protective efficacy against infection was surprisingly low. Here, we will describe the complicating factors involved in the generation of a safe and efficacious dengue vaccine. Furthermore, we will discuss the human antibody responses during infection, including the epitopes targeted in humans. Also, we will discuss the current understanding of the assays used to evaluate antibody response. We hope this review will aid future dengue vaccine development as well as fundamental research related to the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection.

  20. [New antibodies in cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Pestalozzi, B C; Knuth, A

    2004-09-22

    Since the development of hybridoma technology in 1975 monoclonal antibodies with pre-defined specificity can be produced. Only twenty years later did it become possible to make therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies in oncology. To this end it was necessary to attach the antigen-binding site of a mouse antibody onto the scaffold of a human antibody molecule. Such chimeric or "humanized" antibodies may be used in passive immunotherapy without eliciting an immune response. Rituximab and trastuzumab are such humanized antibodies. They are used today routinely in the treatment of malignant lymphoma and breast cancer, respectively. These antibodies are usually used in combination with conventional cytostatic anticancer drugs.

  1. Clinical responders to antiviral therapy of chronic HCV infection show elevated antiviral CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Vinodh; Lee, William M; Thiele, Dwain L; Karandikar, Nitin J

    2007-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by attenuated antiviral T-cell responses, making their detection and characterization a technological challenge. The role and the dynamics of antiviral T-cell responses during antiviral therapy are incompletely understood. To assess HCV-specific T-cell responses during antiviral therapy of genotype-1-infected patients, we adopted a flow cytometric approach to comprehensively evaluate virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferative responses against pools of genotype- and subtype-specific serial, overlapping peptides spanning the entire virus. Studies in cross-sectional cohorts of treatment-naïve (TN) patients , early and sustained clinical virological responders (EVRs and SVRs) or clinical nonresponders (NRs) showed that this proliferative assay had significantly greater sensitivity in detecting HCV-specific responses, compared with ex vivo cytokine flow cytometry. At the same time, it could be used to detect and quantify both CD4+ and CD8+ responses simultaneously. EVRs and SVRs showed significantly more HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ responses, compared with either TN patients or NRs. This corresponded to a higher magnitude of responses as well as a greater breadth of reactivity with higher responses against the core/E1, NS3, NS4 and NS5b regions of the virus. Interestingly, both clinical responders and NRs showed higher cytomegalovirus-specific CD4+ responses, compared with TN patients. These results demonstrate an association between clinically successful antiviral therapy and enhanced magnitude and breadth of antiviral responses. Moreover, the study demonstrates the clinical relevance of this flow cytometric proliferation assay system, in combination with an unbiased library of viral peptides, in evaluating the biology of antiviral T-cell responses during infection and therapy.

  2. Dysbiosis-induced IL-33 contributes to impaired antiviral immunity in the genital mucosa.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Eun; Kim, Byoung-Chan; Chang, Dong-Ho; Kwon, Meehyang; Lee, Sun Young; Kang, Dukjin; Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, Inhwa; Yu, Je-Wook; Nakae, Susumu; Lee, Heung Kyu

    2016-02-09

    Commensal microbiota are well known to play an important role in antiviral immunity by providing immune inductive signals; however, the consequence of dysbiosis on antiviral immunity remains unclear. We demonstrate that dysbiosis caused by oral antibiotic treatment directly impairs antiviral immunity following viral infection of the vaginal mucosa. Antibiotic-treated mice succumbed to mucosal herpes simplex virus type 2 infection more rapidly than water-fed mice, and also showed delayed viral clearance at the site of infection. However, innate immune responses, including type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokine production at infection sites, as well as induction of virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses in draining lymph nodes, were not impaired in antibiotic-treated mice. By screening the factors controlling antiviral immunity, we found that IL-33, an alarmin released in response to tissue damage, was secreted from vaginal epithelium after the depletion of commensal microbiota. This cytokine suppresses local antiviral immunity by blocking the migration of effector T cells to the vaginal tissue, thereby inhibiting the production of IFN-γ, a critical cytokine for antiviral defense, at local infection sites. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms of homeostasis maintained by commensal bacteria, and reveal a deleterious consequence of dysbiosis in antiviral immune defense.

  3. Antiviral activity of ginsenosides against coxsackievirus B3, enterovirus 71, and human rhinovirus 3

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-Hyoung; Choi, Hwa-Jung; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Hong, Eun-Hye; Lee, Bo-Ra; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Choi, Kwangman; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Lee, Yong-Pyo; Cho, Sungchan; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Background Ginsenosides are the major components responsible for the biochemical and pharmacological actions of ginseng, and have been shown to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activities of seven ginsenosides [protopanaxatriol (PT) type: Re, Rf, and Rg2; protopanaxadiol (PD) type: Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd)] against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and human rhinovirus 3 (HRV3). Methods Assays of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the sulforhodamine B method using the cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Results The antiviral assays demonstrated that, of the seven ginsenosides, the PT-type ginsenosides (Re, Rf, and Rg2) possess significant antiviral activities against CVB3 and HRV3 at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Among the PT-type ginsenosides, only ginsenoside Rg2 showed significant anti-EV71 activity with no cytotoxicity to cells at 100 μg/mL. The PD-type ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd), by contrast, did not show any significant antiviral activity against CVB3, EV71, and HRV3, and exhibited cytotoxic effects to virus-infected cells. Notably, the antiviral efficacies of PT-type ginsenosides were comparable to those of ribavirin, a commonly used antiviral drug. Conclusion Collectively, our findings suggest that the ginsenosides Re, Rf, and Rg2 have the potential to be effective in the treatment of CVB3, EV71, and HRV3 infection. PMID:25378991

  4. Antiviral activity of silver nanoparticle/chitosan composites against H1N1 influenza A virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yasutaka; Ono, Takeshi; Miyahira, Yasushi; Nguyen, Vinh Quang; Matsui, Takemi; Ishihara, Masayuki

    2013-02-01

    Silver nanoparticle (Ag NP)/chitosan (Ch) composites with antiviral activity against H1N1 influenza A virus were prepared. The Ag NP/Ch composites were obtained as yellow or brown floc-like powders following reaction at room temperature in aqueous medium. Ag NPs (3.5, 6.5, and 12.9 nm average diameters) were embedded into the chitosan matrix without aggregation or size alternation. The antiviral activity of the Ag NP/Ch composites was evaluated by comparing the TCID50 ratio of viral suspensions treated with the composites to untreated suspensions. For all sizes of Ag NPs tested, antiviral activity against H1N1 influenza A virus increased as the concentration of Ag NPs increased; chitosan alone exhibited no antiviral activity. Size dependence of the Ag NPs on antiviral activity was also observed: antiviral activity was generally stronger with smaller Ag NPs in the composites. These results indicate that Ag NP/Ch composites interacting with viruses exhibit antiviral activity.

  5. Human antibody technology and the development of antibodies against cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Ohlin, Mats; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia

    2015-10-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a virus that causes chronic infections in a large set of the population. It may cause severe disease in immunocompromised individuals, is linked to immunosenescence and implied to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Modulation of the immune system's abilities to manage the virus represent a highly viable therapeutic option and passive immunotherapy with polyclonal antibody preparations is already in clinical use. Defined monoclonal antibodies offer many advantages over polyclonal antibodies purified from serum. Human CMV-specific monoclonal antibodies have consequently been thoroughly investigated with respect to their potential in the treatment of diseases caused by CMV. Recent advances in human antibody technology have substantially expanded the breadth of antibodies for such applications. This review summarizes the fundamental basis for treating CMV disease by use of antibodies, the basic technologies to be used to develop such antibodies, and relevant human antibody specificities available to target this virus.

  6. Structure of a Human Astrovirus Capsid-Antibody Complex and Mechanistic Insights into Virus Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanoff, Walter A.; Campos, Jocelyn; Perez, Edmundo I.; Yin, Lu; Alexander, David L.; DuBois, Rebecca M.; López, Susana

    2016-11-02

    ABSTRACT

    Human astroviruses (HAstVs) are a leading cause of viral diarrhea in young children, the immunocompromised, and the elderly. There are no vaccines or antiviral therapies against HAstV disease. Several lines of evidence point to the presence of protective antibodies in healthy adults as a mechanism governing protection against reinfection by HAstV. However, development of anti-HAstV therapies is hampered by the gap in knowledge of protective antibody epitopes on the HAstV capsid surface. Here, we report the structure of the HAstV capsid spike domain bound to the neutralizing monoclonal antibody PL-2. The antibody uses all six complementarity-determining regions to bind to a quaternary epitope on each side of the dimeric capsid spike. We provide evidence that the HAstV capsid spike is a receptor-binding domain and that the antibody neutralizes HAstV by blocking virus attachment to cells. We identify patches of conserved amino acids that overlap the antibody epitope and may comprise a receptor-binding site. Our studies provide a foundation for the development of therapies to prevent and treat HAstV diarrheal disease.

    IMPORTANCEHuman astroviruses (HAstVs) infect nearly every person in the world during childhood and cause diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. Despite the prevalence of this virus, little is known about how antibodies in healthy adults protect them against reinfection. Here, we determined the crystal structure of a complex of the HAstV capsid protein and a virus-neutralizing antibody. We show that the antibody binds to the outermost spike domain of the capsid, and we provide evidence that the antibody blocks virus attachment to human cells. Importantly, our findings suggest that a subunit-based vaccine focusing the immune system on the HAstV capsid spike domain could be effective in protecting children against HAstV disease.

  7. Surfactant-Modified Nanoclay Exhibits an Antiviral Activity with High Potency and Broad Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jian-Jong; Wei, Jiun-Chiou; Lee, Yi-Ling; Lin, Jiang-Jen

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nanomaterials have the characteristics associated with high surface-to-volume ratios and have been explored for their antiviral activity. Despite some success, cytotoxicity has been an issue in nanomaterial-based antiviral strategies. We previously developed a novel method to fully exfoliate montmorillonite clay to generate the most fundamental units of nanoscale silicate platelet (NSP). We further modified NSP by capping with various surfactants and found that the surfactant-modified NSP (NSQ) was less cytotoxic. In this study, we tested the antiviral potentials of a series of natural-clay-derived nanomaterials. Among the derivatives, NSP modified with anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (NSQc), but not the pristine clay, unmodified NSP, a silver nanoparticle-NSP hybrid, NSP modified with cationic n-octadecanylamine hydrochloride salt, or NSP modified with nonionic Triton X-100, significantly suppressed the plaque-forming ability of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) at noncytotoxic concentrations. NSQc also blocked infection with dengue virus (DEN) and influenza A virus. Regarding the antiviral mechanism, NSQc interfered with viral binding through electrostatic interaction, since its antiviral activity can be neutralized by Polybrene, a cationic polymer. Furthermore, NSQc reduced the lethality of JEV and DEN infection in mouse challenge models. Thus, the surfactant-modified exfoliated nanoclay NSQc may be a novel nanomaterial with broad and potent antiviral activity. IMPORTANCE Nanomaterials have being investigated as antimicrobial agents, yet their antiviral potential is overshadowed by their cytotoxicity. By using a novel method, we fully exfoliated montmorillonite clay to generate the most fundamental units of nanoscale silicate platelet (NSP). Here, we show that the surfactant-modified NSP (NSQ) is less cytotoxic and that NSQc (NSP modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate) could potently block infection by dengue virus (DEN), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV

  8. The antiviral effect of human interferon alpha is dependent on phosphoinositide-derived messengers.

    PubMed

    Cernescu, C; Constantinescu, S N; Baltă, F; Popescu, L M

    1988-01-01

    Neomycin the putative blocker of membrane polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis, inhibited the antiviral activity of human interferon alpha, when tested on human quiescent fibroblasts challenged with vesicular stomatitis virus. The anti-interferon effect of neomycin could be correlated in terms of dose dependence for both neomycin (0.05-1 mM) and interferon (100-5,000 IU/ml). The results suggest that the antiviral activity of interferon alpha depends on diacylglycerol formation. Indeed, the synthetic diacylglycerol (50 microM) was as effective as 100 IU/ml interferon in inducing the antiviral state.

  9. [Effectiveness and safety of antiviral therapy of military personnel suffering from chronic hepatitis C].

    PubMed

    Zhdanov, K V; Gusev, D A; Kozlov, K V; Shishkin, M K; Sukachev, V S; Shakhmanov, D M; Zhabrov, S S

    2015-04-01

    In order to evaluate effectiveness and safety of antiviral therapy schemes examined and treated 191 patients with chronic bepatitis C were assigned standard interferon and ribavirin, pegslated interferon and ribavirin, the total duration of the course coput 24-48 weeks. Based on clinical and laboratory parameters evaluated the safety of antiviral therapy. Formation of sustainable viral response, depending on the genotype observed, was given at 58,9-70%.of patients. In case of insufficient. antiviral therapy was prescribed a second course that will improve the effectiveness of treatment to 90-95%. Correction of adverse events was held lower dosages of interferon and/or ribavirin.

  10. Defense and counterdefense in the RNAi-based antiviral immune system in insects.

    PubMed

    van Mierlo, Joël T; van Cleef, Koen W R; van Rij, Ronald P

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an important pathway to combat virus infections in insects and plants. Hallmarks of antiviral RNAi in these organisms are: (1) an increase in virus replication after inactivation of major actors in the RNAi pathway, (2) production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (v-siRNAs), and (3) suppression of RNAi by dedicated viral proteins. In this chapter, we will review the mechanism of RNAi in insects, its function as an antiviral immune system, viral small RNA profiles, and viral counterdefense strategies. We will also consider alternative, inducible antiviral immune responses.

  11. Antiviral therapy in compensated and decompensated cirrhotic patients with chronic HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Iacobellis, Angelo; Andriulli, Angelo

    2009-08-01

    Liver cirrhosis secondary to HCV infection is a chronic disorder that carries high morbidity and mortality. Approved antiviral treatment for this condition at present includes peginterferon in combination with ribavirin. Treatment is only recommended for a well-compensated liver cirrhosis, whereas antiviral therapy is commonly not implemented in cirrhotics with signs of liver decompensation, over the concern that the use of peginterferon and ribavirin might expose patients to severe treatment-related side effects. This review focuses on data available to support both efficacy and safety of antiviral therapy in both compensated and decompensated cirrhotic patients.

  12. The antiviral and antimicrobial activities of licorice, a widely-used Chinese herb

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqiang; Yang, Rui; Yuan, Bochuan; Liu, Ying; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    Licorice is a common herb which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. More than 20 triterpenoids and nearly 300 flavonoids have been isolated from licorice. Recent studies have shown that these metabolites possess many pharmacological activities, such as antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and other activities. This paper provides a summary of the antiviral and antimicrobial activities of licorice. The active components and the possible mechanisms for these activities are summarized in detail. This review will be helpful for the further studies of licorice for its potential therapeutic effects as an antiviral or an antimicrobial agent. PMID:26579460

  13. Rapid induction and persistence of paracrine-induced cellular antiviral states arrest viral infection spread in A549 cells

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Emily A; Swick, Adam; Yin, John

    2016-01-01

    The virus/host interaction is a complex interplay between pro- and anti-viral factors that ultimately determines the spread or halt of virus infections in tissues. This interplay develops over multiple rounds of infection. The purpose of this study was to determine how cellular-level processes combine to impact the spatial spread of infection. We measured the kinetics of virus replication (VSV), antiviral paracrine signal upregulation and secretion, spatial spread of virus and paracrine antiviral signaling, and inhibition of virus production in antiviral-exposed A549 human lung epithelial cells. We found that initially infected cells released antiviral signals 4-to-7 hours following production of virus. However, the subsequent rapid dissemination of signal and fast induction of a robust and persistent antiviral state ultimately led to a suppression of infection spread. This work shows how cellular responses to infection and activation of antiviral responses can integrate to ultimately control infection spread across host cell populations. PMID:27254596

  14. Progress in the development of poliovirus antiviral agents and their essential role in reducing risks that threaten eradication.

    PubMed

    McKinlay, Mark A; Collett, Marc S; Hincks, Jeffrey R; Oberste, M Steven; Pallansch, Mark A; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Sutter, Roland W; Modlin, John F; Dowdle, Walter R

    2014-11-01

    Chronic prolonged excretion of vaccine-derived polioviruses by immunodeficient persons (iVDPV) presents a personal risk of poliomyelitis to the patient as well as a programmatic risk of delayed global eradication. Poliovirus antiviral drugs offer the only mitigation of these risks. Antiviral agents may also have a potential role in the management of accidental exposures and in certain outbreak scenarios. Efforts to discover and develop poliovirus antiviral agents have been ongoing in earnest since the formation in 2007 of the Poliovirus Antivirals Initiative. The most advanced antiviral, pocapavir (V-073), is a capsid inhibitor that has recently demonstrated activity in an oral poliovirus vaccine human challenge model. Additional antiviral candidates with differing mechanisms of action continue to be profiled and evaluated preclinically with the goal of having 2 antivirals available for use in combination to treat iVDPV excreters.

  15. Polyreactive Antibodies: Function and Quantification.

    PubMed

    Gunti, Sreenivasulu; Notkins, Abner Louis

    2015-07-15

    Polyreactive antibodies, a major component of the natural antibody repertoire, bind with low affinity to a variety of structurally unrelated antigens. Many of these antibodies are germline or near germline in sequence. Little is known, however, about the function of these antibodies. In the present mini-review we show: (1) that the broad antibacterial activity of the natural antibody repertoire is largely due to polyreactive antibodies, which in the presence of complement lyse bacteria and enhance phagocytosis; (2) that polyreactive antibodies bind to UV- or human immunodeficiency virus-induced apoptotic cells and with complement enhance the phagocytosis of these cells by macrophages; and (3) that dinitrophenol can be used as a surrogate for quantitating the level of polyreactive antibodies in serum. We conclude that polyreactive antibodies protect the host against both foreign invaders and its own damaged/apoptotic cells.

  16. TLR-9 Contributes to the Antiviral Innate Immune Sensing of Rodent Parvoviruses MVMp and H-1PV by Normal Human Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Raykov, Zahari; Grekova, Svitlana P.; Hörlein, Rita; Leuchs, Barbara; Giese, Thomas; Giese, Nathalia A.; Rommelaere, Jean; Zawatzky, Rainer; Daeffler, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The oncotropism of Minute Virus of Mice (MVMp) is partially related to the stimulation of an antiviral response mediated by type-I interferons (IFNs) in normal but not in transformed mouse cells. The present work was undertaken to assess whether the oncotropism displayed against human cells by MVMp and its rat homolog H-1PV also depends on antiviral mechanisms and to identify the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) involved. Despite their low proliferation rate which represents a drawback for parvovirus multiplication, we used human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) as normal model specifically because all known PRRs are functional in this mixed cell population and moreover because some of its subsets are among the main IFN producers upon infections in mammals. Human transformed models consisted in lines and tumor cells more or less permissive to both parvoviruses. Our results show that irrespective of their permissiveness, transformed cells do not produce IFNs nor develop an antiviral response upon parvovirus infection. However, MVMp- or H-1PV-infected hPBMCs trigger such defense mechanisms despite an absence of parvovirus replication and protein expression, pointing to the viral genome as the activating element. Substantial reduction of an inhibitory oligodeoxynucleotide (iODN) of the latter IFN production identified TLR-9 as a potential PRR for parvoviruses in hPBMCs. However, neither the iODN treatment nor an antibody-induced neutralization of the IFN-triggered effects restored parvovirus multiplication in these cells as expected by their weak proliferation in culture. Finally, given that a TLR-9 activation could also not be observed in parvovirus-infected human lines reported to be endowed with a functional TLR-9 pathway (Namalwa, Raji, and HEK293-TLR9+/+), our data suggest that transformed human cells do not sense MVMp or H-1PV either because of an absence of PRR expression or an intrinsic, or virus-driven defect in the endosomal sensing of the

  17. Antibody decoration of neurofilaments

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    We have decorated neurofilaments with antibodies against three polypeptides (designated here as H [mol wt = 195,000], 45[mol wt = 145,000], and 46[mol wt = 73,000]) in an effort to understand the arrangement of these polypeptides within neurofilaments. The three polypeptides were purified and antibodies were raised against each. The cross-reactivity of the antibodies suggested that each polypeptide contains both shared and unique antigenic determinants. The differential reactivities of each antibody preparation were enhanced by adsorption with the two heterologous polypeptides, and the resulting preparations were used to decorate purified neurofilaments, which were then negatively stained and examined in an electron microscope. The appearance of the antibody-decorated structures led to the following conclusions: All three polypeptides are physically associated with the same neurofilament. However, the disposition of H and 46 within a filament is different; 46 antigens appear to be associated with a "central core" of the filament, whereas H antigens compose a structure more loosely and peripherally attached to the central core and periodically arranged along its axis. The antibody-decorated H- containing structure assumes variable configurations; in some cases it appears asa bridge connecting two filaments; in other cases it appears as a helix wrapping the central core with a period of approximately 1,000 A and an apparent unit length of approximately 1.5 periods. These configurations suggest several functional implications, including the possibility that H is a component of the cross-bridges observed between filaments in situ. We also note that the central core-helix relationship could be used in the design of an intracellular transport motor. PMID:6788775

  18. Sulfated polysaccharides extracted from sea algae as potential antiviral drugs.

    PubMed

    Witvrouw, M; De Clercq, E

    1997-10-01

    The inhibitory effects of polyanionic substances on the replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and other viruses were reported almost four decades ago. However, these observations did not generate much interest, because the antiviral action of the compounds was considered to be largely nonspecific. Shortly after the identification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the causative agent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1984, heparin and other sulfated polysaccharides were found to be potent and selective inhibitors of HIV-1 replication in cell culture. Since 1988, the activity spectrum of the sulfated polysaccharides has been shown to extend to various enveloped viruses, including viruses that emerge as opportunistic pathogens (e.g., herpes simplex virus [HSV] and cytomegalovirus [CMV]) in immunosuppressed (e.g., AIDS) patients. As potential anti-HIV drug candidates, sulfated polysaccharides offer a number of promising features. They are able to block HIV replication in cell culture at concentrations as low as 0.1 to 0.01 microgram ml-1 without toxicity to the host cells at concentrations up to 2.5 mg ml-1. We noted that some polysulfates show a differential inhibitory activity against different HIV strains, suggesting that marked differences exist in the target molecules with which polysulfates interact. They not only inhibit the cytopathic effect of HIV, but also prevent HIV-induced syncytium (giant cell) formation. Furthermore, experiments carried out with dextran sulfate samples of increasing molecular weight and with sulfated cyclodextrins of different degrees of sulfation have shown that antiviral activity increases with increasing molecular weight and degree of sulfation. A sugar backbone is not strictly needed for the anti-HIV activity of polysulfates because sulfated polymers composed of a carbon-carbon backbone have also proved to be highly efficient anti-HIV agents in vitro. Other, yet to be defined, structural features may

  19. Commercially available antibodies against human and murine histamine H₄-receptor lack specificity.

    PubMed

    Beermann, Silke; Seifert, Roland; Neumann, Detlef

    2012-02-01

    Antibodies are important tools to detect expression and localization of proteins within the living cell. However, for a series of commercially available antibodies which are supposed to recognize G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), lack of specificity has been described. In recent publications, antisera against the histamine H₄-receptor (H₄R), which is a member of the GPCR family, have been used to demonstrate receptor expression. However, a comprehensive characterization of these antisera has not been performed yet. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to evaluate the specificity of three commercially available H₄R antibodies. Sf9 insect cells and HEK293 cells expressing recombinant murine and human H₄R, spleen cells obtained from H₄⁻/⁻ and from wild-type mice, and human CD20⁺ and CD20⁻ peripheral blood cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blot using three commercially available H₄R antibodies. Our results show that all tested H₄R antibodies bind to virtually all cells, independently of the expression of H₄R, thus in an unspecific fashion. Also in Western blot, the H₄R antibodies do not bind to the specified protein. Our data underscore the importance of stringent evaluation of antibodies using valid controls, such as cells of H₄R⁻/⁻ mice, to show true receptor expression and antigen specificity. Improved validation of commercially available antibodies prior to release to the market would avoid time-consuming and expensive validation assays by the user.

  20. Stimulation of the primary anti-HIV antibody response by IFN-{alpha} in patients with acute HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Godot, Véronique; Colin, Céline; Krzysiek, Roman; Tran, Thi; Poignard, Pascal; Venet, Alain; Hosmalin, Anne; Lebon, Pierre; Rouzioux, Christine; Chêne, Geneviève; Emilie, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Type I IFNs are needed for the production of antiviral antibodies in mice; whether they also stimulate primary antibody responses in vivo during human viral infections is unknown. This was assessed in patients acutely infected with HIV-1 and treated with IFN-α2b. Patients with acute HIV-1 infection were randomized to receive anti-retroviral therapy alone (Group A, n=60) or combined for 14 weeks with pegylated-IFN-α2b (Group B, n=30). Emergence of anti-HIV antibodies was monitored during 32 weeks by Western blot (WB) analyses of serum samples. IFN-α2b treatment stimulated the production of anti-HIV antibodies. On Week 32, 19 weeks after the last IFN-α2b administration, there were 8.5 (6.5–10.0) HIV WB bands (median, interquartile range) in Group B and 7.0 (5.0–10.0) bands in Group A (P=0.054), and band intensities were stronger in Group B (P<0.05 for p18, p24, p34, p40, and p55 HIV antigens). IFN-α2b treatment also increased circulating concentrations of the B cell-activating factor of the TNF family (P<0.001) and ex vivo production of IL-12 (P<0.05), reflecting its effect on innate immune cells. Withdrawal of antiretroviral treatment on Week 36 resulted in a lower rebound of HIV replication in Group B than in Group A (P<0.05). Therefore, type I IFNs stimulate the emerging anti-HIV immune response in patients with acute HIV-1 infection, resulting in an improved control of HIV replication. Type I IFNs are thus critical in the development of efficient antiviral immune responses in humans, including the production of antiviral antibodies. PMID:18182457

  1. Stimulation of the primary anti-HIV antibody response by IFN-alpha in patients with acute HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Adalid-Peralta, Laura; Godot, Véronique; Colin, Céline; Krzysiek, Roman; Tran, Thi; Poignard, Pascal; Venet, Alain; Hosmalin, Anne; Lebon, Pierre; Rouzioux, Christine; Chene, Genevieve; Emilie, Dominique

    2008-04-01

    Type I IFNs are needed for the production of antiviral antibodies in mice; whether they also stimulate primary antibody responses in vivo during human viral infections is unknown. This was assessed in patients acutely infected with HIV-1 and treated with IFN-alpha2b. Patients with acute HIV-1 infection were randomized to receive antiretroviral therapy alone (Group A, n=60) or combined for 14 weeks with pegylated-IFN-alpha2b (Group B, n=30). Emergence of anti-HIV antibodies was monitored during 32 weeks by Western blot (WB) analyses of serum samples. IFN-alpha2b treatment stimulated the production of anti-HIV antibodies. On Week 32, 19 weeks after the last IFN-alpha2b administration, there were 8.5 (6.5-10.0) HIV WB bands (median, interquartile range) in Group B and 7.0 (5.0-10.0) bands in Group A (P=0.054), and band intensities were stronger in Group B (P<0.05 for p18, p24, p34, p40, and p55 HIV antigens). IFN-alpha2b treatment also increased circulating concentrations of the B cell-activating factor of the TNF family (P<0.001) and ex vivo production of IL-12 (P<0.05), reflecting its effect on innate immune cells. Withdrawal of antiretroviral treatment on Week 36 resulted in a lower rebound of HIV replication in Group B than in Group A (P<0.05). Therefore, type I IFNs stimulate the emerging anti-HIV immune response in patients with acute HIV-1 infection, resulting in an improved control of HIV replication. Type I IFNs are thus critical in the development of efficient antiviral immune responses in humans, including the production of antiviral antibodies.

  2. Topology of the disulfide bonds in the antiviral lectin scytovirin

    PubMed Central

    Moulaei, Tinoush; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew; Yuan, Weirong; Pohl, Jan; Lu, Wuyuan; Haugh-Krumpe, Lauren; O'Keefe, Barry R; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The antiviral lectin scytovirin (SVN) contains a total of five disulfide bonds in two structurally similar domains. Previous reports provided contradictory results on the disulfide pairing in each individual domain, and we have now re-examined the disulfide topology. N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry were used to analyze proteolytic fragments of native SVN obtained at acidic pH, yielding the assignment as Cys7–Cys55, Cys20–Cys32, Cys26–Cys38, Cys68–Cys80, and Cys74–Cys86. We also analyzed the N-terminal domain of SVN (SD1, residues 1–48) prepared by expression/oxidative folding of the recombinant protein and by chemical synthesis. The disulfide pairing in the chemically synthesized SD1 was forced into predetermined topologies: SD1A (Cys20–Cys26, Cys32–Cys38) or SD1B (Cys20–Cys32, Cys26–Cys38). The topology of native SVN was found to be in agreement with the SD1B and the one determined for the recombinant SD1 domain. Although the two synthetic forms of SD1 were distinct when subjected to chromatography, their antiviral properties were indistinguishable, having low nM activity against HIV. Tryptic fragments, the “cystine clusters” [Cys20–Cys32/Cys26–Cys38; SD1] and [Cys68–Cys80/Cys74–C-86; SD2], were found to undergo rapid disulfide interchange at pH 8. This interchange resulted in accumulation of artifactual fragments in alkaline pH digests that are structurally unrelated to the original topology, providing a rational explanation for the differences between the topology reported herein and the one reported earlier (Bokesh et al., Biochemistry 2003;42:2578–2584). Our observations emphasize the fact that proteins such as SVN, with disulfide bonds in close proximity, require considerable precautions when being fragmented for the purpose of disulfide assignment. PMID:20572021

  3. Clinical development of monoclonal antibody-based drugs in HIV and HCV diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Today there are many licensed antiviral drugs, but the emergence of drug resistant strains sometimes invalidates the effects of the current therapies used in the treatment of infectious diseases. Compared to conventional antiviral drugs, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) used as pharmacological molecules have particular physical characteristics and modes of action, and, therefore, they should be considered as a distinct therapeutic class. Despite being historically validated, antibodies may represent a novel tool for combatting infectious diseases. The current high cost of mAbs' production, storage and administration (by injection only) and the consequent obstacles to development are outweighed by mAbs' clinical advantages. These are related to a low toxicity combined with high specificity and versatility, which allows a specific antibody to mediate various biological effects, ranging from the virus neutralization mechanisms to the modulation of immune responses. This review briefly summarizes the recent technological advances in the field of immunoglobulin research, and the current status of mAb-based drugs in clinical trials for HIV and HCV diseases. For each clinical trial the available data are reported and the emerging conceptual problems of the employed mAbs are highlighted. This overview helps to give a clear picture of the efficacy and challenges of the mAbs in the field of these two infectious diseases which have such a global impact. PMID:23289632

  4. THE MASKING EFFECT OF EXTRAVASATED ANTIBODY ON THE RABBIT PAPILLOMA VIRUS (SHOPE)

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, John G.

    1939-01-01

    The foregoing experiments have shown that the causative virus is usually "masked" in the large, disorderly, fissured and inflamed papillomas of cottontails when antiviral antibody is present in quantity in their blood, though virus can be recovered as a rule from the smaller, discrete, well ordered papillomas of these rabbits, almost irrespective of the amount of antibody in the blood of the individuals bearing them. Other findings are described which indicate that the masking of the virus in the large fissured growths is due to serum antibody present in them as result of exudation or hemorrhage, which neutralizes the virus when the growths are extracted or preserved in vitro. The local conditions that favor extravasation of serum (and the accumulation of antibody) prevail as a rule in the large, confluent growths arising after virus has been sown broadcast on scarified skin, but to lesser extent or not at all in the discrete papillomas that occur naturally or as result of tattoo inoculation. The state of affairs is notably different in the papillomas of domestic rabbits. The virus is regularly masked in these, and usually masked completely, even when there is little antibody in the blood and the local conditions do not favor its extravasation into the growths. The findings indicate that something other than antibody is primarily responsible for the masking in this species. PMID:19870932

  5. Autoreactivity of primary human immunoglobulins ancestral to hypermutated human antibodies that neutralize HCMV.

    PubMed

    McLean, Gary R; Cho, Chin-wen; Schrader, John W

    2006-05-01

    The human antibody response to the AD-2S1 epitope of glycoprotein B (gB) of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is dominated by a family of closely related somatically mutated antibodies. These antibodies neutralize viral infectivity and the genes encoding them are derived from two commonly used germ-line variable (V) region genes, IGHV3-30 and IGKV3-11. Recombination of these V genes with the appropriate junctional diversity generates genes that encode primary immunoglobulins that bind to AD-2S1. To further understand the initial primary immunoglobulin response to AD-2S1 we synthesized the germ-line-based ancestor of one such family of antibodies and showed that it bound gB at the AD-2S1 epitope. Here we show that the germ-line ancestor of a second family of antibodies likewise binds to gB. We further show that one of the ancestral primary immunoglobulins, but not the other, also recognized autoantigens. In contrast, the hypermutated derivatives did not demonstrate autoreactivity and minor structural changes in the primary immunoglobulin were sufficient to generate or abolish autoreactivity or to change specificity. Thus, our demonstration that the ancestor of a highly mutated, non-autoreactive antiviral IgG antibody binds nuclear and cell-surface autoantigens indicates for the first time that self-reactivity is not necessarily a barrier to development into a follicular B lymphocyte that undergoes antigen-initiated affinity maturation.

  6. Prophylaxis and therapy of pandemic H1N1 virus infection using egg yolk antibody.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan-e; Wen, Junlin; Zhao, Suqing; Zhang, Kun; Zhou, Yingliang

    2014-09-01

    Influenza A virus infects the human respiratory system and causes acute and fatal pulmonary diseases. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains highlights the need for alternative therapeutic approaches. In this work, IgY antibody was raised in immunized laying hens, and its antiviral activity was evaluated in the context of passive immunization. With inactivated whole H1N1 virus, high-titer IgY antibody 9.18 mg/mL egg yolk was induced by the eighth week after immunization. Western blotting and the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test demonstrated that the IgY antibody could specifically bind the neuraminidase and hemagglutinin of the H1N1 virus. In the plaque reduction assay, the IgY antibody reduced the H1N1 viral infection in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells. In a mouse model, the anti-H1N1 IgY antibody exhibited in vivo protection by reducing the infectious titer of the virus in the lung while maintaining the weight and normal structure of the lung tissue. Additionally, the anti-H1N1 IgY antibody exhibited protective activity comparable to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. These results demonstrated that IgY can be easily produced and can offers an effective alternative approach for influenza control.

  7. Photo-distributed lichenoid eruption secondary to direct anti-viral therapy for hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Cory L; McCausland, Drew; Chu, Emily Y

    2015-10-01

    Novel direct anti-viral agents are emerging as effective treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and provide an alternative to the year-long standard therapy with interferon and ribavirin. However, cutaneous side effects from these new medications, including rash, pruritus and photosensitivity, are among the most commonly reported adverse events and have resulted in therapy discontinuation in some cases. Here, we report two cases of a photo-distributed lichenoid eruption that occurred within 1  month of starting anti-viral therapy with simeprevir and sofosbuvir without interferon or ribavirin. This report provides the first histologic description of the cutaneous eruption associated with direct anti-viral therapy for HCV and highlights the importance of recognizing and treating the often intolerable dermatologic side effects of these novel medications, the incidence of which is likely to increase as direct anti-viral agents may become the standard of care for HCV.

  8. TRIMmunity: The roles of the TRIM E3-ubiquitin ligase family in innate antiviral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Rajsbaum, Ricardo; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Versteeg, Gijs A.

    2014-01-01

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins have been implicated in multiple cellular functions, including antiviral activity. Research efforts so far indicate that the antiviral activity of TRIMs relies, for the most part, on their function as E3-ubiquitin ligases. A substantial number of the TRIM-family members have been demonstrated to mediate innate immune cell signal transduction and subsequent cytokine induction. In addition, a subset of TRIMs has been shown to restrict viral replication by directly targeting viral proteins. Although the body of work on the cellular roles of TRIM E3 ubiquitin ligases has rapidly grown over the last years, many aspects of their molecular workings and multi-functionality remain unclear. The antiviral function of many TRIMs seems to be conferred by specific isoforms, sub-cellular localization, and in cell-type specific contexts. Here we review recent findings on TRIM antiviral functions, current limitations and an outlook for future research. PMID:24333484

  9. New Study Shows Clinicians Under-Prescribing Flu Antiviral Drugs and Possibly Overprescribing Antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Under-Prescribing Flu Antiviral Drugs and Possibly Overprescribing Antibiotics Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... medications. In contrast, clinicians may have overprescribed common antibiotics. The authors of the study concluded that more ...

  10. A human genome-wide loss-of-function screen identifies effective chikungunya antiviral drugs

    PubMed Central

    Karlas, Alexander; Berre, Stefano; Couderc, Thérèse; Varjak, Margus; Braun, Peter; Meyer, Michael; Gangneux, Nicolas; Karo-Astover, Liis; Weege, Friderike; Raftery, Martin; Schönrich, Günther; Klemm, Uwe; Wurzlbauer, Anne; Bracher, Franz; Merits, Andres; Meyer, Thomas F.; Lecuit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally spreading alphavirus against which there is no commercially available vaccine or therapy. Here we use a genome-wide siRNA screen to identify 156 proviral and 41 antiviral host factors affecting CHIKV replication. We analyse the cellular pathways in which human proviral genes are involved and identify druggable targets. Twenty-one small-molecule inhibitors, some of which are FDA approved, targeting six proviral factors or pathways, have high antiviral activity in vitro, with low toxicity. Three identified inhibitors have prophylactic antiviral effects in mouse models of chikungunya infection. Two of them, the calmodulin inhibitor pimozide and the fatty acid synthesis inhibitor TOFA, have a therapeutic effect in vivo when combined. These results demonstrate the value of loss-of-function screening and pathway analysis for the rational identification of small molecules with therapeutic potential and pave the way for the development of new, host-directed, antiviral agents. PMID:27177310

  11. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by canine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pei; Fu, Xinliang; Yan, Zhongshan; Fang, Bo; Huang, San; Fu, Cheng; Hong, Malin; Li, Shoujun

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 causes significant viral disease in dogs, with high morbidity, high infectivity, and high mortality. Lithium chloride is a potential antiviral drug for viruses. We determined the antiviral effect of Lithium Chloride on canine parvovirus type 2 in feline kidney cells. The viral DNA and proteins of canine parvovirus were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. Further investigation verified that viral entry into cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. These results indicated that lithium chloride could be a potential antiviral drug for curing dogs with canine parvovirus infection. The specific steps of canine parvovirus entry into cells that are affected by lithium chloride and its antiviral effect in vivo should be explored in future studies.

  12. African swine fever virus: current state and future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research.

    PubMed

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Revilla, Yolanda

    2016-03-15

    African swine fever (ASF) is among the most significant of swine diseases for which no effective vaccines and antivirals are available. The disease, which is endemic in Africa, was introduced to Trans-Caucasian countries and the Russian Federation in 2007, where it remains prevalent today among domestic pigs and wild boars. Although some measures were implemented, ASF continues to pose a global risk for all countries, and thereby highlighting the importance of vaccine and antiviral research. In this review, an overview of research efforts toward the development of effective vaccines during the past decades is presented. As an alternative to vaccine development, the current state in antiviral research against ASFV is also presented. Finally, future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research giving emphasis on some strategies that may allow researchers to develop effective countermeasures against ASF are discussed.

  13. Antiviral Efficacy of Verdinexor In Vivo in Two Animal Models of Influenza A Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Perwitasari, Olivia; Johnson, Scott; Yan, Xiuzhen; Register, Emery; Crabtree, Jackelyn; Gabbard, Jon; Howerth, Elizabeth; Shacham, Sharon; Carlson, Robert; Tamir, Sharon; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) causes seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness that can cause mild to severe illness and potentially death. Antiviral drugs are an important countermeasure against IAV; however, drug resistance has developed, thus new therapeutic approaches are being sought. Previously, we demonstrated the antiviral activity of a novel nuclear export inhibitor drug, verdinexor, to reduce influenza replication in vitro and pulmonary virus burden in mice. In this study, in vivo efficacy of verdinexor was further evaluated in two animal models or influenza virus infection, mice and ferrets. In mice, verdinexor was efficacious to limit virus shedding, reduce pulmonary pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and moderate leukocyte infiltration into the bronchoalveolar space. Similarly, verdinexor-treated ferrets had reduced lung pathology, virus burden, and inflammatory cytokine expression in the nasal wash exudate. These findings support the anti-viral efficacy of verdinexor, and warrant its development as a novel antiviral therapeutic for influenza infection. PMID:27893810

  14. TRIMmunity: the roles of the TRIM E3-ubiquitin ligase family in innate antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Rajsbaum, Ricardo; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Versteeg, Gijs A

    2014-03-20

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins have been implicated in multiple cellular functions, including antiviral activity. Research efforts so far indicate that the antiviral activity of TRIMs relies, for the most part, on their function as E3-ubiquitin ligases. A substantial number of the TRIM family members have been demonstrated to mediate innate immune cell signal transduction and subsequent cytokine induction. In addition, a subset of TRIMs has been shown to restrict viral replication by directly targeting viral proteins. Although the body of work on the cellular roles of TRIM E3-ubiquitin ligases has rapidly grown over the last years, many aspects of their molecular workings and multi-functionality remain unclear. The antiviral function of many TRIMs seems to be conferred by specific isoforms, by sub-cellular localization and in cell-type-specific contexts. Here we review recent findings on TRIM antiviral functions, current limitations and an outlook for future research.

  15. Antiviral Potential of Algae Polysaccharides Isolated from Marine Sources: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Azin; Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    From food to fertilizer, algal derived products are largely employed in assorted industries, including agricultural, biomedical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Among different chemical compositions isolated from algae, polysaccharides are the most well-established compounds, which were subjected to a variety of studies due to extensive bioactivities. Over the past few decades, the promising results for antiviral potential of algae-derived polysaccharides have advocated them as inordinate candidates for pharmaceutical research. Numerous studies have isolated various algal polysaccharides possessing antiviral activities, including carrageenan, alginate, fucan, laminaran, and naviculan. In addition, different mechanisms of action have been reported for these polysaccharides, such as inhibiting the binding or internalization of virus into the host cells or suppressing DNA replication and protein synthesis. This review strives for compiling previous antiviral studies of algae-derived polysaccharides and their mechanism of action towards their development as natural antiviral agents for future investigations. PMID:26484353

  16. Myeloid C-Type Lectin Receptors in Viral Recognition and Antiviral Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, João T.; Lepenies, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Recognition of viral glycans by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in innate immunity contributes to antiviral immune responses. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are PRRs capable of sensing glycans present in viral pathogens to activate antiviral immune responses such as phagocytosis, antigen processing and presentation, and subsequent T cell activation. The ability of CLRs to elicit and shape adaptive immunity plays a critical role in the inhibition of viral spread within the host. However, certain viruses exploit CLRs for viral entry into host cells to avoid immune recognition. To block CLR interactions with viral glycoproteins, antiviral strategies may involve the use of multivalent glycan carrier systems. In this review, we describe the role of CLRs in antiviral immunity and we highlight their dual function in viral clearance and exploitation by viral pathogens. PMID:28327518

  17. Compositions, antibodies, asthma diagnosis methods, and methods for preparing antibodies

    DOEpatents

    Jin, Hongjun; Zangar, Richard C.

    2017-01-17

    Methods for preparing an antibody are provided with the method including incorporating 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid into a protein to form an antigen, immunizing a mammalian host with the antigen, and recovering an antibody having an affinity for the antigen from the host. Antibodies having a binding affinity for a monohalotyrosine are provided as well as composition comprising an antibody bound with monohalotyrosine. Compositions comprising a protein having a 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid moiety are also provided. Methods for evaluating the severity of asthma are provide with the methods including analyzing sputum of a patient using an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of antibody bound to protein. Methods for determining eosinophil activity in bodily fluid are also provided with the methods including exposing bodily fluid to an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of bound antibody to determine the eosinophil activity.

  18. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Atsuya; Fujimoto, Yuusuke; Tamaki, Mayumi; Setiawan, Andi; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Okuyama-Dobashi, Kaori; Kasai, Hirotake; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Toyama, Masaaki; Baba, Masanori; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Junichi; Moriishi, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extracts showed high inhibitory activity (>95%) and low cytotoxicity (66% to 77%). Solvent fractionation, column chromatography and NMR analysis revealed that 3,5-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 1) and 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 2), which are classified as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were identified as anti-HBV agents in the extracts. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HBV core promoter activity as well as HBV production from HepG2.2.15.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.23 and 0.80 µM, respectively, while selectivity indexes of compound 1 and 2 were 18.2 and 12.8, respectively. These results suggest that our cell-based HBV core promoter assay system is useful to determine anti-HBV compounds, and that two PBDE compounds are expected to be candidates of lead compounds for the development of anti-HBV drugs. PMID:26561821

  19. Human germline antibody gene segments encode polyspecific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Willis, Jordan R; Briney, Bryan S; DeLuca, Samuel L; Crowe, James E; Meiler, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Structural flexibility in germline gene-encoded antibodies allows promiscuous binding to diverse antigens. The binding affinity and specificity for a particular epitope typically increase as antibody genes acquire somatic mutations in antigen-stimulated B cells. In this work, we investigated whether germline gene-encoded antibodies are optimal for polyspecificity by determining the basis for recognition of diverse antigens by antibodies encoded by three VH gene segments. Panels of somatically mutated antibodies encoded by a common VH gene, but each binding to a different antigen, were computationally redesigned to predict antibodies that could engage multiple antigens at once. The Rosetta multi-state design process predicted antibody sequences for the entire heavy chain variable region, including framework, CDR1, and CDR2 mutations. The predicted sequences matched the germline gene sequences to a remarkable degree, revealing by computational design the residues that are predicted to enable polyspecificity, i.e., binding of many unrelated antigens with a common sequence. The process thereby reverses antibody maturation in silico. In contrast, when designing antibodies to bind a single antigen, a sequence similar to that of the mature antibody sequence was returned, mimicking natural antibody maturation in silico. We demonstrated that the Rosetta computational design algorithm captures important aspects of antibody/antigen recognition. While the hypervariable region CDR3 often mediates much of the specificity of mature antibodies, we identified key positions in the VH gene encoding CDR1, CDR2, and the immunoglobulin framework that are critical contributors for polyspecificity in germline antibodies. Computational design of antibodies capable of binding multiple antigens may allow the rational design of antibodies that retain polyspecificity for diverse epitope binding.

  20. The Transcription Factor FoxK Participates with Nup98 To Regulate Antiviral Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Debasis; Gold, Beth; Tartell, Michael A.; Rausch, Keiko; Casas-Tinto, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Upon infection, pathogen recognition leads to a rapidly activated gene expression program that induces antimicrobial effectors to clear the invader. We recently found that Nup98 regulates the expression of a subset of rapidly activated antiviral genes to restrict disparate RNA virus infections in Drosophila by promoting RNA polymerase occupancy at the promoters of these antiviral genes. How Nup98 specifically targets these loci was unclear; however, it is known that Nup98 participates with transcription factors to regulate developmental-gene activation. We reasoned that additional transcription factors may facilitate the Nup98-dependent expression of antiviral genes. In a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen, we identified a relatively understudied forkhead transcription factor, FoxK, as active against Sindbis virus (SINV) in Drosophila. Here we find that FoxK is active against the panel of viruses that are restricted by Nup98, including SINV and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Mechanistically, we show that FoxK coordinately regulates the Nup98-dependent expression of antiviral genes. Depletion of FoxK significantly reduces Nup98-dependent induction of antiviral genes and reduces the expression of a forkhead response element-containing luciferase reporter. Together, these data show that FoxK-mediated activation of gene expression is Nup98 dependent. We extended our studies to mammalian cells and found that the mammalian ortholog FOXK1 is antiviral against two disparate RNA viruses, SINV and VSV, in human cells. Interestingly, FOXK1 also plays a role in the expression of antiviral genes in mammals: depletion of FOXK1 attenuates virus-inducible interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) reporter expression. Overall, our results demonstrate a novel role for FOXK1 in regulating the expression of antiviral genes, from insects to humans. PMID:25852164

  1. Human influenza is more effective than avian influenza at antiviral suppression in airway cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Alan Chen-Yu; Barr, Ian; Hansbro, Philip M; Wark, Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Airway epithelial cells are the initial site of infection with influenza viruses. The innate immune responses of airway epithelial cells to infection are important in limiting virus replication and spread. However, relatively little is known about the importance of this innate antiviral response to infection. Avian influenza viruses are a potential source of future pandemics; therefore, it is critical to examine the effectiveness of the host antiviral system to different influenza viruses. We used a human influenza (H3N2) and a low-pathogenic avian influenza (H11N9) to assess and compare the antiviral responses of Calu-3 cells. After infection, H3N2 replicated more effectively than the H11N9 in Calu-3 cells. This was not due to differential expression of sialic acid residues on Calu-3 cells, but was attributed to the interference of host antiviral responses by H3N2. H3N2 induced a delayed antiviral signaling and impaired type I and type III IFN induction compared with the H11N9. The gene encoding for nonstructural (NS) 1 protein was transfected into the bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), and the H3N2 NS1 induced a greater inhibition of antiviral responses compared with the H11N9 NS1. Although the low-pathogenic avian influenza virus was capable of infecting BECs, the human influenza virus replicated more effectively than avian influenza virus in BECs, and this was due to a differential ability of the two NS1 proteins to inhibit antiviral responses. This suggests that the subversion of human antiviral responses may be an important requirement for influenza viruses to adapt to the human host and cause disease.

  2. Antiviral activity of polyporoid mushrooms (higher Basidiomycetes) from Altai Mountains (Russia).

    PubMed

    Teplyakova, Tamara V; Psurtseva, Nadezhda V; Kosogova, Tatiana A; Mazurkova, Natalia A; Khanin, Viacheslav A; Vlasenko, Viacheslav A

    2012-01-01

    Antiviral activity against type A influenza virus of birds A/chicken/Kurgan/05/2005 (H5N1) and humans A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) was investigated for aqueous extracts from mycelium of 11 basidial fungi species collected in the Altai Mountains (Altai Republic, Russia). The most perspective strains for producing antiviral medicines are studied strains Daedaleopsis confragosa, Datronia mollis, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Trametes gibbosa, T. versicolor, Laricifomes officinalis, and Lenzites betulina.

  3. Increased Antiviral Treatment Among Hospitalized Children and Adults With Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Appiah, Grace D; Chaves, Sandra S; Kirley, Pam D; Miller, Lisa; Meek, James; Anderson, Evan; Oni, Oluwakemi; Ryan, Patricia; Eckel, Seth; Lynfield, Ruth; Bargsten, Marisa; Zansky, Shelley M; Bennett, Nancy; Lung, Krista; McDonald-Hamm, Christie; Thomas, Ann; Brady, Diane; Lindegren, Mary L; Schaffner, William; Hill, Mary; Garg, Shikha; Fry, Alicia M; Campbell, Angela P

    2017-02-01

    (See the Editorial Commentary by Martin on pages 368-9.)Using population-based surveillance data, we analyzed antiviral treatment among hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Treatment increased after the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic from 72% in 2010-2011 to 89% in 2014-2015 (P < .001). Overall, treatment was higher in adults (86%) than in children (72%); only 56% of cases received antivirals on the day of admission.

  4. Stockpiling anti-viral drugs for a pandemic: the role of Manufacturer Reserve Programs.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Joseph E; Hsu, Edbert B

    2010-05-01

    To promote stockpiling of anti-viral drugs by non-government organizations such as hospitals, drug manufacturers have introduced Manufacturer Reserve Programs which, for an annual fee, provide the right to buy in the event of a severe outbreak of influenza. We show that these programs enhance drug manufacturer profits but could either increase or decrease the amount of pre-pandemic stockpiling of anti-viral drugs.

  5. Monoclonal Antibodies against Pectin

    PubMed Central

    Liners, Françoise; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Didembourg, Christian; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have been produced that recognize a conformation of homopolygalacturonic acid (pectic acid) induced by an optimum concentration of calcium and sodium of about 1 and 150 millinormal, respectively. The epitope recognized is probably part of the dimers of pectin chains associated according to the `egg box' model. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667195

  6. Monoclonal antibodies against bacteria.

    PubMed

    Macario, A J; Conway de Macario, E

    1988-01-01

    Highlights are presented of most recent work in which monoclonal antibodies have been instrumental in the study of bacteria and their products. Topics summarized pertain to human and veterinary medicines, dentistry, phytopathology, ichthyology, and bacterial ecophysiology, differentiation, evolution and methanogenic biotechnology.

  7. Reshaping Antibody Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Ekiert, Damian C.; Ahmad, Insha; Yu, Wenli; Zhang, Yong; Bazirgan, Omar; Torkamani, Ali; Raudsepp, Terje; Mwangi, Waithaka; Criscitiello, Michael F.; Wilson, Ian A.; Schultz, Peter G.; Smider, Vaughn V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Unlike humans or mice, some species have limited genome encoded combinatorial diversity potential, yet mount a robust antibody response. Cows are unusual in having exceptionally long CDR H3 loops and few V-regions, but the mechanism for creating diversity is not understood. Deep sequencing revealed that ultralong CDR H3s contain a remarkable complexity of cysteines, suggesting that disulfide-bonded mini-domains may arise during repertoire development. Indeed, crystal structures of two cow antibodies reveal that these CDR H3s form a very unusual architecture composed of a β-strand “stalk” that supports a structurally diverse, disulfide-bonded, “knob” domain. Sequence analysis suggests that diversity arises from somatic hypermutation of an ultralong DH with a severe codon bias towards mutation to cysteine. These unusual antibodies can be elicited to recognize defined antigens through the knob domain. Thus, the bovine immune system produces an antibody repertoire composed of CDR H3s of unprecedented length that fold into a diversity of mini-domains generated through combinations of somatically generated disulfides. PMID:23746848

  8. Therapeutic antibody engineering

    PubMed Central

    Parren, Paul W.H.I.; Lugovskoy, Alexey A.

    2013-01-01

    It is an important event in any knowledge area when an authority in the field decides that it is time to share all accumulated knowledge and learnings by writing a text book. This does not occur often in the biopharmaceutical industry, likely due to both the highly dynamic environment with tight timelines and policies and procedures at many pharmaceutical companies that hamper knowledge sharing. To take on a task like this successfully, a strong drive combined with a desire and talent to teach, but also an accommodating and stimulating environment is required. Luckily for those interested in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, Dr. William R. Strohl decided about two years ago that the time was right to write a book about the past, present and future of these fascinating molecules. Dr. Strohl’s great expertise and passion for biotechnology is evident from his life story and his strong academic and industry track record. Dr. Strohl pioneered natural product biotechnology, first in academia as a full professor of microbiology and biochemistry at Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio and later in industry while at Merck. Despite his notable advances in recombinant natural products, industry interest in this area waned and in 2001 Dr. Strohl sought new opportunities by entering the field of antibody therapeutics. He initiated antibody discovery through phage display at Merck, and then moved to Centocor Research and Development Inc. (now Janssen Biotech, Inc.) in 2008 to head Biologics Research, where he now directs the discovery of innovative therapeutic antibody candidates.

  9. Antiviral mechanism of polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers against HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Vacas-Córdoba, Enrique; Maly, Marek; De la Mata, Francisco J; Gómez, Rafael; Pion, Marjorie; Muñoz-Fernández, Mª Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology-derived platforms, such as dendrimers, are very attractive in several biological applications. In the case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers have shown great potential as antiviral agents in the development of novel microbicides to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV-1. In this work, we studied the mechanism of two sulfated and naphthylsulfonated functionalized carbosilane dendrimers, G3-S16 and G2-NF16. They are able to inhibit viral infection at fusion and thus at the entry step. Both compounds impede the binding of viral particles to target cell surface and membrane fusion through the blockage of gp120–CD4 interaction. In addition, and for the first time, we demonstrate that dendrimers can inhibit cell-to-cell HIV transmission and difficult infectious synapse formation. Thus, carbosilane dendrimers’ mode of action is a multifactorial process targeting several proteins from viral envelope and from host cells that could block HIV infection at different stages during the first step of infection. PMID:27103798

  10. The antiviral activity of tetrazole phosphonic acids and their analogues.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, D W; Naylor, M

    1985-01-01

    5-(Phosphonomethyl)-1H-tetrazole and a number of related tetrazoles have been prepared and their effects on the replication of Herpes Simplex Viruses-1 and -2 have been investigated as well as their abilities to inhibit the DNA polymerases induced by these viruses and the RNA transcriptase activity of influenza virus A. Contrary to an earlier report, 5-(phosphonomethyl)-1H-tetrazole was not an efficient inhibitor of the replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in tissue culture. Analogues of 5-(phosphonomethyl)-1H-tetrazole were also devoid of significant antiviral activity. Only 5-(phosphonomethyl)-1H-tetrazole and 5-(thiophosphonomethyl)-1H-tetrazole inhibited the influenza virus transcriptase, and both were more effective as inhibitors than phosphonoacetic acid under the same conditions. The DNA polymerases induced by HSV-1 and HSV-2 were inhibited slightly by 5-(phosphonomethyl)-1H-tetrazole and to a lesser extent by its N-ethyl analogue and 3-(phosphonomethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole. None of these compounds were as effective as phosphonoacetic acid. 5-(Thiophosphonomethyl)-1H-tetrazole was a better inhibitor of the DNA polymerase induced by HSV-1 than 5-(phosphonomethyl)-1H-tetrazole. PMID:2417198

  11. Autophagy functions as an antiviral mechanism against geminiviruses in plants

    PubMed Central

    Haxim, Yakupjan; Ismayil, Asigul; Jia, Qi; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Xiyin; Chen, Tianyuan; Qian, Lichao; Liu, Na; Wang, Yunjing; Han, Shaojie; Cheng, Jiaxuan; Qi, Yijun; Hong, Yiguo; Liu, Yule

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that recycles damaged or unwanted cellular components, and has been linked to plant immunity. However, how autophagy contributes to plant immunity is unknown. Here we reported that the plant autophagic machinery targets the virulence factor βC1 of Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) for degradation through its interaction with the key autophagy protein ATG8. A V32A mutation in βC1 abolished its interaction with NbATG8f, and virus carrying βC1V32A showed increased symptoms and viral DNA accumulation in plants. Furthermore, silencing of autophagy-related genes ATG5 and ATG7 reduced plant resistance to the DNA viruses CLCuMuV, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, and Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus, whereas activating autophagy by silencing GAPC genes enhanced plant resistance to viral infection. Thus, autophagy represents a novel anti-pathogenic mechanism that plays an important role in antiviral immunity in plants. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23897.001 PMID:28244873

  12. HCV-targeted antivirals: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Gemma, Sandra; Brogi, Simone; Novellino, Ettore; Campiani, Giuseppe; Maga, Giovanni; Brindisi, Margherita; Butini, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major etiological agent of human non-A and non-B hepatitis, affecting more than 170 million people worldwide. While the current standard of care for the treatment of HCV infection is ribavirin in combination with interferon-α (IFN-α), this therapeutic regimen presents several drawbacks, mainly related to important and serious side effects, to resistance issues, and to the lack of efficacy for the treatment of specific viral genotypes. In 2011, the FDA approved two HCV-targeted antivirals, namely boceprevir and telaprevir. These two drugs inhibit the protease activity of the viral enzyme NS3/4A, and in Phase III clinical trials proved to be effective in achieving sustained virological response rate up to 75%. However, problems associated with these therapeutic regimens still exist and need to be addressed. Intense research efforts in the field are aimed at discovering small-molecule inhibitors of HCV enzymes and proteins such as NS5B and NS5A and at developing NS3 protease inhibitors active against resistant viruses expressing mutated NS3 protease. The most recent advances for the rational drug design of such inhibitors are here reviewed.

  13. A small RNA targets pokeweed antiviral protein transcript.

    PubMed

    Klenov, Alexander; Neller, Kira C M; Burns, Lydia A; Krivdova, Gabriela; Hudak, Katalin A

    2016-03-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a class of plant defense proteins with N-glycosidase activity (EC 3.2.2.22). Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) is a Type I RIP isolated from the pokeweed plant, Phytolacca americana, thought to confer broad-spectrum virus resistance in this plant. Through a combination of standard molecular techniques and RNA sequencing analysis, we report here that a small RNA binds and cleaves the open reading frame of PAP mRNA. Additionally, sRNA targeting of PAP is dependent on jasmonic acid (JA), a plant hormone important for defense against pathogen infection and herbivory. Levels of small RNA increased with JA treatment, as did levels of PAP mRNA and protein, suggesting that the small RNA functions to moderate the expression of PAP in response to this hormone. The association between JA and PAP expression, mediated by sRNA299, situates PAP within a signaling pathway initiated by biotic stress. The consensus sequence of sRNA299 was obtained through bioinformatic analysis of pokeweed small RNA sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first account of a sRNA targeting a RIP gene.

  14. Chemical diversity and antiviral potential in the pantropical Diospyros genus.

    PubMed

    Peyrat, Laure-Anne; Eparvier, Véronique; Eydoux, Cécilia; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Stien, Didier; Litaudon, Marc

    2016-07-01

    A screening using a dengue replicon virus-cell-based assay was performed on 3563 ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts from different parts of 1500 plants. The screening led to the selection of species from the genus Diospyros (Ebenaceae), among which 25 species distributed in tropical areas showed significant inhibitory activity on dengue virus replication. A metabolic analysis was conducted from the UPLC-HRMS profiles of 33 biologically active and inactive plant extracts, and their metabolic proximity is presented in the form of a dendrogram. The results of the study showed that chemical similarity is not related to plant species or organ. Overall, metabolomic profiling allowed us to define large groups of extracts, comprising both active and inactive ones. Closely related profiles from active extracts might indicate that the common major components of these extracts were responsible for the antiviral activity, while the comparison of chemically similar active and inactive extracts, will permit to find compounds of interest. Eventually, the phytochemical investigation of Diospyros glans bark EtOAc extract afforded usnic acid and 7 known ursane- and lupane-type triterpenoids, among which 5 were found significantly active against dengue virus replication. The inhibitory potency of these compounds was also evaluated on a DENV-NS5 RNA-dependant RNA polymerase assay.

  15. Resistance to antivirals in human cytomegalovirus: mechanisms and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J L

    1997-09-01

    Long term therapies needed for managing human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections in immunosupressed patients provided the background for the emergence of the resistance to antivirals active against HCMV. In addition, laboratory selected mutants have also been readily achieved. Both clinical and laboratory resistant strains share the same determinants of resistance. Ganciclovir resistance may be due to a few mutations in the HCMV UL97 gene and/or viral DNA pol gene, the former being responsible for about 70% of clinical resistant isolates. Among them, V464, V594, S595 and F595 are the most frequent mutations. Because of their less extensive clinical use, much less is known about resistance to foscarnet and cidofovir (formerly, HPMPC) but in both cases, it has been associated to mutations in the DNA pol. Ganciclovir resistant strains showing DNA pol mutations are cross-resistant to cidofovir and their corresponding IC50 are normally higher than those from strains harboring only mutations at the UL97 gene. To date, foscarnet resistance seems to be independent of both ganciclovir and cidofovir resistance.

  16. Antiviral activity of Undaria pinnatifida against herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kenneth D; Dragar, Charles

    2004-07-01

    The major component of an aqueous extract of the seaweed Undaria pinnati fi da has been identified previously as a galactofucan (GFS), a sulfated polysaccharide. The galactofucan was partially purified and the material tested in this study is 75% pure galactofucan sulfate. GFS was evaluated for antiviral activity against 32 clinical strains of herpes simplex virus (HSV): 14 strains of HSV-1 and 18 strains of HSV-2. Twelve strains (four HSV-1 and eight HSV-2) were resistant to acyclovir (ACV-R) and 20 strains (10 HSV-1 and 10 HSV-2) were susceptible to ACV (ACV-S). The median IC(50) of GFS for the 14 strains of HSV-1 was 32 micro g/mL. The median IC(50) of GFS for the 18 strains of HSV-2 was 0.5 micro g/mL. GFS is significantly more active against clinical strains of HSV-2 than HSV-1, p < 0.001. The mode of action of the GFS was shown to be the inhibition of viral binding and entry into the host cell. The cytotoxicity of GFS was >4.0 mg/mL in the neutral red dye uptake assay indicating that GFS is non-toxic in this assay.

  17. Use of antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Dragomiretskaya, Natalia; Izha, Anna; Kalinichenko, Nikolay; Szark-Eckardt, Mirosława; Klimczyk, Mariusz; Cieślicka, Mirosława; Muszkieta, Radosław; Prusik, Krzysztof; Napierała, Marek; Żukowska, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The presence of background HCV infection cannot be overestimated in view of the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C and the risk of adverse outcomes of this disease. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combined use of antiviral therapy (Roferon + Vero-Ribavirin) and resort factors in patients with chronic hepatitis C in the phase of replication. Material and methods We observed 48 patients with chronic hepatitis C; the minimum level of activity of the process defined the phase of replication. Markers of HCV infection were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (a-HCV and HCV-Ig M). HCV RNA was determined twice by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genotyping of hepatitis C virus was performed. Biochemical blood analysis and the study of HCV infection markers were carried out four times. Results of therapy were assessed immediately after the end of the resort (spa) treatment, then at 3, 6 and 12 months after starting treatment. At 12 months after starting treatment, all the observed patients had persistent clinical and biochemical remission. Elimination of the virus from the blood was noted in 56% of the control group and 74% of patients in the study group. Conclusions For patients with moderately active HCV, the replication phase was characterized by asthenic-vegetative syndrome (100% of patients) with severe depression (22.92%), pain (77.08%) and dyspeptic syndrome (33.33%), moderate hypertransferaseemia (100%), slightly pronounced cholestasis (33% of patients), and signs of mesenchymal-inflammatory response.

  18. Modulation of Antiviral Immunity by Heme Oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Janyra A; González, Pablo A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2017-03-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-inducible, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective enzyme expressed in most cell types in the organism. Under several stress stimuli, HO-1 expression and activity is up-regulated to catalyze the rate-limiting enzymatic step of heme degradation into carbon monoxide, free iron, and biliverdin. Besides its effects on cell metabolism, HO-1 is also capable of modulating host innate and adaptive immune responses in response to sepsis, transplantation, and autoimmunity, and preventing oxidative damage associated with inflammation. In addition, recent studies have reported that HO-1 can exert a significant antiviral activity against a wide variety of viruses, including HIV, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, enterovirus 71, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, dengue virus, and Ebola virus, among others. Herein, we address the current understanding of the functional significance of HO-1 against a variety of viruses and its potential as a therapeutic strategy to prevent and control viral infections. Furthermore, we review the most important features of the immunoregulatory functions for this enzyme.

  19. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Exerts Antiviral Activity against Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dabo, Abdoulaye J.; Cummins, Neville; Eden, Edward; Geraghty, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Increased lung levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) are frequently observed during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and elevated MMP9 concentrations are associated with severe disease. However little is known of the functional role of MMP9 during lung infection with RSV. To determine whether MMP9 exerted direct antiviral potential, active MMP9 was incubated with RSV, which showed that MMP9 directly prevented RSV infectivity to airway epithelial cells. Using knockout mice the effect of the loss of Mmp9 expression was examined during RSV infection to demonstrate MMP9’s role in viral clearance and disease progression. Seven days following RSV infection, Mmp9-/- mice displayed substantial weight loss, increased RSV-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and reduced clearance of RSV from the lungs compared to wild type mice. Although total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell counts were similar in both groups, neutrophil recruitment to the lungs during RSV infection was significantly reduced in Mmp9-/- mice. Reduced neutrophil recruitment coincided with diminished RANTES, IL-1β, SCF, G-CSF expression and p38 phosphorylation. Induction of p38 signaling was required for RANTES and G-CSF expression during RSV infection in airway epithelial cells. Therefore, MMP9 in RSV lung infection significantly enhances neutrophil recruitment, cytokine production and viral clearance while reducing AHR. PMID:26284919

  20. The Antimicrobial and Antiviral Applications of Cell-Penetrating Peptides.

    PubMed

    Pärn, Kalle; Eriste, Elo; Langel, Ülo

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have become increasingly popular both in research and in application. There have been numerous studies on the physiochemical characteristics and behavior of CPPs in various environments; likewise, the mechanisms of entry and delivery capabilities of these peptides have also been extensively researched. Besides the fundamental issues, there is an enormous interest in the delivery capabilities of the peptides as the family of CPPs is a promising and mostly non-toxic delivery vector candidate for numerous medical applications such as gene silencing, transgene delivery, and splice correction. Lately, however, there has been an emerging field of study besides the high-profile gene therapy applications-the use of peptides and CPPs to combat various infections caused by harmful bacteria, fungi, and viruses.In this chapter, we aim to provide a short overview of the history and properties of CPPs which is followed by more thorough descriptions of antimicrobial and antiviral peptides. To achieve this, we analyze the origin of such peptides, give an overview of the mechanisms of action and discuss the various practical applications which are ongoing or have been suggested based on research.

  1. New Class of Orthopoxvirus Antiviral Drugs That Block Viral Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Chelsea M.; Bolken, Tove' C.; Mjalli, Adnan M.; Arimilli, Murty N.; Andrews, Robert C.; Rothlein, Robert; Andrea, Tariq; Rao, Mohan; Owens, Katrina L.; Hruby, Dennis E.

    2004-01-01

    By using a homology-based bioinformatics approach, a structural model of the vaccinia virus (VV) I7L proteinase was developed. A unique chemical library of ∼51,000 compounds was computationally queried to identify potential active site inhibitors. The resulting biased subset of compounds was assayed for both toxicity and the ability to inhibit the growth of VV in tissue culture cells. A family of chemotypically related compounds was found which exhibits selective activity against orthopoxviruses, inhibiting VV with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 3 to 12 μM. These compounds exhibited no significant cytotoxicity in the four cell lines tested and did not inhibit the growth of other organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, adenovirus, or encephalomyocarditis virus. Phenotypic analyses of virus-infected cells were conducted in the presence of active compounds to verify that the correct biochemical step (I7L-mediated core protein processing) was being inhibited. Electron microscopy of compound-treated VV-infected cells indicated a block in morphogenesis. Compound-resistant viruses were generated and resistance was mapped to the I7L open reading frame. Transient expression with the mutant I7L gene rescued the ability of wild-type virus to replicate in the presence of compound, indicating that this is the only gene necessary for resistance. This novel class of inhibitors has potential for development as an efficient antiviral drug against pathogenic orthopoxviruses, including smallpox. PMID:15507601

  2. piRNA pathway is not required for antiviral defense in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Petit, Marine; Mongelli, Vanesa; Frangeul, Lionel; Blanc, Hervé; Jiggins, Francis; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2016-07-19

    Since its discovery, RNA interference has been identified as involved in many different cellular processes, and as a natural antiviral response in plants, nematodes, and insects. In insects, the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway is the major antiviral response. In recent years, the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway also has been implicated in antiviral defense in mosquitoes infected with arboviruses. Using Drosophila melanogaster and an array of viruses that infect the fruit fly acutely or persistently or are vertically transmitted through the germ line, we investigated in detail the extent to which the piRNA pathway contributes to antiviral defense in adult flies. Following virus infection, the survival and viral titers of Piwi, Aubergine, Argonaute-3, and Zucchini mutant flies were similar to those of wild type flies. Using next-generation sequencing of small RNAs from wild type and siRNA mutant flies, we showed that no viral-derived piRNAs were produced in fruit flies during different types of viral infection. Our study provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, that the piRNA pathway does not play a major role in antiviral defense in adult Drosophila and demonstrates that viral-derived piRNA production depends on the biology of the host-virus combination rather than being part of a general antiviral process in insects.

  3. Antiviral Activity of Graphene–Silver Nanocomposites against Non-Enveloped and Enveloped Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ning; Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Chang, Pai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of novel antiviral materials is important because many infectious diseases are caused by viruses. Silver nanoparticles have demonstrated strong antiviral activity, and graphene is a potential antimicrobial material due to its large surface area, high carrier mobility, and biocompatibility. No studies on the antiviral activity of nanomaterials on non-enveloped viruses have been reported. To investigate the antiviral activity of graphene oxide (GO) sheets and GO sheets with silver particles (GO-Ag) against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, feline coronavirus (FCoV) with an envelope and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) without an envelope were chosen. The morphology and sizes of GO and GO-Ag were characterized by transmission, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. A virus inhibition assay was used to identify the antiviral activity of GO and GO-Ag. Go-Ag inhibited 25% of infection by FCoV and 23% by IBDV, whereas GO only inhibited 16% of infection by FCoV but showed no antiviral activity against the infection by IBDV. Further application of GO and GO-Ag can be considered for personal protection equipment to decrease the transmission of viruses. PMID:27104546

  4. Using the Ferret as an Animal Model for Investigating Influenza Antiviral Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ding Y.; Hurt, Aeron C.

    2016-01-01

    The concern of the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus has sparked an increased effort toward the development and testing of novel influenza antivirals. Central to this is the animal model of influenza infection, which has played an important role in understanding treatment effectiveness and the effect of antivirals on host immune responses. Among the different animal models of influenza, ferrets can be considered the most suitable for antiviral studies as they display most of the human-like symptoms following influenza infections, they can be infected with human influenza virus without prior viral adaptation and have the ability to transmit influenza virus efficiently between one another. However, an accurate assessment of the effectiveness of an antiviral treatment in ferrets is dependent on three major experimental considerations encompassing firstly, the volume and titer of virus, and the route of viral inoculation. Secondly, the route and dose of drug administration, and lastly, the different methods used to assess clinical symptoms, viral shedding kinetics and host immune responses in the ferrets. A good understanding of these areas is necessary to achieve data that can accurately inform the human use of influenza antivirals. In this review, we discuss the current progress and the challenges faced in these three major areas when using the ferret model to measure influenza antiviral effectiveness. PMID:26870031

  5. In vitro evaluation of marine-microorganism extracts for anti-viral activity.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara-Bell, Jarred; Yang, Yongbo; Barlow, Russell; Trapido-Rosenthal, Hank; Lu, Yuanan

    2010-08-07

    Viral-induced infectious diseases represent a major health threat and their control remains an unachieved goal, due in part to the limited availability of effective anti-viral drugs and measures. The use of natural products in drug manufacturing is an ancient and well-established practice. Marine organisms are known producers of pharmacological and anti-viral agents. In this study, a total of 20 extracts from marine microorganisms were evaluated for their antiviral activity. These extracts were tested against two mammalian viruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), using Vero cells as the cell culture system, and two marine virus counterparts, channel catfish virus (CCV) and snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV), in their respective cell cultures (CCO and EPC). Evaluation of these extracts demonstrated that some possess antiviral potential. In sum, extracts 162M(4), 258M(1), 298M(4), 313(2), 331M(2), 367M(1) and 397(1) appear to be effective broad-spectrum antivirals with potential uses as prophylactic agents to prevent infection, as evident by their highly inhibitive effects against both virus types. Extract 313(2) shows the most potential in that it showed significantly high inhibition across all tested viruses. The samples tested in this study were crude extracts; therefore the development of antiviral application of the few potential extracts is dependent on future studies focused on the isolation of the active elements contained in these extracts.

  6. A novel peptide with potent and broad-spectrum antiviral activities against multiple respiratory viruses

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hanjun; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Ke; Chu, Hin; Liu, Dabin; Poon, Vincent Kwok-Man; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Leung, Ho-Chuen; Fai, Ng; Lin, Yong-Ping; Zhang, Anna Jin-Xia; Jin, Dong-Yan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2016-01-01

    A safe, potent and broad-spectrum antiviral is urgently needed to combat emerging respiratory viruses. In light of the broad antiviral activity of β-defensins, we tested the antiviral activity of 11 peptides derived from mouse β-defensin-4 and found that a short peptide, P9, exhibited potent and broad-spectrum antiviral effects against multiple respiratory viruses in vitro and in vivo, including influenza A virus H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7, H7N9, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The antiviral activity of P9 was attributed to its high-affinity binding to viral glycoproteins, as well as the abundance of basic amino acids in its composition. After binding viral particles through viral surface glycoproteins, P9 entered into cells together with the viruses via endocytosis and prevented endosomal acidification, which blocked membrane fusion and subsequent viral RNA release. This study has paved the avenue for developing new prophylactic and therapeutic agents with broad-spectrum antiviral activities. PMID:26911565

  7. Current management and recommendations for access to antiviral therapy of herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony; Griffiths, Paul; Leone, Peter; Mindel, Adrian; Patel, Rajul; Stanberry, Lawrence; Whitley, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Herpes labialis is a common skin infective condition, worldwide, which is primarily caused by HSV-1. Recurrent episodes of herpes labialis, also known as cold sores, can be frequent, painful, long-lasting and disfiguring for infected patients. At present, there are two types of antivirals for the treatment of herpes labialis, topical and oral, which are available over the counter or as prescription-only. The aim of antiviral therapy is to block viral replication to enable shortening the duration of symptoms and to accelerate healing of the lesions associated with herpes labialis. This review examines the evidence for the effectiveness of current topical and oral antivirals in the management of recurrent episodes of herpes labialis. In most countries, oral antivirals for herpes labialis are available as prescription-only. However, in early 2010, the oral antiviral famciclovir was reclassified from prescription-only medicine to pharmacist-controlled status in New Zealand. The benefits and risks associated with moving an antiviral therapy for herpes labialis from prescription-only to pharmacist-controlled status are reviewed here, and the implications for patients, general physicians and pharmacists are considered.

  8. RNAi and antiviral defense in Drosophila: setting up a systemic immune response.

    PubMed

    Karlikow, Margot; Goic, Bertsy; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) controls gene expression in eukaryotic cells and thus, cellular homeostasis. In addition, in plants, nematodes and arthropods it is a central antiviral effector mechanism. Antiviral RNAi has been well described as a cell autonomous response, which is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules. This dsRNA is the precursor for the silencing of viral RNA in a sequence-specific manner. In plants, systemic antiviral immunity has been demonstrated, however much less is known in animals. Recently, some evidence for a systemic antiviral response in arthropods has come to light. Cell autonomous RNAi may not be sufficient to reach an efficient antiviral response, and the organism might rely on the spread and uptake of an RNAi signal of unknown origin. In this review, we offer a perspective on how RNAi-mediated antiviral immunity could confer systemic protection in insects and we propose directions for future research to understand the mechanism of RNAi-immune signal sorting, spreading and amplification.

  9. piRNA pathway is not required for antiviral defense in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Marine; Mongelli, Vanesa; Frangeul, Lionel; Blanc, Hervé; Jiggins, Francis; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery, RNA interference has been identified as involved in many different cellular processes, and as a natural antiviral response in plants, nematodes, and insects. In insects, the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway is the major antiviral response. In recent years, the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway also has been implicated in antiviral defense in mosquitoes infected with arboviruses. Using Drosophila melanogaster and an array of viruses that infect the fruit fly acutely or persistently or are vertically transmitted through the germ line, we investigated in detail the extent to which the piRNA pathway contributes to antiviral defense in adult flies. Following virus infection, the survival and viral titers of Piwi, Aubergine, Argonaute-3, and Zucchini mutant flies were similar to those of wild type flies. Using next-generation sequencing of small RNAs from wild type and siRNA mutant flies, we showed that no viral-derived piRNAs were produced in fruit flies during different types of viral infection. Our study provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, that the piRNA pathway does not play a major role in antiviral defense in adult Drosophila and demonstrates that viral-derived piRNA production depends on the biology of the host–virus combination rather than being part of a general antiviral process in insects. PMID:27357659

  10. Using the Ferret as an Animal Model for Investigating Influenza Antiviral Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ding Y; Hurt, Aeron C

    2016-01-01

    The concern of the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus has sparked an increased effort toward the development and testing of novel influenza antivirals. Central to this is the animal model of influenza infection, which has played an important role in understanding treatment effectiveness and the effect of antivirals on host immune responses. Among the different animal models of influenza, ferrets can be considered the most suitable for antiviral studies as they display most of the human-like symptoms following influenza infections, they can be infected with human influenza virus without prior viral adaptation and have the ability to transmit influenza virus efficiently between one another. However, an accurate assessment of the effectiveness of an antiviral treatment in ferrets is dependent on three major experimental considerations encompassing firstly, the volume and titer of virus, and the route of viral inoculation. Secondly, the route and dose of drug administration, and lastly, the different methods used to assess clinical symptoms, viral shedding kinetics and host immune responses in the ferrets. A good understanding of these areas is necessary to achieve data that can accurately inform the human use of influenza antivirals. In this review, we discuss the current progress and the challenges faced in these three major areas when using the ferret model to measure influenza antiviral effectiveness.

  11. The Art of Making Antibodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headon, Denis R.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the nature and production of antibodies. Points out that the production of monoclonal antibodies blends the malignant with the beneficial to create a medical tool of exciting potential. (JN)

  12. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence ...

  13. Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000547.htm Lupus anticoagulants and antiphospholipid antibodies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lupus anticoagulants are antibodies against substances in the lining ...

  14. Evaluation of Ag nanoparticle coated air filter against aerosolized virus: Anti-viral efficiency with dust loading.

    PubMed

    Joe, Yun Haeng; Park, Dae Hoon; Hwang, Jungho

    2016-01-15

    In this study, the effect of dust loading on the anti-viral ability of an anti-viral air filter was investigated. Silver nanoparticles approximately 11 nm in diameter were synthesized via a spark discharge generation system and were used as anti-viral agents coated onto a medium air filter. The pressure drop, filtration efficiency, and anti-viral ability of the filter against aerosolized bacteriophage MS2 virus particles were tested with dust loading. The filtration efficiency and pressure drop increased with dust loading, while the anti-viral ability decreased. Theoretical analysis of anti-viral ability with dust loading was carried out using a mathematical model based on that presented by Joe et al. (J. Hazard. Mater.; 280: 356-363, 2014). Our model can be used to compare anti-viral abilities of various anti-viral agents, determine appropriate coating areal density of anti-viral agent on a filter, and predict the life cycle of an anti-viral filter.

  15. Pro-inflammatory and antiviral cytokine expression in vaccinated and unvaccinated horses exposed to equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Quinlivan, Michelle; Nelly, Maura; Prendergast, Michael; Breathnach, Cormac; Horohov, David; Arkins, Sean; Chiang, Yu-Wei; Chu, Hsien-Jue; Ng, Terry; Cullinane, Ann

    2007-10-10

    Most studies of the cytokine response to influenza virus infection have been carried out in human, porcine and murine models, however the data available on equine cytokines is limited. An experimental challenge study was undertaken in unvaccinated naïve horses and horses vaccinated with a commercial inactivated influenza vaccine. The humoral antibody response to vaccination and virus challenge was measured by single radial haemolysis (SRH) assay and clinical signs of influenza and viral shedding were monitored post-challenge. Levels of three equine pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and the antiviral cytokine interferon (IFN)-alpha were examined by quantitative RT-PCR of mRNA. Vaccination provided significant clinical and virological protection and resulted in a significant reduction of IFN-alpha and IL-6 expression on day 2 post-challenge. The patterns of cytokine expression observed in control animals suffering from influenza after challenge are comparable to those reported in studies of other species.

  16. Antibody-gold cluster conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1988-06-28

    Antibody- or antibody fragment-gold cluster conjugates are shown wherein the conjugate size can be about 5.0 nm. Methods and reagents are disclosed in which antibodies or Fab' fragments thereof are covalently bound to a stable cluster of gold atoms. 2 figs.

  17. Antibody mimetics: promising complementary agents to animal-sourced antibodies.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Baloch, Abdul Wahid; Sutton, Brian J; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Despite their wide use as therapeutic, diagnostic and detection agents, the limitations of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have inspired scientists to design the next generation biomedical agents, so-called antibody mimetics that offer many advantages over conventional antibodies. Antibody mimetics can be constructed by protein-directed evolution or fusion of complementarity-determining regions through intervening framework regions. Substantial progress in exploiting human, butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and bacterial systems to design and select mimetics using display technologies has been made in the past 10 years, and one of these mimetics [Kalbitor® (Dyax)] has made its way to market. Many challenges lie ahead to develop mimetics for various biomedical applications, especially those for which conventional antibodies are ineffective, and this review describes the current characteristics, construction and applications of antibody mimetics compared to animal-sourced antibodies. The possible limitations of mimetics and future perspectives are also discussed.

  18. A 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid-Gelatin Conjugate: The Synthesis, Antiviral Activity and Mechanism of Antiviral Action Against Two Alphaherpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Lisov, Alexander; Vrublevskaya, Veronika; Lisova, Zoy; Leontievsky, Alexey; Morenkov, Oleg

    2015-10-15

    Various natural and synthetic polyanionic polymers with different chemical structures are known to exhibit potent antiviral activity in vitro toward a variety of enveloped viruses and may be considered as promising therapeutic agents. A water-soluble conjugate of 2,5-dihydroxybezoic acid (2,5-DHBA) with gelatin was synthesized by laccase-catalyzed oxidation of 2,5-DHBA in the presence of gelatin, and its antiviral activity against pseudorabies virus (PRV) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1), two members of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily, was studied. The conjugate produced no direct cytotoxic effect on cells, and did not inhibit cell growth at concentrations up to 1000 µg/mL. It exhibited potent antiviral activity against PRV (IC50, 1.5-15 µg/mL for different virus strains) and BoHV-1 (IC50, 0.5-0.7 µg/mL). When present during virus adsorption, the conjugate strongly inhibited the attachment of PRV and BoHV-1 to cells. The 2,5-DHBA-gelatin conjugate had no direct virucidal effect on the viruses and did not influence their penetration into cells, cell-to-cell spread, production of infectious virus particles in cells, and expression of PRV glycoproteins E and B. The results indicated that the 2,5-DHBA-gelatin conjugate strongly inhibits the adsorption of alphaherpesviruses to cells and can be a promising synthetic polymer for the development of antiviral formulations against alphaherpesvirus infections.

  19. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics Conference

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Scott, Jamie; Larrick, James W; Plückthun, Andreas; Veldman, Trudi; Adams, Gregory P; Parren, Paul WHI; Chester, Kerry A; Bradbury, Andrew; Reichert, Janice M; Huston, James S

    2013-01-01

    The Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics conference, which serves as the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, will be held in Huntington Beach, CA from Sunday December 8 through Thursday December 12, 2013. The scientific program will cover the full spectrum of challenges in antibody research and development, and provide updates on recent progress in areas from basic science through approval of antibody therapeutics. Keynote presentations will be given by Leroy Hood (Institute of System Biology), who will discuss a systems approach for studying disease that is enabled by emerging technology; Douglas Lauffenburger (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), who will discuss systems analysis of cell communication network dynamics for therapeutic biologics design; David Baker (University of Washington), who will describe computer-based design of smart protein therapeutics; and William Schief (The Scripps Research Institute), who will discuss epitope-focused immunogen design.   In this preview of the conference, the workshop and session chairs share their thoughts on what conference participants may learn in sessions on: (1) three-dimensional structure antibody modeling; (2) identifying clonal lineages from next-generation data sets of expressed VH gene sequences; (3) antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; (4) the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on the antibody response; (5) directed evolution; (6) antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; (7) use of knowledge-based design to guide development of complementarity-determining regions and epitopes to engineer or elicit the desired antibody; (8) optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; (9) antibodies in a complex environment; (10) polyclonal, oligoclonal and bispecific antibodies; (11) antibodies to watch in 2014; and (12) polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity.

  20. Antiviral Combination Approach as a Perspective to Combat Enterovirus Infections.

    PubMed

    Galabov, Angel S; Nikolova, Ivanka; Vassileva-Pencheva, Ralitsa; Stoyanova, Adelina

    2015-01-01

    Human enteroviruses distributed worldwide are causative agents of a broad spectrum of diseases with extremely high morbidity, including a series of severe illnesses of the central nervous system, heart, endocrine pancreas, skeleton muscles, etc., as well as the common cold contributing to the development of chronic respiratory diseases, including the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The above mentioned diseases along with the significantly high morbidity and mortality in children, as well as in the high-risk populations (immunodeficiencies, neonates) definitely formulate the chemotherapy as the main tool for the control of enterovirus infections. At present, clinically effective antivirals for use in the treatment of enteroviral infection do not exist, in spite of the large amount of work carried out in this field. The main reason for this is the development of drug resistance. We studied the process of development of resistance to the strongest inhibitors of enteroviruses, WIN compounds (VP1 protein hydrophobic pocket blockers), especially in the models in vivo, Coxsackievirus B (CV-B) infections in mice. We introduced the tracing of a panel of phenotypic markers (MIC50 value, plaque shape and size, stability at 50℃, pathogenicity in mice) for characterization of the drug-mutants (resistant and dependent) as a very important stage in the study of enterovirus inhibitors. Moreover, as a result of VP1 RNA sequence analysis performed on the model of disoxaril mutants of CVB1, we determined the molecular basis of the drug-resistance. The monotherapy courses were the only approach used till now. For the first time in the research for anti-enterovirus antivirals our team introduced the testing of combination effect of the selective inhibitors of enterovirus replication with different mode of action. This study resulted in the selection of a number of very effective in vitro double combinations with synergistic effect and a broad spectrum of sensitive