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Sample records for cell-mediated immunity adoptive

  1. Vascular endothelial cells in cell-mediated immunity: adoptive transfer with in vitro conditioned cells is genetically restricted at the endothelial cell barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Standage, B.A.; Vetto, R.M.; Jones, R.; Burger, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) is a cell-mediated immune response that can be adoptively transferred in rats when greater than 2 X 10(8) cells from peritoneal exudate, lymph nodes, or spleen are used. We have shown that by using an in vitro conditioning step with antigen, transfer can be subsequently carried out with as few as 2 X 10(7) spleen cells. The magnitude of DTH was reflected in ear swelling after intradermal injection of antigen (tuberculin or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)) and confirmed histologically. The transfer was antigen specific, requiring the sensitizing antigen in both the in vitro conditioning step and in the ear test challenge. Adoptive transfer with conditioned cells was genetically restricted by alleles of the RT-1 region (major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of the rat). Brown Norway strain (n haplotype) immune cells would not transfer DTH to Lewis (1 haplotype), ACI (a haplotype), or Buffalo (b haplotype) rats, whereas each strain would transfer DTH to syngeneic recipients. Moreover, this pattern of restriction held for all strains when tested in reciprocal fashion. In additional experiments, F1 to parental bone marrow chimeras were constructed so that bone-marrow-derived cells and non-bone-marrow-derived cells were of different RT-1 haplotypes. When these chimeras were used as recipients, transfer of DTH was only observed when immune donor cells and recipient non-bone-marrow-derived cells were syngeneic. These results point to the critical role of non-bone-marrow-derived cells (endothelial cells) in the DTH reaction.

  2. Cutaneous sensitivity induced by immunization with irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. I. Induction, elicitation, and adoptive transfer analysis of cell-mediated cutaneous sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ch'ang, L.Y.; Colley, D.G.

    1986-06-01

    Exposure of C57BL/6 mice to highly irradiated (50 kR) cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni leads to the development of partial resistance against subsequent challenge with unattenuated cercariae. We have analyzed the cellular immune responses that occur during the afferent and efferent phases of this protective sensitization. Mice were immunized by exposure to irradiated S. mansoni cercariae. After challenge with irradiated cercariae, delayed-type (18-72 hr) cutaneous sensitivity reaction sites were rich in mononuclear cells and eosinophils. This reactivity was established by 4 days after sensitization, reached its maximum between 7 and 14 days after sensitization, and was maintained for over 20 weeks. These challenge reactions could be abrogated by treatment with either 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide or 5 mg of hydrocortisone. Syngeneic adoptive transfer of cutaneous sensitivity was accomplished with lymphoid cells from the draining lymph nodes or spleens of mice sensitized 7-14 days previously. Negative selection studies of nylon-wool non-adherent cells from sensitized donors demonstrated that the cells responsible for transferring this eosinophil-rich, delayed-type cutaneous sensitivity to S. mansoni irradiated cercariae were Thy/sup -1 +/, Lyt/sup 1 +/, Lyt/sup 2 -/, surface Ig/sup -/ lymphocytes.

  3. Ageing and cell-mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Fixa, B; Komárková, O; Chmelar, V

    1975-01-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test with phytohemagglutinin as mitogen estimated according to the incorporation of 2-(14)C-thymidine in DNA was used as an indicator of cell-mediated reactivity in 53 healthy subjects. Three age groups were examined: up to 20 years (21 subjects), 21-40 years (10 subjects) and over 70 years (22 subjects). The responsiveness of lymphocytes decreased significantly with age. In the highest age group 12 pathologically low values were found.

  4. Detection of cell mediated immune response to avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In birds, lymphomyeloid tissues develop from epithelial (Bursa of Fabricus or thymus) or mesenchymal tissue which are populated by heamatopoietic stem cells. These stem cells develop directly into immunologically competent B (bursa) and T (thymus) cells. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is a part of the...

  5. Effect of space flight on cell-mediated immunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, A. D.; Balish, E.

    1977-01-01

    The cell-mediated immune response to Listeria monocytogenes was studied in rats subjected to 20 days of flight aboard the Soviet biosatellite Kosmos 7820. Groups of rats were immunized with 1,000,000 formalin-killed Listeria suspended in Freunds Complete Adjuvant, 5 days prior to flight. Immunized rats subjected to the same environmental factors as the flight rats, except flight itself, and immunized and nonimmunized rats held in a normal animal colony served as controls. Following recovery, lymphocyte cultures were harvested from spleens of all rats, cultured in vitro in the presence of L. monocytogenes antigens, Phytohemagglutinin, Conconavlin A, or purified protein derivative (PPD), and measured for their uptake of H-3-thymidine. Although individual rats varied considerably, all flight and immunized control rats gave a blastogenic response to the Listeria antigens and PPD. With several mitogens, the lymphocytes of flight rats showed a significantly increased blastogenic response over the controls. The results of this study do not support a hypothesis of a detrimental effect of space flight on cell-mediated immunity. The data suggest a possible suppressive effect of stress and gravity on an in vitro correlate of cell-mediated immunity.

  6. Fitness of cell-mediated immunity independent of repertoire diversity.

    PubMed

    AbuAttieh, Mouhammed; Rebrovich, Michelle; Wettstein, Peter J; Vuk-Pavlovic, Zvezdana; Limper, Andrew H; Platt, Jeffrey L; Cascalho, Marilia

    2007-03-01

    Fitness of cell-mediated immunity is thought to depend on TCR diversity; however, this concept has not been tested formally. We tested the concept using JH(-/-) mice that lack B cells and have TCR Vbeta diversity <1% that of wild-type mice and quasimonoclonal (QM) mice with oligoclonal B cells and TCR Vbeta diversity 7% that of wild-type mice. Despite having a TCR repertoire contracted >99% and defective lymphoid organogenesis, JH(-/-) mice rejected H-Y-incompatible skin grafts as rapidly as wild-type mice. JH(-/-) mice exhibited T cell priming by peptide and delayed-type hypersensitivity, although these responses were less than normal owing either to TCR repertoire contraction or defective lymphoid organogenesis. QM mice with TCR diversity contracted >90%, and normal lymphoid organs rejected H-Y incompatible skin grafts as rapidly as wild type mice and exhibited normal T cell priming and normal delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. QM mice also resisted Pneumocystis murina like wild-type mice. Thus, cell-mediated immunity can function normally despite contractions of TCR diversity >90% and possibly >99%.

  7. Cell-mediated immunity to soluble and particulate inhaled antigens

    PubMed Central

    Hill, J. O.; Burrell, R.

    1979-01-01

    In order to determine the influence of an antigen's physical properties on the development of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in the lung following aerosol immunization, human serum albumin (HSA) was prepared in either a soluble or a particulate form, the latter being coupled to respirable, carboxylated latex beads. Antigen was administered via an aerosol to groups of guinea-pigs, twice weekly for up to 4 weeks. Additional groups of animals served as unexposed and unconjugated latex controls. Lymphoid cells for CMI assays were isolated from the lung by bronchopulmonary lavage and from blood for use in mitogen- and antigen-induced lymphocyte transformation assays, as well as indirect macrophage migration inhibition tests. Particulate HSA-exposed animals yielded the highest numbers of free lung cells containing predominantly macrophages, with up to 33% lymphocytes. These were followed by the latex control, soluble HSA and unexposed control groups, respectively. Only the animals exposed to particulate HSA had evidence of antigen reactivation in the lung cell populations as measured by lymphocyte stimulation assays. In contrast, a response to polyclonal mitogens was found only in animals exposed to antigen in a soluble form. Data from macrophage depletion experiments suggest that the antigenicity of inhaled antigens may be due to the types and numbers of cells responding to the stimulus, and the subsequent role the alveolar macrophage may play in the modulation of cellular immunity. PMID:393444

  8. CXCR5+ T helper cells mediate protective immunity against tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Slight, Samantha R.; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Gopal, Radha; Lin, Yinyao; Fallert Junecko, Beth A.; Mehra, Smriti; Selman, Moises; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Baquera-Heredia, Javier; Pavon, Lenin; Kaushal, Deepak; Reinhart, Todd A.; Randall, Troy D.; Khader, Shabaana A.

    2013-01-01

    One third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Although most infected people remain asymptomatic, they have a 10% lifetime risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB). Thus, the current challenge is to identify immune parameters that distinguish individuals with latent TB from those with active TB. Using human and experimental models of Mtb infection, we demonstrated that organized ectopic lymphoid structures containing CXCR5+ T cells were present in Mtb-infected lungs. In addition, we found that in experimental Mtb infection models, the presence of CXCR5+ T cells within ectopic lymphoid structures was associated with immune control. Furthermore, in a mouse model of Mtb infection, we showed that activated CD4+CXCR5+ T cells accumulated in Mtb-infected lungs and produced proinflammatory cytokines. Mice deficient in Cxcr5 had increased susceptibility to TB due to defective T cell localization within the lung parenchyma. We demonstrated that CXCR5 expression in T cells mediated correct T cell localization within TB granulomas, promoted efficient macrophage activation, protected against Mtb infection, and facilitated lymphoid follicle formation. These data demonstrate that CD4+CXCR5+ T cells play a protective role in the immune response against TB and highlight their potential use for future TB vaccine design and therapy. PMID:23281399

  9. Establishment of Stable, Cell-Mediated Immunity that Makes "Susceptible" Mice Resistant to Leishmania major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretscher, Peter A.; Wei, Guojian; Menon, Juthika N.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    1992-07-01

    Cell-mediated, but not antibody-mediated, immune responses protect humans against certain pathogens that produce chronic diseases such as leishmaniasis. Effective vaccination against such pathogens must therefore produce an immunological "imprint" so that stable, cell-mediated immunity is induced in all individuals after natural infection. BALB/c mice "innately susceptible" to Leishmania major produce antibodies after substantial infection. In the present study, "susceptible" mice injected with a small number of parasites mounted a cell-mediated response and acquired resistance to a larger, normally pathogenic, challenge. This vaccination strategy may be applicable in diseases in which protection is dependent on cell-mediated immunity.

  10. Essential oil of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) augments the humoral immune response but decreases cell mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2011-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of the essential oil isolated from the buds of Eugenia caryophyllata on some immunological parameters. Humoral immunity was assessed by measuring the hemagglutination titre to sheep red blood cells and delayed type hypersensitivity was assessed by measuring foot pad thickness. Clove oil administration produced a significant increase in the primary as well as secondary humoral immune response. In addition, it also produced a significant decrease in foot pad thickness compared with the control group. Thus, these results suggest that clove oil can modulate the immune response by augmenting humoral immunity and decreasing cell mediated immunity.

  11. Suppression of Cell-Mediated Immunity in Experimental African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, John M.; Wallace, John H.

    1974-01-01

    Adult New Zealand white rabbits were experimentally infected with a parasitic African hemoflagellate, Trypanosoma congolense, and were subsequently tested for in vivo and in vitro aspects of cell-mediated immune function. Chronically infected rabbits were sensitized to mycobacterial protein and skin-tested with purified protein derivative; all infected animals demonstrated much milder skin-test responses to antigen than control groups. Similarly, peripheral blood lymphocyte responses in vitro to purified protein derivative and, as well, to phytohemagglutinin were markedly suppressed. Supernatant fluids of antigen-stimulated lymph node cell cultures from T. congolense-infected rabbits failed to demonstrate migration inhibitory factor activity but did possess normal levels of blastogenic factor activity. An active infection was necessary for demonstration of suppressed immune responses, and components present in infected rabbit serum were apparently not responsible for the observed abnormalities. Suppression of T-lymphocyte subpopulations may well explain the occurrence of numerous immunological aberrations arising during human and animal infections with the African trypanosomes. PMID:4854532

  12. Cell-Mediated Immunity and Its Role in Resistance to Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Edward J.; Remington, Jack S.

    1977-01-01

    The recently acquired knowledge of the importance of cell-mediated immunity in many illnesses and the discovery of a variety of substances that can restore certain cell-mediated immune functions has served to focus the attention of physicians on this area of immunity. It is important for practicing physicians to have a clear understanding of current knowledge of the role of cell-mediated immunity in resistance to infection and how this arm of the immune system relates to the diagnosis and therapy of infectious diseases. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:318786

  13. Assessing humoral and cell-mediated immune response in Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Rameyer, R.A.; Chang, S.P.; Berestecky, J.

    2000-01-01

    Seven immature green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured from Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu were used to evaluate methods for assessing their immune response. Two turtles each were immunized intramuscularly with egg white lysozyme (EWL) in Freunda??s complete adjuvant, Gerbu, or ISA-70; a seventh turtle was immunized with saline only and served as a control. Humoral immune response was measured with an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell-mediated immune response was measured using in vitro cell proliferation assays (CPA) using whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) cultured with concanavalin A (ConA), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or soluble egg EWL antigen. All turtles, except for one immunized with Gerbu and the control, produced a detectable humoral immune response by 6 weeks which persisted for at least 14 weeks after a single immunization. All turtles produced an anamnestic humoral immune response after secondary immunization. Antigen specific cell-mediated immune response in PBM was seen in all turtles either after primary or secondary immunization, but it was not as consistent as humoral immune response; antigen specific cell-mediated immune response in whole blood was rarely seen. Mononuclear cells had significantly higher stimulation indices than whole blood regardless of adjuvant, however, results with whole blood had lower variability. Both Gerbu and ISA-70 appeared to potentiate the cell-mediated immune response when PBM or whole blood were cultured with PHA. This is the first time cell proliferation assays have been compared between whole blood and PBM for reptiles. This is also the first demonstration of antigen specific cell-mediated response in reptiles. Cell proliferation assays allowed us to evaluate the cell-mediated immune response of green turtles. However, CPA may be less reliable than ELISA for detecting antigen specific immune response. Either of the three adjuvants appears suitable to safely elicit a

  14. Micronutrient supplementation and T-cell mediated immune responses in patients with tuberculosis in Tanzania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited studies exist regarding whether incorporating micronutrient supplements during tuberculosis (TB) treatment may improve cell-mediated immune response. We examine the effect of micronutrient supplementation on lymphocyte proliferation response to mycobacteria or T cell mitogens in a randomize...

  15. Cell-mediated immunity to hepatitis B virus antigens in mice: correlation of in vivo and in vitro assays.

    PubMed Central

    De Moerloose, P A; Frazer, I H; Sewell, W A; Collins, E J; Mackay, I R

    1986-01-01

    Cell mediated immunity (CMI) to hepatitis B viral antigens was studied in BALB/mice after immunization with purified hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), or core antigen (HBcAg), with adjuvants. The two in vitro assays for cell-mediated immunity (CMI), utilizing lymph node cells, were release of interferon after exposure to antigen, and blast transformation of lymphocytes, and the in vivo assay was ear swelling at 24 h after local injection of antigen. Immunization with HBsAg or HBcAg with adjuvants induced antigen-specific cutaneous reactivity; if no adjuvants were given, immunization with HBcAg, but not HBsAg, induced cutaneous reactivity. CMI could be adoptively transferred by lymph node cells, but for only a limited period after immunization with HbsAg or HBcAg. The ability of lymph node cells from mice immunized with HBV antigens to transfer adoptively CMI correlated well with their production of interferon after challenge with antigen in vitro, but less well with blastogenesis after challenge with antigen in vitro, or with cutaneous reactivity to antigen in the donor mouse. Reliable antigen-specific lymphokine release assays, rather than blast transformation of lymphocytes or cutaneous reactivity after antigen challenge, are required to assess CMI to HBV antigens in the mouse and, by inference, in man. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3091300

  16. Analysis of cell-mediated immune responses in support of dengue vaccine development efforts.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Alan L; Currier, Jeffrey R; Friberg, Heather L; Mathew, Anuja

    2015-12-10

    Dengue vaccine development has made significant strides, but a better understanding of how vaccine-induced immune responses correlate with vaccine efficacy can greatly accelerate development, testing, and deployment as well as ameliorate potential risks and safety concerns. Advances in basic immunology knowledge and techniques have already improved our understanding of cell-mediated immunity of natural dengue virus infection and vaccination. We conclude that the evidence base is adequate to argue for inclusion of assessments of cell-mediated immunity as part of clinical trials of dengue vaccines, although further research to identify useful correlates of protective immunity is needed.

  17. Cell-Mediated Immune Function and Cytokine Regulation During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Pierson, Duane L.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The changes in immune function which occur during space flight potentially expose the crews to an increased risk for development of illness. Decreased cellular immune function has been repeatedly documented after space flight and confirmed during flight by in vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity testing. However, correlation of immune changes with a clinically significant risk factor has not yet been performed. Our hypothesis is that space flight induces a decrease in cell-mediated immune function accompanied by a shift from a type 1 cytokine pattern (favoring cell-mediated immunity) to a type 2 cytokine pattern (favoring humoral immunity). We further hypothesize that reactivation of latent viruses will occur during space flight in association with the decreased cellular immunity. To test these hypotheses, we will determine the effects of space flight on cell-mediated immunity and viral reactivation. We will utilize delayed-type hypersensitivity testing as an in vivo measure of integrated cell-mediated immune function. The production of cytokines and immunoregulatory factors by lymphocytes and monocytes will be measured to determine whether changes in cytokine patterns are associated with the space flight-induced immune dysregulation. Correlation of antigen-specific immune changes with reactivation of latent herpes viruses will be determined by measuring peripheral levels of viral (CMV, VZV, EBV) antigen-specific T cells and comparing to the levels of EBV-infected B-cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. A comparison of cell-mediated immune function, cytokine regulation and viral reactivation will provide new insights into crew member health risks during flight.

  18. Colostral antibody-mediated and cell-mediated immunity contributes to innate and antigen-specific immunity in piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoglobulins and immune cells are critical components of colostral immunity; however, their transfer to and function in the neonate, especially maternal lymphocytes, is unclear. Cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity in sow blood and colostrum and piglet blood before (PS) and after (AS) suc...

  19. Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal cell-mediated immunity regulation in the Immune Restoration Inflammatory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Khakshooy, Allen; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Over one third of the patients sero-positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with signs of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and under treatment with anti-retroviral therapy (ART), develop the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). It is not clear what variables are that determine whether a patient with HIV/AIDS will develop ART-related IRIS, but the best evidence base thus far indicates that HIV/AIDS patients with low CD4 cell count, and HIV/AIDS patients whose CD4 count recovery shows a sharp slope, suggesting a particularly fast "immune reconstitution", are at greater risk of developing IRIS. Here, we propose the hypothesis that one important variable that can contribute to low CD4 cell count number and function in ART-treated HIV/AIDS patients is altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) cell-mediated immune (CMI) regulation. We discuss HPA-CMI deregulation in IRIS as the new frontier in comparative effectiveness research (CRE) for obtaining and utilizing the best evidence base for treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in specific clinical settings. We propose that our hypothesis about altered HPA-CMI may extend to the pathologies observed in related viral infection, including Zika PMID:27212842

  20. Biomarkers of CD4+ CTL cell Mediated Immunity to Tuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immune responses mediated by interactions between T-lymphocyte subsets and mycobacteria-infected macrophages are critical for control of tuberculosis. In these studies, the bovine model was used to characterize the cytolytic and mycobactericidal CD4+ T cell response induced by BCG vaccination. ...

  1. Cell-mediated and humoral immune response in diabetic patients with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Anil, S; Remani, P; Vijayakumar, T; Hari, S

    1990-07-01

    Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses were assessed in 50 patients with type II or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 50 nondiabetic patients with periodontitis. The values were compared with those of 50 age and sex-matched control subjects. The cell-mediated immunity assessed by enumerating the total and high-affinity rosette-forming cells of the patient did not show any significant variation from that of the normal control subjects. The humoral immune response was assessed by estimating serum immunoglobulins G, A, M, D, and E by single radial immunodiffusion. Except IgD, all other immunoglobulins were found to be elevated significantly in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. The alteration in humoral immune response may be the cause or the effect of periodontitis. The defective host response reported in diabetic patients may be responsible for the increased incidence of periodontitis in diabetic patients as compared to nondiabetic patients.

  2. Human cell mediated immunity to porins from Salmonella typhi.

    PubMed

    Blanco, F; Isibasi, A; Raúl González, C; Ortiz, V; Paniagua, J; Arreguín, C; Kumate, J

    1993-01-01

    The current studies were undertaken to assess the role of the porins and outer membrane proteins (OMP) in the human immune response to Salmonella typhi 9, 12 Vi:d. Experiments were performed to determinate the lymphocyte activation response to porins in individuals who had been vaccinated against typhoid fever. 10 healthy volunteers were studied before and 10 days after oral or subcutaneous immunisation. Five patients with typhoid fever were also studied. Lymphocyte activation was measured by the 3H thymidine incorporation assay. Individuals with typhoid fever as well as those immunised with oral vaccine responded well to porins and outer membrane proteins, as opposed to those immunised with the subcutaneous vaccine. These results suggest that the porins and OMP play a role in the cellular immune response against Salmonella typhi.

  3. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in patients with localized juvenile periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Anil, S; Hari, S; Remani, P; Vijayakumar, T; Ankathil, R

    1990-03-01

    Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses were assessed in 21 patients with localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP), and in an equal number of control subjects. The cell-mediated immunity, assessed by enumeration of total rosette forming cells [TRFC] and high affinity rosette forming cells [HARFC], was found to be depressed in LJP patients compared to controls. Estimation of serum immunoglobulins G,A,M,D and E levels were done using single radial immunodiffusion. All the immunoglobulins except IgD were found to be elevated significantly in LJP patients. The defective immune response found in LJP patients may be the cause or effect of the disease process. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether these defects are genetically controlled.

  4. Siglecs as targets for therapy in immune cell mediated disease

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Mary K.; Paulson, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (siglecs) comprise a family of receptors that are differentially expressed on leukocytes and other immune cells. The restricted expression of several siglecs to one or a few cell types makes them attractive targets for cell-directed therapies. The anti-CD33 (Siglec-3) antibody Gemtuzumab (Mylotarg™) is approved for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and antibodies targeting CD22 (Siglec-2) are currently in clinical trials for treatment of B cell non-Hodgkins lymphomas and autoimmune diseases. Because siglecs are endocytic receptors, they are well suited for a ‘Trojan horse’ strategy, whereby therapeutic agents conjugated to an antibody, or multimeric glycan ligand, bind to the siglec and are efficiently carried into the cell. Although the rapid internalization of unmodified siglec antibodies reduces their utility for induction of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) or complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody binding of Siglec-8, Siglec-9, and CD22 have been demonstrated to induce apoptosis of eosinophils, neutrophils, and depletion of B cells, respectively. Here we review the properties of siglecs that make them attractive for cell-targeted therapies. PMID:19359050

  5. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Jensen, Tove Dannemann; Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2009-07-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate the different phases of the immune response after DNA immunization with the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from canine distemper virus (CDV). Although attenuated live CDV vaccines have effectively reduced the incidence of disease, canine distemper is still a problem worldwide. The broad host range of CDV creates a constant viral reservoir among wildlife animals. Our results demonstrated early humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-gamma) in DNA vaccinated mink compared to mock-vaccinated mink after challenge with a Danish wild-type CDV. The DNA vaccine-induced immunity protected the natural host against disease development.

  6. Impaired cell mediated immunity in haemophilia in the absence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Madhok, R; Gracie, A; Lowe, G D; Burnett, A; Froebel, K; Follett, E; Forbes, C D

    1986-01-01

    The cell mediated immune response was evaluated in vivo in 29 patients with clinically severe haemophilia by means of the dinitrochlorobenzene skin test. All patients had a response below the median normal value, and in 19 the response was on or below the lower limit of the normal range. There was no difference in skin response between patients positive and negative for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; formerly known as human T cell lymphotropic virus III or lymphadenopathy associated virus). In the whole group, and in seronegative patients (n = 17), there was an inverse relation between exposure to clotting factor and skin response. In seropositive patients (n = 12) no such association was apparent. This study shows that clotting factor concentrate impairs the cell mediated immune response to a new antigen in the absence of infection with HIV. PMID:3094762

  7. [Production of a dialysable transfer factor of cell mediated immunity by lymphoblastoid cells in continuous proliferation].

    PubMed

    Goust, J M; Viza, D; Moulias, R; Trejdosiewicz, L; Lesourd, B; Marescot, M R; Prévot, A

    1975-01-20

    Four lymphoblastoid cell lines tested in this work contain normally a dialysable moiety having by ultraviolet spectroscopy, column chromatography (Biogel P 10) and chemically the same properties than human dialysable Transfer Factor (TFd), but unable to transfer cell mediated immune response against common antigens. Two of them are able to do so after incubation with minimal amounts of TFd. Production of a molecule identical to human TFd is possible in some lymphoblastoid cell lines after induction with TFd.

  8. Differential effect of pancreatectomy on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.

    PubMed Central

    Fabris, N; Piantanelli, L

    1977-01-01

    Cell-mediated immune reactions, such as allogenic skin-graft rejection and PHA or MLC responses, and antibody synthesis against different antigens (sheep erythrocytes, Brucella antigen, bovine serum albumin) have been evaluated in rats suffering from experimentally-induced diabetes and in age-matched sham-treated controls. Cell-mediated immune reactions are strongly depressed diabetic rats. The cellularity of the thymus and of thymus-dependent areas and the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes is significantly reduced in pancreatectomized rats. Moreover, the immunological recovery from heavy cortisonization is also greatly impaired. Daily treatment with insulin may prevent these immunological alterations. By contrast, antibody responses in diabetic rats are not quantitatively altered in respect to either the number of antibody producing cells in the spleen or the circulating antibody titres. The discrepancy between the abnormality of cell-mediated immune reactions in diabetic rats and their physiological capacity to synthetize antibodies suggests that the sensitivity to an insulin-deprived environment is present only in a definite, although yet undefined, subpopulation of lymphoid cells rather than in the whole lymphoid system. Images Fig. 4 PMID:141353

  9. Cell mediated immune response after challenge in Omp25 liposome immunized mice contributes to protection against virulent Brucella abortus 544.

    PubMed

    Goel, Divya; Rajendran, Vinoth; Ghosh, Prahlad C; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2013-02-06

    Brucellosis is a disease affecting various domestic and wild life species, and is caused by a bacterium Brucella. Keeping in view the serious economic and medical consequences of brucellosis, efforts have been made to prevent the infection through the use of vaccines. Cell-mediated immune responses [CMI] involving interferon gamma and cytotoxic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are required for removal of intracellular Brucella. Omp25 has been reported to be involved in virulence of Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus and Brucella ovis. In our previous study, we have shown the protective efficacy of recombinant Omp25, when administered intradermally. In this study, the recombinant Omp25 was formulated in PC-PE liposomes and PLGA microparticles, to enhance the protective immunity generated by it. Significant protection was seen with prime and booster liposome immunization in Balb/c mice against virulent B. abortus 544 as it was comparable to B. abortus S-19 vaccine strain. However, microparticle prime and booster immunization failed to give better protection when compared to B. abortus S-19 vaccine strain. This difference can be attributed to the stimulation of cell mediated immune response in PC-PE liposome immunized mice even after challenge which converted to cytotoxicity seen in CD4(+) and CD8(+) enriched lymphocytes. However, in PLGA microparticle immunized mice, cell mediated immunity was not generated after challenge as observed by decreased cytotoxicity of CD4(+) and CD8(+) enriched lymphocytes. Our study emphasizes on the importance of liposome encapsulating Omp25 immunization in conferring protection against B. abortus 544 challenge in Balb/c mice with a single dose immunization regimen.

  10. Human CD8+ T cells mediate protective immunity induced by a human malaria vaccine in human immune system mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangming; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Min; Funakoshi, Ryota; Sheetij, Dutta; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S; Tsuji, Moriya

    2016-08-31

    A number of studies have shown that CD8+ T cells mediate protective anti-malaria immunity in a mouse model. However, whether human CD8+ T cells play a role in protection against malaria remains unknown. We recently established human immune system (HIS) mice harboring functional human CD8+ T cells (HIS-CD8 mice) by transduction with HLA-A∗0201 and certain human cytokines using recombinant adeno-associated virus-based gene transfer technologies. These HIS-CD8 mice mount a potent, antigen-specific HLA-A∗0201-restricted human CD8+ T-cell response upon immunization with a recombinant adenovirus expressing a human malaria antigen, the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP), termed AdPfCSP. In the present study, we challenged AdPfCSP-immunized HIS-CD8 mice with transgenic Plasmodium berghei sporozoites expressing full-length PfCSP and found that AdPfCSP-immunized (but not naïve) mice were protected against subsequent malaria challenge. The level of the HLA-A∗0201-restricted, PfCSP-specific human CD8+ T-cell response was closely correlated with the level of malaria protection. Furthermore, depletion of human CD8+ T cells from AdPfCSP-immunized HIS-CD8 mice almost completely abolished the anti-malaria immune response. Taken together, our data show that human CD8+ T cells mediate protective anti-malaria immunity in vivo.

  11. HLA-B8 and cell-mediated immunity to gluten.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, F G; Bullen, A W; Robertson, D A; Losowsky, M S

    1981-01-01

    The leucocyte migration inhibition (LMI) test was used as an indicator of cell mediated immunity to gluten fraction III in 30 healthy controls and 58 patients with adult coeliac disease and the results related to HLA status and duration of treatment with a gluten-free diet. HLA-B8 controls showed significantly lower leucocyte migration indices, indicating greater immune response, than non-HLA B8 controls. Untreated coeliacs showed no difference from HLA-B8 controls. There was no difference between results from HLA-B8 and non-HLA-B8 coeliacs. Leucocyte migration was even lower in coeliacs early in treatment but rose after treatment for over one year. These results may reflect an immune response gene for gluten in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-B8. The increased immune response to gluten as measured in this test cannot be the sole factor in aetiology of coeliac disease. Furthermore, it is necessary to re-evaluate earlier results of cell-mediated immunity in coeliac disease with reference to HLA status of the controls. PMID:6974678

  12. ITIM-dependent negative signaling pathways for the control of cell-mediated xenogeneic immune responses.

    PubMed

    del Rio, Maria-Luisa; Seebach, Jörg D; Fernández-Renedo, Carlos; Rodriguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Xenotransplantation is an innovative field of research with the potential to provide us with an alternative source of organs to face the severe shortage of human organ donors. For several reasons, pigs have been chosen as the most suitable source of organs and tissues for transplantation in humans. However, porcine xenografts undergo cellular immune responses representing a major barrier to their acceptance and normal functioning. Innate and adaptive xenogeneic immunity is mediated by both the recognition of xenogeneic tissue antigens and the lack of inhibition due to molecular cross-species incompatibilities of regulatory pathways. Therefore, the delivery of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-dependent and related negative signals to control innate (NK cells, macrophages) and adaptive T and B cells might overcome cell-mediated xenogeneic immunity. The proof of this concept has already been achieved in vitro by the transgenic overexpression of human ligands of several inhibitory receptors in porcine cells resulting in their resistance against xenoreactivity. Consequently, several transgenic pigs expressing tissue-specific human ligands of inhibitory coreceptors (HLA-E, CD47) or soluble competitors of costimulation (belatacept) have already been generated. The development of these robust and innovative approaches to modulate human anti-pig cellular immune responses, complementary to conventional immunosuppression, will help to achieve long-term xenograft survival. In this review, we will focus on the current strategies to enhance negative signaling pathways for the regulation of undesirable cell-mediated xenoreactive immune responses.

  13. Optimistic Expectancies and Cell-Mediated Immunity: The Role of Positive Affect

    PubMed Central

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Sephton, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Optimistic expectancies affect many psychosocial outcomes and may also predict immune system changes and health, but the nature and mechanisms of any such physiological effects have not been identified. The present study related law-school expectancies to cell-mediated immunity (CMI), examining the within- and between-person components of this relationship and affective mediators. First-year law students (N = 124) completed questionnaire measures of expectancies and affect and received delayed-type hypersensitivity skin tests at five time points. A positive relationship between optimistic expectancies and CMI occurred, in which that changes in optimism correlated with changes in CMI. Likewise, changes in optimism predicted changes in positive and, to a lesser degree, negative affect, but the relationship between optimism and immunity was partially accounted for only by positive affect. This dynamic relationship between expectancies and immunity has positive implications for psychological interventions to improve health, particularly those that increase positive affect. PMID:20424083

  14. Regulation of herpes simplex virus-specific cell-mediated immunity by a specific suppressor factor.

    PubMed Central

    Horohov, D W; Wyckoff, J H; Moore, R N; Rouse, B T

    1986-01-01

    Our study was designed to investigate the nature of an antigen-specific suppressor factor generated by antigen-stimulated herpes simplex virus (HSV)-immune splenocytes. Factor SF-200, a 90,000- to 100,000-dalton fraction obtained after Sephacryl gel filtration, suppressed the generation of HSV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and lymphoproliferative responses. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis of SF-200 indicated that it contained an I-J+, anti-idiotypic protein. It was possible to adsorb the suppressor activity of SF-200 to an anti-I-J immunoaffinity column. The suppressor activity could be eluted from the immunoaffinity column with a low-pH buffer. The acid-eluted material was determined to be both I-J+ and reactive with anti-HSV antiserum by Western blot analysis. Both SF-200 and the I-J+ suppressor activity suppressed only HSV-specific cell-mediated immunity responses. However, it was possible to generate nonspecific suppressor activity by incubating the I-J+ suppressor factor with Lyt 1+ splenocytes from HSV-immune mice. The implication of these results with respect to the model for a suppressor cell circuit regulating HSV-specific cell-mediated immunity responses is discussed. Images PMID:3009850

  15. Ornamental comb colour predicts T-cell-mediated immunity in male red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougeot, Francois

    2008-02-01

    Sexual ornaments might reliably indicate the ability to cope with parasites and diseases, and a better ability to mount a primary inflammatory response to a novel challenge. Carotenoid-based ornaments are amongst the commonest sexual signals of birds and often influence mate choice. Because carotenoids are immuno-stimulants, signallers may trade-off allocating these to ornamental colouration or using them for immune responses, so carotenoid-based ornaments might be particularly useful as honest indicators of immuno-compentence. Tetraonid birds, such as the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus, exhibit supra-orbital yellow red combs, a conspicuous ornament which functions in intra- and inter-sexual selection. The colour of combs is due to epidermal pigmentation by carotenoids, while their size is testosterone-dependent. In this study, I investigated whether comb characteristics, and in particular, comb colour, indicated immuno-competence in free-living male red grouse. I assessed T-cell-mediated immunity using a standardised challenge with phytohaemagglutinin. Red grouse combs reflect in the red and in the ultraviolet spectrum of light, which is not visible to humans but that grouse most likely see, so I measured comb colour across the whole bird visible spectrum (300 700 nm) using a reflectance spectrometer. I found that males with bigger and redder combs, but with less ultraviolet reflectance, had greater T-cell-mediated immune response. Comb colour predicted T-cell-mediated immune response better than comb size, indicating that the carotenoid-based colouration of this ornament might reliably signal this aspect of male quality.

  16. Ornamental comb colour predicts T-cell-mediated immunity in male red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, Francois

    2008-02-01

    Sexual ornaments might reliably indicate the ability to cope with parasites and diseases, and a better ability to mount a primary inflammatory response to a novel challenge. Carotenoid-based ornaments are amongst the commonest sexual signals of birds and often influence mate choice. Because carotenoids are immuno-stimulants, signallers may trade-off allocating these to ornamental colouration or using them for immune responses, so carotenoid-based ornaments might be particularly useful as honest indicators of immuno-compentence. Tetraonid birds, such as the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus, exhibit supra-orbital yellow-red combs, a conspicuous ornament which functions in intra- and inter-sexual selection. The colour of combs is due to epidermal pigmentation by carotenoids, while their size is testosterone-dependent. In this study, I investigated whether comb characteristics, and in particular, comb colour, indicated immuno-competence in free-living male red grouse. I assessed T-cell-mediated immunity using a standardised challenge with phytohaemagglutinin. Red grouse combs reflect in the red and in the ultraviolet spectrum of light, which is not visible to humans but that grouse most likely see, so I measured comb colour across the whole bird visible spectrum (300-700 nm) using a reflectance spectrometer. I found that males with bigger and redder combs, but with less ultraviolet reflectance, had greater T-cell-mediated immune response. Comb colour predicted T-cell-mediated immune response better than comb size, indicating that the carotenoid-based colouration of this ornament might reliably signal this aspect of male quality.

  17. Cell mediated immunity after measles in Guinea-Bissau: historical cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, S. O.; Aaby, P.; Hall, A. J.; Barker, D. J.; Heyes, C. B.; Shiell, A. W.; Goudiaby, A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether children who have had measles have reduced general cell mediated immunity three years later compared with vaccinated children who have not had measles. DESIGN: Historical cohort study. SETTING: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. SUBJECTS: 391 children aged 3-13 years who were living in Bissau during a measles epidemic in 1991 and still lived there. These included 131 primary cases and 139 secondary cases from the epidemic and 121 vaccinated controls with no history of measles. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: General cell mediated immunity assessed by measurement of delayed type hypersensitivity skin responses to seven recall antigens. Anergy was defined as a lack of response to all antigens. RESULTS: 82 out of 268 cases of measles (31%) were anergic compared with 20 of the 121 vaccinated controls (17%) (odds ratio adjusted for potential confounding variables 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 4.0); P 0.009). The prevalence of anergy was higher in secondary cases (33% (46/138)) than in primary cases (28% (36/130)), although this difference was not significant. Anergy was more common in the rainy season (unadjusted prevalence 31% (91/291) than in the dry season (11% (11/98)) (adjusted odds ratio 4.8 (2.2 to 10.3)). This seasonal increase occurred predominantly in the case of measles. CONCLUSION: Reduced general cell mediated immunity may contribute to the higher long term mortality in children who have had measles compared with recipients of standard measles vaccine and to the higher child mortality in the rainy season in west Africa. PMID:8892416

  18. Cordyceps militaris Enhances Cell-Mediated Immunity in Healthy Korean Men.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho Joon; Baik, Hyun Wook; Kim, Sang Jung; Lee, Seong Gyu; Ahn, Hong Yup; Park, Ju Sang; Park, Sang Jong; Jang, Eun Jeong; Park, Sang Woon; Choi, Jin Young; Sung, Ji Hee; Lee, Seung Min

    2015-10-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a mushroom traditionally used for diverse pharmaceutical purposes in East Asia, including China, and has been found to be effective for enhancing immunity through various types of animal testing. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of C. militaris for enhancing cell-mediated immunity and its safety in healthy male adults. Healthy male adults were divided into the experimental group (n = 39), given 1.5 g/day of ethanol treated C. militaris in capsules, and the control group (n = 40), given the same number of identical placebo capsules filled with microcrystalline cellulose and lactose for 4 weeks from February 13 to March 14, 2012; the natural killer (NK) cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation index (PI), and T-helper cell 1 (Th1) cytokine cluster (interferon [IFN]-γ, interleukin [IL]-12, IL-2, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) were measured, along with stability test, at weeks 0, 2, and 4. The C. militaris group showed a statistically significant greater increase in NK200 (P = .0010), lymphocyte PI (P ≤ .0001), IL-2 (P = .0096), and IFN-γ (P = .0126), compared with the basal level, than the placebo group. There was no statistically significant adverse reaction. C. militaris enhanced the NK cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation and partially increased Th1 cytokine secretion. Therefore, C. militaris is safe and effective for enhancing cell-mediated immunity of healthy male adults.

  19. A DEPRESSION OF CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY TO MEASLES ANTIGEN IN PATIENTS WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    PubMed Central

    Utermohlen, Virginia; Winfield, John B.; Zabriskie, John B.; Kunkel, Henry G.

    1974-01-01

    Using the direct migration inhibition test, response to measles antigen in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was found to be decreased when compared with that of normal subjects. No alteration was observed in similar experiments using parainfluenza type 1 and rubella antigens. The specific decrease in measles antigen effect showed no obvious correlation with activity of SLE or with the presence of lymphocytotoxic antibodies. Whether the specificity of the decrease in reactivity is due to some particular relationship between the measles virus or antigen and SLE, or to the possibility that measles reactivity is a more sensitive indicator of a generalized defect of cell-mediated immunity, remains unclear. PMID:4361242

  20. Autochthonous primary and metastatic melanomas in Hgf-Cdk4 R24C mice evade T-cell-mediated immune surveillance.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, Jennifer; Gaffal, Evelyn; Cron, Mira; Kohlmeyer, Judith; Renn, Marcel; Tüting, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models offer new opportunities to investigate the role of cell-mediated immunity in the natural progression of melanoma in an immunocompetent host. Here we report that Hgf-Cdk4(R24C) mice spontaneously develop a spectrum of primary melanomas with high penetrance during their first year of life. Malignant transformation proceeds in a stepwise manner from multiple melanocytic nevi to single nodular melanomas and disseminated metastases in most mice. Migrating melanoma cells invade the draining lymph nodes without activating the immune system. Autochthonous primary tumors are destroyed following experimental introduction of immune surveillance using an adoptive lymphocyte transfer approach. However, some tumor cells are able to survive, evade immune cell control, and recur both locally and systemically. Immune tolerance in recurring tumors may be supported by immunosuppressive Gr1(+) myeloid cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that primary and metastatic melanomas developing spontaneously in Hgf-Cdk4(R24C) mice effectively evade cellular immune surveillance.

  1. The 3 major types of innate and adaptive cell-mediated effector immunity.

    PubMed

    Annunziato, Francesco; Romagnani, Chiara; Romagnani, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has tailored its effector functions to optimally respond to distinct species of microbes. Based on emerging knowledge on the different effector T-cell and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) lineages, it is clear that the innate and adaptive immune systems converge into 3 major kinds of cell-mediated effector immunity, which we propose to categorize as type 1, type 2, and type 3. Type 1 immunity consists of T-bet(+) IFN-γ-producing group 1 ILCs (ILC1 and natural killer cells), CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (TC1), and CD4(+) TH1 cells, which protect against intracellular microbes through activation of mononuclear phagocytes. Type 2 immunity consists of GATA-3(+) ILC2s, TC2 cells, and TH2 cells producing IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which induce mast cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation, as well as IgE antibody production, thus protecting against helminthes and venoms. Type 3 immunity is mediated by retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt(+) ILC3s, TC17 cells, and TH17 cells producing IL-17, IL-22, or both, which activate mononuclear phagocytes but also recruit neutrophils and induce epithelial antimicrobial responses, thus protecting against extracellular bacteria and fungi. On the other hand, type 1 and 3 immunity mediate autoimmune diseases, whereas type 2 responses can cause allergic diseases.

  2. Tumor immunogenicity determines the effect of B7 costimulation on T cell-mediated tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    A costimulatory signal through B7 to its counter-receptor CD28 on T cells enhances T cell activation. We have generated recombinant retroviruses containing cDNA for murine B7 and transduced a panel of murine tumor lines with varying immunogenicity to study the effect of B7 costimulation on antitumor immunity. In contrast to the progressive outgrowth of all wild-type (B7-) tumors in unimmunized syngeneic mice, four immunogenic tumors, lymphoma RMA, EL4, mastocytoma P815, and melanoma E6B2, regressed completely when transduced with the B7 gene. In contrast, four nonimmunogenic tumors, sarcomas MCA101, MCA102, and Ag104, and melanoma B16, remained tumorigenic after transduction of the B7 gene. Immunization with B7-transduced immunogenic tumors enhanced protective immunity and increased specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity against the respective wild-type tumors as compared to immunization with nontransduced or mock-transduced tumors. Moreover, cocultivation of CTL with B7-transduced EL4 cells augmented the specificity of tumor-reactive CTL in long-term cultures. Treatment by injection of B7-transduced tumor cells cured 60% of mice with established wild-type EL4 lymphoma. In contrast, immunization with nonimmunogenic tumors transduced with B7 did not provide protective immunity and did not increase specific CTL activity. Our results show that tumor immunogenicity is critical to the outcome of costimulation of T cell-mediated tumor immunity by B7. PMID:7507508

  3. Childhood adversity and cell-mediated immunity in young adulthood: does type and timing matter?

    PubMed

    Slopen, Natalie; McLaughlin, Katie A; Dunn, Erin C; Koenen, Karestan C

    2013-02-01

    Childhood adversity can have powerful effects on health over the life course. Persistent changes in cell-mediated immune function may be one pathway linking adverse childhood experiences with later disease risk. However, limited research has examined childhood adversity in relation to cell-mediated immune function, and in particular, immune response to latent viruses in adulthood. The present study investigated the association of two types of childhood adversity, socioeconomic disadvantage during adolescence and abuse prior to age 18, with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) antibody titers in a large nationally representative sample of young adults aged 24-32years. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health, Wave 4 (n=13,162). We examined the associations of three indicators of adolescent SES (parental education, household income, and occupational status) and frequency and timing of physical and sexual abuse with EBV antibodies, controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and presence of a smoker in the household during adolescence. Lower parental occupational status and some categories of lower education were associated with elevated EBV antibodies (p<.05), and individuals who reported sexual abuse that occurred more than 10times had elevated EBV antibodies relative to individuals who were not sexually abused (p=0.03). Among individuals exposed to physical abuse, those who were first abused at age 3-5years had heightened EBV antibodies relative to those first abused during adolescence (p=0.004). This study extends prior research linking early adversity and immune function, and provides initial evidence that childhood adversity has a persistent influence on immune responses to latent infection in adulthood.

  4. Salmonella Modulates B Cell Biology to Evade CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Medina, Marcela; Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney

    2014-01-01

    Although B cells and antibodies are the central effectors of humoral immunity, B cells can also produce and secrete cytokines and present antigen to helper T cells. The uptake of antigen is mainly mediated by endocytosis; thus, antigens are often presented by MHC-II molecules. However, it is unclear if B cells can present these same antigens via MHC-I molecules. Recently, Salmonella bacteria were found to infect B cells, allowing possible antigen cross-processing that could generate bacterial peptides for antigen presentation via MHC-I molecules. Here, we will discuss available knowledge regarding Salmonella antigen presentation by infected B cell MHC-I molecules and subsequent inhibitory effects on CD8+ T cells for bacterial evasion of cell-mediated immunity. PMID:25484884

  5. Cell-Mediated Immunity to AAV Vectors, Evolving Concepts and Potential Solutions.

    PubMed

    Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; Mingozzi, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are one of the most efficient in vivo gene delivery platforms. Over the past decade, clinical trials of AAV vector-mediated gene transfer led to some of the most exciting results in the field of gene therapy and, recently, to the market approval of an AAV-based drug in Europe. With clinical development, however, it became obvious that the host immune system represents an important obstacle to successful gene transfer with AAV vectors. In this review article, we will discuss the issue of cytotoxic T cell responses directed against the AAV capsid encountered on human studies. While over the past several years the field has acquired a tremendous amount of information on the interactions of AAV vectors with the immune system, a lot of questions are still unanswered. Novel concepts are emerging, such as the relationship between the total capsid dose and the T cell-mediated clearance of transduced cells, the potential role of innate immunity in vector immunogenicity highlighted in preclinical studies, and the cross talk between regulatory and effector T cells in the determination of the outcome of gene transfer. There is still a lot to learn about immune responses in AAV gene transfer, for example, it is not well understood what are the determinants of the kinetics of activation of T cells in response to vector administration, why not all subjects develop detrimental T cell responses following gene transfer, and whether the intervention strategies currently in use to block T cell-mediated clearance of transduced cells will be safe and effective for all gene therapy indications. Results from novel preclinical models and clinical studies will help to address these points and to reach the important goal of developing safe and effective gene therapy protocols to treat human diseases.

  6. STIM1 controls T cell-mediated immune regulation and inflammation in chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Desvignes, Ludovic; Weidinger, Carl; Shaw, Patrick; Vaeth, Martin; Ribierre, Theo; Liu, Menghan; Fergus, Tawania; Kozhaya, Lina; McVoy, Lauren; Unutmaz, Derya; Ernst, Joel D; Feske, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Chronic infections induce a complex immune response that controls pathogen replication, but also causes pathology due to sustained inflammation. Ca2+ influx mediates T cell function and immunity to infection, and patients with inherited mutations in the gene encoding the Ca2+ channel ORAI1 or its activator stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) are immunodeficient and prone to chronic infection by various pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Here, we demonstrate that STIM1 is required for T cell-mediated immune regulation during chronic Mtb infection. Compared with WT animals, mice with T cell-specific Stim1 deletion died prematurely during the chronic phase of infection and had increased bacterial burdens and severe pulmonary inflammation, with increased myeloid and lymphoid cell infiltration. Although STIM1-deficient T cells exhibited markedly reduced IFN-γ production during the early phase of Mtb infection, bacterial growth was not immediately exacerbated. During the chronic phase, however, STIM1-deficient T cells displayed enhanced IFN-γ production in response to elevated levels of IL-12 and IL-18. The lack of STIM1 in T cells was associated with impaired activation-induced cell death upon repeated TCR engagement and pulmonary lymphocytosis and hyperinflammation in Mtb-infected mice. Chronically Mtb-infected, STIM1-deficient mice had reduced levels of inducible regulatory T cells (iTregs) due to a T cell-intrinsic requirement for STIM1 in iTreg differentiation and excessive production of IFN-γ and IL-12, which suppress iTreg differentiation and maintenance. Thus, STIM1 controls multiple aspects of T cell-mediated immune regulation to limit injurious inflammation during chronic infection.

  7. Isolation of Immune Cells for Adoptive Transfer.

    PubMed

    Barhoumi, Tlili; Paradis, Pierre; Mann, Koren K; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2017-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes is a useful technique to characterize the role of the immune system in hypertension and vascular disease. Here we describe as an example the isolation of splenic T regulatory cells from donor mice processed to obtain a single cell suspension, followed by negative and positive selection to obtain CD4(+) T cells and CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells, respectively. Treg cells can be subsequently transferred to recipient animals.

  8. T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity: immune mechanisms and their clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Fenfen; Lee, Frederick J; Pichler, Werner J

    2016-01-01

    T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity represents a significant proportion of immune mediated drug hypersensitivity reactions. In the recent years, there has been an increase in understanding the immune mechanisms behind T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity. According to hapten mechanism, drug specific T-cell response is stimulated by drug-protein conjugate presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as it is presented as a new antigenic determinant. On the other hand, p-i concept suggests that a drug can stimulate T cells via noncovalent direct interaction with T-cell receptor and/or peptide-MHC. The drug binding site is quite variable and this leads to several different mechanisms within p-i concept. Altered peptide repertoire can be regarded as an 'atypical' subset of p-i concept since the mode of the drug binding and the binding site are essentially identical to p-i concept. However, the intracellular binding of abacavir to HLA-B*57:01 additionally results in alteration in peptide repertoire. Furthermore the T-cell response to altered peptide repertoire model is only shown for abacavir and HLA-B*57:01 and therefore it may not be generalised to other drug hypersensitivity. Danger hypothesis has been postulated to play an important role in drug hypersensitivity by providing signal 2 but its experimental data is lacking at this point in time. Furthermore, the recently described allo-immune response suggests that danger signal may be unnecessary. Finally, in view of these new understanding, the classification and the definition of type B adverse drug reaction should be revised. PMID:27141480

  9. Transcriptional modulation using HDACi depsipeptide promotes immune cell-mediated tumor destruction of murine B16 melanoma.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takashi; Sato, Atsuko; Chun, Nicole A L; Hara, Mayumi; Naito, Yuki; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Kano, Yasuhiko; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Furukawa, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2008-06-01

    With melanoma, as with many other malignancies, aberrant transcriptional repression is a hallmark of refractory cancer. To restore gene expression, use of a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) is expected to be effective. Our recent DNA micro-array analysis showed that the HDACi depsipeptide (FK228) significantly enhances gp100 antigen expression. Herein, we demonstrate that depsipeptide promotes tumor-specific T-cell-mediated killing of B16/F10 murine melanoma cells. First, by a quantitative assay of caspase-3/7 activity, a sublethal dose of depsipeptide was determined (ED50: 5 nM), in which p21(Waf1/Cip1) and Fas were sufficiently evoked concomitantly with histone H3 acetylation. Second, the sublethal dose of depsipeptide treatment with either a recombinant Fas ligand or tumor-specific T cells synergistically enhanced apoptotic cell death in B16/F10 cells in vitro. Furthermore, we found that depsipeptide increased levels of perforin in T cells. Finally, in vivo metastatic growth of B16/F10 in the lung was significantly inhibited by a combination of depsipeptide treatment and immune cell adoptive transfer from immunized mice using irradiated B16 cells and gp100-specific (Pmel-1) TCR transgenic mice (P<0.05, vs cell transfer alone). Consequently, employment of a transcriptional modulation strategy using HDACis might prove to be a useful pretreatment for human melanoma immunotherapy.

  10. [The humoral and cell-mediated immune response induced by the NIVGRIP inactivated influenza vaccine].

    PubMed

    Mihail, A; Steiner, N; Berca, C; Jucu, V; Muşat, G

    1988-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted in patients vaccinated with the NIVGRIP trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine and in placebo receiving controls on the kinetics of the serum hemagglutination inhibiting (HAI) antibodies and the neutralizing secretory antibodies in the nasopharyngeal secretions (NPS), of the blastic transformation of lymphocytes index, of the rosette formation index and of the serum immunoglobulins. A significant rise of the H.A.I. and the neutralizing secretory antibodies as well as of the blastic transformation of lymphocytes index was recorded after stimulation with the influenza vaccine. There were no significant changes in controls. No significant variations of the blastic transformation of lymphocytes index after stimulation with P.P.D. and of the rosette formation index were recorded in both investigated groups. Serum immunoglobulin titres showed significant variations in vaccinated as well as in control groups. The results point out the stimulating effect of the NIVGRIP inactivated influenza vaccine on both humoral and cell mediated immune responses.

  11. Development of a simplified and convenient assay for cell-mediated immunity to the mumps virus.

    PubMed

    Otani, Naruhito; Shima, Masayuki; Nakajima, Kazuhiko; Takesue, Yoshio; Okuno, Toshiomi

    2014-09-01

    Because methods for measuring cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to the mumps virus are expensive, time-consuming, and technically demanding, the role of CMI in mumps virus infection remains unclear. To address this issue, we report here the development of a simplified method for measuring mumps virus-specific CMI that is suitable for use in diverse laboratory and clinical settings. A mumps vaccine was cultured with whole blood, and interferon (IFN)-γ released into the culture supernatant was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IFN-γ production in blood from vaccinated subjects markedly increased in response to the vaccine and decreased before the antibody titer decreased in some cases, suggesting that this assay may be used as a simple surrogate method for measuring CMI specific for the mumps virus.

  12. Effect of viral and bacterial pneumonias on cell-mediated immunity in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, C A; Linnemann, C C; Schiff, G M; Phair, J P

    1976-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was assessed during infection and after convalescence in 12 patients with influenza pneumonia and 10 patients with bacterial pneumonia. The patients with influenza pneumonia had a marked impairment of skin test reactivity, and their lymphocytes showed a diminished response to phytohemagglutinin and streptokinase-streptodornase stimulation in vitro. Suppression of CMI was related to the severity of the pneumonia. Patients with bacterial pneumonia showed as great a suppression of the response to phytohemagglutinin and streptokinase-streptodornase as the patients with viral pneumonia. All parameters of CMI returned to normal in both groups after convalescence. The depression of CMI could not be related to a decrease in the number of thymus-derived lymphocytes or to serum-suppressive factors in these patients. PMID:1082445

  13. Postoperative Depression of Tumour-directed Cell-mediated Immunity in Patients with Malignant Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, A. J.; Spilg, W. G. S.; Mackie, Rona M.; Thomas, Catherine E.

    1972-01-01

    Leucocytes from 46 melanoma patients, 45 breast carcinoma patients, and 95 control donors were tested by the leucocyte migration test against the supernatants of homogenates of malignant melanomas, breast carcinomas, simple breast tumours, and breasts showing simple cystic disease. By comparison with controls inhibition of migration occurred significantly more frequently when tumour patients' leucocytes were exposed to extracts of histogenetically similar tumours. Cell-mediated immunity to tumour-associated antigens was measured in 12 patients with breast carcinoma and 12 with malignant melanoma immediately before surgical operation and in the postoperative period. All patients tested before operation showed significant inhibition of migration on contact with extracts of histogenetically similar tumours. Postoperatively the degree of leucocyte migration inhibition was reduced in all patients with melanoma and breast carcinoma. Significant inhibition of leucocyte migration returned in most patients 6-22 days after operation. PMID:5077468

  14. Cell mediated immune response of the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus after PAMPs stimulation.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Novoa, B; Figueras, A

    2016-09-01

    The Mediterranean sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) is of great ecological and economic importance for the European aquaculture. Yet, most of the studies regarding echinoderm's immunological defense mechanisms reported so far have used the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus as a model, and information on the immunological defense mechanisms of Paracentrotus lividus and other sea urchins, is scarce. To remedy this gap in information, in this study, flow cytometry was used to evaluate several cellular immune mechanisms, such as phagocytosis, cell cooperation, and ROS production in P. lividus coelomocytes after PAMP stimulation. Two cell populations were described. Of the two, the amoeboid-phagocytes were responsible for the phagocytosis and ROS production. Cooperation between amoeboid-phagocytes and non-adherent cells resulted in an increased phagocytic response. Stimulation with several PAMPs modified the phagocytic activity and the production of ROS. The premise that the coelomocytes were activated by the bacterial components was confirmed by the expression levels of two cell mediated immune genes: LPS-Induced TNF-alpha Factor (LITAF) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). These results have helped us understand the cellular immune mechanisms in P. lividus and their modulation after PAMP stimulation.

  15. Changes in cell-mediated immune response after lung resection surgery for MDR-TB patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Hong, Sunghee; Eum, Seok-Yong; Lee, In Hee; Shin, Donk Ok; Cho, Jang Eun; Cho, Sungae; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2011-07-01

    The immune responses of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients undergoing lung resection surgery were investigated in order to understand the mechanism of strong immune suppression in MDR-TB. We examined changes in cell-mediated immune response (CMI) of a total of sixteen MDR-TB patients, three of them extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients, after the removal of the heavily diseased lung section. The IFN-γ response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate proteins (Mtb-CFP), one of the most important CMI to defend TB, showed a statistically significant elevation in 2-4 months after operation when compared to the preoperative CMI in patients who were converted into AFB negative and cured in two years' follow-up, suggesting that the recovery of CMI may be one of the key factors in the successful treatment of MDR-TB. Interestingly, IL-10 response to Mtb-CFP was also elevated in 2-4 months after surgery in cured patients although both proliferative response and PBMC composition were not significantly changed. Infection with first- or second-line drugs resistant Mtb reduces the efficiency of chemotherapeutic treatment of MDR-TB to about 50%. Thus, this study suggests that chemotherapeutic treatment of MDR-TB may be more effective when combined with accompanying therapy that increases CMI, includes lung resection surgery.

  16. Effects of endosulfan on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, B.D.; Hussain, Q.Z.

    1987-03-01

    Endosulfan (6,7,8,9,10,10a-hexa-chloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro, 6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxathiepin-3-oxide), a polycyclic chlorinated hydrocarbon of cyclodien group, is a well known insecticide. Food is the main source of exposure of the general population to endosulfan. The physical, chemical as well as toxicological effects of endosulfan in experimental animals have been reported by various workers. However, the reports regarding the effect of endosulfan on immune system are not available. In view of its widespread use there is an urgent need to investigate the immunotoxicological effect of endosulfan in mammals for the safety evaluation of this insecticide. This has, therefore, prompted the authors to investigate the effect of endosulfan on immune system employing albino rats as the experimental animals. Included in this report are their preliminary findings on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in rats exposed to sub-chronic doses of endosulfan.

  17. CXCR5⁺ T helper cells mediate protective immunity against tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Slight, Samantha R; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Gopal, Radha; Lin, Yinyao; Fallert Junecko, Beth A; Mehra, Smriti; Selman, Moises; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Baquera-Heredia, Javier; Pavon, Lenin; Kaushal, Deepak; Reinhart, Todd A; Randall, Troy D; Khader, Shabaana A

    2013-02-01

    One third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Although most infected people remain asymptomatic, they have a 10% lifetime risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB). Thus, the current challenge is to identify immune parameters that distinguish individuals with latent TB from those with active TB. Using human and experimental models of Mtb infection, we demonstrated that organized ectopic lymphoid structures containing CXCR5+ T cells were present in Mtb-infected lungs. In addition, we found that in experimental Mtb infection models, the presence of CXCR5+ T cells within ectopic lymphoid structures was associated with immune control. Furthermore, in a mouse model of Mtb infection, we showed that activated CD4+CXCR5+ T cells accumulated in Mtb-infected lungs and produced proinflammatory cytokines. Mice deficient in Cxcr5 had increased susceptibility to TB due to defective T cell localization within the lung parenchyma. We demonstrated that CXCR5 expression in T cells mediated correct T cell localization within TB granulomas, promoted efficient macrophage activation, protected against Mtb infection, and facilitated lymphoid follicle formation. These data demonstrate that CD4+CXCR5+ T cells play a protective role in the immune response against TB and highlight their potential use for future TB vaccine design and therapy.

  18. Neonatal Fc receptor expression in dendritic cells mediates protective immunity against colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kristi; Rath, Timo; Flak, Magdalena B; Arthur, Janelle C; Chen, Zhangguo; Glickman, Jonathan N; Zlobec, Inti; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Stachler, Matthew D; Odze, Robert D; Lencer, Wayne I; Jobin, Christian; Blumberg, Richard S

    2013-12-12

    Cancers arising in mucosal tissues account for a disproportionately large fraction of malignancies. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) have an important function in the mucosal immune system that we have now shown extends to the induction of CD8(+) T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. We demonstrate that FcRn within dendritic cells (DCs) was critical for homeostatic activation of mucosal CD8(+) T cells that drove protection against the development of colorectal cancers and lung metastases. FcRn-mediated tumor protection was driven by DCs activation of endogenous tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells via the cross-presentation of IgG complexed antigens (IgG IC), as well as the induction of cytotoxicity-promoting cytokine secretion, particularly interleukin-12, both of which were independently triggered by the FcRn-IgG IC interaction in murine and human DCs. FcRn thus has a primary role within mucosal tissues in activating local immune responses that are critical for priming efficient anti-tumor immunosurveillance.

  19. Dendritic cell-mediated immune humanization of mice: implications for allogeneic and xenogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Salguero, Gustavo; Daenthanasanmak, Anusara; Münz, Christian; Raykova, Ana; Guzmán, Carlos A; Riese, Peggy; Figueiredo, Constanca; Länger, Florian; Schneider, Andreas; Macke, Laura; Sundarasetty, Bala Sai; Witte, Torsten; Ganser, Arnold; Stripecke, Renata

    2014-05-15

    De novo regeneration of immunity is a major problem after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). HCT modeling in severely compromised immune-deficient animals transplanted with human stem cells is currently limited because of incomplete maturation of lymphocytes and scarce adaptive responses. Dendritic cells (DC) are pivotal for the organization of lymph nodes and activation of naive T and B cells. Human DC function after HCT could be augmented with adoptively transferred donor-derived DC. In this study, we demonstrate that adoptive transfer of long-lived human DC coexpressing high levels of human IFN-α, human GM-CSF, and a clinically relevant Ag (CMV pp65 protein) promoted human lymphatic remodeling in immune-deficient NOD.Rag1(-/-).IL-2rγ(-/-) mice transplanted with human CD34(+) cells. After immunization, draining lymph nodes became replenished with terminally differentiated human follicular Th cells, plasma B cells, and memory helper and cytotoxic T cells. Human Igs against pp65 were detectable in plasma, demonstrating IgG class-switch recombination. Human T cells recovered from mice showed functional reactivity against pp65. Adoptive immunotherapy with engineered DC provides a novel strategy for de novo immune reconstitution after human HCT and a practical and effective tool for studying human lymphatic regeneration in vivo in immune deficient xenograft hosts.

  20. Arsenic Exposure and Cell-Mediated Immunity in Pre-School Children in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sultan; Moore, Sophie E.; Kippler, Maria; Gardner, Renee; Hawlader, M. D. H.; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Raqib, Rubhana; Vahter, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal arsenic exposure has been associated with reduced thymic index and increased morbidity in infants, indicating arsenic-related impaired immune function. We aimed at elucidating potential effects of pre- and postnatal arsenic exposure on cell-mediated immune function in pre-school aged children. Children born in a prospective mother-child cohort in rural Bangladesh were followed up at 4.5 years of age (n = 577). Arsenic exposure was assessed by concentrations of arsenic metabolites (U-As) in child urine and maternal urine during pregnancy, using high-performance liquid chromatography online with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For assessment of delayed type hypersensitivity response, an intradermal injection of purified protein derivative (PPD) was given to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccinated children. The diameter (mm) of induration was measured after 48–72 h. Plasma concentrations of 27 cytokines were analyzed by a multiplex cytokine assay. Children's concurrent, but not prenatal, arsenic exposure was associated with a weaker response to the injected PPD. The risk ratio (RR) of not responding to PPD (induration <5 mm) was 1.37 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.74) in children in the highest quartile of U-As (range 126–1228 μg/l), compared with the lowest (range 12–34 μg/l). The p for trend across the quartiles was 0.003. The association was stronger in undernourished children. Children's U-As in tertiles was inversely associated with two out of 27 cytokines only, i.e., IL-2 and TNF-α, both Th1 cytokines (in the highest tertile, regression coefficients (95% CI): −1.57 (−2.56, −0.57) and −4.53 (−8.62, −0.42), respectively), but not with Th2 cytokines. These associations were particularly strong in children with recent infections. In conclusion, elevated childhood arsenic exposure appeared to reduce cell-mediated immunity, possibly linked to reduced concentrations of Th1 cytokines. PMID:24924402

  1. Effect of chronic microwave radiation on T cell-mediated immunity in the rabbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nageswari, K. Sri; Sarma, K. R.; Rajvanshi, V. S.; Sharan, R.; Sharma, Manju; Barathwal, Vinita; Singh, Vinod

    1991-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to elucidate the effects of chronic low power-level microwave radiation on the immunological systems of rabbits. Fourteen male Belgian white rabbits were exposed to microwave radiation at 5 mW/cm2, 2.1 GHz, 3 h daily, 6 days/week for 3 months in two batches of 7 each in specially designed miniature anechoicchambers. Seven rabbits were subjected to sham exposure for identical duration. The microwave energy was provided through S band standard gain horns connected to a 4K3SJ2 Klystron power amplifier. The first batch of animals were assessed for T lymphocyte-mediated cellular immune response mechanisms and the second batch of animals for B lymphocyte-mediated humoral immune response mechanisms. The peripheral blood samples collected monthly during microwave/sham exposure and during follow-up (5/14 days after termination of exposures, in the second batch animals only) were analysed for T lymphocyte numbers and their mitogen responsiveness to ConA and PHA. Significant suppression of T lymphocyte numbers was noted in the microwave group at 2 months ( P<0.01, Δ% 21.5%) and during follow-up ( P<0.01, Δ% 30.2%). The first batch animals were initially sensitised with BCG and challenged with tuberculin (0.03 ml) at the termination of microwave irradiation/sham exposure and the increase in foot pad thickness (Δ mm), which is a measure of T cell-mediated immunity (delayed type hypersensitivity response, DTH) was noted in both the groups. The microwave group revealed a better response than the control group (Δ%+12.4 vs.+7.54). The animals were sacrified and the tissue T lymphocyte counts (spleen and lymph node) were analysed. No significant variation was observed in the tissue T lymphocyte counts of microwave-irradiated rabbits. From these results it is speculated that the T lymphocytes are sequestered to various lymphoid organs under the influence of microwaves. A sub-population of T cells known as T helper cells (mediating DTH response) are

  2. The Role of Cell-Mediated Immunity in the Induction of Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Stanley

    1977-01-01

    Reactions of cell-mediated immunity fall into two broad categories: those that involve direct participation of intact lymphocytes in the effector mechanism of the reaction and those that involve mediation by soluble lymphocyte-derived factors known as lymphokines. The first kind of reaction is essentially limited to lymphocyte-dependent cytotoxicity, although certain aspects of T cell-B cell cooperation may fall into this category as well. The second category appears to comprise the bulk of the so-called cell-mediated immune response and provides a link between this system and the inflammatory system. Various lymphokines have been shown to exert profound influence upon inflammatory cell metabolism, cell surface properties, patterns of cell migration, and the activation of cells for various biologic activities involved in host defense. Although substantial information is now available about various physicochemical as well as biologic properties of lymphokines, purification and characterization data are as yet too incomplete to allow us to ascribe all of these activities to discrete mediator molecules. Current work involving the development of antibody-based techniques for mediator assay may shed light on this issue. Information on the kinds of cells capable of lymphokine production is now available. Contrary to prior expectation, T cells are not unique in their capacity for lymphokine production. Under appropriate circumstances, B cells and even nonlymphoid cells can do so as well. The unique property of lymphocytes in this regard appears to relate to their ability to respond to certain specialized signals such as specific antigen or an appropriate mitogen. Mediator production per se may represent a general biologic phenomenon. Although lymphokines have been defined mainly in terms of in vitro assays, early speculations about their in vivo importance are proving correct. Evidence for the role of lymphokines comes from studies involving detection of lymphokines in

  3. TRESK channel as a potential target to treat T-cell mediated immune dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2009-12-25

    In this review, we propose that TRESK background K{sup +} channel could serve as a potential therapeutic target for T-cell mediated immune dysfunction. TRESK has many immune function-related properties. TRESK is abundantly expressed in the thymus, the spleen, and human leukemic T-lymphocytes. TRESK is highly activated by Ca{sup 2+}, calcineurin, acetylcholine, and histamine which induce hypertrophy, whereas TRESK is inhibited by immunosuppressants, such as cyclosporin A and FK506. Cyclosporine A and FK506 target the binding site of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) to inhibit calcineurin. Interestingly, TRESK possesses an NFAT-like docking site that is present at its intracellular loop. Calcineurin has been found to interact with TRESK via specific NFAT-like docking site. When the T-cell is activated, calcineurin can bind to the NFAT-docking site of TRESK. The activation of both TRESK and NFAT via Ca{sup 2+}-calcineurin-NFAT/TRESK pathway could modulate the transcription of new genes in addition to regulating several aspects of T-cell function.

  4. Dynamics of an HIV-1 infection model with cell mediated immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pei; Huang, Jianing; Jiang, Jiao

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of an improved mathematical model on HIV-1 virus with cell mediated immunity. This new 5-dimensional model is based on the combination of a basic 3-dimensional HIV-1 model and a 4-dimensional immunity response model, which more realistically describes dynamics between the uninfected cells, infected cells, virus, the CTL response cells and CTL effector cells. Our 5-dimensional model may be reduced to the 4-dimensional model by applying a quasi-steady state assumption on the variable of virus. However, it is shown in this paper that virus is necessary to be involved in the modeling, and that a quasi-steady state assumption should be applied carefully, which may miss some important dynamical behavior of the system. Detailed bifurcation analysis is given to show that the system has three equilibrium solutions, namely the infection-free equilibrium, the infectious equilibrium without CTL, and the infectious equilibrium with CTL, and a series of bifurcations including two transcritical bifurcations and one or two possible Hopf bifurcations occur from these three equilibria as the basic reproduction number is varied. The mathematical methods applied in this paper include characteristic equations, Routh-Hurwitz condition, fluctuation lemma, Lyapunov function and computation of normal forms. Numerical simulation is also presented to demonstrate the applicability of the theoretical predictions.

  5. Is cell-mediated immunity related to the evolution of life-history strategies in birds?

    PubMed Central

    Tella, José L; Scheuerlein, Alex; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2002-01-01

    According to life-history theory, the development of immune function should be balanced through evolutionary optimization of the allocation of resources to reproduction and through mechanisms that promote survival. We investigated interspecific variability in cell-mediated immune response (CMI), as measured by the phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) assay, in relation to clutch size, longevity and other life-history traits in 50 species of birds. CMI exhibited significant repeatability within species, and PHA responses in chicks were consistently stronger than in adults. Univariate tests showed a variety of significant relationships between the CMI of both chicks and adults with respect to size, development period and lifespan, but not clutch size or prevalence of blood parasites in adults. Multivariate analyses confirmed these patterns but independent variables were too highly correlated to isolate unique influences on CMI. The positive relationship of chick CMI to nestling period is further complicated by a parallel relationship of chick CMI to the age at testing. However, multivariate analysis showed that chick CMI varies uniquely with length of the nestling period. Adult CMI was associated with a strong life-history axis of body size, development rate and longevity. Therefore, adult CMI may be associated with prevention and repair mechanisms related to long lifespan, but it also may be allometrically related to body size through other pathways. Neither chick CMI nor adult CMI was related to clutch size, contradicting previous results linking parasite-related mortality to CMI and the evolution of clutch size (reproductive investment) in birds. PMID:12028764

  6. Antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses to a synthetic oligosaccharide conjugate vaccine after booster immunization.

    PubMed

    Safari, Dodi; Dekker, Huberta A Th; de Jong, Ben; Rijkers, Ger T; Kamerling, Johannis P; Snippe, Harm

    2011-09-02

    Memory formation to CRM-neoglycoconjugate, a synthetic branched tetrasaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14 polysaccharide (Pn14PS) that is conjugated to a CRM197 protein, was investigated using mice models. Mice were first immunized with the CRM-neoglycoconjugate and then boosted with either the same neoglycoconjugate or a native Pn14PS in order to investigate the effect of booster immunization. Boosting with the CRM-neoglycoconjugate resulted in increased levels of interleukin 5 (IL-5) in the serum on Day 1, followed by the appearance of high levels of specific anti-Pn14PS IgG antibodies on Day 7. Boosting with native Pn14PS resulted in neither IL-5 induction nor the generation of anti-Pn14PS IgG antibodies. In vitro (re)stimulation of spleen cells after booster injection with the neoglycoconjugate revealed the presence of IL-4 and IL-5. This was not seen in spleen cells obtained from mice boosted with the polysaccharide. When stimulated with heat-inactivated bacteria, however, the polysaccharide-boosted mice did have higher levels of IFN-γ and lower levels of IL-17 than both the CRM-neoglycoconjugate-boosted mice and the mock-immunized mice. In conclusion, neoglycoconjugate boosting is responsible for the activation of memory cells and the establishment of sustained immunity. Not only is a booster with native polysaccharide ineffective in inducing opsonic antibodies, but it also interferes with several immunoregulatory mechanisms.

  7. Nifurtimox-induced alterations in the cell-mediated immune response to PPD tin guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Lelchuk, R; Cardoni, R L; Levis, S

    1977-01-01

    Positive skin reactions to PPD in guinea-pigs immunized with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) were reversed after treatment with 10 mg/kg/day nifurtimox for 12 days. The in vitro migration of peripheral blood leucocytes from FCA-immunized guinea-pigs was inhibited with PPD, but it returned to normal values after nifurtimox treatment. Furthermore, the cell-free supernatant from PPD-stimulated lymphocytes from FCA-immunized nifurtimox-treated guinea-pigs did not inhibit the migration of normal cells. Thus the administration of nifurtimox impaired the specific cell-mediated immune response to PPD both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:414870

  8. Studies of Cell-Mediated Immunity Against Immune Disorders Using Synthetic Peptides and Rotating Bioreactor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, Jagannadha K.

    1997-01-01

    Our proposed experiments included: (1) immunzing mice with synthetic peptides; (2) preparing spleen and lymph node cells; (3) growing them under conventional conditions as well as in the rotatory vessel in appropriate medium reconstituting with synthetic peptides and/or cytokines as needed; and (4) comparing at regular time intervals the specific CTL activity as well as helper T-cell activity (in terms of both proliferative responses and cytokine production) using established procedures in my laboratory. We further proposed that once we demonstrated the merit of rotatory vessel technology to achieve desired results, these studies would be expanded to include immune cells from non-human primates (rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees) and also humans. We conducted a number of experiments to determine CTL induction by the synthetic peptides corresponding to antigenic proteins in HIV and HPV in different mouse strains that express MHC haplotypes H-2b or H-2d. We immunized mice with 100 ug of the synthetic peptide, suspended in sterile water, and emulsified in CFA (1:1). The immune lymph node cells obtained after 7 days were restimulated by culturing in T25 flask, HARV-10, or STLV-50, in the presence of the peptide at 20 ug/ml. The results from the 5'Cr-release assay consistently revealed complete abrogation of CTL activity of cells grown in the bioreactors (both HARV and STLV), while significant antigen-specific CTL activity was observed with cells cultured in tissue culture flasks. Thus, overall the data we generated in this study proved the usefulness of the NASA-developed developed technology for understanding the known immune deficiency during space travel. Additionally, this ex vivo microgravity technology since it mimics effectively the in vivo situation, it is also useful in understanding immune disorders in general. Thus, our proposed studies in TMC-NASA contract round II application benefit from data generated in this TMC-NASA contract round I study.

  9. ISCOM-matrix-based equine influenza (EIV) vaccine stimulates cell-mediated immunity in the horse.

    PubMed

    Paillot, R; Prowse, L

    2012-01-15

    The humoral immune response induced by ISCOM-matrix (Immuno Stimulating COMplex-Matrix)-adjuvanted equine influenza virus (EIV) vaccine is well documented in horses. ISCOM-matrix adjuvanted vaccines against human influenza are strong inducers of cell-mediated immunity (CMI), including T cell proliferation and virus-specific cytotoxic T cell. In the horse, the CMI response to equine influenza vaccination is less well characterised. An ISCOM-based vaccine has been shown to induce interferon gamma (IFN-γ) synthesis, a CMI marker, in the horse, but this has not been shown for the ISCOM-matrix vaccine, which is a different formulation. The objective of this study was to measure EIV-specific IFN-γ synthesis after vaccination with an ISCOM-matrix-adjuvanted EIV vaccine. Equilis Prequenza is a commercialised inactivated EIV vaccine containing purified haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subunits adjuvanted with ISCOM-matrix. Six influenza-naïve Welsh mountain ponies were vaccinated twice with Equilis Prequenza at an interval of four weeks. Six control ponies received a placebo of physiological water. EIV-specific IFN-γ synthesis by peripheral blood lymphocytes and the antibody response to a panel of representative EIV isolates were measured prior to and after both injections. Immunisation with the ISCOM-matrix-based EIV vaccine stimulated significant EIV-specific IFN-γ synthesis and EIV-specific single radial haemolysis (SRH) antibody. In conclusion, EIV vaccine adjuvanted with ISCOM-matrix stimulates both antibody and a cellular immune response in the horse.

  10. Studies of Cell-Mediated Immunity Against Immune Disorders Using Synthetic Peptides and Rotating Bioreactor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, Jagannadha K.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted a series of experiments using mouse immune-precursor cells, and observed that bioreactor culturing results in the loss of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) function. The reason for the abrogation of CTL function is microgravity conditions in the bioreactor, but not the antigen per se or its MHC restriction. Similarly, we observed that allostimulation of human PBMC in the bioreactor, but not in the T flask, resulted in the blunting of both allo-CTL function and the NK activity, indicating that the microgravity-associated functional defects are not unique to the mouse system. These results provide further confirmation to the microgravity-associated immune dysfunction, and constitute ground-based confirmatory data for those related to space-travel.

  11. Immune regulatory effects of simvastatin on regulatory T cell-mediated tumour immune tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lee, K J; Moon, J Y; Choi, H K; Kim, H O; Hur, G Y; Jung, K H; Lee, S Y; Kim, J H; Shin, C; Shim, J J; In, K H; Yoo, S H; Kang, K H; Lee, S Y

    2010-08-01

    Statins are potent inhibitors of hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl co-enzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, and have emerged as potential anti-cancer agents based on preclinical evidence. In particular, compelling evidence suggests that statins have a wide range of immunomodulatory properties. However, little is known about the role of statins in tumour immune tolerance. Tumour immune tolerance involves the production of immunosuppressive molecules, such as interleukin (IL)-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) by tumours, which induce a regulatory T cell (T(reg)) response. In this study, we investigated the effect of simvastatin on the production of IL-10, TGF-beta and IDO production and the proliferation of T(regs) using several cancer cell lines, and Lewis lung cancer (3LL) cells-inoculated mouse tumour model. Simvastatin treatment resulted in a decrease in the number of cancer cells (3LL, A549 and NCI-H292). The production of the immune regulatory markers IL-10, TGF-beta in 3LL and NCI-H292 cells increased after treatment with simvastatin. The expression of IDO and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) transcription factor was also increased in the presence of simvastatin. In a murine 3LL model, there were no significant differences in tumour growth rate between untreated and simvastatin-treated mice groups. Therefore, while simvastatin had an anti-proliferative effect, it also exhibited immune tolerance-promoting properties during tumour development. Thus, due to these opposing actions, simvastatin had no net effect on tumour growth.

  12. Persistence of cell-mediated immunity three decades after vaccination with the live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Eneslätt, Kjell; Rietz, Cecilia; Rydén, Patrik; Stöven, Svenja; House, Robert V.; Wolfraim, Lawrence A.; Tärnvik, Arne; Sjöstedt, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Summary The efficacy of many vaccines against intracellular bacteria depends on the generation of cell-mediated immunity, but studies to determine the duration of immunity are usually confounded by re-exposure. The causative agent of tularemia, Francisella tularensis, is rare in most areas and, therefore, tularemia vaccination is an interesting model for studies of the longevity of vaccine-induced cell-mediated immunity. Here lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production in response to F. tularensis were assayed in two groups of 16 individuals, vaccinated 1-3 or 27-34 years previously. As compared to naïve individuals, vaccinees of both groups showed higher proliferative responses and, out of 17 cytokines assayed, higher levels of MIP-1β, IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-5 in response to recall stimulation. The responses were very similar in the two groups of vaccinees. A statistical model was developed to predict the immune status of the individuals and by use of two parameters, proliferative responses and levels of IFN-γ, 91.1% of the individuals were correctly classified. Using flow cytometry analysis, we demonstrated that during recall stimulation, expression of IFN-γ by CD4+CCR7+, CD4+CD62L+, CD8+CCR7+, and CD8+CD62L+ cells significantly increased in samples from vaccinated donors. In conclusion, cell-mediated immunity was found to persist three decades after tularemia vaccination without evidence of decline. PMID:21442618

  13. Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation Associated with Diminished Cell-Mediated Immunity in Antarctic Expeditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.; Cooley, Helen; Dubow, Robin; Lugg, Desmond

    1999-01-01

    Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses were followed in 16 Antarctic expeditioners during winter-over isolation at two Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition stations. Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin testing was used as an indicator of the CMI response, which was evaluated two times before winter isolation and three times during isolation. At all five evaluation times, 8 or more of the 16 subjects had a diminished. CMI response. Diminished CMI was observed on every test occasion in 4/16 subjects; only 2/16 subjects exhibited normal CMI responses for all five tests. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to detect EBV DNA in saliva specimens collected before, after, and during the winter isolation. EBV DNA was present in 17% (111/642) of the saliva specimens; all 16 subjects shed EBV in their saliva on at least one occasion. The probability of EBV shedding increased (p=0.013) from 6% before or after winter isolation to 13% during the winter period. EBV appeared in saliva during the winter isolation more frequently (p<0.0005) when CMI responsiveness was diminished than when CMI status was normal. The findings indicate that the psychosocial, physical, and other stresses associated with working and living in physical isolation during the Antarctic winter results in diminished CMI and an accompanying increased reactivation and shedding of latent viruses.

  14. Epstein-Barr virus reactivation associated with diminished cell-mediated immunity in antarctic expeditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.; Cooley, H.; Dubow, R.; Lugg, D.

    2000-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses were followed in 16 Antarctic expeditioners during winter-over isolation at 2 Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition stations. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin testing was used as an indicator of the CMI response, that was evaluated 2 times before winter isolation and 3 times during isolation. At all 5 evaluation times, 8 or more of the 16 subjects had a diminished CMI response. Diminished DTH was observed on every test occasion in 4/16 subjects; only 2/16 subjects exhibited normal DTH responses for all 5 tests. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to detect EBV DNA in saliva specimens collected before, during, and after the winter isolation. EBV DNA was present in 17% (111/642) of the saliva specimens; all 16 subjects shed EBV in their saliva on at least 1 occasion. The probability of EBV shedding increased (P = 0.013) from 6% before or after winter isolation to 13% during the winter period. EBV appeared in saliva during the winter isolation more frequently (P < 0.0005) when DTH response was diminished than when DTH was normal. The findings indicate that the psychosocial, physical, and other stresses associated with working and living in physical isolation during the Antarctic winter result in diminished CMI and an accompanying increased reactivation and shedding of latent viruses.

  15. Influence of brachytherapy ( sup 192 Ir afterloading) on cell-mediated immune reactions in patients with stage I endometrial cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstner, G.J.; Kucera, H.; Kudlacek, S.; Micksche, M. )

    1989-11-01

    The influence of radiation therapy on cell-mediated immune reactions in cancer patients seems to depend on source, dose, and area of irradiation, as well as on the variables reflected by the patient population investigated. In the present study we demonstrated that brachytherapy ({sup 192}Ir afterloading), applied to patients with inoperable stage I endometrial cancer, has no immediate or sustained effect on lymphocyte function. Both lymphocyte mitogen response and natural killer cell (NK) activity are not significantly changed in terms of baseline values compared with test results during and after therapy. Brachytherapy, as used in this study, has no influence on cell-mediated immunity in patients with endometrial cancer stage I.

  16. Modulation by gamma interferon of antiviral cell-mediated immune responses in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Utermöhlen, O; Dangel, A; Tárnok, A; Lehmann-Grube, F

    1996-01-01

    Mice were infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and injected once 24 h later with a monoclonal antibody directed against gamma interferon. In comparison with controls, the increase of numbers of CD8+ T cells and the generation of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in spleens and virus clearance from organs were diminished, as was the ability of spleen cells to transmit adoptive immunity to infected recipients. The same treatment slightly but consistently lessened rather than augmented the virus titers early in infection, which was also observed in thymusless nu/nu mice. Injection into infected mice of the lymphokine itself in quantities probably higher than are produced endogenously resulted in lower virus titers in spleens but higher titers in livers. The adoptive immunity in infected mice achieved by infusion of immune spleen cells was not altered by treating the recipients with gamma interferon monoclonal antibody. Such treatment did not measurably affect the production of antiviral serum antibodies. We conclude that in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-infected mice, gamma interferon is needed for the generation of antivirally active CD8+ T lymphocytes, and furthermore that in this experimental model, direct antiviral effects of the lymphokine elude detection. PMID:8627670

  17. MYSM1-dependent checkpoints in B cell lineage differentiation and B cell-mediated immune response.

    PubMed

    Förster, Michael; Farrington, Kyo; Petrov, Jessica C; Belle, Jad I; Mindt, Barbara C; Witalis, Mariko; Duerr, Claudia U; Fritz, Jörg H; Nijnik, Anastasia

    2017-03-01

    MYSM1 is a chromatin-binding histone deubiquitinase. MYSM1 mutations in humans result in lymphopenia whereas loss of Mysm1 in mice causes severe hematopoietic abnormalities, including an early arrest in B cell development. However, it remains unknown whether MYSM1 is required at later checkpoints in B cell development or for B cell-mediated immune responses. We analyzed conditional mouse models Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.mb1-cre, Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.CD19-cre, and Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.CD21-cre with inactivation of Mysm1 at prepro-B, pre-B, and follicular B cell stages of development. We show that loss of Mysm1 at the prepro-B cell stage in Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.mb1-cre mice results in impaired B cell differentiation, with an ∼2-fold reduction in B cell numbers in the lymphoid organs. Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.mb1-cre B cells also showed increased expression of activation markers and impaired survival and proliferation. In contrast, Mysm1 was largely dispensable from the pre-B cell stage onward, with Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.CD19-cre and Mysm1(fl/fl)Tg.CD21-cre mice showing no alterations in B cell numbers and largely normal responses to stimulation. MYSM1, therefore, has an essential role in B cell lineage specification but is dispensable at later stages of development. Importantly, MYSM1 activity at the prepro-B cell stage of development is important for the normal programming of B cell responses to stimulation once they complete their maturation process.

  18. Unmasking targets of T cell-mediated antitumor immunity through high-throughput antigen profiling

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Sebastiano; Muhitch, Jason B

    2017-01-01

    More than three decades of evidence has established that antitumor immune responses, initially shown with IL-2 treatment, can result in complete, durable eradication of malignant disease in metastatic patients. Recent studies have demonstrated that immune checkpoint blockade as well as cellular therapies, including dendritic cell activation of T cells and adoptive T cell transfer, can induce long-lasting responses. To elicit cytolysis of tumor cells, effector T cells rely on tumor expression of target antigens. However, the antigens targeted during antitumor responses are largely unknown. Technological advancements and availability of sequencing data have paved the way for more efficient screening and validation of tumor-associated antigens and neoantigens derived from non-synonymous mutations targeted by T cells under baseline conditions and in the context of immunotherapy. PMID:27010105

  19. Cell-mediated immunity to insulin: a new criterion for differentiation of diabetes mellitus?

    PubMed

    Asfandiyarova, Nailya S

    2012-03-01

    Any classification is a step forward and it should help to determine the reason, the course, the prognosis, the treatment of a disease. The current classification of diabetes mellitus (DM) is really very convenient for work, but it has some drawbacks, and the absence of differentiation of type 2 diabetes is the main. The problem is the absence of an adequate criterion, based on pathogenesis for differentiation. We suppose that cell mediated immunity (CMI) to insulin plays the central role in the diabetes genesis. Autoimmune process may be triggered by viruses family Paramyxoviridae, in 10-20% of type 1 diabetes patients the disease is a consequence of direct cytotoxic effect of other viruses to the islet cells of pancreas. In acute phase of viral infection (measles, mumps, parainfluenza) CMI against viruses is developed, in some patients CMI to insulin appeared. We suppose that autoimmune reactions in these cases are the result of cross reaction between viral antigens and insulin. The majorities of patients suppress these reactions and recover from acute infection diseases with the antiviral immunity development and without any complications. Other patients are not able to suppress autoimmune reactions to insulin and pathological process is triggered. Type 1A diabetes is a result of direct CMI to insulin, and this process is responsible for beta-cells destruction; may be type 1B DM is due to the direct cytotoxic effect of other viruses or toxins to them. Some patients with acute viral infection cannot destroy the aggressive clone and they suppress autoimmune reaction to insulin by prostaglandin synthesizing cells (PGSC) or сells with histamine receptors (CHR). As a result of this process the insulin resistance is developed, because these cells or their cytokines form a block to the insulin receptors not only on immunocompetent cells, but in insulin sensitive tissues too. Patients with different reactions to insulin have different courses and outcomes of DM. We

  20. Heterogeneous effects of exogenous IL-2 on HIV-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI).

    PubMed Central

    Bell, S J; Cooper, D A; Kemp, B E; Doherty, R R; Penny, R

    1992-01-01

    A characteristic feature associated with HIV-1 infection of the human host is a chronic decline in circulating CD4+ T helper/inducer cell numbers. Impaired cell-mediated immune functions usually occur in parallel with the decline in CD4+ T cells. Activated CD4+ T helper cells are a major source of endogenous IL-2 which is required for the immunoregulation of both antigen-specific B cells and CD8+ T cells. HIV-specific T cell proliferative responses are said to be weak and inconsistent, even during the asymptomatic phase of disease. We thus wished to determine how exogenous IL-2 affected HIV-specific T cell proliferation at different stages of the disease. Our cohort of 81 included both asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV-infected patients as well as uninfected normal donors. Proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that were elicited during culture with an immunodominant gp41-derived synthetic peptide, gp41[8], and which were known to be CD8+ cell-associated in asymptomatics only, were used to analyse the effects of exogenous IL-2. IL-2 had three main effects on HIV-specific proliferation, namely (i) an additive effect, (ii) a synergistic effect, and (iii) an induced effect. More specifically, low dose exogenous IL-2 frequently augmented lymphoproliferation in both asymptomatic and symptomatic gp41[8] responders. In most symptomatics, however, who were predominantly gp41[8] non-responders, exogenous IL-2 induced lymphoproliferation. Flow cytometric analyses using dual immunofluorescence were used to analyse the T cell subset distribution of proliferating PBMC cultures. During culture with gp41[8], both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell numbers increased. However, after the addition of exogenous IL-2 to gp41[8]-containing cultures, CD8+ cell-associated lymphoproliferative responses were preferentially augmented. These results suggest that in symptomatics there is an inadequate supply of endogenous IL-2 to help maintain the strong and effective CD8+ cell

  1. γδ T Cell-Mediated Immunity to Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Khairallah, Camille; Déchanet-Merville, Julie; Capone, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    γδ T lymphocytes are unconventional immune cells, which have both innate- and adaptive-like features allowing them to respond to a wide spectrum of pathogens. For many years, we and others have reported on the role of these cells in the immune response to human cytomegalovirus in transplant patients, pregnant women, neonates, immunodeficient children, and healthy people. Indeed, and as described for CD8+ T cells, CMV infection leaves a specific imprint on the γδ T cell compartment: (i) driving a long-lasting expansion of oligoclonal γδ T cells in the blood of seropositive individuals, (ii) inducing their differentiation into effector/memory cells expressing a TEMRA phenotype, and (iii) enhancing their antiviral effector functions (i.e., cytotoxicity and IFNγ production). Recently, two studies using murine CMV (MCMV) have corroborated and extended these observations. In particular, they have illustrated the ability of adoptively transferred MCMV-induced γδ T cells to protect immune-deficient mice against virus-induced death. In vivo, expansion of γδ T cells is associated with the clearance of CMV infection as well as with reduced cancer occurrence or leukemia relapse risk in kidney transplant patients and allogeneic stem cell recipients, respectively. Taken together, all these studies show that γδ T cells are important immune effectors against CMV and cancer, which are life-threatening diseases affecting transplant recipients. The ability of CMV-induced γδ T cells to act independently of other immune cells opens the door to the development of novel cellular immunotherapies that could be particularly beneficial for immunocompromised transplant recipients. PMID:28232834

  2. Self-adjuvanting influenza candidate vaccine presenting epitopes for cell-mediated immunity on a proteinaceous multivalent nanoplatform.

    PubMed

    Szurgot, Inga; Szolajska, Ewa; Laurin, David; Lambrecht, Benedicte; Chaperot, Laurence; Schoehn, Guy; Chroboczek, Jadwiga

    2013-09-13

    We exploit the features of a virus-like particle, adenoviral dodecahedron (Ad Dd), for engineering a multivalent vaccination platform carrying influenza epitopes for cell-mediated immunity. The delivery platform, Ad Dd, is a proteinaceous, polyvalent, and biodegradable nanoparticle endowed with remarkable endocytosis activity that can be engineered to carry 60 copies of a peptide. Influenza M1 is the most abundant influenza internal protein with the conserved primary structure. Two different M1 immunodominant epitopes were separately inserted in Dd external positions without destroying the particles' dodecahedric structure. Both kinds of DdFluM1 obtained through expression in baculovirus system were properly presented by human dendritic cells triggering efficient activation of antigen-specific T cells responses. Importantly, the candidate vaccine was able to induce cellular immunity in vivo in chickens. These results warrant further investigation of Dd as a platform for candidate vaccine, able to stimulate cellular immune responses.

  3. Evaluation of innate, humoral and cell-mediated immunity in mice following in vivo implantation of electrospun polycaprolactone.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, Colleen E; Smith, Matthew J; Auttachoat, Wimolnut; Bowlin, Gary L; White, Kimber L

    2012-06-01

    Electrospun polycaprolactone (EPCL) is currently being investigated for use in tissue engineering applications such as vascular grafts. However, the effects of electrospun polymers on systemic immune responses following in vivo exposure have not previously been examined. The work presented evaluates whether EPCL in either a microfibrous or nanofibrous form affects innate, humoral and/or cell-mediated immunity using a standard immunotoxicological testing battery. Holistic in vivo endpoints examined include the antibody-forming cell assay (AFC or plaque assay) and the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to Candida albicans. In addition, natural killer cell cytotoxic activity was assessed using an ex vivo assay and splenic cell population phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry for material exposure-related changes. Results indicated that 28 day subcutaneous implantation of EPCL, either in microfibrous or nanofibrous form, did not affect the systemic functions of the immune system in 12-16 week old female B6C3F1 mice.

  4. [Immunosuppressive acidic protein (IAP) in gynecologic malignant tumors and its relationship with other immunosuppressive substances and cell-mediated immunity].

    PubMed

    Takada, M

    1983-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between immunosuppressive acidic protein (IAP), an immunosuppressive substance determined in the body fluid from patients with cancer and the stages of cancer, and also its relationship with the progress of cancer during treatment and convalescence in 42 cases of ovary cancer, 47 cases of cancer of the uterine neck, 19 cases of cancer of the uterine body, and 5 cases of other of cancers. In addition, the relationship of IAP with other immunosuppressive substances and cell-mediated immunities was also investigated. The IAP level in the serum was not useful for early diagnosis of gynecologic malignant tumors, but it reflected on stages of cancer more accurately compared to levels of other immunosuppressive substances in the serum: alpha-antitripsine (alpha AT), alpha-glyco-protein (alpha AG), carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA), c-reactive protein (CRP), and serum ferritin (s-Fer), were useful as parameters showing progress of cancer during treatment and convalescence. The IAP level in the peritoneal fluid showed the same tendency. For the relationship with cell-mediated immunity, a stimulate index (SI) showed an inverse correlation from stage I; a T-cell count exhibited the same tendency; IgGFcR+ T-cell count showed a positive correlation in stage III; and ADCC exhibited an inverse correlation in stage III. However, immunosuppressive substances including IAP show high levels also in inflammatory diseases. Therefore, an appreciative value of IAP in the clinical area increases by being used for monitoring gynecologic cancer patients in combination with indicators of cell-mediated immunity, particularly, with SI.

  5. Aspects of T Cell-Mediated Immunity Induced in Mice by a DNA Vaccine Based on the Dengue-NS1 Antigen after Challenge by the Intracerebral Route

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Edson R. A.; Gonçalves, Antônio J. S.; Costa, Simone M.; Azevedo, Adriana S.; Mantuano-Barradas, Marcio; Nogueira, Ana Cristina M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue disease has emerged as a major public health issue across tropical and subtropical countries. Infections caused by dengue virus (DENV) can evolve to life-threatening forms, resulting in about 20,000 deaths every year worldwide. Several animal models have been described concerning pre-clinical stages in vaccine development against dengue, each of them presenting limitations and advantages. Among these models, a traditional approach is the inoculation of a mouse-brain adapted DENV variant in immunocompetent animals by the intracerebral (i.c.) route. Despite the historical usage and relevance of this model for vaccine testing, little is known about the mechanisms by which the protection is developed upon vaccination. To cover this topic, a DNA vaccine based on the DENV non-structural protein 1 (pcTPANS1) was considered and investigations were focused on the induced T cell-mediated immunity against i.c.-DENV infection. Immunophenotyping assays by flow cytometry revealed that immunization with pcTPANS1 promotes a sustained T cell activation in spleen of i.c.-infected mice. Moreover, we found that the downregulation of CD45RB on T cells, as an indicator of cell activation, correlated with absence of morbidity upon virus challenge. Adoptive transfer procedures supported by CFSE-labeled cell tracking showed that NS1-specific T cells induced by vaccination, proliferate and migrate to peripheral organs of infected mice, such as the liver. Additionally, in late stages of infection (from the 7th day onwards), vaccinated mice also presented reduced levels of circulating IFN-γ and IL-12p70 in comparison to non-vaccinated animals. In conclusion, this work presented new aspects about the T cell-mediated immunity concerning DNA vaccination with pcTPANS1 and the i.c. infection model. These insights can be explored in further studies of anti-dengue vaccine efficacy. PMID:27631083

  6. T-cell mediated anti-tumor immunity after photodynamic therapy: Why does it not always work and how can we improve it?

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Lucas Freitas; Hamblin, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses the combination of non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless light to generate reactive oxygen species that destroy tumors by a combination of direct tumor cell killing, vascular shutdown, and activation of the immune system. It has been shown in some animal models that mice that have been cured of cancer by PDT, may exhibit resistance to rechallenge. The cured mice can also possess tumor specific T-cells that recognize defined tumor antigens, destroy tumor cells in vitro, and can be adoptively transferred to protect naïve mice from cancer. However, these beneficial outcomes are the exception rather than the rule. The reasons for this lack of consistency lie in the ability of many tumors to suppress the host immune system and to actively evade immune attack. The presence of an appropriate tumor rejection antigen in the particular tumor cell line is a requisite for T-cell mediated immunity. Regulatory T-cells (CD25+, Foxp3+) are potent inhibitors of anti-tumor immunity, and their removal by low dose cyclophosphamide can potentiate the PDT-induced immune response. Treatments that stimulate dendritic cells (DC) such as CpG oligonucleotide can overcome tumor-induced DC dysfunction and improve PDT outcome. Epigenetic reversal agents can increase tumor expression of MHC class I and also simultaneously increase expression of tumor antigens. A few clinical reports have shown that anti-tumor immunity can be generated by PDT in patients, and it is hoped that these combination approaches may increase tumor cures in patients. PMID:26062987

  7. TRAF3 is required for T cell-mediated immunity and T cell receptor/CD28 signaling1

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ping; Kraus, Zachary J.; Stunz, Laura L.; Liu, Yan; Bishop, Gail A.

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported that TRAF3, a ubiquitously expressed adaptor protein, promotes mature B cell apoptosis. However, the specific function of TRAF3 in T cells has remained unclear. Here we report the generation and characterization of T cell-specific TRAF3−/− mice, in which the TRAF3 gene was deleted from thymocytes and T cells. Ablation of TRAF3 in the T cell-lineage did not affect the numbers or proportions of CD4+,CD8+ or double positive or negative thymocytes, or CD4 or CD8 T cell populations in secondary lymphoid organs except that the T cell specific TRAF3−/− mice had a two-fold increase in FoxP3+ T cells.. In striking contrast to mice lacking TRAF3 in B cells, the T cell TRAF3 deficient mice exhibited defective IgG1 responses to a T dependent antigen, and impaired T cell-mediated immunity to infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Surprisingly, we found that TRAF3 was recruited to the TCR/CD28 signaling complex upon co-stimulation, and that TCR/CD28-mediated proximal and distal signaling events were compromised by TRAF3 deficiency. These findings provide new insights into the roles played by TRAF3 in T cell activation and T cell-mediated immunity. PMID:21084666

  8. Caloric Restriction reduces inflammation and improves T cell-mediated immune response in obese mice but concomitant consumption of curcumin/piperine adds no further benefit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation and impaired immune response. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to inhibit inflammatory response and enhance cell-mediated immune function. Curcumin, the bioactive phenolic component of turmeric spice, is proposed to have anti-obesity and anti-...

  9. Induction of Wnt-inducible signaling protein-1 correlates with invasive breast cancer oncogenesis and reduced type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Klinke, David J

    2014-01-01

    Innate and type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity function as important extracellular control mechanisms that maintain cellular homeostasis. Interleukin-12 (IL12) is an important cytokine that links innate immunity with type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity. We recently observed in vitro that tumor-derived Wnt-inducible signaling protein-1 (WISP1) exerts paracrine action to suppress IL12 signaling. The objective of this retrospective study was three fold: 1) to determine whether a gene signature associated with type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity was correlated with overall survival, 2) to determine whether WISP1 expression is increased in invasive breast cancer, and 3) to determine whether a gene signature consistent with inhibition of IL12 signaling correlates with WISP1 expression. Clinical information and mRNA expression for genes associated with anti-tumor immunity were obtained from the invasive breast cancer arm of the Cancer Genome Atlas study. Patient cohorts were identified using hierarchical clustering. The immune signatures associated with the patient cohorts were interpreted using model-based inference of immune polarization. Reverse phase protein array, tissue microarray, and quantitative flow cytometry in breast cancer cell lines were used to validate observed differences in gene expression. We found that type 1 cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity was correlated with increased survival in patients with invasive breast cancer, especially in patients with invasive triple negative breast cancer. Oncogenic transformation in invasive breast cancer was associated with an increase in WISP1. The gene expression signature in invasive breast cancer was consistent with WISP1 as a paracrine inhibitor of type 1 cell-mediated immunity through inhibiting IL12 signaling and promoting type 2 immunity. Moreover, model-based inference helped identify appropriate immune signatures that can be used as design constraints in genetically engineering better pre

  10. Tissue requirements for establishing long-term CD4+ T cell-mediated immunity following Leishmania donovani infection.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Patrick T; Stanley, Amanda C; de Labastida Rivera, Fabian; Mulherin, Alexander; Sheel, Meru; Alexander, Clare E; Faleiro, Rebecca J; Amante, Fiona H; Montes De Oca, Marcela; Best, Shannon E; James, Kylie R; Kaye, Paul M; Haque, Ashraful; Engwerda, Christian R

    2014-04-15

    Organ-specific immunity is a feature of many infectious diseases, including visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani. Experimental visceral leishmaniasis in genetically susceptible mice is characterized by an acute, resolving infection in the liver and chronic infection in the spleen. CD4+ T cell responses are critical for the establishment and maintenance of hepatic immunity in this disease model, but their role in chronically infected spleens remains unclear. In this study, we show that dendritic cells are critical for CD4+ T cell activation and expansion in all tissue sites examined. We found that FTY720-mediated blockade of T cell trafficking early in infection prevented Ag-specific CD4+ T cells from appearing in lymph nodes, but not the spleen and liver, suggesting that early CD4+ T cell priming does not occur in liver-draining lymph nodes. Extended treatment with FTY720 over the first month of infection increased parasite burdens, although this associated with blockade of lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid tissue, as well as with more generalized splenic lymphopenia. Importantly, we demonstrate that CD4+ T cells are required for the establishment and maintenance of antiparasitic immunity in the liver, as well as for immune surveillance and suppression of parasite outgrowth in chronically infected spleens. Finally, although early CD4+ T cell priming appeared to occur most effectively in the spleen, we unexpectedly revealed that protective CD4+ T cell-mediated hepatic immunity could be generated in the complete absence of all secondary lymphoid tissues.

  11. Cadm1 is a metastasis susceptibility gene that suppresses metastasis by modifying tumor interaction with the cell-mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Farhoud; Pang, Yanli; Walker, Renard C; Nieves Borges, Rosan; Yang, Li; Hunter, Kent W

    2012-09-01

    Metastasis is a complex process utilizing both tumor-cell-autonomous properties and host-derived factors, including cellular immunity. We have previously shown that germline polymorphisms can modify tumor cell metastatic capabilities through cell-autonomous mechanisms. However, how metastasis susceptibility genes interact with the tumor stroma is incompletely understood. Here, we employ a complex genetic screen to identify Cadm1 as a novel modifier of metastasis. We demonstrate that Cadm1 can specifically suppress metastasis without affecting primary tumor growth. Unexpectedly, Cadm1 did not alter tumor-cell-autonomous properties such as proliferation or invasion, but required the host's adaptive immune system to affect metastasis. The metastasis-suppressing effect of Cadm1 was lost in mice lacking T cell-mediated immunity, which was partially phenocopied by depleting CD8(+) T cells in immune-competent mice. Our data show a novel function for Cadm1 in suppressing metastasis by sensitizing tumor cells to immune surveillance mechanisms, and this is the first report of a heritable metastasis susceptibility gene engaging tumor non-autonomous factors.

  12. Development of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-supplemented adjuvant and its effects on cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in male rats immunized against sperm

    PubMed Central

    NOGUCHI, Junko; WATANABE, Shinya; NGUYEN, Thanh Q. Dang; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro; KANEKO, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from non-pathogenic Escherichia coli was found to enhance the adjuvant effects of a veterinary vaccine adjuvant (ISA 71VG®). Sperm immunization using 71VG as an adjuvant in the immature period induced infertility in 25% of male rats, whereas this increased to 62.5% after immunization with 71VG + LPS or Freund′s complete adjuvant (FCA). Mean testicular weight of non-sterile males in the 71VG + LPS group was significantly lower than that in the 71VG or FCA group. Histological examination of testicular tissue from sterile males demonstrated severe impairment of spermatogenesis due to experimental autoimmune orchitis, a cell-mediated autoimmune condition. The serum anti-sperm titer was elevated in the three sperm-immunized groups relative to male rats treated with adjuvant alone, but the titer was higher in the 71VG + LPS and FCA groups than in the 71VG group. We consider that this LPS-supplemented adjuvant stimulates both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to an extent comparable to FCA. PMID:27890874

  13. An African horse sickness virus serotype 4 recombinant canarypox virus vaccine elicits specific cell-mediated immune responses in horses.

    PubMed

    El Garch, H; Crafford, J E; Amouyal, P; Durand, P Y; Edlund Toulemonde, C; Lemaitre, L; Cozette, V; Guthrie, A; Minke, J M

    2012-09-15

    A recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccine co-expressing synthetic genes encoding outer capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5, of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 (ALVAC(®)-AHSV4) has been demonstrated to fully protect horses against homologous challenge with virulent field virus. Guthrie et al. (2009) detected weak and variable titres of neutralizing antibody (ranging from <10 to 40) 8 weeks after vaccination leading us to hypothesize that there could be a participation of cell mediated immunity (CMI) in protection against AHSV4. The present study aimed at characterizing the CMI induced by the experimental ALVAC(®)-AHSV4 vaccine. Six horses received two vaccinations twenty-eight days apart and three horses remained unvaccinated. The detection of VP2/VP5 specific IFN-γ responses was assessed by enzyme linked immune spot (ELISpot) assay and clearly demonstrated that all ALVAC(®)-AHSV4 vaccinated horses developed significant IFN-γ production compared to unvaccinated horses. More detailed immune responses obtained by flow cytometry demonstrated that ALVAC(®)-AHSV4 vaccinations induced immune cells, mainly CD8(+) T cells, able to recognize multiple T-epitopes through all VP2 and only the N-terminus sequence of VP5. Neither VP2 nor VP5 specific IFN-γ responses were detected in unvaccinated horses. Overall, our data demonstrated that an experimental recombinant canarypox based vaccine induced significant CMI specific for both VP2 and VP5 proteins of AHSV4.

  14. Transfer of T-cell mediated immunity to Hymenolepis nana from mother mice to their neonates.

    PubMed

    Asano, K; Okamoto, K

    1992-01-15

    Administration of lymph node cells from Hymenolepis nana-infected mice into lactating mothers, or directly suckling neonates successfully transferred immunity to the neonates. The capacity of lymph node cells to transfer immunity was completely abrogated by pretreatment with anti-Thy-1.2 monoclonal antibody and complement.

  15. Obesity impairs cell-mediated immunity during the second trimester of pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with impaired immunity. In obese pregnancy, both mother and fetus are susceptible to the short- and long-term deleterious effects of infectious illness. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of obesity on maternal blood immune cell subsets, intracellular and s...

  16. In vivo testing confirms a blunting of the human cell-mediated immune mechanism during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Janney, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    The cell-mediated immune (CMI) mechanism was evaluated in 10 space shuttle astronauts by measuring their delayed-type hypersensitivity response to seven common recall antigens. The Multitest CMI test system was used to administer antigens of tetanus, diphtheria, Streptococcus, Proteus, old tuberculin, Candida, and Trichophyton to the forearm 46 h before nominal mission termination; readings were conducted 2 h after landing. The mean number of reactions was reduced from 4.5 preflight to 3.0 inflight, and the mean reaction score was reduced from 21.4 to 13.7 mm inflight. The data presented suggest that the CMI system is still being degraded by space flight conditions on day 4 and that between day 5 and day 10, the depression maximizes and the system begins to adjust to the new conditions. The relation of these in vivo findings to previously reported in vitro results is discussed.

  17. In vivo testing confirms a blunting of the human cell-mediated immune mechanism during space flight.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G R; Janney, R P

    1992-02-01

    The cell-mediated immune (CMI) mechanism was evaluated in 10 space shuttle astronauts by measuring their delayed-type hypersensitivity response to seven common recall antigens. The Multitest CMI test system was used to administer antigens of tetanus, diphtheria, Streptococcus, Proteus, old tuberculin, Candida, and Trichophyton to the forearm 46 h before nominal mission termination; readings were conducted 2 h after landing. The mean number of reactions was reduced from 4.5 preflight to 3.0 inflight, and the mean reaction score was reduced from 21.4 to 13.7 mm inflight. The data presented suggest that the CMI system is still being degraded by space flight conditions on day 4 and that between day 5 and day 10, the depression maximizes and the system begins to adjust to the new conditions. The relation of these in vivo findings to previously reported in vitro results is discussed.

  18. Multifunctional nanorods serving as nanobridges to modulate T cell-mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Son, Young Ju; Kim, Hyesung; Leong, Kam W; Yoo, Hyuk Sang

    2013-11-26

    Electrodeposited nanorods serving as multivalent bridges were fabricated and surface-decorated with ligands for immune cells. Gold and nickel solutions were sequentially electrodeposited on nanoporous anodized disc templates and the template was dissolved to retrieve bisegmented nanorods with different lengths. Gold and nickel segmented nanorods were surface-immobilized with mannose and RGD peptides to prepare immune-cell recruiting nanorods. Surface-functionalization of nanorods were confirmed by fluorescence-labeling of each ligands and confocal microscopy. Dendritic cells and T cells were co-incubated with the surface-functionalized nanorods, and the proximity between the nanorods and the immune cells was visualized by variable pressure scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The long nanorods were associated with the immune cells, whereas the shorter nanorods were rather endocytosed by cells, suggesting a feasibility of the longer nanorods as bridging for the cells. Cytokine releases from the immune cells were monitored by cultivating lipopolysaccharide-activated dendritic cells with T cells. Interleukine-2 and interferon-γ release profiles showed a strong correlation with the length of the nanorod, where the 4 μm nanorods induced the highest levels of cytokine release compared to 1 or 2 μm nanorods. Thus, we concluded that the proximity of the immune cells increased by bridging the immune cells with the nanobridging system, which subsequently increased cytokine release by facilitating the antigen presentation process.

  19. The Ebola Interferon Inhibiting Domains Attenuate and Dysregulate Cell-Mediated Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michelle; Koup, Richard A.; Bukreyev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) infections are characterized by deficient T-lymphocyte responses, T-lymphocyte apoptosis and lymphopenia. We previously showed that disabling of interferon-inhibiting domains (IIDs) in the VP24 and VP35 proteins effectively unblocks maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and increases the secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Here, we investigated the role of IIDs in adaptive and innate cell-mediated responses using recombinant viruses carrying point mutations, which disabled IIDs in VP24 (EBOV/VP24m), VP35 (EBOV/VP35m) or both (EBOV/VP35m/VP24m). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositive donors were inoculated with the panel of viruses and stimulated with CMV pp65 peptides. Disabling of the VP35 IID resulted in increased proliferation and higher percentages of CD4+ T cells secreting IFNγ and/or TNFα. To address the role of aberrant DC maturation in the IID-mediated suppression of T cell responses, CMV-stimulated DCs were infected with the panel of viruses and co-cultured with autologous T-lymphocytes. Infection with EBOV/VP35m infection resulted in a significant increase, as compared to wt EBOV, in proliferating CD4+ cells secreting IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2. Experiments with expanded CMV-specific T cells demonstrated their increased activation following co-cultivation with CMV-pulsed DCs pre-infected with EBOV/VP24m, EBOV/VP35m and EBOV/VP35m/VP24m, as compared to wt EBOV. Both IIDs were found to block phosphorylation of TCR complex-associated adaptors and downstream signaling molecules. Next, we examined the effects of IIDs on the function of B cells in infected PBMC. Infection with EBOV/VP35m and EBOV/VP35m/VP24m resulted in significant increases in the percentages of phenotypically distinct B-cell subsets and plasma cells, as compared to wt EBOV, suggesting inhibition of B cell function and differentiation by VP35 IID. Finally, infection with EBOV/VP35m increased activation of NK cells, as compared to wt

  20. Fluorescent dye labeled influenza virus mainly infects innate immune cells and activated lymphocytes and can be used in cell-mediated immune response assay.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dongxu

    2009-03-31

    Early results have recognized that influenza virus infects the innate and adaptive immune cells. The data presented in this paper demonstrated that influenza virus labeled with fluorescent dye not only retained the ability to infect and replicate in host cells, but also stimulated a similar human immune response as did unlabeled virus. Influenza virus largely infected the innate and activated adaptive immune cells. Influenza B type virus was different from that of A type virus. B type virus was able to infect the immature lymphocytes, but in lower amounts when compared to activated lymphocytes. Protection from influenza is tightly associated with cellular immunity. Traditional methods of cellular immunity assay had limitations to imitate the natural human cell-mediated responses to influenza virus. Labeled viruses could be used in the assay of virus-specific cytotoxicity, which might reflect the natural process more closely. Furthermore, human immune cells activated by one influenza subtype virus could kill the cells infected by other subtype virus. These results implied the human immune cells could directly handle and remove free virus using similar mechanism that was used to remove virus-infected nonimmune cells, which might help to simplify the design and production of influenza vaccine, thereby reduce the cost.

  1. Empirical evidence of cold stress induced cell mediated and humoral immune response in common myna ( Sturnus tristis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Mansur A.; Zaib, Anila; Anjum, Muhammad S.; Qayyum, Mazhar

    2015-11-01

    Common myna ( Sturnus tristis) is a bird indigenous to the Indian subcontinent that has invaded many parts of the world. At the onset of our investigation, we hypothesized that the immunological profile of myna makes it resistant to harsh/new environmental conditions. In order to test this hypothesis, a number of 40 mynas were caught and divided into two groups, i.e., 7 and 25 °C for 14 days. To determine the effect of cold stress, cell mediated and humoral immune responses were assessed. The macrophage engulfment percentage was significantly ( P < 0.05) higher at 25 °C rather than 7 °C either co-incubated with opsonized or unopsonized sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Macrophage engulfment/cell and nitric oxide production behaved in a similar manner. However, splenic cells plaque formation, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio, and serum IgM or IgG production remained non-significant. There was a significant increase of IgG antibody production after a second immunization by SRBC. To the best of our knowledge, these findings have never been reported in the progression of this bird's invasion in frosty areas of the world. The results revealed a strengthened humoral immune response of myna and made this bird suitable for invasion in the areas of harsh conditions.

  2. In vitro enhancement of dendritic cell-mediated anti-glioma immune response by graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Zhongjun; Duan, Jinhong; Wang, Chen; Fang, Ying; Yang, Xian-Da

    2014-06-01

    Malignant glioma has extremely poor prognosis despite combination treatments with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy may potentially serve as an adjuvant treatment of glioma, but its efficacy generally needs further improvement. Here we explored whether graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets could modulate the DC-mediated anti-glioma immune response in vitro, using the T98G human glioma cell line as the study model. Pulsing DCs with a glioma peptide antigen (Ag) generated a limited anti-glioma response compared to un-pulsed DCs. Pulsing DCs with GO alone failed to produce obvious immune modulation effects. However, stimulating DCs with a mixture of GO and Ag (GO-Ag) significantly enhanced the anti-glioma immune reaction ( p < 0.05). The secretion of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) by the lymphocytes was also markedly boosted by GO-Ag. Additionally, the anti-glioma immune response induced by GO-Ag appeared to be target-specific. Furthermore, at the concentration used in this study, GO exhibited a negligible effect on the viability of the DCs. These results suggested that GO might have potential utility for boosting a DC-mediated anti-glioma immune response.

  3. Immunization of Mice with a Live Transconjugant Shigella Hybrid Strain Induced Th1 and Th17 Cell-Mediated Immune Responses and Confirmed Passive Protection Against Heterologous Shigellae.

    PubMed

    Nag, D; Koley, H; Sinha, R; Mukherjee, P; Sarkar, C; Withey, J H; Gachhui, R

    2016-02-01

    An avirulent, live transconjugant Shigella hybrid (LTSHΔstx) strain was constructed in our earlier study by introducing a plasmid vector, pPR1347, into a Shiga toxin gene deleted Shigella dysenteriae 1. Three successive oral administrations of LTSHΔstx to female adult mice produced comprehensive passive heterologous protection in their offspring against challenge with wild-type shigellae. Production of NO and different cytokines such asIL-12p70, IL-1β and IL-23 in peritoneal mice macrophages indicated that LTSHΔstx induced innate and adaptive immunity in mice. Furthermore, production of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 in LTSH-primed splenic CD4+ T cell suggested that LTSHΔstx may induce Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune responses. Exponential increase of the serum IgG and IgA titre against whole shigellae was observed in immunized adult mice during and after the immunization with the highest peak on day 35. Antigen-specific sIgA was also determined from intestinal lavage of immunized mice. The stomach extracts of neonates from immunized mice, mainly containing mother's milk, contained significant levels of anti-LTSHΔstx immunoglobulin. These studies suggest that the LTSHΔstx could be a new live oral vaccine candidate against shigellosis in the near future.

  4. Dendritic Cell-Mediated Phagocytosis but Not Immune Activation Is Enhanced by Plasmin

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Rachael J.; Samson, Andre L.; Au, Amanda E.-L.; Scholzen, Anja; Fuchsberger, Martina; Kong, Ying Y.; Freeman, Roxann; Mifsud, Nicole A.; Plebanski, Magdalena; Medcalf, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Removal of dead cells in the absence of concomitant immune stimulation is essential for tissue homeostasis. We recently identified an injury-induced protein misfolding event that orchestrates the plasmin-dependent proteolytic degradation of necrotic cells. As impaired clearance of dead cells by the innate immune system predisposes to autoimmunity, we determined whether plasmin could influence endocytosis and immune cell stimulation by dendritic cells – a critical cell that links the innate and adaptive immune systems. We find that plasmin generated on the surface of necrotic cells enhances their phagocytic removal by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Plasmin also promoted phagocytosis of protease-resistant microparticles by diverse mouse dendritic cell sub-types both in vitro and in vivo. Together with an increased phagocytic capacity, plasmin-treated dendritic cells maintain an immature phenotype, exhibit reduced migration to lymph nodes, increase their expression/release of the immunosuppressive cytokine TGF-β, and lose their capacity to mount an allogeneic response. Collectively, our findings support a novel role for plasmin formed on dead cells and other phagocytic targets in maintaining tissue homeostasis by increasing the phagocytic function of dendritic cells while simultaneously decreasing their immunostimulatory capacity consistent with producing an immunosuppressive state. PMID:26132730

  5. Memory T-Cell-Mediated Immune Responses Specific to an Alternative Core Protein in Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Christine; Parroche, Peggy; Lavergne, Jean Pierre; Duverger, Blandine; Vieux, Claude; Dubois, Valérie; Komurian-Pradel, Florence; Trépo, Christian; Gebuhrer, Lucette; Paranhos-Baccala, Glaucia; Penin, François; Inchauspé, Geneviève

    2004-01-01

    In vitro studies have described the synthesis of an alternative reading frame form of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein that was named F protein or ARFP (alternative reading frame protein) and includes a domain coded by the +1 open reading frame of the RNA core coding region. The expression of this protein in HCV-infected patients remains controversial. We have analyzed peripheral blood from 47 chronically or previously HCV-infected patients for the presence of T lymphocytes and antibodies specific to the ARFP. Anti-ARFP antibodies were detected in 41.6% of the patients infected with various HCV genotypes. Using a specific ARFP 99-amino-acid polypeptide as well as four ARFP predicted class I-restricted 9-mer peptides, we show that 20% of the patients display specific lymphocytes capable of producing gamma interferon, interleukin-10, or both cytokines. Patients harboring three different viral genotypes (1a, 1b, and 3) carried T lymphocytes reactive to genotype 1b-derived peptides. In longitudinal analysis of patients receiving therapy, both core and ARFP-specific T-cell- and B-cell-mediated responses were documented. The magnitude and kinetics of the HCV antigen-specific responses differed and were not linked with viremia or therapy outcome. These observations provide strong and new arguments in favor of the synthesis, during natural HCV infection, of an ARFP derived from the core sequence. Moreover, the present data provide the first demonstration of the presence of T-cell-mediated immune responses directed to this novel HCV antigen. PMID:15367612

  6. Cell-mediated immune response during experimental acute infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus: evaluation of blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Molina, V; Risalde, M A; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Romero-Palomo, F; Pedrera, M; Garfia, B; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2014-02-01

    Acute infections with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), a major pathogen of cattle, are often asymptomatic or produce only mild clinical symptoms. However, they may play an important role in the bovine respiratory disease complex by exerting a marked immunosuppressive effect, as a result of the death of the immunocompetent cell populations involved in controlling innate and adaptive immune responses, together with a marked reduction of both cytokine expression and co-stimulatory molecule synthesis. Although experimental research and field studies have shown that acute BVDV infection enhances susceptibility to secondary infection, the precise mechanism involved in BVDV-induced immunosuppression remains unclear. The present study is aimed at measuring a range of blood parameters in a single group of fourteen calves infected with non-cytopathic BVDV-1. Focus has been put on those related to the cell-mediated immune response just as leucocyte populations and lymphocyte subpopulations, serum concentrations of cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-4 and IL-10) and acute phase proteins [haptoglobin, serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen and albumin], as well as BVDV-specific antibodies and viremia. After non-cytopathic BVDV-1 infection, clinical signs intensity was never more than moderate coinciding with the presence of viremia and leucocyte and lymphocyte depletion. An early increase in TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-12 levels in contrast to IL-1β was observed in line with a raise in haptoglobin and SAA levels on the latest days of the study. As regards IL-4 levels, no evidence was found of any changes. However, a slight increase in IL-10 was observed, matching up the TNF-α decline during the acute phase response. These findings would help to increase our knowledge of the immune mechanisms involved in acute infection with non-cytopathic BVDV-1 strains, suggesting the existence of a clear tendency towards a type 1 immune response, thereby enhancing resistance against

  7. Recombinant nucleocapsid-like particles from dengue-2 induce functional serotype-specific cell-mediated immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Gil, Lázaro; Bernardo, Lídice; Pavón, Alequis; Izquierdo, Alienys; Valdés, Iris; Lazo, Laura; Marcos, Ernesto; Romero, Yaremis; Guzmán, María G; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2012-06-01

    The interplay of different inflammatory cytokines induced during dengue virus infection plays a role in either protection or increased disease severity. In this sense, vaccine strategies incorporating whole virus are able to elicit both functional and pathological responses. Therefore, an ideal tetravalent vaccine candidate against dengue should be focused on serotype-specific sequences. In the present work, a new formulation of nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) obtained from the recombinant dengue-2 capsid protein was evaluated in mice to determine the level of protection against homologous and heterologous viral challenge and to measure the cytotoxicity and cytokine-secretion profiles induced upon heterologous viral stimulation. As a result, a significant protection rate was achieved after challenge with lethal dengue-2 virus, which was dependent on CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells. In turn, no protection was observed after heterologous challenge. In accordance, in vitro-stimulated spleen cells from mice immunized with NLPs from the four dengue serotypes showed a serotype-specific response of gamma interferon- and tumour necrosis factor alpha-secreting cells. A similar pattern was detected when spleen cells from dengue-immunized animals were stimulated with the capsid protein. Taking these data together, we can assert that NLPs constitute an attractive vaccine candidate against dengue. They induce a functional immune response mediated by CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells in mice, which is protective against viral challenge. In turn, they are potentially safe due to two important facts: induction of serotype specific cell-mediated immunity and lack of induction of antiviral antibodies. Further studies in non-human primates or humanized mice should be carried out to elucidate the usefulness of the NLPs as a potential vaccine candidate against dengue disease.

  8. IL-7 inhibits tumor growth by promoting T cell-mediated antitumor immunity in Meth A model.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian-Cai; Shen, Guo-Bo; Wang, Shi-Min; Wan, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Immune suppression is well documented during tumor progression, which includes loss of effect of T cells and expansion of T regulatory (Treg) cells. IL-7 plays a key role in the proliferation, survival and homeostasis of T cells and displays a potent antitumor activity in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of IL-7 in Meth A model. IL-7 inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice with corresponding increases in the frequency of CD4 and CD8 T cells, Th1 (CD4(+)IFN-γ(+)), Tc1 (CD8(+)IFN-γ(+)) and T cells cytolytic activity against Meth A cells. Neutralization of CD4 or CD8 T cells reversed the antitumor benefit of IL-7. Furthermore, IL-7 decreased regulatory T Foxp3 as well as cells suppressive activity with a reciprocal increase in SMAD7. In addition, we observed an increase of the serum concentrations of IL-6 and IFN-γ, and a significant decrease of TGF-β and IL-10 after IL-7 treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that IL-7 augments T cell-mediated antitumor immunity and improves the effect of antitumor in Meth A model.

  9. Circumvention of regulatory CD4(+) T cell activity during cross-priming strongly enhances T cell-mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Heit, Antje; Gebhardt, Friedemann; Lahl, Katharina; Neuenhahn, Michael; Schmitz, Frank; Anderl, Florian; Wagner, Hermann; Sparwasser, Tim; Busch, Dirk H; Kastenmüller, Kathrin

    2008-06-01

    Immunization with purified antigens is a safe and practical vaccination strategy but is generally unable to induce sustained CD8(+) T cell-mediated protection against intracellular pathogens. Most efforts to improve the CD8(+) T cell immunogenicity of these vaccines have focused on co-administration of adjuvant to support cross-presentation and dendritic cell maturation. In addition, it has been shown that CD4(+) T cell help during the priming phase contributes to the generation of protective CD8(+) memory T cells. In this report we demonstrate that the depletion of CD4(+) T cells paradoxically enhances long-lasting CD8-mediated protective immunity upon protein vaccination. Functional and genetic in vivo inactivation experiments attribute this enhancement primarily to MHC class II-restricted CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg), which appear to physiologically suppress the differentiation process towards long-living effector memory T cells. Since, in functional terms, this suppression by Treg largely exceeds the positive effects of conventional CD4(+) T cell help, even the absence of all CD4(+) T cells or lack of MHC class II-mediated interactions on priming dendritic cells result in enhanced CD8(+) T cell immunogenicity. These findings have important implications for the improvement of vaccines against intracellular pathogens or tumors, especially in patients with highly active Treg.

  10. Coupling of HIV-1 Antigen to the Selective Autophagy Receptor SQSTM1/p62 Promotes T-Cell-Mediated Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Aram Nikolai; Landsverk, Ole Jørgen; Simonsen, Anne; Bogen, Bjarne; Corthay, Alexandre; Øynebråten, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines aiming to promote T-cell-mediated immune responses have so far showed limited efficacy, and there is a need for novel strategies. Studies indicate that autophagy plays an inherent role in antigen processing and presentation for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Here, we report a novel vaccine strategy based on fusion of antigen to the selective autophagy receptor sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1)/p62. We hypothesized that redirection of vaccine antigen from proteasomal degradation into the autophagy pathway would increase the generation of antigen-specific T cells. A hybrid vaccine construct was designed in which the antigen is fused to the C-terminus of p62, a signaling hub, and a receptor that naturally delivers ubiquitinated cargo for autophagic degradation. Fusion of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 antigen Gagp24 to p62 resulted in efficient antigen delivery into the autophagy pathway. Intradermal immunization of mice revealed that, in comparison to Gagp24 delivered alone, fusion to p62 enhanced the number of Gagp24-specific interferon-γ-producing T cells, including CD8+ T cells. The strategy may also have the potential to modulate the antigenic peptide repertoire. Because p62 and autophagy are highly conserved between species, we anticipate this strategy to be a candidate for the development of T-cell-based vaccines in humans. PMID:27242780

  11. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells mediate immune suppression in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Wei-bo; Tao, Lian-yuan; Xu, Qing

    2016-01-15

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by the loss of motor and sensory functions in areas below the level of the lesion and numerous accompanying deficits. Previous studies have suggested that myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC)-induced immune depression may play a pivotal role in the course of SCI. However, the concrete mechanism of these changes regarding immune suppression remains unknown. Here, we created an SCI mouse model to gain further evidence regarding the relationship between MDSCs following SCI and T lymphocyte suppression. We showed that in the SCI mouse model, the expanding MDSCs have the capacity to suppress T cell proliferation, and this suppression could be reversed by blocking the arginase.

  12. Comparison of dendritic cell-mediated immune responses among canine malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kyoichi; Arai, Hiroyoshi; Ueno, Emi; Saito, Chie; Yagihara, Hiroko; Isotani, Mayu; Ono, Kenichiro; Washizu, Tsukimi; Bonkobara, Makoto

    2007-09-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) vaccination is one of the most attractive immunotherapies for malignancies in dogs. To examine the differences in DC-mediated immune responses from different types of malignancies in dogs, we vaccinated dogs using autologous DCs pulsed with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and cell lysate prepared from squamous cell carcinoma SCC2/88 (SCC-KLH-DC), histiocytic sarcoma CHS-5 (CHS-KLH-DC), or B cell leukemia GL-1 (GL-KLH-DC) in vitro. In vivo inductions of immune responses against these tumor cells were compared by the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test. The DTH response against SCC2/88 cells were observed in dogs vaccinated with autologous SCC-KLH-DC, while the response was undetectable against CHS-5 and GL-1 cells in dogs vaccinated with autologous CHS-KLH-DC and GL-KLH-DC. Skin biopsies taken from DTH challenge sites were then examined for immunohistochemistry, and recruitment of CD8 and CD4 T cells was detected at the site where SCC2/88 cells were inoculated in dogs vaccinated with SCC-KLH-DC. By contrast, neither CD8 nor CD4 T cell infiltration was found at the DTH challenge site in the dogs vaccinated with CHS-KLH-DC or GL-KLH-DC. These findings may reflect that the efficacy of immune induction by DC vaccination varies among tumor types and that immune responses could be inducible in squamous cell carcinoma. Our results encouraged further investigation of therapeutic vaccination for dogs with advanced squamous cell carcinoma in clinical trials.

  13. Activated T cells sustain myeloid-derived suppressor cell-mediated immune suppression

    PubMed Central

    Damuzzo, Vera; Francescato, Samuela; Pozzuoli, Assunta; Berizzi, Antonio; Mocellin, Simone; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Bronte, Vincenzo; Mandruzzato, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a suppressive population able to hamper the immune response against cancer, correlates with tumor progression and overall survival in several cancer types. We have previously shown that MDSCs can be induced in vitro from precursors present in the bone marrow and observed that these cells are able to actively proliferate in the presence of activated T cells, whose activation level is critical to drive the suppressive activity of MDSCs. Here we investigated at molecular level the mechanisms involved in the interplay between MDSCs and activated T cells. We found that activated T cells secrete IL-10 following interaction with MDSCs which, in turn, activates STAT3 phosphorylation on MDSCs then leading to B7-H1 expression. We also demonstrated that B7-H1+ MDSCs are responsible for immune suppression through a mechanism involving ARG-1 and IDO expression. Finally, we show that the expression of ligands B7-H1 and MHC class II both on in vitro-induced MDSCs and on MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment of cancer patients is paralleled by an increased expression of their respective receptors PD-1 and LAG-3 on T cells, two inhibitory molecules associated with T cell dysfunction. These findings highlight key molecules and interactions responsible for the extensive cross-talk between MDSCs and activated T cells that are at the basis of immune suppression. PMID:26700461

  14. Plasmodium berghei: immunosuppression of the cell-mediated immune response induced by nonviable antigenic preparations

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, A.; Frankenburg, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this work, plasmodial antigens were examined for their ability to suppress the cellular immune response during lethal Plasmodium berghei infection. Splenic enlargement and the number and function of white spleen cells were assessed after injection of normal mice with irradiated parasitized erythrocytes (IPE) or with parasitized erythrocytes (PE) membranes. Both IPE and PE membranes caused splenomegaly and an increase in the number of splenic white cells with concurrent alteration of the relative proportions of T cells and macrophages. The percentage of T lymphocytes was fractionally diminished, but there was a marked increase in Lyt 2.2 positive (suppressor and cytotoxic) T subsets and in the number of splenic macrophage precursors. The pathological enlargement of the spleen was induced by various plasma membrane-derived antigens containing both proteins and carbohydrates. Splenocytes of mice injected with liposomes containing deoxycholate-treated PE or PE fractions showed both diminished interleukin 2 production and a decreased response to mitogen. It appears that some of the changes in the cellular immune response during P. berghei infection are a consequence of the massive provision of a wide spectrum of antigens, capable of suppressing the immune response. Thus, it may be appropriate to evaluate the possible negative effect of parasite epitopes that are candidates for vaccine.

  15. Activated T cells sustain myeloid-derived suppressor cell-mediated immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Pinton, Laura; Solito, Samantha; Damuzzo, Vera; Francescato, Samuela; Pozzuoli, Assunta; Berizzi, Antonio; Mocellin, Simone; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Bronte, Vincenzo; Mandruzzato, Susanna

    2016-01-12

    The expansion of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a suppressive population able to hamper the immune response against cancer, correlates with tumor progression and overall survival in several cancer types. We have previously shown that MDSCs can be induced in vitro from precursors present in the bone marrow and observed that these cells are able to actively proliferate in the presence of activated T cells, whose activation level is critical to drive the suppressive activity of MDSCs. Here we investigated at molecular level the mechanisms involved in the interplay between MDSCs and activated T cells. We found that activated T cells secrete IL-10 following interaction with MDSCs which, in turn, activates STAT3 phosphorylation on MDSCs then leading to B7-H1 expression. We also demonstrated that B7-H1+ MDSCs are responsible for immune suppression through a mechanism involving ARG-1 and IDO expression. Finally, we show that the expression of ligands B7-H1 and MHC class II both on in vitro-induced MDSCs and on MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment of cancer patients is paralleled by an increased expression of their respective receptors PD-1 and LAG-3 on T cells, two inhibitory molecules associated with T cell dysfunction. These findings highlight key molecules and interactions responsible for the extensive cross-talk between MDSCs and activated T cells that are at the basis of immune suppression.

  16. Cell-mediated immunity to Toxoplasma gondii develops primarily by local Th-1 host immune responses in the absence of parasite replication1

    PubMed Central

    Gigley, Jason P.; Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.

    2008-01-01

    A single inoculation of mice with the live attenuated Toxoplasma gondii uracil auxotroph strain cps1-1 induces long-lasting immunity against lethal challenge with hyper-virulent strain RH. The mechanism for this robust immunity in the absence of parasite replication has not been addressed. The mechanism of long-lasting immunity, the importance of route of immunization, cellular recruitment to the site of infection, and local and systemic inflammation were evaluated. Our results show that infection with cps1-1 elicits long-lasting CD8+ T cell mediated immunity. We show that immunization with cps1-1 infected DCs elicits long-lasting immunity. Intraperitoneal infection with cps1-1 induced a rapid influx of GR1+ neutrophils and 2 stages of GR1+ CD68+ inflammatory monocyte infiltration into the site of inoculation. CD19+ B cells and CD3+ T cells steadily increase for 8 days after infection. CD8+ T cells were rapidly recruited to the site of infection and increased faster than CD4+ T cells. Surprisingly, cps1-1 infection induced high systemic levels of bioactive IL-12p70 and very low level and transient systemic Ifn-γ. Furthermore, we show significant levels of these inflammatory cytokines were locally produced at the site of cps1-1 inoculation. These findings offer new insight into immunological mechanisms and local host responses to a non-replicating Type I parasite infection associated with development of long-lasting immunity to Toxoplasma gondii. PMID:19124750

  17. Humoral and cell mediated immune responses to a pertussis containing vaccine in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    PubMed

    Huygen, Kris; Caboré, Raïssa Nadège; Maertens, Kirsten; Van Damme, Pierre; Leuridan, Elke

    2015-08-07

    Vaccination of pregnant women is recommended for some infectious diseases in order to protect both women and offspring through high titres of maternal IgG antibodies. Less is known on the triggering of cellular immune responses by vaccines administered during pregnancy. In an ongoing study on maternal pertussis vaccination (2012-2014) 18 pregnant women were vaccinated with a tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) containing vaccine (Boostrix®) during the third pregnancy trimester. Sixteen age-matched nonpregnant women received the same vaccine in the same time period. A blood sample was taken at the moment of, but before vaccination and one month and one year after vaccination. Anti-Pertussis Toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), tetanus toxin (TT) and diphtheria toxin (DT) antibodies were measured by ELISA. Cellular immune responses were analyzed using a diluted whole blood assay, measuring proliferation, and cytokine release in response to vaccine antigens PT, FHA, TT, and to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) as polyclonal stimulus. Antibody levels to all five vaccine components increased significantly and to the same extent after vaccination in pregnant and nonpregnant women. One year after vaccination, antibody titres had decreased particularly to PT, but they were still significantly higher to all antigens than before vaccination. In contrast, proliferative and IFN-γ responses were increased to TT, PT, and FHA in nonpregnant women one month after vaccination, whereas in pregnant women only TT specific T cell responses were increased and to a lesser extent than in the control group. One year after vaccination, cellular responses equaled the baseline levels detected prior to vaccination in both groups. In conclusion, a Tdap vaccination can increase vaccine specific IgG antibodies to the same extent in pregnant and in nonpregnant women, whereas the stimulation of vaccine specific Th1 type cellular immune responses with this acellular vaccine

  18. Immune cell-mediated protection of the mammary gland and the infant during breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Hassiotou, Foteini; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-05-01

    Breastfeeding has been regarded first and foremost as a means of nutrition for infants, providing essential components for their unique growth and developmental requirements. However, breast milk is also rich in immunologic factors, highlighting its importance as a mediator of protection. In accordance with its evolutionary origin, the mammary gland offers via the breastfeeding route continuation of the maternal to infant immunologic support established in utero. At birth, the infant's immune system is immature, and although it was exposed to the maternal microbial flora during pregnancy, it experiences an abrupt change in its microbial environment during and after birth, which is challenging and renders the infant highly susceptible to infection. Active and passive immunity protects the infant via breast milk, which is rich in immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lysozyme, cytokines, and numerous other immunologic factors, including maternal leukocytes. Breast milk leukocytes provide active immunity and promote development of immunocompetence in the infant. Additionally, it has been speculated that they play a role in the protection of the mammary gland from infection. Leukocytes are thought to exert these functions via phagocytosis, secretion of antimicrobial factors and/or antigen presentation in both the mammary gland and the gastrointestinal tract of the infant, and also in other infant tissues, where they are transported via the systemic circulation. Recently, it has been demonstrated that breast milk leukocytes respond dynamically to maternal as well as infant infections, and are fewer in nonexclusively compared with exclusively breastfeeding dyads, further emphasizing their importance for both the mother and infant. This review summarizes the current knowledge of human milk leukocytes and factors influencing them, and presents recent novel findings supporting their potential as a diagnostic marker for infections of the lactating breast and of the breastfed infant.

  19. Resveratrol enhances cell-mediated immune response to DMBA through TLR4 and prevents DMBA induced cutaneous carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Nasti, Tahseen H; Meleth, Sreelatha; Elmets, Craig A

    2009-01-01

    Toll like receptors (TLRs) activate signals that are critically involved in innate immune responses and that contribute to the initiation of adaptive immune responses. Resveratrol (trans-3, 5,4-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenol found in red grapes and in several other plant sources, is an effective chemopreventive agent in cutaneous chemical carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated whether TLR4 was required for the chemopreventive action of resveratrol in DMBA skin carcinogenesis. For this purpose, mice with normal and deficient TLR4 function were compared when pretreated with resveratrol and then subjected to a DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis protocol. There were fewer tumors/group (p<0.001) in resveratrol treated TLR4 competent C3H/HeN mice than in TLR4 deficient C3H/HeJ mice. In addition, the size of tumors in C3H/HeN mice was reduced in vivo and their survival in vitro was inhibited by resveratrol to a significantly greater extent than in C3H/HeJ mice. Resveratrol inhibited angiogenesis to a much greater extent in the TLR4 competent mice than in TLR4 deficient mice. IFN-γ and IL-12 levels were also increased in TLR4 competent mice compared to TLR4 deficient mice, and TLR4 competent C3H/HeN mice exhibited a greater increase in the cell-mediated immune response to DMBA. The results of this study indicate that TLR4 is an important mediator of resveratrol chemoprevention in DMBA skin tumorigenesis. PMID:19142898

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi adjuvants potentiate T cell-mediated immunity induced by a NY-ESO-1 based antitumor vaccine.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Caroline; Guerrero, Ana Tereza; Galvão-Filho, Bruno; Andrade, Warrison A; Salgado, Ana Paula C; Cunha, Thiago M; Ropert, Catherine; Campos, Marco Antônio; Penido, Marcus L O; Mendonça-Previato, Lúcia; Previato, José Oswaldo; Ritter, Gerd; Cunha, Fernando Q; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    2012-01-01

    Immunological adjuvants that induce T cell-mediate immunity (TCMI) with the least side effects are needed for the development of human vaccines. Glycoinositolphospholipids (GIPL) and CpGs oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) derived from the protozoa parasite Trypanosoma cruzi induce potent pro-inflammatory reaction through activation of Toll-Like Receptor (TLR)4 and TLR9, respectively. Here, using mouse models, we tested the T. cruzi derived TLR agonists as immunological adjuvants in an antitumor vaccine. For comparison, we used well-established TLR agonists, such as the bacterial derived monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), lipopeptide (Pam3Cys), and CpG ODN. All tested TLR agonists were comparable to induce antibody responses, whereas significant differences were noticed in their ability to elicit CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cell responses. In particular, both GIPLs (GTH, and GY) and CpG ODNs (B344, B297 and B128) derived from T. cruzi elicited interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production by CD4(+) T cells. On the other hand, the parasite derived CpG ODNs, but not GIPLs, elicited a potent IFN-γ response by CD8(+) T lymphocytes. The side effects were also evaluated by local pain (hypernociception). The intensity of hypernociception induced by vaccination was alleviated by administration of an analgesic drug without affecting protective immunity. Finally, the level of protective immunity against the NY-ESO-1 expressing melanoma was associated with the magnitude of both CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cell responses elicited by a specific immunological adjuvant.

  1. Cell-mediated immune response to unrelated proteins and unspecific inflammation blocked by orally tolerated proteins.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Gustavo C; Rodrigues, Claudiney M; Azevedo, Geraldo M; Pinho, Vanessa; Carvalho, Cláudia R; Vaz, Nelson M

    2009-03-01

    Oral tolerance promotes a generalized decrease in specific immune responsiveness to proteins previously encountered via the oral route. In addition, parenteral immunization with a tolerated protein also triggers a significant reduction in the primary responsiveness to a second unrelated antigen. This is generally explained by 'innocent bystander suppression', suggesting that the transient and episodic effects of inhibitory cytokines released by contact with the tolerated antigen would block responses to the second antigen. In disagreement with this view, we have previously shown that: (i) these inhibitory effects do not require concomitance or contiguity of the injections of the two proteins; (ii) that intravenous or intragastric exposures to the tolerated antigen are not inhibitory; and (iii) that the inhibitory effect, once triggered, persists in the absence of further contact with the tolerated protein, possibly by inhibition of secondary responsiveness (immunological memory). The present work confirms that immunological memory of the second unrelated antigen is hindered by exposure to the tolerated antigen and, in addition, shows that this exposure: (i) inhibits the inflammation triggered by an unrelated antigen through the double effect of inhibiting production of leucocytes in the bone marrow and blocking their migration to inflammed sites; and (ii) significantly blocks footpaw swelling triggered by carrageenan. Taken together, these results conclusively demonstrate that inhibitory effects of parenteral injection of tolerated antigens are much more general than suggested by the 'innocent bystander suppression' hypothesis.

  2. CD8(+) T cell-mediated immunity during Trypanosoma cruzi infection: a path for vaccine development?

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Virgilio, Fernando; Pontes, Camila; Dominguez, Mariana Ribeiro; Ersching, Jonatan; Rodrigues, Mauricio Martins; Vasconcelos, José Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    MHC-restricted CD8(+) T cells are important during infection with the intracellular protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Experimental studies performed in the past 25 years have elucidated a number of features related to the immune response mediated by these T cells, which are important for establishing the parasite/host equilibrium leading to chronic infection. CD8(+) T cells are specific for highly immunodominant antigens expressed by members of the trans-sialidase family. After infection, their activation is delayed, and the cells display a high proliferative activity associated with high apoptotic rates. Although they participate in parasite control and elimination, they are unable to clear the infection due to their low fitness, allowing the parasite to establish the chronic phase when these cells then play an active role in the induction of heart immunopathology. Vaccination with a number of subunit recombinant vaccines aimed at eliciting specific CD8(+) T cells can reverse this path, thereby generating a productive immune response that will lead to the control of infection, reduction of symptoms, and reduction of disease transmission. Due to these attributes, activation of CD8(+) T lymphocytes may constitute a path for the development of a veterinarian or human vaccine.

  3. CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immunity during Trypanosoma cruzi Infection: A Path for Vaccine Development?

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Virgilio, Fernando; Pontes, Camila; Dominguez, Mariana Ribeiro; Ersching, Jonatan; Rodrigues, Mauricio Martins; Vasconcelos, José Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    MHC-restricted CD8+ T cells are important during infection with the intracellular protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Experimental studies performed in the past 25 years have elucidated a number of features related to the immune response mediated by these T cells, which are important for establishing the parasite/host equilibrium leading to chronic infection. CD8+ T cells are specific for highly immunodominant antigens expressed by members of the trans-sialidase family. After infection, their activation is delayed, and the cells display a high proliferative activity associated with high apoptotic rates. Although they participate in parasite control and elimination, they are unable to clear the infection due to their low fitness, allowing the parasite to establish the chronic phase when these cells then play an active role in the induction of heart immunopathology. Vaccination with a number of subunit recombinant vaccines aimed at eliciting specific CD8+ T cells can reverse this path, thereby generating a productive immune response that will lead to the control of infection, reduction of symptoms, and reduction of disease transmission. Due to these attributes, activation of CD8+ T lymphocytes may constitute a path for the development of a veterinarian or human vaccine. PMID:25104879

  4. Cyclic AMP Represents a Crucial Component of Treg Cell-Mediated Immune Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Matthias; Bopp, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    T regulatory (Treg) cells are one of the key players in the immune tolerance network, and a plethora of manuscripts have described their development and function in the course of the last two decades. Nevertheless, it is still a matter of debate as to which mechanisms and agents are employed by Treg cells, providing the basis of their suppressive potency. One of the important candidates is cyclic AMP (cAMP), which is long known as a potent suppressor at least of T cell activation and function. While this suppressive function by itself is widely accepted, the source and the mechanism of action of cAMP are less clear, and a multitude of seemingly contradictory data allow for, in principle, two different scenarios of cAMP-mediated suppression. In one scenario, Treg cells contain high amounts of cAMP and convey this small molecule via gap junction intercellular communication directly to the effector T cells (Teff) leading to their suppression. Alternatively, it was shown that Treg cells represent the origin of considerable amounts of adenosine, which trigger the adenylate cyclases in Teff cells via A2A and A2B receptors, thus strongly increasing intracellular cAMP. This review will present and discuss initial findings and recent developments concerning the function of cAMP for Treg cells and its impact on immune regulation. PMID:27621729

  5. Cell-mediated immune responses to a cloned Plasmodium falciparum antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Rollwagen, F.M.; Pacheco, N.D.; Wistar, R. Jr.

    1986-03-05

    A peptide fragment of the Plasmodium falciparum (P.f.) circumsporozoite protein (CSP) containing 32 repeats of the immunodominant tetrapeptide ASN-ALA-ASN-PRO (R32tet32) is currently being evaluated as a vaccine in man. This R32tet32 peptide, prepared by recombinant DNA technology from a cloned P.f. gene fragment, has been examined for its ability to stimulate T-cell proliferation in experimental animals. Groups of mice were injected with either R32tet32 emulsified in Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA), or live, or frozen-thawed P.f. sporozoites. Lymphocytes from such mice were cocultured with varying doses of R32tet32 or irrelevant antigen. Proliferation was assessed by /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake; serum antibody was analyzed by ELISA. A proliferative response was found in mice immunized with R32tet32+CFA as early as day 7 post-injection, and was persistent through at least day 23. No proliferation in response to R32tet32 was observed in lymphocytes taken from mice injected with live or frozen-thawed sporozoites. All three immunogens induced both IgM and IgG antibody to R32tet32. They conclude that exposure to live or frozen-thawed P.f. sporozoites alone is sufficient to generate T-cell helper activity for subsequent antibody production, but that antigen+CFA was necessary to generate significant T-cell proliferative activity.

  6. γδ T Cell-Mediated Immune Responses in Disease and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Latha, T. Sree; Reddy, Madhava C.; Durbaka, Prasad V. R.; Rachamallu, Aparna; Pallu, Reddanna; Lomada, Dakshayani

    2014-01-01

    The role of γδ T cells in immunotherapy has gained specific importance in the recent years because of their prominent function involving directly or indirectly in the rehabilitation of the diseases. γδ T cells represent a minor population of T cells that express a distinct T cell receptor (TCR) composed of γδ chains instead of αβ chains. Unlike αβ T cells, γδ T cells display a restricted TCR repertoire and recognize mostly unknown non-peptide antigens. γδ T cells act as a link between innate and adaptive immunity, because they lack precise major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction and seize the ability to recognize ligands that are generated during affliction. Skin epidermal γδ T cells recognize antigen expressed by damaged or stressed keratinocytes and play an indispensable role in tissue homeostasis and repair through secretion of distinct growth factors. γδ T cell based immunotherapy strategies possess great prominence in the treatment because of the property of their MHC-independent cytotoxicity, copious amount of cytokine release, and a immediate response in infections. Understanding the role of γδ T cells in pathogenic infections, wound healing, autoimmune diseases, and cancer might provide knowledge for the successful treatment of these diseases using γδ T cell based immunotherapy. Enhancing the human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells functions by administration of aminobisphosphonates like zoledronate, pamidronate, and bromohydrin pyrophosphate along with cytokines and monoclonal antibodies shows a hopeful approach for treatment of tumors and infections. The current review summarizes the role of γδ T cells in various human diseases and immunotherapeutic approaches using γδ T cells. PMID:25426120

  7. Cell-mediated responses of immunized vervet monkeys to defined Leishmania T-cell epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Curry, A J; Jardim, A; Olobo, J O; Olafson, R W

    1994-01-01

    A population of vervet monkeys was immunized with killed parasites and infected with Leishmania major promastigotes either by needle or by infected-fly bite. The responses of recovered monkeys to mitogens, killed parasites, and molecularly defined T-cell epitopes were then compared with those of control animals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from both naive and recovered animals proliferated strongly in response to both B- and T-cell mitogens, although the responses of the recovered animals were less strong than those of the naive animals. Cells from recovered vervets, but not those from naive vervets, also proliferated in response to parasite antigens and synthetic T-cell epitopes. Likewise, cells from recovered animals released gamma interferon and either interleukin 2 (IL-2) or IL-4 into culture media in response to both of the above-mentioned antigens, whereas cells from control animals did not. The fact that no IL-5 could be measured following parasite antigen or synthetic T-cell epitope stimulation of PBMC suggested that cells proliferating in response to these molecules belonged to the Th1 subset. Phenotypic analysis of the PBMC showed a marked increase in T-cell but not B-cell populations in recovered animals. Among this population was an increased number of CD45R0+ memory cells. The data from this study are in keeping with the earlier finding that vervet monkeys provide an excellent model system for leishmaniasis. Further, these data support the contention that synthetic T-cell epitopes are prime candidates for molecularly defined Leishmania vaccines. PMID:7513306

  8. Combined local and systemic immunization is essential for durable T-cell mediated heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A virus

    PubMed Central

    Uddback, Ida E. M.; Pedersen, Line M. I.; Pedersen, Sara R.; Steffensen, Maria A.; Holst, Peter J.; Thomsen, Allan R.; Christensen, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    The threat from unpredictable influenza virus pandemics necessitates the development of a new type of influenza vaccine. Since the internal proteins are highly conserved, induction of T cells targeting these antigens may provide the solution. Indeed, adenoviral (Ad) vectors expressing flu nucleoprotein have previously been found to induce short-term protection in mice. In this study we confirm that systemic (subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization rapidly induced heterosubtypic protection predominantly mediated by CD8 T cells, but within three months clinical protection completely disappeared. Local (intranasal (i.n.)) immunization elicited delayed, but more lasting protection despite relatively inefficient immunization. However, by far, the most robust protection was induced by simultaneous, combined (i.n. + s.c.) vaccination, and, notably, in this case clinical protection lasted at least 8 months without showing any evidence of fading. Interestingly, the superior ability of the latter group to resist reinfection correlated with a higher number of antigen-specific CD8 T cells in the spleen. Thus, detailed analysis of the underlying CD8 T cell responses highlights the importance of T cells already positioned in the lungs prior to challenge, but at the same time underscores an important back-up role for circulating antigen-specific cells with the capacity to expand and infiltrate the infected lungs. PMID:26831578

  9. Comparative analyses of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses upon vaccination with different commercially available single-dose porcine circovirus type 2 vaccines.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hwi Won; Lee, Jeehoon; Han, Kiwon; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the induction of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses by four commercially available single-dose porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) vaccines. A total of 50 3-week-old piglets were assigned to five groups (10 pigs per group). Four commercial PCV-2 vaccines were administered according to the manufacturer's instructions and the piglets were observed for 154 days post vaccination (dpv). Inactivated chimeric PCV-1-2 vaccines induced higher levels of PCV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies (NA) and interferon-γ-secreting cells (IFN-γ-SC) in pigs than did the other three commercial PCV-2 vaccines. The proportions of CD4(+) cells were significantly higher in animals vaccinated with inactivated chimeric PCV-1-2 and PCV-2 vaccines than in animals vaccinated with the two subunit vaccines. To our knowledge, this is the first comparison of humoral and cell-mediated immunity induced by four commercial single-dose PCV-2 vaccines under the same conditions. The results of this study demonstrated quantitative differences in the induction of humoral and cell-mediated immunity following vaccination.

  10. Flow Cytometric and Cytokine ELISpot Approaches To Characterize the Cell-Mediated Immune Response in Ferrets following Influenza Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    DiPiazza, Anthony; Richards, Katherine; Batarse, Frances; Lockard, Laura; Zeng, Hui; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Albrecht, Randy A.

    2016-01-01

    resemblances to humans. However, a lack of reagents has limited our understanding of the cell-mediated immune response following infection and vaccination. In this study, we used cross-reactive and ferret-specific antibodies to study the leukocyte composition and antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses following influenza A/California/04/09 (H1N1) virus infection. These studies revealed strikingly distinct patterns of reactivity between CD4 and CD8 T cells, which were overlaid with differences in protein-specific responses between individual animals. Our results provide a first, in-depth look at the T cell repertoire in response to influenza infection and suggest that there is considerable heterogeneity at the MHC locus, which is akin to that in humans and an area of intense research interest. PMID:27356897

  11. Influence of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. on T-cell-mediated immunity in normal and immunosuppressed mice line CBA/Ca.

    PubMed

    Nizhenkovska, Iryna V; Pidchenko, Vitalii T; Bychkova, Nina G; Bisko, Nina A; Rodnichenko, Angela Y; Kozyko, Natalya O

    2015-09-01

    The article presents the results of the investigation of the effect of biomass powder of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum on T-cell-mediated immunity in normal and immunosuppressed mice CBA/Ca. Delayed-type hypersensitivity assay was used. Experimental immunodeficiency was established with intraperitoneal injection of the immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide at a single dose of 150 mg/kg on the first day of the experiment. Results of the study show that the administration of biomass powder of Ganoderma lucidum in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg orally for 10 days increases the delayed-type hypersensitivity response in normal mice CBA/Ca. Administration of 0.5 mg/kg of biomass powder of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum for 10 days blocked the development of the T-cell-mediated immunosuppression, induced by administration of cyclophosphamide and restored the delayed-type hypersensitivity response in immunosuppressed mice. Key words: fungus Ganoderma lucidum cyclophosphamide immunodeficiency T-cell-mediated immunity delayed-type hypersensitivity.

  12. Recombinant Bivalent Fusion Protein rVE Induces CD4+ and CD8+ T-Cell Mediated Memory Immune Response for Protection Against Yersinia enterocolitica Infection

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit K.; Kingston, Joseph J.; Gupta, Shishir K.; Batra, Harsh V.

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating the correlates of immune protection against Yersinia infection have established that both humoral and cell mediated immune responses are required for the comprehensive protection. In our previous study, we established that the bivalent fusion protein (rVE) comprising immunologically active regions of Y. pestis LcrV (100–270 aa) and YopE (50–213 aa) proteins conferred complete passive and active protection against lethal Y. enterocolitica 8081 challenge. In the present study, cohort of BALB/c mice immunized with rVE or its component proteins rV, rE were assessed for cell mediated immune responses and memory immune protection against Y. enterocolitica 8081. rVE immunization resulted in extensive proliferation of both CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets; significantly high antibody titer with balanced IgG1: IgG2a/IgG2b isotypes (1:1 ratio) and up-regulation of both Th1 (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-12) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines. On the other hand, rV immunization resulted in Th2 biased IgG response (11:1 ratio) and proliferation of CD4+ T-cell; rE group of mice exhibited considerably lower serum antibody titer with predominant Th1 response (1:3 ratio) and CD8+ T-cell proliferation. Comprehensive protection with superior survival (100%) was observed among rVE immunized mice when compared to the significantly lower survival rates among rE (37.5%) and rV (25%) groups when IP challenged with Y. enterocolitica 8081 after 120 days of immunization. Findings in this and our earlier studies define the bivalent fusion protein rVE as a potent candidate vaccine molecule with the capability to concurrently stimulate humoral and cell mediated immune responses and a proof of concept for developing efficient subunit vaccines against Gram negative facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens. PMID:26733956

  13. Long-term moderate calorie restriction inhibits inflammation without impairing cell-mediated immunity: a randomized controlled trial in non-obese humans

    PubMed Central

    Meydani, Simin N.; Das, Sai K.; Pieper, Carl F.; Lewis, Michael R.; Klein, Sam; Dixit, Vishwa D.; Gupta, Alok K.; Villareal, Dennis T.; Bhapkar, Manjushri; Huang, Megan; Fuss, Paul J.; Roberts, Susan B.; Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits inflammation and slows aging in many animal species, but in rodents housed in pathogen-free facilities, CR impairs immunity against certain pathogens. However, little is known about the effects of long-term moderate CR on immune function in humans. In this multi-center, randomized clinical trial to determine CR's effect on inflammation and cell-mediated immunity, 218 healthy non-obese adults (20-50 y), were assigned 25% CR (n=143) or an ad-libitum (AL) diet (n=75), and outcomes tested at baseline, 12, and 24 months of CR. CR induced a 10.4% weight loss over the 2-y period. Relative to AL group, CR reduced circulating inflammatory markers, including total WBC and lymphocyte counts, ICAM-1 and leptin. Serum CRP and TNF-α concentrations were about 40% and 50% lower in CR group, respectively. CR had no effect on the delayed-type hypersensitivity skin response or antibody response to vaccines, nor did it cause difference in clinically significant infections. In conclusion, long-term moderate CR without malnutrition induces a significant and persistent inhibition of inflammation without impairing key in vivo indicators of cell-mediated immunity. Given the established role of these pro-inflammatory molecules in the pathogenesis of multiple chronic diseases, these CR-induced adaptations suggest a shift toward a healthy phenotype. PMID:27410480

  14. Sex-Specific Effects of High Yolk Androgen Levels on Constitutive and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses in Nestlings of an Altricial Passerine.

    PubMed

    Muriel, Jaime; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Puerta, Marisa; Gil, Diego

    Avian embryos are exposed to yolk androgens that are incorporated into the egg by the ovulating female. These steroids can affect several aspects of embryo development, often resulting in increases in overall size or the speed of growth of different traits. However, several studies suggest that they also entail immune costs to the offspring. In this study, we explored whether variation in yolk androgen concentration affected several measures of the constitutive and cell-mediated immune axes in the spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor). Using a within-brood design, we injected different doses of androgens (testosterone and androstenedione) into the eggs. Our study showed that experimentally increased yolk androgens led to sex-specific immunosuppression in both the innate and adaptive axes of the immune system. Both cell-mediated immune response (CMI) and lysozyme activity decreased with increasing androgen levels injected into the egg in the case of male nestlings, whereas there were no effects on females. The effects that we found were always linear: no quadratic or threshold patterns were detected. We found no effects of the experimental treatment in hemolysis or agglutination capacity, but these measures were negatively correlated with CMI, suggesting negative correlation among different branches of the immune system. Blood (trypanosomes and hemosporidians) and intestinal (coccidia) parasites were not affected by the experimental increase of yolk androgen levels. Our results show that in our study species yolk androgens induce immunosuppression in some axes of the male nestling immune system. Further studies should analyze the proximate causes for these contrasting effects in different axes of the immune system and the reason for the differential impact on males and females.

  15. Effects of feed supplementation with glycine chelate and iron sulfate on selected parameters of cell-mediated immune response in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Łukasz; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Marek, Agnieszka; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Kalinowski, Marcin; Laskowska, Ewa

    2016-08-01

    Because little is known about the impact of chelated (Fe-Gly, Fe-Gly+F) and inorganic (FeSO4, FeSO4+F) iron products on immune response parameters in broiler chickens, the objective of the study was to determine the effects of inorganic and organic forms of iron on selected parameters of the cell-mediated immune response in broiler chickens by assessing the percentage of CD3(+)CD4(+), CD3(+)CD8(+), CD25(+), and MHC Class II lymphocytes, as well as the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and IL-2 concentration in the peripheral blood. The experiments were conducted using 50day-old Ross 308 roosters. The test material was peripheral blood. Flow cytometry was used to determine selected cell-mediated immune response parameters. The results obtained indicate that the use of iron chelates in the diet of broiler chickens may stimulate cellular defense mechanisms. As a result of the experiment an increase was observed in the percentage of Th1, mainly T CD4(+) and T CD8(+). It was also noted that application of chelated iron can increase production of T CD8(+) cytotoxic cells and IL-2, which promotes the body's natural response to developing inflammation. There were no changes in T CD4(+), T CD8(+), T CD25(+) or MHC II lymphocyte subpopulations in the chickens following application of the inorganic form of iron.

  16. Endogenous Il10 alleviates the systemic antiviral cellular immune response and T cell-mediated immunopathology in select organs of acutely LCMV-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Jakobshagen, Kristin; Ward, Beate; Baschuk, Nikola; Huss, Sebastian; Brunn, Anna; Malecki, Monika; Fiolka, Michael; Rappl, Gunther; Corogeanu, Diana; Karow, Ulrike; Schiller, Petra; Abken, Hinrich; Heukamp, Lukas C; Deckert, Martina; Krönke, Martin; Utermöhlen, Olaf

    2015-11-01

    The immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 suppresses T-cell immunity. The complementary question, whether IL-10 is also involved in limiting the collateral damage of vigorous T cell responses, has not been addressed in detail. Here, we report that the particularly strong virus-specific immune response during acute primary infection with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in mice is significantly further increased in Il10-deficient mice, particularly regarding frequencies and cytotoxic activity of CD8(+) T cells. This increase results in exacerbating immunopathology in select organs, ranging from transient local swelling to an increased risk for mortality. Remarkably, LCMV-induced, T cell-mediated hepatitis is not affected by endogenous Il10. The alleviating effect of Il10 on LCMV-induced immunopathology was found to be operative in delayed-type hypersensitivity footpad-swelling reaction and in debilitating meningitis in mice of both the C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains. These strains are prototypic counterpoles for genetically imprinted type 1-biased versus type 2-biased T cell-mediated immune responses against various infectious pathogens. However, during acute LCMV infection, neither systemic cytokine patterns nor the impact of Il10 on LCMV-induced immunopathology differed conspicuously between these two strains of mice. This study documents a physiological role of Il10 in the regulation of a balanced T-cell response limiting immunopathological damage.

  17. Conventional and monocyte-derived CD11b(+) dendritic cells initiate and maintain T helper 2 cell-mediated immunity to house dust mite allergen.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Maud; Guilliams, Martin; Vanheerswynghels, Manon; Deswarte, Kim; Branco-Madeira, Filipe; Toussaint, Wendy; Vanhoutte, Leen; Neyt, Katrijn; Killeen, Nigel; Malissen, Bernard; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2013-02-21

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for mounting allergic airway inflammation, but it is unclear which subset of DCs performs this task. By using CD64 and MAR-1 staining, we reliably separated CD11b(+) monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) from conventional DCs (cDCs) and studied antigen uptake, migration, and presentation assays of lung and lymph node (LN) DCs in response to inhaled house dust mite (HDM). Mainly CD11b(+) cDCs but not CD103(+) cDCs induced T helper 2 (Th2) cell immunity in HDM-specific T cells in vitro and asthma in vivo. Studies in Flt3l(-/-) mice, lacking all cDCs, revealed that moDCs were also sufficient to induce Th2 cell-mediated immunity but only when high-dose HDM was given. The main function of moDCs was the production of proinflammatory chemokines and allergen presentation in the lung during challenge. Thus, we have identified migratory CD11b(+) cDCs as the principal subset inducing Th2 cell-mediated immunity in the LN, whereas moDCs orchestrate allergic inflammation in the lung.

  18. Detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) -specific cell-mediated immune responses in guinea pigs during latent HSV-2 genital infection.

    PubMed

    Perry, Clarice L; Banasik, Brianne N; Gorder, Summer R; Xia, Jingya; Auclair, Sarah; Bourne, Nigel; Milligan, Gregg N

    2016-12-01

    Genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are a source of considerable morbidity and are a health concern for newborns exposed to virus during vaginal delivery. Additionally, HSV-2 infection diminishes the integrity of the vaginal epithelium resulting in increased susceptibility of individuals to infection with other sexually transmitted pathogens. Understanding immune protection against HSV-2 primary infection and immune modulation of virus shedding events following reactivation of the virus from latency is important for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. Although the murine model of HSV-2 infection is useful for understanding immunity following immunization, it is limited by the lack of spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency. Genital infection of guinea pigs with HSV-2 accurately models the disease of humans including the spontaneous reactivation of HSV-2 from latency and provides a unique opportunity to examine virus-host interactions during latency. Although the guinea pig represents an accurate model of many human infections, relatively few reagents are available to study the immunological response to infection. To analyze the cell-mediated immune response of guinea pigs at extended periods of time after establishment of HSV-2 latency, we have modified flow-cytometry based proliferation assays and IFN-γ ELISPOT assays to detect and quantify HSV-specific cell-mediated responses during latent infection of guinea pigs. Here we demonstrate that a combination of proliferation and ELISPOT assays can be used to quantify and characterize effecter function of virus-specific immune memory responses during HSV-latency.

  19. The CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immunity Induced by HPV-E6 Uploaded in Engineered Exosomes Is Improved by ISCOMATRIXTM Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Manfredi, Francesco; di Bonito, Paola; Ridolfi, Barbara; Anticoli, Simona; Arenaccio, Claudia; Chiozzini, Chiara; Baz Morelli, Adriana; Federico, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    We recently described the induction of an efficient CD8+ T cell-mediated immune response against a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) uploaded in engineered exosomes used as an immunogen delivery tool. This immune response cleared tumor cells inoculated after immunization, and controlled the growth of tumors implanted before immunization. We looked for new protocols aimed at increasing the CD8+ T cell specific response to the antigen uploaded in engineered exosomes, assuming that an optimized CD8+ T cell immune response would correlate with a more effective depletion of tumor cells in the therapeutic setting. By considering HPV-E6 as a model of TAA, we found that the in vitro co-administration of engineered exosomes and ISCOMATRIXTM adjuvant, i.e., an adjuvant composed of purified ISCOPREPTM saponin, cholesterol, and phospholipids, led to a stronger antigen cross-presentation in both B- lymphoblastoid cell lines ( and monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells compared with that induced by the exosomes alone. Consistently, the co-inoculation in mice of ISCOMATRIXTM adjuvant and engineered exosomes induced a significant increase of TAA-specific CD8+ T cells compared to mice immunized with the exosomes alone. This result holds promise for effective usage of exosomes as well as alternative nanovesicles in anti-tumor therapeutic approaches. PMID:27834857

  20. Chronic active hepatitis induced by Helicobacter hepaticus in the A/JCr mouse is associated with a Th1 cell-mediated immune response.

    PubMed

    Whary, M T; Morgan, T J; Dangler, C A; Gaudes, K J; Taylor, N S; Fox, J G

    1998-07-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus infection in A/JCr mice results in chronic active hepatitis characterized by perivascular, periportal, and parenchymal infiltrates of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells. This study examined the development of hepatitis and the immune response of A/JCr mice to H. hepaticus infection. The humoral and cell-mediated T helper immune response was profiled by measuring the postinfection (p.i.) antibody response in serum, feces, and bile and by the production of cytokines and proliferative responses by splenic mononuclear cells to H. hepaticus antigens. Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) and systemic IgG2a antibody developed by 4 weeks p.i. and persisted through 12 months. Splenocytes from infected mice proliferated and produced more gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) than interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-5 when cultured with H. hepaticus outer membrane proteins. The predominantly IgG2a antibody response in serum and the in vitro production of IFN-gamma in excess of IL-4 or IL-5 are consistent with a Th1 immune response reported in humans and mice infected with Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter felis, respectively. Mice infected with H. hepaticus developed progressively severe perivascular, periportal, and hepatic parenchymal lesions consisting of lymphohistiocytic and plasmacytic cellular infiltrates. In addition, transmural typhlitis was observed at 12 months p.i. The characterization of a cell-mediated Th1 immune response to H. hepaticus infection in the A/JCr mouse should prove valuable as a model for experimental regimens which manipulate the host response to Helicobacter.

  1. Erlotinib inhibits T-cell-mediated immune response via down-regulation of the c-Raf/ERK cascade and Akt signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Qiong; Gu Yanhong; Zheng Wei; Wu Xingxin; Gong Fangyuan; Gu Liyun; Sun Yang; Xu Qiang

    2011-03-01

    Erlotinib is a potent inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase and has been demonstrated to treat advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer to prolong survival after failure of first-line or second-line chemotherapy. However, little is known about its effects on immune system. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the immunosuppressive activity of erlotinib on T lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo, and further explore its potential molecular mechanism. Erlotinib exerted a significant inhibition on the T cell proliferation and activation induced by concanavalin A, anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28, staphylococcal enterotoxin B or phorbol myristate acetate respectively in a concentration-dependent manner and it also inhibited the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN-{gamma} of activated T cells. Further study showed that erlotinib caused G0/G1 arrest and suppressed the phosphorylations of c-Raf, ERK and Akt in activated T cells. Moreover, erlotinib significantly ameliorated picryl chloride-induced ear contact dermatitis in a dose-dependent manner in vivo. In summary, these findings suggest that erlotinib may cause the impairment of T-cell-mediated immune response both in vitro and in vivo through inhibiting T cell proliferation and activation, which is closely associated with its potent down-regulation of the c-Raf/ERK cascade and Akt signaling pathway. - Graphical abstract: Erlotinib may cause the impairment of T-cell-mediated immune response both in vitro and in vivo through inhibiting T cell proliferation and activation, which is closely associated with its potent down-regulation of the c-Raf/ERK cascade and Akt signaling pathway. Display Omitted

  2. Antibiotics and immunity: effects of antibiotics on natural killer, antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and antibody production.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M S; Maged, Z A; Haron, A; Khalil, R Y; Attallah, A M

    1987-12-01

    We studied the effects of antibiotics on natural killer (NK), antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and immunoglobulin production. When human peripheral blood lymphocytes were incubated overnight with the antibiotic before the assay, nitrofurantoin significantly reduced NK but not ADCC activity. Nitrofurantoin also suppressed both spontaneous and interferon-enhanced NK activities in a dose-dependent fashion. Though it did not affect spontaneous ADCC activity, nitrofurantoin suppressed interferon enhancement of ADCC. Chloramphenicol significantly decreased the number of plaque forming cells in mice. In addition to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, rifampicin, cephalothin, polymyxin B and nitrofurantoin reduced mitogen-induced polycloned immunoglobulin synthesis. Results of this study may have clinical relevance, especially in treating immunocompromised patients.

  3. High Parasite Burdens Cause Liver Damage in Mice following Plasmodium berghei ANKA Infection Independently of CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immune Pathology ▿

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Ashraful; Best, Shannon E.; Amante, Fiona H.; Ammerdorffer, Anne; de Labastida, Fabian; Pereira, Tamara; Ramm, Grant A.; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2011-01-01

    Infection of C57BL/6 mice with Plasmodium berghei ANKA induces a fatal neurological disease commonly referred to as experimental cerebral malaria. The onset of neurological symptoms and mortality depend on pathogenic CD8+ T cells and elevated parasite burdens in the brain. Here we provide clear evidence of liver damage in this model, which precedes and is independent of the onset of neurological symptoms. Large numbers of parasite-specific CD8+ T cells accumulated in the liver following P. berghei ANKA infection. However, systemic depletion of these cells at various times during infection, while preventing neurological symptoms, failed to protect against liver damage or ameliorate it once established. In contrast, rapid, drug-mediated removal of parasites prevented hepatic injury if administered early and quickly resolved liver damage if administered after the onset of clinical symptoms. These data indicate that CD8+ T cell-mediated immune pathology occurs in the brain but not the liver, while parasite-dependent pathology occurs in both organs during P. berghei ANKA infection. Therefore, we show that P. berghei ANKA infection of C57BL/6 mice is a multiorgan disease driven by the accumulation of parasites, which is also characterized by organ-specific CD8+ T cell-mediated pathology. PMID:21343349

  4. Subnormal expression of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in progeny disposed toward a high incidence of tumors after in utero exposure to benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Urso, P.; Gengozian, N.

    1984-01-01

    Pregnant mice were exposed to 150 ..mu..g benzol(a)pyrene (BaP) per gram of body weight during fetogenesis (d 11-17 of gestation) and the progeny were assayed for humoral and cell mediated immune responses at different time intervals after birth. Immature offspring (1-4 wk) were severely suppressed in their ability to produce antibody (plaque-) forming cells (PFC) against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and in the ability of their lymphocytes to undergo a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). Lymphocytes from these progeny showed a moderate to weak capacity to inhabit production of colony-forming units (CFU) in host spleens following transfer with semiallogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells into lethally x-irradiated recipients syngeneic to the BM (in vivo graft-versus-host response, GVHR). A severe and sustained suppression in the MLR and the PFC response occurred from the fifth month up to 18 mo. The in vivo GVHR, also subnormal later in life, was not as severely suppressed as the other two parameters. Tumor incidence in the BP-exposed progeny was 8- to 10-fold higher than in those encountering corn oil alone from 18 to 24 mo of age. These data show that in utero exposure to the chemical carcinogen BaP alters development of components needed for establishing competent hemoral and cell-mediated functions of the immune apparatus and leads to severe and sustained postnatal suppression of the defense mechanism. The immunodeficiency exhibited, particularly in the T-cell compartment (MLR, GVHR), before and during the increase in tumor frequency, may provide a favorable environment for the growth of nascent neoplasms induced by BaP. 30 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Adoption KidsHealth > For Teens > Adoption Print A A A ... of Adoption en español La adopción What Is Adoption? Caz knew she'd been adopted as a ...

  6. Specific and nonspecific T-cell-mediated suppression of antihost immune reactivity in graft-versus-host reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bril, H.; Molendijk-Lok, B.D.; Benner, R.

    1983-09-01

    Intravenous immunization of mice with irradiated (2000 rads) allogeneic lymphoid cells induces the generation of suppressor T cells. Such suppressor T cells are capable of suppressing the antihost immune reactivity during acute and delayed graft-versus-host reactions. These suppressor T cells are strictly antigen-specific as far as their activation is concerned, but also suppress the reaction against unrelated antigens presented by the irradiated host.

  7. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity to the Plasmodium falciparum ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen in an adult population exposed to highly endemic malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, H P; Felger, I; Genton, B; Alexander, N; al-Yaman, F; Anders, R F; Alpers, M

    1995-01-01

    A parasitological and immunological survey was carried out in an area in Papua New Guinea highly endemic for malaria. Two hundred fourteen adult individuals were selected for studies to assess their immune responses against the malaria vaccine candidate ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA). Total immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies directed against RESA as well as specific IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 antibodies were determined. Humoral responses directed against RESA were frequent in all IgG subclasses. Only IgG3 responses were found to be age dependent. Total anti-RESA IgG antibodies were not correlated with protection against malaria as measured by parasite prevalence, parasite density, or health center attendance. In contrast, cytophilic antibodies (IgG1 and IgG3) were associated with reduced Plasmodium falciparum prevalence and reduced health center attendance. T-cell proliferation in general was low and very infrequent. No correlation between humoral and cellular immune responses could be found. Parasite density, parasite prevalence, and health center visits tended to be reduced in individuals with good humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. PMID:7822028

  8. Novel Cell-Penetrating Peptide-Based Vaccine Induces Robust CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Antitumor Immunity.

    PubMed

    Derouazi, Madiha; Di Berardino-Besson, Wilma; Belnoue, Elodie; Hoepner, Sabine; Walther, Romy; Benkhoucha, Mahdia; Teta, Patrick; Dufour, Yannick; Yacoub Maroun, Céline; Salazar, Andres M; Martinvalet, Denis; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves; Walker, Paul R

    2015-08-01

    Vaccines that can coordinately induce multi-epitope T cell-mediated immunity, T helper functions, and immunologic memory may offer effective tools for cancer immunotherapy. Here, we report the development of a new class of recombinant protein cancer vaccines that deliver different CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell epitopes presented by MHC class I and class II alleles, respectively. In these vaccines, the recombinant protein is fused with Z12, a novel cell-penetrating peptide that promotes efficient protein loading into the antigen-processing machinery of dendritic cells. Z12 elicited an integrated and multi-epitopic immune response with persistent effector T cells. Therapy with Z12-formulated vaccines prolonged survival in three robust tumor models, with the longest survival in an orthotopic model of aggressive brain cancer. Analysis of the tumor sites showed antigen-specific T-cell accumulation with favorable modulation of the balance of the immune infiltrate. Taken together, the results offered a preclinical proof of concept for the use of Z12-formulated vaccines as a versatile platform for the development of effective cancer vaccines.

  9. [Partial deficiency of cell-mediated immunity in a child with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Intercurrent meningeal and pulmonary cryptococcosis].

    PubMed

    Gerbeaux, J; Baculard, A; Tournier, G; Moulias, R; Goust, J M; Drouhet, E d; Saint-Martin, J

    1975-01-01

    The authors report a new case of partial immune deficiency of cellular immunity, associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis in a 12 Years-old boy. The disease began very early during the first few weeks of life, with thrush in the mouth. This candidiasis then evolved intermittently and was still present. Numerous cutaneous, pulmonary and ear infections occured throughout this child's life. This morbid association led to a search for an immune deficiency. Humoral immunity was normal. Abnormalities of cellular immunity were as follows: apart from candidine skin anergy, there was a deficiency in the factor which inhibits leukocyte migration, secretion of a factor favouring this migration (MEF). It was also noted the presence of the patient's serum, of a factor inhibiting lymphocyte transformation in the presence of candidine. In spite of treatment with intravenous route, amphotericin B, followed by transfer factor, the oral candidiasis persisted together with the skin anergy to candidine. On the other hand, the serum inhibitory factor disappeared. Pulmonary cryptococcosis probably favoured by corticosteroid treatment, developed on this background of immune deficiency; as usual it spread to the meninges. Treatment associating intraveinous amphotericin B and 5 fluorocytosine oral and later intravenous, total duration 6 months, grave a recovery maintained on a 8 months follow up.

  10. Humoral and cell-mediated immune mechanisms in the production of pathology in avirulent Semliki Forest virus encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, M L

    1980-01-01

    Seven days after peripheral inoculation with an avirulent strain of Semliki Forest virus, the brains of CBA and nude mice exhibited a mononuclear inflammation and spongiform degeneration. Mice that had received cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg) 24 h after infection showed no pathology until day 11. However, immunofluorescence studies of the brains of immunosuppressed, infected mice demonstrated viral antigen within the soma and processes of neurons at earlier periods. The brain lesions could be reconstituted on day 7 in immunosuppressed, infected recipients with 6-day immune spleen cells. Immune spleen cells depleted of T lymphocytes, the non-immunoglobulin-bearing population deficient in B lymphocytes, or immune sera plus nonimmune bone marrow cells could also reconstitute the lesions. However, inflammation and spongiform changes were reduced when donor immune cells were depleted of either T or B lymphocytes. When both T and B lymphocytes were removed from the donor immune population, recipient brains did not show pathology. The results demonstrate that either antibody or immune T cells can trigger pathology, but there is also participation of nonimmune bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, probably of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6254882

  11. T Follicular Helper Cell Plasticity Shapes Pathogenic T Helper 2 Cell-Mediated Immunity to Inhaled House Dust Mite.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Tato, André; Randall, Troy D; Lund, Frances E; Spolski, Rosanne; Leonard, Warren J; León, Beatriz

    2016-02-16

    Exposure to environmental antigens, such as house dust mite (HDM), often leads to T helper 2 (Th2) cell-driven allergic responses. However, the mechanisms underlying the development of these responses are incompletely understood. We found that the initial exposure to HDM did not lead to Th2 cell development but instead promoted the formation of interleukin-4 (IL-4)-committed T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. Following challenge exposure to HDM, Tfh cells differentiated into IL-4 and IL-13 double-producing Th2 cells that accumulated in the lung and recruited eosinophils. B cells were required to expand IL-4-committed Tfh cells during the sensitization phase, but did not directly contribute to disease. Impairment of Tfh cell responses during the sensitization phase or Tfh cell depletion prevented Th2 cell-mediated responses following challenge. Thus, our data demonstrate that Tfh cells are precursors of HDM-specific Th2 cells and reveal an unexpected role of B cells and Tfh cells in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma.

  12. [Adoption].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue addresses adoption and the young child's life. Contributors suggest ways in which practitioners in many professions and settings can better understand and support adoptive families. The first article, "Adoption, 1990" by Barbara F. Nordhaus and Albert J. Solnit, reviews the history of adoption and notes obstacles to…

  13. Innate immune recognition of breast tumor cells mediates CCL22 secretion favoring Treg recruitment within tumor environment

    PubMed Central

    Ménétrier-Caux, Christine; Faget, Julien; Biota, Cathy; Gobert, Michael; Blay, Jean-Yves; Caux, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been reported of poor prognosis for overall survival in primary breast tumors (BT). As CCL22 plays a major role in Treg recruitment within primary BT we deciphered the mechanisms involved in the CCL22 production by breast epithelial tumor cells and propose herein the major role of their innate immune recognition in this production. PMID:22934274

  14. Innate immune recognition of breast tumor cells mediates CCL22 secretion favoring Treg recruitment within tumor environment.

    PubMed

    Ménétrier-Caux, Christine; Faget, Julien; Biota, Cathy; Gobert, Michael; Blay, Jean-Yves; Caux, Christophe

    2012-08-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been reported of poor prognosis for overall survival in primary breast tumors (BT). As CCL22 plays a major role in Treg recruitment within primary BT we deciphered the mechanisms involved in the CCL22 production by breast epithelial tumor cells and propose herein the major role of their innate immune recognition in this production.

  15. The Escape of Cancer from T Cell-Mediated Immune Surveillance: HLA Class I Loss and Tumor Tissue Architecture.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Federico; Perea, Francisco; Bernal, Mónica; Sánchez-Palencia, Abel; Aptsiauri, Natalia; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco

    2017-02-27

    Tumor immune escape is associated with the loss of tumor HLA class I (HLA-I) expression commonly found in malignant cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that the efficacy of immunotherapy depends on the expression levels of HLA class I molecules on tumors cells. It also depends on the molecular mechanism underlying the loss of HLA expression, which could be reversible/"soft" or irreversible/"hard" due to genetic alterations in HLA, β2-microglobulin or IFN genes. Immune selection of HLA-I negative tumor cells harboring structural/irreversible alterations has been demonstrated after immunotherapy in cancer patients and in experimental cancer models. Here, we summarize recent findings indicating that tumor HLA-I loss also correlates with a reduced intra-tumor T cell infiltration and with a specific reorganization of tumor tissue. T cell immune selection of HLA-I negative tumors results in a clear separation between the stroma and the tumor parenchyma with leucocytes, macrophages and other mononuclear cells restrained outside the tumor mass. Better understanding of the structural and functional changes taking place in the tumor microenvironment may help to overcome cancer immune escape and improve the efficacy of different immunotherapeutic strategies. We also underline the urgent need for designing strategies to enhance tumor HLA class I expression that could improve tumor rejection by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL).

  16. The Escape of Cancer from T Cell-Mediated Immune Surveillance: HLA Class I Loss and Tumor Tissue Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Federico; Perea, Francisco; Bernal, Mónica; Sánchez-Palencia, Abel; Aptsiauri, Natalia; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Tumor immune escape is associated with the loss of tumor HLA class I (HLA-I) expression commonly found in malignant cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that the efficacy of immunotherapy depends on the expression levels of HLA class I molecules on tumors cells. It also depends on the molecular mechanism underlying the loss of HLA expression, which could be reversible/“soft” or irreversible/“hard” due to genetic alterations in HLA, β2-microglobulin or IFN genes. Immune selection of HLA-I negative tumor cells harboring structural/irreversible alterations has been demonstrated after immunotherapy in cancer patients and in experimental cancer models. Here, we summarize recent findings indicating that tumor HLA-I loss also correlates with a reduced intra-tumor T cell infiltration and with a specific reorganization of tumor tissue. T cell immune selection of HLA-I negative tumors results in a clear separation between the stroma and the tumor parenchyma with leucocytes, macrophages and other mononuclear cells restrained outside the tumor mass. Better understanding of the structural and functional changes taking place in the tumor microenvironment may help to overcome cancer immune escape and improve the efficacy of different immunotherapeutic strategies. We also underline the urgent need for designing strategies to enhance tumor HLA class I expression that could improve tumor rejection by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). PMID:28264447

  17. Cell-mediated immunity induced by chimeric tetravalent dengue vaccine in naive or flavivirus-primed subjects.

    PubMed

    Guy, Bruno; Nougarede, Nolwenn; Begue, Sarah; Sanchez, Violette; Souag, Nadia; Carre, Murielle; Chambonneau, Laurent; Morrisson, Dennis N; Shaw, David; Qiao, Ming; Dumas, Rafaele; Lang, Jean; Forrat, Remi

    2008-10-23

    Three independent, phase 1 clinical trials were conducted in Australia and in USA to assess the safety and immunogenicity of sanofi pasteur dengue vaccine candidates. In this context, Dengue 1-4 and Yellow Fever 17D-204 (YF 17D)-specific CD4 and CD8 cellular responses induced by tetravalent chimeric dengue vaccines (CYD) were analyzed in flavivirus-naive or flavivirus-immune patients. Tetravalent CYD vaccine did not trigger detectable changes in serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, whatever the vaccinees immune status, while inducing significant YF 17D NS3-specific CD8 responses and dengue serotype-specific T helper responses. These responses were dominated by serotype 4 in naive individuals, but a booster vaccination (dose #2) performed 4 months following dose #1 broadened serotype-specific responses. A similar, broader response was seen after primary tetravalent immunization in subjects with pre-existing dengue 1 or 2 immunity caused by prior monovalent live-attenuated dengue vaccination. In all three trials, the profile of induced response was similar, whatever the subjects' immune status, i.e. an absence of Th2 response, and an IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha ratio dominated by IFN-gamma, for both CD4 and CD8 responses. Our results also showed an absence of cross-reactivity between YF 17D or Dengue NS3-specific CD8 responses, and allowed the identification of 3 new CD8 epitopes in the YF 17D NS3 antigen. These data are consistent with the previously demonstrated excellent safety of these dengue vaccines in flavivirus-naive and primed individuals.

  18. Synthetic long peptide-based vaccine formulations for induction of cell mediated immunity: A comparative study of cationic liposomes and PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Varypataki, Eleni Maria; Silva, Ana Luisa; Barnier-Quer, Christophe; Collin, Nicolas; Ossendorp, Ferry; Jiskoot, Wim

    2016-03-28

    Nanoparticulate formulations for synthetic long peptide (SLP)-cancer vaccines as alternative to clinically used Montanide ISA 51- and squalene-based emulsions are investigated in this study. SLPs were loaded into TLR ligand-adjuvanted cationic liposomes and PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) to potentially induce cell-mediated immune responses. The liposomal and PLGA NP formulations were successfully loaded with up to four different compounds and were able to enhance antigen uptake by dendritic cells (DCs) and subsequent activation of T cells in vitro. Subcutaneous vaccination of mice with the different formulations showed that the SLP-loaded cationic liposomes were the most efficient for the induction of functional antigen-T cells in vivo, followed by PLGA NPs which were as potent as or even more than the Montanide and squalene emulsions. Moreover, after transfer of antigen-specific target cells in immunized mice, liposomes induced the highest in vivo killing capacity. These findings, considering also the inadequate safety profile of the currently clinically used adjuvant Montanide ISA-51, make these two particulate, biodegradable delivery systems promising candidates as delivery platforms for SLP-based immunotherapy of cancer.

  19. Humoral, Mucosal, and Cell-Mediated Immunity Against Vaccine and Nonvaccine Genotypes After Administration of Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine to HIV-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Adriana; Song, Lin-Ye; Saah, Alfred; Brown, Martha; Moscicki, Anna B.; Meyer, William A.; Bryan, Janine; Levin, Myron J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To characterize the immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (QHPV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected children, we studied their immune responses to 3 or 4 doses. Methods. HIV-infected children aged 7–12 years with a CD4 cell percentage of ≥15% of lymphocytes, received 3 doses of QHPV with or without a fourth dose after 72 weeks. Type-specific and cross-reactive antibodies and cell-mediated immunity were measured. Results. Type-specific antibodies to HPV6, 11, and 16 were detected in 100% and ≥94% of children at 4 and 72 weeks, respectively, after the third QHPV dose. Corresponding numbers for HPV18 were 97% and 76%, respectively. A fourth QHPV dose increased seropositivity to ≥96% for all vaccine genotypes. Four weeks after the third QHPV dose, 67% of vaccinees seroconverted to HPV31, an HPV16-related genotype not in the vaccine; 69% and 39% of vaccinees developed mucosal HPV16 and 18 immunoglobulin G antibodies, respectively; and 60% and 52% of vaccinees developed cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) for HPV16 and 31, respectively. Conclusions. Three QHPV doses generated robust and persistent antibodies to HPV6, 11, and 16 but comparatively weaker responses to HPV18. A fourth dose increased antibodies against all vaccine genotypes in an anamnestic fashion. CTLs and mucosal antibodies against vaccine genotypes, as well as cross-reactive antibodies and CTL against nonvaccine genotypes, were detected. PMID:22859825

  20. Comparative measurement of cell-mediated immune responses of swine to the M and N proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyun-Jeong; Song, Young-Jo; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Ha, Gun-Woo; Oh, Jin-Sik; Oh, Youn-Kyoung; Choi, In-Soo

    2010-04-01

    the induction of cell-mediated immunity.

  1. HLA-A2 Supertype-Restricted Cell-Mediated Immunity by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Derived from Malian Children with Severe or Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria and Healthy Controls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-25

    into a study evaluating risk and protective factors for severe malaria. The study site of Bandiagara (population, 13,600) is located in Mali, West...the healthy controls. Responses to individual peptide pools were limited. These studies confirm the presence of adaptive cell-mediated immunity to...epitopes. However, whether these immune responses to TRAP, CSP, and Exp-1 malarial proteins play a substantial role in protection remains a matter of

  2. PB1 as a potential target for increasing the breadth of T-cell mediated immunity to Influenza A

    PubMed Central

    Uddbäck, Ida E. M.; Steffensen, Maria A.; Pedersen, Sara R.; Nazerai, Loulieta; Thomsen, Allan R.; Christensen, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we showed that combined intranasal and subcutaneous immunization with a non-replicating adenoviral vector expressing NP of influenza A, strain PR8, induced long-standing protection against a range of influenza A viruses. However, H-2b mice challenged with an influenza A strain mutated in the dominant NP366 epitope were not efficiently protected. To address this problem, we envision the use of a cocktail of adenovectors targeting different internal proteins of influenza A virus. Consequently, we investigated the possibility of using PB1 as a target for an adenovector-based vaccine against influenza A. Our results showed that PB1 is not as immunogenic as the NP protein. However, by tethering PB1 to the murine invariant chain we were able to circumvent this problem and raise quite high numbers of PB1-specific CD8+ T cells in the circulation. Nevertheless, mice immunized against PB1 were not as efficiently protected against influenza A challenge as similarly NP-vaccinated animals. The reason for this is not a difference in the quality of the primed cells, nor in functional avidity. However, under similar conditions of immunization fewer PB1-specific cells were recruited to the airways, and surface expression of the dominant PB1 peptide, PB1703, was less stable than in the case of NP366. PMID:27713532

  3. The effect of Beauveria bassiana infection on cell mediated and humoral immune response in house fly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2015-10-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi that manifest infections by overcoming insect's immune response could be a successful control agent for the house fly, Musca domestica L. which is a major domestic, medical, and veterinary pest. In this study, the immune response of house fly to Beauveria bassiana infection was investigated to reveal fundamental aspects of house fly hemocyte biology, such as hemocyte numbers and size, which is poorly understood. The total hemocyte counts (THCs) in B. bassiana-infected house fly showed an initial increase (from 6 to 9 h), followed by subsequent decrease (9 to 12 h) with increase in time of infection. The THCs was slightly greater in infected flies than the non-infected ones. Insight into relative hemocyte counts depicted a significant increase in prohemocyte (PR) and decrease in granulocyte (GR) in infected house flies compared to non-infected ones. The relative cell area of hemocyte cells showed a noticeable increase in PR and intermediate cells (ICs), while a considerable reduction was observed for plasmatocyte (PL) and GR. The considerable variation in relative cell number and cell area in the B. bassiana-infected house flies indicated stress development during infection. The present study highlights changes occurring during B. bassiana invasion to house fly leading to establishment of infection along with facilitation in understanding of basic hemocyte biology. The results of the study is expected to help in better understanding of house fly immune response during fungal infection, so as to assist production of more efficient mycoinsecticides for house fly control using B. bassiana.

  4. Evidence of cell-mediated immune contrasuppression in lepromatous leprosy: modulation of a putative T contrasuppressor cell-subset.

    PubMed Central

    González-Amaro, R; Salazar-González, J F; Baranda, L; Abud-Mendoza, C; Moncada, B; García, R; Alcocer-Varela, J

    1988-01-01

    Some lepromatous leprosy (LL) patients are characterized by the presence of activated suppressor T cells that specifically inhibit the immune response to Mycobacterium leprae antigens. Immune contrasuppressor (CS) cell activity antagonize suppressor function. Whereas the former function has been extensively studied in leprosy, the latter has not been explored. We studied the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) of 20 patients with leprosy (10 lepromatous and 10 tuberculoid) and six healthy contacts. We found CS-like activity in the PBMNC from some LL patients when assayed in vitro using lepromin as antigen. This CS-like function was found in CD8+, vicia villosa adherent (VV+) T cells. CS-like activity was not detected in PBMNC from either tuberculoid patients or healthy contacts. Pre-treatment of CD8+, VV+ cells with either recombinant IL-2 (5 u/ml) or recombinant interferon-gamma (1,000 u/ml) did not modify significantly their putative CS function. However, in 50% of lepromatous patients the pre-incubation of CD8+, VV+ cells with both lymphokines together increased significantly the CS-like activity. These data suggest that the in vitro immune response to M. leprae in some LL patients can be augmented by either modifying numerically the contrasuppressor T cells or activating them with lymphokines. PMID:3133142

  5. PB1 as a potential target for increasing the breadth of T-cell mediated immunity to Influenza A.

    PubMed

    Uddbäck, Ida E M; Steffensen, Maria A; Pedersen, Sara R; Nazerai, Loulieta; Thomsen, Allan R; Christensen, Jan P

    2016-10-07

    Recently, we showed that combined intranasal and subcutaneous immunization with a non-replicating adenoviral vector expressing NP of influenza A, strain PR8, induced long-standing protection against a range of influenza A viruses. However, H-2(b) mice challenged with an influenza A strain mutated in the dominant NP366 epitope were not efficiently protected. To address this problem, we envision the use of a cocktail of adenovectors targeting different internal proteins of influenza A virus. Consequently, we investigated the possibility of using PB1 as a target for an adenovector-based vaccine against influenza A. Our results showed that PB1 is not as immunogenic as the NP protein. However, by tethering PB1 to the murine invariant chain we were able to circumvent this problem and raise quite high numbers of PB1-specific CD8(+) T cells in the circulation. Nevertheless, mice immunized against PB1 were not as efficiently protected against influenza A challenge as similarly NP-vaccinated animals. The reason for this is not a difference in the quality of the primed cells, nor in functional avidity. However, under similar conditions of immunization fewer PB1-specific cells were recruited to the airways, and surface expression of the dominant PB1 peptide, PB1703, was less stable than in the case of NP366.

  6. Genetic vaccines to potentiate the effective CD103+ dendritic cell-mediated cross-priming of antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Guo; Liu, Zuqiang; Tian, Shenghe; Zhang, Jiying; Carey, Cara D; Murphy, Kenneth M; Storkus, Walter J; Falo, Louis D; You, Zhaoyang

    2015-06-15

    The development of effective cancer vaccines remains an urgent, but as yet unmet, clinical need. This deficiency is in part due to an incomplete understanding of how to best invoke dendritic cells (DC) that are crucial for the induction of tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells capable of mediating durable protective immunity. In this regard, elevated expression of the transcription factor X box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) in DC appears to play a decisive role in promoting the ability of DC to cross-present Ags to CD8(+) T cells in the therapeutic setting. Delivery of DNA vaccines encoding XBP1 and tumor Ag to skin DC resulted in increased IFN-α production by plasmacytoid DC (pDC) from skin/tumor draining lymph nodes and the cross-priming of Ag-specific CD8(+) T cell responses associated with therapeutic benefit. Antitumor protection was dependent on cross-presenting Batf3(+) DC, pDC, and CD8(+) T cells. CD103(+) DC from the skin/tumor draining lymph nodes of the immunized mice appeared responsible for activation of Ag-specific naive CD8(+) T cells, but were dependent on pDC for optimal effectiveness. Similarly, human XBP1 improved the capacity of human blood- and skin-derived DC to activate human T cells. These data support an important intrinsic role for XBP1 in DC for effective cross-priming and orchestration of Batf3(+) DC-pDC interactions, thereby enabling effective vaccine induction of protective antitumor immunity.

  7. Inactivation of PI(3)K p110δ breaks regulatory T-cell-mediated immune tolerance to cancer.

    PubMed

    Ali, Khaled; Soond, Dalya R; Piñeiro, Roberto; Hagemann, Thorsten; Pearce, Wayne; Lim, Ee Lyn; Bouabe, Hicham; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Hancox, Timothy; Maecker, Heather; Friedman, Lori; Turner, Martin; Okkenhaug, Klaus; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart

    2014-06-19

    Inhibitors against the p110δ isoform of phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) have shown remarkable therapeutic efficacy in some human leukaemias. As p110δ is primarily expressed in leukocytes, drugs against p110δ have not been considered for the treatment of solid tumours. Here we report that p110δ inactivation in mice protects against a broad range of cancers, including non-haematological solid tumours. We demonstrate that p110δ inactivation in regulatory T cells unleashes CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells and induces tumour regression. Thus, p110δ inhibitors can break tumour-induced immune tolerance and should be considered for wider use in oncology.

  8. EAU in the guinea pig: inhibition of cell-mediated immunity and Ia antigen expression by cyclosporin A.

    PubMed Central

    Liversidge, J; Thomson, A W; Sewell, H F; Forrester, J V

    1987-01-01

    Guinea pigs were immunized subcutaneously with highly purified bovine retinal S antigen (SAg) in complete Freund's adjuvant and treated from day 0 with cyclosporin A (CsA; 25 mg/kg by mouth) or drug vehicle. Skin tests carried out at 7 and 13 days showed maximal reactions to SAg at 24 h; at 13 days, however, strong, early, 'Arthus'-like responses to SAg were also recorded. CsA profoundly reduced DTH skin reactions to SAg and PPD, and prevented vitreal inflammation assessed at 17 days and retinal damage. Lymphocytes from the draining lymph nodes but not spleens of immunized guinea pigs showed a proliferative response to SAg which was suppressed by CsA administration. Responses to PHA, Con A or LPS were not so affected. Immunohistochemical staining (alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase; APAAP) of the eye with newly available monoclonal antibodies to guinea pig T lymphocytes revealed a predominantly T cytotoxic/suppressor cell (Tc/s) infiltrate of the choroid and retina. CsA administration did not affect choroidal infiltration of Tc/s cells but markedly inhibited Ia antigen expression. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3478162

  9. Contribution of IL-12A and IL-12B polymorphisms to Chlamydia trachomatis-specific cell-mediated immune responses.

    PubMed

    Öhman, H; Natividad, A; Bailey, R; Ragoussis, J; Johnson, L-L; Tiitinen, A; Halttunen, M; Paavonen, J; Surcel, H-M

    2015-03-01

    Inherited variance in the IL-12B gene is associated with susceptibility to Chlamydia trachomatis-induced tubal factor infertility and disease severity. In this study, our aim was to discover how polymorphisms in IL-12-coding genes influence C. trachomatis-induced immune responses and IL-12 production. The study population consisted of 240 women. IL-12A and IL-12B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined from isolated DNA using the Sequenom system with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. We studied lymphocyte proliferative (LP) responses to C. trachomatis strains E and F elementary bodies (EBs) and recombinant chlamydial heat-shock protein 60 (CHSP60) antigen. IL-12p40 and IL-12p70 levels were measured using the BD Flex Set method. We found a statistically significant association between the C. trachomatis EB antigen-specific LP response and the rs2853694 SNP (P = 0.02). Our study demonstrates that the IL-12 cytokine family is involved in C. trachomatis-specific immune responses. Moreover, C. trachomatis-induced IL-12 production and the IL-12B rs2853694 SNP partially explain individual variation in the C. trachomatis LP response.

  10. Vaccination with TAT-antigen fusion protein induces protective, CD8(+) T cell-mediated immunity against Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Katharina; Brosch, Sven; Butsch, Florian; Tada, Yayoi; Shibagaki, Naotaka; Udey, Mark C; von Stebut, Esther

    2010-11-01

    In murine leishmaniasis, healing is mediated by IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Thus, an efficacious vaccine should induce Th1 and Tc1 cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with exogenous proteins primarily induce strong CD4-dependent immunity; induction of CD8 responses has proven to be difficult. We evaluated the immunogenicity of fusion proteins comprising the protein transduction domain of HIV-1 TAT and the Leishmania antigen LACK (Leishmania homolog of receptors for activated C kinase), as TAT-fusion proteins facilitate major histocompatibility complex class I-dependent antigen presentation. In vitro, TAT-LACK-pulsed DCs induced stronger proliferation of Leishmania-specific CD8(+) T cells compared with DCs incubated with LACK alone. Vaccination with TAT-LACK-pulsed DCs or fusion proteins plus adjuvant in vivo significantly improved disease outcome in Leishmania major-infected mice and was superior to vaccination with DCs treated with LACK alone. Vaccination with DC+TAT-LACK resulted in stronger proliferation of CD8(+) T cells when compared with immunization with DC+LACK. Upon depletion of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells, TAT-LACK-mediated protection was lost. TAT-LACK-pulsed IL-12p40-deficient DCs did not promote protection in vivo. In summary, these data show that TAT-fusion proteins are superior in activating Leishmania-specific Tc1 cells when compared with antigen alone and suggest that IL-12-dependent preferential induction of antigen-specific CD8(+) cells promotes significant protection against this important human pathogen.

  11. Development of Protective Inflammation and Cell-Mediated Immunity against Cryptococcus neoformans after Exposure to Hyphal Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Bing; Wozniak, Karen L.; Masso-Silva, Jorge; Upadhyay, Srijana; Hole, Camaron; Rivera, Amariliz; Wormley, Floyd L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Morphological switch is tightly coupled with the pathogenesis of many dimorphic fungal pathogens. Cryptococcus neoformans, the major causative agent of cryptococcal meningitis, mostly presents as the yeast form but is capable of switching to the hyphal form. The filamentous form has long been associated with attenuated virulence, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. We previously identified the master regulator Znf2 that controls the yeast-to-hypha transition in Cryptococcus. Activation of Znf2 promotes hyphal formation and abolishes fungal virulence in vivo. Here we demonstrated that the cryptococcal strain overexpressing ZNF2 elicited strong and yet temporally confined proinflammatory responses in the early stage of infection. In contrast, exacerbated inflammation in mice infected with the wild-type (WT) strain showed that they were unable to control the infection. Animals inoculated with this filamentous Cryptococcus strain had fewer pulmonary eosinophils and CD11c+ CD11b+ cells than animals inoculated with WT yeast. Moreover, mice infected with this strain developed protective Th1- or Th17-type T cell responses. These findings suggest that the virulence attenuation of the filamentous form is likely due to its elicitation of protective host responses. The antivirulence effect of Znf2 was independent of two previously identified factors downstream of Znf2. Interestingly, mucosal immunizations with high doses of ZNF2-overexpressing cells, either in the live or heat-killed form, offered 100% protection to the host from a subsequent challenge with the otherwise lethal clinical strain H99. Our results demonstrate that heat-resistant cellular components presented in cryptococcal cells with activated ZNF2 elicit protective host immune responses. These findings could facilitate future research on novel immunological therapies. PMID:26443458

  12. Virus-stimulated neutrophils in the tumor microenvironment enhance T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chin Yang; Tai, Jiayu A.; Li, Sumin; Nishikawa, Tomoyuki; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) fosters tumors by attenuating anti-tumor immunity, reinforcing tumor cell survival and increasing angiogenesis. Among the constituents of the TME, here, we focused on tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs). First, we found that the combination of poly I:C and inactivated Sendai virus particles (hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope; HVJ-E) synergistically suppressed tumor growth in the B16-F10 melanoma mouse model. In this model, poly I:C contributed to the recruitment of CD11b+Ly6G+ neutrophils to the TME, and co-injection of poly I:C and HVJ-E increased CD11b+Ly6G+FAS+ TAN in the TME. Depletion of neutrophils abolished the synergistic anti-tumor effect of HVJ-E and poly I:C in B16-F10 tumors. We revealed that C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CXCL2) is produced in the TME by poly I:C, but HVJ-E enhanced neutrophil infiltration of the TME does not occur. An anti-CXCL2 antibody inhibited the tumor suppression by HVJ-E+poly I:C. HVJ-E in combination with recombinant CXCL2 protein or CXCL2 pDNA suppressed mouse melanoma by increasing cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity against B16-F10 melanoma, which was abolished by an anti-Ly6G antibody. HVJ-E directly and indirectly increased FAS and ICAM-1 expression in cultured bone marrow-derived naïve neutrophils. Thus, HVJ-E activates anti-tumor immunity via anti-tumorigenic neutrophils in the TME. An HVJ-E vector containing the CXCL2 gene may be applicable as a novel cancer gene therapy strategy. PMID:27259252

  13. A novel dengue virus serotype-2 nanovaccine induces robust humoral and cell-mediated immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hunsawong, Taweewun; Sunintaboon, Panya; Warit, Saradee; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Jarman, Richard G; Yoon, In-Kyu; Ubol, Sukathida; Fernandez, Stefan

    2015-03-30

    Dengue virus (DENV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, can be transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. The incidence of dengue has increased worldwide over the past few decades. Inadequate vector control, changing global ecology, increased urbanization, and faster global travel are factors enhancing the rapid spread of the virus and its vector. In the absence of specific antiviral treatments, the search for a safe and effective vaccine grows more imperative. Many strategies have been utilized to develop dengue vaccines. Here, we demonstrate the immunogenic properties of a novel dengue nanovaccine (DNV), composed of ultraviolet radiation (UV)-inactivated DENV-2, which has been loaded into the nanoparticles containing chitosan/Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin cell wall components (CS/BCG-NPs). We investigated the immunogenicity of DNV in a Swiss albino mouse model. Inoculation with various concentrations of vaccine (0.3, 1, 3 and 10μg/dose) with three doses, 15-day apart, induced strong anti-dengue IgM and IgG antibodies in the mouse serum along with neutralizing antibody against DENV-2 reference strain (16681), a clinical-isolate strain (00745/10) and the mouse-adapted New Guinea-C (NGC) strain. Cytokine and chemokine secretion in the serum of DNV-immunized mice showed elevated levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-17, eotaxin and RANTES, all of which have varying immune functions. Furthermore, we observed a DNV dose-dependent increase in the frequencies of IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells after in vitro stimulation of nucleated cells. Based on these findings, DNV has the potential to become a candidate dengue vaccine.

  14. Adoptive transfer of Tc1 or Tc17 cells elicits antitumor immunity against established melanoma through distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yu; Cho, Hyun-Ii; Wang, Dapeng; Kaosaard, Kane; Anasetti, Claudio; Celis, Esteban; Yu, Xue-Zhong

    2013-02-15

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of ex vivo-activated autologous tumor-reactive T cells is currently one of the most promising approaches for cancer immunotherapy. Recent studies provided some evidence that IL-17-producing CD8(+) (Tc17) cells may exhibit potent antitumor activity, but the specific mechanisms have not been completely defined. In this study, we used a murine melanoma lung-metastasis model and tested the therapeutic effects of gp100-specific polarized type I CD8(+) cytotoxic T (Tc1) or Tc17 cells combined with autologous bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation. Bone marrow transplantation combined with ACT of antitumor (gp100-specific) Tc17 cells significantly suppressed the growth of established melanoma, whereas Tc1 cells induced long-term tumor regression. After ACT, Tc1 cells maintained their phenotype to produce IFN-γ, but not IL-17. However, although Tc17 cells largely preserved their ability to produce IL-17, a subset secreted IFN-γ or both IFN-γ and IL-17, indicating the plasticity of Tc17 cells in vivo. Furthermore, after ACT, the Tc17 cells had a long-lived effector T cell phenotype (CD127(hi)/KLRG-1(low)) as compared with Tc1 cells. Mechanistically, Tc1 cells mediated antitumor immunity primarily through the direct effect of IFN-γ on tumor cells. In contrast, despite the fact that some Tc17 cells also secreted IFN-γ, Tc17-mediated antitumor immunity was independent of the direct effects of IFN-γ on the tumor. Nevertheless, IFN-γ played a critical role by creating a microenvironment that promoted Tc17-mediated antitumor activity. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that both Tc1 and Tc17 cells can mediate effective antitumor immunity through distinct effector mechanisms, but Tc1 cells are superior to Tc17 cells in mediating tumor regression.

  15. NK cells modulate the lung dendritic cell-mediated Th1/Th17 immunity during intracellular bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Peng, Ying; Gao, Xiaoling; Joyee, Antony G; Wang, Shuhe; Bai, Hong; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Jie; Yang, Xi

    2015-10-01

    The impact of the interaction between NK cells and lung dendritic cells (LDCs) on the outcome of respiratory infections is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of NK cells on the function of LDCs during intracellular bacterial lung infection of Chlamydia muridarum in mice. We found that the naive mice receiving LDCs from C. muridarum-infected NK-cell-depleted mice (NK-LDCs) showed more serious body weight loss, bacterial burden, and pathology upon chlamydial challenge when compared with the recipients of LDCs from infected sham-treated mice (NK+LDCs). Cytokine analysis of the local tissues of the former compared with the latter exhibited lower levels of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17), but higher levels of Th2 (IL-4), cytokines. Consistently, NK-LDCs were less efficient in directing C. muridarum-specific Th1 and Th17 responses than NK+LDCs when cocultured with CD4(+) T cells. In NK cell/LDC coculture experiments, the blockade of NKG2D receptor reduced the production of IL-12p70, IL-6, and IL-23 by LDCs. The neutralization of IFN-γ in the culture decreased the production of IL-12p70 by LDCs, whereas the blockade of TNF-α resulted in diminished IL-6 production. Our findings demonstrate that NK cells modulate LDC function to elicit Th1/Th17 immunity during intracellular bacterial infection.

  16. Rheumatoid arthritis and its association with HLA-DR antigens. I. Cell mediated immune response against connective tissue antigens.

    PubMed

    Vullo, C M; Pesoa, S A; Onetti, C M; Riera, C M

    1987-04-01

    HLA-DR antigens and cellular sensitivity to native bovine type I and type II collagen and proteoglycans were examined in patients with classic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and normal individuals. Fifty eight percent of patients with RA (n = 88) and 28% of normals (n = 52) were DR4+ (pc less than 0.01). DR4 phenotype was significantly increased in patients with severe disease stages (III-IV), as defined by the ARA criteria, in contrast to those showing mild disease stages (I-II) (p less than 0.05). Furthermore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 55 patients and 30 controls were evaluated for the in vitro production of leukocyte inhibitory factor in response to native type I and type II collagen and proteoglycans. By using this assay, cells from the arthritic group exhibited a statistically significant response when stimulated with native type I collagen and proteoglycans. The cellular immune response was not associated with any particular HLA-DR antigens, or to the disease stage or severity.

  17. Targeted antigen delivery to dendritic cells elicits robust antiviral T cell-mediated immunity in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Volckmar, Julia; Gereke, Marcus; Ebensen, Thomas; Riese, Peggy; Philipsen, Lars; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Wohlleber, Dirk; Klopfleisch, Robert; Stegemann-Koniszewski, Sabine; Müller, Andreas J.; Gruber, Achim D.; Knolle, Percy; Guzman, Carlos A.; Bruder, Dunja

    2017-01-01

    Hepatotropic viruses such as hepatitis C virus cause life-threatening chronic liver infections in millions of people worldwide. Targeted in vivo antigen-delivery to cross-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) has proven to be extraordinarily efficient in stimulating antigen-specific T cell responses. To determine whether this approach would as well be suitable to induce local antiviral effector T cells in the liver we compared different vaccine formulations based on either the targeting of DEC-205 or TLR2/6 on cross-presenting DCs or formulations not involving in vivo DC targeting. As read-outs we used in vivo hepatotropic adenovirus challenge, histology and automated multidimensional fluorescence microscopy (MELC). We show that targeted in vivo antigen delivery to cross-presenting DCs is highly effective in inducing antiviral CTLs capable of eliminating virus-infected hepatocytes, while control vaccine formulation not involving DC targeting failed to induce immunity against hepatotropic virus. Moreover, we observed distinct patterns of CD8+ T cell interaction with virus-infected and apoptotic hepatocytes in the two DC-targeting groups suggesting that the different vaccine formulations may stimulate distinct types of effector functions. Our findings represent an important step toward the future development of vaccines against hepatotropic viruses and the treatment of patients with hepatic virus infection after liver transplantation to avoid reinfection. PMID:28266658

  18. An antibody against the surfactant protein A (SP-A)-binding domain of the SP-A receptor inhibits T cell-mediated immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Samten, Buka; Townsend, James C; Sever-Chroneos, Zvjezdana; Pasquinelli, Virginia; Barnes, Peter F; Chroneos, Zissis C

    2008-07-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) suppresses lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 secretion, in part, by binding to its receptor, SP-R210. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are not well understood. Here, we studied the effect of antibodies against the SP-A-binding (neck) domain (alpha-SP-R210n) or nonbinding C-terminal domain (alpha-SP-R210ct) of SP-R210 on human peripheral blood T cell immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We demonstrated that both antibodies bind to more than 90% of monocytes and 5-10% of CD3+ T cells in freshly isolated PBMC. Stimulation of PBMC from healthy tuberculin reactors [purified protein derivative-positive (PPD+)] with heat-killed M. tuberculosis induced increased antibody binding to CD3+ cells. Increased antibody binding suggested enhanced expression of SP-R210, and this was confirmed by Western blotting. The antibodies (alpha-SP-R210n) cross-linking the SP-R210 through the SP-A-binding domain markedly inhibited cell proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion by PBMC from PPD+ donors in response to heat-killed M. tuberculosis, whereas preimmune IgG and antibodies (alpha-SP-R210ct) cross-linking SP-R210 through the non-SP-A-binding, C-terminal domain had no effect. Anti-SP-R210n also decreased M. tuberculosis-induced production of TNF-alpha but increased production of IL-10. Inhibition of IFN-gamma production by alpha-SP-R210n was abrogated by the combination of neutralizing antibodies to IL-10 and TGF-beta1. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that SP-A, via SP-R210, suppresses cell-mediated immunity against M. tuberculosis via a mechanism that up-regulates secretion of IL-10 and TGF-beta1.

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis of Persistent Infection with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle Suggests Impairment of Apoptosis and Cell-Mediated Immunity in the Nasopharynx

    PubMed Central

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Smoliga, George R.; Pacheco, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Li, Robert W.; Zhu, James; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, transcriptome alterations associated with the FMDV carrier state were characterized using a bovine whole-transcriptome microarray. Eighteen cattle (8 vaccinated with a recombinant FMDV A vaccine, 10 non-vaccinated) were challenged with FMDV A24 Cruzeiro, and the gene expression profiles of nasopharyngeal tissues collected between 21 and 35 days after challenge were compared between 11 persistently infected carriers and 7 non-carriers. Carriers and non-carriers were further compared to 2 naïve animals that had been neither vaccinated nor challenged. At a controlled false-discovery rate of 10% and a minimum difference in expression of 50%, 648 genes were differentially expressed between FMDV carriers and non-carriers, and most (467) had higher expression in carriers. Among these, genes associated with cellular proliferation and the immune response–such as chemokines, cytokines and genes regulating T and B cells–were significantly overrepresented. Differential gene expression was significantly correlated between non-vaccinated and vaccinated animals (biological correlation +0.97), indicating a similar transcriptome profile across these groups. Genes related to prostaglandin E2 production and the induction of regulatory T cells were overexpressed in carriers. In contrast, tissues from non-carrier animals expressed higher levels of complement regulators and pro-apoptotic genes that could promote virus clearance. Based on these findings, we propose a working hypothesis for FMDV persistence in nasopharyngeal tissues of cattle, in which the virus may be maintained by an impairment of apoptosis and the local suppression of cell-mediated antiviral immunity by inducible regulatory T cells. PMID:27643611

  20. Cell penetrable-mouse forkhead box P3 suppresses type 1 T helper cell-mediated immunity in a murine model of delayed-type hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xia; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Chen; Yu, Qihong; Yin, Lei; Wu, Weijiang; Xia, Sheng; Shao, Qixiang

    2017-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), which is a transcription factor, has a primary role in the development and function of regulatory T cells, and thus contributes to homeostasis of the immune system. A previous study generated a cell-permeable fusion protein of mouse FOXP3 conjugated to a protein transduction domain (PTD-mFOXP3) that successfully blocked differentiation of type 17 T helper cells in vitro and alleviated experimental arthritis in mice. In the present study, the role of PTD-mFOXP3 in type 1 T helper (Th1) cell-mediated immunity was investigated and the possible mechanisms for its effects were explored. Under Th1 polarization conditions, cluster of differentiation 4+ T cells were treated with PTD-mFOXP3 and analyzed by flow cytometry in vitro, which revealed that PTD-mFOXP3 blocked Th1 differentiation in vitro. Mice models of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions were generated by subcutaneous sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to the ears of mice. PTD-mFOXP3, which was administered via local subcutaneous injection, significantly reduced DTH-induced inflammation, including ear swelling (ear swelling, P<0.001; pinnae weight, P<0.05 or P<0.01 with 0.25 and 1.25 mg/kg PTD-mFOXP3, respectively), infiltration of T cells, and expression of interferon-γ at local inflammatory sites (mRNA level P<0.05) compared with the DTH group. The results of the present study demonstrated that PTD-mFOXP3 may attenuate DTH reactions by suppressing the infiltration and activity of Th1 cells.

  1. Thiol dependent NF-κB suppression and inhibition of T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses by a naturally occurring steroidal lactone Withaferin A.

    PubMed

    Gambhir, Lokesh; Checker, Rahul; Sharma, Deepak; Thoh, M; Patil, Anand; Degani, M; Gota, Vikram; Sandur, Santosh K

    2015-12-01

    Withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone isolated from ayurvedic medicinal plant Withania somnifera, was shown to inhibit tumor growth by inducing oxidative stress and suppressing NF-κB pathway. However, its effect on T-cell mediated adaptive immune responses and the underlying mechanism has not been investigated. Since both T-cell responses and NF-κB pathway are known to be redox sensitive, the present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of WA on adaptive immune responses in vitro and in vivo. WA inhibited mitogen induced T-cell and B-cell proliferation in vitro without inducing any cell death. It inhibited upregulation of T-cell (CD25, CD69, CD71 and CD54) and B-cell (CD80, CD86 and MHC-II) activation markers and secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. WA induced oxidative stress by increasing the basal ROS levels and the immunosuppressive effects of WA were abrogated only by thiol anti-oxidants. The redox modulatory effects of WA in T-cells were attributed to its ability to directly interact with free thiols. WA inhibited NF-κB nuclear translocation in lymphocytes and prevented the direct binding of nuclear NF-κB to its consensus sequence. MALDI-TOF analysis using a synthetic NF-κB-p50 peptide containing Cys-62 residue suggested that WA can modify the cysteine residue of NF-κB. The pharmacokinetic studies for WA were also carried out and in vivo efficacy of WA was studied using mouse model of Graft-versus-host disease. In conclusion, WA is a potent inhibitor of T-cell responses and acts via a novel thiol dependent mechanism and inhibition of NF-κB pathway.

  2. Silica vesicles as nanocarriers and adjuvants for generating both antibody and T-cell mediated immune resposes to Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus E2 protein.

    PubMed

    Mody, Karishma T; Mahony, Donna; Zhang, Jun; Cavallaro, Antonino S; Zhang, Bing; Popat, Amirali; Mahony, Timothy J; Yu, Chengzhong; Mitter, Neena

    2014-12-01

    Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) is widely distributed in cattle industries and causes significant economic losses worldwide annually. A limiting factor in the development of subunit vaccines for BVDV is the need to elicit both antibody and T-cell-mediated immunity as well as addressing the toxicity of adjuvants. In this study, we have prepared novel silica vesicles (SV) as the new generation antigen carriers and adjuvants. With small particle size of 50 nm, thin wall (~6 nm), large cavity (~40 nm) and large entrance size (5.9 nm for SV-100 and 16 nm for SV-140), the SV showed high loading capacity (∼ 250 μg/mg) and controlled release of codon-optimised E2 (oE2) protein, a major immunogenic determinant of BVDV. The in vivo functionality of the system was validated in mice immunisation trials comparing oE2 plus Quil A (50 μg of oE2 plus 10 μg of Quil A, a conventional adjuvant) to the oE2/SV-140 (50 μg of oE2 adsorbed to 250 μg of SV-140) or oE2/SV-140 together with 10 μg of Quil A. Compared to the oE2 plus Quil A, which generated BVDV specific antibody responses at a titre of 10(4), the oE2/SV-140 group induced a 10 times higher antibody response. In addition, the cell-mediated response, which is essential to recognise and eliminate the invading pathogens, was also found to be higher [1954-2628 spot forming units (SFU)/million cells] in mice immunised with oE2/SV-140 in comparison to oE2 plus Quil A (512-1369 SFU/million cells). Our study has demonstrated that SV can be used as the next-generation nanocarriers and adjuvants for enhanced veterinary vaccine delivery.

  3. Intraoperative intravenous lidocaine exerts a protective effect on cell-mediated immunity in patients undergoing radical hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan-Liang; Yan, Hong-Dan; Liu, Ya-Yang; Sun, Bao-Zhu; Huang, Rui; Wang, Xiao-Shuang; Lei, Wei-Fu

    2015-11-01

    Surgical procedures cause a decrease in lymphocyte proliferation rate, an increase in apoptosis and shifts the balance of T‑helper (Th)1/Th2 cells towards anti‑cell‑mediated immunity (CMI) Th2 dominance, which is relevant to the immunosuppressive effects of CMI, postoperative septic complications and the formation of tumor metastasis. Previous studies have revealed that lidocaine exhibits antibacterial actions; regulating inflammatory responses, reducing postoperative pain and affecting the duration spent in hospital. Thus, the present study hypothesized that lidocaine may exert a protective effect on the CMI of patients undergoing surgery for the removal of a primary tumor. A total of 30 adult female patients diagnosed with cervical cancer were recruited to the present study and were randomized into two groups. The lidocaine group received an intravenous bolus dose of 1.5 mg/kg lidocaine, followed by continuous infusion at 1.5 mg/kg/h until discharge from the operating room. The control group received the same volume of normal saline. A 10 ml sample of venous blood was drawn, and the lymphocytes were isolated using Ficoll‑paque 1 day prior to surgery, at discharge from the operating room and 48 h post‑surgery. The proliferation rate of the lymphocytes was assessed using a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay and was found to be higher in the lidocaine group. The early apoptosis of lymphocytes was attenuated following lidocaine treatment at 48 h post‑surgery, as detected using flow cytometry with Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. The level of interferon (IFN)‑γ in the serum at 48 h was significantly decreased following surgery in the control group, compared with the pre‑surgical values (3.782 ± 0.282, vs. 4.089 ± 0.339 pg/ml, respectively) and the ratio of IFN‑γ to interleukin‑4 was well preserved in the lidocaine group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the intraoperative systemic administration of

  4. In vitro VLA-4 blockade results in an impaired NK cell-mediated immune surveillance against melanoma.

    PubMed

    Gandoglia, Ilaria; Ivaldi, Federico; Carrega, Paolo; Armentani, Eric; Ferlazzo, Guido; Mancardi, Gianluigi; Kerlero de Rosbo, Nicole; Uccelli, Antonio; Laroni, Alice

    2017-01-01

    cells in the lower chamber, and that it was significantly reduced in presence of NTZ. Our results show that upon exposure to NTZ both cytolytic activity and migration toward melanoma cells were affected, suggesting that binding of NTZ to NK cells affects pathways involved in these NK-cell functions. We analyzed the expression of CD49d on NK cells from MS patients treated with NTZ and observed that it decreases with time of treatment. These data suggest that blockade of VLA-4 on NK-cell surface alters some key functions involved in the immune surveillance toward melanoma by NK cells and may provide a mechanistic explanation for the reported occurrence of melanoma in MS patients treated with NTZ.

  5. Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... biological families) and where they came from. This curiosity often becomes more intense as part of the ... adoptive family or feel close to them. This curiosity, which can feel quite intense, is a normal ...

  6. B Cells Are Critical to T-cell-Mediated Antitumor Immunity Induced by a Combined Immune-Stimulatory/Conditionally Cytotoxic Therapy for Glioblastoma12

    PubMed Central

    Candolfi, Marianela; Curtin, James F; Yagiz, Kader; Assi, Hikmat; Wibowo, Mia K; Alzadeh, Gabrielle E; Foulad, David; Muhammad, AKM G; Salehi, Sofia; Keech, Naomi; Puntel, Mariana; Liu, Chunyan; Sanderson, Nicholas R; Kroeger, Kurt M; Dunn, Robert; Martins, Gislaine; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated that modifying the tumor microenvironment through intratumoral administration of adenoviral vectors (Ad) encoding the conditional cytotoxic molecule, i.e., HSV1-TK and the immune-stimulatory cytokine, i.e., fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) leads to T-cell-dependent tumor regression in rodent models of glioblastoma. We investigated the role of B cells during immune-mediated glioblastoma multiforme regression. Although treatment with Ad-TK+Ad-Flt3L induced tumor regression in 60% of wild-type (WT) mice, it completely failed in B-cell-deficient Igh6-/- mice. Tumor-specific T-cell precursors were detected in Ad-TK+Ad-Flt3L-treated WT mice but not in Igh6-/- mice. The treatment also failed in WT mice depleted of total B cells or marginal zone B cells. Because we could not detect circulating antibodies against tumor cells and the treatment was equally efficient in WT mice and in mice with B-cell-specific deletion of Prdm 1 (encoding Blimp-1), in which B cells are present but unable to fully differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells, tumor regression in this model is not dependent on B cells' production of tumor antigen-specific immunoglobulins. Instead, B cells seem to play a role as antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Treatment with Ad-TK+Ad-Flt3L led to an increase in the number of B cells in the cervical lymph nodes, which stimulated the proliferation of syngeneic T cells and induced clonal expansion of antitumor T cells. Our data show that B cells act as APCs, playing a critical role in clonal expansion of tumor antigen-specific T cells and brain tumor regression. PMID:22028620

  7. Comparative immunotoxicity of 2,2`-dichlorodiethyl sulfide and cyclophosphamide: Evaluation of L1210 tumor cell resistance, cell-mediated immunity, and humoral immunity. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, J.A.; Joiner, R.L.; Houchens, D.P.; Dill, G.S.; Hobson, D.W.

    1991-12-31

    The immunotoxicity of 2,2`-dichlorodiethyl sulfide (sulfur mustard, SM),on humoral and cell-mediated immunity was compared with that of the nitrogen mustard 2-(bis(2-chloroethyl) amino)tetrahydro- 2H-1,3,2-oxazophosphorine 2-oxide (cyclophosphamide, CP). SM and CP had similar effects on thymic and splenic weights, spleen cell number, and the formation of antibody producing cells to sheep red blood cells (sRBC) when examined 5 days after exposure, but differed in their effects on body weights. Although there were no differences in the delayed hypersensitivity response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, CP and SM had different effects in the L1210 tumor cell allograft rejection assay. CP, but not SM, decreased the 28 day survival rate of allogeneic mice exposed to a sublethal L1210 tumor challenge. The differing effects on survival to the L1210 tumor challenge could not be attributed to a direct cytotoxic effect of SM on the L1210 tumor cells as SM did not increase the survival rate or mediansurvival time of syngeneic mice exposed to a lethal L1210 tumor cell challenge. In summary, SM and CP had immunosuppressive effects in the humoral immune assay. Although neither compound suppressed the delayed hypersensitivity response, CP was found to suppress host resistance to L1210 tumor cells.

  8. Intramuscular Immunization of Mice with a Live-Attenuated Triple Mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 Induces Robust Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity To Completely Protect Animals against Pneumonic Plague.

    PubMed

    Tiner, Bethany L; Sha, Jian; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Baze, Wallace B; Fitts, Eric C; Popov, Vsevolod L; van Lier, Christina J; Erova, Tatiana E; Chopra, Ashok K

    2015-12-01

    Earlier, we showed that the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 with deleted genes encoding Braun lipoprotein (Lpp), an acyltransferase (MsbB), and the attachment invasion locus (Ail), respectively, was avirulent in a mouse model of pneumonic plague. In this study, we further evaluated the immunogenic potential of the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant and its derivative by different routes of vaccination. Mice were immunized via the subcutaneous (s.c.) or the intramuscular (i.m.) route with two doses (2 × 10(6) CFU/dose) of the above-mentioned triple mutant with 100% survivability of the animals. Upon subsequent pneumonic challenge with 70 to 92 50% lethal doses (LD(50)) of wild-type (WT) strain CO92, all of the mice survived when immunization occurred by the i.m. route. Since Ail has virulence and immunogenic potential, a mutated version of Ail devoid of its virulence properties was created, and the genetically modified ail replaced the native ail gene on the chromosome of the Δlpp ΔmsbB double mutant, creating a Δlpp ΔmsbB::ailL2 vaccine strain. This newly generated mutant was attenuated similarly to the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail triple mutant when administered by the i.m. route and provided 100% protection to animals against subsequent pneumonic challenge. Not only were the two above-mentioned mutants cleared rapidly from the initial i.m. site of injection in animals with no histopathological lesions, the immunized mice did not exhibit any disease symptoms during immunization or after subsequent exposure to WT CO92. These two mutants triggered balanced Th1- and Th2-based antibody responses and cell-mediated immunity. A substantial increase in interleukin-17 (IL-17) from the T cells of vaccinated mice, a cytokine of the Th17 cells, further augmented their vaccine potential. Thus, the Δlpp ΔmsbB Δail and Δlpp ΔmsbB::ailL2 mutants represent excellent vaccine candidates for plague, with the latter mutant still retaining Ail immunogenicity but

  9. DNA Vaccine Encoding HPV16 Oncogenes E6 and E7 Induces Potent Cell-mediated and Humoral Immunity Which Protects in Tumor Challenge and Drives E7-expressing Skin Graft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Janin; Dutton, Julie L.; Li, Bo; Woo, Wai-Ping; Xu, Yan; Tolley, Lynn K.; Yong, Michelle; Wells, James W.; R. Leggatt, Graham; Finlayson, Neil

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that a novel DNA vaccine technology of codon optimization and the addition of ubiquitin sequences enhanced immunogenicity of a herpes simplex virus 2 polynucleotide vaccine in mice, and induced cell-mediated immunity when administered in humans at relatively low doses of naked DNA. We here show that a new polynucleotide vaccine using the same technology and encoding a fusion protein of the E6 and E7 oncogenes of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is immunogenic in mice. This vaccine induces long-lasting humoral and cell-mediated immunity and protects mice from establishment of HPV16-E7-expressing tumors. In addition, it suppresses growth of readily established tumors and shows enhanced efficacy when combined with immune checkpoint blockade targeted at PD-L1. This vaccine also facilitates rejection of HPV16-E7-expressing skin grafts that demonstrate epidermal hyperplasia with characteristics of cervical and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of this vaccine in patients with HPV16+ premalignancies are planned. PMID:28166181

  10. Impact of oral meloxicam and long-distance transport on cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in feedlot steers receiving modified live BVDV booster vaccination on arrival.

    PubMed

    Van Engen, N K; Platt, R; Roth, J A; Stock, M L; Engelken, T; Vann, R C; Wulf, L W; Busby, W D; Wang, C; Kalkwarf, E M; Coetzee, J F

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of oral meloxicam (MEL) and long-distance transportation on cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in preconditioned steers receiving a booster vaccination on arrival. We hypothesized that steers treated with MEL at 1mg/kg body weight, 6h before night-time transport, would be less immunocompromised on arrival (day 0) and after 7days, and that CMI following vaccination with a modified live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) recall antigen would be increased. Brahman crossbreed steers, 13-17 months of age (n=87), were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: MEL, transported (MTR) (n=22), MEL, non-transported (MNT) (n=22), lactose placebo, transported (CTR) (n=21), and lactose placebo, non-transported (CNT) (n=22). MTR and CTR steers were transported for approximately 16h non-stop on a truck from Mississippi to Iowa (approximately 1300km), whereas steers in the MNT and CNT groups remained in Mississippi as non-transported controls. Body weight was measured and jugular blood was collected at -1, 0, and 7days from all steers at the same time, regardless of location. Multi-parameter flow cytometry (MP-FCM) was used to identify T-cell subsets and detect the expression of three activation markers (CD25 [interleukin (IL)-2 receptor], intracellular interferon-gamma [IFNγ], and IL-4) after in vitro stimulation with BVDV recall antigen. Plasma cortisol concentration was measured on day -1, 0, and 7 as a marker of transport-associated stress. Serum antibody titer to BVDV was assessed on day -1 and day 7 post-booster vaccination. Whole-blood samples were analyzed using MP-FCM on days 0 and 7. Results were log transformed and analyzed using repeated measures of analysis of variance. Compared with non-transported controls, transport led to an increase in BVDV-induced expression of CD25, IFNγ, and IL-4 in CD4(+), CD8(+), and γδ(+) T-cell subsets (P<0.05). MEL treatment mitigated the transportation-associated increase in

  11. Cell-Mediated Drugs Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Batrakova, Elena V.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Drug targeting to sites of tissue injury, tumor or infection with limited toxicity is the goal for successful pharmaceutics. Immunocytes (including mononuclear phagocytes (dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages), neutrophils, and lymphocytes) are highly mobile; they can migrate across impermeable barriers and release their drug cargo at sites of infection or tissue injury. Thus immune cells can be exploited as trojan horses for drug delivery. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW This paper reviews how immunocytes laden with drugs can cross the blood brain or blood tumor barriers, to facilitate treatments for infectious diseases, injury, cancer, or inflammatory diseases. The promises and perils of cell-mediated drug delivery are reviewed, with examples of how immunocytes can be harnessed to improve therapeutic end points. EXPERT OPINION Using cells as delivery vehicles enables targeted drug transport, and prolonged circulation times, along with reductions in cell and tissue toxicities. Such systems for drug carriage and targeted release represent a novel disease combating strategy being applied to a spectrum of human disorders. The design of nanocarriers for cell-mediated drug delivery may differ from those used for conventional drug delivery systems; nevertheless, engaging different defense mechanisms into drug delivery may open new perspectives for the active delivery of drugs. PMID:21348773

  12. Long-term moderate calorie restriction inhibits inflammation without impairing cell-mediated immunity: a randomized controlled trial in non obese humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits inflammation and slows aging in many animal species, but in rodents housed in pathogen-free facilities, CR impairs immunity against certain pathogens. However, little is known about the effects of long-term moderate CR on immune function in humans. In this multi-cen...

  13. Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant enhances antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to profilin subunit antigen vaccination and promotes protection against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lee, Kyung Woo; Lillehoj, Erik P; Bertrand, François; Dupuis, Laurent; Deville, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant on profilin subunit antigen vaccination. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with ISA 71 VG, and host immune responses were evaluated. After secondary immunization, antigen-specific antibody and T-cell responses were higher in the group which received profilin plus ISA 71 VG compared with the other groups. Furthermore, body weight gains and fecal oocyst shedding were evaluated following oral challenge infection with live E. acervulina or Eimeria tenella oocysts. Vaccination with profilin plus ISA 71 VG reduced oocyst shedding compared with animals immunized with profilin alone. These results demonstrate that the recombinant profilin subunit vaccine, when given in combination with Montanide™ ISA 71 VG, augments protective immunity against E. acervulina and E. tenella.

  14. Improved cell mediated immune responses after successful re-vaccination of non-responders to the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) vaccine using the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Jessica; Cardell, Kristina; Björnsdottir, Thora Björg; Fryden, Aril; Hultgren, Catharina; Sällberg, Matti

    2008-11-05

    We successfully re-vaccinated hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine non-responders using a double dose of the combined hepatitis A virus (HAV) and HBV vaccine. The hope was to improve priming of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-specific cell mediated immune response (CMI) by an increased antigen dose and a theoretical adjuvant-effect from the local presence of a HAV-specific CMI. A few non-responders had a detectable HBsAg-specific CMI before re-vaccination. An in vitro detectable HBsAg-specific CMI was primed equally effective in non-responders (58%) as in first time vaccine recipients (68%). After the third dose a weak, albeit significant, association was observed between the magnitude of HBsAg-specific proliferation and anti-HBs levels. This regimen improves the priming of HBsAg-specific CMIs and antibodies.

  15. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer: the next generation of gene-engineered immune cells.

    PubMed

    Berry, L J; Moeller, M; Darcy, P K

    2009-10-01

    Adoptive cellular immunotherapy involving transfer of tumor-reactive T cells has shown some notable antitumor responses in a minority of cancer patients. In particular, transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has resulted in long-term objective responses in patients with advanced melanoma. However, the inability to isolate sufficient numbers of tumor-specific T cells from most malignancies has restricted the broad utility of this approach. An emerging approach to circumvent this limitation involves the genetic modification of effector cells with T cell receptor (TCR) transgenes or chimeric single-chain variable fragment (scFv) receptors that can specifically redirect T cells to tumor. There has been much progress in the design of TCR and scFv receptors to enhance the antigen-specific activation of effector cells and their trafficking and persistence in vivo. Considerable effort has been directed toward improving the safety of this approach and reducing the immunogenicity of the receptor. This review discusses the latest developments in the field of adoptive immunotherapy using genetically modified immune cells that have been transduced with either TCR or scFv receptor transgenes and used in preclinical and clinical settings as anticancer agents.

  16. An Oral Salmonella-Based Vaccine Inhibits Liver Metastases by Promoting Tumor-Specific T-Cell-Mediated Immunity in Celiac and Portal Lymph Nodes: A Preclinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Vendrell, Alejandrina; Mongini, Claudia; Gravisaco, María José; Canellada, Andrea; Tesone, Agustina Inés; Goin, Juan Carlos; Waldner, Claudia Inés

    2016-01-01

    Primary tumor excision is one of the most widely used therapies of cancer. However, the risk of metastases development still exists following tumor resection. The liver is a common site of metastatic disease for numerous cancers. Breast cancer is one of the most frequent sources of metastases to the liver. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of the orally administered Salmonella Typhi vaccine strain CVD 915 on the development of liver metastases in a mouse model of breast cancer. To this end, one group of BALB/c mice was orogastrically immunized with CVD 915, while another received PBS as a control. After 24 h, mice were injected with LM3 mammary adenocarcinoma cells into the spleen and subjected to splenectomy. This oral Salmonella-based vaccine produced an antitumor effect, leading to a decrease in the number and volume of liver metastases. Immunization with Salmonella induced an early cellular immune response in mice. This innate stimulation rendered a large production of IFN-γ by intrahepatic immune cells (IHIC) detected within 24 h. An antitumor adaptive immunity was found in the liver and celiac and portal lymph nodes (LDLN) 21 days after oral bacterial inoculation. The antitumor immune response inside the liver was associated with increased CD4+ and dendritic cell populations as well as with an inflammatory infiltrate located around liver metastatic nodules. Enlarged levels of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and TNF) were also detected in IHIC. Furthermore, a tumor-specific production of IFN-γ and TNF as well as tumor-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T cells (CD8+IFN-γ+) were found in the celiac and portal lymph nodes of Salmonella-treated mice. This study provides first evidence for the involvement of LDLN in the development of an efficient cellular immune response against hepatic tumors, which resulted in the elimination of liver metastases after oral Salmonella-based vaccination. PMID:26973649

  17. Anti-cancer Activity of Novel TM4SF5-Targeting Antibodies through TM4SF5 Neutralization and Immune Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hye-Mi; Ryu, Jihye; Song, Jin Myeong; Lee, Yunhee; Kim, Hye-Jin; Ko, Dongjoon; Choi, Inpyo; Kim, Sang Jick; Lee, Jung Weon; Kim, Semi

    2017-01-01

    The transmembrane four L6 family member 5 (TM4SF5) protein is a novel molecular target for the prevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. TM4SF5 is highly expressed in liver, colon, esophageal, and pancreatic cancers and is implicated in tumor progression. Here, we screened monoclonal antibodies that specifically bound to the extracellular loop 2 (EC2) of TM4SF5 from a phage-displayed murine antibody (single-chain variable fragment; scFv) library. We constructed and characterized chimeric antibodies, Ab27 and Ab79, of scFv fused with Fc domain of human IgG1. The affinity (KD) of Ab27 and Ab79 for soluble EC2 was approximately 9.2 nM and 16.9 nM, respectively, as determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Ab27 and Ab79 efficiently bound to native TM4SF5 on the cell surface were internalized into the cancer cells, leading to a decrease in cell surface TM4SF5. Ab27 and Ab79 inhibited the proliferation and invasion of TM4SF5-positive liver and colon cancer cells and reduced FAK and c-Src phosphorylation. Ab27 and Ab79 also enhanced anoikis sensitivity and reduced survivin. Ab27 mediated antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro. Ab27 and Ab79 efficiently inhibited tumor growth in a liver cancer xenograft model. These results strongly support the further development of Ab27 as a novel anti-cancer agent in the clinic. PMID:28255353

  18. Insulin-like growth factors inhibit dendritic cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity through regulating ERK1/2 phosphorylation and p38 dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ching-Ting; Chang, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Li; Chen, Tsung-Ching; Chen, Chi-An; Cheng, Wen-Fang

    2015-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) can promote tumorigenesis via inhibiting the apoptosis of cancer cells. The relationship between IGFs and dendritic cell (DC)-mediated immunity were investigated. Advanced-stage ovarian carcinoma patients were first evaluated to show higher IGF-1 and IGF-2 concentrations in their ascites than early-stage patients. IGFs could suppress DCs' maturation, antigen presenting abilities, and the ability to activate antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell. IGF-treated DCs also secreted higher concentrations of IL-10 and TNF-α. IGF-treated DCs showed decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and reduced p38 dephosphorylation. The percentages of matured DCs in the ascites were significantly lower in the IGF-1 or IGF-2 highly-expressing WF-3 tumor-bearing mice. The IGF1R inhibitor - NVP-AEW541, could block the effects of IGFs to rescue DCs' maturation and to restore DC-mediated antigen-specific immunity through enhancing ERK1/2 phosphorylation and p38 dephosphorylation. IGFs can inhibit DC-mediated anti-tumor immunity through suppressing maturation and function and the IGF1R inhibitor could restore the DC-mediated anti-tumor immunity. Blockade of IGFs could be a potential strategy for cancer immunotherapy.

  19. The role of ISCOMATRIX bilayer composition to induce a cell mediated immunity and protection against leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Mehravaran, Ahmad; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Khamesipour, Ali; Ranjbar, Reza; Hojatizade, Mansure; Badiee, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Development of new generation of vaccines against leishmaniasis is possible because long-term protection is usually seen after recovery from cutaneous leishmaniasis. ISCOMATRIX is particulate antigen delivery system composed of antigen, cholesterol, phospholipid and saponin. In this study, the role of ISCOMATRIX bilayer composition made by different phase transition temperature (Tc) to induce a type of immune response and protection against leishmaniasis was assessed. Materials and Methods: ISCOMATRIX formulations with different bilayer compositions consisting of EPC (Tc <0 °C), DMPC (Tc 23 °C) and DSPC (Tc 54 °C) were prepared. Different ISCOMATRIX formulations were mixed with soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA). BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously, three times with 2-week intervals. As criteria for protection, footpads swelling, parasite burden, determination of IgG isotypes and the level of IFN-γ and IL-4 were assessed. Results: Although the groups of mice immunized with ISCOMATRIX DMPC or ISCOMATRIX DSPC showed the smallest footpad swelling and least parasite burden compared with the buffer group, the difference was not significant. Moreover, the highest level of IFN- γ and IL-4 was observed in the splenocytes of mice immunized with ISCOMATRIX DMPC or ISCOMATRIX DSPC, respectively. After challenge, the mice immunized with ISCOMATRIX DSPC showed the highest elevation of IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies (P<0.01) compared with control group. However, our results indicated that ISCOMATRIX EPC, DMPC or DSPC generated a mixed Th1/Th2 response that was not protective. Conclusion: Our results showed that the adjuvanticity of prepared ISCOMATRIX doesn’t influence with different phospholipids at least in our mice model. PMID:27081463

  20. Metronomic cyclophosphamide enhances HPV16E7 peptide vaccine induced antigen-specific and cytotoxic T-cell mediated antitumor immune response.

    PubMed

    Weir, Genevieve M; Hrytsenko, Olga; Stanford, Marianne M; Berinstein, Neil L; Karkada, Mohan; Liwski, Robert S; Mansour, Marc

    In clinical trials, metronomic cyclophosphamide (CPA) is increasingly being combined with vaccines to reduce tumor-induced immune suppression. Previous strategies to modulate the immune system during vaccination have involved continuous administration of low dose chemotherapy, studies that have posed unique considerations for clinical trial design. Here, we evaluated metronomic CPA in combination with a peptide vaccine targeting HPV16E7 in an HPV16-induced tumor model, focusing on the cytotoxic T-cell response and timing of low dose metronomic CPA (mCPA) treatment relative to vaccination. Mice bearing C3 tumors were given metronomic CPA on alternating weeks in combination with immunization with a DepoVax vaccine containing HPV16E749-57 peptide antigen every 3 weeks. Only the combination therapy provided significant long-term control of tumor growth. The efficacy of the vaccine was uncompromised if given at the beginning or end of a cycle of metronomic CPA. Metronomic CPA had a pronounced lymphodepletive effect on the vaccine draining lymph node, yet did not reduce the development of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells induced by vaccination. This enrichment correlated with increased cytotoxic activity in the spleen and increased expression of cytotoxic gene signatures in the tumor. Immunity could be passively transferred through CD8(+) T cells isolated from tumor-bearing mice treated with the combinatorial treatment regimen. A comprehensive survey of splenocytes indicated that metronomic CPA, in the absence of vaccination, induced transient lymphodepletion marked by a selective expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. These results provide important insights into the multiple mechanisms of metronomic CPA induced immune modulation in the context of a peptide cancer vaccine that may be translated into more effective clinical trial designs.

  1. Enhanced early innate and T cell-mediated responses in subjects immunized with Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Plus CPG 7909 (AV7909).

    PubMed

    Minang, Jacob T; Inglefield, Jon R; Harris, Andrea M; Lathey, Janet L; Alleva, David G; Sweeney, Diane L; Hopkins, Robert J; Lacy, Michael J; Bernton, Edward W

    2014-11-28

    NuThrax™ (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed with CPG 7909 Adjuvant) (AV7909) is in development. Samples obtained in a phase Ib clinical trial were tested to confirm biomarkers of innate immunity and evaluate effects of CPG 7909 (PF-03512676) on adaptive immunity. Subjects received two intramuscular doses of commercial BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA), or two intramuscular doses of one of four formulations of AV7909. IP-10, IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were elevated 24-48 h after administration of AV7909 formulations, returning to baseline by Day 7. AVA (no CPG 7909) resulted in elevated IL-6 and CRP, but not IP-10. Another marker of CpG, transiently decreased absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs), correlated with transiently increased IP-10. Cellular recall responses to anthrax protective antigen (PA) or PA peptides were assessed by IFN-γ ELISpot assay performed on cryopreserved PBMCs obtained from subjects prior to immunization and 7 days following the second immunization (study day 21). One-half of subjects that received AV7909 with low-dose (0.25mg/dose) CPG 7909 possessed positive Day 21 T cell responses to PA. In contrast, positive T cell responses occurred at an 11% average rate (1/9) for AVA-treated subjects. Differences in cellular responses due to dose level of CPG 7909 were not associated with differences in humoral anti-PA IgG responses, which were elevated for recipients of AV7909 compared to recipients of AVA. Serum markers at 24 or 48 h (i.e. % ALC decrease, or increase in IL-6, IP-10, or CRP) correlated with the humoral (antibody) responses 1 month later, but did not correlate with cellular ELISpot responses. In summary, biomarkers of early responses to CPG 7909 were confirmed, and adding a CpG adjuvant to a vaccine administered twice resulted in increased T cell effects relative to vaccine alone. Changes in early biomarkers correlated with subsequent adaptive humoral immunity but not cellular immunity.

  2. Enhanced Early Innate and T Cell-mediated Responses in Subjects Immunized with Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Plus CPG 7909 (AV7909)

    PubMed Central

    Minang, Jacob T.; Inglefield, Jon R.; Harris, Andrea M.; Lathey, Janet L.; Alleva, David G.; Sweeney, Diane L.; Hopkins, Robert J; Lacy, Michael J.; Bernton, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    NuThrax™ (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed with CPG 7909 Adjuvant) (AV7909) is in development. Samples obtained in a Phase Ib clinical trial were tested to confirm biomarkers of innate immunity and evaluate effects of CPG 7909 (PF-03512676) on adaptive immunity. Subjects received two intramuscular doses of commercial BioThrax® (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA), or two intramuscular doses of one of four formulations of AV7909. IP-10, IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were elevated 24 to 48 hours after administration of AV7909 formulations, returning to baseline by Day 7. AVA (no CPG 7909) resulted in elevated IL-6 and CRP, but not IP-10. Another marker of CpG, transiently decreased absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC), correlated with transiently increased IP-10. Cellular recall responses to anthrax Protective Antigen (PA) or PA peptides were assessed by IFN-gamma ELISpot assay performed on cryopreserved PBMCs obtained from subjects prior to immunization and 7 days following the second immunization (study day 21). One-half of subjects that received AV7909 with low-dose (0.25 mg/dose) CPG 7909 possessed positive Day 21 T cell responses to PA. In contrast, positive T cell responses occurred at an 11% average rate (1/9) for AVA-treated subjects. Differences in cellular responses due to dose level of CPG 7909 were not associated with differences in humoral anti-PA IgG responses, which were elevated for recipients of AV7909 compared to recipients of AVA. Serum markers at 24 or 48 hours (i.e. % ALC decrease, or increase in IL-6, IP-10, or CRP) correlated with the humoral (antibody) responses 1 month later, but did not correlate with cellular ELISpot responses. In summary, biomarkers of early responses to CPG 7909 were confirmed, and adding a CpG adjuvant to a vaccine administered twice resulted in increased T cell effects relative to vaccine alone. Changes in early biomarkers correlated with subsequent adaptive humoral immunity but not cellular immunity. PMID:24530403

  3. HIV-1 adenoviral vector vaccines expressing multi-trimeric BAFF and 4-1BBL enhance T cell mediated anti-viral immunity.

    PubMed

    Kanagavelu, Saravana; Termini, James M; Gupta, Sachin; Raffa, Francesca N; Fuller, Katherine A; Rivas, Yaelis; Philip, Sakhi; Kornbluth, Richard S; Stone, Geoffrey W

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviral vectored vaccines have shown considerable promise but could be improved by molecular adjuvants. Ligands in the TNF superfamily (TNFSF) are potential adjuvants for adenoviral vector (Ad5) vaccines based on their central role in adaptive immunity. Many TNFSF ligands require aggregation beyond the trimeric state (multi-trimerization) for optimal biological function. Here we describe Ad5 vaccines for HIV-1 Gag antigen (Ad5-Gag) adjuvanted with the TNFSF ligands 4-1BBL, BAFF, GITRL and CD27L constructed as soluble multi-trimeric proteins via fusion to Surfactant Protein D (SP-D) as a multimerization scaffold. Mice were vaccinated with Ad5-Gag combined with Ad5 expressing one of the SP-D-TNFSF constructs or single-chain IL-12p70 as adjuvant. To evaluate vaccine-induced protection, mice were challenged with vaccinia virus expressing Gag (vaccinia-Gag) which is known to target the female genital tract, a major route of sexually acquired HIV-1 infection. In this system, SP-D-4-1BBL or SP-D-BAFF led to significantly reduced vaccinia-Gag replication when compared to Ad5-Gag alone. In contrast, IL-12p70, SP-D-CD27L and SP-D-GITRL were not protective. Histological examination following vaccinia-Gag challenge showed a dramatic lymphocytic infiltration into the uterus and ovaries of SP-D-4-1BBL and SP-D-BAFF-treated animals. By day 5 post challenge, proinflammatory cytokines in the tissue were reduced, consistent with the enhanced control over viral replication. Splenocytes had no specific immune markers that correlated with protection induced by SP-D-4-1BBL and SP-D-BAFF versus other groups. IL-12p70, despite lack of anti-viral efficacy, increased the total numbers of splenic dextramer positive CD8+ T cells, effector memory T cells, and effector Gag-specific CD8+ T cells, suggesting that these markers are poor predictors of anti-viral immunity in this model. In conclusion, soluble multi-trimeric 4-1BBL and BAFF adjuvants led to strong protection from vaccinia

  4. Beneficial effects of the thymic hormone preparation thymostimulin in patients with defects in cell-mediated immunity and chronic purulent rhinosinusitis. A double-blind cross-over trial on improvements in monocyte polarization and clinical effects.

    PubMed Central

    Tas, M; Leezenberg, J A; Drexhage, H A

    1990-01-01

    Twenty patients with chronic purulent rhinosinusitis were treated with TP-1 (Serono; 1 mg/kg body weight), in a double-blind cross-over trial. TP-1 was administered by daily i.m. injections for the first 14 days followed by two injections/week for 6 further weeks. The patients were immunologically special in that they had defects in their cell-mediated immune system. Fourteen showed a decreased chemotactic responsiveness of their peripheral blood monocytes as measured in the polarization assay. This defective function can probably be ascribed to the presence in serum of low molecular weight factors (LMWFs; less than 25 kD). As reported earlier, this factor shows a structural homology to the envelope protein of murine and feline leukaemia virus (P15E). Thirteen patients showed a defective delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test reactivity towards candidin and/or streptokinase-streptodornase (Sk/Sd) antigen, 14 had a defective MIF production from their peripheral blood lymphocytes towards candidin, Sk/Sd and/or Haemophilus influenzae antigen. Eighteen patients completed the TP-1 trial and showed clinical improvements: 12 out of 15 were feeling better during TP-1 therapy and the nasal mucosa showed on inspection absent mucopurulent secretion in 13 patients. Positive bacterial culture rates for the nose decreased from 14 out of 16 to five out of 15. Placebo treatment had no significant effects. The clinical improvements were accompanied by a better performance of the cell-mediated immune system; the most significant effects were recorded in the monocyte polarization assay. The suppressive P15E-like LMWFs in serum clearly decreased during TP-1 treatment. In vitro TP-1 neutralized the immunosuppressive effect of the LMWFs. The restoring effects of TP-1 on monocyte polarization and its neutralizing activity of P15E-like LMWFs could explain the beneficial effects of thymic hormone treatment reported in adults with clinical signs of immunodeficiency in the presence of

  5. Role of uncoupling protein UCP2 in cell-mediated immunity: How macrophage-mediated insulitis is accelerated in a model of autoimmune diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Emre, Yalin; Hurtaud, Corinne; Karaca, Melis; Nubel, Tobias; Zavala, Flora; Ricquier, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Infiltration of inflammatory cells into pancreatic islets of Langerhans and selective destruction of insulin-secreting β-cells are characteristics of type 1 diabetes. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is a mitochondrial protein expressed in immune cells. UCP2 controls macrophage activation by modulating the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MAPK signaling. We investigated the role of UCP2 on immune cell activity in type 1 diabetes in Ucp2-deficient mice. Using the model of multiple low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, we found that autoimmune diabetes was strongly accelerated in Ucp2-KO mice, compared with Ucp2-WT mice with increased intraislet lymphocytic infiltration. Macrophages from STZ-treated Ucp2-KO mice had increased IL-1β and nitric oxide (NO) production, compared with WT macrophages. Moreover, more macrophages were recruited in islets of STZ-treated Ucp2-KO mice, compared with Ucp2-WT mice. This finding also was accompanied by increased NO/ROS-induced damage. Altogether, our data show that inflammation is stronger in Ucp2-KO mice and islets, leading to the exacerbated disease in these mice. Our results highlight the mitochondrial protein UCP2 as a new player in autoimmune diabetes. PMID:18006654

  6. Sub-chronic effects of nitrate in drinking water on red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa): oxidative stress and T-cell mediated immune function.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Martínez-Haro, Mónica; Martín-Hernando, M A Paz; Mateo, Rafael

    2010-07-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of nitrates on birds, we have exposed captive red-legged partridges to nitrates concentrations of 0 (control), 100 (dwell water in farming areas) or 500 mg/l (fertirrigation level). The cellular immune response, plasma biochemistry, methemoglobin concentration (metHb), and oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues were studied after two weeks of exposure. Several blood parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and magnesium level decreased with nitrate exposure, whereas alkaline phosphatase activity and creatinine level increased. The oxidant effect of nitrates was evidenced by the increase in blood metHb, accompanied by the lipid peroxidation of red blood cells, the increased levels of oxidized glutathione (GSH) in liver, and the generation of oxidative DNA damage in plasma lymphocytes. GSH in erythrocytes was negatively correlated with blood metHb. The cellular immune function was slightly lower at partridges exposed to nitrates. These results suggest that adverse effects of nitrates on birds occur at concentrations potentially present in the field.

  7. In vivo targeting of human DC-SIGN drastically enhances CD8⁺ T-cell-mediated protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Christina; Ginter, Wiebke; Förg, Theresa; Mayer, Christian T; Baru, Abdul Mannan; Arnold-Schrauf, Catharina; Unger, Wendy W J; Kalay, Hakan; van Kooyk, Yvette; Berod, Luciana; Sparwasser, Tim

    2013-10-01

    Vaccination is one of the oldest yet still most effective methods to prevent infectious diseases. However, eradication of intracellular pathogens and treatment of certain diseases like cancer requiring efficient cytotoxic immune responses remain a medical challenge. In mice, a successful approach to induce strong cytotoxic CD8⁺ T-cell (CTL) reactions is to target antigens to DCs using specific antibodies against surface receptors in combination with adjuvants. A major drawback for translating this strategy into one for the clinic is the lack of analogous targets in human DCs. DC-SIGN (DC-specific-ICAM3-grabbing-nonintegrin/CD209) is a C-type lectin receptor with potent endocytic capacity and a highly restricted expression on human immature DCs. Therefore, DC-SIGN represents an ideal candidate for DC targeting. Using transgenic mice that express human DC-SIGN under the control of the murine CD11c promoter (hSIGN mice), we explored the efficacy of anti-DC-SIGN antibodies to target antigens to DCs and induce protective immune responses in vivo. We show that anti-DC-SIGN antibodies conjugated to OVA induced strong and persistent antigen-specific CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cell responses, which efficiently protected from infection with OVA-expressing Listeria monocytogenes. Thus, we propose DC targeting via DC-SIGN as a promising strategy for novel vaccination protocols against intracellular pathogens.

  8. Acute Morphine Administration Reduces Cell-Mediated Immunity and Induces Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mojadadi, Shafi; Jamali, Abbas; Khansarinejad, Behzad; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Bamdad, Taravat

    2009-01-01

    Acute morphine administration is known to alter the course of herpes simplex virus infection. In this study, the effect of acute morphine administration on the reactivation of latent herpes was investigated in a mouse model. Because of the important role of cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity in the inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) reactivation, the effect of acute morphine administration on CTL responses was also evaluated. Furthermore, lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ production were evaluated for their roles in the induction of the CTL response. The findings showed that acute morphine administration significantly reduced CTL responses, lymphocyte proliferation, and IFN-γ production. Furthermore, acute morphine administration has been shown to reactivate latent HSV-1. Previous studies have shown that cellular immune responses have important roles in the inhibition of HSV reactivation. These findings suggest that suppression of a portion of the cellular immune response after acute morphine administration may constitute one part of the mechanism that induces HSV reactivation. PMID:19403060

  9. Characterization of the T-cell-mediated immune response against the Aspergillus fumigatus proteins Crf1 and catalase 1 in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Jolink, Hetty; Meijssen, Isabelle C; Hagedoorn, Renate S; Arentshorst, Mark; Drijfhout, Jan W; Mulder, Arend; Claas, Frans H J; van Dissel, Jaap T; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Heemskerk, Mirjam H M

    2013-09-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a serious infectious complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. One of the strategies to improve the management of aspergillosis is the adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells, the success of which depends on the development of a broad repertoire of antigen-specific T cells. In this study, we identified CD4+ T cells specific for the Aspergillus proteins Crf1 and catalase 1 in 18 of 24 healthy donors by intracellular staining for interferon γ and CD154. Crf1- and catalase 1-specific T cells were selected on the basis of CD137 expression and underwent single-cell expansion. Aspergillus-specific T-cell clones mainly exhibited a T-helper cell 1 phenotype and recognized a broad variety of T-cell epitopes. Five novel Crf1 epitopes, 2 previously described Crf1 epitopes, and 30 novel catalase 1 epitopes were identified. Ultimately, by using overlapping peptides of Aspergillus fumigatus proteins, Aspergillus-specific T-cell lines that have a broad specificity and favorable cytokine profile and are suitable for adoptive T-cell therapy can be generated in vitro.

  10. Perforin and gamma interferon are critical CD8+ T-cell-mediated responses in vaccine-induced immunity against Leishmania amazonensis infection.

    PubMed

    Colmenares, María; Kima, Peter E; Samoff, Erika; Soong, Lynn; McMahon-Pratt, Diane

    2003-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that protection against New World leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania amazonensis can be elicited by immunization with the developmentally regulated Leishmania amastigote antigen, P-8. In this study, several independent experimental approaches were employed to investigate the protective immunological mechanisms involved. T-cell subset depletion experiments clearly indicate that elicitation of CD8(+) (as well as CD4(+)) effector responses is required for protection. Further, mice lacking beta(2)-microglobulin (and hence deficient in major histocompatibility complex class I antigen presentation) were not able to control a challenge infection after vaccination, indicating an essential protective role for CD8(+) T effector responses. Analysis of the events ongoing at the cutaneous site of infection indicated a changing cellular dynamic involved in protection. Early postinfection in protectively vaccinated mice, a predominance of CD8(+) T cells, secreting gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and expressing perforin, was observed at the site of infection; subsequently, activated CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-gamma were primarily found. As protection correlated with the ratio of total IFN-gamma-producing cells (CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells) to macrophages found at the site of infection, a role for IFN-gamma was evident; in addition, vaccination of IFN-gamma-deficient mice failed to provide protection. To further assess the effector mechanisms that mediate protection, mice deficient in perforin synthesis were examined. Perforin-deficient mice vaccinated with the P-8 antigen were unable to control infection. Thus, the elicitation of CD8(+) T cell effector mechanisms (perforin, IFN-gamma) are clearly required in the protective immune response against L. amazonensis infection in vaccinated mice.

  11. Expression of Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 2 Is Required for Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell-Mediated Control of T Cell Immunity.

    PubMed

    Cimen Bozkus, Cansu; Elzey, Bennett D; Crist, Scott A; Ellies, Lesley G; Ratliff, Timothy L

    2015-12-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature cells that expand during benign and cancer-associated inflammation and are characterized by their ability to inhibit T cell immunity. Increased metabolism of l-Arginine (l-Arg), through the enzymes arginase 1 and NO synthase 2 (NOS2), is well documented as a major MDSC suppressive mechanism. Therefore, we hypothesized that restricting MDSC uptake of l-Arg is a critical control point to modulate their suppressor activity. Using murine models of prostate-specific inflammation and cancer, we have identified the mechanisms by which extracellular l-Arg is transported into MDSCs. We have shown that MDSCs recruited to localized inflammation and tumor sites upregulate cationic amino acid transporter 2 (Cat2), coordinately with Arg1 and Nos2. Cat2 expression is not induced in MDSCs in peripheral organs. CAT2 contributes to the transport of l-Arg in MDSCs and is an important regulator of MDSC suppressive function. MDSCs that lack CAT2 have significantly reduced suppressive ability ex vivo and display impaired capacity for regulating T cell responses in vivo as evidenced by increased T cell expansion and decreased tumor growth in Cat2(-/-) mice. The abrogation of suppressive function is due to low intracellular l-Arg levels, which leads to the impaired ability of NOS2 to catalyze l-Arg-dependent metabolic processes. Together, these findings demonstrate that CAT2 modulates MDSC function. In the absence of CAT2, MDSCs display diminished capacity for controlling T cell immunity in prostate inflammation and cancer models, where the loss of CAT2 results in enhanced antitumor activity.

  12. The vesicle size of DDA:TDB liposomal adjuvants plays a role in the cell-mediated immune response but has no significant effect on antibody production.

    PubMed

    Henriksen-Lacey, Malou; Devitt, Andrew; Perrie, Yvonne

    2011-09-05

    The use of cationic liposomes as experimental adjuvants for subunit peptide of protein vaccines is well documented. Recently the cationic liposome CAF01, composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) and trehalose dibehenate (TDB), has entered Phase I clinical trials for use in a tuberculosis (TB) vaccine. CAF01 liposomes are a heterogeneous population with a mean vesicle size of 500 nm; a strong retention of antigen at the injection site and a Th1-biassed immune response are noted. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether CAF01 liposomes of significantly different vesicle sizes exhibited altered pharmacokinetics in vivo and cellular uptake with activation in vitro. Furthermore, the immune response against the TB antigen Ag85B-ESAT-6 was followed when various sized CAF01 liposomes were used as vaccine adjuvants. The results showed no differences in vaccine (liposome or antigen) draining from the injection site, however, significant differences in the movement of liposomes to the popliteal lymph node were noted. Liposome uptake by THP-1 vitamin D3 stimulated macrophage-like cells did not show a liposome size-dependent pattern of uptake. Finally, whilst there were no significant differences in the IgG1/2 regardless of the liposome size used as a delivery vehicle for Ag85B-ESAT-6, vesicle size has a size dependent effect on cell proliferation and IL-10 production with larger liposomes (in excess of 2 μm) promoting the highest proliferation and lowest IL-10 responses, yet vesicles of ~500 nm promoting higher IFN-γ cytokine production from splenocytes and higher IL-1β at the site of injection.

  13. The evaluation of candidate biomarkers of cell-mediated immunity for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Goosen, Wynand J; Cooper, David; Warren, Robin M; Miller, Michele A; van Helden, Paul D; Parsons, Sven D C

    2014-12-15

    We evaluated commercially available bovine enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and a human IP-10 ELISA to measure IP-10, MIG, MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3 and IL1-RA in buffalo plasma in order to identify sensitive markers of the immune response to Mycobacterium bovis-specific peptides. Additionally, we found that all coding mRNA sequences of these cytokines showed very high homology with their homologues in domestic cattle (97-99%) as did the derived amino acid sequences (97-99%). This high sequence homology between cattle and buffaloes supports the use of bovine ELISAs for the detection these cytokines in buffaloes. MCP-1 concentration showed a positive correlation with that of IFN-γ (p=0.0077) and appears to occur in far greater abundance in buffaloes when compared to humans. Using a bovine IP-10 ELISA, levels of this cytokine were found to be significantly increased in antigen-stimulated blood samples from M. bovis test positive buffaloes (p<0.0001) and IP-10 was detected in far greater abundance than IFN-γ. Measurement of IP-10 with this ELISA may prove to be a sensitive marker of M. bovis infection in African buffaloes.

  14. Experimental studies of immunologically mediated enteropathy. Development of cell mediated immunity and intestinal pathology during a graft-versus-host reaction in irradiated mice.

    PubMed Central

    Mowat, A M; Felstein, M V; Borland, A; Parrott, D M

    1988-01-01

    The intestinal component of a graft-versus-host reaction (GvHR) provides a useful experimental model to elucidate the pathogenesis of clinical enteropathies which cause villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia and which are associated with a local immune response. One to three days after induction of GvHR in heavily irradiated (CBAxBALB/c)F1 mice, a proliferative form of enteropathy developed. Compared with controls, these mice had increased counts of jejunal intraepithelial lymphocytes and had a four-fold increase in crypt cell production rate as well as an increase in crypt length. These changes were accompanied by a marked enhancement of splenic natural killer cell activity. After day three, the crypt cell production rate fell to zero and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) which could lyse targets of host origin appeared. In parallel, mice with GvHR developed significant villus shortening and their clinical condition deteriorated. Further experiments showed that increased counts of intraepithelial lymphocytes, villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia also occurred in grafts of fetal CBA intestine implanted under the kidney capsule of (CBAxBALB/c)F1 mice with GvHR. As these grafts are syngeneic to the injected CBA spleen cells, they should not be attacked by anti-host cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We suggest that the proliferative and destructive components of enteropathy in GvHR are caused by lymphokines released by an anti-host delayed type hypersensitivity reaction. PMID:3294125

  15. Alleviation of collagen-induced arthritis by the benzoxathiole derivative BOT-4-one in mice: Implication of the Th1- and Th17-cell-mediated immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Hak; Yoon, Bo Ruem; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Noh, Kum Hee; Kwon, Sun-Ho; Yi, Eun Hee; Lee, Hyun Gyu; Choi, Jung Sook; Kang, Seong Wook; Park, In-Chul; Lee, Won-Woo; Ye, Sang-Kyu

    2016-06-15

    Autoimmune rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by chronic inflammation and hyperplasia in the synovial joints. Although the cause of rheumatoid arthritis is largely unknown, substantial evidence has supported the importance of immune cells and inflammatory cytokines in the initiation and progression of this disease. Herein, we demonstrated that the benzoxathiole derivative 2-cyclohexylimino-6-methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-benzo[1,3]oxathiol-4-one (BOT-4-one) alleviated type II collagen-induced arthritis in a mouse model. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated in both human patients with rheumatoid arthritis and mice with collagen-induced arthritis. BOT-4-one treatment reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice and endotoxin-stimulated macrophages. BOT-4-one treatment suppressed the polarization of Th1- and Th17-cell subsets by inhibiting the expression and production of their lineage-specific master transcription factors and cytokines, as well as activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins. In addition, BOT-4-one inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-kappaB signaling as well as the transcriptional activities and DNA-binding of transcription factors, including activator protein-1, cAMP response element-binding protein and NF-kappaB. Our results suggest that BOT-4-one may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of chronic inflammation associated with autoimmune rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. WI-1, a novel 120-kilodalton surface protein on Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast cells, is a target antigen of cell-mediated immunity in human blastomycosis.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, B S; Sondel, P M; Jones, J M

    1992-01-01

    A large body of experimental data has demonstrated the central role of T cells in acquired resistance to the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. We examined the human T-cell response to WI-1, a 120-kDa B. dermatitidis yeast cell surface protein recently shown to be an immunodominant antigen of the B-cell response in infected humans. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 10 blastomycosis patients studied proliferated in response to WI-1 (mean, 19,431 cpm) and to the standard, crude cell wall antigen, Blastomyces alkali- and water-soluble antigen (B-ASWS) (mean, 19,131 cpm); lymphocytes from 10 histoplasmosis patients and 10 normal control subjects did not respond to WI-1. WI-1 stimulation of patient lymphocytes and rechallenge with WI-1 or B-ASWS showed that the antigens share immunodominant epitopes. Of 100 WI-1-responsive T-cell clones derived from peripheral blood, 10 were studied in detail to assess the phenotype, function, and ligands recognized. The clones exhibit the CD3+ CD4+ phenotype of helper T cells; 2 of 10 clones (and 21% of antigen-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes) use the V beta 8 T-cell receptor gene element to respond to WI-1. All the clones proliferate in response to both WI-1 and B-ASWS but not other fungal antigens, and some mediate potent cytolytic effects on WI-1- and B-ASWS-labeled targets. WI-1 recognition requires antigen processing and presentation of epitopes in association with HLA-DR (to noncytolytic clones) and HLA-DP (to cytolytic clones). From these findings, we conclude that CD4+ T cells with regulatory and cytolytic properties are involved in the development of acquired resistance of B. dermatitidis, that the cells are directed against WI-1, and that the manner of display of WI-1 peptide epitopes in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex class II may influence the profile of the immune response. PMID:1383148

  17. The effects of reduced gluten barley diet on humoral and cell-mediated systemic immune responses of gluten-sensitive rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Sestak, Karol; Thwin, Hazel; Dufour, Jason; Aye, Pyone P; Liu, David X; Moehs, Charles P

    2015-03-06

    Celiac disease (CD) affects approximately 1% of the general population while an estimated additional 6% suffers from a recently characterized, rapidly emerging, similar disease, referred to as non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires removal of gluten sources from the diet. Since required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop alternative treatments have been intensifying in recent years. In this study, the non-human primate model of CD/NCGS, e.g., gluten-sensitive rhesus macaque, was utilized with the objective to evaluate the treatment potential of reduced gluten cereals using a reduced gluten (RG; 1% of normal gluten) barley mutant as a model. Conventional and RG barleys were used for the formulation of experimental chows and fed to gluten-sensitive (GS) and control macaques to determine if RG barley causes a remission of dietary gluten-induced clinical and immune responses in GS macaques. The impacts of the RG barley diet were compared with the impacts of the conventional barley-containing chow and the GFD. Although remission of the anti-gliadin antibody (AGA) serum responses and an improvement of clinical diarrhea were noted after switching the conventional to the RG barley diet, production of inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) by peripheral CD4+ T helper lymphocytes, persisted during the RG chow treatment and were partially abolished only upon re-administration of the GFD. It was concluded that the RG barley diet might be used for the partial improvement of gluten-induced disease but its therapeutic value still requires upgrading-by co-administration of additional treatments.

  18. Successful Therapy of Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis with Astrakurkurone, a Triterpene Isolated from the Mushroom Astraeus hygrometricus, Involves the Induction of Protective Cell-Mediated Immunity and TLR9

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Suvadip; Dutta, Aritri; Chaudhuri, Ankur; Mukherjee, Debasri; Dey, Somaditya; Halder, Subhadra; Ghosh, Joydip; Mukherjee, Debarati; Sultana, Sirin Salma; Biswas, Gunjan; Lai, Tapan Kumar; Patra, Pradyumna; Sarkar, Indranil; Chakraborty, Sibani; Saha, Bhaskar; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    In our previous report, we showed that astrakurkurone, a triterpene isolated from the Indian mushroom Astraeus hygrometricus (Pers.) Morgan, induced reactive oxygen species, leading to apoptosis in Leishmania donovani promastigotes, and also was effective in inhibiting intracellular amastigotes at the 50% inhibitory concentration of 2.5 μg/ml. The aim of the present study is to characterize the associated immunomodulatory potentials and cellular activation provided by astrakurkurone, leading to effective antileishmanial activity in vitro and in vivo. Astrakurkurone-mediated antileishmanial activity was evaluated by real-time PCR and flow cytometry. The involvement of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) was studied by in vitro assay in the presence of a TLR9 agonist and antagonist and by in silico modeling of a three-dimensional structure of the ectodomain of TLR9 and its interaction with astrakurkurone. Astrakurkurone caused a significant increase in TLR9 expression of L. donovani-infected macrophages along with the activation of proinflammatory responses. The involvement of TLR9 in astrakurkurone-mediated amastigote killing has been evidenced from the fact that a TLR9 agonist (CpG, ODN 1826) in combination with astrakurkurone enhanced the amastigote killing, while a TLR9 antagonist (bafilomycin A1) alone or in combination with astrakurkurone curbed the amastigote killing, which could be further justified by in silico evidence of docking between mouse TLR9 and astrakurkurone. Astrakurkurone was found to reduce the parasite burden in vivo by inducing protective cytokines, gamma interferon and interleukin 17. Moreover, astrakurkurone was nontoxic toward peripheral blood mononuclear cells of immunocompromised patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Astrakurkurone, a nontoxic antileishmanial, enhances the immune efficiency of host cells, leading to parasite clearance in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26883702

  19. The Effects of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet on Humoral and Cell-Mediated Systemic Immune Responses of Gluten-Sensitive Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Sestak, Karol; Thwin, Hazel; Dufour, Jason; Aye, Pyone P.; Liu, David X.; Moehs, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) affects approximately 1% of the general population while an estimated additional 6% suffers from a recently characterized, rapidly emerging, similar disease, referred to as non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires removal of gluten sources from the diet. Since required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop alternative treatments have been intensifying in recent years. In this study, the non-human primate model of CD/NCGS, e.g., gluten-sensitive rhesus macaque, was utilized with the objective to evaluate the treatment potential of reduced gluten cereals using a reduced gluten (RG; 1% of normal gluten) barley mutant as a model. Conventional and RG barleys were used for the formulation of experimental chows and fed to gluten-sensitive (GS) and control macaques to determine if RG barley causes a remission of dietary gluten-induced clinical and immune responses in GS macaques. The impacts of the RG barley diet were compared with the impacts of the conventional barley-containing chow and the GFD. Although remission of the anti-gliadin antibody (AGA) serum responses and an improvement of clinical diarrhea were noted after switching the conventional to the RG barley diet, production of inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) by peripheral CD4+ T helper lymphocytes, persisted during the RG chow treatment and were partially abolished only upon re-administration of the GFD. It was concluded that the RG barley diet might be used for the partial improvement of gluten-induced disease but its therapeutic value still requires upgrading—by co-administration of additional treatments. PMID:25756783

  20. Changes in humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and in skin and respiratory surfaces of catfish, Saccobranchus fossilis, following copper exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Tripathi, D.M. )

    1991-12-01

    Immunologic responses and stereoscan analysis of the skin and gill surfaces were performed in the air-breathing catfish, Saccobranchus fossilis (Bloch) following sublethal exposure to copper. At 0.056, 0.1, and 0.32 mg/liter of Cu, a dose-dependent decrease in red and white blood cell counts, hemoglobin content, and packed cell volume values were observed at the end of experiment, i.e., 28 days. Fish exposed to Cu concentrations had lower antibody titer values, reduced numbers of splenic and kidney plaque-forming cells, and higher counts of splenic lymphocytes when compared to the control group. Cellular immune responses were evaluated by the rejection of eye allografts. Fish exposed to 0.32 mg/liter for 28 days showed 2-3 days delay in the eye-allograft rejection. Reduced phagocytic activity against sheep red blood cells was observed in Cu-treated fish. Exposure to 0.32 mg/liter of Cu for 7 days causes surface architectural abnormalities in the arrangement of microvilli on the surface of superficial epidermal cells of the skin. Hypersecretion of mucous, loss of shape, size, and structural arrangement of epidermal cells, and mucous goblet cells were observed following Cu exposure. An increased number of active tubular dilated mucous cells were also noticed. Accumulation of mucous suggests a molecular interaction between mucous glycoproteins and toxic Cu ions. Fish exposed to 0.32 mg/liter for 7 days showed edema, fusion of secondary gill lamellae at many places, and degeneration of epithelial cells. Marked ultrastructural alterations in the arrangement of microridges and intervening grooves of gill lamellae were noted. It is suggested that these degenerative changes in gill lamellae are responsible for respiratory and osmoregulatory dysfunction.

  1. Selective induction of cell-mediated immunity and protection of rhesus macaques from chronic SHIV{sub KU2} infection by prophylactic vaccination with a conserved HIV-1 envelope peptide-cocktail

    SciTech Connect

    Nehete, Pramod N.; Nehete, Bharti P.; Hill, Lori; Manuri, Pallavi R.; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Feng Lei; Simmons, Johnny; Sastry, K. Jagannadha

    2008-01-05

    Infection of Indian-origin rhesus macaques by the simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) is considered to be a suitable preclinical model for directly testing efficacy of vaccine candidates based on the HIV-1 envelope. We used this model for prophylactic vaccination with a peptide-cocktail comprised of highly conserved HIV-1 envelope sequences immunogenic/antigenic in macaques and humans. Separate groups of macaques were immunized with the peptide-cocktail by intravenous and subcutaneous routes using autologous dendritic cells (DC) and Freund's adjuvant, respectively. The vaccine elicited antigen specific IFN-{gamma}-producing cells and T-cell proliferation, but not HIV-neutralizing antibodies. The vaccinated animals also exhibited efficient cross-clade cytolytic activity against target cells expressing envelope proteins corresponding to HIV-1 strains representative of multiple clades that increased after intravenous challenge with pathogenic SHIV{sub KU2}. Virus-neutralizing antibodies were either undetectable or present only transiently at low levels in the control as well as vaccinated monkeys after infection. Significant control of plasma viremia leading to undetectable levels was achieved in majority of vaccinated monkeys compared to mock-vaccinated controls. Monkeys vaccinated with the peptide-cocktail using autologous DC, compared to Freund's adjuvant, and the mock-vaccinated animals, showed significantly higher IFN-{gamma} production, higher levels of vaccine-specific IFN-{gamma} producing CD4{sup +} cells and significant control of plasma viremia. These results support DC-based vaccine delivery and the utility of the conserved HIV-1 envelope peptide-cocktail, capable of priming strong cell-mediated immunity, for potential inclusion in HIV vaccination strategies.

  2. Increased expression of programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligand PD-L1 correlates with impaired cell-mediated immunity in high-risk human papillomavirus-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Song, Yan; Lu, Yun-Long; Sun, Jun-Zhong; Wang, Hong-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Impaired local cellular immunity contributes to the pathogenesis of persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, the programmed death 1/programmed death 1 ligand (PD-1/PD-L1; CD279/CD274) pathway was demonstrated to play a critical role in attenuating T-cell responses and promoting T-cell tolerance during chronic viral infections. In this study, we examined the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 on cervical T cells and dendritic cells (DCs), respectively, from 40 women who were HR-HPV-negative (-) or HR-HPV-positive (+) with CIN grades 0, I and II-III. We also measured interferon-γ, interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-10 in cervical exudates. The most common HPV type was HPV 16, followed by HPV 18, 33, 51 and 58. PD-1 and PD-L1 expression on cervical T cells and DCs, respectively, was associated with HR-HPV positivity and increased in parallel with increasing CIN grade. The opposite pattern was observed for CD80 and CD86 expression on DCs, which decreased in HR-HPV+ patients in parallel with increasing CIN grade. Similarly, reduced levels of the T helper type 1 cytokines interferon-γ and IL-12 and increased levels of the T helper type 2 cytokine IL-10 in cervical exudates correlated with HR-HPV positivity and CIN grade. Our results suggest that up-regulation of the inhibitory PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may negatively regulate cervical cell-mediated immunity to HPV and contribute to the progression of HR-HPV-related CIN. These results may aid in the development of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway-based strategies for immunotherapy of HR-HPV-related CIN.

  3. Transmembrane TNF induces an efficient cell-mediated immunity and resistance to Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin infection in the absence of secreted TNF and lymphotoxin-alpha.

    PubMed

    Olleros, Maria L; Guler, Reto; Corazza, Nadia; Vesin, Dominique; Eugster, Hans-Pietro; Marchal, Gilles; Chavarot, Pierre; Mueller, Christoph; Garcia, Irene

    2002-04-01

    The contribution of a transmembrane (Tm) form of TNF to protective immunity against Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) was studied in transgenic (tg) mice expressing a noncleavable Tm TNF but lacking the TNF/lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha) locus (Tm TNF tg mice). These mice were as resistant to BCG infection as wild-type mice, whereas TNF/LT-alpha(-/-), TNF(-/-), and LT-alpha(-/-) mice succumbed. Tm TNF tg mice developed granulomas of smaller size but at 2- to 4-fold increased frequencies compared with wild-type mice. Granulomas were mainly formed by monocytes and activated macrophages expressing Tm TNF mRNA and accumulating acid phosphatase. NO synthase 2 activation as a key macrophage bactericidal mechanism was low during the acute phase of infection in Tm TNF tg mice but was still sufficient to limit bacterial growth and increased in late infection. While infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis resulted in very rapid death of TNF/LT-alpha(-/-) mice, it also resulted in survival of Tm TNF tg mice which presented an increase in the number of CFU in spleen (5-fold) and lungs (10-fold) as compared with bacterial load of wild-type mice. In conclusion, the Tm form of TNF induces an efficient cell-mediated immunity and total resistance against BCG even in the absence of LT-alpha and secreted TNF. However, Tm TNF-mediated protection against virulent M. tuberculosis infection can also be efficient but not as strong as in BCG infection, in which cognate cellular interactions may play a more predominant role in providing long-term surveillance and containment of BCG-infected macrophages.

  4. Passive adoptive transfer of antitumor immunity induced by laser-dye-immunoadjuvant treatment in a rat metastatic breast cancer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong; Singhal, Anil K.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2000-06-01

    The ideal cancer treatment modalities should not only cause tumor regression and eradication but also induce a systemic anti-tumor immunity. This is essential for control of metastatic tumors and for long-term tumor resistance. Laser immunotherapy using a laser, a laser-absorbing dye and an immunoadjuvant has induced such a long-term immunity in treatment of a mammary metastatic tumor. The successfully treated rats established total resistance to multiple subsequent tumor challenges. For further mechanistic studies of the antitumor immunity induced by this novel treatment modality, passive adoptive transfer was performed using splenocytes as immune cells. The spleen cells harvested from successfully treated tumor-bearing rats provided 100% immunity in the naive recipients. The passively protected first cohort rats were immune to tumor challenge with an increased tumor dose; their splenocytes also prevented the establishment of tumor in the second cohort of naive recipient rats. This immunity transfer was accomplished without the usually required T-cell suppression in recipients.

  5. New drug targets in depression: inflammatory, cell-mediated immune, oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial, antioxidant, and neuroprogressive pathways. And new drug candidates--Nrf2 activators and GSK-3 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Maes, Michael; Fišar, Zdenĕk; Medina, Miguel; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Nowak, Gabriel; Berk, Michael

    2012-06-01

    This paper reviews new drug targets in the treatment of depression and new drug candidates to treat depression. Depression is characterized by aberrations in six intertwined pathways: (1) inflammatory pathways as indicated by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, e.g. interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor α. (2) Activation of cell-mediated immune pathways as indicated by an increased production of interferon γ and neopterin. (3) Increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and damage by oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), including lipid peroxidation, damage to DNA, proteins and mitochondria. (4) Lowered levels of key antioxidants, such as coenzyme Q10, zinc, vitamin E, glutathione, and glutathione peroxidase. (5) Damage to mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA and reduced activity of respiratory chain enzymes and adenosine triphosphate production. (6) Neuroprogression, which is the progressive process of neurodegeneration, apoptosis, and reduced neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity, phenomena that are probably caused by inflammation and O&NS. Antidepressants tend to normalize the above six pathways. Targeting these pathways has the potential to yield antidepressant effects, e.g. using cytokine antagonists, minocycline, Cox-2 inhibitors, statins, acetylsalicylic acid, ketamine, ω3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and neurotrophic factors. These six pathways offer new, pathophysiologically guided drug targets suggesting that novel therapies could be developed that target these six pathways simultaneously. Both nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) activators and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitors target the six above-mentioned pathways. GSK-3 inhibitors have antidepressant effects in animal models of depression. Nrf2 activators and GSK-3 inhibitors have the potential to be advanced to phase-2 clinical trials to examine whether they augment the efficacy of antidepressants or are useful as monotherapy.

  6. Varicella-zoster virus-specific, cell-mediated immunity with interferon-gamma release assay after vaccination of college students with no or intermediate IgG antibody response.

    PubMed

    Terada, Kihei; Itoh, Yuri; Fujii, Akihide; Kitagawa, Seiko; Ogita, Satoko; Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2015-02-01

    This study measured Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and antibodies to clarify immune response after vaccination in 68 college students with negative or intermediate IgG antibody status. The enrolled numbers of negative, intermediate, and positive VZV-IgG antibody were 27, 41, and 28 students, respectively. The positive rates of CMI were 3.7% (1/27), 41.5% (17/41), and 96.4% (27/28) before vaccination, respectively. After vaccination, the IgG antibody titers became significantly higher in the intermediate IgG group compared to those in the negative IgG group (P < 0.01), but CMI did not differ significantly between the two groups. Ninety-three percent (38/41) of the intermediate IgG antibody group and 41% (11/27) of the negative IgG antibody group became positive for the IgG antibody after vaccination (P < 0.0001). When subjects were divided into negative, intermediate, and positive CMI by interferon-gamma values before vaccination, the IgG antibody and interferon-gamma values increased significantly in the positive CMI group compared to the negative CMI group after vaccination (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). All (17/17) of positive CMI group and 61% (27/44) of negative CMI group became positive for the IgG antibody after vaccination (P < 0.01). Ninety-four percent (16/17) of positive CMI group and 59% (28/44) of negative CMI group became positive for CMI after vaccination (P < 0.05). Ninety-six percent (22/23) of the subjects with a history of vaccination became IgG seropositive after a second dose of vaccination, but 22% (5/23) of them remained negative for CMI. CMI is valuable information to identify potential non-responders to vaccination and to predict risk of clinical VZV infection.

  7. Regulatory T cells attenuate Th17 cell-mediated nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Ashley D.; Stone, David K.; Hutter, Jessica A.L.; Benner, Eric J.; Mosley, R. Lee; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrated alpha synuclein (N-α-syn) immunization elicits adaptive immune responses to novel antigenic epitopes that exacerbate neuroinflammation and nigrostriatal degeneration in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson's disease (PD). We show that such neuroimmune degenerative activities, in significant measure, are Th17 cell-mediated with CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell (Treg) dysfunction seen amongst populations of N-α-syn induced T cells. In contrast, purified vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-induced and natural Treg reversed N-α-syn T cell nigrostriatal degeneration. Combinations of adoptively transferred N-α-syn and VIP immunocytes or natural Treg administered to MPTP mice attenuated microglial inflammatory responses and led to robust nigrostriatal protection. Taken together, these results demonstrate a putative mechanism for Treg control of N-α-syn-induced neurodestructive immunity and as such provide a sound rationale for future PD immunization strategies. PMID:20118279

  8. Mast Cell-Mediated Mechanisms of Nociception.

    PubMed

    Aich, Anupam; Afrin, Lawrence B; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-12-04

    Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that release immuno-modulators, chemo-attractants, vasoactive compounds, neuropeptides and growth factors in response to allergens and pathogens constituting a first line of host defense. The neuroimmune interface of immune cells modulating synaptic responses has been of increasing interest, and mast cells have been proposed as key players in orchestrating inflammation-associated pain pathobiology due to their proximity to both vasculature and nerve fibers. Molecular underpinnings of mast cell-mediated pain can be disease-specific. Understanding such mechanisms is critical for developing disease-specific targeted therapeutics to improve analgesic outcomes. We review molecular mechanisms that may contribute to nociception in a disease-specific manner.

  9. Mast Cell-Mediated Mechanisms of Nociception

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Anupam; Afrin, Lawrence B.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that release immuno-modulators, chemo-attractants, vasoactive compounds, neuropeptides and growth factors in response to allergens and pathogens constituting a first line of host defense. The neuroimmune interface of immune cells modulating synaptic responses has been of increasing interest, and mast cells have been proposed as key players in orchestrating inflammation-associated pain pathobiology due to their proximity to both vasculature and nerve fibers. Molecular underpinnings of mast cell-mediated pain can be disease-specific. Understanding such mechanisms is critical for developing disease-specific targeted therapeutics to improve analgesic outcomes. We review molecular mechanisms that may contribute to nociception in a disease-specific manner. PMID:26690128

  10. The other way around: probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 restrict progression of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice via activiation of CD8 alpha+ immune cell-mediated immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the immune-modulating effects of feeding a novel probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD) in rumi...

  11. Effects of injectable trace minerals on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to Bovine viral diarrhea virus, Bovine herpes virus 1 and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus following administration of a modified-live virus vaccine in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Palomares, R A; Hurley, D J; Bittar, J H J; Saliki, J T; Woolums, A R; Moliere, F; Havenga, L J; Norton, N A; Clifton, S J; Sigmund, A B; Barber, C E; Berger, M L; Clark, M J; Fratto, M A

    2016-10-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of an injectable trace mineral (ITM) supplement containing zinc, manganese, selenium, and copper on the humoral and cell mediated immune (CMI) responses to vaccine antigens in dairy calves receiving a modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine containing BVDV, BHV1, PI3V and BRSV. A total of 30 dairy calves (3.5 months of age) were administered a priming dose of the MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BVDV1 & 2, BRSV, PI3V, and an attenuated-live Mannheimia-Pasteurella bacterin subcutaneously (SQ). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) administration of ITM SQ (ITM, n=15) or (2) injection of sterile saline SQ (Control; n=15). Three weeks later, calves received a booster of the same vaccine combination SQ, and a second administration of ITM, or sterile saline, according to the treatment group. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 90 post-vaccination for determination of antibody titer, viral recall antigen-induced IFN-γ production, and viral antigen-induced proliferation by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination resulted in higher antibody titers to BVDV1 on day 28 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.03). Calves treated with ITM showed an earlier enhancement in PBMC proliferation to BVDV1 following vaccination compared to the control group. Proliferation of PBMC after BVDV stimulation tended to be higher on day 14 after priming vaccination in calves treated with ITM than in the control group (P=0.08). Calves that received ITM showed higher PBMC proliferation to BRSV stimulation on day 7 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.01). Moreover, calves in the ITM group also had an enhanced production IFN-γ by PBMC after stimulation with BRSV on day 21 after priming vaccination compared to day 0 (P<0.01). In conclusion, administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination in dairy calves

  12. Adoptive transfer of tracer alloreactive CD4(+) TCR-transgenic T cells alters the endogenous immune response to an allograft.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michelle L; Chen, Jianjun; Daniels, Melvin D; McKeague, Matthew G; Wang, Ying; Yin, Dengping; Vu, Vinh; Chong, Anita S; Alegre, Maria-Luisa

    2016-04-11

    T cell receptor transgenic (TCR-Tg) T cells are often used as tracer populations of antigen-specific responses to extrapolate findings to endogenous T cells. The extent to which TCR-Tg T cells behave purely as tracer cells or modify the endogenous immune response is not clear. To test the impact of TCR-Tg T cell transfer on endogenous alloimmunity, recipient mice were seeded with CD4(+) or CD8(+) TCR-Tg or polyclonal T cells at the time of cardiac allograft transplantation. Only CD4(+) TCR-Tg T cells accelerated rejection, and unexpectedly led to a dose-dependent decrease in both transferred and endogenous T cells infiltrating the graft. In contrast, recipients of CD4(+) TCR-Tg cell exhibited enhanced endogenous donor-specific CD8(+) T-cell activation in the spleen and accelerated alloantibody production. Introduction of CD4(+) TCR-Tg T cells also perturbed the intra-graft accumulation of innate cell populations. Thus, transferred CD4(+) TCR-Tg T cells alter many aspects of endogenous alloimmunity, suggesting that caution should be used when interpreting experiments utilizing these adoptively-transferred cells, as the overall nature of allograft rejection may be altered. These results may also have implications for adoptive CD4(+) T cell immunotherapy in tumor and infectious clinical settings as cell infusion may have additional effects on natural immune responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Prophylactic Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) Vaccines Adjuvanted with Stable Emulsion and Toll-Like Receptor 9 Agonist Induce a Robust HSV-2-Specific Cell-Mediated Immune Response, Protect against Symptomatic Disease, and Reduce the Latent Viral Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Michael T; Marshall, Jason D; Dorwart, Michael R; Heeke, Darren S; Rao, Eileen; Tummala, Padmaja; Yu, Li; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Sloan, Derek D

    2017-02-22

    glycoproteins necessary for HSV-2 viral entry as target antigens, and to which the dominant neutralizing antibody response is directed during natural infection. Individuals with asymptomatic infection have exhibited T-cell responses against specific HSV-2 antigens not observed in symptomatic individuals. We describe for the first time the immunogenicity profile in animal models of UL40, a novel HSV-2 T-cell antigen that has been correlated with asymptomatic HSV-2 disease. Additionally, vaccine candidates adjuvanted by a robust formulation of CpG oligonucleotide delivered in emulsion were superior to unadjuvanted or MPL/alum-adjuvanted formulations at eliciting a robust cell mediated immune response and blocking establishment of a latent viral reservoir in the guinea pig challenge model of HSV-2 infection.

  14. Extending the lifespan and efficacies of immune cells used in adoptive transfer for cancer immunotherapies-A review.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Sandeep; Dasgupta, Prokar; Galustian, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Cells used in adoptive cell-transfer immunotherapies against cancer include dendritic cells (DCs), natural-killer cells, and CD8(+) T-cells. These cells may have limited efficacy due to their lifespan, activity, and immunosuppressive effects of tumor cells. Therefore, increasing longevity and activity of these cells may boost their efficacy. Four cytokines that can extend immune effector-cell longevity are IL-2, IL-7, IL-21, and IL-15. This review will discuss current knowledge on effector-cell lifespans and the mechanisms by which IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 can extend effector-cell longevity. We will also discuss how lifespan and efficacy of these cells can be regulated to allow optimal clinical benefits.

  15. Hymenolepis nana: adoptive transfer of protective immunity and delayed type hypersensitivity response with mesenteric lymph node cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Asano, K; Muramatsu, K; Okamoto, K

    1991-01-01

    A marked degree of footpad swelling was observed in BALB/c mice infected with Hymenolepis nana eggs, when soluble egg antigen was injected into their footpads 4 to 21 days after the egg infection, indicating delayed type hypersensitivity responses in infected mice. Adoptive transfer with mesenteric lymph node cells from donor mice (BALB/c strain; +/+) infected with eggs 4 days before cell collection could confer this hypersensitivity to recipient nude mice (BALB/c strain; nu/nu). These mesenteric lymph node cells were then divided into two fractions, blast-enriched and blast-depleted cells, by density gradient centrifugation with Percoll. The recipients intravenously injected with the blast-depleted cell fraction showed a marked increase in footpad thickness, whereas the intravenous transfer of the blast-enriched cell fraction resulted in an insignificant increase in footpad thickness. The transfer of the blast-enriched cell fraction, but not of the blast-depleted cell fraction, conferred a strong adoptive immunity on syngeneic recipient nude mice, when the immunity transferred was assessed by examining cysticercoids developed in the intestinal villi on Day 4 of challenge infection. The lack of delayed type hypersensitivity response in mice that received the blast-enriched cell population was not due to a lack of the capacity of the cells to induce the response, because the cells were capable of inducing a significant increase in thickness of footpads of normal mice when these cells were locally injected into the footpad together with soluble egg antigen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Cell-mediated immune responses in healthy children with a history of subclinical infection with Japanese encephalitis virus: analysis of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell target specificities by intracellular delivery of viral proteins using the human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein transduction domain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Priti; Krishna, Venkatramana D; Sulochana, Paramadevanapalli; Nirmala, Gejjehalli; Haridattatreya, Maganti; Satchidanandam, Vijaya

    2004-02-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, is the major cause of paediatric encephalitis in Asia. The high incidence of subclinical infections in Japanese encephalitis-endemic areas and subsequent evasion of encephalitis points to the development of immune responses against JEV. Humoral responses play a central role in protection against JEV; however, cell-mediated immune responses contributing to this end are not fully understood. The structural envelope (E) protein, the major inducer of neutralizing antibodies, is a poor target for T cells in natural JEV infections. The extent to which JEV non-structural proteins are targeted by T cells in subclinically infected healthy children would help to elucidate the role of cell-mediated immunity in protection against JEV as well as other flaviviral infections. The property of the Tat peptide of Human immunodeficiency virus to transduce proteins across cell membranes, facilitating intracellular protein delivery following exogenous addition to cultured cells, prompted us to express the four largest proteins of JEV, comprising 71 % of the JEV genome coding sequence, as Tat fusions for enumerating the frequencies of virus-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in JEV-immune donors. At least two epitopes recognized by distinct HLA alleles were found on each of the non-structural proteins, with dominant antiviral Th1 T cell responses to the NS3 protein in nearly 96 % of the cohort. The data presented here show that non-structural proteins are frequently targeted by T cells in natural JEV infections and may be efficacious supplements for the predominantly antibody-eliciting E-based JEV vaccines.

  17. Molecular imaging of cell-mediated cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lucignani, Giovanni; Ottobrini, Luisa; Martelli, Cristina; Rescigno, Maria; Clerici, Mario

    2006-09-01

    New strategies based on the activation of a patient's immune response are being sought to complement present conventional exogenous cancer therapies. Elucidating the trafficking pathways of immune cells in vivo, together with their migratory properties in relation to their differentiation and activation status, is useful for understanding how the immune system interacts with cancer. Methods based on tissue sampling to monitor immune responses are inadequate for repeatedly characterizing the responses of the immune system in different organs. A solution to this problem might come from molecular and cellular imaging - a branch of biomedical sciences that combines biotechnology and imaging methods to characterize, in vivo, the molecular and cellular processes involved in normal and pathologic states. The general concepts of noninvasive imaging of targeted cells as well as the technology and probes applied to cell-mediated cancer immunotherapy imaging are outlined in this review.

  18. Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by adoptive immunotherapy. Requirement for T cell-deficient recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Orme, I.M.; Collins, F.M.

    1983-07-01

    The results of this study demonstrate that spleen cells taken from mice at the height of the primary immune response to intravenous infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis possess the capacity to transfer adoptive protection to M. tuberculosis-infected recipients, but only if these recipients are first rendered T cell-deficient, either by thymectomy and gamma irradiation, or by sublethal irradiation. A similar requirement was necessary to demonstrate the adoptive protection of the lungs after exposure to an acute aerosol-delivered M. tuberculosis infection. In both infectious models successful adoptive immunotherapy was shown to be mediated by T lymphocytes, which were acquired in the donor animals in response to the immunizing infection. It is proposed that the results of this study may serve as a basic model for the subsequent analysis of the nature of the T cell-mediated immune response to both systemic and aerogenic infections with M. tuberculosis.

  19. Mucosal priming of newborn mice with S. Typhi Ty21a expressing anthrax protective antigen (PA) followed by parenteral PA-boost induces B and T cell-mediated immunity that protects against infection bypassing maternal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Karina; Ditamo, Yanina; Galen, James E; Baillie, Les W J; Pasetti, Marcela F

    2010-08-23

    The currently licensed anthrax vaccine has several limitations and its efficacy has been proven only in adults. Effective immunization of newborns and infants requires adequate stimulation of their immune system, which is competent but not fully activated. We explored the use of the licensed live attenuated S. Typhi vaccine strain Ty21a expressing Bacillus anthracis protective antigen [Ty21a(PA)] followed PA-alum as a strategy for immunizing the pediatric population. Newborn mice primed with a single dose of Ty21a(PA) exhibited high frequencies of mucosal IgA-secreting B cells and IFN-gamma-secreting T cells during the neonatal period, none of which was detected in newborns immunized with a single dose of PA-alum. Priming with Ty21a(PA) followed by PA-boost resulted in high levels of PA-specific IgG, toxin neutralizing and opsonophagocytic antibodies and increased frequency of bone marrow IgG plasma cells and memory B cells compared with repeated immunization with PA-alum alone. Robust B and T cell responses developed even in the presence of maternal antibodies. The prime-boost protected against systemic and respiratory infection. Mucosal priming with a safe and effective S. Typhi-based anthrax vaccine followed by PA-boost could serve as a practical and effective prophylactic approach to prevent anthrax early in life.

  20. Mucosal priming of newborn mice with S. Typhi Ty21a expressing anthrax protective antigen (PA) followed by parenteral PA-boost induces B and T cell-mediated immunity that protects against infection bypassing maternal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Karina; Ditamo, Yanina; Galen, James E.; Baillie, Les W. J.; Pasetti, Marcela F.

    2010-01-01

    The currently licensed anthrax vaccine has several limitations and its efficacy has been proven only in adults. Effective immunization of newborns and infants requires adequate stimulation of their immune system, which is competent but not fully activated. We explored the use of the licensed live attenuated S. Typhi vaccine strain Ty21a expressing Bacillus anthracis protective antigen [Ty21a(PA)] followed PA-alum as a strategy for immunizing the pediatric population. Newborn mice primed with a single dose of Ty21a(PA) exhibited high frequencies of mucosal IgA-secreting B cells and IFN-γ-secreting T cells during the neonatal period, none of which was detected in newborns immunized with a single dose of PA-alum. Priming with Ty21a(PA) followed by PA-boost resulted in high levels of PA-specific IgG, toxin-neutralizing and opsonophagocytic antibodies and increased frequency of bone marrow IgG plasma cells and memory B cells compared with repeated immunization with PA-alum alone. Robust B and T cell responses developed even in the presence of maternal antibodies. The prime-boost protected against systemic and respiratory infection. Mucosal priming with a safe and effective S. Typhi-based anthrax vaccine followed by PA-boost could serve as a practical and effective prophylactic approach to prevent anthrax early in life. PMID:20619377

  1. With minimal systemic T-cell expansion, CD8+ T Cells mediate protection of rhesus macaques immunized with attenuated simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV89.6 from vaginal challenge with simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Genescà, Meritxell; Skinner, Pamela J; Hong, Jung Joo; Li, Jun; Lu, Ding; McChesney, Michael B; Miller, Christopher J

    2008-11-01

    The presence, at the time of challenge, of antiviral effector T cells in the vaginal mucosa of female rhesus macaques immunized with live-attenuated simian-human immunodeficiency virus 89.6 (SHIV89.6) is associated with consistent and reproducible protection from pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaginal challenge (18). Here, we definitively demonstrate the protective role of the SIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell response in SHIV-immunized monkeys by CD8(+) lymphocyte depletion, an intervention that abrogated SHIV-mediated control of challenge virus replication and largely eliminated the SIV-specific T-cell responses in blood, lymph nodes, and genital mucosa. While in the T-cell-intact SHIV-immunized animals, polyfunctional and degranulating SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells were present in the genital tract and lymphoid tissues from the day of challenge until day 14 postchallenge, strikingly, expansion of SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in the immunized monkeys was minimal and limited to the vagina. Thus, protection from uncontrolled SIV replication in animals immunized with attenuated SHIV89.6 is primarily mediated by CD8(+) T cells that do not undergo dramatic systemic expansion after SIV challenge. These findings demonstrate that despite, and perhaps because of, minimal systemic expansion of T cells at the time of challenge, a stable population of effector-cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells can provide significant protection from vaginal SIV challenge.

  2. Vaccination of Mice Using the West Nile Virus E-Protein in a DNA Prime-Protein Boost Strategy Stimulates Cell-Mediated Immunity and Protects Mice against a Lethal Challenge

    PubMed Central

    De Filette, Marina; Soehle, Silke; Ulbert, Sebastian; Richner, Justin; Diamond, Michael S.; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Barzon, Luisa; Roels, Stefan; Lisziewicz, Julianna; Lorincz, Orsolya; Sanders, Niek N.

    2014-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, Europe and the United States. There is currently no antiviral treatment or human vaccine available to treat or prevent WNV infection. DNA plasmid-based vaccines represent a new approach for controlling infectious diseases. In rodents, DNA vaccines have been shown to induce B cell and cytotoxic T cell responses and protect against a wide range of infections. In this study, we formulated a plasmid DNA vector expressing the ectodomain of the E-protein of WNV into nanoparticles by using linear polyethyleneimine (lPEI) covalently bound to mannose and examined the potential of this vaccine to protect against lethal WNV infection in mice. Mice were immunized twice (prime – boost regime) with the WNV DNA vaccine formulated with lPEI-mannose using different administration routes (intramuscular, intradermal and topical). In parallel a heterologous boost with purified recombinant WNV envelope (E) protein was evaluated. While no significant E-protein specific humoral response was generated after DNA immunization, protein boosting of DNA-primed mice resulted in a marked increase in total neutralizing antibody titer. In addition, E-specific IL-4 T-cell immune responses were detected by ELISPOT after protein boost and CD8+ specific IFN-γ expression was observed by flow cytometry. Challenge experiments using the heterologous immunization regime revealed protective immunity to homologous and virulent WNV infection. PMID:24503579

  3. Vaccination of Lewis rats with temperature-sensitive mutants of Mycoplasma pulmonis: adoptive transfer of immunity by spleen cells but not by sera.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, W C; Bennett, M; Lu, Y S; Pakes, S P

    1991-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive mutant vaccines protect rats against Mycoplasma pulmonis infection. The role of the humoral or cellular immune response in resistance to mycoplasma infection was investigated by adoptive-transfer experiments. Spleen cells from Lewis rats vaccinated but not challenged with wild-type organisms (vaccinated) and spleen cells from rats vaccinated (or not) and challenged were effective in preventing syngeneic recipients from developing respiratory disease. There was also a significant reduction in the incidence and number of challenging organisms in the respiratory system. In contrast, sera from the same donors had no detectable effect on the number of mycoplasmas recovered or on lesion development in the respiratory tract. We conclude that cellular immunity rather than humoral immunity generated in vaccinated rats confers protection against subsequent infection. PMID:1987049

  4. The other way around: Probiotic lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 restricts progression of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Balb/c mice through activation of CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine immune effects of feeding novel probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 to specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice challenged with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD). We hypothesized that fe...

  5. Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant enhances antibody and cell-mediated immune responses to profilin subunit antigen vaccination and promotes protection against Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella. Experimental Parasitology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the immunoenhancing effects of MontanideTM ISA 71 VG adjuvant on profilin subunit antigen vaccination. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with a purified Eimeria acervulina recombinant profilin protein, either alone or mixed with ISA 71 VG, ...

  6. Memory T cells specific for murine cytomegalovirus re-emerge after multiple challenges and recapitulate immunity in various adoptive transfer scenarios.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Michael; Turula, Holly; Tandon, Mayank; Deslouches, Berthony; Moghbeli, Toktam; Snyder, Christopher M

    2015-02-15

    Reconstitution of CMV-specific immunity after transplant remains a primary clinical objective to prevent CMV disease, and adoptive immunotherapy of CMV-specific T cells can be an effective therapeutic approach. Because of viral persistence, most CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells become terminally differentiated effector phenotype CD8(+) T cells (TEFF). A minor subset retains a memory-like phenotype (memory phenotype CD8(+) T cells [TM]), but it is unknown whether these cells retain memory function or persist over time. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells with different phenotypes have different abilities to reconstitute sustained immunity after transfer. The immunology of human CMV infections is reflected in the murine CMV (MCMV) model. We found that human CMV- and MCMV-specific T cells displayed shared genetic programs, validating the MCMV model for studies of CMV-specific T cells in vivo. The MCMV-specific TM population was stable over time and retained a proliferative capacity that was vastly superior to TEFF. Strikingly, after transfer, TM established sustained and diverse T cell populations even after multiple challenges. Although both TEFF and TM could protect Rag(-/-) mice, only TM persisted after transfer into immune replete, latently infected recipients and responded if recipient immunity was lost. Interestingly, transferred TM did not expand until recipient immunity was lost, supporting that competition limits the Ag stimulation of TM. Ultimately, these data show that CMV-specific TM retain memory function during MCMV infection and can re-establish CMV immunity when necessary. Thus, TM may be a critical component for consistent, long-term adoptive immunotherapy success.

  7. NLRP3 suppresses NK cell-mediated responses to carcinogen-induced tumors and metastases.

    PubMed

    Chow, Melvyn T; Sceneay, Jaclyn; Paget, Christophe; Wong, Christina S F; Duret, Helene; Tschopp, Jürg; Möller, Andreas; Smyth, Mark J

    2012-11-15

    The NLRP3 inflammasome acts as a danger signal sensor that triggers and coordinates the inflammatory response upon infectious insults or tissue injury and damage. However, the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in natural killer (NK) cell-mediated control of tumor immunity is poorly understood. Here, we show in a model of chemical-induced carcinogenesis and a series of experimental and spontaneous metastases models that mice lacking NLRP3 display significantly reduced tumor burden than control wild-type (WT) mice. The suppression of spontaneous and experimental tumor metastases and methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced sarcomas in mice deficient for NLRP3 was NK cell and IFN-γ-dependent. Focusing on the amenable B16F10 experimental lung metastases model, we determined that expression of NLRP3 in bone marrow-derived cells was necessary for optimal tumor metastasis. Tumor-driven expansion of CD11b(+)Gr-1(intermediate) (Gr-1(int)) myeloid cells within the lung tumor microenvironment of NLRP3(-/-) mice was coincident with increased lung infiltrating activated NK cells and an enhanced antimetastatic response. The CD11b(+)Gr-1(int) myeloid cells displayed a unique cell surface phenotype and were characterized by their elevated production of CCL5 and CXCL9 chemokines. Adoptive transfer of this population into WT mice enhanced NK cell numbers in, and suppression of, B16F10 lung metastases. Together, these data suggested that NLRP3 is an important suppressor of NK cell-mediated control of carcinogenesis and metastases and identify CD11b(+)Gr-1(int) myeloid cells that promote NK cell antimetastatic function.

  8. Report of the 2014 Cent Gardes HIV Vaccine Conference-Part 2: Cell-mediated immunity, mucosal protection, and clinical trials: Fondation Mérieux Conference Center, Veyrier du Lac, France, 5-7 October, 2014.

    PubMed

    Girard, Marc P; Picot, Valentina; Longuet, Christophe; Nabel, Gary J

    2015-08-07

    The 2014 Cent Gardes Conference took place on October 5-7, 2014, at the Fondation Mérieux Conference Center, on the shores of the Annecy Lake and aimed to review the progress and promise of HIV vaccines. The elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), their use in passive immunization, as well as their genetic delivery (vector immunoprophylaxis) by a recombinant Adenovirus-associated virus (AAV) vector were reviewed in a preceding article [1]. Approaches to the elicitation of long-lasting T cell or mucosal immunity were also discussed and are now reviewed here. The possibility of eliciting mucosal IgAs was discussed, since it was demonstrated that transcytosis-blocking IgAs can protect monkeys against repeated vaginal challenge with a pathogenic chimeric simian and human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV). The possibility of purging the HIV reservoirs from HIV-infected persons and developing a cure of the disease was also discussed.

  9. Impaired and imbalanced cellular immunological status assessed in advanced cancer patients and restoration of the T cell immune status by adoptive T-cell immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Atsutaka; Kaneko, Toru; Naitoh, Keiko; Saito, Masashi; Iwai, Kazuro; Maekawa, Ryuji; Kamigaki, Takashi; Goto, Shigenori

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of antitumor immune responses, which may further clarify the immune status of cancer patients. In this study, we performed a detailed evaluation of the immunological status of 47 patients with advanced solid cancer, who had received no immunosuppressive treatment, and compared the results with 32 healthy subjects. Flow-cytometry data for peripheral blood were obtained using 19 monoclonal antibodies against various cell surface and intracellular molecules. Absolute numbers of T cells, several T cell subsets, B cells, and NK cells were significantly decreased in patients compared with healthy subjects. The percentage of CD27(+)CD45RA(+) T cells was lower and that of CD27(-)CD45RA(-) T cells was higher in patients compared with controls. Regulatory and type 2 helper T cells were elevated in patients relative to healthy subjects. The percentage of perforin(+) NK cells was significantly lower in patients than in controls. These results suggest a dysfunctional anti-tumor immune response in cancer patients. Furthermore, peripheral blood from 26 of 47 cancer patients was analyzed after adoptive T cell immunotherapy (ATI). ATI increased the number of T cell subsets, but not B and NK cells. The number and percentage of regulatory T cells decreased significantly. These results suggest that ATI can restore impaired and imbalanced T cell immune status.

  10. CD4 T Cells Mediate Both Positive and Negative Regulation of the Immune Response to HIV Infection: Complex Role of T Follicular Helper Cells and Regulatory T Cells in Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Phetsouphanh, Chansavath; Xu, Yin; Zaunders, John

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 infection results in chronic activation of cells in lymphoid tissue, including T cells, B-cells, and myeloid lineage cells. The resulting characteristic hyperplasia is an amalgam of proliferating host immune cells in the adaptive response, increased concentrations of innate response mediators due to viral and bacterial products, and homeostatic responses to inflammation. While it is generally thought that CD4 T cells are greatly depleted, in fact, two types of CD4 T cells appear to be increased, namely, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T follicular helper cells (Tfh). These cells have opposing roles, but may both be important in the pathogenic process. Whether Tregs are failing in their role to limit lymphocyte activation is unclear, but there is no doubt now that Tfh are associated with B-cell hyperplasia and increased germinal center activity. Antiretroviral therapy may reduce the lymphocyte activation, but not completely, and therefore, there is a need for interventions that selectively enhance normal CD4 function without exacerbating Tfh, B-cell, or Treg dysfunction. PMID:25610441

  11. Identification of GLA/SE as an effective adjuvant for the induction of robust humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to EBV-gp350 in mice and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Heeke, Darren S; Lin, Rui; Rao, Eileen; Woo, Jennifer C; McCarthy, Michael P; Marshall, Jason D

    2016-05-17

    Childhood infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is often asymptomatic and may result in mild flu-like symptoms, but exposure during adolescence and young adulthood can lead to acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) with a pathology characterized by swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, and severe fatigue lasting weeks or months. A vaccine targeting the envelope glycoprotein gp350 adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide complexed with the TLR4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) achieved a 78% reduction in AIM incidence in a small phase II trial of college-age individuals, but development of this vaccine was halted by the manufacturer. Here, we report the evaluation in mice and rabbits of an EBV-gp350 vaccine combined with an adjuvant composed of the synthetic TLR4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) integrated into stable emulsion (SE). In mice, GLA/SE-adjuvanted gp350 generated high IgG titers (both IgG1 and IgG2a/c subtypes), elevated EBV-neutralizing antibody titers, and robust poly-functional anti-gp350 CD4(+) T cell responses. In addition, GLA/SE routinely demonstrated superior performance over aluminum hydroxide in all immunological readouts, including induction of durable neutralizing antibody titers out to at least 1 year post-vaccination. Both components of the GLA/SE adjuvant were found to be required to get optimal responses in both arms of the immune response: specifically, SE for neutralizing antibodies and GLA for induction of T cell responses. Furthermore, this vaccine also elicited high neutralizing antibody titers in a second species, rabbit. These promising results suggest that clinical development of a vaccine comprised of EBV-gp350 plus GLA/SE has the potential to prevent AIM in post-adolescents.

  12. Genetic diversity predicts pathogen resistance and cell-mediated immunocompetence in house finches

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Dana M; Sydenstricker, Keila V; Kollias, George V; Dhondt, André A

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that genetic variation within individual hosts can influence their susceptibility to pathogens. However, there have been few opportunities to experimentally test this relationship, particularly within outbred populations of non-domestic vertebrates. We performed a standardized pathogen challenge in house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) to test whether multilocus heterozygosity across 12 microsatellite loci predicts resistance to a recently emerged strain of the bacterial pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). We simultaneously tested whether the relationship between heterozygosity and pathogen susceptibility is mediated by differences in cell-mediated or humoral immunocompetence. We inoculated 40 house finches with MG under identical conditions and assayed both humoral and cell-mediated components of the immune response. Heterozygous house finches developed less severe disease when infected with MG, and they mounted stronger cell-mediated immune responses to phytohaemagglutinin. Differences in cell-mediated immunocompetence may, therefore, partly explain why more heterozygous house finches show greater resistance to MG. Overall, our results underscore the importance of multilocus heterozygosity for individual pathogen resistance and immunity. PMID:17148199

  13. Long-term Survival and Clinical Benefit from Adoptive T-cell Transfer in Stage IV Melanoma Patients Is Determined by a Four-Parameter Tumor Immune Signature.

    PubMed

    Melief, Sara M; Visconti, Valeria V; Visser, Marten; van Diepen, Merel; Kapiteijn, Ellen H W; van den Berg, Joost H; Haanen, John B A G; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Oosting, Jan; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Verdegaal, Els M E

    2017-02-01

    The presence of tumor-infiltrating immune cells is associated with longer survival and a better response to immunotherapy in early-stage melanoma, but a comprehensive study of the in situ immune microenvironment in stage IV melanoma has not been performed. We investigated the combined influence of a series of immune factors on survival and response to adoptive cell transfer (ACT) in stage IV melanoma patients. Metastases of 73 stage IV melanoma patients, 17 of which were treated with ACT, were studied with respect to the number and functional phenotype of lymphocytes and myeloid cells as well as for expression of galectins-1, -3, and -9. Single factors associated with better survival were identified using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression analyses, and those factors were used for interaction analyses. The results were validated using The Cancer Genome Atlas database. We identified four parameters that were associated with a better survival: CD8(+) T cells, galectin-9(+) dendritic cells (DC)/DC-like macrophages, a high M1/M2 macrophage ratio, and the expression of galectin-3 by tumor cells. The presence of at least three of these parameters formed an independent positive prognostic factor for long-term survival. Patients displaying this four-parameter signature were found exclusively among patients responding to ACT and were the ones with sustained clinical benefit. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(2); 170-9. ©2017 AACR.

  14. Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get Weight Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Immunizations KidsHealth > For Teens > Immunizations Print A A A What's in this article? Why Are Vaccinations Important? Why Do I Need Shots? Which Vaccinations Do ...

  15. Adoptive immunity mediated by HLA-A*0201 restricted Asp f16 peptides-specific CD8+ T cells against Aspergillus fumigatus infection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z; Zhu, P; Li, L; Wan, Z; Zhao, Z; Li, R

    2012-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) is the most common pathogen of invasive aspergillosis (IA), a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients. Recent findings revealed that CD8+ T cells can mediate cytotoxic activity against A. fumigatus. Here, we bioinformatically identified three HLA-A*0201-restricted peptides from Asp f16, an A. fumigatus antigen which was previously shown to be involved in T cell immunity. Our immunological results demonstrated that these peptides can potently induce cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in CD8+ T cells, thus, damaging the conidia and hyphae of A. fumigatus. Moreover, the Asp f16 peptides can also raise Th1 cell-like response, as measured by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT). Furthermore, we established an invasive pulmonary aspergillosis model in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. Adoptive transfer of Asp f16 peptides-specific CTL significantly extended the overall survival time in the A. fumigatus-infected immunocompromised mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the Asp f16 peptides might provide immunity against invasive A. fumigatus infection.

  16. Enhanced neointima formation following arterial injury in immune deficient Rag-1-/- mice is attenuated by adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells.

    PubMed

    Dimayuga, Paul C; Chyu, Kuang-Yuh; Kirzner, Jonathan; Yano, Juliana; Zhao, Xiaoning; Zhou, Jianchang; Shah, Prediman K; Cercek, Bojan

    2011-01-01

    T cells modulate neointima formation after arterial injury but the specific T cell population that is activated in response to arterial injury remains unknown. The objective of the study was to identify the T cell populations that are activated and modulate neointimal thickening after arterial injury in mice. Arterial injury in wild type C57Bl6 mice resulted in T cell activation characterized by increased CD4(+)CD44(hi) and CD8(+)CD44(hi) T cells in the lymph nodes and spleens. Splenic CD8(+)CD25(+) T cells and CD8(+)CD28(+) T cells, but not CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD28(+) T cells, were also significantly increased. Adoptive cell transfer of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells from donor CD8-/- or CD4-/- mice, respectively, to immune-deficient Rag-1-/- mice was performed to determine the T cell subtype that inhibits neointima formation after arterial injury. Rag-1-/- mice that received CD8(+) T cells had significantly reduced neointima formation compared with Rag-1-/- mice without cell transfer. CD4(+) T cell transfer did not reduce neointima formation. CD8(+) T cells from CD4-/- mice had cytotoxic activity against syngeneic smooth muscle cells in vitro. The study shows that although both CD8(+) T cells and CD4(+) T cells are activated in response to arterial injury, adoptive cell transfer identifies CD8(+) T cells as the specific and selective cell type involved in inhibiting neointima formation.

  17. Interleukin 2 in cell-mediated immune responses

    SciTech Connect

    Paetkau, V.; Shaw, J.; Caplan, B.; Mills, G.B.; Lee, K.C.

    1980-01-01

    The lymphokine Interleukin 2(IL2) restores T cell responses in a number of in vitro systems where immunogenicity has been compromised. UV irradiation of the stimulating allogeneic cells in a mixed leukocyte culture eliminates the production of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and greatly reduces the DNA synthesis response. IL2 restores both parameters. UV-irradiated stimulators are also unable to induce the normal production of IL2 which is observed in a mixed leukocyte culture. The cytotoxic activity of allogeneically stimulated thymocytes is almost completely lost within 24 hours after removal of IL2 at 5 days, indicating that the lymphokine is continuously required to maintain CTL. Thymocytes in 4-day cultures do not adsorb IL2 unless they are simultaneously activated with a mitogen. Finally, IL2 does not adequately restore a secondary response to the purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD) in adherent-cell-depleted cultures, indicating that macrophages, in addition to being required for IL2 production, have other functions. These probably include the presentation of soluble antigens to responding cells.

  18. Immunization

    MedlinePlus

    ... remembers" the germ and can fight it again. Vaccines contain germs that have been killed or weakened. When given to a healthy person, the vaccine triggers the immune system to respond and thus ...

  19. Engineering nanomaterials to address cell-mediated inflammation in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Sean; Liu, Yu-Gang; Scott, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disorder with a pathophysiology driven by both innate and adaptive immunity and a primary cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide. Vascular inflammation and accumulation of foam cells and their products induce maturation of atheromas, or plaques, which can rupture by metalloprotease action, leading to ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction. Diverse immune cell populations participate in all stages of plaque maturation, many of which directly influence plaque stability and rupture via inflammatory mechanisms. Current clinical treatments for atherosclerosis focus on lowering serum levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) using therapeutics such as statins, administration of antithrombotic drugs, and surgical intervention. Strategies that address cell-mediated inflammation are lacking, and consequently have recently become an area of considerable research focus. Nanomaterials have emerged as highly advantageous tools for these studies, as they can be engineered to target specific inflammatory cell populations, deliver therapeutics of wide-ranging solubilities and enhance analytical methods that include imaging and proteomics. Furthermore, the highly phagocytic nature of antigen presenting cells (APCs), a diverse cell population central to the initiation of immune responses and inflammation, make them particularly amenable to targeting and modulation by nanoscale particulates. Nanomaterials have therefore become essential components of vaccine formulations and treatments for inflammation-driven pathologies like autoimmunity, and present novel opportunities for immunotherapeutic treatments of CVD. Here, we review recent progress in the design and use of nanomaterials for therapeutic assessment and treatment of atherosclerosis. We will focus on promising new approaches that utilize nanomaterials for cell-specific imaging, gene therapy and immunomodulation. PMID:27135051

  20. Immunization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Nicole; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this double journal issue concern immunization and primary health care of children. The issue decribes vaccine storage and sterilization techniques, giving particular emphasis to the role of the cold chain, i.e., the maintenance of a specific temperature range to assure potency of vaccines as they are moved from a national storage…

  1. Loss of PTEN promotes resistance to T cell-mediated immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Weiyi; Chen, Jie Qing; Liu, Chengwen; Malu, Shruti; Creasy, Caitlin; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Xu, Chunyu; McKenzie, Jodi A; Zhang, Chunlei; Liang, Xiaoxuan; Williams, Leila J; Deng, Wanleng; Chen, Guo; Mbofung, Rina; Lazar, Alexander J; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Cooper, Zachary A; Chen, Pei-Ling; Tieu, Trang N; Spranger, Stefani; Yu, Xiaoxing; Bernatchez, Chantale; Forget, Marie-Andree; Haymaker, Cara; Amaria, Rodabe; McQuade, Jennifer L; Glitza, Isabella C; Cascone, Tina; Li, Haiyan S; Kwong, Lawrence N; Heffernan, Timothy P; Hu, Jianhua; Bassett, Roland L; Bosenberg, Marcus W; Woodman, Scott E; Overwijk, Willem W; Lizée, Gregory; Roszik, Jason; Gajewski, Thomas F; Wargo, Jennifer A; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Radvanyi, Laszlo; Davies, Michael A; Hwu, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    T cell-mediated immunotherapies are promising cancer treatments. However, most patients still fail to respond to these therapies. The molecular determinants of immune resistance are poorly understood. We show that loss of PTEN in tumor cells in preclinical models of melanoma inhibits T cell-mediated tumor killing and decreases T cell trafficking into tumors. In patients, PTEN loss correlates with decreased T cell infiltration at tumor sites, reduced likelihood of successful T cell expansion from resected tumors, and inferior outcomes with PD-1 inhibitor therapy. PTEN loss in tumor cells increased the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines, resulting in decreased T cell infiltration in tumors, and inhibited autophagy, which decreased T cell-mediated cell death. Treatment with a selective PI3Kβ inhibitor improved the efficacy of both anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA4 antibodies in murine models. Together these findings demonstrate that PTEN loss promotes immune resistance and support the rationale to explore combinations of immunotherapies and PI3K-AKT pathway inhibitors. PMID:26645196

  2. Maximal T cell-mediated antitumor responses rely upon CCR5 expression in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    González-Martín, Alicia; Gómez, Lucio; Lustgarten, Joseph; Mira, Emilia; Mañes, Santos

    2011-08-15

    Immune responses against cancer rely upon leukocyte trafficking patterns that are coordinated by chemokines. CCR5, the receptor for chemotactic chemokines MIP1alpha, MIP1beta, and RANTES (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5), exerts major regulatory effects on CD4(+)- and CD8(+) T cell-mediated immunity. Although CCR5 and its ligands participate in the response to various pathogens, its relevance to tumoral immune control has been debated. Here, we report that CCR5 has a specific, ligand-dependent role in optimizing antitumor responses. In adoptive transfer studies, efficient tumor rejection required CCR5 expression by both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. CCR5 activation in CD4(+) cells resulted in CD40L upregulation, leading to full maturation of antigen-presenting cells and enhanced CD8(+) T-cell crosspriming and tumor infiltration. CCR5 reduced chemical-induced fibrosarcoma incidence and growth, but did not affect the onset or progression of spontaneous breast cancers in tolerogenic Tg(MMTV-neu) mice. However, CCR5 was required for TLR9-mediated reactivation of antineu responses in these mice. Our results indicate that CCR5 boosts T-cell responses to tumors by modulating helper-dependent CD8(+) T-cell activation.

  3. Evidence for T Cell-dependent Immunity to Bacteroides fragilis in an Intraabdominal Abscess Model

    PubMed Central

    Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Markham, Richard B.; Zaleznik, Dori F.; Cisneros, Ronald L.; Kasper, Dennis L.

    1982-01-01

    It has been shown that active immunization of rats with the capsular polysaccharide of Bacteroides fragilis protects these animals against abscess development following intraperitoneal challenge with this species. Passive transfer of hyperimmune globulin from immunized animals to nonimmune recipients provided protection against B. fragilis bacteremia in challenged animals, but did not confer protection against abscess development. On the other hand, adoptive transfer of spleen cells from immunized animals to nonimmunized recipients resulted in protection against abscesses following challenge with B. fragilis. These data suggested that a T cell-dependent immune response was involved in protection against abscess development after immunization with B. fragilis capsular antigen. To determine the possible role of cell-mediated immunity prompted by the capsular antigen, inbred congenitally athymic OLA/Rnu rats and their phenotypically normal littermates were actively immunized. Despite the development of high titers of anti-B. fragilis capsular antibody, 100% of actively immunized athymic rats developed abscesses, as did 100% of unimmunized athymic control rats. However, no phenotypically normal littermate control rats that were actively immunized developed abscesses, while 100% of phenotypically normal unimmunized rats developed abscesses. Additional studies showed that adoptive transfer of T cell-enriched spleen cell preparations from Wistar/Lewis rats immunized with the capsular polysaccharide to nonimmune recipients also resulted in protection against B. fragilis-induced abscesses. We conclude that the protection afforded by immunization with B. fragilis capsule against intraabdominal abscesses caused by that organism is T cell-mediated and does not require the presence of serum antibody. PMID:6976357

  4. Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxic responses in the Tasmanian devil.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gabriella K; Kreiss, Alexandre; Lyons, A Bruce; Woods, Gregory M

    2011-01-01

    The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), the world's largest marsupial carnivore, is under threat of extinction following the emergence of an infectious cancer. Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is spread between Tasmanian devils during biting. The disease is consistently fatal and devils succumb without developing a protective immune response. The aim of this study was to determine if Tasmanian devils were capable of forming cytotoxic antitumour responses and develop antibodies against DFTD cells and foreign tumour cells. The two Tasmanian devils immunised with irradiated DFTD cells did not form cytotoxic or humoral responses against DFTD cells, even after multiple immunisations. However, following immunisation with xenogenic K562 cells, devils did produce cytotoxic responses and antibodies against this foreign tumour cell line. The cytotoxicity appeared to occur through the activity of natural killer (NK) cells in an antibody dependent manner. Classical NK cell responses, such as innate killing of DFTD and foreign cancer cells, were not observed. Cells with an NK-like phenotype comprised approximately 4 percent of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results of this study suggest that Tasmanian devils have NK cells with functional cytotoxic pathways. Although devil NK cells do not directly recognise DFTD cancer cells, the development of antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity presents a potential pathway to induce cytotoxic responses against the disease. These findings have positive implications for future DFTD vaccine research.

  5. RB mutation and RAS overexpression induce resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Morales, Mario; Sánchez-García, Francisco Javier; Golán-Cancela, Irene; Hernández-Pedro, Norma; Costoya, Jose A; de la Cruz, Verónica Pérez; Moreno-Jiménez, Sergio; Sotelo, Julio; Pineda, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Several theories aim to explain the malignant transformation of cells, including the mutation of tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes. Deletion of Rb (a tumor suppressor), overexpression of mutated Ras (a proto-oncogene), or both, are sufficient for in vitro gliomagenesis, and these genetic traits are associated with their proliferative capacity. An emerging hallmark of cancer is the ability of tumor cells to evade the immune system. Whether specific mutations are related with this, remains to be analyzed. To address this issue, three transformed glioma cell lines were obtained (Rb(-/-), Ras(V12), and Rb(-/-)/Ras(V12)) by in vitro retroviral transformation of astrocytes, as previously reported. In addition, Ras(V12) and Rb(-/-)/Ras(V12) transformed cells were injected into SCID mice and after tumor growth two stable glioma cell lines were derived. All these cells were characterized in terms of Rb and Ras gene expression, morphology, proliferative capacity, expression of MHC I, Rae1δ, and Rae1αβγδε, mult1, H60a, H60b, H60c, as ligands for NK cell receptors, and their susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Our results show that transformation of astrocytes (Rb loss, Ras overexpression, or both) induced phenotypical and functional changes associated with resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Moreover, the transfer of cell lines of transformed astrocytes into SCID mice increased resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, thus suggesting that specific changes in a tumor suppressor (Rb) and a proto-oncogene (Ras) are enough to confer resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in glioma cells and therefore provide some insight into the ability of tumor cells to evade immune responses.

  6. The PHA Test Reflects Acquired T-Cell Mediated Immunocompetence in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Tella, José L.; Lemus, Jesús A.; Carrete, Martina; Blanco, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    Background cological immunology requires techniques to reliably measure immunocompetence in wild vertebrates. The PHA-skin test, involving subcutaneous injection of a mitogen (phytohemagglutinin, PHA) and measurement of subsequent swelling as a surrogate of T-cell mediated immunocompetence, has been the test of choice due to its practicality and ease of use in the field. However, mechanisms involved in local immunological and inflammatory processes provoked by PHA are poorly known, and its use and interpretation as an acquired immune response is currently debated. Methodology Here, we present experimental work using a variety of parrot species, to ascertain whether PHA exposure produces larger secondary than primary responses as expected if the test reflects acquired immunocompetence. Moreover, we simultaneously quantified T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4+, CD5+ and CD8+) and plasma proteins circulating in the bloodstream, potentially involved in the immunological and inflammatory processes, through flow cytometry and electrophoresis. Principal Findings Our results showed stronger responses after a second PHA injection, independent of species, time elapsed and changes in body mass of birds between first and second injections, thus supporting the adaptive nature of this immune response. Furthermore, the concomitant changes in the plasma concentrations of T-lymphocyte subsets and globulins indicate a causal link between the activation of the T-cell mediated immune system and local tissue swelling. Conclusions/Significance These findings justify the widespread use of the PHA-skin test as a reliable evaluator of acquired T-cell mediated immunocompetence in diverse biological disciplines. Further experimental research should be aimed at evaluating the relative role of innate immunocompetence in wild conditions, where the access to dietary proteins varies more than in captivity, and to ascertain how PHA responses relate to particular host-parasite interactions. PMID:18820730

  7. Open Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Annette; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Adult adoptees are increasingly challenging the practice of sealing their birth records. The authors examine the historical roots of adoptive practices in this country and suggest that the time has come for open adoption to gain acceptance as an alternative. (Author)

  8. B-Cell-Mediated Strategies to Fight Chronic Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Dalloul, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Solid organs have been transplanted for decades. Since the improvement in graft selection and in medical and surgical procedures, the likelihood of graft function after 1 year is now close to 90%. Nonetheless even well-matched recipients continue to need medications for the rest of their lives hence adverse side effects and enhanced morbidity. Understanding Immune rejection mechanisms, is of increasing importance since the greater use of living-unrelated donors and genetically unmatched individuals. Chronic rejection is devoted to T-cells, however the role of B-cells in rejection has been appreciated recently by the observation that B-cell depletion improve graft survival. By contrast however, B-cells can be beneficial to the grafted tissue. This protective effect is secondary to either the secretion of protective antibodies or the induction of B-cells that restrain excessive inflammatory responses, chiefly by local provision of IL-10, or inhibit effector T-cells by direct cellular interactions. As a proof of concept B-cell-mediated infectious transplantation tolerance could be achieved in animal models, and evidence emerged that the presence of such B-cells in transplanted patients correlate with a favorable outcome. Among these populations, regulatory B-cells constitute a recently described population. These cells may develop as a feedback mechanism to prevent uncontrolled reactivity to antigens and inflammatory stimuli. The difficult task for the clinician, is to quantify the respective ratios and functions of “tolerant” vs. effector B-cells within a transplanted organ, at a given time point in order to modulate B-cell-directed therapy. Several receptors at the B-cell membrane as well as signaling molecules, can now be targeted for this purpose. Understanding the temporal expansion of regulatory B-cells in grafted patients and the stimuli that activate them will help in the future to implement specific strategies aimed at fighting chronic allograft

  9. Adoptive transfer of cytomegalovirus-specific effector CD4+ T cells provides antiviral protection from murine CMV infection.

    PubMed

    Jeitziner, Sanja Mandaric; Walton, Senta M; Torti, Nicole; Oxenius, Annette

    2013-11-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infects a majority of the human population and establishes a life-long persistence. CMV infection is usually asymptomatic but the virus carries pathogenic potential and causes severe disease in immunocompromised individuals. T-cell-mediated immunity plays an essential role in control of CMV infection and adoptive transfer of CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells restores viral immunity in immunosuppressed patients but a role for CD4(+) T cells remains elusive. Here, we analyzed in adoptive transfer studies the features and antiviral functions of virus-specific CD4(+) T cells during primary murine CMV (MCMV) infection. MCMV-specific CD4(+) T cells expanded upon MCMV infection and displayed an effector phenotype and function. Adoptive transfer of in vivo activated MCMV-specific CD4(+) T cells to immune-compromised mice was protective during pathogenic MCMV infection and IFN-γ was a crucial mediator of this protective capacity. Moreover, co-transfer of low doses of both MCMV-specific CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells synergized in control of lytic viral replication in immune-compromised mice. Our data reveal a pivotal antiviral role for virus-specific CD4(+) T cells in protection from pathogenic CMV infection and provide evidence for their antiviral therapeutic potential.

  10. Adoptive immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruella, Marco; Kalos, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical success has underscored the potential for immunotherapy based on the adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of engineered T lymphocytes to mediate dramatic, potent, and durable clinical responses. This success has led to the broader evaluation of engineered T-lymphocyte-based adoptive cell therapy to treat a broad range of malignancies. In this review, we summarize concepts, successes, and challenges for the broader development of this promising field, focusing principally on lessons gleaned from immunological principles and clinical thought. We present ACT in the context of integrating T-cell and tumor biology and the broader systemic immune response.

  11. The role of antioxidation and immunomodulation in postnatal multipotent stem cell-mediated cardiac repair.

    PubMed

    Saparov, Arman; Chen, Chien-Wen; Beckman, Sarah A; Wang, Yadong; Huard, Johnny

    2013-08-06

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play major roles in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease including myocardial infarction (MI). The pathological progression following MI is very complex and involves a number of cell populations including cells localized within the heart, as well as cells recruited from the circulation and other tissues that participate in inflammatory and reparative processes. These cells, with their secretory factors, have pleiotropic effects that depend on the stage of inflammation and regeneration. Excessive inflammation leads to enlargement of the infarction site, pathological remodeling and eventually, heart dysfunction. Stem cell therapy represents a unique and innovative approach to ameliorate oxidative stress and inflammation caused by ischemic heart disease. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the crosstalk between stem cells and other cells involved in post-MI cardiac tissue repair, especially immune cells, in order to harness the beneficial effects of the immune response following MI and further improve stem cell-mediated cardiac regeneration. This paper reviews the recent findings on the role of antioxidation and immunomodulation in postnatal multipotent stem cell-mediated cardiac repair following ischemic heart disease, particularly acute MI and focuses specifically on mesenchymal, muscle and blood-vessel-derived stem cells due to their antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties.

  12. Neoplasia in adoptively immunosuppressed rats. A possible model for tumorigenesis in transplant recipients

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsch, S.E.; Cook, E.P.

    1983-07-01

    An extremely high incidence of malignant tumors was observed in groups of rats that had previously been exposed to whole body irradiation, grafted with allogeneic tissue, and injected with lymphocytes capable of specifically suppressing the rejection of the grafted tissue. Neoplasia in these adoptively immunosuppressed rats had features in common with that in therapeutically immunosuppressed transplant recipients. Increased tumor incidence could not be accounted for on the basis of the effects of whole body irradiation or failure of immune surveillance, nor could it be a direct effect of lymphoid tissue stimulation. It is suggested that cell mediated suppressor responses play a critical role in tumorigenesis. The mechanism of this is not simply direct stimulation of lymphoid tissue proliferation.

  13. Analysis of transgene-specific immune responses that limit the in vivo persistence of adoptively transferred HSV-TK–modified donor T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Carolina; Flowers, Mary E.; Warren, Edus H.; Riddell, Stanley R.

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of an inducible suicide gene such as the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) might allow exploitation of the antitumor activity of donor T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) without graft versus host disease. However, HSV-TK is foreign, and immune responses to gene-modified T cells could lead to their premature elimination. We show that after the infusion of HSV-TK–modified donor T cells to HCT recipients, CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses to HSV-TK are rapidly induced and coincide with the disappearance of transferred cells. Cytokine flow cytometry using an overlapping panel of HSV-TK peptides allowed rapid detection and quantitation of HSV-TK–specific T cells in the blood and identified multiple immunogenic epitopes. Repeated infusion of modified T cells boosted the induced HSV-TK–specific T cells, which persisted as memory cells. These studies demonstrate the need for nonimmunogenic suicide genes and identify a strategy for detection of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to transgene products that should be generally applicable to monitoring patients on gene therapy trials. The potency of gene-modified T cells to elicit robust and durable immune responses imply this approach might be used for vaccination to elicit T-cell responses to viral or tumor antigens. PMID:16282341

  14. [Bacterial proteases and bacterial resistance against human innate immunity factors].

    PubMed

    Tiurin, Iu A; Mustafin, I G; Fassakhov, R S

    2011-01-01

    The molecular and cell-mediated mechanisms that are developed by certain opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria and were obtained over the course of evolution to preserve resistance against principal components of human body innate immunity are summarized.

  15. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  16. Adoptive transfer of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells to C57BL/6J mice during acute infection with Toxoplasma gondii down modulates the exacerbated Th1 immune response.

    PubMed

    Olguín, Jonadab E; Fernández, Jacquelina; Salinas, Nohemí; Juárez, Imelda; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam; Campuzano, Jaime; Castellanos, Carlos; Saavedra, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    Infection of C57BL/6J mice with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii triggers a powerful Th1 immune response that is detrimental to the host. During acute infection, a reduction in CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) has been reported. We studied the role of Treg during T. gondii infection by adoptive transfer of cells purified from transgenic Foxp3(EGFP) mice to infected wild type animals. We found a less severe weight loss, a significant delayed mortality in infected Treg-transferred mice, and reduced pathology of the small intestine that were associated with lower IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. Nevertheless, higher cyst number and parasite load in brain were observed in these mice. Treg-transferred infected mice showed reduced levels of both IFN-γ and TNF-α in sera. A reduced number of CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-γ was detected in these mice, while IL-2 producing CD4(+) T cells were restored to levels nearly similar to uninfected mice. CD25 and CD69 expression of CD4(+) T cells were also down modulated. Our data show that the low Treg cell number are insufficient to modulate the activation of CD4(+) T cells and the production of high levels of IFN-γ. Thus, a delicate balance between an optimal immune response and its modulation by Treg cells must exist.

  17. Seasonal trade-offs in cell-mediated immunosenescence in ruffs (Philomachus pugnax).

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, George A; Lank, David B

    2003-01-01

    The immune system is an energetically expensive self-maintenance complex that, given the risks of parasitism, cannot be carelessly compromised. Life-history theory posits that trade-offs between fitness components, such as self-maintenance and reproduction, vary between genders and age classes depending on their expected residual lifetime reproductive success, and seasonally as energetic requirements change. Using ruff (Philomachus pugnax), a bird with two genetically distinct male morphs, we demonstrate here a decrease in male immunocompetence during the breeding season, greater variance in immune response among males than females, immunosenescence in both sexes and male morphs, and a seasonal shift in the age range required to detect senescence. Using a phytohaemagglutinin delayed hypersensitivity assay, we assessed cell-mediated immunity (CMI) of males of typical breeding age during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons, and of a larger sample that included females and birds of a greater age range during the non-breeding period. CMI was higher for breeding-aged males in May than in November, but the increase was not related to age or male morph. In November, mean CMI did not differ between the sexes, but the variance was higher for males than for females, and there were no differences in mean or variance between the two male morphs. For both sexes and male morphs, CMI was lower for young birds than for birds of typical breeding ages, and it declined again for older birds. In males, senescence was detected in the non-breeding season only when very old birds were included. These results, generally consistent with expectations from life-history theory, indicate that the immune system can be involved in multifarious trade-offs within a yearly cycle and along an individual's lifetime, and that specific predictions about means and variances in immune response should be considered in future immunoecological research. PMID:12816660

  18. Effect of Lactobacillus brevis KB290 on the cell-mediated cytotoxic activity of mouse splenocytes: a DNA microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Erika; Fuke, Nobuo; Nakai, Yuji; Ishijima, Tomoko; Abe, Keiko; Yajima, Nobuhiro

    2013-11-14

    Lactic acid bacteria confer a variety of health benefits. Here, we investigate the mechanisms by which Lactobacillus brevis KB290 (KB290) enhances cell-mediated cytotoxic activity. Female BALB/c mice aged 9 weeks were fed a diet containing KB290 (3 × 10(9) colony-forming units/g) or starch for 1 d. The resulting cytotoxic activity of splenocytes against YAC-1 cells was measured using flow cytometry and analysed for gene expression using DNA microarray technology. KB290 enhanced the cell-mediated cytotoxic activity of splenocytes. DNA microarray analysis identified 327 up-regulated and 347 down-regulated genes that characterised the KB290 diet group. The up-regulated genes were significantly enriched in Gene Ontology terms related to immunity, and, especially, a positive regulation of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity existed among these terms. Almost all the genes included in the term encoded major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules involved in the presentation of antigen to CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells. Marco and Signr1 specific to marginal zone macrophages (MZM), antigen-presenting cells, were also up-regulated. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that the proportion of MZM was significantly increased by KB290 ingestion. Additionally, the over-represented Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways among the up-regulated genes were those for natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity and antigen processing and presentation. The results for the selected genes associated with NK cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. These results suggest that enhanced cytotoxic activity could be caused by the activation of NK cells and/or of CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells stimulated via MHC class I presentation.

  19. Mechanism of T-cell mediated protection in newborn mice against a Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sukumar; de la Maza, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the immune components needed for protection of newborn mice against Chlamydia muridarum, animals born to Chlamydia-immunized and to sham-immunized dams were infected intranasally with C. muridarum at 2 post-natal days. T-cells isolated from immunized or sham-immunized adult mice were adoptively transferred to newborn mice at the time of infection. Also, to establish what cytokines are involved in protection, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-12 were passively transferred to newborn mice. To assess the Chlamydia burden in the lungs mice were euthanized at 12 post-natal days. When T-cells from immunized adult mice were transferred, mice born to and fed by immunized dams were significantly protected as evidenced by the reduced number of Chlamydia isolated from the lungs compared to mice born to and fed by sham-immunized dams. Transfer of IFN-γ and TNF-α also significantly reduced the number of Chlamydia in the lungs of mice born to immunized dams. Transfer of IL-10 or IL-12 did not result in a significant reduction of Chlamydia. In vitro T-cell proliferation data suggest that neonatal antigen presenting cells can present Chlamydia antigens to adult T-cells. In conclusion, maternal antibodies and Chlamydia specific T-cells or Th1 cytokines are required for protection of neonates against this pathogen.

  20. Cyclophosphamide-facilitated adoptive immunotherapy of an established tumor depends on elimination of tumor-induced suppressor T cells

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of preceding studies showing that tumor-induced, T cell- mediated immunosuppression serves as an obstacle to adoptive immunotherapy of the Meth A fibrosarcoma, it was predicted that cyclophosphamide treatment of tumor bearers would remove this obstacle and allow passively transferred immune T cells to cause tumor regression. It was found that infusion of immune spleen cells alone had no effect on tumor growth, and cyclophosphamide alone caused a temporary halt in tumor progression. In contrast, combination therapy consisting of intravenous injection of 100 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide followed 1 h later by intravenous infusion of tumor-immune spleen cells caused small, as well as large tumors, to completely and permanently regress. Tumor regression caused by combination therapy was completely inhibited by intravenous infusion of splenic T cells from donors with established tumors, but not by spleen cells from normal donors. These suppressor T cells were eliminated from the spleen by treating the tumor-bearing donors with 100 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide. Immune T cells, in contrast, were resistant to this dose of cyclophosphamide. These results show that failure of intravenously-infused, tumor- sensitized T cells to cause regression of the Meth A fibrosarcoma growing in its syngeneic or semi-syngeneic host is caused by the presence of a tumor-induced population of cyclophosphamide-sensitive suppressor T cells. PMID:6460831

  1. Strengthening Adoption Practice, Listening to Adoptive Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Anne; Gonet, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    In-depth interviews with 500 adoptive families who received postadoption services through Virginia's Adoptive Family Preservation (AFP) program paint a richly detailed picture of the challenges adoptive families face and what they need to sustain adoption for many years after finalization. Findings document the need for support in a variety of…

  2. Cord blood T cells mediate enhanced antitumor effects compared with adult peripheral blood T cells.

    PubMed

    Hiwarkar, Prashant; Qasim, Waseem; Ricciardelli, Ida; Gilmour, Kimberly; Quezada, Sergio; Saudemont, Aurore; Amrolia, Persis; Veys, Paul

    2015-12-24

    Unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) without in vivo T-cell depletion is increasingly used to treat high-risk hematologic malignancies. Following T-replete CBT, naïve CB T cells undergo rapid peripheral expansion with memory-effector differentiation. Emerging data suggest that unrelated CBT, particularly in the context of HLA mismatch and a T-replete graft, may reduce leukemic relapse. To study the role of CB T cells in mediating graft-versus-tumor responses and dissect the underlying immune mechanisms for this, we compared the ability of HLA-mismatched CB and adult peripheral blood (PB) T cells to eliminate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven human B-cell lymphoma in a xenogeneic NOD/SCID/IL2rg(null) mouse model. CB T cells mediated enhanced tumor rejection compared with equal numbers of PB T cells, leading to improved survival in the CB group (P < .0003). Comparison of CB T cells that were autologous vs allogeneic to the lymphoma demonstrated that this antitumor effect was mediated by alloreactive rather than EBV-specific T cells. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes demonstrated that CB T cells mediated this enhanced antitumor effect by rapid infiltration of the tumor with CCR7(+)CD8(+) T cells and prompt induction of cytotoxic CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-helper (Th1) T cells in the tumor microenvironment. In contrast, in the PB group, this antilymphoma effect is impaired because of delayed tumoral infiltration of PB T cells and a relative bias toward suppressive Th2 and T-regulatory cells. Our data suggest that, despite being naturally programmed toward tolerance, reconstituting T cells after unrelated T-replete CBT may provide superior Tc1-Th1 antitumor effects against high-risk hematologic malignancies.

  3. Protamine and mast-cell-mediated angiogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, A.; Sörbo, J.; Norrby, K.

    1990-01-01

    Different doses of protamine sulphate (PS) given s.c. (at 12-h intervals) were tested for signs of non-specific toxicity measured as effect on body weight and small-gut proliferation as well as on mast-cell secretion and mast-cell-mediated mitogenesis in the mesenteric windows following i.p. injection of Compound 48/80, a potent mast cell secretagogue, in normal rats. In a non-toxic dose range, the effect of PS on mast-cell-mediated angiogenesis, effected by 48/80, was quantified as the number of vessels per mm of mesenteric window in histological sections at x 400. No intelligible dose-effect relationship was discernible between the dose of PS given and the effect on angiogenesis. Only in a tight interval, at 40 mg PS/kg but not at 20 or 60 mg PS/kg, was the angiogenesis statistically significantly suppressed. Hence, it was concluded that PS can be angiostatic but does not exert a more general angiostatic effect in the autogenous systems used. PMID:1691920

  4. T cell-mediated hepatitis in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Liver cell destruction by H-2 class I-restricted virus-specific cytotoxic T cells as a physiological correlate of the /sup 51/Cr-release assay

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkernagel, R.M.; Haenseler, E.; Leist, T.; Cerny, A.; Hengartner, H.; Althage, A.

    1986-10-01

    A model for immunologically T cell-mediated hepatitis was established in mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). The severity of hepatitis was monitored histologically and by determination of changes in serum levels of the enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), and alkaline phosphatase (AP). Kinetics of histological disease manifestations, increases of liver enzyme levels in the serum, and cytotoxic T cell activities in livers and spleens all correlated and were dependent upon several parameters: LCMV-isolate; LCMV-WE caused extensive hepatitis, LCMV-Armstrong virtually none. Virus dose. Route of infection; i.v. or i.p. infection caused hepatitis, whereas infection into the footpad did not. The general genetic background of the murine host; of the strains tested, Swiss mice and A-strain mice were more susceptible than C57BL or CBA mice; BALB/c and DBA/2 mice were least susceptible. The degree of immunocompetence of the murine host; T cell deficient nu/nu mice never developed hepatitis, whereas nu/+ or +/+ mice always did. B cell-depleted anti-IgM-treated mice developed immune-mediated hepatitis comparably or even more extensively than control mice. Local cytotoxic T cell activity; mononuclear cells isolated from livers during the period of overt hepatitis were two to five times more active than equal numbers of spleen cells. Adoptive transfer of nylon wool-nonadherent anti-Thy-1.2 and anti-Lyt-2 plus C-sensitive, anti-L3T4 plus C-resistant lymphocytes into irradiated mice preinfected with LCMV-WE caused a rapid time- and dose-dependent linear increase of serum enzyme levels. This increase was caused by adoptive transfer of lymphocytes if immune cell donors and recipient mice shared class I, but not when they shared class II histocompatibility antigens.

  5. Narcolepsy-Associated HLA Class I Alleles Implicate Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tafti, Mehdi; Lammers, Gert J.; Dauvilliers, Yves; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Mayer, Geert; Nowak, Jacek; Pfister, Corinne; Dubois, Valérie; Eliaou, Jean-François; Eberhard, Hans-Peter; Liblau, Roland; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Geisler, Peter; Bassetti, Claudio L.; Mathis, Johannes; Lecendreux, Michel; Khatami, Ramin; Heinzer, Raphaël; Haba-Rubio, José; Feketeova, Eva; Baumann, Christian R.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Tiercy, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Narcolepsy with cataplexy is tightly associated with the HLA class II allele DQB1*06:02. Evidence indicates a complex contribution of HLA class II genes to narcolepsy susceptibility with a recent independent association with HLA-DPB1. The cause of narcolepsy is supposed be an autoimmune attack against hypocretin-producing neurons. Despite the strong association with HLA class II, there is no evidence for CD4+ T-cell-mediated mechanism in narcolepsy. Since neurons express class I and not class II molecules, the final effector immune cells involved might include class I-restricted CD8+ T-cells. Methods: HLA class I (A, B, and C) and II (DQB1) genotypes were analyzed in 944 European narcolepsy with cataplexy patients and in 4,043 control subjects matched by country of origin. All patients and controls were DQB1*06:02 positive and class I associations were conditioned on DQB1 alleles. Results: HLA-A*11:01 (OR = 1.49 [1.18–1.87] P = 7.0*10−4), C*04:01 (OR = 1.34 [1.10–1.63] P = 3.23*10−3), and B*35:01 (OR = 1.46 [1.13–1.89] P = 3.64*10−3) were associated with susceptibility to narcolepsy. Analysis of polymorphic class I amino-acids revealed even stronger associations with key antigen-binding residues HLA-A-Tyr9 (OR = 1.32 [1.15–1.52] P = 6.95*10−5) and HLA-C-Ser11 (OR = 1.34 [1.15–1.57] P = 2.43*10−4). Conclusions: Our findings provide a genetic basis for increased susceptibility to infectious factors or an immune cytotoxic mechanism in narcolepsy, potentially targeting hypocretin neurons. Citation: Tafti M, Lammers GJ, Dauvilliers Y, Overeem S, Mayer G, Nowak J, Pfister C, Dubois V, Eliaou JF, Eberhard HP, Liblau R, Wierzbicka A, Geisler P, Bassetti CL, Mathis J, Lecendreux M, Khatami R, Heinzer R, Haba-Rubio J, Feketeova E, Baumann CR, Kutalik Z, Tiercy JM. Narcolepsy-associated HLA class I alleles implicate cell-mediated cytotoxicity. SLEEP 2016;39(3):581–587. PMID:26518595

  6. AAV2-mediated in vivo immune gene therapy of solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many strategies have been adopted to unleash the potential of gene therapy for cancer, involving a wide range of therapeutic genes delivered by various methods. Immune therapy has become one of the major strategies adopted for cancer gene therapy and seeks to stimulate the immune system to target tumour antigens. In this study, the feasibility of AAV2 mediated immunotherapy of growing tumours was examined, in isolation and combined with anti-angiogenic therapy. Methods Immune-competent Balb/C or C57 mice bearing subcutaneous JBS fibrosarcoma or Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) tumour xenografts respectively were treated by intra-tumoural administration of AAV2 vector encoding the immune up-regulating cytokine granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and the co-stimulatory molecule B7-1 to subcutaneous tumours, either alone or in combination with intra-muscular (IM) delivery of AAV2 vector encoding Nk4 14 days prior to tumour induction. Tumour growth and survival was monitored for all animals. Cured animals were re-challenged with tumourigenic doses of the original tumour type. In vivo cytotoxicity assays were used to investigate establishment of cell-mediated responses in treated animals. Results AAV2-mediated GM-CSF, B7-1 treatment resulted in a significant reduction in tumour growth and an increase in survival in both tumour models. Cured animals were resistant to re-challenge, and induction of T cell mediated anti-tumour responses were demonstrated. Adoptive transfer of splenocytes to naïve animals prevented tumour establishment. Systemic production of Nk4 induced by intra-muscular (IM) delivery of Nk4 significantly reduced subcutaneous tumour growth. However, combination of Nk4 treatment with GM-CSF, B7-1 therapy reduced the efficacy of the immune therapy. Conclusions Overall, this study demonstrates the potential for in vivo AAV2 mediated immune gene therapy, and provides data on the inter-relationship between tumour vasculature and

  7. Deletion of Plasmodium berghei-Specific CD4+ T Cells Adoptively Transferred into Recipient Mice after Challenge with Homologous Parasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirunpetcharat, Chakrit; Good, Michael F.

    1998-02-01

    The immune response to malaria parasites includes T cell responses that reduce parasites by effector T cell responses and by providing help for antibody responses. Some parasites are more sensitive to antibody and others are more sensitive to cell-mediated immunity. We demonstrate that cultured CD4+ T cells that produce interferon CD4+ and interleukin 2, but not interleukin 4, in response to stimulation with the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei can reduce but not eliminate parasites in vivo after adoptive transfer. Although cells can persist in vivo for up to 9 months in uninfected mice, infection results in elimination of up to 99% of specific T cells in different tissues, as judged by tracking T cells labeled with the fluorescent dye 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. T cells specific for ovalbumin are unaffected. In vivo activation and division of transferred T cells per se are not responsible for deletion because T cells positive for 5-(and -6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester divide up to six times within 7 days in uninfected mice and are not deleted. Understanding the factors responsible for parasite-mediated specific deletion of T cells would enhance our knowledge of parasite immunity.

  8. Immune modulation following immunization with polyvalent vaccines in dogs.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Alois; May, Bettina; Teltscher, Andrea; Wistrela, Eva; Niedermüller, Hans

    2003-08-15

    A decline in T-cell-mediated immunity and transient state of immunosuppression after immunization has been reported in dogs. Nevertheless, dogs are still routinely vaccinated with polyvalent live vaccines and severe disease does not generally occur. In order to investigate these effects on the canine immune system and to elucidate possible mechanisms we determined the following immune parameters in the blood of 33 clinically sound German shepherd dogs before and after standard vaccination with a polyvalent vaccine against distemper, parvovirus, viral hepatitis, leptospirosis, kennel cough and rabies: white and differential blood cell count, the serum concentrations and/or activities of IL-1, IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, neopterin and IgG, natural killer (NK) cell activity, bactericidal activity and complement hemolytic activity, lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) and nitroblue tetrazolium test (NBT). Our major findings were that significant postvaccinal decreases in T-cell mitogenic response to PHA and in neutrophil function and neopterin serum concentration were accompanied by simultaneous increase in plasma IgG and hemolytic complement activity. This suggests a transient shift in the balance between cell-mediated and humoral (T(H)1/T(H)2) immunity rather than immunosuppression. These results do not imply that dogs should not receive live vaccines, as the response to vaccines just seems to create a state of altered homeostasis when immunization elicits protection by humoral and cell-mediated immunity. However, these recognized compromises of immune function should be considered and vaccines still be applied only in healthy animals and strictly according to the rules and regulations given by the manufacturer.

  9. Electric Pulse Stimulation of Myotubes as an In Vitro Exercise Model: Cell-Mediated and Non-Cell-Mediated Effects.

    PubMed

    Evers-van Gogh, Inkie J A; Alex, Sheril; Stienstra, Rinke; Brenkman, Arjan B; Kersten, Sander; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2015-06-19

    Regular exercise has emerged as one of the best therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat type-2-diabetes. Exercise-induced changes in the muscle secretome, consisting of myokines and metabolites, may underlie the inter-organ communication between muscle and other organs. To investigate this crosstalk, we developed an in vitro system in which mouse C2C12 myotubes underwent electric pulse stimulation (EPS) to induce contraction. Subsequently the effects of EPS-conditioned media (EPS-CM) on hepatocytes were investigated. Here, we demonstrate that EPS-CM induces Metallothionein 1/2 and Slc30a2 gene expression and reduces Cyp2a3 gene expression in rat hepatocytes. When testing EPS-CM that was generated in the absence of C2C12 myotubes (non-cell EPS-CM) no decrease in Cyp2a3 expression was detected. However, similar inductions in hepatic Mt1/2 and Slc30a2 expression were observed. Non-cell EPS-CM were also applied to C2C12 myotubes and compared to C2C12 myotubes that underwent EPS: here changes in AMPK phosphorylation and myokine secretion largely depended on EPS-induced contraction. Taken together, these findings indicate that EPS can alter C2C12 myotube function and thereby affect gene expression in cells subjected to EPS-CM (Cyp2a3). However, EPS can also generate non-cell-mediated changes in cell culture media, which can affect gene expression in cells subjected to EPS-CM too. While EPS clearly represents a valuable tool in exercise research, care should be taken in experimental design to control for non-cell-mediated effects.

  10. Electric Pulse Stimulation of Myotubes as an In Vitro Exercise Model: Cell-Mediated and Non-Cell-Mediated Effects

    PubMed Central

    Evers-van Gogh, Inkie J.A.; Alex, Sheril; Stienstra, Rinke; Brenkman, Arjan B.; Kersten, Sander; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Regular exercise has emerged as one of the best therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat type-2-diabetes. Exercise-induced changes in the muscle secretome, consisting of myokines and metabolites, may underlie the inter-organ communication between muscle and other organs. To investigate this crosstalk, we developed an in vitro system in which mouse C2C12 myotubes underwent electric pulse stimulation (EPS) to induce contraction. Subsequently the effects of EPS-conditioned media (EPS-CM) on hepatocytes were investigated. Here, we demonstrate that EPS-CM induces Metallothionein 1/2 and Slc30a2 gene expression and reduces Cyp2a3 gene expression in rat hepatocytes. When testing EPS-CM that was generated in the absence of C2C12 myotubes (non-cell EPS-CM) no decrease in Cyp2a3 expression was detected. However, similar inductions in hepatic Mt1/2 and Slc30a2 expression were observed. Non-cell EPS-CM were also applied to C2C12 myotubes and compared to C2C12 myotubes that underwent EPS: here changes in AMPK phosphorylation and myokine secretion largely depended on EPS-induced contraction. Taken together, these findings indicate that EPS can alter C2C12 myotube function and thereby affect gene expression in cells subjected to EPS-CM (Cyp2a3). However, EPS can also generate non-cell-mediated changes in cell culture media, which can affect gene expression in cells subjected to EPS-CM too. While EPS clearly represents a valuable tool in exercise research, care should be taken in experimental design to control for non-cell-mediated effects. PMID:26091097

  11. Adopted Children and Discipline

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play ... Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen Español Text ...

  12. Human mast cell mediator cocktail excites neurons in human and guinea-pig enteric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Schemann, M; Michel, K; Ceregrzyn, M; Zeller, F; Seidl, S; Bischoff, S C

    2005-04-01

    Neuroimmune interactions are an integral part of gut physiology and involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and functional bowel disorders. Mast cells and their mediators are important conveyors in the communication from the innate enteric immune system to the enteric nervous system (ENS). However, it is not known whether a mediator cocktail released from activated human mast cells affects neural activity in the ENS. We used the Multi-Site Optical Recording Technique to image single cell activity in guinea-pig and human ENS after application of a mast cell mediator cocktail (MCMC) that was released from isolated human intestinal mucosa mast cells stimulated by IgE-receptor cross-linking. Local application of MCMC onto individual ganglia evoked an excitatory response consisting of action potential discharge. This excitatory response occurred in 31%, 38% or 11% neurons of guinea-pig submucous plexus, human submucous plexus, or guinea-pig myenteric plexus, respectively. Compound action potentials from nerve fibres or fast excitatory synaptic inputs were not affected by MCMC. This study demonstrates immunoneural signalling in the human gut and revealed for the first time that an MCMC released from stimulated human intestinal mast cells induces excitatory actions in the human and guinea-pig ENS.

  13. A brief outline of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Namrata; De, Rajat K

    2014-01-01

    The various cells and proteins responsible for immunity constitute the immune system, and their orchestrated response to defend foreign/non-self substances (antigen) is known as the immune response. When an antigen attacks the host system, two distinct, yet interrelated, branches of the immune system are active-the nonspecific/innate and specific/adaptive immune response. Both of these systems have certain physiological mechanisms, which enable the host to recognize foreign materials to itself and to neutralize, eliminate, or metabolize them. Innate immunity represents the earliest development of protection against antigens. Adaptive immunity has again two branches-humoral and cell mediated. It should be noted that both innate and adaptive immunities do not work independently. Moreover, most of the immune responses involve the activity and interplay of both the humoral and the cell-mediated immune branches of the immune system. We have described these branches in detail along with the mechanism of antigen recognition. This chapter also describes the disorders of immune system in brief.

  14. Th-17 Alloimmune Responses in Renal Allograft Biopsies From Recipients of Kidney Transplants Using Extended Criteria Donors During Acute T Cell-Mediated Rejection.

    PubMed

    Matignon, M; Aissat, A; Canoui-Poitrine, F; Grondin, C; Pilon, C; Desvaux, D; Saadoun, D; Barathon, Q; Garrido, M; Audard, V; Rémy, P; Lang, P; Cohen, J; Grimbert, P

    2015-10-01

    Although renal transplantation using expanded criteria donors has become a common practice, immune responses related to immunosenescence in those kidney allografts have not been studied yet in humans. We performed a retrospective molecular analysis of the T cell immune response in 43 kidney biopsies from patients with acute T cell-mediated rejection including 25 from recipients engrafted with a kidney from expanded criteria donor and 18 from recipients grafted with optimal kidney allograft. The clinical, transplant and acute T cell-mediated rejection characteristics of both groups were similar at baseline. The expression of RORγt, Il-17 and T-bet mRNA was significantly higher in the elderly than in the optimal group (p = 0.02, p = 0.036, and p = 0.01, respectively). Foxp3 mRNA levels were significantly higher in elderly patients experiencing successful acute T cell-mediated rejection reversal (p = 0.03). The presence of IL-17 mRNA was strongly associated with nonsuccessful reversal in elderly patients (p = 0.008). Patients with mRNA IL17 expression detection and low mRNA Foxp3 expression experienced significantly more treatment failure (87.5%) than patients with no mRNA IL17 expression and/or high mRNA Foxp3 expression (26.7%; p = 0.017). Our study suggests that the Th17 pathway is involved in pathogenesis and prognosis of acute T cell-mediated rejection in recipients of expanded criteria allograft.

  15. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy occurring with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    England, J D; Hsu, C Y; Garen, P D; Goust, J M; Biggs, P J

    1984-08-01

    A 33-year-old homosexual man with symptoms and signs of a focal brain process was subsequently found to have an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with biopsy-proven progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. This report reemphasizes the association of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with AIDS and probably is best viewed as another example of an opportunistic CNS infection complicating deficient cell-mediated immunity.

  16. The role of nutrition in enhancing immunity in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging is associated with declined immunity, particularly T cell-mediated activity, which contributes to increased morbidity and mortality from infectious disease and cancer in the elderly. Studies have shown that nutritional intervention may be a promising approach to reversing impaired immune func...

  17. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate T Cell-Mediated Hepatitis via Autophagy Activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanli; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Shoujie; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Bai, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A) was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IFN-γ). In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:27679638

  18. Proliferative response of immune mouse T-lymphocytes to the lymphocytosis-promoting factor of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Fish, F; Cowell, J L; Manclark, C R

    1984-01-01

    Immunization of mice with a whole-cell pertussis vaccine or with the purified, detoxified lymphocytosis-promoting factor (LPF) of Bordetella pertussis resulted in an increased in vitro proliferative response to LPF in immune lymph node cells. The proliferative response was detected above the nonspecific mitogenic activity of LPF. That the proliferative response of the immune lymph node cells was a demonstration of a specific cell-mediated immunity to LPF was supported by the following: (i) the specificity of the response to the immunizing antigen; (ii) the ability of chemically modified, nonmitogenic LPF to induce proliferation in immune lymph node cells; and (iii) a dependence on T-cells for the demonstration of the proliferative response of immune cells to LPF. Immunization of mice with protective doses of detoxified LPF resulted in serum antibody and cell-mediated responses to LPF. Immunization of mice with protective doses of whole-cell pertussis vaccine resulted in a cell-mediated response but not a detectable antibody response to LPF. The LPF of B. pertussis is believed to play an important role in pathogenesis and immunity in pertussis, and the demonstration of a cell-mediated immune response to LPF suggests a possible role for cell-mediated immunity to LPF in protection from pertussis disease. PMID:6608495

  19. Lung Regeneration: Endogenous and Exogenous Stem Cell Mediated Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Akram, Khondoker M; Patel, Neil; Spiteri, Monica A; Forsyth, Nicholas R

    2016-01-19

    The tissue turnover of unperturbed adult lung is remarkably slow. However, after injury or insult, a specialised group of facultative lung progenitors become activated to replenish damaged tissue through a reparative process called regeneration. Disruption in this process results in healing by fibrosis causing aberrant lung remodelling and organ dysfunction. Post-insult failure of regeneration leads to various incurable lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, identification of true endogenous lung progenitors/stem cells, and their regenerative pathway are crucial for next-generation therapeutic development. Recent studies provide exciting and novel insights into postnatal lung development and post-injury lung regeneration by native lung progenitors. Furthermore, exogenous application of bone marrow stem cells, embryonic stem cells and inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) show evidences of their regenerative capacity in the repair of injured and diseased lungs. With the advent of modern tissue engineering techniques, whole lung regeneration in the lab using de-cellularised tissue scaffold and stem cells is now becoming reality. In this review, we will highlight the advancement of our understanding in lung regeneration and development of stem cell mediated therapeutic strategies in combating incurable lung diseases.

  20. Lung Regeneration: Endogenous and Exogenous Stem Cell Mediated Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Khondoker M.; Patel, Neil; Spiteri, Monica A.; Forsyth, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    The tissue turnover of unperturbed adult lung is remarkably slow. However, after injury or insult, a specialised group of facultative lung progenitors become activated to replenish damaged tissue through a reparative process called regeneration. Disruption in this process results in healing by fibrosis causing aberrant lung remodelling and organ dysfunction. Post-insult failure of regeneration leads to various incurable lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, identification of true endogenous lung progenitors/stem cells, and their regenerative pathway are crucial for next-generation therapeutic development. Recent studies provide exciting and novel insights into postnatal lung development and post-injury lung regeneration by native lung progenitors. Furthermore, exogenous application of bone marrow stem cells, embryonic stem cells and inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) show evidences of their regenerative capacity in the repair of injured and diseased lungs. With the advent of modern tissue engineering techniques, whole lung regeneration in the lab using de-cellularised tissue scaffold and stem cells is now becoming reality. In this review, we will highlight the advancement of our understanding in lung regeneration and development of stem cell mediated therapeutic strategies in combating incurable lung diseases. PMID:26797607

  1. Mast cell mediators and peritoneal adhesion formation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Langer, J C; Liebman, S M; Monk, P K; Pelletier, G J

    1995-09-01

    We have previously shown that mast cell stabilization attenuates peritoneal adhesion formation in the rat. The present study investigated the mechanism of this protection. Adhesions were created in weanling rats using cecal scraping and application of 95% ethanol. Rats received specific blockers for the mast cell products histamine, serotonin (5HT), leukotriene D4, and platelet activating factor intraperitoneally 30 min before laparotomy and at the time of abdominal closure. Control animals received saline. Adhesions were assessed blindly 1 week later using a standardized scale. Adhesion formation was not affected by histamine blockade using combined mepyramine and ranitidine, 5-HT1 blockade using methysergide, 5-HT3 blockade using ondansetron, leukotriene D4 blockade using MK-571, or platelet activating factor blockade using WEB-2086. However, blockade of the 5-HT2 receptor using ketanserin resulted in significant dose-dependent attenuation of adhesions compared to saline. These data suggest that mast cells mediate peritoneal adhesion formation in the rat through release of serotonin acting on 5HT2 receptors. Further understanding of this process may lead to new strategies for the prevention of postoperative adhesions.

  2. The Family of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavao, Joyce Maguire

    This book aims to provide a broad framework within which to think about adoption as a whole system, so that everyone involved will learn to feel some empathy for the other members of the adoption process. The book, written by a family and adoption therapist who was adopted as an infant, describes predictable developmental stages and challenges for…

  3. HUMORAL AND CELL MEDIATED IMMUNE FUNCTION IN MICE EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID AS ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is used in the manufacture of fluoropolymers, and may be formed by metabolism or degradation of other perfluoroalkyl acids and fluorotelomers. Safety concerns lead the U.S. EPA to conduct a risk assessment of PFOA and related compounds due to their ...

  4. Murine cell-mediated immune response recognizes an enterovirus group-specific antigen(s).

    PubMed Central

    Beck, M A; Tracy, S M

    1989-01-01

    Splenocytes taken from mice inoculated with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) (Nancy) developed an in vitro proliferative response against CVB3 antigen. This response could not be detected earlier than 8 days postinoculation but could be detected up to 28 days after exposure to CB3. CVB3-sensitized splenocytes responded not only to the CVB3 antigen but to other enteroviruses as well. This response was found to be enterovirus specific in that no response was detected to a non-enteroviral picornavirus, encephalomyocarditis virus, or to an unrelated influenza virus. The generation of a splenocyte population capable of responding to an enterovirus group antigen(s) was not limited to inoculation of mice with CVB3, as similar responses were generated when mice were inoculated with CVB2. Cell subset depletions revealed that the major cell type responding to the enterovirus group antigen(s) was the CD4+ T cell. Current evidence suggests that the group antigen(s) resides in the structural proteins of the virus, since spleen cells from mice inoculated with a UV-inactivated, highly purified preparation of CVB3 virions also responded in vitro against enteroviral antigens. PMID:2476566

  5. Roles of mucosal mast cells in intestinal cell-mediated immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, A.; Cummins, A.G.; Munro, G.H.; Gibson, S.; Miller, H.R.

    1987-11-01

    Mucosal mast cells in rats with GvHR have been studied by cell counts, tissue levels of the specific protease RMCPII, and, as an index of MMC activation, serum RMCPII. In semi-allogeneic GvHR without host irradiation, GvHR produced modest increases in these three indices. In contrast, irradiation profoundly depleted MMC even though enteropathy was more severe than in non-irradiated hosts. We suggest that enteropathy is not dependent on the presence of MMC. In rats given cyclosporin A, lesions of GvHR were mild and numbers of MMC were low.

  6. Diagnostic relevance of humoral and cell-mediated immune reactions in patients with acute viral myocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Maisch, B; Trostel-Soeder, R; Stechemesser, E; Berg, P A; Kochsiek, K

    1982-01-01

    Sera of 177 patients with acute myocarditis (10 coxsackie B 3/4, four influenza, four mumps, 15 cytomegalovirus, 144 undefined) were tested by indirect immunofluorescence for autoantibodies against heart and skeletal muscle and vital or air-dried adult cardiocytes. Antibody-dependent cytolysis, lymphocytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular lymphocytotoxicity were assessed using viral adult rat cardiocytes as target cells. Muscle-specific anti-sarcolemmal antibodies of the anti-myolemmal type--often associated with non-organ-specific anti-endothelial antibodies--were demonstrated in nine out of 10 patients with coxsackie B, in all patients with influenza and mumps and in 65 out of 144 patients with undefined myocarditis. In contrast, 13 out of 15 patients with cytomegalovirus myocarditis lacked anti-sarcolemmal antibodies but had low titre anti-inter fibrillary antibodies instead. In the presence of complement, anti-myolemmal antibodies induced cytolysis of vital cardiocytes, whereas hepatocytes remained unaffected. Titres of anti-myolemmal antibodies correlated with the degree of cardiocytolysis. The anti-myolemmal immunofluorescent pattern and the cytolytic serum activity could be absorbed with the respective viral antigens suggesting that these antibodies cross-react with moieties of the virus itself and may be both diagnostic and aetiological markers in acute viral myocarditis. Lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against heterologous cardiac target cells could not be observed in our patients with myocarditis of proven viral aetiology. However, lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity was demonstrated in 10 ASA-positive and one ASA-negative patient with myocarditis of unknown origin. ASA-positive sera blocked lymphocytotoxicity in three of these patients. PMID:6288291

  7. Enhancement of Cell Mediated Immunity Through Non-Specific Immunostimulation with Liposome Encapsulated Gamma-Interferon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    l’interf6ron gamma encapsul6 dans des liposomes (LIP-y FN) de stimuler l’immunitM A m6diation cellulaire chez la souris a 6tW 6valu6e in vivo et in vitro...L’accroissement de la r6ponse anticorps A m6diation cellulaire a Wt6 mis en 6vidence in vitro par un test de chitnioluminescence permettant de mesurer...IFN en ce qui a trait & la stimulation non sp6cifique du syst6me immunitaire A m6diation cellulaire . i DWSE-SSW4 UNCLASSIFIED -. ,, b

  8. In vitro assessment of the cell-mediated immune response to herpes simplex virus in man

    SciTech Connect

    Clouse, K.A.B.

    1986-01-01

    These studies demonstrated that human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from individuals sensitized to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were capable of producing interleukin 2 (IL 2) following in vitro stimulation with HSV antigen. IL 2 activity was detected by the direct addition of the murine IL 2-dependent cell line, CTLL-20, to ..gamma..-irradiated cultures of HSV-1 antigen-stimulated PBMC. It was found that PBMC from sensitized individuals produced IL 2 in a dose-dependent manner after in vitro stimulation with HSV antigen. Furthermore, IL 2 production in response to viral antigen correlated with viral antigen-induced proliferation of PBMC. It was also shown that contact with HSV-1 antigen induced the expression of IL 2 receptors on a small percentage of human PBMC. While this suggested that IL 2 receptor expression was associated with viral antigen-induced proliferation responses, the level of induced IL 2 receptor expression remained close to the lower limit of detectability for cytofluorographic analysis. Experiments to elucidate the role of the macrophage (MO) in the response to viral antigen revealed that HSV antigen-induced IL 2 production by sensitized T lymphocytes was dependent on the presence of an accessory MO. To investigate the signals provided to T lymphocytes by accessory cells, MOs were pulsed with HSV antigen and treated with paraformaldehyde. This allowed HSV antigen display, but prevented monokine (IL 1) secretion. The treated MOs could no longer induce sensitized lymphocytes to produce IL 2.

  9. Binding of Human Lymphotoxin to Target-Cell Membranes and Its Relation to Cell-Mediated Cytodestruction

    PubMed Central

    Hessinger, David A.; Daynes, Raymond A.; Granger, Gale A.

    1973-01-01

    One of the lymphocyte effector molecules produced in vitro by antigen- and mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes is lymphotoxin, which has been proposed to be the cytodestructive mediator in cell-mediated immune reactions. Our in vitro findings suggest that lymphotoxin binds to sites on the plasma membrane of sensitive target cells, and this binding represents the earliest detectable effect in cell destruction induced by lymphotoxin. The kinetics of binding are rapid, and the affinity of lymphotoxin for binding sites is strong. Furthermore, cytodestruction can be localized, for lymphotoxin-coated cells cannot release lymphotoxin to affect adjacent 51Cr-labeled, noncoated cells in mixed cultures. This evidence suggests how a nonspecific soluble cytotoxin could cause highly specific localized tissue destruction. Images PMID:4544711

  10. The rapid rejection of allogeneic lymphocytes by a non-adaptive, cell-mediated mechanism (NK activity).

    PubMed Central

    Rolstad, B; Fossum, S; Bazin, H; Kimber, I; Marshall, J; Sparshott, S M; Ford, W L

    1985-01-01

    The fate of allogeneic lymphocytes (AO or DA) transferred to non-immune PVG recipients was studied in the light of previous evidence (Heslop & McNeilage, 1983; Rolstad & Ford, 1983) that allogeneic lymphocytes can be rapidly destroyed in certain strain combinations of rats and mice by a mechanism that is distinct from either T-cell mediated immunity or an alloantibody response. AO lymphocytes injected into PVG recipients were discriminated from syngeneic lymphocytes within 15-30 min of i.v. injection, as testified by the excess release of 51Cr into the lymph plasma of the recipient. The following experiments were intended to distinguish between natural antibody and natural killer (NK) cells as the mechanism responsible for the allogeneic lymphocyte cytotoxicity (ALC) displayed by PVG rats. Nude rats treated from birth with anti-mu chain serum and shown to be lacking B and T lymphocytes, as well as being profoundly deficient in immunoglobulin, displayed more aggressive ALC than did control nude rats which, in turn, showed stronger ALC than did euthymic rats. Serum from PVG nude rats exerted no inhibitory or destructive effect on allogeneic lymphocytes in an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity system, an assay of graft-versus-host activity, or when injected into 3-4-week-old PVG rats which had not yet developed ALC. Treatment of nude rats with anti-asialo GM 1 antiserum depressed ALC and NK activity in parallel, thus adding to a wide range of circumstances in which ALC and NK activity are closely correlated. In conclusion, ALC is implemented by a non-adaptive, cell-mediated mechanism independent of immunoglobulin, but the precise identity of the effector cell in the recipients' lymphatic tissues remains to be settled. Images Figure 2 PMID:3972430

  11. Human immune responses in cryptosporidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Borad, Anoli; Ward, Honorine

    2010-01-01

    Immune responses play a critical role in protection from, and resolution of, cryptosporidiosis. However, the nature of these responses, particularly in humans, is not completely understood. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are important. Innate immune responses may be mediated by Toll-like receptor pathways, antimicrobial peptides, prostaglandins, mannose-binding lectin, cytokines and chemokines. Cell-mediated responses, particularly those involving CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ play a dominant role. Mucosal antibody responses may also be involved. Proteins mediating attachment and invasion may serve as putative protective antigens. Further knowledge of human immune responses in cryptosporidiosis is essential in order to develop targeted prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. This review focuses on recent advances and future prospects in the understanding of human immune responses to Cryptosporidium infection. PMID:20210556

  12. Anti-Tumor Effects after Adoptive Transfer of IL-12 Transposon-Modified Murine Splenocytes in the OT-I-Melanoma Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Galvan, Daniel L; O'Neil, Richard T; Foster, Aaron E; Huye, Leslie; Bear, Adham; Rooney, Cliona M; Wilson, Matthew H

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of gene modified T cells provides possible immunotherapy for patients with cancers refractory to other treatments. We have previously used the non-viral piggyBac transposon system to gene modify human T cells for potential immunotherapy. However, these previous studies utilized adoptive transfer of modified human T cells to target cancer xenografts in highly immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice that do not recapitulate an intact immune system. Currently, only viral vectors have shown efficacy in permanently gene-modifying mouse T cells for immunotherapy applications. Therefore, we sought to determine if piggyBac could effectively gene modify mouse T cells to target cancer cells in a mouse cancer model. We first demonstrated that we could gene modify cells to express murine interleukin-12 (p35/p40 mIL-12), a transgene with proven efficacy in melanoma immunotherapy. The OT-I melanoma mouse model provides a well-established T cell mediated immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) positive B16 melanoma cells. B16/OVA melanoma cells were implanted in wild type C57Bl6 mice. Mouse splenocytes were isolated from C57Bl6 OT-I mice and were gene modified using piggyBac to express luciferase. Adoptive transfer of luciferase-modified OT-I splenocytes demonstrated homing to B16/OVA melanoma tumors in vivo. We next gene-modified OT-I cells to express mIL-12. Adoptive transfer of mIL-12-modified mouse OT-I splenocytes delayed B16/OVA melanoma tumor growth in vivo compared to control OT-I splenocytes and improved mouse survival. Our results demonstrate that the piggyBac transposon system can be used to gene modify splenocytes and mouse T cells for evaluating adoptive immunotherapy strategies in immunocompetent mouse tumor models that may more directly mimic immunotherapy applications in humans.

  13. Acquired and innate immunity to polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Yusuf, Nabiha Timares, Laura; Seibert, Megan D.; Xu Hui; Elmets, Craig A.

    2007-11-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are potent mutagens and carcinogens. Researchers have taken advantage of these properties to investigate the mechanisms by which chemicals cause cancer of the skin and other organs. When applied to the skin of mice, several carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have also been shown to interact with the immune system, stimulating immune responses and resulting in the development of antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immunity. Development of cell-mediated immunity is strain-specific and is governed by Ah receptor genes and by genes located within the major histocompatibility complex. CD8{sup +} T cells are effector cells in the response, whereas CD4{sup +} T cells down-regulate immunity. Development of an immune response appears to have a protective effect since strains of mice that develop a cell-mediated immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons are less likely to develop tumors when subjected to a polyaromatic hydrocarbon skin carcinogenesis protocol than mice that fail to develop an immune response. With respect to innate immunity, TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice are more susceptible to polyaromatic hydrogen skin tumorigenesis than C3H/HeN mice in which TLR4 is normal. These findings support the hypothesis that immune responses, through their interactions with chemical carcinogens, play an active role in the prevention of chemical skin carcinogenesis during the earliest stages. Efforts to augment immune responses to the chemicals that cause tumors may be a productive approach to the prevention of tumors caused by these agents.

  14. Synergistic innate and adaptive immune response to combination immunotherapy with anti-tumor antigen antibodies and extended serum half-life IL-2

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Eric F.; Gai, Shuning A.; Opel, Cary F.; Kwan, Byron H.; Surana, Rishi; Mihm, Martin C.; Kauke, Monique J.; Moynihan, Kelly D.; Angelini, Alessandro; Williams, Robert T.; Stephan, Matthias T.; Kim, Jacob S.; Yaffe, Michael B.; Irvine, Darrell J.; Weiner, Louis M.; Dranoff, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cancer immunotherapies under development have generally focused on either stimulating T-cell immunity or driving antibody-directed effector functions of the innate immune system such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). We find that a combination of an anti-tumor antigen antibody and an untargeted IL-2 fusion protein with delayed systemic clearance induces significant tumor control in aggressive isogenic tumor models via a concerted innate and adaptive response involving neutrophils, NK cells, macrophages, and CD8+ T-cells. This combination therapy induces an intratumoral “cytokine storm” and extensive lymphocyte infiltration. Adoptive transfer of anti-tumor T-cells together with this combination therapy leads to robust cures of established tumors and establishment of immunological memory. PMID:25873172

  15. Textbook Evaluation and Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Marcy; Stuen, Carol; Carnine, Douglas; Long, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    Encourages educators to carefully examine the textbook adoption process, especially the way in which adoption committees evaluate and select instructional materials. Reviews the available research literature on the textbook adoption process and includes recommendations for improving the process. Discusses guidelines for designing evaluation…

  16. Adoption and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, E. James

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how adoption responds to ancient questions about origins. Maintains that one's identity hinges on actual relationships more than on pedigree and genes. Discusses reasons for informing a child about his or her adoption. Suggests that adoption is a constructive process involving too many worrisome warnings and anxiety-raising advice by the…

  17. Inflammatory impact of IFN-γ in CD8+ T cell-mediated lung injury is mediated by both Stat1-dependent and -independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ramana, Chilakamarti V.; DeBerge, Matthew P.; Kumar, Aseem; Alia, Christopher S.; Durbin, Joan E.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza infection results in considerable pulmonary pathology, a significant component of which is mediated by CD8+ T cell effector functions. To isolate the specific contribution of CD8+ T cells to lung immunopathology, we utilized a nonviral murine model in which alveolar epithelial cells express an influenza antigen and injury is initiated by adoptive transfer of influenza-specific CD8+ T cells. We report that IFN-γ production by adoptively transferred influenza-specific CD8+ T cells is a significant contributor to acute lung injury following influenza antigen recognition, in isolation from its impact on viral clearance. CD8+ T cell production of IFN-γ enhanced lung epithelial cell expression of chemokines and the subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells into the airways. Surprisingly, Stat1 deficiency in the adoptive-transfer recipients exacerbated the lung injury that was mediated by the transferred influenza-specific CD8+ T cells but was still dependent on IFN-γ production by these cells. Loss of Stat1 resulted in sustained activation of Stat3 signaling, dysregulated chemokine expression, and increased infiltration of the airways by inflammatory cells. Taken together, these data identify important roles for IFN-γ signaling and Stat1-independent IFN-γ signaling in regulating CD8+ T cell-mediated acute lung injury. This is the first study to demonstrate an anti-inflammatory effect of Stat1 on CD8+ T cell-mediated lung immunopathology without the complication of differences in viral load. PMID:25617378

  18. Selenium and immune responses

    SciTech Connect

    Kiremidjian-Schumacher, L.; Stotzky, G.

    1987-04-01

    Selenium (Se) affects all components of the immune system, i.e., the development and expression of nonspecific, humoral, and cell-mediated responses. In general, a deficiency in Se appears to result in immunosuppression, whereas supplementation with low doses of Se appears to result in augmentation and/or restoration of immunologic functions. A deficiency of Se has been shown to inhibit (1) resistance to microbial and viral infections, (2) neutrophil function, (3) antibody production, (4) proliferation of T and B lymphocytes in response to mitogens, and (5) cytodestruction by T lymphocytes and NK cells. Supplementation with Se has been shown to stimulate (1) the function of neutrophils, (2) production of antibodies, (3) proliferation of T and B lymphocytes in response to mitogens, (4) production of lymphokines, (5) NK cell-mediated cytodestruction, (6) delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and allograft rejection, and (7) the ability of a host to reject transplanted malignant tumors. The mechanism(s) whereby Se affects the immune system is speculative. The effects of Se on the function of glutathione peroxidase and on the cellular levels of reduced glutathione and H/sub 2/Se, as well as the ability of Se to interact with cell membranes, probably represent only a few of many regulatory mechanisms. The manipulation of cellular levels of Se may be significant for the maintenance of general health and for the control of immunodeficiency disorders and the chemoprevention of cancer.

  19. The Transracial Adoption Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of transracial adoptions in the United States, particularly international adoptions, is increasing annually. Counseling psychology as a profession, however, is a relatively silent voice in the research on and practice of transracial adoption. This article presents an overview of the history and research on transracial adoption to inform counseling psychologists of the set of racial and ethnic challenges and opportunities that transracial adoptive families face in everyday living. Particular attention is given to emergent theory and research on the cultural socialization process within these families. PMID:18458794

  20. Cell-Mediated Delivery of Nanoparticles: Taking Advantage of Circulatory Cells to Target Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Anselmo, Aaron C.; Mitragotri, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Cellular hitchhiking leverages the use of circulatory cells to enhance the biological outcome of nanoparticle drug delivery systems, which often suffer from poor circulation time and limited targeting. Cellular hitchhiking utilizes the natural abilities of circulatory cells to: (i) navigate the vasculature while avoiding immune system clearance, (ii) remain relatively inert until needed and (iii) perform specific functions, including nutrient delivery to tissues, clearance of pathogens, and immune system surveillance. A variety of synthetic nanoparticles attempt to mimic these functional attributes of circulatory cells for drug delivery purposes. By combining the advantages of circulatory cells and synthetic nanoparticles, many advanced drug delivery systems have been developed that adopt the concept of cellular hitchhiking. Here, we review the development and specific applications of cellular hitchhiking-based drug delivery systems. PMID:24747161

  1. Epirubicin pretreatment enhances NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hui; Dong, Ying; Wu, Jing; Qiao, Yuan; Zhu, Ge; Jin, Haofan; Cui, Jiuwei; Li, Wei; Liu, Yong-Jun; Chen, Jingtao; Song, Yanqiu

    2016-01-01

    Anthracycline-based chemotherapy is a conventional treatment for breast cancer. However, it can negatively affect host immune function and thereby impair patients' quality of life. Boosting the host immune system and reducing the adverse effect of chemotherapy are important for effective cancer treatment. Natural killer (NK) cells stimulate immune responses against cancer; autologous immune enhancement therapy with NK cells prolongs patient survival without significant adverse effects. This study investigated the effects of combined treatment with the anthracycline agent epirubicin (EPI) and NK cells on human breast cancer cells. NK cells were obtained by autologous adoptive cell transfer from breast cancer patients and amplified for 14 days in vitro. The cytotoxicity of NK cells against breast cancer cells was higher following EPI (5.0 μg/ml) pretreatment than without EPI pretreatment or application of EPI alone. The expression of NKG2D ligands [unique long 16-binding protein (ULBP) 1, ULBP2, and major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A] in breast cancer cells was upregulated by pretreatment with EPI, which also increased the secretion of interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α and expression of perforin and granzyme B in NK cells. These results indicate that EPI-NK cell treatment has synergistic cytotoxic effects against breast cancer cells, and suggest that anthracycline-based chemotherapy and NK cell-based immunotherapy can be combined for more effective breast cancer treatment.

  2. Gamma Delta T Cells Mediate Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension and Vascular Injury.

    PubMed

    Caillon, Antoine; Mian, Muhammad Oneeb Rehman; Fraulob-Aquino, Julio C; Huo, Ku-Geng; Barhoumi, Tlili; Ouerd, Sofiane; Sinnaeve, Peter R; Paradis, Pierre; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2017-03-22

    multiple linear regression model integrating whole blood TCR γ constant region gene expression levels, and age and sex (R(2)=0.12, P<1x10(-6)). Conclusions -γδ T cells mediate Ang II-induced SBP elevation, vascular injury and T-cell activation in mice. γδ T cells might contribute to development of hypertension in humans.

  3. New flow cytometric assays for monitoring cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zaritskaya, Liubov; Shurin, Michael R; Sayers, Thomas J; Malyguine, Anatoli M

    2010-06-01

    The exact immunologic responses after vaccination that result in effective antitumor immunity have not yet been fully elucidated and the data from ex vivo T-cell assays have not yet defined adequate surrogate markers for clinical efficacy. A more detailed knowledge of the specific immune responses that correlate with positive clinical outcomes should help to develop better or novel strategies to effectively activate the immune system against tumors. Furthermore, clinically relevant material is often limited and, thus, precludes the ability to perform multiple assays. The two main assays currently used to monitor lymphocyte-mediated cytoxicity in cancer patients are the (51)Cr-release assay and IFN-gamma ELISpot assay. The former has a number of disadvantages, including low sensitivity, poor labeling and high spontaneous release of isotope from some tumor target cells. Additional problems with the (51)Cr-release assay include difficulty in obtaining autologous tumor targets, and biohazard and disposal problems for the isotope. The ELISpot assays do not directly measure cytotoxic activity and are, therefore, a surrogate marker of cyotoxic capacity of effector T cells. Furthermore, they do not assess cytotoxicity mediated by the production of the TNF family of death ligands by the cytotoxic cells. Therefore, assays that allow for the simultaneous measurement of several parameters may be more advantageous for clinical monitoring. In this respect, multifactor flow cytometry-based assays are a valid addition to the currently available immunologic monitoring assays. Use of these assays will enable detection and enumeration of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and their specific effector functions and any correlations with clinical responses. Comprehensive, multifactor analysis of effector cell responses after vaccination may help to detect factors that determine the success or failure of a vaccine and its immunological potency.

  4. Achieving timely adoption.

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Moore, Megan; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    While family reunification is the primary permanency objective for children who must be placed temporarily outside of their homes, reunification is not possible for all children. For those children who do not return to their parents and cannot find permanent homes with other family members, adoption is the favored outcome. This review examines the composite measure in the federal Child and Family Services Review that measures agency performance related to the timeliness of adoptions of foster children. It summarizes the multiple factors that research has found to be associated with increased risk for adoption delay and disruption. These include child characteristics, family of origin and adoptive family characteristics, and features of child welfare services and systems. Practices that have been broadly linked to adoption timeliness or address risk factors associated with delays in adoption are described, including social worker activities and agency or system-wide practice.

  5. Ibrutinib interferes with the cell-mediated anti-tumor activities of therapeutic CD20 antibodies: implications for combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Roit, Fabio Da; Engelberts, Patrick J.; Taylor, Ronald P.; Breij, Esther C.W.; Gritti, Giuseppe; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Introna, Martino; Parren, Paul W.H.I.; Beurskens, Frank J.; Golay, Josée

    2015-01-01

    The novel Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib and phosphatidyl-4-5-biphosphate 3-kinase-δ inhibitor idelalisib are promising drugs for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, either alone or in combination with anti-CD20 antibodies. We investigated the possible positive or negative impact of these drugs on all known mechanisms of action of both type I and type II anti-CD20 antibodies. Pretreatment with ibrutinib for 1 hour did not increase direct cell death of cell lines or chronic lymphocytic leukemia samples mediated by anti-CD20 antibodies. Pre-treatment with ibrutinib did not inhibit complement activation or complement-mediated lysis. In contrast, ibrutinib strongly inhibited all cell-mediated mechanisms induced by anti-CD20 antibodies rituximab, ofatumumab or obinutuzumab, either in purified systems or whole blood assays. Activation of natural killer cells, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by these cells, as well as phagocytosis by macrophages or neutrophils were inhibited by ibrutinib with a half maximal effective concentration of 0.3–3 μM. Analysis of anti-CD20 mediated activation of natural killer cells isolated from patients on continued oral ibrutinib treatment suggested that repeated drug dosing inhibits these cells in vivo. Finally we show that the phosphatidyl-4-5-biphosphate 3-kinase-δ inhibitor idelalisib similarly inhibited the immune cell-mediated mechanisms induced by anti-CD20 antibodies, although the effects of this drug at 10 μM were weaker than those observed with ibrutinib at the same concentration. We conclude that the design of combined treatment schedules of anti-CD20 antibodies with these kinase inhibitors should consider the multiple negative interactions between these two classes of drugs. PMID:25344523

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study of Cell-Mediated Response in Dogs Naturally Infected by Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Batista, Luís F S; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Silva, Thaís B F; Dias, Raíssa A; Tomokane, Thaise Y; Pacheco, Acácio D; da Matta, Vânia L R; Silveira, Fernando T; Marcondes, Mary; Nunes, Cáris M; Laurenti, Márcia D

    2016-12-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) could unravel the complexity of the cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to canine leishmaniasis (CanL). Therefore, we scanned 110,165 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), aiming to identify chromosomal regions associated with the leishmanin skin test (LST), lymphocyte proliferation assay (LPA), and cytokine responses to further understand the role played by CMI in the outcome of natural Leishmania infantum infection in 189 dogs. Based on LST and LPA, four CMI profiles were identified (LST(-)/LPA(-), LST(+)/LPA(-), LST(-)/LPA(+), and LST(+)/LPA(+)), which were not associated with subclinically infected or diseased dogs. LST(+)/LPA(+) dogs showed increased interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels and mild parasitism in the lymph nodes, whereas LST(-)/LPA(+) dogs, in spite of increased IFN-γ, also showed increased interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) levels and the highest parasite load in lymph nodes. Low T cell proliferation under low parasite load suggested that L. infantum was not able to induce effective CMI in the early stage of infection. Altogether, genetic markers explained 87%, 16%, 15%, 11%, 0%, and 0% of phenotypic variance in TNF-α, TGF-β, LST, IL-10, IFN-γ, and LPA, respectively. GWAS showed that regions associated with TNF-α include the following genes: IL12RB1, JAK3, CCRL2, CCR2, CCR3, and CXCR6, involved in cytokine and chemokine signaling; regions associated with LST, including COMMD5 and SHARPIN, involved in regulation of NF-κB signaling; and regions associated with IL-10, including LTBP1 and RASGRP3, involved in T regulatory lymphocytes differentiation. These findings pinpoint chromosomic regions related to the cell-mediated response that potentially affect the clinical complexity and the parasite replication in canine L. infantum infection.

  7. Post adoption depression.

    PubMed

    Fields, Eve S; Meuchel, Jennifer M; Jaffe, Chiara J; Jha, Manish; Payne, Jennifer L

    2010-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the prevalence rate and factors associated with post adoption depression. One hundred and twelve adoptive mothers of infants under 12 months of age were recruited from local and national adoption organizations. A modified Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a questionnaire collecting medical and psychiatric history, perceived stress, and demographics were administered retrospectively. The rates of significant depressive symptoms (defined as EPDS >or=12) were calculated at three time points post adoption, and associations with specific clinical variables (personal or family psychiatric history, stress, and adjustment difficulty) were assessed. Eighty-six mothers were included. Rates of significant depressive symptoms (EPDS >or=12) were found in 27.9% of subjects at 0-4 weeks, 25.6% at 5-12 weeks, and 12.8% at 13-52 weeks post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were not associated with personal or family psychiatric history but were associated with stress (p = 0.0011) and adjustment difficulties (p = 0.042) post adoption. Significant depressive symptoms were relatively common in adoptive mothers within the first year after adoption and were associated with environmental stress. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the existence of post adoption depression and the factors associated with it.

  8. Travelers' Health: International Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... a malaria-endemic area (See Chapter 3, Malaria ). Tuberculosis All internationally adopted children should be screened for tuberculosis (TB) after arriving in the United States. Internationally ...

  9. Induction of mucosal immunity through systemic immunization: Phantom or reality?

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fei; Patel, Girishchandra B.; Hu, Songhua; Chen, Wangxue

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Generation of protective immunity at mucosal surfaces can greatly assist the host defense against pathogens which either cause disease at the mucosal epithelial barriers or enter the host through these surfaces. Although mucosal routes of immunization, such as intranasal and oral, are being intensely explored and appear promising for eliciting protective mucosal immunity in mammals, their application in clinical practice has been limited due to technical and safety related challenges. Most of the currently approved human vaccines are administered via systemic (such as intramuscular and subcutaneous) routes. Whereas these routes are acknowledged as being capable to elicit antigen-specific systemic humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, they are generally perceived as incapable of generating IgA responses or protective mucosal immunity. Nevertheless, currently licensed systemic vaccines do provide effective protection against mucosal pathogens such as influenza viruses and Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, whether systemic immunization induces protective mucosal immunity remains a controversial topic. Here we reviewed the current literature and discussed the potential of systemic routes of immunization for the induction of mucosal immunity. PMID:26752023

  10. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  11. Single and combined humoral and cell-mediated immunotherapy of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in immunodeficient scid mice.

    PubMed

    Roths, J B; Sidman, C L

    1993-05-01

    Homozygous mutant scid/scid (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice (referred to as scid mice) lack both specific humoral and cell-mediated immune functions and are exemplary in vivo models for analysis of host-parasite relationships. In our colony, scid mice routinely and predictably develop spontaneous Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) with high morbidity. Previous studies have identified both T cells (specifically, CD4+ cells) and antibody as independent mechanisms of effective anti-P. carinii resistance; however, CD4+ T cells also cause an often fatal hyperinflammatory reaction. The current study has explored the optimal application of these immune components for conferring protection against P. carinii. Anti-P. carinii hyperimmune serum was highly effective at reducing the number of P. carinii organisms in early, intermediate, and advanced stages of PCP and was capable of increasing the mean life expectancy of P. carinii-infected scid mice by more than threefold if provided on a continuing basis. When a short course of hyperimmune-serum therapy was provided prior to transfer of P. carinii-sensitized normal lymphocytes, scid mice were rendered permanently free of P. carinii without the pathological sequelae of the hyperinflammatory reaction. These findings are discussed in the contexts of mechanism and clinical relevance.

  12. Single and combined humoral and cell-mediated immunotherapy of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in immunodeficient scid mice.

    PubMed Central

    Roths, J B; Sidman, C L

    1993-01-01

    Homozygous mutant scid/scid (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice (referred to as scid mice) lack both specific humoral and cell-mediated immune functions and are exemplary in vivo models for analysis of host-parasite relationships. In our colony, scid mice routinely and predictably develop spontaneous Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) with high morbidity. Previous studies have identified both T cells (specifically, CD4+ cells) and antibody as independent mechanisms of effective anti-P. carinii resistance; however, CD4+ T cells also cause an often fatal hyperinflammatory reaction. The current study has explored the optimal application of these immune components for conferring protection against P. carinii. Anti-P. carinii hyperimmune serum was highly effective at reducing the number of P. carinii organisms in early, intermediate, and advanced stages of PCP and was capable of increasing the mean life expectancy of P. carinii-infected scid mice by more than threefold if provided on a continuing basis. When a short course of hyperimmune-serum therapy was provided prior to transfer of P. carinii-sensitized normal lymphocytes, scid mice were rendered permanently free of P. carinii without the pathological sequelae of the hyperinflammatory reaction. These findings are discussed in the contexts of mechanism and clinical relevance. PMID:8478052

  13. The immune system in space and microgravity.

    PubMed

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2002-12-01

    Space flight and models that created conditions similar to those that occur during space flight have been shown to affect a variety of immunological responses. These have primarily been cell-mediated immune responses including leukocyte proliferation, cytokine production, and leukocyte subset distribution. The mechanisms and biomedical consequences of these changes remain to be established. Among the possible causes of space flight-induced alterations in immune responses are exposure to microgravity, exposure to stress, exposure to radiation, and many more as yet undetermined causes. This review chronicles the known effects of space flight on the immune system and explores the possible role of stress in contributing to these changes.

  14. The immune system in space and microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Space flight and models that created conditions similar to those that occur during space flight have been shown to affect a variety of immunological responses. These have primarily been cell-mediated immune responses including leukocyte proliferation, cytokine production, and leukocyte subset distribution. The mechanisms and biomedical consequences of these changes remain to be established. Among the possible causes of space flight-induced alterations in immune responses are exposure to microgravity, exposure to stress, exposure to radiation, and many more as yet undetermined causes. This review chronicles the known effects of space flight on the immune system and explores the possible role of stress in contributing to these changes.

  15. Adoption: Misunderstood, Mythologized, Marginalized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.

    2003-01-01

    Implications are discussed in response to the Major Contribution in this issue reviewing the history, controversies, and theoretical and research literature related to adoption. Practice recommendations for therapists working with adopted children and their families are clustered around three prominent themes in the reviews by Lee, O'Brien and…

  16. Subsidized Adoption in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ursula; Katz, Sanford N.

    The Model State Subsidized Adoption Act, developed to supplement existing state statutes, is presented in full, with accompanying Model Regulations. The act is designed to help provide a child in special circumstances with a permanent adoptive home. When efforts to achieve placement without subsidy have failed, the Act would provide that the child…

  17. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity of lymphocytes from chickens inoculated with herpesvirus of turkey against a Marek's disease lymphoma cell line (MSB-1).

    PubMed

    Kitamoto, N; Ikuta, K; Kato, S; Yamaguchi, S

    1979-03-01

    Using a new device which increases the sensitivity of detection of specific immune lysis of target cells by labeling them with [35S]-methionine, the in vitro cell-mediated cytotoxic response of spleen lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes from chickens vaccinated with herpesvirus of turkey (HVT), O1 strain, against MSB-1 line cells was clearly demonstrated. The cytotoxic activity was clearly inhibited by pretreatment of effector lymphocytes with anti-T lymphocyte serum and complement. The activity was greater using T cells purified from spleen lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes than with the unfractionated cells, indicating that T lymphocytes play the main role in effector activity. Using sera from HVG-vaccinated chickens, no significant cytotoxic effects were detected in the complement-dependent antibody cytotoxicity test against MSB-1 cells. These results suggest that cellular immunity against the surface antigen of Marek's disease (MD) lymphoma cells is mainly related to the preventive mechanism against MD incidence by HVT vaccination.

  18. Immunology of chronic generalized periodontitis. 1. Estimation of cellular and humoral immune status.

    PubMed

    Anil, S; Hari, S; Remani, P; Vijaykumar, T

    1990-01-01

    Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses were assessed in forty patients with chronic generalized periodontitis (CGP), and in an equal number of control subjects. The cell mediated immunity assessed by enumeration of total rosette forming cells [TRFC] and high affinity rosette forming cells [HARFC], were found to be slightly depressed in CGP patients compared controls. The humoral immune response was assessed by estimation of serum immunoglobulins G,A,M,D and E by single radial immunodiffusion technique (RID). Except IgD all the other immunoglobulins were found to be elevated significantly. These immunological derangements found in CGP patients may be the cause or effect of the disease process.

  19. Immune mechanism: a 'double-edged sword'.

    PubMed

    Musa, Mustaffa

    2013-05-01

    Immunology has now developed into an independent discipline in medicine which covers not only germ infection which is related to immunity solely but also covers a lot of non-infectious diseases such as autoimmune disease, allergies, and others. Therefore, "The Immune Mechanism: "A Double-Edged Sword" means that the immune mechanism (consisted of antibody mediated mechanism and T cell mediated mechanism), just like one edge playing the role of giving benefit (immunity) as it destroys the agent of infection, and another one can be detrimental as it will cause tissue/cell damages and then give rise to immune diseases (immunopathology). Now, the prevalence of these immune diseases is on the rise and has become a new challenge to our country towards developed country in 2020. Therefore, we have to make ample preparation (laboratory facilities/services, main power, and research) from now on in order to face the problems and challenges.

  20. Interleukin-22 promotes intestinal-stem-cell-mediated epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lindemans, Caroline A; Calafiore, Marco; Mertelsmann, Anna M; O'Connor, Margaret H; Dudakov, Jarrod A; Jenq, Robert R; Velardi, Enrico; Young, Lauren F; Smith, Odette M; Lawrence, Gillian; Ivanov, Juliet A; Fu, Ya-Yuan; Takashima, Shuichiro; Hua, Guoqiang; Martin, Maria L; O'Rourke, Kevin P; Lo, Yuan-Hung; Mokry, Michal; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Cupedo, Tom; Dow, Lukas E; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E; Shroyer, Noah F; Liu, Chen; Kolesnick, Richard; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Hanash, Alan M

    2015-12-24

    Epithelial regeneration is critical for barrier maintenance and organ function after intestinal injury. The intestinal stem cell (ISC) niche provides Wnt, Notch and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signals supporting Lgr5(+) crypt base columnar ISCs for normal epithelial maintenance. However, little is known about the regulation of the ISC compartment after tissue damage. Using ex vivo organoid cultures, here we show that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), potent producers of interleukin-22 (IL-22) after intestinal injury, increase the growth of mouse small intestine organoids in an IL-22-dependent fashion. Recombinant IL-22 directly targeted ISCs, augmenting the growth of both mouse and human intestinal organoids, increasing proliferation and promoting ISC expansion. IL-22 induced STAT3 phosphorylation in Lgr5(+) ISCs, and STAT3 was crucial for both organoid formation and IL-22-mediated regeneration. Treatment with IL-22 in vivo after mouse allogeneic bone marrow transplantation enhanced the recovery of ISCs, increased epithelial regeneration and reduced intestinal pathology and mortality from graft-versus-host disease. ATOH1-deficient organoid culture demonstrated that IL-22 induced epithelial regeneration independently of the Paneth cell niche. Our findings reveal a fundamental mechanism by which the immune system is able to support the intestinal epithelium, activating ISCs to promote regeneration.

  1. Adaptive Immunity Against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Karauzum, Hatice; Datta, Sandip K

    2016-02-27

    A complex interplay between host and bacterial factors allows Staphylococcus aureus to occupy its niche as a human commensal and a major human pathogen. The role of neutrophils as a critical component of the innate immune response against S. aureus, particularly for control of systemic infection, has been established in both animal models and in humans with acquired and congenital neutrophil dysfunction. The role of the adaptive immune system is less clear. Although deficiencies in adaptive immunity do not result in the marked susceptibility to S. aureus infection that neutrophil dysfunction imparts, emerging evidence suggests both T cell- and B cell-mediated adaptive immunity can influence host susceptibility and control of S. aureus. The contribution of adaptive immunity depends on the context and site of infection and can be either beneficial or detrimental to the host. Furthermore, S. aureus has evolved mechanisms to manipulate adaptive immune responses to its advantage. In this chapter, we will review the evidence for the role of adaptive immunity during S. aureus infections. Further elucidation of this role will be important to understand how it influences susceptibility to infection and to appropriately design vaccines that elicit adaptive immune responses to protect against subsequent infections.

  2. Immunotoxicity of aflatoxin B1: Impairment of the cell-mediated response to vaccine antigen and modulation of cytokine expression

    SciTech Connect

    Meissonnier, Guylaine M.; Pinton, Philippe; Laffitte, Joelle; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Gong, Yun Yun; Wild, Christopher P.; Bertin, Gerard; Galtier, Pierre; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2008-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus or A. parasiticus, is a frequent contaminant of food and feed. This toxin is hepatotoxic and immunotoxic. The present study analyzed in pigs the influence of AFB1 on humoral and cellular responses, and investigated whether the immunomodulation observed is produced through interference with cytokine expression. For 28 days, pigs were fed a control diet or a diet contaminated with 385, 867 or 1807 {mu}g pure AFB1/kg feed. At days 4 and 15, pigs were vaccinated with ovalbumin. AFB1 exposure, confirmed by an observed dose-response in blood aflatoxin-albumin adduct, had no major effect on humoral immunity as measured by plasma concentrations of total IgA, IgG and IgM and of anti-ovalbumin IgG. Toxin exposure did not impair the mitogenic response of lymphocytes but delayed and decreased their specific proliferation in response to the vaccine antigen, suggesting impaired lymphocyte activation in pigs exposed to AFB1. The expression level of pro-inflammatory (TNF-{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, IL-6, IFN-{gamma}) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines was assessed by real-time PCR in spleen. A significant up-regulation of all 5 cytokines was observed in spleen from pigs exposed to the highest dose of AFB1. In pigs exposed to the medium dose, IL-6 expression was increased and a trend towards increased IFN-{gamma} and IL-10 was observed. In addition we demonstrate that IL-6 impaired in vitro the antigenic- but not the mitogenic-induced proliferation of lymphocytes from control pigs vaccinated with ovalbumin. These results indicate that AFB1 dietary exposure decreases cell-mediated immunity while inducing an inflammatory response. These impairments in the immune response could participate in failure of vaccination protocols and increased susceptibility to infections described in pigs exposed to AFB1.

  3. Immunity to brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Skendros, P; Boura, P

    2013-04-01

    Resistance to intracellular bacterial pathogens such as Brucella spp. relies on cell-mediated immunity, which involves activation of the bactericidal mechanisms of antigen-presenting cells (macrophages and dendritic cells) and the subsequent expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell clones. Brucella antigens induce the production of T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines, and an adequate Th1 immune response is critical for the clearance of Brucella infection. Studies on experimental and human brucellosis indicate that interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) is the principal cytokine active against Brucella infection. On the other hand, Brucella has evolutionarily developed diverse evasion strategies to avoid the host's innate and adaptive immunity in order to establish an intracellular niche for long-term parasitism. Disturbances of the Thl response and anergy have been described in patients with chronic brucellosis, and are associated with poor outcome. Accordingly, chronic brucellosis represents a challenge for the study of immune mechanisms against Brucella and the development of novel therapeutic or vaccination approaches.

  4. Adoption & Foster Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  5. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  6. Adoption and Sibling Rivalry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families ...

  7. IL-4Rα-Associated Antigen Processing by B Cells Promotes Immunity in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hoving, Jennifer C.; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie; McSorley, Henry J.; Ndlovu, Hlumani; Bobat, Saeeda; Kimberg, Matti; Kirstein, Frank; Cutler, Anthony J.; DeWals, Benjamin; Cunningham, Adam F.; Brombacher, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In this study, B cell function in protective TH2 immunity against N. brasiliensis infection was investigated. Protection against secondary infection depended on IL-4Rα and IL-13; but not IL-4. Protection did not associate with parasite specific antibody responses. Re-infection of B cell-specific IL-4Rα−/− mice resulted in increased worm burdens compared to control mice, despite their equivalent capacity to control primary infection. Impaired protection correlated with reduced lymphocyte IL-13 production and B cell MHC class II and CD86 surface expression. Adoptive transfer of in vivo N. brasiliensis primed IL-4Rα expressing B cells into naïve BALB/c mice, but not IL-4Rα or IL-13 deficient B cells, conferred protection against primary N. brasiliensis infection. This protection required MHC class II compatibility on B cells suggesting cognate interactions by B cells with CD4+ T cells were important to co-ordinate immunity. Furthermore, the rapid nature of these protective effects by B cells suggested non-BCR mediated mechanisms, such as via Toll Like Receptors, was involved, and this was supported by transfer experiments using antigen pulsed Myd88−/− B cells. These data suggest TLR dependent antigen processing by IL-4Rα-responsive B cells producing IL-13 contribute significantly to CD4+ T cell-mediated protective immunity against N. brasiliensis infection. PMID:24204255

  8. Cell mediated therapeutics for cancer treatment: Tumor homing cells as therapeutic delivery vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balivada, Sivasai

    Many cell types were known to have migratory properties towards tumors and different research groups have shown reliable results regarding cells as delivery vehicles of therapeutics for targeted cancer treatment. Present report discusses proof of concept for 1. Cell mediated delivery of Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and targeted Magnetic hyperthermia (MHT) as a cancer treatment by using in vivo mouse cancer models, 2. Cells surface engineering with chimeric proteins for targeted cancer treatment by using in vitro models. 1. Tumor homing cells can carry MNPs specifically to the tumor site and tumor burden will decrease after alternating magnetic field (AMF) exposure. To test this hypothesis, first we loaded Fe/Fe3O4 bi-magnetic NPs into neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which were previously shown to migrate towards melanoma tumors. We observed that NPCs loaded with MNPs travel to subcutaneous melanoma tumors. After alternating magnetic field (AMF) exposure, the targeted delivery of MNPs by the NPCs resulted in a mild decrease in tumor size (Chapter-2). Monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Ma) are known to infiltrate tumor sites, and also have phagocytic activity which can increase their uptake of MNPs. To test Mo/Ma-mediated MHT we transplanted Mo/Ma loaded with MNPs into a mouse model of pancreatic peritoneal carcinomatosis. We observed that MNP-loaded Mo/Ma infiltrated pancreatic tumors and, after AMF treatment, significantly prolonged the lives of mice bearing disseminated intraperitoneal pancreatic tumors (Chapter-3). 2. Targeted cancer treatment could be achieved by engineering tumor homing cell surfaces with tumor proteases cleavable, cancer cell specific recombinant therapeutic proteins. To test this, Urokinase and Calpain (tumor specific proteases) cleavable; prostate cancer cell (CaP) specific (CaP1 targeting peptide); apoptosis inducible (Caspase3 V266ED3)- rCasp3V266ED3 chimeric protein was designed in silico. Hypothesized membrane anchored chimeric protein (rCasp3V

  9. Effect of blueberries on the immune response of obese mice induced by high fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both high fat diet and obesity have been linked to impaired cell-mediated immune response. Blueberry, rich in antioxidant phytochemicals, has been shown to impact biologic functions in several tissues. However, no information is available on immune cells. We investigated whether blueberry consumptio...

  10. Combination Immunotherapy after ASCT for Multiple Myeloma Using MAGE-A3/Poly-ICLC Immunizations Followed by Adoptive Transfer of Vaccine-Primed and Costimulated Autologous T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Aaron P.; Aqui, Nicole A.; Stadtmauer, Edward A; Vogl, Dan T.; Xu, Yin Yan; Kalos, Michael; Cai, Ling; Fang, Hong-Bin; Weiss, Brendan M.; Badros, Ashraf; Yanovich, Saul; Akpek, Gorgun; Tsao, Patricia; Cross, Alan; Mann, Dean; Philip, Sunita; Kerr, Naseem; Brennan, Andrea; Zheng, Zhaohui; Ruehle, Kathleen; Milliron, Todd; Strome, Scott E.; Salazar, Andres M.; Levine, Bruce L.; June, Carl H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Myeloma-directed cellular immune responses after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) may reduce relapse rates. We studied whether coinjecting the TLR-3 agonist and vaccine adjuvant Poly-ICLC with a MAGE-A3 peptide vaccine was safe and would elicit a high frequency of vaccine-directed immune responses when combined with vaccine-primed and costimulated autologous T cells. Experimental Design In a phase II clinical trial (NCT01245673), we evaluated the safety and activity of ex vivo expanded autologous T cells primed in vivo using a MAGE-A3 multipeptide vaccine (compound GL-0817) combined with Poly-ICLC (Hiltonol), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) ± montanide. Twenty-seven patients with active and/or high-risk myeloma received autografts followed by anti-CD3/anti-CD28–costimulated autologous T cells, accompanied by MAGE-A3 peptide immunizations before T-cell collection and five times after ASCT. Immune responses to the vaccine were evaluated by cytokine production (all patients), dextramer binding to CD8+ T cells, and ELISA performed serially after transplant. Results T-cell infusions were well tolerated, whereas vaccine injection site reactions occurred in >90% of patients. Two of nine patients who received montanide developed sterile abscesses; however, this did not occur in the 18 patients who did not receive montanide. Dextramer staining demonstrated MAGE-A3–specific CD8 T cells in 7 of 8 evaluable HLA-A2+ patients (88%), whereas vaccine-specific cytokine-producing T cells were generated in 19 of 25 patients (76%). Antibody responses developed in 7 of 9 patients (78%) who received montanide and only weakly in 2 of 18 patients (11%) who did not. The 2-year overall survival was 74% [95% confidence interval (CI), 54%–100%] and 2-year event-free survival was 56% (95% CI, 37%–85%). Conclusions A high frequency of vaccine-specific T-cell responses were generated after transplant by combining costimulated autologous T

  11. Barrier Epithelial Cells and the Control of Type 2 Immunity.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2015-07-21

    Type-2-cell-mediated immunity, rich in eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, CD4(+) T helper 2 (Th2) cells, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), protects the host from helminth infection but also drives chronic allergic diseases like asthma and atopic dermatitis. Barrier epithelial cells (ECs) represent the very first line of defense and express pattern recognition receptors to recognize type-2-cell-mediated immune insults like proteolytic allergens or helminths. These ECs mount a prototypical response made up of chemokines, innate cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), as well as the alarmins uric acid, ATP, HMGB1, and S100 proteins. These signals program dendritic cells (DCs) to mount Th2-cell-mediated immunity and in so doing boost ILC2, basophil, and mast cell function. Here we review the general mechanisms of how different stimuli trigger type-2-cell-mediated immunity at mucosal barriers and how this leads to protection or disease.

  12. Neutralizing Antibodies Protect against Lethal Flavivirus Challenge but Allow for the Development of Active Humoral Immunity to a Nonstructural Virus Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kreil, Thomas R.; Maier, Elisabeth; Fraiss, Sabine; Eibl, Martha M.

    1998-01-01

    Antibody-mediated neutralization of viruses has been extensively studied in vitro, but the precise mechanisms that account for antibody-mediated protection against viral infection in vivo still remain largely uncharacterized. The two points under discussion are antibodies conferring sterilizing immunity by neutralizing the virus inoculum or protection against the development of disease without complete inhibition of virus replication. For tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a flavivirus, transfer of neutralizing antibodies specific for envelope glycoprotein E protected mice from subsequent TBEV challenge. Nevertheless, short-term, low-level virus replication was detected in these mice. Furthermore, mice that were exposed to replicating but not to inactivated virus while passively protected developed active immunity to TBEV rechallenge. Despite the priming of TBEV-specific cytotoxic T cells, adoptive transfer of serum but not of T cells conferred immunity upon naive recipient mice. These transferred sera were not neutralizing and were predominantly specific for NS1, a nonstructural TBEV protein which is expressed in and on infected cells and which is also secreted from these cells. Results of these experiments showed that despite passive protection by neutralizing antibodies, limited virus replication occurs, indicating protection from disease rather than sterilizing immunity. The protective immunity induced by replicating virus is surprisingly not T-cell mediated but is due to antibodies against a nonstructural virus protein absent from the virion. PMID:9525632

  13. Human Immune Response to Dengue Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-31

    WUDA312059 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) (U) Human Immune Response to Dengue Infections 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Francis A. Ennis 13a. TYPE OF...COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP RA 1; Vaccines; Dengue ; Cell...mediated; HLA; Interferon 0@ 03 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) Thirteen dengue virus-specific, cytotoxic CD4

  14. Psychoneuroimmunology in pregnancy: immune pathways linking stress with maternal health, adverse birth outcomes, and fetal development.

    PubMed

    Christian, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    It is well-established that psychological stress promotes immune dysregulation in nonpregnant humans and animals. Stress promotes inflammation, impairs antibody responses to vaccination, slows wound healing, and suppresses cell-mediated immune function. Importantly, the immune system changes substantially to support healthy pregnancy, with attenuation of inflammatory responses and impairment of cell-mediated immunity. This adaptation is postulated to protect the fetus from rejection by the maternal immune system. Thus, stress-induced immune dysregulation during pregnancy has unique implications for both maternal and fetal health, particularly preterm birth. However, very limited research has examined stress-immune relationships in pregnancy. The application of psychoneuroimmunology research models to the perinatal period holds great promise for elucidating biological pathways by which stress may affect adverse pregnancy outcomes, maternal health, and fetal development.

  15. Natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity is increased by a type II arabinogalactan from Anoectochilus formosanus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Chan; Lai, Ching-Yi; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2017-01-02

    This study investigated the effects of a type II arabinogalactan from Anoectochilus formosanus (AGAF) on natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity and the possible underlying mechanisms. This study reported that sustained exposure to AGAF increased NK-92MI cell-mediated cytotoxicity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, as characterized according to the cellular lactic dehydrogenase leakage from K562 leukemia cells. Additionally, antibody neutralization studies have reported that interferon (IFN)-γ, but not perforin or tumor necrosis factor-α, released by NK-92MI NK cells is crucial in enhancing cytotoxicity through an autocrine loop. In this study, AGAF was further demonstrated to induce IFN-γ expression, increasing the susceptibility to NK-92MI cell-mediated cytotoxicity through the toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR4, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor-κB pathways. A pharmacological study revealed that Janus kinase 2/signal transducers and activators of the signal transducers and of transcription 3 signaling are involved in IFN-γ-induced NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

  16. Adolescents' Feelings about Openness in Adoption: Implications for Adoption Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Mendenhall, Tai J.; Wrobel, Gretchen M.; Grotevant, Harold D.; McRoy, Ruth G.

    2006-01-01

    Adoption research commonly uses parents' reports of satisfaction when examining openness in adoption arrangements. This qualitative study aimed to fill a gap in the adoption research by using adolescents' voices to gain a better understanding of their adoption experiences. Adopted adolescents (n = 152) were interviewed concerning their…

  17. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Sally-Ann; Bricker, Josh B; Wadsworth, Sally J; Corley, Robin P

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), an ongoing genetically informative longitudinal study of behavioral development. We describe the features of the adoption design used in CAP, and discuss how this type of design uses data from both parent-offspring and related- versus unrelated-sibling comparisons to estimate the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences for resemblance among family members. The paper provides an overview of CAP's history, how subjects were ascertained, recruited, and retained, and the domains of assessment that have been explored since the CAP's initiation in 1975. Findings from some representative papers that make use of data from CAP participants illustrate the study's multifaceted nature as a parent-offspring and sibling behavioral genetic study, a study that parallels a complimentary twin study, a longitudinal study of development, a source of subjects for molecular genetic investigation, and a study of the outcomes of the adoption process itself. As subjects assessed first at age 1 approach age 40, we hope the CAP will establish itself as the first prospective adoption study of lifespan development.

  18. School Adoption Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Doris

    Zions First National Bank in Utah adopted a local school in Garrison with a student body of 11, and invited them to participate in their Christmas tree program and a field trip to Salt Lake City. The venture proved so popular and rewarding for the children and bank staff that more field trips were funded and later, when the school burned down, the…

  19. Oxaliplatin regulates expression of stress ligands in ovarian cancer cells and modulates their susceptibility to natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Siew, Yin-Yin; Neo, Soek-Ying; Yew, Hui-Chuing; Lim, Shun-Wei; Ng, Yi-Cheng; Lew, Si-Min; Seetoh, Wei-Guang; Seow, See-Voon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2015-12-01

    Selected cytotoxic chemicals can provoke the immune system to recognize and destroy malignant tumors. Most of the studies on immunogenic cell death are focused on the signals that operate on a series of receptors expressed by dendritic cells to induce tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses. Here, we explored the effects of oxaliplatin, an immunogenic cell death inducer, on the induction of stress ligands and promotion of natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity in human ovarian cancer cells. The results indicated that treatment of tumor cells with oxaliplatin induced the production of type I interferons and chemokines and enhanced the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chains (MIC) A/B, UL16-binding protein (ULBP)-3, CD155 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-R1/R2. Furthermore, oxaliplatin but not cisplatin treatment enhanced susceptibility of ovarian cancer cells to NK cell-mediated cytolysis. In addition, activated NK cells completely abrogated the growth of cancer cells that were pretreated with oxaliplatin. However, cancer cells pretreated with the same concentration of oxaliplatin alone were capable of potentiating regrowth over a period of time. These results suggest an advantage in combining oxaliplatin and NK cell-based therapy in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Further investigation on such potential combination therapy is warranted.

  20. Crucial role of IL-4/STAT6 in T cell-mediated hepatitis: up-regulating eotaxins and IL-5 and recruiting leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Jaruga, Barbara; Hong, Feng; Sun, Rui; Radaeva, Svetlana; Gao, Bin

    2003-09-15

    T cell-mediated immune responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of liver disorders; however, the underlying mechanism remains obscure. Con A injection is a widely accepted mouse model to study T cell-mediated liver injury, in which STAT6 is rapidly activated. Disruption of the IL-4 and STAT6 gene by way of genetic knockout abolishes Con A-mediated liver injury without affecting IFN-gamma/STAT1, IL-6/STAT3, or TNF-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling or affecting NKT cell activation. Infiltration of neutrophils and eosinophils in Con A-induced hepatitis is markedly suppressed in IL-4 (-/-) and STAT6(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. IL-4 treatment induces expression of eotaxins in hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells isolated from wild-type mice but not from STAT6(-/-) mice. Con A injection induces expression of eotaxins in the liver and elevates serum levels of IL-5 and eotaxins; such induction is markedly attenuated in IL-4(-/-) and STAT6(-/-) mice. Finally, eotaxin blockade attenuates Con A-induced liver injury and leukocyte infiltration. Taken together, these findings suggest that IL-4/STAT6 plays a critical role in Con A-induced hepatitis, via enhancing expression of eotaxins in hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells, and induces IL-5 expression, thereby facilitating recruitment of eosinophils and neutrophils into the liver and resulting in hepatitis.

  1. Amphiregulin activates regulatory T lymphocytes and suppresses CD8+ T cell-mediated anti-tumor response in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chun-Hui; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Cheng-Liang; Liu, Shao-Ping; Wu, Long; Chen, Hao; Feng, Mao-Hui; Wu, Ke; Wang, Fu-Bing

    2015-01-01

    CD8+ T cell-mediated immune response plays an important role in inhibiting progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For strategic immunotherapy, it is critical to understand why some of the tumor cells escape from this immune attack. In this study, we investigated how HCC cells alter endogenous anti-tumor immunity and their related signaling pathways. We found that HCC cells, both in vitro and in vivo, substantially secret and express amphiregulin (AR). AR in turn activates immunosuppressive function of intratumoral CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), a major inhibitor of CD8+ T cells. Using either lentiviral siRNA, or AR neutralizing antibody, we blocked the expression and function of AR to test the specificity of AR mediated activation of Tregs, Biochemical and cell biology studies were followed and confirmed that blocking of AR inhibited Tregs activation. In addition, we found that AR can trigger the activation of rapamycin complex 1(mTORC1) signaling in Tregs. The mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin treatment led to compromise Treg function and resulted in enhancing anti-tumor function of CD8+ T cells. Blocking AR/EGFR signaling in Tregs with Gefitinib also enhanced anti-tumor immunity and decreased tumor size in a mouse xenograft tumor model. Taken together, our study suggested a novel mechanism of functional interaction between HCC and Tregs for regulating anti-tumor function of CD8+ T cells. PMID:26451607

  2. Estimating In Vivo Death Rates of Targets due to CD8 T-Cell-Mediated Killing▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ganusov, Vitaly V.; De Boer, Rob J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite recent advances in immunology, several key parameters determining virus dynamics in infected hosts remain largely unknown. For example, the rate at which specific effector and memory CD8 T cells clear virus-infected cells in vivo is hardly known for any viral infection. We propose a framework to quantify T-cell-mediated killing of infected or peptide-pulsed target cells using the widely used in vivo cytotoxicity assay. We have reanalyzed recently published data on killing of peptide-pulsed splenocytes by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and memory CD8 T cells specific to NP396 and GP276 epitopes of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in the mouse spleen. Because there are so many effector CD8 T cells in spleens of mice at the peak of the immune response, NP396- and GP276-pulsed targets are estimated to have very short half-lives of 2 and 14 min, respectively. After the effector numbers have diminished, i.e., in LCMV-immune mice, the half-lives become 48 min and 2.8 h for NP396- and GP276-expressing targets, respectively. Analysis of several alternative models demonstrates that the estimates of half-life times of peptide-pulsed targets are not affected when changes are made in the model assumptions. Our report provides a unifying framework to compare killing efficacies of CD8 T-cell responses specific to different viral and bacterial infections in vivo, which may be used to compare efficacies of various cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-based vaccines. PMID:18815293

  3. Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System A A A ... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  4. Intragastric immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing flagellar antigen confers antibody-independent protective immunity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Akinobu; Satoh, Eiichi; Leer, Rob J; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2007-05-04

    A recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing a flagellar antigen from Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was constructed and evaluated as a mucosal vaccine. Intragastric immunization of the recombinant strain conferred protective immunity against Salmonella infection in mice. This immunization did not result in antigen-specific antibody in either feces or sera but induced the release of IFN-gamma on restimulation of primed lymphocytes ex vivo. The results suggested that the protective efficacy provided by flagellin-expressing L. casei is mainly attributable to cell-mediated immune responses. In addition, an adjuvant-type effect of the antigen delivery system with L. casei was also observed.

  5. Assisting adoptive families: children adopted at older ages.

    PubMed

    Singer, Ellen; Krebs, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the adoption experience can help health care providers develop sensitivity to the special tasks of adopted children and their families. Children who are adopted at older ages may face particular challenges. Age at adoptive placement, the burden of loss, pre-adoptive experiences, and the challenge of attachment are all significant issues in older-child adoption. Pediatric nurses demonstrate sensitivity and support to adopted children and their families by using appropriate language about adoption; understanding the significance of missing health information; providing appropriate referrals as needed; and displaying an open, caring attitude.

  6. Guide to CASE Adoption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    from Ovum Ltd. and the Software Technology Support Center at Hill Air Force Base (UT 84056). Overviews of relevant issues, including CASE adoption, can...Integration Battle." Ovum , 1989. Feuche, M. "How to Use CASE Technology." MIS Week, 10, 37 (Sep 1989), 29. Firth, R., Mosley, V., Pethia, R., Roberts, L...Computer Science Berkeey CA 94704 symllable on Internet. anonomcus FTP laGpll ubicatkin sue-isnodeunomc~Icasa-nniduct-11 hax OVUM Ltd 7 Rathbon Street A

  7. Open Adoption: Adoptive Parents' Reactions Two Decades Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began…

  8. Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritter, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Building on previous books by the author, "Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption" examines the next step after open adoption. Gritter takes the approach that practicing goodwill, respect, and courage within the realm of adoption makes the process move smoother and enriches children's lives. Following a…

  9. The Role of AhR in Autoimmune Regulation and Its Potential as a Therapeutic Target against CD4 T Cell Mediated Inflammatory Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Conghui; Xie, Qunhui; Zhao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    AhR has recently emerged as a critical physiological regulator of immune responses affecting both innate and adaptive systems. Since the AhR signaling pathway represents an important link between environmental stimulators and immune-mediated inflammatory disorder, it has become the object of great interest among researchers recently. The current review discusses new insights into the mechanisms of action of a select group of inflammatory autoimmune diseases and the ligand-activated AhR signaling pathway. Representative ligands of AhR, both exogenous and endogenous, are also reviewed relative to their potential use as tools for understanding the role of AhR and as potential therapeutics for the treatment of various inflammatory autoimmune diseases, with a focus on CD4 helper T cells, which play important roles both in self-immune tolerance and in inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Evidence indicating the potential use of these ligands in regulating inflammation in various diseases is highlighted, and potential mechanisms of action causing immune system effects mediated by AhR signaling are also discussed. The current review will contribute to a better understanding of the role of AhR and its signaling pathway in CD4 helper T cell mediated inflammatory disorder. Considering the established importance of AhR in immune regulation and its potential as a therapeutic target, we also think that both further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of immune regulation that are mediated by the ligand-specific AhR signaling pathway, and integrated research and development of new therapeutic drug candidates targeting the AhR signaling pathway should be pursued urgently. PMID:24905409

  10. The role of AhR in autoimmune regulation and its potential as a therapeutic target against CD4 T cell mediated inflammatory disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Conghui; Xie, Qunhui; Zhao, Bin

    2014-06-05

    AhR has recently emerged as a critical physiological regulator of immune responses affecting both innate and adaptive systems. Since the AhR signaling pathway represents an important link between environmental stimulators and immune-mediated inflammatory disorder, it has become the object of great interest among researchers recently. The current review discusses new insights into the mechanisms of action of a select group of inflammatory autoimmune diseases and the ligand-activated AhR signaling pathway. Representative ligands of AhR, both exogenous and endogenous, are also reviewed relative to their potential use as tools for understanding the role of AhR and as potential therapeutics for the treatment of various inflammatory autoimmune diseases, with a focus on CD4 helper T cells, which play important roles both in self-immune tolerance and in inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Evidence indicating the potential use of these ligands in regulating inflammation in various diseases is highlighted, and potential mechanisms of action causing immune system effects mediated by AhR signaling are also discussed. The current review will contribute to a better understanding of the role of AhR and its signaling pathway in CD4 helper T cell mediated inflammatory disorder. Considering the established importance of AhR in immune regulation and its potential as a therapeutic target, we also think that both further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of immune regulation that are mediated by the ligand-specific AhR signaling pathway, and integrated research and development of new therapeutic drug candidates targeting the AhR signaling pathway should be pursued urgently.

  11. Alpha1-antitrypsin gene therapy modulates cellular immunity and efficiently prevents type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuanqing; Tang, Mei; Wasserfall, Clive; Kou, Zhongchen; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Gardemann, Thomas; Crawford, James; Atkinson, Mark; Song, Sihong

    2006-06-01

    An imbalance of the immune-regulatory pathways plays an important role in the development of type 1 diabetes. Therefore, immunoregulatory and antiinflammatory strategies hold great potential for the prevention of this autoimmune disease. Studies have demonstrated that two serine proteinase inhibitors, alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) and elafin, act as potent antiinflammatory agents. In the present study, we sought to develop an efficient gene therapy approach to prevent type 1 diabetes. Cohorts of 4-week-old female nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice were injected intramuscularly with rAAV1-CB-hAAT, rAAV1-CB-hElafin, or saline. AAV1 vector mediated sustained high levels of transgene expression, sufficient to overcome a humoral immune response against hAAT. AAT gene therapy, contrary to elafin and saline, was remarkably effective in preventing type 1 diabetes. T cell receptor spectratyping indicated that AAT gene therapy altered T cell repertoire diversity in splenocytes from NOD mice. Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that AAT gene therapy attenuated cellular immunity associated with beta cell destruction. This study demonstrates that AAT gene therapy attenuates cell-mediated autoimmunity, alters the T cell receptor repertoire, and efficiently prevents type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse model. These results strongly suggest that rAAV1-mediated AAT gene therapy may be useful as a novel approach to prevent type 1 diabetes.

  12. Antigen-specific immune-suppressor factor in herpes simplex virus type 2 infections of UV B-irradiated mice.

    PubMed Central

    Aurelian, L; Yasumoto, S; Smith, C C

    1988-01-01

    UV B-irradiation (280 to 320 nm) of mice at the site of cutaneous infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) induced suppressor T-cell circuits that decreased HSV-2-induced proliferative responses of HSV-2-immune lymph node cells. Adoptive transfer experiments indicated that splenocytes from UV B-irradiated HSV-2-infected animals contain L3T4+ cells that suppress proliferative responses in vivo, consistent with suppressor inducer cells. However, following in vitro culture of the splenocytes with HSV-2 antigen, the proliferation of immune lymph node cells was inhibited by Lyt2+ suppressor T cells, consistent with antigen-induced suppressor effector cells. Antigen-specific and nonspecific suppressor factors were fractionated from supernatants of HSV-2-stimulated spleen cells by molecular-sieve chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the Sephadex fraction that contained the antigen-specific suppressor factor, in the presence or absence of 2-mercaptoethanol, defined a 115-kilodalton protein consisting of two disulfide-bound components with molecular sizes of 70 and 52 kilodaltons. The implications of these results with respect to the regulation of HSV-induced cell-mediated immunity following UV B-irradiation are discussed. Images PMID:2836632

  13. Antigen-specific immune-suppressor factor in herpes simplex virus type 2 infections of UV B-irradiated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Aurelian, L.; Yasumoto, S.; Smith, C.C.

    1988-07-01

    UV B-irradiation (280 to 320 nm) of mice at the site of cutaneous infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) induced suppressor T-cell circuits that decreased HSV-2-induced proliferative responses of HSV-2-immune lymph node cells. Adoptive transfer experiments indicated that splenocytes from UV B-irradiated HSV-2-infected animals contain L3T4+ cells that suppress proliferative responses in vivo, consistent with suppressor inducer cells. However, following in vitro culture of the splenocytes with HSV-2 antigen, the proliferation of immune lymph node cells was inhibited by Lyt2+ suppressor T cells, consistent with antigen-induced suppressor effector cells. Antigen-specific and nonspecific suppressor factors were fractionated from supernatants of HSV-2-stimulated spleen cells by molecular-sieve chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the Sephadex fraction that contained the antigen-specific suppressor factor, in the presence or absence of 2-mercaptoethanol, defined a 115-kilodalton protein consisting of two disulfide-bound components with molecular sizes of 70 and 52 kilodaltons. The implications of these results with respect to the regulation of HSV-induced cell-mediated immunity following UV B-irradiation are discussed.

  14. Adjuvant effects of saponins on animal immune responses*

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Zahid Iqbal; Hu, Song-hua; Xiao, Chen-wen; Arijo, Abdullah G.

    2007-01-01

    Vaccines require optimal adjuvants including immunopotentiator and delivery systems to offer long term protection from infectious diseases in animals and man. Initially it was believed that adjuvants are responsible for promoting strong and sustainable antibody responses. Now it has been shown that adjuvants influence the isotype and avidity of antibody and also affect the properties of cell-mediated immunity. Mostly oil emulsions, lipopolysaccharides, polymers, saponins, liposomes, cytokines, ISCOMs (immunostimulating complexes), Freund’s complete adjuvant, Freund’s incomplete adjuvant, alums, bacterial toxins etc., are common adjuvants under investigation. Saponin based adjuvants have the ability to stimulate the cell mediated immune system as well as to enhance antibody production and have the advantage that only a low dose is needed for adjuvant activity. In the present study the importance of adjuvants, their role and the effect of saponin in immune system is reviewed. PMID:17323426

  15. Noninvasive Imaging of Cell-Mediated Therapy for Treatment of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Akins, Elizabeth J.; Dubey, Purnima

    2013-01-01

    Cell-mediated therapy (immunotherapy) for the treatment of cancer is an active area of investigation in animal models and clinical trials. Despite many advances, objective responses to immunotherapy are observed in a small number of cases, for certain tumor types. To better understand differences in outcomes, it is critical to develop assays for tracking effector cell localization and function in situ. The fairly recent use of molecular imaging techniques to track cell populations has presented researchers and clinicians with a powerful diagnostic tool for determining the efficacy of cell-mediated therapy for the treatment of cancer. This review highlights the application of whole-body noninvasive radioisotopic, magnetic, and optical imaging methods for monitoring effector cells in vivo. Issues that affect sensitivity of detection, such as methods of cell marking, efficiency of cell labeling, toxicity, and limits of detection of imaging modalities, are discussed. PMID:18523073

  16. Fas involvement in Ca(2+)-independent T cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rouvier, E; Luciani, M F; Golstein, P

    1993-01-01

    Mechanisms of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity remain poorly defined at the molecular level. To investigate some of these mechanisms, we used as target cells, on the one hand, thymocytes from lpr and gld mouse mutants, and on the other hand, L1210 cells transfected or not with the apoptosis-inducing Fas molecule. These independent mutant or transfectant-based approaches both led to the conclusion that Fas was involved in the Ca(2+)-independent component of cytotoxicity mediated by at least two sources of T cells, namely nonantigen-specific in vitro activated hybridoma cells, and antigen-specific in vivo raised peritoneal exudate lymphocytes. Thus, in these cases, T cell-mediated cytotoxicity involved transduction via Fas of the target cell death signal.

  17. Conditioning of the immune response.

    PubMed

    Ader, R; Cohen, N

    1991-10-01

    Experimental studies in humans and experimental animals document the acquisition and extinction of classically conditioned alterations of different parameters of humoral- and cell-mediated immune responses. Although the aversive effects of cyclophosphamide in a taste aversion learning paradigm has been the most frequently used model, conditioned immunomodulatory effects are not confined to this conditioning procedure, and they are not limited to cyclophosphamide or, for that matter, the use of immunomodulating drugs as unconditioned stimuli. Conditioned changes in immunologic reactivity have also been found to modulate the progression of spontaneously-developing or experimentally-induced pathophysiological processes in experimental animals. The available data on the immunoregulatory effects of conditioning indicate that the immune system, like other systems operating in the interests of homeostasis, is integrated with other physiological processes and is therefore influenced by and capable of influencing the brain.

  18. Saos-2 cell-mediated mineralization on collagen gels: Effect of densification and bioglass incorporation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gengbo; Pastakia, Meet; Fenn, Michael B; Kishore, Vipuil

    2016-05-01

    Plastic compression is a collagen densification process that has been widely used for the development of mechanically robust collagen-based materials. Incorporation of bioglass within plastically compressed collagen gels has been shown to mimic the microstructural properties of native bone and enhance in vitro cell-mediated mineralization. The current study seeks to decouple the effects of collagen densification and bioglass incorporation to understand the interplay between collagen packing density and presence of bioglass on cell-mediated mineralization. Saos-2 cell-mediated mineralization was assessed as a measure of the osteoconductivity of four different collagen gels: (1) uncompressed collagen gel (UC), (2) bioglass incorporated uncompressed collagen gel (UC + BG), (3) plastically compressed collagen gel (PC), and (4) bioglass incorporated plastically compressed collagen gel (PC + BG). The results indicated that collagen densification enhanced mineralization as shown by SEM, increased alkaline phosphatase activity and produced significantly higher amounts of mineralized nodules on PC gels compared to UC gels. Further, the amount of nodule formation on PC gels was significantly higher compared to UC + BG gels indicating that increase in matrix stiffness due to collagen densification had a greater effect on cell-mediated mineralization compared to bioglass incorporation into loosely packed UC gels. Incorporation of bioglass into PC gels further enhanced mineralization as evidenced by significantly larger nodule size and higher amount of mineralization on PC + BG gels compared to PC gels. In conclusion, collagen densification via plastic compression improves the osteoconductivity of collagen gels. Further, incorporation of bioglass within PC gels has an additive effect and further enhances the osteoconductivity of collagen gels.

  19. IL-2 augments the therapeutic efficacy of adoptively transferred B cells which directly kill tumor cells via the CXCR4/CXCL12 and perforin pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Xia, Leiming; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yi; Bao, Yangyi; Huang, Shiang; Ren, Xiubao; Lundy, Steven K.; Dai, Fu; Li, Qiao; Chang, Alfred E.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that antitumor B cells directly kill tumor cells via the Fas/FasL pathway and are regulated by IL-10. In this study, we defined additional mechanisms involved in B cell antitumor immunity. Administration of IL-2 significantly augmented the therapeutic efficacy of adoptively transferred tumor-draining lymph node (TDLN) B cells which express IL- 2R. Culture supernatant of purified B splenocytes harvested from the mice that received adoptive transfer of 4T1 TDLN B cells plus IL-2 administration produced larger amounts of IgG which bound to 4T1, resulting in 4T1 lysis. Furthermore, we detected CXCR4 expression on 4T1 TDLN B cells, and 4T1 tumor cells produced its ligand CXCL12. Transwell experiments demonstrated the chemoattraction of CXCR4-expressing 4T1 TDLN B cells towards CXCL12- producing 4T1 cells. Blockade of CXCR4 using a CXCR4-specific inhibitor, AMD3100, significantly reduced the killing of 4T1 tumor cells by 4T1 TDLN B cells. Blockade of FasL and CXCR4 concurrently inhibited B cell-mediated direct killing of tumor cells in an additive manner, indicating that both Fas/FasL and CXCL12/CXCR4 pathways are involved in the direct killing of 4T1 cells by 4T1 TDLN B cells. TDLN B cells produced perforin. Additional transwell experiments showed that effector B cells could directly kill tumor cells in cell-cell contact via the Fas/FasL and CXCR4/CXCL12 pathways as well as perforin, while without cell contact, perforin secreted by B cells led to tumor cell cytotoxicity. These findings underscore the diversity of function by which B cells can play an important role in the host immune response to tumor. PMID:27528023

  20. Developmental maturation of innate immune cell function correlates with susceptibility to central nervous system autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Hertzenberg, Deetje; Lehmann-Horn, Klaus; Kinzel, Silke; Husterer, Veronika; Cravens, Petra D; Kieseier, Bernd C; Hemmer, Bernhard; Brück, Wolfgang; Zamvil, Scott S; Stüve, Olaf; Weber, Martin S

    2013-08-01

    MS is an inflammatory CNS disorder, which typically occurs in early adulthood and rarely in children. Here we tested whether functional maturation of innate immune cells may determine susceptibility to CNS autoimmune disease in EAE. Two-week-old mice were resistant to active EAE, which causes fulminant paralysis in adult mice; this resistance was associated with an impaired development of Th1 and Th17 cells. Resistant, young mice had higher frequencies of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and plasma-cytoid DCs. Furthermore, myeloid APCs and B cells from young mice expressed lower levels of MHC class II and CD40, produced decreased amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, and released enhanced levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10. When used as APCs, splenocytes from 2-week-old mice failed to differentiate naive T cells into Th1 and Th17 cells irrespective of the T-cell donor's age, and promoted development of Treg cells and Th2 cells instead. Adoptive transfer of adult APCs restored the ability of 2-week-old mice to generate encephalitogenic T cells and develop EAE. Collectively, these findings indicate that the innate immune compartment functionally matures during development, which may be a prerequisite for development of T-cell-mediated CNS autoimmune disease.

  1. Adaptive immune responses to Acanthamoeba cysts.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Kathy; Howard, Kevin; Mayhew, Elizabeth; Niederkorn, Jerry; Alizadeh, Hassan

    2002-09-01

    Acanthamoeba cysts are not eliminated from the corneas of human subjects or experimentally infected animals. The persistence of Acanthamoeba cysts in the cornea indicates that either the cysts escape immunological elimination or are not recognized by the host's immunological elements. The aim of this study was to determine the immunogenicity and antigenicity of the Acanthamoeba cyst. Mice were immunized intraperitoneally and serum anti-Acanthamoeba IgG was measured by ELISA. Lymphoproliferative assay and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to Acanthamoeba castellanii cyst and trophozoite antigens were used to determine the cell mediated immune responses against Acanthamoeba cysts. A. castellanii cysts were both immunogenic and antigenic, producing anti-Acanthamoeba serum IgG, T lymphocyte proliferation, and delayed type hypersensitivity responses. These results indicate that Acanthamoeba cysts are recognized by the immune system. The persistence of the organism in the human cornea means that these adaptive immune responses fail to kill Acanthamoeba cysts.

  2. After adoption: dissolution or permanence?

    PubMed

    Festinger, Trudy

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented on the whereabouts of 516 adopted children, based on a random sample of children adopted from placement in New York City in 1996. Data from interviews with adoptive parents were augmented by information from adoption subsidy records and state child tracking files, as well as interviews with caregivers of children whose adoptive parents were deceased. There were few dissolutions, but postadoption service needs were many.

  3. Becoming Lesbian Adoptive Parents: An Exploratory Study of Lesbian Adoptive, Lesbian Birth, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley-Sireci, Lynn M.; Ciano-Boyce, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed lesbian adoptive parents, heterosexual adoptive parents, and lesbian parents who had used assisted fertilization, regarding the adoption process. Found that the process was similar for both heterosexual and lesbian parents, but lesbian adoptive parents perceived more discrimination and were more inclined to omit information during the…

  4. Immune Response to Giardia duodenalis

    PubMed Central

    Faubert, Gaétan

    2000-01-01

    The intestinal protozoan Giardia duodenalis is a widespread opportunistic parasite of humans and animals. This parasite inhabits the upper part of the small intestine and has a direct life cycle. After ingestion of cysts, which are the infective stage, the trophozoites emerge from the cysts in the duodenum and attach to the small intestinal mucosa of the host. Since the migration of trophozoites from the lumen of the intestine into surrounding tissues is an unusual occurrence, the immune response to Giardia remains localized. The identification of antigens that play a role in acquired immunity has been difficult because of the occurrence of antigenic variation and because, Giardia being an ubiquituous organism, it is possible that the antigenic profiles of isolates from different geographic areas will vary. Innate-immunity mechanisms play a role in the control and/or severity of the infection. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses play a role in acquired immunity, but the mechanisms involved are unknown. A variety of serological assays have been used to detect circulating antibodies in serum. Because of the biological characteristics of the parasite and the lack of suitable antigens, the sensitivity of serological assays remains poor. On the other hand, detection of antigens in feces of infected patients has met with success. Commercial kits are available, and they are reported to be more sensitive than microscopic examination for the detection of giardiasis on a single specimen. PMID:10627490

  5. What is immune privilege (not)?

    PubMed

    Galea, Ian; Bechmann, Ingo; Perry, V Hugh

    2007-01-01

    The 'immune privilege' of the central nervous system (CNS) is indispensable for damage limitation during inflammation in a sensitive organ with poor regenerative capacity. It is a longstanding notion which, over time, has acquired several misconceptions and a lack of precision in its definition. In this article, we address these issues and re-define CNS immune privilege in the light of recent data. We show how it is far from absolute, and how it varies with age and brain region. Immune privilege in the CNS is often mis-attributed wholly to the blood-brain barrier. We discuss the pivotal role of the specialization of the afferent arm of adaptive immunity in the brain, which results in a lack of cell-mediated antigen drainage to the cervical lymph nodes although soluble drainage to these nodes is well described. It is now increasingly recognized how immune privilege is maintained actively as a result of the immunoregulatory characteristics of the CNS-resident cells and their microenvironment.

  6. Adoptive Transfer of Engineered Rhesus Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cells Reduces the Number of Transmitted/Founder Viruses Established in Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Victor I; Trivett, Matthew T; Barsov, Eugene V; Jain, Sumiti; Piatak, Michael; Trubey, Charles M; Alvord, W Gregory; Chertova, Elena; Roser, James D; Smedley, Jeremy; Komin, Alexander; Keele, Brandon F; Ohlen, Claes; Ott, David E

    2016-11-01

    AIDS virus infections are rarely controlled by cell-mediated immunity, in part due to viral immune evasion and immunodeficiency resulting from CD4(+) T-cell infection. One likely aspect of this failure is that antiviral cellular immune responses are either absent or present at low levels during the initial establishment of infection. To test whether an extensive, timely, and effective response could reduce the establishment of infection from a high-dose inoculum, we adoptively transferred large numbers of T cells that were molecularly engineered with anti-simian immunodeficiency virus (anti-SIV) activity into rhesus macaques 3 days following an intrarectal SIV inoculation. To measure in vivo antiviral activity, we assessed the number of viruses transmitted using SIVmac239X, a molecularly tagged viral stock containing 10 genotypic variants, at a dose calculated to transmit 12 founder viruses. Single-genome sequencing of plasma virus revealed that the two animals receiving T cells expressing SIV-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) had significantly fewer viral genotypes than the two control animals receiving non-SIV-specific T cells (means of 4.0 versus 7.5 transmitted viral genotypes; P = 0.044). Accounting for the likelihood of transmission of multiple viruses of a particular genotype, the calculated means of the total number of founder viruses transmitted were 4.5 and 14.5 in the experimental and control groups, respectively (P = 0.021). Thus, a large antiviral T-cell response timed with virus exposure can limit viral transmission. The presence of strong, preexisting T-cell responses, including those induced by vaccines, might help prevent the establishment of infection at the lower-exposure doses in humans that typically transmit only a single virus.

  7. Identification of Dominant Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Epitopes on the Hemagglutinin Antigen of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vikram; Yang, Zheng; Hung, Ivan Fan Ngai; Xu, Jianqing; Zheng, Bojian

    2013-01-01

    Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) bridges innate and adaptive immunity, and it involves both humoral and cellular immune responses. ADCC has been found to be a main route of immune protection against viral infections in vivo. Hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus is highly immunogenic and considered the most important target for immune protection. Several potent cross-reactive HA-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been reported, and their conserved neutralizing epitopes have been revealed, but there has been no report so far about ADCC epitopes on HA. Here we identified two dominant ADCC epitopes, designated E1 (amino acids [aa] 92 to 117) and E2 (aa 124 to 159), on HA of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus by epitope mapping of convalescent-phase plasma IgG antibodies from six H1N1-infected human subjects in China that exhibited different levels of ADCC activity. The E1 and E2 ADCC epitopes overlapped with immunodominant epitopes of HA. Depletion of purified patient plasma IgG antibodies with EBY100 yeast cells expressing E1 or E2 decreased the ADCC activity of the IgG antibodies. E1 and E2 sequences were found to be highly conserved in H1N1 strains but less so in other subtypes of influenza A viruses. Our study may aid in designing immunogens that can elicit antibodies with high ADCC activity. Vaccine immunogens designed to include the structural determinants of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies and ADCC epitopes may confer comprehensive immune protection against influenza virus infection. PMID:23487456

  8. Post-transplant adoptive T-cell immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Aqui, Nicole A.; June, Carl H.

    2008-01-01

    Immune reconstitution following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is an often slow and incomplete process that leads to increased risk of infection and malignant disease. Immunization in SCT is frequently unsuccessful due to the prolonged lymphopenia, especially of CD4 T cells, seen following transplant. The transfusion of T cells, also called ‘adoptive T-cell therapy’, has the potential to enhance anti-tumour and overall immunity, and augment vaccine efficacy in the post-transplant setting. Recent advances in tissue culture, cellular immunology and tumour biology are guiding new approaches to adoptive T-cell therapy. This chapter will discuss the challenges that face the field before adoptive T-cell therapy can be translated into routine clinical practice. PMID:18790452

  9. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells mediate tolerance induction in autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Anja; Verhagen, Johan; Wraith, David C

    2017-01-31

    In multiple sclerosis (MS) T cells aberrantly recognize self-peptides of the myelin sheath and attack the central nervous system (CNS). Antigen-specific peptide immunotherapy, which aims to restore tolerance while avoiding the use of non-specific immunosuppressive drugs, is a promising approach to combat autoimmune disease, but the cellular mechanisms behind successful therapy remain poorly understood. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been studied intensively in the field of cancer and to a lesser extent in autoimmunity. Because of their suppressive effect on the immune system in cancer, we hypothesized that the development of MDSCs and their interaction with CD4(+) T cells could be beneficial for antigen-specific immunotherapy. Hence, changes in the quantity, phenotype and function of MDSCs during tolerance induction in our model of MS were evaluated. We reveal, for the first time, an involvement of a subset of MDSCs, known as polymorphonuclear (PMN)-MDSCs, in the process of tolerance induction. PMN-MDSCs were shown to adopt a more suppressive phenotype during peptide immunotherapy and inhibit CD4(+) T-cell proliferation in a cell-contact-dependent manner, mediated by arginase-1. Moreover, increased numbers of tolerogenic PMN-MDSCs, such as observed over the course of peptide immunotherapy, were demonstrated to provide protection from disease in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

  10. Immune Thrombocytopenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Immune Thrombocytopenia? Immune thrombocytopenia (THROM-bo-si-toe-PE-ne- ... from one person to another. Types of Immune Thrombocytopenia The two types of ITP are acute (temporary ...

  11. Immunometabolism: Cellular Metabolism Turns Immune Regulator*

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, Róisín M.; Finlay, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Immune cells are highly dynamic in terms of their growth, proliferation, and effector functions as they respond to immunological challenges. Different immune cells can adopt distinct metabolic configurations that allow the cell to balance its requirements for energy, molecular biosynthesis, and longevity. However, in addition to facilitating immune cell responses, it is now becoming clear that cellular metabolism has direct roles in regulating immune cell function. This review article describes the distinct metabolic signatures of key immune cells, explains how these metabolic setups facilitate immune function, and discusses the emerging evidence that intracellular metabolism has an integral role in controlling immune responses. PMID:26534957

  12. Immunometabolism: Cellular Metabolism Turns Immune Regulator.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Róisín M; Finlay, David K

    2016-01-01

    Immune cells are highly dynamic in terms of their growth, proliferation, and effector functions as they respond to immunological challenges. Different immune cells can adopt distinct metabolic configurations that allow the cell to balance its requirements for energy, molecular biosynthesis, and longevity. However, in addition to facilitating immune cell responses, it is now becoming clear that cellular metabolism has direct roles in regulating immune cell function. This review article describes the distinct metabolic signatures of key immune cells, explains how these metabolic setups facilitate immune function, and discusses the emerging evidence that intracellular metabolism has an integral role in controlling immune responses.

  13. Chronically elevated levels of short-chain fatty acids induce T cell-mediated ureteritis and hydronephrosis1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeongho; Goergen, Craig J.; HogenEsch, Harm; Kim, Chang H.

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are major products of gut microbial fermentation and profoundly affect host health and disease. SCFAs generate IL-10+ regulatory T cells, which may promote immune tolerance. However, SCFAs can also induce Th1 and Th17 cells upon immunological challenges and, therefore, also have the potential to induce inflammatory responses. Because of the seemingly paradoxical SCFA activities in regulating T cells, we investigated, in depth, the impact of elevated SCFA levels on T cells and tissue inflammation in mice. Orally administered SCFAs induced effector (Th1 and Th17) and regulatory T cells in ureter and kidney tissues, and induced T-cell mediated ureteritis leading to kidney hydronephrosis (hereafter called C2RD). Kidney hydronephrosis in C2RD was caused by ureteral obstruction, which was, in turn, induced by SCFA-induced inflammation in the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) and proximal ureter. Oral administration of all major SCFAs, such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate, induced the disease. We found that C2RD development is dependent on mTOR activation, T cell-derived inflammatory cytokines such as IFNγ and IL-17, and gut microbiota. Young or male animals were more susceptible than old or female animals respectively. However, SCFA receptor (GPR41 or GPR43) deficiency did not affect C2RD development. Thus, SCFAs, when systemically administered at levels higher than physiological levels, cause dysregulated T cell responses and tissue inflammation in the renal system. The results provide insights into the immunological and pathological effects of chronically elevated SCFAs. PMID:26819206

  14. CD8+ T-cell interaction with HCV replicon cells: evidence for both cytokine- and cell-mediated antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Zhu, Haizhen; Tu, Zhengkun; Xu, Yi-Ling; Nelson, David R

    2003-06-01

    The interaction between the host immune response and infected hepatocytes plays a central role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV). The lack of a suitable animal or in vitro model has hindered our understanding of the host T-cell/HCV interaction. Our aim was to develop an in vitro model to study the mechanisms of HCV-specific T-cell-mediated antiviral and cytolytic function. The HCV replicon was HLA typed and lymphocytes were obtained from an HLA class I-matched subject. CD8(+) T cells were expanded with 2 HCV-specific/HLA-restricted peptides for NS3. Lymphocyte preparations were cocultured with HCV replicon (FCA1) and control (Huh7) cells labeled with (51)Cr. After a 48-hour incubation, the cells were harvested for RNA extraction. Standard blocking assays were performed in the presence of anti-interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and anti-FasL. Cytolytic activity was measured by (51)Cr release. HCV replicon cells express homozygous HLA-A11 alleles and present HCV nonstructural proteins. HCV-specific expansion of CD8(+) cells led to a 10-fold decrease in HCV replication by Northern blot analysis and 21% specific lysis of FCA1 cells (compared with 2% of control Huh7 cells). Twenty percent of this antiviral activity was independent of T-cell binding, suggesting cytokine-mediated antiviral activity. The CD8(+) antiviral effect was markedly reduced by blocking either IFN-gamma or FasL but was unaffected by blocking TNF-alpha. In conclusion, HCV-specific CD8(+) cells inhibit viral RNA replication by cytokine-mediated and direct cytolytic effects. This T-cell/HCV subgenomic replicon system represents a model for the investigation of CD8 cell interaction with HCV-infected hepatocytes.

  15. Silencing NKG2D ligand-targeting miRNAs enhances natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiaying; Pan, Jie; Du, Chengyong; Si, Wengong; Yao, Minya; Xu, Liang; Zheng, Huilin; Xu, Mingjie; Chen, Danni; Wang, Shu; Fu, Peifen; Fan, Weimin

    2017-04-06

    NKG2D is one of the major activating receptors of natural killer (NK) cells and binds to several ligands (NKG2DLs). NKG2DLs are expressed on malignant cells and sensitize them to early elimination by cytotoxic lymphocytes. We investigated the clinical importance of NKG2DLs and the mechanism of NKG2DL regulation in breast cancer (BC). Among the NKG2DLs MICA/B and ULBP1/2/3, the expression levels of MICA/B in BC tissues were inversely associated with the Tumor Node Metastasis stage. We first found that the high expression of MICB, but not MICA, was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with BC. Investigation into the mechanism revealed that a group of microRNAs (miRNAs) belonging to the miR-17-92 cluster, especially miR-20a, decreased the expression of ULBP2 and MICA/B. These miRNAs downregulated the expression of MICA/B by targeting the MICA/B 3'-untranslated region and downregulated ULBP2 by inhibiting the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. Functional analysis showed that the silencing of NKG2DL-targeting miRNAs in BC cells increased NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro and inhibited immune escape in vivo. In addition, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) increased NKG2DL expression in BC cells by inhibiting members of the miR-17-92 cluster. Thus, targeting miRNAs with antisense inhibitors or HDACis may represent a novel approach for increasing the immunogenicity of BC.

  16. Immune changes during short-duration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    Spaceflight materially influences the immune mechanism of humans and animals. Effects resulting from missions of less than 1 month are examined. Effects from longer missions are discussed in the companion paper by Konstantinova et al. Most immunology studies have involved analyses of subjects and samples from subjects obtained after flight, with the data being compared with similar data obtained before flight. These studies have demonstrated that short-duration missions can result in a postflight depression in blast cell transformation, major changes in cytokine function, and alterations in the relative numbers of immune cell populations. In addition to these post- vs. preflight studies, some data have been produced in flight. However, these in vitro analyses have been less than satisfactory because of differences between in-flight and ground-control conditions. Recently, both the U.S. and Russian space programs have started collecting in-flight, in vivo, cell-mediated immunity data. These studies have confirmed that the human cell-mediated immune system is blunted during spaceflight.

  17. Parents' Feelings towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent-child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child…

  18. Open adoption: adoptive parents' reactions two decades later.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Deborah H

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in the past, most adoption agencies today offer birth parents and adoptive parents the opportunity to share identifying information and have contact with each other. To understand the impacts of different open adoption arrangements, a qualitative descriptive study using a snowball sample of 44 adoptive parents throughout New England began in 1988. Every seven years these parents who adopted infants in open adoptions have participated in tape-recorded interviews to explore their evolving reactions to their open adoption experiences. This article reports the results of in-depth interviews with these parents now that their children have reached young adulthood. This longitudinal research illuminates how open adoptions change over the course of childhood and adolescence, parents' feelings about open adoption, challenges that emerge in their relationships with their children's birth families, how those challenges are managed and viewed, and parents' advice for others living with open adoption and for clinical social work practice and policy. Findings reveal that regardless of the type of openness, these adoptive parents generally feel positive about knowing the birth parents and having contact with them, are comfortable with open adoption, and see it serving the child's best interests.

  19. Adoptive cell transfer in autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Albert J

    2015-06-01

    Adoptive cell transfer is an intervention in which autologous immune cells that have been expanded ex vivo are re-introduced to mitigate a pathological process. Tregs, mesenchymal stromal cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells have been transferred in diverse immune-mediated diseases, and Tregs have been the focus of investigations in autoimmune hepatitis. Transferred Tregs have improved histological findings in animal models of autoimmune hepatitis and autoimmune cholangitis. Key challenges relate to discrepant findings among studies, phenotypic instability of the transferred population, uncertain side effects and possible need for staged therapy involving anti-inflammatory drugs. Future investigations must resolve issues about the purification, durability and safety of these cells and consider alternative populations if necessary.

  20. The immunosuppressive effects of phthalocyanine photodynamic therapy in mice are mediated by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and can be adoptively transferred to naive recipients.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Katiyar, Santosh K; Elmets, Craig A

    2008-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality for malignant tumors but it is also immunosuppressive which may reduce its therapeutic efficacy. The purpose of our study was to elucidate the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in PDT immunosuppression. Using silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc4) as photosensitizer, nontumor-bearing CD4 knockout (CD4-/-) mice and their wild type (WT) counterparts were subjected to Pc4-PDT in a manner identical to that used for tumor regression (1 cm spot size, 0.5 mg kg(-1) Pc4, 110 J cm(-2) light) to assess the effect of Pc4-PDT on cell-mediated immunity. There was a decrease in immunosuppression in CD4-/- mice compared with WT mice. We next examined the role of CD8+ T cells in Pc4-PDT-induced immunosuppression using CD8-/- mice following the same treatment regimen used for CD4-/- mice. Similar to CD4-/- mice, CD8-/- mice exhibited less immunosuppression than WT mice. Pc4-PDT-induced immunosuppression could be adoptively transferred with spleen cells from Pc4-PDT treated donor mice to syngenic naive recipients (P < 0.05) and was mediated primarily by T cells, although macrophages were also found to play a role. Procedures that limit PDT-induced immunosuppression but do not affect PDT-induced regression of tumors may prove superior to PDT alone in promoting long-term antitumor responses.

  1. Dehydroeffusol effectively inhibits human gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with low toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenming; Meng, Mei; Zhang, Bin; Du, Longsheng; Pan, Yanyan; Yang, Ping; Gu, Zhenlun; Zhou, Quansheng Cao, Zhifei

    2015-09-01

    Accumulated data has shown that various vasculogenic tumor cells, including gastric cancer cells, are able to directly form tumor blood vessels via vasculogenic mimicry, supplying oxygen and nutrients to tumors, and facilitating progression and metastasis of malignant tumors. Therefore, tumor vasculogenic mimicry is a rational target for developing novel anticancer therapeutics. However, effective antitumor vasculogenic mimicry-targeting drugs are not clinically available. In this study, we purified 2,7-dihydroxyl-1-methyl-5-vinyl-phenanthrene, termed dehydroeffusol, from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Juncus effusus L., and found that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry in vitro and in vivo with very low toxicity. Dehydroeffusol significantly suppressed gastric cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Molecular mechanistic studies revealed that dehydroeffusol markedly inhibited the expression of a vasculogenic mimicry master gene VE-cadherin and reduced adherent protein exposure on the cell surface by inhibiting gene promoter activity. In addition, dehydroeffusol significantly decreased the expression of a key vasculogenic gene matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) in gastric cancer cells, and diminished MMP2 protease activity. Together, our results showed that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with very low toxicity, suggesting that dehydroeffusol is a potential drug candidate for anti-gastric cancer neovascularization and anti-gastric cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Dehydroeffusol markedly inhibits gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry. • Dehydroeffusol suppresses the expression of vasculogenic mimicry key gene VE-cadherin. • Dehydroeffusol decreases the MMP2 expression and activity in gastric cancer cells. • Dehydroeffusol is a potential anti-cancer drug candidate with very low toxicity.

  2. Subsidized Adoption across the Atlantic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Malcolm; Triseliotis, John

    1991-01-01

    Notes differences between American and British contexts and formulations of adoption payments. Highlights key findings from a research project that evaluated the impact of adoption allowances in Scotland. Gives particular attention to children's views about being adopted with financial help. (GH)

  3. Only a Subset of Phosphoantigen-responsive γ9δ2 T cells Mediate Protective TB Immunity1

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Charles Thomas; Abate, Getahun; Blazevic, Azra; Hoft, Daniel F.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis-BCG induce potent expansions of human memory Vγ9+Vδ2+ T cells capable of IFN-γ production, cytolytic activity and mycobacterial growth inhibition. Certain phosphoantigens expressed by mycobacteria can stimulate γ9δ2 T cell expansions, suggesting that purified or synthetic forms of these phosphoantigens may be useful alone or as components of new vaccines or immunotherapeutics. However, we show that while mycobacteria-activated γ9δ2 T cells potently inhibit intracellular mycobacterial growth, phosphoantigen-activated γ9δ2 T cells fail to inhibit mycobacteria, although both develop similar effector cytokine and cytolytic functional capacities. γ9δ2 T cells receiving TLR-mediated co-stimulation during phosphoantigen activation also failed to inhibit mycobacterial growth. We hypothesized that mycobacteria express antigens, other than the previously identified phosphoantigens, that induce protective subsets of γ9δ2 T cells. Testing this hypothesis, we compared the TCR sequence diversity of γ9δ2 T cells expanded with BCG-infected versus phosphoantigen-treated DC. BCG-stimulated γ9δ2 T cells displayed a more restricted TCR diversity than phosphoantigen-activated γ9δ2 T cells. In addition, only a subset of phosphoantigen-activated γ9δ2 T cells functionally responded to mycobacteria-infected DC. Furthermore, differential inhibitory functions of BCG- and phosphoantigen-activated γ9δ2 T cells were confirmed at the clonal level and were not due to differences in TCR avidity. Our results demonstrate that BCG infection can activate and expand protective subsets of phosphoantigen responsive γ9δ2 T cells, and provide the first indication that γ9δ2 T cells can develop pathogen specificity similar to αβ T cells. Specific targeting of protective γ9δ2 T cell subsets will be important for future tuberculosis vaccines. PMID:18802050

  4. Sequential Changes in Cell-Mediated Immune Responses to Herpes Simplex Virus After Recurrent Herpetic Infection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shillitoe, E. J.; Wilton, J. M. A.; Lehner, T.

    1977-01-01

    Lymphocyte responses to herpes simplex virus (HSV) were studied in 23 patients with recurrent herpes labialis and in 19 control subjects. Lymphocytes of seropositive, but not seronegative, controls responded to HSV by thymidine incorporation, and the supernatant fluids inhibited the migration of guinea pig macrophages. Lymphocytes from patients with a recurrent herpetic lesion responded to HSV by significantly greater thymidine incorporation than seropositive controls, but supernatants did not show an increased macrophage migration inhibition response. During the 28 days after the onset of a lesion, the thymidine incorporation to HSV fell to the level of the seropositive controls, and supernatants then induced an increased inhibition of macrophage migration. Lymphocyte responses to Candida albicans, purified protein derivative, or phytohemagglutinin did not fluctuate according to the presence of a lesion and did not differ from those of the controls. Lymphocyte responses to HSV were unaffected by culture in the presence of serum from seronegative or seropositive controls, or from patients with or without a herpetic lesion. It is suggested that in patients with recurrent herpes labialis a periodic defect of the migration inhibition response might have allowed the recurrent infection to develop, and that the increased thymidine incorporation stimulated by HSV in vitro is a result of antigenic stimulation from the lesion. PMID:198372

  5. A program for the control of an image analysis system used in in vitro assays of cell-mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Goldrosen, M H; Miller, G A; Warshaw, W B

    1982-04-01

    A program for automated control of cell enumeration, microscope stage and focus adjustment and statistical analysis of data is described. The program is designed to run on an Hewlett-Packard 9835A desktop computer programmable in Hewlett-Packard Enhanced BASIC.

  6. p38 MAPK-inhibited dendritic cells induce superior antitumor immune responses and overcome regulatory T cell-mediated immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yong; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Siqing; Hong, Bangxing; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Haiyan; Zheng, Yuhuan; Yang, Jing; Davis, Richard E.; Qian, Jianfei; Hou, Jian; Yi, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer immunotherapy is a promising method but so far has demonstrated limited clinical benefits. Regulatory T cells (Treg) represent a major obstacle to cancer immunotherapy approaches. Here we show that inhibiting p38 MAPK during DC differentiation enables DCs to activate tumor-specific effector T cells (Teff), inhibiting the conversion of Treg and compromising Treg inhibitory effects on Teff. Inhibition of p38 MAPK in DCs lowers expression of PPARγ, activating p50 and upregulation of OX40L expression in DCs. OX40L/OX40 interactions between DCs and Teff and/or Treg are critical for priming effective and therapeutic antitumor responses. Similarly, p38 MAPK inhibition also augments the T cell-stimulatory capacity of human monocyte-derived DCs in the presence of Treg. These findings contribute to ongoing efforts to improve DC-based immunotherapy in human cancers. PMID:24957461

  7. Surgical Stress Abrogates Pre-Existing Protective T Cell Mediated Anti-Tumor Immunity Leading to Postoperative Cancer Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Ananth, Abhirami A; Tai, Lee-Hwa; Lansdell, Casey; Alkayyal, Almohanad A; Baxter, Katherine E; Angka, Leonard; Zhang, Jiqing; Tanese de Souza, Christiano; Stephenson, Kyle B; Parato, Kelley; Bramson, Jonathan L; Bell, John C; Lichty, Brian D; Auer, Rebecca C

    2016-01-01

    Anti-tumor CD8+ T cells are a key determinant for overall survival in patients following surgical resection for solid malignancies. Using a mouse model of cancer vaccination (adenovirus expressing melanoma tumor-associated antigen (TAA)-dopachrome tautomerase (AdDCT) and resection resulting in major surgical stress (abdominal nephrectomy), we demonstrate that surgical stress results in a reduction in the number of CD8+ T cell that produce cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα, Granzyme B) in response to TAA. This effect is secondary to both reduced proliferation and impaired T cell function following antigen binding. In a prophylactic model, surgical stress completely abrogates tumor protection conferred by vaccination in the immediate postoperative period. In a clinically relevant surgical resection model, vaccinated mice undergoing a positive margin resection with surgical stress had decreased survival compared to mice with positive margin resection alone. Preoperative immunotherapy with IFNα significantly extends survival in surgically stressed mice. Importantly, myeloid derived suppressor cell (MDSC) population numbers and functional impairment of TAA-specific CD8+ T cell were altered in surgically stressed mice. Our observations suggest that cancer progression may result from surgery-induced suppression of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells. Preoperative immunotherapies aimed at targeting the prometastatic effects of cancer surgery will reduce recurrence and improve survival in cancer surgery patients.

  8. Immunity to Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii during cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Josie F; Johnston, Simon A

    2015-05-01

    The vast majority of infection with cryptococcal species occurs with Cryptococcus neoformans in the severely immunocompromised. A significant exception to this is the infections of those with apparently normal immune systems by Cryptococcus gattii. Susceptibility to cryptococcosis can be broadly categorised as a defect in adaptive immune responses, especially in T cell immunity. However, innate immune cells such as macrophages play a key role and are likely the primary effector cell in the killing and ultimate clearance of cryptococcal infection. In this review we discuss the current state of our understanding of how the immune system responds to cryptococcal infection in health and disease, with reference to the work communicated at the 9th International Conference on Cryptococcus and Cryptococcosis (ICCC9). We have focussed on cell mediated responses, particularly early in infection, but with the aim of presenting a broad overview of our understanding of immunity to cryptococcal infection, highlighting some recent advances and offering some perspectives on future directions.

  9. Combination Approaches with Immune-Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Swart, Maarten; Verbrugge, Inge; Beltman, Joost B

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, immune-checkpoint molecules prevent autoimmune responses and limit immune cell-mediated tissue damage. Tumors frequently exploit these molecules to evade eradication by the immune system. Over the past years, immune-checkpoint blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programed death-1 emerged as promising strategies to activate antitumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Although complete regression and long-term survival is achieved in some patients, not all patients respond. This review describes promising, novel combination approaches involving immune-checkpoint blockade in the context of the cancer-immunity cycle, aimed at increasing response rates to the single treatments. Specifically, we discuss combinations that promote antigen release and presentation, that further amplify T cell activation, that inhibit trafficking of regulatory T cells or MSDCs, that stimulate intratumoral T cell infiltration, that increase cancer recognition by T cells, and that stimulate tumor killing.

  10. Combination Approaches with Immune-Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Maarten; Verbrugge, Inge; Beltman, Joost B.

    2016-01-01

    In healthy individuals, immune-checkpoint molecules prevent autoimmune responses and limit immune cell-mediated tissue damage. Tumors frequently exploit these molecules to evade eradication by the immune system. Over the past years, immune-checkpoint blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programed death-1 emerged as promising strategies to activate antitumor cytotoxic T cell responses. Although complete regression and long-term survival is achieved in some patients, not all patients respond. This review describes promising, novel combination approaches involving immune-checkpoint blockade in the context of the cancer-immunity cycle, aimed at increasing response rates to the single treatments. Specifically, we discuss combinations that promote antigen release and presentation, that further amplify T cell activation, that inhibit trafficking of regulatory T cells or MSDCs, that stimulate intratumoral T cell infiltration, that increase cancer recognition by T cells, and that stimulate tumor killing. PMID:27847783

  11. Innate immune cell response upon Candida albicans infection.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yulin; Zhang, Lulu; Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Jinyu; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Cao, Yongbing; Yan, Tianhua

    2016-07-03

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic fungus which is the predominant cause of superficial and deep tissue fungal infections. This microorganism has developed efficient strategies to invade the host and evade host defense systems. However, the host immune system will be prepared for defense against the microbe by recognition of receptors, activation of signal transduction pathways and cooperation of immune cells. As a consequence, C. albicans could either be eliminated by immune cells rapidly or disseminate hematogenously, leading to life-threatening systemic infections. The interplay between Candida albicans and the host is complex, requiring recognition of the invaded pathogens, activation of intricate pathways and collaboration of various immune cells. In this review, we will focus on the effects of innate immunity that emphasize the first line protection of host defense against invaded C. albicans including the basis of receptor-mediated recognition and the mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity.

  12. Adoption: medical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, C K

    1978-06-01

    The problem of abandoned children is of great magnitude in India. Placement of these children in a family environment is essential for their physical, mental, and emotional development. Adoption must be approached from the child welfare perspective. The pediatrician can play an important role in the adoption process. The pediatrician should perform a thorough medical examination of infants to be adopted, both to ensure the child's welfare and to give adoptive parents an assessment of the child's health. Information should be collected on the medical history of the child's biologic parents to aid in the evaluation process. Adoptive parents should also undergo medical and pyschological examinations. Pediatricians can additionally work with social welfare departments in establishing criteria for matching children with adoptive parents. Adoptions in India are currently governed by provisions or the 1956 Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act. Since this legislation excludes groups such as Muslims, Christians, and Parsis from its purview, there has been a demand for national legislation providing a uniform adoption law for all the communities in India. The Union Government introduced such a comprehensive bill in 1972, the Adoption of Children Bill; however, no action was ever taken. It is urged that this legislation be reactivated, and that the restriction on the removal of children for adoption outside India be lifted.

  13. Technology Adoption: an Interaction Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitorus, Hotna M.; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Sudirman, Iman

    2016-02-01

    The success of a new technology depends on how well it is accepted by its intended users. Many technologies face the problem of low adoption rate, despite the benefits. An understanding of what makes people accept or reject a new technology can help speed up the adoption rate. This paper presents a framework for technology adoption based on an interactive perspective, resulting from a literature study on technology adoption. In studying technology adoption, it is necessary to consider the interactions among elements involved in the system, for these interactions may generate new characteristics or new relationships. The interactions among elements in a system adoption have not received sufficient consideration in previous studies of technology adoption. Based on the proposed interaction perspective, technology adoption is elaborated by examining interactions among the individual (i.e. the user or prospective user), the technology, the task and the environment. The framework is formulated by adopting several theories, including Perceived Characteristics of Innovating, Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Technology Acceptance Model, Task-Technology Fit and usability theory. The proposed framework is illustrated in the context of mobile banking adoption. It is aimed to offer a better understanding of determinants of technology adoption in various contexts, including technology in manufacturing systems.

  14. Integrated Immune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarnece

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the program to replace several recent studies about astronaut immune systems with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling. The study will address lack of in-flight data to determine the inflight status of immune systems, physiological stress, viral immunity, to determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight, and to determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

  15. Intercountry versus Transracial Adoption: Analysis of Adoptive Parents' Motivations and Preferences in Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuanting; Lee, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The United States is one of the major baby-receiving countries in the world. Relatively little research has focused on why there is such a high demand for intercountry adoption. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with adoptive parents, the authors explored the reasons why Americans prefer to adopt foreign-born children instead of adopting…

  16. Novel mathematical models for cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays without applying enzyme kinetics but with combinations and probability: bystanders in bulk effector cells influence results of cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Toshiaki

    2011-07-01

    Cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays are widely implemented to evaluate cell-mediated cytotoxic activity, and some assays are analyzed using the analogy of enzyme kinetics. In the analogy, the effector cell is regarded as the enzyme, the target cell as the substrate, the effector cell-target cell conjugate as the enzyme-substrate complex and the dead target cell as the product. However, the assumptions analogous to those of enzyme kinetics are not always true in cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays, and the parameter analogous to the Michaelis-Menten constant is not constant but is dependent on the number of effector cells. Therefore I present novel mathematical models for cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays without applying enzyme kinetics. I instead use combinations and probability, because analysis of cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays by applying enzyme kinetics seems controversial. With my original models, I demonstrate simulations of the data in previously published papers. The results are exhibited in the same forms as the corresponding data. Comparing the simulation results with the published data, the results seem to agree well with the data. From simulations of cytotoxic assays with bulk effector cells, it appears that bystanders in bulk effector cells increase both the cytotoxic activity and the motility of effector cells.

  17. NK Cell-Mediated Regulation of Protective Memory Responses against Intracellular Ehrlichial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Samar; El Andaloussi, Abdeljabar; Hisham, Ahmed; Ismail, Nahed

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlichiae are gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria that cause potentially fatal human monocytic ehrlichiosis. We previously showed that natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in host defense against Ehrlichia during primary infection. However, the contribution of NK cells to the memory response against Ehrlichia remains elusive. Primary infection of C57BL/6 mice with Ehrlichia muris provides long-term protection against a second challenge with the highly virulent Ixodes ovatus Ehrlichia (IOE), which ordinarily causes fatal disease in naïve mice. Here, we show that the depletion of NK cells in E. muris-primed mice abrogates the protective memory response against IOE. Approximately, 80% of NK cell-depleted E. muris-primed mice succumbed to lethal IOE infection on days 8–10 after IOE infection, similar to naïve mice infected with the same dose of IOE. The lack of a recall response in NK cell-depleted mice correlated with an increased bacterial burden, extensive liver injury, decreased frequency of Ehrlichia-specific IFN-γ-producing memory CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and a low titer of Ehrlichia-specific antibodies. Intraperitoneal infection of mice with E. muris resulted in the production of IL-15, IL-12, and IFN-γ as well as an expansion of activated NKG2D+ NK cells. The adoptive transfer of purified E. muris-primed hepatic and splenic NK cells into Rag2-/-Il2rg-/- recipient mice provided protective immunity against challenge with E. muris. Together, these data suggest that E. muris-induced memory-like NK cells, which contribute to the protective, recall response against Ehrlichia. PMID:27092553

  18. Stephanthraniline A suppressed CD4(+) T cell-mediated immunological hepatitis through impairing PKCθ function.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng-Yang; Zhou, Li-Fei; Li, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Jia-Wen; Xu, Shi-Fang; Huang, Wen-Hai; Gao, Li-Juan; Hao, Shu-Juan; Ye, Yi-Ping; Sun, Hong-Xiang

    2016-10-15

    Stephanthraniline A (STA), a C21 steroid isolated from Stephanotis mucronata (Blanco) Merr., was previously shown to inhibit T cells activation and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the in vivo immunosuppressive activity of STA and to elucidate its potential mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with STA significantly attenuated concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis and reduced CD4(+) T cells activation and aggregation in hepatic tissue in mice. STA directly suppressed the activation and proliferation of Con A-induced CD4(+) T cells, and inhibited NFAT, NFκB and MAPK signaling cascades in activated CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Moreover, it was proved that STA inhibited T cells activation and proliferation through proximal T cell-receptor (TCR) signaling- and Ca(2+) signaling-independent way. The molecular docking studies predicted that STA could tight bind to PKCθ via five hydrogen. The further findings indicated STA directly inhibited PKCθ kinase activity, and its phosphorylation in activated CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Collectively, the present study indicated that STA could protect against CD4(+) T cell-mediated immunological hepatitis in mice through PKCθ and its downstream NFAT, NFκB and MAPK signaling cascades. These results highlight the potential of STA as an effective leading compound for use in the treatment of CD4(+) T cell-mediated inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  19. Dehydroeffusol effectively inhibits human gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with low toxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenming; Meng, Mei; Zhang, Bin; Du, Longsheng; Pan, Yanyan; Yang, Ping; Gu, Zhenlun; Zhou, Quansheng; Cao, Zhifei

    2015-09-01

    Accumulated data has shown that various vasculogenic tumor cells, including gastric cancer cells, are able to directly form tumor blood vessels via vasculogenic mimicry, supplying oxygen and nutrients to tumors, and facilitating progression and metastasis of malignant tumors. Therefore, tumor vasculogenic mimicry is a rational target for developing novel anticancer therapeutics. However, effective antitumor vasculogenic mimicry-targeting drugs are not clinically available. In this study, we purified 2,7-dihydroxyl-1-methyl-5-vinyl-phenanthrene, termed dehydroeffusol, from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Juncus effusus L., and found that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry in vitro and in vivo with very low toxicity. Dehydroeffusol significantly suppressed gastric cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Molecular mechanistic studies revealed that dehydroeffusol markedly inhibited the expression of a vasculogenic mimicry master gene VE-cadherin and reduced adherent protein exposure on the cell surface by inhibiting gene promoter activity. In addition, dehydroeffusol significantly decreased the expression of a key vasculogenic gene matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) in gastric cancer cells, and diminished MMP2 protease activity. Together, our results showed that dehydroeffusol effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell-mediated vasculogenic mimicry with very low toxicity, suggesting that dehydroeffusol is a potential drug candidate for anti-gastric cancer neovascularization and anti-gastric cancer therapy.

  20. Design strategies and applications of circulating cell-mediated drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gloria B.; Dong, Cheng; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Drug delivery systems, particularly nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems, possess a tremendous amount of potential to improve diagnostic and therapeutic effects of drugs. Controlled drug delivery targeted to a specific disease is designed to significantly improve the pharmaceutical effects of drugs and reduce their side effects. Unfortunately, only a few targeted drug delivery systems can achieve high targeting efficiency after intravenous injection, even with the development of numerous surface markers and targeting modalities. Thus, alternative drug and nanomedicine targeting approaches are desired. Circulating cells, such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, and stem cells, present innate disease sensing and homing properties. Hence, using living cells as drug delivery carriers has gained increasing interest in recent years. This review highlights the recent advances in the design of cell-mediated drug delivery systems and targeting mechanisms. The approaches of drug encapsulation/conjugation to cell-carriers, cell-mediated targeting mechanisms, and the methods of controlled drug release are elaborated here. Cell-based “live” targeting and delivery could be used to facilitate a more specific, robust, and smart payload distribution for the next-generation drug delivery systems. PMID:25984572

  1. In vitro enhancement of human natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity by purified influenza virus glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Arora, D J; Houde, M; Justewicz, D M; Mandeville, R

    1984-01-01

    The role of the glycoproteins of influenza virus, hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) in the in vitro stimulation of natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity (NCMC) or natural killer activity of human peripheral blood lymphocytes was evaluated with radiolabeled K562 cells as target cells in an overnight chromium release assay. Three different approaches were used. (i) Purified viral proteins were obtained by extraction with Nonidet P-40, separation on a sucrose gradient, and further purification by affinity chromatography. Ficoll-Hypaque-purified peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to HA or NA individually or to a mixture of both significantly increased NCMC (32 to 50%). (ii) Treatment of HA and NA with their respective homologous antisera or F(ab')2 antibody abrogated the stimulation of NCMC by these glycoproteins. (iii) Virions treated with proteolytic enzymes resulted in viral cores lacking either HA or NA or both activities. Compared to whole virions, viral cores devoid of HA activity only induced a 50% increase in NCMC, whereas viral cores lacking HA activity and with traces of NA activity stimulated only 10% of the NCMC. These results suggest that influenza virus-induced cell-mediated cytotoxicity is largely due to its glycoproteins. PMID:6387178

  2. Immune correlates for dengue vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus is the leading cause of vector-borne viral disease with four serotypes in circulation. Vaccine development has been complicated by the potential for both protection and disease enhancement during heterologous infection. Secondary infection triggers cross-reactive immune memory responses that have varying functional and epitope specificities that determine protection or risk. Strongly neutralizing antibodies to quaternary epitopes may be especially important for virus neutralization. Cell-mediated immunity dominated by Th1 functions may also play an important role. Determining an immune correlate of protection or risk would be highly beneficial for vaccine development but is hampered by mechanistic uncertainties and assay limitations. Clinical efficacy trials and human infection models along with a systems approach may provide future opportunities to elucidate such correlates.

  3. The age-related resistance of rats to Plasmodium berghei infection is associated with differential cellular and humoral immune responses.

    PubMed

    Adam, Estelle; Pierrot, Christine; Lafitte, Sophia; Godin, Claude; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Capron, Monique; Khalife, Jamal

    2003-09-15

    In this study, we investigated how the age of rats would affect the course of infection of and the immune response to Plasmodium berghei. Both young (4-week-old) and adult rats (8-week-old) can be infected with P. berghei ANKA strain, with significantly higher levels of infected red blood cells in young rats. While 100% of young rats succumbed to infection, adult rats were able to clear blood parasites and no mortality was observed. Analysis of cellular distribution and circulating cytokines demonstrated the persistence of CD4+/CD25+ T cells and high expression of circulating interleukin-10 (IL-10) during the progression of infection in young-susceptible rats, whereas high levels of CD8+ T cells and natural killer T cells are detected in adult-resistant rats. Analysis of antibody isotypes showed that adult rats produced significantly higher levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-dependent IgG2c antibodies than young rats during infection. Further evaluation of the role of IL-10, IFN-gamma and of immune cells showed that only the adoptive transfer of spleen cells from adult-resistant rats was able to convert susceptibility of young-susceptible rats to a resistant phenotype. These observations suggest that cell-mediated mechanisms are crucial for the control of a primary infection with P. berghei in young rats.

  4. The use of endogenous T cells for adoptive transfer.

    PubMed

    Yee, Cassian

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy involves the ex vivo enrichment and expansion of tumor-reactive T cells for infusion. As an immune-based approach, adoptive therapy has become an increasingly attractive modality for the treatment of patients with cancer due to its potential for high specificity, non-cross resistance with conventional therapies, and promise of long-term immunoprotection. In recent years, a resurgence in discoveries underlying T-cell recognition, tumor immune evasion, and T-cell memory and differentiation coupled with the development of several enabling technologies have facilitated a renewed focus in the field of adoptive therapy and its transition to the clinical arena as a treatment modality for patients with cancer. In this review, endogenous T cells derived from peripheral blood or tumor sites will be presented as a source of effector cells for adoptive therapy and strategies to isolate, manipulate, and enhance the function of antigen-specific T cells in vitro and to augment their in vivo efficacy and persistence by host immunomodulation are presented in the context of an ever-increasing inventory of preclinical and clinically available reagents. Optimizing the combination of adoptive cellular therapy and other immune-based and conventional approaches will herald a new generation of research and clinical opportunities for cancer immunotherapy.

  5. Adoption and Assisted Reproduction. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the fourth in a series to use an ethics-based…

  6. The Market Forces in Adoption. Adoption and Ethics, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freundlich, Madelyn

    The controversies in adoption have extended across a spectrum of policy and practice issues, and although the issues have become clear, resolution has not been achieved nor has consensus developed regarding a framework on which to improve the quality of adoption policy and practice. This book is the second in a series to use an ethics-based…

  7. HER2-specific immunoligands engaging NKp30 or NKp80 trigger NK-cell-mediated lysis of tumor cells and enhance antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Peipp, Matthias; Derer, Stefanie; Lohse, Stefan; Staudinger, Matthias; Klausz, Katja; Valerius, Thomas; Gramatzki, Martin; Kellner, Christian

    2015-10-13

    NK cells detect tumors through activating surface receptors, which bind self-antigens that are frequently expressed upon malignant transformation. To increase the recognition of tumor cells, the extracellular domains of ligands of the activating NK cell receptors NKp30, NKp80 and DNAM-1 (i.e. B7-H6, AICL and PVR, respectively) were fused to a single-chain fragment variable (scFv) targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), which is displayed by various solid tumors. The resulting immunoligands, designated B7-H6:HER2-scFv, AICL:HER2-scFv, and PVR:HER2-scFv, respectively, bound HER2 and the addressed NK cell receptor. However, whereas B7-H6:HER2-scFv and AICL:HER2-scFv triggered NK cells to kill HER2-positive breast cancer cells at nanomolar concentrations, PVR:HER2-scFv was not efficacious. Moreover, NK cell cytotoxicity was enhanced synergistically when B7-H6:HER2-scFv or AICL:HER2-scFv were applied in combination with another HER2-specific immunoligand engaging the stimulatory receptor NKG2D. In contrast, no improvements were achieved by combining B7-H6:HER2-scFv with AICL:HER2-scFv. Additionally, B7-H6:HER2-scFv and AICL:HER2-scFv enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) by the therapeutic antibodies trastuzumab and cetuximab synergistically, with B7-H6:HER2-scFv exhibiting a higher efficacy. In summary, antibody-derived proteins engaging NKp30 or NKp80 may represent attractive biologics to further enhance anti-tumor NK cell responses and may provide an innovative approach to sensitize tumor cells for antibody-based immunotherapy.

  8. Immunization Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... and afford to pay for them. World Immunization Week The last week of April each year is marked by WHO and partners as World Immunization Week. It aims to accelerate action to increase awareness ...

  9. The Impact of HLA Class I-Specific Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors on Antibody-Dependent Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Organ Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Rajalingam, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells of the innate immune system are cytotoxic lymphocytes that play an important roles following transplantation of solid organs and hematopoietic stem cells. Recognition of self-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules by inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) is involved in the calibration of NK cell effector capacities during the developmental stage, allowing the subsequent recognition and elimination of target cells with decreased expression of self-HLA class I (due to virus infection or tumor transformation) or HLA class I disparities (in the setting of allogeneic transplantation). NK cells expressing an inhibitory KIR-binding self-HLA can be activated when confronted with allografts lacking a ligand for the inhibitory receptor. Following the response of the adaptive immune system, NK cells can further destroy allograft endothelium by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), triggered through cross-linking of the CD16 Fc receptor by donor-specific antibodies bound to allograft. Upon recognizing allogeneic target cells, NK cells also secrete cytokines and chemokines that drive maturation of dendritic cells to promote cellular and humoral adaptive immune responses against the allograft. The cumulative activating and inhibitory signals generated by ligation of the receptors regulates mature NK cell killing of target cells and their production of cytokines and chemokines. This review summarizes the role of NK cells in allograft rejection and proposes mechanistic concepts that indicate a prominent role for KIR–HLA interactions in facilitating NK cells for Fc receptor-mediated ADCC effector function involved in antibody-mediated rejection of solid organ transplants. PMID:28066408

  10. The Impact of HLA Class I-Specific Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors on Antibody-Dependent Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Organ Allograft Rejection.

    PubMed

    Rajalingam, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells of the innate immune system are cytotoxic lymphocytes that play an important roles following transplantation of solid organs and hematopoietic stem cells. Recognition of self-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules by inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) is involved in the calibration of NK cell effector capacities during the developmental stage, allowing the subsequent recognition and elimination of target cells with decreased expression of self-HLA class I (due to virus infection or tumor transformation) or HLA class I disparities (in the setting of allogeneic transplantation). NK cells expressing an inhibitory KIR-binding self-HLA can be activated when confronted with allografts lacking a ligand for the inhibitory receptor. Following the response of the adaptive immune system, NK cells can further destroy allograft endothelium by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), triggered through cross-linking of the CD16 Fc receptor by donor-specific antibodies bound to allograft. Upon recognizing allogeneic target cells, NK cells also secrete cytokines and chemokines that drive maturation of dendritic cells to promote cellular and humoral adaptive immune responses against the allograft. The cumulative activating and inhibitory signals generated by ligation of the receptors regulates mature NK cell killing of target cells and their production of cytokines and chemokines. This review summarizes the role of NK cells in allograft rejection and proposes mechanistic concepts that indicate a prominent role for KIR-HLA interactions in facilitating NK cells for Fc receptor-mediated ADCC effector function involved in antibody-mediated rejection of solid organ transplants.

  11. Immune tolerance induction by integrating innate and adaptive immune regulators

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Jun; Ricordi, Camillo; Chen, Zhibin

    2009-01-01

    A diversity of immune tolerance mechanisms have evolved to protect normal tissues from immune damage. Immune regulatory cells are critical contributors to peripheral tolerance. These regulatory cells, exemplified by the CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and a recently identified population named myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), regulate immune responses and limiting immune-mediated pathology. In a chronic inflammatory setting, such as allograft-directed immunity, there may be a dynamic “crosstalk” between the innate and adaptive immunomodulatory mechanisms for an integrated control of immune damage. CTLA4-B7-based interaction between the two branches may function as a molecular “bridge” to facilitate such “crosstalk”. Understanding the interplays among Treg cells, innate suppressors and pathogenic effector T (Teff) cells will be critical in the future to assist in the development of therapeutic strategies to enhance and synergize physiological immunosuppressive elements in the innate and adaptive immune system. Successful development of localized strategies of regulatory cell therapies could circumvent the requirement for very high number of cells and decrease the risks associated with systemic immunosuppression. To realize the potential of innate and adaptive immune regulators for the still-elusive goal of immune tolerance induction, adoptive cell therapies may also need to be coupled with agents enhancing endogenous tolerance mechanisms. PMID:19919733

  12. Mechanisms of protective immunity in Hymenolepis nana/mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bortoletti, G; Gabriele, F; Palmas, C

    1992-12-01

    Some immunological and parasitological aspects related to the infection of Hymenolepsis nana in mice are summarized in this review, focusing on the immune effector mechanisms involved in this host/parasite relationship. H. nana is a small cestode tapeworm of man and mice. A primary egg-infection determines within few days a strong immunity. Immunity elicited by low-level primary infection is effective as a high-level infection. The protective role of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity is summarized. The histological findings demonstrate that eosinophils and mast-cells are implicated as effector cells. This review is an attempt to re-examine, at low-level infection, the immune mechanisms in H. nana/mouse model.

  13. Understanding the vertebrate immune system: insights from the reptilian perspective.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, L M; Vogel, L A; Bowden, R M

    2010-03-01

    Reptiles are ectothermic amniotes, providing the key link between ectothermic anamniotic fishes and amphibians, and endothermic amniotic birds and mammals. A greater understanding of reptilian immunity will provide important insights into the evolutionary history of vertebrate immunity as well as the growing field of eco-immunology. Like mammals, reptile immunity is complex and involves innate, cell-mediated and humoral compartments but, overall, there is considerably less known about immune function in reptiles. We review the current literature on each branch of the reptilian immune system, placing this information in context to other vertebrates. Further, we identify key areas that are prime for research as well as areas that are lagging because of lack of reagents in non-model systems.

  14. Antibody-mediated immunity against tuberculosis: implications for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Achkar, Jacqueline M; Casadevall, Arturo

    2013-03-13

    There is an urgent need for new and better vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). Current vaccine design strategies are generally focused on the enhancement of cell-mediated immunity. Antibody-based approaches are not being considered, mostly due to the paradigm that humoral immunity plays little role in the protection against intracellular pathogens. Here, we reappraise and update the increasing evidence for antibody-mediated immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, discuss the complexity of antibody responses to mycobacteria, and address mechanism of protection. Based on these findings and discussions, we challenge the common belief that immunity against M. tuberculosis relies solely on cellular defense mechanisms, and posit that induction of antibody-mediated immunity should be included in TB vaccine development strategies.

  15. The Temporal Context of Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Steven K.

    This paper analyzes the amount of time required by farmers in four villages on the western edge of the central plain of Thailand to adopt four agricultural innovations--fertilizer, herbicide, insecticide, and fungicide. The general objective is to help researchers interested in the relationship of the adoption of new ideas to economic development…

  16. Adopting Children with Attachment Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that attachment behavior in infants is a facet of normal child development, and that children with attachment problems require special attention during and after the adoption process. Presents actions needed to increase the probability that such children can be successfully adopted, detailed attachment patterns, and parenting strategies and…

  17. Parents’ Feelings Towards Their Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Children

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Marshaun B.; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined parent gender differences in feelings (negativity and positivity) and perceptions of child behavioural and emotional problems in adoptive and biological parent–child dyads. In a sample of 85 families, we used a novel within-family adoption design in which one child was adopted and one child was a biological child of the couple, and tested whether the links between parent feelings and child maladjustment included effects of passive gene–environment correlation. Parents reported more negativity and less positivity as well as higher levels of externalizing behaviour for the adopted child compared to the non-adopted child, although effect sizes were small and no longer statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. Fathers and mothers did not differ significantly in their reports of positive and negative feelings towards their children or in regard to child externalizing and internalizing behaviours. The correlations between parental negativity and positivity and child externalizing and internalizing were similar for fathers and mothers, and for adopted and non-adopted children. The findings suggest similar parent–child relationship processes for fathers and mothers, and that genetic transmission of behaviour from parent to child does not account for the association between parental warmth and hostility and child-adjustment problems. PMID:21088705

  18. Molecular, genetic and stem cell-mediated therapeutic strategies for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

    PubMed

    Zanetta, Chiara; Riboldi, Giulietta; Nizzardo, Monica; Simone, Chiara; Faravelli, Irene; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P; Corti, Stefania

    2014-02-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disease. It is the first genetic cause of infant mortality. It is caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, leading to the reduction of SMN protein. The most striking component is the loss of alpha motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord, resulting in progressive paralysis and eventually premature death. There is no current treatment other than supportive care, although the past decade has seen a striking advancement in understanding of both SMA genetics and molecular mechanisms. A variety of disease modifying interventions are rapidly bridging the translational gap from the laboratory to clinical trials. In this review, we would like to outline the most interesting therapeutic strategies that are currently developing, which are represented by molecular, gene and stem cell-mediated approaches for the treatment of SMA.

  19. Cell-mediated fibre recruitment drives extracellular matrix mechanosensing in engineered fibrillar microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Brendon M.; Trappmann, Britta; Wang, William Y.; Sakar, Mahmut S.; Kim, Iris L.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Burdick, Jason A.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate how cells sense stiffness in settings structurally similar to native extracellular matrices, we designed a synthetic fibrous material with tunable mechanics and user-defined architecture. In contrast to flat hydrogel surfaces, these fibrous materials recapitulated cell-matrix interactions observed with collagen matrices including stellate cell morphologies, cell-mediated realignment of fibres, and bulk contraction of the material. Increasing the stiffness of flat hydrogel surfaces induced mesenchymal stem cell spreading and proliferation; however, increasing fibre stiffness instead suppressed spreading and proliferation for certain network architectures. Lower fibre stiffness permitted active cellular forces to recruit nearby fibres, dynamically increasing ligand density at the cell surface and promoting the formation of focal adhesions and related signalling. These studies demonstrate a departure from the well-described relationship between material stiffness and spreading established with hydrogel surfaces, and introduce fibre recruitment as a previously undescribed mechanism by which cells probe and respond to mechanics in fibrillar matrices.

  20. Cell-mediated fiber recruitment drives extracellular matrix mechanosensing in engineered fibrillar microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Brendon M.; Trappmann, Britta; Wang, William Y.; Sakar, Mahmut S.; Kim, Iris L.; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Burdick, Jason A.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate how cells sense stiffness in settings structurally similar to native extracellular matrices (ECM), we designed a synthetic fibrous material with tunable mechanics and user-defined architecture. In contrast to flat hydrogel surfaces, these fibrous materials recapitulated cell-matrix interactions observed with collagen matrices including stellate cell morphologies, cell-mediated realignment of fibers, and bulk contraction of the material. While increasing the stiffness of flat hydrogel surfaces induced mesenchymal stem cell spreading and proliferation, increasing fiber stiffness instead suppressed spreading and proliferation depending on network architecture. Lower fiber stiffness permitted active cellular forces to recruit nearby fibers, dynamically increasing ligand density at the cell surface and promoting the formation of focal adhesions and related signaling. These studies demonstrate a departure from the well-described relationship between material stiffness and spreading established with hydrogel surfaces, and introduce fiber recruitment as a novel mechanism by which cells probe and respond to mechanics in fibrillar matrices. PMID:26461445

  1. A convergent and essential interneuron pathway for Mauthner-cell-mediated escapes.

    PubMed

    Lacoste, Alix M B; Schoppik, David; Robson, Drew N; Haesemeyer, Martin; Portugues, Ruben; Li, Jennifer M; Randlett, Owen; Wee, Caroline L; Engert, Florian; Schier, Alexander F

    2015-06-01

    The Mauthner cell (M-cell) is a command-like neuron in teleost fish whose firing in response to aversive stimuli is correlated with short-latency escapes [1-3]. M-cells have been proposed as evolutionary ancestors of startle response neurons of the mammalian reticular formation [4], and studies of this circuit have uncovered important principles in neurobiology that generalize to more complex vertebrate models [3]. The main excitatory input was thought to originate from multisensory afferents synapsing directly onto the M-cell dendrites [3]. Here, we describe an additional, convergent pathway that is essential for the M-cell-mediated startle behavior in larval zebrafish. It is composed of excitatory interneurons called spiral fiber neurons, which project to the M-cell axon hillock. By in vivo calcium imaging, we found that spiral fiber neurons are active in response to aversive stimuli capable of eliciting escapes. Like M-cell ablations, bilateral ablations of spiral fiber neurons largely eliminate short-latency escapes. Unilateral spiral fiber neuron ablations shift the directionality of escapes and indicate that spiral fiber neurons excite the M-cell in a lateralized manner. Their optogenetic activation increases the probability of short-latency escapes, supporting the notion that spiral fiber neurons help activate M-cell-mediated startle behavior. These results reveal that spiral fiber neurons are essential for the function of the M-cell in response to sensory cues and suggest that convergent excitatory inputs that differ in their input location and timing ensure reliable activation of the M-cell, a feedforward excitatory motif that may extend to other neural circuits.

  2. Hypoxia simultaneously alters satellite cell-mediated angiogenesis and hepatocyte growth factor expression.

    PubMed

    Flann, K L; Rathbone, C R; Cole, L C; Liu, X; Allen, R E; Rhoads, R P

    2014-05-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration is a multifaceted process requiring the spatial and temporal coordination of myogenesis as well as angiogenesis. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plays a pivotal role in myogenesis by activating satellite cells (SC) in regenerating muscle and likely plays a role as a contributor to revascularization. Moreover, repair of a functional blood supply is critical to ameliorate tissue ischemia and restore skeletal muscle function, however effects of hypoxia on satellite cell-mediated angiogenesis remain unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the role of HGF and effect of hypoxia on the capacity of satellite cells to promote angiogenesis. To characterize the role of HGF, a microvascular fragment (MVF) culture model coupled with satellite cell conditioned media (CM) was employed. The activity of HGF was specifically blocked in SC CM reducing sprout length compared to control CM. In contrast, MVF sprout number did not differ between control or HGF-deficient SC CM media. Next, we cultured MVF in the presence of CM from satellite cells exposed to normoxic (20% O2 ) or hypoxic (1% O2 ) conditions. Hypoxic CM recapitulated a MVF angiogenic response identical to HGF deficient satellite cell CM. Hypoxic conditions increased satellite cell HIF-1α protein abundance and VEGF mRNA abundance but decreased HGF mRNA abundance compared to normoxic satellite cells. Consistent with reduced HGF gene expression, HGF promoter activity decreased during hypoxia. Taken together, this data indicates that hypoxic modulation of satellite cell-mediated angiogenesis involves a reduction in satellite cell HGF expression.

  3. Immune Modulation in Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Dhodapkar, Kavita M.

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of the immune system in the context of hematologic malignancies has long been appreciated particularly due to the curative impact of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The role of immune system in shaping the biology and evolution of these tumors is now well recognized. While the contribution of the immune system in anti-tumor effects of certain therapies such as immune-modulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies active in hematologic malignancies is quite evident, the immune system has also been implicated in anti-tumor effects of other targeted therapies. The horizon of immune-based therapies in hematologic malignancies is rapidly expanding with promising results from immune-modulatory drugs, immune-checkpoint blockade and adoptive cellular therapies, including genetically-modified T cells. Hematologic malignancies present distinct issues (relative to solid tumors) for the application of immune therapies due to differences in cell of origin/developmental niche of tumor cells, and patterns of involvement such as common systemic involvement of secondary lymphoid tissues. This article discusses the rapidly changing landscape of immune modulation in hematologic malignancies and emphasizes areas wherein hematologic malignancies present distinct opportunities for immunologic approaches to prevent or treat cancer. PMID:26320065

  4. The role of B cells and humoral immunity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, John; Mehta, Simren; Bharrhan, Sushma; Chen, Yong; Achkar, Jacqueline M.; Casadevall, Arturo; Flynn, JoAnne

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a major public health burden. It is generally thought that while B cell- and antibody-mediated immunity plays an important role in host defense against extracellular pathogens, the primary control of intracellular microbes derives from cellular immune mechanisms. Studies on the immune regulatory mechanisms during infection with M. tuberculosis, a facultative intracellular organism, has established the importance of cell-mediated immunity in host defense during tuberculous infection. Emerging evidence suggest a role for B cell and humoral immunity in the control of intracellular pathogens, including obligatory species, through interactions with the cell-mediated immune compartment. Recent studies have shown that B cells and antibodies can significantly impact on the development of immune responses to the tubercle bacillus. In this review, we present experimental evidence supporting the notion that the importance of humoral and cellular immunity in host defense may not be entirely determined by the niche of the pathogen. A comprehensive approach that examines both humoral and cellular immunity could lead to better understanding of the immune response to M. tuberculosis. PMID:25458990

  5. Enteric Immunization of Mice Against Influenza with Recombinant Vaccinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitin, Catherine A.; Bender, Bradley S.; Small, Parker A., Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Intrajejunal administration to mice of a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the influenza virus hemagglutinin gene induced IgA antibody in nasal, gut, and vaginal secretions. It also induced IgG antibody in serum and cell-mediated immunity. The immunization provided significant protection against an influenza virus challenge. This work suggests that enteric-coated recombinant vaccinia could be an orally administered, inexpensive, multivalent, temperature-stable, safe, and effective vaccine for children that could be particularly useful in developing nations, where multiple injections are not easily administered. Oral administration of vaccines should also reduce children's fear of shots at the doctor's office.

  6. Vaccination Strategies for Mucosal Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ogra, Pearay L.; Faden, Howard; Welliver, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Mucosal administration of vaccines is an important approach to the induction of appropriate immune responses to microbial and other environmental antigens in systemic sites and peripheral blood as well as in most external mucosal surfaces. The development of specific antibody- or T-cell-mediated immunologic responses and the induction of mucosally induced systemic immunologic hyporesponsiveness (oral or mucosal tolerance) depend on complex sets of immunologic events, including the nature of the antigenic stimulation of specialized lymphoid structures in the host, antigen-induced activation of different populations of regulatory T cells (Th1 versus Th2), and the expression of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines. Availability of mucosal vaccines will provide a painless approach to deliver large numbers of vaccine antigens for human immunization. Currently, an average infant will receive 20 to 25 percutaneous injections for vaccination against different childhood infections by 18 months of age. It should be possible to develop for human use effective, nonliving, recombinant, replicating, transgenic, and microbial vector- or plant-based mucosal vaccines to prevent infections. Based on the experience with many dietary antigens, it is also possible to manipulate the mucosal immune system to induce systemic tolerance against environmental, dietary, and possibly other autoantigens associated with allergic and autoimmune disorders. Mucosal immunity offers new strategies to induce protective immune responses against a variety of infectious agents. Such immunization may also provide new prophylactic or therapeutic avenues in the control of autoimmune diseases in humans. PMID:11292646

  7. Adoptive T cell immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Perica, Karlo; Varela, Juan Carlos; Oelke, Mathias; Schneck, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Harnessing the immune system to recognize and destroy tumor cells has been the central goal of anti-cancer immunotherapy. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in optimizing this technology in order to make it a clinically feasible treatment. One of the main treatment modalities within cancer immunotherapy has been adoptive T cell therapy (ACT). Using this approach, tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells are infused into cancer patients with the goal of recognizing, targeting, and destroying tumor cells. In the current review, we revisit some of the major successes of ACT, the major hurdles that have been overcome to optimize ACT, the remaining challenges, and future approaches to make ACT widely available.

  8. Studying Neutrophil Migration In Vivo Using Adoptive Cell Transfer.

    PubMed

    Miyabe, Yoshishige; Kim, Nancy D; Miyabe, Chie; Luster, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer experiments can be used to study the roles of cell trafficking molecules on the migratory behavior of specific immune cell populations in vivo. Chemoattractants and their G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors regulate migration of cells in vivo, and dysregulated expression of chemoattractants and their receptors is implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inflammatory arthritides, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), are characterized by the recruitment of inflammatory cells into joints. The K/BxN serum transfer mouse model of inflammatory arthritis shares many similar features with RA. In this autoantibody-induced model of arthritis, neutrophils are the critical immune cells necessary for the development of joint inflammation and damage. We have used adoptive neutrophil transfer to define the contributions of chemoattractant receptors, cytokines, and activation receptors expressed on neutrophils that critically regulate their entry into the inflamed joint. In this review, we describe the procedure of neutrophil adoptive transfer to study the influence of neutrophil-specific receptors or mediators upon the their recruitment into the joint using the K/BxN model of inflammatory arthritis as a model of how adoptive cell transfer studies can be used to study immune cell migration in vivo.

  9. Role of memory T cell subsets for adoptive immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Busch, Dirk H; Fräßle, Simon P; Sommermeyer, Daniel; Buchholz, Veit R; Riddell, Stanley R

    2016-02-01

    Adoptive transfer of primary (unmodified) or genetically engineered antigen-specific T cells has demonstrated astonishing clinical results in the treatment of infections and some malignancies. Besides the definition of optimal targets and antigen receptors, the differentiation status of transferred T cells is emerging as a crucial parameter for generating cell products with optimal efficacy and safety profiles. Long-living memory T cells subdivide into phenotypically as well as functionally different subsets (e.g. central memory, effector memory, tissue-resident memory T cells). This diversification process is crucial for effective immune protection, with probably distinct dependencies on the presence of individual subsets dependent on the disease to which the immune response is directed as well as its organ location. Adoptive T cell therapy intends to therapeutically transfer defined T cell immunity into patients. Efficacy of this approach often requires long-term maintenance of transferred cells, which depends on the presence and persistence of memory T cells. However, engraftment and survival of highly differentiated memory T cell subsets upon adoptive transfer is still difficult to achieve. Therefore, the recent observation that a distinct subset of weakly differentiated memory T cells shows all characteristics of adult tissue stem cells and can reconstitute all types of effector and memory T cell subsets, became highly relevant. We here review our current understanding of memory subset formation and T cell subset purification, and its implications for adoptive immunotherapy.

  10. NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity is enhanced by tamoxifen in HER2/neu non-amplified, but not HER2/neu-amplified, breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Richards, John O; Albers, Alex J; Smith, Thomas S; Tjoe, Judy A

    2016-11-01

    Tumor-targeting antibodies have been successful in the treatment of various types of cancers. Antibodies engage the immune system with their Fc, stimulating immune cell effector function. In the clinic, FcγRIIIa polymorphisms with higher affinity for the Fc of antibodies were shown to improve response rates and overall survival. Efforts have been made to modify the Fc to enhance affinity to Fc receptors and thereby improve effector function. An alternative for improving immune effector function may be to increase the level of tumor antigen expression. In this study, tamoxifen was used to increase HER2/neu protein level to determine whether increased tumor antigen expression could enhance NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC). Tamoxifen was found to increase HER2/neu 1.5-fold to threefold in breast cancer cell lines that were HER2/neu non-amplified. Using flow cytometry to simultaneously evaluate NK cell degranulation and tumor cell death, the increase in HER2/neu enhanced NK cell-mediated ADCC. However, in cells that had HER2/neu gene amplification and estrogen receptor expression, tamoxifen elevated HER2/neu but failed to improve NK cell function. The quantity of HER2/neu on the tumor cell surface was approximately double that of the number of Fc receptors found on NK cells. This appears to reflect a ceiling at which increasing antigen expression fails to improve NK cell effector function. This has clinical implications as trying to increase antigen expression to enhance NK cell function may be useful for patients with antigen-low tumors, but not in those whose tumors have gene amplification or high levels of antigen expression.

  11. Adopting a Districtwide Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Describes a Washington school district's eight-step process leading to the adoption of a districtwide reading program. Includes data collection, research analysis, skill tracing, and field-testing. (PKP)

  12. Regulatory T cell-mediated resolution of lung injury: identification of potential target genes via expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neil R.; D'Alessio, Franco R.; Tsushima, Kenji; Sidhaye, Venkataramana K.; Cheadle, Christopher; Grigoryev, Dmitry N.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2010-01-01

    In animal models of acute lung injury (ALI), gene expression studies have focused on the acute phase of illness, with little emphasis on resolution. In this study, the acute phase of intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (IT LPS)-induced lung injury was similar in wild-type (WT) and recombinase-activating gene-1-deficient (Rag-1−/−) lymphocyte-deficient mice, but resolution was impaired and resolution-phase lung gene expression remained different from baseline only in Rag-1−/− mice. By focusing on groups of genes involved in similar biological processes (gene ontologies) pertinent to inflammation and the immune response, we identified 102 genes at days 4 and 10 after IT LPS with significantly different expression between WT and Rag-1−/− mice. After adoptive transfer of isolated CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) to Rag-1−/− mice at the time of IT LPS, resolution was similar to that in WT mice. Of the 102 genes distinctly changed in either WT or Rag-1−/− mice from our 7 gene ontologies, 19 genes reverted from the Rag-1−/− to the WT pattern of expression after adoptive transfer of Tregs, implicating those 19 genes in Treg-mediated resolution of ALI. PMID:20028937

  13. Kinetics of lymphocyte transformation in mice immunized with viable avirulent forms of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed Central

    Fromtling, R A; Blackstock, R; Hall, N K; Bulmer, G S

    1979-01-01

    A murine model was developed to study the cell-mediated immune response of mice immunized with one of two live, avirulent forms of Cryptococcus neoformans: a nonencapsulated mutant and a thinly encapsulated pseudohyphal variant. A lymphocyte transformation assay was used to evaluate the cellular response of control and sensitized spleen cells after in vitro incubation with three merthiolate-killed whole-cell antigens of C. neoformans. An antigen-to-spleen cell ratio of 10:1 and 5 days of incubation of antigen-spleen cell mixtures were established as optimal conditions for maximum lymphocyte transformation. Maximum responses occurred from 2 to 3 weeks after the last of eight weekly intraperitoneal inoculations of C. neoformans. This assay provided an accurate, reproducible method of studying cell-mediated immunity to C. neoformans, and applications to the study of cryptococcal pathogenesis are proposed. PMID:378854

  14. Modulation of CD112 by the alphaherpesvirus gD protein suppresses DNAM-1-dependent NK cell-mediated lysis of infected cells.

    PubMed

    Grauwet, Korneel; Cantoni, Claudia; Parodi, Monica; De Maria, Andrea; Devriendt, Bert; Pende, Daniela; Moretta, Lorenzo; Vitale, Massimo; Favoreel, Herman W

    2014-11-11

    Natural killer (NK) cells are key players in the innate response to viruses, including herpesviruses. In particular, the variety of viral strategies to modulate the recognition of certain herpesviruses witnesses the importance of NK cells in the control of this group of viruses. Still, NK evasion strategies have remained largely elusive for the largest herpesvirus subfamily, the alphaherpesviruses. Here, we report that the gD glycoprotein of the alphaherpesviruses pseudorabies virus (PRV) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) displays previously uncharacterized immune evasion properties toward NK cells. Expression of gD during infection or transfection led to degradation and consequent down-regulation of CD112, a ligand for the activating NK receptor DNAX accessory molecule 1 (DNAM-1). CD112 downregulation resulted in a reduced ability of DNAM-1 to bind to the surface of both virus-infected and gD-transfected cells. Consequently, expression of gD suppressed NK cell degranulation and NK cell-mediated lysis of PRV- or HSV-2-infected cells. These data identify an alphaherpesvirus evasion strategy from NK cells and point out that interactions between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors can have biological consequences that stretch beyond virus entry.

  15. Overexpression of LLT1 (OCIL, CLEC2D) on prostate cancer cells inhibits NK cell-mediated killing through LLT1-NKRP1A (CD161) interaction.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Stephen O; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Powers, Sheila B; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K; Mathew, Porunelloor A

    2016-10-18

    Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer diagnosed and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in American men. Natural Killer (NK) cells are the first line of defense against cancer and infections. NK cell function is regulated by a delicate balance between signals received through activating and inhibitory receptors. Previously, we identified Lectin-like transcript-1 (LLT1/OCIL/CLEC2D) as a counter-receptor for the NK cell inhibitory receptor NKRP1A (CD161). Interaction of LLT1 expressed on target cells with NKRP1A inhibits NK cell activation. In this study, we have found that LLT1 was overexpressed on prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, 22Rv1 and PC3) and in primary prostate cancer tissues both at the mRNA and protein level. We further showed that LLT1 is retained intracellularly in normal prostate cells with minimal cell surface expression. Blocking LLT1 interaction with NKRP1A by anti-LLT1 mAb on prostate cancer cells increased the NK-mediated cytotoxicity of prostate cancer cells. The results indicate that prostate cancer cells may evade immune attack by NK cells by expressing LLT1 to inhibit NK cell-mediated cytolytic activity through LLT1-NKRP1A interaction. Blocking LLT1-NKRP1A interaction will make prostate cancer cells susceptible to killing by NK cells and therefore may be a new therapeutic option for treatment of prostate cancer.

  16. Efficacy of a cell-mediated reaction to the purified protein derivative of tuberculin in the disposal of Mycobacterium leprae from human skin.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, G; Sheftel, G; Job, C K; Mathur, N K; Nath, I; Cohn, Z A

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a delayed-type cell-mediated immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen on the Mycobacterium leprae load in the skin of leprosy patients. Twelve patients with the lepromatous form of leprosy have been injected intradermally with 5 units of the purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD). Ten individuals responded with areas of induration ranging from 12 to 21 mm in diameter, and two were unresponsive (less than 10 mm). Twenty-one days thereafter, the injected and control sites were biopsied, and the histology, number of acid-fast bacilli, nature and phenotype of the emigrant cells, and ultrastructural characteristics of the lesions were evaluated. Eight of the 10 responding patients showed reductions in the number of acid-fast bacilli by factors ranging from 5 to 10,000. Two responders and both nonresponders exhibited no discernible decline in the number of organisms. The reduction in bacillary load was correlated with an intense mononuclear cell infiltrate, the maintenance of a high CD4+ T-cell/CD8+ T-cell ratio, the formation of granulomata, and the extensive destruction of previously parasitized macrophages. Images PMID:2969108

  17. C-type lectin-like molecule-1 (CLL1)-targeted TRAIL augments the tumoricidal activity of granulocytes and potentiates therapeutic antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, Valerie R; de Bruyn, Marco; Shi, Ce; Gooden, Marloes J M; Wouters, Maartje C A; Samplonius, Douwe F; Hendriks, Djoke; Nijman, Hans W; Wei, Yunwei; Zhou, Jin; Helfrich, Wijnand; Bremer, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of anti-cancer monoclonal antibodies stems from their capacity to opsonize targeted cancer cells with subsequent phagocytic removal, induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or induction of complement-mediated cytotoxicity (CDC). The major immune effector cells involved in these processes are natural killer (NK) cells and granulocytes. The latter and most prevalent blood cell population contributes to phagocytosis, but is not effective in inducing ADCC. Here, we report that targeted delivery of the tumoricidal protein tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to granulocyte marker C-type lectin-like molecule-1 (CLL1), using fusion protein CLL1:TRAIL, equips granulocytes with high levels of TRAIL. Upon CLL1-selective binding of this fusion protein, granulocytes acquire additional TRAIL-mediated cytotoxic activity that, importantly, potentiates antibody-mediated cytotoxicity of clinically used therapeutic antibodies (e.g., rituximab, cetuximab). Thus, CLL1:TRAIL could be used as an adjuvant to optimize the clinical potential of anticancer antibody therapy by augmenting tumoricidal activity of granulocytes.

  18. Open adoption and adoptive mothers: attitudes toward birthmothers, adopted children, and parenting.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Twaite, J A

    1997-10-01

    The nature and extent of contact between 238 adoptive mothers and their child's biological mother was assessed for the period prior to the birth of the child and during the first two years of the child's life. Adoptive mothers who reported such contact prior to the child's birth had significantly more favorable attitudes toward both the biological mother and the adopted child. Those with contact either before or after the birth also demonstrated significantly more favorable parenting attitudes. Policy implications and the need for further research are noted.

  19. DNA Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan

    2013-01-01

    DNA immunization was discovered in early 1990s and its use has been expanded from vaccine studies to a broader range of biomedical research, such as the generation of high quality polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as research reagents. In this unit, three common DNA immunization methods are described: needle injection, electroporation and gene gun. In addition, several common considerations related to DNA immunization are discussed. PMID:24510291

  20. Early Immune Markers Associated with Experimental Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Infection in a Neonatal Calf Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to observe early markers of cell-mediated immunity in naïve calves infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and how expression of these markers evolved over the 12-month period of infection. Methods of experimental infection included: Control (n...

  1. Modified live virus vaccine induces a distinct immune response profile compared to inactivated influenza A virus vaccines in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and antigenic diversity within H1 influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes circulating in swine is increasing. The need for cross-protective influenza vaccines in swine is necessary as the virus becomes more diverse. This study compared the humoral and cell-mediated immune response of modified live ...

  2. The effect of IL-2 expression by recombinant Newcastle disease virus on host immune response, viral replication and pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a soluble cytokine that stimulates the cell-mediated immune response. Virus constructs, such as recombinant vaccinia virus, expressing chicken IL-2 have been shown to improve viral clearance by natural killer cells in mice. We have inserted the open-reading frame of the chi...

  3. Vaccine- and immune-based therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Le Dieu, Rifca; Gribben, John

    2006-04-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) would appear to be an ideal target of T-cell-mediated responses against the cancer cell. The cancer arises in cells that can act as antigen-presenting cells (APCs), CLL cells express tumor antigens, and the cells can be a target of the allogeneic T cells in a graft-versus-leukemia effect. Despite these potential benefits, immune responses against CLL cells have been difficult to elicit. CLL induces immune defects in the host, the tumor cells are inefficient APCs, and therapies given to patients with CLL are themselves immunosuppressive. Successful vaccination approaches in this disease will require steps to overcome these difficulties, including steps to improve the immune defects in this disease, identification of the targets of the immune response to monitor immunologic responses, and improved presentation of antigen.

  4. Integrating costimulatory agonists to optimize immune-based cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Pardee, Angela D; Wesa, Amy K; Storkus, Walter J

    2009-03-01

    While immunotherapy for cancer has become increasingly popular, clinical benefits for such approaches remain limited. This is likely due to tumor-associated immune suppression, particularly in the advanced-disease setting. Thus, a major goal of novel immunotherapeutic design has become the coordinate reversal of existing immune dysfunction and promotion of specific tumoricidal T-cell function. Costimulatory members of the TNF-receptor family are important regulators of T-cell-mediated immunity. Notably, agonist ligation of these receptors restores potent antitumor immunity in the tumor-bearing host. Current Phase I/II evaluation of TNF-receptor agonists as single-modality therapies will illuminate their safety, mechanism(s) of action, and best use in prospective combinational immunotherapy approaches capable of yielding superior benefits to cancer patients.

  5. Integrating costimulatory agonists to optimize immune-based cancer therapies

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Angela D; Wesa, Amy K

    2009-01-01

    While immunotherapy for cancer has become increasingly popular, clinical benefits for such approaches remain limited. This is likely due to tumor-associated immune suppression, particularly in the advanced-disease setting. Thus, a major goal of novel immunotherapeutic design has become the coordinate reversal of existing immune dysfunction and promotion of specific tumoricidal T-cell function. Costimulatory members of the TNF-receptor family are important regulators of T-cell-mediated immunity. Notably, agonist ligation of these receptors restores potent antitumor immunity in the tumor-bearing host. Current Phase I/II evaluation of TNF-receptor agonists as single-modality therapies will illuminate their safety, mechanism(s) of action, and best use in prospective combinational immunotherapy approaches capable of yielding superior benefits to cancer patients. PMID:20046961

  6. Invader immunology: invasion history alters immune system function in cane toads (Rhinella marina) in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory P; Phillips, Benjamin L; Dubey, Sylvain; Shine, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Because an individual's investment into the immune system may modify its dispersal rate, immune function may evolve rapidly in an invader. We collected cane toads (Rhinella marina) from sites spanning their 75-year invasion history in Australia, bred them, and raised their progeny in standard conditions. Evolved shifts in immune function should manifest as differences in immune responses among the progeny of parents collected in different locations. Parental location did not affect the offspring's cell-mediated immune response or stress response, but blood from the offspring of invasion-front toads had more neutrophils, and was more effective at phagocytosis and killing bacteria. These latter measures of immune function are negatively correlated with rate of dispersal in free-ranging toads. Our results suggest that the invasion of tropical Australia by cane toads has resulted in rapid genetically based compensatory shifts in the aspects of immune responses that are most compromised by the rigours of long-distance dispersal.

  7. Correlates of immune protection: Standardized and automated assays to interrogate correlates of immunity--Phacilitate Vaccine Forum Washington 2011. The Grand Hyatt, Washington, DC January 24–26, 2011.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Wade

    2011-06-01

    The utility of functional cell mediated immune assays in the assessment of immune response or immunogenicity is increasing significantly as we search for surrogates to determine vaccine efficacy or therapeutic response. No definitive reports to date have demonstrated that CMI assays in human clinical trials correlate with clinical outcome, although animal and non human primate studies have reported surrogacy in varying degrees. This report discusses the approaches identified, their advantages and disadvantages, and their justification for inclusion in the clinical trial setting.

  8. Immune System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  9. Paper-based bioactive scaffolds for stem cell-mediated bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Ji; Yu, Seung Jung; Yang, Kisuk; Jin, Yoonhee; Cho, Ann-Na; Kim, Jin; Lee, Bora; Yang, Hee Seok; Im, Sung Gap; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2014-12-01

    Bioactive, functional scaffolds are required to improve the regenerative potential of stem cells for tissue reconstruction and functional recovery of damaged tissues. Here, we report a paper-based bioactive scaffold platform for stem cell culture and transplantation for bone reconstruction. The paper scaffolds are surface-engineered by an initiated chemical vapor deposition process for serial coating of a water-repellent and cell-adhesive polymer film, which ensures the long-term stability in cell culture medium and induces efficient cell attachment. The prepared paper scaffolds are compatible with general stem cell culture and manipulation techniques. An optimal paper type is found to provide structural, physical, and mechanical cues to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). A bioactive paper scaffold significantly enhances in vivo bone regeneration of hADSCs in a critical-sized calvarial bone defect. Stacking the paper scaffolds with osteogenically differentiated hADSCs and human endothelial cells resulted in vascularized bone formation in vivo. Our study suggests that paper possesses great potential as a bioactive, functional, and cost-effective scaffold platform for stem cell-mediated bone tissue engineering. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the feasibility of a paper material for stem cell application to repair tissue defects.

  10. Crosstalk between PKCζ and the IL4/Stat6 pathway during T-cell-mediated hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Durán, Angeles; Rodriguez, Angelina; Martin, Pilar; Serrano, Manuel; Flores, Juana Maria; Leitges, Michael; Diaz-Meco, María T; Moscat, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    PKCζ is required for nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κB) activation in several cell systems. NF-κB is a suppressor of liver apoptosis during development and in concanavalin A (ConA)-induced T-cell-mediated hepatitis. Here we show that PKCζ−/− mice display inhibited ConA-induced NF-κB activation and reduced damage in liver. As the IL-4/Stat6 pathway is necessary for ConA-induced hepatitis, we addressed here the potential role of PKCζ in this cascade. Interestingly, the loss of PKCζ severely attenuated serum IL-5 and liver eotaxin-1 levels, two critical mediators of liver damage. Stat6 tyrosine phosphorylation and Jak1 activation were ablated in the liver of ConA-injected PKCζ−/− mice and in IL-4-stimulated PKCζ−/− fibroblasts. PKCζ interacts with and phosphorylates Jak1 and PKCζ activity is required for Jak1 function. In contrast, Par-4−/− mice have increased sensitivity to ConA-induced liver damage and IL-4 signaling. This unveils a novel and critical involvement of PKCζ in the IL-4/Stat6 signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. PMID:15526032

  11. Growth suppression of Leydig TM3 cells mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Iseki, Minoru; Ikuta, Togo; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Kawajiri, Kaname . E-mail: kawajiri@cancer-c.pref.saitama.jp

    2005-06-17

    Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induces developmental toxicity in reproductive organs. To elucidate the function of AhR, we generated stable transformants of TM3 cells overexpressing wild-type aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or its mutants which carried mutations in nuclear localization signal or nuclear export signal. In the presence of 3-methylcholanthrene (MC), proliferation of the cells transfected with wild-type AhR was completely suppressed, whereas cells expressing AhR mutants proliferated in a manner equivalent to control TM3 cells, suggesting AhR-dependent growth inhibition. The suppression was associated with up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21{sup Cip1}, which was abolished by pretreatment with actinomycin D. A p38 MAPK specific inhibitor, SB203580, blocked the increase of p21{sup Cip1} mRNA in response to MC. Treatment with indigo, another AhR ligand, failed to increase of p21{sup Cip1} mRNA, although up-regulation of mRNA for CYP1A1 was observed. These data suggest AhR in Leydig cells mediates growth inhibition by inducing p21{sup Cip1}.

  12. Hepatic non-parenchymal cells and extracellular matrix participate in oval cell-mediated liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Wan-Guang; Zhang, Feng; Xiang, Shuai; Dong, Han-Hua; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the interaction between non-parenchymal cells, extracellular matrix and oval cells during the restituting process of liver injury induced by partial hepatectomy (PH). METHODS: We examined the localization of oval cells, non-parenchymal cells, and the extracellular matrix components using immunohistochemical and double immunofluorescent analysis during the proliferation and differentiation of oval cells in N-2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)/PH rat model. RESULTS: By day 2 after PH, small oval cells began to proliferate around the portal area. Most of stellate cells and laminin were present along the hepatic sinusoids in the periportal area. Kupffer cells and fibronectin markedly increased in the whole hepatic lobule. From day 4 to 9, oval cells spread further into hepatic parenchyma, closely associated with stellate cells, fibronectin and laminin. Kupffer cells admixed with oval cells by day 6 and then decreased in the periportal zone. From day 12 to 15, most of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), laminin and fibronectin located around the small hepatocyte nodus, and minority of them appeared in the nodus. Kupffer cells were mainly limited in the pericentral sinusoids. After day 18, the normal liver lobule structures began to recover. CONCLUSION: Local hepatic microenvironment may participate in the oval cell-mediated liver regeneration through the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. PMID:19195056

  13. New gene expressed in prostate: a potential target for T cell-mediated prostate cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Vittore; Poole, Diane J; Palena, Claudia; Das, Sudipto; Bera, Tapan K; Remondo, Cinzia; Gulley, James L; Arlen, Philip M; Yokokawa, Junko; Pastan, Ira; Schlom, Jeffrey; Tsang, Kwong Y

    2010-01-01

    New gene expressed in prostate (NGEP) is a prostate-specific gene encoding either a small cytoplasmic protein (NGEP-S) or a larger polytopic membrane protein (NGEP-L). NGEP-L expression is detectable only in prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and normal prostate. We have identified an HLA-A2 binding NGEP epitope (designated P703) which was used to generate T cell lines from several patients with localized and metastatic prostate cancer. These T cell lines were able to specifically lyse HLA-A2 and NGEP-expressing human tumor cells. NGEP-P703 tetramer binding assays demonstrated that metastatic prostate cancer patients had a higher frequency of NGEP-specific T cells when compared with healthy donors. Moreover, an increased frequency of NGEP-specific T cells was detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of prostate cancer patients post-vaccination with a PSA-based vaccine, further indicating the immunogenicity of NGEP. These studies thus identify NGEP as a potential target for T cell-mediated immunotherapy of prostate cancer.

  14. Inhibitory effect of Moutan Cortex aqueous fraction on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kee, Ji-Ye; Inujima, Akiko; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Tanaka, Ken; Li, Feng; Kuraishi, Yasushi; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Shibahara, Naotoshi; Saiki, Ikuo; Koizumi, Keiichi

    2015-04-01

    Moutan Cortex and its major compounds have been shown to possess various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects of Moutan Cortex aqueous fraction (MCA) and its molecular mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of MCA on mast cell-mediated allergy inflammation in vitro and in vivo compared with major Moutan Cortex compounds. Thus, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of a water extract of Moutan Cortex by comparing the inhibition of β-hexosaminadase and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release in an aqueous fraction with other major compounds of Moutan Cortex. The inhibitory mechanism of MCA was investigated by western blotting in IgE-mediated DNP-BSA-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. We confirmed the pharmacological effects of MCA on compound 48/80-induced allergic reactions in a mouse model by assessing scratching behavior and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA)-like reaction. Consequently, MCA inhibited IgE-mediated DNP-BSA-induced β-hexosaminadase and TNF-α release via inactivation of p38, ERK, Akt, and NF-κB in RBL-2H3 cells. MCA reduced compound 48/80-induced PCA reaction and scratching behavior in mice. This inhibitory effect of MCA is more potent than major compounds of Moutan Cortex. In conclusion, our results suggest that MCA has more potential in the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases compared to other major compounds of Moutan Cortex.

  15. Xanthohumol attenuates tumour cell-mediated breaching of the lymphendothelial barrier and prevents intravasation and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Viola, Katharina; Kopf, Sabine; Rarova, Lucie; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan; Kretschy, Nicole; Teichmann, Mathias; Vonach, Caroline; Atanasov, Atanas G; Giessrigl, Benedikt; Huttary, Nicole; Raab, Ingrid; Krieger, Sigurd; Strnad, Miroslav; de Martin, Rainer; Saiko, Philipp; Szekeres, Thomas; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Dirsch, Verena M; Jäger, Walter; Grusch, Michael; Dolznig, Helmut; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Krupitza, Georg

    2013-07-01

    Health beneficial effects of xanthohumol have been reported, and basic research provided evidence for anti-cancer effects. Furthermore, xanthohumol was shown to inhibit the migration of endothelial cells. Therefore, this study investigated the anti-metastatic potential of xanthohumol. MCF-7 breast cancer spheroids which are placed on lymphendothelial cells (LECs) induce "circular chemorepellent-induced defects" (CCIDs) in the LEC monolayer resembling gates for intravasating tumour bulks at an early step of lymph node colonisation. NF-κB reporter-, EROD-, SELE-, 12(S)-HETE- and adhesion assays were performed to investigate the anti-metastatic properties of xanthohumol. Western blot analyses were used to elucidate the mechanisms inhibiting CCID formation. Xanthohumol inhibited the activity of CYP, SELE and NF-kB and consequently, the formation of CCIDs at low micromolar concentrations. More specifically, xanthohumol affected ICAM-1 expression and adherence of MCF-7 cells to LECs, which is a prerequisite for CCID formation. Furthermore, markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and of cell mobility such as paxillin, MCL2 and S100A4 were suppressed by xanthohumol. Xanthohumol attenuated tumour cell-mediated defects at the lymphendothelial barrier and inhibited EMT-like effects thereby providing a mechanistic explanation for the anti-intravasative/anti-metastatic properties of xanthohumol.

  16. Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell-Mediated Treatment for Periodontitis in Miniature Swine

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Zheng, Ying; Ding, Gang; Fang, Dianji; Zhang, Chunmei; Bartold, Peter Mark; Gronthos, Stan; Shi, Songtao; Wang, Songlin

    2009-01-01

    Periodontitis is a periodontal tissue infectious disease and the most common cause for tooth loss in adults. It has been linked to many systemic disorders, such as coronary artery disease, stroke, and diabetes. At present, there is no ideal therapeutic approach to cure periodontitis and achieve optimal periodontal tissue regeneration. In this study, we explored the potential of using autologous periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) to treat periodontal defects in a porcine model of periodontitis. The periodontal lesion was generated in the first molars area of miniature pigs by the surgical removal of bone and subsequent silk ligament suture around the cervical portion of the tooth. Autologous PDLSCs were obtained from extracted teeth of the miniature pigs and then expanded ex vivo to enrich PDLSC numbers. When transplanted into the surgically created periodontal defect areas, PDLSCs were capable of regenerating periodontal tissues, leading to a favorable treatment for periodontitis. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using stem cell-mediated tissue engineering to treat periodontal diseases. PMID:18238856

  17. Laminin: a possible role as a mediator of natural cell-mediated functions

    SciTech Connect

    Laybourn, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Natural Cell-mediated cytotoxicity is clearly important in regulating host response during tumorgenicity. Natural killer (NK), and Natural Cytotoxic (NC) lymphocytes responsible for mediating cytolysis, are subpopulations of non-B, non-T, nonphagocytic, nonadherent lymphocytes capable of spontaneously lysing a variety of tumor targets. Evidence is presented that laminin, a high molecular weight glycoprotein, is present on the surface of murine NK cells. In addition, NK sensitive tumor targets are able to bind laminin. This suggest that laminin participates as a ligand in the binding of NK cells to their tumor targets. The saturable binding of laminin by NK and NC sensitive tumor targets was shown by laminin-induced cell-cell aggregation/adherence, and /sup 125/I-laminin binding studies. Exogenous laminin inhibited NK cytotoxicity but not CTL cytotoxicity in vitro. In comparison, NK-resistant tumor cells bound little, if any exogenous laminin. Modulating NK activity in vivo prior to challenging mice with an inoculation of a murine fibrosarcoma, showed that elimination or activation of NK activity resulted in an increase or decrease in pulmonary metastases, respectively.

  18. Signaling factors in stem cell-mediated repair of infarcted myocardium.

    PubMed

    Vandervelde, S; van Luyn, M J A; Tio, R A; Harmsen, M C

    2005-08-01

    Myocardial infarction leads to scar formation and subsequent reduced cardiac performance. The ultimate therapy after myocardial infarction would pursue stem cell-based regeneration. The aim of stem cell-mediated cardiac repair embodies restoration of cardiac function by regeneration of healthy myocardial tissue, which is accomplished by neo-angiogenesis and cardiogenesis. A major reservoir of adult autologous stem cells distal from the heart is the bone marrow. Adequate regulation of signaling between the bone marrow, the peripheral circulation and the infarcted myocardium is important in orchestrating the process of mobilization, homing, incorporation, survival, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, that leads to myocardial regeneration. In this review, we discuss key signaling factors, including cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, which are involved in orchestrating the stem cell driven repair process. We focus on signaling factors known for their mobilizing and chemotactic abilities (SDF-1, G-CSF, SCF, IL-8, VEGF), signaling factors that are expressed after myocardial infarction involved in the patho-physiological healing process (TNF-alpha, IL-8, IL-10, HIF-1alpha, VEGF, G-CSF) and signaling factors that are involved in cardiogenesis and neo-angiogenesis (VEGF, EPO, TGF-beta, HGF, HIF-1alpha, IL-8). The future therapeutic application and capacity of secreted factors to modulate tissue repair after myocardial infarction relies on the intrinsic potency of factors and on the optimal localization and timing of a combination of signaling factors to stimulate stem cells in their niche to regenerate the infarcted heart.

  19. Triphasic mixture model of cell-mediated enzymatic degradation of hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Vernerey, Franck J.; Greenwald, Eric C.; Bryant, Stephanie J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to engineer living tissue equivalents, a critical component is designing scaffolds, such as hydrogels, whose degradation kinetics can match that of matrix production by cells. However, cell-mediated enzymatic degradation of a hydrogel is highly complex and nonlinear process that is challenging to comprehend based solely on experimental observations. To address this issue, this study presents a triphasic mixture model of the enzyme/hydrogel system, that consists of a solid polymer network, water and enzyme. Based on mixture theory, rubber elasticity theory and the Michaelis-Menton kinetics for degradation, the model naturally incorporates a strong coupling between gel mechanical properties, the kinetics of degradation and the transport of enzyme through the gel. The model is then used to investigate the particular problem of a single spherical enzyme-producing cell, embedded in a spherical hydrogel domain, for which the governing equations can be cast within the cento-symmetric assumptions. The governing equations are subsequently solved using an implicit nonlinear finite element procedure in order to obtain the evolution of enzyme concentration and gel degradation through time and space. The model shows that two regimes of degradation behavior exist, whereby degradation is dominated either by diffusion or dominated by reaction kinetics. Depending on the enzyme properties and the initial hydrogel design, the temporal and spatial changes in gel cross-linking are dramatically impacted, a feature that is likely to strongly affect new tissue development. PMID:21809945

  20. Inhibitory effects of mast cell-mediated allergic reactions by cell cultured Siberian Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Jeong, H J; Koo, H N; Myung, N I; Shin, M K; Kim, J W; Kim, D K; Kim, K S; Kim, H M; Lee, Y M

    2001-02-01

    The crude drug "Siberian Ginseng (SG)" has long been used in empirical Oriental medicine for the nonspecific enhancement of resistance in humans and animals. In this study, we investigated the effect of cell cultured SG by oral administration in mast cell-mediated allergic reactions. SG dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic allergy with doses of 10(-2) to 1 g/kg 1 h before oral administration. Of special note, SG inhibited systemic allergy with the dose of 1 g/kg by 25%. SG (1 g/kg) also inhibited passive cutaneous allergic reaction by 51%. SG dose-dependently inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. When SG (0.01 mg/ml) was added, the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 in antidinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody-stimulated mast cells was inhibited 39.5% and 23.3%, respectively. In addition, SG inhibited anti-DNP IgE antibody-stimulated TNF-alpha protein expression in mast cells. Our studies provide evidence that SG may be beneficial in the treatment of various types of allergic diseases.

  1. Natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity: possible role of N-linked glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Oeltmann, T.N.; Chambers, W.H.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have examined the role of N-linked glycoproteins in natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity (NCMC) by treating effector cells or target cells with swainsonine, a specific inhibitor of golgi mannosidase II which is critical for N-linked glycoprotein processing. They have also examined the effects of alpha-mannosidase, an exoglycosidase specific for alpha-linked mannose residues, on both target and effector cells. Pretreatment of nonadherent mononuclear cells with swainsonine (18 hr) resulted in an inhibition of lysis of K-562 target cells as measured by LDH release. Protein synthesis was not inhibited as measured by incorporation of /sup 14/C-amino acids. However, oligosaccharide processing was altered as measured by incorporation of 2(/sup 3/H)-mannose. Similar treatment did not inhibit target cell-effector cell conjugation. Pretreatment of nonadherent mononuclear cells with alpha-mannosidase (1 hr) did not result in a reduction in NK cell function. However, alpha-mannosidase did cause a release of mannose from treated cells. These results suggest that N-linked glycoproteins may play a role in NCMC, but not at the level of recognition and binding.

  2. Natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity: possible role of N-linked glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, W.H.; Oeltmann, T.N.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have examined the role of N-linked glycoproteins in natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity (NCMC) by treating effector cells or target cells with swainsonine, a specific inhibitor of golgi mannosidase II which is critical for N-linked glycoprotein processing. They have also examined the effects of alpha-mannosidase, an exoglycosidase specific for alpha-linked mannose residues, on both target and effector cells. Pretreatment of nonadherent mononuclear cells with swainsonine (18 hr) resulted in an inhibition of lysis of K-562 target cells as measured by LDH release. Protein synthesis was not inhibited as measured by incorporation of /sup 14/C-amino acids. However, oligosaccharide processing was altered as measured by incorporation of 2(/sup 3/H)-mannose. Similar treatment did not inhibit target cell-effector cell conjugation. Pretreatment of nonadherent mononuclear cells with alpha-mannosidase (1 hr) did not result in a reduction in NK cell function. However, alpha-mannosidase did cause a release of mannose from treated cells. These results suggest that N-linked glycoproteins may play a role in NCMC, but not at the level of recognition and binding.

  3. Srf-dependent paracrine signals produced by myofibers control satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Guerci, Aline; Lahoute, Charlotte; Hébrard, Sophie; Collard, Laura; Graindorge, Dany; Favier, Maryline; Cagnard, Nicolas; Batonnet-Pichon, Sabrina; Précigout, Guillaume; Garcia, Luis; Tuil, David; Daegelen, Dominique; Sotiropoulos, Athanassia

    2012-01-04

    Adult skeletal muscles adapt their fiber size to workload. We show that serum response factor (Srf) is required for satellite cell-mediated hypertrophic muscle growth. Deletion of Srf from myofibers and not satellite cells blunts overload-induced hypertrophy, and impairs satellite cell proliferation and recruitment to pre-existing fibers. We reveal a gene network in which Srf within myofibers modulates interleukin-6 and cyclooxygenase-2/interleukin-4 expressions and therefore exerts a paracrine control of satellite cell functions. In Srf-deleted muscles, in vivo overexpression of interleukin-6 is sufficient to restore satellite cell proliferation but not satellite cell fusion and overall growth. In contrast cyclooxygenase-2/interleukin-4 overexpression rescue satellite cell recruitment and muscle growth without affecting satellite cell proliferation, identifying altered fusion as the limiting cellular event. These findings unravel a role for Srf in the translation of mechanical cues applied to myofibers into paracrine signals, which in turn will modulate satellite cell functions and support muscle growth.

  4. Activation by SLAM Family Receptors Contributes to NK Cell Mediated "Missing-Self" Recognition.

    PubMed

    Alari-Pahissa, Elisenda; Grandclément, Camille; Jeevan-Raj, Beena; Leclercq, Georges; Veillette, André; Held, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells attack normal hematopoietic cells that do not express inhibitory MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules, but the ligands that activate NK cells remain incompletely defined. Here we show that the expression of the Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule (SLAM) family members CD48 and Ly9 (CD229) by MHC-I-deficient tumor cells significantly contributes to NK cell activation. When NK cells develop in the presence of T cells or B cells that lack inhibitory MHC-I but express activating CD48 and Ly9 ligands, the NK cells' ability to respond to MHC-I-deficient tumor cells is severely compromised. In this situation, NK cells express normal levels of the corresponding activation receptors 2B4 (CD244) and Ly9 but these receptors are non-functional. This provides a partial explanation for the tolerance of NK cells to MHC-I-deficient cells in vivo. Activating signaling via 2B4 is restored when MHC-I-deficient T cells are removed, indicating that interactions with MHC-I-deficient T cells dominantly, but not permanently, impair the function of the 2B4 NK cell activation receptor. These data identify an important role of SLAM family receptors for NK cell mediated "missing-self" reactivity and suggest that NK cell tolerance in MHC-I mosaic mice is in part explained by an acquired dysfunction of SLAM family receptors.

  5. IL-9 regulates intestinal barrier function in experimental T cell-mediated colitis

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Katharina; McKenzie, Andrew N; Neurath, Markus F; Weigmann, Benno

    2015-01-01

    As previous studies suggested that IL-9 may control intestinal barrier function, we tested the role of IL-9 in experimental T cell-mediated colitis induced by the hapten reagent 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). The deficiency of IL-9 suppressed TNBS-induced colitis and led to lower numbers of PU.1 expressing T cells in the lamia propria, suggesting a regulatory role for Th9 cells in the experimental TNBS colitis model. Since IL-9 is known to functionally alter intestinal barrier function in colonic inflammation, we assessed the expression of tight junction molecules in intestinal epithelial cells of TNBS-inflamed mice. Therefore we made real-time PCR analyses for tight junction molecules in the inflamed colon from wild-type and IL-9 KO mice, immunofluorescent stainings and investigated the expression of junctional proteins directly in intestinal epithelial cells of TNBS-inflamed mice by Western blot studies. The results demonstrated that sealing proteins like occludin were up regulated in the colon of inflamed IL-9 KO mice. In contrast, the tight junction protein Claudin1 showed lower expression levels when IL-9 is absent. Surprisingly, the pore-forming molecule Claudin2 revealed equal expression in TNBS-treated wild-type and IL-9-deficient animals. These results illustrate the pleiotropic functions of IL-9 in changing intestinal permeability in experimental colitis. Thus, modulation of IL-9 function emerges as a new approach for regulating barrier function in intestinal inflammation. PMID:25838986

  6. Micro-RNA dysregulation in multiple sclerosis favours pro-inflammatory T-cell-mediated autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia; Smith, Kristen M; Godlewski, Jakub; Liu, Yue; Winger, Ryan; Lawler, Sean E; Whitacre, Caroline C; Racke, Michael K; Lovett-Racke, Amy E

    2011-12-01

    Pro-inflammatory T cells mediate autoimmune demyelination in multiple sclerosis. However, the factors driving their development and multiple sclerosis susceptibility are incompletely understood. We investigated how micro-RNAs, newly described as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, contribute to pathogenic T-cell differentiation in multiple sclerosis. miR-128 and miR-27b were increased in naïve and miR-340 in memory CD4(+) T cells from patients with multiple sclerosis, inhibiting Th2 cell development and favouring pro-inflammatory Th1 responses. These effects were mediated by direct suppression of B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (BMI1) and interleukin-4 (IL4) expression, resulting in decreased GATA3 levels, and a Th2 to Th1 cytokine shift. Gain-of-function experiments with these micro-RNAs enhanced the encephalitogenic potential of myelin-specific T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, treatment of multiple sclerosis patient T cells with oligonucleotide micro-RNA inhibitors led to the restoration of Th2 responses. These data illustrate the biological significance and therapeutic potential of these micro-RNAs in regulating T-cell phenotypes in multiple sclerosis.

  7. Personality disorders in adopted versus non-adopted adults.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Yoon, Gihyun; Amundson, Carla; Warwick, Marion; Kuskowski, Michael A

    2015-04-30

    The goal of this epidemiological study was to investigate lifetime history and odds ratios of personality disorders in adopted and non-adopted adults using a nationally representative sample. Data, drawn from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), were compared in adopted (n=378) versus non-adopted (n=42,503) adults to estimate the odds of seven personality disorders using logistic regression analyses. The seven personality disorders were histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, obsessive-compulsive, and dependent personality disorder. Adoptees had a 1.81-fold increase in the odds of any personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Adoptees had increased odds of histrionic, antisocial, avoidant, paranoid, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder compared with non-adoptees. Two risk factors associated with lifetime history of a personality disorder in adoptees compared to non-adoptees were (1) being in the age cohort 18-29 years (but no difference in the age 30-44 cohort), using the age 45 or older cohort as the reference and (2) having 12 years of education (but no difference in higher education groups), using the 0-11 years of education as the reference. These findings support the higher rates of personality disorders among adoptees compared to non-adoptees.

  8. The fundamental contribution of Robert A. Good to the discovery of the crucial role of thymus in mammalian immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2006-01-01

    Robert Alan Good was a pioneer in the field of immunodeficiency diseases. He and his colleagues defined the cellular basis and functional consequences of many of the inherited immunodeficiency diseases. His was one of the groups that discovered the pivotal role of the thymus in the immune system development and defined the separate development of the thymus-dependent and bursa-dependent lymphoid cell lineages and their responsibilities in cell-mediated and humoral immunity. PMID:17067308

  9. Studies in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia II. Lymphocyte markers, cellular and humoral immunity and the effect of treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Bazerbashi, M. B.; Chanarin, I.; Denman, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Observations were made on 15 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, 3 with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 18 healthy controls. These include characterization of lymphocytes, assessment of humoral and cell-mediated immunity and the effect of treatment. Those responding to therapy showed a disappearance of 'null' lymphocytes from the blood with improvement in clinical and haematological parameters. Their immune capacity, however, remained unchanged or continued to deteriorate. PMID:7393803

  10. Determinants of internet poker adoption.

    PubMed

    Philander, Kahlil S; Abarbanel, B Lillian

    2014-09-01

    In nearly all jurisdictions, adoption of a new form of gambling has been a controversial and contentious subject. Online gambling has been no different, though there are many aspects that affect online gambling that do not appear in the brick and mortar environment. This study seeks to identify whether demographic, economic, political, technological, and/or sociological determinants contribute to online poker gambling adoption. A theoretical discussion of these categories' importance to online poker is provided and exploratory empirical analysis is used to examine their potential validity. The analysis revealed support for all of the proposed categories of variables thought to be predictive of online gambling legality.

  11. Adopt-A-School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    The Los Angeles Unified School District's Adopt-A-School Program is described as a program where a business or an industry sponsors a school. Some of the ways business and industry can help students are to provide role models, tutor students, give mini-course lectures, share hobbies, offer counseling, give club sponsorship, provide summer…

  12. Adoption Issues, Trends and Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, William L.

    Teenage women with unplanned pregnancies constitute one of America's greatest challenges in terms of providing good services and sound counseling on options. Only about 7% of teenagers having babies make alternate childrearing plans either through formal adoption or informally with members of their families. The emphasis on making teenagers good…

  13. International Adoptions: The Quiet Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Richard H.

    1984-01-01

    Examines patterns in the international migration of children for adoption since World War II, with emphasis on those going to Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Relates findings to political and cultural factors. Observes that Latin America became a major source area for the United States in the 1970s, but that Asia remained…

  14. Why Adoption of Standards Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A total of 39 states have adopted, adapted, or endorsed the Standards for Professional Learning, including the standards issued in 2011 (labeled in red) and those published earlier (labeled in blue). Making a commitment to the standards is a commitment to continuous learning for all educators in a school.

  15. Internet Adoption: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Junzhao

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has brought significant changes to the retail industry because it revolutionizes how information is transmitted and accessed. The main objective of this research is to enhance our understanding of people's adoption of the Internet and its implications for retail competition. This dissertation consists of two essays. The first essay…

  16. Vaccines that stimulate T cell immunity to HIV-1: the next step.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Andrew J; Koff, Wayne C

    2014-04-01

    The search for a vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has many hurdles to overcome. Ideally, the stimulation of both broadly neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses remains the best option, but no candidate in clinical trials at present has elicited such antibodies, and efficacy trials have not demonstrated any benefit for vaccines designed to stimulate immune responses of CD8(+) T cells. Findings obtained with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) monkey model have provided new evidence that stimulating effective CD8(+) T cell immunity could provide protection, and in this Perspective we explore the path forward for optimizing such responses in humans.

  17. Innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Revillard, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    For more than half a century immunological research has been almost exclusively orientated towards the acquired immune response and the mechanisms of immune tolerance. Major discoveries have enabled us to better understand the functioning of the specific immune system: the structure of antibody molecules, the genetic mechanisms leading to the molecular diversity of B (BCR) and T (TCR) lymphocyte antigen receptors, the biological function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the presentation of peptides to alpha/beta receptor bearing T lymphocytes, the processes of positive and negative selection of lymphocytes during the course of their differentiation. The major role of specific or acquired immunity has been shown by the rapidly lethal character of severe combined immune deficiency diseases and various alterations in the mechanisms of tolerance have been proposed to explain the chronic inflammatory illnesses which are considered to be auto-immune. Natural or innate immunity has been known since the first description of an inflammatory reaction attributed to Cornelius Celsus. It entered into the scientific era at the end of the 19th century with the discovery of phagocytes by Metchnikoff and of the properties of the complement system by Bordet [1] but due to the vastness of the field and its lack of clear definition, it failed to excite the interest of researchers. The discovery of cytokines and progress in knowledge of the mechanisms of the inflammatory reaction have certainly helped to banish preconceived ideas about natural immunity, which was wrongly labelled as non-specific. This has led to the proposition of a wider role for immune functions beyond the level of the cell or the organism [2] and to a better understanding of the importance of the immediate defence mechanisms and their role in the later orientation of the acquired response.

  18. Adoption: A Lifelong Journey for Children & Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Marilyn, C., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Several issues surrounding adoption are addressed in this journal. "Openness in Adoption," by Ruth G. McRoy and others, explores the movement away from confidentiality in adoption. "Mid-Life Reflections on Adoption" by Carol Yttri and "An Adoption Journey" by Shannon Latimer detail the experiences of adults who were…

  19. Maternal Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Helen Y.; Englund, Janet A.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal immunization has the potential to protect the pregnant woman, fetus, and infant from vaccine-preventable diseases. Maternal immunoglobulin G is actively transported across the placenta, providing passive immunity to the neonate and infant prior to the infant's ability to respond to vaccines. Currently inactivated influenza, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines are recommended during pregnancy. Several other vaccines have been studied in pregnancy and found to be safe and immunogenic and to provide antibody to infants. These include pneumococcus, group B Streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and meningococcus vaccines. Other vaccines in development for potential maternal immunization include respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus vaccines. PMID:24799324

  20. A role for innate immunity in type 1 diabetes?

    PubMed

    Beyan, H; Buckley, L R; Yousaf, N; Londei, M; Leslie, R D G

    2003-01-01

    Two arms of the immune system, innate and adaptive immunity, differ in their mode of immune recognition. The innate immune system recognizes a few highly conserved structures on a broad range of microorganisms. On the other hand, recognition of self or autoreactivity is generally confined to the adaptive immune response. Whilst autoimmune features are relatively common, they should be distinguished from autoimmune disease that is infrequent. Type 1 diabetes is an immune-mediated disease due to the destruction of insulin secreting cells mediated by aggressive immune responses, including activation of the adaptive immune system following genetic and environmental interaction. Hypotheses for the cause of the immune dysfunction leading to type 1 diabetes include self-reactive T-cell clones that (1) escape deletion in the thymus, (2) escape from peripheral tolerance or (3) escape from homeostatic control with an alteration in the immune balance leading to autoimmunity. Evidence, outlined in this review, raises the possibility that changes in the innate immune system could lead to autoimmunity, by either priming or promoting aggressive adaptive immune responses. Hostile microorganisms are identified by genetically determined surface receptors on innate effector cells, thereby promoting clearance of these invaders. These innate effectors include a few relatively inflexible cell populations such as monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells (DC), natural killer (NK) cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells and gammadelta T cells. Recent studies have identified abnormalities in some of these cells both in patients with type 1 diabetes and in those at risk of the disease. However, it remains unclear whether these abnormalities in innate effector cells predispose to autoimmune disease. If they were to do so, then modulation of the innate immune system could be of therapeutic value in preventing immune-mediated diseases such as type 1 diabetes.