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Sample records for cell-microelectronic sensing technique

  1. Laser remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.

    1987-01-01

    The properties and advantages of remote sensing lasers are discussed. The theory of nonresonant techniques, which is based on the lidar equation and elastic backscatter, and their applications to aerosol and meteorological parameters are examined. The characteristics and applications of the differential absorption lidar technique, the fluorescence technique, and Raman scattering are described. The use of a laser heterodyne radiometer and fiber optics for remote sensing is studied. Future developments in the field of remote sensing, in particular the improvement of laser sources, the fabrication of compact remote sensing instruments, and space-borne applications for lidar, are considered.

  2. Remote hydrogen sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Cortes L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate remote hydrogen sensing methodologies utilizing metal oxide semi-conductor field effect transistors (MOS-FET) and mass spectrometric (MS) technologies and combinations thereof.

  3. Discriminative sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2008-10-01

    The typical human vision system is able to discriminate between a million or so different colours, yet is able to do this with a chromatic sensor array that is fundamentally based on three different receptors, sensitive to light in the blue, green and red portions of the visible spectrum. Some biological organisms have extended capabilities, providing vision in the ultra-violet, whilst others, such as some species of mantis shrimp reportedly have sixteen different types of photo-receptors. In general the biological imaging sensor takes a minimalist approach to sensing its environment, whereas current optical engineering approaches follow a 'brute' force solution where the challenge of hyperspectral imaging is addressed by various schemes for spatial and spectral dispersion of radiation across existing detector arrays. This results in a problem for others to solve in the processing and communication of the generated hypercube of data. This paper explores the parallels between some of those biological systems and the various design concepts being developed for discriminative imaging, drawing on activity supported by the UK Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC).

  4. Laser Remote Sensing: Velocimetry Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl; Steinvall, Ove

    Laser-based velocity measurement is an area of the field of remote sensing where the coherent properties of laser radiation are the most exposed. Much of the published literature deals with the theory and techniques of remote sensing. We restrict our discussion to current trends in this area, gathered from recent conferences and professional journals. Remote wind sensing and vibrometry are promising in their new scientific, industrial, military, and biomedical applications, including improving flight safety, precise weapon correction, non-contact mine detection, optimization of wind farm operation, object identification based on its vibration signature, fluid flow studies, and vibrometry-associated diagnosis.

  5. Remote sensing as a mineral prospecting technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneses, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing and its application as an alternative technique to mineral resource exploration are reviewed. Emphasis is given here to the analysis of the three basic attributes of remote sensing, i.e., spatial attributes related to regional structural mapping, spectral attributes related to rock discrimination and seasonal attributes related to geobotanic anomalies mapping, all of which are employed in mineral exploration. Special emphasis is given to new developments of the Thematic Mapper of the LANDSAT-5, principally with reference to the application of the bands 1.6 and 2.2 microns to map hydrothermally altered rocks and the band of red and blue shift to geobotanical anomalies mapping.

  6. Introduction to the physics and techniques of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, Charles

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the basics behind remote-sensing physics, techniques, and technology. The physics of wave/matter interactions, techniques of remote sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, and the concepts behind remote sensing techniques now established and future ones under development are discussed. Applications of remote sensing are described for a wide variety of earth and planetary atmosphere and surface sciences. Solid surface sensing across the electromagnetic spectrum, ocean surface sensing, basic principles of atmospheric sensing and radiative transfer, and atmospheric remote sensing in the microwave, millimeter, submillimeter, and infrared regions are examined.

  7. Computational intelligence techniques for tactile sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Gastaldo, Paolo; Pinna, Luigi; Seminara, Lucia; Valle, Maurizio; Zunino, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Tactile sensing helps robots interact with humans and objects effectively in real environments. Piezoelectric polymer sensors provide the functional building blocks of the robotic electronic skin, mainly thanks to their flexibility and suitability for detecting dynamic contact events and for recognizing the touch modality. The paper focuses on the ability of tactile sensing systems to support the challenging recognition of certain qualities/modalities of touch. The research applies novel computational intelligence techniques and a tensor-based approach for the classification of touch modalities; its main results consist in providing a procedure to enhance system generalization ability and architecture for multi-class recognition applications. An experimental campaign involving 70 participants using three different modalities in touching the upper surface of the sensor array was conducted, and confirmed the validity of the approach.

  8. Multisensor image fusion techniques in remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Manfred

    Current and future remote sensing programs such as Landsat, SPOT, MOS, ERS, JERS, and the space platform's Earth Observing System (Eos) are based on a variety of imaging sensors that will provide timely and repetitive multisensor earth observation data on a global scale. Visible, infrared and microwave images of high spatial and spectral resolution will eventually be available for all parts of the earth. It is essential that efficient processing techniques be developed to cope with the large multisensor data volumes. This paper discusses data fusion techniques that have proved successful for synergistic merging of SPOT HRV, Landsat TM and SIR-B images. It is demonstrated that these techniques can be used to improve rectification accuracies, to depicit greater cartographic detail, and to enhance spatial resolution in multisensor image data sets.

  9. Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring Aquatic Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Alfonso

    Hydrilla is an important submerged aquatic vegetation because it has a large capacity to absorb pollutants and it is an indicator of the eutrophic status of a waterbody. Monitoring and restoration of submerged aquatic vegetation is key for the preservation and restoration of the Chesapeake Bay. Remote sensing techniques have been used for assessing wetlands and non-invasive aquatic species, but there is limited studies of hydrilla monitoring combined with space-borne, airborne and in-situ remote sensing measurements for detecting and mapping hydrilla infestation. The first objective of this research was to establish a database of hydrilla spectral signatures from an experimental tank and from a field setting using a handheld spectrometer. The spectral signatures collected will be used to identify the optimal spectral and spatial characteristics that are required to identify and classify the distribution of hydrilla canopies in water bodies. The second objective is to process and analyze two hyperspectral images from a space-borne (Hyperion) and airborne (AISA) sensors with ENVI for detecting and mapping the infestation of hydrilla vertillicata in a coastal estuary in Chesapeake Bay. The third objective was to validate the satellite and airborne hyperspectral images with the spectral signatures collected with the in-situ field measurements. In addition, the Hyperion and AISA imaging results were compared with ground surveys and aerial photos collected by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources and the Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences for verifying the extent and the location of the hydrilla canopies. The hyperspectral analysis of both sensors provided for a dual results, one is the identification and classification of hydrilla from hyperspectral imaging sensors and secondly the identification of algae blooms in very productive waters. A hydrilla spectral signature database was established and housed in GMU's EastFIRE Lab of Environmental Science and

  10. Microfluidic sensing: state of the art fabrication and detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jing; Gu, Min

    2011-08-01

    Here we introduce the existing fabrication techniques, detection methods, and related techniques for microfluidic sensing, with an emphasis on the detection techniques. A general survey and comparison of the fabrication techniques were given, including prototyping (hot embossing, inject molding, and soft lithography) and direct fabrication (laser micromachining, photolithography, lithography, and x-ray lithography) techniques. This is followed by an in-depth look at detection techniques: optical, electrochemical, mass spectrometry, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based sensing approaches and related techniques. In the end, we highlight several of the most important issues for future work on microfluidic sensing. This article aims at providing a tutorial review with both introductory materials and inspiring information on microfluidic fabrication and sensing for nonspecialists.

  11. A comparison of force sensing techniques for planetary manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmick, Daniel; Okon, Avi; DiCicco, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Five techniques for sensing forces with a manipulator are compared analytically and experimentally. The techniques compared are: a six-axis wrist force/torque sensor, joint torque sensors, link strain gauges, motor current sensors, and flexibility modeling. The accuracy and repeatability fo each technique is quantified and compared.

  12. Evaluation of reforestation using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization of remotely sensed orbital data for forestry inventory. The study area (approximately 491,100 ha) encompasses the municipalities of Ribeirao Preto, Altinopolis, Cravinhos, Serra Azul, Luis Antonio, Sao Simao, Sant Rita do Passa Quatro and Santa Rosa do Viterbo (Sao Paulo State). Materials used were LANDSAT data from channels 5 and 7 (scale 1:250,000) and CCT's. Visual interpretation of the imagery showed that for 1977 a total of 37,766.00 ha and for 1979 38,003.75 ha were reforested with Pinus and Eucalyptus within the area under study. The results obtained show that LANDSAT data can be used efficiently in forestry inventory studies.

  13. Soil moisture sensing with microwave techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T.

    1980-01-01

    Microwave approaches for the remote sensing of soil moisture are discussed, with the advantages described as follows: (1) the all-weather capability, (2) the greater penetration depth into the soil and through vegetation than with optical or infrared sensors, and (3) the large changes in the dielectric properties of soil produced by changes in water content. Both active and passive microwave approaches are discussed. The dependence of the relationship between microwave response and soil moisture on such things as soil texture, surface roughness, vegetative cover and nonuniform moisture and temperature profiles is analyzed from both the experimental and theoretical viewpoints. The dielectric properties of the soil are analyzed quantitatively, as these control the reflective and emissive properties of the soil surface, and a model for estimating a soil's dielectric properties from its texture and moisture content is also presented. Emissivity is calculated using the Fresnel equation of electromagnetic theory, and reflectivity is shown to be decreased by surface roughness, while the backscatter coefficient increases. It is demonstrated, that microwave radiometers are sensitive to soil moisture for a wide range of surface conditions, and that the longer wavelengths are best for soil moisture sensing.

  14. Remote sensing techniques for mining waste characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, M. A.; Savastru, R. S.; Savastru, D. M.; Miclos, S. I.; Tautan, M. N. M.

    2009-09-01

    Environmental monitoring is essential information routinely required by the mining industry and regulators to demonstrate that the environment is not adversely impacted by exploration and mining. New mining technologies can not only exploit low-grade ores but also produce high volumes of tailings as mining wastes. Satellite remote sensing imagery provided by Landsat TM and ETM sensors is an important investigation tool of mining waste cover screening, mapping and monitoring at local and regional scales of areas containing multiple sources of mining-related heavy metals. By this, satellite remote sensing data can help to rapidly assess the dimension of mining waste risk and therefore better manage such a geohazard as well as for remediation programs. Based on Landsat TM, ETM satellite data over 1989-2007 period, was possible to be achieved a discrimination between weathered materials and other prone to acidification as well as to perform a spatio temporal landcover change detection analysis in some mining waste areas in Maramures County, Romania. Accuracy of image processing results (mineralogical classification) was confirmed through ground sampling and analysis of reflectance spectra with portable GER 2600 spectroradiometer.

  15. Layered classification techniques for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swain, P. H.; Wu, C. L.; Landgrebe, D. A.; Hauska, H.

    1975-01-01

    The single-stage method of pattern classification utilizes all available features in a single test which assigns the unknown to a category according to a specific decision strategy (such as the maximum likelihood strategy). The layered classifier classifies the unknown through a sequence of tests, each of which may be dependent on the outcome of previous tests. Although the layered classifier was originally investigated as a means of improving classification accuracy and efficiency, it was found that in the context of remote sensing data analysis, other advantages also accrue due to many of the special characteristics of both the data and the applications pursued. The layered classifier method and several of the diverse applications of this approach are discussed.

  16. Offshore winds using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, Alfredo; Bay Hasager, Charlotte; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Courtney, Michael; Antoniou, Ioannis; Mikkelsen, Torben; Sørensen, Paul

    2007-07-01

    Ground-based remote sensing instruments can observe winds at different levels in the atmosphere where the wind characteristics change with height: the range of heights where modern turbine rotors are operating. A six-month wind assessment campaign has been made with a LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) and a SoDAR (Sound Detection and Ranging) on the transformer/platform of the world's largest offshore wind farm located at the West coast of Denmark to evaluate their ability to observe offshore winds. The high homogeneity and low turbulence levels registered allow the comparison of LiDAR and SoDAR with measurements from cups on masts surrounding the wind farm showing good agreement for both the mean wind speed and the longitudinal component of turbulence. An extension of mean wind speed profiles from cup measurements on masts with LiDAR observations results in a good match for the free sectors at different wind speeds. The log-linear profile is fitted to the extended profiles (averaged over all stabilities and roughness lengths) and the deviations are small. Extended profiles of turbulence intensity are also shown for different wind speeds up to 161 m. Friction velocities and roughness lengths calculated from the fitted log-linear profile are compared with the Charnock model which seems to overestimate the sea roughness for the free sectors.

  17. Spectral sensing technique for water constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jing

    Spectral measurements of optical properties of water were conducted throughout the Chesapeake Bay area during the 2005 summer cruise campaign. This included reflectance, absorption, attenuation and backscattering spectra. The analysis of the data illustrates the diversity and complexity of constituents that shape spectral features of the coastal water. A novel technique is proposed to separate the chlorophyll fluorescence component from the reflectance spectra of algae contained water. This approach utilizes of polarization properties of elastically scattered light and the unpolarized nature of fluorescence and was successfully applied to measurements of various algae species first in lab and later in field measurements. The efficiency and limitation of this approach has been further examined under various conditions as well as through vector radiative transfer modeling. Finally Twomey Iterative Method (TIM) has been applied to the retrieval of hydrosol microphysical properties for the first time. Assuming a known refractive index, both single and multi-mode distributions were successfully retrieved from both simulation and experiments through the introduction of an initial distribution biased towards larger particles. In addition, the technique is extended to the retrieval of an unknown refractive index, which is also validated using both simulation and experimental results.

  18. Development of sensing techniques for weaponry health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Eugene; Ruffin, Paul B.; Walker, Ebonee A.; Brantley, Christina L.

    2013-04-01

    Due to the costliness of destructive evaluation methods for assessing the aging and shelf-life of missile and rocket components, the identification of nondestructive evaluation methods has become increasingly important to the Army. Verifying that there is a sufficient concentration of stabilizer is a dependable indicator that the missile's double-based solid propellant is viable. The research outlined in this paper summarizes the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center's (AMRDEC's) comparative use of nanoporous membranes, carbon nanotubes, and optical spectroscopic configured sensing techniques for detecting degradation in rocket motor propellant. The first sensing technique utilizes a gas collecting chamber consisting of nanoporous structures that trap the smaller solid propellant particles for measurement by a gas analysis device. In collaboration with NASA-Ames, sensing methods are developed that utilize functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes as the key sensing element. The optical spectroscopic sensing method is based on a unique light collecting optical fiber system designed to detect the concentration of the propellant stabilizer. Experimental setups, laboratory results, and overall effectiveness of each technique are presented in this paper. Expectations are for the three sensing mechanisms to provide nondestructive evaluation methods that will offer cost-savings and improved weaponry health monitoring.

  19. Monitoring asphalt pavement damages using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettas, Christodoulos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Neocleous, Kyriacos; Christofe, Andreas; Pilakoutas, Kypros; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2015-06-01

    One of the main issues in the maintenance plans of road agencies or governmental organizations is the early detection of damaged asphalt pavements. The development of a smart and non-destructive systematic technique for monitoring damaged asphalt pavements is considered a main priority to fill this gap. During the 1970's, remote sensing was used to map road surface distress, while during the last decade, remote sensing became more advanced, thereby assisting in the evolution of the identification and mapping of roads. Various techniques were used in order to explore condition, age, weaknesses and imperfections of asphalted pavements. These methods were fairly successful in the classification of asphalted surfaces and in the detection of some of their characteristics. This paper explores the state of the art of using remote sensing techniques for monitoring damaged pavements and some typical spectral profiles of various asphalt pavements in Cyprus area acquired using the SVC1024 field spectroradiometer.

  20. Remote sensing techniques for support of coastal zone resource management.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, R. O.

    1973-01-01

    Description of remote sensing studies carried out for the purpose of developing and/or demonstrating techniques which can be employed for land use inventory, marsh vegetation classification, and water characteristics surveys. Attention is given to results obtained with (1) photo interpretation techniques and procedures for the development of land use information from high-altitude aircraft and satellite imagery, (2) computer based pattern recognition techniques utilizing multispectral scanner data for marsh vegetation classification, and (3) infrared and microwave techniques for the monitoring and surveying of coastal water temperature and salinity characteristics.

  1. Natural resource inventory for urban planning utilizing remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, K. E.; Mackey, P. F.; Bonham, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were applied to the lower Pantano Wash area to acquire data for planning an ecological balance between the expanding Tucson metropolitan area and its environment. The types and distribution of vegetation are discussed along with the hydrologic aspects of the Wash.

  2. Data acquisition and preprocessing techniques for remote sensing field research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biehl, L. L.; Robinson, B. F.

    1983-01-01

    A crops and soils data base has been developed at Purdue University's Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing using spectral and agronomic measurements made by several government and university researchers. The data are being used to (1) quantitatively determine the relationships of spectral and agronomic characteristics of crops and soils, (2) define future sensor systems, and (3) develop advanced data analysis techniques. Researchers follow defined data acquisition and preprocessing techniques to provide fully annotated and calibrated sets of spectral, agronomic, and meteorological data. These procedures enable the researcher to combine his data with that acquired by other researchers for remote sensing research. The key elements or requirements for developing a field research data base of spectral data that can be transported across sites and years are appropriate experiment design, accurate spectral data calibration, defined field procedures, and through experiment documentation.

  3. Remote sensing techniques for prediction of watershed runoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    Hydrologic parameters of watersheds for use in mathematical models and as design criteria for flood detention structures are sometimes difficult to quantify using conventional measuring systems. The advent of remote sensing devices developed in the past decade offers the possibility that watershed characteristics such as vegetative cover, soils, soil moisture, etc., may be quantified rapidly and economically. Experiments with visible and near infrared data from the LANDSAT-1 multispectral scanner indicate a simple technique for calibration of runoff equation coefficients is feasible. The technique was tested on 10 watersheds in the Chickasha area and test results show more accurate runoff coefficients were obtained than with conventional methods. The technique worked equally as well using a dry fall scene. The runoff equation coefficients were then predicted for 22 subwatersheds with flood detention structures. Predicted values were again more accurate than coefficients produced by conventional methods.

  4. Analysis of non-linearity in differential wavefront sensing technique.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hui-Zong; Liang, Yu-Rong; Yeh, Hsien-Chi

    2016-03-01

    An analytical model of a differential wavefront sensing (DWS) technique based on Gaussian Beam propagation has been derived. Compared with the result of the interference signals detected by quadrant photodiode, which is calculated by using the numerical method, the analytical model has been verified. Both the analytical model and numerical simulation show milli-radians level non-linearity effect of DWS detection. In addition, the beam clipping has strong influence on the non-linearity of DWS. The larger the beam clipping is, the smaller the non-linearity is. However, the beam walking effect hardly has influence on DWS. Thus, it can be ignored in laser interferometer. PMID:26974079

  5. Integration of Field and Remote Sensing Techniques For Landslides Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allievi, J.; Ambrosi, C.; Ceriani, M.; Colesanti, C.; Crosta, G. B.; Ferretti, A.; Fossati, D.; Menegaz, A.

    The definition of the state of activity of slope movements is of major interest both at local and at regional scale. The Geological Survey of the Regione Lombardia has re- cently started a series of projects aimed to the identification of areas subjected to slope instability and to the assessment of their state of activity. Field survey, aerial photo interpretation and advanced remote sensing techniques have been applied. Some ex- amples of large rock slope instabilities have been investigated in the Valtellina area (Lombardia, Northern Italy). In particular, we demonstrate the degree of integration of the adopted techniques for one of the largest rock slope movements actually recog- nised in the area. The remote sensing approach that has been adopted is the Perma- nent Scatterers (PS) Technique. This technique has been recently developed as a new methodology for surface deformation monitoring, using ESA ERS-SAR data. Its ap- plication to large slope movements in alpine and prealpine areas, with a relatively low urban development, has been tried for the first time in order to evaluate its potential in supporting studies for landslide hazard assessment. Previous results show that this ap- proach allows to reach an accuracy very close to the theoretical limit. This study shows the very good agreement reached for displacement velocities between historical trends and recent PS measurements. Scatterers have been identified by field surveying and some of them are located close to historically monitored benchmark for topographic measurements. Furthermore, the integration of these data with field observations al- lowed us to perform a preliminary reconstrucion of the landslide mechanism and to assess the activity of different landslide structures (scarps, etc.).

  6. An integrated sensing technique for smart monitoring of water pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernini, Romeo; Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco; Crocco, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    Lowering the rate of water leakage from the network of underground pipes is one of the requirements that "smart" cities have to comply with. In fact, losses in the water supply infrastructure have a remarkable social, environmental and economic impact, which obviously conflicts with the expected efficiency and sustainability of a smart city. As a consequence, there is a huge interest in developing prevention policies based on state-of-art sensing techniques and possibly their integration, as well as in envisaging ad hoc technical solutions designed for the application at hand. As a contribution to this framework, in this communication we present an approach aimed to pursue a thorough non-invasive monitoring of water pipelines, with both high spatial and temporal resolution. This goal is necessary to guarantee that maintenance operations are performed timely, so to reduce the extent of the leakage and its possible side effects, and precisely, so to minimize the cost and the discomfort resulting from operating on the water supply network. The proposed approach integrates two sensing techniques that work at different spatial and temporal scales. The first one is meant to provide a continuous (in both space and time) monitoring of the pipeline and exploits a distributed optic fiber sensor based on the Brillouin scattering phenomenon. This technique provides the "low" spatial resolution information (at meter scale) needed to reveal the presence of a leak and call for interventions [1]. The second technique is based on the use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and is meant to provide detailed images of area where the damage has been detected. GPR systems equipped with suitable data processing strategies [2,3] are indeed capable of providing images of the shallow underground, where the pipes would be buried, characterized by a spatial resolution in the order of a few centimeters. This capability is crucial to address in the most proper way maintenance operations, by for

  7. Integration of geological remote-sensing techniques in subsurface analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taranik, James V.; Trautwein, Charles M.

    1976-01-01

    Geological remote sensing is defined as the study of the Earth utilizing electromagnetic radiation which is either reflected or emitted from its surface in wavelengths ranging from 0.3 micrometre to 3 metres. The natural surface of the Earth is composed of a diversified combination of surface cover types, and geologists must understand the characteristics of surface cover types to successfully evaluate remotely-sensed data. In some areas landscape surface cover changes throughout the year, and analysis of imagery acquired at different times of year can yield additional geological information. Integration of different scales of analysis allows landscape features to be effectively interpreted. Interpretation of the static elements displayed on imagery is referred to as an image interpretation. Image interpretation is dependent upon: (1) the geologist's understanding of the fundamental aspects of image formation, and (2.) his ability to detect, delineate, and classify image radiometric data; recognize radiometric patterns; and identify landscape surface characteristics as expressed on imagery. A geologic interpretation integrates surface characteristics of the landscape with subsurface geologic relationships. Development of a geologic interpretation from imagery is dependent upon: (1) the geologist's ability to interpret geomorphic processes from their static surface expression as landscape characteristics on imagery, (2) his ability to conceptualize the dynamic processes responsible for the evolution 6f interpreted geologic relationships (his ability to develop geologic models). The integration of geologic remote-sensing techniques in subsurface analysis is illustrated by development of an exploration model for ground water in the Tucson area of Arizona, and by the development of an exploration model for mineralization in southwest Idaho.

  8. Estimation of Insulator Contaminations by Means of Remote Sensing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ge; Gong, Wei; Cui, Xiaohui; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The accurate estimation of deposits adhering on insulators is critical to prevent pollution flashovers which cause huge costs worldwide. The traditional evaluation method of insulator contaminations (IC) is based sparse manual in-situ measurements, resulting in insufficient spatial representativeness and poor timeliness. Filling that gap, we proposed a novel evaluation framework of IC based on remote sensing and data mining. Varieties of products derived from satellite data, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), digital elevation model (DEM), land use and land cover and normalized difference vegetation index were obtained to estimate the severity of IC along with the necessary field investigation inventory (pollution sources, ambient atmosphere and meteorological data). Rough set theory was utilized to minimize input sets under the prerequisite that the resultant set is equivalent to the full sets in terms of the decision ability to distinguish severity levels of IC. We found that AOD, the strength of pollution source and the precipitation are the top 3 decisive factors to estimate insulator contaminations. On that basis, different classification algorithm such as mahalanobis minimum distance, support vector machine (SVM) and maximum likelihood method were utilized to estimate severity levels of IC. 10-fold cross-validation was carried out to evaluate the performances of different methods. SVM yielded the best overall accuracy among three algorithms. An overall accuracy of more than 70% was witnessed, suggesting a promising application of remote sensing in power maintenance. To our knowledge, this is the first trial to introduce remote sensing and relevant data analysis technique into the estimation of electrical insulator contaminations.

  9. Remote sensing techniques for soil moisture and agricultural drought monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingli

    Drought is the most complex and least understood of all natural hazards, affecting more people than any other hazard. Soil moisture is a primary indicator for agricultural drought. This dissertation is aimed at evaluating and investigating soil moisture and drought monitoring using remote sensing techniques. Recent technological advances in remote sensing have shown that soil moisture can be measured by a variety of remote sensing techniques, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. This research is designed to combine the strengths of optical/infrared as well as microwave remote sensing approaches for soil moisture estimation. A soil moisture estimation algorithm at moderate resolution was developed based on the well known 'Universal Triangle' relation by using MODIS land parameters as well as ground measured soil moisture. Though lower in spatial resolution, AMSR-E microwave measurements provides daily global soil moisture of the top soil layer, which are typically less affected by clouds, making them complementary to MODIS measurements over regions of clouds. Considering that the 'Universal Triangle' approach for soil moisture estimation is based on empirical relations which lack solid physical basis, a new physics based drought index, the Normalized Multi-band Drought Index (NMDI) was proposed for monitoring soil and vegetation moisture from space by using one near-infrared (NIR) and two shortwave infrared (SWIR) channels. Typical soil reflectance spectra and satellite acquired canopy reflectances are used to validate the usefulness of NMDI. Its ability for active fire detection has also been investigated using forest fires burning in southern Georgia, USA and southern Greece in 2007. Combining information from multiple NIR and SWIR channels makes NMDI a most promising indicator for drought monitoring and active fire detecting. Given the current technology, satellite remote sensing can only provide soil moisture measurements for the top soil profile, and

  10. Remote sensing techniques applied to seismic vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan Arranz, Jose; Torres, Yolanda; Hahgi, Azade; Gaspar-Escribano, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Advances in remote sensing and photogrammetry techniques have increased the degree of accuracy and resolution in the record of the earth's surface. This has expanded the range of possible applications of these data. In this research, we have used these data to document the construction characteristics of the urban environment of Lorca, Spain. An exposure database has been created with the gathered information to be used in seismic vulnerability assessment. To this end, we have used data from photogrammetric flights at different periods, using both orthorectified images in the visible and infrared spectrum. Furthermore, the analysis is completed using LiDAR data. From the combination of these data, it has been possible to delineate the building footprints and characterize the constructions with attributes such as the approximate date of construction, area, type of roof and even building materials. To carry out the calculation, we have developed different algorithms to compare images from different times, segment images, classify LiDAR data, and use the infrared data in order to remove vegetation or to compute roof surfaces with height value, tilt and spectral fingerprint. In addition, the accuracy of our results has been validated with ground truth data. Keywords: LiDAR, remote sensing, seismic vulnerability, Lorca

  11. Multivariate image processing technique for noninvasive glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Anthony J.; Cameron, Brent D.

    2010-02-01

    A potential noninvasive glucose sensing technique was investigated for application towards in vivo glucose monitoring for individuals afflicted with diabetes mellitus. Three dimensional ray tracing simulations using a realistic iris pattern integrated into an advanced human eye model are reported for physiological glucose concentrations ranging between 0 to 500 mg/dL. The anterior chamber of the human eye contains a clear fluid known as the aqueous humor. The optical refractive index of the aqueous humor varies on the order of 1.5x10-4 for a change in glucose concentration of 100 mg/dL. The simulation data was analyzed with a developed multivariate chemometrics procedure that utilizes iris-based images to form a calibration model. Results from these simulations show considerable potential for use of the developed method in the prediction of glucose. For further demonstration, an in vitro eye model was developed to validate the computer based modeling technique. In these experiments, a realistic iris pattern was placed in an analog eye model in which the glucose concentration within the fluid representing the aqueous humor was varied. A series of high resolution digital images were acquired using an optical imaging system. These images were then used to form an in vitro calibration model utilizing the same multivariate chemometric technique demonstrated in the 3-D optical simulations. In general, the developed method exhibits considerable applicability towards its use as an in vivo platform for the noninvasive monitoring of physiological glucose concentration.

  12. New remote sensing technique for lidar monitoring of atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belen'kii, Mikhail S.; Gimmestad, Gary G.

    1993-09-01

    A new remote sensing technique is proposed for determining the turbulent parameters of the atmosphere using a single-ended lidar system. This technique is based on the enhanced backscattering effect and is insensitive to the scattering volume averaging effect on the intensity fluctuations of the reflected wave and the sounding beam. The corresponding measurements are independent of the turbulent scintillation spectrum and that permits the use of high power pulsed lasers with a relatively low repetition rate for determining the refractive index structure characteristic Cn2, its vertical profile Cn2(h) and inner scale of turbulence lo in the atmosphere. A theory of the method is developed, and the conditions are obtained for observing the backscattering amplification effect in the atmosphere with a laser beam scattered by aerosol. The signal-to-noise ratio and the sensitivity of the measured quantities to the inner scale of turbulence lo variations are estimated. A planned demonstration of this technique in the boundary layer of the atmosphere with an eyesafe lidar which has been developed at Georgia Tech is discussed.

  13. Radial Velocity Data Analysis with Compressed Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Nathan C.; Boué, G.; Laskar, J.; Correia, A. C. M.

    2016-09-01

    We present a novel approach for analysing radial velocity data that combines two features: all the planets are searched at once and the algorithm is fast. This is achieved by utilizing compressed sensing techniques, which are modified to be compatible with the Gaussian processes framework. The resulting tool can be used like a Lomb-Scargle periodogram and has the same aspect but with much fewer peaks due to aliasing. The method is applied to five systems with published radial velocity data sets: HD 69830, HD 10180, 55 Cnc, GJ 876 and a simulated very active star. The results are fully compatible with previous analysis, though obtained more straightforwardly. We further show that 55 Cnc e and f could have been respectively detected and suspected in early measurements from the Lick observatory and Hobby-Eberly Telescope available in 2004, and that frequencies due to dynamical interactions in GJ 876 can be seen.

  14. Close-Range Sensing Techniques in Alpine Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutzinger, M.; Höfle, B.; Lindenbergh, R.; Oude Elberink, S.; Pirotti, F.; Sailer, R.; Scaioni, M.; Stötter, J.; Wujanz, D.

    2016-06-01

    Early career researchers such as PhD students are a main driving force of scientific research and are for a large part responsible for research innovation. They work on specialized topics within focused research groups that have a limited number of members, but might also have limited capacity in terms of lab equipment. This poses a serious challenge for educating such students as it is difficult to group a sufficient number of them to enable efficient knowledge transfer. To overcome this problem, the Innsbruck Summer School of Alpine Research 2015 on close-range sensing techniques in Alpine terrain was organized in Obergurgl, Austria, by an international team from several universities and research centres. Of the applicants a group of 40 early career researchers were selected with interest in about ten types of specialized surveying tools, i.e. laser scanners, a remotely piloted aircraft system, a thermal camera, a backpack mobile mapping system and different grade photogrammetric equipment. During the one-week summer school, students were grouped according to their personal preference to work with one such type of equipment under guidance of an expert lecturer. All students were required to capture and process field data on a mountain-related theme like landslides or rock glaciers. The work on the assignments lasted the whole week but was interspersed with lectures on selected topics by invited experts. The final task of the summer school participants was to present and defend their results to their peers, lecturers and other colleagues in a symposium-like setting. Here we present the framework and content of this summer school which brought together scientists from close-range sensing and environmental and geosciences.

  15. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for early detection of plant diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Maneva, Svetla; Zdravev, Tomas

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an emerging, multidisciplinary field with diverse applications in Earth observation. Nowadays spectral remote sensing techniques allow presymptomatic monitoring of changes in the physiological state of plants with high spectral resolution. Hyperspectral leaf reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence proved to be highly suitable for identification of growth anomalies of cultural plants that result from the environmental changes and different stress factors. Hyperspectral technologies can find place in many scientific areas, as well as for monitoring of plants status and functioning to help in making timely management decisions. This research aimed to detect a presence of viral infection in young pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) caused by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) by using hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence data and to assess the effect of some growth regulators on the development of the disease. In Bulgaria CMV is one of the widest spread pathogens, causing the biggest economical losses in crop vegetable production. Leaf spectral reflectance and fluorescence data were collected by a portable fibre-optics spectrometer in the spectral ranges 450÷850 nm and 600-900 nm. Greenhouse experiment with pepper plants of two cultivars, Sivria (sensitive to CMV) and Ostrion (resistant to CMV) were used. The plants were divided into six groups. The first group consisted of healthy (control) plants. At growth stage 4-6 expanded leaf, the second group was inoculated with CMV. The other four groups were treated with growth regulators: Spermine, MEIA (beta-monomethyl ester of itaconic acid), ВТН (benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester) and Phytoxin. On the next day, the pepper plants of these four groups were inoculated with CMV. The viral concentrations in the plants were determined by the serological method DAS-ELISA. Statistical, first derivative and cluster analysis were applied and several vegetation indices were

  16. Advanced remote sensing techniques for forestry applications: an application case in Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezry, Edmond; Yakam-Simen, Francis; Romeijn, Paul P.; Supit, Iwan; Demargne, Louis

    2001-02-01

    12 This paper reports the operational implementation of new techniques for the exploitation of remote sensing data (SAR and optical) in the framework of forestry applications. In particular, we present a new technique for standing timber volume estimation. This technique is based on remote sensing knowledge (SAR and optical synergy) and forestry knowledge (forest structure models), proved fairly accurate. To illustrate the application of these techniques, an operational commercial case study regarding forest concessions in Sarawak is presented. Validation of this technique by comparison of the remote sensing results and the database of the customer has shown that this technique is fairly accurate.

  17. Reflectance spectroscopy: quantitative analysis techniques for remote sensing applications.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Roush, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of remotely sensed reflectance data are compared, including empirical methods and scattering theories, both of which are important for solving remote sensing problems. The concept of the photon mean path length and the implications for use in modeling reflectance spectra are presented.-from Authors

  18. Adaptive Remote-Sensing Techniques Implementing Swarms of Mobile Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Asher, R.B.; Cameron, S.M.; Loubriel, G.M.; Robinett, R.D.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-11-25

    In many situations, stand-off remote-sensing and hazard-interdiction techniques over realistic operational areas are often impractical "and difficult to characterize. An alternative approach is to implement an adap- tively deployable array of sensitive agent-specific devices. Our group has been studying the collective be- havior of an autonomous, multi-agent system applied to chedbio detection and related emerging threat applications, The current physics-based models we are using coordinate a sensor array for mukivanate sig- nal optimization and coverage as re,alized by a swarm of robots or mobile vehicles. These intelligent control systems integrate'glob"ally operating decision-making systems and locally cooperative learning neural net- works to enhance re+-timp operational responses to dynarnical environments examples of which include obstacle avoidance, res~onding to prevailing wind patterns, and overcoming other natural obscurants or in- terferences. Collectively',tkensor nefirons with simple properties, interacting according to basic community rules, can accomplish complex interconnecting functions such as generalization, error correction, pattern recognition, sensor fusion, and localization. Neural nets provide a greater degree of robusmess and fault tolerance than conventional systems in that minor variations or imperfections do not impair performance. The robotic platforms would be equipped with sensor devices that perform opticaI detection of biologicais in combination with multivariate chemical analysis tools based on genetic and neural network algorithms, laser-diode LIDAR analysis, ultra-wideband short-pulsed transmitting and receiving antennas, thermal im- a:ing sensors, and optical Communication technology providing robust data throughput pathways. Mission scenarios under consideration include ground penetrating radar (GPR) for detection of underground struc- tures, airborne systems, and plume migration and mitigation. We will describe our research in

  19. Adaptive Remote-Sensing Techniques Implementing Swarms of Mobile Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, S.M.; Loubriel, G.M.; Rbinett, R.D. III; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1999-04-01

    This paper focuses on our recent work at Sandia National Laboratories toward engineering a physics-based swarm of mobile vehicles for distributed sensing applications. Our goal is to coordinate a sensor array that optimizes sensor coverage and multivariate signal analysis by implementing artificial intelligence and evolutionary computational techniques. These intelligent control systems integrate both globally operating decision-making systems and locally cooperative information-sharing modes using genetically-trained neural networks. Once trained, neural networks have the ability to enhance real-time operational responses to dynamical environments, such as obstacle avoidance, responding to prevailing wind patterns, and overcoming other natural obscurants or interferences (jammers). The swarm realizes a collective set of sensor neurons with simple properties incorporating interactions based on basic community rules (potential fields) and complex interconnecting functions based on various neural network architectures, Therefore, the swarm is capable of redundant heterogeneous measurements which furnishes an additional degree of robustness and fault tolerance not afforded by conventional systems, while accomplishing such cognitive tasks as generalization, error correction, pattern recognition, and sensor fission. The robotic platforms could be equipped with specialized sensor devices including transmit/receive dipole antennas, chemical or biological sniffers in combination with recognition analysis tools, communication modulators, and laser diodes. Our group has been studying the collective behavior of an autonomous, multi-agent system applied to emerging threat applications. To accomplish such tasks, research in the fields of robotics, sensor technology, and swarms are being conducted within an integrated program. Mission scenarios under consideration include ground penetrating impulse radar (GPR) for detection of under-ground structures, airborne systems, and plume

  20. RF switching network: a novel technique for IR sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechtel, Deborah M.; Jenkins, R. Brian; Joyce, Peter J.; Nelson, Charles L.

    2016-05-01

    Rapid sensing of near infrared (IR) energy on a composite structure would provide information that could mitigate damage to composite structures. This paper describes a novel technique that implements photoconductive sensors in a radio frequency (RF) switching network designed to locate in real time the position and intensity of IR radiation incident on a composite structure. In the implementation described here, photoconductive sensors act as rapid response switches in a two layer RF network embedded in an FR-4 laminate. To detect radiation, phosphorous doped silicon photoconductive sensors are inserted in GHz range RF transmission lines. Photoconductive sensors use semiconductor materials that are optically sensitive at material dependent wavelengths. Incident radiation at the appropriate wavelength produces hole-electron pairs, so that the semiconductor becomes a conductor. By permitting signal propagation only when a sensor is illuminated, the RF signals are selectively routed from the lower layer transmission lines to the upper layer lines, thereby pinpointing the location and strength of incident radiation on a structure. Simulations based on a high frequency 3D planar electromagnetics model are presented and compared to experimental results. Experimental results are described for GHz range RF signal control for 300 mW and 180 mW incident energy from 975 nm and 1060 nm wavelength lasers respectively, where upon illumination, RF transmission line signal output power doubled when compared to non-illuminated results. Experimental results are reported for 100 W incident energy from a 1060 nm laser. Test results illustrate that real-time signal processing would permit a structure or vehicle to be controlled in response to incident radiation

  1. An integrated study of earth resources in the State of California using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing activities for the management of California's water project are reported. Integrated efforts are based largely on airborne remote sensing data processing to inventory the various kinds of earth resources observed. Work centered on defining parameters pertinent to determine water yield and discernible through remote sensing techniques; (2) determining accuracy in measuring and mapping parameters using remote sensing data flown to various specifications; and (3) relating water yield predictions to actual water yields. Remote sensing imagery of the Perris valley shows that land developers established a number of locations to promote present agricultural land for non-agricultural land use.

  2. Techniques for sensing methanol concentration in aqueous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An analyte concentration sensor that is capable of fast and reliable sensing of analyte concentration in aqueous environments with high concentrations of the analyte. Preferably, the present invention is a methanol concentration sensor device coupled to a fuel metering control system for use in a liquid direct-feed fuel cell.

  3. Development of fiber-optic current sensing technique and its applications in electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the development and applications of a fiber-optic electric current sensing technique with the stable properties and compact, simple, and flexible structure of the sensing device. The special characteristics of the sensors were achieved by use of the special low birefringence fiber as the Faraday-effect sensing element and were also achieved with creation of sensing schemes which matched with the features of the fiber. Making use of the excellent features of the sensing technique, various current monitoring devices and systems were developed and applied practically for the control and maintenance in the electric power facility. In this paper, the design and performance of the sensing devices are introduced first. After that, examples of the application systems practically applied are also introduced, including fault section/point location systems for power transmission cable lines.

  4. Investigation of remote sensing techniques of measuring soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, R. W. (Principal Investigator); Blanchard, A. J.; Nieber, J. L.; Lascano, R.; Tsang, L.; Vanbavel, C. H. M.

    1981-01-01

    Major activities described include development and evaluation of theoretical models that describe both active and passive microwave sensing of soil moisture, the evaluation of these models for their applicability, the execution of a controlled field experiment during which passive microwave measurements were acquired to validate these models, and evaluation of previously acquired aircraft microwave measurements. The development of a root zone soil water and soil temperature profile model and the calibration and evaluation of gamma ray attenuation probes for measuring soil moisture profiles are considered. The analysis of spatial variability of soil information as related to remote sensing is discussed as well as the implementation of an instrumented field site for acquisition of soil moisture and meteorologic information for use in validating the soil water profile and soil temperature profile models.

  5. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    University of California investigations to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques have concentrated on the water resources of the state. The studies consider in detail the supply, demand, and impact relationships.

  6. A forestry application simulation of man-machine techniques for analyzing remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkebile, J.; Russell, J.; Lube, B.

    1976-01-01

    The typical steps in the analysis of remotely sensed data for a forestry applications example are simulated. The example uses numerically-oriented pattern recognition techniques and emphasizes man-machine interaction.

  7. Development of analysis techniques for remote sensing of vegetation resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draeger, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    Various data handling and analysis techniques are summarized for evaluation of ERTS-A and supporting high flight imagery. These evaluations are concerned with remote sensors applied to wildland and agricultural vegetation resource inventory problems. Monitoring California's annual grassland, automatic texture analysis, agricultural ground data collection techniques, and spectral measurements are included.

  8. Remote Sensing Techniques as a Tool for Environmental Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisal, K.; AlAhmad, M.; Shaker, A.

    2012-07-01

    The disposal of the solid wastes in landfill sites should be properly monitored by analyzing samples from soil, water, and landfill gases within the landfill site. Nevertheless, ground monitoring systems require intensive efforts and cost. Furthermore, ground monitoring may be difficult to be achieved in large geographic extent. Remote sensing technology has been introduced for waste disposal management and monitoring effects of the landfill sites on the environment. In this paper, two case studies are presented in the Trail Road landfill, Ottawa, Canada and the Al-Jleeb landfill, Al-Farwanyah, Kuwait to evaluate the use of multi-temporal remote sensing images to monitor the landfill sites. The work objectives are: 1) to study the usability of multi-temporal Landsat images for landfill site monitoring by studying the land surface temperature (LST) in the Trail Road landfill, 2) to investigate the relationship between the LST and the amount of the landfill gas emitted in the Trail Road landfill, and 3) to use the multi-temporal LST images to detect the suspicious dumping areas within the Al-Jleeb landfill site. Free archive of multi-temporal Landsat images are obtained from the USGS EarthExplorer. The Landsat images are then atmospherically corrected and the LST images are derived from the thermal band of the corrected Landsat images. In the Trail Road landfill, the results reveal that the LST of the landfill site is always higher than the air temperature by 10°C in average as well as the surroundings. A correlation is also observed between the recorded emitted methane (CH4) from the ground monitoring stations and the LST derived from the Landsat images. Based on the findings in the Al-Jleeb landfill, five locations are identified as suspicious dumping areas by overlaying the highest LST contours generated from the multi-temporal LST images. The study demonstrates that the use of multi-temporal remote sensing images can provide supplementary information for

  9. Unified microwave moisture sensing technique for grain and seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabelsi, Samir; Nelson, Stuart O.

    2007-04-01

    A unified method for moisture sensing in cereal grain and oilseed from a single calibration equation, which is obtained from measurement of dielectric properties at a single microwave frequency, is presented. The method is based on a complex permittivity calibration function that is independent of both bulk density and kind of material. Performance of the method was tested for soybeans, corn, wheat, sorghum, barley and oats at 7 GHz and about 23 °C. The standard error of calibration for moisture prediction from complex permittivity measurements was 0.8%.

  10. The application of remote sensing techniques: Technical and methodological issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C.; Wagner, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    Capabilities and limitations of modern imaging electromagnetic sensor systems are outlined, and the products of such systems are compared with those of the traditional aerial photographic system. Focus is given to the interface between the rapidly developing remote sensing technology and the information needs of operational agencies, and communication gaps are shown to retard early adoption of the technology by these agencies. An assessment is made of the current status of imaging remote sensors and their potential for the future. Public sources of remote sensor data and several cost comparisons are included.

  11. Wave Propagation Through Inhomogeneities With Applications to Novel Sensing Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, G.; Tokars, R.; Varga, D.; Floyd B.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes phenomena observed as a result of laser pencil beam interactions with abrupt interfaces including aerodynamic shocks. Based on these phenomena, a novel flow visualization technique based on a laser scanning pencil beam is introduced. The technique reveals properties of light interaction with interfaces including aerodynamic shocks that are not seen using conventional visualization. Various configurations of scanning beam devices including those with no moving parts, as well as results of "proof-of-concept" tests, are included.

  12. Remote sensing techniques from helicopter for water quality and air pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, A.L.; Landolina, F.F.

    1996-11-01

    Aircraft remote sensing provides a number of benefits, allowing to vary the detection parameters, giving better resolution, and being little affected by weather conditions and no replaceable under emergency situations. Also as a part of projects funded by the Commission of the European Communities, through the Regional Government of Sicily, applications of remote sensing techniques were carried out from helicopter over selected study areas in Sicily, for water quality and air pollution control. In particular, remotely-sensed data were acquired, using LASER techniques and thermal infrared imagery, for the monitoring of water quality and the assessment of oil pollution. Furthermore, air quality was investigated, using LASER techniques and correlation spectroscopy. In a perspective of integration, the investigations carried out proved effective and useful, confirming the important role of the helicopter as monitoring platform for environmental remote sensing applications. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  13. New techniques for clay mineral identification by remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, M.J.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Lang, H.

    1983-03-01

    In the past three years there have been major advancements in our ability to identify clay minerals by remote sensing. Multispectral scanners, including NASA's Thematic Mapper Simulator (analog for Landsat-D Thematic Mapper) have had several broad-band channels in the wavelength region of 1.0 to 2.5 ..mu..m. In particular, the wavelength region 2.0 to 2.5 ..mu..m contains diagnostic spectral-absorption features for most layered silicates. Computer processing of image data obtained with these scanners has allowed the identification of the presence of clay minerals, without, however, being able to identify specific mineralogies. Studies of areas with known hydrocarbon deposits and porphyry copper deposits have demonstrated the value of this information for rock-type discrimination and recognition of hydrothermal alteration zones. Non-imaging, narrow-band radiometers and spectrometers have been used in the field, from aircraft, and from space to identify individual mineralogical constituents. This can be done because of diagnostic spectral absorption features in the 2.0 to 2.5 ..mu..m region characteristic of different clay types. Preliminary analysis of SMIRR data over Egypt showed that kaolinite, carbonate rocks, and possibly montmorillonite, could be identified directly. Plans are currently under way for development of narrow-band imaging systems which will be capable of producing maps showing the surface distribution of individual clay types. This will represent a major step in remote sensing, by allowing unique identification of minerals rather than the current ability only to discriminate among materials. Applications of this technology will provide geologists with a powerful new tool for resource exploration and general geologic mapping problems.

  14. Head-mounted active noise control system with virtual sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Nobuhiro; Kajikawa, Yoshinobu

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we apply a virtual sensing technique to a head-mounted active noise control (ANC) system we have already proposed. The proposed ANC system can reduce narrowband noise while improving the noise reduction ability at the desired locations. A head-mounted ANC system based on an adaptive feedback structure can reduce noise with periodicity or narrowband components. However, since quiet zones are formed only at the locations of error microphones, an adequate noise reduction cannot be achieved at the locations where error microphones cannot be placed such as near the eardrums. A solution to this problem is to apply a virtual sensing technique. A virtual sensing ANC system can achieve higher noise reduction at the desired locations by measuring the system models from physical sensors to virtual sensors, which will be used in the online operation of the virtual sensing ANC algorithm. Hence, we attempt to achieve the maximum noise reduction near the eardrums by applying the virtual sensing technique to the head-mounted ANC system. However, it is impossible to place the microphone near the eardrums. Therefore, the system models from physical sensors to virtual sensors are estimated using the Head And Torso Simulator (HATS) instead of human ears. Some simulation, experimental, and subjective assessment results demonstrate that the head-mounted ANC system with virtual sensing is superior to that without virtual sensing in terms of the noise reduction ability at the desired locations.

  15. Minefield edge detection using a novel chemical vapor sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Mark E.; Sikes, John

    2003-09-01

    Nomadics has developed a novel sensing technology that detects the chemical signature of explosives emanating from buried landmines. Canines have demonstrated the ability to detect these signatures, but use of canines for this task presents a number of logistical and physical limitations that can be overcome by use of chemical sensors. Nomadics is the exclusive licensee of novel amplifying fluorescent polymer materials developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). These materials enable detection of ultra-trace concentrations of nitroaromatic compounds such as TNT, the most commonly utilized explosive in the production of landmines. When vapors of nitroaromatics are presented to the sensor, the fluorescent polymers emit light at a greatly reduced intensity, a property that enables rapid detection of trace quantities of explosives using relatively low-cost electronics and optics. Studies performed by Jenkins et al suggest that the chemical signature of a landmine is heterogeneous and can be dispersed a significant distance from the location of the mine. Because the signature is not highly localized and is not characterized by a well-defined concentration gradient, the sensor may have difficulty indicating the exact position of a mine, especially in high-density minefields. Conversely, if the chemical signature extends some distance from the mine position, the sensor may have utility in detecting the edges of minefields. In combat scenarios, this will allow commanders to select safe paths for personnel and vehicles. This paper will present the latest findings related to minefield edge detection at several test sites.

  16. Update and review of accuracy assessment techniques for remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Congalton, R. G.; Heinen, J. T.; Oderwald, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    Research performed in the accuracy assessment of remotely sensed data is updated and reviewed. The use of discrete multivariate analysis techniques for the assessment of error matrices, the use of computer simulation for assessing various sampling strategies, and an investigation of spatial autocorrelation techniques are examined.

  17. Noninvasive in vivo glucose sensing using an iris based technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Anthony J.; Cameron, Brent D.

    2011-03-01

    Physiological glucose monitoring is important aspect in the treatment of individuals afflicted with diabetes mellitus. Although invasive techniques for glucose monitoring are widely available, it would be very beneficial to make such measurements in a noninvasive manner. In this study, a New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit animal model was utilized to evaluate a developed iris-based imaging technique for the in vivo measurement of physiological glucose concentration. The animals were anesthetized with isoflurane and an insulin/dextrose protocol was used to control blood glucose concentration. To further help restrict eye movement, a developed ocular fixation device was used. During the experimental time frame, near infrared illuminated iris images were acquired along with corresponding discrete blood glucose measurements taken with a handheld glucometer. Calibration was performed using an image based Partial Least Squares (PLS) technique. Independent validation was also performed to assess model performance along with Clarke Error Grid Analysis (CEGA). Initial validation results were promising and show that a high percentage of the predicted glucose concentrations are within 20% of the reference values.

  18. Improved Battery State Estimation Using Novel Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Samad, Nassim

    Lithium-ion batteries have been considered a great complement or substitute for gasoline engines due to their high energy and power density capabilities among other advantages. However, these types of energy storage devices are still yet not widespread, mainly because of their relatively high cost and safety issues, especially at elevated temperatures. This thesis extends existing methods of estimating critical battery states using model-based techniques augmented by real-time measurements from novel temperature and force sensors. Typically, temperature sensors are located near the edge of the battery, and away from the hottest core cell regions, which leads to slower response times and increased errors in the prediction of core temperatures. New sensor technology allows for flexible sensor placement at the cell surface between cells in a pack. This raises questions about the optimal locations of these sensors for best observability and temperature estimation. Using a validated model, which is developed and verified using experiments in laboratory fixtures that replicate vehicle pack conditions, it is shown that optimal sensor placement can lead to better and faster temperature estimation. Another equally important state is the state of health or the capacity fading of the cell. This thesis introduces a novel method of using force measurements for capacity fade estimation. Monitoring capacity is important for defining the range of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Current capacity estimation techniques require a full discharge to monitor capacity. The proposed method can complement or replace current methods because it only requires a shallow discharge, which is especially useful in EVs and PHEVs. Using the accurate state estimation accomplished earlier, a method for downsizing a battery pack is shown to effectively reduce the number of cells in a pack without compromising safety. The influence on the battery performance (e

  19. Remote sensing techniques for conservation and management of natural vegetation ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Verdesio, J. J.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The importance of using remote sensing techniques, in the visible and near-infrared ranges, for mapping, inventory, conservation and management of natural ecosystems is discussed. Some examples realized in Brazil or other countries are given to evaluate the products from orbital platform (MSS and RBV imagery of LANDSAT) and aerial level (photography) for ecosystems study. The maximum quantitative and qualitative information which can be obtained from each sensor, at different level, are discussed. Based on the developed experiments it is concluded that the remote sensing technique is a useful tool in mapping vegetation units, estimating biomass, forecasting and evaluation of fire damage, disease detection, deforestation mapping and change detection in land-use. In addition, remote sensing techniques can be used in controling implantation and planning natural/artificial regeneration.

  20. Remote sensing of stress using electro-optics imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tong; Yuen, Peter; Hong, Kan; Tsitiridis, Aristeidis; Kam, Firmin; Jackman, James; James, David; Richardson, Mark; Oxford, William; Piper, Jonathan; Thomas, Francis; Lightman, Stafford

    2009-09-01

    Emotional or physical stresses induce a surge of adrenaline in the blood stream under the command of the sympathetic nerve system, which, cannot be suppressed by training. The onset of this alleviated level of adrenaline triggers a number of physiological chain reactions in the body, such as dilation of pupil and an increased feed of blood to muscles etc. This paper reports for the first time how Electro-Optics (EO) technologies such as hyperspectral [1,2] and thermal imaging[3] methods can be used for the detection of stress remotely. Preliminary result using hyperspectral imaging technique has shown a positive identification of stress through an elevation of haemoglobin oxygenation saturation level in the facial region, and the effect is seen more prominently for the physical stressor than the emotional one. However, all results presented so far in this work have been interpreted together with the base line information as the reference point, and that really has limited the overall usefulness of the developing technology. The present result has highlighted this drawback and it prompts for the need of a quantitative assessment of the oxygenation saturation and to correlate it directly with the stress level as the top priority of the next stage of research.

  1. Introduction to This Special Issue on Geostatistics and Geospatial Techniques in Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Peter; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The germination of this special Computers & Geosciences (C&G) issue began at the Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) (RGS-IBG) annual meeting in January 1997 held at the University of Exeter, UK. The snow and cold of the English winter were tempered greatly by warm and cordial discussion of how to stimulate and enhance cooperation on geostatistical and geospatial research in remote sensing 'across the big pond' between UK and US researchers. It was decided that one way forward would be to hold parallel sessions in 1998 on geostatistical and geospatial research in remote sensing at appropriate venues in both the UK and the US. Selected papers given at these sessions would be published as special issues of C&G on the UK side and Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing (PE&RS) on the US side. These issues would highlight the commonality in research on geostatistical and geospatial research in remote sensing on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. As a consequence, a session on "Geostatistics and Geospatial Techniques for Remote Sensing of Land Surface Processes" was held at the RGS-IBG annual meeting in Guildford, Surrey, UK in January 1998, organized by the Modeling and Advanced Techniques Special Interest Group (MAT SIG) of the Remote Sensing Society (RSS). A similar session was held at the Association of American Geographers (AAG) annual meeting in Boston, Massachusetts in March 1998, sponsored by the AAG's Remote Sensing Specialty Group (RSSG). The 10 papers that make up this issue of C&G, comprise 7 papers from the UK and 3 papers from the LIS. We are both co-editors of each of the journal special issues, with the lead editor of each journal issue being from their respective side of the Atlantic. The special issue of PE&RS (vol. 65) that constitutes the other half of this co-edited journal series was published in early 1999, comprising 6 papers by US authors. We are indebted to the International Association for Mathematical

  2. The investigation of advanced remote sensing techniques for the measurement of aerosol characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, A.; Becher, J.

    1979-01-01

    Advanced remote sensing techniques and inversion methods for the measurement of characteristics of aerosol and gaseous species in the atmosphere were investigated. Of particular interest were the physical and chemical properties of aerosols, such as their size distribution, number concentration, and complex refractive index, and the vertical distribution of these properties on a local as well as global scale. Remote sensing techniques for monitoring of tropospheric aerosols were developed as well as satellite monitoring of upper tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols. Computer programs were developed for solving multiple scattering and radiative transfer problems, as well as inversion/retrieval problems. A necessary aspect of these efforts was to develop models of aerosol properties.

  3. Rapid Damage Assessment Using High-resolution Remote Sensing Imagery: Tools and Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju; Tuttle, Mark A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Chandola, Varun; Graesser, Jordan B

    2011-01-01

    Accurate damage assessment caused by major natural and anthropogenic disasters is becoming critical due to increases in human and economic loss. This increase in loss of life and severe damages can be attributed to growing population, as well as human migration to disaster prone regions of the world. Rapid damage assessment and dissemination of accurate information is critical for creating an effective emergency response. Remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) based techniques and tools are important in disaster damage assessment and reporting activities. In this review, we will look into the state of the art techniques in damage assessment using remote sensing and GIS.

  4. Surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.

    PubMed

    Kalluri, Satya; Gilruth, Peter; Rogers, David; Szczur, Martha

    2007-10-26

    Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availability of sophisticated, statistical geographic information system and image processing algorithms in a desktop environment creates a fertile research environment. The use of remote sensing techniques to map vector-borne diseases has evolved significantly over the past 25 years. In this paper, we review the status of remote sensing studies of arthropod vector-borne diseases due to mosquitoes, ticks, blackflies, tsetse flies, and sandflies, which are responsible for the majority of vector-borne diseases in the world. Examples of simple image classification techniques that associate land use and land cover types with vector habitats, as well as complex statistical models that link satellite-derived multi-temporal meteorological observations with vector biology and abundance, are discussed here. Future improvements in remote sensing applications in epidemiology are also discussed.

  5. Surveillance of Arthropod Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases Using Remote Sensing Techniques: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kalluri, Satya; Gilruth, Peter; Rogers, David; Szczur, Martha

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availability of sophisticated, statistical geographic information system and image processing algorithms in a desktop environment creates a fertile research environment. The use of remote sensing techniques to map vector-borne diseases has evolved significantly over the past 25 years. In this paper, we review the status of remote sensing studies of arthropod vector-borne diseases due to mosquitoes, ticks, blackflies, tsetse flies, and sandflies, which are responsible for the majority of vector-borne diseases in the world. Examples of simple image classification techniques that associate land use and land cover types with vector habitats, as well as complex statistical models that link satellite-derived multi-temporal meteorological observations with vector biology and abundance, are discussed here. Future improvements in remote sensing applications in epidemiology are also discussed. PMID:17967056

  6. Surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.

    PubMed

    Kalluri, Satya; Gilruth, Peter; Rogers, David; Szczur, Martha

    2007-10-26

    Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availability of sophisticated, statistical geographic information system and image processing algorithms in a desktop environment creates a fertile research environment. The use of remote sensing techniques to map vector-borne diseases has evolved significantly over the past 25 years. In this paper, we review the status of remote sensing studies of arthropod vector-borne diseases due to mosquitoes, ticks, blackflies, tsetse flies, and sandflies, which are responsible for the majority of vector-borne diseases in the world. Examples of simple image classification techniques that associate land use and land cover types with vector habitats, as well as complex statistical models that link satellite-derived multi-temporal meteorological observations with vector biology and abundance, are discussed here. Future improvements in remote sensing applications in epidemiology are also discussed. PMID:17967056

  7. Optical technique for photovoltaic spatial current response measurements using compressive sensing and random binary projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashmore, Matt. T.; Koutsourakis, George; Gottschalg, Ralph; Hall, Simon. R. G.

    2016-04-01

    Compressive sensing has been widely used in image compression and signal recovery techniques in recent years; however, it has received limited attention in the field of optical measurement. This paper describes the use of compressive sensing for measurements of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, using fully random sensing matrices, rather than mapping an orthogonal basis set directly. Existing compressive sensing systems optically image the surface of the object under test, this contrasts with the method described, where illumination patterns defined by precalculated sensing matrices, probe PV devices. We discuss the use of spatially modulated light fields to probe a PV sample to produce a photocurrent map of the optical response. This allows for faster measurements than would be possible using traditional translational laser beam induced current techniques. Results produced to a 90% correlation to raster scanned measurements, which can be achieved with under 25% of the conventionally required number of data points. In addition, both crack and spot type defects are detected at resolutions comparable to electroluminescence techniques, with 50% of the number of measurements required for a conventional scan.

  8. Study on estimating the evapotranspiration cover coefficient for stream flow simulation through remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chihda; Cheng, Chichuan; Lo, Hannchung; Chen, Yeongkeung

    2010-08-01

    This study focuses on using remote sensing techniques to estimate the evapotranspiration cover coefficient (CV) which is an important parameter for stream flow. The objective is to derive more accurate stream flow from the estimated CV. The study area is located in the Dan-Shuei watershed in northern Taiwan. The processes include the land-use classification using hybrid classification and four Landsat-5 TM images; the CV estimations based on remote sensing and traditional approaches; comparison of stream flow simulation according to the above two CV values. The result indicated that the study area was classified into seven land-use types with 88.3% classification accuracy. The simulated stream flow using remote sensing approach could represent more accurate hydrological characteristics than a traditional approach. Obviously integrating remote sensing technique and the SEBAL model is a useful approach to estimate the CV. The CV parameter estimated by remote sensing technique did improve the accuracy of the stream flow simulation. Therefore, the results can be extended to further studies such as forest water management.

  9. Frequency-Shifted Interferometry — A Versatile Fiber-Optic Sensing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fei; Zhang, Yiwei; Qi, Bing; Qian, Li

    2014-01-01

    Fiber-optic sensing is a field that is developing at a fast pace. Novel fiber-optic sensor designs and sensing principles constantly open doors for new opportunities. In this paper, we review a fiber-optic sensing technique developed in our research group called frequency-shifted interferometry (FSI). This technique uses a continuous-wave light source, an optical frequency shifter, and a slow detector. We discuss the operation principles of several FSI implementations and show their applications in fiber length and dispersion measurement, locating weak reflections along a fiber link, fiber-optic sensor multiplexing, and high-sensitivity cavity ring-down measurement. Detailed analysis of FSI system parameters is also presented. PMID:24955943

  10. Observations of the global structure of the stratosphere and mesosphere with sounding rockets and with remote sensing techniques from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, D. F.; Hilsenrath, E.; Krueger, A. J.; Nordberg, W.; Prabhakara, C.; Theon, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Brief descriptions are given of the techniques involved in determining the global structure of the mesosphere and stratosphere based on sounding rocket observations and satellite remotely sensed measurements.

  11. The application of remote sensing techniques to the study of ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shuhab D.; Mahmood, Khalid

    2008-08-01

    Satellite remote sensing methods are a powerful tool for detailed geologic analysis, especially in inaccessible regions of the earth's surface. Short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands are shown to provide spectral information bearing on the lithologic, structural, and geochemical character of rock bodies such as ophiolites, allowing for a more comprehensive assessment of the lithologies present, their stratigraphic relationships, and geochemical character. Most remote sensing data are widely available for little or no cost, along with user-friendly software for non-specialists. In this paper we review common remote sensing systems and methods that allow for the discrimination of solid rock (lithologic) components of ophiolite complexes and their structural relationships. Ophiolites are enigmatic rock bodies which associated with most, if not all, plate collision sutures. Ophiolites are ideal for remote sensing given their widely recognized diversity of lithologic types and structural relationships. Accordingly, as a basis for demonstrating the utility of remote sensing techniques, we briefly review typical ophiolites in the Tethyan tectonic belt. As a case study, we apply integrated remote sensing studies of a well-studied example, the Muslim Bagh ophiolite, located in Balochistan, western Pakistan. On this basis, we attempt to demonstrate how remote sensing data can validate and reconcile existing information obtained from field studies. The lithologic and geochemical diversity of Muslim Bagh are representative of Tethyan ophiolites. Despite it's remote location it has been extensively mapped and characterized by structural and geochemical studies, and is virtually free of vegetative cover. Moreover, integrating the remote sensing data with 'ground truth' information thus offers the potential of an improved template for interpreting remote sensing data sets of other ophiolites for which little or no field information is available.

  12. Application of remote sensing techniques for identification of irrigated crop lands in Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    Satellite imagery was used in a project developed to demonstrate remote sensing methods of determining irrigated acreage in Arizona. The Maricopa water district, west of Phoenix, was chosen as the test area. Band rationing and unsupervised categorization were used to perform the inventory. For both techniques the irrigation district boundaries and section lines were digitized and calculated and displayed by section. Both estimation techniques were quite accurate in estimating irrigated acreage in the 1979 growing season.

  13. A solar energy estimation procedure using remote sensing techniques. [watershed hydrologic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorram, S.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to design a remote sensing-aided procedure for daily location-specific estimation of solar radiation components over the watershed(s) of interest. This technique has been tested on the Spanish Creek Watershed, Northern California, with successful results.

  14. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing techniques for evaluating the effects of surface mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carneggie, David M.; Ohlen, Donald O.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography contains 39 citations of technical papers and other publications dealing with the applications of remote sensing techniques for analyzing and monitoring surface mining. These references summarize recent developments in methods used to identify, map, analyze, and monitor surface mining, particularly coal surface mining.

  15. Development of techniques required for the application of a laser to three dimensional visual sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Arthur M.; Gerhardt, Lester A.

    1991-01-01

    The ongoing vision research at the Center for Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration (CIRSSE) is directed toward identifying and addressing the relevant issues involved in applying visual sensing to space assembly tasks. A considerable amount of effort has been devoted to passive sensing techniques such as using multiple cameras to identify objects in a scene. To compliment the capabilities of the passive visual system in the CIRSSE robotics testbed, research is being conducted in active sensing techniques. This report is description of the research associated with the testbed's laser scanner and its application as an active sensing device. The report is comprised of five major topics. First is a brief description of the CIRSSE visual system and a summary of the active sensing research that has been conducted up to this point. Second, some of the methods currently used to calibrate CIRSSE's laser scanner are described as well as an appraisal of the effectiveness of these methods. Third, is a discussion of how the laser scanner can be employed in concert with a camera to provide a three dimensional point estimation capability. Fourth, there is a description of methods that can be used to detect the presence of the laser beam in a cluttered camera image. Finally, there is a summary of the current state of this research and a description of research planned for the future.

  16. Novel technique for distributed fibre sensing based on coherent Rayleigh scattering measurements of birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xin; Soto, Marcelo A.; Thévenaz, Luc

    2016-05-01

    A novel distributed fibre sensing technique is described and experimentally validated, based on birefringence measurements using coherent Rayleigh scattering. It natively provides distributed measurements of temperature and strain with more than an order of magnitude higher sensitivity than Brillouin sensing, and requiring access to a single fibre-end. Unlike the traditional Rayleigh-based coherent optical time-domain reflectometry, this new method provides absolute measurements of the measurand and may lead to a robust discrimination between temperature and strain in combination with another technique. Since birefringence is purposely induced in the fibre by design, large degrees of freedom are offered to optimize and scale the sensitivity to a given quantity. The technique has been validated in 2 radically different types of birefringent fibres - elliptical-core and Panda polarization-maintaining fibres - with a good repeatability.

  17. Remote sensing techniques for the detection of soil erosion and the identification of soil conservation practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, R. E.; Griffin, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The following paper is a summary of a number of techniques initiated under the AgRISTARS (Agriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing) project for the detection of soil degradation caused by water erosion and the identification of soil conservation practices for resource inventories. Discussed are methods to utilize a geographic information system to determine potential soil erosion through a USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation) model; application of the Kauth-Thomas Transform to detect present erosional status; and the identification of conservation practices through visual interpretation and a variety of enhancement procedures applied to digital remotely sensed data.

  18. Considerations and techniques for incorporating remotely sensed imagery into the land resource management process.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooner, W. G.; Nichols, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of a scheme for utilizing remote sensing technology in an operational program for regional land use planning and land resource management program applications. The scheme utilizes remote sensing imagery as one of several potential inputs to derive desired and necessary data, and considers several alternative approaches to the expansion and/or reduction and analysis of data, using automated data handling techniques. Within this scheme is a five-stage program development which includes: (1) preliminary coordination, (2) interpretation and encoding, (3) creation of data base files, (4) data analysis and generation of desired products, and (5) applications.

  19. Development and Experimental Verification of Key Techniques to Validate Remote Sensing Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Wang, S. G.; Ge, Y.; Jin, R.; Liu, S. M.; Ma, M. G.; Shi, W. Z.; Li, R. X.; Liu, Q. H.

    2013-05-01

    Validation of remote sensing land products is a fundamental issue for Earth observation. Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China (MOST) has launched a high-tech R&D Program named `Development and experimental verification of key techniques to validate remote sensing products' in 2011. This paper introduces the background, scientific objectives, research contents of this project and research result already achieved. The objectives of this project include (1) to build a technical specification for the validation of remote sensing products; (2) to investigate the performance, we will carry out a comprehensive remote sensing experiment on satellite - aircraft - ground truth and then modify Step 1 until reach the predefined requirement; (3) to establish a validation network of China for remote sensing products. In summer 2012, with support of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER), field observations have been successfully conducted in the central stream of the Heihe River Basin, a typical inland river basin in northwest China. A flux observation matrix composed of eddy covariance (EC) and large aperture scintillometer (LAS), in addition to a densely distributed eco-hydrological wireless sensor network have been established to capture multi-scale heterogeneities of evapotranspiration (ET), leaf area index (LAI), soil moisture and temperature. Airborne missions have been flown with the payloads of imaging spectrometer, light detection and ranging (LiDAR), infrared thermal imager and microwave radiometer that provide various scales of aerial remote sensing observations. Satellite images with high resolution have been collected and pre-processed, e.g. PROBA-CHRIS and TerraSAR-X. Simultaneously, ground measurements have been conducted over specific sampling plots and transects to obtain validation data sets. With this setup complex problems are addressed, e.g. heterogeneity, scaling, uncertainty, and eventually to

  20. Three-Dimensional Inverse Transport Solver Based on Compressive Sensing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuxiong; Wu, Hongchun; Cao, Liangzhi; Zheng, Youqi

    2013-09-01

    According to the direct exposure measurements from flash radiographic image, a compressive sensing-based method for three-dimensional inverse transport problem is presented. The linear absorption coefficients and interface locations of objects are reconstructed directly at the same time. It is always very expensive to obtain enough measurements. With limited measurements, compressive sensing sparse reconstruction technique orthogonal matching pursuit is applied to obtain the sparse coefficients by solving an optimization problem. A three-dimensional inverse transport solver is developed based on a compressive sensing-based technique. There are three features in this solver: (1) AutoCAD is employed as a geometry preprocessor due to its powerful capacity in graphic. (2) The forward projection matrix rather than Gauss matrix is constructed by the visualization tool generator. (3) Fourier transform and Daubechies wavelet transform are adopted to convert an underdetermined system to a well-posed system in the algorithm. Simulations are performed and numerical results in pseudo-sine absorption problem, two-cube problem and two-cylinder problem when using compressive sensing-based solver agree well with the reference value.

  1. High-accuracy current sensing circuit with current compensation technique for buck-boost converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yuan; Deng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Jun-Kai

    2015-03-01

    A novel on-chip current sensing circuit with current compensation technique suitable for buck-boost converter is presented in this article. The proposed technique can sense the full-range inductor current with high accuracy and high speed. It is mainly based on matched current mirror and does not require a large proportion of aspect ratio between the powerFET and the senseFET, thus it reduces the complexity of circuit design and the layout mismatch issue without decreasing the power efficiency. The circuit is fabricated with TSMC 0.25 µm 2P5M mixed-signal process. Simulation results show that the buck-boost converter can be operated at 200 kHz to 4 MHz switching frequency with an input voltage from 2.8 to 4.7 V. The output voltage is 3.6 V, and the maximum accuracy for both high and low side sensing current reaches 99% within the load current ranging from 200 to 600 mA.

  2. A novel self-sensing technique for tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, Michael G.; Moheimani, S. O. Reza

    2013-12-15

    This work proposes a novel self-sensing tapping-mode atomic force microscopy operation utilizing charge measurement. A microcantilever coated with a single piezoelectric layer is simultaneously used for actuation and deflection sensing. The cantilever can be batch fabricated with existing micro electro mechanical system processes. The setup enables the omission of the optical beam deflection technique which is commonly used to measure the cantilever oscillation amplitude. Due to the high amount of capacitive feedthrough in the measured charge signal, a feedforward control technique is employed to increase the dynamic range from less than 1 dB to approximately 35 dB. Experiments show that the conditioned charge signal achieves excellent signal-to-noise ratio and can therefore be used as a feedback signal for atomic force microscopy imaging.

  3. Recent advancements in sensing techniques based on functional materials for organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash

    2015-08-15

    The use of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) for pest control in agriculture has caused serious environmental problems throughout the world. OPs are highly toxic with the potential to cause neurological disorders in humans. As the application of OPs has greatly increased in various agriculture activities, it has become imperative to accurately monitor their concentration levels for the protection of ecological systems and food supplies. Although there are many conventional methods available for the detection of OPs, the development of portable sensors is necessary to facilitate routine analysis with more convenience. Some of these potent alternative techniques based on functional materials include fluorescence nanomaterials based sensors, molecular imprinted (MIP) sensors, electrochemical sensors, and biosensors. This review explores the basic features of these sensing approaches through evaluation of their performance. The discussion is extended further to describe the challenges and opportunities for these unique sensing techniques.

  4. A novel self-sensing technique for tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, Michael G.; Moheimani, S. O. Reza

    2013-12-01

    This work proposes a novel self-sensing tapping-mode atomic force microscopy operation utilizing charge measurement. A microcantilever coated with a single piezoelectric layer is simultaneously used for actuation and deflection sensing. The cantilever can be batch fabricated with existing micro electro mechanical system processes. The setup enables the omission of the optical beam deflection technique which is commonly used to measure the cantilever oscillation amplitude. Due to the high amount of capacitive feedthrough in the measured charge signal, a feedforward control technique is employed to increase the dynamic range from less than 1 dB to approximately 35 dB. Experiments show that the conditioned charge signal achieves excellent signal-to-noise ratio and can therefore be used as a feedback signal for atomic force microscopy imaging.

  5. An indirect sensing technique for diesel fuel quantity control. Progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    MacCarley, C.A.

    1998-08-31

    This reports on a project to develop an indirect sensing technique for diesel fuel quantity control. Development has continued on a vehicle-installed prototype for EPA certification and demonstration. Focus of development is on the use of this technology for retrofitting existing diesel vehicles to reduce emissions rather than exclusively upon deployment in the OEM market. Technical obstacles that have been encountered and their solutions and remaining project tasks are described.

  6. A comprehensive review of earthquake-induced building damage detection with remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Laigen; Shan, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Earthquakes are among the most catastrophic natural disasters to affect mankind. One of the critical problems after an earthquake is building damage assessment. The area, amount, rate, and type of the damage are essential information for rescue, humanitarian and reconstruction operations in the disaster area. Remote sensing techniques play an important role in obtaining building damage information because of their non-contact, low cost, wide field of view, and fast response capacities. Now that more and diverse types of remote sensing data become available, various methods are designed and reported for building damage assessment. This paper provides a comprehensive review of these methods in two categories: multi-temporal techniques that evaluate the changes between the pre- and post-event data and mono-temporal techniques that interpret only the post-event data. Both categories of methods are discussed and evaluated in detail in terms of the type of remote sensing data utilized, including optical, LiDAR and SAR data. Performances of the methods and future efforts are drawn from this extensive evaluation.

  7. Quantitative and qualitative sensing techniques for biogenic volatile organic compounds and their oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Kim, Saewung; Guenther, Alex; Apel, Eric

    2013-07-01

    The physiological production mechanisms of some of the organics in plants, commonly known as biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), have been known for more than a century. Some BVOCs are emitted to the atmosphere and play a significant role in tropospheric photochemistry especially in ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) productions as a result of interplays between BVOCs and atmospheric radicals such as hydroxyl radical (OH), ozone (O3) and NOX (NO + NO2). These findings have been drawn from comprehensive analysis of numerous field and laboratory studies that have characterized the ambient distribution of BVOCs and their oxidation products, and reaction kinetics between BVOCs and atmospheric oxidants. These investigations are limited by the capacity for identifying and quantifying these compounds. This review highlights the major analytical techniques that have been used to observe BVOCs and their oxidation products such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry with hard and soft ionization methods, and optical techniques from laser induced fluorescence (LIF) to remote sensing. In addition, we discuss how new analytical techniques can advance our understanding of BVOC photochemical processes. The principles, advantages, and drawbacks of the analytical techniques are discussed along with specific examples of how the techniques were applied in field and laboratory measurements. Since a number of thorough review papers for each specific analytical technique are available, readers are referred to these publications rather than providing thorough descriptions of each technique. Therefore, the aim of this review is for readers to grasp the advantages and disadvantages of various sensing techniques for BVOCs and their oxidation products and to provide guidance for choosing the optimal technique for a specific research task. PMID:23748571

  8. Introduction. [usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying components of California water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    Since May 1970, personnel on several campuses of the University of California have been conducting investigations which seek to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying various components of California's earth resources complex. Emphasis has been given to California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan. This study is designed to consider in detail the supply, demand, and impact relationships. The specific geographic areas studied are the Feather River drainage in northern California, the Chino-Riverside Basin and Imperial Valley areas in southern California, and selected portions of the west side of San Joaquin Valley in central California. An analysis is also given on how an effective benefit-cost study of remote sensing in relation to California's water resources might best be made.

  9. Multi-Technique Remote-Sensing Observations and Modelling of a Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwick, S. A.; Bisi, M. M.; Davies, J.; Morgan, H.; Fallows, R.; Harrison, R. A.; Xiong, M.; Jensen, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    On 14 November 2011, SDO|AIA observed a filament eruption located around S25 to S30 and extended between W20 and W40 of disc centre. The resulting coronal mass ejection (CME) is studied in detail using radio, white-light, and EUV remote-sensing observations from STEREO, SOHO, SDO, and the new next-generation LOFAR radio telescope system. We present a detailed story of the CME as it travels through the heliosphere with its northern flank travelling in the ecliptic out towards Mars. Various models are fitted to the heliospheric white-light data and different portions of the CME are investigated as they propagate through the inner heliosphere. The validity of each model is discussed. This combination of remote-sensing observational and modelling techniques displays a valid framework for further detailed investigations of CMEs.

  10. Technique for sensing inductor and dc output currents of PWM dc-dc converter

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, K.; Lee, Y. . Dept. of Electronic Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    The design, analysis and trade-offs of a novel method to sense the inductor and dc output currents of PWM converters are presented. By sensing and adding appropriately the currents in the transistor, rectifier and capacitors of a converter using current transformers, the waveforms of inductor and dc output currents can be reconstructed accurately while maintaining isolation. This method offers high bandwidth, clean waveform, practically zero power dissipation and simple circuit. The technique is applicable to all PWM converters in both continuous and discontinuous modes, and is most suitable for the implementation of current mode control schemes like hysteretic, PWM conductance control, and output current feedforward. This approach has been experimentally verified at a wide range of current levels, duty cycles, and switching frequencies up to 1.4 MHz.

  11. Remote sensing and GIS techniques for selecting a sustainable scenario for Lake Koronia, Greece.

    PubMed

    Alexandridis, Thomas K; Takavakoglou, Vasileios; Crisman, Thomas L; Zalidis, George C

    2007-02-01

    During recent decades, Lake Koronia has undergone severe degradation as a result of human activities around the lake and throughout the basin. Surface and groundwater abstraction and pollution from agricultural, industrial, and municipal sources are the major sources of degradation. Planning a restoration project was hampered by lack of sufficient data, with gaps evident in both spatial and temporal dimensions. This study emphasized various remote sensing and geographic information system techniques, such as digital image processing and geographic overlay, to fill gaps using satellite imagery and other spatial environmental, hydrological, and hydrogeological data in the process of planning the restoration of Lake Koronia, following Ramsar guidelines. Current and historical remote sensing data were used to assess the current status and level of degradation, set constraints and define the ideotype for the restoration, and, finally, define and select the best restoration scenario.

  12. Research on the demodulation techniques of long-period fiber gratings strain sensing with low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingwei; Liu, Yueming; Tian, Weijian; Feng, Guilan

    2012-10-01

    The working principle of LPFG(Long-Period Fiber Grating) is based on coupling effect between propagating core-mode and co-propagating cladding-modes. The effective refractive index of cladding-modes could be obviously influenced by the environmental changes resulting in LPFG more sensitive than FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) in sensing areas, such as temperature, strain, concentration, bending and etc. LPFG should have more potential in the field of sensors compared with FBG. One of the challenges in using LPFG for environmental sensing is how to interrogate the signal from the LPFG transmission spectrum, due to the large spectral range of the resonant dip. Nowadays the application of LPFG is normally limited in signal interrogation of FBG as optical edge filter. The signal interrogation of LPFG itself needs further research. Presently research on signal interrogation of fiber grating focuses on wavelength interrogation. The aim of wavelength interrogation is to get the wavelength shift caused by environmental change. To solve these problems, a kind of strain sensing interrogation technique for LPFG with low-cost based on tunable FBGs has been developed. Comparing with the method using Fabry-Perot cavity, tunable FBGs can lower the cost with the guarantee of sensing precision. The cost is further lowered without using expensive optical instruments such as optical switch. The problem of temperature cross-sensitivity was solved by using reference gratings. An experiment was performed to demonstrate the interrogation system. And in the experiment, the sensing signal of LPFG applied 0-1300μɛ was successfully interrogated. The results of the interrogation system and OSA are similar.

  13. Martian lavas: Three complementary remote sensing techniques to derive flow properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes-Gautier, R.; Bruno, B. C.; Taylor, G. J.; Rowland, S.; Kilburn, C. R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Several remote sensing techniques have been developed to determine various properties of lava flows. We are currently focusing on three such techniques to interpret Martian lava flows on Alba Patera, which are based on measurements of distal flow lobe widths which can be used to infer silica content; convolution of flow margins which can distinguish between pahoehoe and a'a types of basaltic flows; final flow field dimensions which can be combined with ground slope to derive effusion duration and average effusion rate. These methods are extremely complementary and together provide a more significant and complete understanding of extra-terrestrial lava flows. However, each of these techniques have specific and distinct data requirements.

  14. An improved dual-frequency technique for the remote sensing of ocean currents and wave spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuler, D. L.; Eng, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    A two frequency microwave radar technique for the remote sensing of directional ocean wave spectra and surface currents is investigated. This technique is conceptually attractive because its operational physical principle involves a spatial electromagnetic scattering resonance with a single, but selectable, long gravity wave. Multiplexing of signals having different spacing of the two transmitted frequencies allows measurements of the entire long wave ocean spectrum to be carried out. A new scatterometer is developed and experimentally tested which is capable of making measurements having much larger signal/background values than previously possible. This instrument couples the resonance technique with coherent, frequency agility radar capabilities. This scatterometer is presently configured for supporting a program of surface current measurements.

  15. A Remote Sensing Technique For Combustion Gas Temperature Measurement In Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charagundla, S. R.; Semerjian, H. G.

    1986-10-01

    A remote sensing technique, based on the principles of emission spectroscopy, is being developed for temperature measurements in black liquor recovery boilers. Several tests have been carried out, both in the laboratory and at a number of recovery boilers, to characterize the emission spectra in the wavelength range of 300 nm to 800 nm. These tests have pointed out the potential for temperature measurements using the line intensity ratio technique based on a pair of emission lines at 404.4 nm and 766.5 nm observed in the recovery boiler combustion zone; these emission lines are due to potassium, a common constituent found in all the black liquors. Accordingly, a fiber optics based four-color system has been developed. This in-situ, nonintrusive temperature measurement technique, together with some of the more recent results, is described in this paper.

  16. Mapping Glauconite Unites with Using Remote Sensing Techniques in North East of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadirouhani, R.; Samiee, S.

    2014-10-01

    Glauconite is a greenish ferric-iron silicate mineral with micaceous structure, characteristically formed in shallow marine environments. Glauconite has been used as a pigmentation agent for oil paint, contaminants remover in environmental studies and a source of potassium in plant fertilizers, and other industries. Koppeh-dagh basin is extended in Iran, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan countries and Glauconite units exist in this basin. In this research for enhancing and mapping glauconitic units in Koppeh-dagh structural zone in north east of Iran, remote sensing techniques such as Spectral Angle Mapper classification (SAM), band ratio and band composition methods on SPOT, ASTER and Landsat data in 3 steps were applied.

  17. Iterative matrix inversion technique for simultaneous strain and temperature sensing in an extended temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopf, Barbara; Koch, Alexander W.; Roths, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    The linear matrix approach is the common method for multi-parameter FBG-based strain and temperature sensing. As it does not include non-linear temperature responses and hence lacks accuracy, the application of an iterative matrix inversion technique can be used to remedy this deficiency. Employing this method in a set-up using a multi-parameter sensor system that consists of two FBGs in fibers, which differ in cladding diameters, significantly reduced temperature uncertainties of +/- 1°C could be achieved within a temperature range between -20°C and 150°C.

  18. Equipment and techniques for low-altitude aerial sensing of water-vapor concentration and movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, R.L.

    1969-01-01

    Progress in the development of equipment and techniques for making rapid measurements of moisture movement through the atmosphere over a large area is described. Airborne sensing elements measure relative humidity, temperature, and air currents. These data are telemetered to a ground-based station and recorded. A radar unit tracks the aircraft and electronically plots its position on a base map of the area being studied. Thus the distribution of atmospheric conditions can be directly related to the underlying terrain and vegetation features. ?? 1969 American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc.

  19. Geographic techniques and recent applications of remote sensing to landscape-water quality studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    This article overviews recent advances in studies of landscape-water quality relationships using remote sensing techniques. With the increasing feasibility of using remotely-sensed data, landscape-water quality studies can now be more easily performed on regional, multi-state scales. The traditional method of relating land use and land cover to water quality has been extended to include landscape pattern and other landscape information derived from satellite data. Three items are focused on in this article: 1) the increasing recognition of the importance of larger-scale studies of regional water quality that require a landscape perspective; 2) the increasing importance of remotely sensed data, such as the imagery-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation phenological metrics derived from time-series NDVI data; and 3) landscape pattern. In some studies, using landscape pattern metrics explained some of the variation in water quality not explained by land use/cover. However, in some other studies, the NDVI metrics were even more highly correlated to certain water quality parameters than either landscape pattern metrics or land use/cover proportions. Although studies relating landscape pattern metrics to water quality have had mixed results, this recent body of work applying these landscape measures and satellite-derived metrics to water quality analysis has demonstrated their potential usefulness in monitoring watershed conditions across large regions.

  20. Estimation of seismic building structural types using multi-sensor remote sensing and machine learning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiß, Christian; Aravena Pelizari, Patrick; Marconcini, Mattia; Sengara, Wayan; Edwards, Mark; Lakes, Tobia; Taubenböck, Hannes

    2015-06-01

    Detailed information about seismic building structural types (SBSTs) is crucial for accurate earthquake vulnerability and risk modeling as it reflects the main load-bearing structures of buildings and, thus, the behavior under seismic load. However, for numerous urban areas in earthquake prone regions this information is mostly outdated, unavailable, or simply not existent. To this purpose, we present an effective approach to estimate SBSTs by combining scarce in situ observations, multi-sensor remote sensing data and machine learning techniques. In particular, an approach is introduced, which deploys a sequential procedure comprising five main steps, namely calculation of features from remote sensing data, feature selection, outlier detection, generation of synthetic samples, and supervised classification under consideration of both Support Vector Machines and Random Forests. Experimental results obtained for a representative study area, including large parts of the city of Padang (Indonesia), assess the capabilities of the presented approach and confirm its great potential for a reliable area-wide estimation of SBSTs and an effective earthquake loss modeling based on remote sensing, which should be further explored in future research activities.

  1. Integrating remote sensing techniques at Cuprite, Nevada: AVIRIS, Thematic Mapper, and field spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Bradley; Nash, Greg; Ridd, Merrill; Hauff, Phoebe L.; Ebel, Phil

    1992-01-01

    The Cuprite mining district in southwestern Nevada has become a test site for remote sensing studies with numerous airborne scanners and ground sensor data sets collected over the past fifteen years. Structurally, the Cuprite region can be divided into two areas with slightly different alteration and mineralogy. These zones lie on either side of a postulated low-angle structural discontinuity that strikes nearly parallel to US Route 95. Hydrothermal alternation at Cuprite was classified into three major zones: silicified, opalized, and argillized. These alteration types form a bulls-eye pattern east of the highway and are more linear on the west side of the highway making a striking contrast from the air and the imagery. Cuprite is therefore an ideal location for remote sensing research as it exhibits easily identified hydrothermal zoning, is relatively devoid of vegetation, and contains a distinctive spectrally diagnostic mineral suite including the ammonium feldspar buddingtonite, several types of alunite, different jarosites, illite, kaolinite, smectite, dickite, and opal. This present study brings a new dimension to these previous remote sensing and ground data sets compiled for Cuprite. The development of a higher resolution field spectrometer now provides the capability to combine extensive in-situ mineralogical data with a new geologic field survey and detailed Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometers (AVIRIS) images. The various data collection methods and the refinement of the integrated techniques are discussed.

  2. Adaptive feature extraction techniques for subpixel target detections in hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Peter W. T.; Bishop, Gary J.

    2004-12-01

    Most target detection algorithms employed in hyperspectral remote sensing rely on a measurable difference between the spectral signature of the target and background. Matched filter techniques which utilise a set of library spectra as filter for target detection are often found to be unsatisfactory because of material variability and atmospheric effects in the field data. The aim of this paper is to report an algorithm which extracts features directly from the scene to act as matched filters for target detection. Methods based upon spectral unmixing using geometric simplex volume maximisation (SVM) and independent component analysis (ICA) were employed to generate features of the scene. Target and background like features are then differentiated, and automatically selected, from the endmember set of the unmixed result according to their statistics. Anomalies are then detected from the selected endmember set and their corresponding spectral characteristics are subsequently extracted from the scene, serving as a bank of matched filters for detection. This method, given the acronym SAFED, has a number of advantages for target detection, compared to previous techniques which use orthogonal subspace of the background feature. This paper reports the detection capability of this new technique by using an example simulated hyperspectral scene. Similar results using hyperspectral military data show high detection accuracy with negligible false alarms. Further potential applications of this technique for false alarm rate (FAR) reduction via multiple approach fusion (MAF), and, as a means for thresholding the anomaly detection technique, are outlined.

  3. Application of Remote Sensing Techniques for Appraising Changes in Wildlife Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. K.; Klett, A. T.; Johnston, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the potential of airborne, multispectral, line scanner data acquisition and computer-implemented automatic recognition techniques for providing useful information about waterfowl breeding habitat in North Dakota. The spectral characteristics of the components of a landscape containing waterfowl habitat can be detected with airborne scanners. By analyzing these spectral characteristics it is possible to identify and map the landscape components through analog and digital processing methods. At the present stage of development multispectral remote sensing techniques are not ready for operational application to surveys of migratory bird habitat and other such resources. Further developments are needed to: (1) increase accuracy; (2) decrease retrieval and processing time; and (3) reduce costs.

  4. Quantification of Virus Particles Using Nanopore-Based Resistive-Pulse Sensing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lu; Yamamoto, Takatoki

    2016-01-01

    Viruses have drawn much attention in recent years due to increased recognition of their important roles in virology, immunology, clinical diagnosis, and therapy. Because the biological and physical properties of viruses significantly impact their applications, quantitative detection of individual virus particles has become a critical issue. However, due to various inherent limitations of conventional enumeration techniques such as infectious titer assays, immunological assays, and electron microscopic observation, this issue remains challenging. Thanks to significant advances in nanotechnology, nanostructure-based electrical sensors have emerged as promising platforms for real-time, sensitive detection of numerous bioanalytes. In this paper, we review recent progress in nanopore-based electrical sensing, with particular emphasis on the application of this technique to the quantification of virus particles. Our aim is to provide insights into this novel nanosensor technology, and highlight its ability to enhance current understanding of a variety of viruses. PMID:27713738

  5. Progress in passive microwave remote sensing - Nonlinear retrieval techniques. [for meteorological parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of nonlinear retrieval methods have been applied to passive microwave remote sensing problems. These problems can be characterized in part by the degree to which their underlying physics and statistics can be understood and characterized in a simple way. Four examples of varying complexity are considered here; the simplest problem requires only analytic expressions for retrievals, whereas the most complex problem has been handled only with pattern classification techniques. The four examples are: (1) Doppler measurements of winds at 70 to 100 km, (2) retrieval of atmospheric water vapor profiles using the opaque 183-GHz water vapor resonance, (3) retrieval of snow accumulation rate by means of combined theoretical and empirical procedures, and (4) classification of diverse polar terrain by means of pattern recognition techniques.

  6. Differential Radiometers Using Fabry-Perot Interferometric Technique for Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgieva, Elena M.; Heaps,William S.; Wilson, Emily L.

    2007-01-01

    A new type of remote sensing radiometer based upon the Fabry-Perot interferometric technique has been developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and tested from both ground and aircraft platform. The sensor uses direct or reflected sunlight and has channels for measuring column concentration of carbon dioxide at 1570 nm, oxygen lines sensitive to pressure and temperature at 762 and 768 nm, and water vapor (940 nm). A solid Fabry-Perot etalon is used as a tunable narrow bandpass filter to restrict the measurement to the gas of interest's absorption bands. By adjusting the temperature of the etalon, which changes the index of refraction of its material, the transmission fringes can be brought into nearly exact correspondence with absorption lines of the particular species. With this alignment between absorption lines and fringes, changes in the amount of a species in the atmosphere strongly affect the amount of light transmitted by the etalon and can be related to gas concentration. The technique is applicable to different chemical species. We have performed simulations and instrument design studies for CH4, "Cot isotope, and CO detection. Index Terms- Absorbing media, Atmospheric measurements, Fabry-Perot interferometers, Optical interferometry, Remote sensing.

  7. Remote sensing of irregularities in the equatorial ionosphere using the radio scintillation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental measurements of signal level fluctuations (scintillation) on VHF and microwave signals from two geostationary communications satellites are studied in detail. The signals were recorded at an equatorial location which is almost directly beneath the satellites. The scintillation is caused by refraction and diffraction of the signals by variations of the refractive index in the Flayer of the ionosphere. This study is directed toward using the observed multifrequency scintillation to remotely sense the characteristics of the ionospheric irregularities. This is done by considering both statistical and deterministic models for the scintillation producing irregularities. The models are combined with existing propagation theory using analytical and numerical simulation techniques in order to predict the spatial and temporal characteristics of the multifrequency scintillation. Comparison with the observations is used to verify the models. Extensive use is made of numerical simulation. This makes it possible to study both weak and strong scintillations which occur simultaneously on the microwave and VHF frequencies, respectively. In all cases, the models are chosen to be consistent with results from other remote sensing techniques and in situ measurements. Geophysical implications of the results are discussed in light of what is known about equatorial irregularities from previous experimental and theoretical studies.

  8. Groundwater resources development in hard rock terrain - an approach using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Jagannathan; Mani, Arul; Jayaraman, Venkatakrishnan; Manivel, M.

    To demonstrate the capabilities of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques for groundwater resources development in hard rock terrains, specifically for the demarcation of suitable sites for artificial recharge of groundwater aquifers, a study was carried out in the Kallar Basin, which is located in parts of the Salem and Tiruchirapalli districts, Tamil Nadu, India. Thematic maps defining lithology, lineaments, landforms, landuse, drainage density, thickness of weathered zone, thickness of fractured zone, hydrological soils, and well yield were prepared from data collected by the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) -1C and by conventional methods. All the thematic layers were integrated using a GIS-based model developed specifically for this purpose, enabling a map showing artificial recharge zones to be generated. The exact type of artificial recharge structure, eg, check dam, nallabund, gully plugging and percolation pond, suitable for replenishing groundwater was identified by superposing a drainage network map over an artificial recharge zones map. The GIS-based demarcation of artificial zones developed in the study was based on logical conditions and reasoning, so that the same techniques (with appropriate modifications) could be adopted elsewhere, especially in hard rock terrain, where the occurrence of groundwater is restricted and subject to greater complexity.

  9. Failure detection and fault management techniques for flush airdata sensing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Moes, Timothy R.; Leondes, Cornelius T.

    1992-01-01

    Methods based on chi-squared analysis are presented for detecting system and individual-port failures in the high-angle-of-attack flush airdata sensing system on the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. The HI-FADS hardware is introduced, and the aerodynamic model describes measured pressure in terms of dynamic pressure, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and static pressure. Chi-squared analysis is described in the presentation of the concept for failure detection and fault management which includes nominal, iteration, and fault-management modes. A matrix of pressure orifices arranged in concentric circles on the nose of the aircraft indicate the parameters which are applied to the regression algorithms. The sensing techniques are applied to the F-18 flight data, and two examples are given of the computed angle-of-attack time histories. The failure-detection and fault-management techniques permit the matrix to be multiply redundant, and the chi-squared analysis is shown to be useful in the detection of failures.

  10. Feasibility study on nondestructively sensing meat's freshness using light scattering imaging technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanhuan; Sun, Xin; Pan, Wenxiu; Kutsanedzie, Felix; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2016-09-01

    Rich nutrient matrix meat is the first-choice source of animal protein for many people all over the world, but it is also highly susceptible to spoilage due to chemical and microbiological activities. In this work, we attempted the feasibility study of rapidly and nondestructively sensing meat's freshness using a light scattering technique. First, we developed the light scattering system for image acquisition. Next, texture analysis was used for extracting characteristic variables from the region of interest (ROI) of a scattering image. Finally, a novel classification algorithm adaptive boosting orthogonal linear discriminant analysis (AdaBoost-OLDA) was proposed for modeling, and compared with two classical classification algorithms linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM). Experimental results showed that classification results by AdaBoost-OLDA algorithm are superior to LDA and SVM algorithms, and eventually achieved 100% classification rate in the calibration and prediction sets. This work demonstrates that the developed light scattering technique has the potential in noninvasively sensing meat's freshness. PMID:27155320

  11. A Study on Integrated Community Based Flood Mitigation with Remote Sensing Technique in Kota Bharu, Kelantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    'Ainullotfi, A. A.; Ibrahim, A. L.; Masron, T.

    2014-02-01

    This study is conducted to establish a community based flood management system that is integrated with remote sensing technique. To understand local knowledge, the demographic of the local society is obtained by using the survey approach. The local authorities are approached first to obtain information regarding the society in the study areas such as the population, the gender and the tabulation of settlement. The information about age, religion, ethnic, occupation, years of experience facing flood in the area, are recorded to understand more on how the local knowledge emerges. Then geographic data is obtained such as rainfall data, land use, land elevation, river discharge data. This information is used to establish a hydrological model of flood in the study area. Analysis were made from the survey approach to understand the pattern of society and how they react to floods while the analysis of geographic data is used to analyse the water extent and damage done by the flood. The final result of this research is to produce a flood mitigation method with a community based framework in the state of Kelantan. With the flood mitigation that involves the community's understanding towards flood also the techniques to forecast heavy rainfall and flood occurrence using remote sensing, it is hope that it could reduce the casualties and damage that might cause to the society and infrastructures in the study area.

  12. Advanced retrieval method in satellite remote sensing atmosphere: the technique of computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Xun, Yulong

    1998-08-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a modern medical diagnostic technique in which x-ray transmission measurements at numerous angles through the human body are processed by computer to produce cross-sectional pictures of the body. This technique also has found applications in such diverse fields as materials testing, astronomy, microscopy, image processing and oceanography.In this paper, a modification of this technique, using emitted IR or microwave radiation instead of transmitted x-ray radiation, can be applied to satellite radiance measurements taken along the orbital track at various angles. The channels of IR sensors for the CT retrieval are selected from HITRAN Database, and analyzed by Eigen-value analysis. We discuss in detail the effect retrieval result of CT technique form projection-angle. Finally, using the balloon sounding data, the result of CT are compared with the result of conventional method. Because the advantage over conventional remote sensing methods is the additional information acquired by viewing a given point in the atmosphere at several angles as well as several frequencies. The results show that the temperature profiles by CT retrieval are better than the conventional method.

  13. Raman-lidar technique for tropospheric and stratospheric sensing of aerosol optical and microphysical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wandinger, U.

    1995-01-01

    Tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols and clouds are known to influence the earth`s radiation budget as well as chemical processes of the atmosphere. Thus, remote sensing of optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric particles has important applications in weather and climate research, pollution monitoring, and atmospheric chemistry. During the last few years Raman lidars have become very important tools in this field of research. The development of powerful light sources such as Nd:YAG and excimer lasers, of interference filters with narrow bandwidth and high transmission, and of low-noise photomultiplier tubes and counting systems has improved the Raman-lidar technique during the past decade significantly. The technique is based on the detection of two signals resulting from elastic backscattering by air molecules and particles and inelastic (Raman) backscattering by a gas of known number density, i.e., nitrogen or oxygen. The technique has been successfully applied to cirrus-cloud studies. In this presentation, the capability of the Raman-lidar technique for tropospheric and stratospheric profiling of aerosol and cloud properties will be discussed on the basis of measurement examples.

  14. Comparison of remote sensing image processing techniques to identify tornado damage areas from Landsat TM data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myint, S.W.; Yuan, M.; Cerveny, R.S.; Giri, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been shown effective for large-scale damage surveys after a hazardous event in both near real-time or post-event analyses. The paper aims to compare accuracy of common imaging processing techniques to detect tornado damage tracks from Landsat TM data. We employed the direct change detection approach using two sets of images acquired before and after the tornado event to produce a principal component composite images and a set of image difference bands. Techniques in the comparison include supervised classification, unsupervised classification, and objectoriented classification approach with a nearest neighbor classifier. Accuracy assessment is based on Kappa coefficient calculated from error matrices which cross tabulate correctly identified cells on the TM image and commission and omission errors in the result. Overall, the Object-oriented Approach exhibits the highest degree of accuracy in tornado damage detection. PCA and Image Differencing methods show comparable outcomes. While selected PCs can improve detection accuracy 5 to 10%, the Object-oriented Approach performs significantly better with 15-20% higher accuracy than the other two techniques. ?? 2008 by MDPI.

  15. Application of remote sensing techniques at different scales of observation on wetland evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Chung-Hsin

    The establishment and maintenance of the structure and functions in wetland ecosystems is greatly influenced by hydrologic conditions. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the major output component in the hydrologic water budget. Therefore, in order to provide efficient information for water resources management and the conservation of wetland ecosystems, research on ET is urgently needed. Moreover, to overcome the variable spatial vegetation distribution and the temporal change of wetlands, appropriate remote sensing techniques are also greatly needed. The goal of this research was to study fundamental wetland ET and then with the aid of remote sensing techniques from the micro scale to the macro scale to develop useful wetland ET estimation methods. The study site was located in the Ft. Drum Marsh, Upper St. John's River Basin in Indian River County, Florida. The site is a freshwater marsh with southern cattail ( Typha domingensis Pers.) and sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense Crantz) as the dominant vegetation species. There were four stages of the study: (1) a fundamental ET study with a lysimeter system, (2) ground measurements and analyses of spectral responses of wetland vegetation using a field spectroradiometer, (3) wetland vegetation mapping using aerial hyperspectral images, and (4) application of satellite images to delineate wetland vegetation and estimate marsh-wide ET. The results of the fundamental ET study showed the various important vegetation parameters of sawgrass and cattail. A more appropriate estimation method of canopy resistance for sawgrass and cattail was proposed. Among the various ET estimation methods, the Priestley-Taylor method was found to be most applicable. The ground spectral response measurements of sawgrass and cattail demonstrated a distinguishable difference in red wavebands and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which indicated the spectral separability of the two wetland species. Leaf area index and stomatal resistance

  16. Laboratory insights into the detection of surface biosignatures by remote-sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Jost, B.; Roditi, I.; Frey, J.; Thomas, N.

    2014-03-01

    With the progress of direct imaging techniques, it will be possible in the short or long-term future to retrieve more efficiently the information on the physical properties of the light reflected by rocky exoplanets (Traub et al., 2010). The search for visible-infrared absorption bands of peculiar gases (O2, CH4 etc.) in this light could give clues for the presence of life (Kaltenegger and Selsis, 2007). Even more uplifting would be the direct detection of life itself, on the surface of an exoplanet. Considering this latter possibility, what is the potential of optical remote-sensing methods to detect surface biosignatures? Reflected light from the surface of the Earth exhibits a strong surface biosignature in the form of an abrupt change of reflectance between the visible and infrared range of the spectrum (Seager et al., 2005). This spectral feature called "vegetation red-edge" is possibly the consequence of biological evolution selecting the right chemical structures enabling the plants to absorb the visible energy, while preventing them from overheating by reflecting more efficiently the infrared. Such red-edge is also found in primitive photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, that colonized the surface of the Earth ocean and continents billions of years before multicellular plants (Knacke, 2003). If life ever arose on an Earth-like exoplanet, one could hypothesize that some form of its surface-life evolves into similar photo-active organisms, also exhibiting a red-edge. In this paper, we will present our plan and preliminary results of a laboratory study aiming at precising the potentiality of remote sensing techniques in detecting such surface biosignatures. Using equipment that has been developed in our team for surface photometry studies (Pommerol 2011, Jost 2013, Pommerol 2013), we will investigate the reflectance spectra and bidirectional reflectance function of soils containing bacteria such as cyanobacteria, in various environmental conditions. We will

  17. Use of remote-sensing techniques to survey the physical habitat of large rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Behrendt, Thomas E.; Cholwek, Gary; Frey, Jeffery W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Smith, Stephen B.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Behrendt, Thomas E.; Cholwek, Gary; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Smith, Stephen B.

    1997-01-01

    Remote-sensing techniques that can be used to quantitatively characterize the physical habitat in large rivers in the United States where traditional survey approaches typically used in small- and medium-sized streams and rivers would be ineffective or impossible to apply. The state-of-the-art remote-sensing technologies that we discuss here include side-scan sonar, RoxAnn, acoustic Doppler current profiler, remotely operated vehicles and camera systems, global positioning systems, and laser level survey systems. The use of these technologies will permit the collection of information needed to create computer visualizations and hard copy maps and generate quantitative databases that can be used in real-time mode in the field to characterize the physical habitat at a study location of interest and to guide the distribution of sampling effort needed to address other habitat-related study objectives. This report augments habitat sampling and characterization guidance provided by Meador et al. (1993) and is intended for use primarily by U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment program managers and scientists who are documenting water quality in streams and rivers of the United States.

  18. A Comprehensive Review on Water Quality Parameters Estimation Using Remote Sensing Techniques.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Mohammad Haji; Melesse, Assefa M; Reddi, Lakshmi

    2016-08-16

    Remotely sensed data can reinforce the abilities of water resources researchers and decision makers to monitor waterbodies more effectively. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to measure the qualitative parameters of waterbodies (i.e., suspended sediments, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), chlorophyll-a, and pollutants). A large number of different sensors on board various satellites and other platforms, such as airplanes, are currently used to measure the amount of radiation at different wavelengths reflected from the water's surface. In this review paper, various properties (spectral, spatial and temporal, etc.) of the more commonly employed spaceborne and airborne sensors are tabulated to be used as a sensor selection guide. Furthermore, this paper investigates the commonly used approaches and sensors employed in evaluating and quantifying the eleven water quality parameters. The parameters include: chlorophyll-a (chl-a), colored dissolved organic matters (CDOM), Secchi disk depth (SDD), turbidity, total suspended sediments (TSS), water temperature (WT), total phosphorus (TP), sea surface salinity (SSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD).

  19. A Comprehensive Review on Water Quality Parameters Estimation Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Gholizadeh, Mohammad Haji; Melesse, Assefa M.; Reddi, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensed data can reinforce the abilities of water resources researchers and decision makers to monitor waterbodies more effectively. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to measure the qualitative parameters of waterbodies (i.e., suspended sediments, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), chlorophyll-a, and pollutants). A large number of different sensors on board various satellites and other platforms, such as airplanes, are currently used to measure the amount of radiation at different wavelengths reflected from the water’s surface. In this review paper, various properties (spectral, spatial and temporal, etc.) of the more commonly employed spaceborne and airborne sensors are tabulated to be used as a sensor selection guide. Furthermore, this paper investigates the commonly used approaches and sensors employed in evaluating and quantifying the eleven water quality parameters. The parameters include: chlorophyll-a (chl-a), colored dissolved organic matters (CDOM), Secchi disk depth (SDD), turbidity, total suspended sediments (TSS), water temperature (WT), total phosphorus (TP), sea surface salinity (SSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). PMID:27537896

  20. Exploring social sensing techniques for measuring rainfall and flood response in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koole, Wouter; Sips, Robert-Jan; ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire

    2016-04-01

    Extreme rainfall is expected to occur more often in the future as a result of climate change. To be able to react to this, urban water managers need to accurately know vulnerable spots in the city, as well as the potential impact to society. Currently, detailed information about rainfall intensities in cities, and effects of intense storm events on urban societies is lacking. In this study, we will present first results of social sensing experiments to measure rainfall and flooding using a smartphone app. Users of the app are asked to submit rainfall reports by selecting an rainfall class from a pre-defined list of (6) classes, to register time and location and to make a photo of the rainfall. Rainfall photos will be used in a future experiment for automated retrieval of rainfall classes using computer vision techniques. With the experiments we aim to validate rainfall observations made by lay people and to evaluate factors that influence the willingness of users to contribute observations. The results show that users consistently distinguish heavy and extreme rainfall from drizzle and mild rainfall, but have difficulty in making more detailed distinctions. The main factor driving willingness to contribute to the social rainfall sensing experiments is the perceived usefulness of rainfall reporting.

  1. A Comprehensive Review on Water Quality Parameters Estimation Using Remote Sensing Techniques.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Mohammad Haji; Melesse, Assefa M; Reddi, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensed data can reinforce the abilities of water resources researchers and decision makers to monitor waterbodies more effectively. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to measure the qualitative parameters of waterbodies (i.e., suspended sediments, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), chlorophyll-a, and pollutants). A large number of different sensors on board various satellites and other platforms, such as airplanes, are currently used to measure the amount of radiation at different wavelengths reflected from the water's surface. In this review paper, various properties (spectral, spatial and temporal, etc.) of the more commonly employed spaceborne and airborne sensors are tabulated to be used as a sensor selection guide. Furthermore, this paper investigates the commonly used approaches and sensors employed in evaluating and quantifying the eleven water quality parameters. The parameters include: chlorophyll-a (chl-a), colored dissolved organic matters (CDOM), Secchi disk depth (SDD), turbidity, total suspended sediments (TSS), water temperature (WT), total phosphorus (TP), sea surface salinity (SSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). PMID:27537896

  2. UA wavefront control lab: design overview and implementation of new wavefront sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kelsey; Guyon, Olivier; Codona, Johanan; Knight, Justin; Rodack, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    We present an overview of the design of a new testbed for studying coronagraphic imaging and wavefront control using a variety of pupil and coronagraph architectures. The testbed is designed to explore optimal use of starlight (including starlight rejected by the coronagraph) for wavefront control, system self-calibration, and point spread function (PSF) calibration. It is also compatible with coronagraph designs for centrally obscured and segmented apertures, and includes shaped or apodized pupils, a range of focal plane masks and Lyot stops of multiple sizes, and an optional PIAA apodizing stage. Starlight is reflected and imaged from the focal plane mask and Lyot stop for low-order wavefront sensing. Both a segmented and a continuous sheet MEMS DM are included to simulate segmented telescope pupils, apply known test phase patterns, and implement a controllable phase apodization coronagraph. The testbed is adaptable and is currently being used to investigate three different techniques: (1) the differential optical transfer function (dOTF), (2) low-order wavefront sensing (LOWFS) with a hybrid-Lyot coronagraph, and (3) linear dark field control (LDFC).

  3. Nondestructive, in-process inspection of inertia friction welding : an investigation into a new sensing technique.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, D. A.; Cola, M. J.; Dave, V. R.; Dozhier, N. G.; Carpenter, R. W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the capabilities of a new sensor for in-process monitoring of quality during friction welding. The non-contact sensor is composed of microphones that are mounted in an aluminum ring which surrounds the weld joint. The sensor collects the acoustical energy (in the form of sound pressure) that is emitted during the plastic deformation and phase transformations (if applicable) in friction welding processes. The focus in this preliminary investigation is to search for and identify features within the acoustical emission that are indicative of bond quality. Bar-to-bar inertia friction welding (one form of friction welding) of copper to 304L stainless steel is used in this proof-of-concept study. This material combination exhibits only marginal weldability and is ideally suited for validating the capabilities of this new sensing technique. A probabilistic neural network is employed in this work to analyze the acoustical emission's frequency spectrum in an attempt to classify acceptable, conditional, and unacceptable welds. Our preliminary findings indicate that quality-based process features do exist within the frequency spectrum of the acoustical signature. The results from this analysis are presented. Future work in improving the sensing and interpretation of the data is discussed in an effort to develop a robust method of quality-based, in-process monitoring of friction welds.

  4. Gamma radiation influence on silica optical fibers measured by optical backscatter reflectometry and Brillouin sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosniok, A.; Sporea, D.; Neguţ, D.; Krebber, K.

    2016-05-01

    We have studied the influence of gamma rays on physical properties of different commercially available silica optical fibers stepwise irradiated up to a total dose of 100 kGy. The detection of radiation-induced changes in silica glass offers the possibility of using selected optical fibers as distributed radiation sensors. The measurements performed by us were based on optical backscatter reflectometry and Brillouin distributed sensing. The measurement methods enable an analysis of radiation-induced modification of the group refractive index and density of the optical fibers. The most distinct physical effect observed by us concerns the increase of the optical attenuation with rising total radiation doses. Quantitative measurement results indicate a crucial impact of fiber dopants on radiation-induced physical and sensory characteristics of silica optical fibers affected by differences in fiber fabrication techniques. Based on the obtained results, the suitability of distributed Brillouin sensing for dosimetry applications seems to be improved by modifying the refractive index profile of the fiber core.

  5. Nanoscale electrode arrays produced with microscale lithographic techniques for use in biomedical sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Terry, Jonathan G; Schmüser, Ilka; Underwood, Ian; Corrigan, Damion K; Freeman, Neville J; Bunting, Andrew S; Mount, Andrew R; Walton, Anthony J

    2013-12-01

    A novel technique for the production of nanoscale electrode arrays that uses standard microfabrication processes and micron-scale photolithography is reported here in detail. These microsquare nanoband edge electrode (MNEE) arrays have been fabricated with highly reproducible control of the key array dimensions, including the size and pitch of the individual elements and, most importantly, the width of the nanoband electrodes. The definition of lateral features to nanoscale dimensions typically requires expensive patterning techniques that are complex and low-throughput. However, the fabrication methodology used here relies on the fact that vertical dimensions (i.e. layer thicknesses) have long been manufacturable at the nanoscale using thin film deposition techniques that are well established in mainstream microelectronics. The authors report for the first time two aspects that highlight the particular suitability of these MNEE array systems for probe monolayer biosensing. The first is simulation, which shows the enhanced sensitivity to the redox reaction of the solution redox couple. The second is the enhancement of probe film functionalisation observed for the probe film model molecule, 6-mercapto-1-hexanol compared with microsquare electrodes. Such surface modification for specific probe layer biosensing and detection is of significance for a wide range of biomedical and other sensing and analytical applications. PMID:24206769

  6. Noninvasive glucose sensing in scattering media using OCT, PAS, and TOF techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarousu, Erkki; Hast, Jukka T.; Kinnunen, Matti T.; Kirillin, Mikhail Y.; Myllyla, Risto A.; Plucinski, Jerzy; Popov, Alexey P.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Prykari, Tuukka; Saarela, Juha; Zhao, Zuomin

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, optical measurement techniques, which enable non-invasive measurement, are superimposed to glucose sensing in scattering media. Used measurement techniques are Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and laser pulse Time-of-Flight (TOF) measurement using a streak camera. In parallel with measurements, a Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation models have been developed. Experimental in vitro measurements were performed using Intralipid fat emulsion as a tissue simulating phantom for OCT and TOF measurements. In PAS measurements, a pork meat was used as a subject but also preliminary in vivo measurements were done. OCT measurement results show that the slope of the OCT signal's envelope changes as a function of glucose content in the scattering media. TOF measurements show that the laser pulse full width of half maximum (FWHM) changes a little as function of glucose content. An agreement with MC-simulations and measurements with Intralipid was also found. Measurement results of PAS technique show that changes in glucose content in the pork meat tissue can be measured. In vivo measurements with a human volunteer show that other factors such as physiological change, blood circulation and body temperature drift may interfere the PA response of glucose.

  7. Nanoscale electrode arrays produced with microscale lithographic techniques for use in biomedical sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Terry, Jonathan G; Schmüser, Ilka; Underwood, Ian; Corrigan, Damion K; Freeman, Neville J; Bunting, Andrew S; Mount, Andrew R; Walton, Anthony J

    2013-12-01

    A novel technique for the production of nanoscale electrode arrays that uses standard microfabrication processes and micron-scale photolithography is reported here in detail. These microsquare nanoband edge electrode (MNEE) arrays have been fabricated with highly reproducible control of the key array dimensions, including the size and pitch of the individual elements and, most importantly, the width of the nanoband electrodes. The definition of lateral features to nanoscale dimensions typically requires expensive patterning techniques that are complex and low-throughput. However, the fabrication methodology used here relies on the fact that vertical dimensions (i.e. layer thicknesses) have long been manufacturable at the nanoscale using thin film deposition techniques that are well established in mainstream microelectronics. The authors report for the first time two aspects that highlight the particular suitability of these MNEE array systems for probe monolayer biosensing. The first is simulation, which shows the enhanced sensitivity to the redox reaction of the solution redox couple. The second is the enhancement of probe film functionalisation observed for the probe film model molecule, 6-mercapto-1-hexanol compared with microsquare electrodes. Such surface modification for specific probe layer biosensing and detection is of significance for a wide range of biomedical and other sensing and analytical applications.

  8. Enhancements of target detection using atmospheric correction preprocessing techniques in hyperspectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Peter W. T.; Bishop, Gary J.

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports the result of a study on how atmospheric correction techniques (ACT) enhance target detection in hyperspectral remote sensing, using different sets of real data. Based on the data employed in this study, it has been shown that ACT can reduce the masking effect of the atmosphere and effectively improving spectral contrast. By using the standard Kmeans cluster based unsupervised classifier, it has been shown that the accuracy of the classification obtained from the atmospheric corrected data is almost an order of magnitude better than that achieved using the radiance data. This enhancement is entirely due to the improved separability of the classes in the atmospherically corrected data. Moreover, it has been found that intrinsic information concerning the nature of the imaged surface can be retrieved from the atmospherically corrected data. This has been done to within an error of 5% by using a model based atmospheric correction package ATCOR.

  9. Comparison of multispectral remote-sensing techniques for monitoring subsurface drain conditions. [Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goettelman, R. C.; Grass, L. B.; Millard, J. P.; Nixon, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    The following multispectral remote-sensing techniques were compared to determine the most suitable method for routinely monitoring agricultural subsurface drain conditions: airborne scanning, covering the visible through thermal-infrared (IR) portions of the spectrum; color-IR photography; and natural-color photography. Color-IR photography was determined to be the best approach, from the standpoint of both cost and information content. Aerial monitoring of drain conditions for early warning of tile malfunction appears practical. With careful selection of season and rain-induced soil-moisture conditions, extensive regional surveys are possible. Certain locations, such as the Imperial Valley, Calif., are precluded from regional monitoring because of year-round crop rotations and soil stratification conditions. Here, farms with similar crops could time local coverage for bare-field and saturated-soil conditions.

  10. Application of remote sensing techniques to the geology of the bonanza volcanic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    A program is reported for evaluating remote sensing as an aid to geologic mapping for the past four years. Data tested in this evaluation include color and color infrared photography, multiband photography, low sun-angle photography, thermal infrared scanner imagery, and side-looking airborne radar. The relative utility of color and color infrared photography was tested as it was used to refine geologic maps in previously mapped areas, as field photos while mapping in the field, and in making photogeologic maps prior to field mapping. The latter technique served as a test of the maximum utility of the photography. In this application the photography was used successfully to locate 75% of all faults in a portion of the geologically complex Bonanza volcanic center and to map and correctly identify 93% of all Quaternary deposits and 62% of all areas of Tertiary volcanic outcrop in the area.

  11. Improved technique for retrieval of forest parameters from hyperspectral remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Kozoderov, Vladimir V; Dmitriev, Egor V; Sokolov, Anton A

    2015-11-30

    This paper describes an approach of machine-learning pattern recognition procedures for the land surface objects using their spectral and textural features on remotely sensed hyperspectral images together with the biological parameters retrieval for the recognized classes of forests. Modified Bayesian classifier is used to improve the related procedures in spatial and spectral domains. Direct and inverse problems of atmospheric optics are solved based on modeling results of the projective cover and density of the forest canopy for the selected classes of forests of different species and ages. Applying the proposed techniques to process images of high spectral and spatial resolution, we have detected object classes including forests within their contours on a particular image and can retrieve the phytomass amount of leaves/needles as well as the relevant total biomass amount for the forest canopy. PMID:26698785

  12. Mapping aboveground woody biomass using forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Bechu K V; Nandy, S

    2015-05-01

    Mapping forest biomass is fundamental for estimating CO₂ emissions, and planning and monitoring of forests and ecosystem productivity. The present study attempted to map aboveground woody biomass (AGWB) integrating forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques, viz., direct radiometric relationships (DRR), k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) and cokriging (CoK) and to evaluate their accuracy. A part of the Timli Forest Range of Kalsi Soil and Water Conservation Division, Uttarakhand, India was selected for the present study. Stratified random sampling was used to collect biophysical data from 36 sample plots of 0.1 ha (31.62 m × 31.62 m) size. Species-specific volumetric equations were used for calculating volume and multiplied by specific gravity to get biomass. Three forest-type density classes, viz. 10-40, 40-70 and >70% of Shorea robusta forest and four non-forest classes were delineated using on-screen visual interpretation of IRS P6 LISS-III data of December 2012. The volume in different strata of forest-type density ranged from 189.84 to 484.36 m(3) ha(-1). The total growing stock of the forest was found to be 2,024,652.88 m(3). The AGWB ranged from 143 to 421 Mgha(-1). Spectral bands and vegetation indices were used as independent variables and biomass as dependent variable for DRR, k-NN and CoK. After validation and comparison, k-NN method of Mahalanobis distance (root mean square error (RMSE) = 42.25 Mgha(-1)) was found to be the best method followed by fuzzy distance and Euclidean distance with RMSE of 44.23 and 45.13 Mgha(-1) respectively. DRR was found to be the least accurate method with RMSE of 67.17 Mgha(-1). The study highlighted the potential of integrating of forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques for forest biomass mapping.

  13. A Study of Flood Evacuation Center Using GIS and Remote Sensing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustaffa, A. A.; Rosli, M. F.; Abustan, M. S.; Adib, R.; Rosli, M. I.; Masiri, K.; Saifullizan, B.

    2016-07-01

    This research demonstrated the use of Remote Sensing technique and GIS to determine the suitability of an evacuation center. This study was conducted in Batu Pahat areas that always hit by a series of flood. The data of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was obtained by ASTER database that has been used to delineate extract contour line and elevation. Landsat 8 image was used for classification purposes such as land use map. Remote Sensing incorporate with GIS techniques was used to determined the suitability location of the evacuation center from contour map of flood affected areas in Batu Pahat. GIS will calculate the elevation of the area and information about the country of the area, the road access and percentage of the affected area. The flood affected area map may provide the suitability of the flood evacuation center during the several levels of flood. The suitability of evacuation centers can be determined based on several criteria and the existing data of the evacuation center will be analysed. From the analysis among 16 evacuation center listed, there are only 8 evacuation center suitable for the usage during emergency situation. The suitability analysis was based on the location and the road access of the evacuation center toward the flood affected area. There are 10 new locations with suitable criteria of evacuation center proposed on the study area to facilitate the process of rescue and evacuating flood victims to much safer and suitable locations. The results of this study will help in decision making processes and indirectly will help organization such as fire-fighter and the Department of Social Welfare in their work. Thus, this study can contribute more towards the society.

  14. Advancements in sensing and perception using structured lighting techniques :an LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, David Keith; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson, Patrick A. Jr.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes the analytical and experimental efforts for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''Advancements in Sensing and Perception using Structured Lighting Techniques''. There is an ever-increasing need for robust, autonomous ground vehicles for counterterrorism and defense missions. Although there has been nearly 30 years of government-sponsored research, it is undisputed that significant advancements in sensing and perception are necessary. We developed an innovative, advanced sensing technology for national security missions serving the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, and other government agencies. The principal goal of this project was to develop an eye-safe, robust, low-cost, lightweight, 3D structured lighting sensor for use in broad daylight outdoor applications. The market for this technology is wide open due to the unavailability of such a sensor. Currently available laser scanners are slow, bulky and heavy, expensive, fragile, short-range, sensitive to vibration (highly problematic for moving platforms), and unreliable for outdoor use in bright sunlight conditions. Eye-safety issues are a primary concern for currently available laser-based sensors. Passive, stereo-imaging sensors are available for 3D sensing but suffer from several limitations : computationally intensive, require a lighted environment (natural or man-made light source), and don't work for many scenes or regions lacking texture or with ambiguous texture. Our approach leveraged from the advanced capabilities of modern CCD camera technology and Center 6600's expertise in 3D world modeling, mapping, and analysis, using structured lighting. We have a diverse customer base for indoor mapping applications and this research extends our current technology's lifecycle and opens a new market base for outdoor 3D mapping. Applications include precision mapping, autonomous navigation, dexterous manipulation, surveillance and

  15. Remotely sensed data assimilation technique to develop machine learning models for use in water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Bushra

    Increasing population and water conflicts are making water management one of the most important issues of the present world. It has become absolutely necessary to find ways to manage water more efficiently. Technological advancement has introduced various techniques for data acquisition and analysis, and these tools can be used to address some of the critical issues that challenge water resource management. This research used learning machine techniques and information acquired through remote sensing, to solve problems related to soil moisture estimation and crop identification on large spatial scales. In this dissertation, solutions were proposed in three problem areas that can be important in the decision making process related to water management in irrigated systems. A data assimilation technique was used to build a learning machine model that generated soil moisture estimates commensurate with the scale of the data. The research was taken further by developing a multivariate machine learning algorithm to predict root zone soil moisture both in space and time. Further, a model was developed for supervised classification of multi-spectral reflectance data using a multi-class machine learning algorithm. The procedure was designed for classifying crops but the model is data dependent and can be used with other datasets and hence can be applied to other landcover classification problems. The dissertation compared the performance of relevance vector and the support vector machines in estimating soil moisture. A multivariate relevance vector machine algorithm was tested in the spatio-temporal prediction of soil moisture, and the multi-class relevance vector machine model was used for classifying different crop types. It was concluded that the classification scheme may uncover important data patterns contributing greatly to knowledge bases, and to scientific and medical research. The results for the soil moisture models would give a rough idea to farmers

  16. Mapping Tamarix: New techniques for field measurements, spatial modeling and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelista, Paul H.

    peak growing months. These studies demonstrate that new techniques can further our understanding of tamarisk's impacts on ecosystem processes, predict potential distribution and new invasions, and improve our ability to detect occurrence using remote sensing techniques. Collectively, the results of my studies may increase our ability to map tamarisk distributions and better quantify its impacts over multiple spatial and temporal scales.

  17. Irrigated rice area estimation using remote sensing techniques: Project's proposal and preliminary results. [Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Deassuncao, G. V.; Moreira, M. A.; Novaes, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a methodology for annual estimates of irrigated rice crop in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using remote sensing techniques is proposed. The project involves interpretation, digital analysis, and sampling techniques of LANDSAT imagery. Results are discussed from a preliminary phase for identifying and evaluating irrigated rice crop areas in four counties of the State, for the crop year 1982/1983. This first phase involved just visual interpretation techniques of MSS/LANDSAT images.

  18. Fingerprint detection and mapping using a phase shifted coherent gradient sensing technique.

    PubMed

    Dhanotia, Jitendra; Prakash, Satya; Bhatia, Vimal; Prakash, Shashi

    2016-07-10

    In this paper, a full field technique for mapping a latent fingerprint using a coherent gradient sensing (CGS) sensor is proposed. Collimated light from an He-Ne laser illuminates a specimen comprising a fingerprint implanted onto a reflecting surface. Reflected light from the specimen is analyzed using the CGS sensor comprising a pair of gratings. Reflected light carries information regarding the depth and orientation of furrows and ridges in the fingerprint. The topological information of the fingerprint is retrieved using four-step phase shifting interferometry. Well-defined 2D and 3D phase plots have been reconstructed to map the topography of the human fingerprint. The recorded slope data reconstructs the information regarding the separation and depth of the ridges in the latent fingerprint. The proposed technique is noninvasive and full field and does not require any kind of chemical or physical treatment. The sensor is very simple, yields interferometric sensitivity, and has the advantages of easy alignment, compactness, and low cost. PMID:27409305

  19. Urban Mapping and Growth Prediction using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques, Pune, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, V.

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to map the urban area in and around Pune region between the year 1991 and 2010, and predict its probable future growth using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The Landsat TM and ETM+ satellite images of 1991, 2001 and 2010 were used for analyzing urban land use class. Urban class was extracted / mapped using supervised classification technique with maximum likelihood classifier. The accuracy assessment was carried out for classified maps. The achieved overall accuracy and Kappa statistics were 86.33 % & 0.76 respectively. Transition probability matrix and area change were obtained using different classified images. A plug-in was developed in QGIS software (open source) based on Markov Chain model algorithm for predicting probable urban growth for the future year 2021. Based on available data set, the result shows that urban area is expected to grow much higher in the year 2021 when compared to 2010. This study provides an insight into understanding of urban growth and aids in subsequent infrastructure planning, management and decision-making.

  20. Fingerprint detection and mapping using a phase shifted coherent gradient sensing technique.

    PubMed

    Dhanotia, Jitendra; Prakash, Satya; Bhatia, Vimal; Prakash, Shashi

    2016-07-10

    In this paper, a full field technique for mapping a latent fingerprint using a coherent gradient sensing (CGS) sensor is proposed. Collimated light from an He-Ne laser illuminates a specimen comprising a fingerprint implanted onto a reflecting surface. Reflected light from the specimen is analyzed using the CGS sensor comprising a pair of gratings. Reflected light carries information regarding the depth and orientation of furrows and ridges in the fingerprint. The topological information of the fingerprint is retrieved using four-step phase shifting interferometry. Well-defined 2D and 3D phase plots have been reconstructed to map the topography of the human fingerprint. The recorded slope data reconstructs the information regarding the separation and depth of the ridges in the latent fingerprint. The proposed technique is noninvasive and full field and does not require any kind of chemical or physical treatment. The sensor is very simple, yields interferometric sensitivity, and has the advantages of easy alignment, compactness, and low cost.

  1. Demodulation technique based on diffraction optical elements for fiber Bragg grating sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhongwei; Zhang, Li

    2010-11-01

    A new demodulation technique based on diffraction grating is proposed for high speed application. Compared with tunable filter method, the diffraction grating method has the advantages of potential high interrogation speed, high energy efficiency, no sweeping movements, which makes it a competitive interrogation method in certain field such as dynamic strain monitoring. The optical layout is crucial to guarantee the required performance of the interrogator. A structure which consists of two diffraction gratings, a fiber collimator, a reflection mirror, and a detector is adopted in the consideration of spectrum resolution, optical aberration, and geometrical size. The initial parameters for the structure are figured out by the optical path calculation involving the coefficient of the employed optical elements. The optimized procedure is following sequentially in order to minimize the aberration and obtain the pre-defined specifications theoretically. As the central wavelength for the interrogator is 1550nm, the InGaAs linear array sensor is introduced as the photoelectrical detector. Experiment of demodulation for FBG sensing system is carried out to verify the feasibility of this technique. The wavelength resolution for the interrogator is 1pm, and the demodulation speed is about 2kHz.

  2. Geobotanical discrimination of ultramafic parent materials An evaluation of remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Morrissey, L. A.; Horn, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    Color and color infrared aerial photography and imagery acquired from a Daedalus DEI-1260 multispectral airborne scanner were employed in an investigation to discriminate ultramafic rock types in a test site in southwest Oregon. An analysis of the relationships between vegetation characteristics and parent materials was performed using a vegetation classification and map developed for the project, lithologic information derived from published geologic maps of the region, and terrain information gathered in the field. Several analytical methods, including visual image analysis, band ratioing, principal components analysis, and contrast enhancement and subsequent color composite generation were used in the investigation. There was a close correspondence between vegetation types and major rock types. These were readily discriminated by the remote sensing techniques. It was found that ultramafic rock types were separable from non-ultramafic rock types and serpentine was distinguishable from non-serpentinized peridotite. Further investigations involving spectroradiometric and digital classification techniques are being performed to further identify rock types and to discriminate chromium and nickel-bearing rock types.

  3. Application of remote sensing techniques to hydrography with emphasis on bathymetry. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Meireles, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques are utilized for the determination of hydrographic characteristics, with emphasis in bathymetry. Two sensor systems were utilized: the Metric Camera Wild RC-10 and the Multispectral Scanner of LANDSAT Satellite (MSS-LANDSAT). From photographs of the metric camera, data of photographic density of points with known depth are obtained. A correlation between the variables density x depth is calculated through a regression straight line. From this line, the depth of points with known photographic density is determined. The LANDSAT MSS images are interpreted automatically in the Iterative Multispectral Analysis System (I-100) with the obtention of point subareas with the same gray level. With some simplifications done, it is assumed that the depth of a point is directly related with its gray level. Subareas with points of the same depth are then determined and isobathymetric curves are drawn. The coast line is obtained through the sensor systems already mentioned. Advantages and limitations of the techniques and of the sensor systems utilized are discussed and the results are compared with ground truth.

  4. Comparison of the pulsed photoacoustic technique and the optical coherence tomography from the viewpoint of biomedical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnunen, Matti; Zhao, Zuomin; Myllyla, Risto

    2005-08-01

    Laser photoacoustics (PA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are versatile and sensitive techniques for biomedical diagnostics, imaging, and measurements. In this paper, the hdamentals of PA and OCT are considered and the applications in biomedicine reviewed. The properties of the two techniques are compared to find the proper technique for a specific application. The problems and restrictions, dependent on the factors of the human body, which have to be reduced before the clinical utilization of the techniques, are pointed out. The PA technique is more suitable for measuring or imaging the objects located in deep tissue or organs and for sensing the physiological changes caused by compositions with larger absorption variation, such as hemoglobin, blood oxygenation, and melanin. OCT is more suitable for imaging tissue surface and subsurface structures and fine structures and for sensing the physiological changes caused by compositions with larger scattering and refractive index variation, such as skin water, tissue glucose, and sweat.

  5. Estimation of Regional Evapotranspiration Using Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperature. Part 2: Application of Equilibrium Evaporation Model to Estimate Evapotranspiration by Remote Sensing Technique. [Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotoda, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Kai, K.; Yoshino, M. M.; Takeda, K.; Seki, K.

    1985-01-01

    In a humid region like Japan, it seems that the radiation term in the energy balance equation plays a more important role for evapotranspiration then does the vapor pressure difference between the surface and lower atmospheric boundary layer. A Priestley-Taylor type equation (equilibrium evaporation model) is used to estimate evapotranspiration. Net radiation, soil heat flux, and surface temperature data are obtained. Only temperature data obtained by remotely sensed techniques are used.

  6. Optimized fractional cloudiness determination from five ground-based remote sensing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Boers, R.; de Haij, M. J.; Wauben, W.M.F.; Baltink, Henk K.; van Ulft, L. H.; Savenije, M.; Long, Charles N.

    2010-12-23

    A one-year record of fractional cloudiness at 10 minute intervals was generated for the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research [CESAR] (51°58’N, 4° 55’E) using an integrated assessment of five different observational methods. The five methods are based on active as well as passive systems and use either a hemispheric or column remote sensing technique. The one-year instrumental cloudiness data were compared against a 30 year climatology of Observer data in the vicinity of CESAR [1971- 2000]. In the intermediate 2 - 6 octa range, most instruments, but especially the column methods, report lower frequency of occurrence of cloudiness than the absolute minimum values from the 30 year Observer climatology. At night, the Observer records less clouds in the 1, 2 octa range than during the day, while the instruments registered more clouds. During daytime the Observer also records much more 7 octa cloudiness than the instruments. One column method combining a radar with a lidar outstrips all other techniques in recording cloudiness, even up to height in excess of 9 km. This is mostly due to the high sensitivity of the radar that is used in the technique. A reference algorithm was designed to derive a continuous and optimized record of fractional cloudiness. Output from individual instruments were weighted according to the cloud base height reported at the observation time; the larger the height, the lower the weight. The algorithm was able to provide fractional cloudiness observations every 10 minutes for 98% of the total period of 12 months [15 May 2008 - 14 May 2009].

  7. Yangon River Geomorphology Identification and its Enviromental Imapacts Analsysi by Optical and Radar Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lwin, A.; Khaing, M. M.

    2012-07-01

    The Yangon river, also known as the Rangoon river, is about 40 km long (25miles), and flows from southern Myanmar as an outlet of the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady) river into the Ayeyarwady delta. The Yangon river drains the Pegu Mountains; both the Yangon and the Pathein rivers enter the Ayeyarwady at the delta. Fluvial geomorphology is based primarily on rivers of manageable dimensions. The emphasis is on geomorphology, sedimentology of Yangon river and techniques for their identification and management. Present techniques such as remote sensing have made it easier to investigate and interpret in details analysis of river geomorphology. In this paper, attempt has been made the complicated issues of geomorphology, sedimentation patterns and management of river system and evolution studied. The analysis was carried out for the impact of land use/ land cover (LULC) changes on stream flow patterns. The hydrologic response to intense, flood producing rainfall events bears the signatures of the geomorphic structure of the channel network and of the characteristic slope lengths defining the drainage density of the basin. The interpretation of the hydrologic response as the travel time distribution of a water particle randomly injected in a distributed manner across the landscape inspired many geomorphic insights. In 2008, Cyclone Nargis was seriously damaged to mangrove area and its biodiversity system in and around of Yangon river terraces. A combination of digital image processing techniques was employed for enhancement and classification process. It is observed from the study that middle infra red band (0.77mm - 0.86mm) is highly suitable for mapping mangroves. Two major classes of mangroves, dense and open mangroves were delineated from the digital data.

  8. Transfer of microstructure pattern of CNTs onto flexible substrate using hot press technique for sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Prabhash; Harsh

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successfully transfer of microstructure patterned CNTs on PET substrate. • Demonstrate as resistor-based NH{sub 3} gas sensor in the sub-ppm range. • Excellent photodetector having instantaneous response and recovery characteristics. • An effective technique to grow and produce flexible electronic device. - Abstract: In this work, we report the successful and efficient transfer process of two- dimensional (2-D) vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by hot pressing method with an aim to develop flexible sensor devices. Carbon nanotubes are synthesized by cold wall thermal chemical vapor deposition using patterned SiO{sub 2} substrate under low pressure. The height of the pattern of CNTs is controlled by reaction time. The entire growth and transfer process is carried out within 30 min. Strong adhesion between the nanotube and polyethylene terephthalate substrate was observed in the post-transferred case. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies are used to analyze the microstructure of carbon nanotube film before and after hot pressing. This technique shows great potential for the fabrication of flexible sensing devices. We report for the first time, the application of patterned microstructure developed by this technique in the development of gas sensor and optoelectronic device. Surface resistive mode is used for detection of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas in the sub-ppm range. An impressive photoconducting response is also observed in the visible wavelength. The reproducibility of the sample was checked and the results indicate the possibility of use of carbon nanotube as gas sensor, photodetector, CCDs etc.

  9. Assessing grapevine canopy health in the Texas Hill Country with remote sensing and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Adam J.

    Vineyards are typically managed uniformly over space, although known spatial variation exists in the performance of vines within and across vineyard blocks. Identifying spatial variability in crop performance at a large scale (one or a few vineyard blocks) is useful to vineyard managers wishing to address such variation by enacting separate management plans for differing areas of performance. Zonal management and the institution of precision viticultural practices (i.e. use of GIS and remote sensing techniques to study this spatial variation) has proven profitable for a number of reasons, namely zonal harvesting based on zone performance. This dissertation implements cutting-edge, practical, and low-cost equipment and techniques, specifically an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), digital cameras, and Structure from Motion (SfM), to identify spatial variation in grapevine canopy vigor at a vineyard in the Texas Hill Country American Viticultural Area. Three research objectives were addressed in this dissertation including: (1) the setup and implementation of a practical imaging system and processing methodology (digital cameras and a UAV) to produce very high spatial resolution orthophotomosaics of vineyards with visible and near-infrared bands, (2) observation of spatial and temporal variation in grapevine canopy vigor that can aid in improving vineyard management practice, and (3) development of a three-dimensional method for visualizing and quantifying vineyard canopy density. Results concluded that the low-cost tools and techniques outlined in this study provided a practical means by which to identify spatial variation in canopy vigor at the study vineyard. Of the three methods used to identify this variation, spectrally-based (NDVI), planimetrically-based (canopy extent), and three-dimensionally-derived (SfM point clouds), the latter two were most successful and would be recommended for future use. Most importantly, due to the low cost of the technology used to

  10. Development of Satellite Remote Sensing Techniques for Quantifying Volcanic Ash Cloud Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavolonis, Michael J.

    Novel new approaches to automatically detect and characterize volcanic ash using satellite data are presented. The Spectrally Enhanced Cloud Objects (SECO) ash detection algorithm, combines radiative transfer theory, Bayesian methods, and image processing/computer vision concepts to identify volcanic ash clouds in satellite data with skill that is generally comparable to a human expert, especially with respect to false alarm rate. The SECO method is globally applicable and can be applied to virtually any low earth orbit or geostationary satellite sensor. The new ash detection approach was quantitatively proven to be significantly more skillful than traditional pixel based approaches, including the commonly used "split-window" technique. The performance of the SECO approach is extremely promising and well suited for a variety of new and improved applications. A new approach to retrieve volcanic ash cloud properties from infrared satellite measurements was also developed. The algorithm utilizes an optimal estimation framework to retrieve ash cloud height, mass loading, and effective particle radius. Optimal estimation allows uncertainties in the measurements and forward model to be taken into account and uncertainty estimates for each of the retrieved parameters to be determined. Background atmospheric water vapor, surface temperature, and surface emissivity are explicitly accounted for on a pixel-by-pixel basis, so the algorithm is globally applicable. In addition, the ash cloud retrieval algorithm is unique because it allows the cloud temperature/height to be a free parameter. Volcanic ash clouds are a major aviation hazard. Fine-grained ash from explosive eruptions can be transported long distances (>1000 km) from the source volcano by atmospheric winds, severely disrupting aviation operations. Volcanic ash clouds are complex and the background environment in which they reside can be as well. Thus, sophisticated satellite remote sensing techniques for extracting

  11. The investigation of advanced remote sensing, radiative transfer and inversion techniques for the measurement of atmospheric constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, Adarsh; Wang, Pi-Huan

    1985-01-01

    The research program is documented for developing space and ground-based remote sensing techniques performed during the period from December 15, 1977 to March 15, 1985. The program involved the application of sophisticated radiative transfer codes and inversion methods to various advanced remote sensing concepts for determining atmospheric constituents, particularly aerosols. It covers detailed discussions of the solar aureole technique for monitoring columnar aerosol size distribution, and the multispectral limb scattered radiance and limb attenuated radiance (solar occultation) techniques, as well as the upwelling scattered solar radiance method for determining the aerosol and gaseous characteristics. In addition, analytical models of aerosol size distribution and simulation studies of the limb solar aureole radiance technique and the variability of ozone at high altitudes during satellite sunrise/sunset events are also described in detail.

  12. Spatial and functional characterization, identification and assessment of isolated wetlands in Alachua County, Florida, USA - GIS and remote sensing techniques

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing mapping techniques were developed to identify the locations of isolated wetlands in Alachua County, FL, a 2510 sq km area in north-central Florida with diverse geology and numerous isolated wetlands. The resul...

  13. Comparison of remote sensing change detection techniques for assessing hurricane damage to forests.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fugui; Xu, Y Jun

    2010-03-01

    This study compared performance of four change detection algorithms with six vegetation indices derived from pre- and post-Katrina Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery and a composite of the TM bands 4, 5, and 3 in order to select an optimal remote sensing technique for identifying forestlands disturbed by Hurricane Katrina. The algorithms included univariate image differencing (UID), selective principal component analysis (PCA), change vector analysis (CVA), and postclassification comparison (PCC). The indices consisted of near-infrared to red ratios, normalized difference vegetation index, Tasseled Cap index of greenness, brightness, and wetness (TCW), and soil-adjusted vegetation index. In addition to the satellite imagery, the "ground truth" data of forest damage were also collected through field investigation and interpretation of post-Katrina aerial photos. Disturbed forests were identified by classifying the composite and the continuous change imagery with the supervised classification method. Results showed that the change detection techniques exerted apparent influence on detection results with an overall accuracy varying between 51% and 86% and a kappa statistics ranging from 0.02 to 0.72. Detected areas of disturbed forestlands were noticeable in two groups: 180,832-264,617 and 85,861-124,205 ha. The landscape of disturbed forests also displayed two unique patterns, depending upon the area group. The PCC algorithm along with the composite image contributed the highest accuracy and lowest error (0.5%) in estimating areas of disturbed forestlands. Both UID and CVA performed similarly, but caution should be taken when using selective PCA in detecting hurricane disturbance to forests. Among the six indices, TCW outperformed the other indices owing to its maximum sensitivity to forest modification. This study suggested that compared with the detection algorithms, proper selection of vegetation indices was more critical for obtaining satisfactory results.

  14. Detecting Subsurface Agricultural Tile Drainage using GIS and Remote Sensing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhathoki, M.; Gokkaya, K.; Tank, J. L.; Christopher, S. F.; Hanrahan, B.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface tile drainage is a common practice in many of the row crop dominated agricultural lands in the Upper Midwest, which increases yield by making the soil more productive. It is reported that nearly half of all cropland in Indiana benefits from some sort of artificial drainage. However, subsurface tile has a significant negative impact on surface water quality by providing a fast means of transport for nutrients from fertilizers. Therefore, generating spatial data of tile drainage in the field is important and useful for agricultural landscape and hydrological studies. Subsurface tile drains in Indiana's croplands are not widely mapped. In this study, we will delineate subsurface tile drainage in agricultural land in Shatto Ditch watershed, located in Kosciusko County, Indiana. We will use geo-spatial methodology, which was purposed by earlier researchers to detect tile drainage. We will use aerial color-infrared and satellite imagery along with Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. In order to map tile lines with possible accuracy, we will use GIS-based analysis in combination with remotely sensed data. This research will be comprised of three stages: 1) masking out the potential drainage area using a decision tree rule based on land cover information, soil drainage category, surface slope, and satellite image differencing technique, 2) delineate tile lines using image processing techniques, and 3) check the accuracy of mapped tile lines with ground control points. To our knowledge, this study will be the first to check the accuracy of mapping with ground truth data. Based on the accuracy of results, we will extend the methodology to greater spatial scales. The results are expected to contribute to better characterizing and controlling water pollution sources in Indiana, which is a major environmental problem.

  15. Impacts of soil sealing on potential agriculture in Egypt using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Elsayed Said; Belal, Abdelaziz; Shalaby, Adel

    2015-10-01

    This paper highlights the impacts of soil sealing on the agricultural soils in Nile Delta using remote sensing and GIS. The current work focuses on two aims. The first aim is to evaluate soil productivity lost to urban sprawl, which is a significant cause of soil sealing in Nile Delta. The second aim is to evaluate the Land Use and Land Cover Changes (LU LC) from 2001 to 2013 in El-Gharbia governorate as a case study. Three temporal data sets of images from two different sensors: Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) with 30 m resolution acquired in 2001 and Landsat 8 acquired in 2013 with 30 m resolution, and Egypt sat acquired in 2010 with 7.8 m resolution, consequently were used. Four different supervised classification techniques (Maximum Likelihood (ML), Minimum Distance, Neural Networks (NN); and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were applied to monitor the changes of LULC in the investigated area. The results showed that the agricultural soils of the investigated area are characterized by high soil productivity depending on its chemical and physical properties. During 2010-2013, soil sealing took place on 1397 ha from the study area which characterized by soil productivity classes ranging between I and II. It is expected that the urban sprawl will be increased to 12.4% by 2020 from the study area, which means that additional 3400 ha of productive soils will be lost from agriculture. However, population growth is the most significant factor effecting urban sprawl in Nile Delta.

  16. Ultra precision machining technique of off-axis optics for coastal water remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Min-Woo; Hyun, Sang-Won; Han, Jeong-Yeol; Kim, Geon-Hee

    2015-10-01

    An off-axis optical system can effectively avoid some problems, such as aberrations, shielded area created by the secondary mirror and a narrow field of view (FOV), while an on-axis optical system has the problems. Inspired by the consideration, the off-axis optical system is generally used for hyperspectral sensors and telescopes. However, there are several obstacles limiting the productivity of the off-axis optics in fabrication and measurement processes. In this study, to overcome this weakness, we suggests a new fabrication technique using a customized jig, not separated from the work-piece. A convex aspheric mirror and the off-axis mirror are fabricated by Single Point Diamond Turning Machine (SPDTM) for comparison analysis of surface state. The mirrors are made from aluminum (Al6061-T6) and used for the reflectors of a coastal water remote sensing system. We show fast machining and simple measurement in comparison with traditional off-axis single machining and measurement, provide performance results, such as form accuracy and surface roughness measured by both contact 3D profilometer (UA3P) and non-contact 3D profiler (CCI-Optics). The customized ultra-precision machining process can be effectively used for complex off-axis mirror fabricating.

  17. Evaluation of remote sensing techniques for measuring cloud water and drizzle in marine stratocumulus clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Feingold, G.; Frisch, A.S.; Stevens, B.; Cotton, W.R.

    1994-12-31

    NOAA`s Environmental Technology Laboratory has developed techniques for retrieving cloud liquid water content and drizzle characteristics using a K{sub {alpha}}-band Doppler radar and microwave radiometer. The instruments were deployed on the island of Porto Santo in the Maderias during the recent Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX), June 1992. Unfortunately, there were no useful overflights of the island and there are no direct in-situ measurements against which to compare the remote measurements. In this paper the authors will use a data set generated by a 3-D large eddy simulation model as a surrogate for real data. The model results should not be viewed in the context of this work as a case study but rather as a data set describing a typical marine stratocumulus capped boundary layer which is used to analyze the behavior of the remote sensing retrievals. The model is a version of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) which has been modified to include explicit treatment of cloud condensation nucleus and droplet size spectra.

  18. Structural, morphological and gas sensing study of palladium doped tin oxide nanoparticles synthesized via hydrothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Davender; Kundu, Virender Singh; Maan, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    In this article pure and Pd-doped SnO2 (Pd:SnO2) nanoparticles with various mol% Pd have been synthesized by hydrothermal technique. To characterize the morphology, crystallinity, and structure of the SnO2 and Pd:SnO2 X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies were used. XRD analysis reveal that all nanoparticles of different doping concentration are highly polycrystalline in nature. Pd-doped SnO2 crystals existed mainly as tetragonal rutile structure. The particle size of the nanoparticles was calculated by using the Scherrer formula and was found in the range of 8-27 nm. The SEM images of the studied nanoparticles confirms the existence of very small, homogeneously distributed, spherical and extremely crystalline nanoparticles. EDX analysis confirms the presence of palladium. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study confirmed the formation of Sn-O phase and hydrous nature of the pure and Pd-doped SnO2 nanoparticles. The gas sensing response of SnO2 and Pd:SnO2 nanoparticles was studied towards different reducing gases at different operating temperatures. Among all samples under study, 0.20% Pd-doped SnO2 exhibits best response towards different gases. 0.20% Pd-doped SnO2 shows maximum response 88% to ethanol, 80% to CO and 78% to H2 at concentration of 100 ppm respectively at different operating temperature within the measurement limit.

  19. Coastal geomorphological change monitoring by remote sensing techniques in Nouakchott, Mauritania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weicheng; Courel, Marie-Francoise; Le Rhun, Jeannine

    2003-03-01

    Since the construction of a harbour, Port de l'Amitie, an important importation gate for Nouakchott in 1987, the previous coast dynamic equilibrium had been destroyed and thus a significant littoral geomorphological change has occurred, which has produced a severe degradation of the littoral and urban environment. Our research is focused on this coastal environmental change monitoring and its potential evolution estimation by remote sensing techniques using multi-temporal SPOT images and Markov chain analysis. The objectives of this study are to understand coastline evolution particularities, measure geomorphological change rates, evaluate life-span of the harbour, produce useful data for the government to control the environment degradation and provide reference for the future similar coastal engineering. According to our research, the north beach of the harbour has extended by 0.92km2 (91.6ha) from 1989 to 2001 and the accretion will probably reach its maximum limit in about 13.4 +/- 0.5 years (in 2014-2015) and the harbour will arrive at the end of service. The south sandbar has been eroded by 1.34km2 (134ha) and the coastline has landward retreated at the maximum by 362m. Another 0.91km2 of land will be nibbled by seawater in the next 10 years. This erosion has caused several times inundation into the suburb and urban areas, provoking a deterioration of the urban environment.

  20. Feasibility study for locating archaeological village sites by satellite remote sensing techniques. [multispectral photography of Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, J. P. (Principal Investigator); Stringer, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The objective is to determine the feasibility of detecting large Alaskan archaeological sites by satellite remote sensing techniques and mapping such sites. The approach used is to develop digital multispectral signatures of dominant surface features including vegetation, exposed soils and rock, hydrological patterns and known archaeological sites. ERTS-1 scenes are then printed out digitally in a map-like array with a letter reflecting the most appropriate classification representing each pixel. Preliminary signatures were developed and tested. It was determined that there was a need to tighten up the archaeological site signature by developing accurate signatures for all naturally-occurring vegetation and surface conditions in the vicinity of the test area. These second generation signatures have been tested by means of computer printouts and classified tape displays on the University of Alaska CDU-200 and by comparison with aerial photography. It has been concluded that the archaeological signatures now in use are as good as can be developed. Plans are to print out signatures for the entire test area and locate on topographic maps the likely locations of archaeological sites within the test area.

  1. Experimental evaluation of agricultural biomass flow sensing behaviour using capacitive technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khateeb, Khalid A. S. Al; Tasnim Anika, Rumana; Khan, Sheroz; Mohamud, Musse; Arshad, Atika; Hasan, Khalid; Samnam Haider, Syed; Shobaki, Mohammed M.

    2013-12-01

    To enhance industry control quality level as well as uphold enterprise economic benefit precise sensing and measurement of biomass flow is a major concern among researchers worldwide. Keeping in mind the shortcomings of existing sensing technologies this paper has developed a capacitive sensing method by making use of aop amp based bridge circuit along with particularly designed sensing electrodes. The objective of this work is fulfilled via experimental validation through a prototype hardware implementation of a flow sensing set up. The experimental results have specified the measurement system which is able to sense flow variation as a change of dielectric permittivity of different biomass materials under room condition. Moreover, the obtained results have revealed distinctive features clearly signifying the shapes and physical characteristics of electrodes, locations of the mounted electrodes on test pipe wall, dielectric permittivity and characteristics of test biomass materials.

  2. Development of mathematical techniques for the assimilation of remote sensing data into atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seinfeld, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The problem of the assimilation of remote sensing data into mathematical models of atmospheric pollutant species was investigated. The data assimilation problem is posed in terms of the matching of spatially integrated species burden measurements to the predicted three-dimensional concentration fields from atmospheric diffusion models. General conditions were derived for the reconstructability of atmospheric concentration distributions from data typical of remote sensing applications, and a computational algorithm (filter) for the processing of remote sensing data was developed.

  3. Development of mathematical techniques for the assimilation of remote sensing data into atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seinfeld, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The problem of the assimilation of remote sensing data into mathematical models of atmospheric pollutant species was investigated. The problem is posed in terms of the matching of spatially integrated species burden measurements to the predicted three dimensional concentration fields from atmospheric diffusion models. General conditions are derived for the "reconstructability' of atmospheric concentration distributions from data typical of remote sensing applications, and a computational algorithm (filter) for the processing of remote sensing data is developed.

  4. Water impact studies. [impact of remote sensing techniques on management storage, flow, and delivery of California water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation has begun into the potential impact of using modern remote sensing techniques as an aid in managing, even on a day-to-day basis, the storage, flow, and delivery of water made available through the California Water Project. It is obvious that the amount of this impact depends upon the extent to which remote sensing is proven to be useful in improving predictions of both the amount of water that will be available and the amount that will be needed. It is also proposed to investigate the potential impact of remote sensing techniques as an aid in monitoring, and perhaps even in directing, changes in land use and life style being brought about through the increased availability of water in central and southern California as a result of the California Water Project. The impact of remote sensing can be of appreciable significance only if: (1) the induced changes are very substantial ones; (2) remote sensing is found, in this context, to be very useful and potentially very cost effective; and (3) resource managers adopt this new technology. Analyses will be conducted of the changing economic bases and the new land use demands resulting from increased water availability in central and southern California.

  5. Change Detection of Vegetation Cover, using Multi- Temporal Remote Sensing Data and GIS Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adia, Oro-Ghene

    Remote sensing technology in combination with geographic information system (GIS) can render reliable information on vegetation cover. The analysis of the spatial extent and temporal change of vegetation cover using remotely sensed data is of critical importance to agricultural sciences. This paper investigates the Spatio- Temporal change of vegetation cover of Jos and its surrounding areas. For this study landsat images

  6. Applications of remote sensing techniques to county land use and flood hazard mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. B.; Conn, J. S.; Miller, D. A.; Mouat, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing in Arizona is discussed. Land use and flood hazard mapping completed by the Applied Remote Sensing Program is described. Areas subject to periodic flood inundation are delineated and land use maps monitoring the growth within specific counties are provided.

  7. Remote Sensing of Surface Electric Potential on the Moon: A New Technique Using ENAs for Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Y.; Barabash, S.; Wieser, M.

    2013-09-01

    Electric potential at lunar surface provides essential information for understanding fundamental science and environment of the Moon, which directly impacts on future lunar exploration. Here we present a new technique of remote sensing of surface electric potential at the Moon [4]. The technique relies on the energy spectra of the energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) backscattered from the Moon. We applied this technique to the existing dataset of ENAs, and created the first 2-D image of the electric potential distribution near a magnetic anomaly. The result revealed that the magnetized area provides a preferable landing site of the Moon, while strong surface potential exists.

  8. Monitoring the coastline change of Hatiya Island in Bangladesh using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Manoj Kumer; Kumar, Lalit; Roy, Chandan

    2015-03-01

    A large percentage of the world's population is concentrated along the coastal zones. These environmentally sensitive areas are under intense pressure from natural processes such as erosion, accretion and natural disasters as well as anthropogenic processes such as urban growth, resource development and pollution. These threats have made the coastal zone a priority for coastline monitoring programs and sustainable coastal management. This research utilizes integrated techniques of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) to monitor coastline changes from 1989 to 2010 at Hatiya Island, Bangladesh. In this study, satellite images from Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) were used to quantify the spatio-temporal changes that took place in the coastal zone of Hatiya Island during the specified period. The modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI) algorithm was applied to TM (1989 and 2010) and ETM (2000) images to discriminate the land-water interface and the on-screen digitizing approach was used over the MNDWI images of 1989, 2000 and 2010 for coastline extraction. Afterwards, the extent of changes in the coastline was estimated through overlaying the digitized maps of Hatiya Island of all three years. Coastline positions were highlighted to infer the erosion/accretion sectors along the coast, and the coastline changes were calculated. The results showed that erosion was severe in the northern and western parts of the island, whereas the southern and eastern parts of the island gained land through sedimentation. Over the study period (1989-2010), this offshore island witnessed the erosion of 6476 hectares. In contrast it experienced an accretion of 9916 hectares. These erosion and accretion processes played an active role in the changes of coastline during the study period.

  9. Droplet sensing using small and compact high-Q planar resonator based on impedance matching technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Jo; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the sensing feasibility of the proposed high-Q resonator using a phosphate-buffered saline droplet at microwave frequencies. In the experimental results, the resonant frequency, signal level, and Q-factor of the S21-parameter with and without a 1-μl droplet were changed to about 230 MHz, 32 dB, and 1500, respectively. The resonator system was found to be suitable for droplet sensing with a small volume due to its small and compact scheme. This resonator system is expected to play an important role in droplet sensing with different dielectric constants.

  10. The application of remote sensing techniques to inter and intra urban analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    This is an effort to assess the applicability of air and spaceborne photography toward providing data inputs to urban and regional planning, management, and research. Through evaluation of remote sensing inputs to urban change detection systems, analyzing an effort to replicate an existing urban land use data file using remotely sensed data, estimating population and dwelling units from imagery, and by identifying and evaluating a system of urban places ultilizing space photography, it was determined that remote sensing can provide data concerning land use, changes in commercial structure, data for transportation planning, housing quality, residential dynamics, and population density.

  11. Monitoring soil moisture patterns in alpine meadows using ground sensor networks and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Brenner, Johannes; Notarnicola, Claudia; Greifeneder, Felix; Nicolini, Irene; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture content (SMC) is a key factor for numerous processes, including runoff generation, groundwater recharge, evapotranspiration, soil respiration, and biological productivity. Understanding the controls on the spatial and temporal variability of SMC in mountain catchments is an essential step towards improving quantitative predictions of catchment hydrological processes and related ecosystem services. The interacting influences of precipitation, soil properties, vegetation, and topography on SMC and the influence of SMC patterns on runoff generation processes have been extensively investigated (Vereecken et al., 2014). However, in mountain areas, obtaining reliable SMC estimations is still challenging, because of the high variability in topography, soil and vegetation properties. In the last few years, there has been an increasing interest in the estimation of surface SMC at local scales. On the one hand, low cost wireless sensor networks provide high-resolution SMC time series. On the other hand, active remote sensing microwave techniques, such as Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), show promising results (Bertoldi et al. 2014). As these data provide continuous coverage of large spatial extents with high spatial resolution (10-20 m), they are particularly in demand for mountain areas. However, there are still limitations related to the fact that the SAR signal can penetrate only a few centimeters in the soil. Moreover, the signal is strongly influenced by vegetation, surface roughness and topography. In this contribution, we analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface and root-zone SMC (2.5 - 5 - 25 cm depth) of alpine meadows and pastures in the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Area Mazia Valley (South Tyrol - Italy) with different techniques: (I) a network of 18 stations; (II) field campaigns with mobile ground sensors; (III) 20-m resolution RADARSAT2 SAR images; (IV) numerical simulations using the GEOtop hydrological model (Rigon et al

  12. Wetland functional health assessment using remote sensing and other techniques: Literature search and overview. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Patience, N.; Klemas, V.

    1993-03-01

    Contents: introduction; remote sensing of wetland biomass and other wetland condition indicators; conceptual approaches in wetland assessment; wetland extent and type; landscape and wetland patterns; wetland biomass and productivity; wetland vegetation; wetland habitat quality; wetland hydrology; and conclusions and recommendations.

  13. Applying remote sensing and GIS techniques in solving rural county information needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannsen, Chris J.; Fernandez, R. Norberto; Lozano-Garcia, D. Fabian

    1992-01-01

    The project designed was to acquaint county government officials and their clientele with remote sensing and GIS products that contain information about land conditions and land use. Other users determined through the course of this project were federal agencies working at the county level, agricultural businesses and others in need of spatial information. The specific project objectives were: (1) to investigate the feasibility of using remotely sensed data to identify and quantify specific land cover categories and conditions for purposes of tax assessment, cropland area measurements and land use evaluation; (2) to investigate the use of satellite remote sensing data as an aid in assessing soil management practices; and (3) to evaluate the use of remotely sensed data to assess soil resources and conditions which affect productivity.

  14. [Evaluation of eco-environmental quality based on artificial neural network and remote sensing techniques].

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyi; Shi, Zhou; Sha, Jinming; Cheng, Jieliang

    2006-08-01

    In the present study, vegetation, soil brightness, and moisture indices were extracted from Landsat ETM remote sensing image, heat indices were extracted from MODIS land surface temperature product, and climate index and other auxiliary geographical information were selected as the input of neural network. The remote sensing eco-environmental background value of standard interest region evaluated in situ was selected as the output of neural network, and the back propagation (BP) neural network prediction model containing three layers was designed. The network was trained, and the remote sensing eco-environmental background value of Fuzhou in China was predicted by using software MATLAB. The class mapping of remote sensing eco-environmental background values based on evaluation standard showed that the total classification accuracy was 87. 8%. The method with a scheme of prediction first and classification then could provide acceptable results in accord with the regional eco-environment types. PMID:17066706

  15. New remote sensing techniques facilitate study of earth's far-flung volcanos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Pieri, David C.

    1990-01-01

    The study of volcanos using remote sensing is discussed. The dynamics of volcanic eruptions and the interactions between volcanos and the atmosphere and ecosphere are examined. Remote sensing equipment can effectively detect mud flows, pyroclastic falls, debris avalanches, lava flows, and hazards to aircraft from eruption plumes. Consideration is given to the use of thermal IR imaging, weather satellites, and polar-orbiting satellites to study such features as lava flow, silica content, and SO2 distribution.

  16. Multiple-image encryption by space multiplexing based on compressive sensing and the double-random phase-encoding technique.

    PubMed

    Deepan, B; Quan, C; Wang, Y; Tay, C J

    2014-07-10

    In this paper, a new multiple-image encryption and decryption technique that utilizes the compressive sensing (CS) concept along with a double-random phase encryption (DRPE) has been proposed. The space multiplexing method is employed for integrating multiple-image data. The method, which results in a nonlinear encryption system, is able to overcome the vulnerability of classical DRPE. The CS technique and space multiplexing are able to provide additional key space in the proposed method. A numerical experiment of the proposed method is implemented and the results show that the proposed method has good accuracy and is more robust than classical DRPE. The proposed system is also employed against chosen-plaintext attacks and it is found that the inclusion of compressive sensing enhances robustness against the attacks.

  17. Development of a remote sensing technique to study the hydrology of earth stock tanks on a semiarid watershed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cluff, C. B.; Lovely, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    The stock tanks considered are relatively small earthen reservoirs, built in tributary stream channels and drainageways. A remote sensing technique is developed for obtaining quantitative data on water levels and water losses from stock tanks. Details of the used approaches are discussed along with some difficulties which would have to be overcome in order to determine the effects of the stock tanks on stream flow.

  18. Experimental validation of a millimeter wave radar technique to remotely sense atmospheric pressure at the Earth's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.; Bradford, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments with a millimeter wave radar operating on the NASA CV-990 aircraft which validate the technique for remotely sensing atmospheric pressure at the Earth's surface are described. Measurements show that the precise millimeter wave observations needed to deduce pressure from space with an accuracy of 1 mb are possible, that sea surface reflection properties agree with theory and that the measured variation of differential absorption with altitude corresponds to that expected from spectroscopic models.

  19. Soil Degradation Assessment in North Nile Delta Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Nahry, A. H.; Ibraheim, M. M.; El Baroudy, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    The present work aims at monitoring soil degradation process within the last two decades in the northern part of Nile Delta. The investigated area lies between longitudes 31° 00- & 31° 15- E and latitudes 31° 00' & 31° 37' N., covering an area of about 161760 feddans. Detecting soil degradation and recognizing its various types is a necessity to take the practical measures for combating it as well as conserving and keeping the agricultural soil healthy. Land degradation was assessed by adopting new approach through the integration of GLASOD/FAO approach and Remote Sensing / GIS techniques .The main types of human induced soil degradation that observed in the studied area are salinity, alkalinity (sodicity), compaction and water logging .On the other hand water erosion because of sea rise is assessed. The obtained data showed that, areas that were affected by compaction increment have been spatially enlarged by 40.9 % and those affected by compaction decrease have been spatially reduced by 22.6 % of the total area ,meanwhile areas that have been unchanged were estimated by 36.5% of the total area. The areas that were affected by water logging increase have been spatially enlarged by 52.2 % and those affected by water logging decrease have been spatially reduced by 10.1 % of the total area, meanwhile the areas which have been unchanged were represented by 37.7 % of the total area. Areas that were affected by salinity increase have been spatially enlarged by 31.4 % of the total area and those affected by salinity decrease have been reduced by 43.3 % of the total area. An area represented by 25.2 % of the total area has been unchanged. Alkalinization (sodicity) was expressed by the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP).Areas that were affected by sodicity increase have been spatially enlarged by 33.7 %, meanwhile those affected by sodicity decrease have been spatially reduced by 33.6 % of the total area. An area represented by 32.6 % of the total area has been

  20. Precise Satellite Navigation Combining Kinematic and Dynamic Techniques in Support of Remote Sensing From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, O. L.; Rowlands, D. D.; Chinn, D.; Poulose, S.

    2002-05-01

    A precise orbit determination method combining kinematic and dynamic techniques has been used to analyze two full days of on-board GPS receiver data from TOPEX and from a set of 20 IGS ground sites around the world. The resulting orbits agree, to better than 4 cm rms in height and a total of 10 cm rms in three-dimensions, with the corresponding Goddard Precise Orbit Estimates (POE). These POE, produced by NASA for the TOPEX Geophysical Data Records, are based only on laser and DORIS Doppler tracking data, so they can be used as a totally independent control for GPS-based results. There are two main steps:(1) A preliminary 24-hour kinematic trajectory, precise to a few meters, is obtained from double-differenced pseudo-range data. A one-day orbit is fitted to this trajectory, using the classical dynamic approach (in this case, as implemented in the Goddard SFC program GEODYN). (2) The fitted orbit is used to help correct cycle-slips in the carrier phase data. The corrected phase data, alone, are used to get a more precise kinematic trajectory. A new dynamic orbit fit is made to this trajectory to obtain the final, precise orbit. For the dynamic orbit determination, the forces acting on the satellite have been modeled, as for the POE, with a fixed box-wing model for the effect of solar radiation and drag on the satellite, and the gravitational acceleration with the JGM3 gravity field model, developed for TOPEX. In addition, a few force parameters were estimated, along with the orbit initial conditions: one drag scale factor every four hours, and one daily set of four empirical parameters representing unmodeled and mismodeled forces, for a total of 16 unknowns in each 24-hour solution. This approach combines the high precision of the dynamic method with the efficient data processing of the kinematic method, and has been implemented at Goddard using only pre-existing software. In general, this method could be used in support of remote sensing from space, when it is

  1. Quantifying land-cover proportions for urban runoff prediction. The advantage of distributed remote sensing techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezowski, T.; Chormanski, J.; Batelaan, O.; Canters, F.; Van de Voorde, T.

    2012-04-01

    that, the subpixel scenario is suggested as a cost effective solution in hydrological applications; hard-classification of high resolution imagery should be used in high risk projects like flood prediction. The standard modeling approach is found not proper for urban application. Moreover, the results prove the usefulness of remote sensing techniques and their advantage over standard methods for quantifying parameters for hydrological models.

  2. Development of satellite remote sensing techniques as an economic tool for forestry industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven A.; Jadkowski, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative commercial development project designed to focus on cost-effective and practical applications of satellite remote sensing in forest management is discussed. The project, initiated in September, 1988 is being executed in three phases: (1) development of a forest resource inventory and geographic information system (GIS) updating systems; (2) testing and evaluation of remote-sensing products against forest industry specifications; and (3) integration of remote-sensing services and products in an operational setting. An advisory group represented by eleven major forest-product companies will provide direct involvement of the target market. The advisory group will focus on the following questions: Does the technology work for them? How can it be packaged to provide the needed forest-management information? Can the products and information be provided in a cost-effective manner?

  3. Use of remote sensing techniques for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, V. I.; Frazee, C. J.; Rusche, A. E.; Moore, D. G.; Nelson, G. D.; Westin, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    The basic procedures for interpreting remote sensing imagery to rapidly develop general soils and land use inventories were developed and utilized in Pennington County, South Dakota. These procedures and remote sensing data products were illustrated and explained to many user groups, some of whom are interested in obtaining similar data. The general soils data were integrated with land soils data supplied by the county director of equalization to prepare a land value map. A computer print-out of this map indicating a land value for each quarter section is being used in tax reappraisal of Pennington County. The land use data provided the land use planners with the present use of land in Pennington County. Additional uses of remote sensing applications are also discussed including tornado damage assessment, hail damage evaluation, and presentation of soil and land value information on base maps assembled from ERTS-1 imagery.

  4. Remote sensing techniques applied to multispectral recognition of the Aranjuez pilot zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemos, G. L.; Salinas, J.; Rebollo, M.

    1977-01-01

    A rectangular (7 x 14 km) area 40 km S of Madrid was remote-sensed with a three-stage recognition process. Ground truth was established in the first phase, airborne sensing with a multispectral scanner and photographic cameras were used in the second phase, and Landsat satellite data were obtained in the third phase. Agronomic and hydrological photointerpretation problems are discussed. Color, black/white, and labeled areas are displayed for crop recognition in the land-use survey; turbidity, concentrations of pollutants and natural chemicals, and densitometry of the water are considered in the evaluation of water resources.

  5. Cellular gravity sensing considered from the view point of experimental technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoki, M.

    Alterations in gravity conditions induce various secondary changes in environmental factors for living organisms. Living organisms sense those various changes with a whole assortment of ways and respond. Gravity sensing may be defined as a process where such environmental information is converted into biological signals. These secondary changes in environmental conditions induced by gravity include mechanical parameters such as dislocation, pressure, tension, shear stress, flow, convection, and so on. Gravity might be thus an exceptionally difficult experimental parameter in experimental biology. Other commonly used experimental parameters, varying growth factor concentrations for example, induce virtually no changes in physical trait of culture media such as viscosity or specific gravity. And the subsequent experimental methodology has been completely provided. On the contrary, extensive technical refinement is still needed for experiments with gravity to distinguish most affecting parameters. Direct detection of "gravity sensing" machinery is another approach. There are several report supposing ion channels and associating proteins as gravity sensors. Stretch dependent ion channels have been identified in tissues of various species and their association with extracellular matrices and cytoskeleton has been discussed. In these experiments, one does not need to be concerned about the secondary environmental influence. The remaining strategy for the identification gravity sensors may be tracking the signal transduction pathway. The trial for identifying regulatory element for the expression of "gravity sensitive" gene and tracking the signal transduction pathway upstream to the gravity sensing machinery will be discussed.

  6. Path integrated optical remote sensing technique to estimate ammonia and methane gas emissions from CAFOs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. EPA recently demonstrated the open-path optical remote sensing technology to identify hot spots and estimate mass flux of fugitive gases from closed landfill. The objective of this research is to validate this technology for estimating ammonia and methane emission from concentrated animal f...

  7. Theory and analysis of statistical discriminant techniques as applied to remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, P. L.

    1973-01-01

    Classification of remote earth resources sensing data according to normed exponential density statistics is reported. The use of density models appropriate for several physical situations provides an exact solution for the probabilities of classifications associated with the Bayes discriminant procedure even when the covariance matrices are unequal.

  8. Predicting species cover of marine macrophyte and invertebrate species combining hyperspectral remote sensing, machine learning and regression techniques.

    PubMed

    Kotta, Jonne; Kutser, Tiit; Teeveer, Karolin; Vahtmäe, Ele; Pärnoja, Merli

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand biotic patterns and their changes in nature there is an obvious need for high-quality seamless measurements of such patterns. If remote sensing methods have been applied with reasonable success in terrestrial environment, their use in aquatic ecosystems still remained challenging. In the present study we combined hyperspectral remote sensing and boosted regression tree modelling (BTR), an ensemble method for statistical techniques and machine learning, in order to test their applicability in predicting macrophyte and invertebrate species cover in the optically complex seawater of the Baltic Sea. The BRT technique combined with remote sensing and traditional spatial modelling succeeded in identifying, constructing and testing functionality of abiotic environmental predictors on the coverage of benthic macrophyte and invertebrate species. Our models easily predicted a large quantity of macrophyte and invertebrate species cover and recaptured multitude of interactions between environment and biota indicating a strong potential of the method in the modelling of aquatic species in the large variety of ecosystems.

  9. Predicting Species Cover of Marine Macrophyte and Invertebrate Species Combining Hyperspectral Remote Sensing, Machine Learning and Regression Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kotta, Jonne; Kutser, Tiit; Teeveer, Karolin; Vahtmäe, Ele; Pärnoja, Merli

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand biotic patterns and their changes in nature there is an obvious need for high-quality seamless measurements of such patterns. If remote sensing methods have been applied with reasonable success in terrestrial environment, their use in aquatic ecosystems still remained challenging. In the present study we combined hyperspectral remote sensing and boosted regression tree modelling (BTR), an ensemble method for statistical techniques and machine learning, in order to test their applicability in predicting macrophyte and invertebrate species cover in the optically complex seawater of the Baltic Sea. The BRT technique combined with remote sensing and traditional spatial modelling succeeded in identifying, constructing and testing functionality of abiotic environmental predictors on the coverage of benthic macrophyte and invertebrate species. Our models easily predicted a large quantity of macrophyte and invertebrate species cover and recaptured multitude of interactions between environment and biota indicating a strong potential of the method in the modelling of aquatic species in the large variety of ecosystems. PMID:23755113

  10. Multi-scale characterization of rock mass discontinuities and rock slope geometry using terrestrial remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturzenegger, Matthieu

    Terrestrial remote sensing techniques including both digital photogrammetry and laser scanning, represent useful complements to conventional field mapping and rock mass discontinuity characterization. Several studies have highlighted practical advantages at close-range (< 300 m), including the ability to map inaccessible rock exposures and hazard reduction related to both traffic and rockfall along investigated outcrops. In addition, several authors have demonstrated their potential to provide adequate quantification of discontinuity parameters. Consequently, their incorporation into rock slope stability investigations and design projects has grown substantially over recent years. As these techniques are increasingly applied by geologists and geological engineers, it is important that their use be properly evaluated. Furthermore, guidelines to optimize their application are required in a similar manner to standardization of conventional discontinuity mapping techniques. An important thesis objective is to develop recommendations for optimal applications of terrestrial remote sensing techniques for discontinuity characterization, based on a quantitative evaluation of various registration approaches, sampling bias and extended manual mapping of 3D digital models. It is shown that simple registration networks can provide adequate measurement of discontinuity geometry for engineering purposes. The bias associated with remote sensing mapping is described. The advantages of these techniques over conventional mapping are demonstrated, including reliable discontinuity orientation measurements. Persistence can be precisely quantified instead of approximately estimated, resulting in a new class for extremely persistent discontinuities being suggested. Secondary roughness and curvature can also be considered at larger scales. The techniques are suitable for the definition of discontinuity sets, and the estimation of both trace intensity and block size/shape, if sampling bias

  11. Analytical techniques for the study of some parameters of multispectral scanner systems for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiswell, E. R.; Cooper, G. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The concept of average mutual information in the received spectral random process about the spectral scene was developed. Techniques amenable to implementation on a digital computer were also developed to make the required average mutual information calculations. These techniques required identification of models for the spectral response process of scenes. Stochastic modeling techniques were adapted for use. These techniques were demonstrated on empirical data from wheat and vegetation scenes.

  12. Coating-free reflection technique for fiber-optic sensors based on multimode interference: A temperature sensing study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taue, Shuji; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Fukano, Hideki

    2016-08-01

    A novel reflection technique for use in fiber-optic sensors is investigated and applied to a multimode interference structure. The reflectivity at a fiber end face is increased with two operations. Firstly, the light intensity is increased toward the periphery of the end-face by adjusting the fiber length, which is determined theoretically. Secondly, the fiber end-face is deformed into an ellipsoid by heating it with a gas torch. The deformed shape is characterized from microscopic images. The reflected light intensity is increased by more than 10 dB as a result of controlling the fiber length and deforming its end-face. Temperature sensing was performed using the reflection-type multimode interference structure immersed in temperature-controlled silicone oil. The resulting sensitivity was 0.028 °C for a 29.60 mm sensing region, achieved without using any reflection coating.

  13. Structural, magnetic and gas sensing properties of nanosized copper ferrite powder synthesized by sol gel combustion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumangala, T. P.; Mahender, C.; Barnabe, A.; Venkataramani, N.; Prasad, Shiva

    2016-11-01

    Stoichiometric nano sized copper ferrite particles were synthesized by sol gel combustion technique. They were then calcined at various temperatures ranging from 300-800 °C and were either furnace cooled or quenched in liquid nitrogen. A high magnetisation value of 48.2 emu/g signifying the cubic phase of copper ferrite, was obtained for sample quenched to liquid nitrogen temperature from 800 °C. The ethanol sensing response of the samples was studied and a maximum of 86% response was obtained for 500 ppm ethanol in the case of a furnace cooled sample calcined at 800 °C. The chemical sensing is seen to be correlated with the c/a ratio and is best in the case of tetragonal copper ferrite.

  14. Remote-sensing based technique to account for sub-grid scale variability of land surface properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosson, William L.; Laymon, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    A method has been presented for the representation of sub-grid scale variability of surface properties within a land surface processes model. The method uses remotely-sensed data to directly or indirectly estimate probability density functions (PDF's) or key surface variables. Application of this technique in a coupled land surface-atmosphere model requires only grid-scale values of the variables of interest, obtained from low-resolution satellite imagery or surface/remote sensing data assimilation. The PDF's of each controlling surface property are superimposed on the respective grid-scale values to simulate sub-grid scale heterogeneity. Sensitivity studies will be carried out to ascertain the relative importance of the heterogeneity of several variables, and the degree to which non-linear property-process interactions impact large-scale fluxes.

  15. Application of remote sensing techniques for monitoring the thermal pollution of cooling-water discharge from nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuqun; Shi, Ping; Mao, Qingwen

    2003-08-01

    This article introduces a practical method to investigate thermal pollution in coastal water from satellite data. The intensity and distribution areas of thermal pollution by the heated effluent discharge from the nuclear power plant on Daya Bay, southern China were investigated by using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) thermal band data from 1994 to 2001. A local algorithm was developed, based on sea-truth data of water surface temperature measured when the satellite passed over the study area. The local algorithm was then applied to estimate water temperature from TM data. It shows that the remote sensing technique provides an effective means to quantitatively monitor the intensity of thermal pollution and to retrieve a very detailed distribution pattern of thermal pollution in coastal waters. The remotely-sensed results of the thermal pollution can be used for environmental management of coastal waters.

  16. Utilization of combined remote sensing techniques to detect environmental variables influencing malaria vector densities in rural West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The use of remote sensing has found its way into the field of epidemiology within the last decades. With the increased sensor resolution of recent and future satellites new possibilities emerge for high resolution risk modeling and risk mapping. Methods A SPOT 5 satellite image, taken during the rainy season 2009 was used for calculating indices by combining the image's spectral bands. Besides the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) other indices were tested for significant correlation against field observations. Multiple steps, including the detection of surface water, its breeding appropriateness for Anopheles and modeling of vector imagines abundance, were performed. Data collection on larvae, adult vectors and geographic parameters in the field, was amended by using remote sensing techniques to gather data on altitude (Digital Elevation Model = DEM), precipitation (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission = TRMM), land surface temperatures (LST). Results The DEM derived altitude as well as indices calculations combining the satellite's spectral bands (NDTI = Normalized Difference Turbidity Index, NDWI Mac Feeters = Normalized Difference Water Index) turned out to be reliable indicators for surface water in the local geographic setting. While Anopheles larvae abundance in habitats is driven by multiple, interconnected factors - amongst which the NDVI - and precipitation events, the presence of vector imagines was found to be correlated negatively to remotely sensed LST and positively to the cumulated amount of rainfall in the preceding 15 days and to the Normalized Difference Pond Index (NDPI) within the 500 m buffer zone around capture points. Conclusions Remotely sensed geographical and meteorological factors, including precipitations, temperature, as well as vegetation, humidity and land cover indicators could be used as explanatory variables for surface water presence, larval development and imagines densities. This modeling

  17. Reflectance spectroscopy - Quantitative analysis techniques for remote sensing applications. [in planetary surface geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.; Roush, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    The empirical methods and scattering theories that are important for solving remote sensing problems are among the methods for remotely sensed reflectance data analysis presently compared. In the case of the photon mean optical path length concept's implications for reflectance spectra modeling, it is shown that the mean optical path length in a particulate surface is in roughly inverse proportion to the square root of the absorption coefficient. Absorption bands, which are Gaussian in shape when plotted as true absorptance vs photon energy, are also Gaussians in apparent absorptance, although they have a smaller intensity. An apparent continuum in a reflectance spectrum is modeled as a mathematical function that is used to isolate a particular absorption feature for analysis, and it is noted that this continuum should be removed by dividing it into the reflectance spectrum.

  18. Laboratory analysis of techniques for remote sensing of estuarine parameters using laser excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J.; Houghton, W. M.; Esaias, W.; Harriss, R. C.; Farmer, F. H.; White, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical concepts underlying remote sensing of estuarine parameters using laser excitation are examined. The concepts are extended to include Mie scattering as a measure of the total suspended solids and to develop the water Raman signal as an internal standard. Experimental validation of the theory was performed using backscattered laser light from a laboratory tank to simulate a remote-sensing geometry. Artificially prepared sediments and biological cultures were employed to check specific aspects of the theory under controlled conditions. Natural samples gathered from a variety of water types were also analyzed in the tank to further enhance the simulation. The results indicate that it should be possible to remotely quantify total suspended solids, dissolved organics, attenuation coefficient, chlorophyll a, and phycoerythrin in estuarine water using laser excitation.

  19. Integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and global positioning system techniques with hydrological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Jay Krishna; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Ekanthalu, Vicky Shettigondahalli

    2016-03-01

    Integration of remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) are emerging research areas in the field of groundwater hydrology, resource management, environmental monitoring and during emergency response. Recent advancements in the fields of RS, GIS, GPS and higher level of computation will help in providing and handling a range of data simultaneously in a time- and cost-efficient manner. This review paper deals with hydrological modeling, uses of remote sensing and GIS in hydrological modeling, models of integrations and their need and in last the conclusion. After dealing with these issues conceptually and technically, we can develop better methods and novel approaches to handle large data sets and in a better way to communicate information related with rapidly decreasing societal resources, i.e. groundwater.

  20. Analysis of multispectral signatures and investigation of multi-aspect remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Hieber, R. H.; Sarno, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Two major aspects of remote sensing with multispectral scanners (MSS) are investigated. The first, multispectral signature analysis, includes the effects on classification performance of systematic variations found in the average signals received from various ground covers as well as the prediction of these variations with theoretical models of physical processes. The foremost effects studied are those associated with the time of day airborne MSS data are collected. Six data collection runs made over the same flight line in a period of five hours are analyzed, it is found that the time span significantly affects classification performance. Variations associated with scan angle also are studied. The second major topic of discussion is multi-aspect remote sensing, a new concept in remote sensing with scanners. Here, data are collected on multiple passes by a scanner that can be tilted to scan forward of the aircraft at different angles on different passes. The use of such spatially registered data to achieve improved classification of agricultural scenes is investigated and found promising. Also considered are the possibilities of extracting from multi-aspect data, information on the condition of corn canopies and the stand characteristics of forests.

  1. Realizing parameterless automatic classification of remote sensing imagery using ontology engineering and cyberinfrastructure techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ziheng; Fang, Hui; Di, Liping; Yue, Peng

    2016-09-01

    It was an untouchable dream for remote sensing experts to realize total automatic image classification without inputting any parameter values. Experts usually spend hours and hours on tuning the input parameters of classification algorithms in order to obtain the best results. With the rapid development of knowledge engineering and cyberinfrastructure, a lot of data processing and knowledge reasoning capabilities become online accessible, shareable and interoperable. Based on these recent improvements, this paper presents an idea of parameterless automatic classification which only requires an image and automatically outputs a labeled vector. No parameters and operations are needed from endpoint consumers. An approach is proposed to realize the idea. It adopts an ontology database to store the experiences of tuning values for classifiers. A sample database is used to record training samples of image segments. Geoprocessing Web services are used as functionality blocks to finish basic classification steps. Workflow technology is involved to turn the overall image classification into a total automatic process. A Web-based prototypical system named PACS (Parameterless Automatic Classification System) is implemented. A number of images are fed into the system for evaluation purposes. The results show that the approach could automatically classify remote sensing images and have a fairly good average accuracy. It is indicated that the classified results will be more accurate if the two databases have higher quality. Once the experiences and samples in the databases are accumulated as many as an expert has, the approach should be able to get the results with similar quality to that a human expert can get. Since the approach is total automatic and parameterless, it can not only relieve remote sensing workers from the heavy and time-consuming parameter tuning work, but also significantly shorten the waiting time for consumers and facilitate them to engage in image

  2. Validation of satellite data through the remote sensing techniques and the inclusion of them into agricultural education pilot programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadavid, Georgios; Kountios, Georgios; Bournaris, T.; Michailidis, Anastasios; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the remote sensing techniques have a significant role in all the fields of agricultural extensions as well as agricultural economics and education but they are used more specifically in hydrology. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the use of field spectroscopy for validation of the satellite data and how combination of remote sensing techniques and field spectroscopy can have more accurate results for irrigation purposes. For this reason vegetation indices are used which are mostly empirical equations describing vegetation parameters during the lifecycle of the crops. These numbers are generated by some combination of remote sensing bands and may have some relationship to the amount of vegetation in a given image pixel. Due to the fact that most of the commonly used vegetation indices are only concerned with red-near-infrared spectrum and can be divided to perpendicular and ratio based indices the specific goal of the research is to illustrate the effect of the atmosphere to those indices, in both categories. In this frame field spectroscopy is employed in order to derive the spectral signatures of different crops in red and infrared spectrum after a campaign of ground measurements. The main indices have been calculated using satellite images taken at interval dates during the whole lifecycle of the crops by using a GER 1500 spectro-radiomete. These indices was compared to those extracted from satellite images after applying an atmospheric correction algorithm -darkest pixel- to the satellite images at a pre-processing level so as the indices would be in comparable form to those of the ground measurements. Furthermore, there has been a research made concerning the perspectives of the inclusion of the above mentioned remote satellite techniques to agricultural education pilot programs.

  3. A Load-based Depth-sensing Indentation Technique for NDE and Life Assessment of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    B. S.-J. Kang; C. Feng; J. M. Tannenbaum; M.A. Alvin

    2009-06-12

    In this paper, we present a load-based micro-indentation technique for evaluating material mechanical properties as well as degradation evaluation and debonding/spallation detection of thermal barrier coating (TBC) materials. Instead of using contact area as a necessary parameter, the new technique is based on the indentation load. Coupled with a multiple-partial unloading procedure during the indentation process, this technique results in a load-depth sensing indentation system capable of determining Young’s modulus of metals, superalloys, and single crystal matrices, and stiffness of coated material systems with flat, tubular, or curved architectures. This micro-indentation technique can be viewed as a viable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for determining as-manufactured and process-exposed metal, superalloy, single crystal, and TBC-coated material properties. This technique also shows promise for the development of a portable instrument for on-line, in-situ NDE and mechanical properties measurement of structural components.

  4. Use of acoustic velocity methodology and remote sensing techniques to measure unsteady flow on the lower Yazoo River in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Cooper, Lance M.; Davis, Angela A.

    1998-01-01

    Methodologies have been developed for computing continuous discharge during varied, non-uniform low and medium flows on the Yazoo River at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage below Steele Bayou near Long Lake, Mississippi, using acoustic signal processing and conventional streamgaging techniques. Procedures were also developed to compute locations of discharges during future high flow events when the stream reach is subject to hi-directional and reverse flow caused by rising stages on the Mississippi River using a combination of acoustic equipment and remote sensing technology. A description of the study area is presented. Selected results of these methods are presented for the period from March through September 1997.

  5. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy-Based Defect Sensing Technique in Estimating Cracks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tingting; Zhou, Liangdong; Ammari, Habib; Seo, Jin Keun

    2015-01-01

    A defect sensing method based on electrical impedance spectroscopy is proposed to image cracks and reinforcing bars in concrete structures. The method utilizes the frequency-dependent behavior of thin insulating cracks: low-frequency electrical currents are blocked by insulating cracks, whereas high-frequency currents can pass through thin cracks to probe the conducting bars. From various frequency-dependent electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images, we can show its advantage in terms of detecting both thin cracks with their thickness and bars. We perform numerical simulations and phantom experiments to support the feasibility of the proposed method. PMID:26007713

  6. A regression technique for evaluation and quantification for water quality parameters from remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Kuo, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to define optical physics and/or environmental conditions under which the linear multiple-regression should be applicable. An investigation of the signal-response equations is conducted and the concept is tested by application to actual remote sensing data from a laboratory experiment performed under controlled conditions. Investigation of the signal-response equations shows that the exact solution for a number of optical physics conditions is of the same form as a linearized multiple-regression equation, even if nonlinear contributions from surface reflections, atmospheric constituents, or other water pollutants are included. Limitations on achieving this type of solution are defined.

  7. Formulation of a minimum variance deconvolution technique for compensation of pneumatic distortion in pressure sensing devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    Increasingly, aircraft system designs require that aerodynamic parameters derived from pneumatic measurements be employed as control-system feedbacks. Such high frequency pressure measurements' accuracy is compromised by pressure distortion due to frictional attenuation and pneumatic resonance within the sensing system. A pneumatic distortion model is here formulated and reduced to a low-order state-variable model which retains most of the full model's dynamic characteristics. This reduced-order model is coupled with standard results from minimum variance estimation theory to develop an algorithm to compensate for pneumatic-distortion effects.

  8. A technique for conditioning and calibrating force-sensing resistors for repeatable and reliable measurement of compressive force.

    PubMed

    Hall, Rick S; Desmoulin, Geoffrey T; Milner, Theodore E

    2008-12-01

    Miniature sensors that could measure forces applied by the fingers and hand without interfering with manual dexterity or range of motion would have considerable practical value in ergonomics and rehabilitation. In this study, techniques have been developed to use inexpensive pressure-sensing resistors (FSRs) to accurately measure compression force. The FSRs are converted from pressure-sensing to force-sensing devices. The effects of nonlinear response properties and dependence on loading history are compensated by signal conditioning and calibration. A fourth-order polynomial relating the applied force to the current voltage output and a linearly weighted sum of prior outputs corrects for sensor hysteresis and drift. It was found that prolonged (>20h) shear force loading caused sensor gain to change by approximately 100%. Shear loading also had the effect of eliminating shear force effects on sensor output, albeit only in the direction of shear loading. By applying prolonged shear loading in two orthogonal directions, the sensors were converted into pure compression sensors. Such preloading of the sensor is, therefore, required prior to calibration. The error in compression force after prolonged shear loading and calibration was consistently <5% from 0 to 30N and <10% from 30 to 40N. This novel method of calibrating FSRs for measuring compression force provides an inexpensive tool for biomedical and industrial design applications where measurements of finger and hand force are needed.

  9. Comparison of data inversion techniques for remotely sensed wide-angle observations of Earth emitted radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The shape factor, parameter estimation, and deconvolution data analysis techniques were applied to the same set of Earth emitted radiation measurements to determine the effects of different techniques on the estimated radiation field. All three techniques are defined and their assumptions, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed. Their results are compared globally, zonally, regionally, and on a spatial spectrum basis. The standard deviations of the regional differences in the derived radiant exitance varied from 7.4 W-m/2 to 13.5 W-m/2.

  10. Water quality mapping using remote sensing technique in Penang Straits, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Alias, A. N.; Mohd. Saleh, N.

    2008-10-01

    The application of remote sensing to assess water quality for coastal and open ocean has escalated recently due to its capability of scanning wide water bodies within a short time period. In this paper, we examined the spatial variability of chlorophyll within Penang straits, Malaysia. Coastal and estuarine ecosystems typically exhibit high temporal and spatial variability in phytoplankton biomass that is often too difficult to characterize with a limited set of in situ shipboard measurements. In this study, we used ALOS satellite imagery acquired on 24 April 2007. An algorithm for retrieval of chlorophyll level was developed for ALOS data. Chlorophyll samples were collected using a small boat simultaneously with the acquisition of the satellite image. The water locations were determined using a handheld Global Positioning System (GPS). And then the digital numbers for each band corresponding to the sea-truth locations were extracted and then converted into radiance values and reflectance values. The reflectance values were used for calibration of the chlorophyll algorithm. For the regression model, the correlation coefficient (R) and the root-mean-square deviation (RMS) were noted. The proposed algorithm is considered superior based on the values of the correlation coefficient and root-mean-square The water quality image was generated using the multispectral data set and the proposed calibrated TSS algorithm. This study demonstrates that remote sensing can play an important role in water quality assessment by using high resolution satellite image of ALOS data.

  11. Advanced Sensing and Control Techniques to Facilitate Semi-Autonomous Decommissioning of Hazardous Sites - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schalkoff, R.J.

    2000-12-01

    This report summarizes work after 4 years of a 3-year project (no-cost extension of the above-referenced project for a period of 12 months granted). The fourth generation of a vision sensing head for geometric and photometric scene sensing has been built and tested. Estimation algorithms for automatic sensor calibration updating under robot motion have been developed and tested. We have modified the geometry extraction component of the rendering pipeline. Laser scanning now produces highly accurate points on segmented curves. These point-curves are input to a NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) skinning procedure to produce interpolating surface segments. The NURBS formulation includes quadrics as a sub-class, thus this formulation allows much greater flexibility without the attendant instability of generating an entire quadric surface. We have also implemented correction for diffuse lighting and specular effects. The QRobot joint level control was extended to a complete semi-autonomous robot control system for D and D operations. The imaging and VR subsystems have been integrated and tested.

  12. Using Advanced Remote Sensing Data Fusion Techniques for Studying Earth Surface Processes and Hazards: A Landslide Detection Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulslander, D.

    2014-12-01

    A major problem in earth surface process and hazards research is we have little to no knowledge of precisely where and when the next significant event may occur. This makes it nearly impossible to set up adequate instrumentation and observation ahead of time. Furthermore, it is not practical to overcome this challenge by instrumenting and observing everywhere all the time. We can't be everywhere and see everything. Remote sensing helps us to fill that gap with missions such as Landsat and WorldView2 offering regular global coverage. However, remote sensing systems for global monitoring have several inherent compromises. Tradeoffs must be made between data storage, processing capacity, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and temporal resolution. Additionally, instruments and systems must be designed in advance and from a generalized standpoint to serve as many purposes as possible, often at the expense of high performance in specific tasks. Because of these practical constraints, when using remote sensing data to study earth surface processes it is critical to maximize signal content or information obtained from all available data. Several approaches, including multi-temporal data fusion, multi-sensor data fusion, and fusion with derivative products such as band ratios or vegetation indices can help expand how much information can be extracted from remote sensing acquisitions. Fused dataset results contain more coherent information than the sum of their individual constituents. Examples using Landsat and WorldView2 data in this study show this added information makes it possible to map earth surface processes and events, such as the 2011 Cinque Terre landslides, in a more automated and repeatable fashion over larger areas than is possible with manual imagery analysis techniques and with greater chance of successful detection.

  13. Some adaptive filtering techniques applied to the passive remote sensing problem. [for Tiros-N and Nimbus 6 experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toldalagi, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    A review is made of recursive statistical regression techniques incorporating past or past and future observations through smoothing and Kalman filtering, respectively; with results for the cases of the Tiros-N/MSU and Nimbus-6/Scams remote sensing satellite experiments. In response to the lack of a satisfactory model for the medium sounded, which is presently a major limitation on retrieval technique performance, a novel, global approach is proposed which casts the retrieval problem into the framework of adaptive filtering. A numerical implementation of such an adaptive system is presented, with a multilayer, semi-spectral general circulation model for the atmosphere being used to fine-tune the sensor as well as the dynamical equations of a Kalman filter. It is shown that the assimilation of radiometric data becomes a straightforward subproblem.

  14. Photoacoustic Techniques for Trace Gas Sensing Based on Semiconductor Laser Sources

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Angela; Lugarà, Pietro Mario; Di Franco, Cinzia; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides an overview on the use of photoacoustic sensors based on semiconductor laser sources for the detection of trace gases. We review the results obtained using standard, differential and quartz enhanced photoacoustic techniques. PMID:22303143

  15. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Techniques During the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization's Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labak, Peter; Sussman, Aviva; Rowlands, Aled; Chiappini, Massimo; Malich, Gregor; MacLeod, Gordon; Sankey, Peter; Sweeney, Jerry; Tuckwell, George

    2016-04-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was a field event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's (CTBT) on-site inspection (OSI). During an OSI, up to 40 inspectors search a 1000km2 inspection area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of an OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams to execute the scenario in which the exercise was played, to those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, a number of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force Group (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, as well as other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection by other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  16. SERS-based sensing technique for trace melamine detection - A new method exploring.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hongjun; Zhu, Wenfeng; Yao, Zhiyi; Li, Min; Zhao, Yuliang

    2016-06-01

    We present a SERS-based method for the detection of melamine utilizing multi-hydrogen bonding induced charge-transfer (CT) effects. In this system, silver-2-nitro-5-mercaptobenzoic acids (Ag-TNBs) were chosen as the promising probe for melamine sensing. This method relies on the multi-hydrogen-bonding between TNB and melamine which leads to significant Raman frequency shifts in Raman spectra. When being exposure to other potential interfering substances in milk, this system exhibits high selectivity towards melamine. The limit of detection (LOD) of this method is as low as 10(-12)M, which is far below the safety of FDA and USA. The proposed method can be further applied to monitoring the amount of melamine in both caw milk and milk powder. PMID:27130107

  17. A Capacitive Displacement Sensing Technique for Early Detection of Unbalanced Loads in a Washing Machine

    PubMed Central

    Ramasubramanian, Melur K.; Tiruthani, Karthik

    2009-01-01

    Horizontal axis washing machines are water and energy efficient and becoming popular in the USA. Unlike a vertical axis washer, these do not have an agitator and depend solely on tumbling for the agitation of laundry during the wash cycle. However, due to the constant shifting of laundry during washing, the load distribution is often unbalanced during the high speed spin cycle. We present a displacement-based sensing method to detect unbalance early while the spin rate (rpm) is well below the resonance frequency so that corrective actions may be taken prior to the high speed spin cycle. Experimental and analytical characterizations of the sensor configuration are presented. Results show that the displacement sensor is more appropriate than an accelerometer for this application and offer the potential for a simple, reliable, low cost detection of unbalance. PMID:22303139

  18. Study on the techniques of valuation of ecosystem services based on remote sensing in Anxin County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongyan; Li, Zengyuan; Gao, Zhihai; Wang, Bengyu; Bai, Lina; Wu, Junjun; Sun, Bin; Wang, Zhibo

    2014-05-01

    The farmland ecosystem is an important component of terrestrial ecosystems and has a fundamental role in the human life. The wetland is an unique and versatile ecological system. It is important for rational development and sustainable utilization of farmland and wetland resources to study on the measurement of valuation of farmland and wetland ecosystem services. It also has important significance for improving productivity. With the rapid development of remote sensing technology, it has become a powerful tool for evaluation of the value of ecosystem services. The land cover types in Anxin County mainly was farmland and wetland, the indicator system for ecosystem services valuation was brought up based on the remote sensing data of high spatial resolution ratio(Landsat-5 TM data and SPOT-5 data), the technology system for measurement of ecosystem services value was established. The study results show that the total ecosystem services value in 2009 in Anxin was 4.216 billion yuan, and the unit area value was between 8489 yuan/hm2 and 329535 yuan/hm2. The value of natural resources, water conservation value in farmland ecosystem and eco-tourism value in wetland ecosystem were higher than the other, total of the three values reached 2.858 billion yuan, and the percentage of the total ecosystem services values in Anxin was 67.79%. Through the statistics in the nine towns and three villages of Anxin County, the juantou town has the highest services value, reached 0.736 billion yuan. Scientific and comprehensive evaluation of the ecosystem services can conducive to promoting the understanding of the importance of the ecosystem. The research results had significance to ensure the sustainable use of wetland resources and the guidance of ecological construction in Anxin County.

  19. Irrigation Management with Remote Sensing Techniques. Crop Water Requirements and Biophysical Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toureiro, Célia; Serralheiro, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    Saving water in irrigated agriculture is increasingly relevant, as the irrigation sector is in many regions the biggest water consumer, but must be a sustainable activity. Therefore, the need urges for water use control methods and water resources planning. In irrigated agriculture, the right way for saving water is constituted by the increase of efficiency in water management. This work validates procedures and methodologies with remote sensing to determine the water availability in the soil at each moment and therefore the opportunity for the application of the water volume strictly necessary to optimize crop growth (irrigation opportunity and irrigation amount). The analysis applied to the Irrigation District of Divor, Évora, having used 7 experiment plots, which are areas watered by center-pivot systems, cultivated to corn. Data were determined from multispectral and infrared images of the cultivated surface obtained by satellite or by flying unmanned platform and integrated with parameters of the atmosphere and of the crops for calculating biophysical indicators and indices of water stress in the vegetation (NDVI, Kc, Kcb, CWSI). Therefore, evapotranspiration (ETc) was estimated, with which crop water requirement was calculated, with the opportunity and the amount of irrigation water to allocate. As this information is geographic referenced, maps can be prepared with GIS technology, describing water situation and the opportunity for watering crops. If the remote images are available with enough high spatial and temporal resolution, the frequent availability of maps can serve as a basis for a farmers irrigation advice system and for the regional irrigation authority to make decisions on the irrigation management at the regional scale. This can be a significant contribute to an efficient water management technology and a sustainable irrigated agriculture. Key-Words: Remote Sensing, Vegetation Index, Crop Coefficients, Water Balance

  20. Compressed sensing techniques for arbitrary frequency-sparse signals in structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Zhongdong; Kang, Jie

    2014-03-01

    Structural health monitoring requires collection of large number sample data and sometimes high frequent vibration data for detecting the damage of structures. The expensive cost for collecting the data is a big challenge. The recent proposed Compressive Sensing method enables a potentially large reduction in the sampling, and it is a way to meet the challenge. The Compressed Sensing theory requires sparse signal, meaning that the signals can be well-approximated as a linear combination of just a few elements from a known discrete basis or dictionary. The signal of structure vibration can be decomposed into a few sinusoid linear combinations in the DFT domain. Unfortunately, in most cases, the frequencies of decomposed sinusoid are arbitrary in that domain, which may not lie precisely on the discrete DFT basis or dictionary. In this case, the signal will lost its sparsity, and that makes recovery performance degrades significantly. One way to improve the sparsity of the signal is to increase the size of the dictionary, but there exists a tradeoff: the closely-spaced DFT dictionary will increase the coherence between the elements in the dictionary, which in turn decreases recovery performance. In this work we introduce three approaches for arbitrary frequency signals recovery. The first approach is the continuous basis pursuit (CBP), which reconstructs a continuous basis by introducing interpolation steps. The second approach is a semidefinite programming (SDP), which searches the sparest signal on continuous basis without establish any dictionary, enabling a very high recovery precision. The third approach is spectral iterative hard threshold (SIHT), which is based on redundant DFT dictionary and a restricted union-of-subspaces signal model, inhibiting closely spaced sinusoids. The three approaches are studied by numerical simulation. Structure vibration signal is simulated by a finite element model, and compressed measurements of the signal are taken to perform

  1. An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique.

    PubMed

    Battista, L; Sciuto, S A; Scorza, A

    2013-03-01

    In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 × 10(-4) m(3)∕s (18.0 l∕min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of ±3.00 × 10(-4) m(3)∕s (±18.0 l∕min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed theoretical model: for the mono

  2. An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique

    SciTech Connect

    Battista, L.; Sciuto, S. A.; Scorza, A.

    2013-03-15

    In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} m{sup 3}/s (18.0 l/min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of {+-}3.00 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} m{sup 3}/s ({+-}18.0 l/min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed

  3. An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista, L.; Sciuto, S. A.; Scorza, A.

    2013-03-01

    In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 × 10-4 m3/s (18.0 l/min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of ±3.00 × 10-4 m3/s (±18.0 l/min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed theoretical model: for the mono-directional configuration, the

  4. Computer-implemented remote sensing techniques for measuring coastal productivity and nutrient transport systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butera, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    An automatic technique has been developed to measure marsh plant production by inference from a species classification derived from Landsat MSS data. A separate computer technique has been developed to calculate the transport path length of detritus and nutrients from their point of origin in the marsh to the shoreline from Landsat data. A nutrient availability indicator, the ratio of production to transport path length, was derived for each marsh-identified Landsat cell. The use of a data base compatible with the Landsat format facilitated data handling and computations.

  5. Morphostructural characterization of the western edge of the Huila Plateau (SW Angola), based on remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Fernando Carlos; Pereira, Alcides José; Mantas, Vasco Manuel; Mpengo, Horácio Kativa

    2016-05-01

    Recognition of the main morphostructural features of the western edge of the Huila Plateau (SW Angola) can be done by using remote sensing techniques associated with field work. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the area was built for this purpose. This model is based on altimeter data acquired from the Aster sensor, on which image processing techniques such as enhancement techniques, contrast change and filtering were applied. Other techniques, such as RGB colour composition, were also tested. The processed satellite images were interpreted by visual process and the results were then compared with available geological maps (scale 1: 1 000 000). To facilitate both analysis and interpretation, the edge of the plateau was divided into three sectors: northern (or Chongoroi Edge), central (or Humpata Edge) and southern (or Oncocua Edge). For each sector, the main morphological aspects and main lineament systems were identified and characterized. In the specific case of the central sector, these parameters were also confirmed by field work. This study shows that the morphology of the western edge of the plateau is dominated by N50°W-N60°W, N60°E and N-S trending main tectonic systems. These results have important implications in terms of geological mapping and regional tectonics as well as in land-use planning and other areas, such as hydrogeology or geotechnics.

  6. A Fourier-based compressed sensing technique for accelerated CT image reconstruction using first-order methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kihwan; Li, Ruijiang; Nam, Haewon; Xing, Lei

    2014-06-01

    As a solution to iterative CT image reconstruction, first-order methods are prominent for the large-scale capability and the fast convergence rate {O}(1/k^2). In practice, the CT system matrix with a large condition number may lead to slow convergence speed despite the theoretically promising upper bound. The aim of this study is to develop a Fourier-based scaling technique to enhance the convergence speed of first-order methods applied to CT image reconstruction. Instead of working in the projection domain, we transform the projection data and construct a data fidelity model in Fourier space. Inspired by the filtered backprojection formalism, the data are appropriately weighted in Fourier space. We formulate an optimization problem based on weighted least-squares in the Fourier space and total-variation (TV) regularization in image space for parallel-beam, fan-beam and cone-beam CT geometry. To achieve the maximum computational speed, the optimization problem is solved using a fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm with backtracking line search and GPU implementation of projection/backprojection. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a series of digital simulation and experimental phantom studies. The results are compared with the existing TV regularized techniques based on statistics-based weighted least-squares as well as basic algebraic reconstruction technique. The proposed Fourier-based compressed sensing (CS) method significantly improves both the image quality and the convergence rate compared to the existing CS techniques.

  7. Making Quality Sense: A Guide to Quality, Tools and Techniques, Awards and the Thinking Behind Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jane

    This document is intended to guide further education colleges and work-based learning providers through some of the commonly used tools, techniques, and theories of quality management. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) various ways of defining quality; methods used by organizations to achieve quality (quality control, quality…

  8. Application of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques to Evaluate Water Quality in Turbid Coastal Waters of South Carolina.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K. A.; Ryan, K.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal and inland waters represent a diverse set of resources that support natural habitat and provide valuable ecosystem services to the human population. Conventional techniques to monitor water quality using in situ sensors and laboratory analysis of water samples can be very time- and cost-intensive. Alternatively, remote sensing techniques offer better spatial coverage and temporal resolution to accurately characterize the dynamic and unique water quality parameters. Existing remote sensing ocean color products, such as the water quality proxy chlorophyll-a, are based on ocean derived bio-optical models that are primarily calibrated in Case 1 type waters. These traditional models fail to work when applied in turbid (Case 2 type), coastal waters due to spectral interference from other associated color producing agents such as colored dissolved organic matter and suspended sediments. In this work, we introduce a novel technique for the predictive modeling of chlorophyll-a using a multivariate-based approach applied to in situ hyperspectral radiometric data collected from the coastal waters of Long Bay, South Carolina. This method uses a partial least-squares regression model to identify prominent wavelengths that are more sensitive to chlorophyll-a relative to other associated color-producing agents. The new model was able to explain 80% of the observed chlorophyll-a variability in Long Bay with RMSE = 2.03 μg/L. This approach capitalizes on the spectral advantage gained from current and future hyperspectral sensors, thus providing a more robust predicting model. This enhanced mode of water quality monitoring in marine environments will provide insight to point-sources and problem areas that may contribute to a decline in water quality. The utility of this tool is in its versatility to a diverse set of coastal waters and its use by coastal and fisheries managers with regard to recreation, regulation, economic and public health purposes.

  9. Fast and low-dose computed laminography using compressive sensing based technique

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Sajid Park, Miran Cho, Seungryong

    2015-03-31

    Computed laminography (CL) is well known for inspecting microstructures in the materials, weldments and soldering defects in high density packed components or multilayer printed circuit boards. The overload problem on x-ray tube and gross failure of the radio-sensitive electronics devices during a scan are among important issues in CL which needs to be addressed. The sparse-view CL can be one of the viable option to overcome such issues. In this work a numerical aluminum welding phantom was simulated to collect sparsely sampled projection data at only 40 views using a conventional CL scanning scheme i.e. oblique scan. A compressive-sensing inspired total-variation (TV) minimization algorithm was utilized to reconstruct the images. It is found that the images reconstructed using sparse view data are visually comparable with the images reconstructed using full scan data set i.e. at 360 views on regular interval. We have quantitatively confirmed that tiny structures such as copper and tungsten slags, and copper flakes in the reconstructed images from sparsely sampled data are comparable with the corresponding structure present in the fully sampled data case. A blurring effect can be seen near the edges of few pores at the bottom of the reconstructed images from sparsely sampled data, despite the overall image quality is reasonable for fast and low-dose NDT.

  10. Fast and low-dose computed laminography using compressive sensing based technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Sajid; Park, Miran; Cho, Seungryong

    2015-03-01

    Computed laminography (CL) is well known for inspecting microstructures in the materials, weldments and soldering defects in high density packed components or multilayer printed circuit boards. The overload problem on x-ray tube and gross failure of the radio-sensitive electronics devices during a scan are among important issues in CL which needs to be addressed. The sparse-view CL can be one of the viable option to overcome such issues. In this work a numerical aluminum welding phantom was simulated to collect sparsely sampled projection data at only 40 views using a conventional CL scanning scheme i.e. oblique scan. A compressive-sensing inspired total-variation (TV) minimization algorithm was utilized to reconstruct the images. It is found that the images reconstructed using sparse view data are visually comparable with the images reconstructed using full scan data set i.e. at 360 views on regular interval. We have quantitatively confirmed that tiny structures such as copper and tungsten slags, and copper flakes in the reconstructed images from sparsely sampled data are comparable with the corresponding structure present in the fully sampled data case. A blurring effect can be seen near the edges of few pores at the bottom of the reconstructed images from sparsely sampled data, despite the overall image quality is reasonable for fast and low-dose NDT.

  11. Species identification of mixed algal bloom in the Northern Arabian Sea using remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, R; Rafeeq, M; Smitha, B R; Padmakumar, K B; Thomas, Lathika Cicily; Sanjeevan, V N; Prakash, Prince; Raman, Mini

    2015-02-01

    Oceanic waters of the Northern Arabian Sea experience massive algal blooms during winter-spring (mid Feb-end Mar), which prevail for at least for 3 months covering the entire northern half of the basin from east to west. Ship cruises were conducted during winter-spring of 2001-2012 covering different stages of the bloom to study the biogeochemistry of the region. Phytoplankton analysis indicated the presence of green tides of dinoflagellate, Noctiluca scintillans (=N. miliaris), in the oceanic waters. Our observations indicated that diatoms are coupled and often co-exist with N. scintillans, making it a mixed-species ecosystem. In this paper, we describe an approach for detection of bloom-forming algae N. scintillans and its discrimination from diatoms using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data in a mixed-species environment. In situ remote sensing reflectance spectra were generated using Satlantic™ hyperspectral radiometer for the bloom and non-bloom waters. Spectral shapes of the reflectance spectra for different water types were distinct, and the same were used for species identification. Scatter of points representing different phytoplankton classes on a derivative plot revealed four diverse clusters, viz. N. scintillans, diatoms, non-bloom oceanic, and non-bloom coastal waters. The criteria developed for species discrimination were implemented on MODIS data and validated using inputs from a recent ship cruise conducted in March 2013.

  12. Modelling submerged coastal environments: Remote sensing technologies, techniques, and comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Chris

    Built upon remote sensing and GIS littoral zone characterization methodologies of the past decade, a series of loosely coupled models aimed to test, compare and synthesize multi-beam SONAR (MBES), Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry (ALB), and satellite based optical data sets in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada, eco-region. Bathymetry and relative intensity metrics for the MBES and ALB data sets were run through a quantitative and qualitative comparison, which included outputs from the Benthic Terrain Modeller (BTM) tool. Substrate classification based on relative intensities of respective data sets and textural indices generated using grey level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) were investigated. A spatial modelling framework built in ArcGIS(TM) for the derivation of bathymetric data sets from optical satellite imagery was also tested for proof of concept and validation. Where possible, efficiencies and semi-automation for repeatable testing was achieved using ArcGIS(TM) ModelBuilder. The findings from this study could assist future decision makers in the field of coastal management and hydrographic studies. Keywords: Seafloor terrain characterization, Benthic Terrain Modeller (BTM), Multi-beam SONAR, Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry, Satellite Derived Bathymetry, ArcGISTM ModelBuilder, Textural analysis, Substrate classification.

  13. Species identification of mixed algal bloom in the Northern Arabian Sea using remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, R; Rafeeq, M; Smitha, B R; Padmakumar, K B; Thomas, Lathika Cicily; Sanjeevan, V N; Prakash, Prince; Raman, Mini

    2015-02-01

    Oceanic waters of the Northern Arabian Sea experience massive algal blooms during winter-spring (mid Feb-end Mar), which prevail for at least for 3 months covering the entire northern half of the basin from east to west. Ship cruises were conducted during winter-spring of 2001-2012 covering different stages of the bloom to study the biogeochemistry of the region. Phytoplankton analysis indicated the presence of green tides of dinoflagellate, Noctiluca scintillans (=N. miliaris), in the oceanic waters. Our observations indicated that diatoms are coupled and often co-exist with N. scintillans, making it a mixed-species ecosystem. In this paper, we describe an approach for detection of bloom-forming algae N. scintillans and its discrimination from diatoms using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua data in a mixed-species environment. In situ remote sensing reflectance spectra were generated using Satlantic™ hyperspectral radiometer for the bloom and non-bloom waters. Spectral shapes of the reflectance spectra for different water types were distinct, and the same were used for species identification. Scatter of points representing different phytoplankton classes on a derivative plot revealed four diverse clusters, viz. N. scintillans, diatoms, non-bloom oceanic, and non-bloom coastal waters. The criteria developed for species discrimination were implemented on MODIS data and validated using inputs from a recent ship cruise conducted in March 2013. PMID:25638059

  14. Remote sensing and object-based techniques for mapping fine-scale industrial disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Ryan P.; Hermosilla, Txomin; Coops, Nicholas C.; Chen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Remote sensing provides an important data source for the detection and monitoring of disturbances; however, using this data to recognize fine-spatial resolution industrial disturbances dispersed across extensive areas presents unique challenges (e.g., accurate delineation and identification) and deserves further investigation. In this study, we present and assess a geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) approach with high-spatial resolution imagery (SPOT 5) to map industrial disturbances using the oil sands region of Alberta's northeastern boreal forest as a case study. Key components of this study were (i) the development of additional spectral, texture, and geometrical descriptors for characterizing image-objects (groups of alike pixels) and their contextual properties, and (ii) the introduction of decision trees with boosting to perform the object-based land cover classification. Results indicate that the approach achieved an overall accuracy of 88%, and that all descriptor groups provided relevant information for the classification. Despite challenges remaining (e.g., distinguishing between spectrally similar classes, or placing discrete boundaries), the approach was able to effectively delineate and classify fine-spatial resolution industrial disturbances.

  15. Structural, morphological and gas sensing study of zinc doped tin oxide nanoparticles synthesized via hydrothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Davender; Kundu, Virender Singh; Maan, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    The pure and Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were prepared successfully by hydrothermal route on large scale having different doping concentration of zinc from 0 to 0.20%. The calcined nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for structural and morphological studies. XRD analyses reveal that the nanoparticles of these doping concentrations are polycrystalline in nature and existed as tetragonal rutile structure, SEM study of images confirms the existence of very small, homogeneously distributed, and spherical nanoparticles. The particles size of the nanoparticles was calculated by Scherrer formula and was found in the range of 9-21 nm. The presence of dopant (i.e. zinc) and formation of Sn-O phase and hydrous nature of Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles are confirmed by EDX and FTIR study. The gas sensing properties of pure and Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were investigated for various concentrations of methanol, ethanol and acetone at different operating temperatures and it has been found that with doping concentration of zinc (x = 0.20%) shows the maximum response 78% to methanol, 65% to ethanol and 62% to acetone respectively at different operating temperature within the measurement limit for a concentration of 100 ppm of each gases.

  16. Virtual Sensors: Using Data Mining Techniques to Efficiently Estimate Remote Sensing Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Oza, Nikunj; Stroeve, Julienne

    2004-01-01

    Various instruments are used to create images of the Earth and other objects in the universe in a diverse set of wavelength bands with the aim of understanding natural phenomena. These instruments are sometimes built in a phased approach, with some measurement capabilities being added in later phases. In other cases, there may not be a planned increase in measurement capability, but technology may mature to the point that it offers new measurement capabilities that were not available before. In still other cases, detailed spectral measurements may be too costly to perform on a large sample. Thus, lower resolution instruments with lower associated cost may be used to take the majority of measurements. Higher resolution instruments, with a higher associated cost may be used to take only a small fraction of the measurements in a given area. Many applied science questions that are relevant to the remote sensing community need to be addressed by analyzing enormous amounts of data that were generated from instruments with disparate measurement capability. This paper addresses this problem by demonstrating methods to produce high accuracy estimates of spectra with an associated measure of uncertainty from data that is perhaps nonlinearly correlated with the spectra. In particular, we demonstrate multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs), Support Vector Machines (SVMs) with Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernels, and SVMs with Mixture Density Mercer Kernels (MDMK). We call this type of an estimator a Virtual Sensor because it predicts, with a measure of uncertainty, unmeasured spectral phenomena.

  17. Investigations of remote sensing techniques for early detection of Dutch elm disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerschlag, R. S.; Sopstyle, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Several forms of aerial photography were pursued in quest of a technique which could provide early detection of Dutch elm disease. The two most promising techniques tested were multispectral photography with object enhancement and biband ratioing coupled with scanning microdensitometry. For practical purposes the multispectral system has the advantage of providing a readily interpretable image in a relatively short time. Laboratory studies indicated that less emphasis should be placed on the use of a red filter or the near infrared beyond 750 mm for early detection of stress within a single plant species. Color infrared film would be optimal when used for a long term detection of loss of plant vigor which results in a physical change in a plant canopy, but should find minimal practicality for early detection of specific sources of plant stress such as Dutch elm disease. Considerable discretion should be used when interpreting imagery on copy film because of loss of resolution and color definition.

  18. Recent Developments in Monitoring of Gas and Ash in Volcanic Plumes by Remote Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, S. R.

    2007-05-01

    Since the 1970s, a growing list of methods for the remote detection and measurement of the composition and dynamics of volcanic plumes has been available for volcanologists and atmospheric scientists. During the last decade of intensive volcanic activity in Ecuador, the use of spectroscopic techniques like COSPEC, DOAS or FTIR has become an important tool in routine volcano monitoring which has resulted in a better understanding of source and path processes related to volcanogenic gas and ash emissions with increasing spatial-temporal resolution capabilities. The most important developments achieved with these techniques include the incorporation of radiative transfer and diffusion modelling in automatic data processing routines. In addition, work is being done to identify and quantitatively estimate the presence of ash by means of UV spectroscopy. The use of these methods allowed us to follow the degassing process of Tungurahua volcano with unprecedented detail. A brief description of these improvements and their results are presented.

  19. A regression technique for evaluation and quantification for water quality parameters from remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Kuo, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The paper attempts to define optical physics and/or environmental conditions under which the linear multiple-regression should be applicable. It is reported that investigation of the signal response shows that the exact solution for a number of optical physics conditions is of the same form as a linearized multiple-regression equation, even if nonlinear contributions from surface reflections, atmospheric constituents, or other water pollutants are included. Limitations on achieving this type of solution are defined. Laboratory data are used to demonstrate that the technique is applicable to water mixtures which contain constituents with both linear and nonlinear radiance gradients. Finally, it is concluded that instrument noise, ground-truth placement, and time lapse between remote sensor overpass and water sample operations are serious barriers to successful use of the technique.

  20. Vibration monitoring of a helicopter blade model using the optical fiber distributed strain sensing technique.

    PubMed

    Wada, Daichi; Igawa, Hirotaka; Kasai, Tokio

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate a dynamic distributed monitoring technique using a long-length fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogated by optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) that measures strain at a speed of 150 Hz, spatial resolution of 1 mm, and measurement range of 20 m. A 5 m FBG is bonded to a 5.5 m helicopter blade model, and vibration is applied by the step relaxation method. The time domain responses of the strain distributions are measured, and the blade deflections are calculated based on the strain distributions. Frequency response functions are obtained using the time domain responses of the calculated deflection induced by the preload release, and the modal parameters are retrieved. Experimental results demonstrated the dynamic monitoring performances and the applicability to the modal analysis of the OFDR-FBG technique. PMID:27607270

  1. Adaptive Readout Technique For A Sixteen Channel Peak Sensing ADC In the FERA Format

    SciTech Connect

    Yaver, H.; Maier, M.R.; Lindstrom, D.; Ludewigt, B.A.

    1998-11-01

    An adaptive, variable block-size readout technique for use with multiple, sixteen-channel CAMAC ADCs with a FERA-bus readout has been developed and designed. It can be used to read data from experiments with or without coincidence, i.e. singles, without having to change the readout protocol. Details of the implementation are discussed and initial results are presented. Further applications of the adaptive readout are also discussed.

  2. A preliminary study of air-pollution measurement by active remote-sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. L.; Proctor, E. K.; Gasiorek, L. S.; Liston, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    Air pollutants are identified, and the needs for their measurement from satellites and aircraft are discussed. An assessment is made of the properties of these pollutants and of the normal atmosphere, including interactions with light of various wavelengths and the resulting effects on transmission and scattering of optical signals. The possible methods for active remote measurement are described; the relative performance capabilities of double-ended and single-ended systems are compared qualitatively; and the capabilities of the several single-ended or backscattering techniques are compared quantitatively. The differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is shown to be superior to the other backscattering techniques. The lidar system parameters and their relationships to the environmental factors and the properties of pollutants are examined in detail. A computer program that models both the atmosphere (including pollutants) and the lidar system is described. The performance capabilities of present and future lidar components are assessed, and projections are made of prospective measurement capabilities for future lidar systems. Following a discussion of some important operational factors that affect both the design and measurement capabilities of airborne and satellite-based lidar systems, the extensive analytical results obtained through more than 1000 individual cases analyzed with the aid of the computer program are summarized and discussed. The conclusions are presented. Recommendations are also made for additional studies to investigate cases that could not be explored adequately during this study.

  3. Techniques of the environmental observer: India's earth remote sensing program in the age of global information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denicola, Lane A.

    This research examines the emergence in India of earth remote sensing (ERS), a principal medium for environmental analysis, communication, and policy-making. ERS---the science and "craft" of analyzing images of terrestrial phenomena collected by aircraft or satellite---constitutes an information technology whose predominance in environmental discourse has grown continuously since first proposed for such applications by American researchers in 1962. Raising many thorny issues in information access and control, the use and popularization of ERS has intensified dramatically since the mid-1980s. In Westernized discourse (both popular and expert), space research and industry are often depicted at a double-remove from the so-called "developing world," where exotic technologies and esoteric goals are overshadowed by patent human needs and a lack of basic infrastructure. Yet advocates hail the utility of ERS in socially relevant applications, and India has amassed upwards of five decades of experience in space, with systems and products rivaled today only by those of the United States and China. A multi-sited ethnography of a nascent visual medium, the dissertation triangulates on its topic by tracing three analytical threads: (1) a diachronic analysis of Indian ERS satellites as an allegory of statehood and participation in the global present, (2) a synchronic analysis of ERS imagery as a discursive artifact and global information commodity, and (3) an analysis of interpretive practice as observed through a single class of Indian and foreign students at the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), considered here as an "interpretive community" of environmental experts. The dissertation is the result of four years of research with ERS students, faculty, researchers, users and administrators in the U.S., the U.K., Turkey and India. In particular, I conducted nine months of ethnographic fieldwork in India in 2002 and 2005, the latter half of which was spent in participant

  4. Application of multispectral remote sensing techniques for dismissed mine sites monitoring and rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2007-09-01

    Mining activities, expecially those operated in open air (open pit), present a deep impact on the sourrondings. Such an impact, and the related problems, are directly related to the correct operation of the activities, and usually strongly interact with the environment. Impact can be mainly related to the following issues: high volumes of handled material, ii) generation of dust, noise and vibrations, water pollution, visual impact and, finally, mining area recovery at the end of exploitation activities. All these aspects can be considered very important, and must be properly evaluated and monitored. Environmental impact control is usually carried out during and after the end of the mining activities, adopting methods related to the detection, collection, analysis of specific environmental indicators and with their further comparison with reference thresholding values stated by official regulations. Aim of the study was to investigate, and critically evaluate, the problems related to development of an integrated set of procedures based on the collection and the analysis of remote sensed data in order to evaluate the effect of rehabilitation of land contaminated by extractive industry activities. Starting from the results of these analyses, a monitoring and registration of the environmental impact of such operations was performed by the application and the integration of modern information technologies, as the previous mentioned Earth Observation (EO), with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The study was developed with reference to different dismissed mine sites in India, Thailand and China. The results of the study have been utilized as input for the construction of a knowledge based decision support system finalized to help in the identification of the appropriate rehabilitation technologies for all those dismissed area previously interested by extractive industry activities. The work was financially supported within the framework of the Project ASIA IT&C - CN

  5. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques in Predicting Phycocyanin Concentrations in Cyanobacteria: A Comprehensive Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S.; Mishra, D. R.; Schluchter, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the performance of existing spectral band ratio algorithms and develop a novel algorithm to quantify phycocyanin (PC) in cyanobacteria using hyperspectral remotely-sensed data. We performed four spectroscopic experiments on two different laboratory cultured cyanobacterial species and found that the existing band ratio algorithms are highly sensitive to chlorophylls, making them inaccurate in predicting cyanobacterial abundance in the presence of other chlorophyll-containing organisms. Our results also show that the widely used 654 nm reflectance peak in existing algorithms is highly sensitive to changes in chlorophyll-a concentration and offers poor PC predictive ability. We present a novel spectral band ratio algorithm that is least sensitive to the presence of chlorophyll. The newly developed band ratio model showed promising results by yielding low root mean squared error (RMSE, 15,260 cells mL-1) and significantly low relative root mean squared error (RMS, 101%) as compared to the existing band ratio algorithms. Natural logarithmic transformation of the new model yielded the lowest RMSE (13,885 cells mL-1) and a high coefficient of determination (0.95) between measured and predicted PC concentration. We also show that the new algorithm is species independent and accurately retrieves PC concentration in the presence of varying amount of chlorophyll-a in the system. Band setting of the model confirms that it can be used for retrieval of PC using hyperspectral sensors such as Hyperion as well as data acquired by other airborne sensors. Figure (A, B, C) Percent reflectance spectra of Synechocystis PCC 6803 from Exp I, II, III respectively. (D) Percent reflectance spectra of Anabaena from Exp IV. Data collected from these experiments were included in the evaluation of existing PC predictive models and the calibration and validation of the new spectral band ratio model.

  6. Remote sensing techniques to monitor nitrogen-driven carbon dynamics in field corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corp, Lawrence A.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Petya K. E.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Daughtry, Craig S. T.

    2009-08-01

    Patterns of change in vegetation growth and condition are one of the primary indicators of the present and future ecological status of the globe. Nitrogen (N) is involved in photochemical processes and is one of the primary resources regulating plant growth. As a result, biological carbon (C) sequestration is driven by N availability. Large scale monitoring of photosynthetic processes are currently possible only with remote sensing systems that rely heavily on passive reflectance (R) information. Unlike R, fluorescence (F) emitted from chlorophyll is directly related to photochemical reactions and has been extensively used for the elucidation of the photosynthetic pathways. Recent advances in passive fluorescence instrumentation have made the remote acquisition of solar-induced fluorescence possible. The goal of this effort is to evaluate existing reflectance and emerging fluorescence methodologies for determining vegetation parameters related to photosynthetic function and carbon sequestration dynamics in plants. Field corn N treatment levels of 280, 140, 70, and 0 kg N / ha were sampled from an intensive test site for a multi-disciplinary project, Optimizing Production Inputs for Economic and Environmental Enhancement (OPE). Aircraft, near-ground, and leaf-level measurements were used to compare and contrast treatment effects within this experiment site assessed with both reflectance and fluorescence approaches. A number of spectral indices including the R derivative index D730/D705, the normalized difference of R750 vs. R705, and simple ratio R800/R750 differentiated three of the four N fertilization rates and yielded high correlations to three important carbon parameters: C:N, light use efficiency, and grain yield. These results advocate the application of hyperspectral sensors for remotely monitoring carbon cycle dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems.

  7. Quasi-active, minimal-sensing load and damage identification and quantification techniques for filament-wound rocket motor casings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stites, Nick; Escobar, Carlos; White, Jonathan; Adams, Douglas E.; Triplett, Matt

    2007-04-01

    Filament-wound rocket motor casings are being considered by the United States Army for use in future lightweight missile systems. As part of the design process, a real-time, minimal-sensing, quasi-active health-monitoring system is being investigated. The health-monitoring scheme is quasi-active because abnormal loads acting on the structure are identified passively, the input force is not measured directly, and the curve-fit estimate of the impact force is used to update the frequency response functions (FRFs) that are functions of the system properties. This task traditionally requires an active-interrogation technique for which the input force is known. The updated FRFs and the estimated impact force can then be used in model-based damage-quantification methods. The proposed quasi-active approach to health monitoring is validated both analytically with a lumped-parameter model and experimentally with a composite missile casing. Minimal sensing is used in both models in order to reduce the complexity and cost of the system, but the small number of measurement channels causes the system of equations used in the inverse problem for load identification to be under-determined. However, a novel algorithm locates and quantifies over 3000 impacts at various locations around the casing with over 98% success, and the FRF-correction process is successfully demonstrated.

  8. Improved reconstruction and sensing techniques for personnel screening in three-dimensional cylindrical millimeter-wave portal scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandes, Justin L.; Rappaport, Carey M.; Sheen, David M.

    2011-05-01

    The cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique, developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and commercialized by L-3 Communications/Safeview in the ProVision system, is currently being deployed in airports and other high security locations to meet person-borne weapon and explosive detection requirements. While this system is efficient and effective in its current form, there are a number of areas in which the detection performance may be improved through using different reconstruction algorithms and sensing configurations. PNNL and Northeastern University have teamed together to investigate higher-order imaging artifacts produced by the current cylindrical millimeter-wave imaging technique using full-wave forward modeling and laboratory experimentation. Based on imaging results and scattered field visualizations using the full-wave forward model, a new imaging system is proposed. The new system combines a multistatic sensor configuration with the generalized synthetic aperture focusing technique (GSAFT). Initial results show an improved ability to image in areas of the body where target shading, specular and higher-order reflections cause images produced by the monostatic system difficult to interpret.

  9. Monitoring cure of composite resins using frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, D. E.; Hoff, M. S.; Loos, A. C.; Freeman, W. T., Jr.; Eichinger, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    A nondestructive in situ measurement technique has been developed for monitoring and measuring the cure processing properties of composite resins. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensors (FDEMS) were used to directly measure resin viscosity during cure. The effects of the cure cycle and resin aging on the viscosity during cure were investigated using the sensor. Viscosity measurements obtained using the sensor are compared with the viscosities calculated by the Loos-Springer cure process model. Good overall agreement was obtained except for the aged resin samples.

  10. Diffusion coefficients and current velocities in coastal waters by remote sensing techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, W. P.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents a simplified procedure for determining water current velocities and diffusion coefficients. Dye drops which form dye patches in the receiving water are made from an aircraft. The changes in position and size of the patches are recorded from two flights over the area. The data processing procedure requires that the ground coordinates about the dye patches be determined at the time of each flight. With an automatic recording coordinatograph for measuring coordinates and a computer for processing the data, this technique provides a practical method of determining circulation patterns and mixing characteristics of large aquatic systems.

  11. A streak camera based fiber optic pulsed polarimetry technique for magnetic sensing to sub-mm resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. J.; Weber, T. E.

    2016-11-01

    The technique of fiber optic pulsed polarimetry, which provides a distributed (local) measurement of the magnetic field along an optical fiber, has been improved to the point where, for the first time, photocathode based optical detection of backscatter is possible with sub-mm spatial resolutions. This has been realized through the writing of an array of deterministic fiber Bragg gratings along the fiber, a so-called backscatter-tailored optical fiber, producing a 34 000-fold increase in backscatter levels over Rayleigh. With such high backscatter levels, high repetition rate lasers are now sufficiently bright to allow near continuous field sensing in both space and time with field resolutions as low as 0.005 T and as high as 170 T over a ˜mm interval given available fiber materials.

  12. Assessment of practicality of remote sensing techniques for a study of the effects of strip mining in Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. H.; Dillion, A. C., III; White, J. R., Jr.; Drummond, S. E., Jr.; Hooks, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Because of the volume of coal produced by strip mining, the proximity of mining operations, and the diversity of mining methods (e.g. contour stripping, area stripping, multiple seam stripping, and augering, as well as underground mining), the Warrior Coal Basin seemed best suited for initial studies on the physical impact of strip mining in Alabama. Two test sites, (Cordova and Searles) representative of the various strip mining techniques and environmental problems, were chosen for intensive studies of the correlation between remote sensing and ground truth data. Efforts were eventually concentrated in the Searles Area, since it is more accessible and offers a better opportunity for study of erosional and depositional processes than the Cordova Area.

  13. Current research in geological applications of remote sensing techniques and implications for petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Settle, M.; Taranik, J.V.

    1983-03-01

    Exploration geologists have made extensive use of aerial photography and orbital Landsat imagery, primarily for purposes of structural mapping. The Landsat 4 spacecraft launched in July 1982 is carrying a new imaging instrument called the Thematic Mapper which represents a significant advance over earlier Landsat sensors. Experimental studies with airborne Thematic Mapper simulators tentatively indicate that these measurement capabilities will have a major payoff in terms of our ability to detect variations in clay mineralogy and abundance, to map bleaching effects in surficial rocks and soils that may be produced by hydrocarbon seepage, and to detect variations in the distribution and vigor of natural vegetation that are also related to seepage phenomena. The improved spatial resolution of the Thematic Mapper will enable photogeologists to identify smaller scale landforms and drainage features which will also contribute to improved structural mapping capabilities. Research is currently underway to determine the utility of Thematic Mapper measurements for geologic mapping in complex areas characterized by large relief and extensive vegetation. Radar imaging techniques also represent an important source of information concerning geological conditions at the earth's surface. Exploration geologists have made extensive use of airborne radar surveys for terrain analysis and structural mapping, particularly in tropical environments. Orbital radar techniques may provide an important new tool for mapping facies variations within sedimentary basins.

  14. Surface soil humidity retrieval using remote sensing techniques: a triangle method validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, Antonino; Cammalleri, Carmelo; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2010-10-01

    Soil humidity plays a key-role in hydrological and agricultural processes. In the rainfall-runoff processes the knowledge of its spatial distribution is fundamental to accurately model these phenomena. Furthermore in agronomy and agricultural sciences, assessing the water content of the root zone is required in order to optimize the plant productivity and to improve the irrigation systems management. Despite the importance of this variable the in situ measurements techniques based on Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) or on the standard thermo-gravimetric methods, are neither cost-effective nor representative of its spatial and temporal variability. Indirect estimations via Earth Observation (EO) images include the triangle method, which shows that Land Surface Temperature (LST) is prevalently controlled by surface and root zone humidity in bare and vegetated soils respectively. The effects of pre-processing techniques correcting for altimetry and seasonality are analyzed by means of shortwave and longwave airborne images acquired on a vineyard during a whole phenological period. The paper also discusses the advantages induced by replacing the absolute temperatures with relative values, that were obtained subtracting the temperatures measured by micrometeorological station or the surface temperature of high thermal inertia surfaces (as small irrigation reservoir) chosen as reference values. The validation with in situ data also highlights that a higher spatial resolution not necessarily imply a higher accuracy.

  15. Remote Sensing Techniques as a Tool for Geothermal Exploration: the Case Study of Blawan Ijen, East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqua, Claudio; Verdoya, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques in the initial phase of geothermal surveys represents a very cost-effective tool, which can contribute to a successful exploration program. Remote sensing allows the analysis of large surfaces and can lead to a significant improvement of the identification of surface thermal anomalies, through the use of thermal infra red data (TIR), as well as of zones of widespread and recent faulting, which can reflect larger permeability of geological formations. Generally, the fractures analysis from remote sensing can be fundamental to clarify the structural setting of an area. In a regional volcanic framework, it can also help in defining the spatial and time evolution of the different volcanic apparatuses. This paper describes the main results of a remote sensing study, conducted in the Blawan-Ijen volcanic area (East Java), which is at present subject of geothermal exploration. This area is characterized by the presence of a 15 km wide caldera originated by a collapsed strato volcano. This event was followed by the emplacement of several peri-calderic and intra-calderic volcanoes, among which G. Raung, as testified by the frequent occurrence of shallow earthquakes and by H2S emission and sulfur deposition, and G. Kawah Ijen, occurring at the eastern rim of the caldera, are still active. The summit of G. Kawah Ijen volcano consists of two interlocking craters forming an E-W elongated depression filled up by a hyperacidic lake. Along the southern shore of the lake, a small rhyolitic dome occurs, which exhibits strong fumarolic activity with temperature of as much as 600 °C. We performed an analysis based on the combined interpretation of Landsat ETM+7, Aster and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, focused on the identification of subsurface high permeability zones. The main trends of the linear features as derived from the fractures analysis, as well as their relation with the distribution of volcanic centres, were identified

  16. Estimating primary productivity of tropical oil palm in Malaysia using remote sensing technique and ancillary data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Tan, K. P.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    The amount of carbon sequestration by vegetation can be estimated using vegetation productivity. At present, there is a knowledge gap in oil palm net primary productivity (NPP) at a regional scale. Therefore, in this study NPP of oil palm trees in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated using remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) model with inputs from local meteorological data, upscaled leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/fPAR) derived using UK-DMC 2 satellite data and a constant maximum LUE value from the literature. NPP values estimated from the model was then compared and validated with NPP estimated using allometric equations developed by Corley and Tinker (2003), Henson (2003) and Syahrinudin (2005) with diameter at breast height, age and the height of the oil palm trees collected from three estates in Peninsular Malaysia. Results of this study show that oil palm NPP derived using a light use efficiency model increases with respect to the age of oil palm trees, and it stabilises after ten years old. The mean value of oil palm NPP at 118 plots as derived using the LUE model is 968.72 g C m-2 year-1 and this is 188% - 273% higher than the NPP derived from the allometric equations. The estimated oil palm NPP of young oil palm trees is lower compared to mature oil palm trees (<10 years old), as young oil palm trees contribute to lower oil palm LAI and therefore fPAR, which is an important variable in the LUE model. In contrast, it is noted that oil palm NPP decreases with respect to the age of oil palm trees as estimated using the allomeric equations. It was found in this study that LUE models could not capture NPP variation of oil palm trees if LAI/fPAR is used. On the other hand, tree height and DBH are found to be important variables that can capture changes in oil palm NPP as a function of age.

  17. On the detection of adobe buried archaeological structures using multiscale remote sensing techniques : Piramide Naranja in Cahuachi (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, N.; Rizzo, E.; Lasaponara, R.; Orefici, G.

    2009-04-01

    The detection of buried adobe structures is a crucial issue for the remote sensing (ground, aerial and satellite) applied to archaeology for the widespread of sun-dried earth as building material in several ancient civilizations in Central and Southern America, Middle East and North Africa. Moreover it is complex, due to the subtle contrast existing between the archaeological features and the surrounding, especially in arid setting, as in the case of the well know Nazca Ceremonial Centre of Cahuachi, located in the desert of Nazca (Southern Peru) . During the last two decades of excavations adobe monuments dating back from the 6th century B.C. to the 4th century A.D have been highlighted by the Centro de Estudios Arqueológicos Precolombinos (CEAP), an italian-peruvian mission directed by Giuseppe Orefici. Actually, the archaeologists are excavating and restoring the core of the Ceremonial centre where is located a great pyramid (kown as Gran Piramide). Beginning from 2007 the two institutes of CNR, IMAA and IBAM, have been involved by CEAP, in order to provide a scientific and technological support for the archaeological research. Therefore, a multi-scale approach based on the integration of aerial and satellite remote sensing with geophysical techniques was employed in order to provide data useful for archaeological excavations. The abstract refers to the last investigations performed on a mound, known as "Piramide Naranja", during the 2008. The processing of an aerial imagery time series and two QuickBird satellite images acquired in 2002 and 2005, allowed for identifying some features related to shallow and buried structures. Such features were verified by means of geophysical prospections, performed by using the magnetometric method which observed changes in the magnetic field within the first few metres beneath the subsurface detecting buried walls and anomalies linked to ceramic deposits referable to possible tombs. Finally, the integration of all data

  18. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A weighted stratified double sample design using hardcopy LANDSAT-1 and ground data was utilized in developmental studies for snow water content estimation. Study results gave a correlation coefficient of 0.80 between LANDSAT sample units estimates of snow water content and ground subsamples. A basin snow water content estimate allowable error was given as 1.00 percent at the 99 percent confidence level with the same budget level utilized in conventional snow surveys. Several evapotranspiration estimation models were selected for efficient application at each level of data to be sampled. An area estimation procedure for impervious surface types of differing impermeability adjacent to stream channels was developed. This technique employs a double sample of 1:125,000 color infrared hightflight transparency data with ground or large scale photography.

  19. Spectrum sensing of trace C(2)H(2) detection in differential optical absorption spectroscopy technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Dong, Xiaopeng

    2014-09-10

    An improved algorithm for trace C(2)H(2) detection is presented in this paper. The trace concentration is accurately calculated by focusing on the absorption spectrum from the frequency domain perspective. The advantage of the absorption spectroscopy frequency domain algorithm is its anti-interference capability. First, the influence of the background noise on the minimum detectable concentration is greatly reduced. Second, the time-consuming preprocess of spectra calibration in the differential optical absorption spectroscopy technique is skipped. Experimental results showed the detection limit of 50 ppm is achieved at a lightpath length of 0.2 m. This algorithm can be used in real-time spectrum analysis with high accuracy.

  20. New Dielectric Sensors and Sensing Techniques for Soil and Snow Moisture Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Stacheder, Markus; Koeniger, Franz; Schuhmann, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of material moisture are essential in fields such as agriculture or civil engineering. Electromagnetic techniques, more precisely dielectric methods, have gained wide acceptance in the last decades. Frequency or Time Domain methods take advantage of the high dielectric permittivity of water compared to dry materials. This paper presents four new dielectric sensors for the determination of soil or snow water content. After a short introduction into the principles, both the hardware and operating mode of each sensor are described. Field test results show the advantages and potentials such as automatic measurement and profiling, state-of-ground detection or large-scale determination. From the results it follows that the presented sensors offer promising new tools for modern environmental research. PMID:22574056

  1. Characterization and delineation of caribou habitat on Unimak Island using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Brain M.

    The assessment of herbivore habitat quality is traditionally based on quantifying the forages available to the animal across their home range through ground-based techniques. While these methods are highly accurate, they can be time-consuming and highly expensive, especially for herbivores that occupy vast spatial landscapes. The Unimak Island caribou herd has been decreasing in the last decade at rates that have prompted discussion of management intervention. Frequent inclement weather in this region of Alaska has provided for little opportunity to study the caribou forage habitat on Unimak Island. The overall objectives of this study were two-fold 1) to assess the feasibility of using high-resolution color and near-infrared aerial imagery to map the forage distribution of caribou habitat on Unimak Island and 2) to assess the use of a new high-resolution multispectral satellite imagery platform, RapidEye, and use of the "red-edge" spectral band on vegetation classification accuracy. Maximum likelihood classification algorithms were used to create land cover maps in aerial and satellite imagery. Accuracy assessments and transformed divergence values were produced to assess vegetative spectral information and classification accuracy. By using RapidEye and aerial digital imagery in a hierarchical supervised classification technique, we were able to produce a high resolution land cover map of Unimak Island. We obtained overall accuracy rates of 71.4 percent which are comparable to other land cover maps using RapidEye imagery. The "red-edge" spectral band included in the RapidEye imagery provides additional spectral information that allows for a more accurate overall classification, raising overall accuracy 5.2 percent.

  2. Detecting river sediments to assess hazardous materials at volcanic lake using advanced remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saepuloh, Asep; Fitrianingtyas, Chintya

    2016-05-01

    The Toba Caldera formed from large depression of Quaternary volcanism is a remarkable feature at the Earth surface. The last Toba super eruptions were recorded around 73 ka and produced the Youngest Toba Tuff about 2,800 km3. Since then, there is no record of significant volcanic seismicity at Toba Volcanic Complex (TVC). However, the hydrothermal activities are still on going as presented by the existence of hot springs and alteration zones at the northwest caldera. The hydrothermal fluids probably containing some chemical compositions mixed with surficial water pollutant and contaminated the Toba Lake. Therefore, an environmental issues related to the existence of chemical composition and degradation of water clearness in the lake had been raised in the local community. The pollutant sources are debatable between natural and anthropogenic influences because some human activities grow rapidly at and around the lake such as hotels, tourisms, husbandry, aquaculture, as well as urbanization. Therefore, obtaining correct information about the source materials floating at the surface of the Toba Lake is crucial for environmental and hazard mitigation purposes. Overcoming the problem, we presented this paper to assess the source possibility of floating materials at Toba Lake, especially from natural sources such as hydrothermal activities of TVC and river stream sediments. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) techniques using atmospherically corrected of Landsat-8 and colour composite of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) were used to map the distribution of floating materials. The seven ground truth points were used to confirm the correctness of proposed method. Based on the SAM and PolSAR techniques, we could detect the interface of hydrothermal fluid at the lake surfaces. Various distributions of stream sediment were also detected from the river mouth to the lake. The influence possibilities of the upwelling process from the bottom floor of Toba Lake were also

  3. Study of Influence of Effluent on Ground Water Using Remote Sensing, GIS and Modeling Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, S.; Bhadra, B. K.; Sharma, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    The area lies in arid zone of western Rajasthan having very scanty rains and very low ground water reserves. Some of the other problems that are faced by the area are disposal of industrial effluent posing threat to its sustainability of water resource. Textiles, dyeing and printing industries, various mechanical process and chemical/synthetic dyes are used and considerable wastewater discharged from these textile units contains about high amount of the dyes into the adjoining drainages. This has caused degradation of water quality in this water scarce semi-arid region of the country. Pali city is located South-West, 70 Kms from Jodhpur in western Rajasthan (India). There are four Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) treating wastewater to meet the pollutant level permissible to river discharge, a huge amount of effluent water of these factories directly meets the into the river Bandi - a tributary of river Luni. In order to monitor the impact of industrial effluents on the environment, identifying the extent of the degradation and evolving possible means of minimizing the impacts studies on quality of effluents, polluted river water and water of adjoining wells, the contamination migration of the pollutants from the river to ground water were studied. Remote sensing analysis has been carried out using Resourcesat -1 multispectral satellite data along with DEM derived from IRS P5 stereo pair. GIS database generated of various thematic layers viz. base layer - inventorying all waterbodies in the vicinity, transport network and village layer, drainage, geomorphology, structure, land use. Analysis of spatial distribution of the features and change detection in land use/cover carried out. GIS maps have been used to help factor in spatial location of source and hydro-geomorphological settings. DEM & elevation contour helped in delineation of watershed and identifying flow modelling boundaries. Litholog data analysis carried out for aquifer boundaries using specialized

  4. Remote Sensing of Precipitation Using Multiparameter Radar: Statistics, Processing Algorithms and Analysis Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li.

    With the advent of the multiparameter weather radar, i.e., dual-polarization, dual-frequency, Doppler radar, radar meteorologists have been able to study physical processes in precipitation in more detail, and the quantitative measurement of rainfall as well as the identification of different types of hydrometeors have become possible. However, the effects of propagation through the rain medium must be carefully considered whenever dual-polarization techniques are considered. The correction of propagation effects such as attenuation, differential attenuation and differential propagation phase in precipitation are very important for quantitative interpretation of echo powers at high frequencies. In this dissertation, a simplified scattering matrix with propagation effects is described. A number of parameters are derived based on the covariance matrix of the scattering element array. The processing techniques for estimating some specific parameters, such as K_{dp }, A_{x} and intrinsic LDR using the CSU-CHILL and CP-2 radar measurements, are discussed. Recent research has suggested that the copolar correlation coefficient termed rho_ {hv}(0) can be used to identify large hail and improve polarization estimates of rainfall. The typical measured values of rho_{hv }(0) at S-band vary between 0.8-1.0. For applications to hail identification the required accuracy should be within +/-0.01 while for rainfall improvement a higher accuracy is necessary, e.g., within +/-0.001. We discuss the statistics of several estimators of rho_{hv }(0) using the Gaussian spectrum approximation from both an analytical approach and via simulations. The standard deviation and bias in rho _{hv}(0) are computed as a function of number of samples, Doppler spectral width and mean rho_{hv}(0). The effect of finite signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and phase noise are also studied via simulations. Time series data collected with the CSU-CHILL radar are analyzed and compared with the simulations. Antenna

  5. Optimal spatial sampling techniques for ground truth data in microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, R. G. S.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1977-01-01

    The paper examines optimal sampling techniques for obtaining accurate spatial averages of soil moisture, at various depths and for cell sizes in the range 2.5-40 acres, with a minimum number of samples. Both simple random sampling and stratified sampling procedures are used to reach a set of recommended sample sizes for each depth and for each cell size. Major conclusions from statistical sampling test results are that (1) the number of samples required decreases with increasing depth; (2) when the total number of samples cannot be prespecified or the moisture in only one single layer is of interest, then a simple random sample procedure should be used which is based on the observed mean and SD for data from a single field; (3) when the total number of samples can be prespecified and the objective is to measure the soil moisture profile with depth, then stratified random sampling based on optimal allocation should be used; and (4) decreasing the sensor resolution cell size leads to fairly large decreases in samples sizes with stratified sampling procedures, whereas only a moderate decrease is obtained in simple random sampling procedures.

  6. Non-contact strip speed measurement using electrostatic sensing and correlation signal-processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yong; Rodrigues, Shaun J.; Xie, Zizhuo

    2011-07-01

    Accurate and reliable strip speed measurement is desirable in many manufacturing industries for both monitoring and control purposes. This paper presents the recent development in non-contact measurement of strip speed using electrostatic sensors in combination with correlation signal-processing techniques. A pair of metal electrodes is used to obtain signals from the moving strip. The speed of the strip is then determined from the known fixed spacing between the electrodes and the time delay between the two signals. Experimental tests were conducted on a motorized strip speed test rig under a range of conditions. An optical tachometer was used as a reference instrument to gauge the accuracy of the strip speed measurement system. The system design considerations, advantages and limitations are addressed. Results demonstrate that the system is capable of measuring strip speed robustly with a relative error not greater than ±1.8% and a repeatability of 2.5% over the speed range of 0.8 to 10 m s-1.

  7. Sensing picornaviruses using molecular imprinting techniques on a quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Jenik, Michael; Schirhagl, Romana; Schirk, Christian; Hayden, Oliver; Lieberzeit, Peter; Blaas, Dieter; Paul, Guntram; Dickert, Franz L

    2009-07-01

    Molecular imprinting techniques were adapted to design a sensor for the human rhinovirus (HRV) and the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which are two representatives of picornaviruses. Stamp imprinting procedures lead to patterned polyurethane layers that depict the geometrical features of the template virus, as confirmed by AFM for HRV. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements show that the resulting layers incorporate the template viruses reversibly and lead to mass effects that are almost an order of magnitude higher than those of nonspecific adsorption. Thus, for example, the sensor yields a net frequency effect of -300 Hz when applying a virus suspension with a concentration of approximately 100 microg/mL with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio. The cavities are not only selective to shape but also to surface chemistry: different HRV serotypes (HRV1A, HRV2, HRV14, and HRV16, respectively) can be distinguished with the sensor materials by a selectivity factor of 3, regardless of the group (major/minor) to which they belong. The same selectivity factor can be observed between HRV and FMDV. Hence, imprinting leads to an "artificial antibody" toward viruses, which does not only recognize their receptor binding sites, but rather detects the whole virus as an entity. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) studies allow simulation of the sensor characteristics and reveal the number of favorable binding sites in the coatings. PMID:19469532

  8. Applying satellite remote sensing technique in disastrous rainfall systems around Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gin-Rong; Chen, Kwan-Ru; Kuo, Tsung-Hua; Liu, Chian-Yi; Lin, Tang-Huang; Chen, Liang-De

    2016-05-01

    Many people in Asia regions have been suffering from disastrous rainfalls year by year. The rainfall from typhoons or tropical cyclones (TCs) is one of their key water supply sources, but from another perspective such TCs may also bring forth unexpected heavy rainfall, thereby causing flash floods, mudslides or other disasters. So far we cannot stop or change a TC route or intensity via present techniques. Instead, however we could significantly mitigate the possible heavy casualties and economic losses if we can earlier know a TC's formation and can estimate its rainfall amount and distribution more accurate before its landfalling. In light of these problems, this short article presents methods to detect a TC's formation as earlier and to delineate its rainfall potential pattern more accurate in advance. For this first part, the satellite-retrieved air-sea parameters are obtained and used to estimate the thermal and dynamic energy fields and variation over open oceans to delineate the high-possibility typhoon occurring ocean areas and cloud clusters. For the second part, an improved tropical rainfall potential (TRaP) model is proposed with better assumptions then the original TRaP for TC rainfall band rotations, rainfall amount estimation, and topographic effect correction, to obtain more accurate TC rainfall distributions, especially for hilly and mountainous areas, such as Taiwan.

  9. Application of near-field microwave sensing techniques for segregation detection in concrete members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bois, K. J.; Benally, A. D.; Zoughi, R.; Nowak, P. S.

    2000-05-01

    In this presentation, a simple, low-cost near-field microwave nondestructive inspection technique for segregation detection in concrete members is presented. This process employs information from the measured magnitude of reflection coefficient at the aperture of an open-ended rectangular waveguide sensor. These measurements, whose results will be presented, were conducted using a Hewlett-Packard HP8510B network analyzer. However, in practice a simple and relatively inexpensive inspection apparatus constructed from discrete microwave components can easily be employed. It is shown that the standard deviation of magnitude of reflection coefficient measurement is linearly correlated with the aggregate density in concrete. Furthermore, for concrete in which the aggregate has segregated, this measurable parameter will change as a function of vertical position of the microwave scan. Results correlating the microwave measurements to the actual aggregate density of a well consolidated concrete specimen and a specimen in which the aggregate has segregated will be presented. Finally, the simple and low cost application of this method for in situ detection of aggregate segregation in concrete structures will be discussed.

  10. Monitoring bacterial growth using tunable resistive pulse sensing with a pore-based technique.

    PubMed

    Yu, Allen C S; Loo, Jacky F C; Yu, Samuel; Kong, S K; Chan, Ting-Fung

    2014-01-01

    A novel bacterial growth monitoring method using a tunable resistive pulse sensor (TRPS) system is introduced in this study for accurate and sensitive measurement of cell size and cell concentration simultaneously. Two model bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis str.168 (BSU168) and Escherichia coli str.DH5α (DH5α), were chosen for benchmarking the growth-monitoring performance of the system. Results showed that the technique of TRPS is sensitive and accurate relative to widely used methods, with a lower detection limit of cell concentration measurement of 5 × 10⁵ cells/ml; at the same time, the mean coefficient of variation from TRPS was within 2 %. The growth of BSU168 and DH5α in liquid cultures was studied by TRPS, optical density (OD), and colony plating. Compared to OD measurement, TRPS-measured concentration correlates better with colony plating (R = 0.85 vs. R = 0.72), which is often regarded as the gold standard of cell concentration determination. General agreement was also observed by comparing TRPS-derived cell volume measurements and those determined from microscopy. We have demonstrated that TRPS is a reliable method for bacterial growth monitoring, where the study of both cell volume and cell concentration are needed to provide further details about the physical aspects of cell dynamics in real time. PMID:24287933

  11. A study and evaluation of image analysis techniques applied to remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. J.; Dasarathy, B. V.; Lybanon, M.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of phenomena causing nonlinearities in the transformation from Landsat multispectral scanner coordinates to ground coordinates is presented. Experimental results comparing rms errors at ground control points indicated a slight improvement when a nonlinear (8-parameter) transformation was used instead of an affine (6-parameter) transformation. Using a preliminary ground truth map of a test site in Alabama covering the Mobile Bay area and six Landsat images of the same scene, several classification methods were assessed. A methodology was developed for automatic change detection using classification/cluster maps. A coding scheme was employed for generation of change depiction maps indicating specific types of changes. Inter- and intraseasonal data of the Mobile Bay test area were compared to illustrate the method. A beginning was made in the study of data compression by applying a Karhunen-Loeve transform technique to a small section of the test data set. The second part of the report provides a formal documentation of the several programs developed for the analysis and assessments presented.

  12. Romantic versus scientific perspective: the ruins of Radlin palace in Wielkopolska region in the light of remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilgocka, Aleksandra; Ruciński, Dominik; RÄ czkowski, Włodzimierz

    2015-06-01

    Although ruins of palace in Radlin, localized in Wielkopolska Region (Poland), could have been a great inspiration for romantic landscape painters, they were hardly considered as the subject of artistic interest. Nevertheless they stand as a marker in a landscape as a romantic background for the village on one hand and a memento for the neighbouring graveyard on another. Small scale excavations carried out in late 1950s with historical maps and analysis of still standing remains gave a general idea about wings order, localisation of main entrance and communication routs inside courtyard. Those early research thereby were the first step to change the meaning of this place from romantic to more scientific. New remote sensing technology allows move even further into scientific direction. The ruins in Radlin have been included into project ArchEO - archaeological applications of Earth Observation techniques. The main aim of the project in case of Radlin is an attempt to answer the question to what extent very high resolution optical satellite imagery might allow better understanding the spatial structure of the place. The various processing techniques were applied to facilitate the detection of archaeological features' impact on the vegetation condition. It enabled to assess the usefulness of satellite based data in recognizing specific archaeological remains. Thus, potential and limitations of satellite imagery versus other sources of spatial information like historic maps, excavation results, aerial photographs and Lidar will be discussed.

  13. Comparing Remote Sensing Techniques in Detecting Salmonid Habitat, Salmon River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintani, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Many restoration projects in the Pacific Northwest are implemented to improve habitat quality, quantity, and complexity for fish. Although numerous engineered log structures have been constructed in the hopes of achieving these goals, relatively few projects have been rigorously monitored to determine their success. This research seeks to compare the utility and application between photogrammetric and spectral depth approaches in detecting fish habitat in order to determine which method is more accurate and affordable for monitoring channel bathymetry. While each of these techniques has been individually studied, previous research has not directly compared and quantified their differences. Channel bathymetry data were collected by combining pre- and post-restoration digital photographs of the Salmon River in Northeast Clackamas County, Oregon, using structure-from-motion (SfM). The resulting 3D point cloud will be used to estimate water depths using photogrammetry and spectral depth. The photogrammetric method applies a refraction correction to the extracted water depth from the SfM topography to derive water depth. A regression between the surveyed water depth values and digital number values of surface pixels will derive depth. The resulting water depths from these two methods will be compared to the surveyed water depths for their accuracy and precision, particularly in critical salmonid habitats. The quantification of these differences will be an important contribution to river restoration science as it will allow for more accurate measurement and monitoring of changes in fish habitat. In the future, these data will be used in an eco-hydraulic River2D model to simulate changes in salmonid habitat availability after restoration.

  14. Efficiencies of Rotational Raman, and Rayleigh Techniques for Laser Remote Sensing of the Atmospheric Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanova, I. D.; Gurdev, L. L.; Mitev, V. M.

    1992-01-01

    Various lidar methods have been developed for measuring the atmospheric temperature, making use of the temperature dependant characteristics of rotational Raman scattering (RRS) from nitrogen and oxygen, and Rayleigh or Rayleigh-Brillowin scattering (RS or RBS). These methods have various advantages and disadvantages as compared to each other but their potential accuracies are principal characteristics of their efficiency. No systematic attempt has been undertaken so far to compare the efficiences, in the above meaning, of different temperature lidar methods. Two RRS techniques have been compared. Here, we do such a comparison using two methods based on the detection and analysis of RS (RBS) spectra. Four methods are considered here for measuring the atmospheric temperature. One of them (Schwiesow and Lading, 1981) is based on an analysis of the RS linewidth with two Michelson interferometers (MI) in parallel. The second method (Shimisu et al., 1986) employs a high-resolution analysis of the RBS line shape. The third method (Cooney, 1972) employs the temperature dependance of the RRS spectrum envelope. The fourth method (Armstrong, 1974) makes use of a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) as a comb filter for processing the periodic RRS spectrum of the nitrogen. Let us denote the corresponding errors in measuring the temperature by sigma(sub MI), sigma(sub HR), sigma(sub ENV), and sigma(sub FPI). Let us also define the ratios chi(sub 1) = sigma(sub MI)/sigma(sub ENV), chi(sub 2) = sigma(sub HR)/sigma(sub ENV), and chi(sub 3) = sigma(sub FPI)/sigma(sub ENV) interpreted as relative errors with respect to sigma(sub ENV).

  15. A new strategy for snow-cover mapping using remote sensing data and ensemble based systems techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberge, S.; Chokmani, K.; De Sève, D.

    2012-04-01

    The snow cover plays an important role in the hydrological cycle of Quebec (Eastern Canada). Consequently, evaluating its spatial extent interests the authorities responsible for the management of water resources, especially hydropower companies. The main objective of this study is the development of a snow-cover mapping strategy using remote sensing data and ensemble based systems techniques. Planned to be tested in a near real-time operational mode, this snow-cover mapping strategy has the advantage to provide the probability of a pixel to be snow covered and its uncertainty. Ensemble systems are made of two key components. First, a method is needed to build an ensemble of classifiers that is diverse as much as possible. Second, an approach is required to combine the outputs of individual classifiers that make up the ensemble in such a way that correct decisions are amplified, and incorrect ones are cancelled out. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of ensemble systems to snow-cover mapping using remote sensing data. The chosen classifier is a sequential thresholds algorithm using NOAA-AVHRR data adapted to conditions over Eastern Canada. Its special feature is the use of a combination of six sequential thresholds varying according to the day in the winter season. Two versions of the snow-cover mapping algorithm have been developed: one is specific for autumn (from October 1st to December 31st) and the other for spring (from March 16th to May 31st). In order to build the ensemble based system, different versions of the algorithm are created by varying randomly its parameters. One hundred of the versions are included in the ensemble. The probability of a pixel to be snow, no-snow or cloud covered corresponds to the amount of votes the pixel has been classified as such by all classifiers. The overall performance of ensemble based mapping is compared to the overall performance of the chosen classifier, and also with ground observations at meteorological

  16. Remote sensing of auroral E region plasma structures by radio, radar, and UV techniques at solar minimum

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.; Valladares, C.E. ); Basu, S.; Eastes, R.; Huffman, R.E. ); Daniell, R.E. ); Chaturvedi, P.K. ); Livingston, R.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The unique capability of the Polar BEAR satellite to simultaneously image auroral luminosities at multiple ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and to remote sense large-scale (hundreds to tens of kilometers) and small-scale (kilometers to hundreds of meters) plasma density structures with its multifrequency beacon package is utilized to probe the auroral E region in the vicinity of the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) facility near Sondrestrom. In particular, we present coordinated observations on two nights obtained during the sunspot minimum (sunspot number < 10) January-February 1987 period when good spatial and temporal conjunction was obtained between Polar BEAR overflights and Sondrestrom ISR measurements. With careful coordinated observations we were able to confirm that the energetic particle precipitation responsible for the UV emissions causes the electron density increases in the E region. The integrations up to the topside of these ISR electron density profiles were consistent with the total electron content (TEC) measured by the Polar BEAR satellite. An electron transport model was utilized to determine quantitatively the electron density profiles which could be produced by the particle precipitation, which also produced multiple UV emissions measured by the imager; these profiles were found to be in good agreement with the observed ISR profiles in the E region. This outer scale size is also consistent with the measured phase to amplitude scintillation ratio. An estimate of the linear growth rate of the gradient-drift instability in the E region shows that these plasma density irregularities could have been generated by this process. The mutual consistency of these different sets of measurements provides confidence in the ability of the different techniques to remote sense large- and small-scale plasma density structures in the E region at least during sunspot minimum when the convection-dominated high-latitude F region is fairly weak. 56 refs., 16 figs.

  17. An Integrated Use of Experimental, Modeling and Remote Sensing Techniques to Investigate Carbon and Phosphorus Dynamics in the Humid Tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Asner, Gregory P.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.

    2001-01-01

    Moist tropical forests comprise one of the world's largest and most diverse biomes, and exchange more carbon, water, and energy with the atmosphere than any other ecosystem. In recent decades, tropical forests have also become one of the globe's most threatened biomes, subjected to exceptionally high rates of deforestation and land degradation. Thus, the importance of and threats to tropical forests are undeniable, yet our understanding of basic ecosystem processes in both intact and disturbed portions of the moist tropics remains poorer than for almost any other major biome. Our approach in this project was to take a multi-scale, multi-tool approach to address two different problems. First, we wanted to test if land-use driven changes in the cycles of probable limiting nutrients in forest systems were a key driver in the frequently observed pattern of declining pasture productivity and carbon stocks. Given the enormous complexity of land use change in the tropics, in which one finds a myriad of different land use types and intensities overlain on varying climates and soil types, we also wanted to see if new remote sensing techniques would allow some novel links between parameters which could be sensed remotely, and key biogeochemical variables which cannot. Second, we addressed to general questions about the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle. First, we used a new approach for quantifying and minimizing non-biological artifacts in the NOAA/NASA AVHRR Pathfinder time series of surface reflectance data so that we could address potential links between Amazonian forest dynamics and ENSO cycles. Second, we showed that the disequilibrium in C-13 exchanged between land and atmosphere following tropical deforestation probably has a significant impact on the use of 13-CO2 data to predict regional fluxes in the global carbon cycle.

  18. Structural Analysis for Gold Mineralization Using Remote Sensing and Geochemical Techniques in a GIS Environment: Island of Lesvos, Hellas

    SciTech Connect

    Rokos, D. Argialas, D. Mavrantza, R. St Seymour, K.; Vamvoukakis, C.; Kouli, M.; Lamera, S.; Paraskevas, H.; Karfakis, I.; Denes, G

    2000-12-15

    Exploration for epithermal Au has been active lately in the Aegean Sea of the eastern Mediterranean Basin, both in the islands of the Quaternary arc and in those of the back-arc region. The purpose of this study was the structural mapping and analysis for a preliminary investigation of possible epithermal gold mineralization, using remotely sensed data and techniques, structural and field data, and geochemical information, for a specific area on the Island of Lesvos. Therefore, Landsat-TM and SPOT-Pan satellite images and the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area were processed digitally using spatial filtering techniques for the enhancement and recognition of the geologically significant lineaments, as well as algebraic operations with band ratios and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), for the identification of alteration zones. Statistical rose diagrams and a SCHMIDT projection Stereo Net were generated from the lineament maps and the collected field data (dip and strike measurements of faults, joints, and veins), respectively. The derived lineament map and the band ratio images were manipulated in a GIS environment, in order to study the relation of the tectonic pattern to both the alteration zoning and the geomorphology of the volcanic field of the study area. Target areas of high interest for possible mineralization also were specified using geochemical techniques, such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, trace-element, and fluid-inclusion analysis. Finally, preliminary conclusions were derived about possible mineralization, the type (high or low sulfidation), and the extent of mineralization, by combining the structural information with geochemical information.

  19. Sun Photometer Laser and Lamp Based Radiometric Calibrations; Comparison with the Langley Technique and Implications on Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souaidia, N.; Pietras, C.; Brown, S. W.; Lykke, K. R.; Frouin, R.; Deschamps, P.; Fargion, G.; Johnson, B. C.

    2002-12-01

    Satellite-based remote sensing of the earth is a valuable data source for biological and oceanic studies. However when using remote sensing, it is necessary to correct the measured signal for atmospheric effects. As aerosols play a major role in atmospheric scattering, correcting algorithms based on Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) data have been developed to describe the scattering of radiation by aerosols. AOT data are collected by filter radiometers measuring the solar irradiance. The AOT is then retrieved applying the Beer-Bouger-Lambert Law to those measurements. Two radiometers, called Satellite Validation for Marine Biology and Aerosol Determination (SimbadA), were calibrated in this study. These instruments measure the upwelling radiance from the ocean as well as the solar irradiance, providing information on both marine reflectance and AOT. The goals of this study were to calibrate the radiometers using independent methods, evaluate the uncertainties for each method, and assess the influence of the results in terms of the science requirements. The radiometers were calibrated in irradiance and radiance mode using a monochromatic, laser-illuminated integrating sphere, in radiance mode using two different lamp-illuminated integrating spheres, and in irradiance mode using the Langley technique. First, a limited characterization of the instrument was conducted. The instrument's temporal stability and its spectral out-of-band response were evaluated. The instrument was then calibrated in radiance mode using a laser-illuminated integrating sphere that overfilled its field of view (FOV). The absolute radiance responsivity from this calibration was compared to results from measurements of two calibrated lamp illuminated spheres. The first comparison, with the NIST portable radiometric source (NPR), was a validation as good agreement between the two methods has been reported in previous studies. The second comparison was with the Hardy sphere from the Goddard Space

  20. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  1. Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India, using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Thilagavathi, N; Subramani, T; Suresh, M; Karunanidhi, D

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes to introduce the remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques in mapping the groundwater potential zones. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to map the groundwater potential zones in Salem Chalk Hills, Tamil Nadu, India. Charnockites and fissile hornblende biotite gneiss are the major rock types in this region. Dunites and peridodites are the ultramafic rocks which cut across the foliation planes of the gneisses and are highly weathered. It comprises magnesite and chromite deposits which are excavated by five mining companies by adopting bench mining. The thickness of weathered and fracture zone varies from 2.2 to 50 m in gneissic formation and 5.8 to 55 m in charnockite. At the contacts of gneiss and charnockite, the thickness ranges from 9.0 to 90.8 m favoring good groundwater potential. The mine lease area is underlined by fractured and sheared hornblende biotite gneiss where groundwater potential is good. Water catchment tanks in this area of 5 km radius are small to moderate in size and are only seasonal. They remain dry during summer seasons. As perennial water resources are remote, the domestic and agricultural activities in this region depend mainly upon the groundwater resources. The mines are located in gently slope area, and accumulation of water is not observed except in mine pits even during the monsoon period. Therefore, it is essential to map the groundwater potential zones for proper management of the aquifer system. Satellite imageries were also used to extract lineaments, hydrogeomorphic landforms, drainage patterns, and land use, which are the major controlling factors for the occurrence of groundwater. Various thematic layers pertaining to groundwater existence such as geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, lineament, lineament density, drainage, drainage density, slope, and soil were generated using GIS tools. By integrating all the above thematic layers based on the ranks and

  2. Applying aerial digital photography as a spectral remote sensing technique for macrophytic cover assessment in small rural streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anker, Y.; Hershkovitz, Y.; Gasith, A.; Ben-Dor, E.

    2011-12-01

    Although remote sensing of fluvial ecosystems is well developed, the tradeoff between spectral and spatial resolutions prevents its application in small streams (<3m width). In the current study, a remote sensing approach for monitoring and research of small ecosystem was developed. The method is based on differentiation between two indicative vegetation species out of the ecosystem flora. Since when studied, the channel was covered mostly by a filamentous green alga (Cladophora glomerata) and watercress (Nasturtium officinale), these species were chosen as indicative; nonetheless, common reed (Phragmites australis) was also classified in order to exclude it from the stream ROI. The procedure included: A. For both section and habitat scales classifications, acquisition of aerial digital RGB datasets. B. For section scale classification, hyperspectral (HSR) dataset acquisition. C. For calibration, HSR reflectance measurements of specific ground targets, in close proximity to each dataset acquisition swath. D. For habitat scale classification, manual, in-stream flora grid transects classification. The digital RGB datasets were converted to reflectance units by spectral calibration against colored reference plates. These red, green, blue, white, and black EVA foam reference plates were measured by an ASD field spectrometer and each was given a spectral value. Each spectral value was later applied to the spectral calibration and radiometric correction of spectral RGB (SRGB) cube. Spectral calibration of the HSR dataset was done using the empirical line method, based on reference values of progressive grey scale targets. Differentiation between the vegetation species was done by supervised classification both for the HSR and for the SRGB datasets. This procedure was done using the Spectral Angle Mapper function with the spectral pattern of each vegetation species as a spectral end member. Comparison between the two remote sensing techniques and between the SRGB

  3. A Comparison of Two Above-Ground Biomass Estimation Techniques Integrating Satellite-Based Remotely Sensed Data and Ground Data for Tropical and Semiarid Forests in Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two above-ground forest biomass estimation techniques were evaluated for the United States Territory of Puerto Rico using predictor variables acquired from satellite based remotely sensed data and ground data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA)...

  4. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques. [planning and management of water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.; Churchman, C. W.; Burgy, R. H.; Schubert, G.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W.; Algazi, R.; Coulson, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The University of California has been conducting an investigation which seeks to determine the usefulness of modern remote sensing techniques for studying various components of California's earth resources complex. Most of the work has concentrated on California's water resources, but with some attention being given to other earth resources as well and to the interplay between them and California's water resources.

  5. Assessment of the capability of remote sensing and GIS techniques for monitoring reclamation success in coal mine degraded lands.

    PubMed

    Karan, Shivesh Kishore; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to monitor reclamation activity in mining areas. Monitoring of these reclaimed sites in the vicinity of mining areas and on closed Over Burden (OB) dumps is critical for improving the overall environmental condition, especially in developing countries where area around the mines are densely populated. The present study evaluated the reclamation success in the Block II area of Jharia coal field, India, using Landsat satellite images for the years 2000 and 2015. Four image processing methods (support vector machine, ratio vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index, and normalized difference vegetation index) were used to quantify the change in vegetation cover between the years 2000 and 2015. The study also evaluated the relationship between vegetation health and moisture content of the study area using remote sensing techniques. Statistical linear regression analysis revealed that Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) coupled with Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) is the best method for vegetation monitoring in the study area when compared to other indices. A strong linear relationship (r(2) > 0.86) was found between NDVI and NDMI. An increase of 21% from 213.88 ha in 2000 to 258.9 ha in 2015 was observed in the vegetation cover of the reclaimed sites for an open cast mine, indicating satisfactory reclamation activity. NDVI results indicated that vegetation health also improved over the years.

  6. Remote sensing and GIS techniques for evaluation of groundwater quality in municipal corporation of Hyderabad (Zone-V), India.

    PubMed

    Asadi, S S; Vuppala, Padmaja; Reddy, M Anji

    2007-03-01

    Groundwater quality in Hyderabad has special significance and needs great attention of all concerned since it is the major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking water supply. The present study monitors the ground water quality, relates it to the land use / land cover and maps such quality using Remote sensing and GIS techniques for a part of Hyderabad metropolis. Thematic maps for the study are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets and linearly enhanced fused data of IRS-ID PAN and LISS-III imagery on 1:50,000 scale using AutoCAD and ARC/INFO software. Physico-chemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations forms the attribute database for the study, based on which, spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using curve fitting method in Arc View GIS software. Water Quality Index (WQI) was then calculated to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The overall view of the water quality index of the present study area revealed that most of the study area with >50 standard rating of water quality index exhibited poor, very poor and unfit water quality except in places like Banjara Hills, Erragadda and Tolichowki. Appropriate methods for improving the water quality in affected areas have been suggested.

  7. Remote sensing and GIS techniques for evaluation of groundwater quality in municipal corporation of Hyderabad (Zone-V), India.

    PubMed

    Asadi, S S; Vuppala, Padmaja; Reddy, M Anji

    2007-03-01

    Groundwater quality in Hyderabad has special significance and needs great attention of all concerned since it is the major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking water supply. The present study monitors the ground water quality, relates it to the land use / land cover and maps such quality using Remote sensing and GIS techniques for a part of Hyderabad metropolis. Thematic maps for the study are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets and linearly enhanced fused data of IRS-ID PAN and LISS-III imagery on 1:50,000 scale using AutoCAD and ARC/INFO software. Physico-chemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations forms the attribute database for the study, based on which, spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using curve fitting method in Arc View GIS software. Water Quality Index (WQI) was then calculated to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The overall view of the water quality index of the present study area revealed that most of the study area with >50 standard rating of water quality index exhibited poor, very poor and unfit water quality except in places like Banjara Hills, Erragadda and Tolichowki. Appropriate methods for improving the water quality in affected areas have been suggested. PMID:17431315

  8. Project OPTEX: Field study at a petrochemical facility to assess optical remote sensing and dispersion modeling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Paien, R.J.; Zwicker, J.O.; Feldman, H.

    1997-12-31

    The American Petroleum Inst. has conducted a field study at a petrochemical facility for the purpose of (1) testing the ability of optical remote sensing (ORS) techniques to characterize fugitive emissions, and (2) assembling ambient and tracer sampler data for evaluating air dispersion models. The study, referred to as the OPTEX (Operational Petrochemical Tracer Experiment) Project, took place during October 1996 at a Texas petrochemical facility. This paper reports on the design of the field study and summarizes the measurements that were obtained in the field. Several aspects of the field study are described in the paper: the types and locations of the emission releases and tracer gases that were used, the deployment of tracer samplers at various downwind distances, the use of open-path FTIR (OP-FTIR) equipment at the site to quantify tracer gas emissions, special short-term tracer gas emissions designed to test the ability of the ORS systems to detect accidental releases, and the use of a Doppler sodar to evaluate vertical profiles of wind and turbulence upwind and downwind of the facility. The data base for this study, as well as that from an earlier field study that took place at the Duke Forest green field site in North Carolina, will be used for evaluating air dispersion model performance and the ability of ORS measurements to quantify fugitive emissions.

  9. Application of remote-sensing techniques to hydrologic studies in selected coal-mine areas of southeastern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenny, J.F.; McCauley, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Disturbances resulting from intensive coal mining in the Cherry Creek basin of southeastern Kansas were investigated using color and color-infrared aerial photography in conjunction with water-quality data from simultaneously acquired samples. Imagery was used to identify the type and extent of vegetative cover on strip-mined lands and the extent and success of reclamation practices. Drainage patterns, point sources of acid mine drainage, and recharge areas for underground mines were located for onsite inspection. Comparison of these interpretations with water-quality data illustrated differences between the eastern and western parts of the Cherry Creek basin. Contamination in the eastern part is due largely to circulation of water from unreclaimed strip mines and collapse features through the network of underground mines and subsequent discharge of acidic drainage through seeps. Contamination in the western part is primarily caused by runoff and seepage from strip-mined lands in which surfaces have frequently been graded and limed but are generally devoid of mature stands of soil-anchoring vegetation. The successful use of aerial photography in the study of Cherry Creek basin indicates the potential of using remote-sensing techniques in studies of other coal-mined regions. (USGS)

  10. Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (Zone-V), India

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, S. S.; Vuppala, Padmaja; Reddy, M. Anji

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater quality in Hyderabad has special significance and needs great attention of all concerned since it is the major alternate source of domestic, industrial and drinking water supply. The present study monitors the ground water quality, relates it to the land use / land cover and maps such quality using Remote sensing and GIS techniques for a part of Hyderabad metropolis. Thematic maps for the study are prepared by visual interpretation of SOI toposheets and linearly enhanced fused data of IRS-ID PAN and LISS-III imagery on 1:50,000 scale using AutoCAD and ARC/INFO software. Physico-chemical analysis data of the groundwater samples collected at predetermined locations forms the attribute database for the study, based on which, spatial distribution maps of major water quality parameters are prepared using curve fitting method in Arc View GIS software. Water Quality Index (WQI) was then calculated to find the suitability of water for drinking purpose. The overall view of the water quality index of the present study area revealed that most of the study area with > 50 standard rating of water quality index exhibited poor, very poor and unfit water quality except in places like Banjara Hills, Erragadda and Tolichowki. Appropriate methods for improving the water quality in affected areas have been suggested. PMID:17431315

  11. Assessment of the capability of remote sensing and GIS techniques for monitoring reclamation success in coal mine degraded lands.

    PubMed

    Karan, Shivesh Kishore; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to monitor reclamation activity in mining areas. Monitoring of these reclaimed sites in the vicinity of mining areas and on closed Over Burden (OB) dumps is critical for improving the overall environmental condition, especially in developing countries where area around the mines are densely populated. The present study evaluated the reclamation success in the Block II area of Jharia coal field, India, using Landsat satellite images for the years 2000 and 2015. Four image processing methods (support vector machine, ratio vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index, and normalized difference vegetation index) were used to quantify the change in vegetation cover between the years 2000 and 2015. The study also evaluated the relationship between vegetation health and moisture content of the study area using remote sensing techniques. Statistical linear regression analysis revealed that Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) coupled with Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) is the best method for vegetation monitoring in the study area when compared to other indices. A strong linear relationship (r(2) > 0.86) was found between NDVI and NDMI. An increase of 21% from 213.88 ha in 2000 to 258.9 ha in 2015 was observed in the vegetation cover of the reclaimed sites for an open cast mine, indicating satisfactory reclamation activity. NDVI results indicated that vegetation health also improved over the years. PMID:27491028

  12. Femtosecond laser fabricated multimode fiber sensors interrogated by optical-carrier-based microwave interferometry technique for distributed strain sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Liwei; Song, Yang; Huang, Jie; Cheng, Baokai; Zhu, Wenge; Xiao, Hai

    2016-03-01

    A multimode fiber (MMF) based cascaded intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometers (IFPIs) system is presented and the distributed strain sensing has been experimentally demonstrated by using such system. The proposed 13 cascaded IFPIs have been formed by 14 cascaded reflectors that have been fabricated on a grade index MMF. Each reflector has been made by drawing a line on the center of the cross-section of the MMF through a femtosecond laser. The distance between any two adjacent reflectors is around 100 cm. The optical carrier based microwave interferometry (OCMI) technique has been used to interrogate the MMF based cascaded FPIs system by reading the optical interference information in the microwave domain. The location along with the shift of the interference fringe pattern for each FPI can be resolved though signal processing based on the microwave domain information. The multimode interference showed very little influence to the microwave domain signals. By using such system the strain of 10-4 for each FPI sensor and the spatial resolution of less than 5 cm for the system can be easily achieved.

  13. A comparison of the ethanol sensing properties of α-iron oxide nanostructures prepared via the sol-gel and electrospinning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardi, S. G.; Mirzaei, A.; Bonavita, A.; Santangelo, S.; Frontera, P.; Pantò, F.; Antonucci, P. L.; Neri, G.

    2016-02-01

    Haematite (α-Fe2O3) nanostructures were synthesized via a Pechini sol-gel method (PSG) and an electrospinning (ES) technique. Their texture and morphology were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were obtained by the PSG method, whereas fibrous structures consisting of interconnected particles were synthesized through the ES technique. The crystallinity of the α-Fe2O3 nanostructures was also studied by means of x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Gas-sensing devices were fabricated by printing the synthesized samples on ceramic substrates provided with interdigitated Pt electrodes. The sensors were tested towards low concentrations of ethanol in air in the temperature range (200-400°C). The results show that the α-Fe2O3 nanostructures exhibit somewhat different gas-sensing properties and, interestingly, their sensing behaviour is strongly temperature-dependent. The availability of active sites for oxygen chemisorption and the diffusion of the analyte gas within the sensing layer structure are hypothesized to be the key factors responsible for the different sensing behaviour observed.

  14. Making sense of crowdsourced observations: Data fusion techniques for real-time mapping of urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; Castell, Nuria; Vogt, Matthias; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2015-04-01

    With an ever-increasing amount of environmental observations available through crowdsourcing, one of the major emerging challenges is how to best make sense of the vast amount of collected observations and how to provide citizens and other end-users with a relevant value-added product. Regarding air quality, a high-density network of low-cost sensors provided by crowdsourcing has significant potential for improving spatial mapping in general and in urban areas in particular. However, most datasets of observations made within a crowdsourcing framework contain substantial data gaps and the observations are generally point measurements, which are only representative of a relatively small area. This poses a significant challenge for mapping applications. One way to overcome these issues is to combine the crowdsourced data with spatially continuous data from a model. We present a novel data fusion-based technique for combining real-time crowdsourced observations with model output that allows to provide highly detailed, up-to-date maps of urban air quality. The EU-funded CITI-SENSE project is deploying a dense network of low-cost sensors measuring air quality in eight cities around Europe. These crowdsourced observations are used for mapping urban quality in real-time by fusing them with data obtained from statistical or deterministic air quality models. Data fusion techniques allow for combining observations with model data in a mathematically objective way and therefore provide a means of adding value to both the observations and the model. The observations are improved by filling spatio-temporal gaps in the data and the model is improved by constraining it with observations. The model further provides detailed spatial patterns in areas where no observations are available. As such, data fusion of observations from high-density low-cost sensor networks together with models can contribute to significantly improving urban-scale air quality mapping. The data fusion

  15. Millimeter-wave interferometry: an attractive technique for fast and accurate sensing of civil and mechanical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seoktae; Nguyen, Cam

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses the RF interferometry at millimeter-wave frequencies for sensing applications and reports the development of a millimeter-wave interferometric sensor operating around 35 GHz. The sensor is completely realized using microwave integrated circuits (MICs) and microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs). It has been used for various sensing including displacement and velocity measurement. The sensor achieves a resolution and maximum error of only 10 μm and 27 μm, respectively, for displacement sensing and can measure velocity as low as 27.7 mm/s with a resolution about 2.7mm/s. Quick response and accurate sensing, as demonstrated by the developed millimeter-wave interferometric sensor, make the millimeter-wave interferometry attractive for sensing of various civil and mechanical structures.

  16. Reconstruction of a Tornado Disaster Employing Remote Sensing Techniques: A Case Study of the 1999 Moore, Oklahoma Tornado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Melissa A.

    Remote sensing has demonstrated to be an instrumental tool in monitoring land changes as a result of anthropogenic change or natural disasters. Most disaster studies have focused on large-scale events with few analyzing small-scale disasters such as tornadoes. These studies have only provided a damage assessment perspective with the continued need to assess reconstruction. This study attempts to fill that void by examining recovery from the 1999 Moore, Oklahoma Tornado utilizing Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery. Recovery was assessed for 2000, 2001 and 2002 using spectral enhancements (vegetative and urban indices and a combination of the two), a recovery index and different statistical thresholds. Classification accuracy assessments were performed to determine the precision of recovery and select the best results. This analysis proved that medium resolution imagery could be used in conjunction with geospatial techniques to capture recovery. The new indices, Shortwave Infrared Index (SWIRI) and Coupled Vegetation and Urban Index (CVUI), developed for disaster management, were the most effective at discerning reconstruction using the 1.5 standard deviation threshold. Recovery rates for F-scale damages revealed that the most incredibly damaged areas associated with an F5 rating were the slowest to recover, while the lesser damaged areas associated with F1-F3 ratings were the quickest to rebuild. These findings were consistent for 2000, 2001 and 2002 also exposing that complete recovery was never attained in any of the F-scale damage zones by 2002. This study illustrates the significance the biophysical impact has on recovery as well as the effectiveness of using medium resolution imagery such as Landsat in future research.

  17. A novel approach to model exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to riverine flood plumes based on remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Devlin, Michelle; Teixeira da Silva, Eduardo; Petus, Caroline; Ban, Natalie C; Pressey, Robert L; Kool, Johnathan; Roberts, Jason J; Cerdeira-Estrada, Sergio; Wenger, Amelia S; Brodie, Jon

    2013-04-15

    Increased loads of land-based pollutants are a major threat to coastal-marine ecosystems. Identifying the affected marine areas and the scale of influence on ecosystems is critical to assess the impacts of degraded water quality and to inform planning for catchment management and marine conservation. Studies using remotely-sensed data have contributed to our understanding of the occurrence and influence of river plumes, and to our ability to assess exposure of marine ecosystems to land-based pollutants. However, refinement of plume modeling techniques is required to improve risk assessments. We developed a novel, complementary, approach to model exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to land-based pollutants. We used supervised classification of MODIS-Aqua true-color satellite imagery to map the extent of plumes and to qualitatively assess the dispersal of pollutants in plumes. We used the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the world's largest coral reef system, to test our approach. We combined frequency of plume occurrence with spatially distributed loads (based on a cost-distance function) to create maps of exposure to suspended sediment and dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We then compared annual exposure maps (2007-2011) to assess inter-annual variability in the exposure of coral reefs and seagrass beds to these pollutants. We found this method useful to map plumes and qualitatively assess exposure to land-based pollutants. We observed inter-annual variation in exposure of ecosystems to pollutants in the GBR, stressing the need to incorporate a temporal component into plume exposure/risk models. Our study contributes to our understanding of plume spatial-temporal dynamics of the GBR and offers a method that can also be applied to monitor exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to plumes and explore their ecological influences.

  18. Cation exchange on the nanoscale: an emerging technique for new material synthesis, device fabrication, and chemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Rivest, Jessy B; Jain, Prashant K

    2013-01-01

    Cation exchange is an age-old technique for the chemical conversion of liquids or extended solids by place-exchanging the cations in an ionic material with a different set of cations. The technique is undergoing a major revival with the advent of high-quality nanocrystals: researchers are now able to overcome the limitations in bulk systems and fully exploit cation exchange for materials synthesis and discovery via rapid, low-temperature transformations in the solid state. In this tutorial review, we discuss cation exchange as a promising materials synthesis and discovery tool. Exchange on the nanoscale exhibits some unique attributes: rapid kinetics at room temperature (orders of magnitude faster than in the bulk) and the tuning of reactivity via control of nanocrystal size, shape, and surface faceting. These features make cation exchange a convenient tool for accessing nanocrystal compositions and morphologies for which conventional synthesis may not be established. A simple exchange reaction allows extension of nanochemistry to a larger part of the periodic table, beyond the typical gamut of II-VI, IV-VI, and III-V materials. Cation exchange transformations in nanocrystals can be topotactic and size- and shape-conserving, allowing nanocrystals synthesized by conventional methods to be used as templates for production of compositionally novel, multicomponent, or doped nanocrystals. Since phases and compositions resulting from an exchange reaction can be kinetically controlled, rather than governed by the phase diagram, nanocrystals of metastable and hitherto inaccessible compositions are attainable. Outside of materials synthesis, applications for cation exchange exist in water purification, chemical staining, and sensing. Since nanoscale cation exchange occurs rapidly at room temperature, it can be integrated with sensitive environments such as those in biological systems. Cation exchange is already allowing access to a variety of new materials and processes

  19. Differential Radiometers Using Fabry-Perot Interferometric Technique for Remote Sensing Determination of Various Atmospheric Trace Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgieva, E. M.; Heaps, W. S.; Wilson, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    New type of remote sensing instrument based upon the Fabry-Perot inte rferometric technique has been developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI) is a well known, powerful spectroscopic technique and one of its many applications is to be use d to measure greenhouse gases and also some harmful species in the at mosphere. With this technique, absorption of particular species is me asured and related to its concentration. A solid Fabry-Perot etalon is used as a frequency filter to restrict the measurement to particular absorption bands of the gas of interest. With adjusting the thicknes s of the etalon that separation (in frequency) of the transmitted fri nges can be made equal to the almost constant separation of the gas a bsorption lines. By adjusting the temperature of the etalon, which changes the index of refi-action of its material, the transmission fring es can be brought into nearly exact correspondence with absorption li nes of the particular species. With this alignment between absorption lines and fringes, changes in the amount of a species in the atmosph ere strongly affect the amount of light transmitted by the etalon and can be related to gas concentration. The instrument that we have dev eloped detects the absorption of various atmospheric trace gases in d irect or reflected sunlight. Our instrument employing Fabry-Perot interferometer makes use of two features to achieve high sensitivity. The first is high spectral resolution enabling one to match the width of an atmospheric absorption feature by the instrumental band pass. The second is high optical throughput enabled by using multiple spectral lines simultaneously. For any species that one wishes to measure, thi s first feature is available while the use of multiple spectral features can be employed only for species with suitable spectra and freedom from interfering species in the same wavelength region. We have deve loped an instrument for use as ground based

  20. Fiber Loop Ringdown — a Time-Domain Sensing Technique for Multi-Function Fiber Optic Sensor Platforms: Current Status and Design Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuji

    2009-01-01

    Fiber loop ringdown (FLRD) utilizes an inexpensive telecommunications light source, a photodiode, and a section of single-mode fiber to form a uniform fiber optic sensor platform for sensing various quantities, such as pressure, temperature, strain, refractive index, chemical species, biological cells, and small volume of fluids. In FLRD, optical losses of a light pulse in a fiber loop induced by changes in a quantity are measured by the light decay time constants. FLRD measures time to detect a quantity; thus, FLRD is referred to as a time-domain sensing technique. FLRD sensors have near real-time response, multi-pass enhanced high-sensitivity, and relatively low cost (i.e., without using an optical spectral analyzer). During the last eight years since the introduction of the original form of fiber ringdown spectroscopy, there has been increasing interest in the FLRD technique in fiber optic sensor developments, and new application potential is being explored. This paper first discusses the challenging issues in development of multi-function, fiber optic sensors or sensor networks using current fiber optic sensor sensing schemes, and then gives a review on current fiber optic sensor development using FLRD technique. Finally, design perspectives on new generation, multi-function, fiber optic sensor platforms using FLRD technique are particularly presented. PMID:22408471

  1. Streamlined environmental remediation characterization using remote sensing techniques: Case studies for the US Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Carden, D.M.; Smyre, J.L.; Evers, T.K.; King, A.L.

    1996-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Remote Sensing Program and discusses how data from this program have assisted the environmental restoration program in streamlining site-characterization activities. Three case studies are described where remote sensing imagery has provided a more focused understanding of site problems with a resultant reduction in the need for costly and time-consuming, ground-based sampling approaches.

  2. Integration of remote sensing and ground-based techniques for the study of land degradation phenomena in coastal areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbrenda, Vito; Coluzzi, Rosa; Calamita, Giuseppe; Luigia Giannossi, Maria; D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Lanfredi, Maria; Makris, John; Palombo, Angelo; Pascucci, Simone; Santini, Federico; Margiotta, Salvatore; Emanuela Bonomo, Agnese; De Martino, Gregory; Perrone, Angela; Rizzo, Enzo; Pignatti, Stefano; Summa, Vito; Simoniello, Tiziana

    2015-04-01

    Land degradation processes, such as salinization and waterlogging, are increasingly affecting extensive areas devoted to agriculture threatening the sustainability of farming practices. Soil salinization typically appears as an excess accumulation of salt generally pronounced at the soil surface. Commonly, soil salinity is defined and measured by means of laboratory measurements of the electrical conductivity of liquid extracted from saturated soil-paste or different soil-water suspensions. Lab measurements are generally time consuming, costly, destructive, untimely for practical situations where the determination of the causes and/or the assessment of management practices are of interest. Recently, emerging survey techniques proved to be powerful tools to support soil salinity appraisal reducing costs and increasing the amount of spatial information. In the frame of PRO-LAND project (PO-FESR Basilicata 2007-2013) the research activities have been focused on the study of a complex salinization phenomenon occurring in a coastal environment of the Basilicata region (Southern Italy) as a result of natural and anthropic disturbances. The study area is located in the southernmost part of the Bradanic Trough along the sandy Ionian coastal plain. The hydrogeological conditions affect shallowness of the aquifer (45-50 cm below the ground) allowing the occurrence of seawater intrusion. Moreover, during last century, human activities, i.e. built-up of dams, the emergence of farms and industries, played a relevant role in the alteration of soil and groundwater quality of the area. In this work, both ground-based and remote sensing data were used. First, a geophysical mapping of electrical conductivity was carried out using a multi-frequency portable electro-magnetic induction (EMI) sensor. Based on the geophysical mapping and on optimization sampling approach, a number of locations were identified to collect soil samples for the geomineralogical characterization. Airborne

  3. Sensing interrogation technique for fiber-optic interferometer type of sensors based on a single-passband RF filter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Shiwei; Fu, Hongyan; Zhou, Bin; Chen, Nan

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a sensing interrogation system for fiber-optic interferometer type of sensors by using a single-passband radio-frequency (RF) filter has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The fiber-optic interferometer based sensors can give continuous optical sampling, and along with dispersive medium a single-passband RF frequency response can be achieved. The sensing parameter variation on the fiber-optic interferometer type of sensors will affect their free spectrum range, and thus the peak frequency of the RF filter. By tracking the central frequency of the passband the sensing parameter can be demodulated. As a demonstration, in our experiment a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (FMZI) based temperature sensor has been interrogated. By tracking the peak frequency of the passband the temperature variation can be monitored. In our experiment, the sensing responsivity of 10.5 MHz/°C, 20.0 MHz/°C and 41.2 MHz/°C, when the lengths of sensing fiber are 1 m, 2 m and 4 m have been achieved.

  4. Context predictor based sparse sensing technique and smart transmission architecture for IoT enabled remote health monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Sai Kiran, M P R; Rajalakshmi, P; Acharyya, Amit

    2014-01-01

    In hyperconnectivity scenario, managing the amount of data acquired from sensors in the Body Area Networks (BANs) is one of the major issues. In this paper we propose an on-chip context predictor based sparse sensing technology with smart transmission architecture which makes use of confidence interval calculation from the features that present in the data, thereby achieving statistical guarantee. The proposed architecture uses intelligent sparse sensing, which eradicates the collection of redundant data, thereby reducing the amount of data generated. For the performance analysis, we considered ECG data acquisition and transmission system. The proposed architecture when applied on the data collected from 10 patients reduces the duty cycle of the sensing unit to 27.99%, by achieving an energy saving of 72% and the mean deviation of sampled data from the original data is 2%.

  5. An information system design for watershed-wide modeling of water loss to the atmosphere using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorram, S.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of a study intended to develop a general location-specific remote-sensing procedure for watershed-wide estimation of water loss to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration. The general approach involves a stepwise sequence of required information definition (input data), appropriate sample design, mathematical modeling, and evaluation of results. More specifically, the remote sensing-aided system developed to evaluate evapotranspiration employs a basic two-stage two-phase sample of three information resolution levels. Based on the discussed design, documentation, and feasibility analysis to yield timely, relatively accurate, and cost-effective evapotranspiration estimates on a watershed or subwatershed basis, work is now proceeding to implement this remote sensing-aided system.

  6. Optical techniques for sensing and measurement in hostile environments; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, May 21, 22, 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Calvin H.; Greenwell, Roger A.

    1987-01-01

    Papers are presented on referencing in fiber optic sensing systems, optical fiber chemical sensing networks, and the radiation response of new pure silica fibers. Also considered are a comparison of gamma, neutron, and proton irradiations of multimode fibers, a pinhole camera for hot environment viewing of electron beam materials processing, and the utilization of optical image data from the advanced test accelerator. Other topics include the application of an interferometer spectrometer aboard the Space Shuttle with a payload specialist in the control loop, hydrogen chloride measurements in launch-vehicle exhaust clouds, and a rocket-borne telescoped Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 10 K.

  7. Evaluation of water-use efficiency in foxtail millet (Setaria italica) using visible-near infrared and thermal spectral sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Ellsworth, Patrick Z; Zhou, Jianfeng; Cousins, Asaph B; Sankaran, Sindhuja

    2016-05-15

    Water limitations decrease stomatal conductance (g(s)) and, in turn, photosynthetic rate (A(net)), resulting in decreased crop productivity. The current techniques for evaluating these physiological responses are limited to leaf-level measures acquired by measuring leaf-level gas exchange. In this regard, proximal sensing techniques can be a useful tool in studying plant biology as they can be used to acquire plant-level measures in a high-throughput manner. However, to confidently utilize the proximal sensing technique for high-throughput physiological monitoring, it is important to assess the relationship between plant physiological parameters and the sensor data. Therefore, in this study, the application of rapid sensing techniques based on thermal imaging and visual-near infrared spectroscopy for assessing water-use efficiency (WUE) in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) was evaluated. The visible-near infrared spectral reflectance (350-2500 nm) and thermal (7.5-14 µm) data were collected at regular intervals from well-watered and drought-stressed plants in combination with other leaf physiological parameters (transpiration rate-E, A(net), g(s), leaf carbon isotopic signature-δ(13)C(leaf), WUE). Partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis was used to predict leaf physiological measures based on the spectral data. The PLSR modeling on the hyperspectral data yielded accurate and precise estimates of leaf E, gs, δ(13)C(leaf), and WUE with coefficient of determination in a range of 0.85-0.91. Additionally, significant differences in average leaf temperatures (~1°C) measured with a thermal camera were observed between well-watered plants and drought-stressed plants. In summary, the visible-near infrared reflectance data, and thermal images can be used as a potential rapid technique for evaluating plant physiological responses such as WUE. PMID:26992551

  8. Evaluation of water-use efficiency in foxtail millet (Setaria italica) using visible-near infrared and thermal spectral sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Ellsworth, Patrick Z; Zhou, Jianfeng; Cousins, Asaph B; Sankaran, Sindhuja

    2016-05-15

    Water limitations decrease stomatal conductance (g(s)) and, in turn, photosynthetic rate (A(net)), resulting in decreased crop productivity. The current techniques for evaluating these physiological responses are limited to leaf-level measures acquired by measuring leaf-level gas exchange. In this regard, proximal sensing techniques can be a useful tool in studying plant biology as they can be used to acquire plant-level measures in a high-throughput manner. However, to confidently utilize the proximal sensing technique for high-throughput physiological monitoring, it is important to assess the relationship between plant physiological parameters and the sensor data. Therefore, in this study, the application of rapid sensing techniques based on thermal imaging and visual-near infrared spectroscopy for assessing water-use efficiency (WUE) in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) was evaluated. The visible-near infrared spectral reflectance (350-2500 nm) and thermal (7.5-14 µm) data were collected at regular intervals from well-watered and drought-stressed plants in combination with other leaf physiological parameters (transpiration rate-E, A(net), g(s), leaf carbon isotopic signature-δ(13)C(leaf), WUE). Partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis was used to predict leaf physiological measures based on the spectral data. The PLSR modeling on the hyperspectral data yielded accurate and precise estimates of leaf E, gs, δ(13)C(leaf), and WUE with coefficient of determination in a range of 0.85-0.91. Additionally, significant differences in average leaf temperatures (~1°C) measured with a thermal camera were observed between well-watered plants and drought-stressed plants. In summary, the visible-near infrared reflectance data, and thermal images can be used as a potential rapid technique for evaluating plant physiological responses such as WUE.

  9. Monitoring land-use change by combining participatory land-use maps with standard remote sensing techniques: Showcase from a remote forest catchment on Mindanao, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mialhe, François; Gunnell, Yanni; Ignacio, J. Andres F.; Delbart, Nicolas; Ogania, Jenifer L.; Henry, Sabine

    2015-04-01

    This paper combines participatory activities (PA) with remote sensing analysis into an integrated methodology to describe and explain land-cover changes. A remote watershed on Mindanao (Philippines) is used to showcase the approach, which hypothesizes that the accuracy of expert knowledge gained from remote sensing techniques can be further enhanced by inputs from vernacular knowledge when attempting to understand complex land mosaics and past land-use changes. Six participatory sessions based on focus-group discussions were conducted. These were enhanced by community-based land-use mapping, resulting in a final total of 21 participatory land-use maps (PLUMs) co-produced by a sample of stakeholders with different sociocultural and ecological perspectives. In parallel, seven satellite images (Landsat MSS, Landsat TM, Landsat ETM+, and SPOT4) were classified following standard techniques and provided snapshots for the years 1976, 1996, and 2010. Local knowledge and collective memory contributed to define and qualify relevant land-use classes. This also provided information about what had caused the land-use changes in the past. Results show that combining PA with remote-sensing analysis provides a unique understanding of land-cover change because the two methods complement and validate one another. Substantive qualitative information regarding the chronology of land-cover change was obtained in a short amount of time across an area poorly covered by scientific literature. The remote sensing techniques contributed to test and to quantify verbal reports of land-use and land-cover change by stakeholders. We conclude that the method is particularly relevant to data-poor areas or conflict zones where rapid reconnaissance work is the only available option. It provides a preliminary but accurate baseline for capturing land changes and for reporting their causes and consequences. A discussion of the main challenges encountered (i.e. how to combine different systems of

  10. Evaluation of Different Change Detection Techniques in Forestry for Improvement of Spatial Objects Extraction Algorithms by Very High Resolution Remote Sensing Digital Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, N.

    2013-09-01

    Earth observations which are being useable by spatial analysis ability play an important role in detecting, management and solving environmental problems such as climate changes, deforestation, disasters, land use, water resource and carbon cycle. Remote sensing technology in combination with geospatial information system (GIS) can render reliable information on vegetation cover. Satellite Remote sensed data and GIS for land cover/use with its changes is a key to many diverse applications such as Forestry. Change detection can be defined as the process of identifying differences in the state of an object or phenomenon by observing it at different times. The analysis of the spatial extent and temporal change of vegetation cover (Forest) by using remotely sensed data is critically importance to natural resource management sciences. The main aim of this review paper is to go through the different change detection methods and algorithms based on very high resolution remote sensing imagery data, evaluate the quality of the spatial individual crown cover extraction in forests with high density, analyse, compare the results by optimized performance of control data for the same objects to provide the improvement in technique for detection and improve the mathematical sides of the change detection algorithms for high dense forests regions with different boundaries.

  11. Potential of a New Technique for Remote Sensing of Hydrocarbon Accumulations and Blind Uranium Deposits: Buried Lif Thermoluminescence Dosimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, F. R.; Vaz, J. E.; Lindholm, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Buried thermoluminescence dosimeters may be useful in remote sensing of petroleum and natural gas accumulations and blind uranium deposits. They act as integrating detectors that smooth out the effects of environmental variations that affect other measuring systems and result in irregularities and poor repeatability in measurements made during gas and radiometric surveys.

  12. A Vision-Based Driver Nighttime Assistance and Surveillance System Based on Intelligent Image Sensing Techniques and a Heterogamous Dual-Core Embedded System Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiang, Hsin-Han; Chiang, Chuan-Yen; Liu, Chuan-Ming; Yuan, Shyan-Ming; Wang, Jenq-Haur

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a vision-based intelligent nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system (VIDASS system) implemented by a set of embedded software components and modules, and integrates these modules to accomplish a component-based system framework on an embedded heterogamous dual-core platform. Therefore, this study develops and implements computer vision and sensing techniques of nighttime vehicle detection, collision warning determination, and traffic event recording. The proposed system processes the road-scene frames in front of the host car captured from CCD sensors mounted on the host vehicle. These vision-based sensing and processing technologies are integrated and implemented on an ARM-DSP heterogamous dual-core embedded platform. Peripheral devices, including image grabbing devices, communication modules, and other in-vehicle control devices, are also integrated to form an in-vehicle-embedded vision-based nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system. PMID:22736956

  13. Remote sensing estimation of the total phosphorus concentration in a large lake using band combinations and regional multivariate statistical modeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongnian; Gao, Junfeng; Yin, Hongbin; Liu, Chuansheng; Xia, Ting; Wang, Jing; Huang, Qi

    2015-03-15

    Remote sensing has been widely used for ater quality monitoring, but most of these monitoring studies have only focused on a few water quality variables, such as chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and total suspended solids, which have typically been considered optically active variables. Remote sensing presents a challenge in estimating the phosphorus concentration in water. The total phosphorus (TP) in lakes has been estimated from remotely sensed observations, primarily using the simple individual band ratio or their natural logarithm and the statistical regression method based on the field TP data and the spectral reflectance. In this study, we investigated the possibility of establishing a spatial modeling scheme to estimate the TP concentration of a large lake from multi-spectral satellite imagery using band combinations and regional multivariate statistical modeling techniques, and we tested the applicability of the spatial modeling scheme. The results showed that HJ-1A CCD multi-spectral satellite imagery can be used to estimate the TP concentration in a lake. The correlation and regression analysis showed a highly significant positive relationship between the TP concentration and certain remotely sensed combination variables. The proposed modeling scheme had a higher accuracy for the TP concentration estimation in the large lake compared with the traditional individual band ratio method and the whole-lake scale regression-modeling scheme. The TP concentration values showed a clear spatial variability and were high in western Lake Chaohu and relatively low in eastern Lake Chaohu. The northernmost portion, the northeastern coastal zone and the southeastern portion of western Lake Chaohu had the highest TP concentrations, and the other regions had the lowest TP concentration values, except for the coastal zone of eastern Lake Chaohu. These results strongly suggested that the proposed modeling scheme, i.e., the band combinations and the regional multivariate

  14. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using remote sensing techniques. [water and forest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1974-01-01

    Progress and results of an integrated study of California's water resources are discussed. The investigation concerns itself primarily with the usefulness of remote sensing of relation to two categories of problems: (1) water supply; and (2) water demand. Also considered are its applicability to forest management and timber inventory. The cost effectiveness and utility of remote sensors such as the Earth Resources Technology Satellite for water and timber management are presented.

  15. SU-C-213-04: Application of Depth Sensing and 3D-Printing Technique for Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Patient Measurement and Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M; Suh, T; Han, B; Xing, L; Jenkins, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate an innovative method of using depth sensing cameras and 3D printing techniques for Total Body Irradiation (TBI) treatment planning and compensator fabrication. Methods: A tablet with motion tracking cameras and integrated depth sensing was used to scan a RANDOTM phantom arranged in a TBI treatment booth to detect and store the 3D surface in a point cloud (PC) format. The accuracy of the detected surface was evaluated by comparison to extracted measurements from CT scan images. The thickness, source to surface distance and off-axis distance of the phantom at different body section was measured for TBI treatment planning. A 2D map containing a detailed compensator design was calculated to achieve uniform dose distribution throughout the phantom. The compensator was fabricated using a 3D printer, silicone molding and tungsten powder. In vivo dosimetry measurements were performed using optically stimulated luminescent detectors (OSLDs). Results: The whole scan of the anthropomorphic phantom took approximately 30 seconds. The mean error for thickness measurements at each section of phantom compare to CT was 0.44 ± 0.268 cm. These errors resulted in approximately 2% dose error calculation and 0.4 mm tungsten thickness deviation for the compensator design. The accuracy of 3D compensator printing was within 0.2 mm. In vivo measurements for an end-to-end test showed the overall dose difference was within 3%. Conclusion: Motion cameras and depth sensing techniques proved to be an accurate and efficient tool for TBI patient measurement and treatment planning. 3D printing technique improved the efficiency and accuracy of the compensator production and ensured a more accurate treatment delivery.

  16. Use of remote sensing techniques for geological hazard surveys in vegetated urban regions. [multispectral imagery for lithological mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stow, S. H.; Price, R. C.; Hoehner, F.; Wielchowsky, C.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of using aerial photography for lithologic differentiation in a heavily vegetated region is investigated using multispectral imagery obtained from LANDSAT satellite and aircraft-borne photography. Delineating and mapping of localized vegetal zones can be accomplished by the use of remote sensing because a difference in morphology and physiology results in different natural reflectances or signatures. An investigation was made to show that these local plant zones are affected by altitude, topography, weathering, and gullying; but are controlled by lithology. Therefore, maps outlining local plant zones were used as a basis for lithologic map construction.

  17. Structural, nanomechanical, field emission and ammonia gas sensing properties of nitrogenated amorphous carbon films deposited by filtered anodic jet carbon arc technique.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, R K; Panwar, O S; Srivastava, A K; Rawal, Ishpal; Chockalingam, Sreekumar

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports the effect of substrate bias on the structural, nanomechanical, field emission and ammonia gas sensing properties of nitrogenated amorphous carbon films embedded with nanocrystallites (a-C: N: nc) deposited by a filtered anodic jet carbon arc (FAJCA) technique. The films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis, Raman spectroscopy, nanoindentation, field emission and ammonia gas sensing measurements. The properties of the films obtained are found to depend on the substrate bias. The maximum hardness (H)=42.7 GPa, elastic modulus (E)=330.4 GPa, plastic index parameter (H/E)=0.129 and elastic recovery (% ER)=74.4% have been obtained in a-C: N: nc films deposited at -60 V substrate bias which show the lowest ID/IG=0.43, emission threshold (ET)=4.9 V/µm accompanied with the largest emission current density (Jmax)=1 mA/cm(2) and field enhancement factor (β)=1805.6. The gas sensing behavior of the a-C: N: nc film has been tested by measuring the change in electrical resistance of the sample in ammonia environment at room temperature with the fast response and recovery time as 29 and 66.9s, respectively.

  18. Integration of conventional GIS-based techniques and remote sensing analysis to landslide risk assessment at basin scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agili, F.; Bartolomei, A.; Casagli, N.; Catani, F.; Ermini, L.; Farina, P.; Kukavicic, M.; Mirannalti, M.; Moretti, S.; Righini, G.

    2003-04-01

    This note concerns the preliminary results gathered in a research project aimed at landslide risk assessment in the Arno River basin (9000 km^2). The project, sponsored by the Basin Authority of the Arno River, started in the year 2002 and it will finish in the 2004. The objective of such a project consists of the updating of the landslide risk cartography related to the PAI document (Piano Assetto Idrogeologico) with reference to the Italian Law 267/1998. Different types of products will be generated: the updating of the existing inventory maps and the definition and application of a methodology for landslide hazard and risk mapping. Conventional methods, such as aerial-photo interpretation and field surveys are coupled with the use of different remote sensing methods, and all the data are integrated within a GIS environment. The analysis of remote sensing data regards both optical and radar images. In particular for the analysis of optical data, panchromatic and multispectral Landsat images are used in order to update the Corine standard land cover maps. In addition high resolution images (Ikonos and Quickbird), acquired in stereoscopic configuration, are analysed for integrating the aerial-photo intepretation. Differential SAR interferometry, implemented by using ERS and JERS data, is used in order to detect new mass movements, not yet observed and to evaluate the state of activity of known phenomena. Such data represent the base needed to produce the final landslide risk cartography.

  19. Application of remote sensing and GIS techniques for forest cover monitoring in the southern part of Laos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keonuchan, Ammala; Liu, Yaolin

    2008-12-01

    Forest resource is the important material foundation of national sustainable development. And it need to master the status and change of forest resource timely for reasonable exploitation of forest and its renewal. Laos is located in the heart of the Indochinese peninsular, in southeast Asia, latitude 14° to 23 °north and longitude 100°to 108°east, covered a total 236, 800 square kilometers, and country of nearly 6 million people. The forest of Laos dropped from close to two-third in the 1970's to less than half by the 1990's. This deforestation has been attributed to two human activities : a traditional of shifting cultivation or slash and burn farming, and logging without reforestation. Remote sensing and GIS are the most modern technologies which have been widely used in the field of natural resource management and monitoring. These technologies provide very powerful tools to observe and collect information on natural resources and dynamic phenomenon on the earth surface, and ability to integrate different data and present data in different formats. In this study, using forest cover map and Landsat 7 ETM data, we analyze and compare forest cover change from 1997 to 2002. And the maximum likelihood method of supervised classification was used to classify the remote sensing data, we processed Spectral Enhancement, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) ,and re-classify data again base on Principle Components Analysis (PCA) and NDVI.

  20. Measuring urban sprawl on geospatial indices characterized by leap frog development using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, N. M.; Asmawi, M. Z.; Rusni, N. A.

    2014-02-01

    Characterizing urban sprawl using spatial measures requires a concise definition of what constitutes sprawling urban spatial patterns. This research attempts to study a measurement of defining sprawl by using leapfrog development index through remote sensing and GIS approach. The IKONOS pan-sharpened and SPOT-5 with 1 and 2.5 meter resolution were used and combined with Geographical information system (GIS) database to analyze the geospatial indicators using the leapfrog development index. Kuantan city has been selected as a study area to examine the leapfrog development based on land use pattern for year 2012. The findings show Kuantan has identified as non-sprawling cities with result from characterization in leapfrog development that has been tested. However, the gap between sprawl and non-sprawling was very low. It is anticipated this research will provide a new direction in sprawl nationally that address finding of sprawl at the atomic level and present a robust analytical approach for characterizing urban development in city scale at once promoting a city via GIS & Remote Sensing technology respectively towards Digital and Green cities.

  1. Comparative analysis of property taxation policies within Greece and Cyprus evaluating the use of GIS, CAMA, and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimopoulos, Thomas; Labropoulos, Tassos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2014-08-01

    This paper aims to examine how CAMA, GIS and Remote Sensing are integrated to assist property taxation. Real property tax apart from its fiscal dimension is directly linked to geographic location. The value of the land and other immovable features such as buildings and structures is determined from specific parameters. All these immovable assets are visible and have specific geographic location & coordinates, materials, occupied area, land-use & utility, ownership & occupancy status and finally a specific value (ad valorem property taxation system) according to which the property tax is levied to taxpayers. Of high importance in the tax imposing procedure is that the use of CAMA, GIS and Remote Sensing tools is capable of providing effective and efficient collection of this property value determining data. Furthermore, these tools can track changes during a property's lifecycle such parcel subdivision into plots, demolition of a building and development of a new one or track a change in the planning zone. The integration of these systems also supports a full range of business processes on revenue mobilization ranging from billing to taxpayers objections management.

  2. Evaluating Damage Assessment of Breaches Along the Embankments of Indus River during Flood 2010 Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, R.; Daniyal, D.

    2013-09-01

    Natural disasters cause human sufferings and property loss, if not managed properly. It cannot be prevented but their adverse impacts can be reduced through proper planning and disaster mitigation measures. The floods triggered by heavy rains during July 2010 in Pakistan caused swallowing of rivers causing human, agriculture, livestock and property losses in almost all over the country. The heavy rains in upper part of country were attributed to El-Nina effect. Accumulated water in the rivers floodplain overtopped and breached flood protective infrastructure. Flood damage particularly in Sindh province was caused by breaches in the embankments and even after months of flood recession in rivers, flood water affected settled areas in the province. This study evaluates the role of satellite remote sensing particularly in assessment of breaches and consequential damages as well as measures leading to minimize the effects of floods caused by breaches in flood protective infrastructure. More than 50 SPOT-5 imageries had been used for this purpose and breached areas were delineated using pre and post flood imageries, later on rehabilitation work were also monitored. A total 136 breaches were delineated out of which 60 were in the Punjab and 76 in Sindh province. The study demonstrates the potentials of satellite remote sensing for mapping and monitoring natural disasters and devising mitigation strategies.

  3. The aid of remote sensing and environmental history techniques for planning and successful implementation of decentralized flood reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeling, Stephan; Gross, Michael

    2010-05-01

    The history of European landscapes is a history of changes. Based on the geophysical spatial features like geology, soils or topography the interaction with regional climate and particular human land use practices led to the development of the recent mosaic of European landscapes. For centuries the human incitements behind these actions have been to conquer nature and to optimize human benefit. Hence the maintenance or future development of other landscape functions like biodiversity or buffer and balance functions for energy and mass flows have often been neglected. As a consequence most recent cultivated landscapes feature a deficit of close to nature water retention capacities. Modern catchment orientated water management plans launch at this point and try to recover or even enhance former decentralized landscape abilities for water retention. Additionally remote sensing is a fast, effective and not too expensive tool for conducting landscape inventories or expose trends in land cover changes. Both can be seen as mandatory components for planning and successful implementation of decentralized flood protection measures. For three different landscapes of Southwest Germany we analysed the trends in land use change within the last four decades, based on remote sensing and statistical methods, to deduct on main human driving forces behind these changes. Together with other spatial analyses this offers support for prioritisation and implementation of landscape adapted and locally accepted decentralized flood protection measures.

  4. A Technique for Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediments and Shallow Coastal Waters Using MODIS Visible and Near-IR Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rong-Rong; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2002-01-01

    We have developed an algorithm to detect suspended sediments and shallow coastal waters using imaging data acquired with the Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS). The MODIS instruments on board the NASA Terra and Aqua Spacecrafts are equipped with one set of narrow channels located in a wide 0.4 - 2.5 micron spectral range. These channels were designed primarily for remote sensing of the land surface and atmosphere. We have found that the set of land and cloud channels are also quite useful for remote sensing of the bright coastal waters. We have developed an empirical algorithm, which uses the narrow MODIS channels in this wide spectral range, for identifying areas with suspended sediments in turbid waters and shallow waters with bottom reflections. In our algorithm, we take advantage of the strong water absorption at wavelengths longer than 1 micron that does not allow illumination of sediments in the water or a shallow ocean floor. MODIS data acquired over the east coast of China, west coast of Africa, Arabian Sea, Mississippi Delta, and west coast of Florida are used in this study.

  5. Using remote sensing and GIS techniques to estimate discharge and recharge. fluxes for the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Agnese, F. A.; Faunt, C.C.; Keith, Turner A.

    1996-01-01

    The recharge and discharge components of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system were defined by remote sensing and GIS techniques that integrated disparate data types to develop a spatially complex representation of near-surface hydrological processes. Image classification methods were applied to multispectral satellite data to produce a vegetation map. This map provided a basis for subsequent evapotranspiration and infiltration estimations. The vegetation map was combined with ancillary data in a GIS to delineate different types of wetlands, phreatophytes and wet playa areas. Existing evapotranspiration-rate estimates were then used to calculate discharge volumes for these areas. A previously used empirical method of groundwater recharge estimation was modified by GIS methods to incorporate data describing soil-moisture conditions, and a recharge potential map was produced. These discharge and recharge maps were readily converted to data arrays for numerical modelling codes. Inverse parameter estimation techniques also used these data to evaluate the reliability and sensitivity of estimated values.

  6. Single-end simultaneous temperature and strain sensing techniques based on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry in few-mode fibers.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yi; Ip, Ezra; Pan, Zhongqi; Wang, Ting

    2015-04-01

    Recently there is a growing interest in developing few-mode fiber (FMF) based distributed sensors, which can attain higher spatial resolution and sensitivity compared with the conventional single-mode approaches. However, current techniques require two lightwaves injected into both ends of FMF, resulting in their complicated setup and high cost, which causes a big issue for geotechnical and petroleum applications. In this paper, we present a single-end FMF-based distributed sensing system that allows simultaneous temperature and strain measurement by Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry (BOTDR) and heterodyne detection. Theoretical analysis and experimental assessment of multi-parameter discriminative measurement techniques applied to distributed FMF sensors are presented. Experimental results confirm that FM-BOTDR has similar performance with two-end methods such as FM-BOTDA, but with simpler setup and lower cost. The temperature-induced expansion strain (TIES) in response to different modes is discussed as well. Furthermore, we optimized the FMF design by exploiting modal profile and doping concentration, which indicates up to fivefold enhancement in measurement accuracy. This novel distributed FM-sensing system endows with good sensitivity characteristics and can prevent catastrophic failure in many applications. PMID:25968738

  7. Characterization of Solang valley watershed in western Himalaya for bio-resource conservation using remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Chawla, Amit; Rajkumar, S

    2011-08-01

    The development activities in mountainous region though provide comfort to the human being and enhance the socioeconomic status of the people but create pressure on the bio-resources. In this paper, the current status of land use/landcover and the vegetation communities of the Solang valley watershed in Himachal Pradesh of Indian western Himalaya has been mapped and presented using remote sensing. This watershed area was dominated by alpine and sub-alpine pastures (30.34%) followed by scree slopes (22.34%) and forests (21.06%). Many tree, shrub, and herb species identified in the study area are among the prioritized species for conservation in the Indian Himalayan Region. Thus, scientific interventions and preparation of action plans based on ecological survey are required for conservation of the Solang valley watershed.

  8. Biophotonic endoscopy: a review of clinical research techniques for optical imaging and sensing of early gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Coda, Sergio; Siersema, Peter D.; Stamp, Gordon W. H.; Thillainayagam, Andrew V.

    2015-01-01

    Detection, characterization, and staging constitute the fundamental elements in the endoscopic diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases, but histology still remains the diagnostic gold standard. New developments in endoscopic techniques may challenge histopathology in the near future. An ideal endoscopic technique should combine a wide-field, “red flag” screening technique with an optical contrast or microscopy method for characterization and staging, all simultaneously available during the procedure. In theory, biophotonic advances have the potential to unite these elements to allow in vivo “optical biopsy.” These techniques may ultimately offer the potential to increase the rates of detection of high risk lesions and the ability to target biopsies and resections, and so reduce the need for biopsy, costs, and uncertainty for patients. However, their utility and sensitivity in clinical practice must be evaluated against those of conventional histopathology. This review describes some of the most recent applications of biophotonics in endoscopic optical imaging and metrology, along with their fundamental principles and the clinical experience that has been acquired in their deployment as tools for the endoscopist. Particular emphasis has been placed on translational label-free optical techniques, such as fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), two-photon and multi-photon microscopy, second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT), diffuse reflectance, Raman spectroscopy, and molecular imaging. PMID:26528489

  9. Biophotonic endoscopy: a review of clinical research techniques for optical imaging and sensing of early gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Coda, Sergio; Siersema, Peter D; Stamp, Gordon W H; Thillainayagam, Andrew V

    2015-10-01

    Detection, characterization, and staging constitute the fundamental elements in the endoscopic diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases, but histology still remains the diagnostic gold standard. New developments in endoscopic techniques may challenge histopathology in the near future. An ideal endoscopic technique should combine a wide-field, "red flag" screening technique with an optical contrast or microscopy method for characterization and staging, all simultaneously available during the procedure. In theory, biophotonic advances have the potential to unite these elements to allow in vivo "optical biopsy." These techniques may ultimately offer the potential to increase the rates of detection of high risk lesions and the ability to target biopsies and resections, and so reduce the need for biopsy, costs, and uncertainty for patients. However, their utility and sensitivity in clinical practice must be evaluated against those of conventional histopathology. This review describes some of the most recent applications of biophotonics in endoscopic optical imaging and metrology, along with their fundamental principles and the clinical experience that has been acquired in their deployment as tools for the endoscopist. Particular emphasis has been placed on translational label-free optical techniques, such as fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), two-photon and multi-photon microscopy, second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT), diffuse reflectance, Raman spectroscopy, and molecular imaging.

  10. Integrating Remote Sensing Data with Directional Two-Dimensional Wavelet Analysis and Open Geospatial Techniques for Efficient Disaster Monitoring and Management

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yun-Bin; Lin, Yu-Pin; Deng, Dong-Po; Chen, Kuan-Wei

    2008-01-01

    In Taiwan, earthquakes have long been recognized as a major cause of landslides that are wide spread by floods brought by typhoons followed. Distinguishing between landslide spatial patterns in different disturbance regimes is fundamental for disaster monitoring, management, and land-cover restoration. To circumscribe landslides, this study adopts the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which can be determined by simply applying mathematical operations of near-infrared and visible-red spectral data immediately after remotely sensed data is acquired. In real-time disaster monitoring, the NDVI is more effective than using land-cover classifications generated from remotely sensed data as land-cover classification tasks are extremely time consuming. Directional two-dimensional (2D) wavelet analysis has an advantage over traditional spectrum analysis in that it determines localized variations along a specific direction when identifying dominant modes of change, and where those modes are located in multi-temporal remotely sensed images. Open geospatial techniques comprise a series of solutions developed based on Open Geospatial Consortium specifications that can be applied to encode data for interoperability and develop an open geospatial service for sharing data. This study presents a novel approach and framework that uses directional 2D wavelet analysis of real-time NDVI images to effectively identify landslide patterns and share resulting patterns via open geospatial techniques. As a case study, this study analyzed NDVI images derived from SPOT HRV images before and after the ChiChi earthquake (7.3 on the Richter scale) that hit the Chenyulan basin in Taiwan, as well as images after two large typhoons (xangsane and Toraji) to delineate the spatial patterns of landslides caused by major disturbances. Disturbed spatial patterns of landslides that followed these events were successfully delineated using 2D wavelet analysis, and results of pattern recognitions

  11. Notes for the improvement of a remote sensing multispectral data non-supervised classification and mapping technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Examined are: (1) the sequential clustering technique for the unsupervised automatic classification and mapping of earth resources satellite data, (2) theoretical analysis of the tests which were used, and (3) derivation of an alternative set of tests and their necessary algorithm.

  12. A noble technique a using force-sensing resistor for immobilization-device quality assurance: A feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Min-Seok; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kang, Seong-Hee; Kim, Dong-Su; Kim, Kyeong-Hyeon; Shin, Dong-Seok; Noh, Yu-Yun; Koo, Hyun-Jae; Cheon, Geum Seong; Suh, Tae Suk; Kim, Siyong

    2016-03-01

    Many studies have reported that a patient can move even when an immobilization device is used. Researchers have developed an immobilization-device quality-assurance (QA) system that evaluates the validity of immobilization devices. The QA system consists of force-sensing-resistor (FSR) sensor units, an electric circuit, a signal conditioning device, and a control personal computer (PC) with in-house software. The QA system is designed to measure the force between an immobilization device and a patient's skin by using the FSR sensor unit. This preliminary study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using the QA system in radiation-exposure situations. When the FSR sensor unit was irradiated with a computed tomography (CT) beam and a treatment beam from a linear accelerator (LINAC), the stability of the output signal, the image artifact on the CT image, and changing the variation on the patient's dose were tested. The results of this study demonstrate that this system is promising in that it performed within the error range (signal variation on CT beam < 0.30 kPa, root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the two CT images according to presence or absence of the FSR sensor unit < 15 HU, signal variation on the treatment beam < 0.15 kPa, and dose difference between the presence and the absence of the FSR sensor unit < 0.02%). Based on the obtained results, we will volunteer tests to investigate the clinical feasibility of the QA system.

  13. Non-contact online thickness measurement system for metal films based on eddy current sensing with distance tracking technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Hongbo; Feng, Zhihua

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes an online, non-contact metal film thickness measurement system based on eddy current sensing. The slope of the lift-off curve (LOC) is used for characterizing target thickness. Theoretical derivation was conducted to prove that the slope is independent of the lift-off variation. In practice, the measurement has some immunity to the lift-off, but not perfect. The slope of LOC is still affected at some extent by the lift-off. Hence, a height tracking system was also proposed, which could stabilize the distance between the sensor and the target and significantly reduce the lift-off effect. The height tracking system contains a specially designed probe, which could vibrate rapidly to obtain a fast measurement speed, and its height can be adjusted up and down continuously to stabilize the lift-off. The sensor coil in the thickness measurement system was also used as the height sensor in the height tracking system. Several experiments were conducted to test the system performances under static and dynamic conditions. This measurement system demonstrated significant advantages, such as simple and clear conversion between the slope of LOC and target thickness, high resolution and stability, and minimized effect of lift-off variation.

  14. Application of remote sensing techniques in land-use planning: Flood-plain delineation. [Cochise County, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altenstadter, J. (Principal Investigator); Clark, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The delineation of areas subject to inundation by means of remotely-sensed data acquisition represents a considerable saving in personnel time. Repeated input from aerial sensor sources provides the planner with a potent tool for the formation of a data base and for the monitoring of land use patterns over a period of time. The primary output of this project was a set of base map overlays at a scale of 1:62,500 delineating areas which require special regulations when proposed for land use involving human habitation or certain classes of storage. A secondary product of the study was county-wide maps of watershed configurations and of soil hydrologic groups. Further research is anticipated to extend the mapping of watershed areas outside the political boundaries of Cochise County, which will provide data for subsequent rainfall-runoff relationship studies in the area. All of the data provided will be incorporated into the Cochise County composite computer mapping project now operational. Results of this project have improved the pool of information available to the planning staff of Cochise County.

  15. Non-contact online thickness measurement system for metal films based on eddy current sensing with distance tracking technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Hongbo; Feng, Zhihua

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes an online, non-contact metal film thickness measurement system based on eddy current sensing. The slope of the lift-off curve (LOC) is used for characterizing target thickness. Theoretical derivation was conducted to prove that the slope is independent of the lift-off variation. In practice, the measurement has some immunity to the lift-off, but not perfect. The slope of LOC is still affected at some extent by the lift-off. Hence, a height tracking system was also proposed, which could stabilize the distance between the sensor and the target and significantly reduce the lift-off effect. The height tracking system contains a specially designed probe, which could vibrate rapidly to obtain a fast measurement speed, and its height can be adjusted up and down continuously to stabilize the lift-off. The sensor coil in the thickness measurement system was also used as the height sensor in the height tracking system. Several experiments were conducted to test the system performances under static and dynamic conditions. This measurement system demonstrated significant advantages, such as simple and clear conversion between the slope of LOC and target thickness, high resolution and stability, and minimized effect of lift-off variation.

  16. Non-contact online thickness measurement system for metal films based on eddy current sensing with distance tracking technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Hongbo; Feng, Zhihua

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes an online, non-contact metal film thickness measurement system based on eddy current sensing. The slope of the lift-off curve (LOC) is used for characterizing target thickness. Theoretical derivation was conducted to prove that the slope is independent of the lift-off variation. In practice, the measurement has some immunity to the lift-off, but not perfect. The slope of LOC is still affected at some extent by the lift-off. Hence, a height tracking system was also proposed, which could stabilize the distance between the sensor and the target and significantly reduce the lift-off effect. The height tracking system contains a specially designed probe, which could vibrate rapidly to obtain a fast measurement speed, and its height can be adjusted up and down continuously to stabilize the lift-off. The sensor coil in the thickness measurement system was also used as the height sensor in the height tracking system. Several experiments were conducted to test the system performances under static and dynamic conditions. This measurement system demonstrated significant advantages, such as simple and clear conversion between the slope of LOC and target thickness, high resolution and stability, and minimized effect of lift-off variation. PMID:27131700

  17. Optically based technique for producing merged spectra of water-leaving radiances from ocean color remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Mélin, Frédéric; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2007-06-20

    An optically based technique is presented that produces merged spectra of normalized water-leaving radiances L(WN) by combining spectral data provided by independent satellite ocean color missions. The assessment of the merging technique is based on a four-year field data series collected by an autonomous above-water radiometer located on the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower in the Adriatic Sea. The uncertainties associated with the merged L(WN) obtained from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer are consistent with the validation statistics of the individual sensor products. The merging including the third mission Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer is also addressed for a reduced ensemble of matchups.

  18. Comparison of the resulting error in data fusion techniques when used with remote sensing, earth observation, and in-situ data sets for water quality applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemba, Alexander; El Serafy, Ghada

    2016-04-01

    Ecological modeling and water quality investigations are complex processes which can require a high level of parameterization and a multitude of varying data sets in order to properly execute the model in question. Since models are generally complex, their calibration and validation can benefit from the application of data and information fusion techniques. The data applied to ecological models comes from a wide range of sources such as remote sensing, earth observation, and in-situ measurements, resulting in a high variability in the temporal and spatial resolution of the various data sets available to water quality investigators. It is proposed that effective fusion into a comprehensive singular set will provide a more complete and robust data resource with which models can be calibrated, validated, and driven by. Each individual product contains a unique valuation of error resulting from the method of measurement and application of pre-processing techniques. The uncertainty and error is further compounded when the data being fused is of varying temporal and spatial resolution. In order to have a reliable fusion based model and data set, the uncertainty of the results and confidence interval of the data being reported must be effectively communicated to those who would utilize the data product or model outputs in a decision making process[2]. Here we review an array of data fusion techniques applied to various remote sensing, earth observation, and in-situ data sets whose domains' are varied in spatial and temporal resolution. The data sets examined are combined in a manner so that the various classifications, complementary, redundant, and cooperative, of data are all assessed to determine classification's impact on the propagation and compounding of error. In order to assess the error of the fused data products, a comparison is conducted with data sets containing a known confidence interval and quality rating. We conclude with a quantification of the performance

  19. Determination of potential groundwater discharge zones into a Salt Lake using remote sensing techniques and in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Ecenur; Kamil Yilmaz, Koray; Lutfi Suzen, M.

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater and surface water are integral components of the hydrologic system with strong feedback mechanisms and hence should be treated as a single resource. Existence of groundwater discharge into lakes is a very significant factor that affects both the water quantity of the lake as well as its ecological and biological diversity. The degree of interaction is more significant for shallow lakes because of their increased vulnerability due to limited volume and rapid changes in the extent and duration of the wet/dry cycles. The Salt Lake, located in Central Anatolia, Turkey, is a hyper-saline, shallow lake that is ranked as the second largest lake in Turkey. The majority of the lake dries during the late summer season enabling investigation of the lake bottom morphology. Through analysis of the high-resolution satellite images we identified circular features that may indicate possible groundwater seepage locations. The density and shape properties of these features were then investigated via spatial statistics to identify possible trends that can be linked to controlling mechanism(s) such as underlying sediments, geology, hydrogeology and wind patterns. The analysis was supported by field measurement of salt thickness at various locations in a systematic way. Long-term precipitation, lake level and groundwater level data were compared to investigate possible relationships and trends. In this presentation the framework to investigate remotely-sensed and in-situ measurements will be discussed with potential links to the groundwater recharge to the Salt Lake. Future work will focus on installing long-term monitoring networks in the lake.

  20. Remote sensing techniques of geospatial geotechnical site characterization applied to competence studies of mine tailings impoundments and slope stability investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greuer, Wilhelm Max-Otto

    2006-04-01

    The research presented in this dissertation suggests methods of deriving critical engineering properties of soils from appropriate high altitude spectral data, or imagery. Soil interaction with ambient or applied electromagnetic radiation results in spatially varying degrees of reflection and absorption of electromagnetic radiation. Soil properties govern the band-specific interaction of the soil with the applied electromagnetic radiation, visually resulting in a soil's colour and brightness. The visual appearance, or cumulative interaction of the soil with each applied band of electromagnetic radiation, is recorded by cameras mounted on a remote sensing platform. From the resulting imagery, representing the soil's reflection/absorption intensity, key dielectric soil properties are calculated. Dielectric properties govern the soil's reflection and absorption intensities. In turn, dielectric properties are governed by the soil's structure and composition and are indicative of the soil's principal geotechnical properties. Dielectric properties of soil are the tie connection between the engineering properties of soil and geospatial data provided as imagery. This provides a fast, simple, inexpensive, and comprehensive geotechnical site assessment, performed by a single user in a GIS system, with soil spectral data as the principal input. Included with the image-extracted soil properties are principal slope engineering parameters. Using GIS and the prescribed series of computations, image-extracted geospatial data sets representing these key properties are applied to an area-wide modification of a common slope stability analysis method, resulting in a map illustrating the risk of slope failures throughout the area encompassed by imagery. This method is the skeleton of a possible automated satellite-based forecasting and warning system against landslides. In addition to the presented slope stability investigation, ground moisture surveys are also applied to competence

  1. A wireless batteryless in vivo EKG and core body temperature sensing microsystem with 60 Hz suppression technique for untethered genetically engineered mice real-time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chaimanonart, Nattapon; Young, Darrin J

    2009-01-01

    A wireless, batteryless, and implantable EKG and core body temperature sensing microsystem with adaptive RF powering for untethered genetically engineered mice real-time monitoring is designed, implemented, and in vivo characterized. A packaged microsystem, exhibiting a total size of 9 mm x 7 mm x 3 mm with a weight of 400 mg including a pair of stainless-steel EKG electrodes, is implanted in a mouse abdomen for real-time monitoring. A low power 2 mm x 2 mm ASIC, consisting of an EKG amplifier, a proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT)-based temperature sensor, an RF power sensing circuit, an RF-DC power converter, an 8-bit ADC, digital control circuitry, and a 433 MHz FSK transmitter, is powered by an adaptively controlled external RF energy source at 4 MHz to ensure a stable 2V supply with 156microA current driving capability for the overall microsystem. An electrical model for analyzing 60 Hz interference based on 2-electrode and 3-electrode configurations is proposed and compared with in vivo evaluation results. Due to the small laboratory animal chest area, a 60 Hz suppression technique by employing input termination resistors is chosen for two-EKG-electrode implant configuration.

  2. Groundwater assessment in Salboni Block, West Bengal (India) using remote sensing, geographical information system and multi-criteria decision analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Madan K.; Chowdary, V. M.; Chowdhury, Alivia

    2010-11-01

    An approach is presented for the evaluation of groundwater potential using remote sensing, geographic information system, geoelectrical, and multi-criteria decision analysis techniques. The approach divides the available hydrologic and hydrogeologic data into two groups, exogenous (hydrologic) and endogenous (subsurface). A case study in Salboni Block, West Bengal (India), uses six thematic layers of exogenous parameters and four thematic layers of endogenous parameters. These thematic layers and their features were assigned suitable weights which were normalized by analytic hierarchy process and eigenvector techniques. The layers were then integrated using ArcGIS software to generate two groundwater potential maps. The hydrologic parameters-based groundwater potential zone map indicated that the `good' groundwater potential zone covers 27.14% of the area, the `moderate' zone 45.33%, and the `poor' zone 27.53%. A comparison of this map with the groundwater potential map based on subsurface parameters revealed that the hydrologic parameters-based map accurately delineates groundwater potential zones in about 59% of the area, and hence it is dependable to a certain extent. More than 80% of the study area has moderate-to-poor groundwater potential, which necessitates efficient groundwater management for long-term water security. Overall, the integrated technique is useful for the assessment of groundwater resources at a basin or sub-basin scale.

  3. Techniques for the remote sensing of space plasma in the heliosphere via energetic neutral atoms - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, K. C.; Curtis, C. C.; Fan, C. Y.; Gruntman, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is conducted for state-of-the-art techniques for detecting energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) in the 100-300 keV range, in regions from the heliospheric boundary to the auroral zones where the solar wind plays a crucial role. While ENA spectrometry allows sampling of the mass and energy distributions of a distant plasma, ENA imaging gives a global view of the structures and dynamics of an extended plasma. The ENA instrument designs discussed share many components which exhibit excellent flight performance as elements in charged-particle analyzers for space missions.

  4. New techniques for the quantification and modeling of remotely sensed alteration and linear features in mineral resource assessment studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trautwein, C.M.; Rowan, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    Linear structural features and hydrothermally altered rocks that were interpreted from Landsat data have been used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in regional mineral resource appraisals for more than a decade. In the past, linear features and alterations have been incorporated into models for assessing mineral resources potential by manually overlaying these and other data sets. Recently, USGS research into computer-based geographic information systems (GIS) for mineral resources assessment programs has produced several new techniques for data analysis, quantification, and integration to meet assessment objectives.

  5. Optical property dimensionality reduction techniques for accelerated radiative transfer performance: Application to remote sensing total ozone retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremenko, Dmitry; Doicu, Adrian; Loyola, Diego; Trautmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce several dimensionality reduction techniques for optical parameters. We consider the principal component analysis, the local linear embedding methods (locality pursuit embedding, locality preserving projection, locally embedded analysis), and discrete orthogonal transforms (cosine, Legendre, wavelet). The principle component analysis has already been shown to be an effective and accurate method of enhancing radiative transfer performance for simulations in an absorbing and a scattering atmosphere. By linearizing the corresponding radiative transfer model, we analyze the applicability of the proposed methods to a practical problem of total ozone column retrieval from UV-backscatter measurements.

  6. A real-time, full-field, and low-cost velocity sensing approach for linear motion using fringe projection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wei-Hung; Co, Wei-Ting

    2016-06-01

    A velocity sensing approach using the fringe projection technique is presented. The moving object is projected with a sinusoidal fringe pattern. A CCD camera located at a different view angle observes the projected fringes on the dynamic object. The long exposure time of the CCD camera makes the fringes blurred by linear motion. The blurred fringes provide additional information to describe the depth displacement, and therefore the velocity vector can be identified. There is no need to take multiple-shot measurements to address the change in 3D positions at a sequence of time. Only one-shot measurement is required. Consequently, there is no need to perform image registration. The full-field approach also makes it possible to simultaneously inspect several objects.

  7. Techniques for Accurate Sizing of Gold Nanoparticles Using Dynamic Light Scattering with Particular Application to Chemical and Biological Sensing Based on Aggregate Formation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tianyu; Bott, Steven; Huo, Qun

    2016-08-24

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have found broad applications in chemical and biological sensing, catalysis, biomolecular imaging, in vitro diagnostics, cancer therapy, and many other areas. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is an analytical tool used routinely for nanoparticle size measurement and analysis. Due to its relatively low cost and ease of operation in comparison to other more sophisticated techniques, DLS is the primary choice of instrumentation for analyzing the size and size distribution of nanoparticle suspensions. However, many DLS users are unfamiliar with the principles behind the DLS measurement and are unware of some of the intrinsic limitations as well as the unique capabilities of this technique. The lack of sufficient understanding of DLS often leads to inappropriate experimental design and misinterpretation of the data. In this study, we performed DLS analyses on a series of citrate-stabilized AuNPs with diameters ranging from 10 to 100 nm. Our study shows that the measured hydrodynamic diameters of the AuNPs can vary significantly with concentration and incident laser power. The scattered light intensity of the AuNPs has a nearly sixth order power law increase with diameter, and the enormous scattered light intensity of AuNPs with diameters around or exceeding 80 nm causes a substantial multiple scattering effect in conventional DLS instruments. The effect leads to significant errors in the reported average hydrodynamic diameter of the AuNPs when the measurements are analyzed in the conventional way, without accounting for the multiple scattering. We present here some useful methods to obtain the accurate hydrodynamic size of the AuNPs using DLS. We also demonstrate and explain an extremely powerful aspect of DLS-its exceptional sensitivity in detecting gold nanoparticle aggregate formation, and the use of this unique capability for chemical and biological sensing applications. PMID:27472008

  8. Robust IR Remote Sensing Technique of the Total Column of Trace Gases Including Carbon Dioxide and Methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgieva, E. M.; Heaps, W. S.

    2011-01-01

    Progress on the development of a differential radiometer based upon the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) for methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (C02) detection in the atmosphere is presented. Methane measurements are becoming increasingly important as a component of NASA's programs to understand the global carbon cycle and quantifY the threat of global warming. Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas in the Earth's radiation budget (after water vapor and carbon dioxide) and the second most important anthropogenic contributor to global warming. The importance of global warming and air quality to society caused the National Research Council to recommend that NASA develop the following missions [1]: ASCENDS (Active Sensing of C02 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons), GEOCAPE (Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events), and GACM (Global Atmosphere Composition Mission). Though methane measurements are not specifically called out in these missions, ongoing environmental changes have raised the importance of understanding the methane budget. In the decadal survey is stated that "to close the carbon budget, we would also address methane, but the required technology is not obvious at this time. If appropriate and cost-effective methane technology becomes available, we strongly recommend adding a methane capability". In its 2007 report the International Panel on Climate Change identified methane as a key uncertainty in our understanding saying that the causes of recent changes in the growth rate of atmospheric CH4 are not well understood. What we do know is that methane arises from a number of natural sources including wet lands and the oceans plus man made sources from agriculture, as well as coal and petroleum production and distribution. It has recently been pointed out that large amount of methane are frozen in the permafrost of Canada and Siberia. There is a fear that melting of this permafrost driven by global warming may release large amounts of

  9. Relating Multi-Scale Phenology to Arctic Ecosystem Parameters Using Various High Spatial and Spectral Resolution Remote Sensing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, S. A.; Melendez, M.; Tweedie, C. E.; Oberbauer, S. F.

    2012-12-01

    The need to improve the spatial and temporal scaling and extrapolation of plot level ecosystem properties and processes to the landscape level remains a persistent research challenge in the Arctic. Plant and landscape phenology is sensitive to a number of variable environmental factors such as soil moisture, temperature, and radiation. Seasonal and inter-annual environmental differences in these factors and phenology can affect surface energy and carbon balance and reflectance. Therefore improved scaling and extrapolation of phenological dynamics from the plot level to the landscape level is key to further understanding the impact of climate and other environmental change in arctic terrestrial ecosystems. This study contributes to the US Arctic Observing Network and focuses on a range of remotely sensed spectral indices derived from ground-based hyperspectral reflectance, time-lapse photography, kite aerial photography (KAP), and satellite imagery during the 2010-2012 snow free periods for the Networked Info-Mechanical Systems (NIMS) grids (2 x 50 meters) located in Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska. Range of greenness indices have been calculated for different vegetation types (i.e. dry, moist, wet, aquatic) within each site. Preliminary results show that NDVI values acquired from ground based hyperspectral reflectance show similar seasonal and interannual trends as the 2G-RB index values derived for both the KAP and time-lapse time series photography for both study locations. An increase in peak season NDVI and 2G-RB values for dry, moist, and wet vegetation types were seen between the years of 2011 and 2012 for ground reflectance and KAP platforms in Barrow. While peak season 2G-RB values for dry, moist, and wet vegetation types increased using the time-lapse images between the years of 2011 and 2012 in Atqasuk. Intercomparison with high spatial resolution satellite imagery is on going. Plot level measurements have provided detailed insight into a range of ecosystem

  10. Mapping of Moho and Moho Transition Zone (MTZ) in Samail ophiolites of Sultanate of Oman using remote sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, Sankaran; Nasir, Sobhi

    2015-08-01

    Moho and Moho Transition Zone (MTZ) of the Samail ophiolite of Sultanate of Oman are characteristic to potential occurrences of chromite deposit, hydrothermal mineralization and serpentinization. Mapping of Moho and MTZ, and discriminating them in between the mafic and ultramafic rocks in ophiolite sequence are more significant and important. The present study describes the remote sensing spectral characters of minerals and rocks of the Moho and MTZ and discriminates the Moho of Wadi Al Abyad of Nakhl massif, and Wadi Nidab and Wadi Abda regions of Sumail massif in the visible and near infrared (VNIR), and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) spectral regions using low-cost multispectral satellite data of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). Results of this study show that the red-green-blue (RGB) color composite images of ASTER spectral bands 8, 3 and 1, and 8, 7 and 4 are able to delineate the Moho and MTZ of the regions. The RGB images of ASTER band ratios (4/8, 4/1, 3/2 * 4/3 and (1 + 3)/2, (4 + 6)/5, (7 + 9)/8) are capable to discriminate the mantle material (ultramafic harzburgites) and crustal rocks (mafic gabbros). The occurrence of such rock types is demonstrated by detection of their minerals using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) image processing method. The presence of Moho and MTZ, and associated lithologies are verified in field at Wadi Al Abyad, Wadi Nidab, Wadi Abda, Wadi Tayin, Wadi Fizh and several locations of Nakhl regions of Samail ophiolites. The laboratory study shows the occurrence of typical minerals namely olivine, orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in the harzburgite and the minerals such as plagioclase, clinopyroxene, hornblende, orthopyroxene and olivine in the layered gabbro. The spectral properties of the rocks are studied using Portable Infrared Mineral Analyzer (PIMA) spectrometer and the occurrences of minerals are confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. This study demonstrates the sensor

  11. A Geostatistical Data Fusion Technique for Merging Remote Sensing and Ground-Based Observations of Aerosol Optical Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Michalak, Anna M.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Paradise, Susan R.; Braverman, Amy J.; Miller, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Particles in the atmosphere reflect incoming sunlight, tending to cool the Earth below. Some particles, such as soot, also absorb sunlight, which tens to warm the ambient atmosphere. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a measure of the amount of particulate matter in the atmosphere, and is a key input to computer models that simulate and predict Earth's changing climate. The global AOD products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), both of which fly on the NASA Earth Observing System's Terra satellite, provide complementary views of the particles in the atmosphere. Whereas MODIS offers global coverage about four times as frequent as MISR, the multi-angle data makes it possible to separate the surface and atmospheric contributions to the observed top-of-atmosphere radiances, and also to more effectively discriminate particle type. Surface-based AERONET sun photometers retrieve AOD with smaller uncertainties than the satellite instruments, but only at a few fixed locations. So there are clear reasons to combine these data sets in a way that takes advantage of their respective strengths. This paper represents an effort at combining MISR, MODIS and AERONET AOD products over the continental US, using a common spatial statistical technique called kriging. The technique uses the correlation between the satellite data and the "ground-truth" sun photometer observations to assign uncertainty to the satellite data on a region-by-region basis. The larger fraction of the sun photometer variance that is duplicated by the satellite data, the higher the confidence assigned to the satellite data in that region. In the Western and Central US, MISR AOD correlation with AERONET are significantly higher than those with MODIS, likely due to bright surfaces in these regions, which pose greater challenges for the single-view MODIS retrievals. In the east, MODIS correlations are higher, due to more frequent sampling

  12. Himalayan glaciers: Combining remote sensing, field techniques and indigenous knowledge to understand spatio-temporal patterns of glacier changes and their impact on water resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racoviteanu, Adina

    With contradictory statements about "disappearing Himalayan glaciers" in the last few years, increasing concerns have been raised about the impact of snow and glacier changes on regional water supplies. Concomitantly, local communities in the western Himalaya report changes in glacier extents, snow cover and weather patterns. In response to perceived water scarcity, indigenous Himalayan cultures have begun a number of adaptive responses such as meltwater harvesting to construct "artificial" glaciers. This research addresses the need for a detailed assessment of glacier and climate parameters in the Himalaya, with the goal of identifying "at risk" glacierized areas and helping these local communities plan future water resources. The objectives of the research are threefold: 1) to review existing knowledge about glacier fluctuations and remote sensing methods for glacier mapping in the Himalaya; 3) to quantify spatio-temporal patterns of glacier changes in the eastern Himalaya in the last decades using remote sensing techniques and field measurements and 3) to quantify the role of glacier melt to streamflow using a combination of remote sensing and isotopic techniques. This thesis focuses on the monsoon-influenced eastern Himalaya (the Langtang and Khumbu regions in the Nepal Himalaya, and Sikkim in the Indian Himalaya). The research is grounded in extensive field surveys conducted from 2006 to 2010 across the Himalaya, including glacier mass balance expeditions, water sampling, ground-control point (GCP) acquisition and GPS-enabled photos. The goal of this research is to understand how topographic and climatic factors influence the rates of glacier change at various spatial scales, and how these changes re likely to affect future water resources. Multi-temporal (decadal) glacier datasets were derived from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor, Landsat ETM+, older topographic maps, declassified Corona imagery and very high

  13. A practical method of determining water current velocities and diffusion coefficients in coastal waters by remote sensing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    A simplified procedure is presented for determining water current velocities and diffusion coefficients. Dye drops which form dye patches in the receiving water are made from an aircraft. The changes in position and size of the patches are recorded from two flights over the area. The simplified data processing procedure requires only that the ground coordinates about the dye patches be determined at the time of each flight. With an automatic recording coordinatograph for measuring coordinates and a computer for processing the data, this technique provides a practical method of determining circulation patterns and mixing characteristics of large aquatic systems. This information is useful in assessing the environmental impact of waste water discharges and for industrial plant siting.

  14. Uncertainties associated with the use of optical remote sensing technique to estimate surface emissions in landfill applications.

    PubMed

    Abichou, Tarek; Clark, Jeremy; Tan, Sze; Chanton, Jeffery; Hater, Gary; Green, Roger; Goldsmith, Doug; Barlaz, Morton A; Swan, Nathan

    2010-04-01

    Landfills represent a source of distributed emissions source over an irregular and heterogeneous surface. In the method termed "Other Test Method-10" (OTM-10), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed a method to quantify emissions from such sources by the use of vertical radial plume mapping (VRPM) techniques combined with measurement of wind speed to determine the average emission flux per unit area per time from nonpoint sources. In such application, the VRPM is used as a tool to estimate the mass of the gas of interest crossing a vertical plane. This estimation is done by fitting the field-measured concentration spatial data to a Gaussian or some other distribution to define a plume crossing the vertical plane. When this technique is applied to landfill surfaces, the VRPM plane may be within the emitting source area itself. The objective of this study was to investigate uncertainties associated with using OTM-10 for landfills. The spatial variability of emission in the emitting domain can lead to uncertainties of -34 to 190% in the measured flux value when idealistic scenarios were simulated. The level of uncertainty might be higher when the number and locations of emitting sources are not known (typical field conditions). The level of uncertainty can be reduced by improving the layout of the VRPM plane in the field in accordance with an initial survey of the emission patterns. The change in wind direction during an OTM-10 testing setup can introduce an uncertainty of 20% of the measured flux value. This study also provides estimates of the area contributing to flux (ACF) to be used in conjunction with OTM-10 procedures. The estimate of ACF is a function of the atmospheric stability class and has an uncertainty of 10-30%. PMID:20437781

  15. Using remote sensing and GIS techniques to estimate discharge and recharge fluxes for the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Agnese, F. A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.; ,

    1996-01-01

    The recharge and discharge components of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system were defined by techniques that integrated disparate data types to develop a spatially complex representation of near-surface hydrological processes. Image classification methods were applied to multispectral satellite data to produce a vegetation map. The vegetation map was combined with ancillary data in a GIS to delineate different types of wetlands, phreatophytes and wet playa areas. Existing evapotranspiration-rate estimates were used to calculate discharge volumes for these area. An empirical method of groundwater recharge estimation was modified to incorporate data describing soil-moisture conditions, and a recharge potential map was produced. These discharge and recharge maps were readily converted to data arrays for numerical modelling codes. Inverse parameter estimation techniques also used these data to evaluate the reliability and sensitivity of estimated values.The recharge and discharge components of the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system were defined by remote sensing and GIS techniques that integrated disparate data types to develop a spatially complex representation of near-surface hydrological processes. Image classification methods were applied to multispectral satellite data to produce a vegetation map. This map provided a basis for subsequent evapotranspiration and infiltration estimations. The vegetation map was combined with ancillary data in a GIS to delineate different types of wetlands, phreatophytes and wet playa areas. Existing evapotranspiration-rate estimates were then used to calculate discharge volumes for these areas. A previously used empirical method of groundwater recharge estimation was modified by GIS methods to incorporate data describing soil-moisture conditions, and a recharge potential map was produced. These discharge and recharge maps were readily converted to data arrays for numerical modelling codes. Inverse parameter

  16. Analysis of anthropogenic impacts on the hydrological state of a Pleistocene catchment area using remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuschner, Annette; Merz, Christoph; Steidl, Jörg; van Gasselt, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The water budget of a catchment area can be depicted by the complex interaction between topography and discharge as well as anthropogenic and climatic impacts. Over the last decades, the Pleistocene lowlands of North-Eastern Germany have experienced extensive anthropogenic modifications. The hydrological system has been significantly altered by the installation of artificial drainage, such as surface ditches and subsurface tile drains. It has been shown, that artificial drainage systems provide pathways for diffuse nutrients and pollutants leaching into surface and also subsurface water bodies, which is especially pronounced in lowland areas. The detection of these transport paths is important for obtaining an understanding of the regional water and substance balance and the development of strategies to improve hydrological conditions. Unfortunately, detailed data about locations of historic artificial drainage are rare or not available at all. The aim of this study was to identify the extensive anthropogenic modifications, like artificial drainage networks and land use changes, over the last decades with the aid of photogrammetric data and multispectral imagery. The detection of anthropogenic modifications is based on the method of Tetzlaff, et al. (2009), who developed an approach by interpreting aerial photographs for drained areas. We used color-infrared (CIR) aerial photographs, in order to apply different spectral techniques for obtaining information about water content and vitality status of plant cover. Although this method is sensitive to daily variations of soil moisture and plant growth as response to climate conditions, and the type of drainage pipe installation technique, we were able to identify different locations of artificial drainage. Complementary to this approach we utilized spectral classification methods for land cover in order to extract different land cover categories, and evaporation rates, depending on the land cover and surface

  17. Remote sensing of submerged habitats in the Dry Tortugas: A comparison of multiple sensors and classification techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Donald William

    The advent of high resolution satellite imagery from platforms such as IKONOS, QuickBird, and OrbView, as well as host of new suborbital sensors has opened up new possibilities for mapping submerged coral, seagrass and algal communities. The research presented here examined the use of two of these platforms, IKONOS and QuickBird, as well as scanned aerial photographs, to map submerged habitats in the Dry Tortugas. Of the two satellite imagery sources, only QuickBird was tasked and imagery obtained specifically for this research. Upon examination and initial processing of the QuickBird imagery, it was discovered that an image anomaly, that will be referred to in this document as the green band miscalibration, had significant effects on some aspects of the image processing. To date, this anomaly has received no attention in the literature. Based mostly on issues associated with the green band miscalibration and the steps taken in this project to address them, the following document has two major areas of focus. After a brief introduction in Chapter one, Chapter 2 examines the use of the IKONOS and QuickBird imagery to obtain bathymetry information for the study area. Chapter 3 examines the use of the three image processing techniques on IKONOS and QuickBird imagery and manual interpretation of 1:24,000 nominal scale color aerial photography to classify submerged coral, seagrass, and algal habitats in the Dry Tortugas study area.

  18. New optical sensing technique of tissue viability and blood flow based on nanophotonic iterative multi-plane reflectance measurements

    PubMed Central

    Yariv, Inbar; Haddad, Menashe; Duadi, Hamootal; Motiei, Menachem; Fixler, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Physiological substances pose a challenge for researchers since their optical properties change constantly according to their physiological state. Examination of those substances noninvasively can be achieved by different optical methods with high sensitivity. Our research suggests the application of a novel noninvasive nanophotonics technique, ie, iterative multi-plane optical property extraction (IMOPE) based on reflectance measurements, for tissue viability examination and gold nanorods (GNRs) and blood flow detection. The IMOPE model combines an experimental setup designed for recording light intensity images with the multi-plane iterative Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm for reconstructing the reemitted light phase and calculating its standard deviation (STD). Changes in tissue composition affect its optical properties which results in changes in the light phase that can be measured by its STD. We have demonstrated this new concept of correlating the light phase STD and the optical properties of a substance, using transmission measurements only. This paper presents, for the first time, reflectance based IMOPE tissue viability examination, producing a decrease in the computed STD for older tissues, as well as investigating their organic material absorption capability. Finally, differentiation of the femoral vein from adjacent tissues using GNRs and the detection of their presence within blood circulation and tissues are also presented with high sensitivity (better than computed tomography) to low quantities of GNRs (<3 mg). PMID:27785024

  19. Evaluation of remote-sensing techniques to measure decadal-scale changes of Hofsjokull ice cap, Iceland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S.; Barton, J.S.; Sigurdsson, O.; Smith, L.C.; Garvin, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic surficial changes and changes in the position of the firn line and the areal extent of Hofsjökull ice cap, Iceland, were studied through analysis of a time series (1973–98) of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and Landsat data. A digital elevation model of Hofsjökull, which was constructed using SAR interferometry, was used to plot the SAR backscatter coefficient (σ°) vs elevation and air temperature along transects across the ice cap. Seasonal and daily σ° patterns are caused by freezing or thawing of the ice-cap surface, and abrupt changes in σ° are noted when the air temperature ranges from ∼−5° to 0°C. Late-summer 1997 σ° (SAR) and reflectance (Landsat) boundaries agree and appear to be coincident with the firn line and a SAR σ° boundary that can be seen in the January 1998 SAR image. In January 1994 through 1998, the elevation of this σ° boundary on the ice capwas quite stable, ranging from 1000 to 1300 m, while the equilibrium-line altitude, as measured on the ground, varied considerably. Thus the equilibrium line may be obscured by firn from previous years. Techniques are established to measure long-term changes in the elevation of the firn line and changes in the position of the ice margin.

  20. Modified Conditional Merging technique: a new method to estimate a rainfall field combining remote sensed data and raingauge observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignone, Flavio; Rebora, Nicola; Silvestro, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The estimation of the rainfall field, especially its spatial distribution and position, is a crucial task both for rainfall nowcasting and for modeling catchment response to rainfall. Some studies of literature about multisensor datafusion prove that combining data from different sensors (especially raingauges and radar) represents the best way to obtain an enhanced ad more reliable estimation of QPE and of the associated river discharge. Sinclair and Peagram (2004) have proposed the Conditional Merging (CM) technique, a merging algorithm which extract the information content from the observed data and use it within an interpolation method to obtain the rainfall maps. The raingauges provide a punctual measure of the observed "real" rainfall while the remote sensors (radar network or satellite constellation) supply rainfall estimation maps which give an idea of the spatial correlation structure of the observed field. In this work is studied an enhanced algorithm based on CM, called Modified Conditional Merging, which can be used in real-time to produce the optimal rainfall maps. The area of interest, where the CM has been applied, is Italy, where are both available a dense network of raingauge measurements (about 3000 stations) and a QPE estimated by the Italian Radar composite. The main innovation respect to classical CM is to estimate the structure of covariance and the length of spatial correlation λ, for every raingauge, directly from the cumulated radar rainfall fields. The advantages of this method is to estimate the local characteristic of the domain to obtain information at smaller scale, very useful for convective events. A cross-validation of the new method was done and several statistical scores were applied on the results. The validation on a large number of Italian past event along with its operational use are presented and discussed.

  1. Diachronic analysis of salt-affected areas using remote sensing techniques: the case study of Biskra area, Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrasinei, Gabriela M.; Melis, Maria T.; Buttau, Cristina; Bradd, John M.; Arras, Claudio; Ghiglieri, Giorgio

    2015-10-01

    In the Wadi Biskra arid and semi-arid area, sustainable development is limited by land degradation, such as secondary salinization of soils. As an important high quality date production region of Algeria, it needs continuous monitoring of desertification indicators, since the bio-physical setting defines it as highly exposed to climate-related risks. For this particular study, for which little ground truth data was possible to acquire, we set up an assessment of appropriate methods for the identification and change detection of salt-affected areas, involving image interpretation and processing techniques employing Landsat imagery. After a first phase consisting of a visual interpretation study of the land cover types, two automated classification approaches were proposed and applied for this specific study: decision tree classification and principal components analysis (PCA) of Knepper ratios. Five of the indices employed in the Decision Tree construction were set up within the current study, among which we propose a salinity index (SMI) for the extraction of highly saline areas. The results of the 1984 to 2014 diachronic analysis of salt - affected areas variation were supported by the interpreted land cover map for accuracy estimation. Connecting the outputs with auxiliary bio-physical and socio-economic data, comprehensive results are discussed, which were indispensable for the understanding of land degradation dynamics and vulnerability to desertification. One aspect that emerged was the fact that the expansion of agricultural land in the last three decades may have led and continue to contribute to a secondary salinization of soils. This study is part of the WADIS-MAR Demonstration Project, funded by the European Commission through the Sustainable Water Integrated Management (SWIM) Program (www.wadismar.eu).

  2. In situ spectrometric and chemical measurements of methane emissions from a natural marine hydrocarbon seep field, Coal Oil Point, California: Validation of methane remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luyendyk, B. P.; Leifer, I.; Roberts, D.; Margolis, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Remote sensing techniques can significantly improve our understanding of the sources and sinks of the important greenhouse gas methane. Field and laboratory studies used spectral and in-situ chemical measurements of geologic methane plumes from natural marine seepage and radiative-transfer calculations to test the feasibility of using NASA's Airborne Visual/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) for methane remote sensing of this marine source. Based on numerical MODTRAN simulations, the spectral region between 2200 and 2340 nm was chosen for its sensitivity to CH4 with mild sensitivity to water vapor interference. During one marine field study, an intense seep area was repeatedly transected by boat using flame ion detectors (FID) to characterize the methane plume along with detailed meteorological measurements. Based on a Gaussian plume dispersion model for 3 m/s wind speed, methane column-abundances were calculated and showed a plume with methane concentrations greater than 0.5 g/m2 extending downwind 70 m with a 20 m width, much larger than the 3 to 5 m AVIRIS pixel size. Most of the methane was in the lower 10 m. MODTRAN calculations showed this to be well above the noise equivalent detection level of AVIRIS. During a separate field study, FIDs at three heights above the sea surface (2.2, 3.6, and 5 m) measured methane concentrations as high as 200 ppm while transecting an active seep area. Simultaneous spectra were obtained with a field spectrometer. Several plumes were identified from the FID data and a clear relationship was shown between the presence of methane plumes along the incident path and the presence of methane absorption features in spectra. Methane absorption features above atmospheric background were not observed outside the plumes.

  3. Au/Cr-ZnO-Ni structured metal-insulator-metal diode fabrication using Langmuir-Blodgett technique for infrared sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Ibrahim; Ram, Manoj K.; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias

    2016-05-01

    The thin nanolayer film of ZnO was synthesized through Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) organic precursor film. The zinc stearate monolayer was formed at air-water interface using zinc acetate as a subphase. The zinc stearate monolayers were deposited on silicon (Si), glass, and gold (Au)/chromium (Cr) plated Silicon (Si) substrates using LB technique. Later, the zinc stearate multilayers LB films on various substrates were annealed at two different temperatures (300oC and 550oC) for the fabrication of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanolayer film. The zinc stearate monolayers as well zinc oxide (ZnO) nanolayer films were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction techniques. The X-ray diffraction measurement has shown the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the ZnO nanolayer on the substrate. The average surface roughness was estimated to be 1.076 nm using AFM technique. The metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diode structure was realized by sandwiching ZnO nanolayer film between thin layer of Gold (Au)/Chromium (Cr) and Nickel (Ni) on silicon substrates. The electron tunneling conduction mechanism is understood through the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of MIM diode. The highest measured sensitivity magnitude of 20 in inverse of voltage (V-1) with rectification ratio of nearly 10 at +/-400 mV in MIM diode is an indicative of its potential application in infrared sensing applications. However, the thin film of ZnO synthesized using LB film as an insulating layer in metal-insulator-metal diode structure was studied for the first time.

  4. Assessment of the vegetation cover in a burned area 22-years ago using remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis (Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Remond, Ricardo; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.

    2015-04-01

    The study aim was to characterize the vegetation cover in a burned area 22-years ago considering the previous situation to wildfire in 1991 and the current one in 2013. The objectives were to: (i) compare the current and previous vegetation cover to widlfire; (ii) evaluate whether the current vegetation has recovered the previous cover to wildfire; and (iii) determine the spatial variability of vegetation recovery after 22-years since the wildfire. The study area is located in Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain. It corresponds to an area affected by a wildfire in August 8th, 1991. The burned area was equal to 8156 ha. The burn severity was spatially very high. The main geographic features of the burned area are: mountainous topography (altitudes ranging from 250 m to 1500 m; slope gradient >25%; exposure mainly southfacing); igneous (peridotites), metamorphic (gneiss) and calcareous rocks (limestones); and predominant forest land use (Pinus pinaster sp. woodlands, 10%; pinus opened forest + shrubland, 40%; shrubland, 35%; and bare soil + grassland, 15%). Remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis has been applied to achieve the objectives. Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images were used: July 13th, 1991 and July 1st, 2013, for the previous wildfire situation and 22-years after, respectively. The 1990 CORINE land cover was also considered to map 1991 land uses prior the wildfire. Likewise, the Andalucía Regional Government wildfire historic records were used to select the burned area and its geographical limit. 1991 and 2013 land cover map were obtained by means of object-oriented classifications. Also, NDVI and PVI1 vegetation indexes were calculated and mapped for both years. Finally, some images transformations and kernel density images were applied to determine the most recovered areas and to map the spatial concentration of bare soil and pine cover areas in 1991 and 2013, respectively. According to the results, the combination of remote sensing and GIS analysis let

  5. Additional development of remote sensing techniques for observing morphology, microphysics, and radiative properties of clouds and tests using a new, robust CO{sub 2} lidar. Annual progress report, August 15, 1994--August 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhard, W.L.; Intrieri, J.M.; Brewer, W.A.

    1996-04-01

    The bulk morphology and microphysical characteristics of a cloud are both important in determining the cloud`s effect on radiative transfer. A better understanding of all these properties, and the links among them, are needed for developing adequate parameterizations of these components in climate models. The objective of this project is to develop remote sensing techniques for observing key cloud properties, including the linkages. The research has technique development and instrument development prongs.

  6. Delineation of groundwater potential zones in the Comoro watershed, Timor Leste using GIS, remote sensing and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Domingos; Shrestha, Sangam; Babel, Mukand S.; Ninsawat, Sarawut

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater plays an important role for socio-economic development of Comoro watershed in Timor Leste. Despite the significance of groundwater for sustainable development, it has not always been properly managed in the watershed. Therefore, this study seeks to identify groundwater potential zones in the Comoro watershed, using geographical information systems and remote sensing and analytic hierarchy process technique. The groundwater potential zones thus obtained were divided into five classes and validated with the recorded bore well yield data. It was found that the alluvial plain in the northwest along the Comoro River has very high groundwater potential zone which covers about 5.4 % (13.5 km2) area of the watershed. The high groundwater potential zone was found in the eastern part and along the foothills and covers about 4.8 % (12 km2) of the area; moderate zone covers about 2.0 % (5 km2) of the area and found in the higher elevation of the alluvial plain. The poor and very poor groundwater potential zone covers about 87.8 % (219.5 km2) of the watershed. The hilly terrain located in the southern and central parts of the study area has a poor groundwater potential zone due to higher degree of slope and low permeability of conglomerate soil type. The demarcation of groundwater potential zones in the Comoro watershed will be helpful for future planning, development and management of the groundwater resources.

  7. Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques to Detect Changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet Conservation Area in the Western Cape, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, P.; Lewarne, M.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and identifying the spatial-temporal changes in the natural environment is crucial for monitoring and evaluating conservation efforts, as well as understanding the impact of human activities on natural resources, informing responsible land management, and promoting better decision-making. Conservation areas are often under pressure from expanding farming and related industry, invasive alien vegetation, and an ever-increasing human settlement footprint. This study focuses on detecting changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet commonage, near Ceres in the Cape Floral Kingdom. It was chosen for its high conservation value and significance as a critical water source area. The study area includes a fast-growing human settlement footprint in a highly productive farming landscape. There are conflicting development needs as well as risks to agricultural production, and both of these threaten the integrity of the ecosystems which supply underlying services to both demands on the land. Using a multi-disciplinary approach and high-resolution satellite imagery, land use and land cover changes can be detected and classified, and the results used to support the conservation of biodiversity and wildlife, and protect our natural resources. The aim of this research is to study the efficacy of using remote sensing and GIS techniques to detect changes to critical conservation areas where disturbances can be understood, and therefore better managed and mitigated before these areas are degraded beyond repair.

  8. Assessment of the soil water balance by the combination of cosmic ray neutron sensing and eddy covariance technique in an irrigated citrus orchard (Marrakesh, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroos, Katja; Baroni, Gabriele; Er-Raki, Salah; Francke, Till; Khabba, Said; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine; Oswald, Sascha E.

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation water requirement plays a crucial role in many agricultural areas and especially in arid and semi-arid landscapes. Improvements in the water management and the performance of the irrigation systems require a correct evaluation of the hydrological processes involved. However, some difficulties can arise due to the heterogeneity of the soil-plant system and of the irrigation scheme. To overcome these limitations, in this study, the soil water balance is analyzed by the combination of the Eddy Covariance technique (EC) and Cosmic Ray neutron Sensing (CRS). EC provides the measurement of the actual evapotranspiration over the area as it was presented in many field conditions. Moreover CRS showed to be a valuable approach to measure the root zone soil moisture integrated in a footprint of ~30 ha. In this way, the combination of the two methodologies should provide a better analysis of the soil water balance at field scale, as opposed to point observations, e.g. by TDR, evaporimeter and fluxmeter. Then, this could increase the capability to assess the irrigation efficiency and the agricultural water management. The study is conducted in a citrus orchard situated in a semi-arid region, 30 km southwest of Marrakesh (Morocco). The site is flat and planted with trees of same age growing in parallel rows with drip irrigation lines and application of fertilizer and pesticides. The original soil seems modified on the surface by the agricultural use, creating differences between trees, rows and lines. In addition, the drip irrigation creates also a spatial variability of the water flux distribution in the field, making this site an interesting area to test the methodology. Particular attention is given to the adaptation of the standard soil sampling campaign used for the calibration of the CRS and the introduction of a weighing function. Data were collected from June to December 2013, which corresponds to the high plant transpiration. Despite the intention of the

  9. Assessment of the Accuracy of the Conventional Ray-Tracing Technique: Implications in Remote Sensing and Radiative Transfer Involving Ice Clouds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping; Liu, Chao; Yi, Bingqi; Baum, Bryan A.; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Iwabuchi, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem in remote sensing and radiative transfer simulations involving ice clouds is the ability to compute accurate optical properties for individual ice particles. While relatively simple and intuitively appealing, the conventional geometric-optics method (CGOM) is used frequently for the solution of light scattering by ice crystals. Due to the approximations in the ray-tracing technique, the CGOM accuracy is not well quantified. The result is that the uncertainties are introduced that can impact many applications. Improvements in the Invariant Imbedding T-matrix method (II-TM) and the Improved Geometric-Optics Method (IGOM) provide a mechanism to assess the aforementioned uncertainties. The results computed by the II-TMþIGOM are considered as a benchmark because the IITM solves Maxwell's equations from first principles and is applicable to particle size parameters ranging into the domain at which the IGOM has reasonable accuracy. To assess the uncertainties with the CGOM in remote sensing and radiative transfer simulations, two independent optical property datasets of hexagonal columns are developed for sensitivity studies by using the CGOM and the II-TMþIGOM, respectively. Ice cloud bulk optical properties obtained from the two datasets are compared and subsequently applied to retrieve the optical thickness and effective diameter from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements. Additionally, the bulk optical properties are tested in broadband radiative transfer (RT) simulations using the general circulation model (GCM) version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG) that is adopted in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM, version 5.1). For MODIS retrievals, the mean bias of uncertainties of applying the CGOM in shortwave bands (0.86 and 2.13 micrometers) can be up to 5% in the optical thickness and as high as 20% in the effective diameter, depending on cloud optical

  10. Remote Sensing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The applications are reported of new remote sensing techniques for earth resources surveys and environmental monitoring. Applications discussed include: vegetation systems, environmental monitoring, and plant protection. Data processing systems are described.

  11. Satellite based remote sensing technique as a tool for real time monitoring of leaf retention in natural rubber plantations affected by abnormal leaf fall disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep, B.; Meti, S.; James, J.

    2014-11-01

    Most parts of the traditional natural rubber growing regions of India, extending from Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu in the South to Kasaragod district of Kerala in the North received excess and prolonged rains during 2013. This led to severe incidence of Abnormal Leaf Fall (ALF) disease caused by the fungus, Phytophthora sp. The present study demonstrated the first time use of satellite remote sensing technique to monitor ALF disease by estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI) in natural rubber holdings in near real time. Leaf retention was monitored in between April and December 2012 and 2013 by estimating LAI using MODIS 15A2 product covering rubber holdings spread across all districts in the traditional rubber growing region of the country that was mapped using Resourcesat LISS III 2012 and 2013 data. It was found that as the monsoon advanced, LAI decreased substantially in both years, but the reduction was much more substantial and prolonged in many districts during 2013 than 2012 reflecting increased leaf fall due to ALF disease in 2013. The decline was more pronounced in central and northern Kerala than in the South. Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu is generally known to be free from ALF disease, but there was considerable leaf loss due to ALF in June 2012 and June and July 2013 even as the monsoon was unusually severe in 2013. Weighted mean LAI during for the entire period of April to December was estimated as a weighted average of LAI and per cent of total area under rubber in each district in the study area for the two years. This was markedly less in 2013 than 2012. The implications of poor leaf retention for biomass production (net primary productivity), carbon sequestration and rubber yield are discussed.

  12. Floods and wetlands: combining a water-balance model and remote-sensing techniques to characterize hydrological processes of ecological importance in the Tana River Delta (Kenya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leauthaud, C.; Duvail, S.; Belaud, G.; Moussa, R.; Grünberger, O.; Albergel, J.

    2012-10-01

    The Tana River Delta (TRD) provides a multitude of ecosystem services for the local communities including fishing, farming and livestock keeping. The hydrological regime of its river determines for a large part the environmental health of the delta. The development of upstream irrigation schemes and hydroelectric infrastructure can seriously impact the ecological status of the TRD. The Tana Inundation Model (TIM) presented here is the first known hydrological model of the TRD. Using it, we quantify essential hydrological variables of ecological importance for 2002-2011 such as flood extent and duration, flood timing and frequency, flood peaks and water height. TIM also provides an annual water balance. The model simulates river inflows and outflows, precipitation, overland flow, evapotranspiration and infiltration. The TRD is characterized by scarce hydrological data and a high cloud cover limiting the use of many remote sensing techniques. The methodology therefore combined a conventional water-balance analysis with the extraction of inundation extents from MODIS satellite imagery at a medium spatial and temporal resolution. In non extreme years and for the actual configuration of the Tana River, the flooded area exceeds 560 km2. Floods over 200 km2 occur approximately every two years, with a mean duration of less than 25 days. River discharge from the upper catchment counts for over 96% of the total water inflow. This study provides the first known estimates of these variables for the Tana River Delta and is therefore primordial for the management of the water and other natural resources of the zone. The hydrological model based on the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) is generic enough to be applied to other catchments with scarce hydrological data.

  13. A comparison of two above-ground biomass estimation techniques integrating satellite-based remotely sensed data and ground data for tropical and semiarid forests in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iiames, J. S.; Riegel, J.; Lunetta, R.

    2013-12-01

    Two above-ground forest biomass estimation techniques were evaluated for the United States Territory of Puerto Rico using predictor variables acquired from satellite based remotely sensed data and ground data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) program. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated above-ground forest biomass implementing methodology first posited by the Woods Hole Research Center developed for conterminous United States (National Biomass and Carbon Dataset [NBCD2000]). For EPA's effort, spatial predictor layers for above-ground biomass estimation included derived products from the U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Dataset 2001 (NLCD) (landcover and canopy density), the USGS Gap Analysis Program (forest type classification), the USGS National Elevation Dataset, and the NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (tree heights). In contrast, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) biomass product integrated FIA ground-based data with a suite of geospatial predictor variables including: (1) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)-derived image composites and percent tree cover; (2) NLCD land cover proportions; (3) topographic variables; (4) monthly and annual climate parameters; and (5) other ancillary variables. Correlations between both data sets were made at variable watershed scales to test level of agreement. Notice: This work is done in support of EPA's Sustainable Healthy Communities Research Program. The U.S EPA funded and conducted the research described in this paper. Although this work was reviewed by the EPA and has been approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy. Mention of any trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

  14. Monitoring urban land cover with the use of satellite remote sensing techniques as a means of flood risk assessment in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, Dimitris; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Agapiou, Athos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Retalis, Adrianos

    2011-11-01

    The increase of flood inundation occuring in different regions all over the world have enhanced the need for effective flood risk management. As floods frequency is increasing with a steady rate due to ever increasing human activities on physical floodplains there is a respectively increasing of financial destructive impact of floods. A flood can be determined as a mass of water that produces runoff on land that is not normally covered by water. However, earth observation techniques such as satellite remote sensing can contribute toward a more efficient flood risk mapping according to EU Directives of 2007/60. This study strives to highlight the need of digital mapping of urban sprawl in a catchment area in Cyprus and the assessment of its contribution to flood risk. The Yialias river (Nicosia, Cyprus) was selected as case study where devastating flash floods events took place at 2003 and 2009. In order to search the diachronic land cover regime of the study area multi-temporal satellite imagery was processed and analyzed (e.g Landsat TMETM+, Aster). The land cover regime was examined in detail by using sophisticated post-processing classification algorithms such as Maximum Likelihood, Parallelepiped Algorithm, Minimum Distance, Spectral Angle and Isodata. Texture features were calculated using the Grey Level Co-Occurence Matrix. In addition three classification techniques were compared : multispectral classification, texture based classification and a combination of both. The classification products were compared and evaluated for their accuracy. Moreover, a knowledge-rule method is proposed based on spectral, texture and shape features in order to create efficient land use and land cover maps of the study area. Morphometric parameters such as stream frequency, drainage density and elongation ratio were calculated in order to extract the basic watershed characteristics. In terms of the impacts of land use/cover on flooding, GIS and Fragstats tool were used to

  15. Monitoring land use changes in the Upper Ganga Basin, India by using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques on Landsat 5 TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsarouchi, Georgia-Marina; Buytaert, Wouter

    2013-04-01

    The Green Revolution represents one of the largest environmental changes in India over the last century. The Upper Ganga basin is experiencing rapid rates of change of land use and irrigation practices. In combination with exploitation of groundwater resources in the northern Indian plains, this causes variations in recharge and fundamentally affects surface and groundwater resources, threatening India's water supplies. In this study, we have developed a methodology to map and investigate land-use change by applying Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques on 30m resolution multi-temporal Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for 1984, 1998 and 2010. Firstly, an automated protocol was applied to effectively correct the images for radiometric effects and remove atmospheric interference during the pre-processing analysis of satellite images. Afterwards, maximum likelihood supervised classifications were carried out on Landsat 5 TM colour composites of 1984, 1998 and 2010 with the aid of ground truth data. Post-classification change detection techniques were applied to Landsat images in order to map land cover changes in the Upper Ganga basin. Change vectors of NDVI and Tasseled Cap brightness, greenness and wetness of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images are compared with those values from the initial date of imagery to detect change from no change. Ground truth information and historic images were used to assess the accuracy of the classification results. We find that most of the land-use change is conversion from forest and barren land to agricultural areas. Results indicate that between 1984 and 2010 agricultural areas have increased by more than 150% while forest areas decreased by 28%. The classification accuracy is also examined. Results confirm the importance of field-based accuracy assessment to identify problems in a land-use map and to improve area estimates for each class. The results quantify the land cover change patterns in the

  16. Advanced Remote Sensing Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna

    2008-01-01

    'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).

  17. Innovative sensing techniques and data analysis for characterizing the spatial and temporal dynamics of soil moisture patterns at the hillslope scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Edoardo; Wollschläger, Ute; Kögler, Simon; Behrens, Thorsten; Dietrich, Peter; Reinstorf, Frido; Schmidt, Karsten; Weiler, Markus; Werban, Ulrike; Zacharias, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a critical role in every hydrological or meteorological model; nevertheless, it is still a great challenge to provide adequate information on soil moisture distribution beyond the point scale. Mobile geophysical methods such as electromagnetic induction (EMI) have been widely used for mapping soil water content at the field scale with high spatial resolution. Recent advances in wireless sensor technology allow monitoring of soil moisture dynamics with high temporal resolution at varying scales. The objective of this study was to characterize the spatio-temporal pattern of soil moisture at the hillslope scale and infer the controlling hydrological processes, integrating well established and innovative sensing techniques, as well as new statistical methods. We combined soil hydrological and pedological expertise with geophysical measurements and methods from digital soil mapping for designing the monitoring setup of a wireless sensor network for a grassland hillslope in the Schäfertal catchment, Central Germany. At the same site, we measured soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) using EMI devices. Hypothesizing a wet and a dry soil moisture state to be characteristic of the spatial pattern of soil moisture, we tested a new method of analysis based on the Spearman rank correlation coefficient for describing the spatial and temporal evolution of such patterns. Based on this approach, we described the persistence and switching mechanisms of the two characteristic states, inferring the local properties that control the observed spatial patterns and the hydrological processes driving the transitions. The method showed to provide valuable insight into the persistence of characteristic states of soil moisture and the mechanisms of transition, and to be suitable for highlighting events for which specific hydrological processes occurred. The spatial organization of soil moisture was observed to be controlled by different processes in different soil

  18. Optimizing nitrogen management for soft red winter wheat yield, grain protein, and grain quality using precision agriculture and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrer, Dianne Carter

    The purpose of this research was to improve the management of soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in North Carolina. There were three issues addressed; the quality of the grain as affected by delayed harvest, explaining grain protein variability through nitrogen (N) management, and developing N recommendations at growth stage (GS) 30 using aerial color infrared (CIR) photography. The impact of delayed harvest on grain yield, test weight, grain protein, and 20 milling and baking quality parameters was studied in three trials in 2002 and three trials in 2003. Yield was significantly reduced in three out of five trials due to dry, warm environments, possibly indicating shattering. Test weights were significantly reduced in five out of six trials and were positively correlated to the number of precipitation events and to the number of days between harvests, indicating the negative effects of wetting and drying cycles. Grain protein was not affected by delayed harvest. Of the 20 quality parameters investigated, flour falling number, clear flour, and farinograph breakdown times were significantly reduced due to delayed harvest, while grain deoxynivalenol (DON) levels increased with a delayed harvest. Grain protein content in soft red winter wheat is highly variable across years and environments. A second study examined the effects of different nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates and times of application on grain protein variability. Seven different environments were utilized in this study. Though environment contributed about 23% of grain protein variability, the majority of that variability (52%) was attributed to N management. It was found that as grain protein levels increased at higher N rates, so did overall protein variability as indicated by the three stability indexes employed. In addition, applying the majority of total N at growth stage (GS) 30 decreased grain protein stability. Site-specific N management systems using remote sensing techniques can

  19. A technique for monitoring SO2 in combustion exhausts: Use of a non-Nernstian sensing element in combination with an upstream catalytic filter

    SciTech Connect

    West, David L; Montgomery, Fred C; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    Detection of sulfur dioxide (SO2) at high temperature (600 750 oC) in the presence of some interferents found in typical combustion exhausts (oxides of nitrogen (NO2 and NO, "NOx"), CO2, CO, and hydrocarbon (C3H6)) is described. The detection scheme involves use of a catalytic filter in front of a non-Nernstian sensing element. The catalytic filter was a Ni:Cr powder bed operating at 850 oC and the sensing elements were pairs of platinum (Pt) and oxide (Ba-promoted copper chromite ((Ba,Cu)xCryOz) and Sr-modified lanthanum ferrite (LSF)) electrodes on yttria-stabilized zirconia. The Ni:Cr powder bed was capable of reducing the sensing element response to NOx, CO, and C3H6, but the presence of NOx (100 ppm by volume) still interfered with the SO2 response of the Pt-(Ba,Cu)xCryOz sensing element at 600 oC, causing approximately a 7 mV (20%) reduction in the response to 120 ppm SO2 and a response equivalent to about 20 ppm SO2 in the in the absence of SO2. The Pt-LSF sensing element, operated at 750 oC, did not suffer from this NOx interference but at the cost of a reduced SO2 response magnitude (120 ppm SO2 yielded ~10 mV, in contrast to ~30 mV for the Pt-(Ba,Cu)xCryOz sensing element). The powder bed and Pt-LSF sensing element were operated continuously over approximately 350 hours, and the response to SO2 drifted downward by about 7%, with most of this change occurring during the initial 100 hours of operation.

  20. Boundary Layer Remote Sensing with Combined Active and Passive Techniques: GPS Radio Occultation and High-Resolution Stereo Imaging (WindCam) Small Satellite Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannucci, A.J.; Wu, D.L.; Teixeira, J.; Ao, C.O.; Xie, F.; Diner, D.J.; Wood, R.; Turk, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Objective: significant progress in understanding low-cloud boundary layer processes. This is the Single largest uncertainty in climate projections. Radio occultation has unique features suited to boundary layer remote sensing (1) Cloud penetrating (2) Very high vertical resolution (approximately 50m-100m) (3) Sensitivity to thermodynamic variables

  1. Development of steady-state electrical-heating fluorescence-sensing (SEF) technique for thermal characterization of one dimensional (1D) structures by employing graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiang; Li, Changzheng; Yue, Yanan; Xie, Danmei; Xue, Meixin; Hu, Niansu

    2016-11-01

    A fluorescence signal has been demonstrated as an effective implement for micro/nanoscale temperature measurement which can be realized by either direct fluorescence excitation from materials or by employing nanoparticles as sensors. In this work, a steady-state electrical-heating fluorescence-sensing (SEF) technique is developed for the thermal characterization of one-dimensional (1D) materials. In this method, the sample is suspended between two electrodes and applied with steady-state Joule heating. The temperature response of the sample is monitored by collecting a simultaneous fluorescence signal from the sample itself or nanoparticles uniformly attached on it. According to the 1D heat conduction model, a linear temperature dependence of heating powers is obtained, thus the thermal conductivity of the sample can be readily determined. In this work, a standard platinum wire is selected to measure its thermal conductivity to validate this technique. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are employed as the fluorescence agent for temperature sensing. Parallel measurement by using the transient electro-thermal (TET) technique demonstrates that a small dose of GQDs has negligible influence on the intrinsic thermal property of platinum wire. This SEF technique can be applied in two ways: for samples with a fluorescence excitation capability, this method can be implemented directly; for others with weak or no fluorescence excitation, a very small portion of nanoparticles with excellent fluorescence excitation can be used for temperature probing and thermophysical property measurement.

  2. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.; Mouat, D. A.; Miller, D. A.; Conn, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    The activities and accomplishments of the Applied Remote Sensing Program during FY 1975-1976 are reported. The principal objective of the Applied Remote Sensing Program continues to be designed projects having specific decision-making impacts as a principal goal. These projects are carried out in cooperation and collaboration with local, state and federal agencies whose responsibilities lie with planning, zoning and environmental monitoring and/or assessment in the application of remote sensing techniques. The end result of the projects is the use by the involved agencies of remote sensing techniques in problem solving.

  3. The Role of Combination Techniques in Maximizing the Utility of Precipitation Estimates from Several Multi-Purpose Remote-Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Bolvin, David T.; Curtis, Scott; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Multi-purpose remote-sensing products from various satellites have proved crucial in developing global estimates of precipitation. Examples of these products include low-earth-orbit and geosynchronous-orbit infrared (leo- and geo-IR), Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR), Television Infrared Operational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) data, and passive microwave data such as that from the Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/I). Each of these datasets has served as the basis for at least one useful quasi-global precipitation estimation algorithm; however, the quality of estimates varies tremendously among the algorithms for the different climatic regions around the globe.

  4. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Entekhabi, Dara

    1994-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture... This Paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods.

  5. Synergistic Effects of a Combination of Cr2O3-Functionalization and UV-Irradiation Techniques on the Ethanol Gas Sensing Performance of ZnO Nanorod Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunghoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Jin, Changhyun; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Lee, Sangmin; Lee, Chongmu

    2016-02-01

    There have been very few studies on the effects of combining two or more techniques on the sensing performance of nanostructured sensors. Cr2O3-functionalized ZnO nanorods were synthesized using carbothermal synthesis involving the thermal evaporation of a mixture of ZnO and graphite powders followed by a solvothermal process for Cr2O3-functionalization. The ethanol gas-sensing properties of multinetworked pristine and Cr2O3-functionalized ZnO nanorod sensors under UV illumination were examined to determine the effects of combining Cr2O3-ZnO heterostructure formation and UV irradiation on the gas-sensing properties of ZnO nanorods. The responses of the pristine and Cr2O3-functionalized ZnO nanorod sensors to 200 ppm of ethanol at room temperature by UV illumination at 2.2 mW/cm(2) were increased by 3.8 and 7.7 times, respectively. The Cr2O3-functionalized ZnO nanorod sensor also showed faster response/recovery and better selectivity than those of the pristine ZnO nanorod sensor at the same ethanol concentration. This result suggests that a combination heterostructure formation and UV irradiation had a synergistic effect on the gas-sensing properties of the sensor. The synergistic effect might be attributed to the catalytic activity of Cr2O3 for ethanol oxidation as well as to the increased change in conduction channel width accompanying adsorption and desorption of ethanol under UV illumination due to the presence of Cr2O3 nanoparticles in the Cr2O3-functionalized ZnO nanorod sensor. PMID:26751000

  6. Remote Sensing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    Remotely sensed data allows archeologists and historic preservationists the ability to non-destructively detect phenomena previously unobservable to them. Archeologists have successfully used aerial photography since the turn of the century and it continues to be an important research tool today. Multispectral scanners and computer-implemented analysis techniques extend the range of human vision and provides the investigator with innovative research designs at scales previously unimaginable. Pioneering efforts in the use of remote sensing technology have demonstrated its potential, but it is the recent technological developments in remote sensing instrumentation and computer capability that provide for unlimited, cost-effective applications in the future. The combination of remote sensing, Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are radically altering survey, inventory, and modelling approaches.

  7. COMET: a planned airborne mission to simultaneously measure CO2 and CH4 columns using airborne remote sensing and in-situ techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fix, A.; Amediek, A.; Büdenbender, C.; Ehret, G.; Wirth, M.; Quatrevalet, M.; Rapp, M.; Gerilowski, K.; Bovensmann, H.; Gerbig, C.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Zöger, M.; Giez, A.

    2013-12-01

    To better predict future trends in the cycles of the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases, CO2 and CH4, there is a need to measure and understand their distribution and variation on various scales. To address these requirements it is envisaged to deploy a suite of state-of-the-art airborne instruments that will be capable to simultaneously measure the column averaged dry-air mixing ratios (XGHG) of both greenhouse gases along the flight path. As the measurement platform serves the research aircraft HALO, a modified Gulfstream G550, operated by DLR. This activity is dubbed CoMet (CO2 and Methane Mission). The instrument package of CoMet will consist of active and passive remote sensors as well as in-situ instruments to complement the column measurements by highly-resolved profile information. As an active remote sensing instrument CHARM-F, the integrated-path differential absorption lidar currently under development at DLR, will provide both, XCO2 and XCH4, below flight altitude. The lidar instrument will be complemented by MAMAP which is a NIR/SWIR absorption spectrometer developed by University of Bremen and which is also capable to derive XCH4 and XCO2. As an additional passive instrument, mini-DOAS operated by University of Heidelberg will contribute with additional context information about the investigated air masses. In order to compare the remote sensing instruments with integrated profile information, in-situ instrumentation is indispensable. The in-situ package will therefore comprise wavelength-scanned Cavity-Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) for the detection of CO2, CH4, CO and H2O and a flask sampler for collection of atmospheric samples and subsequent laboratory analysis. Furthermore, the BAsic HALO Measurement And Sensor System (BAHAMAS) will provide an accurate set of meteorological and aircraft state parameters for each scientific flight. Within the frame of the first CoMet mission scheduled for the 2015 timeframe it is planned to concentrate

  8. Water area variations in seasonal lagoons from the Biosphere Reserve of "La Mancha Húmeda" (Spain) determined by remote sensing classification methods and data mining techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dona, Carolina; Niclòs, Raquel; Chang, Ni-Bin; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Camacho, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    La Mancha Húmeda is a wetland-rich area located in central Spain that was designated as a Biosphere reserve in 1980. This area includes several dozens of temporal lagoons, mostly saline, whose water level fluctuates and usually become dry during the warmest season. Water inflows into these lagoons come from both runoff of very small catchment and, in some cases, from groundwater although some of them also receive wastewater from nearby towns. Most lack surface outlets and they behave as endorheic systems, with the main water withdrawal due to evaporation causing salt accumulation in the lake beds. Under several law protection coverage additional to that of Biosphere Reserve, including Ramsar and Natura 2000 sites, management plans are being developed in order to accomplish the goals enforced by the European Water Framework Directive and the Habitats Directive, which establish that all EU countries have to achieve a good ecological status and a favorable conservation status of these sites, and especially of their water bodies. A core task to carry out the management plans is the understanding of the hydrological trend of these lagoons with a sound monitoring scheme. To do so, an estimation of the temporal evolution of the flooded area for each lagoon, and its relationship with meteorological patterns, which can be achieved using remote sensing technologies, is a key procedure. The current study aims to develop a remote sensing methodology capable of estimating the changing water coverage areas in each lagoon with satellite remote sensing images and ground truth data sets. ETM+ images onboard Landsat-7 were used to fulfill this goal. These images are useful to monitor small-to-medium size water bodies due to its 30-m spatial resolution. In this work several methods were applied to estimate the wet and dry pixels, such as water and vegetation indexes, single bands, supervised classification methods and genetic programming. All of the results were compared with ground

  9. EDITORIAL: Integrated non-invasive sensing techniques and geophysical methods for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage Integrated non-invasive sensing techniques and geophysical methods for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, N.; Soldovieri, F.

    2011-09-01

    In the last two decades, the use of non-invasive methods for the study and conservation of cultural heritage, from artefacts and historical sites to recent architectural structures, has gained increasing interest. This is due to several reasons: (i) the improvement of performance and information resolution of sensors and devices; (ii) the increasing availability of user-friendly data/image analysis, and processing software and routines; (iii) the ever greater awareness of archaeologists and conservators of the benefits of these technologies, in terms of reduction of costs, time and the risk associated with direct and destructive investigations of archaeological sites (excavation) and monuments (i.e. masonry coring). The choice of diagnostic strategy depends on the spatial and physical characteristics of the cultural objects or sites, the aim of the investigation (knowledge, conservation, restoration) and the issues to be addressed (monitoring, decay assessment, etc). This makes the set up and validation of ad hoc procedures based on data processing and post-processing methods necessary, generally developed to address issues in other fields of application. This methodological perspective based on an integrated and multi-scale approach characterizes the papers of this special issue, which is focused on integrated non-invasive sensing techniques and geophysical methods for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage. In particular, attention is given to the advanced application of the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) from the satellite-based platform for deformation monitoring thanks to the innovative differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) technique; Zeni et al show the significant possibilities of the proposed methodology in achieving a global vision not only of cultural heritage but also of the embedding territory. This collection also deals with the application of non-invasive diagnostics to archaeological prospecting, and

  10. Dynamic Monitoring of Soil and Water Losses Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques: a Case Study of Jialing River, Yangtze River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Zhu, Y. J.; Li, G. E.; Zhu, Y. Q.; Li, R. H.; Wang, L.; Wu, Y. J.

    2016-06-01

    Water and soil loss problems are serious in China, especially in the upper and middle reaches of big rivers. This paper dynamically observed water and soil loss in key control regions in Jialing River Basin. Based on remotely sensed images, the method used in this paper is a combination of field investigation and indoor artificial interpretation under the technologies of RS and GIS. The method was proven to be effective of improving the accuracy of interpreting. The result shows the land use types of the researched regions and how they changed among the previous years. Evaluation of water and soil conservation was made. This result can provide references for further policy-making and water and soil loss controlling.

  11. Using remote sensing technique for analyzing temporal changes of seagrass beds by human impacts in waters of Cam Ranh Bay, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh Thu, Phan; Hoang Son, Tong Phuoc; Komatsu, Teruhisa

    2012-10-01

    Seagrass beds/meadows are very productive ecosystems with high biodiversities. However, they have been degraded under high pressures of human activities. Combining depth-invariance index and ground-truthing, distribution of seagrass beds in Cam Ranh Bay was identified by analyses of multi-remote sensing images such as LANDSAT, SPOT and ALOS AVNIR-2. Although coverage of seagrass meadows was1178 ha, the seagrass meadows were being degraded by illegal fishing methods, aquaculture and discharges from industries and living domestics. The reducing ratio of seagrass coverage has been increased in recent years. While the depth-invariance index method would help to detect the areas of seagrass beds, this method requires combination of field trip and absorption library methods to increase classification accuracy. Final maps of the status and changes of seagrass beds could help to integrate the sustainable development of economy with protection of natural resources.

  12. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques applied to the noninvasive investigation of mural paintings: a feasibility study carried out on a wall painting by Beato Angelico in Florence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucci, Costanza; Picollo, Marcello; Chiarantini, Leandro; Sereni, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays hyperspectral imaging is a well-established methodology for the non-invasive diagnostics of polychrome surfaces, and is increasingly utilized in museums and conservation laboratories for documentation purposes and in support of restoration procedures. However, so far the applications of hyperspectral imaging have been mainly limited to easel paintings or paper-based artifacts. Indeed, specifically designed hyperspectral imagers, are usually used for applications in museum context. These devices work at short-distances from the targets and cover limited size surfaces. Instead, almost still unexplored remain the applications of hyperspectral imaging to the investigations of frescoes and large size mural paintings. For this type of artworks a remote sensing approach, based on sensors capable of acquiring hyperspectral data from distances of the order of tens of meters, is needed. This paper illustrates an application of hyperspectral remote sensing to an important wall-painting by Beato Angelico, located in the San Marco Museum in Florence. Measurements were carried out using a re-adapted version of the Galileo Avionica Multisensor Hyperspectral System (SIM-GA), an avionic hyperspectral imager originally designed for applications from mobile platforms. This system operates in the 400-2500 nm range with over 700 channels, thus guaranteeing acquisition of high resolution hyperspectral data exploitable for materials identification and mapping. In the present application, the SIM-GA device was mounted on a static scanning platform for ground-based applications. The preliminary results obtained on the Angelico's wall-painting are discussed, with highlights on the main technical issues addressed to optimize the SIM-GA system for new applications on cultural assets.

  13. Application of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, W. J. (Compiler)

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing and aerial photographic interpretation are discussed along with the specific imagery techniques used for this research. The method used to select sites, the results of data analyses for the Houston metropolitan area, and the location of dredging sites along the Houston Ship Channel are presented. The work proposed for the second year of the project is described.

  14. Additional development of remote sensing techniques for observing morphology, microphysics, and radiative properties of clouds and tests using a new, robust CO{sub 2} lidar. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhard, W.L.; Brewer, W.A.; Intrieri, J.M.

    1998-09-28

    A three-year project with a goal of advancing CO{sub 2} lidar technology and measurement techniques for cloud studies was successfully completed. An eyesafe, infrared lidar with good sensitivity and improved Doppler accuracy was designed, constructed, and demonstrated. Dual-wavelength operation was achieved. A major leap forward in robustness was demonstrated. CO{sub 2} lidars were operated as part of two Intensive Operations Periods at the Southern Great Plains CART site. The first used an older lidar and was intended primarily for measurement technique development. The second used the new lidar and was primarily a demonstration and evaluation of its performance. Progress was demonstrated in the development, evaluation, and application of measurement techniques using CO{sub 2} lidar.

  15. Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  16. Remote Sensing and the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosius, Craig A.; And Others

    This document is designed to help senior high school students study remote sensing technology and techniques in relation to the environmental sciences. It discusses the acquisition, analysis, and use of ecological remote data. Material is divided into three sections and an appendix. Section One is an overview of the basics of remote sensing.…

  17. Remote sensing in Virginia agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Newhouse, M. E.; Dunton, E. M., Jr.; Scott, J. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation, designed to develop and evaluate multispectral sensing techniques used in sensing agricultural crops, is described. Initial studies were designed to detect plant species and associated diseases, soil variations, and cultural practices under natural environment conditions. In addition, crop varieties, age, spacing, plant height, percentage of ground cover, and plant vigor are determined.

  18. Near-earth orbital guidance and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    The curriculum of a short course in remote sensing and parameter optimization is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) basics of remote sensing and the user community, (2) multivariant spectral analysis, (3) advanced mathematics and physics of remote sensing, (4) the atmospheric environment, (5) imaging sensing, and (6)nonimaging sensing. Mathematical models of optimization techniques are developed.

  19. The computer treatment of remotely sensed data: An introduction to techniques which have geologic applications. [image enhancement and thematic classification in Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Paradella, W. R.; Vitorello, I.

    1982-01-01

    Several aspects of computer-assisted analysis techniques for image enhancement and thematic classification by which LANDSAT MSS imagery may be treated quantitatively are explained. On geological applications, computer processing of digital data allows, possibly, the fullest use of LANDSAT data, by displaying enhanced and corrected data for visual analysis and by evaluating and assigning each spectral pixel information to a given class.

  20. Local bleaching thresholds established by remote sensing techniques vary among reefs with deviating bleaching patterns during the 2012 event in the Arabian/Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Shuail, Dawood; Wiedenmann, Jörg; D'Angelo, Cecilia; Baird, Andrew H; Pratchett, Morgan S; Riegl, Bernhard; Burt, John A; Petrov, Peter; Amos, Carl

    2016-04-30

    A severe bleaching event affected coral communities off the coast of Abu Dhabi, UAE in August/September, 2012. In Saadiyat and Ras Ghanada reefs ~40% of the corals showed signs of bleaching. In contrast, only 15% of the corals were affected on Delma reef. Bleaching threshold temperatures for these sites were established using remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST) data recorded by MODIS-Aqua. The calculated threshold temperatures varied between locations (34.48 °C, 34.55 °C, 35.05 °C), resulting in site-specific deviations in the numbers of days during which these thresholds were exceeded. Hence, the less severe bleaching of Delma reef might be explained by the lower relative heat stress experienced by this coral community. However, the dominance of Porites spp. that is associated with the long-term exposure of Delma reef to elevated temperatures, as well as the more pristine setting may have additionally contributed to the higher coral bleaching threshold for this site.

  1. Local bleaching thresholds established by remote sensing techniques vary among reefs with deviating bleaching patterns during the 2012 event in the Arabian/Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Shuail, Dawood; Wiedenmann, Jörg; D'Angelo, Cecilia; Baird, Andrew H; Pratchett, Morgan S; Riegl, Bernhard; Burt, John A; Petrov, Peter; Amos, Carl

    2016-04-30

    A severe bleaching event affected coral communities off the coast of Abu Dhabi, UAE in August/September, 2012. In Saadiyat and Ras Ghanada reefs ~40% of the corals showed signs of bleaching. In contrast, only 15% of the corals were affected on Delma reef. Bleaching threshold temperatures for these sites were established using remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST) data recorded by MODIS-Aqua. The calculated threshold temperatures varied between locations (34.48 °C, 34.55 °C, 35.05 °C), resulting in site-specific deviations in the numbers of days during which these thresholds were exceeded. Hence, the less severe bleaching of Delma reef might be explained by the lower relative heat stress experienced by this coral community. However, the dominance of Porites spp. that is associated with the long-term exposure of Delma reef to elevated temperatures, as well as the more pristine setting may have additionally contributed to the higher coral bleaching threshold for this site. PMID:26971815

  2. Modeling tropical land-use and land-cover change related to sugarcane crops using remote sensing and soft computing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, L. E.; Koga-Vicente, A.; Friedel, M. J.; Zullo, J.; Victoria, D.; Gomes, D.; Bayma, G.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture is closely related to land-use/cover changes (LUCC). The increase in demand for ethanol necessitates the expansion of areas occupied by corn and sugar cane. In São Paulo state, the conversion of this land raises concern for impacts on food security, such as the decrease in traditional food crop production areas. We used remote sensing data to train and evaluate future land-cover scenarios using a machine-learning algorithm. The land cover classification procedure was based on Landsat 5 TM images, obtained from the Global Land Survey, covering three time periods over twenty years (1990 - 2010). Landsat images were segmented into homogeneous objects, which represent areas on the ground with similar spatial and spectral characteristics. These objects are related to the distinct land cover types that occur in each municipality. Based on the object shape, texture and spectral characteristics, land use/cover was visually identified, considering the following classes: sugarcane plantations, pasture lands, natural cover, forest plantation, permanent crop, short cycle crop, water bodies and urban areas. Results for the western regions of São Paulo state indicate that sugarcane crop area advanced mostly upon pasture areas with few areas of food crops being replaced by sugarcane.

  3. Development of alternative data analysis techniques for improving the accuracy and specificity of natural resource inventories made with remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The applicability of digital LANDSAT data in updating the Minnesota Lake Land Management Information System and in assessing the trophic status of lakes was investigated. Data from various combinations of training, classification, and geometric correction techniques were compared to a photointerpreted reference data set consisting of ground-verified samples and six randomly selected photographs covering approximately one quarter of the study area. For a reconnaissance inventory, the training via polygons selected from aerial photographs with a canonical analysis minimum distance classifier is the most accurate and efficient analysis technique. The applications test project resulted in disappointing thematic classification results per se, but did contribute to the development of mechanisms for implementing a LANDSAT data processing capability in the State Planning Agency on a permanent basis.

  4. Assessment of some remote sensing techniques used to detect land use/land cover changes in South-East Transilvania, Romania.

    PubMed

    Vorovencii, Iosif

    2014-05-01

    This paper assesses the image differencing technique for the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the second principal component (PC2), and the TM 4 band (TM 4), as well as the post-classification comparison (PCC) in order to analyze the land use/land cover changes in the South-East Transilvania, Romania. The analysis was performed using two frames from Landsat 5 TM satellite images acquired on August 5, 1993 and July 24, 2009. After applying the NDVI, PC2, and TM 4 image differencing techniques, the images obtained were transformed into change/no change maps. The thresholds identified to highlight the changes were set at 0.6 s for NDVI and 0.7 s for PC2 and TM 4. Before applying the PCC technique, the satellite images were classified through the supervised classification method. The overall accuracy obtained was 85.91 % and the kappa statistics 0.8249 for 1993, 88.18 % and 0.8497 for 2009, respectively. The assessment of the changes detection methods in the studied area shows that the first place is occupied by NDVI image differencing with an overall accuracy of 83.80 %, followed by PCC method with 83.20 %, PC2 difference with an overall accuracy of 81.60 %, and TM 4 difference with an overall accuracy of 79.40 %.

  5. Assessment of some remote sensing techniques used to detect land use/land cover changes in South-East Transilvania, Romania.

    PubMed

    Vorovencii, Iosif

    2014-05-01

    This paper assesses the image differencing technique for the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the second principal component (PC2), and the TM 4 band (TM 4), as well as the post-classification comparison (PCC) in order to analyze the land use/land cover changes in the South-East Transilvania, Romania. The analysis was performed using two frames from Landsat 5 TM satellite images acquired on August 5, 1993 and July 24, 2009. After applying the NDVI, PC2, and TM 4 image differencing techniques, the images obtained were transformed into change/no change maps. The thresholds identified to highlight the changes were set at 0.6 s for NDVI and 0.7 s for PC2 and TM 4. Before applying the PCC technique, the satellite images were classified through the supervised classification method. The overall accuracy obtained was 85.91 % and the kappa statistics 0.8249 for 1993, 88.18 % and 0.8497 for 2009, respectively. The assessment of the changes detection methods in the studied area shows that the first place is occupied by NDVI image differencing with an overall accuracy of 83.80 %, followed by PCC method with 83.20 %, PC2 difference with an overall accuracy of 81.60 %, and TM 4 difference with an overall accuracy of 79.40 %. PMID:24323320

  6. Textbooks and technical references for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R. D.; Bowden, L. W.; Colwell, R. N.; Estes, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    A selective bibliography is presented which cites 89 textbooks, monographs, and articles covering introductory and advanced remote sensing techniques, photointerpretation, photogrammetry, and image processing.

  7. Advanced laser remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, J.; Czuchlewski, S.; Karl, R.

    1996-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Remote measurement of wind velocities is critical to a wide variety of applications such as environmental studies, weather prediction, aircraft safety, the accuracy of projectiles, bombs, parachute drops, prediction of the dispersal of chemical and biological warfare agents, and the debris from nuclear explosions. Major programs to develop remote sensors for these applications currently exist in the DoD and NASA. At present, however, there are no real-time, three-dimensional wind measurement techniques that are practical for many of these applications and we report on two new promising techniques. The first new technique uses an elastic backscatter lidar to track aerosol patterns in the atmosphere and to calculate three dimensional wind velocities from changes in the positions of the aerosol patterns. This was first done by Professor Ed Eloranta of the University of Wisconsin using post processing techniques and we are adapting Professor Eloranta`s algorithms to a real-time data processor and installing it in an existing elastic backscatter lidar system at Los Alamos (the XM94 helicopter lidar), which has a compatible data processing and control system. The second novel wind sensing technique is based on radio-frequency (RF) modulation and spatial filtering of elastic backscatter lidars. Because of their compactness and reliability, solid state lasers are the lasers of choice for many remote sensing applications, including wind sensing.

  8. Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  9. Coupling a hydro-maritime model and remotely sensed techniques to assess the shoreline positioning uncertainty: the Marsala coast study case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manno, Giorgio; Lo Re, Carlo; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Maltese, Antonino

    2010-10-01

    The severe erosion phenomena affecting the Mediterranean coasts are strictly related to geophysical characteristics and socio-economic pressures. This suggests the need of monitoring and modelling the phenomenon in order to quantify its strength. In fact, the shoreline position, as well as its temporal evolution, provides important information for designing defence structures and for the development of a coastal management plan. The shoreline has a dynamic nature as it changes both in the short and long period. Those changes are caused by geo-morphological (e.g. bars and barrier island development etc.) and hydrodynamic (wave motion, tides and flows) processes, as well as by sudden and fast events such as sea storms, earthquakes and tsunamis. The research examines the uncertainty in positioning the shoreline coupling remotely sensed images and a hydro-maritime model. Although the assessment accuracy strongly relies on data availability and consistency, the resulting assessment of the shoreline erosion and accretion is crucial for an overall understanding of the hydro-maritime geo-morphological interaction. The study case is the Marsala coastline (western coast of Sicily, Italy), named 12th island physiographic unit. It is characterized by a low coast with sandy sediments from Holocene age. These sediments are in continuity of sedimentation on whitish debris composed by organogenic limestone from Pleistocene age. The diachronic analysis was carried out on both emerged and submerged parts of the beach and involves two distinct phases. In the first phase, geo-morphological in situ data have been compared with maps and georeferenced remote sensing images referred to the period 1994-2006. It allowed the identification of shoreline indicators [2] such as the beach cross-section and the shoreline positioning including its spatial and temporal variations. It should be noted that the comparison between EO (Earth Observation) images and cartographic maps is subjected to

  10. Reconstructing landslide dynamics and characteristics using remote sensing data (photogrammetry, LiDAR and seismic data): comparison between different techniques and complementary data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torné, Marta; Guinau, Marta; Tapia, Mar; Perez, Cristina; Jesús Royan, Manuel; Echeverria, Anna; Roig, Pere; Suriñach, Emma

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the rock planar landslide that occurred in the village of La Riba (Catalonia) on May 5th 2013, using different techniques such as photogrammetry, terrestrial LiDAR data, and seismic data. Advantages and disadvantages of these techniques were evaluated. Back-analysis and characterization of landslides allow us to better understand their behaviour. This information could be used to protect areas affected by similar hazards. Remote techniques are an excellent tool to obtain data and to reduce the exposure of technicians in unstable (or inaccessible) areas. After the May 5th natural landslide, a controlled blasting was carried out to stabilize the slope. Using this programmed blasting as a benchmark, two photogrammetric models and two terrestrial LiDAR data models corresponding to the pre and post blast were made to compute the rock volume involved in the blast. The blasting process was recorded with two HD video cameras and by two temporary seismic stations deployed close to the site. Both the seismic and video records enabled us to reconstruct the details of the blasted landslide. The volumes obtained from seismic data were compared with the total volumes computed by LiDAR and photogrammetry. Moreover, information about the natural landslide was obtained from the records of a permanent seismic station 10 km from the site. Data such as the estimated fallen volume, the landslide mechanism and time of occurrence are information that would otherwise not be obtained. Six discontinuity families were detected and characterized in the rock slope using the photogrammetric and LiDAR models with a software developed by the Institut de Recerca de Geomodels of the Universitat de Barcelona. Similar results were obtained from the two models, but the higher point density of the LiDAR data enabled us to detect more discontinuity surfaces and in greater detail. The volume involved in the blast was calculated using two methods: 1) the

  11. Techniques for assessing water resource potentials in the developing countries: with emphasis on streamflow, erosion and sediment transport, water movement in unsaturated soils, ground water, and remote sensing in hydrologic applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George C.

    1971-01-01

    . Nuclear methodology in hydrologic applications is generally more complex than the conventional and hence requires a high level of technical expertise for effective use. Application of nuclear techniques to hydrologic problems in the developing countries is likely to be marginal for some years to come, owing to the higher costs involved and expertise required. Nuclear techniques, however, would seem to have particular promise in studies of water movement in unsaturated soils and of erosion and sedimentation where conventional techniques are inadequate, inefficient and in some cases costly. Remote sensing offers great promise for synoptic evaluations of water resources and hydrologic processes, including the transient phenomena of the hydrologic cycle. Remote sensing is not, however, a panacea for deficiencies in hydrologic data programs in the developing countries. Rather it is a means for extending and augmenting on-the-ground observations ans surveys (ground truth) to evaluated water resources and hydrologic processes on a regionall or even continental scale. With respect to economic growth goals in developing countries, there are few identifiable gaps in existing hydrologic instrumentation and methodology insofar as appraisal, development and management of available water resources are concerned. What is needed is acceleration of institutional development and professional motivation toward more effective use of existing and proven methodology. Moreover, much sophisticated methodology can be applied effectively in the developing countries only when adequate levels of indigenous scientific skills have been reached and supportive institutional frameworks are evolved to viability.

  12. In-Situ and Remote-Sensing Data Fusion Using Machine Learning Techniques to Infer Urban and Fire Related Pollution Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Segal-Rozenhaimer, M.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Flynn, C.J.; Johnson, R. R.; Dunagan, S. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Chatfield, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Airmass type characterization is key in understanding the relative contribution of various emission sources to atmospheric composition and air quality and can be useful in bottom-up model validation and emission inventories. However, classification of pollution plumes from space is often not trivial. Sub-orbital campaigns, such as SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) give us a unique opportunity to study atmospheric composition in detail, by using a vast suite of in-situ instruments for the detection of trace gases and aerosols. These measurements allow identification of spatial and temporal atmospheric composition changes due to various pollution plumes resulting from urban, biogenic and smoke emissions. Nevertheless, to transfer the knowledge gathered from such campaigns into a global spatial and temporal context, there is a need to develop workflow that can be applicable to measurements from space. In this work we rely on sub-orbital in-situ and total column remote sensing measurements of various pollution plumes taken aboard the NASA DC-8 during 2013 SEAC4RS campaign, linking them through a neural-network (NN) algorithm to allow inference of pollution plume types by input of columnar aerosol and trace-gas measurements. In particular, we use the 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) airborne measurements of wavelength dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD), particle size proxies, O3, NO2 and water vapor to classify different pollution plumes. Our method relies on assigning a-priori ground-truth labeling to the various plumes, which include urban pollution, different fire types (i.e. forest and agriculture) and fire stage (i.e. fresh and aged) using cluster analysis of aerosol and trace-gases in-situ and auxiliary (e.g. trajectory) data and the training of a NN scheme to fit the best prediction parameters using 4STAR measurements as input. We explore our

  13. Investigation of techniques for inventorying forested regions. Volume 2: Forestry information system requirements and joint use of remotely sensed and ancillary data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Cicone, R. C.; Malila, W. A.; Crist, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Effects of terrain topography in mountainous forested regions on LANDSAT signals and classifier training were found to be significant. The aspect of sloping terrain relative to the sun's azimuth was the major cause of variability. A relative insolation factor could be defined which, in a single variable, represents the joint effects of slope and aspect and solar geometry on irradiance. Forest canopy reflectances were bound, both through simulation, and empirically, to have nondiffuse reflectance characteristics. Training procedures could be improved by stratifying in the space of ancillary variables and training in each stratum. Application of the Tasselled-Cap transformation for LANDSAT data acquired over forested terrain could provide a viable technique for data compression and convenient physical interpretations.

  14. The GNSS polarimetric radio-occultation technique to sense precipitation events: a new concept to be tested aboard PAZ Low Earth Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomás, Sergio; Oliveras, Santi; Cardellach, Estel; Rius, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The Radio Occultation and Heavy Precipitation (ROHP) experiment, to be conducted aboard the Spanish PAZ satellite, consists of a radio occultation (RO) mission provided with dual-polarization capabilities. The research with polarimetric RO data has the goal of assessing the capabilities and limitations of this technique to infer profiles of heavy precipitation. The technique aims to provide vertical profiles of precipitation simultaneously to the vertical profiles of thermodynamic parameters (standard RO products) perfectly collocated both in space and time. If successful, the polarimetric RO will represent the first technique able to provide these complementary information on precipitation. This is a relevant input for studies on heavy and violent rainfall events, which being poorly represented by the current-generation of Numerical Weather Prediction and General Circulation Models appear to be difficult to forecast on all time-scales. The Low Earth Orbiter hosting this experiment, to be launched in 2013, will orbit at 500 km altitude in a near-Polar orbit. The Radio Occulation payload includes a RO GNSS receiver and a dual polarization (H/V) limb oriented antenna to capture the signals of setting GNSS transmitters. NOAA and UCAR participate in the ground-segment of the radiometric experiment to enable near-real time dissemination of the level-1 standard RO products. The space-based GNSS RO technique scans the atmosphere vertically at fine resolution (close to 300 meter in the troposphere) by precisely measure the delay between a GNSS transmitter and a GNSS receiver aboard a Low Earth Orbiter, when the former is setting below or rising above the Earth limb. The standard, thermodynamical, products are extracted from the excess delay induced by the atmosphere at different layers. This presentation will not focus on this well-established application, but a novel concept using polarimetry to also retrieve rain information. The precipitation-measurement principle is

  15. Remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor, liquid water and wind speed at the ocean surface by passive microwave techniques from the Nimbus-5 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1977-01-01

    The microwave brightness temperature measurements for Nimbus-5 electrically scanned microwave radiometer and Nimbus E microwave spectrometer are used to retrieve the atmospheric water vapor, liquid water and wind speed by a quasi-statistical retrieval technique. It is shown that the brightness temperature can be utilized to yield these parameters under various weather conditions. Observations at 19.35 GHz, 22.235 GHz and 31.4 GHz were input to the regression equations. The retrieved values of these parameters for portions of two Nimbus-5 orbits are presented. Then comparison between the retrieved parameters and the available observations on the total water vapor content and the surface wind speed are made. The estimated errors for retrieval are approximately 0.15 g/sq cm for water vapor content, 6.5 mg/sq cm for liquid water content and 6.6 m/sec for surface wind speed.

  16. 3-D visualisation of palaeoseismic trench stratigraphy and trench logging using terrestrial remote sensing and GPR - combining techniques towards an objective multiparametric interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneiderwind, S.; Mason, J.; Wiatr, T.; Papanikolaou, I.; Reicherter, K.

    2015-09-01

    Two normal faults on the Island of Crete and mainland Greece were studied to create and test an innovative workflow to make palaeoseismic trench logging more objective, and visualise the sedimentary architecture within the trench wall in 3-D. This is achieved by combining classical palaeoseismic trenching techniques with multispectral approaches. A conventional trench log was firstly compared to results of iso cluster analysis of a true colour photomosaic representing the spectrum of visible light. Passive data collection disadvantages (e.g. illumination) were addressed by complementing the dataset with active near-infrared backscatter signal image from t-LiDAR measurements. The multispectral analysis shows that distinct layers can be identified and it compares well with the conventional trench log. According to this, a distinction of adjacent stratigraphic units was enabled by their particular multispectral composition signature. Based on the trench log, a 3-D-interpretation of GPR data collected on the vertical trench wall was then possible. This is highly beneficial for measuring representative layer thicknesses, displacements and geometries at depth within the trench wall. Thus, misinterpretation due to cutting effects is minimised. Sedimentary feature geometries related to earthquake magnitude can be used to improve the accuracy of seismic hazard assessments. Therefore, this manuscript combines multiparametric approaches and shows: (i) how a 3-D visualisation of palaeoseismic trench stratigraphy and logging can be accomplished by combining t-LiDAR and GRP techniques, and (ii) how a multispectral digital analysis can offer additional advantages and a higher objectivity in the interpretation of palaeoseismic and stratigraphic information. The multispectral datasets are stored allowing unbiased input for future (re-)investigations.

  17. Assessing the response of seasonal variation of net primary productivity to climate using remote sensing data and geographic information system techniques in Xinjiang.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dai-Liang; Huang, Jing-Feng; Cai, Cheng-Xia; Deng, Rui; Xu, Jun-Feng

    2008-12-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is a key component of energy and matter transformation in the terrestrial ecosystem, and the responses of NPP to global change locally and regionally have been one of the most important aspects in climate-vegetation relationship studies. In order to isolate causal climatic factors, it is very important to assess the response of seasonal variation of NPP to climate. In this paper, NPP in Xinjiang was estimated by NOAA/AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. The impact of climatic factors (air temperature, precipitation and sunshine percentage) on seasonal variations of NPP was studied by time lag and serial correlation ageing analysis. The results showed that the NPP for different land cover types have a similar correlation with any one of the three climatic factors, and precipitation is the major climatic factor influencing the seasonal variation of NPP in Xinjiang. It was found that the positive correlation at 0 lag appeared between NPP and precipitation and the serial correlation ageing was 0 d in most areas of Xinjiang, which indicated that the response of NPP to precipitation was immediate. However, NPP of different land cover types showed significant positive correlation at 2 month lag with air temperature, and the impact of which could persist 1 month as a whole. No correlation was found between NPP and sunshine percentage.

  18. A review of ocean color remote sensing methods and statistical techniques for the detection, mapping and analysis of phytoplankton blooms in coastal and open oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondeau-Patissier, David; Gower, James F. R.; Dekker, Arnold G.; Phinn, Stuart R.; Brando, Vittorio E.

    2014-04-01

    The need for more effective environmental monitoring of the open and coastal ocean has recently led to notable advances in satellite ocean color technology and algorithm research. Satellite ocean color sensors' data are widely used for the detection, mapping and monitoring of phytoplankton blooms because earth observation provides a synoptic view of the ocean, both spatially and temporally. Algal blooms are indicators of marine ecosystem health; thus, their monitoring is a key component of effective management of coastal and oceanic resources. Since the late 1970s, a wide variety of operational ocean color satellite sensors and algorithms have been developed. The comprehensive review presented in this article captures the details of the progress and discusses the advantages and limitations of the algorithms used with the multi-spectral ocean color sensors CZCS, SeaWiFS, MODIS and MERIS. Present challenges include overcoming the severe limitation of these algorithms in coastal waters and refining detection limits in various oceanic and coastal environments. To understand the spatio-temporal patterns of algal blooms and their triggering factors, it is essential to consider the possible effects of environmental parameters, such as water temperature, turbidity, solar radiation and bathymetry. Hence, this review will also discuss the use of statistical techniques and additional datasets derived from ecosystem models or other satellite sensors to characterize further the factors triggering or limiting the development of algal blooms in coastal and open ocean waters.

  19. Application of Spectral Analysis Techniques in the Intercomparison of Aerosol Data: 1. an EOF Approach to the Spatial-Temporal Variability of Aerosol Optical Depth Using Multiple Remote Sensing Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    Many remote sensing techniques and passive sensors have been developed to measure global aerosol properties. While instantaneous comparisons between pixel-level data often reveal quantitative differences, here we use Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis, also known as Principal Component Analysis, to demonstrate that satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) data sets exhibit essentially the same spatial and temporal variability and are thus suitable for large-scale studies. Analysis results show that the first four EOF modes of AOD account for the bulk of the variance and agree well across the four data sets used in this study (i.e., Aqua MODIS, Terra MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS). Only SeaWiFS data over land have slightly different EOF patterns. Globally, the first two EOF modes show annual cycles and are mainly related to Sahara dust in the northern hemisphere and biomass burning in the southern hemisphere, respectively. After removing the mean seasonal cycle from the data, major aerosol sources, including biomass burning in South America and dust in West Africa, are revealed in the dominant modes due to the different interannual variability of aerosol emissions. The enhancement of biomass burning associated with El Niño over Indonesia and central South America is also captured with the EOF technique.

  20. Remote Sensing in Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Thomas P.

    1983-01-01

    Describes general concepts of remote sensing and provides three examples of how its techniques have been used in the context of environmental issues. Examples focus on the use of this data gathering technique in the visible (aerial photography), near infrared, and thermal infrared ranges. (JN)

  1. Remote sensing. [land use mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jinich, A.

    1979-01-01

    Various imaging techniques are outlined for use in mapping, land use, and land management in Mexico. Among the techniques discussed are pattern recognition and photographic processing. The utilization of information from remote sensing devices on satellites are studied. Multispectral band scanners are examined and software, hardware, and other program requirements are surveyed.

  2. Mapping and analyzing Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) enrollment patterns from 1991 to 2011 in Nelson County, North Dakota, using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehrdanz, Nicholas L.

    Since its inception in 1985, the federally managed Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) has contributed to land-use/land-cover change (LUCC) in areas throughout North Dakota. Concurrently, the Devils Lake Basin and surrounding Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) in North Dakota has experienced pervasive lake and wetland flooding. Unsurprisingly, a clustering of CRP enrollment in certain counties within the basin has occurred, seemingly coinciding with the flooding. Analysis of historical county-level CRP enrollment data pertaining to counties in North Dakota revealed that Nelson County, which is partially within the basin, has developed as a CRP hotspot in the state and has had the greatest increase in the density of CRP acreage amongst the counties in the region. We hypothesize that this high enrollment is the response of farmers losing arable lands and/or field access to the rising waters in the region, thus making CRP enrollment an economically viable option. This study uses Landsat data and GIS analysis to document LUCC and the forces driving it associated with CRP grassland and pervasive lake and wetland flooding in Nelson County. Because CRP field locations are not available from the federal government, we used multi-temporal classification techniques (three scenes per year) to derive land-cover maps from Landsat Thematic Mapper data for five growing seasons (1984, 1991, 1998, 2005, and 2011). We mapped CRP grassland at more than 90% accuracy with validation data derived from interpretation of historical aerial photography and, in the case of 2011, data gathered in the field. LUCC change analysis was done using raster GIS. We found an increase in the amount of CRP grassland in the study area between 1991 (19,688 ha) and 2005 (35,612 ha) and then a decline to 2011 (27,856 ha). Spatial analysis revealed a clustering of CRP in 1991 in the Sheyenne and Goose river valleys, likely attributable to those lands being considered of greater conservation importance. By 1998, a

  3. Using remote sensing techniques and field-based structural analysis to explore new gold and associated mineral sites around Al-Hajar mine, Asir terrane, Arabian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonbul, Abdullah R.; El-Shafei, Mohamed K.; Bishta, Adel Z.

    2016-05-01

    Modern earth resource satellites provide huge amounts of digital imagery at different resolutions. These satellite imageries are considered one of the most significant sources of data for mineral exploration. Image processing techniques were applied to the exposed rocks around the Al-Aqiq area of the Asir terrane in the southern part of the Arabian Shield. The area under study has two sub-parallel N-S trending metamorphic belts of green-schist facies. The first belt is located southeast of Al-Aqiq, where the Al-Hajar Gold Mine is situated. It is essentially composed of metavolcanics and metasedimentary rocks, and it is intruded by different plutonic rocks of primarily diorite, syenite and porphyritic granite. The second belt is located northwest of Al-Aqiq, and it is composed of metavolcanics and metasedimentary rocks and is intruded by granite bodies. The current study aimed to distinguish the lithological units, detect and map the alteration zones, and extract the major fault lineaments around the Al-Hajar gold prospect. Digital satellite imageries, including Landsat 7 ETM + multispectral and panchromatic and SPOT-5 were used in addition to field verification. Areas with similar spectral signatures to the prospect were identified in the nearby metamorphic belt; it was considered as a target area and was inspected in the field. The relationships between the alteration zones, the mineral deposits and the structural elements were used to locate the ore-bearing zones in the subsurface. The metasedimentary units of the target area showed a dextral-ductile shearing top-to-the-north and the presence of dominant mineralized quartz vein-system. The area to the north of the Al-Hajar prospect showed also sub-parallel shear zones along which different types of alterations were detected. Field-based criteria such as hydrothermal breccia, jasper, iron gossans and porphyritic granite strongly indicate the presence of porphyry-type ore deposits in Al-Hajar metamorphic belt that

  4. Remote Sensing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Kover, Allan W.

    1978-01-01

    The steady growth of the Landsat image data base continues to make this kind of remotely sensed data second only to aerial photographs in use by geoscientists who employ image data in their research. Article reviews data uses, meetings and symposia, publications, problems, and future trends. (Author/MA)

  5. Numbers Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on work undertaken by schools as part of Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA's) "Engaging mathematics for all learners" project. The goal was to use in the classroom, materials and approaches from a Royal Institution (Ri) Year 10 master-class, "Number Sense", which was inspired by examples from Michael Blastland and…

  6. High-temperature piezoelectric sensing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Johnson, Joseph; Salazar, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented. PMID:24361928

  7. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Johnson, Joseph; Salazar, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented. PMID:24361928

  8. Compressive Sensing for Quantum Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howland, Gregory A.

    This thesis describes the application of compressive sensing to several challenging problems in quantum imaging with practical and fundamental implications. Compressive sensing is a measurement technique that compresses a signal during measurement such that it can be dramatically undersampled. Compressive sensing has been shown to be an extremely efficient measurement technique for imaging, particularly when detector arrays are not available. The thesis first reviews compressive sensing through the lens of quantum imaging and quantum measurement. Four important applications and their corresponding experiments are then described in detail. The first application is a compressive sensing, photon-counting lidar system. A novel depth mapping technique that uses standard, linear compressive sensing is described. Depth maps up to 256 x 256 pixel transverse resolution are recovered with depth resolution less than 2.54 cm. The first three-dimensional, photon counting video is recorded at 32 x 32 pixel resolution and 14 frames-per-second. The second application is the use of compressive sensing for complementary imaging---simultaneously imaging the transverse-position and transverse-momentum distributions of optical photons. This is accomplished by taking random, partial projections of position followed by imaging the momentum distribution on a cooled CCD camera. The projections are shown to not significantly perturb the photons' momenta while allowing high resolution position images to be reconstructed using compressive sensing. A variety of objects and their diffraction patterns are imaged including the double slit, triple slit, alphanumeric characters, and the University of Rochester logo. The third application is the use of compressive sensing to characterize spatial entanglement of photon pairs produced by spontaneous parametric downconversion. The technique gives a theoretical speedup N2/log N for N-dimensional entanglement over the standard raster scanning technique

  9. Experiences of a WEB based test site platform for landslide susceptibility and the use of remote sensing interferometric techniques for monitoring landslide movements in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfroth, H.; Hultén, C.; Ledwith, M.; Nisser-Larsson, M.; Righini, G.

    2009-04-01

    prerequisites for landslides. Susceptibility map 1b is a map showing built up areas considered to have unsatisfactory stability. The results from Stage 2 of the Swedish methodology are normally presented as cross-sections representing calculated factors of safety. Within susceptibility map 2, the results have been visualised though stability classes division. The stability classes are based on the calculated factors of safety from the detailed stability investigations in representative sections. In addition to these susceptibility maps, a proposal for the prioritization of landslide susceptible areas has been developed. The proposal is in the form of a table for prioritization. This priority table is based on the stability conditions assessed in sub-stage 1b of the Swedish methodology, i.e. susceptibility map 1b. The Differential Interferometric SAR (DIFSAR) method for movement detection has not previously been used in Sweden. From a Swedish point of view, participation in the Preview project has given the opportunity to evaluate this method with respect to detecting early movements of deep seated, rapid landslides in clay and silt (typical to Scandinavia). Based on the DIFSAR analysis of the landslide in Vagnhärad in 1997, it has not been possible to detect any movements prior to the actual landslide. One possible explanation is that landslides in Sweden often occur rapidly and are fast moving. However, the analysis indicated other small movements within the Vagnhärad area. The DIFSAR analysis of the Sundsvall area was hindered by the lack of coherent points within the area of the two landslides. This is primarily due to the lack of permanent structures, as radar benchmarks, (e.g. houses or buildings) in the vicinity. The results from the DIFSAR analysis of these landslides exposed the difficulties in detecting the minor movements prior to slides in clay and silt in Sweden. However, the DIFSAR technique has potential in Sweden for applications pertaining to other ground

  10. HORIZON SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk, Sc.D.

    2002-07-31

    Real-time horizon sensing (HS) on continuous mining (CM) machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade HS systems has been ongoing this quarter at Oxbow Mining Company, Monterey Coal Company (EXXON), FMC Trona, Twentymile Coal Company (RAG America), and SASOL Coal. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (United States) and IEC (International) certification.

  11. Conversational sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  12. Remote sensing for urban planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Schmidt, Nicholas; Jensen, John R.; Cowen, Dave J.; Halls, Joanne; Narumalani, Sunil; Burgess, Bryan

    1994-01-01

    Utility companies are challenged to provide services to a highly dynamic customer base. With factory closures and shifts in employment becoming a routine occurrence, the utility industry must develop new techniques to maintain records and plan for expected growth. BellSouth Telecommunications, the largest of the Bell telephone companies, currently serves over 13 million residences and 2 million commercial customers. Tracking the movement of customers and scheduling the delivery of service are major tasks for BellSouth that require intensive manpower and sophisticated information management techniques. Through NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program Office, BellSouth is investigating the utility of remote sensing and geographic information system techniques to forecast residential development. This paper highlights the initial results of this project, which indicate a high correlation between the U.S. Bureau of Census block group statistics and statistics derived from remote sensing data.

  13. Lidar: A laser technique for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, T. D.; Hickman, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental airborne lidar systems proved to be useful for shallow water bathymetric measurements, and detection and identification of oil slicks and algae. Dye fluorescence applications using organic dyes was studied. The possibility of remotely inducing dye flourescence by means of pulsed lasers opens up several hydrospheric applications for measuring water currents, water temperature, and salinity. Aerosol measurements by lidar are also discussed.

  14. Compressed Wavefront Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Polans, James; McNabb, Ryan P.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Farsiu, Sina

    2014-01-01

    We report on an algorithm for fast wavefront sensing that incorporates sparse representation for the first time in practice. The partial derivatives of optical wavefronts were sampled sparsely with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) by randomly subsampling the original SHWFS data to as little as 5%. Reconstruction was performed by a sparse representation algorithm that utilized the Zernike basis. We name this method SPARZER. Experiments on real and simulated data attest to the accuracy of the proposed techniques as compared to traditional sampling and reconstruction methods. We have made the corresponding data set and software freely available online. Compressed wavefront sensing offers the potential to increase the speed of wavefront acquisition and to defray the cost of SHWFS devices. PMID:24690703

  15. River channel monitoring of the Red River of the Texas and Oklahoma state boundary, U.S.A., using remote sensing techniques and the legal implications on riparian boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, William David

    The study focuses on the Red River, partially forming the border of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas in the United States of America. This river was chosen because of its volatility in migration and its impact on land value. The river can be relatively wide in areas, where the gradient is low, forming braided streams up to a mile wide. As land becomes more valuable, having a more readily and accurately defined boundary will become more important. Rivers serve as a natural boundary. Early in American cadastral systems, many descriptions used these natural features to make it easy to recognize by the public. Natural river boundaries migrate and change courses causing difficulties with land management. Riparian boundaries move with the changing channel of the river. Due to hydrogeological processes which contribute to accretion, erosion, reliction, and sometimes avulsion makes describing the sinuosity of riparian boundaries difficult. Riparian boundary descriptions usually are the product of a terrestrial land survey. The value of the land usually dictated the precision used by the land surveyor during the field data acquisition. Technological advances in the instrumentation used by the land surveyor have enabled both higher precision and accuracy in surveying data along with computers and software advancement to calculate the area of the land and more accurate management of the land. With the ability to provide specific analysis of land features through the development of geographic information system (GIS) software incorporating accurate terrain models, riparian boundaries can be easier to manage. Boundary definitions become more reliable with improved terrain information and numerical models. This research uses GIS software tools to delineate the gradient boundary along the river from elevation models derived from remote sensing instruments, also evaluate possible areas where potential avulsionary cut-off by the river using the same remote sensing data. If an area has

  16. HORIZON SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine appropriately. The Horizon Sensor

  17. An overview of GNSS remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kegen; Rizos, Chris; Burrage, Derek; Dempster, Andrew G.; Zhang, Kefei; Markgraf, Markus

    2014-12-01

    The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals are always available, globally, and the signal structures are well known, except for those dedicated to military use. They also have some distinctive characteristics, including the use of L-band frequencies, which are particularly suited for remote sensing purposes. The idea of using GNSS signals for remote sensing - the atmosphere, oceans or Earth surface - was first proposed more than two decades ago. Since then, GNSS remote sensing has been intensively investigated in terms of proof of concept studies, signal processing methodologies, theory and algorithm development, and various satellite-borne, airborne and ground-based experiments. It has been demonstrated that GNSS remote sensing can be used as an alternative passive remote sensing technology. Space agencies such as NASA, NOAA, EUMETSAT and ESA have already funded, or will fund in the future, a number of projects/missions which focus on a variety of GNSS remote sensing applications. It is envisaged that GNSS remote sensing can be either exploited to perform remote sensing tasks on an independent basis or combined with other techniques to address more complex applications. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of this relatively new and, in some respects, underutilised remote sensing technique. Also addressed are relevant challenging issues associated with GNSS remote sensing services and the performance enhancement of GNSS remote sensing to accurately and reliably retrieve a range of geophysical parameters.

  18. Sensing at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Hierold, Christofer

    2013-11-01

    properties are an important indicator for sensing. In search of a better understanding of these systems Zhang et al from Southern Illinois University inspect the role of Joule heating, exothermal reactions and heat dissipation in gas sensing using nanowires [7]. The mechanisms behind electrical chemical sensors are also further scrutinized in a kinetics study by Joan Ramon Morante from the University of Barcelona in Spain. 'In spite of the growing commercial success many basic issues remain still open and under discussion limiting the broad use of this technology,' he explains. He discusses surface chemical reaction kinetics and the experimental results for different representative gas molecules to gain an insight into the chemical to electrical transduction mechanisms taking place [8]. Perhaps one of the most persistent targets in sensing research is increasing the sensitivity. Gauging environmental health issues around the commercial use of nanomaterials places high demands on low-level detection and spurred a collaboration of researchers in the UK, Croatia and Canada to look into the use of particle-impact voltammetry for detecting nanoparticles in environmental media [9]. At the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign in the US, researchers have applied wave transform analysis techniques to the oscillations of an atomic force microscopy cantilever and tailored a time-frequency-domain filter to identify the region of highest vibrational energy [10]. The approach allows them to improve the signal to noise ratio by a factor 32 on current high-performance devices. In addition, researchers in Korea report how doping NiO nanofibres can improve the sensitivity to a number of gases, including ethanol, where the response was enhanced by as much as a factor of 217.86 [11]. Biomedicine is one of the largest industries for the application of nanotechnology in sensing. Demonstrating the state of the art, researchers in China use silicon wafers decorated with gold nanoparticles for

  19. Role of remote sensing in documenting living resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. E.; Anderson, R. R.; Brun, B.; Eisenberg, M.; Genys, J. B.; Lear, D. W., Jr.; Miller, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    Specific cases of known or potentially useful applications of remote sensing in assessing biological resources are discussed. It is concluded that the more usable remote sensing techniques relate to the measurement of population fluctuations in aquatic systems. Sensing of the flora and the fauna of the Bay is considered with emphasis on direct sensing of aquatic plant populations and of water quality. Recommendations for remote sensing projects are given.

  20. Technical keynote address on remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holter, M. R.; Park, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    A review of remote sensing techniques is presented. Various types of remote sensors are described and the platforms used to mount the sensors are examined. Examples of remote sensing by aerial photography in infrared, ultraviolet, and visual spectra are included. The types of equipment are designated and their specific areas of application are defined. It is concluded that the primary objective of remote sensing is to contribute to man's ability to manage and use the terrestrial environment.

  1. Infrastructure sensing.

    PubMed

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors. PMID:27499845

  2. Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing is measuring something without touching it. Most methods measure a portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum using energy reflected from or emitted by a material. Moving the instrument away makes it easier to see more at one time. Airplanes are good but satellites are much better. Many things can not be easily measured on the scale of an individual person. Example - measuring all the vegetation growing at one time in even the smallest country. A satellite can see things over large areas repeatedly and in a consistent way. Data from the detector is reported as digital values for a grid that covers some portion of the Earth. Because it is digital and consistent a computer can extract information or enhance the data for a specific purpose.

  3. Infrastructure sensing.

    PubMed

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors.

  4. Sensing temperature.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Piali; Garrity, Paul

    2013-04-22

    Temperature is an omnipresent physical variable reflecting the rotational, vibrational and translational motion of matter, what Richard Feynman called the "jiggling" of atoms. Temperature varies across space and time, and this variation has dramatic effects on the physiology of living cells. It changes the rate and nature of chemical reactions, and it alters the configuration of the atoms that make up nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules, significantly affecting their activity. While life may have started in a "warm little pond", as Charles Darwin mused, the organisms that surround us today have only made it this far by devising sophisticated systems for sensing and responding to variations in temperature, and by using these systems in ways that allow them to persist and thrive in the face of thermal fluctuation.

  5. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is to be used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area. Regional and local geologic mapping can be aided by the proper application of remote sensing techniques. Conventional color and color infrared photos contain a large amount of easily-extractable general geologic information and are easily used by geologists untrained in the field of remote sensing. Other kinds of sensor data used in this study, with the exception of SLAR imagery, were generally found to be impractical or unappropriate for broad-scale general geologic mapping.

  6. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  7. Applied Remote Sensing Program (ARSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Johnson, J. D.; Foster, K. E.

    1977-01-01

    Descriptions of projects engaged by the Applied Remote Sensors Program in the state of Arizona are contained in an annual report for the fiscal year 1976-1977. Remote sensing techniques included thermal infrared imagery in analog and digital form and conversion of data into thermograms. Delineation of geologic areas, surveys of vegetation and inventory of resources were also presented.

  8. Energy-efficient sensing in wireless sensor networks using compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Razzaque, Mohammad Abdur; Dobson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Sensing of the application environment is the main purpose of a wireless sensor network. Most existing energy management strategies and compression techniques assume that the sensing operation consumes significantly less energy than radio transmission and reception. This assumption does not hold in a number of practical applications. Sensing energy consumption in these applications may be comparable to, or even greater than, that of the radio. In this work, we support this claim by a quantitative analysis of the main operational energy costs of popular sensors, radios and sensor motes. In light of the importance of sensing level energy costs, especially for power hungry sensors, we consider compressed sensing and distributed compressed sensing as potential approaches to provide energy efficient sensing in wireless sensor networks. Numerical experiments investigating the effectiveness of compressed sensing and distributed compressed sensing using real datasets show their potential for efficient utilization of sensing and overall energy costs in wireless sensor networks. It is shown that, for some applications, compressed sensing and distributed compressed sensing can provide greater energy efficiency than transform coding and model-based adaptive sensing in wireless sensor networks. PMID:24526302

  9. Energy-Efficient Sensing in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Razzaque, Mohammad Abdur; Dobson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Sensing of the application environment is the main purpose of a wireless sensor network. Most existing energy management strategies and compression techniques assume that the sensing operation consumes significantly less energy than radio transmission and reception. This assumption does not hold in a number of practical applications. Sensing energy consumption in these applications may be comparable to, or even greater than, that of the radio. In this work, we support this claim by a quantitative analysis of the main operational energy costs of popular sensors, radios and sensor motes. In light of the importance of sensing level energy costs, especially for power hungry sensors, we consider compressed sensing and distributed compressed sensing as potential approaches to provide energy efficient sensing in wireless sensor networks. Numerical experiments investigating the effectiveness of compressed sensing and distributed compressed sensing using real datasets show their potential for efficient utilization of sensing and overall energy costs in wireless sensor networks. It is shown that, for some applications, compressed sensing and distributed compressed sensing can provide greater energy efficiency than transform coding and model-based adaptive sensing in wireless sensor networks. PMID:24526302

  10. Remote Sensing in Agriculture: An Introductory Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Paul J.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of remote sensing techniques to obtain locational, estimated, and mapped information at the scales varying from individual fields and farms, to entire continents and the world. (AEM)

  11. Toward practical SERS sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yiping

    2012-06-01

    Since its discovery more than 30 years ago, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been recognized as a highly sensitive detection technique for chemical and biological sensing and medical diagnostics. However, the practical application of this remarkably sensitive technique has not been widely accepted as a viable diagnostic method due to the difficulty in preparing robust and reproducible substrates that provide maximum SERS enhancement. Here, we demonstrate that the aligned silver nanorod (AgNR) array substrates engineered by the oblique angle deposition method are capable of providing extremely high SERS enhancement factors (>108). The substrates are large area, uniform, reproducible, and compatible with general microfabrication process. The enhancement factor depends strongly on the length and shape of the Ag nanorods and the underlying substrate coating. By optimizing AgNR SERS substrates, we show that SERS is able to detect trace amount of toxins, virus, bacteria, or other chemical and biological molecules, and distinguish different viruses/bacteria and virus/bacteria strains. The substrate can be tailored into a multi-well chip for high throughput screening, integrated into fiber tip for portable sensing, incorporated into fluid/microfluidic devices for in situ real-time monitoring, fabricated onto a flexible substrate for tracking and identification, or used as on-chip separation device for ultra-thin layer chromatography and diagnostics. By combining the unique SERS substrates with a handheld Raman system, it can become a practical and portable sensor system for field applications. All these developments have demonstrated that AgNR SERS substrates could play an important role in the future for practical clinical, industrial, defense, and security sensing applications.

  12. Remote Raman measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  13. Applications of remote sensing to watershed management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing systems which are capable of contributing to watershed management are described and include: the multispectral scanner subsystem on LANDSAT and the basic multispectral camera array flown on high altitude aircraft such as the U-2. Various aspects of watershed management investigated by remote sensing systems are discussed. Major areas included are: snow mapping, surface water inventories, flood management, hydrologic land use monitoring, and watershed modeling. It is indicated that technological advances in remote sensing of hydrological data must be coupled with an expansion of awareness and training in remote sensing techniques of the watershed management community.

  14. Use of remote sensing in agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettry, D. E.; Powell, N. L.; Newhouse, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    Remote sensing studies in Virginia and Chesapeake Bay areas to investigate soil and plant conditions via remote sensing technology are reported ant the results given. Remote sensing techniques and interactions are also discussed. Specific studies on the effects of soil moisture and organic matter on energy reflection of extensively occurring Sassafras soils are discussed. Greenhouse and field studies investigating the effects of chlorophyll content of Irish potatoes on infrared reflection are presented. Selected ground truth and environmental monitoring data are shown in summary form. Practical demonstrations of remote sensing technology in agriculture are depicted and future use areas are delineated.

  15. Sensing the gas metal arc welding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, N. M.; Johnson, J. A.; Smartt, H. B.; Watkins, A. D.; Larsen, E. D.; Taylor, P. L.; Waddoups, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    Control of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) requires real-time sensing of the process. Three sensing techniques for GMAW are being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These are (1) noncontacting ultrasonic sensing using a laser/EMAT (electromagnetic acoustic transducer) to detect defects in the solidified weld on a pass-by-pass basis, (2) integrated optical sensing using a CCD camera and a laser stripe to obtain cooling rate and weld bead geometry information, and (3) monitoring fluctuations in digitized welding voltage data to detect the mode of metal droplet transfer and assure that the desired mass input is achieved.

  16. Nanostructured Substrates for Optical Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Kemling, Jonathan W.; Qavi, Abraham J.; Bailey, Ryan C.

    2011-01-01

    Sensors that change color have the advantages of versatility, ease of use, high sensitivity, and low cost. The recent development of optically based chemical sensing platforms has increasingly employed substrates manufactured with advanced processing or fabrication techniques to provide precise control over shape and morphology of the sensor micro- and nano-structure. New sensors have resulted with improved capabilities for a number of sensing applications, including the detection of biomolecules and environmental monitoring. This perspective focuses on recent optical sensor devices that utilize nanostructured substrates. PMID:22174955

  17. Compressed sensing for phase retrieval.

    PubMed

    Newton, Marcus C

    2012-05-01

    To date there are several iterative techniques that enjoy moderate success when reconstructing phase information, where only intensity measurements are made. There remains, however, a number of cases in which conventional approaches are unsuccessful. In the last decade, the theory of compressed sensing has emerged and provides a route to solving convex optimisation problems exactly via ℓ(1)-norm minimization. Here the application of compressed sensing to phase retrieval in a nonconvex setting is reported. An algorithm is presented that applies reweighted ℓ(1)-norm minimization to yield accurate reconstruction where conventional methods fail.

  18. First observations of tropospheric δD data observed by ground- and space-based remote sensing and surface in-situ measurement techniques at MUSICA's principle reference station (Izaña Observatory, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Yenny; Schneider, Matthias; Christner, Emanuel; Rodríguez, Omaira E.; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Dyroff, Christoph; Wiegele, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of the project MUSICA (Multiplatform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) is the generation of a quasi global tropospheric water vapor isototopologue dataset of a good and well-documented quality. Therefore, new ground- and space-based remote sensing observations (NDACC-FTIR and IASI/METOP) are combined with in-situ measurements. This work presents the first comparison between in-situ and remote sensing observations made at the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). The in-situ measurements are made by a Picarro L2120-i water vapor isotopologue analyzer. At Izaña the in-situ data are affected by local small-scale mixing processes: during daylight, the thermally buoyant upslope flow prompts the mixing between the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and the low Free Troposphere (FT). However, the remote sensors detect δD values averaged over altitudes that are more representative for the free troposphere. This difference has to be considered for the comparison. In general, a good agreement between the MUSICA remote sensing and the in situ H2O-versus-δD plots is found, which demonstrates that the MUSICA δD remote sensing products add scientifically valuable information to the H2O data.

  19. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  20. [Thematic Issue: Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Four of the articles in this publication discuss the remote sensing of the Earth and its resources by satellites. Among the topics dealt with are the development and management of remote sensing systems, types of satellites used for remote sensing, the uses of remote sensing, and issues involved in using information obtained through remote…

  1. Structured IR illumination for relative depth sensing in virtual interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Bernard; Raulot, Victorien; Grossman, Michel

    2012-06-01

    Depth mapping or depth sensing has become a popular field, applied not only to automotive sensing for collision avoidance (radar) but also to gesture sensing for gaming and virtual interfaces (optical). Popular gesture sensing devices such as the Kinect from Microsoft's Xbox gaming device produce a full absolute depth map, which is in most cases not adapted to the task on hand (relative gesture sensing). We propose in this paper a new gesture sensing technique through structured IR illumination to provide a relative depth mapping rather than an absolute one, and this reducing the requirements on computing power and therefore enabling this technology for wearable computing such as see through display.

  2. Lensless Imaging and Sensing.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Aydogan; McLeod, Euan

    2016-07-11

    High-resolution optical microscopy has traditionally relied on high-magnification and high-numerical aperture objective lenses. In contrast, lensless microscopy can provide high-resolution images without the use of any focusing lenses, offering the advantages of a large field of view, high resolution, cost-effectiveness, portability, and depth-resolved three-dimensional (3D) imaging. Here we review various approaches to lensless imaging, as well as its applications in biosensing, diagnostics, and cytometry. These approaches include shadow imaging, fluorescence, holography, superresolution 3D imaging, iterative phase recovery, and color imaging. These approaches share a reliance on computational techniques, which are typically necessary to reconstruct meaningful images from the raw data captured by digital image sensors. When these approaches are combined with physical innovations in sample preparation and fabrication, lensless imaging can be used to image and sense cells, viruses, nanoparticles, and biomolecules. We conclude by discussing several ways in which lensless imaging and sensing might develop in the near future. PMID:27420569

  3. Lensless Imaging and Sensing.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Aydogan; McLeod, Euan

    2016-07-11

    High-resolution optical microscopy has traditionally relied on high-magnification and high-numerical aperture objective lenses. In contrast, lensless microscopy can provide high-resolution images without the use of any focusing lenses, offering the advantages of a large field of view, high resolution, cost-effectiveness, portability, and depth-resolved three-dimensional (3D) imaging. Here we review various approaches to lensless imaging, as well as its applications in biosensing, diagnostics, and cytometry. These approaches include shadow imaging, fluorescence, holography, superresolution 3D imaging, iterative phase recovery, and color imaging. These approaches share a reliance on computational techniques, which are typically necessary to reconstruct meaningful images from the raw data captured by digital image sensors. When these approaches are combined with physical innovations in sample preparation and fabrication, lensless imaging can be used to image and sense cells, viruses, nanoparticles, and biomolecules. We conclude by discussing several ways in which lensless imaging and sensing might develop in the near future.

  4. Sensing at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Hierold, Christofer

    2013-11-01

    properties are an important indicator for sensing. In search of a better understanding of these systems Zhang et al from Southern Illinois University inspect the role of Joule heating, exothermal reactions and heat dissipation in gas sensing using nanowires [7]. The mechanisms behind electrical chemical sensors are also further scrutinized in a kinetics study by Joan Ramon Morante from the University of Barcelona in Spain. 'In spite of the growing commercial success many basic issues remain still open and under discussion limiting the broad use of this technology,' he explains. He discusses surface chemical reaction kinetics and the experimental results for different representative gas molecules to gain an insight into the chemical to electrical transduction mechanisms taking place [8]. Perhaps one of the most persistent targets in sensing research is increasing the sensitivity. Gauging environmental health issues around the commercial use of nanomaterials places high demands on low-level detection and spurred a collaboration of researchers in the UK, Croatia and Canada to look into the use of particle-impact voltammetry for detecting nanoparticles in environmental media [9]. At the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign in the US, researchers have applied wave transform analysis techniques to the oscillations of an atomic force microscopy cantilever and tailored a time-frequency-domain filter to identify the region of highest vibrational energy [10]. The approach allows them to improve the signal to noise ratio by a factor 32 on current high-performance devices. In addition, researchers in Korea report how doping NiO nanofibres can improve the sensitivity to a number of gases, including ethanol, where the response was enhanced by as much as a factor of 217.86 [11]. Biomedicine is one of the largest industries for the application of nanotechnology in sensing. Demonstrating the state of the art, researchers in China use silicon wafers decorated with gold nanoparticles for

  5. Compressively sensed complex networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Ray, Jaideep; Pinar, Ali

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this project is to develop low dimension parametric (deterministic) models of complex networks, to use compressive sensing (CS) and multiscale analysis to do so and to exploit the structure of complex networks (some are self-similar under coarsening). CS provides a new way of sampling and reconstructing networks. The approach is based on multiresolution decomposition of the adjacency matrix and its efficient sampling. It requires preprocessing of the adjacency matrix to make it 'blocky' which is the biggest (combinatorial) algorithm challenge. Current CS reconstruction algorithm makes no use of the structure of a graph, its very general (and so not very efficient/customized). Other model-based CS techniques exist, but not yet adapted to networks. Obvious starting point for future work is to increase the efficiency of reconstruction.

  6. Challenges in Infrared Remote Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Strasburg, Jana D.; Harper, Warren W.

    2005-06-01

    During the last several years, Pacific Northwest National Lab has developed a remote sensing system designed to detect trace chemicals present in the atmosphere. Using Frequency Modulated Differential Absorption LIDAR (FM DIAL) techniques chemical signatures have been observed over pathlengths ranging from several hundred meters to several kilometers. Throughout the development process, we have encountered many challenges. Some of these have been overcome but others will require new laser technology.

  7. Remote sensing of natural resources: Quarterly literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A quarterly review of technical literature concerning remote sensing techniques is presented. The format contains indexed and abstracted materials with emphasis on data gathering techniques performed or obtained remotely from space, aircraft, or ground-based stations. Remote sensor applications including the remote sensing of natural resources are presented.

  8. Fiber optic sensing systems using high frequency resonant sensing heads with intensity sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Maitland, Duncan J., IV

    1988-01-01

    Optical fibers have an inherent capability of transmitting high bandwidth analog and digital signals. To apply this property of fiber optics to remote sensing, special sensing heads as well as signal processing electronics have to be developed. In systems employing intensity modulating sensors, there is also a need for a referencing technique to compensate for changes in the transmission of the connecting fibers and light source intensity. Fiber optic sensing systems incorporated in sensing heads of a special configuration are discussed. Different modes of operation as well as resonant conditions are explained. Theoretical and experimental analyses are also given.

  9. Microwave remote sensing laboratory design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.

    1979-01-01

    Application of active and passive microwave remote sensing to the study of ocean pollution is discussed. Previous research efforts, both in the field and in the laboratory were surveyed to derive guidance for the design of a laboratory program of research. The essential issues include: choice of radar or radiometry as the observational technique; choice of laboratory or field as the research site; choice of operating frequency; tank sizes and material; techniques for wave generation and appropriate wavelength spectrum; methods for controlling and disposing of pollutants used in the research; and pollutants other than oil which could or should be studied.

  10. Mobile sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-12-16

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high.

  11. Mobile Sensing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high. PMID:24351637

  12. Mobile sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high. PMID:24351637

  13. Remote Sensing of Ecology, Biodiversity and Conservation: A Review from the Perspective of Remote Sensing Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Franklin, Steven E.; Guo, Xulin; Cattet, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI), inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS). PMID:22163432

  14. Remote sensing of ecology, biodiversity and conservation: a review from the perspective of remote sensing specialists.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Franklin, Steven E; Guo, Xulin; Cattet, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing, the science of obtaining information via noncontact recording, has swept the fields of ecology, biodiversity and conservation (EBC). Several quality review papers have contributed to this field. However, these papers often discuss the issues from the standpoint of an ecologist or a biodiversity specialist. This review focuses on the spaceborne remote sensing of EBC from the perspective of remote sensing specialists, i.e., it is organized in the context of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology, including instruments and techniques. Herein, the instruments to be discussed consist of high spatial resolution, hyperspectral, thermal infrared, small-satellite constellation, and LIDAR sensors; and the techniques refer to image classification, vegetation index (VI), inversion algorithm, data fusion, and the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS).

  15. UAV Cooperation Architectures for Persistent Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D

    2003-03-20

    With the number of small, inexpensive Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) increasing, it is feasible to build multi-UAV sensing networks. In particular, by using UAVs in conjunction with unattended ground sensors, a degree of persistent sensing can be achieved. With proper UAV cooperation algorithms, sensing is maintained even though exceptional events, e.g., the loss of a UAV, have occurred. In this paper a cooperation technique that allows multiple UAVs to perform coordinated, persistent sensing with unattended ground sensors over a wide area is described. The technique automatically adapts the UAV paths so that on the average, the amount of time that any sensor has to wait for a UAV revisit is minimized. We also describe the Simulation, Tactical Operations and Mission Planning (STOMP) software architecture. This architecture is designed to help simulate and operate distributed sensor networks where multiple UAVs are used to collect data.

  16. Non-invasive sensing for food reassurance.

    PubMed

    Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Consumers and governments are increasingly interested in the safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities. This has driven attention towards non-invasive sensing techniques used for rapid analyzing these commodities. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in, and available alternatives for, food assurance based on non-invasive sensing techniques. The main food quality traits of interest using non-invasive sensing techniques are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of non-invasive sensing techniques, from optical, acoustical, electrical, to nuclear magnetic, X-ray, biosensor, microwave and terahertz, are organized according to physical principle. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of portable and wearable wireless sensing devices and connecting with mobile networks, thus finding considerable use in a wide range of food assurance applications. The need for an appropriate regulatory framework is emphasized which acts to exclude unwanted components in foods and includes needed components, with sensors as part of a reassurance framework supporting regulation and food chain management. The integration of these sensor modalities into a single technological and commercial platform offers an opportunity for a paradigm shift in food reassurance.

  17. Non-invasive sensing for food reassurance.

    PubMed

    Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Consumers and governments are increasingly interested in the safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities. This has driven attention towards non-invasive sensing techniques used for rapid analyzing these commodities. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in, and available alternatives for, food assurance based on non-invasive sensing techniques. The main food quality traits of interest using non-invasive sensing techniques are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of non-invasive sensing techniques, from optical, acoustical, electrical, to nuclear magnetic, X-ray, biosensor, microwave and terahertz, are organized according to physical principle. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of portable and wearable wireless sensing devices and connecting with mobile networks, thus finding considerable use in a wide range of food assurance applications. The need for an appropriate regulatory framework is emphasized which acts to exclude unwanted components in foods and includes needed components, with sensors as part of a reassurance framework supporting regulation and food chain management. The integration of these sensor modalities into a single technological and commercial platform offers an opportunity for a paradigm shift in food reassurance. PMID:26835653

  18. Tropospheric Passive Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The long term role of airborne/spaceborne passive remote sensing systems for tropospheric air quality research and the identification of technology advances required to improve the performance of passive remote sensing systems were discussed.

  19. Remote sensing by satellite - Technical and operational implications for international cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, S. E.

    1976-01-01

    International cooperation in the U.S. Space Program is discussed and related to the NASA program for remote sensing of the earth. Satellite remote sensing techniques are considered along with the selection of the best sensors and wavelength bands. The technology of remote sensing satellites is considered with emphasis on the Landsat system configuration. Future aspects of remote sensing satellites are considered.

  20. Laser remote sensing of the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, William B.

    1986-01-01

    A guide to the extant literature concerning remote sensing of the atmosphere by laser-based devices is presented, with emphasis on surveys of the field as well as the most important recent results. Topics surveyed include measurements of aerosol constituents using lidar, the differential absorption lidar technique, the use of laser long-path differential absorption, Raman scattering techniques, and fluorescence lidar techniques. Special attention is given to measuring wind velocity using CO2 heterodyne lidar systems.

  1. High resolution derivative spectra in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetriades-Shah, Tanvir H.; Steven, Michael D.; Clark, Jeremy A.

    1990-01-01

    The use of derivative spectra is an established technique in analytical chemistry for the elimination of background signals and for resolving overlapping spectral features. Application of this technique for tackling analogous problems such as interference from soil background reflectance in the remote sensing of vegetation or for resolving complex spectra of several target species within individual pixels in remote sensing is proposed. Methods for generating derivatives of high spectral resolution data are reviewed. Results of experiments to test the use of derivatives for monitoring chlorosis in vegetation show that derivative spectral indices are superior to conventional broad-band spectral indices such as the near-infrared/red reflectance ratio. Conventional broad-band indices are sensitive to both leaf cover as well as leaf color. New derivative spectral indices which were able to monitor chlorosis unambiguously were identified. Potential areas for the application of this technique in remote sensing are considered.

  2. Plant gravity sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.

    1991-01-01

    This review of plant gravity sensing examines sensing in organ gravitropism, sensing in single-cell gravitropism, and nongravitropic sensing. Topics related to sensing in organ gravitropism are (1) identification of the gravitropic susceptors, including intracellular asymmetry in equilibrium position and after reorientation, susceptor signal-to-noise ratio, signal integration over threshold stimulation periods, intracellular asymmetry and gravitropic competence, and starch deficiency and gravitropic competence; (2) possible root statocytes and receptors, including identification of presumptive statocytes, cytology, and possible receptors and models of sensing; and (3) negatively gravitropic organs, including identification and distribution of presumptive statocytes and cytology and possible receptors. Topics related to nongravitropic sensing include gravitaxis, reaction wood, gravimorphogenesis, other gravity-influenced organ movements, and cytoplasmic streaming.

  3. Sense and clinical sensibility.

    PubMed

    Billow, Richard M

    2013-10-01

    I call attention to the metapsychology of sense, and the role sense plays-phenomenologically and symbolically-in the life of the clinician and the group. Each group member asserts influence in taking a role as the perceiver and the perceived, the senser and the sensed. We reach for sense, for without sense reference, we cannot grasp or even talk about psychic reality. It serves as sign and symbol, as metaphor, analogy, illustration, and model. Sense fixes experience yet may fixate experience and interfere with developing abstract thoughts. Clinical vignettes illustrate how the leader may utilize his or her particular clinical sensibility to reach the group and focus attention, to link sense to psychic qualities: to the personality of the members, the group culture and process, and the live clinical interaction. PMID:24004010

  4. Sensing Super-Position: Human Sensing Beyond the Visual Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Schipper, John F.

    2007-01-01

    The coming decade of fast, cheap and miniaturized electronics and sensory devices opens new pathways for the development of sophisticated equipment to overcome limitations of the human senses. This paper addresses the technical feasibility of augmenting human vision through Sensing Super-position by mixing natural Human sensing. The current implementation of the device translates visual and other passive or active sensory instruments into sounds, which become relevant when the visual resolution is insufficient for very difficult and particular sensing tasks. A successful Sensing Super-position meets many human and pilot vehicle system requirements. The system can be further developed into cheap, portable, and low power taking into account the limited capabilities of the human user as well as the typical characteristics of his dynamic environment. The system operates in real time, giving the desired information for the particular augmented sensing tasks. The Sensing Super-position device increases the image resolution perception and is obtained via an auditory representation as well as the visual representation. Auditory mapping is performed to distribute an image in time. The three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. This paper details the approach of developing Sensing Super-position systems as a way to augment the human vision system by exploiting the capabilities of Lie human hearing system as an additional neural input. The human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns. The known capabilities of the human hearing system to learn and understand complicated auditory patterns provided the basic motivation for developing an image-to-sound mapping system. The

  5. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    In recent years, multisensory approaches to environment monitoring for chemical detection as well as other forms of situational awareness have become increasingly popular. A hybrid sensor is a multimodal system that incorporates several sensing elements and thus produces data that are multivariate in nature and may be significantly increased in complexity compared to data provided by single-sensor systems. Though a hybrid sensor is itself an array, hybrid sensors are often organized into more complex sensing systems through an assortment of network topologies. Part of the reason for the shift to hybrid sensors is due to advancements in sensor technology and computational power available for processing larger amounts of data. There is also ample evidence to support the claim that a multivariate analytical approach is generally superior to univariate measurements because it provides additional redundant and complementary information (Hall, D. L.; Linas, J., Eds., Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2001). However, the benefits of a multisensory approach are not automatically achieved. Interpretation of data from hybrid arrays of sensors requires the analyst to develop an application-specific methodology to optimally fuse the disparate sources of data generated by the hybrid array into useful information characterizing the sample or environment being observed. Consequently, multivariate data analysis techniques such as those employed in the field of chemometrics have become more important in analyzing sensor array data. Depending on the nature of the acquired data, a number of chemometric algorithms may prove useful in the analysis and interpretation of data from hybrid sensor arrays. It is important to note, however, that the challenges posed by the analysis of hybrid sensor array data are not unique to the field of chemical sensing. Applications in electrical and process engineering, remote sensing, medicine, and of course, artificial

  6. Multisensor image fusion guidelines in remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, C.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing delivers multimodal and -temporal data from the Earth's surface. In order to cope with these multidimensional data sources and to make the most of them, image fusion is a valuable tool. It has developed over the past few decades into a usable image processing technique for extracting information of higher quality and reliability. As more sensors and advanced image fusion techniques have become available, researchers have conducted a vast amount of successful studies using image fusion. However, the definition of an appropriate workflow prior to processing the imagery requires knowledge in all related fields - i.e. remote sensing, image fusion and the desired image exploitation processing. From the findings of this research it can be seen that the choice of the appropriate technique, as well as the fine-tuning of the individual parameters of this technique, is crucial. There is still a lack of strategic guidelines due to the complexity and variability of data selection, processing techniques and applications. This paper gives an overview on the state-of-the-art in remote sensing image fusion including sensors and applications. Putting research results in image fusion from the past 15 years into a context provides a new view on the subject and helps other researchers to build their innovation on these findings. Recommendations of experts help to understand further needs to achieve feasible strategies in remote sensing image fusion.

  7. Remote sensing research in geographic education: An alternative view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, H.; Cary, T. K.; Goward, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    It is noted that within many geography departments remote sensing is viewed as a mere technique a student should learn in order to carry out true geographic research. This view inhibits both students and faculty from investigation of remotely sensed data as a new source of geographic knowledge that may alter our understanding of the Earth. The tendency is for geographers to accept these new data and analysis techniques from engineers and mathematicians without questioning the accompanying premises. This black-box approach hinders geographic applications of the new remotely sensed data and limits the geographer's contribution to further development of remote sensing observation systems. It is suggested that geographers contribute to the development of remote sensing through pursuit of basic research. This research can be encouraged, particularly among students, by demonstrating the links between geographic theory and remotely sensed observations, encouraging a healthy skepticism concerning the current understanding of these data.

  8. Future use of digital remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, G. W.; Jones, N. L.

    1978-01-01

    Users of remote sensing data are increasingly turning to digital processing techniques for the extraction of land resource, environmental, and natural resource information. This paper presents the results of recent and ongoing research efforts sponsored, in part, by NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center on the current uses of and future needs for digital remote sensing data. An ongoing investigation involves a comprehensive survey of capabilities for digital Landsat data use in the Southeastern U.S. Another effort consists of an evaluation of future needs for digital remote sensing data by federal, state, and local governments and the private sector. These needs are projected into the 1980-1985 time frame. Furthermore, the accelerating use of digital remote sensing data is not limited to the U.S. or even to the developed countries of the world.

  9. Word sense disambiguation in evolutionary manner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan Abed, Saad; Tiun, Sabrina; Omar, Nazlia

    2016-07-01

    The task of assigning proper meaning to an ambiguous word in a particular context is termed word sense disambiguation (WSD). We propose a genetic algorithm, improved by local search techniques, to maximise the overall semantic similarity or relatedness of a given text. Local search is used because of the inefficiency of population-based algorithms (e.g. genetic algorithm) in exploiting the search space. Firstly, the proposed method assigns all potential senses for each word using a WordNet sense inventory. Then, the improved genetic algorithm is applied to determine a coherent set of senses that carries maximum similarity or relatedness score based on information content and gloss overlap methods, namely extended Lesk algorithm and Jiang and Conrath (jcn). The obtained results outperformed other unsupervised methods, which are related to the proposed method, when tested on the same benchmark dataset. It can be concluded that the proposed method is an effective solution for unsupervised WSD.

  10. Mechanochemical Sensing: A Biomimetic Sensing Strategy.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Prakash; Mandal, Shankar; Mao, Hanbin

    2015-06-22

    Existing biosensors employ two major components: analyte recognition and signal transduction. Although specificity is achieved through analyte recognition, sensitivity is usually enhanced through a chemical amplification stage that couples the two main units in a sensor. Although highly sensitive, the extra chemical amplification stage complicates the sensing protocol. In addition, it separates the two elements spatiotemporally, reducing the real-time response of the biosensor. In this review, we discuss the new mechanochemical biosensors that employ mechanochemical coupling strategies to overcome these issues. By monitoring changes in the mechanical properties of a single-molecule template upon analyte binding, single-molecule sensitivity is reached. As chemical amplification becomes unnecessary in this single-molecule mechanochemical sensing (SMMS) strategy, real-time sensing is achieved.

  11. International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Washington, DC, June 8-10, 1981, Digest. Volumes 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Sensors used for the geophysical and remote sensing studies are reviewed; in particular, NIMBUS-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer results are given. Remote sensing analyses consider such areas as hydrology, soil moisture, and planetary surfaces. In addition, Shuttle remote sensing experiments and SAR systems, remote sensing in the thermal infrared, and microwave remote sensing of the earth are considered. Finally, attention is given to lithologic and geobotanical studies, and geophysical sensing techniques and inversion theory.

  12. [A review of classification methods of remote sensing imagery].

    PubMed

    Jia, Kun; Li, Qiang-Zi; Tian, Yi-Chen; Wu, Bing-Fang

    2011-10-01

    Remote sensing data classification is an important way of information extraction and a hot research topic of remote sensing technique. Classification method of remote sensing data is an important issue, and effective selection of appropriate classifier is especially significant for improving classification accuracy. Along with the development of remote sensing technique, traditional parametric classifier is difficult to meet accuracy requirement, leading to the rapid development of intelligent algorithm based non-parametric classifiers. Recently, combined classifiers become a new hot topic for its ability of utilizing complement information of single classifier. In the present paper, characters and advantages of different classifiers as well as the research prospect are analyzed. The paper provides a scientific reference for the development of remote sensing data classification technique.

  13. Structural analysis techniqes for remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, L. G.

    1982-01-01

    The structural analysis of remotely sensed imagery is defined and basic techniques for implementing the process are described. Structural analysis uses knowledge of the properties of an entity, its parts and their relationships, and the relationships in which it participates at a higher level to locate and recognize objects in a visual scene. The representation of structural knowledge, the development of algorithms for using the knowledge to help analyze an image, and techniques for storage and retrieval of relational models are addressed.

  14. Laser Spectroscopy for Atmospheric and Environmental Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Fiddler, Marc N.; Begashaw, Israel; Mickens, Matthew A.; Collingwood, Michael S.; Assefa, Zerihun; Bililign, Solomon

    2009-01-01

    Lasers and laser spectroscopic techniques have been extensively used in several applications since their advent, and the subject has been reviewed extensively in the last several decades. This review is focused on three areas of laser spectroscopic applications in atmospheric and environmental sensing; namely laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), and photoluminescence (PL) techniques used in the detection of solids, liquids, aerosols, trace gases, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). PMID:22303184

  15. Remote Sensing Via Satellite: The Canadian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Hans George

    1974-01-01

    Describes the joint effort of Canada and NASA in monitoring the Canadian environment using remote-sensing techniques. The project involves the Earth Resources Technology Satellite and has been used to observe seasonal changes, extent of snow cover, crop growth, sea ice, and land use patterns. (GS)

  16. Data compression in remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid

    1992-01-01

    A survey of current data compression techniques which are being used to reduce the amount of data in remote sensing applications is provided. The survey aspect is far from complete, reflecting the substantial activity in this area. The purpose of the survey is more to exemplify the different approaches being taken rather than to provide an exhaustive list of the various proposed approaches.

  17. Use of remote sensing in facility siting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, M. L.; Hunt, R. F.; Mcfall, J., Jr.; Pijanowski, J. A.; Price, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental parameters important to, and necessary for, an environment impact assessment in terms of site selection for an electric power plant are defined. Remote sensing techniques and/or instrumentation applicable to site evaluation are described. Problem areas are discussed and recommendations given.

  18. Summary of 1971 land remote sensing investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooneyhan, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    Techniques to provide land use up-date information using remotely sensed data and automatic data processing technology are being developed. The approach utilizes multispectral scanners, the associated data analysis station, and the pattern recognition programs to identify and classify land surface characteristics, including wetlands, and to convert these data to demonstration type experiments in the various disciplines.

  19. Land Remote Sensing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrnes, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A general overview of the USGS land remote sensing program is presented. The contents include: 1) Brief overview of USGS land remote sensing program; 2) Highlights of JACIE work at USGS; 3) Update on NASA/USGS Landsat Data Continuity Mission; and 4) Notes on alternative data sources.

  20. Remote sensing applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Mississippi Remote Sensing Center are described in addition to technology transfer and information dissemination, remote sensing topics such as timber identification, water quality, flood prevention, land use, erosion control, animal habitats, and environmental impact studies are also discussed.