Science.gov

Sample records for cell-surface f1-atp synthase

  1. Rotation and structure of FoF1-ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Daichi; Iino, Ryota; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2011-06-01

    F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase is one of the most ubiquitous enzymes; it is found widely in the biological world, including the plasma membrane of bacteria, inner membrane of mitochondria and thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. However, this enzyme has a unique mechanism of action: it is composed of two mechanical rotary motors, each driven by ATP hydrolysis or proton flux down the membrane potential of protons. The two molecular motors interconvert the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis and proton electrochemical potential via the mechanical rotation of the rotary shaft. This unique energy transmission mechanism is not found in other biological systems. Although there are other similar man-made systems like hydroelectric generators, F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase operates on the nanometre scale and works with extremely high efficiency. Therefore, this enzyme has attracted significant attention in a wide variety of fields from bioenergetics and biophysics to chemistry, physics and nanoscience. This review summarizes the latest findings about the two motors of F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase as well as a brief historical background.

  2. Rotary catalysis of FoF1-ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Rikiya

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of ATP, the key reaction of biological energy metabolism, is accomplished by the rotary motor protein; FoF1-ATP synthase (FoF1). In vivo, FoF1, located on the cell membrane, carries out ATP synthesis by using the proton motive force. This heterologous energy conversion is supposed to be mediated by the mechanical rotation of FoF1; however, it still remained unclear. Recently, we developed the novel experimental setup to reproduce the proton motive force in vitro and succeeded in directly observing the proton-driven rotation of FoF1. In this review, we describe the interesting working principles determined so far for FoF1 and then introduce results from our recent study.

  3. On the structural possibility of pore-forming mitochondrial FoF1 ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Gerle, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition is an inner mitochondrial membrane event involving the opening of the permeability transition pore concomitant with a sudden efflux of matrix solutes and breakdown of membrane potential. The mitochondrial F(o)F(1) ATP synthase has been proposed as the molecular identity of the permeability transition pore. The likeliness of potential pore-forming sites in the mitochondrial F(o)F(1) ATP synthase is discussed and a new model, the death finger model, is described. In this model, movement of a p-side density that connects the lipid-plug of the c-ring with the distal membrane bending Fo domain allows reversible opening of the c-ring and structural cross-talk with OSCP and the catalytic (αβ)(3) hexamer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi.

  4. The F0F1 ATP Synthase Complex Localizes to Membrane Rafts in Gonadotrope Cells.

    PubMed

    Allen-Worthington, Krystal; Xie, Jianjun; Brown, Jessica L; Edmunson, Alexa M; Dowling, Abigail; Navratil, Amy M; Scavelli, Kurt; Yoon, Hojean; Kim, Do-Geun; Bynoe, Margaret S; Clarke, Iain; Roberson, Mark S

    2016-09-01

    Fertility in mammals requires appropriate communication within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) is a central conduit for this communication. The GnRHR resides in discrete membrane rafts and raft occupancy is required for signaling by GnRH. The present studies use immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to define peptides present within the raft associated with the GnRHR and flotillin-1, a key raft marker. These studies revealed peptides from the F0F1 ATP synthase complex. The catalytic subunits of the F1 domain were validated by immunoprecipitation, flow cytometry, and cell surface biotinylation studies demonstrating that this complex was present at the plasma membrane associated with the GnRHR. The F1 catalytic domain faces the extracellular space and catalyzes ATP synthesis when presented with ADP in normal mouse pituitary explants and a gonadotrope cell line. Steady-state extracellular ATP accumulation was blunted by coadministration of inhibitory factor 1, limiting inorganic phosphate in the media, and by chronic stimulation of the GnRHR. Steady-state extracellular ATP accumulation was enhanced by pharmacological inhibition of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases. Kisspeptin administration induced coincident GnRH and ATP release from the median eminence into the hypophyseal-portal vasculature in ovariectomized sheep. Elevated levels of extracellular ATP augmented GnRH-induced secretion of LH from pituitary cells in primary culture, which was blocked in media containing low inorganic phosphate supporting the importance of extracellular ATP levels to gonadotrope cell function. These studies indicate that gonadotropes have intrinsic ability to metabolize ATP in the extracellular space and extracellular ATP may serve as a modulator of GnRH-induced LH secretion. PMID:27482602

  5. The F0F1 ATP Synthase Complex Localizes to Membrane Rafts in Gonadotrope Cells.

    PubMed

    Allen-Worthington, Krystal; Xie, Jianjun; Brown, Jessica L; Edmunson, Alexa M; Dowling, Abigail; Navratil, Amy M; Scavelli, Kurt; Yoon, Hojean; Kim, Do-Geun; Bynoe, Margaret S; Clarke, Iain; Roberson, Mark S

    2016-09-01

    Fertility in mammals requires appropriate communication within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) is a central conduit for this communication. The GnRHR resides in discrete membrane rafts and raft occupancy is required for signaling by GnRH. The present studies use immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to define peptides present within the raft associated with the GnRHR and flotillin-1, a key raft marker. These studies revealed peptides from the F0F1 ATP synthase complex. The catalytic subunits of the F1 domain were validated by immunoprecipitation, flow cytometry, and cell surface biotinylation studies demonstrating that this complex was present at the plasma membrane associated with the GnRHR. The F1 catalytic domain faces the extracellular space and catalyzes ATP synthesis when presented with ADP in normal mouse pituitary explants and a gonadotrope cell line. Steady-state extracellular ATP accumulation was blunted by coadministration of inhibitory factor 1, limiting inorganic phosphate in the media, and by chronic stimulation of the GnRHR. Steady-state extracellular ATP accumulation was enhanced by pharmacological inhibition of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases. Kisspeptin administration induced coincident GnRH and ATP release from the median eminence into the hypophyseal-portal vasculature in ovariectomized sheep. Elevated levels of extracellular ATP augmented GnRH-induced secretion of LH from pituitary cells in primary culture, which was blocked in media containing low inorganic phosphate supporting the importance of extracellular ATP levels to gonadotrope cell function. These studies indicate that gonadotropes have intrinsic ability to metabolize ATP in the extracellular space and extracellular ATP may serve as a modulator of GnRH-induced LH secretion.

  6. On the structural possibility of pore-forming mitochondrial FoF1 ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Gerle, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition is an inner mitochondrial membrane event involving the opening of the permeability transition pore concomitant with a sudden efflux of matrix solutes and breakdown of membrane potential. The mitochondrial F(o)F(1) ATP synthase has been proposed as the molecular identity of the permeability transition pore. The likeliness of potential pore-forming sites in the mitochondrial F(o)F(1) ATP synthase is discussed and a new model, the death finger model, is described. In this model, movement of a p-side density that connects the lipid-plug of the c-ring with the distal membrane bending Fo domain allows reversible opening of the c-ring and structural cross-talk with OSCP and the catalytic (αβ)(3) hexamer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:26968896

  7. Elasticity, friction, and pathway of γ-subunit rotation in FoF1-ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Kei-ichi; Hummer, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    We combine molecular simulations and mechanical modeling to explore the mechanism of energy conversion in the coupled rotary motors of FoF1-ATP synthase. A torsional viscoelastic model with frictional dissipation quantitatively reproduces the dynamics and energetics seen in atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of torque-driven γ-subunit rotation in the F1-ATPase rotary motor. The torsional elastic coefficients determined from the simulations agree with results from independent single-molecule experiments probing different segments of the γ-subunit, which resolves a long-lasting controversy. At steady rotational speeds of ∼1 kHz corresponding to experimental turnover, the calculated frictional dissipation of less than kBT per rotation is consistent with the high thermodynamic efficiency of the fully reversible motor. Without load, the maximum rotational speed during transitions between dwells is reached at ∼1 MHz. Energetic constraints dictate a unique pathway for the coupled rotations of the Fo and F1 rotary motors in ATP synthase, and explain the need for the finer stepping of the F1 motor in the mammalian system, as seen in recent experiments. Compensating for incommensurate eightfold and threefold rotational symmetries in Fo and F1, respectively, a significant fraction of the external mechanical work is transiently stored as elastic energy in the γ-subunit. The general framework developed here should be applicable to other molecular machines. PMID:26261344

  8. Elasticity, friction, and pathway of γ-subunit rotation in FoF1-ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Kei-ichi; Hummer, Gerhard

    2015-08-25

    We combine molecular simulations and mechanical modeling to explore the mechanism of energy conversion in the coupled rotary motors of FoF1-ATP synthase. A torsional viscoelastic model with frictional dissipation quantitatively reproduces the dynamics and energetics seen in atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of torque-driven γ-subunit rotation in the F1-ATPase rotary motor. The torsional elastic coefficients determined from the simulations agree with results from independent single-molecule experiments probing different segments of the γ-subunit, which resolves a long-lasting controversy. At steady rotational speeds of ∼ 1 kHz corresponding to experimental turnover, the calculated frictional dissipation of less than k(B)T per rotation is consistent with the high thermodynamic efficiency of the fully reversible motor. Without load, the maximum rotational speed during transitions between dwells is reached at ∼ 1 MHz. Energetic constraints dictate a unique pathway for the coupled rotations of the Fo and F1 rotary motors in ATP synthase, and explain the need for the finer stepping of the F1 motor in the mammalian system, as seen in recent experiments. Compensating for incommensurate eightfold and threefold rotational symmetries in Fo and F1, respectively, a significant fraction of the external mechanical work is transiently stored as elastic energy in the γ-subunit. The general framework developed here should be applicable to other molecular machines.

  9. Biased Brownian stepping rotation of FoF1-ATP synthase driven by proton motive force.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Tabata, Kazuhito V; Iino, Ryota; Ueno, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Masayuki; Oiki, Shigetoshi; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    FoF1-ATP synthase (FoF1) produces most of the ATP in cells, uniquely, by converting the proton motive force (pmf) into ATP production via mechanical rotation of the inner rotor complex. Technical difficulties have hampered direct investigation of pmf-driven rotation, which are crucial to elucidating the chemomechanical coupling mechanism of FoF1. Here we develop a novel supported membrane system for direct observation of the rotation of FoF1 driven by pmf that was formed by photolysis of caged protons. Upon photolysis, FoF1 initiated rotation in the opposite direction to that of the ATP-driven rotation. The step size of pmf-driven rotation was 120°, suggesting that the kinetic bottleneck is a catalytic event on F1 with threefold symmetry. The reaction equilibrium was slightly biased to ATP synthesis like under physiological conditions, and FoF1 showed highly stochastic behaviour, frequently making a 120° backward step. This new experimental system would be applicable to single-molecule study of other membrane proteins.

  10. Regulatory conformational changes of the ɛ subunit in single FRET-labeled F0F1-ATP synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Thomas M.; Düser, Monika G.; Heitkamp, Thomas; McMillan, Duncan G. G.; Börsch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Subunit ɛ is an intrinsic regulator of the bacterial FoF1-ATP synthase, the ubiquitous membrane-embedded enzyme that utilizes a proton motive force in most organisms to synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The C-terminal domain of ɛ can extend into the central cavity formed by the α and β subunits, as revealed by the recent X-ray structure of the F1 portion of the Escherichia coli enzyme. This insertion blocks the rotation of the central γ subunit and, thereby, prevents wasteful ATP hydrolysis. Here we aim to develop an experimental system that can reveal conditions under which ɛ inhibits the holoenzyme FoF1-ATP synthase in vitro. Labeling the C-terminal domain of ɛ and the γ subunit specifically with two different fluorophores for single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) allowed monitoring of the conformation of ɛ in the reconstituted enzyme in real time. New mutants were made for future three-color smFRET experiments to unravel the details of regulatory conformational changes in ɛ.

  11. Regulatory conformational changes of the ε subunit in single FRET-labeled FoF1-ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Thomas M; Düser, Monika G; Heitkamp, Thomas; McMillan, Duncan G G; Börsch, Michael

    2014-02-28

    Subunit ε is an intrinsic regulator of the bacterial FoF1-ATP synthase, the ubiquitous membrane-embedded enzyme that utilizes a proton motive force in most organisms to synthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The C-terminal domain of ε can extend into the central cavity formed by the α and β subunits, as revealed by the recent X-ray structure of the F1 portion of the Escherichia coli enzyme. This insertion blocks the rotation of the central γ subunit and, thereby, prevents wasteful ATP hydrolysis. Here we aim to develop an experimental system that can reveal conditions under which ε inhibits the holoenzyme FoF1-ATP synthase in vitro. Labeling the C-terminal domain of ε and the γ subunit specifically with two different fluorophores for single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) allowed monitoring of the conformation of ε in the reconstituted enzyme in real time. New mutants were made for future three-color smFRET experiments to unravel the details of regulatory conformational changes in ε. PMID:25076824

  12. Observing conformations of single FoF1-ATP synthases in a fast anti-Brownian electrokinetic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Bertram; Düser, Monika G.; Zarrabi, Nawid; Heitkamp, Thomas; Starke, Ilka; Börsch, Michael

    2015-03-01

    To monitor conformational changes of individual membrane transporters in liposomes in real time, we attach two fluorophores to selected domains of a protein. Sequential distance changes between the dyes are recorded and analyzed by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Using freely diffusing membrane proteins reconstituted in liposomes, observation times are limited by Brownian motion through the confocal detection volume. A. E. Cohen and W. E. Moerner have invented and built microfluidic devices to actively counteract Brownian motion of single nanoparticles in electrokinetic traps (ABELtrap). Here we present a version of an ABELtrap with a laser focus pattern generated by electro-optical beam deflectors and controlled by a programmable FPGA. This ABELtrap could hold single fluorescent nanobeads for more than 100 seconds, increasing the observation times of a single particle more than 1000-fold. Conformational changes of single FRET-labeled membrane enzymes FoF1-ATP synthase can be detected in the ABELtrap.

  13. The alpha-subunit of Leishmania F1 ATP synthase hydrolyzes ATP in presence of tRNA.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Srikanta; Adhya, Samit

    2006-07-14

    Import of tRNAs into the mitochondria of the kinetoplastid protozoon Leishmania requires the tRNA-dependent hydrolysis of ATP leading to the generation of membrane potential through the pumping of protons. Subunit RIC1 of the inner membrane RNA import complex is a bi-functional protein that is identical to the alpha-subunit of F1F0 ATP synthase and specifically binds to a subset (Type I) of importable tRNAs. We show that recombinant, purified RIC1 is a Type I tRNA-dependent ATP hydrolase. The activity was insensitive to oligomycin, sensitive to mutations within the import signal of the tRNA, and required the cooperative interaction between the ATP-binding and C-terminal domains of RIC1. The ATPase activity of the intact complex was inhibited by anti-RIC1 antibody, while knockdown of RIC1 in Leishmania tropica resulted in deficiency of the tRNA-dependent ATPase activity of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Moreover, RIC1 knockdown extracts failed to generate a membrane potential across reconstituted proteoliposomes, as shown by a rhodamine 123 uptake assay, but activity was restored by adding back purified RIC1. These observations identify RIC1 as a novel form of the F1 ATP synthase alpha-subunit that acts as the major energy transducer for tRNA import. PMID:16735512

  14. Application of rigid body mechanics to theoretical description of rotation within F0F1-ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Nartsissov, Yaroslav R; Mashkovtseva, Elena V

    2006-09-21

    ATP synthase catalyses the formation of ATP from ADP and P(i) and is powered by the diffusion of protons throughout membranes down the proton electrochemical gradient. The protein consists of a water-soluble F(1) and a transmembrane F(0) proton transporter part. It was previously shown that the ring of membrane subunits rotates past a fixed subunit during catalytic cycle of the enzyme. However, many parameters of this movement are still unknown. In the present study the mutual protein movement in the membrane part of F(0)F(1)-ATP syntase has been analysed within the framework of rigid body mechanics. On the base of available experimental data it was shown that electrostatic interaction of two charged amino acids residues is able to supply quite enough energy for the rotation. The initial torque, which caused the rotation, was estimated as 3.7 pN nm and for this pattern the angular movement of c subunits complex could not physically have a period less than 10(-9)s. If membrane viscosity and elastic resistance were taken into account then the time of a whole turnover could rise up to 6.3 x 10(-3)s. It is remarkable that rotation will take place only under condition when the elasticity (Young's) module of the central stalk (gamma subunit and other minor subunits) is less than 5.0 x 10(7)N/m(2). Thus, for generally accepted structural parameters of ATP synthase, two-charge electrostatic interaction model does not permit rotation of the rotor if elastic properties of the central stalk are tougher than mentioned above. In order to explain the rotation under that condition one should either suppose a shorter distance between subunit a and c subunits complex or assume interaction of more than two charged amino acids residues.

  15. Evidence for the Synthesis of ATP by an F0F1 ATP Synthase in Membrane Vesicles from Halorubrum Saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faguy, David; Lawson, Darion; Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Vesicles prepared in a buffer containing ADP, Mg(2+) and Pi synthesized ATP at an initial rate of 2 nmols/min/mg protein after acidification of the bulk medium (pH 8 (right arrow) 4). The intravesicular ATP concentration reached a steady state after about 30 seconds and slowly declined thereafter. ATP synthesis was inhibited by low concentrations of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and m-chlorophenylhydrazone indicating that synthesis took place in response to the proton gradient. NEM and PCMS, which inhibit vacuolar ATPases and the vacuolar-like ATPases of extreme halophiles, did not affect ATP synthesis, and, in fact, produced higher steady state levels of ATP. This suggested that two ATPase activities were present, one which catalyzed ATP synthesis and one that caused its hydrolysis. Azide, a specific inhibitor of F0F1 ATP Synthases, inhibited halobacterial ATP synthesis. The distribution of acridine orange as imposed by a delta pH demonstrated that azide inhibition was not due to the collapse of the proton gradient due to azide acting as a protonophore. Such an effect was observed, but only at azide concentrations higher than those that inhibited ATP synthesis. These results confirm the earler observations with cells of H. saccharovorum and other extreme halophiles that ATP synthesis is inconsistent with the operation of a vacuolar-like ATPase. Therefore, the observation that a vacuolar-like enzyme is responsible for ATP synthesis (and which serves as the basis for imputing ATP synthesis to the vacuolar-like ATPases of the extreme halophiles, and the Archaea in general) should be taken with some degree of caution.

  16. Single-molecule analysis of F0F1-ATP synthase inhibited by N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide.

    PubMed

    Toei, Masashi; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-01

    N,N-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) is a classical inhibitor of the F0F1-ATP synthase (F0F1), which covalently binds to the highly conserved carboxylic acid of the proteolipid subunit (c subunit) in F0. Although it is well known that DCCD modification of the c subunit blocks proton translocation in F0 and the coupled ATP hydrolysis activity of F1, how DCCD inhibits the rotary dynamics of F0F1 remains elusive. Here, we carried out single-molecule rotation assays to characterize the DCCD inhibition of Escherichia coli F0F1. Upon the injection of DCCD, rotations irreversibly terminated with first order reaction kinetics, suggesting that the incorporation of a single DCCD moiety is sufficient to block the rotary catalysis of the F0F1. Individual molecules terminated at different angles relative to the three catalytic angles of F1, suggesting that DCCD randomly reacts with one of the 10 c subunits. DCCD-inhibited F0F1 sometimes showed transient activation; molecules abruptly rotated and stopped after one revolution at the original termination angle, suggesting that hindrance by the DCCD moiety is released due to thermal fluctuation. To explore the mechanical activation of DCCD-inhibited molecules, we perturbed inhibited molecules using magnetic tweezers. The probability of transient activation increased upon a forward forcible rotation. Interestingly, during the termination F0F1, showed multiple positional shifts, which implies that F1 stochastically changes the angular position of its rotor upon a catalytic reaction. This effect could be caused by balancing the angular positions of the F1 and the F0 rotors, which are connected via elastic elements.

  17. Single-molecule Analysis of F0F1-ATP Synthase Inhibited by N,N-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide*

    PubMed Central

    Toei, Masashi; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    N,N-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) is a classical inhibitor of the F0F1-ATP synthase (F0F1), which covalently binds to the highly conserved carboxylic acid of the proteolipid subunit (c subunit) in F0. Although it is well known that DCCD modification of the c subunit blocks proton translocation in F0 and the coupled ATP hydrolysis activity of F1, how DCCD inhibits the rotary dynamics of F0F1 remains elusive. Here, we carried out single-molecule rotation assays to characterize the DCCD inhibition of Escherichia coli F0F1. Upon the injection of DCCD, rotations irreversibly terminated with first order reaction kinetics, suggesting that the incorporation of a single DCCD moiety is sufficient to block the rotary catalysis of the F0F1. Individual molecules terminated at different angles relative to the three catalytic angles of F1, suggesting that DCCD randomly reacts with one of the 10 c subunits. DCCD-inhibited F0F1 sometimes showed transient activation; molecules abruptly rotated and stopped after one revolution at the original termination angle, suggesting that hindrance by the DCCD moiety is released due to thermal fluctuation. To explore the mechanical activation of DCCD-inhibited molecules, we perturbed inhibited molecules using magnetic tweezers. The probability of transient activation increased upon a forward forcible rotation. Interestingly, during the termination F0F1, showed multiple positional shifts, which implies that F1 stochastically changes the angular position of its rotor upon a catalytic reaction. This effect could be caused by balancing the angular positions of the F1 and the F0 rotors, which are connected via elastic elements. PMID:23893417

  18. Fo-driven Rotation in the ATP Synthase Direction against the Force of F1 ATPase in the FoF1 ATP Synthase.

    PubMed

    Martin, James; Hudson, Jennifer; Hornung, Tassilo; Frasch, Wayne D

    2015-04-24

    Living organisms rely on the FoF1 ATP synthase to maintain the non-equilibrium chemical gradient of ATP to ADP and phosphate that provides the primary energy source for cellular processes. How the Fo motor uses a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient to create clockwise torque that overcomes F1 ATPase-driven counterclockwise torque at high ATP is a major unresolved question. Using single FoF1 molecules embedded in lipid bilayer nanodiscs, we now report the observation of Fo-dependent rotation of the c10 ring in the ATP synthase (clockwise) direction against the counterclockwise force of ATPase-driven rotation that occurs upon formation of a leash with Fo stator subunit a. Mutational studies indicate that the leash is important for ATP synthase activity and support a mechanism in which residues aGlu-196 and cArg-50 participate in the cytoplasmic proton half-channel to promote leash formation. PMID:25713065

  19. Binding of the immunomodulatory drug Bz-423 to mitochondrial FoF1-ATP synthase in living cells by FRET acceptor photobleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, Ilka; Johnson, Kathryn M.; Petersen, Jan; Gräber, Peter; Opipari, Anthony W.; Glick, Gary D.; Börsch, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Bz-423 is a promising new drug for treatment of autoimmune diseases. This small molecule binds to subunit OSCP of the mitochondrial enzyme FoF1-ATP synthase and modulates its catalytic activities. We investigate the binding of Bz-423 to mitochondria in living cells and how subunit rotation in FoF1-ATP synthase, i.e. the mechanochemical mechanism of this enzyme, is affected by Bz-423. Therefore, the enzyme was marked selectively by genetic fusion with the fluorescent protein EGFP to the C terminus of subunit γ. Imaging the threedimensional arrangement of mitochondria in living yeast cells was possible at superresolution using structured illumination microscopy, SIM. We measured uptake and binding of a Cy5-labeled Bz-423 derivative to mitochondrial FoF1-ATP synthase in living yeast cells using FRET acceptor photobleaching microscopy. Our data confirmed the binding of Cy5-labeled Bz-423 to the top of the F1 domain of the enzyme in mitochondria of living Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

  20. Observing single FoF1-ATP synthase at work using an improved fluorescent protein mNeonGreen as FRET donor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitkamp, Thomas; Deckers-Hebestreit, Gabriele; Börsch, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the universal chemical energy currency for cellular activities provided mainly by the membrane enzyme FoF1-ATP synthase in bacteria, chloroplasts and mitochondria. Synthesis of ATP is accompanied by subunit rotation within the enzyme. Over the past 15 years we have developed a variety of single-molecule FRET (smFRET) experiments to monitor catalytic action of individual bacterial enzymes in vitro. By specifically labeling rotating and static subunits within a single enzyme we were able to observe three-stepped rotation in the F1 motor, ten-stepped rotation in the Fo motor and transient elastic deformation of the connected rotor subunits. However, the spatial and temporal resolution of motor activities measured by smFRET were limited by the photophysics of the FRET fluorophores. Here we evaluate the novel FRET donor mNeonGreen as a fusion to FoF1-ATP synthase and compare it to the previously used fluorophore EGFP. Topics of this manuscript are the biochemical purification procedures and the activity measurements of the fully functional mutant enzyme.

  1. Optimized green fluorescent protein fused to FoF1-ATP synthase for single-molecule FRET using a fast anti-Brownian electrokinetic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienerowitz, Maria; Ilchenko, Mykhailo; Su, Bertram; Deckers-Hebestreit, Gabriele; Mayer, Günter; Henkel, Thomas; Heitkamp, Thomas; Börsch, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Observation times of freely diffusing single molecules in solution are limited by the photophysics of the attached fluorescence markers and by a small observation volume in the femtolitre range that is required for a sufficient signal-to-background ratio. To extend diffusion-limited observation times through a confocal detection volume, A. E. Cohen and W. E. Moerner have invented and built the ABELtrap -- a microfluidic device to actively counteract Brownian motion of single nanoparticles with an electrokinetic trap. Here we present a version of an ABELtrap with a laser focus pattern generated by electro-optical beam deflectors and controlled by a programmable FPGA chip. This ABELtrap holds single fluorescent nanoparticles for more than 100 seconds, increasing the observation time of fluorescent nanoparticles compared to free diffusion by a factor of 10000. To monitor conformational changes of individual membrane proteins in real time, we record sequential distance changes between two specifically attached dyes using Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET). Fusing the a-subunit of the FoF1-ATP synthase with mNeonGreen results in an improved signal-to-background ratio at lower laser excitation powers. This increases our measured trap duration of proteoliposomes beyond 2 s. Additionally, we observe different smFRET levels attributed to varying distances between the FRET donor (mNeonGreen) and acceptor (Alexa568) fluorophore attached at the a- and c-subunit of the FoF1-ATP synthase respectively.

  2. Monitoring subunit rotation in single FRET-labeled FoF1-ATP synthase in an anti-Brownian electrokinetic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitkamp, Thomas; Sielaff, Hendrik; Korn, Anja; Renz, Marc; Zarrabi, Nawid; Börsch, Michael

    2013-02-01

    FoF1-ATP synthase is the membrane protein catalyzing the synthesis of the 'biological energy currency' adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The enzyme uses internal subunit rotation for the mechanochemical conversion of a proton motive force to the chemical bond. We apply single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to monitor subunit rotation in the two coupled motors F1 and Fo. Therefore, enzymes have to be isolated from the plasma membranes of Escherichia coli, fluorescently labeled and reconstituted into 120-nm sized lipid vesicles to yield proteoliposomes. These freely diffusing proteoliposomes occasionally traverse the confocal detection volume resulting in a burst of photons. Conformational dynamics of the enzyme are identified by sequential changes of FRET efficiencies within a single photon burst. The observation times can be extended by capturing single proteoliposomes in an anti-Brownian electrokinetic trap (ABELtrap, invented by A. E. Cohen and W. E. Moerner). Here we describe the preparation procedures of FoF1-ATP synthase and simulate FRET efficiency trajectories for 'trapped' proteoliposomes. Hidden Markov Models are applied at signal-to-background ratio limits for identifying the dwells and substeps of the rotary enzyme when running at low ATP concentrations, excited by low laser power, and confined by the ABELtrap.

  3. Elastic deformations of the rotary double motor of single F(o)F(1)-ATP synthases detected in real time by Förster resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Stefan; Düser, Monika G; Zarrabi, Nawid; Dunn, Stanley D; Börsch, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Elastic conformational changes of the protein backbone are essential for catalytic activities of enzymes. To follow relative movements within the protein, Förster-type resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two specifically attached fluorophores can be applied. FRET provides a precise ruler between 3 and 8nm with subnanometer resolution. Corresponding submillisecond time resolution is sufficient to identify conformational changes in FRET time trajectories. Analyzing single enzymes circumvents the need for synchronization of various conformations. F(O)F(1)-ATP synthase is a rotary double motor which catalyzes the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). A proton-driven 10-stepped rotary F(O) motor in the Escherichia coli enzyme is connected to a 3-stepped F(1) motor, where ATP is synthesized. To operate the double motor with a mismatch of step sizes smoothly, elastic deformations within the rotor parts have been proposed by W. Junge and coworkers. Here we extend a single-molecule FRET approach to observe both rotary motors simultaneously in individual F(O)F(1)-ATP synthases at work. We labeled this enzyme with two fluorophores specifically, that is, on the ε- and c-subunits of the two rotors. Alternating laser excitation was used to select the FRET-labeled enzymes. FRET changes indicated associated transient twisting within the rotors of single enzyme molecules during ATP hydrolysis and ATP synthesis. Supported by Monte Carlo simulations of the FRET experiments, these studies reveal that the rotor twisting is greater than 36° and is largely suppressed in the presence of the rotation inhibitor DCCD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012).

  4. New Insights into the Unique Structure of the F0F1-ATP Synthase from the Chlamydomonad Algae Polytomella sp. and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1

    PubMed Central

    van Lis, Robert; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Groth, Georg; Atteia, Ariane

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the structure of the mitochondrial F0F1-ATP synthase of the colorless alga Polytomella sp. with respect to the enzyme of its green close relative Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. It is demonstrated that several unique features of the ATP synthase in C. reinhardtii are also present in Polytomella sp. The α- and β-subunits of the ATP synthase from both algae are highly unusual in that they exhibit extensions at their N- and C-terminal ends, respectively. Several subunits of the Polytomella ATP synthase in the range of 9 to 66 kD have homologs in the green alga but do not have known equivalents as yet in mitochondrial ATP synthases of mammals, plants, or fungi. The largest of these so-called ASA (ATP Synthase-Associated) subunits, ASA1, is shown to be an extrinsic protein. Short heat treatment of isolated Polytomella mitochondria unexpectedly dissociated the otherwise highly stable ATP synthase dimer of 1,600 kD into subcomplexes of 800 and 400 kD, assigned as the ATP synthase monomer and F1-ATPase, respectively. Whereas no ASA subunits were found in the F1-ATPase, all but two were present in the monomer. ASA6 (12 kD) and ASA9 (9 kD), predicted to be membrane bound, were not detected in the monomer and are thus proposed to be involved in the formation or stabilization of the enzyme. A hypothetical configuration of the Chlamydomonad dimeric ATP synthase portraying its unique features is provided to spur further research on this topic. PMID:17468226

  5. Functional Expression of Electron Transport Chain and FoF1-ATP Synthase in Optic Nerve Myelin Sheath.

    PubMed

    Bartolucci, Martina; Ravera, Silvia; Garbarino, Greta; Ramoino, Paola; Ferrando, Sara; Calzia, Daniela; Candiani, Simona; Morelli, Alessandro; Panfoli, Isabella

    2015-11-01

    Our previous studies reported evidence for aerobic ATP synthesis by myelin from both bovine brainstem and rat sciatic nerve. Considering that the optic nerve displays a high oxygen demand, here we evaluated the expression and activity of the five Respiratory Complexes in myelin purified from either bovine or murine optic nerves. Western blot analyses on isolated myelin confirmed the expression of ND4L (subunit of Complex I), COX IV (subunit of Complex IV) and β subunit of F1Fo-ATP synthase. Moreover, spectrophotometric and in-gel activity assays on isolated myelin, as well as histochemical activity assays on both bovine and murine transversal optic nerve sections showed that the respiratory Complexes are functional in myelin and are organized in a supercomplex. Expression of oxidative phosphorylation proteins was also evaluated on bovine optic nerve sections by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Having excluded a mitochondrial contamination of isolated myelin and considering the results form in situ analyses, it is proposed that the oxidative phosphorylation machinery is truly resident in optic myelin sheath. Data may shed a new light on the unknown trophic role of myelin sheath. It may be energy supplier for the axon, explaining why in demyelinating diseases and neuropathies, myelin sheath loss is associated with axonal degeneration.

  6. Light-driven production of ATP catalysed by F0F1-ATP synthase in an artificial photosynthetic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg-Yfrach, Gali; Rigaud, Jean-Louis; Durantini, Edgardo N.; Moore, Ana L.; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.

    1998-04-01

    Energy-transducing membranes of living organisms couple spontaneous to non-spontaneous processes through the intermediacy of protonmotive force (p.m.f.) - an imbalance in electrochemical potential of protons across the membrane. In most organisms, p.m.f. is generated by redox reactions that are either photochemically driven, such as those in photosynthetic reaction centres, or intrinsically spontaneous, such as those of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. Transmembrane proteins (such as the cytochromes and complexes I, III and IV in the electron-transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane) couple the redox reactions to proton translocation, thereby conserving a fraction of the redox chemical potential as p.m.f. Many transducer proteins couple p.m.f. to the performance of biochemical work, such as biochemical synthesis and mechanical and transport processes. Recently, an artificial photosynthetic membrane was reported in which a photocyclic process was used to transport protons across a liposomal membrane, resulting in acidification of the liposome's internal volume. If significant p.m.f. is generated in this system, then incorporating an appropriate transducer into the liposomal bilayer should make it possible to drive a non-spontaneous chemical process. Here we report the incorporation of FOF1-ATP synthase into liposomes containing the components of the proton-pumping photocycle. Irradiation of this artificial membrane with visible light results in the uncoupler- and inhibitor-sensitive synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) against an ATP chemical potential of ~12kcalmol-1, with a quantum yield of more than 7%. This system mimics the process by which photosynthetic bacteria convert light energy into ATP chemical potential.

  7. De-novo modeling and ESR validation of a cyanobacterial F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase subunit bb' left-handed coiled coil.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Oleg A; Zaida, Tarek M; Voeller, Petra; Lill, Holger; Wise, John G; Vogel, Pia D

    2009-03-01

    The structure and functional role of the dimeric external stalk of F(o)F(1)-ATP synthases have been very actively researched over the last years. To understand the function, detailed knowledge of the structure and protein packing interactions in the dimer is required. In this paper we describe the application of structural prediction and molecular modeling approaches to elucidate the structural packing interaction of the cyanobacterial ATP synthase external stalk. In addition we present biophysical evidence derived from ESR spectroscopy and site directed spin labeling of stalk proteins that supports the proposed structural model. The use of the heterodimeric bb' dimer from a cyanobacterial ATP synthase (Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803) allowed, by specific introduction of spin labels along each individual subunit, the evaluation of the overall tertiary structure of the subunits by calculating inter-spin distances. At defined positions in both b and b' subunits, reporter groups were inserted to determine and confirm inter-subunit packing. The experiments showed that an approximately 100 residue long section of the cytoplasmic part of the bb'-dimer exists mostly as an elongated alpha-helix. The distant C-terminal end of the dimer, which is thought to interact with the delta-subunit, seemed to be disordered in experiments using soluble bb' proteins. A left-handed coiled coil packing of the dimer suggested from structure prediction studies and shown to be feasible in molecular modeling experiments was used together with the measured inter-spin distances of the inserted reporter groups determined in ESR experiments to support the hypothesis that a significant portion of the bb' structure exists as a left-handed coiled coil.

  8. Mitochondria-dependent reactive oxygen species-mediated programmed cell death induced by 3,3'-diindolylmethane through inhibition of F0F1-ATP synthase in unicellular protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amit; Ganguly, Agneyo; BoseDasgupta, Somdeb; Das, Benu Brata; Pal, Churala; Jaisankar, Parasuraman; Majumder, Hemanta K

    2008-11-01

    Mitochondria are the principal site for the generation of cellular ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. F0F1-ATP synthase, a complex V of the electron transport chain, is an important constituent of mitochondria-dependent signaling pathways involved in apoptosis. In the present study, we have shown for the first time that 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), a DNA topoisomerase I poison, inhibits mitochondrial F0F1-ATP synthase of Leishmania donovani and induces programmed cell death (PCD), which is a novel insight into the mechanism in protozoan parasites. DIM-induced inhibition of F0F1-ATP synthase activity causes depletion of mitochondrial ATP levels and significant stimulation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, followed by depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)). Because DeltaPsi(m) is the driving force for mitochondrial ATP synthesis, loss of DeltaPsi(m) results in depletion of cellular ATP level. The loss of DeltaPsi(m) causes the cellular ROS generation and in turn leads to the oxidative DNA lesions followed by DNA fragmentation. In contrast, loss of DeltaPsi(m) leads to release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and subsequently activates the caspase-like proteases, which lead to oligonucleosomal DNA cleavage. We have also shown that mitochondrial DNA-depleted cells are insensitive to DIM to induce PCD. Therefore, mitochondria are necessary for cytotoxicity of DIM in kinetoplastid parasites. Taken together, our study indicates for the first time that DIM-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by inhibition of F0F1-ATP synthase activity leads to PCD in Leishmania spp. parasites, which could be exploited to develop newer potential therapeutic targets. PMID:18703668

  9. ATP synthesis in Halobacterium saccharovorum: evidence that synthesis may be catalysed by an F0F1-ATP synthase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.

    1992-01-01

    Halobacterium saccharovorum synthesized ATP in response to a pH shift from 8 to 6.2. Synthesis was inhibited by carbonyl cyanide m-chloro-phenylhydrazone, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and azide. Nitrate, an inhibitor of the membrane-bound ATPase previously isolated from this organism, did not inhibit ATP synthesis. N-Ethymaleimide, which also inhibited this ATPase, stimulated the production of ATP. These observations suggested that H. saccharovorum synthesized and hydrolysed ATP using different enzymes and that the vacuolar-like ATPase activity previously described in H. saccharovorum was an ATPase whose function is yet to be identified.

  10. Energy-dependent transformation of the catalytic activities of the mitochondrial F0 x F1-ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Galkin, M A; Vinogradov, A D

    1999-04-01

    The ADP(Mg2+)-deactivated, azide-trapped F0 x F1-ATPase of coupled submitochondrial particles is capable of ATP synthesis being incapable of ATP hydrolysis and ATP-dependent delta muH+ generation [FEBS Lett. (1995) 366, 29-32]. This puzzling phenomenon was studied further. No ATPase activity of the submitochondrial particles catalyzing succinate-supported oxidative phosphorylation in the presence of azide was observed when ATP was added to the assay mixture after an uncoupler. Rapid ATP hydrolysis was detected in the same system when ATP followed by an uncoupler was added. Less than 5% of the original ATPase activity was seen when the reaction (assayed with ATP-regenerating system) was initiated by the addition of ATP to the azide-trapped coupled particles oxidizing succinate either in the presence or in the absence of the uncoupler. High ATP hydrolytic activity was revealed when the reaction was started by the simultaneous addition of the ATP plus uncoupler to the particles generating delta muH+. The energy-dependent conversion of the enzyme into latent uncoupler-activated ATPase was prevented by free ADP (Ki approximately 20 microM) and was greatly enhanced after multiple turnovers in oxidative phosphorylation. The results suggest that the catalytic properties of F0 x F1 are delta muH+-dependent which is in accord with our hypothesis on different conformational states of the enzyme participating in ATP synthesis or hydrolysis.

  11. Targeting glucosylceramide synthase induction of cell surface globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in acquired cisplatin-resistance of lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, Andreas; Johansson, Anders; Karlsson, Terese; Gudey, Shyam Kumar; Brännström, Thomas; Grankvist, Kjell; Behnam-Motlagh, Parviz

    2015-08-01

    Background: Acquired resistance to cisplatin treatment is a caveat when treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Ceramide increases in response to chemotherapy, leading to proliferation arrest and apoptosis. However, a tumour stress activation of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) follows to eliminate ceramide by formation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), the functional receptor of verotoxin-1. Ceramide elimination enhances cell proliferation and apoptosis blockade, thus stimulating tumor progression. GSLs transactivate multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) expression which further prevents ceramide accumulation and stimulates drug efflux. We investigated the expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 in NSCLC and MPM cells with acquired cisplatin resistance, and if GCS activity or MDR1 pump inhibitors would reduce their expression and reverse cisplatin-resistance. Methods: Cell surface expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 and intracellular expression of MDR1 and MRP1 was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy on P31 MPM and H1299 NSCLC cells and subline cells with acquired cisplatin resistance. The effect of GCS inhibitor PPMP and MDR1 pump inhibitor cyclosporin A for 72 h on expression and cisplatin cytotoxicity was tested. Results: The cisplatin-resistant cells expressed increased cell surface Gb3. Cell surface Gb3 expression of resistant cells was annihilated by PPMP whereas cyclosporin A decreased Gb3 and MDR1 expression in H1299 cells. No decrease of MDR1 by PPMP was noted in using flow cytometry, whereas a decrease of MDR1 in H1299 and H1299res was indicated with confocal microscopy. No certain co-localization of Gb3 and MDR1 was noted. PPMP, but not cyclosporin A, potentiated cisplatin cytotoxicity in all cells. Conclusions: Cell surface Gb3 expression is a likely tumour biomarker for acquired cisplatin

  12. Integrated Approach To Producing High-Purity Trehalose from Maltose by the Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica Displaying Trehalose Synthase (TreS) on the Cell Surface.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Wang, Hengwei; Li, Lijuan; Cheng, Huiling; Liu, Dawen; Cheng, Hairong; Deng, Zixin

    2016-08-10

    An alternative strategy that integrated enzyme production, trehalose biotransformation, and bioremoval in one bioreactor was developed in this study, thus simplifying the traditional procedures used for trehalose production. The trehalose synthase gene from a thermophilic archaea, Picrophilus torridus, was first fused to the YlPir1 anchor gene and then inserted into the genome of Yarrowia lipolytica, thus yielding an engineered yeast strain. The trehalose yield reached 73% under optimal conditions. The thermal and pH stabilities of the displayed enzyme were improved compared to those of its free form purified from recombinant Escherichia coli. After biotransformation, the glucose byproduct and residual maltose were directly fermented to ethanol by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. Ethanol can be separated by distillation, and high-purity trehalose can easily be obtained from the fermentation broth. The results show that this one-pot procedure is an efficient approach to the economical production of trehalose from maltose. PMID:27472444

  13. Identification of mitochondrial Complex II subunits SDH3 and SDH4 and ATP synthase subunits a and b in Plasmodium spp.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Tatsushi; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2009-11-01

    While most protist mitochondrial enzymes could be identified in database, the membrane anchor subunits of Complex II and F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase of malaria parasites are not annotated. Based on the presence of structural fingerprints or proteomics data from other protists, here we present their candidates. In contrast to canonical subunits, Plasmodium Complex II anchors have two transmembrane helices and may coordinate heme b via Tyr in place of His. Transmembrane helix IV of ATP synthase subunit a lacks an essential Arg residue. Membrane anchors of Plasmodium Complex II and ATP synthase are divergent from orthologs and promising targets for new chemotherapeutics.

  14. Biomolecular proteomics discloses ATP synthase as the main target of the natural glycoside deglucoruscin.

    PubMed

    Del Gaudio, Federica; Festa, Carmen; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Vasaturo, Michele; Casapullo, Agostino; De Marino, Simona; Riccio, Raffaele; Monti, Maria Chiara

    2016-10-20

    Extracts of Ruscus aculeatus are a rich source of bioactive steroidal glycosides, such as ruscogenins which are reported to act against chronic venous disorders. Nowadays, several preparations of its roots, commonly used in traditional medicine, are on the market as food supplements for health care and maintenance. Although spirostanol deglucoruscin is one of the main metabolites in these extracts, literature reports about its pharmacological profile are scarce. In this paper, a multi-disciplinary approach, based on chemical proteomics, molecular modelling and bio-organic assays, has been used to disclose the whole interactome of deglucoruscin and the F0-F1 ATP synthase complex has been found as its main target.

  15. ATP synthase: a tentative structural model.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, S; Junge, W

    1997-09-15

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase produces ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate at the expense of proton- or sodium-motive force across the respective coupling membrane in Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya. Cation flow through the intrinsic membrane portion of this enzyme (Fo, subunits ab2c9-12) and substrate turnover in the headpiece (F1, subunits alpha3beta3 gammadeltaepsilon) are mechanically coupled by the rotation of subunit gamma in the center of the catalytic hexagon of subunits (alphabeta)3 in F1. ATP synthase is the smallest rotatory engine in nature. With respect to the headpiece alone, it probably operates with three steps. Partial structures of six out of its at least eight different subunits have been published and a 3-dimensional structure is available for the assembly (alphabeta)3gamma. In this article, we review the available structural data and build a tentative topological model of the holoenzyme. The rotor portion is proposed to consist of a wheel of at least nine copies of subunits c, epsilon and a portion of gamma as a spoke, and another portion of gamma as a crankshaft. The stator is made up from a, the transmembrane portion of b2, delta and the catalytic hexagon of (alphabeta)3. As an educated guess, the model may be of heuristic value for ongoing studies on this fascinating electrochemical-to-mechanical-to-chemical transducer. PMID:9323021

  16. Torque generation mechanism of ATP synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John; Maric, Sladjana; Scoppa, M.; Cheung, M.

    2010-03-01

    ATP synthase is a rotary motor that produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the chemical currency of life. Our proposed electric field driven torque (EFT) model of FoF1-ATP synthase describes how torque, which scales with the number of c-ring proton binding sites, is generated by the proton motive force (pmf) across the mitochondrial inner membrane. When Fo is coupled to F1, the model predicts a critical pmf to drive ATP production. In order to fully understand how the electric field resulting from the pmf drives the c-ring to rotate, it is important to examine the charge distributions in the protonated c-ring and a-subunit containing the proton channels. Our calculations use a self-consistent field approach based on a refinement of reported structural data. The results reveal changes in pKa for key residues on the a-subunit and c-ring, as well as titration curves and protonation state energy diagrams. Health implications will be briefly discussed.

  17. Three-color Förster resonance energy transfer within single F₀F₁-ATP synthases: monitoring elastic deformations of the rotary double motor in real time.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Stefan; Düser, Monika G; Zarrabi, Nawid; Börsch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic activities of enzymes are associated with elastic conformational changes of the protein backbone. Förster-type resonance energy transfer, commonly referred to as FRET, is required in order to observe the dynamics of relative movements within the protein. Förster-type resonance energy transfer between two specifically attached fluorophores provides a ruler with subnanometer resolution between 3 and 8 nm, submillisecond time resolution for time trajectories of conformational changes, and single-molecule sensitivity to overcome the need for synchronization of various conformations. F(O)F(1)-ATP synthase is a rotary molecular machine which catalyzes the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The Escherichia coli enzyme comprises a proton driven 10 stepped rotary F(O) motor connected to a 3-stepped F(1) motor, where ATP is synthesized. This mismatch of step sizes will result in elastic deformations within the rotor parts. We present a new single-molecule FRET approach to observe both rotary motors simultaneously in a single F(O)F(1)-ATP synthase at work. We labeled this enzyme with three fluorophores, specifically at the stator part and at the two rotors. Duty cycle-optimized with alternating laser excitation, referred to as DCO-ALEX, allowed to control enzyme activity and to unravel associated transient twisting within the rotors of a single enzyme during ATP hydrolysis and ATP synthesis. Monte Carlo simulations revealed that the rotor twisting is larger than 36 deg.

  18. The enigmatic mitochondrial ORF ymf39 codes for ATP synthase chain b.

    PubMed

    Burger, Gertraud; Lang, B Franz; Braun, Hans-Peter; Marx, Stefanie

    2003-05-01

    ymf39 is a conserved hypothetical protein-coding gene found in mitochondrial genomes of land plants and certain protists. We speculated earlier, based on a weak sequence similarity between Ymf39 from a green alga and the atpF gene product from Bradyrhizobium, that ymf39 might code for subunit b of mitochondrial F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase. To test this hypothesis, we have sequenced ymf39 from five protists with minimally derived mitochondrial genomes, the jakobids. In addition, we isolated the mitochondrial ATP synthase complex of the jakobid Seculamonas ecuadoriensis and determined the partial protein sequence of the 19-kDa subunit, the size expected for Ymf39. The obtained peptide sequence matches perfectly with a 3'-proximal region of the ymf39 gene of this organism, confirming that Ymf39 is indeed an ATP synthase subunit. Finally, we employed statistical tests to assess the significance of sequence similarity of Ymf39 proteins with each other, their nucleus-encoded functional counterparts, ATP4/ATP5F, from fungi and animals and alpha-proteobacterial ATP synthase b-subunits. This analysis provides clear evidence that ymf39 is an atpF homolog, while ATP4/ATP5F appears to be a highly diverged form of ymf39 that has migrated to the nucleus. We propose to designate ymf39 from now on atp4.

  19. Structure of the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Singer, S J

    1982-01-01

    The cell surface is the locus for many important biochemical functions of cells and for the interactions of cells with one another and with their environment. The structure of the cell surface may be thought of as three-layered, with a central plasma membrane to which certain macromolecular components are attached on the outer face (the exoskeleton) and other components on the inner face (the membrane cytoskeleton). In the last decade, the basic molecular structure of the plasma membrane has been elucidated and can be represented by the fluid mosaic model as a first approximation. The binding of specific integral proteins of the membrane to individual peripheral proteins outside or inside the cell is most likely the basis for the three-layered structure of the cell surface. Studies of the last several years on the molecular structures of these three-layered cell surfaces of cultured normal fibroblasts and of fibroblasts transformed by oncogenic viruses are beginning to shed light on the molecular mechanisms responsible for changes in cell shape, adhesiveness, and in contact inhibition of motility associated with neoplastic transformation.

  20. Pseudouridine synthases.

    PubMed

    Hamma, Tomoko; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2006-11-01

    Pseudouridine synthases are the enzymes responsible for the most abundant posttranscriptional modification of cellular RNAs. These enzymes catalyze the site-specific isomerization of uridine residues that are already part of an RNA chain, and appear to employ both sequence and structural information to achieve site specificity. Crystallographic analyses have demonstrated that all pseudouridine synthases share a common core fold and active site structure and that this core is modified by peripheral domains, accessory proteins, and guide RNAs to give rise to remarkable substrate versatility.

  1. Operation mechanism of F(o) F(1)-adenosine triphosphate synthase revealed by its structure and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Iino, Ryota; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2013-03-01

    F(o) F(1) -Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase, a complex of two rotary motor proteins, reversibly converts the electrochemical potential of protons across the cell membrane into phosphate transfer potential of ATP to provide the energy currency of the cell. The water-soluble motor is F(1) -ATPase, which possesses ATP synthesis/hydrolysis catalytic sites. Isolated F(1) hydrolyses ATP to rotate the rotary shaft against the stator ring. The membrane-embedded motor is F(o) , which is driven by proton flow down the proton electrochemical potential. In the F(o) F(1) complex, the direction of mechanical rotation, the chemical reaction, and the proton transport are determined by the relative amplitudes between the Gibbs free energy of the ATP hydrolysis reaction and the electrochemical potential of protons across the membrane. Therefore, F(o) F(1) -ATP synthase is a highly efficient molecular device in which the chemical, mechanical, and potential energies are tightly and reversibly converted. In this critical review, we summarize our latest knowledge about the operation mechanism of this sophisticated nanomachine, revealed by its structure and dynamics.

  2. Diffusing colloidal probes of cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Gregg A; Fairbrother, D Howard; Bevan, Michael A

    2016-05-25

    Measurements and analyses are reported to quantify dynamic and equilibrium interactions between colloidal particles and live cell surfaces using dark field video microscopy. Two-dimensional trajectories of micron-sized polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated silica colloids relative to adherent epithelial breast cancer cell perimeters are determined allowing measurement of position dependent diffusivities and interaction potentials. PEG was chosen as the material system of interest to assess non-specific interactions with cell surfaces and establishes a basis for investigation of specific interactions in future studies. Analysis of measured potential energies on cell surfaces reveals the spatial dependence in cell topography. With the measured cell topography and models for particle-cell surface hydrodynamic interactions, excellent agreement is obtained between theoretical and measured colloidal transport on cell surfaces. Quantitative analyses of association lifetimes showed that PEG coatings act to stabilize colloids above the cell surface through net repulsive, steric interactions. Our results demonstrate a self-consistent analysis of diffusing colloidal probe interactions due to conservative and non-conservative forces to characterize biophysical cell surface properties. PMID:27117575

  3. Diffusing colloidal probes of cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Gregg A; Fairbrother, D Howard; Bevan, Michael A

    2016-05-25

    Measurements and analyses are reported to quantify dynamic and equilibrium interactions between colloidal particles and live cell surfaces using dark field video microscopy. Two-dimensional trajectories of micron-sized polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated silica colloids relative to adherent epithelial breast cancer cell perimeters are determined allowing measurement of position dependent diffusivities and interaction potentials. PEG was chosen as the material system of interest to assess non-specific interactions with cell surfaces and establishes a basis for investigation of specific interactions in future studies. Analysis of measured potential energies on cell surfaces reveals the spatial dependence in cell topography. With the measured cell topography and models for particle-cell surface hydrodynamic interactions, excellent agreement is obtained between theoretical and measured colloidal transport on cell surfaces. Quantitative analyses of association lifetimes showed that PEG coatings act to stabilize colloids above the cell surface through net repulsive, steric interactions. Our results demonstrate a self-consistent analysis of diffusing colloidal probe interactions due to conservative and non-conservative forces to characterize biophysical cell surface properties.

  4. Profiling of the cell surface proteome.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jun Ho; Hanash, Samir

    2003-10-01

    The in depth-mining of the proteome necessitates the comprehensive analysis of proteins in individual subcellular compartments to uncover interesting patterns of protein expression that include assessment of protein location, trafficking and of post-translational modifications that are location specific. One of the compartments of substantial interest from a diagnostic and therapeutic point of view is the plasma membrane which contains intrinsic membrane proteins and other proteins expressed on the cell surface. Technologies are currently available for the comprehensive profiling of the cell surface proteome that rely on protein tagging of intact cells. Studies are emerging that point to unexpected patterns of expression of specific proteins on the cell surface, with a common occurrence of proteins previously considered to occur predominantly in other compartments, notably the endoplasmic reticulum. The profiling of the cell surface and plasma membrane proteomes will likely provide novel insights and uncover disease related alterations. PMID:14625857

  5. Cell-surface remodelling during mammalian erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Wraith, D C; Chesterton, C J

    1982-10-15

    Current evidence suggests that the major cell-surface modification occurring during mammalian erythropoiesis could be generated by two separate mechanisms: either selective loss of membrane proteins during enucleation or endocytosis at the subsequent reticulocyte and erythrocyte stages. The former idea was tested by collecting developing rabbit erythroid cells before and after the enucleation step and comparing their cell-surface protein composition via radiolabelling and electrophoresis. Few changes were observed. Our data thus lend support to the endocytosis mechanism.

  6. Enzyme Evolution by Yeast Cell Surface Engineering.

    PubMed

    Miura, Natsuko; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Artificial evolution of proteins with the aim of acquiring novel or improved functionality is important for practical applications of the proteins. We have developed yeast cell surface engineering methods (or arming technology) for evolving enzymes. Here, we have described yeast cell surface engineering coupled with in vivo homologous recombination and library screening as a method for the artificial evolution of enzymes such as firefly luciferases. Using this method, novel luciferases with improved substrate specificity and substrate reactivity were engineered. PMID:26060078

  7. Vesicle trafficking and cell surface membrane patchiness.

    PubMed

    Tang, Q; Edidin, M

    2001-07-01

    Membrane proteins and lipids often appear to be distributed in patches on the cell surface. These patches are often assumed to be membrane domains, arising from specific molecular associations. However, a computer simulation (Gheber and Edidin, 1999) shows that membrane patchiness may result from a combination of vesicle trafficking and dynamic barriers to lateral mobility. The simulation predicts that the steady-state patches of proteins and lipids seen on the cell surface will decay if vesicle trafficking is inhibited. To test this prediction, we compared the apparent sizes and intensities of patches of class I HLA molecules, integral membrane proteins, before and after inhibiting endocytic vesicle traffic from the cell surface, either by incubation in hypertonic medium or by expression of a dominant-negative mutant dynamin. As predicted by the simulation, the apparent sizes of HLA patches increased, whereas their intensities decreased after endocytosis and vesicle trafficking were inhibited. PMID:11423406

  8. An Algal Nucleus-encoded Subunit of Mitochondrial ATP Synthase Rescues a Defect in the Analogous Human Mitochondrial-encoded Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Ojaimi, Joseline; Pan, Junmin; Santra, Sumana; Snell, William J.; Schon, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    Unlike most organisms, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a green alga, does not encode subunit 6 of F0F1-ATP synthase. We hypothesized that C. reinhardtii ATPase 6 is nucleus encoded and identified cDNAs and a single-copy nuclear gene specifying this subunit (CrATP6, with eight exons, four of which encode a mitochondrial targeting signal). Although the algal and human ATP6 genes are in different subcellular compartments and the encoded polypeptides are highly diverged, their secondary structures are remarkably similar. When CrATP6 was expressed in human cells, a significant amount of the precursor polypeptide was targeted to mitochondria, the mitochondrial targeting signal was cleaved within the organelle, and the mature polypeptide was assembled into human ATP synthase. In spite of the evolutionary distance between algae and mammals, C. reinhardtii ATPase 6 functioned in human cells, because deficiencies in both cell viability and ATP synthesis in transmitochondrial cell lines harboring a pathogenic mutation in the human mtDNA-encoded ATP6 gene were overcome by expression of CrATP6. The ability to express a nucleus-encoded version of a mammalian mtDNA-encoded protein may provide a way to import other highly hydrophobic proteins into mitochondria and could serve as the basis for a gene therapy approach to treat human mitochondrial diseases. PMID:12429828

  9. Structure and functions of fungal cell surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nozawa, Y.

    1984-01-01

    A review with 24 references on the biochemistry, molecular structure, and function of cell surfaces of fungi, especially dermatophytes: the chemistry and structure of the cell wall, the effect of polyene antibiotics on the morphology and function of cytoplasmic membranes, and the chemical structure and function of pigments produced by various fungi are discussed.

  10. The Proton-Driven Rotor of ATP Synthase: Ohmic Conductance (10 fS), and Absence of Voltage Gating

    PubMed Central

    Feniouk, Boris A.; Kozlova, Maria A.; Knorre, Dmitry A.; Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.; Junge, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The membrane portion of F0F1-ATP synthase, F0, translocates protons by a rotary mechanism. Proton conduction by F0 was studied in chromatophores of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. The discharge of a light-induced voltage jump was monitored by electrochromic absorption transients to yield the unitary conductance of F0. The current-voltage relationship of F0 was linear from 7 to 70 mV. The current was extremely proton-specific (>107) and varied only slightly (≈threefold) from pH 6 to 10. The maximum conductance was ≈10 fS at pH 8, equivalent to 6240 H+ s−1 at 100-mV driving force, which is an order-of-magnitude greater than of coupled F0F1. There was no voltage-gating of F0 even at low voltage, and proton translocation could be driven by ΔpH alone, without voltage. The reported voltage gating in F0F1 is thus attributable to the interaction of F0 with F1 but not to F0 proper. We simulated proton conduction by a minimal rotary model including the rotating c-ring and two relay groups mediating proton exchange between the ring and the respective membrane surface. The data fit attributed pK values of ≈6 and ≈10 to these relays, and placed them close to the membrane/electrolyte interface. PMID:15189903

  11. Rate of hydrolysis in ATP synthase is fine-tuned by α-subunit motif controlling active site conformation

    PubMed Central

    Beke-Somfai, Tamás; Lincoln, Per; Nordén, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Computer-designed artificial enzymes will require precise understanding of how conformation of active sites may control barrier heights of key transition states, including dependence on structure and dynamics at larger molecular scale. FoF1 ATP synthase is interesting as a model system: a delicate molecular machine synthesizing or hydrolyzing ATP using a rotary motor. Isolated F1 performs hydrolysis with a rate very sensitive to ATP concentration. Experimental and theoretical results show that, at low ATP concentrations, ATP is slowly hydrolyzed in the so-called tight binding site, whereas at higher concentrations, the binding of additional ATP molecules induces rotation of the central γ-subunit, thereby forcing the site to transform through subtle conformational changes into a loose binding site in which hydrolysis occurs faster. How the 1-Å-scale rearrangements are controlled is not yet fully understood. By a combination of theoretical approaches, we address how large macromolecular rearrangements may manipulate the active site and how the reaction rate changes with active site conformation. Simulations reveal that, in response to γ-subunit position, the active site conformation is fine-tuned mainly by small α-subunit changes. Quantum mechanics-based results confirm that the sub-Ångström gradual changes between tight and loose binding site structures dramatically alter the hydrolysis rate. PMID:23345443

  12. Rate of hydrolysis in ATP synthase is fine-tuned by α-subunit motif controlling active site conformation.

    PubMed

    Beke-Somfai, Tamás; Lincoln, Per; Nordén, Bengt

    2013-02-01

    Computer-designed artificial enzymes will require precise understanding of how conformation of active sites may control barrier heights of key transition states, including dependence on structure and dynamics at larger molecular scale. F(o)F(1) ATP synthase is interesting as a model system: a delicate molecular machine synthesizing or hydrolyzing ATP using a rotary motor. Isolated F(1) performs hydrolysis with a rate very sensitive to ATP concentration. Experimental and theoretical results show that, at low ATP concentrations, ATP is slowly hydrolyzed in the so-called tight binding site, whereas at higher concentrations, the binding of additional ATP molecules induces rotation of the central γ-subunit, thereby forcing the site to transform through subtle conformational changes into a loose binding site in which hydrolysis occurs faster. How the 1-Å-scale rearrangements are controlled is not yet fully understood. By a combination of theoretical approaches, we address how large macromolecular rearrangements may manipulate the active site and how the reaction rate changes with active site conformation. Simulations reveal that, in response to γ-subunit position, the active site conformation is fine-tuned mainly by small α-subunit changes. Quantum mechanics-based results confirm that the sub-Ångström gradual changes between tight and loose binding site structures dramatically alter the hydrolysis rate. PMID:23345443

  13. Stilbene Synthase and Chalcone Synthase 1

    PubMed Central

    Rolfs, Claus-Henning; Kindl, Helmut

    1984-01-01

    Cultured cells of Picea excelsa capable of forming stilbenes and flavanoids have been established. Unlike needles of intact plants containing piceatannol (3,3′,4′,5-tetrahydroxystilbene) and stilbene glycosides the cultured cells converted phenylalanine and p-coumaric acid primarily into resveratrol monomethyl ether (3,4′-dihydroxy-5-methoxystilbene) and naringenin. Partially purified enzyme preparations were assayed for chalcone synthase as well as for stilbene synthase activity converting malonyl-CoA plus p-coumaroyl-CoA into 3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene (resveratrol). Although stilbene synthase and chalcone synthase use the same substrates and exhibit similar molecular properties, i.e. molecular weight and subunit molecular weight, they are two different proteins. This difference was demonstrated by gel electrophoresis and by means of monospecific antibodies. PMID:16663649

  14. Reactivation of cell surface transport in Reticulomyxa.

    PubMed

    Orokos, D D; Bowser, S S; Travis, J L

    1997-01-01

    Granuloreticulosean protists transport particles (e.g., bacteria, algae, and sand grains) along the outer surfaces of their pseudopodia. This cell surface transport plays a vital role in feeding, reproduction, shell construction, and locomotion and can be visualized by the movements of extracellularly adherent polystyrene microspheres (i.e., latex beads). Our videomicroscopic analyses of transport associated with the pseudopodia of Reticulomyxa filosa revealed two distinct types of both intracellular and cell surface transport: (1) saltatory, bidirectional transport of individual or clustered organelles and/or surface-attached particles, and (2) continuous, unidirectional bulk or "resolute" motion of aggregated organelles and/or surface-bound particles. Organelles and surface-attached polystyrene microspheres remained firmly attached to the microtubule cytoskeletons of detergent-extracted pseudopodia. Both saltatory and resolute organelle and surface transport reactivated upon the addition of 0.01-1.0 mM ATP. At 1 mM ATP, the velocities of reactivated saltatory transport were indistinguishable from those observed in vivo. The reactivated transport was microtubule-dependent and was not inhibited by incubation with Ca(2+)-gelsolin under conditions that abolish rhodamine-phalloidin detection of actin filaments. These findings provide further support that both intracellular organelle and membrane surface transport are mediated by a common mechanism, and establish Reticulomyxa as a unique model system to further study the mechanochemistry of cell surface transport in vitro.

  15. Probes for anionic cell surface detection

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Bradley D.

    2013-03-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally directed to compositions comprising a class of molecular probes for detecting the presence of anionic cell surfaces. Embodiments include compositions that are enriched for these compositions and preparations, particularly preparations suitable for use as laboratory/clinical reagents and diagnostic indicators, either alone or as part of a kit. An embodiment of the invention provides for a highly selective agent useful in the discernment and identification of dead or dying cells, such as apoptotic cells, in a relatively calcium-free environment. An embodiment of the invention provides a selective agent for the identification of bacteria in a mixed population of bacterial cells and nonbacterial cells.

  16. Cell surface receptors for CCN proteins.

    PubMed

    Lau, Lester F

    2016-06-01

    The CCN family (CYR61; CTGF; NOV; CCN1-6; WISP1-3) of matricellular proteins in mammals is comprised of six homologous members that play important roles in development, inflammation, tissue repair, and a broad range of pathological processes including fibrosis and cancer. Despite considerable effort to search for a high affinity CCN-specific receptor akin to growth factor receptors, no such receptor has been found. Rather, CCNs bind several groups of multi-ligand receptors as characteristic of other matricellular proteins. The most extensively documented among CCN-binding receptors are integrins, including αvβ3, αvβ5, α5β1, α6β1, αIIbβ3, αMβ2, and αDβ2, which mediate diverse CCN functions in various cell types. CCNs also bind cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), low density liproprotein receptor-related proteins (LRPs), and the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) receptor, which are endocytic receptors that may also serve as co-receptors in cooperation with other cell surface receptors. CCNs have also been reported to bind FGFR-2, Notch, RANK, and TrkA, potentially altering the affinities of these receptors for their ligands. The ability of CCNs to bind a multitude of receptors in various cell types may account for the remarkable versatility of their functions, and underscore the diverse signaling pathways that mediate their activities.

  17. Sub-Cellular Localization and Complex Formation by Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases in Cyanobacteria: Evidence for Interaction of Membrane-Anchored ValRS with ATP Synthase.

    PubMed

    Santamaría-Gómez, Javier; Ochoa de Alda, Jesús A G; Olmedo-Verd, Elvira; Bru-Martínez, Roque; Luque, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    tRNAs are charged with cognate amino acids by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and subsequently delivered to the ribosome to be used as substrates for gene translation. Whether aminoacyl-tRNAs are channeled to the ribosome by transit within translational complexes that avoid their diffusion in the cytoplasm is a matter of intense investigation in organisms of the three domains of life. In the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the valyl-tRNA synthetase (ValRS) is anchored to thylakoid membranes by means of the CAAD domain. We have investigated whether in this organism ValRS could act as a hub for the nucleation of a translational complex by attracting other aaRSs to the membranes. Out of the 20 aaRSs, only ValRS was found to localize in thylakoid membranes whereas the other enzymes occupied the soluble portion of the cytoplasm. To investigate the basis for this asymmetric distribution of aaRSs, a global search for proteins interacting with the 20 aaRSs was conducted. The interaction between ValRS and the FoF1 ATP synthase complex here reported is of utmost interest and suggests a functional link between elements of the gene translation and energy production machineries.

  18. Sub-Cellular Localization and Complex Formation by Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases in Cyanobacteria: Evidence for Interaction of Membrane-Anchored ValRS with ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Santamaría-Gómez, Javier; Ochoa de Alda, Jesús A. G.; Olmedo-Verd, Elvira; Bru-Martínez, Roque; Luque, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    tRNAs are charged with cognate amino acids by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and subsequently delivered to the ribosome to be used as substrates for gene translation. Whether aminoacyl-tRNAs are channeled to the ribosome by transit within translational complexes that avoid their diffusion in the cytoplasm is a matter of intense investigation in organisms of the three domains of life. In the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the valyl-tRNA synthetase (ValRS) is anchored to thylakoid membranes by means of the CAAD domain. We have investigated whether in this organism ValRS could act as a hub for the nucleation of a translational complex by attracting other aaRSs to the membranes. Out of the 20 aaRSs, only ValRS was found to localize in thylakoid membranes whereas the other enzymes occupied the soluble portion of the cytoplasm. To investigate the basis for this asymmetric distribution of aaRSs, a global search for proteins interacting with the 20 aaRSs was conducted. The interaction between ValRS and the FoF1 ATP synthase complex here reported is of utmost interest and suggests a functional link between elements of the gene translation and energy production machineries. PMID:27375579

  19. Sub-Cellular Localization and Complex Formation by Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases in Cyanobacteria: Evidence for Interaction of Membrane-Anchored ValRS with ATP Synthase.

    PubMed

    Santamaría-Gómez, Javier; Ochoa de Alda, Jesús A G; Olmedo-Verd, Elvira; Bru-Martínez, Roque; Luque, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    tRNAs are charged with cognate amino acids by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and subsequently delivered to the ribosome to be used as substrates for gene translation. Whether aminoacyl-tRNAs are channeled to the ribosome by transit within translational complexes that avoid their diffusion in the cytoplasm is a matter of intense investigation in organisms of the three domains of life. In the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the valyl-tRNA synthetase (ValRS) is anchored to thylakoid membranes by means of the CAAD domain. We have investigated whether in this organism ValRS could act as a hub for the nucleation of a translational complex by attracting other aaRSs to the membranes. Out of the 20 aaRSs, only ValRS was found to localize in thylakoid membranes whereas the other enzymes occupied the soluble portion of the cytoplasm. To investigate the basis for this asymmetric distribution of aaRSs, a global search for proteins interacting with the 20 aaRSs was conducted. The interaction between ValRS and the FoF1 ATP synthase complex here reported is of utmost interest and suggests a functional link between elements of the gene translation and energy production machineries. PMID:27375579

  20. Cell-surface carbohydrates of Entamoeba invadens.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, S; Soares, R M; Alviano, C S; Da Silva, E F; De Souza, W; Angluster, J

    1997-01-01

    Cell-surface carbohydrates of Entamoeba invadens trophozoites were analyzed using (a) a panel of highly purified lectins specific for molecules containing N-acetylglucosamine or sialic acid, N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose, mannose-like residues, and fucose; (b) Escherichia coli K-12 with mannose-sensitive fimbria; (c) enzymatic digestion; and (d) scanning electron microscopy. The presence of galactose (D-Gal) and N-acetylgalactosamine (D-GalNAc) was detected in the amoeba. Previous trypsinization induced the appearance of Glycine max (SBA, specific for D-GalNAc residues)-binding sites, whereas such treatment completely abolished the ability of Ricinus communis (RCAI) and Axinalla polypoides (APP, specific for D-Gal) lectins and partially abolished that of Euonymus europaeus (EEL, specific for D-Gal) lectins to agglutinate the trophozoites. The agglutinating activity of E. coli K-12 adheans with the amoeba was markedly increased after trypsin digestion, indicating that mannose units become exposed after enzyme treatment. These findings were essentially confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. After neuraminidase treatment the parasites became strongly agglutinated with SBA and Arachis hypogaea (PNA, specific for D-Gal) and the cell interaction with Wisteria floribunda (WFH, specific for D-GalNAc) was markedly increased. These results suggest that in E. invadens trophozoites, sialic acid residues are linked to D-Gal and D-GalNAc. PMID:9342747

  1. Cell Surface-based Sensing with Metallic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ziwen; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2015-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles provide versatile scaffolds for biosensing applications. In this review, we focus on the use of metallic nanoparticles for cell surface sensings. Examples of the use of both specific recognition and array-based “chemical nose” approaches to cell surface sensing will be discussed. PMID:25853985

  2. Cell surface lectin-binding glycoconjugates on marine planktonic protists.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Emily C; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Martin-Cereceda, Mercedes; Novarino, Gianfranco; Wootton, Emma C

    2006-12-01

    Carbohydrate-protein interactions appear to play an important role in the phagocytosis of microbial prey by free-living protozoa. The present study utilizes FITC-labelled plant lectins to investigate the presence and localization of cell surface glycoconjugates on live and fixed planktonic protists (Dunaliella primolecta, Oxyrrhis marina, Goniomonas amphinema, Paraphysomonas vestita and Euplotes vannus). With live flagellate preparations, lectins primarily bound to external cell surfaces, with minimal internal staining observed. In contrast, cell fixation permeabilized cell membranes, allowing lectins to bind to internal structures, such as nuclear membranes and food vacuoles, interfering with the characterization of cell surface glycoconjugates. The method developed to label cell surface sugar moieties of live planktonic protists successfully overcomes the problems associated with fixation, and thus provides a useful protocol for future studies on protistan cell surface carbohydrate characterization.

  3. Cell surface fluctuations studied with defocusing microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agero, U.; Monken, C. H.; Ropert, C.; Gazzinelli, R. T.; Mesquita, O. N.

    2003-05-01

    cell surface, increases the relaxation time of cytoskeleton fluctuations, and increases the phagocytosis time. Our results suggest that the methods developed in this work can be of utility to assess the importance of cytoskeleton motility in the dynamics of cellular processes such as phagocytosis exhibited by macrophages.

  4. Nanoparticle energy transfer on the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Bene, László; Szentesi, Gergely; Mátyus, László; Gáspár, Rezso; Damjanovich, Sándor

    2005-01-01

    Membrane topology of receptors plays an important role in shaping transmembrane signalling of cells. Among the methods used for characterizing receptor clusters, fluorescence resonance energy transfer between a donor and acceptor fluorophore plays a unique role based on its capability of detecting molecular level (2-10 nm) proximities of receptors in physiological conditions. Recent development of biotechnology has made possible the usage of colloidal gold particles in a large size range for specific labelling of cells for the purposes of electron microscopy. However, by combining metal and fluorophore labelling of cells, the versatility of metal-fluorophore interactions opens the way for new applications by detecting the presence of the metal particles by the methods of fluorescence spectroscopy. An outstanding feature of the metal nanoparticle-fluorophore interaction is that the metal particle can enhance spontaneous emission of the fluorophore in a distance-dependent fashion, in an interaction range essentially determined by the size of the nanoparticle. In our work enhanced fluorescence of rhodamine and cyanine dyes was observed in the vicinity of immunogold nanoparticles on the surface of JY cells in a flow cytometer. The dyes and the immunogold were targetted to the cell surface receptors MHCI, MHCII, transferrin receptor and CD45 by monoclonal antibodies. The fluorescence enhancement was sensitive to the wavelength of the exciting light, the size and amount of surface bound gold beads, as well as the fluorophore-nanoparticle distance. The intensity of 90 degrees scattering of the incident light beam was enhanced by the immunogold in a concentration and size-dependent fashion. The 90 degrees light scattering varied with the wavelength of the incident light in a manner characteristic to gold nanoparticles of the applied sizes. A reduction in photobleaching time constant of the cyanine dye was observed in the vicinity of gold particles in a digital imaging

  5. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wildung, Mark Raymond; Burke, Charles Cullen; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate.

  6. Geranyl diphosphate synthase from mint

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, R.B.; Wildung, M.R.; Burke, C.C.; Gershenzon, J.

    1999-03-02

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID No:1) is provided which codes for the expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2) from peppermint (Mentha piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of the geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith (e.g., antisense geranyl diphosphate synthase RNA or fragments of complementary geranyl diphosphate synthase DNA which are useful as polymerase chain reaction primers or as probes for geranyl diphosphate synthase or related genes). In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase that may be used to facilitate the production, isolation and purification of significant quantities of recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase for subsequent use, to obtain expression or enhanced expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, to produce geranyl diphosphate in cancerous cells as a precursor to monoterpenoids having anti-cancer properties or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase or the production of geranyl diphosphate. 5 figs.

  7. A Mass Spectrometric-Derived Cell Surface Protein Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Bausch-Fluck, Damaris; Hofmann, Andreas; Bock, Thomas; Frei, Andreas P.; Cerciello, Ferdinando; Jacobs, Andrea; Moest, Hansjoerg; Omasits, Ulrich; Gundry, Rebekah L.; Yoon, Charles; Schiess, Ralph; Schmidt, Alexander; Mirkowska, Paulina; Härtlová, Anetta; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Aebersold, Ruedi; Boheler, Kenneth R.; Zandstra, Peter; Wollscheid, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Cell surface proteins are major targets of biomedical research due to their utility as cellular markers and their extracellular accessibility for pharmacological intervention. However, information about the cell surface protein repertoire (the surfaceome) of individual cells is only sparsely available. Here, we applied the Cell Surface Capture (CSC) technology to 41 human and 31 mouse cell types to generate a mass-spectrometry derived Cell Surface Protein Atlas (CSPA) providing cellular surfaceome snapshots at high resolution. The CSPA is presented in form of an easy-to-navigate interactive database, a downloadable data matrix and with tools for targeted surfaceome rediscovery (http://wlab.ethz.ch/cspa). The cellular surfaceome snapshots of different cell types, including cancer cells, resulted in a combined dataset of 1492 human and 1296 mouse cell surface glycoproteins, providing experimental evidence for their cell surface expression on different cell types, including 136 G-protein coupled receptors and 75 membrane receptor tyrosine-protein kinases. Integrated analysis of the CSPA reveals that the concerted biological function of individual cell types is mainly guided by quantitative rather than qualitative surfaceome differences. The CSPA will be useful for the evaluation of drug targets, for the improved classification of cell types and for a better understanding of the surfaceome and its concerted biological functions in complex signaling microenvironments. PMID:25894527

  8. A mass spectrometric-derived cell surface protein atlas.

    PubMed

    Bausch-Fluck, Damaris; Hofmann, Andreas; Bock, Thomas; Frei, Andreas P; Cerciello, Ferdinando; Jacobs, Andrea; Moest, Hansjoerg; Omasits, Ulrich; Gundry, Rebekah L; Yoon, Charles; Schiess, Ralph; Schmidt, Alexander; Mirkowska, Paulina; Härtlová, Anetta; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Aebersold, Ruedi; Boheler, Kenneth R; Zandstra, Peter; Wollscheid, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Cell surface proteins are major targets of biomedical research due to their utility as cellular markers and their extracellular accessibility for pharmacological intervention. However, information about the cell surface protein repertoire (the surfaceome) of individual cells is only sparsely available. Here, we applied the Cell Surface Capture (CSC) technology to 41 human and 31 mouse cell types to generate a mass-spectrometry derived Cell Surface Protein Atlas (CSPA) providing cellular surfaceome snapshots at high resolution. The CSPA is presented in form of an easy-to-navigate interactive database, a downloadable data matrix and with tools for targeted surfaceome rediscovery (http://wlab.ethz.ch/cspa). The cellular surfaceome snapshots of different cell types, including cancer cells, resulted in a combined dataset of 1492 human and 1296 mouse cell surface glycoproteins, providing experimental evidence for their cell surface expression on different cell types, including 136 G-protein coupled receptors and 75 membrane receptor tyrosine-protein kinases. Integrated analysis of the CSPA reveals that the concerted biological function of individual cell types is mainly guided by quantitative rather than qualitative surfaceome differences. The CSPA will be useful for the evaluation of drug targets, for the improved classification of cell types and for a better understanding of the surfaceome and its concerted biological functions in complex signaling microenvironments. PMID:25894527

  9. Hybrid polyketide synthases

    DOEpatents

    Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Hagen, Andrew; Katz, Leonard; Keasling, Jay D.; Poust, Sean; Zhang, Jingwei; Zotchev, Sergey

    2016-05-10

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing an even-chain or odd-chain diacid or lactam or diamine. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the even-chain diacid, odd-chain diacid, or KAPA. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS capable of synthesizing a pimelic acid or KAPA, and when cultured produces biotin.

  10. Cell surface proteoglycan associates with the cytoskeleton at the basolateral cell surface of mouse mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    The cell surface proteoglycan on normal murine mammary gland mouse mammary epithelial cells consists of an ectodomain bearing heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains and a lipophilic domain that is presumed to be intercalated into the plasma membrane. Because the ectodomain binds to matrix components produced by stromal cells with specificity and high affinity, we have proposed that the cell surface proteoglycan is a matrix receptor that binds epithelial cells to their underlying basement membrane. We now show that the proteoglycan surrounds cells grown in subconfluent or newly confluent monolayers, but becomes restricted to the basolateral surface of cells that have been confluent for a week or more; Triton X-100 extraction distinguishes three fractions of cell surface proteoglycan: a fraction released by detergent and presumed to be free in the membrane, a fraction bound via a salt-labile linkage, and a nonextractable fraction; the latter two fractions co-localize with actin filament bundles at the basal cell surface; and when proteoglycans at the apical cell surface are cross- linked by antibodies, they initially assimilate into detergent- resistant, immobile clusters that are subsequently aggregated by the cytoskeleton. These findings suggest that the proteoglycan, initially present on the entire surface and free in the plane of the membrane, becomes sequestered at the basolateral cell surface and bound to the actin-rich cytoskeleton as the cells become polarized in vitro. Binding of matrix components may cross-link proteoglycans at the basal cell surface and cause them to associate with the actin cytoskeleton, providing a mechanism by which the cell surface proteoglycan acts as a matrix receptor to stabilize the morphology of epithelial sheets. PMID:3025223

  11. Streptomycin favors biofilm formation by altering cell surface properties.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2016-10-01

    Studies have shown that external stress induces biofilm formation, but the underlying details are not clearly understood. This study investigates the changes in cell surface properties leading to increase in biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of streptomycin. Bacterial attachment in the presence and absence of streptomycin was quantified by fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, cell surface charge and contact angle were measured and the free energy barrier for attachment was modeled using extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (xDLVO) theory. Peptides from bacterial cell surface were shaved by protease treatment and identified with ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-QTOF and a homology search program SPIDER. Biofilm formation increased significantly in the presence of streptomycin (10 mg/L) in the culture. Bacterial cell surface charge reduced, and hydrophobicity increased leading to a net decrease in the free energy barrier for attachment. Extracellular matrix-binding protein was positively regulated in S. aureus under stress, indicating stronger interaction between bacterial cells and solid surface. In addition, several other proteins including biofilm regulatory proteins, multidrug efflux pumps, transporters, signaling proteins, and virulence factors were differentially expressed on bacterial cell surface, which is indicative of a strong stress response by bacteria to streptomycin treatment. PMID:27568380

  12. Advances in cell surface glycoengineering reveal biological function.

    PubMed

    Nischan, Nicole; Kohler, Jennifer J

    2016-08-01

    Cell surface glycans are critical mediators of cell-cell, cell-ligand, and cell-pathogen interactions. By controlling the set of glycans displayed on the surface of a cell, it is possible to gain insight into the biological functions of glycans. Moreover, control of glycan expression can be used to direct cellular behavior. While genetic approaches to manipulate glycosyltransferase gene expression are available, their utility in glycan engineering has limitations due to the combinatorial nature of glycan biosynthesis and the functional redundancy of glycosyltransferase genes. Biochemical and chemical strategies offer valuable complements to these genetic approaches, notably by enabling introduction of unnatural functionalities, such as fluorophores, into cell surface glycans. Here, we describe some of the most recent developments in glycoengineering of cell surfaces, with an emphasis on strategies that employ novel chemical reagents. We highlight key examples of how these advances in cell surface glycan engineering enable study of cell surface glycans and their function. Exciting new technologies include synthetic lipid-glycans, new chemical reporters for metabolic oligosaccharide engineering to allow tandem and in vivo labeling of glycans, improved chemical and enzymatic methods for glycoproteomics, and metabolic glycosyltransferase inhibitors. Many chemical and biochemical reagents for glycan engineering are commercially available, facilitating their adoption by the biological community.

  13. Expanding the diversity of unnatural cell surface sialic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Luchansky, Sarah J.; Goon, Scarlett; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2003-10-30

    Novel chemical reactivity can be introduced onto cell surfaces through metabolic oligosaccharide engineering. This technique exploits the substrate promiscuity of cellular biosynthetic enzymes to deliver unnatural monosaccharides bearing bioorthogonal functional groups into cellular glycans. For example, derivatives of N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) are converted by the cellular biosynthetic machinery into the corresponding sialic acids and subsequently delivered to the cell surface in the form of sialoglycoconjugates. Analogs of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) are also metabolized and incorporated into cell surface glycans, likely through the sialic acid and GalNAc salvage pathways, respectively. Furthermore, GlcNAc analogs can be incorporated into nucleocytoplasmic proteins in place of {beta}-O-GlcNAc residues. These pathways have been exploited to integrate unique electrophiles such as ketones and azides into the target glycoconjugate class. These functional groups can be further elaborated in a chemoselective fashion by condensation with hydrazides and by Staudinger ligation, respectively, thereby introducing detectable probes onto the cell. In conclusion, sialic acid derivatives are efficient vehicles for delivery of bulky functional groups to cell surfaces and masking of their hydroxyl groups improves their cellular uptake and utilization. Furthermore, the successful introduction of photoactivatable aryl azides into cell surface glycans opens up new avenues for studying sialic acid-binding proteins and elucidating the role of sialic acid in essential processes such as signaling and cell adhesion.

  14. Beyond the cell surface: new mechanisms of receptor function.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Carlos F

    2010-05-21

    The text book view of cell surface receptors depicts them at the top of a vertical chain of command that starts with ligand binding and proceeds in a lineal fashion towards the cell nucleus. Although pedagogically useful, this view is incomplete and recent findings suggest that the extracellular domain of cell surface receptors can be a transmitter as much as a receiver in intercellular communication. GFRalpha1 is a GPI-anchored receptor for GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor), a neuronal growth factor with widespread functions in the developing and adult nervous system. GFRalpha1 partners with transmembrane proteins, such as the receptor tyrosine kinase RET or the cell adhesion molecule NCAM, for intracellular transmission of the GDNF signal. In addition to this canonical role, GFRalpha1 can also engage in horizontal interactions and thereby modify the function of other cell surface components. GFRalpha1 can also function as a ligand-induced adhesion cell molecule, mediating homophilic cell-cell interactions in response to GDNF. Finally, GFRalpha1 can also be released from the cell surface and act at a distance as a soluble factor together with its ligand. This plethora of unconventional mechanisms is likely to be a feature common to several other receptors and considerably expands our view of cell surface receptor function. PMID:20494105

  15. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  16. Enhancement of Biological Reactions on Cell Surfaces via Macromolecular Crowding

    PubMed Central

    Chapanian, Rafi; Kwan, David H.; Constantinescu, Iren; Shaikh, Fathima A.; Rossi, Nicholas A.A.; Withers, Stephen G.; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N.

    2016-01-01

    The reaction of macromolecules such as enzymes and antibodies with cell surfaces is often an inefficient process, requiring large amounts of expensive reagent. Here we report a general method based on macromolecular crowding with a range of neutral polymers to enhance such reactions, using red blood cells (RBCs) as a model system. Rates of conversion of Type A and B red blood cells to universal O type by removal of antigenic carbohydrates with selective glycosidases are increased up to 400-fold in the presence of crowders. Similar enhancements are seen for antibody binding. We further explore the factors underlying these enhancements using confocal microscopy and fluorescent recovery after bleaching (FRAP) techniques with various fluorescent protein fusion partners. Increased cell-surface concentration due to volume exclusion, along with two-dimensionally confined diffusion of enzymes close to the cell surface, appear to be the major contributing factors. PMID:25140641

  17. Cell surface engineering of industrial microorganisms for biorefining applications.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-11-15

    In order to decrease carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts of various pollutants, biofuel/biochemical production should be promoted for replacing fossil-based industrial processes. Utilization of abundant lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock has recently become an attractive option. In this review, we focus on recent efforts of cell surface display using industrial microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and yeast. Cell surface display is used primarily for endowing cellulolytic activity on the host cells, and enables direct fermentation to generate useful fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Cell surface display systems are systematically summarized, and the drawbacks/perspectives as well as successful application of surface display for industrial biotechnology are discussed.

  18. Recent Insights into Cell Surface Heparan Sulphate Proteoglycans and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Couchman, John R; Multhaupt, Hinke; Sanderson, Ralph D

    2016-01-01

    A small group of cell surface receptors are proteoglycans, possessing a core protein with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan chains. They are virtually ubiquitous and their chains are major sites at which protein ligands of many types interact. These proteoglycans can signal and regulate important cell processes, such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Since many protein ligands, such as growth factors, morphogens, and cytokines, are also implicated in tumour progression, it is increasingly apparent that cell surface proteoglycans impact tumour cell behaviour. Here, we review some recent advances, emphasising that many tumour-related functions of proteoglycans are revealed only after their modification in processes subsequent to synthesis and export to the cell surface. These include enzymes that modify heparan sulphate structure, recycling of whole or fragmented proteoglycans into exosomes that can be paracrine effectors or biomarkers, and lateral interactions between some proteoglycans and calcium channels that impact the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27408707

  19. Cell surface engineering of industrial microorganisms for biorefining applications.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-11-15

    In order to decrease carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts of various pollutants, biofuel/biochemical production should be promoted for replacing fossil-based industrial processes. Utilization of abundant lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock has recently become an attractive option. In this review, we focus on recent efforts of cell surface display using industrial microorganisms such as Escherichia coli and yeast. Cell surface display is used primarily for endowing cellulolytic activity on the host cells, and enables direct fermentation to generate useful fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Cell surface display systems are systematically summarized, and the drawbacks/perspectives as well as successful application of surface display for industrial biotechnology are discussed. PMID:26070720

  20. Recent Insights into Cell Surface Heparan Sulphate Proteoglycans and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Couchman, John R; Multhaupt, Hinke; Sanderson, Ralph D.

    2016-01-01

    A small group of cell surface receptors are proteoglycans, possessing a core protein with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan chains. They are virtually ubiquitous and their chains are major sites at which protein ligands of many types interact. These proteoglycans can signal and regulate important cell processes, such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Since many protein ligands, such as growth factors, morphogens, and cytokines, are also implicated in tumour progression, it is increasingly apparent that cell surface proteoglycans impact tumour cell behaviour. Here, we review some recent advances, emphasising that many tumour-related functions of proteoglycans are revealed only after their modification in processes subsequent to synthesis and export to the cell surface. These include enzymes that modify heparan sulphate structure, recycling of whole or fragmented proteoglycans into exosomes that can be paracrine effectors or biomarkers, and lateral interactions between some proteoglycans and calcium channels that impact the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27408707

  1. Analysis of cell surface properties using derivatized agarose beads.

    PubMed

    Salbilla, B A; Vaghefi, H; Chhabra, P; Hall, G; Brown, D; Sadoughi, F; Francisco, E; Attas, L; Walker, S L; Nguyen, B N; Oppenheimer, S B

    1999-07-01

    An assay has been developed to analyse cell surface properties using agarose beads derivatized with amino acids, sugars, proteins, and other molecules. The assay is simple and rapid and is useful to identify new cell surface markers. Various species and strains of yeast, paramecium, and Euglena were tested for their ability to bind to over 100 types of derivatized beads. A variety of specificity studies were performed in order to understand the nature of cell-bead binding. Our results indicate that cell-bead binding is often specific enough to distinguish between configurational isomers and spacer sizes and can be blocked by addition of specific molecules to the incubation medium. In some cases, different species or strains differed only by their binding to a single bead type. This simple and rapid assay may help to uncover new cell surface receptors and may lead to the development of clinically useful compounds for therapeutic applications.

  2. A Rapid Method for Refolding Cell Surface Receptors and Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Lu; Wu, Ling; Li, Feng; Burnham, Robert S.; Pizarro, Juan C.; Xu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Production of membrane-associated cell surface receptors and their ligands is often a cumbersome, expensive, and time-consuming process that limits detailed structural and functional characterization of this important class of proteins. Here we report a rapid method for refolding inclusion-body-based, recombinant cell surface receptors and ligands in one day, a speed equivalent to that of soluble protein production. This method efficiently couples modular on-column immobilized metal ion affinity purification and solid-phase protein refolding. We demonstrated the general utility of this method for producing multiple functionally active immunoreceptors, ligands, and viral decoys, including challenging cell surface proteins that cannot be produced using typical dialysis- or dilution-based refolding approaches. PMID:27215173

  3. The a subunit asymmetry dictates the two opposite rotation directions in the synthesis and hydrolysis of ATP by the mitochondrial ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Nesci, Salvatore; Trombetti, Fabiana; Ventrella, Vittoria; Pagliarani, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    The main and best known role of the mitochondrial ATP synthase is to synthesize ATP by exploiting the transmembrane electrochemical gradient of protons and their downhill movement. However, under different conditions, the same enzyme can also switch to the opposite function of ATP hydrolysis and exploits its energy to pump protons against their gradient and energize the membrane. The change in functionality is linked to the change of direction of rotation of the two matched sectors of this unique complex, namely the hydrophilic F1, which performs the catalysis, and the hydrophobic membrane-embedded FO, which channels protons. Accordingly, viewed from the matrix side, ATP synthesis is driven by counterclockwise rotation and ATP hydrolysis by clockwise rotation of the FO rotor which is transmitted to F1. ATP dissipation through this mechanism features some diseases such as myocardial ischemia. Increasing evidence shoulders the hypothesis that the asymmetry of the a subunit of FO and particularly the steric arrangement of the two inner semi-channels for protons, play a key role in conferring to the coupled bi-functional complex the ability to reverse rotation by switching from ATP synthesis to ATP hydrolysis and vice versa. Accordingly, the conserved steric arrangement of the chiral a subunit of FO yields the same direction of rotation for all the ATP synthases. According to this hypothesis, the a subunit chirality imposes the direction of rotation of the rotor according to the proton gradient across the membrane. It seems likely that the direction of rotation of the membrane-embedded c-ring, which is adjacent to the a-subunit and acts as a rotor, may be under multiple control, being rotation essential to make the whole enzyme machinery work. However, the asymmetric features of the a subunit would make it the master regulator, thus directly determining which of the two functions, ATP production or ATP dissipation, will be performed. The handedness of a subunit should

  4. Structure of a bacterial cell surface decaheme electron conduit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some bacterial species are able to utilize extracellular mineral forms of iron and manganese as respiratory electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis this involves decaheme cytochromes that are located on the bacterial cell surface at the termini of trans-outer-membrane electron transfer conduits...

  5. An update on cell surface proteins containing extensin-motifs.

    PubMed

    Borassi, Cecilia; Sede, Ana R; Mecchia, Martin A; Salgado Salter, Juan D; Marzol, Eliana; Muschietti, Jorge P; Estevez, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that there are several molecular links that interconnect the plant cell surface continuum, which is highly important in many biological processes such as plant growth, development, and interaction with the environment. The plant cell surface continuum can be defined as the space that contains and interlinks the cell wall, plasma membrane and cytoskeleton compartments. In this review, we provide an updated view of cell surface proteins that include modular domains with an extensin (EXT)-motif followed by a cytoplasmic kinase-like domain, known as PERKs (for proline-rich extensin-like receptor kinases); with an EXT-motif and an actin binding domain, known as formins; and with extracellular hybrid-EXTs. We focus our attention on the EXT-motifs with the short sequence Ser-Pro(3-5), which is found in several different protein contexts within the same extracellular space, highlighting a putative conserved structural and functional role. A closer understanding of the dynamic regulation of plant cell surface continuum and its relationship with the downstream signalling cascade is a crucial forthcoming challenge.

  6. The cell surface environment for pathogen recognition and entry

    PubMed Central

    Stow, Jennifer L; Condon, Nicholas D

    2016-01-01

    The surface of mammalian cells offers an interface between the cell interior and its surrounding milieu. As part of the innate immune system, macrophages have cell surface features optimised for probing and sampling as they patrol our tissues for pathogens, debris or dead cells. Their highly dynamic and constantly moving cell surface has extensions such as lamellipodia, filopodia and dorsal ruffles that help detect pathogens. Dorsal ruffles give rise to macropinosomes for rapid, high volume non-selective fluid sampling, receptor internalisation and plasma membrane turnover. Ruffles can also generate phagocytic cups for the receptor-mediated uptake of pathogens or particles. The membrane lipids, actin cytoskeleton, receptors and signalling proteins that constitute these cell surface domains are discussed. Although the cell surface is designed to counteract pathogens, many bacteria, viruses and other pathogens have evolved to circumvent or hijack these cell structures and their underlying machinery for entry and survival. Nevertheless, these features offer important potential for developing vaccines, drugs and preventative measures to help fight infection. PMID:27195114

  7. The Cell Surface Proteome of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pursche, Theresia; Bornhäuser, Martin; Corbeil, Denis; Hoflack, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Background Multipotent human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are considered as promising biological tools for regenerative medicine. Their antibody-based isolation relies on the identification of reliable cell surface markers. Methodology/Principal Findings To obtain a comprehensive view of the cell surface proteome of bone marrow-derived hMSCs, we have developed an analytical pipeline relying on cell surface biotinylation of intact cells using cell impermeable, cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin to enrich the plasma membrane proteins and mass spectrometry for identification with extremely high confidence. Among the 888 proteins identified, we found ≈200 bona fide plasma membrane proteins including 33 cell adhesion molecules and 26 signaling receptors. In total 41 CD markers including 5 novel ones (CD97, CD112, CD239, CD276, and CD316) were identified. The CD markers are distributed homogenously within plastic-adherent hMSC populations and their expression is modulated during the process of adipogenesis or osteogenesis. Moreover, our in silico analysis revealed a significant difference between the cell surface proteome of hMSCs and that of human embryonic stem cells reported previously. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, our analytical methods not only provide a basis for further studies of mechanisms maintaining the multipotency of hMSCs within their niches and triggering their differentiation after signaling, but also a toolbox for a refined antibody-based identification of hMSC populations from different tissues and their isolation for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21637820

  8. Cell surface recycling in yeast: mechanisms and machineries.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Chris; Piper, Robert C

    2016-04-15

    Sorting internalized proteins and lipids back to the cell surface controls the supply of molecules throughout the cell and regulates integral membrane protein activity at the surface. One central process in mammalian cells is the transit of cargo from endosomes back to the plasma membrane (PM) directly, along a route that bypasses retrograde movement to the Golgi. Despite recognition of this pathway for decades we are only beginning to understand the machinery controlling this overall process. The budding yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae, a stalwart genetic system, has been routinely used to identify fundamental proteins and their modes of action in conserved trafficking pathways. However, the study of cell surface recycling from endosomes in yeast is hampered by difficulties that obscure visualization of the pathway. Here we briefly discuss how recycling is likely a more prevalent process in yeast than is widely appreciated and how tools might be built to better study the pathway.

  9. A Generalizable Platform for the Photoactivation of Cell Surface Receptors.

    PubMed

    Duc, Thinh Nguyen; Huse, Morgan

    2015-11-20

    Polarized signal transduction from cell surface receptors plays a central role in the development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms, and it also contributes to cellular dysfunction in many disease states. Understanding the molecular and cellular bases of polarized signaling requires experimental methods that provide precise spatiotemporal control of receptor activation. However, we currently lack strategies for inducing both sustained and spatially constrained signal transduction. In the present study, we combined synthetic and cell biological tools to develop a generalizable photoactivation approach for the stimulation of cell surface receptors. Our system, which is based upon the local decaging of a "universal" peptide ligand, is particularly well suited for the live imaging of single cells. We anticipate that it will greatly facilitate future mechanistic analyses of polarized signal transduction in a variety of cell types. PMID:26295186

  10. Cell Surface Changes Associated with Cellular Immune Reactions in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nappi, Anthony J.; Silvers, Michael

    1984-09-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster a temperature-induced change in immune competence accompanies cell surface alterations that cause its blood cells to adhere and to encapsulate a parasite. At 29 degrees C the blood cells of the tumorous-lethal (Tuml) mutant show a high degree of immune competence and encapsulate the eggs of the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma. At 21 degrees C the blood cells are essentially immune incompetent. High percentages of lectin binding cells were found under conditions which potentiated cellular encapsulation responses. Some immune reactive blood cells did not bind lectin. The low percentages of lectin binding cells in susceptible hosts suggest that developing parasites alter the cell surface of the blood cells of immune reactive hosts.

  11. Cell surface changes associated with cellular immune reactions in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Nappi, A J; Silvers, M

    1984-09-14

    In Drosophila melanogaster a temperature-induced change in immune competence accompanies cell surface alterations that cause its blood cells to adhere and to encapsulate a parasite. At 29 degrees C the blood cells of the tumorous-lethal (Tuml) mutant show a high degree of immune competence and encapsulate the eggs of the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma. At 21 degrees C the blood cells are essentially immune incompetent. High percentages of lectin binding cells were found under conditions which potentiated cellular encapsulation responses. Some immune reactive blood cells did not bind lectin. The low percentages of lectin binding cells in susceptible hosts suggest that developing parasites alter the cell surface of the blood cells of immune reactive hosts. PMID:6433482

  12. Cell surface engineering of microorganisms towards adsorption of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-Song; Tao, Hu-Chun

    2015-06-01

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide environmental concern due to its toxicity, non-degradability and food-chain bioaccumulation. Conventional physical and chemical treatment methods for heavy metal removal have disadvantages such as cost-intensiveness, incomplete removal, secondary pollution and the lack of metal specificity. Microbial biomass-based biosorption is one of the approaches gaining increasing attention because it is effective, cheap, and environmental friendly and can work well at low concentrations. To enhance the adsorption properties of microbial cells to heavy metal ions, the cell surface display of various metal-binding proteins/peptides have been performed using a cell surface engineering approach. The surface engineering of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and yeast towards the adsorption of heavy metals are reviewed in this article. The problems and future perspectives of this technology are discussed.

  13. Cell-surface markers for colon adenoma and adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sewda, Kamini; Coppola, Domenico; Enkemann, Steven; Yue, Binglin; Kim, Jongphil; Lopez, Alexis S.; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W.; Stark, Valerie E.; Morse, Brian; Shibata, David; Vignesh, Shivakumar; Morse, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is crucial for effective treatment. Among CRC screening techniques, optical colonoscopy is widely considered the gold standard. However, it is a costly and invasive procedure with a low rate of compliance. Our long-term goal is to develop molecular imaging agents for the non-invasive detection of CRC by molecular imaging-based colonoscopy using CT, MRI or fluorescence. To achieve this, cell surface targets must be identified and validated. Here, we report the discovery of cell-surface markers that distinguish CRC from surrounding tissues that could be used as molecular imaging targets. Profiling of mRNA expression microarray data from patient tissues including adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and normal gastrointestinal tissues was used to identify potential CRC specific cell-surface markers. Of the identified markers, six were selected for further validation (CLDN1, GPR56, GRM8, LY6G6D/F, SLCO1B3 and TLR4). Protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry of patient tissues. Except for SLCO1B3, diffuse and low expression was observed for each marker in normal colon tissues. The three markers with the greatest protein overexpression were CLDN1, LY6G6D/F and TLR4, where at least one of these markers was overexpressed in 97% of the CRC samples. GPR56, LY6G6D/F and SLCO1B3 protein expression was significantly correlated with the proximal tumor location and with expression of mismatch repair genes. Marker expression was further validated in CRC cell lines. Hence, three cell-surface markers were discovered that distinguish CRC from surrounding normal tissues. These markers can be used to develop imaging or therapeutic agents targeted to the luminal surface of CRC. PMID:26894861

  14. Production of cell surface and secreted glycoproteins in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Seiradake, Elena; Zhao, Yuguang; Lu, Weixian; Aricescu, A Radu; Jones, E Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian protein expression systems are becoming increasingly popular for the production of eukaryotic secreted and cell surface proteins. Here we describe methods to produce recombinant proteins in adherent or suspension human embryonic kidney cell cultures, using transient transfection or stable cell lines. The protocols are easy to scale up and cost-efficient, making them suitable for protein crystallization projects and other applications that require high protein yields. PMID:25502196

  15. Structure of a Bacterial Cell Surface Decaheme Electron Conduit

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Thomas A.; Edwards, Marcus; Gates, Andrew J.; Hall, Andrea; White, Gaye; Bradley, Justin; Reardon, Catherine L.; Shi, Liang; Beliaev, Alex S.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Wang, Zheming; Watmough, Nicholas; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.

    2011-05-23

    Some bacterial species are able to utilize extracellular mineral forms of iron and manganese as respiratory electron acceptors. In Shewanella oneidensis this involves deca-heme cytochromes that are located on the bacterial cell surface at the termini of trans-outermembrane (OM) electron transfer conduits. The cell surface cytochromes can potentially play multiple roles in mediating electron transfer directly to insoluble electron sinks, catalyzing electron exchange with flavin electron shuttles or participating in extracellular inter-cytochrome electron exchange along ‘nanowire’ appendages. We present a 3.2 Å crystal structure of one of these deca-heme cytochromes, MtrF, that allows the spatial organization of the ten hemes to be visualized for the first time. The hemes are organized across four domains in a unique crossed conformation, in which a staggered 65 Å octa-heme chain transects the length of the protein and is bisected by a planar 45 Å tetra-heme chain that connects two extended Greek key split β-barrel domains. The structure provides molecular insight into how reduction of insoluble substrate (e.g. minerals), soluble substrates (e.g. flavins) and cytochrome redox partners might be possible in tandem at different termini of a trifurcated electron transport chain on the cell surface.

  16. Establishment of cell surface engineering and its development.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Cell surface display of proteins/peptides has been established based on mechanisms of localizing proteins to the cell surface. In contrast to conventional intracellular and extracellular (secretion) expression systems, this method, generally called an arming technology, is particularly effective when using yeasts as a host, because the control of protein folding that is often required for the preparation of proteins can be natural. This technology can be employed for basic and applied research purposes. In this review, I describe various strategies for the construction of engineered yeasts and provide an outline of the diverse applications of this technology to industrial processes such as the production of biofuels and chemicals, as well as bioremediation and health-related processes. Furthermore, this technology is suitable for novel protein engineering and directed evolution through high-throughput screening, because proteins/peptides displayed on the cell surface can be directly analyzed using intact cells without concentration and purification. Functional proteins/peptides with improved or novel functions can be created using this beneficial, powerful, and promising technique. PMID:27305282

  17. Engineering novel cell surface chemistry for selective tumor cell targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Bertozzi, C.R. |

    1997-12-31

    A common feature of many different cancers is the high expression level of the two monosaccharides sialic acid and fucose within the context of cell-surface associated glycoconjugates. A correlation has been made between hypersialylation and/or hyperfucosylation and the highly metastatic phenotype. Thus, a targeting strategy based on sialic acid or fucose expression would be a powerful tool for the development of new cancer cell-selective therapies and diagnostic agents. We have discovered that ketone groups can be incorporated metabolically into cell-surface associated sialic acids. The ketone is can be covalently ligated with hydrazide functionalized proteins or small molecules under physiological conditions. Thus, we have discovered a mechanism to selectively target hydrazide conjugates to highly sialylated cells such as cancer cells. Applications of this technology to the generation of novel cancer cell-selective toxins and MRI contrast reagents will be discussed, in addition to progress towards the use of cell surface fucose residues as vehicles for ketone expression.

  18. Cell Surface Vimentin Is an Attachment Receptor for Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ning; Cong, Haolong; Tian, Hongchao; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Wenliang; Song, Lei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a highly transmissible pathogenic agent that causes severe central nervous system diseases in infected infants and young children. Here, we reported that EV71 VP1 protein could bind to vimentin intermediate filaments expressed on the host cell surface. Soluble vimentin or an antibody against vimentin could inhibit the binding of EV71 to host cells. Accompanied with the reduction of vimentin expression on the cell surface, the binding of EV71 to cells was remarkably decreased. Further evidence showed that the N terminus of vimentin is responsible for the interaction between EV71 and vimentin. These results indicated that vimentin on the host cell surface may serve as an attachment site that mediated the initial binding and subsequently increased the infectivity of EV71. IMPORTANCE This study delivers important findings on the roles of vimentin filaments in relation to EV71 infection and provides information that not only improves our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis but also presents us with potentially new strategies for the treatment of diseases caused by EV71 infections. PMID:24623428

  19. Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenitzer, Veronika; Eichner, Norbert; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Weiss, Ingrid M.

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dictyostelium produces the 264 kDa myosin chitin synthase of bivalve mollusc Atrina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin synthase activity releases chitin, partly associated with the cell surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membrane extracts of transgenic slime molds produce radiolabeled chitin in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin producing Dictyostelium cells can be characterized by atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This model system enables us to study initial processes of chitin biomineralization. -- Abstract: Several mollusc shells contain chitin, which is formed by a transmembrane myosin motor enzyme. This protein could be involved in sensing mechanical and structural changes of the forming, mineralizing extracellular matrix. Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W. 264 kDa/monomer) in Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for myosin motor proteins. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy (CLSM), chitin binding GFP detection of chitin on cells and released to the cell culture medium, and a radiochemical activity assay of membrane extracts revealed expression and enzymatic activity of the mollusc chitin synthase in transgenic slime mold cells. First high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of Ar-CS1 transformed cellulose synthase deficient D. discoideumdcsA{sup -} cell lines are shown.

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant displaying beta-glucans on cell surface.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yumiko; Azuma, Masayuki; Takada, Yuki; Umeyama, Takashi; Kaneko, Aki; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Igarashi, Koichi; Ooshima, Hiroshi

    2007-02-01

    The deletion of MCD4 leads to an increase in beta-1,6-glucan level and a decrease in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein and mannan levels in the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that mcd4 deletion mutant (mcd4Delta) displays beta-glucans on the cell surface without a mannan cover. An observation of the cell surface of mcd4Delta cells and an examination of the effect of contact between mcd4Delta cells and mouse macrophages indicated that macrophages were activated by contact with mcd4Delta cells displaying beta-glucans on the cell surface. We further examined the effect of intraperitoneal ethanol-fixed mcd4Delta cells on the survival period of mice infected with Candida albicans. mcd4Delta cells prolonged the survival period, implying that mcd4Delta cells may enhance the immune function of mice via macrophage activation. Moreover, we examined the structures of beta-glucans (i.e., alkali- and acetic acid-insoluble beta-glucans) extracted from mcd4Delta with (13)C-NMR and the effect of extracted beta-glucans on TNF-alpha secretion from macrophages. The structures of the beta-glucans from mcd4Delta differed from those of wild type (WT); however, there was no difference in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion level between beta-glucans from mcd4Delta and those from WT. The yield of purified beta-glucans obtained from dry cells of mcd4Delta was higher than that obtained from dry cells of WT. mcd4Delta may be a superior strain for the preparation of beta-glucans. PMID:17368399

  1. Cell-surface prion protein interacts with glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Tao; Wong, Boon-Seng; Liu, Tong; Li, Ruliang; Petersen, Robert B; Sy, Man-Sun

    2002-01-01

    We used ELISA and flow cytometry to study the binding of prion protein PrP to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). We found that recombinant human PrP (rPrP) binds GAGs including chondroitin sulphate A, chondroitin sulphate B, hyaluronic acid, and heparin. rPrP binding to GAGs occurs via the N-terminus, a region known to bind divalent cations. Additionally, rPrP binding to GAGs is enhanced in the presence of Cu2+ and Zn2+, but not Ca2+ and Mn2+. rPrP binds heparin strongest, and the binding is inhibited by certain heparin analogues, including heparin disaccharide and sulphate-containing monosaccharides, but not by acetylated heparin. Full-length normal cellular prion protein (PrPC), but not N-terminally truncated PrPC species, from human brain bind GAGs in a similar Cu2+/Zn2+-enhanced fashion. We found that GAGs specifically bind to a synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acid residues 23-35 in the N-terminus of rPrP. We further demonstrated that while both wild-type PrPC and an octapeptide-repeat-deleted mutant PrP produced by transfected cells bound heparin at the cell surface, the PrP N-terminal deletion mutant and non-transfectant control failed to bind heparin. Binding of heparin to wild-type PrPC on the cell surface results in a reduction of the level of cell-surface PrPC. These results provide strong evidence that PrPC is a surface receptor for GAGs. PMID:12186633

  2. Polymer-supported membranes as models of the cell surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Motomu; Sackmann, Erich

    2005-09-01

    Lipid-bilayer membranes supported on solid substrates are widely used as cell-surface models that connect biological and artificial materials. They can be placed either directly on solids or on ultrathin polymer supports that mimic the generic role of the extracellular matrix. The tools of modern genetic engineering and bioorganic chemistry make it possible to couple many types of biomolecule to supported membranes. This results in sophisticated interfaces that can be used to control, organize and study the properties and function of membranes and membrane-associated proteins. Particularly exciting opportunities arise when these systems are coupled with advanced semiconductor technology.

  3. Photodynamic induction of a bacterial cell surface polypeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Hoober, J K

    1977-01-01

    The photodynamic action of several dyes on cells of a bacterium, tentatively identified as a species of Arthrobacter, resulted in remarkable stimulation of synthesis of a polypeptide 21,000 daltons in mass. This polypeptide resides on the cell surface and can be solubilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate without lysis of the cells. Chlorophyllin and rose bengal are effective in inducing synthesis of the polypeptide in proportion to their ability to sensitize the photooxidation of histidine. Etiolated cells of the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii y-1 excrete a substance into the medium that also sensitized the photoinduction of the polypeptide. Images PMID:885841

  4. Cell Surface Nucleolin Facilitates Enterovirus 71 Binding and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Su, Pei-Yi; Wang, Ya-Fang; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Lo, Yu-Chih; Wang, Ya-Hui; Wu, Shang-Rung; Shieh, Dar-Bin; Wang, Jen-Ren; Lai, Ming-Der

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Because the pathogenesis of enterovirus 71 (EV71) remains mostly ambiguous, identifying the factors that mediate viral binding and entry to host cells is indispensable to ultimately uncover the mechanisms that underlie virus infection and pathogenesis. Despite the identification of several receptors/attachment molecules for EV71, the binding, entry, and infection mechanisms of EV71 remain unclear. Herein, we employed glycoproteomic approaches to identify human nucleolin as a novel binding receptor for EV71. Glycoproteins purified by lectin chromatography from the membrane extraction of human cells were treated with sialidase, followed by immunoprecipitation with EV71 particles. Among the 16 proteins identified by tandem mass spectrometry analysis, cell surface nucleolin attracted our attention. We found that EV71 interacted directly with nucleolin via the VP1 capsid protein and that an antinucleolin antibody reduced the binding of EV71 to human cells. In addition, the knockdown of cell surface nucleolin decreased EV71 binding, infection, and production in human cells. Furthermore, the expression of human nucleolin on the cell surface of a mouse cell line increased EV71 binding and conferred EV71 infection and production in the cells. These results strongly indicate that human nucleolin can mediate EV71 binding to and infection of cells. Our findings also demonstrate that the use of glycoproteomic approaches is a reliable methodology to discover novel receptors for pathogens. IMPORTANCE Outbreaks of EV71 have been reported in Asia-Pacific countries and have caused thousands of deaths in young children during the last 2 decades. The discovery of new EV71-interacting molecules to understand the infection mechanism has become an emergent issue. Hence, this study uses glycoproteomic approaches to comprehensively investigate the EV71-interacting glycoproteins. Several EV71-interacting glycoproteins are identified, and the role of cell surface nucleolin in

  5. Bacterial Cell Surface Adsorption of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Y.; Park, D.; Reed, D.; Fujita, Y.; Yung, M.; Anderko, A.; Eslamimanesh, A.

    2015-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) play a critical role in many emerging clean energy technologies, including high-power magnets, wind turbines, solar panels, hybrid/electric vehicle batteries and lamp phosphors. In order to sustain demand for such technologies given current domestic REE shortages, there is a need to develop new approaches for ore processing/refining and recycling of REE-containing materials. To this end, we have developed a microbially-mediated bioadsorption strategy with application towards enrichment of REE from complex mixtures. Specifically, the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was genetically engineered to display lanthanide binding tags (LBTs), short peptides that possess high affinity and specificity for rare earth elements, on its cell surface S-layer protein. Under optimal conditions, LBT-displayed cells adsorbed greater than 5-fold more REE than control cells lacking LBTs. Competition binding experiments with a selection of REEs demonstrated that our engineered cells could facilitate separation of light- from heavy- REE. Importantly, binding of REE onto our engineered strains was much more favorable compared to non-REE metals. Finally, REE bound to the cell surface could be stripped off using citrate, providing an effective and non-toxic REE recovery method. Together, this data highlights the potential of our approach for selective REE enrichment from REE containing mixtures.

  6. Cdon, a cell surface protein, mediates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Chun; Almazan, Guillermina

    2016-06-01

    During central nervous system development, oligodendrocyte progenitors (OLPs) establish multiple branched processes and axonal contacts to initiate myelination. A complete understanding of the molecular signals implicated in cell surface interaction to initiate myelination/remyelination is currently lacking. The objective of our study was to assess whether Cdon, a cell surface protein that was shown to participate in muscle and neuron cell development, is involved in oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation and myelination. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous Cdon protein is expressed in OLPs, increasing in the early differentiation stages and decreasing in mature OLGs. Immunocytochemistry of endogenous Cdon showed localization on both OLG cell membranes and cellular processes exhibiting puncta- or varicosity-like structures. Cdon knockdown with siRNA decreased protein levels by 62% as well as two myelin-specific proteins, MBP and MAG. Conversely, overexpression of full-length rat Cdon increased myelin proteins in OLGs. The complexity of OLGs branching and contact point numbers with axons were also increased in Cdon overexpressing cells growing alone or in coculture with dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs). Furthermore, myelination of DRGNs was decreased when OLPs were transfected with Cdon siRNA. Altogether, our results suggest that Cdon participates in OLG differentiation and myelination, most likely in the initial stages of development.

  7. Spatial patterns and cell surface clusters in perineuronal nets.

    PubMed

    Arnst, Nikita; Kuznetsova, Svetlana; Lipachev, Nikita; Shaikhutdinov, Nurislam; Melnikova, Anastasiya; Mavlikeev, Mikhail; Uvarov, Pavel; Baltina, Tatyana V; Rauvala, Heikki; Osin, Yuriy N; Kiyasov, Andrey P; Paveliev, Mikhail

    2016-10-01

    Perineuronal nets (PNN) ensheath GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses on neuronal cell surface in the central nervous system (CNS), have neuroprotective effect in animal models of Alzheimer disease and regulate synaptic plasticity during development and regeneration. Crucial insights were obtained recently concerning molecular composition and physiological importance of PNN but the microstructure of the network remains largely unstudied. Here we used histochemistry, fluorescent microscopy and quantitative image analysis to study the PNN structure in adult mouse and rat neurons from layers IV and VI of the somatosensory cortex. Vast majority of meshes have quadrangle, pentagon or hexagon shape with mean mesh area of 1.29µm(2) in mouse and 1.44µm(2) in rat neurons. We demonstrate two distinct patterns of chondroitin sulfate distribution within a single mesh - with uniform (nonpolar) and node-enriched (polar) distribution of the Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive signal. Vertices of the node-enriched pattern match better with local maxima of chondroitin sulfate density as compared to the uniform pattern. PNN is organized into clusters of meshes with distinct morphologies on the neuronal cell surface. Our findings suggest the role for the PNN microstructure in the synaptic transduction and plasticity.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: GM3 synthase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... GM3 synthase deficiency is characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy) and problems with brain development. Within the first ... diagnosis or management of GM3 synthase deficiency: American Epilepsy Society: Find a Doctor Clinic for Special Children ( ...

  9. Mycocerosic acid synthase exemplifies the architecture of reducing polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Dominik A; Jakob, Roman P; Zähringer, Franziska; Maier, Timm

    2016-03-24

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are biosynthetic factories that produce natural products with important biological and pharmacological activities. Their exceptional product diversity is encoded in a modular architecture. Modular PKSs (modPKSs) catalyse reactions colinear to the order of modules in an assembly line, whereas iterative PKSs (iPKSs) use a single module iteratively as exemplified by fungal iPKSs (fiPKSs). However, in some cases non-colinear iterative action is also observed for modPKSs modules and is controlled by the assembly line environment. PKSs feature a structural and functional separation into a condensing and a modifying region as observed for fatty acid synthases. Despite the outstanding relevance of PKSs, the detailed organization of PKSs with complete fully reducing modifying regions remains elusive. Here we report a hybrid crystal structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis mycocerosic acid synthase based on structures of its condensing and modifying regions. Mycocerosic acid synthase is a fully reducing iPKS, closely related to modPKSs, and the prototype of mycobacterial mycocerosic acid synthase-like PKSs. It is involved in the biosynthesis of C20-C28 branched-chain fatty acids, which are important virulence factors of mycobacteria. Our structural data reveal a dimeric linker-based organization of the modifying region and visualize dynamics and conformational coupling in PKSs. On the basis of comparative small-angle X-ray scattering, the observed modifying region architecture may be common also in modPKSs. The linker-based organization provides a rationale for the characteristic variability of PKS modules as a main contributor to product diversity. The comprehensive architectural model enables functional dissection and re-engineering of PKSs.

  10. HKR1 encodes a cell surface protein that regulates both cell wall beta-glucan synthesis and budding pattern in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Yabe, T; Yamada-Okabe, T; Kasahara, S; Furuichi, Y; Nakajima, T; Ichishima, E; Arisawa, M; Yamada-Okabe, H

    1996-01-01

    We previously isolated the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HKR1 gene that confers on S. cerevisiae cells resistance to HM-1 killer toxin secreted by Hansenula mrakii (S. Kasahara, H. Yamada, T. Mio, Y. Shiratori, C. Miyamoto, T. Yabe, T. Nakajima, E. Ichishima, and Y. Furuichi, J. Bacteriol. 176:1488-1499, 1994). HKR1 encodes a type 1 membrane protein that contains a calcium-binding consensus sequence (EF hand motif) in the cytoplasmic domain. Although the null mutation of HKR1 is lethal, disruption of the 3' part of the coding region, which would result in deletion of the cytoplasmic domain of Hkr1p, did not affect the viability of yeast cells. This partial disruption of HKR1 significantly reduced beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity and the amount of beta-1,3-glucan in the cell wall and altered the axial budding pattern of haploid cells. Neither chitin synthase activity nor chitin content was significantly affected in the cells harboring the partially disrupted HKR1 allele. Immunofluorescence microscopy with an antibody raised against Hkr1p expressed in Escherichia coli revealed that Hkr1p was predominantly localized on the cell surface. The cell surface localization of Hkr1p required the N-terminal signal sequence because the C-terminal half of Hkr1p was detected uniformly in the cells. These results demonstrate that HKR1 encodes a cell surface protein that regulates both cell wall beta-glucan synthesis and budding pattern and suggest that bud site assembly is somehow related to beta-glucan synthesis in S. cerevisiae. PMID:8550469

  11. Intracellular transport and cell surface delivery of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM).

    PubMed

    Leshchyns'ka, Iryna; Sytnyk, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) regulates differentiation and functioning of neurons by accumulating at the cell surface where it mediates the interactions of neurons with the extracellular environment. NCAM also induces a number of intracellular signaling cascades, which coordinate interactions at the cell surface with intracellular processes including changes in gene expression, transport and cytoskeleton remodeling. Since NCAM functions at the cell surface, its transport and delivery to the cell surface play a critical role. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the intracellular transport and cell surface delivery of NCAM. We also discuss the data suggesting a possibility of cross talk between activation of NCAM at the cell surface and the intracellular transport and cell surface delivery of NCAM.

  12. Modulation of cell-surface antigens of a murine neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Akeson, R; Herschman, H R

    1974-01-01

    Antisera were produced in rabbits to morphologically differentiated cells from the C1300 murine neuroblastoma (i.e., cells in which process formation was induced by maintenance on serum-free medium for 5 days). These antisera reacted more strongly in the complement fixation reaction with such "differentiated" cells than with "undifferentiated" (nonprocess-bearing) neuroblastoma cells. Adsorption of the antisera with undifferentiated cells removed the reactivity to cells without processes, while the reactivity with serum-free cells which possess processes was retained. Indirect immunofluorescence studies confirmed the results obtained by complement fixation and demonstrated that antibodies to the surface antigens of process-bearing cells could be adsorbed by particulate preparations from brain but not liver, spleen, or kidney. This is the first description of neural-associated cell-surface changes that correlate with the morphological differentiation in culture of neuroblastoma cells.

  13. Only scratching the cell surface: extracellular signals in cerebrum development.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Jean M

    2013-08-01

    Numerous roles have been identified for extracellular signals such as Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs), Transforming Growth Factor-βs (TGFβs), Wingless-Int proteins (WNTs), and Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) in assigning fates to cells during development of the cerebrum. However, several fundamental questions remain largely unexplored. First, how does the same extracellular signal instruct precursor cells in different locations or at different stages to adopt distinct fates? And second, how does a precursor cell integrate multiple signals to adopt a specific fate? Answers to these questions require knowing the mechanisms that underlie each cell type's competence to respond to certain extracellular signals. This brief review provides illustrative examples of potential mechanisms that begin to bridge the gap between cell surface and cell fate during cerebrum development.

  14. Mechanotransduction Across the Cell Surface and Through the Cytoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Butler, James P.; Ingber, Donald E.

    1993-05-01

    Mechanical stresses were applied directly to cell surface receptors with a magnetic twisting device. The extracellular matrix receptor, integrin β_1, induced focal adhesion formation and supported a force-dependent stiffening response, whereas nonadhesion receptors did not. The cytoskeletal stiffness (ratio of stress to strain) increased in direct proportion to the applied stress and required intact microtubules and intermediate filaments as well as microfilaments. Tensegrity models that incorporate mechanically interdependent struts and strings that reorient globally in response to a localized stress mimicked this response. These results suggest that integrins act as mechanoreceptors and transmit mechanical signals to the cytoskeleton. Mechanotransduction, in turn, may be mediated simultaneously at multiple locations inside the cell through force-induced rearrangements within a tensionally integrated cytoskeleton.

  15. Mechanotransduction across the cell surface and through the cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, N.; Butler, J. P.; Ingber, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    Mechanical stresses were applied directly to cell surface receptors with a magnetic twisting device. The extracellular matrix receptor, integrin beta 1, induced focal adhesion formation and supported a force-dependent stiffening response, whereas nonadhesion receptors did not. The cytoskeletal stiffness (ratio of stress to strain) increased in direct proportion to the applied stress and required intact microtubules and intermediate filaments as well as microfilaments. Tensegrity models that incorporate mechanically interdependent struts and strings that reorient globally in response to a localized stress mimicked this response. These results suggest that integrins act as mechanoreceptors and transmit mechanical signals to the cytoskeleton. Mechanotransduction, in turn, may be mediated simultaneously at multiple locations inside the cell through force-induced rearrangements within a tensionally integrated cytoskeleton.

  16. Advances in targeting cell surface signalling molecules for immune modulation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Sheng; Zhu, Yuwen; Chen, Lieping

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a surge in the development of immunomodulatory approaches to combat a broad range of human diseases, including cancer, viral infections, autoimmunity and inflammation as well as in the prevention of transplant rejection. Immunomodulatory approaches mostly involve the use of monoclonal antibodies or recombinant fusion proteins that target cell surface signalling molecules on immune cells to drive immune responses towards the desired direction. Advances in our understanding of the human immune system, along with valuable lessons learned from the first generation of therapeutic biologics, are aiding the design of the next generation of immunomodulatory biologics with better therapeutic efficacy, minimized adverse effects and long-lasting clinical benefit. The recent encouraging results from antibodies targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) and B7 homolog 1 (B7H1; also known as PDL1) for the treatment of various advanced human cancers show that immunomodulatory therapy has come of age. PMID:23370250

  17. Autonomous molecular cascades for evaluation of cell surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudchenko, Maria; Taylor, Steven; Pallavi, Payal; Dechkovskaia, Alesia; Khan, Safana; Butler, Vincent P., Jr.; Rudchenko, Sergei; Stojanovic, Milan N.

    2013-08-01

    Molecular automata are mixtures of molecules that undergo precisely defined structural changes in response to sequential interactions with inputs. Previously studied nucleic acid-based automata include game-playing molecular devices (MAYA automata) and finite-state automata for the analysis of nucleic acids, with the latter inspiring circuits for the analysis of RNA species inside cells. Here, we describe automata based on strand-displacement cascades directed by antibodies that can analyse cells by using their surface markers as inputs. The final output of a molecular automaton that successfully completes its analysis is the presence of a unique molecular tag on the cell surface of a specific subpopulation of lymphocytes within human blood cells.

  18. Biological Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Using Cell Surface Mucin Mimics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing; Lee, Goo Soo; Zettl, Alex; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2004-03-01

    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are molecular wires with remarkable structural, electrical, and mechanical properties. Their potential applications in biology include sensing, imaging, and scaffolding for cell growth, but are presently limited by chemical incompatibility of the CNT surface with biological components and their aqueous milieu. Here we describe a biomimetic surface modification of CNTs using glycosylated polymers designed to mimic natural cell surface mucins. The polymers were end-functionalized with lipid tails for self-assembly on the CNT surface through hydrophobic interactions. Mucin mimic-coated CNTs were soluble in water, resisted non-specific protein binding and bound specifically to biomolecules via receptor-ligand interactions. This strategy for biomimetic surface engineering provides a means to bridge nanomaterials and biological systems.

  19. Substrate recognition by the cell surface palmitoyl transferase DHHC5

    PubMed Central

    Howie, Jacqueline; Reilly, Louise; Fraser, Niall J.; Vlachaki Walker, Julia M.; Wypijewski, Krzysztof J.; Ashford, Michael L. J.; Calaghan, Sarah C.; McClafferty, Heather; Tian, Lijun; Shipston, Michael J.; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Shattock, Michael J.; Fuller, William

    2014-01-01

    The cardiac phosphoprotein phospholemman (PLM) regulates the cardiac sodium pump, activating the pump when phosphorylated and inhibiting it when palmitoylated. Protein palmitoylation, the reversible attachment of a 16 carbon fatty acid to a cysteine thiol, is catalyzed by the Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) motif-containing palmitoyl acyltransferases. The cell surface palmitoyl acyltransferase DHHC5 regulates a growing number of cellular processes, but relatively few DHHC5 substrates have been identified to date. We examined the expression of DHHC isoforms in ventricular muscle and report that DHHC5 is among the most abundantly expressed DHHCs in the heart and localizes to caveolin-enriched cell surface microdomains. DHHC5 coimmunoprecipitates with PLM in ventricular myocytes and transiently transfected cells. Overexpression and silencing experiments indicate that DHHC5 palmitoylates PLM at two juxtamembrane cysteines, C40 and C42, although C40 is the principal palmitoylation site. PLM interaction with and palmitoylation by DHHC5 is independent of the DHHC5 PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 homology (PDZ) binding motif, but requires a ∼120 amino acid region of the DHHC5 intracellular C-tail immediately after the fourth transmembrane domain. PLM C42A but not PLM C40A inhibits the Na pump, indicating PLM palmitoylation at C40 but not C42 is required for PLM-mediated inhibition of pump activity. In conclusion, we demonstrate an enzyme–substrate relationship for DHHC5 and PLM and describe a means of substrate recruitment not hitherto described for this acyltransferase. We propose that PLM palmitoylation by DHHC5 promotes phospholipid interactions that inhibit the Na pump. PMID:25422474

  20. Substrate recognition by the cell surface palmitoyl transferase DHHC5.

    PubMed

    Howie, Jacqueline; Reilly, Louise; Fraser, Niall J; Vlachaki Walker, Julia M; Wypijewski, Krzysztof J; Ashford, Michael L J; Calaghan, Sarah C; McClafferty, Heather; Tian, Lijun; Shipston, Michael J; Boguslavskyi, Andrii; Shattock, Michael J; Fuller, William

    2014-12-01

    The cardiac phosphoprotein phospholemman (PLM) regulates the cardiac sodium pump, activating the pump when phosphorylated and inhibiting it when palmitoylated. Protein palmitoylation, the reversible attachment of a 16 carbon fatty acid to a cysteine thiol, is catalyzed by the Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) motif-containing palmitoyl acyltransferases. The cell surface palmitoyl acyltransferase DHHC5 regulates a growing number of cellular processes, but relatively few DHHC5 substrates have been identified to date. We examined the expression of DHHC isoforms in ventricular muscle and report that DHHC5 is among the most abundantly expressed DHHCs in the heart and localizes to caveolin-enriched cell surface microdomains. DHHC5 coimmunoprecipitates with PLM in ventricular myocytes and transiently transfected cells. Overexpression and silencing experiments indicate that DHHC5 palmitoylates PLM at two juxtamembrane cysteines, C40 and C42, although C40 is the principal palmitoylation site. PLM interaction with and palmitoylation by DHHC5 is independent of the DHHC5 PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 homology (PDZ) binding motif, but requires a ∼ 120 amino acid region of the DHHC5 intracellular C-tail immediately after the fourth transmembrane domain. PLM C42A but not PLM C40A inhibits the Na pump, indicating PLM palmitoylation at C40 but not C42 is required for PLM-mediated inhibition of pump activity. In conclusion, we demonstrate an enzyme-substrate relationship for DHHC5 and PLM and describe a means of substrate recruitment not hitherto described for this acyltransferase. We propose that PLM palmitoylation by DHHC5 promotes phospholipid interactions that inhibit the Na pump.

  1. Novel eukaryotic enzymes modifying cell-surface biopolymers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic extracellular matrices such as proteoglycans, sclerotinized structures, mucus, external tests, capsules, cell walls and waxes contain highly modified proteins, glycans and other composite biopolymers. Using comparative genomics and sequence profile analysis we identify several novel enzymes that could be potentially involved in the modification of cell-surface glycans or glycoproteins. Results Using sequence analysis and conservation we define the acyltransferase domain prototyped by the fungal Cas1p proteins, identify its active site residues and unify them to the superfamily of classical 10TM acyltransferases (e.g. oatA). We also identify a novel family of esterases (prototyped by the previously uncharacterized N-terminal domain of Cas1p) that have a similar fold as the SGNH/GDSL esterases but differ from them in their conservation pattern. Conclusions We posit that the combined action of the acyltransferase and esterase domain plays an important role in controlling the acylation levels of glycans and thereby regulates their physico-chemical properties such as hygroscopicity, resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis and physical strength. We present evidence that the action of these novel enzymes on glycans might play an important role in host-pathogen interaction of plants, fungi and metazoans. We present evidence that in plants (e.g. PMR5 and ESK1) the regulation of carbohydrate acylation by these acylesterases might also play an important role in regulation of transpiration and stress resistance. We also identify a subfamily of these esterases in metazoans (e.g. C7orf58), which are fused to an ATP-grasp amino acid ligase domain that is predicted to catalyze, in certain animals, modification of cell surface polymers by amino acid or peptides. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Gaspar Jekely and Frank Eisenhaber PMID:20056006

  2. STRUCTURAL ENZYMOLOGY OF POLYKETIDE SYNTHASES

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shiou-Chuan (Sheryl); Ames, Brian Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes structural and associated enzymological studies of polyketide synthases, including isolated single domains and multidomain fragments. The sequence–structure–function relationship of polyketide biosynthesis, compared with homologous fatty acid synthesis, is discussed in detail. Structural enzymology sheds light on sequence and structural motifs that are important for the precise timing, substrate recognition, enzyme catalysis, and protein–protein interactions leading to the extraordinary structural diversity of naturally occurring polyketides. PMID:19362634

  3. Atomic Force Microscopy in Microbiology: New Structural and Functional Insights into the Microbial Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbial cells sense and respond to their environment using their surface constituents. Therefore, understanding the assembly and biophysical properties of cell surface molecules is an important research topic. With its ability to observe living microbial cells at nanometer resolution and to manipulate single-cell surface molecules, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a powerful tool in microbiology. Here, we survey major breakthroughs made in cell surface microbiology using AFM techniques, emphasizing the most recent structural and functional insights. PMID:25053785

  4. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Regulates the Cell Surface Proteome and Integrin Membrane Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Thavarajah, Thanusi; Medvedev, Sergei; Bowden, Peter; Marshall, John G.; Antonescu, Costin N.

    2015-01-01

    The cell surface proteome controls numerous cellular functions including cell migration and adhesion, intercellular communication and nutrient uptake. Cell surface proteins are controlled by acute changes in protein abundance at the plasma membrane through regulation of endocytosis and recycling (endomembrane traffic). Many cellular signals regulate endomembrane traffic, including metabolic signaling; however, the extent to which the cell surface proteome is controlled by acute regulation of endomembrane traffic under various conditions remains incompletely understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key metabolic sensor that is activated upon reduced cellular energy availability. AMPK activation alters the endomembrane traffic of a few specific proteins, as part of an adaptive response to increase energy intake and reduce energy expenditure. How increased AMPK activity during energy stress may globally regulate the cell surface proteome is not well understood. To study how AMPK may regulate the cell surface proteome, we used cell-impermeable biotinylation to selectively purify cell surface proteins under various conditions. Using ESI-MS/MS, we found that acute (90 min) treatment with the AMPK activator A-769662 elicits broad control of the cell surface abundance of diverse proteins. In particular, A-769662 treatment depleted from the cell surface proteins with functions in cell migration and adhesion. To complement our mass spectrometry results, we used other methods to show that A-769662 treatment results in impaired cell migration. Further, A-769662 treatment reduced the cell surface abundance of β1-integrin, a key cell migration protein, and AMPK gene silencing prevented this effect. While the control of the cell surface abundance of various proteins by A-769662 treatment was broad, it was also selective, as this treatment did not change the cell surface abundance of the transferrin receptor. Hence, the cell surface proteome is subject to acute

  5. ABC transporters involved in export of cell surface glycoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Leslie; Kos, Veronica; Whitfield, Chris

    2010-09-01

    Complex glycoconjugates play critical roles in the biology of microorganisms. Despite the remarkable diversity in glycan structures and the bacteria that produce them, conserved themes are evident in the biosynthesis-export pathways. One of the primary pathways involves representatives of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. These proteins are responsible for the export of a wide variety of cell surface oligo- and polysaccharides in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Recent investigations of the structure and function of ABC transporters involved in the export of lipopolysaccharide O antigens have revealed two fundamentally different strategies for coupling glycan polymerization to export. These mechanisms are distinguished by the presence (or absence) of characteristic nonreducing terminal modifications on the export substrates, which serve as chain termination and/or export signals, and by the presence (or absence) of a discrete substrate-binding domain in the nucleotide-binding domain polypeptide of the ABC transporter. A bioinformatic survey examining ABC exporters from known oligo- and polysaccharide biosynthesis loci identifies conserved nucleotide-binding domain protein families that correlate well with themes in the structures and assembly of glycans. The familial relationships among the ABC exporters generate hypotheses concerning the biosynthesis of structurally diverse oligo- and polysaccharides, which play important roles in the biology of bacteria with different lifestyles.

  6. Five novel cell surface antigens of CNS neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Jennings, M T; Jennings, V D; Asadourian, L L; Rosenblum, M; Albino, A P; Cairncross, J G; Old, L J

    1989-01-01

    Optimal monoclonal antibody-mediated immunotherapy requires the identification of tumor-restricted cell surface antigens. We have identified and partially characterized 5 new monoclonal antibodies generated against malignant astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma and melanoma which were used to define 5 neuroectodermal tumor antigenic systems. CNT/1 identifies a 57-kDa, heat-stable, trypsin-sensitive neuroblastoma surface antigen, which is expressed intracellularly in many malignant gliomas, medulloblastomas, ependymomas, breast and ovarian carcinomas. CNT/2 reacts with a 130-kDa, heat-labile, trypsin- and neuraminidase-resistant antigen restricted to low-grade astrocytomas and malignant gliomas. CNT/11 reacts with a 70-kDa, heat-labile, trypsin-sensitive antigen coded for by a gene on chromosome 12, and is restricted to astrocytomas, neuroblastomas and sarcomas. CNT/8 identifies a heat-labile, trypsin-sensitive antigen whose gene has been localized to chromosome 15 and is expressed by neuroectodermal and mesodermally derived tumors and few epithelial cancers. The B2.6 antigen is identified only in terms of serologic reactivity with a subset of cultured astrocytomas and melanomas. Neuroectodermal tumor-associated antigens may be categorized as lineage-consistent, lineage-independent and putatively tumor-restricted in their expression. These restricted antibodies may be potentially useful reagents to consider for monoclonal antibody-mediated immunotherapy of CNS neoplasms.

  7. Encephalitis and antibodies to synaptic and neuronal cell surface proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Eric; Martinez-Hernandez, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    The identification of encephalitis associated with antibodies against cell surface and synaptic proteins, although recent, has already had a substantial impact in clinical neurology and neuroscience. The target antigens are receptors and proteins that have critical roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity, including the NMDA receptor, the AMPA receptor, the GABAB receptor, and the glycine receptor. Other autoantigens, such as leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 and contactin-associated protein-like 2, form part of trans-synaptic complexes and neuronal cell adhesion molecules involved in fine-tuning synaptic transmission and nerve excitability. Syndromes resulting from these immune responses resemble those of pharmacologic or genetic models in which the antigens are disrupted. For some immune responses, there is evidence that the antibodies alter the structure and function of the antigen, suggesting a direct pathogenic effect. These disorders are important because they can affect children and young adults, are severe and protracted, occur with or without tumor association, and respond to treatment but may relapse. This review provides an update on these syndromes and autoantigens with special emphasis on clinical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:21747075

  8. Characterizing cell surface of blooming Microcystis in Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lizhen; Huang, Qi; Qin, Boqiang; Zhu, Guangwei; Wu, Pan; Wu, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Microcystis occurs as colonies in the natural environment but disaggregates into single cells in laboratory cultures. In order to explore the mechanism of how Microcystis forms colonies, the zeta potentials of Microcystis cells from the laboratory and the field were studied, and the hydrophobicity of Microcystis colonies in different sizes was investigated in Lake Taihu. The incubation experiment indicated that the zeta potentials of Microcystis cells were affected by growth phase and species. The absolute values in exponential phase were lower than those in stationary phase, suggesting that the cells with rapid growth easily formed colonies due to more instability on the cell surface. The values of Microcystis aeruginosa were higher than those of Microcystis flos-aquae, which confirmed that M. aeruginosa prevailed in waters for a longer time and at a larger size compared with M. flos-aquae. In another aspect, the absolute zeta potentials of Microcystis spp. at pH 7.0 decreased from spring to autumn in the field; the values in spring were higher than those in summer, suggesting that a large-sized Microcystis colony would more easily form in summer. Additionally, differences in hydrophobicity exist among Microcystis colonies of various sizes. The surface hydrophobicity of colonies in the <20 μm size class was higher than that of larger colonies. This characteristic allowed small colonies to easily form large colonies to survive better. These results would be helpful to understand the mechanism of the bloom formation, especially the colony formation, in Microcystis. PMID:27232410

  9. CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS OF A MOUSE TESTICULAR TERATOMA

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Linda R.; Edidin, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Rabbit antisera to a mouse testicular teratoma, absorbed with normal mouse tissues, react by immunofluorescence with plasma membrane antigens of a variety of transplantable mouse tumor cells and transformed fibroblast cell lines including Clone 1D, SV-40-3T3, and 3T12. Trypsin treatment of cells of "normal" lines, 3T3 and FR-SV-3T3, uncovers reactivity on these as well. Early passage mouse embryo fibroblast cell cultures do not react even after trypsinization. By cross-absorbtion studies, the anti-teratoma serum appears to react with an antigen common to most tumor cells investigated thus far. When this antigen on Clone 1D cells is "capped," H-2 antigens collect with the teratoma antigens in the cap indicating a physical association between the molecules. Molecules specified by both the H-2D and H-2K regions are bound to the teratoma antigens in the Clone 1D plasma membrane. This antigen is also found in soluble tumor cell fractions where it is believed to be free of H-2. A second cell surface antigen defined by anti-teratoma serum is expressed only by hepatoma and teratoma itself. This second antigen is apparently a secretory product of teratoma cells. A third surface antigen defined by anti-teratoma serum appears to be specific for the teratoma. PMID:4365513

  10. Cell Surface Access Is Modulated by Tethered Bottlebrush Proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Patrick S; McLane, Louis T; Fogg, Ruth; Scrimgeour, Jan; Temenoff, Johnna S; Granqvist, Anna; Curtis, Jennifer E

    2016-06-21

    The hyaluronan-rich pericellular matrix (PCM) plays physical and chemical roles in biological processes ranging from brain plasticity, to adhesion-dependent phenomena such as cell migration, to the onset of cancer. This study investigates how the spatial distribution of the large negatively charged bottlebrush proteoglycan, aggrecan, impacts PCM morphology and cell surface access. The highly localized pericellular milieu limits transport of nanoparticles in a size-dependent fashion and sequesters positively charged molecules on the highly sulfated side chains of aggrecan. Both rat chondrocyte and human mesenchymal stem cell PCMs possess many unused binding sites for aggrecan, showing a 2.5x increase in PCM thickness from ∼7 to ∼18 μm when provided exogenous aggrecan. Yet, full extension of the PCM occurs well below aggrecan saturation. Hence, cells equipped with hyaluronan-rich PCM can in principle manipulate surface accessibility or sequestration of molecules by tuning the bottlebrush proteoglycan content to alter PCM porosity and the number of electrostatic binding sites. PMID:27332132

  11. RPE cell surface proteins in normal and dystrophic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, V.M.; Hall, M.O.

    1986-02-01

    Membrane-bound proteins in plasma membrane enriched fractions from cultured rat RPE were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Membrane proteins were characterized on three increasingly specific levels. Total protein was visualized by silver staining. A maximum of 102 separate proteins were counted in silver-stained gels. Glycoproteins were labeled with 3H-glucosamine or 3H-fucose and detected by autoradiography. Thirty-eight fucose-labeled and 61-71 glucosamine-labeled proteins were identified. All of the fucose-labeled proteins were labeled with glucosamine-derived radioactivity. Proteins exposed at the cell surface were labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination prior to preparation of membranes for two-dimensional analysis. Forty separate 125I-labeled surface proteins were resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis/autoradiography. Comparison with the glycoprotein map showed that a number of these surface labeled proteins were glycoproteins. Two-dimensional maps of total protein, fucose-labeled, and glucosamine-labeled glycoproteins, and 125I-labeled surface proteins of membranes from dystrophic (RCS rdy-p+) and normal (Long Evans or RCS rdy+p+) RPE were compared. No differences in the total protein or surface-labeled proteins were observed. However, the results suggest that a 183K glycoprotein is more heavily glycosylated with glucosamine and fucose in normal RPE membranes as compared to membranes from dystrophic RPE.

  12. Characterization and use of crystalline bacterial cell surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleytr, Uwe B.; Sára, Margit; Pum, Dietmar; Schuster, Bernhard

    2001-10-01

    Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) are one of the most common outermost cell envelope components of prokaryotic organisms (archaea and bacteria). S-layers are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membranes developed during evolution. S-layers as the most abundant of prokaryotic cellular proteins are appealing model systems for studying the structure, synthesis, genetics, assembly and function of proteinaceous supramolecular structures. The wealth of information existing on the general principle of S-layers have revealed a broad application potential. The most relevant features exploited in applied S-layer research are: (i) pores passing through S-layers show identical size and morphology and are in the range of ultrafiltration membranes; (ii) functional groups on the surface and in the pores are aligned in well-defined positions and orientations and accessible for chemical modifications and binding functional molecules in very precise fashion; (iii) isolated S-layer subunits from a variety of organisms are capable of recrystallizing as closed monolayers onto solid supports (e.g., metals, polymers, silicon wafers) at the air-water interface, on lipid films or onto the surface of liposomes; (iv) functional domains can be incorporated in S-layer proteins by genetic engineering. Thus, S-layer technologies particularly provide new approaches for biotechnology, biomimetics, molecular nanotechnology, nanopatterning of surfaces and formation of ordered arrays of metal clusters or nanoparticles as required for nanoelectronics.

  13. Dual-laser homo-FRET on the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Bene, László; Ungvári, Tamás; Fedor, Roland; Nagy, István; Damjanovich, László

    2015-05-01

    Inhomogeneous broadening and red-edge effects have been detected on a highly mobile system of fluorescently conjugated mAbs targeted to cell surface receptors. By exploiting site-selective spectroscopy and the characteristic loss of homo-FRET on increasing excitation and decreasing emission wavelengths, contributions of physical rotation and homo-FRET to the depolarization of fluorescence anisotropy have been separated. Absolute homo-FRET efficiency has been determined by ratioing two anisotropies: a homo-FRET-sensitive one, which is excited at the absorption main band and detected at the long wavelength region of emission, and a homo-FRET-insensitive one, which is excited at the long wavelength region of absorption and detected at the short wavelength region of emission. Because the anisotropies are simultaneously detected in a unified detection scheme of a dual T-format arrangement, the method is applicable for the real-time tracking of dynamical changes of physical rotations and proximities. The utility of the method is demonstrated in the context of the MHCII molecule and the heavy and light chains of the MHCI molecule, a system of three receptors with well-characterized close mutual proximities. Although the method is presented for a flow cytometer, it can also be realized in a fluorescence microscope capable for dual-laser excitation and dual-anisotropy detection.

  14. Analysis of cell surface antigens by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Stojanović, Ivan; Schasfoort, Richard B M; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2014-02-15

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is most commonly used to measure bio-molecular interactions. SPR is used significantly less frequent for measuring whole cell interactions. Here we introduce a method to measure whole cells label free using the specific binding of cell surface antigens expressed on the surface of cancer cells and specific ligands deposited on sensor chips using an IBIS MX96 SPR imager (SPRi). As a model system, cells from the breast cancer cell line HS578T, SKBR3 and MCF7 were used. SPRi responses to Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) antibody and other ligands coated on the sensor chips were measured. SPR curves show a response attributable to the sedimentation of the cells and a specific binding response on top of the initial response, the magnitude of which is dependent on the ligand density and the cell type used. Comparison of SPRi with flow cytometry showed similar EpCAM expression on MCF7, SKBR3 and HS578T cells.

  15. EXAFS Study of Uranyl Complexation at Pseudomonas fluorescens Cell Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencheikh, R.; Bargar, J. R.; Tebo, B. M.

    2002-12-01

    Little is known about the roles of microbial biomass as a sink and source for uranium in contaminated aquifers, nor of the impact of bacterial biochemistry on uranium speciation in the subsurface. A significant role is implied by the high affinities of both Gram positive and Gram negative cells for binding uranyl (UO2{ 2+}). In the present study, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy was used to identify membrane functional groups involved in uranyl binding to the Gram negative bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens from pH 3 to pH 8. Throughout this pH-range, EXAFS spectra can be described primarily in terms of coordination of carboxylic groups to uranyl. U-C distances characteristic of 4-, 5- and 8- membered rings were observed, as well as the possibility of phosphato groups. Both shell-by-shell fits and principle component analyses indicate that the functional groups involved in binding of uranyl to the cell surface do not vary systematically across the pH range investigated. This result contrasts with EXAFS results of uranyl sorbed to Gram positive bacteria, and suggests an important role for long-chain carboxylate-terminated membrane functional groups in binding uranyl.

  16. Cell surface proteome of the marine planctomycete Rhodopirellula baltica.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Birgit; Hieu, Cao Xuan; Hempel, Kristina; Becher, Dörte; Schlüter, Rabea; Teeling, Hanno; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Amann, Rudolf; Hecker, Michael; Schweder, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    The surface proteome (surfaceome) of the marine planctomycete Rhodopirellula baltica SH1(T) was studied using a biotinylation and a proteinase K approach combined with SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. 52 of the proteins identified in both approaches could be assigned to the group of potential surface proteins. Among them are some high molecular weight proteins, potentially involved in cell-cell attachment, that contain domains shown before to be typical for surface proteins like cadherin/dockerin domains, a bacterial adhesion domain or the fasciclin domain. The identification of proteins with enzymatic functions in the R. baltica surfaceome provides further clues for the suggestion that some degradative enzymes may be anchored onto the cell surface. YTV proteins, which have been earlier supposed to be components of the proteinaceous cell wall of R. baltica, were detected in the surface proteome. Additionally, 8 proteins with a novel protein structure combining a conserved type IV pilin/N-methylation domain and a planctomycete-typical DUF1559 domain were identified. PMID:22623273

  17. ABC Transporters Involved in Export of Cell Surface Glycoconjugates

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Leslie; Kos, Veronica; Whitfield, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Complex glycoconjugates play critical roles in the biology of microorganisms. Despite the remarkable diversity in glycan structures and the bacteria that produce them, conserved themes are evident in the biosynthesis-export pathways. One of the primary pathways involves representatives of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. These proteins are responsible for the export of a wide variety of cell surface oligo- and polysaccharides in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Recent investigations of the structure and function of ABC transporters involved in the export of lipopolysaccharide O antigens have revealed two fundamentally different strategies for coupling glycan polymerization to export. These mechanisms are distinguished by the presence (or absence) of characteristic nonreducing terminal modifications on the export substrates, which serve as chain termination and/or export signals, and by the presence (or absence) of a discrete substrate-binding domain in the nucleotide-binding domain polypeptide of the ABC transporter. A bioinformatic survey examining ABC exporters from known oligo- and polysaccharide biosynthesis loci identifies conserved nucleotide-binding domain protein families that correlate well with themes in the structures and assembly of glycans. The familial relationships among the ABC exporters generate hypotheses concerning the biosynthesis of structurally diverse oligo- and polysaccharides, which play important roles in the biology of bacteria with different lifestyles. PMID:20805402

  18. Labile disulfide bonds are common at the leucocyte cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Clive; Cresswell, Peter; Ciaccia, Laura; Thomas, Benjamin; Barclay, A. Neil

    2011-01-01

    Redox conditions change in events such as immune and platelet activation, and during viral infection, but the biochemical consequences are not well characterized. There is evidence that some disulfide bonds in membrane proteins are labile while others that are probably structurally important are not exposed at the protein surface. We have developed a proteomic/mass spectrometry method to screen for and identify non-structural, redox-labile disulfide bonds in leucocyte cell-surface proteins. These labile disulfide bonds are common, with several classes of proteins being identified and around 30 membrane proteins regularly identified under different reducing conditions including using enzymes such as thioredoxin. The proteins identified include integrins, receptors, transporters and cell–cell recognition proteins. In many cases, at least one cysteine residue was identified by mass spectrometry as being modified by the reduction process. In some cases, functional changes are predicted (e.g. in integrins and cytokine receptors) but the scale of molecular changes in membrane proteins observed suggests that widespread effects are likely on many different types of proteins including enzymes, adhesion proteins and transporters. The results imply that membrane protein activity is being modulated by a ‘redox regulator’ mechanism. PMID:22645650

  19. Antifouling property of highly oleophobic substrates for solar cell surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukada, Kenta; Nishizawa, Shingo; Shiratori, Seimei

    2014-03-01

    Reduction of solar cell conversion efficiency by bird spoor or oil smoke is a common issue. Maintaining the surface of solar cells clean to retain the incident light is of utmost importance. In this respect, there has been growing interest in the area of superhydrophobicity for developing water repelling and self-cleaning surfaces. This effect is inspired by lotus leaves that have micro papillae covered with hydrophobic wax nanostructures. Superhydrophobic surfaces on transparent substrates have been developed for removing contaminants from solar cell surfaces. However, oil cannot be removed by superhydrophobic effect. In contrast, to prevent bird spoor, a highly oleophobic surface is required. In a previous study, we reported transparent-type fabrics comprising nanoparticles with a nano/micro hierarchical structure that ensured both oleophobicity and transparency. In the current study, we developed new highly oleophobic stripes that were constructed into semi-transparent oleophobic surfaces for solar cells. Solar cell performance was successfully maintained; the total transmittance was a key factor for determining conversion efficiency.

  20. Cell Surface Proteome of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Identified by Label-Free Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Niehage, Christian; Karbanová, Jana; Steenblock, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising tools for regenerative medicine. They can be isolated from different sources based on their plastic-adherence property. The identification of reliable cell surface markers thus becomes the Holy Grail for their prospective isolation. Here, we determine the cell surface proteomes of human dental pulp-derived MSCs isolated from single donors after culture expansion in low (2%) or high (10%) serum-containing media. Cell surface proteins were tagged on intact cells using cell impermeable, cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin, which allows their enrichment by streptavidin pull-down. For the proteomic analyses, we first compared label-free methods to analyze cell surface proteomes i.e. composition, enrichment and proteomic differences, and we developed a new mathematical model to determine cell surface protein enrichment using a combinatorial gene ontology query. Using this workflow, we identified 101 cluster of differentiation (CD) markers and 286 non-CD cell surface proteins. Based on this proteome profiling, we identified 14 cell surface proteins, which varied consistently in abundance when cells were cultured under low or high serum conditions. Collectively, our analytical methods provide a basis for identifying the cell surface proteome of dental pulp stem cells isolated from single donors and its evolution during culture or differentiation. Our data provide a comprehensive cell surface proteome for the precise identification of dental pulp-derived MSC populations and their isolation for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:27490675

  1. Cell Surface Proteome of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Identified by Label-Free Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Niehage, Christian; Karbanová, Jana; Steenblock, Charlotte; Corbeil, Denis; Hoflack, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising tools for regenerative medicine. They can be isolated from different sources based on their plastic-adherence property. The identification of reliable cell surface markers thus becomes the Holy Grail for their prospective isolation. Here, we determine the cell surface proteomes of human dental pulp-derived MSCs isolated from single donors after culture expansion in low (2%) or high (10%) serum-containing media. Cell surface proteins were tagged on intact cells using cell impermeable, cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin, which allows their enrichment by streptavidin pull-down. For the proteomic analyses, we first compared label-free methods to analyze cell surface proteomes i.e. composition, enrichment and proteomic differences, and we developed a new mathematical model to determine cell surface protein enrichment using a combinatorial gene ontology query. Using this workflow, we identified 101 cluster of differentiation (CD) markers and 286 non-CD cell surface proteins. Based on this proteome profiling, we identified 14 cell surface proteins, which varied consistently in abundance when cells were cultured under low or high serum conditions. Collectively, our analytical methods provide a basis for identifying the cell surface proteome of dental pulp stem cells isolated from single donors and its evolution during culture or differentiation. Our data provide a comprehensive cell surface proteome for the precise identification of dental pulp-derived MSC populations and their isolation for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:27490675

  2. Novel, potent, orally bioavailable and selective mycobacterial ATP synthase inhibitors that demonstrated activity against both replicating and non-replicating M. tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Supriya; Roy, Kuldeep K; Khan, Shaheb R; Kashyap, Vivek Kr; Sharma, Abhisheak; Jaiswal, Swati; Sharma, Sandeep K; Krishnan, Manju Yasoda; Chaturvedi, Vineeta; Lal, Jawahar; Sinha, Sudhir; Dasgupta, Arunava; Gupta, Arnab D; Srivastava, Ranjana; Saxena, Anil K

    2015-02-15

    The mycobacterial F0F1-ATP synthase (ATPase) is a validated target for the development of tuberculosis (TB) therapeutics. Therefore, a series of eighteen novel compounds has been designed, synthesized and evaluated against Mycobacterium smegmatis ATPase. The observed ATPase inhibitory activities (IC50) of these compounds range between 0.36 and 5.45μM. The lead compound 9d [N-(7-chloro-2-methylquinolin-4-yl)-N-(3-((diethylamino)methyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dichlorobenzenesulfonamide] with null cytotoxicity (CC50>300μg/mL) and excellent anti-mycobacterial activity and selectivity (mycobacterium ATPase IC50=0.51μM, mammalian ATPase IC50>100μM, and selectivity >200) exhibited a complete growth inhibition of replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv at 3.12μg/mL. In addition, it also exhibited bactericidal effect (approximately 2.4log10 reductions in CFU) in the hypoxic culture of non-replicating M. tuberculosis at 100μg/mL (32-fold of its MIC) as compared to positive control isoniazid [approximately 0.2log10 reduction in CFU at 5μg/mL (50-fold of its MIC)]. The pharmacokinetics of 9d after p.o. and IV administration in male Sprague-Dawley rats indicated its quick absorption, distribution and slow elimination. It exhibited a high volume of distribution (Vss, 0.41L/kg), moderate clearance (0.06L/h/kg), long half-life (4.2h) and low absolute bioavailability (1.72%). In the murine model system of chronic TB, 9d showed 2.12log10 reductions in CFU in both lung and spleen at 173μmol/kg dose as compared to the growth of untreated control group of Balb/C male mice infected with replicating M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The in vivo efficacy of 9d is at least double of the control drug ethambutol. These results suggest 9d as a promising candidate molecule for further preclinical evaluation against resistant TB strains. PMID:25614114

  3. Acetohydroxyacid synthases: evolution, structure, and function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yadi; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase, a thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzyme, can condense either two pyruvate molecules to form acetolactate for synthesizing L-valine and L-leucine or pyruvate with 2-ketobutyrate to form acetohydroxybutyrate for synthesizing L-isoleucine. Because the key reaction catalyzed by acetohydroxyacid synthase in the biosynthetic pathways of branched-chain amino acids exists in plants, fungi, archaea, and bacteria, but not in animals, acetohydroxyacid synthase becomes a potential target for developing novel herbicides and antimicrobial compounds. In this article, the evolution, structure, and catalytic mechanism of acetohydroxyacid synthase are summarized. PMID:27576495

  4. An efficient delivery of DAMPs on the cell surface by the unconventional secretion pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Haiyan; Wang, Lan; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Dongmei; Min, Zhihui; Xie, Jianhui; Yu, Min; Gu, Jianxin

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} Hsp60 transported to cell surface through the classical secretory pathway was modified with N-glycosylation. {yields} HSAPB-N18 could efficiently deliver Hsp60 to the cell surface via the unconventional secretory pathway. {yields} Cell surface Hsp60 delivered by HASPB-N18 has a proper conformation. {yields} HASPB-N18 is an efficient delivery signal for other DAMP molecules such as Hsp70 and HMGB1. -- Abstract: Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are signals released from dying cells evoking the immune system response in several inflammatory disorders. In normal situations, many of DAMPs are nuclear or cytosolic proteins with defined intracellular function, but they could be found on the cell surface following tissue injury. The biological function of the translocated DAMPs is still not well known and an efficient delivery of these molecules on the cell surface is required to clarify their biological effects. In this study, we demonstrated that an unclassical secretory signal peptide, N-terminal 18 amino acids of HASPB (HASPB-N18), could efficiently deliver Hsp60, Hsp70, and HMGB1 on the cell surface. Furthermore, the delivery of these molecules on the cell surface by HASPB-N18 is not limited to a special cell line because several cell lines could use this delivery signal to deliver these molecules on the cell surface. Moreover, we demonstrated that Hsp60 on the cell surface delivered by HASPB-N18 could be recognized by a soluble form of LOX-1, which implies that DAMPs on the cell surface delivered by HASPB-N18 have a proper conformation during transport. Therefore, delivery of DAMPs by HASPB-N18 is a reliable model to further understand the biological significance of DAMPs on the cell surface.

  5. Actin polymerization and intracellular solvent flow in cell surface blebbing

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The cortical actin gel of eukaryotic cells is postulated to control cell surface activity. One type of protrusion that may offer clues to this regulation are the spherical aneurysms of the surface membrane known as blebs. Blebs occur normally in cells during spreading and alternate with other protrusions, such as ruffles, suggesting similar protrusive machinery is involved. We recently reported that human melanoma cell lines deficient in the actin filament cross-linking protein, ABP-280, show prolonged blebbing, thus allowing close study of blebs and their dynamics. Blebs expand at different rates of volume increase that directly predict the final size achieved by each bleb. These rates decrease as the F-actin concentration of the cells increase over time after plating on a surface, but do so at lower concentrations in ABP-280 expressing cells. Fluorescently labeled actin and phalloidin injections of blebbing cells indicate that a polymerized actin structure is not present initially, but appears later and is responsible for stopping further bleb expansion. Therefore, it is postulated that blebs occur when the fluid-driven expansion of the cell membrane is sufficiently rapid to initially outpace the local rate of actin polymerization. In this model, the rate of intracellular solvent flow driving this expansion decreases as cortical gelation is achieved, whether by factors such as ABP-280, or by concentrated actin polymers alone, thereby leading to decreased size and occurrence of blebs. Since the forces driving bleb extension would always be present in a cell, this process may influence other cell protrusions as well. PMID:7790356

  6. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  7. Oxidation of cell surface thiol groups by contact sensitizers triggers the maturation of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Kagatani, Saori; Sasaki, Yoshinori; Hirota, Morihiko; Mizuashi, Masato; Suzuki, Mie; Ohtani, Tomoyuki; Itagaki, Hiroshi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2010-01-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has a crucial role in the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) by sensitizers. Recently, it has been reported that the oxidation of cell surface thiols by an exogenous impermeant thiol oxidizer can phosphorylate p38 MAPK. In this study, we examined whether sensitizers oxidize cell surface thiols of monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs). When cell surface thiols were quantified by flow cytometry using Alexa fluor maleimide, all the sensitizers that we examined decreased cell surface thiols on MoDCs. To examine the effects of decreased cell surface thiols by sensitizers on DC maturation, we analyzed the effects of an impermeant thiol oxidizer, o-phenanthroline copper complex (CuPhen). The treatment of MoDCs with CuPhen decreased cell surface thiols, phosphorylated p38 MAPK, and induced MoDC maturation, that is, the augmentation of CD83, CD86, HLA-DR, and IL-8 mRNA, as well as the downregulation of aquaporin-3 mRNA. The augmentation of CD86 was significantly suppressed when MoDCs were pretreated with N-acetyl-L-cystein or treated with SB203580. Finally, we showed that epicutaneous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene on mouse skin significantly decreased cell surface thiols of Langerhans cells in vivo. These data suggest that the oxidation of cell surface thiols has some role in triggering DC maturation by sensitizers. PMID:19641517

  8. Coupling Binding to Catalysis: Using Yeast Cell Surface Display to Select Enzymatic Activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Keya; Bhuripanyo, Karan; Wang, Yiyang; Yin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We find yeast cell surface display can be used to engineer enzymes by selecting the enzyme library for high affinity binding to reaction intermediates. Here we cover key steps of enzyme engineering on the yeast cell surface including library design, construction, and selection based on magnetic and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. PMID:26060080

  9. An efficient delivery of DAMPs on the cell surface by the unconventional secretion pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiyan; Wang, Lan; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Dongmei; Min, Zhihui; Xie, Jianhui; Yu, Min; Gu, Jianxin

    2011-01-21

    Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are signals released from dying cells evoking the immune system response in several inflammatory disorders. In normal situations, many of DAMPs are nuclear or cytosolic proteins with defined intracellular function, but they could be found on the cell surface following tissue injury. The biological function of the translocated DAMPs is still not well known and an efficient delivery of these molecules on the cell surface is required to clarify their biological effects. In this study, we demonstrated that an unclassical secretory signal peptide, N-terminal 18 amino acids of HASPB (HASPB-N18), could efficiently deliver Hsp60, Hsp70, and HMGB1 on the cell surface. Furthermore, the delivery of these molecules on the cell surface by HASPB-N18 is not limited to a special cell line because several cell lines could use this delivery signal to deliver these molecules on the cell surface. Moreover, we demonstrated that Hsp60 on the cell surface delivered by HASPB-N18 could be recognized by a soluble form of LOX-1, which implies that DAMPs on the cell surface delivered by HASPB-N18 have a proper conformation during transport. Therefore, delivery of DAMPs by HASPB-N18 is a reliable model to further understand the biological significance of DAMPs on the cell surface. PMID:21168385

  10. Coupling Binding to Catalysis: Using Yeast Cell Surface Display to Select Enzymatic Activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Keya; Bhuripanyo, Karan; Wang, Yiyang; Yin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We find yeast cell surface display can be used to engineer enzymes by selecting the enzyme library for high affinity binding to reaction intermediates. Here we cover key steps of enzyme engineering on the yeast cell surface including library design, construction, and selection based on magnetic and fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

  11. Molecular evolution and sequence divergence of plant chalcone synthase and chalcone synthase-Like genes.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingying; Zhao, Wenwen; Wang, Zhicui; Zhu, Jingying; Liu, Qisong

    2014-06-01

    Plant chalcone synthase (CHS) and CHS-Like (CHSL) proteins are polyketide synthases. In this study, we evaluated the molecular evolution of this gene family using representative types of CHSL genes, including stilbene synthase (STS), 2-pyrone synthase (2-PS), bibenzyl synthase (BBS), acridone synthase (ACS), biphenyl synthase (BIS), benzalacetone synthase, coumaroyl triacetic acid synthase (CTAS), and benzophenone synthase (BPS), along with their CHS homologs from the same species of both angiosperms and gymnosperms. A cDNA-based phylogeny indicated that CHSLs had diverse evolutionary patterns. STS, ACS, and 2-PS clustered with CHSs from the same species (late diverged pattern), while CTAS, BBS, BPS, and BIS were distant from their CHS homologs (early diverged pattern). The amino-acid phylogeny suggested that CHS and CHSL proteins formed clades according to enzyme function. The CHSs and CHSLs from Polygonaceae and Arachis had unique evolutionary histories. Synonymous mutation rates were lower in late diverged CHSLs than in early diverged ones, indicating that gene duplications occurred more recently in late diverged CHSLs than in early diverged ones. Relative rate tests proved that late diverged CHSLs had unequal rates to CHSs from the same species when using fatty acid synthase, which evolved from the common ancestor with the CHS superfamily, as the outgroup, while the early diverged lineages had equal rates. This indicated that late diverged CHSLs experienced more frequent mutation than early diverged CHSLs after gene duplication, allowing obtaining new functions in relatively short period of time.

  12. Trichodiene synthase. Substrate specificity and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cane, D E; Yang, G; Xue, Q; Shim, J H

    1995-02-28

    The substrate specificity of the sesquiterpene synthase trichodiene synthase was examined by determining the Vmax and Km parameters for the natural substrate, trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate (1), its stereoisomer, cis,trans-farnesyl diphosphate, and the tertiary allylic isomer, (3R)-nerolidyl diphosphate (3), using both the native fungal and recombinant enzymes. A series of farnesyl diphosphate analogs, 15, 16, 20, 7, 8, and 9, was also tested as inhibitors of trichodiene synthase. 10-Fluorofarnesyl diphosphate (15) was the most effective competitive inhibitor, with a K1 of 16 nM compared to the Km for 1 of 87 nM, while the ether analog of farnesyl diphosphate, 8, an extremely potent inhibitor of squalene synthase, showed only modest inhibition of trichodiene synthase, with a K1/Km of 70. PMID:7873526

  13. [Development and application of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell-surface display for bioethanol production].

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Cao, Meng; Jin, Yi; Yang, Xiushan; Tian, Shen

    2012-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is useful as a host for genetic engineering, since it allows the folding and glycosylation of expressed heterologous eukaryotic proteins and can be subjected to many genetic manipulations. Recent advancements in the yeast cell surface engineering developed strategies to genetically immobilize amylolytic, cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes on yeast cell surface for the production of fuel ethanol from biomass. We reviewed the basic principle and progress of S. cerevisiae cell-surface engineering and gave an insight into the recent technological developments in the production of bioethanol using surface engineered yeast. PMID:23185890

  14. Crystal structure of riboflavin synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, D.-I.; Wawrzak, Z.; Calabrese, J.C.; Viitanen, P.V.; Jordan, D.B.

    2010-03-05

    Riboflavin synthase catalyzes the dismutation of two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-(1'-D-ribityl)-lumazine to yield riboflavin and 4-ribitylamino-5-amino-2,6-dihydroxypyrimidine. The homotrimer of 23 kDa subunits has no cofactor requirements for catalysis. The enzyme is nonexistent in humans and is an attractive target for antimicrobial agents of organisms whose pathogenicity depends on their ability to biosynthesize riboflavin. The first three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined at 2.0 {angstrom} resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method on the Escherichia coli protein containing selenomethionine residues. The homotrimer consists of an asymmetric assembly of monomers, each of which comprises two similar {beta} barrels and a C-terminal {alpha} helix. The similar {beta} barrels within the monomer confirm a prediction of pseudo two-fold symmetry that is inferred from the sequence similarity between the two halves of the protein. The {beta} barrels closely resemble folds found in phthalate dioxygenase reductase and other flavoproteins. The three active sites of the trimer are proposed to lie between pairs of monomers in which residues conserved among species reside, including two Asp-His-Ser triads and dyads of Cys-Ser and His-Thr. The proposed active sites are located where FMN (an analog of riboflavin) is modeled from an overlay of the {beta} barrels of phthalate dioxygenase reductase and riboflavin synthase. In the trimer, one active site is formed, and the other two active sites are wide open and exposed to solvent. The nature of the trimer configuration suggests that only one active site can be formed and be catalytically competent at a time.

  15. The influence of cell surface properties of thermophilic streptococci on attachment to stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Flint, S H; Brooks, J D; Bremer, P J

    1997-10-01

    The quality of milk products is threatened by the formation of biofilms of thermophilic streptococci on the internal surfaces of plate heat exchangers used in milk processing. Although attachment to stainless steel surfaces is one of the first stages in the development of a biofilm, the mechanisms involved in attachment have not been reported. The cell surface properties of 12 strains of thermophilic streptococci were examined to determine their importance in attachment to stainless steel surfaces. Hydrophobicity, extracellular polysaccharide production and cell surface charge varied between the different strains but could not be related to numbers attaching. Treating the cells with sodium metaperiodate, lysozyme or trichloroacetic acid to disrupt cell surface polysaccharide had no effect on attachment. Treatment with trypsin or sodium dodecyl sulphate to remove cell surface proteins resulted in a 100-fold reduction in the number of bacteria attaching. This result suggests that the surface proteins of the thermophilic streptococci are important in their attachment to stainless steel. PMID:9351231

  16. Microbial cell surface characteristics: Elucidating attachment/detachment using hydrophobicity and electrokinetic measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The surface properties of microorganisms play an important role in their behavior within the environment. Electrophoretic mobility and cell surface hydrophobicity of bacterial cells influence their initial interaction with surfaces and mediate their stability within an aqueous su...

  17. Cell-Surface Phenol Soluble Modulins Regulate Staphylococcus aureus Colony Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Kizaki, Hayato; Omae, Yosuke; Tabuchi, Fumiaki; Saito, Yuki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs), which are amphipathic small peptides with lytic activity against mammalian cells. We previously reported that PSMα1–4 stimulate S. aureus colony spreading, the phenomenon of S. aureus colony expansion on the surface of soft agar plates, whereas δ-toxin (Hld, PSMγ) inhibits colony-spreading activity. In this study, we revealed the underlying mechanism of the opposing effects of PSMα1–4 and δ-toxin in S. aureus colony spreading. PSMα1–4 and δ-toxin are abundant on the S. aureus cell surface, and account for 18% and 8.5% of the total amount of PSMα1–4 and δ-toxin, respectively, in S. aureus overnight cultures. Knockout of PSMα1–4 did not affect the amount of cell surface δ-toxin. In contrast, knockout of δ-toxin increased the amount of cell surface PSMα1–4, and decreased the amount of culture supernatant PSMα1–4. The δ-toxin inhibited PSMα3 and PSMα2 binding to the S. aureus cell surface in vitro. A double knockout strain of PSMα1–4 and δ-toxin exhibited decreased colony spreading compared with the parent strain. Expression of cell surface PSMα1–4, but not culture supernatant PSMα1–4, restored the colony-spreading activity of the PSMα1-4/δ-toxin double knockout strain. Expression of δ-toxin on the cell surface or in the culture supernatant did not restore the colony-spreading activity of the PSMα1-4/δ-toxin double knockout strain. These findings suggest that cell surface PSMα1–4 promote S. aureus colony spreading, whereas δ-toxin suppresses colony-spreading activity by inhibiting PSMα1–4 binding to the S. aureus cell surface. PMID:27723838

  18. Structure, functions, and biosynthesis of glycoconjugates of Leishmania spp. cell surface.

    PubMed

    Novozhilova, N M; Bovin, N V

    2010-06-01

    Cell surface of leishmaniasis causal agent, a parasitic member of Protozoa of Leishmania genus, is covered by thick glycocalix consisting of various phosphatidylinositol-anchored molecules. This review deals with the structure and biosynthesis of the main phosphoglycans and glycoproteins of Leishmania cell surface, many of which incorporate the rare natural D-arabinopyranose, and the problem concerning the involvement of these molecules in support of Leishmania survival during their intricate life cycle is discussed.

  19. Angiopoietin-3 is tethered on the cell surface via heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Liu, Yao-Juan; Yu, Qin

    2004-09-24

    Angiopoietins are a family of factors that play important roles in angiogenesis, and their receptor, Tie-2 receptor tyrosine kinase, is expressed primarily by endothelial cells. Three angiopoietins have been identified so far, angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), angiopietin-2 (Ang-2), and angiopoietin-3 (Ang-3). It has been established that Ang-1 and Tie-2 play essential roles in embryonic angiogenesis. We have demonstrated recently that, unlike Ang-2, Ang-1 binds to the extracellular matrix, which regulates the availability and activity of Ang-1 (Xu, Y., and Yu, Q. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 34990-34998). However, the role and biochemical characteristics of Ang-3 are unknown. In our current study, we demonstrated that, unlike Ang-1 and Ang-2, Ang-3 is tethered on cell surface via heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), especially perlecan. The cell surface-bound Ang-3 is capable of binding to its receptor, Tie-2; suggesting HSPGs concentrate Ang-3 on the cell surface and present Ang-3 to its receptor to elicit specific local reaction. Mutagenesis experiment revealed that the coiled-coil domain of Ang-3 is responsible for its binding to the cell surface. In addition, we demonstrated that the cell surface-bound Ang-3 but not soluble Ang-3 induces retraction and loss of integrity of endothelial monolayer, indicating the binding of Ang-3 to the cell surface via HSPGs is required for this bioactivity of Ang-3. PMID:15280392

  20. Quantitative comparison of a human cancer cell surface proteome between interphase and mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Özlü, Nurhan; Qureshi, Mohammad H; Toyoda, Yusuke; Renard, Bernhard Y; Mollaoglu, Gürkan; Özkan, Nazlı E; Bulbul, Selda; Poser, Ina; Timm, Wiebke; Hyman, Anthony A; Mitchison, Timothy J; Steen, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    The cell surface is the cellular compartment responsible for communication with the environment. The interior of mammalian cells undergoes dramatic reorganization when cells enter mitosis. These changes are triggered by activation of the CDK1 kinase and have been studied extensively. In contrast, very little is known of the cell surface changes during cell division. We undertook a quantitative proteomic comparison of cell surface-exposed proteins in human cancer cells that were tightly synchronized in mitosis or interphase. Six hundred and twenty-eight surface and surface-associated proteins in HeLa cells were identified; of these, 27 were significantly enriched at the cell surface in mitosis and 37 in interphase. Using imaging techniques, we confirmed the mitosis-selective cell surface localization of protocadherin PCDH7, a member of a family with anti-adhesive roles in embryos. We show that PCDH7 is required for development of full mitotic rounding pressure at the onset of mitosis. Our analysis provided basic information on how cell cycle progression affects the cell surface. It also provides potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers for anti-mitotic cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25476450

  1. Quantitative comparison of a human cancer cell surface proteome between interphase and mitosis.

    PubMed

    Özlü, Nurhan; Qureshi, Mohammad H; Toyoda, Yusuke; Renard, Bernhard Y; Mollaoglu, Gürkan; Özkan, Nazlı E; Bulbul, Selda; Poser, Ina; Timm, Wiebke; Hyman, Anthony A; Mitchison, Timothy J; Steen, Judith A

    2015-01-13

    The cell surface is the cellular compartment responsible for communication with the environment. The interior of mammalian cells undergoes dramatic reorganization when cells enter mitosis. These changes are triggered by activation of the CDK1 kinase and have been studied extensively. In contrast, very little is known of the cell surface changes during cell division. We undertook a quantitative proteomic comparison of cell surface-exposed proteins in human cancer cells that were tightly synchronized in mitosis or interphase. Six hundred and twenty-eight surface and surface-associated proteins in HeLa cells were identified; of these, 27 were significantly enriched at the cell surface in mitosis and 37 in interphase. Using imaging techniques, we confirmed the mitosis-selective cell surface localization of protocadherin PCDH7, a member of a family with anti-adhesive roles in embryos. We show that PCDH7 is required for development of full mitotic rounding pressure at the onset of mitosis. Our analysis provided basic information on how cell cycle progression affects the cell surface. It also provides potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers for anti-mitotic cancer chemotherapy.

  2. The lumazine synthase/riboflavin synthase complex: shapes and functions of a highly variable enzyme system.

    PubMed

    Ladenstein, Rudolf; Fischer, Markus; Bacher, Adelbert

    2013-06-01

    The xylene ring of riboflavin (vitamin B2 ) is assembled from two molecules of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate by a mechanistically complex process that is jointly catalyzed by lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase. In Bacillaceae, these enzymes form a structurally unique complex comprising an icosahedral shell of 60 lumazine synthase subunits and a core of three riboflavin synthase subunits, whereas many other bacteria have empty lumazine synthase capsids, fungi, Archaea and some eubacteria have pentameric lumazine synthases, and the riboflavin synthases of Archaea are paralogs of lumazine synthase. The structures of the molecular ensembles have been studied in considerable detail by X-ray crystallography, X-ray small-angle scattering and electron microscopy. However, certain mechanistic aspects remain unknown. Surprisingly, the quaternary structure of the icosahedral β subunit capsids undergoes drastic changes, resulting in formation of large, quasi-spherical capsids; this process is modulated by sequence mutations. The occurrence of large shells consisting of 180 or more lumazine synthase subunits has recently generated interest for protein engineering topics, particularly the construction of encapsulation systems.

  3. Unique animal prenyltransferase with monoterpene synthase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilg, Anna B.; Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J.

    2009-06-01

    Monoterpenes are structurally diverse natural compounds that play an essential role in the chemical ecology of a wide array of organisms. A key enzyme in monoterpene biosynthesis is geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS). GPPS is an isoprenyl diphosphate synthase that catalyzes a single electrophilic condensation reaction between dimethylallyl diphosphate (C5) and isopentenyl diphosphate (C5) to produce geranyl diphosphate (GDP; C10). GDP is the universal precursor to all monoterpenes. Subsequently, monoterpene synthases are responsible for the transformation of GDP to a variety of acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic monoterpene products. In pheromone-producing male Ips pini bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), the acyclic monoterpene myrcene is required for the production of the major aggregation pheromone component, ipsdienol. Here, we report monoterpene synthase activity associated with GPPS of I. pini. Enzyme assays were performed on recombinant GPPS to determine the presence of monoterpene synthase activity, and the reaction products were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The functionally expressed recombinant enzyme produced both GDP and myrcene, making GPPS of I. pini a bifunctional enzyme. This unique insect isoprenyl diphosphate synthase possesses the functional plasticity that is characteristic of terpene biosynthetic enzymes of plants, contributing toward the current understanding of product specificity of the isoprenoid pathway.

  4. Nitric oxide synthases in pregnant rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Farina, M; Ribeiro, M L; Franchi, A

    2001-03-01

    The conversion of [14C]arginine into [14C]citrulline as an indicator of nitric oxide synthesis was studied in uteri isolated from rats on different days of gestation, after labour and during dioestrus. Nitric oxide synthesis was present in uterine tissues isolated at each stage of gestation and also in tissues collected during dioestrus and after labour. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase was not detectable at any of the stages studied. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase was present at all the stages studied, but there was a significant increase on day 13 of gestation and a decrease thereafter, with the lowest expression recorded on the day after labour. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in rat uteri increased substantially during pregnancy, with the highest expression on day 13 of gestation; expression decreased at term and after labour. The changes in expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase were coincident with the changes in nitric oxide synthase activity in uteri treated with aminoguanidine. Thus, these findings indicate that an increase in expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the uterus may be important for maintenance of uterine quiescence during pregnancy and its decrease near the time of labour could have an effect on the start of uterine contractility. PMID:11226066

  5. Malate synthase a membrane protein

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K.D.; Turley, R.B.; Hermerath, C.A.; Carrapico, F.; Trelease, R.N.

    1987-04-01

    Malate synthase (MS) is generally regarded as a peripheral membrane protein, and believed by some to be ontogenetically associated with ER. However, immuno- and cyto-chemical in situ localizations show MS throughout the matrix of cotton (and cucumber) glyoxysomes, not specifically near their boundary membranes, nor in ER. Only a maximum of 50% MS can be solubilized from cotton glyoxysomes with 1% Triton X-100, 2mM Zwittergen 14, or 10mM DOC +/- salts. Cotton MS does not incorporate /sup 3/H-glucosamine in vivo, nor does it react with Con A on columns or blots. Cotton MS banded with ER in sucrose gradients (20-40%) in Tricine after 3h, but not after 22h in Tricine or Hepes, or after 3h in Hepes or K-phosphate. Collectively the authors data are inconsistent with physiologically meaningful MS-membrane associations in ER or glyoxysomes. It appears that experimentally-induced aggregates of MS migrate in ER gradients and occur in isolated glyoxysomes. These data indicate that ER is not involved in synthesis or modification of cottonseed MS prior to its import into the glyoxysomal matrix.

  6. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase from Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed

    Pearce, F Grant; Perugini, Matthew A; McKerchar, Hannah J; Gerrard, Juliet A

    2006-12-01

    DHDPS (dihydrodipicolinate synthase) catalyses the branch point in lysine biosynthesis in bacteria and plants and is feedback inhibited by lysine. DHDPS from the thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima shows a high level of heat and chemical stability. When incubated at 90 degrees C or in 8 M urea, the enzyme showed little or no loss of activity, unlike the Escherichia coli enzyme. The active site is very similar to that of the E. coli enzyme, and at mesophilic temperatures the two enzymes have similar kinetic constants. Like other forms of the enzyme, T. maritima DHDPS is a tetramer in solution, with a sedimentation coefficient of 7.2 S and molar mass of 133 kDa. However, the residues involved in the interface between different subunits in the tetramer differ from those of E. coli and include two cysteine residues poised to form a disulfide bond. Thus the increased heat and chemical stability of the T. maritima DHDPS enzyme is, at least in part, explained by an increased number of inter-subunit contacts. Unlike the plant or E. coli enzyme, the thermophilic DHDPS enzyme is not inhibited by (S)-lysine, suggesting that feedback control of the lysine biosynthetic pathway evolved later in the bacterial lineage. PMID:16872276

  7. Identification of avian wax synthases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bird species show a high degree of variation in the composition of their preen gland waxes. For instance, galliform birds like chicken contain fatty acid esters of 2,3-alkanediols, while Anseriformes like goose or Strigiformes like barn owl contain wax monoesters in their preen gland secretions. The final biosynthetic step is catalyzed by wax synthases (WS) which have been identified in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Results Sequence similarities enabled us to identify six cDNAs encoding putative wax synthesizing proteins in chicken and two from barn owl and goose. Expression studies in yeast under in vivo and in vitro conditions showed that three proteins from chicken performed WS activity while a sequence from chicken, goose and barn owl encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis. Mono- and bifunctional WS were found to differ in their substrate specificities especially with regard to branched-chain alcohols and acyl-CoA thioesters. According to the expression patterns of their transcripts and the properties of the enzymes, avian WS proteins might not be confined to preen glands. Conclusions We provide direct evidence that avian preen glands possess both monofunctional and bifunctional WS proteins which have different expression patterns and WS activities with different substrate specificities. PMID:22305293

  8. Energy transduction in ATP synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elston, Timothy; Wang, Hongyun; Oster, George

    1998-01-01

    Mitochondria, bacteria and chloroplasts use the free energy stored in transmembrane ion gradients to manufacture ATP by the action of ATP synthase. This enzyme consists of two principal domains. The asymmetric membrane-spanning Fo portion contains the proton channel, and the soluble F1 portion contains three catalytic sites which cooperate in the synthetic reactions. The flow of protons through Fo is thought to generate a torque which is transmitted to F1 by an asymmetric shaft, the coiled-coil γ-subunit. This acts as a rotating `cam' within F1, sequentially releasing ATPs from the three active sites. The free-energy difference across the inner membrane of mitochondria and bacteria is sufficient to produce three ATPs per twelve protons passing through the motor. It has been suggested that this protonmotive force biases the rotor's diffusion so that Fo constitutes a rotary motor turning the γ shaft. Here we show that biased diffusion, augmented by electrostatic forces, does indeed generate sufficient torque to account for ATP production. Moreover, the motor's reversibility - supplying torque from ATP hydrolysis in F1 converts the motor into an efficient proton pump - can also be explained by our model.

  9. Critical aspartic acid residues in pseudouridine synthases.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, V; Swann, S L; Paulson, J L; Spedaliere, C J; Mueller, E G

    1999-08-01

    The pseudouridine synthases catalyze the isomerization of uridine to pseudouridine at particular positions in certain RNA molecules. Genomic data base searches and sequence alignments using the first four identified pseudouridine synthases led Koonin (Koonin, E. V. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 2411-2415) and, independently, Santi and co-workers (Gustafsson, C., Reid, R., Greene, P. J., and Santi, D. V. (1996) Nucleic Acids Res. 24, 3756-3762) to group this class of enzyme into four families, which display no statistically significant global sequence similarity to each other. Upon further scrutiny (Huang, H. L., Pookanjanatavip, M., Gu, X. G., and Santi, D. V. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 344-351), the Santi group discovered that a single aspartic acid residue is the only amino acid present in all of the aligned sequences; they then demonstrated that this aspartic acid residue is catalytically essential in one pseudouridine synthase. To test the functional significance of the sequence alignments in light of the global dissimilarity between the pseudouridine synthase families, we changed the aspartic acid residue in representatives of two additional families to both alanine and cysteine: the mutant enzymes are catalytically inactive but retain the ability to bind tRNA substrate. We have also verified that the mutant enzymes do not release uracil from the substrate at a rate significant relative to turnover by the wild-type pseudouridine synthases. Our results clearly show that the aligned aspartic acid residue is critical for the catalytic activity of pseudouridine synthases from two additional families of these enzymes, supporting the predictive power of the sequence alignments and suggesting that the sequence motif containing the aligned aspartic acid residue might be a prerequisite for pseudouridine synthase function.

  10. Terpene synthases are widely distributed in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yuuki; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Komatsu, Mamoru; Shin-ya, Kazuo; Omura, Satoshi; Cane, David E.; Ikeda, Haruo

    2015-01-01

    Odoriferous terpene metabolites of bacterial origin have been known for many years. In genome-sequenced Streptomycetaceae microorganisms, the vast majority produces the degraded sesquiterpene alcohol geosmin. Two minor groups of bacteria do not produce geosmin, with one of these groups instead producing other sesquiterpene alcohols, whereas members of the remaining group do not produce any detectable terpenoid metabolites. Because bacterial terpene synthases typically show no significant overall sequence similarity to any other known fungal or plant terpene synthases and usually exhibit relatively low levels of mutual sequence similarity with other bacterial synthases, simple correlation of protein sequence data with the structure of the cyclized terpene product has been precluded. We have previously described a powerful search method based on the use of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and protein families database (Pfam) search that has allowed the discovery of monoterpene synthases of bacterial origin. Using an enhanced set of HMM parameters generated using a training set of 140 previously identified bacterial terpene synthase sequences, a Pfam search of 8,759,463 predicted bacterial proteins from public databases and in-house draft genome data has now revealed 262 presumptive terpene synthases. The biochemical function of a considerable number of these presumptive terpene synthase genes could be determined by expression in a specially engineered heterologous Streptomyces host and spectroscopic identification of the resulting terpene products. In addition to a wide variety of terpenes that had been previously reported from fungal or plant sources, we have isolated and determined the complete structures of 13 previously unidentified cyclic sesquiterpenes and diterpenes. PMID:25535391

  11. Anomalous cell surface structure of sickle cell anemia erythrocytes as demonstrated by cell surface labeling and endo-beta-galactosidase treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, M.; Fukuda, M.N.; Hakomori, S.; Papayannopoulou, T.

    1981-01-01

    Erythrocyte surface glycoproteins from patients with various types of sickle cell anemia have been analyzed and compared with those from normal individuals. By hemagglutination with various anti-carbohydrate antibodies, sickle cells showed profound increase of i antigens and moderate increase of GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 3Gal beta 1 leads to 3 Glc structure, whereas antigenicity toward globosidic structure was unchanged. In parallel to these findings, erythrocytes of sickle cell patients have additional sialylated lactosaminoglycan in Band 3. Thus, it can be concluded that erythrocytes of sickle cell patients are characterized by an altered cell surface structure which does not appear to be due to topographical changes of cell surface membrane. It is possible that the anemia or the ''stress'' hematopoiesis in these patients is responsible for these changes.

  12. Properties of phosphorylated thymidylate synthase.

    PubMed

    Frączyk, Tomasz; Ruman, Tomasz; Wilk, Piotr; Palmowski, Paweł; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Cieśla, Joanna; Zieliński, Zbigniew; Nizioł, Joanna; Jarmuła, Adam; Maj, Piotr; Gołos, Barbara; Wińska, Patrycja; Ostafil, Sylwia; Wałajtys-Rode, Elżbieta; Shugar, David; Rode, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) may undergo phosphorylation endogenously in mammalian cells, and as a recombinant protein expressed in bacterial cells, as indicated by the reaction of purified enzyme protein with Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain (PGS). With recombinant human, mouse, rat, Trichinella spiralis and Caenorhabditis elegans TSs, expressed in Escherichia coli, the phosphorylated, compared to non-phosphorylated recombinant enzyme forms, showed a decrease in Vmax(app), bound their cognate mRNA (only rat enzyme studied), and repressed translation of their own and several heterologous mRNAs (human, rat and mouse enzymes studied). However, attempts to determine the modification site(s), whether endogenously expressed in mammalian cells, or recombinant proteins, did not lead to unequivocal results. Comparative ESI-MS/analysis of IEF fractions of TS preparations from parental and FdUrd-resistant mouse leukemia L1210 cells, differing in sensitivity to inactivation by FdUMP, demonstrated phosphorylation of Ser(10) and Ser(16) in the resistant enzyme only, although PGS staining pointed to the modification of both L1210 TS proteins. The TS proteins phosphorylated in bacterial cells were shown by (31)P NMR to be modified only on histidine residues, like potassium phosphoramidate (KPA)-phosphorylated TS proteins. NanoLC-MS/MS, enabling the use of CID and ETD peptide fragmentation methods, identified several phosphohistidine residues, but certain phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues were also implicated. Molecular dynamics studies, based on the mouse TS crystal structure, allowed one to assess potential of several phosphorylated histidine residues to affect catalytic activity, the effect being phosphorylation site dependent.

  13. Investigation of the Cell Surface Proteome of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jimin; Menicanin, Danijela; Marino, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the cell surface proteome of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) compared to human fibroblasts. Cell surface proteins were prelabelled with CyDye before processing to extract the membrane lysates, which were separated using 2D electrophoresis. Selected differentially expressed protein “spots” were identified using Mass spectrometry. Four proteins were selected for validation: CD73, CD90, Annexin A2, and sphingosine kinase 1 previously associated with mesenchymal stem cells. Flow cytometric analysis found that CD73 and CD90 were highly expressed by human PDLSC and gingival fibroblasts but not by keratinocytes, indicating that these antigens could be used as potential markers for distinguishing between mesenchymal cells and epithelial cell populations. Annexin A2 was also found to be expressed at low copy number on the cell surface of human PDLSC and gingival fibroblasts, while human keratinocytes lacked any cell surface expression of Annexin A2. In contrast, sphingosine kinase 1 expression was detected in all the cell types examined using immunocytochemical analysis. These proteomic studies form the foundation to further define the cell surface protein expression profile of PDLSC in order to better characterise this cell population and help develop novel strategies for the purification of this stem cell population. PMID:27579043

  14. Remote control of tissue interactions via engineered photo-switchable cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Pulsipher, Abigail; Dutta, Debjit; Lamb, Brian M; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2014-01-01

    We report a general cell surface molecular engineering strategy via liposome fusion delivery to create a dual photo-active and bio-orthogonal cell surface for remote controlled spatial and temporal manipulation of microtissue assembly and disassembly. Cell surface tailoring of chemoselective functional groups was achieved by a liposome fusion delivery method and quantified by flow cytometry and characterized by a new cell surface lipid pull down mass spectrometry strategy. Dynamic co-culture spheroid tissue assembly in solution and co-culture tissue multilayer assembly on materials was demonstrated by an intercellular photo-oxime ligation that could be remotely cleaved and disassembled on demand. Spatial and temporal control of microtissue structures containing multiple cell types was demonstrated by the generation of patterned multilayers for controlling stem cell differentiation. Remote control of cell interactions via cell surface engineering that allows for real-time manipulation of tissue dynamics may provide tools with the scope to answer fundamental questions of cell communication and initiate new biotechnologies ranging from imaging probes to drug delivery vehicles to regenerative medicine, inexpensive bioreactor technology and tissue engineering therapies. PMID:25204325

  15. Cell surface of sea urchin micromeres and primary mesenchyme. [Arbacia punctulata; Strongylocentrotus drobachiensis; Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

    SciTech Connect

    DeSimone, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM) of the sea urchin embryo were studied during the early morphogenetic events involved in the differentiation of the micromere cell lineage. Sixteen-cell and early cleavage stage blastomeres were isolated and the protein composition of their cell surfaces examined by /sup 125/I-labelling followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Micromere-specific cell surface proteins are reported for Arbacia punctulata, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Cell surface glycoproteins were characterized on the basis of lectin binding specificity with a novel lectin affinity transfer technique. Using this procedure, cell-type specific surface proteins, which are also lectin-binding specific, can be detected. In addition, fluorescein conjugated lectins were microinjected into the blastocoels of living S. drobachiensis and Lytechinus pictus embryos and the patterns of lectin bindings observed by fluorescence microscopy. The evidence presented in this thesis suggests that the differentiation of the primary mesenchyme cells is correlated with changes in the molecular composition of the cell-surface and the ECM.

  16. Expression of heat shock protein 90 at the cell surface in human neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Cid, Cristina; Regidor, Ignacio; Poveda, Pedro D.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to the activity of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90/HSPC) as a chaperone, some recent studies have reported expression of Hsp90 at the cell surface in certain types of cancer and nervous system cells. We study the expression of Hsp90 at the cell surface in human neuroblastoma (NB69) cells. Immunofluorescence experiments labeling with anti-Hsp90 antibodies on both nonpermeabilized cells and live cells detected Hsp90 at the cell surface. Hsp90 was also identified in a membrane fraction from subcellular fractionation. Cell-surface Hsp90 was significantly more expressed in undifferentiated proliferative spherical neuroblastoma cells than in differentiated flattened cells. In addition, spherical cells were significantly more sensitive to Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin compared to flattened cells. This paper describes the first evidence of cell-surface Hsp90 expression in a cancer cell line from nervous tissue and may indicate a novel target for anti-tumoral agents. PMID:18800240

  17. Investigation of the Cell Surface Proteome of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jimin; Menicanin, Danijela; Zilm, Peter S; Marino, Victor; Bartold, P Mark; Gronthos, Stan

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the cell surface proteome of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) compared to human fibroblasts. Cell surface proteins were prelabelled with CyDye before processing to extract the membrane lysates, which were separated using 2D electrophoresis. Selected differentially expressed protein "spots" were identified using Mass spectrometry. Four proteins were selected for validation: CD73, CD90, Annexin A2, and sphingosine kinase 1 previously associated with mesenchymal stem cells. Flow cytometric analysis found that CD73 and CD90 were highly expressed by human PDLSC and gingival fibroblasts but not by keratinocytes, indicating that these antigens could be used as potential markers for distinguishing between mesenchymal cells and epithelial cell populations. Annexin A2 was also found to be expressed at low copy number on the cell surface of human PDLSC and gingival fibroblasts, while human keratinocytes lacked any cell surface expression of Annexin A2. In contrast, sphingosine kinase 1 expression was detected in all the cell types examined using immunocytochemical analysis. These proteomic studies form the foundation to further define the cell surface protein expression profile of PDLSC in order to better characterise this cell population and help develop novel strategies for the purification of this stem cell population. PMID:27579043

  18. Remote Control of Tissue Interactions via Engineered Photo-switchable Cell Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Pulsipher, Abigail; Dutta, Debjit; Lamb, Brian M.; Yousaf, Muhammad N.

    2014-09-01

    We report a general cell surface molecular engineering strategy via liposome fusion delivery to create a dual photo-active and bio-orthogonal cell surface for remote controlled spatial and temporal manipulation of microtissue assembly and disassembly. Cell surface tailoring of chemoselective functional groups was achieved by a liposome fusion delivery method and quantified by flow cytometry and characterized by a new cell surface lipid pull down mass spectrometry strategy. Dynamic co-culture spheroid tissue assembly in solution and co-culture tissue multilayer assembly on materials was demonstrated by an intercellular photo-oxime ligation that could be remotely cleaved and disassembled on demand. Spatial and temporal control of microtissue structures containing multiple cell types was demonstrated by the generation of patterned multilayers for controlling stem cell differentiation. Remote control of cell interactions via cell surface engineering that allows for real-time manipulation of tissue dynamics may provide tools with the scope to answer fundamental questions of cell communication and initiate new biotechnologies ranging from imaging probes to drug delivery vehicles to regenerative medicine, inexpensive bioreactor technology and tissue engineering therapies.

  19. Characterization of fucosyltransferase activity during mouse spermatogenesis: Evidence for a cell surface fucosyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Cardullo, R.A.; Armant, D.R.; Millette, C.F. )

    1989-02-21

    Fucosyltransferase activity was quantified in mouse germ cells at different stages of spermatogenesis. Specifically, fucosyltransferase activities of pachytene spermatocytes, round spermatids, and cauda epididymal sperm were compared. Fucosyltranferase activity of mixed germ cells displayed an apparent V{sub max} of 17 pmol (mg of protein){sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1} and an apparent K{sub m} of approximately 13 {mu}M for GDP-L-({sup 14}C)fucose in the presence of saturating amounts of asialofetuin at 33{degree}C. Under these conditions, cellular fucosyltransferase activity was found to increase during spermatogenesis. In agreement with assays of intact cells, examination of subcellular fractions indicated that a large fraction of fucosyltransferase activity was associated with the cell surface. The fraction of fucosyltransferase activity that was associated with the cell surface progressively increased throughout spermatogenesis and epididymal maturation so that nearly all of the fucosyltransferase in epididymal sperm was on the cell surface. Specifically, by comparison of activities in the presence and absence of the detergent NP-40, the fraction of fucosyltransferase activity that was associated with the cell surface in pachytene spermatocytes, round spermatids, and epididymal sperm was 0.36, 0.5, and 0.85, respectively. These results suggest that a cell surface fucosyltransferase may be important during differentiation of spermatogenic cells in the testis as well as during epididymal maturation and fertilization.

  20. Remote Control of Tissue Interactions via Engineered Photo-switchable Cell Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Pulsipher, Abigail; Dutta, Debjit; Lamb, Brian M.; Yousaf, Muhammad N.

    2014-01-01

    We report a general cell surface molecular engineering strategy via liposome fusion delivery to create a dual photo-active and bio-orthogonal cell surface for remote controlled spatial and temporal manipulation of microtissue assembly and disassembly. Cell surface tailoring of chemoselective functional groups was achieved by a liposome fusion delivery method and quantified by flow cytometry and characterized by a new cell surface lipid pull down mass spectrometry strategy. Dynamic co-culture spheroid tissue assembly in solution and co-culture tissue multilayer assembly on materials was demonstrated by an intercellular photo-oxime ligation that could be remotely cleaved and disassembled on demand. Spatial and temporal control of microtissue structures containing multiple cell types was demonstrated by the generation of patterned multilayers for controlling stem cell differentiation. Remote control of cell interactions via cell surface engineering that allows for real-time manipulation of tissue dynamics may provide tools with the scope to answer fundamental questions of cell communication and initiate new biotechnologies ranging from imaging probes to drug delivery vehicles to regenerative medicine, inexpensive bioreactor technology and tissue engineering therapies. PMID:25204325

  1. Cell surface activation of the erythropoietin receptor by Friend spleen focus-forming virus gp55.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J P; Hu, H O; Niu, Q T; Fang, C

    1995-01-01

    The leukemogenic membrane glycoprotein gp55, encoded by Friend spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV), induces erythroid cell proliferation through its interaction with the erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R). There are two forms of gp55 in SFFV-infected cells: an intracellular form (more than 95% of the total protein), which is localized within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, and a cell surface form (about 3 to 5%). Because both forms of the viral proteins bind to EPO-R, it is not clear whether the viral protein induces mitogenesis intracellularly or at the cell surface. To address this question, we constructed an EPO-R mutant that contained a 6-amino-acid (DEKKMP) C-terminus ER retention signal. Biochemical and functional analyses with this mutant indicated that it was completely retained in the ER and not expressed at the cell surface. Further analysis showed that the mutant, like the wild-type EPO-R, interacted with SFFV gp55. However, this apparent intracellular interaction between the two proteins failed to induce growth factor-independent proliferation of Ba/F3 cells. Furthermore, spontaneous variants of the ER-retained EPO-R selected on the basis of their ability to induce cell proliferation when coexpressed with gp55 were exclusively expressed at the cell surface. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that the mitogenic activation of the EPO-R by gp55 requires the interaction of the two proteins at the cell surface. PMID:7853508

  2. Nuclear genetic defects of mitochondrial ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Hejzlarová, K; Mráček, T; Vrbacký, M; Kaplanová, V; Karbanová, V; Nůsková, H; Pecina, P; Houštěk, J

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of ATP synthase, the key enzyme of mitochondrial energy provision belong to the most severe metabolic diseases presenting as early-onset mitochondrial encephalo-cardiomyopathies. Up to now, mutations in four nuclear genes were associated with isolated deficiency of ATP synthase. Two of them, ATP5A1 and ATP5E encode enzyme's structural subunits alpha and epsilon, respectively, while the other two ATPAF2 and TMEM70 encode specific ancillary factors that facilitate the biogenesis of ATP synthase. All these defects share a similar biochemical phenotype with pronounced decrease in the content of fully assembled and functional ATP synthase complex. However, substantial differences can be found in their frequency, molecular mechanism of pathogenesis, clinical manifestation as well as the course of the disease progression. While for TMEM70 the number of reported patients as well as spectrum of the mutations is steadily increasing, mutations in ATP5A1, ATP5E and ATPAF2 genes are very rare. Apparently, TMEM70 gene is highly prone to mutagenesis and this type of a rare mitochondrial disease has a rather frequent incidence. Here we present overview of individual reported cases of nuclear mutations in ATP synthase and discuss, how their analysis can improve our understanding of the enzyme biogenesis.

  3. An investigation into eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases.

    PubMed

    King, Ross D; Lu, Chuan

    2014-08-01

    A common post-transcriptional modification of RNA is the conversion of uridine to its isomer pseudouridine. We investigated the biological significance of eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We conducted a comprehensive statistical analysis on growth data from automated perturbation (gene deletion) experiments, and used bi-logistic curve analysis to characterise the yeast phenotypes. The deletant strains displayed different alteration in growth properties, including in some cases enhanced growth and/or biphasic growth curves not seen in wild-type strains under matched conditions. These results demonstrate that disrupting pseudouridine synthases can have a significant qualitative effect on growth. We further investigated the significance of post-transcriptional pseudouridine modification through investigation of the scientific literature. We found that (1) In Toxoplasma gondii, a pseudouridine synthase gene is critical in cellular differentiation between the two asexual forms: Tachyzoites and bradyzoites; (2) Mutation of pseudouridine synthase genes has also been implicated in human diseases (mitochondrial myopathy and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA); dyskeratosis congenita). Taken together, these results are consistent with pseudouridine synthases having a Gene Ontology function of "biological regulation".

  4. Large Scale Identification of Genes Involved in Cell Surface Biosynthesis and Architecture in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, M.; White, A. M.; Sheraton, J.; di-Paolo, T.; Treadwell, J.; Southard, S. B.; Horenstein, C. I.; Chen-Weiner, J.; Ram, AFJ.; Kapteyn, J. C.; Roemer, T. W.; Vo, D. H.; Bondoc, D. C.; Hall, J.; Wei Zhong, W.; Sdicu, A. M.; Davies, J.; Klis, F. M.; Robbins, P. W.; Bussey, H.

    1997-01-01

    The sequenced yeast genome offers a unique resource for the analysis of eukaryotic cell function and enables genome-wide screens for genes involved in cellular processes. We have identified genes involved in cell surface assembly by screening transposon-mutagenized cells for altered sensitivity to calcofluor white, followed by supplementary screens to further characterize mutant phenotypes. The mutated genes were directly retrieved from genomic DNA and then matched uniquely to a gene in the yeast genome database. Eighty-two genes with apparent perturbation of the cell surface were identified, with mutations in 65 of them displaying at least one further cell surface phenotype in addition to their modified sensitivity to calcofluor. Fifty of these genes were previously known, 17 encoded proteins whose function could be anticipated through sequence homology or previously recognized phenotypes and 15 genes had no previously known phenotype. PMID:9335584

  5. Atomic force microscopy – looking at mechanosensors on the cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Heinisch, Jürgen J.; Lipke, Peter N.; Beaussart, Audrey; El Kirat Chatel, Sofiane; Dupres, Vincent; Alsteens, David; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Living cells use cell surface proteins, such as mechanosensors, to constantly sense and respond to their environment. However, the way in which these proteins respond to mechanical stimuli and assemble into large complexes remains poorly understood at the molecular level. In the past years, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has revolutionized the way in which biologists analyze cell surface proteins to molecular resolution. In this Commentary, we discuss how the powerful set of advanced AFM techniques (e.g. live-cell imaging and single-molecule manipulation) can be integrated with the modern tools of molecular genetics (i.e. protein design) to study the localization and molecular elasticity of individual mechanosensors on the surface of living cells. Although we emphasize recent studies on cell surface proteins from yeasts, the techniques described are applicable to surface proteins from virtually all organisms, from bacteria to human cells. PMID:23077172

  6. Interaction of Biofunctionalized Nanoparticles with Receptors on Cell Surfaces: MC Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormidontova, Elena; Wang, Shihu

    2015-03-01

    One of the areas of active development of modern nanomedicine is drug/gene delivery and imaging application of nanoparticles functionalized by ligands, aptamers or antibodies capable of specific interactions with cell surface receptors. Being a complex multifunctional system different structural aspects of nanoparticles affect their interactions with cell surfaces and the surface properties of cells can be different (e.g. density, distribution and mobility of receptors). Computer simulations allow a systematic investigation of the influence of multiple factors and provide a unified platform for the comparison. Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate the influence of the nanoparticle properties (nanoparticle size, polymer tether length, polydispersity, density, ligand energy, valence and density) on nanoparticle-cell surface interactions and make predictions regarding favorable nanoparticle design for achieving multiple ligand-receptor binding. We will also discuss the implications of nanoparticle design on the selectivity of attachment to cells with high receptor density while ``ignoring'' cells with a low density of receptors.

  7. Recent advances in yeast cell-surface display technologies for waste biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuo; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ren, Nan-Qi; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    Waste biorefinery aims to maximize the output of value-added products from various artificial/agricultural wastes by using integrated bioprocesses. To make waste biorefinery economically feasible, it is thus necessary to develop a low-cost, environment-friendly technique to perform simultaneous biodegradation and bioconversion of waste materials. Cell-surface display engineering is a novel, cost-effective technique that can auto-immobilize proteins on the cell exterior of microorganisms, and has been applied for use with waste biofinery. Through tethering different enzymes (e.g., cellulase, lipase, and protease) or metal-binding peptides on cell surfaces, various yeast strains can effectively produce biofuels and biochemicals from sugar/protein-rich waste materials, catalyze waste oils into biodiesels, or retrieve heavy metals from wastewater. This review critically summarizes recent applications of yeast cell-surface display on various types of waste biorefineries, highlighting its potential and future challenges with regard to commercializing this technology. PMID:27039354

  8. Chemical remodeling of cell-surface sialic acids through a palladium-triggered bioorthogonal elimination reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Cheng, Bo; Li, Jie; Zhang, Zhaoyue; Hong, Weiyao; Chen, Xing; Chen, Peng R

    2015-04-27

    We herein report a chemical decaging strategy for the in situ generation of neuramic acid (Neu), a unique type of sialic acid, on live cells by the use of a palladium-mediated bioorthogonal elimination reaction. Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) were found to be a highly efficient and biocompatible depropargylation catalyst for the direct conversion of metabolically incorporated N-(propargyloxycarbonyl)neuramic acid (Neu5Proc) into Neu on cell-surface glycans. This conversion chemically mimics the enzymatic de-N-acetylation of N-acetylneuramic acid (Neu5Ac), a proposed mechanism for the natural occurrence of Neu on cell-surface glycans. The bioorthogonal elimination was also exploited for the manipulation of cell-surface charge by unmasking the free amine at C5 to neutralize the negatively charged carboxyl group at C1 of sialic acids.

  9. Recent advances in yeast cell-surface display technologies for waste biorefineries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuo; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ren, Nan-Qi; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-01

    Waste biorefinery aims to maximize the output of value-added products from various artificial/agricultural wastes by using integrated bioprocesses. To make waste biorefinery economically feasible, it is thus necessary to develop a low-cost, environment-friendly technique to perform simultaneous biodegradation and bioconversion of waste materials. Cell-surface display engineering is a novel, cost-effective technique that can auto-immobilize proteins on the cell exterior of microorganisms, and has been applied for use with waste biofinery. Through tethering different enzymes (e.g., cellulase, lipase, and protease) or metal-binding peptides on cell surfaces, various yeast strains can effectively produce biofuels and biochemicals from sugar/protein-rich waste materials, catalyze waste oils into biodiesels, or retrieve heavy metals from wastewater. This review critically summarizes recent applications of yeast cell-surface display on various types of waste biorefineries, highlighting its potential and future challenges with regard to commercializing this technology.

  10. Cell surface differences of Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria lovaniensis exposed with surface markers.

    PubMed

    González-Robles, Arturo; Castañón, Guadalupe; Cristóbal-Ramos, Ana Ruth; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica Ivonne; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2007-12-01

    Differences in the distribution of diverse cell surface coat markers were found between Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria lovaniensis. The presence of carbohydrate-containing components in the cell coat of the two species was detected by selective staining with ruthenium red and alcian blue. Using both markers, N. fowleri presented a thicker deposit than N. lovaniensis. The existence of exposed mannose or glucose residues was revealed by discriminatory agglutination with the plant lectin Concanavalin A. These sugar residues were also visualized at the cell surface of these parasites either by transmission electron microscopy or by fluorescein-tagged Concanavalin A. Using this lectin cap formation was induced only in N. fowleri. The anionic sites on the cell surface detected by means of cationized ferritin were more apparent in N. fowleri. Biotinylation assays confirmed that even though the two amoebae species have some analogous plasma membrane proteins, there is a clear difference in their composition.

  11. Pharmacological induction of cell surface GRP78 contributes to apoptosis in triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Raiter, Annat; Yerushalmi, Rinat; Hardy, Britta

    2014-11-30

    Breast cancer tumor with triple-negative receptors (estrogen, progesterone and Her 2, receptors) is the most aggressive and deadly subtype, with high rates of disease recurrence and poor survival. Here, we show that induction in cell surface GRP78 by doxorubicin and tunicamycin was associated with CHOP/GADD153 upregulation and increase in apoptosis in triple negative breast cancer tumor cells. GRP78 is a major regulator of the stress induced unfolded protein response pathway and CHOP/GADD153 is a pro-apoptotic transcription factor associated exclusively with stress induced apoptosis. The blocking of cell surface GRP78 by anti-GRP78 antibody prevented apoptosis, suggesting that induction of cell surface GRP78 by doxorubicin and tunicamycin is required for apoptosis. A better understanding of stress induction of apoptotic signaling in triple negative breast cancer cells may help to define new therapeutic strategies.

  12. Significance of Nano- and Microtopography for Cell-Surface Interactions in Orthopaedic Implants

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, M.; Zilkens, C.; Zanger, K.; Krauspe, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cell-surface interactions play a crucial role for biomaterial application in orthopaedics. It is evident that not only the chemical composition of solid substances influence cellular adherence, migration, proliferation and differentiation but also the surface topography of a biomaterial. The progressive application of nanostructured surfaces in medicine has gained increasing interest to improve the cytocompatibility and osteointegration of orthopaedic implants. Therefore, the understanding of cell-surface interactions is of major interest for these substances. In this review, we elucidate the principle mechanisms of nano- and microscale cell-surface interactions in vitro for different cell types onto typical orthopaedic biomaterials such as titanium (Ti), cobalt-chrome-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys, stainless steel (SS), as well as synthetic polymers (UHMWPE, XLPE, PEEK, PLLA). In addition, effects of nano- and microscaled particles and their significance in orthopaedics were reviewed. The significance for the cytocompatibility of nanobiomaterials is discussed critically. PMID:18274618

  13. Physical Features of Intracellular Proteins that Moonlight on the Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Amblee, Vaishak; Jeffery, Constance J.

    2015-01-01

    Moonlighting proteins comprise a subset of multifunctional proteins that perform two or more biochemical functions that are not due to gene fusions, multiple splice variants, proteolytic fragments, or promiscuous enzyme activities. The project described herein focuses on a sub-set of moonlighting proteins that have a canonical biochemical function inside the cell and perform a second biochemical function on the cell surface in at least one species. The goal of this project is to consider the biophysical features of these moonlighting proteins to determine whether they have shared characteristics or defining features that might suggest why these particular proteins were adopted for a second function on the cell surface, or if these proteins resemble typical intracellular proteins. The latter might suggest that many other normally intracellular proteins found on the cell surface might also be moonlighting in this fashion. We have identified 30 types of proteins that have different functions inside the cell and on the cell surface. Some of these proteins are found to moonlight on the surface of multiple species, sometimes with different extracellular functions in different species, so there are a total of 98 proteins in the study set. Although a variety of intracellular proteins (enzymes, chaperones, etc.) are observed to be re-used on the cell surface, for the most part, these proteins were found to have physical characteristics typical of intracellular proteins. Many other intracellular proteins have also been found on the surface of bacterial pathogens and other organisms in proteomics experiments. It is quite possible that many of those proteins also have a moonlighting function on the cell surface. The increasing number and variety of known moonlighting proteins suggest that there may be more moonlighting proteins than previously thought, and moonlighting might be a common feature of many more proteins. PMID:26110848

  14. Nucleolin on the cell surface as a new molecular target for gastric cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tatsuro; Hirano, Kazuya; Takahashi, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Kensei; Beppu, Masatoshi; Fujiki, Hirota; Suganuma, Masami

    2010-01-01

    Nucleolin is an abundant non-ribosomal protein found in nucleolus and a major component of silver-stained nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR), a histopathological marker of cancer which is highly elevated in cancer cells. We recently reported that nucleolin on the cell surface of mouse gastric cancer cells acts as a receptor for tumor necrosis factor-alpha-inducing protein (Tipalpha), a new carcinogenic factor of Helicobacter pylori. In this study, we first examined the localization of nucleolin on cell surface of five gastric cancer cell lines by cell fractionation and flow cytometry: We found that large amounts of nucleolin were present on surface of MKN-45, KATOIII, MKN-74, and AGS cells, with smaller amounts on surface of MKN-1 cells. The membrane fraction of normal epithelial cells of mouse glandular stomach did not contain much nucleolin, suggesting that translocation of nucleolin to the cell surface occurs during carcinogenesis, making for easier binding with Tipalpha. AS1411, a nucleolin targeted DNA aptamer, inhibited growth of gastric cancer cell lines in this order of potency: MKN-45>KATOIII>AGS>MKN-74=MKN-1, associated with induction of S-phase cell cycle arrest. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-AS1411 was more rapidly incorporated into MKN-45 and AGS than into MKN-1 cells, based on varying amounts of cell surface nucleolin. We think that AS1411 first binds to nucleolin on the cell surface and that the binding complex is then incorporated into the cells. All results indicate that nucleolin on the cell surface is a new and promising therapeutic target for treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:20460757

  15. Distinct Trafficking of Cell Surface and Endosomal TIM-1 to the Immune Synapse.

    PubMed

    Echbarthi, Meriem; Zonca, Manuela; Mellwig, Rachel; Schwab, Yannick; Kaplan, Gerardo; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Roda-Navarro, Pedro; Casasnovas, Jose M

    2015-11-01

    The T cell costimulatory molecule TIM-1 (T cell/transmembrane, mucin and immunoglobulin domain protein 1) sorts mainly to endosomes in lymphoid cells. At difference from the cell surface protein, endosomal TIM-1 translocates to the immune synapse (IS), where it can contribute to antigen-dependent T cell costimulation. TIM-1 ligands increase the amount of cell surface protein, preventing its traffic to the IS. The bipolar sorting of TIM-1 observed during IS formation is determined by differences in its subcellular location, and probably modulates antigen-driven immune responses.

  16. Analysis of the cell surface expression of cytokine receptors using the surface protein biotinylation method.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Mahmud Arif; Lam, Clarissa; Kashyap, Parul; Salehi-Najafabadi, Zahra; Singh, Gurpreet; Yu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are pleiotropic, low-molecular-weight proteins that regulate the immune responses to infection and inflammation. They stimulate the immune responses by binding to cytokine receptors on the cell plasma membrane. Thus, knowledge of the expression level of particular cytokine receptors on cell surface is crucial for understanding the cytokine function and regulation. One of the techniques to explore the membrane embedded cytokine receptors is cell surface biotinylation. Biotinylated surface proteins can be rapidly purified through the strong interaction between biotin and streptavidin. Here, we describe the procedure for surface biotinylation and purification of biotinylated cytokine receptors for further downstream analysis. PMID:24908305

  17. Labeling Cell Surface GPIs and GPI-Anchored Proteins through Metabolic Engineering with Artificial Inositol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lili; Gao, Jian; Guo, Zhongwu

    2015-08-10

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of proteins to the cell surface is important for various biological processes, but GPI-anchored proteins are difficult to study. An effective strategy was developed for the metabolic engineering of cell-surface GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins by using inositol derivatives carrying an azido group. The azide-labeled GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins were then tagged with biotin on live cells through a click reaction, which allows further elaboration with streptavidin-conjugated dyes or other molecules. The strategy can be used to label GPI-anchored proteins with various tags for biological studies.

  18. Distinct Trafficking of Cell Surface and Endosomal TIM-1 to the Immune Synapse.

    PubMed

    Echbarthi, Meriem; Zonca, Manuela; Mellwig, Rachel; Schwab, Yannick; Kaplan, Gerardo; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Roda-Navarro, Pedro; Casasnovas, Jose M

    2015-11-01

    The T cell costimulatory molecule TIM-1 (T cell/transmembrane, mucin and immunoglobulin domain protein 1) sorts mainly to endosomes in lymphoid cells. At difference from the cell surface protein, endosomal TIM-1 translocates to the immune synapse (IS), where it can contribute to antigen-dependent T cell costimulation. TIM-1 ligands increase the amount of cell surface protein, preventing its traffic to the IS. The bipolar sorting of TIM-1 observed during IS formation is determined by differences in its subcellular location, and probably modulates antigen-driven immune responses. PMID:26332704

  19. Chemistry-enabled methods for the visualization of cell-surface glycoproteins in Metazoans.

    PubMed

    Chuh, Kelly N; Pratt, Matthew R

    2015-10-01

    The majority of cell-surface and secreted proteins are glycosylated, which can directly affect their macromolecular interactions, stability, and localization. Investigating these effects is critical to developing a complete understanding of the role of glycoproteins in fundamental biology and human disease. The development of selective and unique chemical reactions have revolutionized the visualization, identification, and characterization of glycoproteins. Here, we review the chemical methods that have been created to enable the visualization of the major types of cell-surface glycoproteins in living systems, from mammalian cells to whole animals.

  20. Analysis of the cell surface expression of cytokine receptors using the surface protein biotinylation method.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Mahmud Arif; Lam, Clarissa; Kashyap, Parul; Salehi-Najafabadi, Zahra; Singh, Gurpreet; Yu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are pleiotropic, low-molecular-weight proteins that regulate the immune responses to infection and inflammation. They stimulate the immune responses by binding to cytokine receptors on the cell plasma membrane. Thus, knowledge of the expression level of particular cytokine receptors on cell surface is crucial for understanding the cytokine function and regulation. One of the techniques to explore the membrane embedded cytokine receptors is cell surface biotinylation. Biotinylated surface proteins can be rapidly purified through the strong interaction between biotin and streptavidin. Here, we describe the procedure for surface biotinylation and purification of biotinylated cytokine receptors for further downstream analysis.

  1. Exploring biosynthetic diversity with trichodiene synthase.

    PubMed

    Vedula, L Sangeetha; Zhao, Yuxin; Coates, Robert M; Koyama, Tanetoshi; Cane, David E; Christianson, David W

    2007-10-15

    Trichodiene synthase is a terpenoid cyclase that catalyzes the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to form the bicyclic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon trichodiene (89%), at least five sesquiterpene side products (11%), and inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)). Incubation of trichodiene synthase with 2-fluorofarnesyl diphosphate or 4-methylfarnesyl diphosphate similarly yields sesquiterpene mixtures despite the electronic effects or steric bulk introduced by substrate derivatization. The versatility of the enzyme is also demonstrated in the 2.85A resolution X-ray crystal structure of the complex with Mg(2+) (3)-PP(i) and the benzyl triethylammonium cation, which is a bulkier mimic of the bisabolyl carbocation intermediate in catalysis. Taken together, these findings show that the active site of trichodiene synthase is sufficiently flexible to accommodate bulkier and electronically-diverse substrates and intermediates, which could indicate additional potential for the biosynthetic utility of this terpenoid cyclase. PMID:17678871

  2. Hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) overexpression downregulates MV3 melanoma cell proliferation, migration and adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Takabe, Piia; Bart, Geneviève; Ropponen, Antti; Rilla, Kirsi; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna

    2015-09-10

    Malignant skin melanoma is one of the most deadly human cancers. Extracellular matrix (ECM) influences the growth of malignant tumors by modulating tumor cells adhesion and migration. Hyaluronan is an essential component of the ECM, and its amount is altered in many tumors, suggesting an important role for hyaluronan in tumorigenesis. Nonetheless its role in melanomagenesis is not understood. In this study we produced a MV3 melanoma cell line with inducible expression of the hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) and studied its effect on the behavior of the melanoma cells. HAS3 overexpression expanded the cell surface hyaluronan coat and decreased melanoma cell adhesion, migration and proliferation by cell cycle arrest at G1/G0. Melanoma cell migration was restored by removal of cell surface hyaluronan by Streptomyces hyaluronidase and by receptor blocking with hyaluronan oligosaccharides, while the effect on cell proliferation was receptor independent. Overexpression of HAS3 decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation suggesting that inhibition of MAP-kinase signaling was responsible for these suppressive effects on the malignant phenotype of MV3 melanoma cells. - Highlights: • Inducible HAS3-MV3 melanoma cell line was generated using Lentiviral transduction. • HAS3 overexpression inhibits MV3 cell migration via hyaluronan–receptor interaction. • HAS3 overexpression decreases MV3 melanoma cell proliferation and adhesion. • ERK1/2 phosphorylation is downregulated by 50% in HAS3 overexpressing cells. • The results suggest that hyaluronan has anti-cancer like effects in melanoma.

  3. Phosphatidylserine Synthase Controls Cell Elongation Especially in the Uppermost Internode in Rice by Regulation of Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jinbo; Zhang, Baocai; Ren, Yulong; Ding, Yu; Zhou, Yihua; Zhang, Huan; Zhou, Kunneng; Wang, Jiu-Lin; Lei, Cailin; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Gao, He; Bao, Yiqun; Wan, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    The uppermost internode is one of the fastest elongating organs in rice, and is expected to require an adequate supply of cell-wall materials and enzymes to the cell surface to enhance mechanical strength. Although it has been reported that the phenotype of shortened uppermost internode 1 (sui1) is caused by mutations in PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE SYNTHASE (OsPSS), the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that the OsPSS-1, as a gene expressed predominantly in elongating cells, regulates post-Golgi vesicle secretion to intercellular spaces. Mutation of OsPSS-1 leads to compromised delivery of CESA4 and secGFP towards the cell surface, resulting in weakened intercellular adhesion and disorganized cell arrangement in parenchyma. The phenotype of sui1-4 is caused largely by the reduction in cellulose contents in the whole plant and detrimental delivery of pectins in the uppermost internode. We found that OsPSS-1 and its potential product PS (phosphatidylserine) localized to organelles associated with exocytosis. These results together suggest that OsPSS-1 plays a potential role in mediating cell expansion by regulating secretion of cell wall components. PMID:27055010

  4. S-nitrosothiols regulate cell-surface pH buffering by airway epithelial cells during the human immune response to rhinovirus.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Silvia; Doherty, Joseph; Zaman, Khalequz; Gainov, Iain; Turner, Ronald; Vaughan, John; Hunt, John F; Márquez, Javier; Gaston, Benjamin

    2006-05-01

    Human rhinovirus infection is a common trigger for asthma exacerbations. Asthma exacerbations and rhinovirus infections are both associated with markedly decreased pH and ammonium levels in exhaled breath condensates. This observation is thought to be related, in part, to decreased activity of airway epithelial glutaminase. We studied whether direct rhinovirus infection and/or the host immune response to the infection decreased airway epithelial cell surface pH in vitro. Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, but not direct rhinovirus infection, decreased pH, an effect partly associated with decreased ammonium concentrations. This effect was 1) prevented by nitric oxide synthase inhibition; 2) independent of cyclic GMP; 3) associated with an increase in endogenous airway epithelial cell S-nitrosothiol concentration; 4) mimicked by the exogenous S-nitrosothiol, S-nitroso-N-acetyl cysteine; and 5) independent of glutaminase expression and activity. We then confirmed that decreased epithelial pH inhibits human rhinovirus replication in airway epithelial cells. These data suggest that a nitric oxide synthase-dependent host response to viral infection mediated by S-nitrosothiols, rather than direct infection itself, plays a role in decreased airway surface pH during human rhinovirus infection. This host immune response may serve to protect the lower airways from direct infection in the normal host. In patients with asthma, however, this fall in pH could be associated with the increased mucus production, augmented inflammatory cell degranulation, bronchoconstriction, and cough characteristic of an asthma exacerbation. PMID:16603595

  5. Cellulose Synthase Complexes: Composition and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Li, Shundai; Gu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Live cell imaging has greatly advanced our knowledge on the molecular mechanism by which cellulose is deposited. Both the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton are involved in assuring the proper distribution, organization, and dynamics of cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). This review is an update on the most recent progress on the characterization of the composition, regulation, and trafficking of CSCs. With the newly identified cellulose synthase interactive protein 1 (CSI1) on hand, we begin to unveil the mystery of an intimate relationship between cellulose microfibrils and microtubules. PMID:22639663

  6. Homology study of two polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases from Pseudomonas aureofaciens.

    PubMed

    Umeda, F; Nishikawa, T; Miyasaka, H; Maeda, I; Kawase, M; Yagi, K

    2001-11-01

    Recently, we have cloned and analyzed two polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase genes (phaC1 and phaC2 in the pha cluster) from Pseudomonas aureofaciens. In this report, the deduced amino acid (AA) sequences of PHA synthase 1 and PHA synthase 2 from P. aureofaciens are compared with those from three other bacterial strains (Pseudomonas sp. 61-3, P. oleovorans and P. aeruginosa) containing the homologous pha cluster. The level of homology of either PHA synthase 1 or PHA synthase 2 was high with each enzyme from these three bacterial strains. Furthermore, multialignment of PHA synthase AA sequences implied that both enzymes of PHA synthase 1 and PHA synthase 2 were highly conserved in the four strains including P. aureofaciens. PMID:11916262

  7. Incorporation of Nasutitermes takasagoensis endoglucanase into cell surface-displayed minicellulosomes in Pichia pastoris X33.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jingshen; Cao, Yicheng

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the yeast Pichia pastoris was genetically modified to assemble minicellulosomes on its cell surface by the heterologous expression of a truncated scaffoldin CipA from Clostridium acetobutylicum. Fluorescence microscopy and western blot analysis confirmed that CipA was targeted to the yeast cell surface and that NtEGD, the Nasutitermes takasagoensis endoglucanase that was fused with dockerin, interacted with CipA on the yeast cell surface, suggesting that the cohesin and dockerin domains and cellulose-binding module of C. acetobutylicum were functional in the yeasts. The enzymatic activities of the cellulases in the minicellulosomes that were displayed on the yeast cell surfaces increased dramatically following interaction with the cohesin-dockerin domains. Additionally, the hydrolysis efficiencies of NtEGD for carboxymethyl cellulose, microcrystal cellulose, and filter paper increased up to 1.4-fold, 2.0-fold, and 3.2-fold, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the expression of C. acetobutylicum minicellulosomes in yeast and the incorporation of animal cellulases into cellulosomes. This strategy of heterologous cellulase incorporation lends novel insight into the process of cellulosome assembly. Potentially, the surface display of cellulosomes, such as that reported in this study, may be utilized in the engineering of S. cerevisiae for ethanol production from cellulose and additional future applications. PMID:24851815

  8. Evidence of cell surface iron speciation of acidophilic iron-oxidizing microorganisms in indirect bioleaching process.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhen-yuan; Liu, Hong-chang; Xia, Jin-lan; Yang, Yi; Zhen, Xiang-jun; Zhang, Li-Juan; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2016-02-01

    While indirect model has been widely accepted in bioleaching, but the evidence of cell surface iron speciation has not been reported. In the present work the iron speciation on the cell surfaces of four typically acidophilic iron-oxidizing microorganism (mesophilic Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270, moderately thermophilic Leptospirillum ferriphilum YSK and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans St, and extremely thermophilic Acidianus manzaensis YN25) grown on different energy substrates (chalcopyrite, pyrite, ferrous sulfate and elemental sulfur (S(0))) were studied in situ firstly by using synchrotron-based micro- X-ray fluorescence analysis and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. Results showed that the cells grown on iron-containing substrates had apparently higher surface iron content than the cells grown on S(0). Both ferrous iron and ferric iron were detected on the cell surface of all tested AIOMs, and the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios of the same microorganism were affected by different energy substrates. The iron distribution and bonding state of single cell of A. manzaensis were then studied in situ by scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy based on dual-energy contrast analysis and stack analysis. Results showed that the iron species distributed evenly on the cell surface and bonded with amino, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups.

  9. Quantitatively Resolving Ligand–Receptor Bonds on Cell Surfaces Using Force-Induced Remnant Magnetization Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Molecule-specific noncovalent bonding on cell surfaces is the foundation for cellular recognition and functioning. A major challenge in probing these bonds is to resolve the specific bonds quantitatively and efficiently from the nonspecific interactions in a complex environment. Using force-induced remnant magnetization spectroscopy (FIRMS), we were able to resolve quantitatively three different interactions for magnetic beads bearing anti-CD4 antibodies with CD4+ T cell surfaces based upon their binding forces. The binding force of the CD4 antibody–antigen bonds was determined to be 75 ± 3 pN. For comparison, the same bonds were also studied on a functionalized substrate surface, and the binding force was determined to be 90 ± 6 pN. The 15 pN difference revealed by high-resolution FIRMS illustrates the significant impact of the bonding environment. Because the force difference was unaffected by the cell number or the receptor density on the substrate, we attributed it to the possible conformational or local environmental differences of the CD4 antigens between the cell surface and substrate surface. Our results show that the high force resolution and detection efficiency afforded by FIRMS are valuable for studying protein–protein interactions on cell surfaces. PMID:27163031

  10. Erratum: Colorectal Cancer Cell Surface Protein Profiling Using an Antibody Microarray and Fluorescence Multiplexing.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The author's email has been corrected in the publication of Colorectal Cancer Cell Surface Protein Profiling Using an Antibody Microarray and Fluorescence Multiplexing. There was an error with the author, Jerry Zhou's, email. The author's email has been updated to: j.zhou@uws.edu.au from: jzho7551@mail.usyd.edu.au. PMID:26167960

  11. Immunochemical identification of the major cell surface agglutinogen of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-92.

    PubMed

    Bayer, E A; Skutelsky, E; Goldman, S; Rosenberg, E; Gutnick, D L

    1983-04-01

    The immunochemical and immunocytochemical characteristics of three Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG strains were compared in order to clarify the relationship between antibody-induced agglutination and the production of polyanionic extracellular emulsifier (termed emulsan). In addition to the parent, RAG-92, two mutant strains were examined: (1) a non-agglutinating emulsan-producer (AB15), and (2) an agglutinating mutant (16TLU) defective in the production of emulsan. A combined genetic-immunochemical approach was employed. This included the comparison of crossed immunoelectrophoresis patterns of parent and mutant supernates and the effect of absorption of anti-whole cell antiserum with mutant cells. In addition, agglutinability and competition studies were performed as well as electron microscopic cytochemistry. The results demonstrated that three major antigenic components were associated with the cell surface and the supernate. Mutant cells were altered both in their cell surface properties and in their extracellular products. One antigenic component, termed component C3, was the major cell surface agglutinogen; this component was absent in non-agglutinating mutants. Component C3 may be identical with or attached to the 300 nm projections on the parent cell surface, but it is not directly related to the presence of emulsan. It appears that emulsan plays little or no role in the phenomenon of antibody-induced agglutination of this organism. PMID:6688443

  12. A Dual Receptor and Reporter for Multi-Modal Cell Surface Engineering.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Westcott, Nathan; Dutta, Debjit; Pulsipher, Abigail; Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; Chen, Jean; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2015-10-16

    The rapid development of new small molecule drugs, nanomaterials, and genetic tools to modulate cellular function through cell surface manipulation has revolutionized the diagnosis, study, and treatment of disorders in human health. Since the cell membrane is a selective gateway barrier that serves as the first line of defense/offense and communication to its environment, new approaches that molecularly engineer or tailor cell membrane surfaces would allow for a new era in therapeutic design, therapeutic delivery, complex coculture tissue construction, and in situ imaging probe tracking technologies. In order to develop the next generation of multimodal therapies, cell behavior studies, and biotechnologies that focus on cell membrane biology, new tools that intersect the fields of chemistry, biology, and engineering are required. Herein, we develop a liposome fusion and delivery strategy to present a novel dual receptor and reporter system at cell surfaces without the use of molecular biology or metabolic biosynthesis. The cell surface receptor is based on bio-orthogonal functional groups that can conjugate a range of ligands while simultaneously reporting the conjugation through the emission of fluorescence. We demonstrate this dual receptor and reporter system by conjugating and tracking various cell surface ligands for temporal control of cell fluorescent signaling, cell-cell interaction, and tissue assembly construction.

  13. Effects of Streptococcus sanguinis Bacteriocin on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Membrane Permeability, and Ultrastructure of Candida Thallus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengli; Zhao, Yingnan; Xia, Xue; Dong, Xue; Ge, Wenyu; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans (C.a) and Candida tropicalis (C.t) were treated with Streptococcus sanguinis bacteriocin (S.s bacteriocin), respectively; the bacteriostatic dynamics of S.s bacteriocin, their effects on cell surface hydrophobicity, leakage of inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance, cytosolic calcium concentration, and ultrastructure changes of Candida thallus were detected and analyzed. The results showed that inhibitory effect of S.s bacteriocin on C.a and C.t reached peak level at 24 h, the cell-surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after S.s bacteriocin treatment, and there was leakage of cytoplasmic inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance from C.a and C.t; cytosolic calcium concentration decreased greatly. After 24 h treatment by S.s bacteriocin, depressive deformity and defect could be found in the cell surface of C.a and C.t; the thallus displayed irregular forms: C.a was shrunken, there was unclear margins abutting upon cell wall and cell membrane, nucleus disappeared, and cytoplasm was inhomogeneous; likewise, C.t was first plasmolysis, and then the cytoplasm was shrunk, the ultrastructure of cell wall and cell membrane was continuously damaged, and the nucleus was karyolysis. It was illustrated that S.s bacteriocin had similar antifungal effect on C.a and C.t; their cell surface hydrophobicity, membrane permeability, and ultrastructure were changed significantly on exposure to S.s bacteriocin. PMID:26064919

  14. Monocyte cell surface glycosaminoglycans positively modulate IL-4-induced differentiation toward dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    den Dekker, Els; Grefte, Sander; Huijs, Tonnie; ten Dam, Gerdy B; Versteeg, Elly M M; van den Berk, Lieke C J; Bladergroen, Bellinda A; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Figdor, Carl G; Torensma, Ruurd

    2008-03-15

    IL-4 induces the differentiation of monocytes toward dendritic cells (DCs). The activity of many cytokines is modulated by glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In this study, we explored the effect of GAGs on the IL-4-induced differentiation of monocytes toward DCs. IL-4 dose-dependently up-regulated the expression of DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), CD80, CD206, and CD1a. Monocytes stained positive with Abs against heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) B (CSB; dermatan sulfate), but not with Abs that recognize CSA, CSC, and CSE. Inhibition of sulfation of monocyte/DC cell surface GAGs by sodium chlorate reduced the reactivity of sulfate-recognizing single-chain Abs. This correlated with hampered IL-4-induced DC differentiation as evidenced by lower expression of DC-SIGN and CD1a and a decreased DC-induced PBL proliferation, suggesting that sulfated monocyte cell surface GAGs support IL-4 activity. Furthermore, removal of cell surface chondroitin sulfates by chondroitinase ABC strongly impaired IL-4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation, whereas removal of HS by heparinase III had only a weak inhibitory effect. IL-4 bound to heparin and CSB, but not to HS, CSA, CSC, CSD, and CSE. Binding of IL-4 required iduronic acid, an N-sulfate group (heparin) and specific O sulfates (CSB and heparin). Together, these data demonstrate that monocyte cell surface chondroitin sulfates play an important role in the IL-4-driven differentiation of monocytes into DCs.

  15. Effects of Streptococcus sanguinis Bacteriocin on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Membrane Permeability, and Ultrastructure of Candida Thallus

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shengli; Zhao, Yingnan; Xia, Xue; Dong, Xue; Ge, Wenyu; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans (C.a) and Candida tropicalis (C.t) were treated with Streptococcus sanguinis bacteriocin (S.s bacteriocin), respectively; the bacteriostatic dynamics of S.s bacteriocin, their effects on cell surface hydrophobicity, leakage of inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance, cytosolic calcium concentration, and ultrastructure changes of Candida thallus were detected and analyzed. The results showed that inhibitory effect of S.s bacteriocin on C.a and C.t reached peak level at 24 h, the cell-surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after S.s bacteriocin treatment, and there was leakage of cytoplasmic inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance from C.a and C.t; cytosolic calcium concentration decreased greatly. After 24 h treatment by S.s bacteriocin, depressive deformity and defect could be found in the cell surface of C.a and C.t; the thallus displayed irregular forms: C.a was shrunken, there was unclear margins abutting upon cell wall and cell membrane, nucleus disappeared, and cytoplasm was inhomogeneous; likewise, C.t was first plasmolysis, and then the cytoplasm was shrunk, the ultrastructure of cell wall and cell membrane was continuously damaged, and the nucleus was karyolysis. It was illustrated that S.s bacteriocin had similar antifungal effect on C.a and C.t; their cell surface hydrophobicity, membrane permeability, and ultrastructure were changed significantly on exposure to S.s bacteriocin. PMID:26064919

  16. Molecular regulation of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 trafficking to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Wei, Jianxin; Bowser, Rachel K; Dong, Su; Xiao, Shuqi; Zhao, Yutong

    2014-11-01

    The lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPA1), a G-protein coupled receptor, regulates cell proliferation, migration, and cytokine release. Here, we investigate the molecular signature of LPA1 trafficking to the cell surface. The overexpressed LPA1 with a C-terminal V5 tag (LPA1-V5) is majorly expressed on the cell surface, while two deletion mutants (C320 and ∆84-87) failed to be trafficked to the cell surface. Further, site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the LPA1 revealed that Ile325, Tyr85, and Leu87 within these two fragments regulate LPA1 maturation and trafficking to the cell surface. Over-expression of Sar1, a component of coat protein complex II (COPII), enhances glycosylation of LPA1 wild type, but not these mutants. The mutants of LPA1 are majorly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and exhibit a higher binding affinity to heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), when compared to the LPA1 wild type. Further, we found that all these mutants failed to increase phosphorylation of Erk, and the cytokine release in response to LPA treatment. These results suggest that Ile325, Tyr85, and Leu87 within LPA1 are essential for LPA1 protein properly folding in the ER.

  17. The transmembrane protein of HIV-1 primary isolates modulates cell surface expression of their envelope glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Lebigot, S; Roingeard, P; Thibault, G; Lemiale, F; Verrier, B; Barin, F; Brand, D

    2001-11-10

    We have recently shown that the level of cell surface expression of envelope glycoproteins derived from various human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primary isolates (PI) was lower than those of envelope glycoproteins derived from T-cell laboratory-adapted (TCLA) HIV-1 (D. Brand et al., 2000, Virology 271, 350-362). We investigated this phenomenon by comparing the cell surface expression of chimeric envelope glycoproteins constructed by swapping the gp120 surface and gp41 transmembrane glycoproteins of the TCLA HIV-1MN and the PI HIV-1(133), HIV-1G365, or HIV-1EFRA. We found that each chimeric envelope construct had a cell surface-specific pattern of expression similar to that of the parental envelope glycoproteins corresponding to the gp41. Thus, the difference in cell surface expression observed between TCLA viruses and various PI is probably due to a signal located in gp41. Identification of this signal may be important for the design of PI envelope-derived immunogens and may increase our understanding of the mechanisms by which HIV-1 escapes from the immune system.

  18. Increased cell surface hydrophobicity of a Serratia marcescens NS 38 mutant lacking wetting activity.

    PubMed

    Bar-Ness, R; Avrahamy, N; Matsuyama, T; Rosenberg, M

    1988-09-01

    The cell surface hydrophobicity of Serratia marcescens appears to be an important factor in its adhesion to and colonization of various interfaces. The cell surface components responsible for mediating the hydrophobicity of S. marcescens have not been completely elucidated, but may include prodigiosin and other factors. In the present report we have investigated the potential role of serratamolide, an amphipathic aminolipid present on the surfaces of certain S. marcescens strains, in modulating cell surface hydrophobicity. The hydrophobic properties of a serratamolide-producing strain (NS 38) were compared with those of a serratamolide-deficient mutant (NS 38-9) by monitoring the kinetics of adhesion to hexadecane. Serratamolide production was monitored by thin-layer chromatography and the wetting activity of washed-cell suspensions on polystyrene. Wild-type NS 38 cells were far less hydrophobic than the serratamolide-deficient mutant cells were; the removal coefficients were 48 min-1 for the mutant, as compared with only 18 min-1 for the wild type. The data suggest that the presence of serratamolide on S. marcescens cells results in a reduction in hydrophobicity, presumably by blocking hydrophobic sites on the cell surface.

  19. Cell surface energy, contact angles and phase partition. II. Bacterial cells in biphasic aqueous mixtures.

    PubMed

    Gerson, D F; Akit, J

    1980-11-01

    Partition coefficients in biphasic mixtures of poly(ethylene glycol) and Dextran are compared to cell surface energies obtained from contact angles of each liquid phase on cell layers. Linear relationships are observed between these two independent measurements for a variety of bacterial cells. The results demonstrate the importance of interfacial phenomena and contact angles in the phase-partition process. PMID:6159003

  20. Identification of novel sesterterpene/triterpene synthase from Bacillus clausii.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tsutomu; Yamaga, Hiroaki; Kashima, Shoji; Murata, Yusuke; Shinada, Tetsuro; Nakano, Chiaki; Hoshino, Tsutomu

    2013-05-10

    Basic enzyme: The tetraprenyl-β-curcumene synthase homologue from the alkalophilic Bacillus clausii catalyses conversions of a geranylfarnesyl diphosphate and a hexaprenyl diphosphate into novel head-to-tail acyclic sesterterpene and triterpene. Tetraprenyl-β-curcumene synthase homologues represent a new family of terpene synthases that form not only sesquarterpene but also sesterterpene and triterpene. PMID:23554321

  1. Lessons from 455 Fusarium polyketide synthases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fungi, polyketide synthases (PKSs) synthesize a structurally diverse array of secondary metabolites (SMs) with a range of biological activities. The most studied SMs are toxic to animals and/or plants, alter plant growth, have beneficial pharmaceutical activities, and/or are brightly colored pigm...

  2. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-29

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  3. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-05-26

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  4. A27L protein mediates vaccinia virus interaction with cell surface heparan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Chung, C S; Hsiao, J C; Chang, Y S; Chang, W

    1998-02-01

    Vaccinia virus has a wide host range and infects mammalian cells of many different species. This suggests that the cell surface receptors for vaccinia virus are ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved. Alternatively, different receptors are used for vaccinia virus infection of different cell types. Here we report that vaccinia virus binds to heparan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chain of cell surface proteoglycans, during virus infection. Soluble heparin specifically inhibits vaccinia virus binding to cells, whereas other GAGs such as condroitin sulfate or dermantan sulfate have no effect. Heparin also blocks infections by cowpox virus, rabbitpox virus, myxoma virus, and Shope fibroma virus, suggesting that cell surface heparan sulfate could be a general mediator of the entry of poxviruses. The biochemical nature of the heparin-blocking effect was investigated. Heparin analogs that have acetyl groups instead of sulfate groups also abolish the inhibitory effect, suggesting that the negative charges on GAGs are important for virus infection. Furthermore, BSC40 cells treated with sodium chlorate to produce undersulfated GAGs are more refractory to vaccinia virus infection. Taken together, the data support the notion that cell surface heparan sulfate is important for vaccinia virus infection. Using heparin-Sepharose beads, we showed that vaccinia virus virions bind to heparin in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated that the recombinant A27L gene product binds to the heparin beads in vitro. This recombinant protein was further shown to bind to cells, and such interaction could be specifically inhibited by soluble heparin. All the data together indicated that A27L protein could be an attachment protein that mediates vaccinia virus binding to cell surface heparan sulfate during viral infection.

  5. Identification of Novel Tumor-Associated Cell Surface Sialoglycoproteins in Human Glioblastoma Tumors Using Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Autelitano, François; Loyaux, Denis; Roudières, Sébastien; Déon, Catherine; Guette, Frédérique; Fabre, Philippe; Ping, Qinggong; Wang, Su; Auvergne, Romane; Badarinarayana, Vasudeo; Smith, Michael; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Goldman, Steven A.; Natesan, Sridaran; Ferrara, Pascual; August, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) remains clinical indication with significant “unmet medical need”. Innovative new therapy to eliminate residual tumor cells and prevent tumor recurrences is critically needed for this deadly disease. A major challenge of GBM research has been the identification of novel molecular therapeutic targets and accurate diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers. Many of the current clinical therapeutic targets of immunotoxins and ligand-directed toxins for high-grade glioma (HGG) cells are surface sialylated glycoproteins. Therefore, methods that systematically and quantitatively analyze cell surface sialoglycoproteins in human clinical tumor samples would be useful for the identification of potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for malignant gliomas. In this study, we used the bioorthogonal chemical reporter strategy (BOCR) in combination with label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (LFQ-MS) to characterize and accurately quantify the individual cell surface sialoproteome in human GBM tissues, in fetal, adult human astrocytes, and in human neural progenitor cells (NPCs). We identified and quantified a total of 843 proteins, including 801 glycoproteins. Among the 843 proteins, 606 (72%) are known cell surface or secreted glycoproteins, including 156 CD-antigens, all major classes of cell surface receptor proteins, transporters, and adhesion proteins. Our findings identified several known as well as new cell surface antigens whose expression is predominantly restricted to human GBM tumors as confirmed by microarray transcription profiling, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining. This report presents the comprehensive identification of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the treatment of malignant gliomas using quantitative sialoglycoproteomics with clinically relevant, patient derived primary glioma cells. PMID:25360666

  6. Selective labelling of cell-surface proteins using CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes.

    PubMed

    Hagner-McWhirter, Asa; Winkvist, Maria; Bourin, Stephanie; Marouga, Rita

    2008-01-01

    Surface proteins are central to the cell's ability to react to its environment and to interact with neighboring cells. They are known to be inducers of almost all intracellular signaling. Moreover, they play an important role in environmental adaptation and drug treatment, and are often involved in disease pathogenesis and pathology (1). Protein-protein interactions are intrinsic to signaling pathways, and to gain more insight in these complex biological processes, sensitive and reliable methods are needed for studying cell surface proteins. Two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis is used extensively for detection of biomarkers and other targets in complex protein samples to study differential changes. Cell surface proteins, partly due to their low abundance (1 2% of cellular proteins), are difficult to detect in a 2-D gel without fractionation or some other type of enrichment. They are also often poorly represented in 2-D gels due to their hydrophobic nature and high molecular weight (2). In this study, we present a new protocol for intact cells using CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes for specific labeling and detection of this important group of proteins. The results showed specific labeling of a large number of cell surface proteins with minimal labeling of intracellular proteins. This protocol is rapid, simple to use, and all three CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes (Cy 2, Cy 3 and Cy 5) can be used to label cell-surface proteins. These features allow for multiplexing using the 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with Ettan DIGE technology and analysis of protein expression changes using DeCyder 2-D Differential Analysis Software. The level of cell-surface proteins was followed during serum starvation of CHO cells for various lengths of time (see Table 1). Small changes in abundance were detected with high accuracy, and results are supported by defined statistical methods.

  7. Re-Citrate Synthase from Clostridium kluyveri Is Phylogenetically Related to Homocitrate Synthase and Isopropylmalate Synthase Rather Than to Si-Citrate Synthase† ▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuli; Hagemeier, Christoph H.; Seedorf, Henning; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Thauer, Rudolf K.

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of citrate from acetyl-coenzyme A and oxaloacetate is catalyzed in most organisms by a Si-citrate synthase, which is Si-face stereospecific with respect to C-2 of oxaloacetate. However, in Clostridium kluyveri and some other strictly anaerobic bacteria, the reaction is catalyzed by a Re-citrate synthase, whose primary structure has remained elusive. We report here that Re-citrate synthase from C. kluyveri is the product of a gene predicted to encode isopropylmalate synthase. C. kluyveri is also shown to contain a gene for Si-citrate synthase, which explains why cell extracts of the organism always exhibit some Si-citrate synthase activity. PMID:17400742

  8. Geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Burke, Charles C.; Wildung, Mark R.

    2001-10-16

    A cDNA encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit from peppermint has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit). In another aspect, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit. In yet another aspect, the present invention provides isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase protein comprising an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase large subunit protein and an isolated, recombinant geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit protein. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase.

  9. The melanoma proteoglycan: restricted expression on microspikes, a specific microdomain of the cell surface

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    A cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan associated with human melanomas and defined by mAb's F24.47 and 48.7 has been characterized biochemically and localized by indirect immunogold electron microscopy. These antibodies recognize distinct epitopes on the intact proteoglycan. In addition, mAb 48.7 also recognizes an epitope on a 250,000-D glycoprotein and is therefore similar to antibody 9.2.27 (described by Bumol, T.F., and R.A. Reisfeld, 1982, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 79:1245-1249). Furthermore, it was shown that the glycosaminoglycan chains released by alkaline borohydride treatment of the proteoglycan recognized by mAb 48.7 had a size of approximately 60,000 D. Since the intact proteoglycan was estimated to be 420,000 D, there are probably three chondroitin sulfate chains attached to the 250,000-D core glycoprotein. Furthermore, an oligosaccharide fraction containing 42% of the 3H activity (glucosamine as precursor) was isolated. Immunolocalization studies using whole-mount electron microscopy revealed that the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan was present almost exclusively on microspikes, a microdomain of the melanoma cell surface. These processes were present as 1-2-micron structures on the upper cell surface and as longer (up to 20 micron) structures at the cell periphery. Peripheral microspikes were involved in the initial interactions between adjacent cells and formed complex footpads that made contact with the substratum. Immunogold-labeled cells were also thin sectioned and the specific localization of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan antigen was quantitated. The data confirmed the results of whole-mount microscopy and demonstrated a statistically significant association of the antigen with the microspike processes as compared with other areas of the cell surface. By using two different mAb's (48.7 and F24.47) that recognize epitopes on either the core glycoprotein or the intact proteoglycan, respectively, we have demonstrated that both

  10. Cell Surface Relocalization of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone and Unfolded Protein Response Regulator GRP78/BiP*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Ren; Ni, Min; Gill, Parkash; Lee, Amy S.

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery that GRP78/BiP, a typical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumenal chaperone, can be expressed on the cell surface, interacting with an increasing repertoire of surface proteins and acting as receptor in signaling pathways, represents a paradigm shift in its biological function. However, the mechanism of GRP78 trafficking from the ER to the cell surface is not well understood. Using a combination of cellular, biochemical, and mutational approaches, we tested multiple hypotheses. Here we report that ER stress actively promotes GRP78 localization on the cell surface, whereas ectopic expression of GRP78 is also able to cause cell surface relocation in the absence of ER stress. Moreover, deletion of the C-terminal ER retention motif in GRP78 alters its cell surface presentation in a dose-dependent manner; however, mutation of the putative O-linked glycosylation site Thr648 of human GRP78 is without effect. We also identified the exposure of multiple domains of GRP78 on the cell surface and determined that binding of extracellular GRP78 to the cell surface is unlikely. A new topology model for cell surface GRP78 is presented. PMID:20208072

  11. Characterization of maize roothairless6 which encodes a D-type cellulose synthase and controls the switch from bulge formation to tip growth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Hey, Stefan; Liu, Sanzhen; Liu, Qiang; McNinch, Colton; Hu, Heng-Cheng; Wen, Tsui-Jung; Marcon, Caroline; Paschold, Anja; Bruce, Wesley; Schnable, Patrick S.; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Root hairs are tubular extensions of the epidermis. Root hairs of the monogenic recessive maize mutant roothairless 6 (rth6) are arrested after bulge formation during the transition to tip growth and display a rough cell surface. BSR-Seq in combination with Seq-walking and subsequent analyses of four independently generated mutant alleles established that rth6 encodes CSLD5 a plasma membrane localized 129 kD D-type cellulose synthase with eight transmembrane domains. Cellulose synthases are required for the biosynthesis of cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer of plant cell walls. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that RTH6 is part of a monocot specific clade of D-type cellulose synthases. D-type cellulose synthases are highly conserved in the plant kingdom with five gene family members in maize and homologs even among early land plants such as the moss Physcomitrella patens or the clubmoss Selaginella moellendorffii. Expression profiling demonstrated that rth6 transcripts are highly enriched in root hairs as compared to all other root tissues. Moreover, in addition to the strong knock down of rth6 expression in young primary roots of the mutant rth6, the gene is also significantly down-regulated in rth3 and rth5 mutants, while it is up-regulated in rth2 mutants, suggesting that these genes interact in cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:27708345

  12. Optimum design of amphiphilic polymers bearing hydrophobic groups for both cell surface ligand presentation and intercellular cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Takeo, Masafumi; Li, Cuicui; Matsuda, Masayoshi; Nagai, Hiroko; Hatanaka, Wataru; Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro; Kishimura, Akihiro; Mori, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Amphiphilic polymers bearing hydrophobic alkyl groups are expected to be applicable for both ligand presentation on the cell surface and intercellular crosslinking. To explore the optimum design for each application, we synthesized eight different acyl-modified dextrans with varying molecular weight, alkyl length, and alkyl modification degree. We found that the behenate-modified polymers retained on the cell surface longer than the palmitate-modified ones. Since the polymers were also modified with biotin, streptavidin can be presented on the cell surface through biotin-streptavidin recognition. The duration of streptavidin on the cell surface is longer in the behenate-modified polymer than the palmitate-modified one. As for the intercellular crosslinking, the palmitate-modified polymers were more efficient than the behenate-modified polymers. The findings in this research will be helpful to design the acyl-modified polymers for the cell surface engineering.

  13. Cell surface localised Hsp70 is a cancer specific regulator of clathrin-independent endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nimmervoll, Benedikt; Chtcheglova, Lilia A; Juhasz, Kata; Cremades, Nunilo; Aprile, Francesco A; Sonnleitner, Alois; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Vigh, Laszlo; Preiner, Johannes; Balogi, Zsolt

    2015-09-14

    The stress inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is present specifically on the tumour cell surface yet without a pro-tumour function revealed. We show here that cell surface localised Hsp70 (sHsp70) supports clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) in melanoma models. Remarkably, ability of Hsp70 to cluster on lipid rafts in vitro correlated with larger nano-domain sizes of sHsp70 in high sHsp70 expressing cell membranes. Interfering with Hsp70 oligomerisation impaired sHsp70-mediated facilitation of endocytosis. Altogether our findings suggest that a sub-fraction of sHsp70 co-localising with lipid rafts enhances CIE through oligomerisation and clustering. Targeting or utilising this tumour specific mechanism may represent an additional benefit for anti-cancer therapy.

  14. Endocytosis of cell surface material mediates cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Baluska, Frantisek; Schlicht, Markus; Hlavacka, Andrej; Samaj, Jozef; Friml, Jirí; Gadella, Theodorus W J

    2006-01-01

    Dividing plant cells perform a remarkable task of building a new cell wall within the cytoplasm in a few minutes. A long-standing paradigm claims that this primordial cell wall, known as the cell plate, is generated by delivery of newly synthesized material from Golgi apparatus-originated secretory vesicles. Here, we show that, in diverse plant species, cell surface material, including plasma membrane proteins, cell wall components, and exogenously applied endocytic tracers, is rapidly delivered to the forming cell plate. Importantly, this occurs even when de novo protein synthesis is blocked. In addition, cytokinesis-specific syntaxin KNOLLE as well as plasma membrane (PM) resident proteins localize to endosomes that fuse to initiate the cell plate. The rate of endocytosis is strongly enhanced during cell plate formation, and its genetic or pharmacological inhibition leads to cytokinesis defects. Our results reveal that endocytic delivery of cell surface material significantly contributes to cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis.

  15. Cell-Surface Protein Profiling Identifies Distinctive Markers of Progenitor Cells in Human Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Nakatani, Masashi; Ikemoto-Uezumi, Madoka; Yamamoto, Naoki; Morita, Mitsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Asami; Yamada, Harumoto; Kasai, Takehiro; Masuda, Satoru; Narita, Asako; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Fukada, So-Ichiro; Nishino, Ichizo; Tsuchida, Kunihiro

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal muscle contains two distinct stem/progenitor populations. One is the satellite cell, which acts as a muscle stem cell, and the other is the mesenchymal progenitor, which contributes to muscle pathogeneses such as fat infiltration and fibrosis. Detailed and accurate characterization of these progenitors in humans remains elusive. Here, we performed comprehensive cell-surface protein profiling of the two progenitor populations residing in human skeletal muscle and identified three previously unrecognized markers: CD82 and CD318 for satellite cells and CD201 for mesenchymal progenitors. These markers distinguish myogenic and mesenchymal progenitors, and enable efficient isolation of the two types of progenitors. Functional study revealed that CD82 ensures expansion and preservation of myogenic progenitors by suppressing excessive differentiation, and CD201 signaling favors adipogenesis of mesenchymal progenitors. Thus, cell-surface proteins identified here are not only useful markers but also functionally important molecules, and provide valuable insight into human muscle biology and diseases. PMID:27509136

  16. Contribution of Cell Surface Hydrophobicity in the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus against Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Lather, Puja; Mohanty, A. K.; Jha, Pankaj; Garsa, Anita Kumari

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is found in a wide variety of habitats, including human skin, where many strains are commensals that may be clinically significant or contaminants of food. To determine the physiological characteristics of resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus against pediocin, a class IIa bacteriocin, a resistant strain was compared with wild type in order to investigate the contribution of hydrophobicity to this resistance. Additional clumping of resistant strain relative to wild type in light microscopy was considered as an elementary evidence of resistance attainment. A delay in log phase attainment was observed in resistant strain compared to the wild type strain. A significant increase in cell surface hydrophobicity was detected for resistant strain in both hexadecane and xylene indicating the contribution of cell surface hydrophobicity as adaptive reaction against antimicrobial agents. PMID:26966577

  17. A Multichannel Biosensor for Rapid Determination of Cell Surface Glycomic Signatures

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cell surface glycosylation serves a fundamental role in dictating cell and tissue behavior. Cell surface glycomes differ significantly, presenting viable biomarkers for identifying cell types and their states. Glycoprofiling is a challenging task, however, due to the complexity of the constituent glycans. We report here a rapid and effective sensor for surface-based cell differentiation that uses a three-channel sensor produced by noncovalent conjugation of a functionalized gold nanoparticle (AuNP) and fluorescent proteins. Wild-type and glycomutant mammalian cells were effectively stratified using fluorescence signatures obtained from a single sensor element. Blinded unknowns generated from the tested cell types were identified with high accuracy (44 out of 48 samples), validating the robustness of the multichannel sensor. Notably, this selectivity-based high-throughput sensor differentiated between cells, employing a nondestructive protocol that required only a single well of a microplate for detection. PMID:26405691

  18. SurfaceomeDB: a cancer-orientated database for genes encoding cell surface proteins

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Jorge Estefano Santana; Galante, Pedro Alexandre Favoretto; de Almeida, Renan Valieris Bueno; da Cunha, Julia Pinheiro Chagas; Ohara, Daniel Takatori; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Old, Lloyd J.; de Souza, Sandro José

    2012-01-01

    Cell surface proteins (CSPs) are excellent targets for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic reagents, and it is estimated that 10–20% of all genes in the human genome encode CSPs. In an effort to integrate all data publicly available for genes encoding cell surface proteins, a database (SurfaceomeDB) was developed. SurfaceomeDB is a gene-centered portal containing different types of information, including annotation for gene expression, protein domains, somatic mutations in cancer, and protein-protein interactions for all human genes encoding CSPs. SurfaceomeDB was implemented as an integrative and relational database in a user-friendly web interface, where users can search for gene name, gene annotation, or keywords. There is also a streamlined graphical representation of all data provided and links to the most important data repositories and databases, such as NCBI, UCSC Genome Browser, and EBI. PMID:23390370

  19. Cell surface receptors for herpes simplex virus are heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The role of cell surface heparan sulfate in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection was investigated using CHO cell mutants defective in various aspects of glycosaminoglycan synthesis. Binding of radiolabeled virus to the cells and infection were assessed in mutant and wild-type cells. Virus bound efficiently to wild-type cells and initiated an abortive infection in which immediate-early or alpha viral genes were expressed, despite limited production of late viral proteins and progeny virus. Binding of virus to heparan sulfate-deficient mutant cells was severely impaired and mutant cells were resistant to HSV infection. Intermediate levels of binding and infection were observed for a CHO cell mutant that produced undersulfated heparan sulfate. These results show that heparan sulfate moieties of cell surface proteoglycans serve as receptors for HSV. PMID:1310996

  20. Bacterial cell surface display for epitope mapping of hepatitis C virus core antigen.

    PubMed

    Kang, Su-Min; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Eui-Joong; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Oh, Jong-Won

    2003-09-26

    Cell surface expression of protein has been widely used to display enzymes and antigens. Here we show that Pseudomonas syringae ice nucleation protein with a deletion of internal repeating domain (INC) can be used in Escherichia coli to display peptide in a conformationally active form on the outside of the folded protein by fusing to the C-terminus of INC. Diagnostic potential of this technology was demonstrated by effective mapping of antigenic epitopes derived from hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein. Amino acids 1-38 and 26-53 of HCV core protein were found to react more sensitively in a native conformation with the HCV patient sera than commercial diagnostic antigen, c22p (amino acids 10-53) by display-ELISA. These results demonstrate that the bacterial cell surface display using INC is useful for peptide presentation and thus epitope mapping of antigen. PMID:14553932

  1. Spatiotemporal regulation of chemical reaction kinetics of cell surface molecules by active remodeling of cortical actin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Chaudhuri, Abhishek; Gowrishankar, Kripa; Mayor, Satyajit; Rao, Madan

    2010-03-01

    Cell surface proteins such as lipid tethered GPI-anchored proteins and Ras-proteins are distributed as monomers and nanoclusters on the surface of living cells. Recent work from our laboratory suggests that the spatial distribution and dynamics of formation and breakup of these nanoclusters is controlled by the active remodeling dynamics of the underlying cortical actin. To explain these observations, we propose a novel mechanism of nanoclustering, involving the transient binding to and advection along constitutively occuring ``asters'' of cortical actin. Here we study the consequences of such active actin based clustering, in the context of chemical reactions involving conformational changes of cell surface proteins. We find that active remodeling of cortical actin, can give rise to a dramatic increase in the reaction efficiency and output levels. In general, such actin driven clustering of membrane proteins could be a cellular mechanism to spatiotemporally regulate and amplify local chemical reaction rates, in the context of signalling and endocytosis.

  2. Internalization and Trafficking of Cell Surface Proteoglycans and Proteoglycan-Binding Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Christine K.; Jones, Sara A.; Chen, Chen; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2009-01-01

    Using multi-color live cell imaging in combination with biochemical assays we have investigated an endocytic pathway mediated by cell surface proteoglycans, primary receptors for many cationic ligands. We have characterized this pathway for a variety of proteoglycan-binding ligands including cationic polymers, lipids, and polypeptides. Following clathrin- and caveolin-independent, but flotillin- and dynamin-dependent internalization, proteoglycan-bound ligands associate with flotillin-1-positive vesicles and are efficiently trafficked to late endosomes. The route to late endosomes differs considerably from that following clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The proteoglycan-dependent pathway to late endosomes does not require microtubule-dependent transport or PI(3)K-dependent sorting from early endosomes. The pathway taken by these ligands is identical to that taken by an antibody against heparan sulfate proteoglycans, suggesting this mechanism may be used generally by cell surface proteoglycans and proteoglycan-binding ligands without secondary receptors. PMID:17394486

  3. An AFM-based pit-measuring method for indirect measurements of cell-surface membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Yong

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Air drying induced the transformation of cell-surface membrane vesicles into pits. • An AFM-based pit-measuring method was developed to measure cell-surface vesicles. • Our method detected at least two populations of cell-surface membrane vesicles. - Abstract: Circulating membrane vesicles, which are shed from many cell types, have multiple functions and have been correlated with many diseases. Although circulating membrane vesicles have been extensively characterized, the status of cell-surface membrane vesicles prior to their release is less understood due to the lack of effective measurement methods. Recently, as a powerful, micro- or nano-scale imaging tool, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been applied in measuring circulating membrane vesicles. However, it seems very difficult for AFM to directly image/identify and measure cell-bound membrane vesicles due to the similarity of surface morphology between membrane vesicles and cell surfaces. Therefore, until now no AFM studies on cell-surface membrane vesicles have been reported. In this study, we found that air drying can induce the transformation of most cell-surface membrane vesicles into pits that are more readily detectable by AFM. Based on this, we developed an AFM-based pit-measuring method and, for the first time, used AFM to indirectly measure cell-surface membrane vesicles on cultured endothelial cells. Using this approach, we observed and quantitatively measured at least two populations of cell-surface membrane vesicles, a nanoscale population (<500 nm in diameter peaking at ∼250 nm) and a microscale population (from 500 nm to ∼2 μm peaking at ∼0.8 μm), whereas confocal microscopy only detected the microscale population. The AFM-based pit-measuring method is potentially useful for studying cell-surface membrane vesicles and for investigating the mechanisms of membrane vesicle formation/release.

  4. Modeling the Excess Cell Surface Stored in a Complex Morphology of Bleb-Like Protrusions

    PubMed Central

    Wessler, Timothy; Yang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Alex; Roach, Nathan; Elston, Timothy C.; Wang, Qi; Jacobson, Ken; Forest, M. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Cells transition from spread to rounded morphologies in diverse physiological contexts including mitosis and mesenchymal-to-amoeboid transitions. When these drastic shape changes occur rapidly, cell volume and surface area are approximately conserved. Consequently, the rounded cells are suddenly presented with a several-fold excess of cell surface whose area far exceeds that of a smooth sphere enclosing the cell volume. This excess is stored in a population of bleb-like protrusions (BLiPs), whose size distribution is shown by electron micrographs to be skewed. We introduce three complementary models of rounded cell morphologies with a prescribed excess surface area. A 2D Hamiltonian model provides a mechanistic description of how discrete attachment points between the cell surface and cortex together with surface bending energy can generate a morphology that satisfies a prescribed excess area and BLiP number density. A 3D random seed-and-growth model simulates efficient packing of BLiPs over a primary rounded shape, demonstrating a pathway for skewed BLiP size distributions that recapitulate 3D morphologies. Finally, a phase field model (2D and 3D) posits energy-based constitutive laws for the cell membrane, nematic F-actin cortex, interior cytosol, and external aqueous medium. The cell surface is equipped with a spontaneous curvature function, a proxy for the cell surface-cortex couple, that is a priori unknown, which the model “learns” from the thin section transmission electron micrograph image (2D) or the “seed and growth” model image (3D). Converged phase field simulations predict self-consistent amplitudes and spatial localization of pressure and stress throughout the cell for any posited stationary morphology target and cell compartment constitutive properties. The models form a general framework for future studies of cell morphological dynamics in a variety of biological contexts. PMID:27015526

  5. Pyocyanin facilitates extracellular DNA binding to Pseudomonas aeruginosa influencing cell surface properties and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Das, Theerthankar; Kutty, Samuel K; Kumar, Naresh; Manefield, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Pyocyanin is an electrochemically active metabolite produced by the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is a recognized virulence factor and is involved in a variety of significant biological activities including gene expression, maintaining fitness of bacterial cells and biofilm formation. It is also recognized as an electron shuttle for bacterial respiration and as an antibacterial and antifungal agent. eDNA has also been demonstrated to be a major component in establishing P. aeruginosa biofilms. In this study we discovered that production of pyocyanin influences the binding of eDNA to P. aeruginosa PA14 cells, mediated through intercalation of pyocyanin with eDNA. P. aeruginosa cell surface properties including cell size (hydrodynamic diameter), hydrophobicity and attractive surface energies were influenced by eDNA in the presence of pyocyanin, affecting physico-chemical interactions and promoting aggregation. A ΔphzA-G PA14 mutant, deficient in pyocynain production, could not bind with eDNA resulting in a reduction in hydrodynamic diameter, a decrease in hydrophobicity, repulsive physico-chemical interactions and reduction in aggregation in comparison to the wildtype strain. Removal of eDNA by DNase I treatment on the PA14 wildtype strain resulted in significant reduction in aggregation, cell surface hydrophobicity and size and an increase in repulsive physico-chemical interactions, similar to the level of the ΔphzA-G mutant. The cell surface properties of the ΔphzA-G mutant were not affected by DNase I treatment. Based on these findings we propose that pyocyanin intercalation with eDNA promotes cell-to-cell interactions in P. aeruginosa cells by influencing their cell surface properties and physico-chemical interactions. PMID:23505483

  6. Sweets for a bitter end: lung cancer cell surface protein glycosylation mediates metastatic colonization

    PubMed Central

    Arnal-Estapé, Anna; Nguyen, Don X.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Glycosylation is one of the most predominant forms of cell surface protein modifications and yet its de-regulation in cancer and contribution to tumor microenvironment interactions remains poorly understood. In this issue of Cancer Discovery, Reticker-Flynn and Bhatia characterize an enzymatic switch in lung cancer cells that triggers aberrant surface protein glycosylation patterns, adhesion to lectins on the surface of inflammatory cells, and subsequent metastatic colonization of the liver. PMID:25656895

  7. Revealing the fate of cell surface human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1): The lysosomal degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Kazuhiro; Kapoor, Khyati; Ohnuma, Shinobu; Patel, Atish; Swaim, William; Ambudkar, Indu S; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2015-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transports a variety of chemically dissimilar amphipathic compounds including anticancer drugs. Although mechanisms of P-gp drug transport are widely studied, the pathways involving its internalization are poorly understood. The present study is aimed at elucidating the pathways involved in degradation of cell surface P-gp. The fate of P-gp at the cell surface was determined by biotinylating cell surface proteins followed by flow cytometry and Western blotting. Our data shows that the half-life of endogenously expressed P-gp is 26.7±1.1 h in human colorectal cancer HCT-15 cells. Treatment of cells with Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) a vacuolar H+ ATPase inhibitor increased the half-life of P-gp at the cell surface to 36.1±0.5 h. Interestingly, treatment with the proteasomal inhibitors MG132, MG115 or lactacystin alone did not alter the half-life of the protein. When cells were treated with both lysosomal and proteasomal inhibitors (BafA1 and MG132), the half-life was further prolonged to 39-50 h. Functional assays done with rhodamine 123 or calcein-AM, fluorescent substrates of P-gp, indicated that the transport function of P-gp was not affected by either biotinylation or treatment with BafA1 or proteasomal inhibitors. Immunofluorescence studies done with the antibody against lysosomal marker LAMP1 and the P-gp-specific antibody UIC2 in permeabilized cells indicated that intracellular P-gp is primarily localized in the lysosomal compartment. Our results suggest that the lysosomal degradation system could be targeted to increase the sensitivity of P-gp- expressing cancer cells towards chemotherapeutic drugs.

  8. Evolutionary Forces Shaping the Golgi Glycosylation Machinery: Why Cell Surface Glycans Are Universal to Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Varki, Ajit

    2011-01-01

    Despite more than 3 billion years since the origin of life on earth, the powerful forces of biological evolution seem to have failed to generate any living cell that is devoid of a dense and complex array of cell surface glycans. Thus, cell surface glycans seem to be as essential for life as having a DNA genetic code, diverse RNAs, structural/functional proteins, lipid-based membranes, and metabolites that mediate energy flux and signaling. The likely reasons for this apparently universal law of biology are considered here, and include the fact that glycans have the greatest potential for generating diversity, and thus evading recognition by pathogens. This may also explain why in striking contrast to the genetic code, glycans show widely divergent patterns between taxa. On the other hand, glycans have also been coopted for myriad intrinsic functions, which can vary in their importance for organismal survival. In keeping with these considerations, a significant percentage of the genes in the typical genome are dedicated to the generation and/or turnover of glycans. Among eukaryotes, the Golgi is the subcellular organelle that serves to generate much of the diversity of cell surface glycans, carrying out various glycan modifications of glycoconjugates that transit through the Golgi, en route to the cell surface or extracellular destinations. Here I present an overview of general considerations regarding the selective forces shaping evolution of the Golgi glycosylation machinery, and then briefly discuss the common types of variations seen in each major class of glycans, finally focusing on sialic acids as an extreme example of evolutionary glycan diversity generated by the Golgi. Future studies need to address both the phylogenetic diversity the Golgi and the molecular mechanisms for its rapid responses to intrinsic and environmental stimuli. PMID:21525513

  9. Adhesion of phospholipid vesicles to Chinese hamster fibroblasts: Role of cell surface proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, RE; Takeichi, M

    1977-01-01

    The adhesion of artificially generated lipid membrane vesicles to Chinese hamster V79 fibroblasts in suspension was used as a model system for studying membrane interactions. Below their gel-liquid crystalline phase transition temperature, vesicles comprised of dipalmitoyl lecithin (DPL) or dimyristoyl lecithin (DML) absorbed to the surfaces of EDTA- dissociated cells. These adherent vesicles could not be removed by repeated washings of the treated cells but could be released into the medium by treatment with trypsin. EM autoradiographic studies of cells treated with[(3)H]DML or [(3)H]DPL vesicles showed that most of the radioactive lipids were confined to the cell periphery. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy further confirmed the presence of adherent vesicles at the cell surface. Adhesion of DML or DPL vesicles to EDTA-dissociated cells modified the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination pattern of the cell surface proteins; the inhibition of labeling of two proteins with an approximately 60,000- dalton mol wt was particularly evident. Incubation of cells wit h (3)H-lipid vesicles followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that some of the (3)H-lipid migrated preferentially with these approximately 60,000-mol wt proteins. Studies of the temperature dependence of vesicle uptake and subsequent release by trypsin showed that DML or DPL vesicle adhesion to EDTA- dissociated cells increased with decreasing temperatures. In contrast, cells trypsinized before incubation with vesicles showed practically no temperature dependence of vesicle uptake. These results suggest two pathways for adhesion of lipid vesicles to the cell surface-a temperature-sensitive one involving cell surface proteins, and a temperature-independent one. These findings are discussed in terms of current models for cell-cell interactions. PMID:407233

  10. Isolation of pigmented and nonpigmented mutants of Serratia marcescens with reduced cell surface hydrophobicity

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M.

    1984-10-01

    Enrichment for nonhydrophobic mutants of Serratia marcescens yielded two types: (i) a nonpigmented mutant which exhibited partial hydrophobic characteristics compared with the wild type, as determined by adherence to hexadecane and polystyrene; and (ii) a pigmented, nonhydrophobic mutant whose colonies were translucent with respect to those of the wild type. The data suggest that the pronounced cell surface hydrophobicity of the wild type is mediated by a combination of several surface f

  11. Trafficking of cell surface beta-amyloid precursor protein: retrograde and transcytotic transport in cultured neurons

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Amyloid beta-protein (A beta), the principal constituent of senile plaques seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD), is derived by proteolysis from the beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta PP). The mechanism of A beta production in neurons, which are hypothesized to be a rich source of A beta in brain, remains to be defined. In this study, we describe a detailed localization of cell surface beta PP and its subsequent trafficking in primary cultured neurons. Full-length cell surface beta PP was present primarily on perikarya and axons, the latter with a characteristic discontinuous pattern. At growth cones, cell surface beta PP was inconsistently detected. By visualizing the distribution of beta PP monoclonal antibodies added to intact cultures, beta PP was shown to be internalized from distal axons or terminals and retrogradely transported back to perikarya in organelles which colocalized with fluid-phase endocytic markers. Retrograde transport of beta PP was shown in both hippocampal and peripheral sympathetic neurons, the latter using a compartment culture system that isolated cell bodies from distal axons and terminals. In addition, we demonstrated that beta PP from distal axons was transcytotically transported to the surface of perikarya from distal axons in sympathetic neurons. Indirect evidence of this transcytotic pathway was obtained in hippocampal neurons using antisense oligonucleotide to the kinesin heavy chain to inhibit anterograde beta PP transport. Taken together, these results demonstrate novel aspects of beta PP trafficking in neurons, including retrograde axonal transport and transcytosis. Moreover, the axonal predominance of cell surface beta PP is unexpected in view of the recent report of polarized sorting of beta PP to the basolateral domain of MDCK cells. PMID:7721945

  12. Benzophenone synthase from Garcinia mangostana L. pericarps.

    PubMed

    Nualkaew, Natsajee; Morita, Hiroyuki; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Kinjo, Keishi; Kushiro, Tetsuo; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Abe, Ikuro

    2012-05-01

    The cDNA of a benzophenone synthase (BPS), a type III polyketide synthase (PKS), was cloned and the recombinant protein expressed from the fruit pericarps of Garcinia mangostana L., which contains mainly prenylated xanthones. The obtained GmBPS showed an amino acid sequence identity of 77-78% with other plant BPSs belonging to the same family (Clusiaceae). The recombinant enzyme produced 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone as the predominant product with benzoyl CoA as substrate. It also accepted other substrates, such as other plant PKSs, and used 1-3 molecules of malonyl CoA to form various phloroglucinol-type and polyketide lactone-type compounds. Thus, providing GmBPS with various substrates in vivo might redirect the xanthone biosynthetic pathway.

  13. Rare TREM2 variants associated with Alzheimer's disease display reduced cell surface expression.

    PubMed

    Sirkis, Daniel W; Bonham, Luke W; Aparicio, Renan E; Geier, Ethan G; Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Wang, Qing; Karydas, Anna; Miller, Zachary A; Miller, Bruce L; Coppola, Giovanni; Yokoyama, Jennifer S

    2016-09-02

    Rare variation in TREM2 has been associated with greater risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). TREM2 encodes a cell surface receptor expressed on microglia and related cells, and the R47H variant associated with AD appears to affect the ability of TREM2 to bind extracellular ligands. In addition, other rare TREM2 mutations causing early-onset neurodegeneration are thought to impair cell surface expression. Using a sequence kernel association (SKAT) analysis in two independent AD cohorts, we found significant enrichment of rare TREM2 variants not previously characterized at the protein level. Heterologous expression of the identified variants showed that novel variants S31F and R47C displayed significantly reduced cell surface expression. In addition, we identified rare variant R136Q in a patient with language-predominant AD that also showed impaired surface expression. The results suggest rare TREM2 variants enriched in AD may be associated with altered TREM2 function and that AD risk may be conferred, in part, from altered TREM2 surface expression.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide transport to the cell surface: biosynthesis and extraction from the inner membrane

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Brent W.; May, Janine M.; Sherman, David J.; Kahne, Daniel; Ruiz, Natividad

    2015-01-01

    The cell surface of most Gram-negative bacteria is covered with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The network of charges and sugars provided by the dense packing of LPS molecules in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane interferes with the entry of hydrophobic compounds into the cell, including many antibiotics. In addition, LPS can be recognized by the immune system and plays a crucial role in many interactions between bacteria and their animal hosts. LPS is synthesized in the inner membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, so it must be transported across their cell envelope to assemble at the cell surface. Over the past two decades, much of the research on LPS biogenesis has focused on the discovery and understanding of Lpt, a multi-protein complex that spans the cell envelope and functions to transport LPS from the inner membrane to the outer membrane. This paper focuses on the early steps of the transport of LPS by the Lpt machinery: the extraction of LPS from the inner membrane. The accompanying paper (May JM, Sherman DJ, Simpson BW, Ruiz N, Kahne D. 2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 370, 20150027. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0027)) describes the subsequent steps as LPS travels through the periplasm and the outer membrane to its final destination at the cell surface. PMID:26370941

  15. Dependence of technetium-99m red blood cell labeling efficiency on red cell surface charge.

    PubMed

    Seldin, D W; Simchon, S; Jan, K M; Chien, S; Alderson, P O

    1988-10-01

    The mechanisms by which [99mTc]pertechnetate becomes attached to stannous-primed red blood cells are not known in detail. To study the problem further, the effect of red cell surface charge on labeling efficiency was evaluated. Red cell surface charge was reduced by using the enzyme neuraminidase to remove the terminal charge-bearing sialic acid moiety of the membrane glycoprotein. Forty-five blood samples from six volunteers were treated with neuraminidase for varying lengths of time, resulting in the removal of from 11% to 99% of the normal negative surface charge, as determined from electrophoretic mobility measurements. There was excellent linear correlation between labeling efficiency and the remaining red cell surface charge for values down to 20% of normal (r = 0.89). When surface charge was less than 20% of normal, labeling efficiency was constant at 30%. Eleven blood samples from three donors were divided into two groups that were treated with neuraminidase either before or after they were labeled. The labeling efficiency was independent of the order in which the steps were performed. No evidence for shifting of the radiolabel from the cell membrane to hemoglobin was found. The results suggest that clinical conditions associated with a reduction of sialic acid on the erythrocyte membrane may be one cause of decreased red blood cell labeling efficiency, and that increased membrane permeability for reduced technetium species may be responsible for the decrease.

  16. Cell Surface Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors Increase Src and c-Cbl Activity and Receptor Ubiquitylation*

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Eileen E.; Ceresa, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    There is an established role for the endocytic pathway in regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling to downstream effectors. However, because ligand-mediated EGFR endocytosis utilizes multiple “moving parts,” dissecting the spatial versus temporal contributions has been challenging. Blocking all endocytic trafficking can have unintended effects on other receptors as well as give rise to compensatory mechanisms, both of which impact interpretation of EGFR signaling. To overcome these limitations, we used epidermal growth factor (EGF) conjugated to polystyrene beads (EGF beads). EGF beads simultaneously activate the EGFR while blocking its endocytosis and allow analysis of EGFR signaling from the plasma membrane. Human telomerase immortalized corneal epithelial (hTCEpi) cells were used to model normal epithelial cell biology. In hTCEpi cells, both cell surface and intracellular EGFRs exhibited dose-dependent increases in effector activity after 15 min of ligand stimulation, but only the serine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was statistically significant when accounting for receptor phosphorylation. However, over time with physiological levels of receptor phosphorylation, cell surface receptors produced either enhanced or sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl), and the pro-oncogene Src activity. These increases in effector communication by cell surface receptors resulted in an increase in EGFR ubiquitylation with sustained ligand incubation. Together, these data indicate that spatial regulation of EGFR signaling may be an important regulatory mechanism in receptor down-regulation. PMID:25074934

  17. Brown spider venom toxins interact with cell surface and are endocytosed by rabbit endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nowatzki, Jenifer; de Sene, Reginaldo Vieira; Paludo, Katia Sabrina; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Trindade, Edvaldo S; Franco, Célia Regina C

    2010-09-15

    Bites from the Loxosceles genus (brown spiders) cause severe clinical symptoms, including dermonecrotic injury, hemorrhage, hemolysis, platelet aggregation and renal failure. Histological findings of dermonecrotic lesions in animals exposed to Loxosceles intermedia venom show numerous vascular alterations. Study of the hemorrhagic consequences of the venom in endothelial cells has demonstrated that the degeneration of blood vessels results not only from degradation of the extracellular matrix molecule or massive leukocyte infiltration, but also from a direct and primary activity of the venom on endothelial cells. Exposure of an endothelial cell line in vitro to L. intermedia venom induce morphological alterations, such as cell retraction and disadhesion to the extracellular matrix. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between the venom toxins and the endothelial cell surface and their possible internalization, in order to illuminate the information about the deleterious effect triggered by venom. After treating endothelial cells with venom toxins, we observed that the venom interacts with cell surface. Venom treatment also can cause a reduction of cell surface glycoconjugates. When cells were permeabilized, it was possible to verify that some venom toxins were internalized by the endothelial cells. The venom internalization involves endocytic vesicles and the venom was detected in the lysosomes. However, no damage to lysosomal integrity was observed, suggesting that the cytotoxic effect evoked by L. intermedia venom on endothelial cells is not mediated by venom internalization.

  18. Yeast cell surface display for lipase whole cell catalyst and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun; Zhang, Rui; Lian, Zhongshuai; Wang, Shihui; Wright, Aaron T.

    2014-08-01

    The cell surface display technique allows for the expression of target proteins or peptides on the microbial cell surface by fusing an appropriate protein as an anchoring motif. Yeast display systems, such as Pichia pastoris, Yarowia lipolytica and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are ideal, alternative and extensive display systems with the advantage of simple genetic manipulation and post-translational modification of expressed heterologous proteins. Engineered yeasts show high performance characteristics and variant utilizations. Herein, we comprehensively summarize the variant factors affecting lipase whole cell catalyst activity and display efficiency, including the structure and size of target proteins, screening anchor proteins, type and chain length of linkers, and the appropriate matching rules among the above-mentioned display units. Furthermore, we also address novel approaches to enhance stability and activity of recombinant lipases, such as VHb gene co-expression, multi-enzyme co-display technique, and the micro-environmental interference and self-assembly techniques. Finally, we represent the variety of applications of whole cell surface displayed lipases on yeast cells in non-aqueous phases, including synthesis of esters, PUFA enrichment, resolution of chiral drugs, organic synthesis and biofuels. We demonstrate that the lipase surface display technique is a powerful tool for functionalizing yeasts to serve as whole cell catalysts, and increasing interest is providing an impetus for broad application of this technique.

  19. Sialyl-lactotetra, a novel cell surface marker of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Barone, Angela; Säljö, Karin; Benktander, John; Blomqvist, Maria; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Johansson, Bengt R; Mölne, Johan; Aspegren, Anders; Björquist, Petter; Breimer, Michael E; Teneberg, Susann

    2014-07-01

    Cell surface glycoconjugates are used as markers for undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells. Here, antibody binding and mass spectrometry characterization of acid glycosphingolipids isolated from a large number (1 × 10(9) cells) of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines allowed identification of several novel acid glycosphingolipids, like the gangliosides sialyl-lactotetraosylceramide and sialyl-globotetraosylceramide, and the sulfated glycosphingolipids sulfatide, sulf-lactosylceramide, and sulf-globopentaosylceramide. A high cell surface expression of sialyl-lactotetra on hESC and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) was demonstrated by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy, whereas sulfated glycosphingolipids were only found in intracellular compartments. Immunohistochemistry showed distinct cell surface anti-sialyl-lactotetra staining on all seven hESC lines and three hiPSC lines analyzed, whereas no staining of hESC-derived hepatocyte-like or cardiomyocyte-like cells was obtained. Upon differentiation of hiPSC into hepatocyte-like cells, the sialyl-lactotetra epitope was rapidly down-regulated and not detectable after 14 days. These findings identify sialyl-lactotetra as a promising marker of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells.

  20. Induction kinetics and cell surface distribution of Escherichia coli lipoprotein under lac promoter control.

    PubMed Central

    Hiemstra, H; de Hoop, M J; Inouye, M; Witholt, B

    1986-01-01

    The induction kinetics and surface accessibility of the outer membrane lipoprotein were studied in an Escherichia coli strain with the lpp gene under control of the lac promoter. Free lipoprotein appeared rapidly after induction with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside and reached a steady-state level after 30 min. The newly induced lipoprotein was slowly bound to the peptidoglycan layer. Immunological methods were developed to detect lipoprotein accessible at the cell surface after various pretreatments as well as peptidoglycan-bound lipoprotein at the surface of isolated peptidoglycan sacculi with specific antibodies in combination with 125I-protein A. With these methods an increase in lipoprotein molecules at the cell surface and bound to the peptidoglycan sacculus could be detected following induction. The topology of newly synthesized lipoprotein was examined in thin sections as well as at the cell surface and the surface of the peptidoglycan sacculus with immunoelectron microscopy. Ultrathin cell sections, whole cells, and isolated peptidoglycan sacculi showed lipoprotein distributed homogeneously over the entire surface. Images PMID:3531164

  1. Rare TREM2 variants associated with Alzheimer's disease display reduced cell surface expression.

    PubMed

    Sirkis, Daniel W; Bonham, Luke W; Aparicio, Renan E; Geier, Ethan G; Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Wang, Qing; Karydas, Anna; Miller, Zachary A; Miller, Bruce L; Coppola, Giovanni; Yokoyama, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    Rare variation in TREM2 has been associated with greater risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). TREM2 encodes a cell surface receptor expressed on microglia and related cells, and the R47H variant associated with AD appears to affect the ability of TREM2 to bind extracellular ligands. In addition, other rare TREM2 mutations causing early-onset neurodegeneration are thought to impair cell surface expression. Using a sequence kernel association (SKAT) analysis in two independent AD cohorts, we found significant enrichment of rare TREM2 variants not previously characterized at the protein level. Heterologous expression of the identified variants showed that novel variants S31F and R47C displayed significantly reduced cell surface expression. In addition, we identified rare variant R136Q in a patient with language-predominant AD that also showed impaired surface expression. The results suggest rare TREM2 variants enriched in AD may be associated with altered TREM2 function and that AD risk may be conferred, in part, from altered TREM2 surface expression. PMID:27589997

  2. GGA3 Interacts with a G Protein-Coupled Receptor and Modulates Its Cell Surface Export

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Maoxiang; Davis, Jason E.; Li, Chunman; Gao, Jie; Huang, Wei; Lambert, Nevin A.; Terry, Alvin V.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms governing the anterograde trafficking of nascent G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are poorly understood. Here, we have studied the regulation of cell surface transport of α2-adrenergic receptors (α2-ARs) by GGA3 (Golgi-localized, γ-adaptin ear domain homology, ADP ribosylation factor-binding protein 3), a multidomain clathrin adaptor protein that sorts cargo proteins at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosome/lysosome pathway. By using an inducible system, we demonstrated that GGA3 knockdown significantly inhibited the cell surface expression of newly synthesized α2B-AR without altering overall receptor synthesis and internalization. The receptors were arrested in the TGN. Furthermore, GGA3 knockdown attenuated α2B-AR-mediated signaling, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation and cyclic AMP (cAMP) inhibition. More interestingly, GGA3 physically interacted with α2B-AR, and the interaction sites were identified as the triple Arg motif in the third intracellular loop of the receptor and the acidic motif EDWE in the VHS domain of GGA3. In contrast, α2A-AR did not interact with GGA3 and its cell surface export and signaling were not affected by GGA3 knockdown. These data reveal a novel function of GGA3 in export trafficking of a GPCR that is mediated via a specific interaction with the receptor. PMID:26811329

  3. Candida albicans CUG Mistranslation Is a Mechanism To Create Cell Surface Variation

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Isabel; Silva-Dias, Ana; Rocha, Rita; Teixeira-Santos, Rita; Coelho, Carolina; Gonçalves, Teresa; Santos, Manuel A. S.; Pina-Vaz, Cidália; Solis, Norma V.; Filler, Scott G.; Rodrigues, Acácio G.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, the CUG codon is translated 97% of the time as serine and 3% of the time as leucine, which potentially originates an array of proteins resulting from the translation of a single gene. Genes encoding cell surface proteins are enriched in CUG codons; thus, CUG mistranslation may influence the interactions of the organism with the host. To investigate this, we compared a C. albicans strain that misincorporates 28% of leucine at CUGs with a wild-type parental strain. The first strain displayed increased adherence to inert and host molecules. In addition, it was less susceptible to phagocytosis by murine macrophages, probably due to reduced exposure of cell surface β-glucans. To prove that these phenotypes occurred due to serine/leucine exchange, the C. albicans adhesin and invasin ALS3 was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in its two natural isoforms (Als3p-Leu and Als3p-Ser). The cells with heterologous expression of Als3p-Leu showed increased adherence to host substrates and flocculation. We propose that CUG mistranslation has been maintained during the evolution of C. albicans due to its potential to generate cell surface variability, which significantly alters fungus-host interactions. PMID:23800396

  4. Detection of CXCR4 receptors on cell surface using a fluorescent metal nanoshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Fu, Yi; Li, Ge; Zhao, Richard Y.; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence cell imaging can be used for disease diagnosis and cellular signal transduction. Using a metal nanoshell as molecular imaging agent, we develop a cellular model system to detect CXCR4 chemokine receptor on T-lymphatic cell surface. These metal nanoshells are observed to express enhanced emission intensity and shortened lifetimes due to the near-field interactions. They are covalently bound with anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibodies for immunoreactions with the target sites of the CXCR4 receptors on the CEM-SS cells. The fluorescence intensity and lifetime cell images are recorded with a time-resolved confocal microscopy. As expected, the emission signals from the metal nanoshells are clearly isolated from the cellular autofluorescence due to strong intensities and distinctive lifetimes. The number of emission spots on the single cell image is estimated by direct count to the emission signals. Analyzing a pool of cell images, a maximal count number is obtained in a range of 200+/-50. Because there is an average of ~6000 binding sites on the cell surface, we estimate that one emission spot from the metal nanoshell may represent ~30 CXCR5 receptors. In addition, the CXCR4 receptors are estimated to distribute on ~70% area of the cell surface.

  5. Large-scale co-aggregation of fluorescent lipid probes with cell surface proteins

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Large scale aggregation of fluorescein-labeled immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor complexes on the surface of RBL cells results in the co- aggregation of a large fraction of the lipophilic fluorescent probe 3,3'-dihexadecylindocarbocyanine (diI) that labels the plasma membranes much more uniformly in the absence of receptor aggregation. Most of the diI molecules that are localized in patches of aggregated receptors have lost their lateral mobility as determined by fluorescence photobleaching recovery. The diI outside of patches is mobile, and its mobility is similar to that in control cells without receptor aggregates. It is unlikely that the co-aggregation of diI with IgE receptors is due to specific interactions between these components, as two other lipophilic probes of different structures are also observed to redistribute with aggregated IgE receptors, and aggregation of two other cell surface antigens also results in the coredistribution of diI at the RBL cell surface. Quantitative analysis of CCD images of labeled cells reveals some differences in the spatial distributions of co- aggregated diI and IgE receptors. The results indicate that cross- linking of specific cell surface antigens causes a substantial change in the organization of the plasma membrane by redistributing pre- existing membrane domains or causing their formation. PMID:8188747

  6. Construction of a food-grade cell surface display system for Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Kong, Jian; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a food-grade cell surface display host/vector system for Lactobacillus casei was constructed. The food-grade host L. casei Q-5 was a lactose-deficient derivative of L. casei ATCC 334 obtained by plasmid elimination. The food-grade cell surface display vector was constructed based on safe DNA elements from lactic acid bacteria containing the following: pSH71 replicon from Lactococcus lactis, lactose metabolism genes from L. casei ATCC 334 as complementation markers, and surface layer protein gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 for cell surface display. The feasibility of the new host/vector system was verified by the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) on L. casei. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and immunofluorescence analysis using anti-GFP antibody confirmed that GFP was anchored on the surface of the recombinant cells. The stability of recombinant L. casei cells in artificial gastrointestinal conditions was verified, which is beneficial for oral vaccination applications. These results indicate that the food-grade host/vector system can be an excellent antigen delivery vehicle in oral vaccine construction.

  7. Effect of direct electric current on the cell surface properties of phenol-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qishi; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xihui; Qian, Yi

    2005-01-01

    The change in cell surface properties in the presence of electric currents is of critical concern when the potential to manipulate bacterial movement with electric fields is evaluated. In this study, the effects of different direct electric currents on the cell surface properties involved in bacterial adhesion were investigated by using a mixed phenol-degrading bacterial culture in the exponential growth phase. The traits investigated were surface hydrophobicity (measured by adherence to n-octane), net surface electrostatic charge (determined by measurement of the zeta potential), and the cell surface shape and polymers (determined by scanning electron microscope analysis). The results showed that a lower current (less than 20 mA) induced no significant changes in the surface properties of phenol-degrading bacteria, that an electric current of 20 mA could increase the surface hydrophobicity and flatten the cell shape, and that a higher current (40 mA) could increase the surface extracellular substances and the net negative surface electrostatic charge. The results also revealed that the electric current effects on cell hydrophobicity varied with the suspending medium. We suggest that an electric current greater than 20 mA is not suitable for use in manipulation of the movement of the phenol-degrading bacteria, although such a current might favor the electrophoretic movement of the bacterial species.

  8. Lipopolysaccharide transport to the cell surface: biosynthesis and extraction from the inner membrane.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Brent W; May, Janine M; Sherman, David J; Kahne, Daniel; Ruiz, Natividad

    2015-10-01

    The cell surface of most Gram-negative bacteria is covered with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The network of charges and sugars provided by the dense packing of LPS molecules in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane interferes with the entry of hydrophobic compounds into the cell, including many antibiotics. In addition, LPS can be recognized by the immune system and plays a crucial role in many interactions between bacteria and their animal hosts. LPS is synthesized in the inner membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, so it must be transported across their cell envelope to assemble at the cell surface. Over the past two decades, much of the research on LPS biogenesis has focused on the discovery and understanding of Lpt, a multi-protein complex that spans the cell envelope and functions to transport LPS from the inner membrane to the outer membrane. This paper focuses on the early steps of the transport of LPS by the Lpt machinery: the extraction of LPS from the inner membrane. The accompanying paper (May JM, Sherman DJ, Simpson BW, Ruiz N, Kahne D. 2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 370, 20150027. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0027)) describes the subsequent steps as LPS travels through the periplasm and the outer membrane to its final destination at the cell surface.

  9. Bacterial Cell Surface Display of a Multifunctional Cellulolytic Enzyme Screened from a Bovine Rumen Metagenomic Resource.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyong-Cheol; Lee, Binna; Cheong, Dae-Eun; Han, Yunjon; Choi, Jong Hyun; Song, Jae Jun

    2015-11-01

    A cell surface display system for heterologous expression of the multifunctional cellulase, CelEx-BR12, in Escherichia coli was developed using truncated E. coli outer membrane protein C (OmpC) as an anchor motif. Cell surface expression of CelEx-BR12 cellulase in E. coli harboring OmpC-fused CelEx-BR12, designated MC4100 (pTOCBR12), was confirmed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and analysis of outer membrane fractions by western blotting, which verified the expected molecular mass of OmpC-fused CelEx-BR12 (~72 kDa). Functional evidence for exocellulase activity was provided by enzymatic assays of whole cells and outer membrane protein fractions from E. coli MC4100 (pTOCBR12). The stability of E. coli MC4100 (pTOCBR12) cellulase activity was tested by carrying out repeated reaction cycles, which demonstrated the reusability of recombinant cells. Finally, we showed that recombinant E. coli cells displaying the CelEx-BR12 enzyme on the cell surface were capable of growth using carboxymethyl cellulose as the sole carbon source.

  10. Activation of Cell Surface Bound 20S Proteasome Inhibits Vascular Cell Growth and Arteriogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Wulf D.; Lund, Natalie; Zhang, Ziyang; Buck, Friedrich; Lellek, Heinrich; Horst, Andrea; Machens, Hans-Günther; Schunkert, Heribert; Schaper, Wolfgang; Meinertz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Arteriogenesis is an inflammatory process associated with rapid cellular changes involving vascular resident endothelial progenitor cells (VR-EPCs). Extracellular cell surface bound 20S proteasome has been implicated to play an important role in inflammatory processes. In our search for antigens initially regulated during collateral growth mAb CTA 157-2 was generated against membrane fractions of growing collateral vessels. CTA 157-2 stained endothelium of growing collateral vessels and the cell surface of VR-EPCs. CTA 157-2 bound a protein complex (760 kDa) that was identified as 26 kDa α7 and 21 kDa β3 subunit of 20S proteasome in mass spectrometry. Furthermore we demonstrated specific staining of 20S proteasome after immunoprecipitation of VR-EPC membrane extract with CTA 157-2 sepharose beads. Functionally, CTA 157-2 enhanced concentration dependently AMC (7-amino-4-methylcoumarin) cleavage from LLVY (N-Succinyl-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr) by recombinant 20S proteasome as well as proteasomal activity in VR-EPC extracts. Proliferation of VR-EPCs (BrdU incorporation) was reduced by CTA 157-2. Infusion of the antibody into the collateral circulation reduced number of collateral arteries, collateral proliferation, and collateral conductance in vivo. In conclusion our results indicate that extracellular cell surface bound 20S proteasome influences VR-EPC function in vitro and collateral growth in vivo. PMID:26146628

  11. Quantitative immunoferritin localization of [Na+,K+]ATPase on canine hepatocyte cell surface

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Distribution of [Na+,K+]ATPase on the cell surface of canine hepatocytes was investigated quantitatively by incubating prefixed and dissociated liver cells with ferritin antibody conjugates against canine kidney holo[Na+,K+]ATPase. We found that [Na+,K+]-ATPase exists bilaterally both on the bile canalicular and sinusoid-lateral surfaces. The particle density on the bile canalicular surface was much higher (approximately 2.5 times) than that on the sinusoid-lateral surface. In the latter region, the enzyme was detected almost equally both on the sinusoidal and lateral surfaces. On all the surfaces, the distribution of the enzyme was homogeneous and no clustering of the enzyme was detected. Total number of the enzyme on the sinusoid-lateral surface was, however, approximately three times higher than that on the bile canalicular region, because the sinusoid-lateral surface represents approximately 87% of the total cell surface of a hepatocyte. We suggest that the [Na+, K+]ATPase on the bile canalicular surface is responsible for the bile acid-independent bile flow and the other transport processes on the bile canalicular cell surface, while that on the sinusoid-lateral surface is responsible not only for the active transport of Na+ but also for the secondary active transport of various substances in this region. PMID:6090472

  12. Alternative splicing of agrin regulates its binding to heparin alpha-dystroglycan, and the cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, J J; Deyst, K A; Bowe, M A; Nastuk, M A; McKechnie, B A; Fallon, J R

    1996-01-01

    Agrin is a basal lamina molecule that directs key events in postsynaptic differentiation, most notably the aggregation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on the muscle cell surface. Agrin's AChR clustering activity is regulated by alternative mRNA splicing. Agrin splice forms having inserts at two sites (y and z) in the C-terminal region are highly active, but isoforms lacking these inserts are weakly active. The biochemical consequences of this alternative splicing are unknown. Here, the binding of four recombinant agrin isoforms to heparin, to alpha-dystroglycan (a component of an agrin receptor), and to myoblasts was tested. The presence of a four-amino acid insert at the y site is necessary and sufficient to confer heparin binding ability to agrin. Moreover, the binding of agrin to alpha-dystroglycan is inhibited by heparin when this insert is present. Agrin binding to the cell surface showed analogous properties: heparin inhibits the binding of only those agrin isoforms containing this four-amino acid insert. The results show that alternative splicing of agrin regulates its binding to heparin and suggest that agrin's interaction with alpha-dystroglycan may be modulated by cell surface glycosaminoglycans in an isoform-dependent manner. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8693000

  13. Sialyl-lactotetra, a Novel Cell Surface Marker of Undifferentiated Human Pluripotent Stem Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Angela; Säljö, Karin; Benktander, John; Blomqvist, Maria; Månsson, Jan-Eric; Johansson, Bengt R.; Mölne, Johan; Aspegren, Anders; Björquist, Petter; Breimer, Michael E.; Teneberg, Susann

    2014-01-01

    Cell surface glycoconjugates are used as markers for undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells. Here, antibody binding and mass spectrometry characterization of acid glycosphingolipids isolated from a large number (1 × 109 cells) of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines allowed identification of several novel acid glycosphingolipids, like the gangliosides sialyl-lactotetraosylceramide and sialyl-globotetraosylceramide, and the sulfated glycosphingolipids sulfatide, sulf-lactosylceramide, and sulf-globopentaosylceramide. A high cell surface expression of sialyl-lactotetra on hESC and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) was demonstrated by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy, whereas sulfated glycosphingolipids were only found in intracellular compartments. Immunohistochemistry showed distinct cell surface anti-sialyl-lactotetra staining on all seven hESC lines and three hiPSC lines analyzed, whereas no staining of hESC-derived hepatocyte-like or cardiomyocyte-like cells was obtained. Upon differentiation of hiPSC into hepatocyte-like cells, the sialyl-lactotetra epitope was rapidly down-regulated and not detectable after 14 days. These findings identify sialyl-lactotetra as a promising marker of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cells. PMID:24841197

  14. Improving genetic immobilization of a cellulase on yeast cell surface for bioethanol production using cellulose.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinying; Dang, Hongyue; Lu, Jian Ren

    2013-04-01

    In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was genetically engineered to harbor the capability of utilizing celluloses for bioethanol production by displaying active cellulolytic enzymes on the cell surface. An endo-1,4-β-glucanase gene egX was cloned from Bacillus pumilus C-9 and its expression products, the EGX cellulases, were displayed on the cell surface of S. cerevisiae by fusing egX with aga2 that encodes the binding subunit of the S. cerevisiae cell wall protein α-agglutinin. To achieve high gene copies and stability, multicopy integration was obtained by integrating the fusion aga2-egX gene into the rDNA region of the S. cerevisiae chromosome. To achieve high expression and surface display efficiency, the aga2-egX gene was expressed under the control of a strong promoter. The presence of the enzymatically active cellulase fusion proteins on the S. cerevisiae cell surface was verified by carboxymethyl cellulase activity assay and immunofluorescence microscopy. This work presented a promising strategy to genetically engineer yeasts to perform efficient fermentation of cellulosic materials for bioethanol production. PMID:22915066

  15. Progress in detecting cell-surface protein receptors: the erythropoietin receptor example.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Steve; Sinclair, Angus; Collins, Helen; Rice, Linda; Jelkmann, Wolfgang

    2014-02-01

    Testing for the presence of specific cell-surface receptors (such as EGFR or HER2) on tumor cells is an integral part of cancer care in terms of treatment decisions and prognosis. Understanding the strengths and limitations of these tests is important because inaccurate results may occur if procedures designed to prevent false-negative or false-positive outcomes are not employed. This review discusses tests commonly used to identify and characterize cell-surface receptors, such as the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR). First, a summary is provided on the biology of the Epo/EpoR system, describing how EpoR is expressed on erythrocytic progenitors and precursors in the bone marrow where it mediates red blood cell production in response to Epo. Second, studies are described that investigated whether erythropoiesis-stimulating agents could stimulate tumor progression in cancer patients and whether EpoR is expressed and functional on tumor cells or on endothelial cells. The methods used in these studies included immunohistochemistry, Northern blotting, Western blotting, and binding assays. This review summarizes the strengths and limitations of these methods. Critically analyzing data from tests for cell-surface receptors such as EpoR requires understanding the techniques utilized and demonstrating that results are consistent with current knowledge about receptor biology. PMID:24337485

  16. Role of TI-VAMP and CD82 in EGFR cell-surface dynamics and signaling.

    PubMed

    Danglot, Lydia; Chaineau, Mathilde; Dahan, Maxime; Gendron, Marie-Claude; Boggetto, Nicole; Perez, Franck; Galli, Thierry

    2010-03-01

    The v-SNARE TI-VAMP (VAMP7) mediates exocytosis during neuritogenesis, phagocytosis and lysosomal secretion. It localizes to endosomes and lysosomes but also to the trans-Golgi network. Here we show that depletion of TI-VAMP enhances the endocytosis of activated EGF receptor (EGFR) without affecting constitutive endocytosis of EGFR, or transferrin uptake. This increased EGFR internalization is mainly clathrin dependent. Searching for defects in EGFR regulators, we found that TI-VAMP depletion reduces the cell surface amount of CD82, a tetraspanin known to control EGFR localization in microdomains. We further show that TI-VAMP is required for secretion from the Golgi apparatus to the cell surface, and that TI-VAMP-positive vesicles transport CD82. Quantum dots video-microscopy indicates that depletion of TI-VAMP, or its cargo CD82, restrains EGFR diffusion and the area explored by EGFR at the cell surface. Both depletions also impair MAPK signaling and enhance endocytosis of activated EGFR by increased recruitment of AP-2. These results highlight the role of TI-VAMP in the secretory pathway of a tetraspanin, and support a model in which CD82 allows EGFR entry in microdomains that control its clathrin-dependent endocytosis and signaling.

  17. Effect of Direct Electric Current on the Cell Surface Properties of Phenol-Degrading Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qishi; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xihui; Qian, Yi

    2005-01-01

    The change in cell surface properties in the presence of electric currents is of critical concern when the potential to manipulate bacterial movement with electric fields is evaluated. In this study, the effects of different direct electric currents on the cell surface properties involved in bacterial adhesion were investigated by using a mixed phenol-degrading bacterial culture in the exponential growth phase. The traits investigated were surface hydrophobicity (measured by adherence to n-octane), net surface electrostatic charge (determined by measurement of the zeta potential), and the cell surface shape and polymers (determined by scanning electron microscope analysis). The results showed that a lower current (less than 20 mA) induced no significant changes in the surface properties of phenol-degrading bacteria, that an electric current of 20 mA could increase the surface hydrophobicity and flatten the cell shape, and that a higher current (40 mA) could increase the surface extracellular substances and the net negative surface electrostatic charge. The results also revealed that the electric current effects on cell hydrophobicity varied with the suspending medium. We suggest that an electric current greater than 20 mA is not suitable for use in manipulation of the movement of the phenol-degrading bacteria, although such a current might favor the electrophoretic movement of the bacterial species. PMID:15640217

  18. Molecular polymorphism of a cell surface proteoglycan: distinct structures on simple and stratified epithelia.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, R D; Bernfield, M

    1988-12-01

    Epithelial cells are organized into either a single layer (simple epithelia) or multiple layers (stratified epithelia). Maintenance of these cellular organizations requires distinct adhesive mechanisms involving many cell surface molecules. One such molecule is a cell surface proteoglycan, named syndecan, that contains both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains. This proteoglycan binds cells to fibrillar collagens and fibronectin and thus acts as a receptor for interstitial matrix. The proteoglycan is restricted to the basolateral surface of simple epithelial cells, but is located over the entire surface of stratified epithelial cells, even those surfaces not contacting matrix. We now show that the distinct localization in simple and stratified epithelia correlates with a distinct proteoglycan structure. The proteoglycan from simple epithelia (modal molecular size, 160 kDa) is larger than that from stratified epithelia (modal molecular size, 92 kDa), but their core proteins are identical in size and immunoreactivity. The proteoglycan from simple epithelia has more and larger heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate chains than the proteoglycan from stratified epithelia. Thus, the cell surface proteoglycan shows a tissue-specific structural polymorphism due to distinct posttranslational modifications. This polymorphism likely reflects distinct proteoglycan functions in simple and stratified epithelia, potentially meeting the different adhesive requirements of the cells in these different organizations.

  19. Changes in immunologic cell surface markers during cocaine withdrawal in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T R; Knisely, J S; Christmas, J T; Schnoll, S H; Ruddy, S

    1996-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of acute cocaine withdrawal on the immune system of pregnant women, we analyzed changes in a panel of cell surface markers and plasma proteins that have immunological importance. The cell surface markers included complement receptors [CR1 (CD35), CR2 (CD21), CR3 (CD11b, CD18)], immunoglobulin Fc receptors [FcgammaRII (CD32), FcgammaRIII (CD16)], proteins important for lymphocyte function [CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD25, CD45RA], and the framework antigen HLA-ABC. We also measured levels of the plasma proteins C3, C4, IgG, IgM, and IgA, along with the cytokine interleukin-2, soluble lymphocyte markers sCD25, sCD4, sCD8, IL-2, and soluble immune complexes. While no significant changes were seen in the levels of plasma proteins, changes paralleling the course of acute withdrawal were seen in complement receptors and immunoglobulin Fc receptors on leukocyte subpopulations. By contrast, proteins important for lymphocyte function were relatively unperturbed. There was an increase in receptor expression at the onset of withdrawal that peaked 3-5 days after last cocaine use, followed by a decrease in expression to initial (pre-withdrawal) levels. These changes in cell surface receptors may reflect altered immune function in the women who were withdrawing from cocaine.

  20. Monoterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis). cDNA isolation, characterization, and functional expression of myrcene synthase, (-)-(4S)-limonene synthase, and (-)-(1S,5S)-pinene synthase.

    PubMed

    Bohlmann, J; Steele, C L; Croteau, R

    1997-08-29

    Grand fir (Abies grandis) has been developed as a model system for studying defensive oleoresin formation in conifers in response to insect attack or other injury. The turpentine fraction of the oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene (C10) olefins in which (-)-limonene and (-)-alpha- and (-)-beta-pinene are prominent components; (-)-limonene and (-)-pinene synthase activities are also induced upon stem wounding. A similarity based cloning strategy yielded three new cDNA species from a wounded stem cDNA library that appeared to encode three distinct monoterpene synthases. After expression in Escherichia coli and enzyme assay with geranyl diphosphate as substrate, subsequent analysis of the terpene products by chiral phase gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that these sequences encoded a (-)-limonene synthase, a myrcene synthase, and a (-)-pinene synthase that produces both alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. In properties and reaction stereochemistry, the recombinant enzymes resemble the corresponding native monoterpene synthases of wound-induced grand fir stem. The deduced amino acid sequences indicated the limonene synthase to be 637 residues in length (73.5 kDa), the myrcene synthase to be 627 residues in length (72.5 kDa), and the pinene synthase to be 628 residues in length (71.5 kDa); all of these monoterpene synthases appear to be translated as preproteins bearing an amino-terminal plastid targeting sequence. Sequence comparison revealed that these monoterpene synthases from grand fir resemble sesquiterpene (C15) synthases and diterpene (C20) synthases from conifers more closely than other monoterpene synthases from angiosperm species. This similarity between extant monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and diterpene synthases of gymnosperms is surprising since functional diversification of this enzyme class is assumed to have occurred over 300 million years ago. Wound-induced accumulation of transcripts for monoterpene synthases was demonstrated by RNA

  1. Building-block selectivity of polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Liou, Grace F; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-04-01

    For the past decade, polyketide synthases have presented an exciting paradigm for the controlled manipulation of complex natural product structure. These multifunctional enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of polyketide natural products by stepwise condensation and modification of metabolically derived building blocks. In particular, regioselective modification of polyketide structure is possible by alterations in either intracellular acyl-CoA pools or, more commonly, by manipulation of acyl transferases that act as the primary gatekeepers for building blocks.

  2. Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase operates in planta as a bifunctional enzyme with chrysanthemol synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Liping; Hu, Hao; Stoopen, Geert; Wang, Caiyun; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2014-12-26

    Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CDS) is the first pathway-specific enzyme in the biosynthesis of pyrethrins, the most widely used plant-derived pesticide. CDS catalyzes c1'-2-3 cyclopropanation reactions of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to yield chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP). Three proteins are known to catalyze this cyclopropanation reaction of terpene precursors. Two of them, phytoene and squalene synthase, are bifunctional enzymes with both prenyltransferase and terpene synthase activity. CDS, the other member, has been reported to perform only the prenyltransferase step. Here we show that the NDXXD catalytic motif of CDS, under the lower substrate conditions prevalent in plants, also catalyzes the next step, converting CPP into chrysanthemol by hydrolyzing the diphosphate moiety. The enzymatic hydrolysis reaction followed conventional Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km value for CPP of 196 μm. For the chrysanthemol synthase activity, DMAPP competed with CPP as substrate. The DMAPP concentration required for half-maximal activity to produce chrysanthemol was ∼100 μm, and significant substrate inhibition was observed at elevated DMAPP concentrations. The N-terminal peptide of CDS was identified as a plastid-targeting peptide. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing CDS emitted chrysanthemol at a rate of 0.12-0.16 μg h(-1) g(-1) fresh weight. We propose that CDS should be renamed a chrysanthemol synthase utilizing DMAPP as substrate.

  3. Chrysanthemyl Diphosphate Synthase Operates in Planta as a Bifunctional Enzyme with Chrysanthemol Synthase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Gao, Liping; Hu, Hao; Stoopen, Geert; Wang, Caiyun; Jongsma, Maarten A.

    2014-01-01

    Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CDS) is the first pathway-specific enzyme in the biosynthesis of pyrethrins, the most widely used plant-derived pesticide. CDS catalyzes c1′-2-3 cyclopropanation reactions of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) to yield chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP). Three proteins are known to catalyze this cyclopropanation reaction of terpene precursors. Two of them, phytoene and squalene synthase, are bifunctional enzymes with both prenyltransferase and terpene synthase activity. CDS, the other member, has been reported to perform only the prenyltransferase step. Here we show that the NDXXD catalytic motif of CDS, under the lower substrate conditions prevalent in plants, also catalyzes the next step, converting CPP into chrysanthemol by hydrolyzing the diphosphate moiety. The enzymatic hydrolysis reaction followed conventional Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km value for CPP of 196 μm. For the chrysanthemol synthase activity, DMAPP competed with CPP as substrate. The DMAPP concentration required for half-maximal activity to produce chrysanthemol was ∼100 μm, and significant substrate inhibition was observed at elevated DMAPP concentrations. The N-terminal peptide of CDS was identified as a plastid-targeting peptide. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing CDS emitted chrysanthemol at a rate of 0.12–0.16 μg h−1 g−1 fresh weight. We propose that CDS should be renamed a chrysanthemol synthase utilizing DMAPP as substrate. PMID:25378387

  4. All members in the sphingomyelin synthase gene family have ceramide phosphoethanolamine synthase activity[S

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Tingbo; Kabir, Inamul; Li, Yue; Lou, Caixia; Yazdanyar, Amirfarbod; Xu, Jiachen; Dong, Jibin; Zhou, Hongwen; Park, Taesik; Boutjdir, Mohamed; Li, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Xian-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin synthase-related protein (SMSr) synthesizes the sphingomyelin analog ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE) in cells. Previous cell studies indicated that SMSr is involved in ceramide homeostasis and is crucial for cell function. To further examine SMSr function in vivo, we generated Smsr KO mice that were fertile and had no obvious phenotypic alterations. Quantitative MS analyses of plasma, liver, and macrophages from the KO mice revealed only marginal changes in CPE and ceramide as well as other sphingolipid levels. Because SMS2 also has CPE synthase activity, we prepared Smsr/Sms2 double KO mice. We found that CPE levels were not significantly changed in macrophages, suggesting that CPE levels are not exclusively dependent on SMSr and SMS2 activities. We then measured CPE levels in Sms1 KO mice and found that Sms1 deficiency also reduced plasma CPE levels. Importantly, we found that expression of Sms1 or Sms2 in SF9 insect cells significantly increased not only SM but also CPE formation, indicating that SMS1 also has CPE synthase activity. Moreover, we measured CPE synthase Km and Vmax for SMS1, SMS2, and SMSr using different NBD ceramides. Our study reveals that all mouse SMS family members (SMSr, SMS1, and SMS2) have CPE synthase activity. However, neither CPE nor SMSr appears to be a critical regulator of ceramide levels in vivo. PMID:25605874

  5. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, Ke-Mian; Chang, Chia-Chun; Shen, Qing-Ji; Sung, Li-Ying; Liu, Ji-Long

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  6. Oligosaccharide Binding in Escherichia coli Glycogen Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Fang; Yep, Alejandra; Feng, Lei; Preiss, Jack; Geiger, James H.

    2010-11-17

    Glycogen/starch synthase elongates glucan chains and is the key enzyme in the synthesis of glycogen in bacteria and starch in plants. Cocrystallization of Escherichia coli wild-type glycogen synthase (GS) with substrate ADPGlc and the glucan acceptor mimic HEPPSO produced a closed form of GS and suggests that domain-domain closure accompanies glycogen synthesis. Cocrystallization of the inactive GS mutant E377A with substrate ADPGlc and oligosaccharide results in the first oligosaccharide-bound glycogen synthase structure. Four bound oligosaccharides are observed, one in the interdomain cleft (G6a) and three on the N-terminal domain surface (G6b, G6c, and G6d). Extending from the center of the enzyme to the interdomain cleft opening, G6a mostly interacts with the highly conserved N-terminal domain residues lining the cleft of GS. The surface-bound oligosaccharides G6c and G6d have less interaction with enzyme and exhibit a more curled, helixlike structural arrangement. The observation that oligosaccharides bind only to the N-terminal domain of GS suggests that glycogen in vivo probably binds to only one side of the enzyme to ensure unencumbered interdomain movement, which is required for efficient, continuous glucan-chain synthesis.

  7. Linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA ameliorates stress-induced depression-related behavior by promoting cell surface 5-HT1A receptor translocation, stimulating serotonin release, and inactivating GSK-3β.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-04-01

    Impairment of serotonergic neurotransmission is the major factor responsible for depression and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) participates in serotonergic transmission-mediated signaling networks relevant to mental illnesses. In the forced-swim test to assess depression-like behavior, the immobility time for mice with restraint stress was significantly longer than that for nonstressed control mice. Postsynaptic cell surface localization of 5-HT1A receptor, but not 5-HT2A receptor, in the hypothalamus for mice with restraint stress was significantly reduced as compared with that for control mice, which highly correlated to prolonged immobility time, i.e., depression-like behavior. The linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) restored restraint stress-induced reduction of cell surface 5-HT1A receptor and improved depression-like behavior in mice with restraint stress. Moreover, DCP-LA stimulated serotonin release from hypothalamic slices and cancelled restraint stress-induced reduction of GSK-3β phosphorylation at Ser9. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that DCP-LA could ameliorate depression-like behavior by promoting translocation of 5-HT1A receptor to the plasma membrane on postsynaptic cells, stimulating serotonin release, and inactivating GSK-3β.

  8. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, David C; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-07-15

    Two monoterpene synthases, (-)-pinene synthase and (-)-camphene synthase, from grand fir (Abies grandis) produce different product mixtures despite having highly homologous amino acid sequences and, presumably, very similar three-dimensional structures. The major product of (-)-camphene synthase, (-)-camphene, and the major products of (-)-pinene synthase, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, arise through distinct mechanistic variations of the electrophilic reaction cascade that is common to terpenoid synthases. Structural modeling followed by directed mutagenesis in (-)-pinene synthase was used to replace selected amino acid residues with the corresponding residues from (-)-camphene synthase in an effort to identify the amino acids responsible for the catalytic differences. This approach produced an enzyme in which more than half of the product was channeled through an alternative pathway. It was also shown that several (-)-pinene synthase to (-)-camphene synthase amino acid substitutions were necessary before catalysis was significantly altered. The data support a model in which the collective action of many key amino acids, located both in and distant from the active site pocket, regulate the course of the electrophilic reaction cascade.

  9. Regulation of mitochondrial ATP synthase in cardiac pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Long, Qinqiang; Yang, Kevin; Yang, Qinglin

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial function is paramount to energy homeostasis, metabolism, signaling, and apoptosis in cells. Mitochondrial complex V (ATP synthase), a molecular motor, is the ultimate ATP generator and a key determinant of mitochondrial function. ATP synthase catalyzes the final coupling step of oxidative phosphorylation to supply energy in the form of ATP. Alterations at this step will crucially impact mitochondrial respiration and hence cardiac performance. It is well established that cardiac contractility is strongly dependent on the mitochondria, and that myocardial ATP depletion is a key feature of heart failure. ATP synthase dysfunction can cause and exacerbate human diseases, such as cardiomyopathy and heart failure. While ATP synthase has been extensively studied, essential questions related to how the regulation of ATP synthase determines energy metabolism in the heart linger and therapies targeting this important mechanism remain scarce. This review will visit the main findings, identify unsolved issues and provide insights into potential future perspectives related to the regulation of ATP synthase and cardiac pathophysiology.

  10. Surrogate splicing for functional analysis of sesquiterpene synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuiqin; Schoenbeck, Mark A; Greenhagen, Bryan T; Takahashi, Shunji; Lee, Sungbeom; Coates, Robert M; Chappell, Joseph

    2005-07-01

    A method for the recovery of full-length cDNAs from predicted terpene synthase genes containing introns is described. The approach utilizes Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression coupled with a reverse transcription-polydeoxyribonucleotide chain reaction assay to facilitate expression cloning of processed transcripts. Subsequent expression of intronless cDNAs in a suitable prokaryotic host provides for direct functional testing of the encoded gene product. The method was optimized by examining the expression of an intron-containing beta-glucuronidase gene agroinfiltrated into petunia (Petunia hybrida) leaves, and its utility was demonstrated by defining the function of two previously uncharacterized terpene synthases. A tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) terpene synthase-like gene containing six predicted introns was characterized as having 5-epi-aristolochene synthase activity, while an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene previously annotated as a terpene synthase was shown to possess a novel sesquiterpene synthase activity for alpha-barbatene, thujopsene, and beta-chamigrene biosynthesis. PMID:15965019

  11. Geranyl diphosphate synthase molecules, and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Burke, Charles Cullen

    2008-06-24

    In one aspect, the present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules that each encode a geranyl diphosphate synthase protein, wherein each isolated nucleic acid molecule hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule consisting of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 under conditions of 5.times.SSC at 45.degree. C. for one hour. The present invention also provides isolated geranyl diphosphate synthase proteins, and methods for altering the level of expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase protein in a host cell.

  12. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase-dependent S-nitrosylation of gephyrin regulates gephyrin clustering at GABAergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Dejanovic, Borislav; Schwarz, Guenter

    2014-06-01

    Gephyrin, the principal scaffolding protein at inhibitory synapses, is essential for postsynaptic clustering of glycine and GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs). Gephyrin cluster formation, which determines the strength of GABAergic transmission, is modulated by interaction with signaling proteins and post-translational modifications. Here, we show that gephyrin was found to be associated with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the major source of the ubiquitous and important signaling molecule NO in brain. Furthermore, we identified that gephyrin is S-nitrosylated in vivo. Overexpression of nNOS decreased the size of postsynaptic gephyrin clusters in primary hippocampal neurons. Conversely, inhibition of nNOS resulted in a loss of S-nitrosylation of gephyrin and the formation of larger gephyrin clusters at synaptic sites, ultimately increasing the number of cell surface expressed synaptic GABA(A)Rs. In conclusion, S-nitrosylation of gephyrin is important for homeostatic assembly and plasticity of GABAergic synapses.

  13. Vitis vinifera terpenoid cyclases: functional identification of two sesquiterpene synthase cDNAs encoding (+)-valencene synthase and (-)-germacrene D synthase and expression of mono- and sesquiterpene synthases in grapevine flowers and berries.

    PubMed

    Lücker, Joost; Bowen, Pat; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2004-10-01

    Valencene is a volatile sesquiterpene emitted from flowers of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. A full-length cDNA from the cultivar Gewürztraminer was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and found to encode valencene synthase (VvVal). The two major products formed by recombinant VvVal enzyme activity with farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) as substrate are (+)-valencene and (-)-7-epi-alpha-selinene. Grapevine valencene synthase is closely related to a second sesquiterpene synthase from this species, (-)-germacrene D synthase (VvGerD). VvVal and VvGerD cDNA probes revealed strong signals in Northern hybridizations with RNA isolated from grapevine flower buds. Transcript levels were lower in open pre-anthesis flowers, flowers after anthesis, or at early onset of fruit development. Similar results were obtained using a third probe, (-)-alpha-terpineol synthase, a monoterpenol synthase. Sesquiterpene synthase and monoterpene synthase transcripts were not detected in the mesocarp and exocarp during early stages of fruit development, but transcripts hybridizing with VvVal appeared during late ripening of the berries. Sesquiterpene synthase transcripts were also detected in young seeds. PMID:15464152

  14. Divinyl ether synthase gene, and protein and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Gregg A.; Itoh, Aya

    2006-12-26

    The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

  15. Divinyl ether synthase gene and protein, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Gregg A.; Itoh, Aya

    2011-09-13

    The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

  16. New Cell Surface Protein Involved in Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus parasanguinis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaobo; Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Ruiz, Teresa; Wu, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Dental biofilm formation is critical for maintaining the healthy microbial ecology of the oral cavity. Streptococci are predominant bacterial species in the oral cavity and play important roles in the initiation of plaque formation. In this study, we identified a new cell surface protein, BapA1, from Streptococcus parasanguinis FW213 and determined that BapA1 is critical for biofilm formation. Sequence analysis revealed that BapA1 possesses a typical cell wall-sorting signal for cell surface-anchored proteins from Gram-positive bacteria. No functional orthologue was reported in other streptococci. BapA1 possesses nine putative pilin isopeptide linker domains which are crucial for pilus assembly in a number of Gram-positive bacteria. Deletion of the 3′ portion of bapA1 generated a mutant that lacks surface-anchored BapA1 and abolishes formation of short fibrils on the cell surface. The mutant failed to form biofilms and exhibited reduced adherence to an in vitro tooth model. The BapA1 deficiency also inhibited bacterial autoaggregation. The N-terminal muramidase-released-protein-like domain mediated BapA1-BapA1 interactions, suggesting that BapA1-mediated cell-cell interactions are important for bacterial autoaggregation and biofilm formation. Furthermore, the BapA1-mediated bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are independent of a fimbria-associated serine-rich repeat adhesin, Fap1, demonstrating that BapA1 is a new streptococcal adhesin. PMID:21576336

  17. Desulfation of cell surface HSPG is an effective strategy for the treatment of gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yi, Bin; Qiu, Yinghe; Ji, Weidan; Wei, Miaoyan; Liu, Chunying; Peng, Zhangxiao; Zhang, Yongjie; Quan, Zhiwei; Tang, Zhaohui; Su, Changqing

    2016-10-28

    Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) is a group of critical glycoproteins that mediates signal transduction. Sulfated HSPG can mediate the activation of a variety of cell growth factor signal pathway to promote the progression of gallbladder carcinoma (GBC). This study analyzed 527 clinical GBC specimens and confirmed that the HSPG sulfation level was significantly higher in GBC tissues than in gallbladder mucosa (GBM) tissues. The high HSPG sulfation level was closely associated with poor differentiation, local metastasis, and advanced clinical stage of GBC; it was also associated with the shortening of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and influenced the outcome of chemotherapy or radio-chemotherapy in patients with GBC recurrence. Inhibition of HSPG sulfation on the GBC cell surface using human sulfatase 1 (hSulf-1) significantly reduced the phosphorylation levels of growth factor receptors and signaling protein kinases in GBC cells, decreased cell responses to growth factors, and inhibited cell proliferation and migration abilities. In a nude mouse model with GBC xenografts, we observed that the xenograft tumor growth was suppressed and the phosphorylation levels of signaling proteins were downregulated, together with decreased expression of Ki67 and reduced sensitivity to bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) induction after inhibition of HSPG sulfation. Our study demonstrated that a high HSPG sulfation endows GBC with high malignant biological behaviors and a poor prognosis. Desulfation of cell surface HSPG can inhibit the kinase activities of a variety of signaling proteins, hinder the cell response to growth factors, and effectively inhibit the malignant biological behaviors of GBC cells.

  18. High Cell Surface Death Receptor Expression Determines Type I Versus Type II Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xue Wei; Peterson, Kevin L.; Dai, Haiming; Schneider, Paula; Lee, Sun-Hee; Zhang, Jin-San; Koenig, Alexander; Bronk, Steve; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Gores, Gregory J.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there are two signaling pathways leading from ligation of the Fas receptor to induction of apoptosis. Type I signaling involves Fas ligand-induced recruitment of large amounts of FADD (FAS-associated death domain protein) and procaspase 8, leading to direct activation of caspase 3, whereas type II signaling involves Bid-mediated mitochondrial perturbation to amplify a more modest death receptor-initiated signal. The biochemical basis for this dichotomy has previously been unclear. Here we show that type I cells have a longer half-life for Fas message and express higher amounts of cell surface Fas, explaining the increased recruitment of FADD and subsequent signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that cells with type II Fas signaling (Jurkat or HCT-15) can signal through a type I pathway upon forced receptor overexpression and that shRNA-mediated Fas down-regulation converts cells with type I signaling (A498) to type II signaling. Importantly, the same cells can exhibit type I signaling for Fas and type II signaling for TRAIL (TNF-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), indicating that the choice of signaling pathway is related to the specific receptor, not some other cellular feature. Additional experiments revealed that up-regulation of cell surface death receptor 5 levels by treatment with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin converted TRAIL signaling in HCT116 cells from type II to type I. Collectively, these results suggest that the type I/type II dichotomy reflects differences in cell surface death receptor expression. PMID:21865165

  19. Probe for the measurement of cell surface pH in vivo and ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Michael; Moshnikova, Anna; Engelman, Donald M; Reshetnyak, Yana K; Andreev, Oleg A

    2016-07-19

    We have developed a way to measure cell surface pH by positioning a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, seminaphtharhodafluor (SNARF), conjugated to the pH low insertion peptide (pHLIP). It has been observed that many diseased tissues are acidic and that tumors are especially so. A combination of effects acidifies tumor cell interiors, and cells pump out lactic acid and protons to maintain intracellular pH, acidifying the extracellular space. Overexpression of carbonic anhydrases on cell surfaces further contributes to acidification. Thus, the pH near tumor cell surfaces is expected to be low and to increase with distance from the membrane, so bulk pH measurements will not report surface acidity. Our new surface pH-measurement tool was validated in cancer cells grown in spheroids, in mouse tumor models in vivo, and in excised tumors. We found that the surface pH is sensitive to cell glycolytic activity: the pH decreases in high glucose and increases if glucose is replaced with nonmetabolized deoxyglucose. For highly metastatic cancer cells, the pH measured at the surface was 6.7-6.8, when the surrounding external pH was 7.4. The approach is sensitive enough to detect 0.2-0.3 pH unit changes in vivo in tumors induced by i.p. injection of glucose. The pH at the surfaces of highly metastatic cells within tumors was found to be about 6.1-6.4, whereas in nonmetastatic tumors, it was 6.7-6.9, possibly creating a way to distinguish more aggressive from less aggressive tumors. Other biological roles of surface acidity may be found, now that targeted measurements are possible.

  20. Probe for the measurement of cell surface pH in vivo and ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Michael; Moshnikova, Anna; Engelman, Donald M.; Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Andreev, Oleg A.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a way to measure cell surface pH by positioning a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, seminaphtharhodafluor (SNARF), conjugated to the pH low insertion peptide (pHLIP). It has been observed that many diseased tissues are acidic and that tumors are especially so. A combination of effects acidifies tumor cell interiors, and cells pump out lactic acid and protons to maintain intracellular pH, acidifying the extracellular space. Overexpression of carbonic anhydrases on cell surfaces further contributes to acidification. Thus, the pH near tumor cell surfaces is expected to be low and to increase with distance from the membrane, so bulk pH measurements will not report surface acidity. Our new surface pH-measurement tool was validated in cancer cells grown in spheroids, in mouse tumor models in vivo, and in excised tumors. We found that the surface pH is sensitive to cell glycolytic activity: the pH decreases in high glucose and increases if glucose is replaced with nonmetabolized deoxyglucose. For highly metastatic cancer cells, the pH measured at the surface was 6.7–6.8, when the surrounding external pH was 7.4. The approach is sensitive enough to detect 0.2–0.3 pH unit changes in vivo in tumors induced by i.p. injection of glucose. The pH at the surfaces of highly metastatic cells within tumors was found to be about 6.1–6.4, whereas in nonmetastatic tumors, it was 6.7–6.9, possibly creating a way to distinguish more aggressive from less aggressive tumors. Other biological roles of surface acidity may be found, now that targeted measurements are possible. PMID:27382181

  1. Vimentin and desmin possess GlcNAc-binding lectin-like properties on cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ise, Hirohiko; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Goto, Mitsuaki; Sato, Takao; Kawakubo, Masatomo; Takahashi, Masafumi; Ikeda, Uichi; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2010-07-01

    Vimentin and desmin are intermediate filament proteins found in various mesenchymal and skeletal muscle cells, respectively. These proteins play an important role in the stabilization of the cytoplasmic architecture. Here, we found, using artificial biomimicking glycopolymers, that vimentin and desmin possess N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-binding lectin-like properties on the cell surfaces of various vimentin- and desmin-expressing cells such as cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. The rod II domain of these proteins was demonstrated to be localized to the cell surface and to directly bind to the artificial biomimicking GlcNAc-bearing polymer, by confocal laser microscopy and surface plasmon resonance analysis. These glycopolymers strongly interact with lectins and are useful tools for the analysis of lectin-carbohydrate interactions, since glycopolymers binding to lectins can induce the clustering of lectins due to multivalent glycoside ligand binding. Moreover, immunocytochemistry and pull-down assay with His-tagged vimentin-rod II domain protein showed that the vimentin-rod II domain interacts with O-GlcNAc proteins. These results suggest that O-GlcNAc proteins might be one candidate for physiological GlcNAc-bearing ligands with which vimentin and desmin interact. These findings demonstrate a novel function of vimentin and desmin that does not involve stabilization of the cytoplasmic architecture by which these proteins interact with physiological GlcNAc-bearing ligands such as O-GlcNAc proteins on the cell surface through their GlcNAc-binding lectin-like properties. PMID:20332081

  2. Streptococcus salivarius strains carry either fibrils or fimbriae on the cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    Handley, P S; Carter, P L; Fielding, J

    1984-01-01

    Strains of Streptococcus salivarius were screened by negative staining for the presence of surface structures. Two structural subgroups were found, carrying either fibrils or fimbriae, projecting from the cell surface. Eight strains carried a very dense peritrichous array of fibrils of two distinct lengths. Long fibrils had an average length of 175 nm, and short fibrils had an average length of 95 nm. Two strains carried only long fibrils, one strain carried only short fibrils, and another strain carried a lateral tuft of very prominent fibrils of two lengths, with a fibrillar fuzz covering the remainder of the cell surface. In all the strains in which they were present, the long fibrils were unaffected by protease or trypsin treatment. In contrast, the short fibrils were completely digested by protease and partially removed by trypsin. Neither long nor short fibrils were affected structurally by mild pepsin digestion or by lipase. The Lancefield extraction procedure removed both long and short fibrils. These twelve fibrillar strains were therefore divisible into four structural subgroups. Extracts of all the fibrillar strains reacted with group K antiserum. The second main structural subgroup consisted of nine strains of S. salivarius, all of which carried morphologically identical, flexible fimbriae arranged peritrichously over the cell surface. The fimbriae were structurally distinct from fibrils and measured 0.5 to 1.0 micron long and 3 to 4 nm wide, with an irregular outline and no obvious substructure. There was no obvious reduction in the number of fimbriae after protease or trypsin treatment. Extracts of the fimbriated strains did not react with the group K antiserum. The two serological and structural subgroups could also be distinguished by colony morphology. Images PMID:6197404

  3. Short-chain ceramides depress integrin cell surface expression and function in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Morad, Samy A F; Bridges, Lance C; Almeida Larrea, Alex D; Mayen, Anthony L; MacDougall, Matthew R; Davis, Traci S; Kester, Mark; Cabot, Myles C

    2016-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly metastatic, significantly so to liver, a characteristic that embodies one of the most challenging aspects of treatment. The integrin family of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion receptors plays a central role in migration and invasion, functions that underlie metastatic potential. In the present work we sought to determine the impact of ceramide, which plays a key modulatory role in cancer suppression, on integrin cell surface expression and function in CRC cells in order to reveal possible ceramide-centric effects on tumor cell motility. Human CRC cells LoVo, HT-29, and HCT-116 were employed, which represent lines established from primary and metastatic sites. A cell-permeable, short-chain analog, C6-ceramide, was used as ceramide mimic. Exposure of cells to C6-ceramide (24 h) promoted a dose-dependent (2.5-10 µM) decrease in the expression of cell surface β1 and β4 integrin subunits in all cell lines; at 10 µM C6-ceramide, the decreases ranged from 30 to 50% of the control. Expression of cell surface αVβ6 integrin, which is associated with advanced invasion in CRC, was also suppressed by C6-ceramide. Decreases in integrin expression translated to diminished cellular adhesion, 50% of the control at 5 µM C6-ceramide, and markedly reduced cellular migration, approximately 30-40% of the control in all cell lines. Physicochemical examination revealed potent efficacy of nano-formulated C6-ceramide, but inferior activity of dihydro-C6-ceramide and L-C6-ceramide, compared to the unsaturated counterpart and the natural d-enantiomer, respectively. These studies demonstrate novel actions of ceramides that may have application in suppression of tumor metastasis, in addition to their known tumor suppressor effects. PMID:27045476

  4. Equilibrium of sortase A dimerization on Staphylococcus aureus cell surface mediates its cell wall sorting activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Xiang, Liang; Jiang, Faqin

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus sortase A (SrtA) transpeptidase is a therapeutically important membrane-bound enzyme in Gram-positive bacteria, which organizes the covalently attached cell surface proteins on the peptidoglycan cell wall of the organism. Here, we report the direct observation of the highly selective homo-dimerization of SrtA on the cell membrane. To address the biological significance of the dimerization towards enzyme function, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to generate a SrtA mutant, which exists as monomer on the cell membrane. We observed that the cell surface display of adhesive proteins in S. aureus cells expressing monomeric SrtA mutant is more prominent than the cells expressing the wild-type enzyme. A cell-based invasion assay was also performed to evaluate the activities of wild-type SrtA and its monomeric mutant as well. Our data demonstrated that S. aureus cells expressing SrtA in monomeric form invade host mammalian cells more efficiently than those expressing wild-type SrtA in dimer-monomer equilibrium. The results suggested that the monomeric form of SrtA is more active than the dimeric form of the enzyme in terms of cell surface display of virulence factors for infection. This is the first study to present the oligomerization of SrtA and its related biological function on the cell membrane. Study of SrtA dimerization has implications for understanding its catalytic mechanism at the cellular level as well as the development of novel anti-infective agents. PMID:26129884

  5. Cell surface glycopeptides from human intestinal epithelial cell lines derived from normal colon and colon adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Youakim, A.; Herscovics, A.

    1985-11-01

    The cell surface glycopeptides from an epithelial cell line (CCL 239) derived from normal human colon were compared with those from three cell lines (HCT-8R, HCT-15, and CaCo-2) derived independently from human colonic adenocarcinomas. Cells were incubated with D-(2-TH)mannose or L-(5,6-TH)fucose for 24 h and treated with trypsin to release cell surface components which were then digested exhaustively with Pronase and fractionated on Bio-Gel P-6 before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. The most noticeable difference between the labeled glycopeptides from the tumor and CCL 239 cells was the presence in the former of an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-resistant high molecular weight glycopeptide fraction which was eluted in the void volume of Bio-Gel P-6. This fraction was obtained with both labeled mannose and fucose as precursors. However, acid hydrolysis of this fraction obtained after incubation with (2-TH)mannose revealed that as much as 60-90% of the radioactivity was recovered as fucose. Analysis of the total glycopeptides (cell surface and cell pellet) obtained after incubation with (2-TH)mannose showed that from 40-45% of the radioactivity in the tumor cells and less than 10% of the radioactivity in the CCL 239 cells was recovered as fucose. After incubation of the HCT-8R cells with D-(1,6-TH)glucosamine and L-(1- UC)fucose, strong acid hydrolysis of the labeled glycopeptide fraction excluded from Bio-Gel P-6 produced TH-labeled N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine.

  6. Characterization of atrial natriuretic peptide degradation by cell-surface peptidase activity on endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, S. J.; Whitson, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a fluid-regulating peptide hormone that promotes vasorelaxation, natriuresis, and diuresis. The mechanisms for the release of ANP and for its clearance from the circulation play important roles in modulating its biological effects. Recently, we have reported that the cell surface of an endothelial cell line, CPA47, could degrade 125I-ANP in the presence of EDTA. In this study, we have characterized this degradation of 125I-ANP. The kinetics of ANP degradation by the surface of CPA47 cells were first order, with a Km of 320 +/- 60 nM and Vmax of 35 +/- 14 pmol of ANP degraded/10 min/10(5) cells at pH 7.4. ANP is degraded by the surface of CPA47 cells over a broad pH range from 7.0-8.5. Potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor and bestatin inhibited 125I-ANP degradation, suggesting that this degradative activity on the surface of CPA47 cells has exopeptidase characteristics. The selectivity of CPA47 cell-surface degradation of ANP was demonstrated when 125I-ANP degradation was inhibited in the presence of neuropeptide Y and angiotensin I and II but not bradykinin, bombesin, endothelin-1, or substance P. The C-terminal amino acids phe26 and tyr28 were deduced to be important for ANP interaction with the cell-surface peptidase(s) based on comparison of the IC50 of various ANP analogues and other natriuretic peptides for the inhibition of ANP degradation. These data suggest that a newly characterized divalent cation-independent exopeptidase(s) that selectively recognizes ANP and some other vasoactive peptides exists on the surface of endothelial cells.

  7. Calcium influences sensitivity to growth inhibition induced by a cell surface sialoglycopeptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, N. A.; Fattaey, H. K.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    While studies concerning mitogenic factors have been an important area of research for many years, much less is understood about the mechanisms of action of cell surface growth inhibitors. We have purified an 18 kDa cell surface sialoglycopeptide growth inhibitor (CeReS-18) which can reversibly inhibit the proliferation of diverse cell types. The studies discussed in this article show that three mouse keratinocyte cell lines exhibit sixty-fold greater sensitivity than other fibroblasts and epithelial-like cells to CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition. Growth inhibition induced by CeReS-18 treatment is a reversible process, and the three mouse keratinocyte cell lines exhibited either single or multiple cell cycle arrest points, although a predominantly G0/G1 cell cycle arrest point was exhibited in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. The sensitivity of the mouse keratinocyte cell lines to CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition was not affected by the degree of tumorigenic progression in the cell lines and was not due to differences in CeReS-18 binding affinity or number of cell surface receptors per cell. However, the sensitivity of both murine fibroblasts and keratinocytes could be altered by changing the extracellular calcium concentration, such that increased extracellular calcium concentrations resulted in decreased sensitivity to CeReS-18-induced proliferation inhibition. Thus the increased sensitivity of the murine keratinocyte cell lines to CeReS-18 could be ascribed to the low calcium concentration used in their propagation. Studies are currently under way investigating the role of calcium in CeReS-18-induced growth arrest. The CeReS-18 may serve as a very useful tool to study negative growth control and the signal transduction events associated with cell cycling.

  8. Cell-surface Attachment of Bacterial Multienzyme Complexes Involves Highly Dynamic Protein-Protein Anchors*

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Kate; Najmudin, Shabir; Alves, Victor D.; Bayer, Edward A.; Smith, Steven P.; Bule, Pedro; Waller, Helen; Ferreira, Luís M. A.; Gilbert, Harry J.; Fontes, Carlos M. G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions play a pivotal role in the assembly of the cellulosome, one of nature's most intricate nanomachines dedicated to the depolymerization of complex carbohydrates. The integration of cellulosomal components usually occurs through the binding of type I dockerin modules located at the C terminus of the enzymes to cohesin modules located in the primary scaffoldin subunit. Cellulosomes are typically recruited to the cell surface via type II cohesin-dockerin interactions established between primary and cell-surface anchoring scaffoldin subunits. In contrast with type II interactions, type I dockerins usually display a dual binding mode that may allow increased conformational flexibility during cellulosome assembly. Acetivibrio cellulolyticus produces a highly complex cellulosome comprising an unusual adaptor scaffoldin, ScaB, which mediates the interaction between the primary scaffoldin, ScaA, through type II cohesin-dockerin interactions and the anchoring scaffoldin, ScaC, via type I cohesin-dockerin interactions. Here, we report the crystal structure of the type I ScaB dockerin in complex with a type I ScaC cohesin in two distinct orientations. The data show that the ScaB dockerin displays structural symmetry, reflected by the presence of two essentially identical binding surfaces. The complex interface is more extensive than those observed in other type I complexes, which results in an ultra-high affinity interaction (Ka ∼1012 m). A subset of ScaB dockerin residues was also identified as modulating the specificity of type I cohesin-dockerin interactions in A. cellulolyticus. This report reveals that recruitment of cellulosomes onto the cell surface may involve dockerins presenting a dual binding mode to incorporate additional flexibility into the quaternary structure of highly populated multienzyme complexes. PMID:25855788

  9. Ex-vivo tissue classification of cell surface receptor concentrations using kinetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Lagnojita; Wang, Yu; Yang, Cynthia; Khan, Altaz; Liu, Jonathan T.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the major challenges in the complete resection of cancer is the difficulty of distinctly classifying tumor and healthy tissue. This paper investigates the capability of competing kinetic modeling approaches for identifying different tissue types based on differential cell-surface receptor expressions. These approaches require fresh resected tissues to be stained with a mixture of two probes: one targeted to a cancer specific cell-surface receptor, and another left "untargeted" to account for nonspecific retention of the targeted agent, with subsequent repeated rinsing and imaging of the probe concentrations. Analysis of the results were carried out in simulations and in animal experiments for the cancer target, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a cell surface receptor overexpressed by many cancers. In the animal experiments, subcutaneous xenografts of human glioma (U251; moderate EGFR) and human epidermoid (A431; high EGFR) tumors, grown in six athymic mice, were excised and stained with an EGFR targeted surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticle (SERS NP) and untargeted SERS NP pair. The salient finding in this study was that significant non-specific retention was observed for the EGFR targeted probe [anti-EGFR antibody labeled with a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticle], but could be corrected for by the equivalent non-specific retention of the untargeted probe (isotype control antibody labeled with a different SERS nanoparticle). Once this non-specific binding was accounted for, the kinetic model was able to predict the expected differences in EGFR concentration among different tissue types: healthy, U251, and A431 in accordance with an ex vivo flow cytometry analysis, successfully classifying different tissue types.

  10. Molecular characterization of the homo-phytochelatin synthase of soybean Glycine max: relation to phytochelatin synthase.

    PubMed

    Oven, Matjaz; Page, Jonathan E; Zenk, Meinhart H; Kutchan, Toni M

    2002-02-15

    The phytochelatin homologs homo-phytochelatins are heavy metal-binding peptides present in many legumes. To study the biosynthesis of these compounds, we have isolated and functionally expressed a cDNA GmhPCS1 encoding homo-phytochelatin synthase from Glycine max, a plant known to accumulate homo-phytochelatins rather than phytochelatins upon the exposure to heavy metals. The catalytic properties of GmhPCS1 were compared with the phytochelatin synthase AtPCS1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. When assayed only in the presence of glutathione, both enzymes catalyzed phytochelatin formation. GmhPCS1 accepted homoglutathione as the sole substrate for the synthesis of homo-phytochelatins whereas AtPCS1 did not. Homo-phytochelatin synthesis activity of both recombinant enzymes was significantly higher when glutathione was included in the reaction mixture. The incorporation of both glutathione and homoglutathione into homo-phytochelatin, n = 2, was demonstrated using GmhPCS1 and AtPCS1. In addition to bis(glutathionato)-metal complexes, various other metal-thiolates were shown to contribute to the activation of phytochelatin synthase. These complexes were not accepted as substrates by the enzyme, thereby suggesting that a recently proposed model of activation cannot fully explain the catalytic mechanism of phytochelatin synthase (Vatamaniuk, O. K., Mari, S., Lu, Y. P., and Rea, P. A. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 31451-31459). PMID:11706029

  11. Unveiling Cell Surface and Type IV Secretion Proteins Responsible for Archaeal Rudivirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ling; He, Fei; Bhoobalan-Chitty, Yuvaraj; Martinez-Alvarez, Laura; Guo, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Sulfolobus mutants resistant to archaeal lytic virus Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) were isolated, and mutations were identified in two gene clusters, cluster sso3138 to sso3141 and cluster sso2386 and sso2387, encoding cell surface and type IV secretion proteins, respectively. The involvement of the mutations in the resistance was confirmed by genetic complementation. Blocking of virus entry into the mutants was demonstrated by the lack of early gene transcription, strongly supporting the idea of a role of the proteins in SIRV2 entry. PMID:24965447

  12. Fluorescence resonance energy transfers measurements on cell surfaces via fluorescence polarization.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Kashi, Meir; Moshkov, Sergey; Zurgil, Naomi; Deutsch, Mordechai

    2002-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of the efficiency of fluorescence resonance energy transfer efficiency between moieties located on cell surfaces by performing individual cell fluorescence polarization (FP) measurements. The absolute value of energy transfer efficiency (E) is calculated on an individual cell basis. The examination of this methodology was carried out using model experiments on human T lymphocyte cells. The cells were labeled with fluorescein-conjugated Concanavalin A (ConA) as donor, or rhodamine-conjugated ConA as acceptor. The experiments and results clearly indicate that determination of E via FP measurements is possible, efficient, and more convenient than other methods. PMID:12202365

  13. Glycoprotein mucin molecular brush on cancer cell surface acting as mechanical barrier against drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Shah, Aalok A.; Campbell, Robert B.; Wan, Kai-tak

    2010-12-01

    Uptake of cytotoxic drugs by typical tumor cells is limited by the dense dendritic network of oligosaccharide mucin chains that forms a mechanical barrier. Atomic force microscopy is used to directly measure the force needed to pierce the mucin layer to reach the cell surface. Measurements are analyzed by de Gennes' steric reptation theory. Multidrug resistant ovarian tumor cells shows significantly larger penetration load compared to the wide type. A pool of pancreatic, lung, colorectal, and breast cells are also characterized. The chemotherapeutic agent, benzyl-α-GalNac, for inhibiting glycosylation is shown to be effective in reducing the mechanical barrier.

  14. Absence of cell-surface EpCAM in congenital tufting enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Ulrike; Kuipers, Jeroen; Mueller, James L.; Veenstra-Algra, Anneke; Sivagnanam, Mamata; Giepmans, Ben N.G.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM; CD326) gene are causal for congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE), a disease characterized by intestinal abnormalities resulting in lethal diarrhea in newborns. Why the different mutations all lead to the same disease is not clear. Here, we report that most mutations, including a novel intronic variant, will result in lack of EpCAM's transmembrane domain, whereas two mutations allow transmembrane localization. We find that these mutants are not routed to the plasma membrane, and that truncated mutants are secreted or degraded. Thus, all epcam mutations lead to loss of cell-surface EpCAM, resulting in CTE. PMID:23462293

  15. Studies on thyroid cell surface antigens using cultured human thyroid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fenzi, G F; Bartalena, L; Chiovato, L; Marcocci, C; Rotella, C M; Zonefrati, R; Toccafondi, R; Pinchera, A

    1982-01-01

    Human thyroid cells in primary culture were used for studies of thyroid cell surface antibodies in patients with thyroid autoimmune disorders. Radioiodinated IgG preparations containing thyroid microsomal antibody (TMAb), thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) and/or thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) were tested for binding to thyroid cells. Binding was observed with radioiodinated IgG from patients with Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and idiopathic myxoedema containing TMAb, irrespective of the presence of TSAb and TgAb, while negative results were obtained with normal IgG. A dose-dependent inhibition of binding to thyroid cells was produced by the addition of the corresponding unlabelled IgG preparations. Evidence for tissue specificity was provided by the absence of binding to human skin fibroblasts used as controls. Preabsorption with human thyroid microsomes completely abolished the binding to thyroid cells of a radioiodinated TMAb positive IgG preparation, while only incomplete removal of the reactivity to thyroid microsomes was produced by preabsorption with thyroid cells. These data suggest that some but not all microsomal antigenic determinants are expressed on the thyroid cell surface. Binding to thyroid cells was also observed with purified TgAb, indicating that thyroglobulin antigenic determinants are present on the surface of thyroid cells. No evidence of binding was obtained with a TSAb positive Graves' IgG preparation with undetectable TMAb and TgAb. Unlabelled IgG preparations containing TMAb from patients with either Hashimoto's thyroiditis or idiopathic myxoedema were shown to inhibit the binding to thyroid cells of radioiodinated TMAb positive Graves' IgG and vice versa. These data indicate that antibodies present in these thyroid autoimmune disorders share common thyroid cell surface antigens. However, the binding of radioiodinated IgG from a patient with idiopathic myxoedema was only partially inhibited by Graves' or Hashimoto's Ig

  16. Roles for glycosylation of cell surface receptors involved in cellular immune recognition.

    PubMed

    Rudd, P M; Wormald, M R; Stanfield, R L; Huang, M; Mattsson, N; Speir, J A; DiGennaro, J A; Fetrow, J S; Dwek, R A; Wilson, I A

    1999-10-22

    The majority of cell surface receptors involved in antigen recognition by T cells and in the orchestration of the subsequent cell signalling events are glycoproteins. The length of a typical N-linked sugar is comparable with that of an immunoglobulin domain (30 A). Thus, by virtue of their size alone, oligosaccharides may be expected to play a significant role in the functions and properties of the cell surface proteins to which they are attached. A databank of oligosaccharide structures has been constructed from NMR and crystallographic data to aid in the interpretation of crystal structures of glycoproteins. As unambiguous electron density can usually only be assigned to the glycan cores, the remainder of the sugar is then modelled into the crystal lattice by superimposing the appropriate oligosaccharide from the database. This approach provides insights into the roles that glycosylation might play in cell surface receptors, by providing models that delineate potential close packing interactions on the cell surface. It has been proposed that the specific recognition of antigen by T cells results in the formation of an immunological synapse between the T cell and the antigen-presenting cell. The cell adhesion glycoproteins, such as CD2 and CD48, help to form a cell junction, providing a molecular spacer between opposing cells. The oligosaccharides located on the membrane proximal domains of CD2 and CD48 provide a scaffold to orient the binding faces, which leads to increased affinity. In the next step, recruitment of the peptide major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) by the T-cell receptors (TCRs) requires mobility on the membrane surface. The TCR sugars are located such that they could prevent non-specific aggregation. Importantly, the sugars limit the possible geometry and spacing of TCR/MHC clusters which precede cell signalling. We postulate that, in the final stage, the sugars could play a general role in controlling the assembly and stabilisation of the

  17. Characterization of the Cell Surface Properties of Drinking Water Pathogens by Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon and Electrophoretic Mobility Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The surface characteristics of microbial cells directly influence their mobility and behavior within aqueous environments. The cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of microbial cells impact a number of interactions and processes including aggregati...

  18. Engineering of chimeric class II polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases.

    PubMed

    Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Delamarre, Soazig C; Kim, Young-Rok; Batt, Carl A

    2004-11-01

    PHA synthase is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Using a combinatorial genetic strategy to create unique chimeric class II PHA synthases, we have obtained a number of novel chimeras which display improved catalytic properties. To engineer the chimeric PHA synthases, we constructed a synthetic phaC gene from Pseudomonas oleovorans (phaC1Po) that was devoid of an internal 540-bp fragment. Randomly amplified PCR products (created with primers based on conserved phaC sequences flanking the deleted internal fragment) were generated using genomic DNA isolated from soil and were substituted for the 540-bp internal region. The chimeric genes were expressed in a PHA-negative strain of Ralstonia eutropha, PHB(-)4 (DSM 541). Out of 1,478 recombinant clones screened for PHA production, we obtained five different chimeric phaC1Po genes that produced more PHA than the native phaC1Po. Chimeras S1-71, S4-8, S5-58, S3-69, and S3-44 exhibited 1.3-, 1.4-, 2.0-, 2.1-, and 3.0-fold-increased levels of in vivo activity, respectively. All of the mutants mediated the synthesis of PHAs with a slightly increased molar fraction of 3-hydroxyoctanoate; however, the weight-average molecular weights (Mw) of the PHAs in all cases remained almost the same. Based upon DNA sequence analyses, the various phaC fragments appear to have originated from Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aureofaciens. The amino acid sequence analyses showed that the chimeric proteins had 17 to 20 amino acid differences from the wild-type phaC1Po, and these differences were clustered in the same positions in the five chimeric clones. A threading model of PhaC1Po, developed based on homology of the enzyme to the Burkholderia glumae lipase, suggested that the amino acid substitutions found in the active chimeras were located mostly on the protein model surface. Thus, our combinatorial genetic engineering strategy proved to be broadly useful for improving the catalytic

  19. Novel family of terpene synthases evolved from trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthases in a flea beetle.

    PubMed

    Beran, Franziska; Rahfeld, Peter; Luck, Katrin; Nagel, Raimund; Vogel, Heiko; Wielsch, Natalie; Irmisch, Sandra; Ramasamy, Srinivasan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G; Köllner, Tobias G

    2016-03-15

    Sesquiterpenes play important roles in insect communication, for example as pheromones. However, no sesquiterpene synthases, the enzymes involved in construction of the basic carbon skeleton, have been identified in insects to date. We investigated the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene in the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta striolata, a compound previously identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone in several Phyllotreta species. A (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene-producing sesquiterpene synthase activity was detected in crude beetle protein extracts, but only when (Z,E)-farnesyl diphosphate [(Z,E)-FPP] was offered as a substrate. No sequences resembling sesquiterpene synthases from plants, fungi, or bacteria were found in the P. striolata transcriptome, but we identified nine divergent putative trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthase (trans-IDS) transcripts. Four of these putative trans-IDSs exhibited terpene synthase (TPS) activity when heterologously expressed. Recombinant PsTPS1 converted (Z,E)-FPP to (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene and other sesquiterpenes observed in beetle extracts. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PsTPS1 mRNA in P. striolata males led to reduced emission of aggregation pheromone, confirming a significant role of PsTPS1 in pheromone biosynthesis. Two expressed enzymes showed genuine IDS activity, with PsIDS1 synthesizing (E,E)-FPP, whereas PsIDS3 produced neryl diphosphate, (Z,Z)-FPP, and (Z,E)-FPP. In a phylogenetic analysis, the PsTPS enzymes and PsIDS3 were clearly separated from a clade of known coleopteran trans-IDS enzymes including PsIDS1 and PsIDS2. However, the exon-intron structures of IDS and TPS genes in P. striolata are conserved, suggesting that this TPS gene family evolved from trans-IDS ancestors. PMID:26936952

  20. Novel family of terpene synthases evolved from trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthases in a flea beetle.

    PubMed

    Beran, Franziska; Rahfeld, Peter; Luck, Katrin; Nagel, Raimund; Vogel, Heiko; Wielsch, Natalie; Irmisch, Sandra; Ramasamy, Srinivasan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G; Köllner, Tobias G

    2016-03-15

    Sesquiterpenes play important roles in insect communication, for example as pheromones. However, no sesquiterpene synthases, the enzymes involved in construction of the basic carbon skeleton, have been identified in insects to date. We investigated the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene in the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta striolata, a compound previously identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone in several Phyllotreta species. A (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene-producing sesquiterpene synthase activity was detected in crude beetle protein extracts, but only when (Z,E)-farnesyl diphosphate [(Z,E)-FPP] was offered as a substrate. No sequences resembling sesquiterpene synthases from plants, fungi, or bacteria were found in the P. striolata transcriptome, but we identified nine divergent putative trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthase (trans-IDS) transcripts. Four of these putative trans-IDSs exhibited terpene synthase (TPS) activity when heterologously expressed. Recombinant PsTPS1 converted (Z,E)-FPP to (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene and other sesquiterpenes observed in beetle extracts. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PsTPS1 mRNA in P. striolata males led to reduced emission of aggregation pheromone, confirming a significant role of PsTPS1 in pheromone biosynthesis. Two expressed enzymes showed genuine IDS activity, with PsIDS1 synthesizing (E,E)-FPP, whereas PsIDS3 produced neryl diphosphate, (Z,Z)-FPP, and (Z,E)-FPP. In a phylogenetic analysis, the PsTPS enzymes and PsIDS3 were clearly separated from a clade of known coleopteran trans-IDS enzymes including PsIDS1 and PsIDS2. However, the exon-intron structures of IDS and TPS genes in P. striolata are conserved, suggesting that this TPS gene family evolved from trans-IDS ancestors.

  1. Novel family of terpene synthases evolved from trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthases in a flea beetle

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Franziska; Rahfeld, Peter; Luck, Katrin; Nagel, Raimund; Vogel, Heiko; Wielsch, Natalie; Irmisch, Sandra; Ramasamy, Srinivasan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G.; Köllner, Tobias G.

    2016-01-01

    Sesquiterpenes play important roles in insect communication, for example as pheromones. However, no sesquiterpene synthases, the enzymes involved in construction of the basic carbon skeleton, have been identified in insects to date. We investigated the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene in the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta striolata, a compound previously identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone in several Phyllotreta species. A (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene–producing sesquiterpene synthase activity was detected in crude beetle protein extracts, but only when (Z,E)-farnesyl diphosphate [(Z,E)-FPP] was offered as a substrate. No sequences resembling sesquiterpene synthases from plants, fungi, or bacteria were found in the P. striolata transcriptome, but we identified nine divergent putative trans-isoprenyl diphosphate synthase (trans-IDS) transcripts. Four of these putative trans-IDSs exhibited terpene synthase (TPS) activity when heterologously expressed. Recombinant PsTPS1 converted (Z,E)-FPP to (6R,7S)-himachala-9,11-diene and other sesquiterpenes observed in beetle extracts. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PsTPS1 mRNA in P. striolata males led to reduced emission of aggregation pheromone, confirming a significant role of PsTPS1 in pheromone biosynthesis. Two expressed enzymes showed genuine IDS activity, with PsIDS1 synthesizing (E,E)-FPP, whereas PsIDS3 produced neryl diphosphate, (Z,Z)-FPP, and (Z,E)-FPP. In a phylogenetic analysis, the PsTPS enzymes and PsIDS3 were clearly separated from a clade of known coleopteran trans-IDS enzymes including PsIDS1 and PsIDS2. However, the exon–intron structures of IDS and TPS genes in P. striolata are conserved, suggesting that this TPS gene family evolved from trans-IDS ancestors. PMID:26936952

  2. Biodegradation and surfactant-mediated biodegradation of diesel fuel by 218 microbial consortia are not correlated to cell surface hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Szulc, Alicja; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Cyplik, Paweł; Bogacki, Mariusz; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we elucidated the role of cell surface hydrophobicity (microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons method, MATH) and the effect of anionic rhamnolipids and nonionic Triton X-100 surfactants on biodegradation of diesel fuel employing 218 microbial consortia isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils. Applied enrichment procedure with floating diesel fuel as a sole carbon source in liquid cultures resulted in consortia of varying biodegradation potential and diametrically different cell surface properties, suggesting that cell surface hydrophobicity is a conserved parameter. Surprisingly, no correlations between cell surface hydrophobicity and biodegradation of diesel fuel were found. Nevertheless, both surfactants altered cell surface hydrophobicity of the consortia in similar manner: increased for the hydrophilic and decreased for the hydrophobic cultures. In addition to this, the surfactants exhibited similar influence on diesel fuel biodegradation: Increase was observed for initially slow-degrading cultures and the opposite for fast degraders. This indicates that in the surfactant-mediated biodegradation, effectiveness of surfactants depends on the specification of microorganisms and not on the type of surfactant. In contrary to what was previously reported for pure strains, cell surface hydrophobicity, as determined by MATH, is not a good descriptor of biodegrading potential for mixed cultures.

  3. Roughness gradients on zirconia for rapid screening of cell-surface interactions: Fabrication, characterization and application.

    PubMed

    Flamant, Quentin; Stanciuc, Ana-Maria; Pavailler, Hugo; Sprecher, Christoph Martin; Alini, Mauro; Peroglio, Marianna; Anglada, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Roughness is one of the key parameters for successful osseointegration of dental implants. The understanding of how roughness affects cell response is thus crucial to improve implant performance. Surface gradients, which allow rapid and systematic investigations of cell-surface interactions, have the potential to facilitate this task. In this study, a novel method aiming to produce roughness gradients at the surface of zirconia using hydrofluoric acid etching was implemented. The topography was exhaustively characterized at the microscale and nanoscale by white light interferometry and atomic force microscopy, including the analysis of amplitude, spatial, hybrid, functional, and fractal parameters. A rapid screening of the influence of roughness on human mesenchymal stem cell morphology was conducted and potential correlations between roughness parameters and cell morphology were investigated. The roughness gradient induced significant changes in cell area (p < 0.001), aspect ratio (p = 0.01), and solidity (p = 0.026). Nanoroughness parameters were linearly correlated to cell solidity (p < 0.005), while microroughness parameters appeared nonlinearly correlated to cell area, highlighting the importance of multiscale optimization of implant topography to induce the desired cell response. The gradient method proposed here drastically reduces the efforts and resources necessary to study cell-surface interactions and provides results directly transferable to industry. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2502-2514, 2016. PMID:27227541

  4. A giant cell surface protein in Synechococcus WH8102 inhibits feeding by a dinoflagellate predator.

    PubMed

    Strom, Suzanne L; Brahamsha, Bianca; Fredrickson, Kerri A; Apple, Jude K; Rodríguez, Andres Gutiérrez

    2012-03-01

    Diverse strains of the marine planktonic cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. show consistent differences in their susceptibility to predation. We used mutants of Sargasso Sea strain WH8102 (clade III) to test the hypothesis that cell surface proteins play a role in defence against predation by protists. Predation rates by the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina on mutants lacking the giant SwmB protein were always higher (by 1.6 to 3.9×) than those on wild-type WH8102 cells, and equalled predation rates on a clade I strain (CC9311). In contrast, absence of the SwmA protein, which comprises the S-layer (surface layer of the cell envelope that is external to the outer membrane), had no effect on predation by O. marina. Reductions in predation rate were not due to dissolved substances in Synechococcus cultures, and could not be accounted for by variations in cell hydrophobicity. We hypothesize that SwmB defends Synechococcus WH8102 by interfering with attachment of dinoflagellate prey capture organelles or cell surface receptors. Giant proteins are predicted in the genomes of multiple Synechococcus isolates, suggesting that this defence strategy may be more general. Strategies for resisting predation will contribute to the differential competitive success of different Synechococcus groups, and to the diversity of natural picophytoplankton assemblages.

  5. A cell-surface-anchored ratiometric fluorescent probe for extracellular pH sensing.

    PubMed

    Ke, Guoliang; Zhu, Zhi; Wang, Wei; Zou, Yuan; Guan, Zhichao; Jia, Shasha; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Xuemeng; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2014-09-10

    Accurate sensing of the extracellular pH is a very important yet challenging task in biological and clinical applications. This paper describes the development of an amphiphilic lipid-DNA molecule as a simple yet useful cell-surface-anchored ratiometric fluorescent probe for extracellular pH sensing. The lipid-DNA probe, which consists of a hydrophobic diacyllipid tail and a hydrophilic DNA strand, is modified with two fluorescent dyes; one is pH-sensitive as pH indicator and the other is pH-insensitive as an internal reference. The lipid-DNA probe showed sensitive and reversible response to pH change in the range of 6.0-8.0, which is suitable for most extracellular studies. In addition, based on simple hydrophobic interactions with the cell membrane, the lipid-DNA probe can be easily anchored on the cell surface with negligible cytotoxicity, excellent stability, and unique ratiometric readout, thus ensuring its accurate sensing of extracellular pH. Finally, this lipid-DNA-based ratiometric pH indicator was successfully used for extracellular pH sensing of cells in 3D culture environment, demonstrating the potential applications of the sensor in biological and medical studies.

  6. High-density single-molecule analysis of cell surface dynamics in C. elegans embryos

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Francois B.; McFadden, William M.; Yao, Baixue; Munro, Edwin M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a general, versatile and non-invasive method to image single molecules near the cell surface that can be applied to any GFP-tagged protein in C. elegans embryos. We exploit tunable expression via RNAi and a dynamically exchanging monomer pool to achieve fast continuous single-molecule imaging at optimal densities with signal-to-noise ratios adequate for robust single particle tracking (SPT) analysis. We also introduce and validate a new method called smPReSS that infers exchange rates from quantitative analysis of single molecule photobleaching kinetics, without using SPT. Combining SPT and smPReSS allows spatially and temporally resolved measurements of protein mobility and exchange kinetics. We use these methods (a) to resolve distinct mobility states and spatial variation in exchange rates of the polarity protein Par-6 and (b) to measure spatiotemporal modulation of actin filament assembly and disassembly. The introduction of these methods in a powerful model system offers a promising new avenue to investigate dynamic mechanisms that pattern the embryonic cell surface. PMID:24727651

  7. Interaction of human tumor viruses with host cell surface receptors and cell entry.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Georgia; Blumenthal, Melissa J; Katz, Arieh A

    2015-05-22

    Currently, seven viruses, namely Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), have been described to be consistently associated with different types of human cancer. These oncogenic viruses belong to distinct viral families, display diverse cell tropism and cause different malignancies. A key to their pathogenicity is attachment to the host cell and entry in order to replicate and complete their life cycle. Interaction with the host cell during viral entry is characterized by a sequence of events, involving viral envelope and/or capsid molecules as well as cellular entry factors that are critical in target cell recognition, thereby determining cell tropism. Most oncogenic viruses initially attach to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, followed by conformational change and transfer of the viral particle to secondary high-affinity cell- and virus-specific receptors. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the host cell surface factors and molecular mechanisms underlying oncogenic virus binding and uptake by their cognate host cell(s) with the aim to provide a concise overview of potential target molecules for prevention and/or treatment of oncogenic virus infection.

  8. Nonthermal atmospheric plasma rapidly disinfects multidrug-resistant microbes by inducing cell surface damage.

    PubMed

    Kvam, Erik; Davis, Brian; Mondello, Frank; Garner, Allen L

    2012-04-01

    Plasma, a unique state of matter with properties similar to those of ionized gas, is an effective biological disinfectant. However, the mechanism through which nonthermal or "cold" plasma inactivates microbes on surfaces is poorly understood, due in part to challenges associated with processing and analyzing live cells on surfaces rather than in aqueous solution. Here, we employ membrane adsorption techniques to visualize the cellular effects of plasma on representative clinical isolates of drug-resistant microbes. Through direct fluorescent imaging, we demonstrate that plasma rapidly inactivates planktonic cultures, with >5 log(10) kill in 30 s by damaging the cell surface in a time-dependent manner, resulting in a loss of membrane integrity, leakage of intracellular components (nucleic acid, protein, ATP), and ultimately focal dissolution of the cell surface with longer exposure time. This occurred with similar kinetic rates among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. We observed no correlative evidence that plasma induced widespread genomic damage or oxidative protein modification prior to the onset of membrane damage. Consistent with the notion that plasma is superficial, plasma-mediated sterilization was dramatically reduced when microbial cells were enveloped in aqueous buffer prior to treatment. These results support the use of nonthermal plasmas for disinfecting multidrug-resistant microbes in environmental settings and substantiate ongoing clinical applications for plasma devices.

  9. Nonthermal Atmospheric Plasma Rapidly Disinfects Multidrug-Resistant Microbes by Inducing Cell Surface Damage

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Brian; Mondello, Frank; Garner, Allen L.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma, a unique state of matter with properties similar to those of ionized gas, is an effective biological disinfectant. However, the mechanism through which nonthermal or “cold” plasma inactivates microbes on surfaces is poorly understood, due in part to challenges associated with processing and analyzing live cells on surfaces rather than in aqueous solution. Here, we employ membrane adsorption techniques to visualize the cellular effects of plasma on representative clinical isolates of drug-resistant microbes. Through direct fluorescent imaging, we demonstrate that plasma rapidly inactivates planktonic cultures, with >5 log10 kill in 30 s by damaging the cell surface in a time-dependent manner, resulting in a loss of membrane integrity, leakage of intracellular components (nucleic acid, protein, ATP), and ultimately focal dissolution of the cell surface with longer exposure time. This occurred with similar kinetic rates among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. We observed no correlative evidence that plasma induced widespread genomic damage or oxidative protein modification prior to the onset of membrane damage. Consistent with the notion that plasma is superficial, plasma-mediated sterilization was dramatically reduced when microbial cells were enveloped in aqueous buffer prior to treatment. These results support the use of nonthermal plasmas for disinfecting multidrug-resistant microbes in environmental settings and substantiate ongoing clinical applications for plasma devices. PMID:22232292

  10. The use of marsupial x eutherian somatic cell hybrids to study marsupial cell surface antigens.

    PubMed

    Sykes, P J; Hope, R M

    1978-12-01

    Buck and Bodmer (1976) have developed a technique for identifying an antigen on the surface of human x mouse somatic cell hybrids, specified by a gene on a particular human chromosome. We have successfully adapted this technique to a study of marsupial cell surface antigens. Somatic cell hybrids between Macropus rufus (Marsupialia) lymphocytes and the mouse cell lines PG19 and 1R were injected intraperitoneally into mice of the same inbred strain from which the above cell lines were derived (C57B16J and C3H, respectively). The only identified M. rufus chromosome present in the hybrid cells was the X chromosome. The antisera, after adsorption with PG19 or 1R, were tested using indirect immunofluorescence, against the hybrid cells, and also against sub-clones (derived from hybrids) which had apparently lost the M. rufus X chromosome, or at least its long arm. The results of these tests showed that the absorbed antisera contained reactivity against an M. rufus cell surface antigen (or antigens). The reactions of one of the antisera were most simply interpreted by supposing that it was detecting an M. rufus X-lined antigen(s).

  11. Research Resource: Androgen Receptor Activity Is Regulated Through the Mobilization of Cell Surface Receptor Networks.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Jordy J; Ng, Brandon H; Smits, Melinda M; Martinez, Harryl D; Jasavala, Rohini J; Hinkson, Izumi V; Fermin, Damian; Eng, Jimmy K; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Wright, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    The aberrant expression of androgen receptor (AR)-dependent transcriptional programs is a defining pathology of the development and progression of prostate cancers. Transcriptional cofactors that bind AR are critical determinants of prostate tumorigenesis. To gain a deeper understanding of the proteins linked to AR-dependent gene transcription, we performed a DNA-affinity chromatography-based proteomic screen designed to identify proteins involved in AR-mediated gene transcription in prostate tumor cells. Functional experiments validated the coregulator roles of known AR-binding proteins in AR-mediated transcription in prostate tumor cells. More importantly, novel coregulatory functions were detected in components of well-established cell surface receptor-dependent signal transduction pathways. Further experimentation demonstrated that components of the TNF, TGF-β, IL receptor, and epidermal growth factor signaling pathways modulated AR-dependent gene transcription and androgen-dependent proliferation in prostate tumor cells. Collectively, our proteomic dataset demonstrates that the cell surface receptor- and AR-dependent pathways are highly integrated, and provides a molecular framework for understanding how disparate signal-transduction pathways can influence AR-dependent transcriptional programs linked to the development and progression of human prostate cancers.

  12. Interaction of Human Tumor Viruses with Host Cell Surface Receptors and Cell Entry

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Georgia; Blumenthal, Melissa J.; Katz, Arieh A.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, seven viruses, namely Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), have been described to be consistently associated with different types of human cancer. These oncogenic viruses belong to distinct viral families, display diverse cell tropism and cause different malignancies. A key to their pathogenicity is attachment to the host cell and entry in order to replicate and complete their life cycle. Interaction with the host cell during viral entry is characterized by a sequence of events, involving viral envelope and/or capsid molecules as well as cellular entry factors that are critical in target cell recognition, thereby determining cell tropism. Most oncogenic viruses initially attach to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, followed by conformational change and transfer of the viral particle to secondary high-affinity cell- and virus-specific receptors. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the host cell surface factors and molecular mechanisms underlying oncogenic virus binding and uptake by their cognate host cell(s) with the aim to provide a concise overview of potential target molecules for prevention and/or treatment of oncogenic virus infection. PMID:26008702

  13. Research Resource: Androgen Receptor Activity Is Regulated Through the Mobilization of Cell Surface Receptor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Jordy J.; Ng, Brandon H.; Smits, Melinda M.; Martinez, Harryl D.; Jasavala, Rohini J.; Hinkson, Izumi V.; Fermin, Damian; Eng, Jimmy K.; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I.

    2015-01-01

    The aberrant expression of androgen receptor (AR)-dependent transcriptional programs is a defining pathology of the development and progression of prostate cancers. Transcriptional cofactors that bind AR are critical determinants of prostate tumorigenesis. To gain a deeper understanding of the proteins linked to AR-dependent gene transcription, we performed a DNA-affinity chromatography-based proteomic screen designed to identify proteins involved in AR-mediated gene transcription in prostate tumor cells. Functional experiments validated the coregulator roles of known AR-binding proteins in AR-mediated transcription in prostate tumor cells. More importantly, novel coregulatory functions were detected in components of well-established cell surface receptor-dependent signal transduction pathways. Further experimentation demonstrated that components of the TNF, TGF-β, IL receptor, and epidermal growth factor signaling pathways modulated AR-dependent gene transcription and androgen-dependent proliferation in prostate tumor cells. Collectively, our proteomic dataset demonstrates that the cell surface receptor- and AR-dependent pathways are highly integrated, and provides a molecular framework for understanding how disparate signal-transduction pathways can influence AR-dependent transcriptional programs linked to the development and progression of human prostate cancers. PMID:26181434

  14. Effects of Boron on Rhizobium-Legume Cell-Surface Interactions and Nodule Development.

    PubMed Central

    Bolanos, L.; Brewin, N. J.; Bonilla, I.

    1996-01-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for the development of nitrogen-fixing root nodules in pea (Pisum sativum). By using monoclonal antibodies that recognize specific glycoconjugate components implicated in legume root-nodule development, we investigated the effects of low B on the formation of infection threads and the colonization of pea nodules by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv viciae. In B-deficient nodules the proportion of infected host cells was much lower than in nodules from plants supplied with normal quantities of B. Moreover, the host cells often developed enlarged and abnormally shaped infection threads that frequently burst, releasing bacteria into damaged host cells. There was also an over-production of plant matrix material in which the rhizobial cells were embedded during their progression through the infection thread. Furthermore, in a series of in vitro binding studies, we demonstrated that the presence of B can change the affinity with which the bacterial cell surface interacts with the peribacteroid membrane glycocalyx relative to its interaction with intercellular plant matrix glycoprotein. From these observations we suggest that B plays an important role in mediating cell-surface interactions that lead to endocytosis of rhizobia by host cells and hence to the correct establishment of the symbiosis between pea and Rhizobium. PMID:12226256

  15. Distribution of anionic groups at the cell surface of different Sporothrix schenckii cell types.

    PubMed

    Benchimol, M; de Souza, W; Travassos, L R

    1979-06-01

    The distribution of anionic groups at the cell surface of yeastlike forms, hyphae, and conidia of Sporothrix schenckii was studied by staining with colloidal iron hydroxide and cationized ferritin. By using colloidal iron hydroxide it was shown that the external cell wall layer of one strain (strain 1099.18) could be resolved into two reactive sublayers and that these layers were present in many but not all cells of the same population. In contrast, most cells of another strain (strain 1099.12) were stained by colloidal iron hydroxide, but only one reactive layer was seen. Acidic layers of the yeastlike forms of the two strains were much thicker than those of conidia and hyphae. By the cationized ferritin staining procedure it was observed that the acidic layers of yeast forms sloughed off of cells, probably due to cell-cell or cell-medium attrition in shaken submerged cultures or to a process by which the outer layers detach from cells as they are replaced by newly synthesized ones. The colloidal iron hydroxide- and cationized ferritin-reactive cell surface layers of S. schenckii correspond to the previously described (L. R. Travassos et al., Exp. Mycol. 1:293-305, 1977) concanavalin A-reactive peptidorhamnomannan complexes, and their reactivity is probably due to the presence of acidic amino acids of low pK values rather than to glucuronic acid units.

  16. ASIC2 Subunits Facilitate Expression at the Cell Surface and Confer Regulation by PSD-95

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Anne Marie S.; Kusama, Nobuyoshi; Hattori, Tomonori; Gautam, Mamta; Benson, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are Na+ channels activated by changes in pH within the peripheral and central nervous systems. Several different isoforms of ASICs combine to form trimeric channels, and their properties are determined by their subunit composition. ASIC2 subunits are widely expressed throughout the brain, where they heteromultimerize with their partnering subunit, ASIC1a. However, ASIC2 contributes little to the pH sensitivity of the channels, and so its function is not well understood. We found that ASIC2 increased cell surface levels of the channel when it is coexpressed with ASIC1a, and genetic deletion of ASIC2 reduced acid-evoked current amplitude in mouse hippocampal neurons. Additionally, ASIC2a interacted with the neuronal synaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95, and PSD-95 reduced cell surface expression and current amplitude in ASICs that contain ASIC2a. Overexpression of PSD-95 also reduced acid-evoked current amplitude in hippocampal neurons. This result was dependent upon ASIC2 since the effect of PSD-95 was abolished in ASIC2−/− neurons. These results lend support to an emerging role of ASIC2 in the targeting of ASICs to surface membranes, and allows for interaction with PSD-95 to regulate these processes. PMID:24699665

  17. A giant cell surface protein in Synechococcus WH8102 inhibits feeding by a dinoflagellate predator.

    PubMed

    Strom, Suzanne L; Brahamsha, Bianca; Fredrickson, Kerri A; Apple, Jude K; Rodríguez, Andres Gutiérrez

    2012-03-01

    Diverse strains of the marine planktonic cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. show consistent differences in their susceptibility to predation. We used mutants of Sargasso Sea strain WH8102 (clade III) to test the hypothesis that cell surface proteins play a role in defence against predation by protists. Predation rates by the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina on mutants lacking the giant SwmB protein were always higher (by 1.6 to 3.9×) than those on wild-type WH8102 cells, and equalled predation rates on a clade I strain (CC9311). In contrast, absence of the SwmA protein, which comprises the S-layer (surface layer of the cell envelope that is external to the outer membrane), had no effect on predation by O. marina. Reductions in predation rate were not due to dissolved substances in Synechococcus cultures, and could not be accounted for by variations in cell hydrophobicity. We hypothesize that SwmB defends Synechococcus WH8102 by interfering with attachment of dinoflagellate prey capture organelles or cell surface receptors. Giant proteins are predicted in the genomes of multiple Synechococcus isolates, suggesting that this defence strategy may be more general. Strategies for resisting predation will contribute to the differential competitive success of different Synechococcus groups, and to the diversity of natural picophytoplankton assemblages. PMID:22103339

  18. MARCH1 regulates insulin sensitivity by controlling cell surface insulin receptor levels.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Arvindhan; Petersen, Max C; Nasiri, Ali R; Butrico, Gina; Fung, Annie; Ruan, Hai-Bin; Kursawe, Romy; Caprio, Sonia; Thibodeau, Jacques; Bourgeois-Daigneault, Marie-Claude; Sun, Lisha; Gao, Guangping; Bhanot, Sanjay; Jurczak, Michael J; Green, Michael R; Shulman, Gerald I; Wajapeyee, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key driver of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and is characterized by defective insulin receptor (INSR) signalling. Although surface INSR downregulation is a well-established contributor to insulin resistance, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH1 impairs cellular insulin action by degrading cell surface INSR. Using a large-scale RNA interference screen, we identify MARCH1 as a negative regulator of INSR signalling. March1 loss-of-function enhances, and March1 overexpression impairs, hepatic insulin sensitivity in mice. MARCH1 ubiquitinates INSR to decrease cell surface INSR levels, but unlike other INSR ubiquitin ligases, MARCH1 acts in the basal state rather than after insulin stimulation. Thus, MARCH1 may help set the basal gain of insulin signalling. MARCH1 expression is increased in white adipose tissue of obese humans, suggesting that MARCH1 contributes to the pathophysiology of T2D and could be a new therapeutic target. PMID:27577745

  19. Growth condition-dependent cell surface proteome analysis of Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Sinnige, Jan C; de Been, Mark; Zhou, Miaomiao; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Top, Janetta

    2015-11-01

    The last 30 years Enterococcus faecium has become an important nosocomial pathogen in hospitals worldwide. The aim of this study was to obtain insight in the cell surface proteome of E. faecium when grown in laboratory and clinically relevant conditions. Enterococcus faecium E1162, a clinical blood stream isolate, was grown until mid-log phase in brain heart infusion medium (BHI) with, or without 0.02% bile salts, Tryptic Soy Broth with 1% glucose (TSBg) and urine, and its cell surface was "shaved" using immobilized trypsin. Peptides were identified using MS/MS. Mapping against the translated E1162 whole genome sequence identified 67 proteins that were differentially detected in different conditions. In urine, 14 proteins were significantly more and nine proteins less abundant relative to the other conditions. Growth in BHI-bile and TSBg, revealed four and six proteins, respectively, which were uniquely present in these conditions while two proteins were uniquely present in both conditions. Thus, proteolytic shaving of E. faecium cells identified differentially surface exposed proteins in different growth conditions. These proteins are of special interest as they provide more insight in the adaptive mechanisms and may serve as targets for the development of novel therapeutics against this multi-resistant emerging pathogen. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002497 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD002497).

  20. A novel endothelial cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase with extracellular epidermal growth factor homology domains.

    PubMed Central

    Partanen, J; Armstrong, E; Mäkelä, T P; Korhonen, J; Sandberg, M; Renkonen, R; Knuutila, S; Huebner, K; Alitalo, K

    1992-01-01

    Endothelial cell surfaces play key roles in several important physiological and pathological processes such as blood clotting, angiogenic responses, and inflammation. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of tie, a novel type of human endothelial cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase. The extracellular domain of the predicted tie protein product has an exceptional multidomain structure consisting of a cluster of three epidermal growth factor homology motifs embedded between two immunoglobulinlike loops, which are followed by three fibronectin type III repeats next to the transmembrane region. Additionally, a cDNA form lacking the first of the three epidermal growth factor homology domains was isolated, suggesting that alternative splicing creates different tie-type receptors. Cells transfected with tie cDNA expression vector produce glycosylated polypeptides of 117 kDa which are reactive to antisera raised against the tie carboxy terminus. The tie gene was located in chromosomal region 1p33 to 1p34. Expression of the tie gene appeared to be restricted in some cell lines; large amounts of tie mRNA were detected in endothelial cell lines and in some myeloid leukemia cell lines with erythroid and megakaryoblastoid characteristics. In addition, mRNA in situ studies further indicated the endothelial expression of the tie gene. The tie receptor tyrosine kinase may have evolved for multiple protein-protein interactions, possibly including cell adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Images PMID:1312667

  1. Cell surface redox potential as a mechanism of defense against photosensitizers in fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Sollod, C C; Jenns, A E; Daub, M E

    1992-01-01

    The phytotoxin cercosporin, a singlet oxygen-generating photosensitizer, is toxic to plants, mice, and many fungi, yet the fungi that produce it, Cercospora spp., are resistant. We hypothesize that resistance to cercosporin may result from a reducing environment at the cell surface. Twenty tetrazolium dyes differing in redox potential were used as indicators of cell surface redox potential of seven fungal species differing in resistance to cercosporin. Resistant fungi were able to reduce significantly more dyes than were sensitive fungi. A correlation between dye reduction and cercosporin resistance was also observed when resistance levels of Cercospora species were manipulated by growth on different media. The addition of the reducing agents ascorbate, cysteine, and reduced glutathione (GSH) to growth media decreased cercosporin toxicity for sensitive fungi. None of these agents directly reduced cercosporin at the concentrations at which they protected fungi. Spectral and thin-layer chromatographic analyses of cercosporin solutions containing the different reducing agents indicated that GSH, but not cysteine or ascorbate, reacted with cercosporin. Resistant and sensitive fungi did not differ in endogenous levels of cysteine, GSH, or total thiols. On the basis of data from this and other studies, this report presents a model which proposes that cercosporin resistance results from the production of reducing power at the surfaces of resistant cells, leading to transient reduction and detoxification of the cercosporin molecule. PMID:1610167

  2. Cargo binding promotes KDEL receptor clustering at the mammalian cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Björn; Shaebani, M. Reza; Rammo, Domenik; Bubel, Tobias; Santen, Ludger; Schmitt, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane receptor clustering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in pro- and eukaryotic cells to physically sense receptor/ligand interactions and subsequently translate an exogenous signal into a cellular response. Despite that receptor cluster formation has been described for a wide variety of receptors, ranging from chemotactic receptors in bacteria to growth factor and neurotransmitter receptors in mammalian cells, a mechanistic understanding of the underlying molecular processes is still puzzling. In an attempt to fill this gap we followed a combined experimental and theoretical approach by dissecting and modulating cargo binding, internalization and cellular response mediated by KDEL receptors (KDELRs) at the mammalian cell surface after interaction with a model cargo/ligand. Using a fluorescent variant of ricin toxin A chain as KDELR-ligand (eGFP-RTAH/KDEL), we demonstrate that cargo binding induces dose-dependent receptor cluster formation at and subsequent internalization from the membrane which is associated and counteracted by anterograde and microtubule-assisted receptor transport to preferred docking sites at the plasma membrane. By means of analytical arguments and extensive numerical simulations we show that cargo-synchronized receptor transport from and to the membrane is causative for KDELR/cargo cluster formation at the mammalian cell surface. PMID:27353000

  3. Selection of Antibodies Interfering with Cell Surface Receptor Signaling Using Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Melidoni, Anna N; Dyson, Michael R; McCafferty, John

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies able to bind and modify the function of cell surface signaling components in vivo are increasingly being used as therapeutic drugs. The identification of such "functional" antibodies from within large antibody pools is, therefore, the subject of intense research. Here we describe a novel cell-based expression and reporting system for the identification of functional antibodies from antigen-binding populations preselected with phage display. The system involves inducible expression of the antibody gene population from the Rosa-26 locus of embryonic stem (ES) cells, followed by secretion of the antibodies during ES cell differentiation. Target antigens are cell-surface signaling components (receptors or ligands) with a known effect on the direction of cell differentiation (FGFR1 mediating ES cell exit from self renewal in this particular protocol). Therefore, inhibition or activation of these components by functional antibodies in a few elite clones causes a shift in the differentiation outcomes of these clones, leading to their phenotypic selection. Functional antibody genes are then recovered from positive clones and used to produce the purified antibodies, which can be tested for their ability to affect cell fates exogenously. Identified functional antibody genes can be further introduced in different stem cell types. Inducible expression of functional antibodies has a temporally controlled protein-knockdown capability, which can be used to study the unknown role of the signaling pathway in different developmental contexts. Moreover, it provides a means for control of stem cell differentiation with potential in vivo applications.

  4. Identification of novel pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell-surface targets by gene expression profiling and tissue microarray.

    PubMed

    Morse, David L; Balagurunathan, Yoga; Hostetter, Galen; Trissal, Maria; Tafreshi, Narges K; Burke, Nancy; Lloyd, Mark; Enkemann, Steven; Coppola, Domenico; Hruby, Victor J; Gillies, Robert J; Han, Haiyong

    2010-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a high mortality rate, which is generally related to the initial diagnosis coming at late stage disease combined with a lack of effective treatment options. Novel agents that selectively detect pancreatic cancer have potential for use in the molecular imaging of cancer, allowing for non-invasive determination of tumor therapeutic response and molecular characterization of the disease. Such agents may also be used for the targeted delivery of therapy to tumor cells while decreasing systemic effects. Using complementary assays of mRNA expression profiling to determine elevated expression in pancreatic cancer tissues relative to normal pancreas tissues, and validation of protein expression by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray, we have identified cell-surface targets with potential for imaging and therapeutic agent development. Expression profiles of 2177 cell-surface genes for 28 pancreatic tumor specimens and 4 normal pancreas tissue samples were evaluated. Expression in normal tissues was evaluated using array data from 103 samples representing 28 organ sites as well as mining published data. One-hundred seventy unique targets were highly expressed in 2 or more of the pancreatic tumor specimens and were not expressed in the normal pancreas samples. Two targets (TLR2 and ABCC3) were further validated for protein expression by tissue microarray (TMA) based immunohistochemistry. These validated targets have potential for the development of diagnostic imaging and therapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer.

  5. A high throughput method for quantification of cell surface bound and internalized chitosan nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tammam, Salma N; Azzazy, Hassan M E; Lamprecht, Alf

    2015-11-01

    Chitosan has become a popular polymer for drug delivery. It's hydro solubility and mild formulation conditions have made it an attractive polymer for macromolecular delivery. Accurate quantification of internalized chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) is imperative for fair assessment of the nano-formulation where it is important to determine the exact amount of drug actually being delivered into the cell, especially for macromolecular drugs where cellular entry is limited by molecule size and/or charge. The preferential affinity of wheat germ agglutinin tagged with fluorescein isothiocyanate (WGA-FITC) to chitosan is exploited in the development of a simple and rapid method for the differentiation between and quantification of cell surface bound and internalized chitosan NPs. The percentage of cell surface bound NPs could be easily determined and corrected NP uptake could be calculated accordingly. The developed method is applicable in several cell lines and has successfully been tested with NPs with different sizes (25 and 150nm) and with very low NP concentrations (20μg/mL). The method will allow for the correct evaluation of chitosan NP uptake and could be further used to evaluate chitosan based nanomedicine and provide guidelines on how to modify NPs for enhanced internalization, and improved drug delivery.

  6. Electrophysical characteristics of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 during interaction with antibodies to various cell surface epitopes.

    PubMed

    Guliy, Olga I; Matora, Larisa Y; Burygin, Gennady L; Dykman, Lev A; Ostudin, Nikolai A; Bunin, Viktor D; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Ignatov, Oleg V

    2007-11-15

    This work was undertaken to examine the electrooptical characteristics of cells of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 during their interaction with antibodies developed to various cell surface epitopes. We used the dependences of the cell suspension optical density changes induced by electroorientation on the orienting field frequency (740, 1000, 1450, 2000, and 2800kHz). Cell interactions with homologous strain-specific antibodies to the A. brasilense Sp245 O antigen and with homologous antibodies to whole bacterial cells brought about considerable changes in the electrooptical properties of the bacterial suspension. When genus-specific antibodies to the flagellin of the Azospirillum sheathed flagellum and antibodies to the serologically distinct O antigen of A. brasilense Sp7 were included in the A. brasilense Sp245 suspension, the changes caused in the electrooptical signal were slight and had values close to those for the above changes. These findings agree well with the immunochemical characteristics of the Azospirillum O antigens and with the data on the topographical distribution of the Azospirillum major cell surface antigens. The obtained results can serve as a basis for the development of a rapid test for the intraspecies detection of microorganisms.

  7. Effects of Hydrophobic and Electrostatic Cell Surface Properties of Bacteria on Feeding Rates of Heterotrophic Nanoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Matz, Carsten; Jürgens, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    The influence of cell surface hydrophobicity and electrostatic charge of bacteria on grazing rates of three common species of interception-feeding nanoflagellates was examined. The hydrophobicity of bacteria isolated from freshwater plankton was assessed by using two different methods (bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbon and hydrophobic interaction chromatography). The electrostatic charge of the cell surface (measured as zeta potential) was analyzed by microelectrophoresis. Bacterial ingestion rates were determined by enumerating bacteria in food vacuoles by immunofluorescence labelling via strain-specific antibodies. Feeding rates varied about twofold for each flagellate species but showed no significant dependence on prey hydrophobicity or surface charge. Further evidence was provided by an experiment involving flagellate grazing on complex bacterial communities in a two-stage continuous culture system. The hydrophobicity values of bacteria that survived protozoan grazing were variable, but the bacteria did not tend to become more hydrophilic. We concluded that variability in bacterial cell hydrophobicity and variability in surface charge do not severely affect uptake rates of suspended bacteria or food selection by interception-feeding flagellates. PMID:11157248

  8. A secreted form of the human lymphocyte cell surface molecule CD8 arises from alternative splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Giblin, P.; Kavathas, P. ); Ledbetter, J.A. )

    1989-02-01

    The human lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD8 is encoded by a single gene that gives rise to a 33- to 34-kDa glycoprotein expressed on the cell surface as a dimer and in higher molecular mass forms. The authors demonstrate that the mRNA is alternatively spliced so that an exon encoding a transmembrane domain is deleted. This gives rise to a 30-kDa molecule that is secreted and exists primarily as a monomer. mRNA corresponding to both forms is present in peripheral blood lymphocytes, Con A-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes, and three CD8{sup +} T-cell lines, with the membrane form being the major species. However, differences in the ratio of mRNA for membrane CD8 and secreted CD8 exist. In addition, the splicing pattern observed differs from the pattern found for the mouse CD8 gene. This mRNA is also alternatively spliced, but an exon encoding a cytoplasmic region is deleted, giving rise to a cell surface molecule that differs in its cytoplasmic tail from the protein encoded by the longer mRNA. Neither protein is secreted. This is one of the first examples of a different splicing pattern between two homologous mouse and human genes giving rise to very different proteins. This represents one mechanism of generating diversity during speciation.

  9. The MDCK epithelial cell line expresses a cell surface antigen of the kidney distal tubule

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line to identify epithelial cell surface macromolecules involved in renal function. Lymphocyte hybrids were generated by fusing P3U-1 myeloma cells with spleen cells from a C3H mouse immunized with MDCK cells. Hybridomas secreting anti-MDCK antibodies were obtained and clonal lines isolated in soft agarose. We are reporting on one hybridoma line that secretes a monoclonal antibody that binds to MDCK cells at levels 20-fold greater than background binding. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy was utilized to study the distribution of antibody binding on MDCK cells and on frozen sections of dog kidney and several nonrenal tissues. In the kidney the fluorescence staining pattern demonstrates that the antibody recognizes an antigenic determinant that is expressed only on the epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loops and the distal convoluted tubule and appears to be localized on the basolateral plasma membrane. This antigen also has a unique distribution in non-renal tissues and can only be detected on cells known to be active in transepithelial ion movements. These results indicate the probable distal tubule origin of MDCK and suggest that the monoclonal antibody recognizes a cell surface antigen involved in physiological functions unique to the kidney distal tubule and transporting epithelia of nonrenal tissues. PMID:6178742

  10. Cell surface display of functional human MHC class II proteins: yeast display versus insect cell display

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Fei; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.; Zhao, Huimin

    2011-01-01

    Reliable and robust systems for engineering functional major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) proteins have proved elusive. Availability of such systems would enable the engineering of peptide-MHCII (pMHCII) complexes for therapeutic and diagnostic applications. In this paper, we have developed a system based on insect cell surface display that allows functional expression of heterodimeric DR2 molecules with or without a covalently bound human myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide, which is amenable to directed evolution of DR2–MBP variants with improved T cell receptor (TCR)-binding affinity. This study represents the first example of functional display of human pMHCII complexes on insect cell surface. In the process of developing this pMHCII engineering system, we have also explored the potential of using yeast surface display for the same application. Our data suggest that yeast display is a useful system for analysis and engineering of peptide binding of MHCII proteins, but not suitable for directed evolution of pMHC complexes that bind with low affinity to self-reactive TCRs. PMID:21752831

  11. Adsorption of glycosaminoglycans to the cell surface is responsible for cellular donnan effects.

    PubMed

    Hagenfeld, Daniel; Kathagen, Nadine; Prehm, Peter

    2014-07-01

    In previous publications, we showed that extracellular glycosaminoglycans reduced the membrane potential, caused cell blebbing and swelling and decreased the intracellular pH independently of cell surface receptors. These phenomena were explained by Donnan effects. The effects were so large that they could not be attributed to glycosaminoglycans in solution. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that glycosaminoglycans were concentrated on the cell membrane and analysed the mechanism of adsorption by fluorescent hyaluronan, chondroitin sulphate and heparin. The influence of the CD44 receptor was evaluated by comparing CD44 expressing human fibroblasts with CD44 deficient HEK cells. Higher amounts of glycosaminoglycans adsorbed to fibroblasts than to HEK cells. When the membrane potential was annihilated by substituting NaCl by KCl in the medium, adsorption was reduced and intracellular pH decrease was abolished. To eliminate other cellular interfering factors, potential-dependent adsorption was demonstrated for hyaluronan which adsorbed to inert gold foils in physiological salt concentrations at pH 7.2 and surface potentials up to 120 mV. From these results, we conclude that large cellular Donnan effects of glycosaminoglycans results from receptor mediated, hydrophobic and ionic adsorption to cell surfaces.

  12. Formation of nanofilms on cell surfaces to improve the insertion efficiency of a nanoneedle into cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amemiya, Yosuke; Kawano, Keiko; Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Chikashi

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the insertion efficiency of nanoneedles into fibroblast and neural cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofilms formed on cell surfaces improved the insertion efficiency of nanoneedles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofilms improved the insertion efficiency even in Y27632-treated cells. -- Abstract: A nanoneedle, an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip etched to 200 nm in diameter and 10 {mu}m in length, can be inserted into cells with the aid of an AFM and has been used to introduce functional molecules into cells and to analyze intracellular information with minimal cell damage. However, some cell lines have shown low insertion efficiency of the nanoneedle. Improvement in the insertion efficiency of a nanoneedle into such cells is a significant issue for nanoneedle-based cell manipulation and analysis. Here, we have formed nanofilms composed of extracellular matrix molecules on cell surfaces and found that the formation of the nanofilms improved insertion efficiency of a nanoneedle into fibroblast and neural cells. The nanofilms were shown to improve insertion efficiency even in cells in which the formation of actin stress fibers was inhibited by the ROCK inhibitor Y27632, suggesting that the nanofilms with the mesh structure directly contributed to the improved insertion efficiency of a nanoneedle.

  13. Distribution of Anionic Groups at the Cell Surface of Different Sporothrix schenckii Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    Benchimol, Marlene; de Souza, W.; Travassos, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of anionic groups at the cell surface of yeastlike forms, hyphae, and conidia of Sporothrix schenckii was studied by staining with colloidal iron hydroxide and cationized ferritin. By using colloidal iron hydroxide it was shown that the external cell wall layer of one strain (strain 1099.18) could be resolved into two reactive sublayers and that these layers were present in many but not all cells of the same population. In contrast, most cells of another strain (strain 1099.12) were stained by colloidal iron hydroxide, but only one reactive layer was seen. Acidic layers of the yeastlike forms of the two strains were much thicker than those of conidia and hyphae. By the cationized ferritin staining procedure it was observed that the acidic layers of yeast forms sloughed off of cells, probably due to cell-cell or cell-medium attrition in shaken submerged cultures or to a process by which the outer layers detach from cells as they are replaced by newly synthesized ones. The colloidal iron hydroxide- and cationized ferritin-reactive cell surface layers of S. schenckii correspond to the previously described (L. R. Travassos et al., Exp. Mycol. 1:293-305, 1977) concanavalin A-reactive peptidorhamnomannan complexes, and their reactivity is probably due to the presence of acidic amino acids of low pK values rather than to glucuronic acid units. Images PMID:89092

  14. GABAB receptor cell-surface export is controlled by an endoplasmic reticulum gatekeeper.

    PubMed

    Doly, S; Shirvani, H; Gäta, G; Meye, F J; Emerit, M-B; Enslen, H; Achour, L; Pardo-Lopez, L; Yang, S-K; Armand, V; Gardette, R; Giros, B; Gassmann, M; Bettler, B; Mameli, M; Darmon, M; Marullo, S

    2016-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) release and cell-surface export of many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are tightly regulated. For gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptors of GABA, the major mammalian inhibitory neurotransmitter, the ligand-binding GB1 subunit is maintained in the ER by unknown mechanisms in the absence of hetero-dimerization with the GB2 subunit. We report that GB1 retention is regulated by a specific gatekeeper, PRAF2. This ER resident transmembrane protein binds to GB1, preventing its progression in the biosynthetic pathway. GB1 release occurs upon competitive displacement from PRAF2 by GB2. PRAF2 concentration, relative to that of GB1 and GB2, tightly controls cell-surface receptor density and controls GABAB function in neurons. Experimental perturbation of PRAF2 levels in vivo caused marked hyperactivity disorders in mice. These data reveal an unanticipated major impact of specific ER gatekeepers on GPCR function and identify PRAF2 as a new molecular target with therapeutic potential for psychiatric and neurological diseases involving GABAB function.

  15. Influence of cell surface characteristics on adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the biomaterial hydroxylapatite.

    PubMed

    White, Jane S; Walker, Graeme M

    2011-02-01

    The influence of the physicochemical properties of biomaterials on microbial cell adhesion is well known, with the extent of adhesion depending on hydrophobicity, surface charge, specific functional groups and acid-base properties. Regarding yeasts, the effect of cell surfaces is often overlooked, despite the fact that generalisations may not be made between closely related strains. The current investigation compared adhesion of three industrially relevant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (M-type, NCYC 1681 and ALY, strains used in production of Scotch whisky, ale and lager, respectively) to the biomaterial hydroxylapatite (HAP). Adhesion of the whisky yeast was greatest, followed by the ale strain, while adhesion of the lager strain was approximately 10-times less. According to microbial adhesion to solvents (MATS) analysis, the ale strain was hydrophobic while the whisky and lager strains were moderately hydrophilic. This contrasted with analyses of water contact angles where all strains were characterised as hydrophilic. All yeast strains were electron donating, with low electron accepting potential, as indicated by both surface energy and MATS analysis. Overall, there was a linear correlation between adhesion to HAP and the overall surface free energy of the yeasts. This is the first time that the relationship between yeast cell surface energy and adherence to a biomaterial has been described.

  16. Characterizing Spatial Organization of Cell Surface Receptors in Human Breast Cancer with STORM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyall, Evan; Chapman, Matthew R.; Sohn, Lydia L.

    2012-02-01

    Regulation and control of complex biological functions are dependent upon spatial organization of biological structures at many different length scales. For instance Eph receptors and their ephrin ligands bind when opposing cells come into contact during development, resulting in spatial organizational changes on the nanometer scale that lead to changes on the macro scale, in a process known as organ morphogenesis. One technique able to probe this important spatial organization at both the nanometer and micrometer length scales, including at cell-cell junctions, is stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM). STORM is a technique that localizes individual fluorophores based on the centroids of their point spread functions and then reconstructs a composite image to produce super resolved structure. We have applied STORM to study spatial organization of the cell surface of human breast cancer cells, specifically the organization of tyrosine kinase receptors and chemokine receptors. A better characterization of spatial organization of breast cancer cell surface proteins is necessary to fully understand the tumorigenisis pathways in the most common malignancy in United States women.

  17. MARCH1 regulates insulin sensitivity by controlling cell surface insulin receptor levels

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Arvindhan; Petersen, Max C.; Nasiri, Ali R.; Butrico, Gina; Fung, Annie; Ruan, Hai-Bin; Kursawe, Romy; Caprio, Sonia; Thibodeau, Jacques; Bourgeois-Daigneault, Marie-Claude; Sun, Lisha; Gao, Guangping; Bhanot, Sanjay; Jurczak, Michael J.; Green, Michael R.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Wajapeyee, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key driver of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and is characterized by defective insulin receptor (INSR) signalling. Although surface INSR downregulation is a well-established contributor to insulin resistance, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH1 impairs cellular insulin action by degrading cell surface INSR. Using a large-scale RNA interference screen, we identify MARCH1 as a negative regulator of INSR signalling. March1 loss-of-function enhances, and March1 overexpression impairs, hepatic insulin sensitivity in mice. MARCH1 ubiquitinates INSR to decrease cell surface INSR levels, but unlike other INSR ubiquitin ligases, MARCH1 acts in the basal state rather than after insulin stimulation. Thus, MARCH1 may help set the basal gain of insulin signalling. MARCH1 expression is increased in white adipose tissue of obese humans, suggesting that MARCH1 contributes to the pathophysiology of T2D and could be a new therapeutic target. PMID:27577745

  18. Secondary Structure of Corona Proteins Determines the Cell Surface Receptors Used by Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles used for biological and biomedical applications encounter a host of extracellular proteins. These proteins rapidly adsorb onto the nanoparticle surface, creating a protein corona. Poly(ethylene glycol) can reduce, but not eliminate, the nonspecific adsorption of proteins. As a result, the adsorbed proteins, rather than the nanoparticle itself, determine the cellular receptors used for binding, the internalization mechanism, the intracellular transport pathway, and the subsequent immune response. Using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, we first characterize a set of polystyrene nanoparticles in which the same adsorbed protein, bovine serum albumin, leads to binding to two different cell surface receptors: native albumin receptors and scavenger receptors. Using a combination of circular dichroism spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and fluorescence spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the secondary structure of the adsorbed bovine serum albumin protein controls the cellular receptors used by the protein–nanoparticle complexes. These results show that protein secondary structure is a key parameter in determining the cell surface receptor used by a protein–nanoparticle complex. We expect this link between protein structure and cellular outcomes will provide a molecular basis for the design of nanoparticles for use in biological and biomedical applications. PMID:24779411

  19. Evolution and function of phytochelatin synthases.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Stephan

    2006-02-01

    Both essential and non-essential transition metal ions can easily be toxic to cells. The physiological range for essential metals between deficiency and toxicity is therefore extremely narrow and a tightly controlled metal homeostasis network to adjust to fluctuations in micronutrient availability is a necessity for all organisms. One protective strategy against metal excess is the expression of high-affinity binding sites to suppress uncontrolled binding of metal ions to physiologically important functional groups. The synthesis of phytochelatins, glutathione-derived metal binding peptides, represents the major detoxification mechanism for cadmium and arsenic in plants and an unknown range of other organisms. A few years ago genes encoding phytochelatin synthases (PCS) were cloned from plants, fungi and nematodes. Since then it has become apparent that PCS genes are far more widespread than ever anticipated. Searches in sequence databases indicate PCS expression in representatives of all eukaryotic kingdoms and the presence of PCS-like proteins in several prokaryotes. The almost ubiquitous presence in the plant kingdom and beyond as well as the constitutive expression of PCS genes and PCS activity in all major plant tissues are still mysterious. It is unclear, how the extremely rare need to cope with an excess of cadmium or arsenic ions could explain the evolution and distribution of PCS genes. Possible answers to this question are discussed. Also, the molecular characterization of phytochelatin synthases and our current knowledge about the enzymology of phytochelatin synthesis are reviewed.

  20. Activities and regulation of peptidoglycan synthases

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Alexander J. F.; Biboy, Jacob; van't Veer, Inge; Breukink, Eefjan; Vollmer, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential component in the cell wall of nearly all bacteria, forming a continuous, mesh-like structure, called the sacculus, around the cytoplasmic membrane to protect the cell from bursting by its turgor. Although PG synthases, the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), have been studied for 70 years, useful in vitro assays for measuring their activities were established only recently, and these provided the first insights into the regulation of these enzymes. Here, we review the current knowledge on the glycosyltransferase and transpeptidase activities of PG synthases. We provide new data showing that the bifunctional PBP1A and PBP1B from Escherichia coli are active upon reconstitution into the membrane environment of proteoliposomes, and that these enzymes also exhibit DD-carboxypeptidase activity in certain conditions. Both novel features are relevant for their functioning within the cell. We also review recent data on the impact of protein–protein interactions and other factors on the activities of PBPs. As an example, we demonstrate a synergistic effect of multiple protein–protein interactions on the glycosyltransferase activity of PBP1B, by its cognate lipoprotein activator LpoB and the essential cell division protein FtsN. PMID:26370943

  1. ATP synthases from archaea: the beauty of a molecular motor.

    PubMed

    Grüber, Gerhard; Manimekalai, Malathy Sony Subramanian; Mayer, Florian; Müller, Volker

    2014-06-01

    Archaea live under different environmental conditions, such as high salinity, extreme pHs and cold or hot temperatures. How energy is conserved under such harsh environmental conditions is a major question in cellular bioenergetics of archaea. The key enzymes in energy conservation are the archaeal A1AO ATP synthases, a class of ATP synthases distinct from the F1FO ATP synthase ATP synthase found in bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts and the V1VO ATPases of eukaryotes. A1AO ATP synthases have distinct structural features such as a collar-like structure, an extended central stalk, and two peripheral stalks possibly stabilizing the A1AO ATP synthase during rotation in ATP synthesis/hydrolysis at high temperatures as well as to provide the storage of transient elastic energy during ion-pumping and ATP synthesis/-hydrolysis. High resolution structures of individual subunits and subcomplexes have been obtained in recent years that shed new light on the function and mechanism of this unique class of ATP synthases. An outstanding feature of archaeal A1AO ATP synthases is their diversity in size of rotor subunits and the coupling ion used for ATP synthesis with H(+), Na(+) or even H(+) and Na(+) using enzymes. The evolution of the H(+) binding site to a Na(+) binding site and its implications for the energy metabolism and physiology of the cell are discussed.

  2. [Four cases of aldosterone synthase deficiency in childhood].

    PubMed

    Collinet, E; Pelissier, P; Richard, O; Gay, C; Pugeat, M; Morel, Y; Stephan, J-L

    2012-11-01

    Neonatal salt-wasting syndromes are rare but potentially serious conditions. Isolated hypoaldosteronism is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of terminal aldosterone synthesis, leading to selective aldosterone deficiency. Two different biochemical forms of this disease have been described, called aldosterone synthase deficiency or corticosterone methyl oxydase, types I and II. In type I, there is no aldosterone synthase activity and the 18 hydroxycorticosterone (18 OHB) level is low, whereas in type II, a residual activity of aldosterone synthase persists and 18 OHB is overproduced. We report on four patients with isolated hypoaldosteronism. In 2 of them, who were recently diagnosed with aldosterone synthase deficit, we discuss the symptoms and treatment. The 2 other patients are now adults. We discuss the long-term outcome, the quality of adult life, aldosterone synthase deficits, as well as the pathophysiology and molecular analysis.

  3. Ubiquitination and filamentous structure of cytidine triphosphate synthase

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Li-Mei; Wang, Pei-Yu; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Chakraborty, Archan; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Lin, Yu-Hung

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Living organisms respond to nutrient availability by regulating the activity of metabolic enzymes. Therefore, the reversible post-translational modification of an enzyme is a common regulatory mechanism for energy conservation. Recently, cytidine-5′-triphosphate (CTP) synthase was discovered to form a filamentous structure that is evolutionarily conserved from flies to humans. Interestingly, induction of the formation of CTP synthase filament is responsive to starvation or glutamine depletion. However, the biological roles of this structure remain elusive. We have recently shown that ubiquitination regulates CTP synthase activity by promoting filament formation in Drosophila ovaries during endocycles. Intriguingly, although the ubiquitination process was required for filament formation induced by glutamine depletion, CTP synthase ubiquitination was found to be inversely correlated with filament formation in Drosophila and human cell lines. In this article, we discuss the putative dual roles of ubiquitination, as well as its physiological implications, in the regulation of CTP synthase structure. PMID:27116391

  4. Trinuclear Metal Clusters in Catalysis by Terpenoid Synthases.

    PubMed

    Aaron, Julie A; Christianson, David W

    2010-01-01

    Terpenoid synthases are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the formation of structurally and stereochemically diverse isoprenoid natural products. Many isoprenoid coupling enzymes and terpenoid cyclases from bacteria, fungi, protists, plants, and animals share the class I terpenoid synthase fold. Despite generally low amino acid sequence identity among these examples, class I terpenoid synthases contain conserved metal binding motifs that coordinate to a trinuclear metal cluster. This cluster not only serves to bind and orient the flexible isoprenoid substrate in the precatalytic Michaelis complex, but it also triggers the departure of the diphosphate leaving group to generate a carbocation that initiates catalysis. Additional conserved hydrogen bond donors assist the metal cluster in this function. Crystal structure analysis reveals that the constellation of three metal ions required for terpenoid synthase catalysis is generally identical among all class I terpenoid synthases of known structure.

  5. Functional Contribution of Chorismate Synthase, Anthranilate Synthase, and Chorismate Mutase to Penetration Resistance in Barley-Powdery Mildew Interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant processes resulting from primary or secondary metabolism have been hypothesized to contribute to defense against microbial attack. Barley chorismate synthase (HvCS), anthranilate synthase alpha subunit 2 (HvASa2) and chorismate mutase 1 (HvCM1) occupy pivotal branch-points downstream of the s...

  6. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage

    PubMed Central

    Gokay, Nevzat Selim; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Demiroz, Ahu Senem; Gokce, Alper; Dervisoglu, Sergülen; Gokay, Banu Vural

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg), inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg), or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg). After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P = 0.044) positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders. PMID:27382570

  7. Pseudouridines and pseudouridine synthases of the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Ofengand, J; Malhotra, A; Remme, J; Gutgsell, N S; Del Campo, M; Jean-Charles, S; Peil, L; Kaya, Y

    2001-01-01

    psi are ubiquitous in ribosomal RNA. Eubacteria, Archaea, and eukaryotes all contain psi, although their number varies widely, with eukaryotes having the most. The small ribosomal subunit can apparently do without psi in some organisms, even though others have as many as 40 or more. Large subunits appear to need at least one psi but can have up to 50-60. psi is made by a set of site-specific enzymes in eubacteria, and in eukaryotes by a single enzyme complexed with auxiliary proteins and specificity-conferring guide RNAs. The mechanism is not known in Archaea, but based on an analysis of the kinds of psi synthases found in sequenced archaeal genomes, it is likely to involve use of guide RNAs. All psi synthases can be classified into one of four related groups, virtually all of which have a conserved aspartate residue in a conserved sequence motif. The aspartate is essential for psi formation in all twelve synthases examined so far. When the need for psi in E. coli was examined, the only synthase whose absence caused a major decrease in growth rate under normal conditions was RluD, the synthase that makes psi 1911, psi 1915, and psi 1917 in the helix 69 end-loop. This growth defect was the result of a major failure in assembly of the large ribosomal subunit. The defect could be prevented by supplying the rluD structural gene in trans, and also by providing a point mutant gene that made a synthase unable to make psi. Therefore, the RluD synthase protein appears to be directly involved in 50S subunit assembly, possibly as an RNA chaperone, and this activity is independent of its ability to form psi. This result is not without precedent. Depletion of PET56, a 2'-O-methyltransferase specific for G2251 (E. coli numbering) in yeast mitochondria virtually blocks 50S subunit assembly and mitochondrial function (Sirum-Connolly et al. 1995), but the methylation activity of the enzyme is not required (T. Mason, pers. comm.). The absence of FtsJ, a heat shock protein that makes

  8. Hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronidases in nasal polyps.

    PubMed

    Panogeorgou, T; Tserbini, E; Filou, S; Vynios, D H; Naxakis, S S; Papadas, T A; Goumas, P D; Mastronikolis, N S

    2016-07-01

    Nasal polyps (NPs) are benign lesions of nasal and paranasal sinuses mucosa affecting 1-4 % of all adults. Nasal polyposis affects the quality of patient's life as it causes nasal obstruction, postnasal drainage, purulent nasal discharge, hyposmia or anosmia, chronic sinusitis, facial pain and snoring. Without treatment, the disease can alter the craniofacial skeleton in cases of extended growth of polyps. The development of NPs is caused by the hyperplasia of nasal or paranasal sinuses mucosa, and edema of extracellular matrix. This is usually the result of high concentration of high molecular mass hyaluronan (HA) which is either overproduced or accumulated from blood supply. The size of HA presents high diversity and, especially in pathologic conditions, chains of low molecular mass can be observed. In NPs, chains of about 200 kDa have been identified and considered to be responsible for the inflammation. The purpose of the present study was the investigation, in NPs and normal nasal mucosa (NM), of the expression of the wild-type and alternatively spliced forms of hyaluronidases, their immunolocalization, and the expression of HA synthases to examine the isoform(s) responsible for the increased amounts of HA in NPs. Hyaluronidases' presence was examined on mRNA (RT-PCR analysis) and protein (immunohistochemistry) levels. Hyaluronan synthases' presence was examined on mRNA levels. Hyaluronidases were localized in the cytoplasm of epithelial and inflammatory cells, as well as in the matrix. On mRNA level, it was found that hyal-1-wt was decreased in NPs compared to NM and hyal-1-v3, -v4 and -v5 were substantially increased. Moreover, HAS2 and HAS3 were the only hyaluronan synthases detected, the expression of which was almost similar in NPs and NM. Overall, the results of the present study support that hyaluronidases are the main enzymes responsible for the decreased size of hyaluronan observed in NPs; thus they behave as inflammatory agents. Therefore, they

  9. Structure of Aminodeoxychorismate Synthase from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia†

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Asim K.; Atanasova, Vesna; Dhanda, Anjali; Ladner, Jane E.; Parsons, James F.

    2012-01-01

    PabB, aminodeoxychorismate synthase, is the chorismic acid binding component of the heterodimeric PabAB complex that converts chorismic acid to 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate, a precursor of p-aminobenzoate and folic acid in microorganisms. The second component, a glutamine amidotransferase subunit, PabA, generates ammonia that is channeled to the PabB active site where it attacks the C4 carbon of a chorismate derived intermediate that is covalently bound, through C2, to an active site lysine residue. The presence of a PIKGT motif was, until recently, believed to be discriminate PabB enzymes from the closely related enzyme anthranilate synthase, which typically contains a PIAGT active site motif and does not form a covalent enzyme-substrate intermediate with chorismate. A subclass of PabB enzymes that employ an alternative mechanism requiring two equivalents of ammonia from glutamine and that feature a noncovalently bound 2-amino-2-deoxyisochorismate intermediate was recently identified. Here we report the 2.25 Å crystal structure of PabB from the emerging pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. It is the first reported structure of a PabB that features the PIAGT motif. Surprisingly, no dedicated pabA is evident in the genome of S. maltophilia suggesting that another cellular amidotransferase is able to fulfill the role of PabA in this organism. Evaluation of the ammonia-dependent aminodeoxychorismate synthase activity of S. maltophilia PabB alone revealed that it is virtually inactive. However, in the presence of a heterologous PabA surrogate, typical levels of activity were observed using either glutamine or ammonia as the nitrogen source. Additionally, the structure suggests that a key segment of the polypeptide can remodel itself to interact with a nonspecialized or shared amidotransferase partner in vivo. The structure and mass spectral analysis further suggest that S. maltophilia PabB, like Escherichia coli PabB, binds tryptophan in a vestigial regulatory site

  10. Cell surface tagging and a suicide mechanism in a single chimeric human protein.

    PubMed

    Amara, J F; Courage, N L; Gilman, M

    1999-11-01

    Many therapeutic uses of gene-modified cells could benefit from inclusion of a surface marker for immunoselecting transduced cells. Another desired feature is a failsafe mechanism to ablate engineered cells if required. We describe here a system that combines a cell surface tag and an inducible apoptosis mechanism in a single protein. Spencer et al. (Curr. Biol. 1996;6:839-847) described an inducible cell suicide gene containing a myristoylation sequence, the human protein FKBP12, and the intracellular domain of Fas. Cells expressing this protein apoptose on treatment with a cell-permeable chemical dimerizing agent that binds two FKBP domains and cross-links the chimeric Fas proteins. We modified this system by anchoring a Fas-FKBP construct to the membrane with the extracellular and transmembrane domains of the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (LNGFR), thereby uniting cell surface tagging with the inducible apoptosis mechanism. Cells retrovirally transduced with this construct apoptosed on exposure to a chemical dimerizer, AP1903 (Clackson et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1998;95:10437-10442). The LNGFR-tagged construct showed an unpredicted clear advantage over the myristoylation-anchored construct in its efficiency of signaling in HT1080 cells. This linked marker and failsafe mechanism may have particularly attractive safety properties for gene therapy. The use of gene-modified cells in basic research and clinical studies is enhanced by the use of a selectable surface marker for immunoselection of transduced cells. Another desired feature for gene and cell therapies is an inducible suicide system to eliminate transduced cells when necessary. Spencer et al. (Curr. Biol. 1996;6:839-847) described a potential failsafe mechanism whereby exposure of cells to a chemical dimerizing agent activates the Fas-mediated apoptotic pathway. In this system, the intracellular signaling domain of Fas is linked to one or more copies of the human protein FKBP12

  11. Knowledge discovery of cell-cell and cell-surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jing

    High-throughput cell culture is an emerging technology that shows promise as a tool for research in tissue engineering, drug discovery, and medical diagnostics. An important, but overlooked, challenge is the integration of experimental methods with information processing suitable for handling large databases of cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions. In this work the traditional global descriptions of cell behaviors and surface characteristics was shown insufficient for investigating short-distance cell-to-cell and cell-to-surface interactions. Traditional summary metrics cannot distinguish information of cell near neighborhood from the average, global features, thus often is not suitable for studying distance-sensitive cell behaviors. The problem of traditional summary metrics was addressed by introducing individual-cell based local metrics that emphasize cell local environment. An individual-cell based local data analysis method was established. Contact inhibition of cell proliferation was used as a benchmark for the effectiveness of the local metrics and the method. Where global, summary metrics were unsuccessful, the local metrics successfully and quantitatively distinguished the contact inhibition effects of MC3T3-E1 cells on PLGA, PCL, and TCPS surfaces. In order to test the new metrics and analysis method in detail, a model of cell contact inhibition was proposed. Monte Carlo simulation was performed for validating the individual-cell based local data analysis method as well as the cell model itself. The simulation results well matched with the experimental observations. The parameters used in the cell model provided new descriptions of both cell behaviors and surface characteristics. Based on the viewpoint of individual cells, the local metrics and local data analysis method were extended to the investigation of cell-surface interactions, and a new high-throughput screening and knowledge discovery method on combinatorial libraries, local cell

  12. Conversion of anthranilate synthase into isochorismate synthase: implications for the evolution of chorismate-utilizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Plach, Maximilian G; Löffler, Patrick; Merkl, Rainer; Sterner, Reinhard

    2015-09-14

    Chorismate-utilizing enzymes play a vital role in the biosynthesis of metabolites in plants as well as free-living and infectious microorganisms. Among these enzymes are the homologous primary metabolic anthranilate synthase (AS) and secondary metabolic isochorismate synthase (ICS). Both catalyze mechanistically related reactions by using ammonia and water as nucleophiles, respectively. We report that the nucleophile specificity of AS can be extended from ammonia to water by just two amino acid exchanges in a channel leading to the active site. The observed ICS/AS bifunctionality demonstrates that a secondary metabolic enzyme can readily evolve from a primary metabolic enzyme without requiring an initial gene duplication event. In a general sense, these findings add to our understanding how nature has used the structurally predetermined features of enzyme superfamilies to evolve new reactions.

  13. Identification of cystathionine γ-synthase and threonine synthase from Cicer arietinum and Lens culinaris.

    PubMed

    Morneau, Dominique J K; Jaworski, Allison F; Aitken, Susan M

    2013-04-01

    In plants, cystathionine γ-synthase (CGS) and threonine synthase (TS) compete for the branch-point metabolite O-phospho-L-homoserine. These enzymes are potential targets for metabolic engineering studies, aiming to alter the flux through the competing methionine and threonine biosynthetic pathways, with the goal of increasing methionine production. Although CGS and TS have been characterized in the model organisms Escherichia coli and Arabidopsis thaliana, little information is available on these enzymes in other, particularly plant, species. The functional CGS and TS coding sequences from the grain legumes Cicer arietinum (chickpea) and Lens culinaris (lentil) identified in this study share approximately 80% amino acid sequence identity with the corresponding sequences from Glycine max. At least 7 active-site residues of grain legume CGS and TS are conserved in the model bacterial enzymes, including the catalytic base. Putative processing sites that remove the targeting sequence and result in functional TS were identified in the target species.

  14. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiaohong; Keller, T C Stevenson; Begandt, Daniela; Butcher, Joshua T; Biwer, Lauren; Keller, Alexander S; Columbus, Linda; Isakson, Brant E

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, NOS3) is responsible for producing nitric oxide (NO)--a key molecule that can directly (or indirectly) act as a vasodilator and anti-inflammatory mediator. In this review, we examine the structural effects of regulation of the eNOS enzyme, including post-translational modifications and subcellular localization. After production, NO diffuses to surrounding cells with a variety of effects. We focus on the physiological role of NO and NO-derived molecules, including microvascular effects on vessel tone and immune response. Regulation of eNOS and NO action is complicated; we address endogenous and exogenous mechanisms of NO regulation with a discussion of pharmacological agents used in clinical and laboratory settings and a proposed role for eNOS in circulating red blood cells.

  15. The Rotary Mechanism of the ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Robert K.; Scanlon, Joanne A. Baylis; Al-Shawi, Marwan K.

    2008-01-01

    The FOF1 ATP synthase is a large complex of at least 22 subunits, more than half of which are in the membranous FO sector. This nearly ubiquitous transporter is responsible for the majority of ATP synthesis in oxidative and photo-phosphorylation, and its overall structure and mechanism have remained conserved throughout evolution. Most examples utilize the proton motive force to drive ATP synthesis except for a few bacteria, which use a sodium motive force. A remarkable feature of the complex is the rotary movement of an assembly of subunits that plays essential roles in both transport and catalytic mechanisms. This review addresses the role of rotation in catalysis of ATP synthesis/hydrolysis and the transport of protons or sodium. PMID:18515057

  16. Transfer RNA pseudouridine synthases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, T; Olsson, M

    1990-05-25

    A transfer RNA lacking modified nucleosides was produced by transcription in vitro of a cloned gene that encodes a Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycine tRNA. At least three different uridines (in nucleotide positions 13, 32, and 55) of this transcript tRNA are modified to pseudouridine by an extract of S. cerevisiae. Variants of the RNA substrate were also constructed that each had only one of these sites, thus allowing specific monitoring of pseudouridylation at different nucleotide positions. Using such RNAs to assay pseudouridine synthesis, enzymes producing this nucleoside were purified from an extract of S. cerevisiae. The activities corresponding to positions 13, 32, and 55 in the tRNA substrate could all be separated chromatographically, indicating that there is a separate enzyme for each of these sites. The enzyme specific for position 55 (denoted pseudouridine synthase 55) was purified approximately 4000-fold using a combination of DEAE-Sepharose, heparin-Sepharose, and hydroxylapatite.

  17. Prenyltransferases of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xia; Li, Shu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Prenylated natural products often have interesting biological and pharmacological activities clearly distinct from their nonprenylated precursors. Prenyltransferases are responsible for the attachment of prenyl moieties to a number of acceptors and contribute significantly to structural and biological diversity of these compounds in nature. In the past 8 years, significant progress has been achieved in the molecular biological, biochemical, and structural biological investigation of the prenyltransferases of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase (DMATS) superfamily. These soluble enzymes are involved in the biosynthesis of fungal secondary metabolites and mainly catalyze prenylation of diverse indole derivatives, including tryptophan and tryptophan-containing cyclic dipeptides. The members of the DMATS superfamily show promising flexibility toward their aromatic substrates and catalyze highly regio- and stereoselective prenyltransfer reactions. These features were successfully used for chemoenzymatic synthesis, not only for production of prenylated simple indoles and cyclic dipeptides but also for prenylated hydroxynaphthalenes and flavonoids, which are usually found in bacteria and plants, respectively.

  18. Effects of sodium on cell surface and intracellular TH-naloxone binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, A.E.; Wooten, G.F.

    1987-07-27

    The binding of the opiate antagonist TH-naloxone was examined in rat whole brain homogenates and in crude subcellular fractions of these homogenates (nuclear, synaptosomal, and mitochondrial fractions) using buffers that approximated intra- (low sodium concentration) and extracellular (high sodium concentration) fluids. Saturation studies showed a two-fold decrease in the dissociation constant (Kd) in all subcellular fractions examined in extracellular buffer compared to intracellular buffer. In contrast, there was no significant effect of the buffers on the Bmax. Thus, TH-naloxone did not distinguish between binding sites present on cell surface and intracellular tissues in these two buffers. These results show that the sodium effect of opiate antagonist binding is probably not a function of altered selection of intra- and extracellular binding sites. 17 references, 2 tables.

  19. In situ recognition of cell-surface glycans and targeted imaging of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-Ding; Cheng, Han; Chen, Wei-Hai; Cheng, Si-Xue; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent sensors capable of recognizing cancer-associated glycans, such as sialyl Lewis X (sLex) tetrasaccharide, have great potential for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Studies on water-soluble and biocompatible sensors for in situ recognition of cancer-associated glycans in live cells and targeted imaging of cancer cells are very limited at present. Here we report boronic acid-functionalized peptide-based fluorescent sensors (BPFSs) for in situ recognition and differentiation of cancer-associated glycans, as well as targeted imaging of cancer cells. By screening BPFSs with different structures, it was demonstrated that BPFS1 with a FRGDF peptide could recognize cell-surface glycan of sLex with high specificity and thereafter fluorescently label and discriminate cancer cells through the cooperation with the specific recognition between RGD and integrins. The newly developed peptide-based sensor will find great potential as a fluorescent probe for cancer diagnosis. PMID:24042097

  20. Illumination of growth, division and secretion by metabolic labeling of the bacterial cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Siegrist, M. Sloan; Swarts, Benjamin M.; Fox, Douglas M.; Lim, Shion An; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2015-01-01

    The cell surface is the essential interface between a bacterium and its surroundings. Composed primarily of molecules that are not directly genetically encoded, this highly dynamic structure accommodates the basic cellular processes of growth and division as well as the transport of molecules between the cytoplasm and the extracellular milieu. In this review, we describe aspects of bacterial growth, division and secretion that have recently been uncovered by metabolic labeling of the cell envelope. Metabolite derivatives can be used to label a variety of macromolecules, from proteins to non-genetically-encoded glycans and lipids. The embedded metabolite enables precise tracking in time and space, and the versatility of newer chemoselective detection methods offers the ability to execute multiple experiments concurrently. In addition to reviewing the discoveries enabled by metabolic labeling of the bacterial cell envelope, we also discuss the potential of these techniques for translational applications. Finally, we offer some guidelines for implementing this emerging technology. PMID:25725012

  1. Facile method to stain the bacterial cell surface for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gunsolus, Ian L.; Hu, Dehong; Mihai, Cosmin; Lohse, Samuel E.; Lee, Chang-Soo; Torelli, Marco; Hamers, Robert J.; Murphy, Catherine; Orr, Galya; Haynes, Christy L.

    2014-01-01

    A method to fluorescently stain the surfaces of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cells compatible with super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is presented. This method utilizes a commercially-available fluorescent probe to label primary amines at the surface of the cell. We demonstrate efficient staining of two bacterial strains, the Gram-negative Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis 168. Using structured illumination microscopy and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, which require high quantum yield or specialized dyes, we show that this staining method may be used to resolve the bacterial cell surface with sub-diffraction-limited resolution. We further use this method to identify localization patterns of nanomaterials, specifically cadmium selenide quantum dots, following interaction with bacterial cells.

  2. Las1 Is an Essential Nuclear Protein Involved in Cell Morphogenesis and Cell Surface Growth

    PubMed Central

    Doseff, A. I.; Arndt, K. T.

    1995-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutations that cause a requirement for SSD1-v for viability were isolated, yielding one new gene, LAS1, and three previously identified genes, SIT4, BCK1/SLK1, and SMP3. Three of these genes, LAS1, SIT4, and BCK1/SLK1, encode proteins that have roles in bud formation or morphogenesis. LAS1 is essential and loss of LAS1 function causes the cells to arrest as 80% unbudded cells and 20% large budded cells that accumulate many vesicles at the mother-daughter neck. Overexpression of LAS1 results in extra cell surface projections in the mother cell, alterations in actin and SPA2 localization, and the accumulation of electron-dense structures along the periphery of both the mother cell and the bud. The nuclear localization of LAS1 suggests a role of LAS1 for regulating bud formation and morphogenesis via the expression of components that function directly in these processes. PMID:8582632

  3. Restoration of proper trafficking to the cell surface for membrane proteins harboring cysteine mutations.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Angelica; Holmgren, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    A common phenotype for many genetic diseases is that the cell is unable to deliver full-length membrane proteins to the cell surface. For some forms of autism, hereditary spherocytosis and color blindness, the culprits are single point mutations to cysteine. We have studied two inheritable cysteine mutants of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels that produce achromatopsia, a common form of severe color blindness. By taking advantage of the reactivity of cysteine's sulfhydryl group, we modified these mutants with chemical reagents that attach moieties with similar chemistries to the wild-type amino acids' side chains. We show that these modifications restored proper delivery to the cell membrane. Once there, the channels exhibited normal functional properties. This strategy might provide a unique opportunity to assess the chemical nature of membrane protein traffic problems. PMID:23082193

  4. Cell surface origin of antigens shed by Leishmania donovani during growth in axenic culture.

    PubMed Central

    Kaneshiro, E S; Gottlieb, M; Dwyer, D M

    1982-01-01

    Antisera against isolated cell surface preparations (PCSP-As) of Leishmania donovani promastigotes were used to detect extracellular antigens produced during the growth of these organisms in four different growth media. The PCSP-As precipitated two major antigenically identical but electrophoretically distinct components, in addition to several minor antigens. Immunoelectrophoretic studies employing PCSP-As, PCSP-As absorbed with intact, live promastigotes, and PCSP-As absorbed with a major extracellular antigen demonstrated the antigenic identity between the major extracellular antigens and two major components externally disposed at the surface of promastigotes. Growth curve kinetic investigations suggested that the major extracellular antigens did not appear in the growth media primarily as a result of cell lysis or damage. The carbohydrate nature of the major extracellular antigens was indicated by physicochemical characterization. Images PMID:7118250

  5. COMMON CELL SURFACE ANTIGEN ASSOCIATED WITH MAMMALIAN C-TYPE RNA VIRUSES

    PubMed Central

    Yoshiki, Takashi; Mellors, Robert C.; Hardy, William D.; Fleissner, Erwin

    1974-01-01

    The indirect membrane immunofluorescence test and the absorption analysis of rabbit anti-FeLV, rabbit anti-FeLVp 30, and rabbit anti-MuLVp 30 antisera yielded the following conclusions. An antigen shared by mammalian (murine and feline) C-type RNA leukemia and sarcoma viruses was detected on the surface of cells infected or transformed by C-type viruses. The antigen was characterized as membrane-bound gs antigen bearing two determinants, membrane-bound gs-1, intraspecies-specific antigenic determinant, and membrane-bound gs-3, interspecies-specific antigenic determinant. Membrane-bound gs antigen was located on the cell surface, frequently near the site of virus budding but not on the envelope of murine C-type RNA virus. PMID:4131513

  6. Detection of the plant parasite Cuscuta reflexa by a tomato cell surface receptor.

    PubMed

    Hegenauer, Volker; Fürst, Ursula; Kaiser, Bettina; Smoker, Matthew; Zipfel, Cyril; Felix, Georg; Stahl, Mark; Albert, Markus

    2016-07-29

    Parasitic plants are a constraint on agriculture worldwide. Cuscuta reflexa is a stem holoparasite that infests most dicotyledonous plants. One exception is tomato, which is resistant to C. reflexa We discovered that tomato responds to a small peptide factor occurring in Cuscuta spp. with immune responses typically activated after perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns. We identified the cell surface receptor-like protein CUSCUTA RECEPTOR 1 (CuRe1) as essential for the perception of this parasite-associated molecular pattern. CuRe1 is sufficient to confer responsiveness to the Cuscuta factor and increased resistance to parasitic C. reflexa when heterologously expressed in otherwise susceptible host plants. Our findings reveal that plants recognize parasitic plants in a manner similar to perception of microbial pathogens. PMID:27471302

  7. High cell-surface density of HER2 deforms cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Inhee; Reichelt, Mike; Shao, Lily; Akita, Robert W; Koeppen, Hartmut; Rangell, Linda; Schaefer, Gabriele; Mellman, Ira; Sliwkowski, Mark X

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancers (BC) with HER2 overexpression (referred to as HER2 positive) progress more aggressively than those with normal expression. Targeted therapies against HER2 can successfully delay the progression of HER2-positive BC, but details of how this overexpression drives the disease are not fully understood. Using single-molecule biophysical approaches, we discovered a new effect of HER2 overexpression on disease-relevant cell biological changes in these BC. We found HER2 overexpression causes deformation of the cell membranes, and this in turn disrupts epithelial features by perturbing cell-substrate and cell-cell contacts. This membrane deformation does not require receptor signalling activities, but results from the high levels of HER2 on the cell surface. Our finding suggests that early-stage morphological alterations of HER2-positive BC cells during cancer progression can occur in a physical and signalling-independent manner. PMID:27599456

  8. Active Currents and Stresses on the cell surface: Clustering, Instabilities and Budding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Madan

    2011-03-01

    We study the contractile dynamics of a collection of active polar filaments, such as actin, on a two dimensional substrate, using a continuum hydrodynamic description in the presence of spatiotemporal noise. The steady states, characterized by a variety of phases generically consisting of a transient collection of inward pointing asters. We next study the dynamics of particles advected along these active filaments. This is relevant to the dynamics and organization of a large class of cell surface molecules. We make several predictions regarding the statistics of fluctuations of these passive advective particles which we confirm using fluorescence based experiments. We then show how such active patterning of filaments can give rise to membrane stresses leading to membrane shape deformations. In collaboration with Kripa Gowrishankar and Satyajit Mayor.

  9. Targeted amplification of delivery to cell surface receptors by dendrimer self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Isaacman, Steven; Buckley, Michael; Wang, Xiaojian; Wang, Edwin Y; Liebes, Leonard; Canary, James W

    2014-03-01

    Nanometer-scale architectures assembled on cell surface receptors from smaller macromolecular constituents generated a large amplification of fluorescence. A targeted dendrimer was synthesized from a cystamine-core G4 PAMAM dendrimer, and contained an anti-BrE3 monoclonal antibody as the targeting group, several fluorophores and an average of 12 aldehyde moieties as complementary bio-orthogonal reactive sites for the covalent assembly. A cargo dendrimer, derived from a PAMAM G4 dendrimer, contained several fluorophores as the cargo for delivery and five hydrazine moieties as complimentary bio-orthogonal reactive sites. The system is designed to be flexible and allow for facile incorporation of a variety of targeting ligands.

  10. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein induces the detachment of rotavirus particles from the cell surface.

    PubMed

    López, Tomás; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F

    2015-12-01

    Group A rotaviruses are a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young infants. In this work we evaluated the potential role of protein tyrosine kinases on rotavirus infectivity and viral progeny production. From the broad-spectrum inhibitors tested, only genistein, a flavonoid, inhibited rotavirus infectivity. The inhibition observed was dose and strain dependent, with more than 10-fold IC50 differences for some rotavirus strains, and the effect of the drug was shown to be dependent of their activity as a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, since the inactive analogue of genistein, daidzein, had no effect on virus infection. Investigation of the stage of virus replication blocked by the drug showed that it interferes with the early interactions of the virus with receptors and/or co-receptors, since treatment of the cells with genistein promoted the detachment of the virus from the cell surface.

  11. High cell-surface density of HER2 deforms cell membranes

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Inhee; Reichelt, Mike; Shao, Lily; Akita, Robert W.; Koeppen, Hartmut; Rangell, Linda; Schaefer, Gabriele; Mellman, Ira; Sliwkowski, Mark X.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancers (BC) with HER2 overexpression (referred to as HER2 positive) progress more aggressively than those with normal expression. Targeted therapies against HER2 can successfully delay the progression of HER2-positive BC, but details of how this overexpression drives the disease are not fully understood. Using single-molecule biophysical approaches, we discovered a new effect of HER2 overexpression on disease-relevant cell biological changes in these BC. We found HER2 overexpression causes deformation of the cell membranes, and this in turn disrupts epithelial features by perturbing cell–substrate and cell–cell contacts. This membrane deformation does not require receptor signalling activities, but results from the high levels of HER2 on the cell surface. Our finding suggests that early-stage morphological alterations of HER2-positive BC cells during cancer progression can occur in a physical and signalling-independent manner. PMID:27599456

  12. Detection of the plant parasite Cuscuta reflexa by a tomato cell surface receptor.

    PubMed

    Hegenauer, Volker; Fürst, Ursula; Kaiser, Bettina; Smoker, Matthew; Zipfel, Cyril; Felix, Georg; Stahl, Mark; Albert, Markus

    2016-07-29

    Parasitic plants are a constraint on agriculture worldwide. Cuscuta reflexa is a stem holoparasite that infests most dicotyledonous plants. One exception is tomato, which is resistant to C. reflexa We discovered that tomato responds to a small peptide factor occurring in Cuscuta spp. with immune responses typically activated after perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns. We identified the cell surface receptor-like protein CUSCUTA RECEPTOR 1 (CuRe1) as essential for the perception of this parasite-associated molecular pattern. CuRe1 is sufficient to confer responsiveness to the Cuscuta factor and increased resistance to parasitic C. reflexa when heterologously expressed in otherwise susceptible host plants. Our findings reveal that plants recognize parasitic plants in a manner similar to perception of microbial pathogens.

  13. Targeted amplification of delivery to cell surface receptors by dendrimer self-assembly

    PubMed Central

    Isaacman, Steven; Buckley, Michael; Wang, Xiaojian; Wang, Edwin Y.; Liebes, Leonard; Canary, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Nanometer-scale architectures assembled on cell surface receptors from smaller macromolecular constituents generated a large amplification of fluorescence. A targeted dendrimer was synthesized from a cystamine-core G4 PAMAM dendrimer, and contained an anti-BrE3 monoclonal antibody as the targeting group, several fluorophores and an average of 12 aldehyde moieties as complementary bio-orthogonal reactive sites for the covalent assembly. A cargo dendrimer, derived from a PAMAM G4 dendrimer, contained several fluorophores as the cargo for delivery and five hydrazine moieties as complimentary bio-orthogonal reactive sites. The system is designed to be flexible and allow for facile incorporation of a variety of targeting ligands. PMID:24513050

  14. Structure and Function of Fusicoccadiene Synthase, a Hexameric Bifunctional Diterpene Synthase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengbin; Chou, Wayne K W; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Cane, David E; Christianson, David W

    2016-04-15

    Fusicoccin A is a diterpene glucoside phytotoxin generated by the fungal pathogen Phomopsis amygdali that causes the plant disease constriction canker, first discovered in New Jersey peach orchards in the 1930s. Fusicoccin A is also an emerging new lead in cancer chemotherapy. The hydrocarbon precursor of fusicoccin A is the tricyclic diterpene fusicoccadiene, which is generated by a bifunctional terpenoid synthase. Here, we report X-ray crystal structures of the individual catalytic domains of fusicoccadiene synthase: the C-terminal domain is a chain elongation enzyme that generates geranylgeranyl diphosphate, and the N-terminal domain catalyzes the cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to form fusicoccadiene. Crystal structures of each domain complexed with bisphosphonate substrate analogues suggest that three metal ions and three positively charged amino acid side chains trigger substrate ionization in each active site. While in vitro incubations reveal that the cyclase domain can utilize farnesyl diphosphate and geranyl diphosphate as surrogate substrates, these shorter isoprenoid diphosphates are mainly converted into acyclic alcohol or hydrocarbon products. Gel filtration chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments indicate that full-length fusicoccadiene synthase adopts hexameric quaternary structure, and small-angle X-ray scattering data yield a well-defined molecular envelope illustrating a plausible model for hexamer assembly.

  15. CLYBL is a polymorphic human enzyme with malate synthase and β-methylmalate synthase activity

    PubMed Central

    Strittmatter, Laura; Li, Yang; Nakatsuka, Nathan J.; Calvo, Sarah E.; Grabarek, Zenon; Mootha, Vamsi K.

    2014-01-01

    CLYBL is a human mitochondrial enzyme of unknown function that is found in multiple eukaryotic taxa and conserved to bacteria. The protein is expressed in the mitochondria of all mammalian organs, with highest expression in brown fat and kidney. Approximately 5% of all humans harbor a premature stop polymorphism in CLYBL that has been associated with reduced levels of circulating vitamin B12. Using comparative genomics, we now show that CLYBL is strongly co-expressed with and co-evolved specifically with other components of the mitochondrial B12 pathway. We confirm that the premature stop polymorphism in CLYBL leads to a loss of protein expression. To elucidate the molecular function of CLYBL, we used comparative operon analysis, structural modeling and enzyme kinetics. We report that CLYBL encodes a malate/β-methylmalate synthase, converting glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA to malate, or glyoxylate and propionyl-CoA to β-methylmalate. Malate synthases are best known for their established role in the glyoxylate shunt of plants and lower organisms and are traditionally described as not occurring in humans. The broader role of a malate/β-methylmalate synthase in human physiology and its mechanistic link to vitamin B12 metabolism remain unknown. PMID:24334609

  16. Characterization of a Cell Surface Protein of Clostridium difficile with Adhesive Properties

    PubMed Central

    Waligora, Anne-Judith; Hennequin, Claire; Mullany, Peter; Bourlioux, Pierre; Collignon, Anne; Karjalainen, Tuomo

    2001-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously shown that Clostridium difficile adherence to cultured cells is enhanced after heat shock at 60°C and that it is mediated by a proteinaceous surface component. The present study was undertaken to identify the surface molecules of this bacterium that could play a role in its adherence to the intestine. The cwp66 gene, encoding a cell surface-associated protein of C. difficile 79-685, was isolated by immunoscreening of a C. difficile gene library with polyclonal antibodies against C. difficile heated at 60°C. The Cwp66 protein (66 kDa) contains two domains, each carrying three imperfect repeats and one presenting homologies to the autolysin CwlB of Bacillus subtilis. A survey of 36 strains of C. difficile representing 11 serogroups showed that the 3′ portion of the cwp66 gene is variable; this was confirmed by sequencing of cwp66 from another strain, C-253. Two recombinant protein fragments corresponding to the two domains of Cwp66 were expressed in fusion with glutathione S-transferase in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography using gluthatione-Sepharose 4B. Antibodies raised against the two domains recognized Cwp66 in bacterial surface extracts. By immunoelectron microscopy, the C-terminal domain was found to be cell surface exposed. When used as inhibitors in cell binding studies, the antibodies and protein fragments partially inhibited adherence of C. difficile to cultured cells, confirming that Cwp66 is an adhesin, the first to be identified in clostridia. PMID:11254569

  17. Development of living cell force sensors for the interrogation of cell surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Scott Chang

    The measurement of cell surface interactions, or cell interaction forces, are critical for the early diagnosis and prevention of disease, the design of targeted drug and gene delivery vehicles, the development of next-generation implant materials, and much more. However, the technologies and devices that are currently available are highly limited with respect to the dynamic force range over which they can measure cell-cell or cell-substratum interactions, and with their ability to adequately mimic biologically relevant systems. Consequently, research efforts that involve cell surface interactions have been limited. In this dissertation, existing tools for research at the nanoscale (i.e., atomic force microscopy microcantilevers) are modified to develop living cell force sensors that allow for the highly sensitive measurement of cell-mediated interactions over the entire range of forces expected in biotechnology (and nano-biotechnology) research (from a single to millions of receptor-ligand bonds). Several force sensor motifs have been developed that can be used to measure interactions using single adherent cells, single suspension culture cell, and cell monolayers (tissues) over a wide range of interaction conditions (e.g., approach velocity, shear rate, contact time) using a conventional atomic force microscope. This new tool has been applied to study the pathogenesis of spontaneous pneumothorax and the interaction of cells with 14 man-made interfaces. Consequently, a new hypothesis of the interactions that manifest spontaneous pneumothorax has been developed. Additionally, these findings have the potential to lead to the development of tools for data mining materials and surfaces for unique cell interactions that could have an immense societal impact.

  18. Role of calcium in growth inhibition induced by a novel cell surface sialoglycopeptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, N. A.; Westhoff, B. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Our laboratory has purified an 18 kDa cell surface sialoglycopeptide growth inhibitor (CeReS-18) from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells. Evidence presented here demonstrates that sensitivity to CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition in BALB-c 3T3 cells is influenced by calcium, such that a decrease in the calcium concentration in the growth medium results in an increase in sensitivity to CeReS-18. Calcium did not alter CeReS-18 binding to its cell surface receptor and CeReS-18 does not bind calcium directly. Addition of calcium, but not magnesium, to CeReS-18-inhibited 3T3 cells results in reentry into the cell cycle. A greater than 3-hour exposure to increased calcium is required for escape from CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition. The calcium ionophore ionomycin could partially mimic the effect of increasing extracellular calcium, but thapsigargin was ineffective in inducing escape from growth inhibition. Increasing extracellular calcium 10-fold resulted in an approximately 7-fold increase in total cell-associated 45Ca+2, while free intracellular calcium only increased approximately 30%. However, addition of CeReS-18 did not affect total cell-associated calcium or the increase in total cell-associated calcium observed with an increase in extracellular calcium. Serum addition induced mobilization of intracellular calcium and influx across the plasma membrane in 3T3 cells, and pretreatment of 3T3 cells with CeReS-18 appeared to inhibit these calcium mobilization events. These results suggest that a calcium-sensitive step exists in the recovery from CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition. CeReS-18 may inhibit cell proliferation through a novel mechanism involving altering the intracellular calcium mobilization/regulation necessary for cell cycle progression.

  19. Linkage of extracellular plasminogen activator to the fibroblast cytoskeleton: colocalization of cell surface urokinase with vinculin

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Several cell types display binding sites for [125I]urokinase (Vassalli, J.-D., D. Baccino, D. Belin. 1985. J. Cell Biol. 100:86-92) which in certain cases are occupied with endogenous urokinase. These sites appear to focus urokinase at cell surfaces and hence may participate in tissue matrix destruction and cell invasion. Recently Pollanen et al. (1987) demonstrated that the cell surface urokinase of human fibroblasts and fibrosarcoma cells is deposited underneath the cells in strands, apparently at sites of cell-to-substratum contact. Here, using immunofluorescence double labeling, we show that the urokinase strands present on human foreskin fibroblasts are colocalized with strands of vinculin, an intracellular actin-binding protein that is deposited at cell-to-substratum focal adhesion sites. Thus, this indicates linkage of the plasminogen/plasmin system both to sites of cell adhesion and to the cytoskeleton. The urokinase strands on HT 1080 fibrosarcoma cells are more numerous and have shapes that are more tortuous than those on normal fibroblasts. In intact HT 1080 cells, colocalized vinculin strands are obscured by an intense background of soluble vinculin but are apparent on isolated ventral plasma membranes. Certain properties of the urokinase strands suggest that they are related to the [125I]urokinase-binding sites that have been described by several groups: (a) incubating fibroblasts with dexamethasone for 48 h or at pH 3 at 5 degrees C for 10 min greatly decreases the number and intensity of the urokinase strands; (b) strands reappear when glucocorticoid- treated cells are incubated with exogenous 54-kD (but not 35-kD) urokinase, and this process is inhibited by a previously described 16- amino acid peptide that blocks [125I]urokinase binding to the cells. PMID:3129438

  20. Macrophage recognition of immune complexes: development and application of novel cell surface labeling procedures.

    PubMed

    Petty, H R; Dereski, W

    1985-07-16

    A fluorescein- and lactoperoxidase-conjugated ferritin-anti-ferritin immune complex has been prepared for cell surface labeling experiments on immune recognition and effector function. Lactoperoxidase (LPO) has been covalently coupled to affinity-purified anti-ferritin antibodies with p-benzoquinone by a modified version of the method of Ternynck and Avrameas [Ternynck, T., & Avrameas, S. (1976) Ann. Immunol. (Paris) 127C, 197]. The conjugate is a heterodimer of Mr230 000 with linkages to either or both of the heavy and light chains of the antibody, as judged by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the absence and presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. The conjugate retains antibody-binding activity as measured by a quantitative precipitin assay. When incorporated into immune complexes, the modified antibody also retains Fc receptor recognition ability as determined by erythrocyte-antibody rosette inhibition assays. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the antigen, ferritin, was monodisperse with complete apoprotein sheaths surrounding the core. Ferritin-anti-ferritin-LPO complexes were formed in 4-fold antigen excess. Complexes were verified by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Immune complexes were masked with "cold" iodine by use of the endogenous LPO activity. The complexes bound to cells at 4 degrees C as shown by electron microscopy and fluorescence video/intensification microscopy. The LPO delivered to the cell surface in this fashion can be utilized to iodinate the surface with 125I. Under saturation conditions, the labeling with local LPO delivery followed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography is identical with labeling with free LPO. Labeling has also been conducted under conditions of substrate deficit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4052386

  1. Identification of cell surface proteins as potential immunotherapy targets in 12 pediatric cancers.

    PubMed

    Orentas, Rimas J; Yang, James J; Wen, Xinyu; Wei, Jun S; Mackall, Crystal L; Khan, Javed

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances now allow us to rapidly produce CARs and other antibody-derived therapeutics targeting cell surface receptors. To maximize the potential of these new technologies, relevant extracellular targets must be identified. The Pediatric Oncology Branch of the NCI curates a freely accessible database of gene expression data for both pediatric cancers and normal tissues, through which we have defined discrete sets of over-expressed transcripts in 12 pediatric cancer subtypes as compared to normal tissues. We coupled gene expression profiles to current annotation databases (i.e., Affymetrix, Gene Ontology, Entrez Gene), in order to categorize transcripts by their sub-cellular location. In this manner we generated a list of potential immune targets expressed on the cell surface, ranked by their difference from normal tissue. Global differences from normal between each of the pediatric tumor types studied varied, indicating that some malignancies expressed transcript sets that were more highly diverged from normal tissues than others. The validity of our approach is seen by our findings for pre-B cell ALL, where targets currently in clinical trials were top-ranked hits (CD19, CD22). For some cancers, reagents already in development could potentially be applied to a new disease class, as exemplified by CD30 expression on sarcomas. Moreover, several potential new targets shared among several pediatric solid tumors are herein identified, such as MCAM (MUC18), metadherin (MTDH), and glypican-2 (GPC2). These targets have been identified at the mRNA level and are yet to be validated at the protein level. The safety of targeting these antigens has yet to be demonstrated and therefore the identified transcripts should be considered preliminary candidates for new CAR and therapeutic antibody targets. Prospective candidate targets will be evaluated by proteomic analysis including Westerns and immunohistochemistry of normal and tumor tissues.

  2. Identification of Cell Surface Proteins as Potential Immunotherapy Targets in 12 Pediatric Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Orentas, Rimas J.; Yang, James J.; Wen, Xinyu; Wei, Jun S.; Mackall, Crystal L.; Khan, Javed

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances now allow us to rapidly produce CARs and other antibody-derived therapeutics targeting cell surface receptors. To maximize the potential of these new technologies, relevant extracellular targets must be identified. The Pediatric Oncology Branch of the NCI curates a freely accessible database of gene expression data for both pediatric cancers and normal tissues, through which we have defined discrete sets of over-expressed transcripts in 12 pediatric cancer subtypes as compared to normal tissues. We coupled gene expression profiles to current annotation databases (i.e., Affymetrix, Gene Ontology, Entrez Gene), in order to categorize transcripts by their sub-cellular location. In this manner we generated a list of potential immune targets expressed on the cell surface, ranked by their difference from normal tissue. Global differences from normal between each of the pediatric tumor types studied varied, indicating that some malignancies expressed transcript sets that were more highly diverged from normal tissues than others. The validity of our approach is seen by our findings for pre-B cell ALL, where targets currently in clinical trials were top-ranked hits (CD19, CD22). For some cancers, reagents already in development could potentially be applied to a new disease class, as exemplified by CD30 expression on sarcomas. Moreover, several potential new targets shared among several pediatric solid tumors are herein identified, such as MCAM (MUC18), metadherin (MTDH), and glypican-2 (GPC2). These targets have been identified at the mRNA level and are yet to be validated at the protein level. The safety of targeting these antigens has yet to be demonstrated and therefore the identified transcripts should be considered preliminary candidates for new CAR and therapeutic antibody targets. Prospective candidate targets will be evaluated by proteomic analysis including Westerns and immunohistochemistry of normal and tumor tissues. PMID:23251904

  3. Atomic force microscope based near-field imaging for probing cell surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Sina

    Near-membrane and trans-membrane proteins and their interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) can yield valuable information about cell dynamics. However, advances in the field of nanoscale cellular processes have been hindered, in part, due to limits imposed by current technology. In this work, a novel evanescent field (EF) imaging technique is designed, modeled, created and tested for near-field imaging in the apical surface of cells. This technique and Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) were used to investigate interactions between integrins on the cell surface and the ECM protein, fibronectin. The goal was to monitor changes in the integrin density at the cell surface as a function of clustering after binding to fibronectin on the microsphere surface. For the EF technique, quantum dot (QD)-embedded polystyrene microspheres were used to couple light into whispering gallery modes (WGMs) inside the microspheres; the resulting EF at the surface of the microsphere was used as a near-field excitation source with ~50 nm axial resolution for exciting fluorescently-labeled integrins. For FRET measurements (~10 nm axial resolution), QDs (donors) were coated on the surface of microspheres and energy transfer to red fluorescent protein (RFP)-integrin constructs (acceptors) studied. In both techniques, the QD-modified microspheres were mounted on atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers, functionalized with fibronectin, and brought into contact with fluorescently-labeled HeLa or vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. The results obtained from both methods show the clustering and activity of the integrins and are in good agreement with each other. Amsterdam discrete dipole approximation (ADDA) was used to study the effects of inhomogeneous surrounding refractive index on the quality factor and position of the WGMs due to the attachment of a microsphere to an AFM cantilever. WGMs of various QD-embedded microspheres mounted on AFM cantilevers were experimentally

  4. Acid base properties of cyanobacterial surfaces. II: Silica as a chemical stressor influencing cell surface reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalonde, S. V.; Smith, D. S.; Owttrim, G. W.; Konhauser, K. O.

    2008-03-01

    Bacteria grow in complex solutions where the adsorption of aqueous species and nucleation of mineral phases on the cell surface may interfere with membrane-dependent homeostatic functions. While previous investigations have provided evidence that bacteria may alter their surface chemical properties in response to environmental stimuli, to our knowledge no effort has been made to evaluate surface compositional changes resulting from non-nutritional chemical stresses within a quantitative framework applicable to surface complexation modeling. We consider here the influence of exposure to silica on cyanobacterial surface chemistry, particularly in light of the propensity for cyanobacteria to become silicified in geothermal environments. Using data modeled from over 50 potentiometric titrations of the unsheathed cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, we find that both abiotic geochemical and biotic biochemical-assimilatory factors have important and different effects on cell surface chemistry. Changes in functional group distribution that resulted from growth by different nitrogen assimilation pathways were greatest in the absence of dissolved silica and less important in its presence. Furthermore, out of the three nitrogen assimilation pathways investigated, in terms of surface functional group distribution, nitrate-reducing cultures were least sensitive, and ammonium-assimilating cultures were most sensitive, to changes in media silica concentration. When functional group distributions were plotted as a function of silica concentration, it appears that, with higher silica concentrations, basic groups (p Ka > 7) increase in concentration relative to acidic groups (p Ka < 7), and the total ligand densities (on a per-weight basis) decreased. The results imply a decrease in both the magnitude and density of surface charge as the net result of growth at high silica concentrations. Thus, Anabaena sp. appears to actively respond to growth in silicifying solutions by

  5. Electric field-directed fibroblast locomotion involves cell surface molecular reorganization and is calcium independent

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Directional cellular locomotion is thought to involve localized intracellular calcium changes and the lateral transport of cell surface molecules. We have examined the roles of both calcium and cell surface glycoprotein redistribution in the directional migration of two murine fibroblastic cell lines, NIH 3T3 and SV101. These cell types exhibit persistent, cathode directed motility when exposed to direct current electric fields. Using time lapse phase contrast microscopy and image analysis, we have determined that electric field-directed locomotion in each cell type is a calcium independent process. Both exhibit cathode directed motility in the absence of extracellular calcium, and electric fields cause no detectable elevations or gradients of cytosolic free calcium. We find evidence suggesting that galvanotaxis in these cells involves the lateral redistribution of plasma membrane glycoproteins. Electric fields cause the lateral migration of plasma membrane concanavalin A receptors toward the cathode in both NIH 3T3 and SV101 fibroblasts. Exposure of directionally migrating cells to Con A inhibits the normal change of cell direction following a reversal of electric field polarity. Additionally, when cells are plated on Con A- coated substrata so that Con A receptors mediate cell-substratum adhesion, cathode-directed locomotion and a cathodal accumulation of Con A receptors are observed. Immunofluorescent labeling of the fibronectin receptor in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts suggests the recruitment of integrins from large clusters to form a more diffuse distribution toward the cathode in field-treated cells. Our results indicate that the mechanism of electric field directed locomotion in NIH 3T3 and SV101 fibroblasts involves the lateral redistribution of plasma membrane glycoproteins involved in cell-substratum adhesion. PMID:7929557

  6. Interactions among endoplasmic reticulum, microtubules, and retrograde movements of the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, M; Reese, T S

    1994-01-01

    Relationships among the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), microtubules, and bead movements on the cell surface were investigated in the thin peripheral region of A6 cells, a frog kidney cell line. ER tubules were often aligned with microtubules, as shown by double-labeling with DiOC6(3) and anti-tubulin in fixed cells. In living cells stained with DiOC6(3) and observed in time lapse, there were frequent extensions, but few retractions, of ER tubules. In addition, there was a steady retrograde (towards the cell center) movement of all of the ER at approximately 0.3 microns/min. Since microtubules are often aligned with the ER, microtubules must also be moving retrogradely. By simultaneous imaging, it was found that the ER moves retrogradely at the same rate as aminated latex beads on the cell surface. This indicates that the mechanisms for ER and bead movement are closely related. Cytochalasin B stopped bead and ER movement in most of the cells, providing evidence that actin is involved in both retrograde movements. The ER retracted towards the cell center in nocodazole while both ER and microtubules retracted in taxol. Time lapse observations showed that for both drugs, the retraction of the ER is the result of retrograde movement in the absence of new ER extensions. Presumably, ER extensions do not occur in nocodazole because of the absence of microtubules, and do not occur in taxol because taxol-stabilized microtubules move retrogradely and there is no polymerization of new microtubule tracks for ER elongation. PMID:7859292

  7. Constrained diffusion or immobile fraction on cell surfaces: a new interpretation.

    PubMed Central

    Feder, T J; Brust-Mascher, I; Slattery, J P; Baird, B; Webb, W W

    1996-01-01

    Protein lateral mobility in cell membranes is generally measured using fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR). Since the development of this technique, the data have been interpreted by assuming free Brownian diffusion of cell surface receptors in two dimensions, an interpretation that requires that a subset of the diffusing species remains immobile. The origin of this so-called immobile fraction remains a mystery. In FPR, the motions of thousands of particles are inherently averaged, inevitably masking the details of individual motions. Recently, tracking of individual cell surface receptors has identified several distinct types of motion (Gross and Webb, 1988; Ghosh and Webb, 1988, 1990, 1994; Kusumi et al. 1993; Qian et al. 1991; Slattery, 1995), thereby calling into question the classical interpretation of FPR data as free Brownian motion of a limited mobile fraction. We have measured the motion of fluorescently labeled immunoglobulin E complexed to high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI) on rat basophilic leukemia cells using both single particle tracking and FPR. As in previous studies, our tracking results show that individual receptors may diffuse freely, or may exhibit restricted, time-dependent (anomalous) diffusion. Accordingly, we have analyzed FPR data by a new model to take this varied motion into account, and we show that the immobile fraction may be due to particles moving with the anomalous subdiffusion associated with restricted lateral mobility. Anomalous subdiffusion denotes random molecular motion in which the mean square displacements grow as a power law in time with a fractional positive exponent less than one. These findings call for a new model of cell membrane structure. PMID:8744314

  8. Externalization and binding of galectin-1 on cell surface of K562 cells upon erythroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lutomski, D; Fouillit, M; Bourin, P; Mellottée, D; Denize, N; Pontet, M; Bladier, D; Caron, M; Joubert-Caron, R

    1997-12-01

    Galectin 1 (GAL1) is a beta-galactoside-binding lectin involved in cell cycle progression. GAL1 overexpression is associated with neoplastic transformation and loss of differentiation. The gene encoding for human GAL1 resides on chromosome 22(q12; q13), and its expression is developmentally regulated. Although devoid of signal peptide GAL1 can be externalized from cells by a mechanism independent of the normal secretory process. We report here on a study of the effects of erythroid differentiation of the human leukemia cell line K562 on GAL1 protein expression. In undifferentiated K562 cells, GAL1 was expressed into the cytosol. However, the amount of GAL1 was surprisingly weaker in K562 cells than in other leukemia cell lines such as TF-1 or KG1a. Treatment of K562 cells with erythropoietin (EPO) or with aphidicolin (APH), an inhibitor for DNA polymerase alpha, induced an erythroid phenotype and led to the externalization of cytosolic GAL1 which was then bound to ligands on cell surface in a galactoside-inhibitable fashion. Our results demonstrate that acquisition of an erythroid phenotype is associated with an externalization of GAL1. The autocrine binding of GAL1 to cell surface ligands of non adherent cells such as K562 suggest that GAL1 is implicated rather in signal transduction than in cell-cell or cell-matrix interaction. Moreover, the reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes 9 and 22 t(9;22) present in K562 cells might explain the weak expression of GAL1 in K562 leukemia cells.

  9. Analysis of Cell-Surface Receptor Dynamics through Covalent Labeling by Catalyst-Tethered Antibody.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Yasueda, Yuki; Tamura, Tomonori; Takaoka, Yousuke; Hamachi, Itaru

    2015-04-29

    A general technique for introducing biophysical probes into selected receptors in their native environment is valuable for the study of their structure, dynamics, function, and molecular interactions. A number of such techniques rely on genetic engineering, which is not applicable for the study of endogenous proteins, and such approaches often suffer from artifacts due to the overexpression and bulky size of the probes/protein tags used. Here we designed novel catalyst-antibody conjugates capable of introducing small chemical probes into receptor proteins such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in a selective manner on the surface of living cells. Because of the selectivity and efficiency of this labeling technique, we were able to monitor the cellular dynamics and lifetime of HER2 endogenously expressed on cancer cells. More significantly, the current labeling technique comprises a stable covalent bond, which combined with a peptide mass fingerprinting analysis allowed epitope mapping of antibodies on living cells and identification of potential binding sites of anti-EGFR affibody. Although as yet unreported in the literature, the binding sites predicted by our labeling method were consistently supported by the subsequent mutation and binding assay experiments. In addition, this covalent labeling method provided experimental evidence that HER2 exhibits a more dynamic structure than expected on the basis of crystallographic analysis alone. Our novel catalyst-antibody conjugates are expected to provide a general tool for investigating the protein trafficking, fluctuation, and molecular interactions of an important class of cell-surface receptors on live cell surfaces. PMID:25853648

  10. Hsc70 regulates cell surface ASIC2 expression and vascular smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Grifoni, Samira C; McKey, Susan E; Drummond, Heather A

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies suggest members of the degenerin (DEG)/epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC)/acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) protein family play an important role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration. In a previous investigation, we found suppression of a certain DEG/ENaC/ASIC member, ASIC2, increased VSMC chemotactic migration, raising the possibility that ASIC2 may play an inhibitory role. Because ASIC2 protein was retained in the cytoplasm, we reasoned increasing surface expression of ASIC2 might unmask the inhibitory role of ASIC2 in VSMC migration so we could test the hypothesis that ASIC2 inhibits VSMC migration. Therefore, we used the chemical chaperone glycerol to enhance ASIC2 expression. Glycerol 1) increased cytoplasm ASIC2 expression, 2) permitted detection of ASIC2 at the cell surface, and 3) inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-bb mediated VSMC migration. Furthermore, ASIC2 silencing completely abolished the inhibitory effect of glycerol on migration, suggesting upregulation of ASIC2 is responsible for glycerol-induced inhibition of VSMC migration. Because other investigators have shown that glycerol regulates ENaC/ASIC via interactions with a certain heat shock protein, heat shock protein 70 (Hsc70), we wanted to determine the importance of Hsc70 on ASIC2 expression in VSMCs. We found that Hsc70 silencing increases ASIC2 cell surface expression and inhibits VSMC migration, which is abolished by cosilencing ASIC2. These data demonstrate that Hsc70 inhibits ASIC2 expression, and, when the inhibitory effect of Hsc70 is removed, ASIC2 expression increases, resulting in reduced VSMC migration. Because VSMC migration contributes to vasculogenesis and remodeling following vascular injury, our findings raise the possibility that ASIC2-Hsc70 interactions may play a role in these processes. PMID:18310515

  11. Depolarized FRET (depolFRET) on the cell surface: FRET control by photoselection.

    PubMed

    Bene, László; Gogolák, Péter; Ungvári, Tamás; Bagdány, Miklós; Nagy, István; Damjanovich, László

    2016-02-01

    Sensitivity of FRET in hetero- and homo-FRET systems on the photoselected orientation distribution of donors has been proven by using polarized and depolarized light for excitation. FRET as well as donor and acceptor anisotropies have been simultaneously measured in a dual emission-polarization scheme realized in a conventional flow cytometer by using single laser excitation and applying fluorophore-conjugated mAbs against the MHCI and MHCII cell surface receptors. Depolarization of the originally polarized light have been achieved by using crystal depolarizers based on Cornu's principle, a quarter-wave plate for circular polarization, and a parallel beam splitter acting as a diagonal-polarizer for dual-polarization excitation. Simultaneous analysis of intensity-based FRET efficiency and acceptor depolarization equivocally report that depolarization of light may increase FRET in an amount depending on the acceptor-to-donor concentration ratio. Acceptor depolarization turned to be more sensitive to FRET than donor hyper-polarization and even than intensity-based FRET efficiency. It can be used as a sensitive tool for monitoring changes in the dynamics of the donor-acceptor pairs. The basic observations of FRET enhancement and increased acceptor depolarization obtained for hetero-FRET are paralleled by analog observations of homo-FRET enhancements under depolarized excitation. In terms of the orientation factor for FRET, the FRET enhancements on depolarization in the condition of the macroscopically isotropic orientation distributions such as those of the cell surface bound fluorophores report on the presence of local orientation mismatches of the donor and acceptor preventing the optimal FRET in the polarized case, which may be eliminated by the excitation depolarization. A theory of fluorescence anisotropy for depolarized excitation is also presented. PMID:26657258

  12. Analysis of Cell-Surface Receptor Dynamics through Covalent Labeling by Catalyst-Tethered Antibody.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Yasueda, Yuki; Tamura, Tomonori; Takaoka, Yousuke; Hamachi, Itaru

    2015-04-29

    A general technique for introducing biophysical probes into selected receptors in their native environment is valuable for the study of their structure, dynamics, function, and molecular interactions. A number of such techniques rely on genetic engineering, which is not applicable for the study of endogenous proteins, and such approaches often suffer from artifacts due to the overexpression and bulky size of the probes/protein tags used. Here we designed novel catalyst-antibody conjugates capable of introducing small chemical probes into receptor proteins such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in a selective manner on the surface of living cells. Because of the selectivity and efficiency of this labeling technique, we were able to monitor the cellular dynamics and lifetime of HER2 endogenously expressed on cancer cells. More significantly, the current labeling technique comprises a stable covalent bond, which combined with a peptide mass fingerprinting analysis allowed epitope mapping of antibodies on living cells and identification of potential binding sites of anti-EGFR affibody. Although as yet unreported in the literature, the binding sites predicted by our labeling method were consistently supported by the subsequent mutation and binding assay experiments. In addition, this covalent labeling method provided experimental evidence that HER2 exhibits a more dynamic structure than expected on the basis of crystallographic analysis alone. Our novel catalyst-antibody conjugates are expected to provide a general tool for investigating the protein trafficking, fluctuation, and molecular interactions of an important class of cell-surface receptors on live cell surfaces.

  13. Mechanism of Bacterial Cell-Surface Attachment Revealed by the Structure of Cellulosomal Type II Cohesin-dockerin Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Adams,J.; Pal, G.; Jia, Z.; Smith, S.

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial cell-surface attachment of macromolecular complexes maintains the microorganism in close proximity to extracellular substrates and allows for optimal uptake of hydrolytic byproducts. The cellulosome is a large multienzyme complex used by many anaerobic bacteria for the efficient degradation of plant cell-wall polysaccharides. The mechanism of cellulosome retention to the bacterial cell surface involves a calcium-mediated protein-protein interaction between the dockerin (Doc) module from the cellulosomal scaffold and a cohesin (Coh) module of cell-surface proteins located within the proteoglycan layer. Here, we report the structure of an ultra-high-affinity (K{sub a} = 1.44 x 10{sup 10} M{sup 1-}) complex between type II Doc, together with its neighboring X module from the cellulosome scaffold of Clostridium thermocellum, and a type II Coh module associated with the bacterial cell surface. Identification of X module-Doc and X module-Coh contacts reveal roles for the X module in Doc stability and enhanced Coh recognition. This extremely tight interaction involves one face of the Coh and both helices of the Doc and comprises significant hydrophobic character and a complementary extensive hydrogen-bond network. This structure represents a unique mechanism for cell-surface attachment in anaerobic bacteria and provides a rationale for discriminating between type I and type II Coh modules.

  14. Differentiated regions of human placental cell surface associated with attachment of chorionic villi, phagocytosis of maternal erythrocytes and syncytiotrophoblast repair.

    PubMed

    Clint, J M; Wakely, J; Ockleford, C D

    1979-05-23

    Scanning electron micrographs of human placental cell surface show: (1) Differentiated zones of trophoblast which may be covered by fewer 'microvilli' than the adjacent syncytial cell surface and which extend as a narrow, usually distal protrusion of the chorionic villus. This narrow outgrowth terminates as a fractured end. Presumably since preparations were obtained from therapeutic terminations of pregnancy or Caesarian deliveries these broken ends represent the yield point in the anchoring 'villi' ruptured as a result of surgery. Similar anchoring 'villi' with fractured ends were observed in unfixed material with the use of Nomarski interference contrast microscopy. (2) It appears that, during apparent phagocytic uptake of maternal erythrocytes by syncytiotrophoblast, cell surface lining the forming vacuole still retains an irregular microvillous surface. This observation indicates the potential location of phagocytosis receptors for red blood cells in the placental cell surface. (3) Areas of human placenta which appears to have been damaged and may be undergoing repair exhibit masses of cells with conspicuous microvillar cell surfaces. The origin of these cells is discussed in relation to the usual processes of syncytiotrophoblast formation.

  15. Cell-surface arylsulfatase A and B on sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatocytes, and Kupffer cells in mammalian livers.

    PubMed

    Mitsunaga-Nakatsubo, Keiko; Kusunoki, Shinichiro; Kawakami, Hayato; Akasaka, Koji; Akimoto, Yoshihiro

    2009-06-01

    Arylsulfatase A (ARSA) and B (ARSB) have been regarded as lysosomal enzymes because of their hydrolytic activity on synthetic aromatic substrates and the lysosomal localization of their enzymatic activity. Using sea urchin embryos, we previously demonstrated that the bulk of ARS is located on the cell surface of the epithelium, colocalizing with sulfated polysaccharides, and that it does not exhibit enzymatic activity. To examine whether ARSA and ARSB exist on the cell surface in mammalian tissues, we raised antibodies against ARSA and ARSB and examined immunohistochemically their localization in the liver using light and electron microscopy. Here we show that mammalian ARSA and ARSB exist on the cell surface of sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatocytes, and sinusoidal macrophages (Kupffer cells), as well as in the lysosome. They are also colocalized with heparan sulfate proteoglycan. These results suggest that ARSA and ARSB also may function in the cell surface of mammals. This is the first report to show cell-surface localization of ARS in mammalian somatic cells. The extracellular localization of ARS will provide new insight for human ARS deficiency disorders, such as metachromatic leukodystrophy and mucopolysaccharidosis VI.

  16. Role of cysteine residues in pseudouridine synthases of different families.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, V; Swann, S L; Spedaliere, C J; Mueller, E G

    1999-10-01

    The pseudouridine synthases catalyze the isomerization of uridine to pseudouridine in RNA molecules. An attractive mechanism was proposed based on that of thymidylate synthase, in which the thiol(ate) group of a cysteine side chain serves as the nucleophile in a Michael addition to C6 of the isomerized uridine. Such a role for cysteine in the pseudouridine synthase TruA (also named Psi synthase I) has been discredited by site-directed mutagenesis, but sequence alignments have led to the conclusion that there are four distinct "families" of pseudouridine synthases that share no statistically significant global sequence similarity. It was, therefore, necessary to probe the role of cysteine residues in pseudouridine synthases of the families that do not include TruA. We examined the enzymes RluA and TruB, which are members of different families than TruA and each other. Substitution of cysteine for amino acids with nonnucleophilic side chains did not significantly alter the catalytic activity of either pseudouridine synthase. We conclude, therefore, that neither TruB nor RluA require thiol(ate) groups to effect catalysis, excluding their participation in a Michael addition to C6 of uridine, although not eliminating that mechanism (with an alternate nucleophile) from future consideration.

  17. The Pseudouridine Synthases Proceed through a Glycal Intermediate

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The pseudouridine synthases isomerize (U) in RNA to pseudouridine (Ψ), and the mechanism that they follow has long been a question of interest. The recent elucidation of a product of the mechanistic probe 5-fluorouridine that had been epimerized to the arabino isomer suggested that the Ψ synthases might operate through a glycal intermediate formed by deprotonation of C2′. When that position in substrate U is deuterated, a primary kinetic isotope effect is observed, which indisputably indicates that the proposed deprotonation occurs during the isomerization of U to Ψ and establishes the mechanism followed by the Ψ synthases. PMID:27292228

  18. Colorimetric Coupled Enzyme Assay for Cystathionine β-Synthase.

    PubMed

    Rocchiccioli, Marco; Moschini, Roberta; Cappiello, Laura; Balestri, Francesco; Cappiello, Mario; Mura, Umberto; Del-Corso, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    A colorimetric coupled enzyme assay for the determination of cystathionine β-synthase activity is described. The method exploits cystathionine γ-lyase as an ancillary enzyme capable of transforming cystathionine, produced by cystathionine β-synthase, into cysteine. The cysteine is then spectrophotometrically detected at 560 nm, after its specific complexation with ninhydrin. This method was used to detect cystathionine β-synthase in crude extracts, and for the kinetic characterization of the enzyme partially purified from bovine kidney. A rapid two-step protocol is described for the partial purification of cystathionine γ-lyase from bovine kidney, aimed at a suitable and stable ancillary enzyme preparation. PMID:27506718

  19. Computational design and selections for an engineered, thermostable terpene synthase

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Juan E; Lin, Chun-Shi; Kunishiro, Kazuyoshi; Feld, Birte K; Avrantinis, Sara K; Bronson, Jonathan; Greaves, John; Saven, Jeffery G; Weiss, Gregory A

    2011-01-01

    Terpenoids include structurally diverse antibiotics, flavorings, and fragrances. Engineering terpene synthases for control over the synthesis of such compounds represents a long sought goal. We report computational design, selections, and assays of a thermostable mutant of tobacco 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (TEAS) for the catalysis of carbocation cyclization reactions at elevated temperatures. Selection for thermostability included proteolytic digestion followed by capture of intact proteins. Unlike the wild-type enzyme, the mutant TEAS retains enzymatic activity at 65°C. The thermostable terpene synthase variant denatures above 80°C, approximately twice the temperature of the wild-type enzyme. PMID:21739507

  20. The Pseudouridine Synthases Proceed through a Glycal Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Veerareddygari, Govardhan Reddy; Singh, Sanjay K; Mueller, Eugene G

    2016-06-29

    The pseudouridine synthases isomerize (U) in RNA to pseudouridine (Ψ), and the mechanism that they follow has long been a question of interest. The recent elucidation of a product of the mechanistic probe 5-fluorouridine that had been epimerized to the arabino isomer suggested that the Ψ synthases might operate through a glycal intermediate formed by deprotonation of C2'. When that position in substrate U is deuterated, a primary kinetic isotope effect is observed, which indisputably indicates that the proposed deprotonation occurs during the isomerization of U to Ψ and establishes the mechanism followed by the Ψ synthases.

  1. Generation and Functional Evaluation of Designer Monoterpene Synthases.

    PubMed

    Srividya, N; Lange, I; Lange, B M

    2016-01-01

    Monoterpene synthases are highly versatile enzymes that catalyze the first committed step in the pathways toward terpenoids, the structurally most diverse class of plant natural products. Recent advancements in our understanding of the reaction mechanism have enabled engineering approaches to develop mutant monoterpene synthases that produce specific monoterpenes. In this chapter, we are describing protocols to introduce targeted mutations, express mutant enzyme catalysts in heterologous hosts, and assess their catalytic properties. Mutant monoterpene synthases have the potential to contribute significantly to synthetic biology efforts aimed at producing larger amounts of commercially attractive monoterpenes. PMID:27480686

  2. Peroxisomal and mitochondrial citrate synthase in CAM plants.

    PubMed

    Zafra, M F; Segovia, J L; Alejandre, M J; García-Peregrín, E

    1981-12-01

    Citrate synthase wa studied for the first time in peroxisomes and mitochondria of crassulacean acid metabolism plants. Cellular organelles were isolated from Agave americana leaves by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and characterized by the use of catalase and cytochrome oxidase as marker enzymes, respectively. 48,000 X g centrifugation caused the breakdown of the cellular organelles. The presence of a glyoxylate cycle enzyme (citrate synthase) and a glycollate pathway enzyme (catalase) in the same organelles, besides the absence of another glyoxalate cycle enzyme (malate synthase) is reported for the first time, suggesting that peroxisomal and glyoxysomal proteins are synthesized at the same time and housed in he same organelle.

  3. Signaling activities of the Drosophila wingless gene are separately mutable and appear to be transduced at the cell surface

    SciTech Connect

    Bejsovec, A.; Wieschaus, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Drosophila segment polarity gene wingless encodes an intercellular signaling molecule that transmits positional information during development of the embryonic epidermis. We have explored the mechanism of wg signal transduction by perturbing cellular processes genetically and by performing structure/function analysis of the Wg protein. We present evidence that Wingless protein may transduce signal at the cell surface and that Wg may bind to its cell surface receptor without necessarily activating it. We demonstrate that two specific signaling activities of the Wg molecule can be disrupted independently by mutation. Sequence analysis indicates that these different signaling activities are not promoted by discrete functional domains, but rather that the overall conformation of the molecule may control distinct signaling functions. We conclude that wg signaling may involve complex interactions between the Wg ligand and its cell surface receptor molecule(s) and that some of this complexity resides within the Wg ligand itself. 48 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Signaling Activities of the Drosophila Wingless Gene Are Separately Mutable and Appear to Be Transduced at the Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Bejsovec, A.; Wieschaus, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Drosophila segment polarity gene wingless encodes an intercellular signaling molecule that transmits positional information during development of the embryonic epidermis. We have explored the mechanism of wg signal transduction by perturbing cellular processes genetically and by performing structure/function analysis of the Wg protein. We present evidence that Wingless protein may transduce signal at the cell surface and that Wg may bind to its cell surface receptor without necessarily activating it. We demonstrate that two specific signaling activities of the Wg molecule can be disrupted independently by mutation. Sequence analysis indicates that these different signaling activities are not promoted by discrete functional domains, but rather that the overall conformation of the molecule may control distinct signaling functions. We conclude that wg signaling may involve complex interactions between the Wg ligand and its cell surface receptor molecule(s) and that some of this complexity resides within the Wg ligand itself. PMID:7705631

  5. Cell-surface properties of the food- and water-borne pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila when stored in buffered saline solutions.

    PubMed

    Ascencio, F; Ljungh, A; Wadström, T

    1995-05-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila, a ubiquitous inhabitant of aquatic environments, commonly expresses several cell-surface properties that may contribute to virulence. Since many aquatic microorganisms in hostile environments can withstand starvation conditions for long periods, we examined the effect of storage under nutrient-poor conditions on the expression of cell-surface properties of this pathogen. Phenotypes studied were: (1) cell-surface hydrophobicity and charge, and (2) the ability to bind connective-tissue proteins and lactoferrin. Our results suggest that the response of A. hydrophila to nutrient-poor conditions is regimen specific. Generally, A. hydrophila cells became more hydrophobic and significantly increased their ability to bind the iron-binding glycoprotein lactoferrin when the bacterium was stored under nutrient-poor conditions; however, under these conditions, the cells seemed to lose their ability to bind connective-tissue proteins.

  6. Enhanced cell-surface display and secretory production of cellulolytic enzymes with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sed1 signal peptide.

    PubMed

    Inokuma, Kentaro; Bamba, Takahiro; Ishii, Jun; Ito, Yoichiro; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-11-01

    Recombinant yeast strains displaying aheterologous cellulolytic enzymes on their cell surfaces using a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring system are a promising strategy for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials. A crucial step for cell wall localization of the enzymes is the intracellular transport of proteins in yeast cells. Therefore, the addition of a highly efficient secretion signal sequence is important to increase the amount of the enzymes on the yeast cell surface. In this study, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a novel signal peptide (SP) sequence derived from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SED1 gene for cell-surface display and secretory production of cellulolytic enzymes. Gene cassettes with SP sequences derived from S. cerevisiae SED1 (SED1SP), Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase (GLUASP), and S. cerevisiae α-mating pheromone (MFα1SP) were constructed for cell-surface display of Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase (BGL1) and Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase II (EGII). These gene cassettes were integrated into the S. cerevisiae genome. The recombinant strains with the SED1SP showed higher cell-surface BGL and EG activities than those with the conventional SP sequences (GLUASP and MFα1SP). The novel SP sequence also improved the secretory production of BGL and EG in S. cerevisiae. The extracellular BGL activity of the recombinant strains with the SED1SP was 1.3- and 1.9-fold higher than the GLUASP and MFα1SP strains, respectively. Moreover, the utilization of SED1SP successfully enhanced the secretory production of BGL in Pichia pastoris. The utilization of the novel SP sequence is a promising option for highly efficient cell-surface display and secretory production of heterologous proteins in various yeast species. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2358-2366. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27183011

  7. Differentiation Between Intracellular and Cell Surface Glycosyl Transferases: Galactosyl Transferase Activity in Intact Cells and in Cell Homogenate

    PubMed Central

    Deppert, Wolfgang; Werchau, Hermann; Walter, Gernot

    1974-01-01

    Intact BHK (baby hamster kidney) cells catalyze the hydrolysis of UDP-galactose to free galactose. The generation of galactose from UDP-galactose and its intracellular utilization impede the detection of possible galactosyl transferases on the cell surface of intact cells. Several independent procedures have been used to distinguish between intracellular and cell surface glycosyl transferases. With these procedures, no evidence was obtained for the presence of detectable amounts of galactosyl transferase activity on the surface of BHK cells. The data suggest that galactosyl transferases do not play a general role in the phenomena of cell adhesion and contact inhibition. PMID:4528509

  8. Rare structural variants of human and murine uroporphyrinogen I synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Meisler, M H; Carter, M L

    1980-01-01

    An isoelectric focusing method for detection of structural variants of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen I synthase [porphobilinogen ammonia-lyase (polymerizing), EC 4.3.1.8] in mammalian tissues has been developed. Mouse and human erythrocytes contain one or two major isozymes of uroporphyrinogen I synthase, respectively. Other tissues contain a set of more acidic isozymes that are encoded by the same structural gene as the erythrocyte isozymes. Mouse populations studied with this method were monomorphic for uroporphyrinogen I synthase, with the exception of one feral mouse population. The pedigree of a human family with a rare structural variant is consistent with autosomal linkage of the structural gene. This system provides a convenient isozyme marker for genetic studies and will facilitate determination of the chromosomal location of the uroporphyrinogen I synthase locus. Images PMID:6930671

  9. Thymoquinone Inhibits Escherichia coli ATP Synthase and Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F.; Kady, Ismail O.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the thymoquinone induced inhibition of purified F1 or membrane bound F1FO E. coli ATP synthase. Both purified F1 and membrane bound F1FO were completely inhibited by thymoquinone with no residual ATPase activity. The process of inhibition was fully reversible and identical in both membrane bound F1Fo and purified F1 preparations. Moreover, thymoquinone induced inhibition of ATP synthase expressing wild-type E. coli cell growth and non-inhibition of ATPase gene deleted null control cells demonstrates that ATP synthase is a molecular target for thymoquinone. This also links the beneficial dietary based antimicrobial and anticancer effects of thymoquinone to its inhibitory action on ATP synthase. PMID:25996607

  10. Regulation of synthase phosphatase and phosphorylase phosphatase in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Tan, A W; Nuttall, F Q

    1976-08-12

    Using substrates purified from liver, the apparent Km values of synthase phosphatase ([UDPglucose--glycogen glucosyltransferase-D]phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.42) and phosphorylase phosphatase (phosphorylase a phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.17) were found to be 0.7 and 60 units/ml respectively. The maximal velocity of phosphorylase phosphatase was more than a 100 times that of synthase phosphatase. In adrenalectomized, fasted animals there was a complete loss of synthase phosphatase but only a slight decrease in phosphorylase phosphatase when activity was measured using endogenous substrates in a concentrated liver extract. When assayed under optimal conditions with purified substrates, both activities were present but had decreased to very low levels. Mixing experiments indicated that synthase D present in the extract of adrenalectomized fasted animals was altered such that it was no longer a substrate for synthase phosphatase from normal rats. Phosphorylase a substrate on the other hand was unaltered and readily converted. When glucose was given in vivo, no change in percent of synthase in the I form was seen in adrenalectomized rats but the percent of phosphorylase in the a form was reduced. Precipitation of protein from an extract of normal fed rats with ethanol produced a large activation of phosphorylase phosphatase activity with no corresponding increase in synthase phosphatase activity. Despite the low phosphorylase phosphatase present in extracts of adrenalectomized fasted animals, ethanol precipitation increased activity to the same high level as obtained in the normal fed rats. Synthase phosphatase and phosphorylase phosphatase activities were also decreased in normal fasted, diabetic fed and fasted, and adrenalectomized fed rats. Both enzymes recovered in the same manner temporally after oral glucose administration to adrenalectomized, fasted rats. These results suggest an integrated regulatory mechanism for the two phosphatase.

  11. Biosynthesis of riboflavin: an unusual riboflavin synthase of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.

    PubMed Central

    Eberhardt, S; Korn, S; Lottspeich, F; Bacher, A

    1997-01-01

    Riboflavin synthase was purified by a factor of about 1,500 from cell extract of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. The enzyme had a specific activity of about 2,700 nmol mg(-1) h(-1) at 65 degrees C, which is relatively low compared to those of riboflavin synthases of eubacteria and yeast. Amino acid sequences obtained after proteolytic cleavage had no similarity with known riboflavin synthases. The gene coding for riboflavin synthase (designated ribC) was subsequently cloned by marker rescue with a ribC mutant of Escherichia coli. The ribC gene of M. thermoautotrophicum specifies a protein of 153 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence agrees with the information gleaned from Edman degradation of the isolated protein and shows 67% identity with the sequence predicted for the unannotated reading frame MJ1184 of Methanococcus jannaschii. The ribC gene is adjacent to a cluster of four genes with similarity to the genes cbiMNQO of Salmonella typhimurium, which form part of the cob operon (this operon contains most of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of vitamin B12). The amino acid sequence predicted by the ribC gene of M. thermoautotrophicum shows no similarity whatsoever to the sequences of riboflavin synthases of eubacteria and yeast. Most notably, the M. thermoautotrophicum protein does not show the internal sequence homology characteristic of eubacterial and yeast riboflavin synthases. The protein of M. thermoautotrophicum can be expressed efficiently in a recombinant E. coli strain. The specific activity of the purified, recombinant protein is 1,900 nmol mg(-1) h(-1) at 65 degrees C. In contrast to riboflavin synthases from eubacteria and fungi, the methanobacterial enzyme has an absolute requirement for magnesium ions. The 5' phosphate of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine does not act as a substrate. The findings suggest that riboflavin synthase has evolved independently in eubacteria and methanobacteria. PMID:9139911

  12. Specificity of monoclonal antibody N1 for cell surfaces of mouse central nervous system neurons.

    PubMed

    Schnitzer, J; Kim, S U; Schachner, M

    1984-07-01

    Monoclonal antibody N1 reacts by indirect immunofluorescence with the cell surface of tetanus toxin-positive neurons from early postnatal mouse cerebellum. In freshly trypsinized single cell suspensions from early postnatal mouse cerebellum, 5-10% of all viable cells express N1 antigen on their surface. After 3-24 h of maintenance in vitro all N1 antigen-positive cells are tetanus toxin-positive. After culture periods of 3-4 days, most (approximately 90%) tetanus toxin-positive cells express N1 antigen on their surface. When horse serum-supplemented medium (HSSM) is used for cultivation, neurons begin to lose N1 antigen from their surface after about one week in vitro, until after two weeks in vitro, N1 antigen is no longer detectable, although some tetanus toxin-positive neurons can be shown to survive in culture. In defined medium, however, N1 antigen-positive neurons can still be detected after 34 days in vitro, the longest culture period examined so far. Complement-dependent immunocytolysis deletes all N1 antigen-positive and approximately 90% of all tetanus toxin-positive neurons from cultures. The remaining neurons reveal a morphology different from the one of the majority of small neurons, the granule cells. They have slightly larger cell bodies and several branched and unbranched cellular processes. Neonatal cerebellar cells show the same temporal sequence of appearance and disappearance of N1 antigen on most tetanus toxin-positive neurons in HSSM, and a persistence of N1 antigen on neurons in defined medium. N1 antigen becomes first detectable at embryonic day 17, and never becomes detectable in cell cultures derived from cerebella of younger mice. At all stages studied, N1 antigen expression is restricted to tetanus toxin-positive neurons, while it is absent from the cell surfaces of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and fibroblasts. N1 antigen is also found in cultures derived from early postnatal mouse cerebrum, but is not detected in cultures derived from

  13. Understanding structure, function, and mutations in the mitochondrial ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ting; Pagadala, Vijayakanth; Mueller, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial ATP synthase is a multimeric enzyme complex with an overall molecular weight of about 600,000 Da. The ATP synthase is a molecular motor composed of two separable parts: F1 and Fo. The F1 portion contains the catalytic sites for ATP synthesis and protrudes into the mitochondrial matrix. Fo forms a proton turbine that is embedded in the inner membrane and connected to the rotor of F1. The flux of protons flowing down a potential gradient powers the rotation of the rotor driving the synthesis of ATP. Thus, the flow of protons though Fo is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. This review will discuss the structure/function relationship in the ATP synthase as determined by biochemical, crystallographic, and genetic studies. An emphasis will be placed on linking the structure/function relationship with understanding how disease causing mutations or putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding the subunits of the ATP synthase, will affect the function of the enzyme and the health of the individual. The review will start by summarizing the current understanding of the subunit composition of the enzyme and the role of the subunits followed by a discussion on known mutations and their effect on the activity of the ATP synthase. The review will conclude with a summary of mutations in genes encoding subunits of the ATP synthase that are known to be responsible for human disease, and a brief discussion on SNPs. PMID:25938092

  14. Linking pseudouridine synthases to growth, development and cell competition.

    PubMed

    Tortoriello, Giuseppe; de Celis, José F; Furia, Maria

    2010-08-01

    Eukaryotic pseudouridine synthases direct RNA pseudouridylation and bind H/ACA small nucleolar RNA (snoRNAs), which, in turn, may act as precursors of microRNA-like molecules. In humans, loss of pseudouridine synthase activity causes dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a complex systemic disorder characterized by cancer susceptibility, failures in ribosome biogenesis and telomere stability, and defects in stem cell formation. Considering the significant interest in deciphering the various molecular consequences of pseudouridine synthase failure, we performed a loss of function analysis of minifly (mfl), the pseudouridine synthase gene of Drosophila, in the wing disc, an advantageous model system for studies of cell growth and differentiation. In this organ, depletion of the mfl-encoded pseudouridine synthase causes a severe reduction in size by decreasing both the number and the size of wing cells. Reduction of cell number was mainly attributable to cell death rather than reduced proliferation, establishing that apoptosis plays a key role in the development of the loss of function mutant phenotype. Depletion of Mfl also causes a proliferative disadvantage in mosaic tissues that leads to the elimination of mutant cells by cell competition. Intriguingly, mfl silencing also triggered unexpected effects on wing patterning and cell differentiation, including deviations from normal lineage boundaries, mingling of cells of different compartments, and defects in the formation of the wing margin that closely mimic the phenotype of reduced Notch activity. These results suggest that a component of the pseudouridine synthase loss of function phenotype is caused by defects in Notch signalling.

  15. Citrate synthase from the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.

    PubMed

    Zinsser, Veronika L; Moore, Catherine M; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan; Timson, David J

    2013-06-01

    Citrate synthase catalyses the first step of the Krebs' tricarboxylic acid cycle. A sequence encoding citrate synthase from the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, has been cloned. The encoded protein sequence is predicted to fold into a largely α-helical protein with high structural similarity to mammalian citrate synthases. Although a hexahistidine-tagged version of the protein could be expressed in Escherichia coli, it was not possible to purify it by nickel-affinity chromatography. Similar results were obtained with a version of the protein which lacks the putative mitochondrial targeting sequence (residues 1 to 29). However, extracts from bacterial cells expressing this version had additional citrate synthase activity after correcting for the endogenous, bacterial activity. The apparent K m for oxaloacetate was found to be 0.22 mM, which is higher than that observed in mammalian citrate synthases. Overall, the sequence and structure of F. hepatica citrate synthase are similar to ones from other eukaryotes, but there are enzymological differences which merit further investigation.

  16. Membrane localization and topology of leukotriene C4 synthase.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Peter; Weber, Brittany M; McKee, Mary; Brown, Dennis; Soberman, Roy J

    2002-08-01

    Leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)) synthase conjugates LTA(4) with GSH to form LTC(4). Determining the site of LTC(4) synthesis and the topology of LTC(4) synthase may uncover unappreciated intracellular roles for LTC(4), as well as how LTC(4) is transferred to its export carrier, the multidrug resistance protein-1. We have determined the membrane localization of LTC(4) synthase by immunoelectron microscopy. In contrast to the closely related five-lipoxygenase-activating protein, LTC(4) synthase is distributed in the outer nuclear membrane and peripheral endoplasmic reticulum but is excluded from the inner nuclear membrane. We have combined immunofluorescence with differential membrane permeabilization to determine the topology of LTC(4) synthase. The active site of LTC(4) synthase is localized in the lumen of the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum. These results indicate that the synthesis of LTB(4) and LTC(4) occurs in different subcellular locations and suggests that LTC(4) must be returned to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane for export by multidrug resistance protein-1. The differential localization of two very similar integral membrane proteins suggests that mechanisms other than size-dependent exclusion regulate their passage to the inner nuclear membrane.

  17. Nitric Oxide Synthases in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Carnicer, Ricardo; Crabtree, Mark J.; Sivakumaran, Vidhya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The regulation of myocardial function by constitutive nitric oxide synthases (NOS) is important for the maintenance of myocardial Ca2+ homeostasis, relaxation and distensibility, and protection from arrhythmia and abnormal stress stimuli. However, sustained insults such as diabetes, hypertension, hemodynamic overload, and atrial fibrillation lead to dysfunctional NOS activity with superoxide produced instead of NO and worse pathophysiology. Recent Advances: Major strides in understanding the role of normal and abnormal constitutive NOS in the heart have revealed molecular targets by which NO modulates myocyte function and morphology, the role and nature of post-translational modifications of NOS, and factors controlling nitroso-redox balance. Localized and differential signaling from NOS1 (neuronal) versus NOS3 (endothelial) isoforms are being identified, as are methods to restore NOS function in heart disease. Critical Issues: Abnormal NOS signaling plays a key role in many cardiac disorders, while targeted modulation may potentially reverse this pathogenic source of oxidative stress. Future Directions: Improvements in the clinical translation of potent modulators of NOS function/dysfunction may ultimately provide a powerful new treatment for many hearts diseases that are fueled by nitroso-redox imbalance. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1078–1099. PMID:22871241

  18. Electric field driven torque in ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Miller, John H; Rajapakshe, Kimal I; Infante, Hans L; Claycomb, James R

    2013-01-01

    FO-ATP synthase (FO) is a rotary motor that converts potential energy from ions, usually protons, moving from high- to low-potential sides of a membrane into torque and rotary motion. Here we propose a mechanism whereby electric fields emanating from the proton entry and exit channels act on asymmetric charge distributions in the c-ring, due to protonated and deprotonated sites, and drive it to rotate. The model predicts a scaling between time-averaged torque and proton motive force, which can be hindered by mutations that adversely affect the channels. The torque created by the c-ring of FO drives the γ-subunit to rotate within the ATP-producing complex (F1) overcoming, with the aid of thermal fluctuations, an opposing torque that rises and falls with angular position. Using the analogy with thermal Brownian motion of a particle in a tilted washboard potential, we compute ATP production rates vs. proton motive force. The latter shows a minimum, needed to drive ATP production, which scales inversely with the number of proton binding sites on the c-ring. PMID:24040370

  19. Electric Field Driven Torque in ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Miller, John H.; Rajapakshe, Kimal I.; Infante, Hans L.; Claycomb, James R.

    2013-01-01

    FO-ATP synthase (FO) is a rotary motor that converts potential energy from ions, usually protons, moving from high- to low-potential sides of a membrane into torque and rotary motion. Here we propose a mechanism whereby electric fields emanating from the proton entry and exit channels act on asymmetric charge distributions in the c-ring, due to protonated and deprotonated sites, and drive it to rotate. The model predicts a scaling between time-averaged torque and proton motive force, which can be hindered by mutations that adversely affect the channels. The torque created by the c-ring of FO drives the γ-subunit to rotate within the ATP-producing complex (F1) overcoming, with the aid of thermal fluctuations, an opposing torque that rises and falls with angular position. Using the analogy with thermal Brownian motion of a particle in a tilted washboard potential, we compute ATP production rates vs. proton motive force. The latter shows a minimum, needed to drive ATP production, which scales inversely with the number of proton binding sites on the c-ring. PMID:24040370

  20. Human Isoprenoid Synthase Enzymes as Therapeutic Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeok; Matralis, Alexios; Berghuis, Albert; Tsantrizos, Youla

    2014-07-01

    The complex biochemical network known as the mevalonate pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of all isoprenoids in the human body, which consists of a vast array of metabolites that are vital for proper cellular functions. Two key isoprenoids, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) are responsible for the post-translational prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins, and serve as the biosynthetic precursors to numerous other biomolecules. The down-stream metabolite of FPP and GGPP is squalene, the precursor to steroids, bile acids, lipoproteins and vitamin D. In the past, interest in prenyl synthase inhibitors focused mainly on the role of the FPP in lytic bone diseases. More recently, pre-clinical and clinical studies have strongly implicated high levels of protein prenylation in a plethora of human diseases, including non-skeletal cancers, the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we focus mainly on the potential therapeutic value of down-regulating the biosynthesis of FPP, GGPP and squalene. We summarize the most recent drug discovery efforts and the structural data available that support the current on-going studies.

  1. Electric field driven torque in ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Miller, John H; Rajapakshe, Kimal I; Infante, Hans L; Claycomb, James R

    2013-01-01

    FO-ATP synthase (FO) is a rotary motor that converts potential energy from ions, usually protons, moving from high- to low-potential sides of a membrane into torque and rotary motion. Here we propose a mechanism whereby electric fields emanating from the proton entry and exit channels act on asymmetric charge distributions in the c-ring, due to protonated and deprotonated sites, and drive it to rotate. The model predicts a scaling between time-averaged torque and proton motive force, which can be hindered by mutations that adversely affect the channels. The torque created by the c-ring of FO drives the γ-subunit to rotate within the ATP-producing complex (F1) overcoming, with the aid of thermal fluctuations, an opposing torque that rises and falls with angular position. Using the analogy with thermal Brownian motion of a particle in a tilted washboard potential, we compute ATP production rates vs. proton motive force. The latter shows a minimum, needed to drive ATP production, which scales inversely with the number of proton binding sites on the c-ring.

  2. Human isoprenoid synthase enzymes as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaeok; Matralis, Alexios N.; Berghuis, Albert M.; Tsantrizos, Youla S.

    2014-01-01

    In the human body, the complex biochemical network known as the mevalonate pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of all isoprenoids, which consists of a vast array of metabolites that are vital for proper cellular functions. Two key isoprenoids, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) are responsible for the post-translational prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins, and serve as the biosynthetic precursors to numerous other biomolecules. The down-stream metabolite of FPP and GGPP is squalene, the precursor to steroids, bile acids, lipoproteins, and vitamin D. In the past, interest in prenyl synthase inhibitors focused mainly on the role of the FPP in lytic bone diseases. More recently pre-clinical and clinical studies have strongly implicated high levels of protein prenylation in a plethora of human diseases, including non-skeletal cancers, the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we focus mainly on the potential therapeutic value of down-regulating the biosynthesis of FPP, GGPP, and squalene. We summarize the most recent drug discovery efforts and the structural data available that support the current on-going studies. PMID:25101260

  3. Undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors: antibacterial drug leads.

    PubMed

    Sinko, William; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Yonghui; Feixas, Ferran; Cox, Courtney L; Mitchell, Douglas A; Oldfield, Eric; McCammon, J Andrew

    2014-07-10

    There is a significant need for new antibiotics due to the rise in drug resistance. Drugs such as methicillin and vancomycin target bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, but methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) have now arisen and are of major concern. Inhibitors acting on new targets in cell wall biosynthesis are thus of particular interest since they might also restore sensitivity to existing drugs, and the cis-prenyl transferase undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase (UPPS), essential for lipid I, lipid II, and thus, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, is one such target. We used 12 UPPS crystal structures to validate virtual screening models and then assayed 100 virtual hits (from 450,000 compounds) against UPPS from S. aureus and Escherichia coli. The most promising inhibitors (IC50 ∼2 μM, Ki ∼300 nM) had activity against MRSA, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus anthracis, and a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus sp. with MIC or IC50 values in the 0.25-4 μg/mL range. Moreover, one compound (1), a rhodanine with close structural similarity to the commercial diabetes drug epalrestat, exhibited good activity as well as a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.1 with methicillin against the community-acquired MRSA USA300 strain, indicating strong synergism. PMID:24827744

  4. Reconstitution of Diphthine Synthase Activity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuling; Kim, Jungwoo; Su, Xiaoyang; Lin, Hening

    2010-01-01

    Diphthamide, the target of diphtheria toxin, is a unique posttranslational modification on eukaryotic and archaeal translation elongation factor 2 (EF2). Although diphthamide modification was discovered three decades ago, in vitro reconstitution of diphthamide biosynthesis using purified proteins has not been reported. The proposed biosynthesis pathway of diphthamide involves three steps. Our laboratory has recently showed that in Pyrococcus horikoshii (P. horikoshii), the first step uses an [4Fe-4S] enzyme PhDph2 to generate a 3-amino-3-carboxypropyl radical from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to form a C-C bond. The second step is the trimethylation of an amino group to form the diphthine intermediate. This step is catalyzed by a methyltransferase called diphthine synthase or Dph5. Here we report the in vitro reconstitution of the second step using P. horikoshii Dph5 (PhDph5). Our results demonstrate that PhDph5 is sufficient to catalyze the mono-, di-, and trimethylation of P. horikoshii EF2 (PhEF2). Interestingly, the trimethylated product from PhDph5-catalyzed reaction can easily eliminate the trimethylamino group. The potential implication of this unexpected finding on the diphthamide biosynthesis pathway is discussed. PMID:20873788

  5. Protein preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Polygonum cuspidatum bifunctional chalcone synthase/benzalacetone synthase.

    PubMed

    Lu, Heshu; Yang, Mingfeng; Liu, Chunmei; Lu, Ping; Cang, Huaixing; Ma, Lanqing

    2013-08-01

    The chalcone synthase (CHS) superfamily of type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) generate the backbones of a variety of plant secondary metabolites. An active bifunctional chalcone synthase/benzalacetone synthase (CHS/BAS) from Polygonum cuspidatum was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as a C-terminally polyhistidine-tagged fusion protein, purified to homogeneity and crystallized using polyethylene glycol 4000 as a precipitant. The production of well shaped crystals of the complex between PcPKS1 and benzalacetone was dependent on the presence of sorbitol and barium chloride as additives. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2₁2₁2₁, with unit-cell parameters a = 80.23, b = 81.01, c = 122.89 Å, and diffracted X-rays to at least 2.0 Å resolution. PMID:23908031

  6. Graphene Oxide Modulates B Cell Surface Phenotype and Impairs Immunoglobulin Secretion in Plasma Cell.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shaohai; Xu, Shengmin; Chen, Shaopeng; Fan, Huadong; Luo, Xun; Yang, Xiaoyao; Wang, Jun; Yuan, Hang; Xu, An; Wu, Lijun

    2016-04-01

    Since discovery, graphene oxide (GO) has been used in all aspects of human life and revealed promising applications in biomedicine. Nevertheless, the potential risks of GO were always being revealed. Although GO was found to induce immune cell death and innate immune response, little is known regarding its toxicity to the specific adaptive immune system that is crucial for protecting against exotic invasion. The B-cell mediated adaptive immune system, which composed of highly specialized cells (B and plasma cell) and specific immune response (antibody response) is the focus in our present study. Using diverse standard immunological techniques, we found that GO modulated B cell surface phenotype, both costimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86 and especially CD40) and antigen presenting molecules (both classical and nonclassical) under the condition without causing cell death. Meanwhile, the terminal differentiated immunoglobulin (Ig) secreting plasma cell was affected by GO, which displayed a less secretion of Ig and more severe ER stress caused by the retention of the secreted form of Ig in cell compartment. The combined data reveal that GO has a particular adverse effect to B cell and the humoral immunity, directly demonstrating the potential risk of GO to the specific adaptive immunity. PMID:27451788

  7. Neurite outgrowth of neuroblastoma cells: dependence on adhesion surface--cell surface interactions

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Neurite outgrowth of C 1300 neuroblastoma cells, which were dispersed from adherent cultures or grown in suspension, was studied on different protein-coated surfaces. Of 29 different surface structures studied, including surfaces treated with various fibronectins, lectins, glycosidases, or glycosyltransferases capable of stimulating fibroblast spreading, only the surfaces coated with plasma fibronectin or with a protein mixture secreted by C6 glioma cells displayed an extensive activity in the sprouting assay. Neurite outgrowth was inhibited by brain gangliosides and by colominic acid (a sialic acid polymer). A 50% inhibition of neurite outgrowth of N18 neuroblasts induced by the glioma cell proteins was observed at the following approximate concentration: 100 microM (0.2 mg/ml) GD1A ganglioside, 20 microM (0.04 mg/ml) GT1B ganglioside, and 5 mg/ml colominic acid. Specificity of inhibition was suggested by the finding that a few polyanionic substances tested were not inhibitory in the sprouting assay, and that the type of gangliosides inhibiting sprouting were found to be major sialoglycolipids of the neuroblasts. A hypothesis is discussed, according to which neurite outgrowth of neuroblasts is stimulated by adhesion involving interactions of the adhesion-mediating protein with cell surface carbohydrates characteristic of brain gangliosides. PMID:6699078

  8. The behavior of lipid debris left on cell surfaces from microbubble based ultrasound molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Ibsen, Stuart; Shi, Guixin; Schutt, Carolyn; Shi, Linda; Suico, Kyle-David; Benchimol, Michael; Serra, Viviana; Simberg, Dmitri; Berns, Michael; Esener, Sadik

    2014-12-01

    Lipid monolayer coated microbubbles are currently being developed to identify vascular regions that express certain surface proteins as part of the new technique of ultrasound molecular imaging. The microbubbles are functionalized with targeting ligands which bind to the desired cells holding the microbubbles in place as the remaining unbound microbubbles are eliminated from circulation. Subsequent scanning with ultrasound can detect the highly reflectant microbubbles that are left behind. The ultrasound scanning and detection process results in the destruction of the microbubble, creating lipid fragments from the monolayer. Here we demonstrate that microbubbles targeted to 4T1 murine breast cancer cells and human umbilical cord endothelial cells leave behind adhered fragments of the lipid monolayer after exposure to ultrasound with peak negative pressures of 0.18 and 0.8MPa. Most of the observed fragments were large enough to be resistant to receptor mediated endocytosis. The fragments were not observed to incorporate into the lipid membrane of the cell over a period of 96min. They were not observed to break into smaller pieces or significantly change shape but they were observed to undergo translation and rotation across the cell surface as the cells migrated over the substrate. These large fragments will apparently remain on the surface of the targeted cells for significant periods of time and need to be considered for their potential effects on blood flow through the microcapillaries and potential for immune system recognition.

  9. Agonist-dependent modulation of cell surface expression of the cold receptor TRPM8.

    PubMed

    Toro, Carlos A; Eger, Stephanie; Veliz, Luis; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Pamela; Cabezas, Deny; Castro, Maite A; Zimmermann, Katharina; Brauchi, Sebastian

    2015-01-14

    The spatial and temporal distribution of receptors constitutes an important mechanism for controlling the magnitude of cellular responses. Several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family can regulate their function by modulating their expression at the plasma membrane (PM) through rapid vesicular translocation and fusion. The mechanisms underlying this regulation are not completely understood, and the contribution of vesicular trafficking to physiological function is unknown. TRPM8 receptors are expressed in mammalian peripheral sensory neurons and are essential for the detection of cold temperatures. Previously, we showed that TRPM8-containing vesicles are segregated into three main pools, immobile at the PM, simple diffusive and corralled-hopping. Here, we show that channel expression at the PM is modulated by TRPM8 agonists in F11 and HEK293T cells. Our results support a model in which the activation of TRPM8 channels, located at the PM, induces a short-lived recruitment of a TRPM8-containing vesicular pool to the cell surface causing a transitory increase in the number of functional channels, affecting intrinsic properties of cold receptor responses. We further demonstrate the requirement of intact vesicular trafficking to support sustained cold responses in the skin of mice. PMID:25589752

  10. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte histamine receptors: occurrence in cell surface clusters and their redistribution during locomotion.

    PubMed Central

    Petty, H R; Francis, J W

    1986-01-01

    A univalent and bioactive fluorescent derivative of histamine bound to the surface of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes; free histamine was found to compete with this derivative for binding sites. Histamine H2-receptor specificity was indicated by binding inhibition experiments using cimetidine (H2-specific) but not diphenhydramine (H1-specific). Video-intensification fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the distribution of histamine receptors in living polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Receptors appeared as randomly distributed clusters upon stationary cells. During random locomotion, receptors were restricted to the ends of pseudopods, whereas chemotaxis led to receptor localization at lamellipodia and uropods. Ligand-receptor complexes were restricted to the cell surface, as shown by quenching exterior fluorescence with crystal violet. Therefore, pinocytic uptake cannot account for the observed receptor localization or clustering. As a further control, the lipid analog 1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine remained uniformly distributed during all conditions. Histamine-mediated inhibition of adherence may be related to formation of ligand-receptor membrane domains at adherence sites. Images PMID:3459177

  11. Molecular analysis of cell surface beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase function during cell migration.

    PubMed Central

    Appeddu, P A; Shur, B D

    1994-01-01

    Despite the identification and characterization of cell surface receptors for the extracellular matrix, it is unknown how their relative expression and cytoskeletal association regulate cell migration. Previous studies have identified beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (GalTase; EC 2.4.1.38) on the surface of migrating cells, where it mediates cell migration on basal lamina matrices by associating with the cytoskeleton and binding to N-linked oligosaccharides in the E8 domain of laminin. In this study, the function of GalTase during cell migration was examined directly by analyzing the migration rate of stably transfected cell lines in which the relative level of surface GalTase and its ability to associate with the cytoskeleton were altered. We show here that the cytoskeleton contains a limiting, saturable, number of binding sites for surface GalTase. Furthermore, the rate of cell migration was inversely related to the ability of surface GalTase to associate with the cytoskeleton. Elevating surface GalTase in excess of the number of cytoskeleton-binding sites reduced the rate of cell migration, whereas decreasing the amount of surface GalTase available to bind the cytoskeleton increased migration rates. These results show that the rate of cell migration on basal lamina is directly dependent upon the expression of surface GalTase and the ability of this protein to associate with a limiting number of cytoskeleton-binding sites. Images PMID:8134355

  12. New Insights into VacA Intoxication Mediated through Its Cell Surface Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Hirayama, Toshiya; Moss, Joel; Noda, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a major cause of gastroduodenal diseases, produces VacA, a vacuolating cytotoxin associated with gastric inflammation and ulceration. The C-terminal domain of VacA plays a crucial role in receptor recognition on target cells. We have previously identified three proteins (i.e., RPTPα, RPTPβ, and LRP1) that serve as VacA receptors. These receptors contribute to the internalization of VacA into epithelial cells, activate signal transduction pathways, and contribute to cell death and gastric ulceration. In addition, other factors (e.g., CD18, sphingomyelin) have also been identified as cell-surface, VacA-binding proteins. Since we believe that, following interactions with its host cell receptors, VacA participates in events leading to disease, a better understanding of the cellular function of VacA receptors may provide valuable information regarding the mechanisms underlying the pleiotropic actions of VacA and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-mediated disease. In this review, we focus on VacA receptors and their role in events leading to cell damage. PMID:27187473

  13. The role of cell surface receptors in the activation of human B cells by phosphorothioate oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Liang, H; Reich, C F; Pisetsky, D S; Lipsky, P E

    2000-08-01

    Phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (sODN) containing the CpG motif or TCG repeats induce T cell-independent polyclonal activation of human B cells. To elucidate the mechanism of this response, the role of cell surface receptors was investigated. Sepharose beads coated with stimulatory but not nonstimulatory sODNs induced B cell proliferation comparably with soluble sODNs. The B cell stimulatory activity of Sepharose-bound sODN did not result from free sODN released from the beads since media incubated with coated beads were inactive. Using FITC-labeled sODNs as probes, binding to human B cells could be detected by flow cytometry. Binding was rapid, saturable, initially temperature independent, but with a rapid off-rate. Competition studies indicated that both stimulatory sODNs and minimally stimulatory sODNs bound to the same receptor. By contrast, phosphodiester oligonucleotides with the same nucleotide sequence as sODNs and bacterial DNA inhibited the binding of sODNs to B cells minimally. Charge appeared to contribute to the binding of sODNs to B cells since binding of sODNs was competitively inhibited by negatively charged molecules, including fucoidan, poly I, and polyvinyl sulfate. These data indicate that human B cells bind sODNs by a receptor-mediated mechanism that is necessary but not sufficient for polyclonal activation.

  14. Cell Surface CD74-MIF Interactions Drive Melanoma Survival in Response to Interferon-γ

    PubMed Central

    Tanese, Keiji; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Berkova, Zuzana; Wang, Yuling; Samaniego, Felipe; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Grimm, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    While melanoma is believed to be a highly immunogenic tumor and recent developments in immunotherapies are promising. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) produced by immune cells plays a crucial role in tumor immune surveillance; however, it has also been reported to be pro-tumorigenic. In the current study, we found that IFN-γ enhances the expression of CD74, which interacts with its ligand, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and thereby activates the PI3K/AKT pathway in melanoma, promoting tumor survival. IFN-γ increased phosphorylation of AKT Ser473 and upregulated total and cell surface expression of CD74 in human melanoma cell lines tested. CD74 was highly expressed in melanoma tissues. Moreover, the expression of CD74 on tumor cells correlated with plasma IFN-γ levels in melanoma patient samples. In our analysis of melanoma cell lines, all produced MIF constitutively. Blockade of CD74-MIF interaction reduced AKT phosphorylation and expression of pro-tumorigenic molecules, including interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and BCL-2. Inhibition of CD74-MIF interaction significantly suppressed tumor growth in the presence of IFN-γ in our xenograft mouse model. Thus, we conclude that IFN-γ promotes melanoma cell survival by regulating CD74-MIF signaling, suggesting that targeting the CD74-MIF interaction under IFN-γ–stimulatory conditions would be an effective therapeutic approach for melanoma. PMID:26039541

  15. Neurexin/neuroligin interaction kinetics characterized by counting single cell-surface attached quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Saint-Michel, Edouard; Giannone, Grégory; Choquet, Daniel; Thoumine, Olivier

    2009-07-22

    We report what to our knowledge is a new method to characterize kinetic rates between cell-surface-attached adhesion molecules. Cells expressing specific membrane receptors are surface-labeled with quantum dots coated with their respective ligands. The progressive diminution in the total number of surface-diffusing quantum dots tracked over time collectively reflects intrinsic ligand/receptor interaction kinetics. The probability of quantum dot detachment is modeled using a stochastic analysis of bond formation and dissociation, with a small number of ligand/receptor pairs, resulting in a set of coupled differential equations that are solved numerically. Comparison with the experimental data provides an estimation of the kinetic rates, together with the mean number of ligands per quantum dot, as three adjustable parameters. We validate this approach by studying the calcium-dependent neurexin/neuroligin interaction, which plays an important role in synapse formation. Using primary neurons expressing neuroligin-1 and quantum dots coated with purified neurexin-1beta, we determine the kinetic rates between these two binding partners and compare them with data obtained using other techniques. Using specific molecular constructs, we also provide interesting information about the effects of neurexin and neuroligin dimerization on the kinetic rates. As it stands, this simple technique should be applicable to many types of biological ligand/receptor pairs.

  16. Bicistronic retroviral vectors for combining myeloprotection with cell-surface marking.

    PubMed

    Hildinger, M; Schilz, A; Eckert, H G; Bohn, W; Fehse, B; Zander, A; Ostertag, W; Baum, C

    1999-07-01

    We have developed a retroviral vector coexpressing the multidrug-resistance 1 (MDR1) cDNA for inducing cancer drug resistance and the truncated version of the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (DeltaLNGFR) for cell-surface marking of transduced cells. The vector is based on the FMEV backbone which mediates high levels of gene expression in hematopoietic cells. To achieve optimal expression levels of both cDNAs, untranslated regions from MDR1 and DeltaLNGFR were removed and three different connections were tested: retroviral splice signals, an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) from encephalomyocarditis virus, and an internal promoter from the chicken beta-actin gene. As determined by two-color flow cytometry, the best correlation of the expression of both cDNAs was obtained using the vector SF1mSdelta which utilized retroviral splice signals for co-expression. Simultaneous expression of both cDNAs at the single cell level was also shown by confocal laser microscopy. Lymphoid and hematopoietic progenitor cells, including primary human CD34+ cells, transduced with SF1mSdelta acquired dominant multidrug resistance. Transduced primary CD34+ cells could be enriched in vitro based on expression of DeltaLNGFR, avoiding exposure to cytostatic agents. Thus, monitoring the selection of chemotherapy-resistant cells and analyzing their biological properties may be alleviated, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:10455430

  17. A Gravity-Responsive Time-Keeping Protein of the Plant and Animal Cell Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James

    2003-01-01

    The hypothesis under investigation was that a ubiquinol (NADH) oxidase protein of the cell surface with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity (= NOX protein) is a plant and animal time-keeping ultradian (period of less than 24 h) driver of both cell enlargement and the biological clock that responds to gravity. Despite considerable work in a large number of laboratories spanning several decades, this is, to my knowledge, our work is the first demonstration of a time-keeping biochemical reaction that is both gravity-responsive and growth-related and that has been shown to determine circadian periodicity. As such, the NOX protein may represent both the long-sought biological gravity receptor and the core oscillator of the cellular biological clock. Completed studies have resulted in 12 publications and two issued NASA-owned patents of the clock activity. The gravity response and autoentrainment were characterized in cultured mammalian cells and in two plant systems together with entrainment by light and small molecules (melatonin). The molecular basis of the oscillatory behavior was investigated using spectroscopic methods (Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism) and high resolution electron microscopy. We have also applied these findings to an understanding of the response to hypergravity. Statistical methods for analysis of time series phenomena were developed (Foster et al., 2003).

  18. HFE and transferrin directly compete for transferrin receptor in solution and at the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Giannetti, Anthony M; Björkman, Pamela J

    2004-06-11

    Transferrin receptor (TfR) is a dimeric cell surface protein that binds both the serum iron transport protein transferrin (Fe-Tf) and HFE, the protein mutated in patients with the iron overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis. HFE and Fe-Tf can bind simultaneously to TfR to form a ternary complex, but HFE binding to TfR lowers the apparent affinity of the Fe-Tf/TfR interaction. This apparent affinity reduction could result from direct competition between HFE and Fe-Tf for their overlapping binding sites on each TfR polypeptide chain, from negative cooperativity, or from a combination of both. To explore the mechanism of the affinity reduction, we constructed a heterodimeric TfR that contains mutations such that one TfR chain binds only HFE and the other binds only Fe-Tf. Binding studies using a heterodimeric form of soluble TfR demonstrate that TfR does not exhibit cooperativity in heterotropic ligand binding, suggesting that some or all of the effects of HFE on iron homeostasis result from competition with Fe-Tf for TfR binding. Experiments using transfected cell lines demonstrate a physiological role for this competition in altering HFE trafficking patterns. PMID:15056661

  19. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) downregulates the cell surface expression of the CD4 molecule.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guanyou; Zeng, Yaoying; Liang, Peiyan; Zhou, Congrong; Zhao, Shuyun; Huang, Xiuyan; Wu, Lingfei; He, Xianhui

    2012-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been implicated in preventing the fetus from undergoing maternal T cell-mediated immune responses, yet the mechanism underlying these kinds of IDO-mediated immune responses has not been fully elucidated. Since the CD4 molecule plays a central role in the onset and regulation of antigen-specific immune responses, and T cell is sensitive in the absence of tryptophan, we hypothesize that IDO may reduce cell surface CD4 expression. To test this hypothesis, an adenoviral vector-based construct IDO-EGFP was generated and the effect of IDO-EGFP on CD4 expression was determined on recombinant adenoviral infected C8166 and MT-2 cells, by flow cytometry and/or Western blot analysis. The results revealed a significant downregulation of cell membrane CD4 in pAd-IDOEGFP infected cells when compared to that of mock-infected cells or infection with empty vector pAd-EGFP. Further experiments disclosed that either an addition of tryptophan or IDO inhibitor could partly restore CD4 expression in pAd-IDOEGFP infected C8166 cells. Our findings suggest that downregulation of CD4 by IDO might be one of the mechanisms through which IDO regulates T cell-mediated immune responses.

  20. Vitamin A Transport Mechanism of the Multitransmembrane Cell-Surface Receptor STRA6

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Riki; Zhong, Ming; Kassai, Miki; Ter-Stepanian, Mariam; Sun, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A has biological functions as diverse as sensing light for vision, regulating stem cell differentiation, maintaining epithelial integrity, promoting immune competency, regulating learning and memory, and acting as a key developmental morphogen. Vitamin A derivatives have also been used in treating human diseases. If vitamin A is considered a drug that everyone needs to take to survive, evolution has come up with a natural drug delivery system that combines sustained release with precise and controlled delivery to the cells or tissues that depend on it. This “drug delivery system” is mediated by plasma retinol binding protein (RBP), the principle and specific vitamin A carrier protein in the blood, and STRA6, the cell-surface receptor for RBP that mediates cellular vitamin A uptake. The mechanism by which the RBP receptor absorbs vitamin A from the blood is distinct from other known cellular uptake mechanisms. This review summarizes recent progress in elucidating the fundamental molecular mechanism mediated by the RBP receptor and multiple newly discovered catalytic activities of this receptor, and compares this transport system with retinoid transport independent of RBP/STRA6. How to target this new type of transmembrane receptor using small molecules in treating diseases is also discussed. PMID:26343735

  1. Label-free Screening of Multiple Cell-surface Antigens Using a Single Pore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Karthik; Chapman, Matthew; Kesavaraju, Anand; Sohn, Lydia

    2012-02-01

    Microfluidic pores have emerged as versatile tools for performing highly sensitive measurements. Pore functionalization can result in slower particle transit rates, thereby providing insight into the properties of particles that travel through a pore. While enhancing utility, functionalizing with only one species limits the broader applicability of pores for biosensing by restricting the insight gained in a single run. We have developed a method of using variable cross-section pores to create unique electronic signatures for reliable detection and automated data analysis. By defining a single pore into sections using common lithography techniques, we can detect when a cell passes through a given pore segment using resistive-pulse sensing. This offers such advantages as 1) the ability to functionalize each portion of a pore with a different antibody that corresponds to different cell surface receptors, enabling label-free multianalyte detection in a single run; and 2) a unique electronic signature that allows for both an accelerated real-time analysis and an additional level of precision to testing. This is particularly critical for clinical diagnostics where accuracy and reliability of results are crucial for healthcare professionals upon which to act.

  2. Therapeutic opportunities for targeting the ubiquitous cell surface receptor CD47

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Pantoja, David R.; Stein, Erica V.; Rogers, Natasha M.; Sharifi-Sanjani, Maryam; Isenberg, Jeffrey S.; Roberts, David D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction CD47 is a ubiquitously expressed cell surface receptor that serves as a counter-receptor for SIRPα in recognition of self by the innate immune system. Independently, CD47 also functions as an important signaling receptor for regulating cell responses to stress. Areas covered We review the expression, molecular interactions, and pathophysiological functions of CD47 in the cardiovascular and immune systems. CD47 was first identified as a potential tumor marker, and we examine recent evidence that its dysregulation contributes to cancer progression and evasion of anti-tumor immunity. We further discuss therapeutic strategies for enhancing or inhibiting CD47 signaling and applications of such agents in preclinical models of ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion injuries, organ transplantation, pulmonary hypertension, radioprotection, and cancer. Expert opinion Ongoing studies are revealing a central role of CD47 for conveying signals from the extracellular microenvironment that limit cell and tissue survival upon exposure to various types of stress. Based on this key function, therapeutics targeting CD47 or its ligands thrombospondin-1 and SIRPα could have broad applications spanning reconstructive surgery, engineering of tissues and biocompatible surfaces, vascular diseases, diabetes, organ transplantation, radiation injuries, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. PMID:23101472

  3. Recruitment of Factor H to the Streptococcus suis Cell Surface is Multifactorial

    PubMed Central

    Roy, David; Grenier, Daniel; Segura, Mariela; Mathieu-Denoncourt, Annabelle; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important bacterial swine pathogen and a zoonotic agent. Recently, two surface proteins of S. suis, Fhb and Fhbp, have been described for their capacity to bind factor H—a soluble complement regulatory protein that protects host cells from complement-mediated damages. Results obtained in this study showed an important role of host factor H in the adhesion of S. suis to epithelial and endothelial cells. Both Fhb and Fhbp play, to a certain extent, a role in such increased factor H-dependent adhesion. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of S. suis, independently of the presence of its sialic acid moiety, was also shown to be involved in the recruitment of factor H. However, a triple mutant lacking Fhb, Fhbp and CPS was still able to recruit factor H resulting in the degradation of C3b in the presence of factor I. In the presence of complement factors, the double mutant lacking Fhb and Fhbp was similarly phagocytosed by human macrophages and killed by pig blood when compared to the wild-type strain. In conclusion, this study suggests that recruitment of factor H to the S. suis cell surface is multifactorial and redundant. PMID:27399785

  4. Bioadsorption of rare earth elements through cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Park, Dan M.; Reed, David W.; Yung, Mimi C.; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M.; Anderko, Andrzej; Fujita, Yoshiko; Riman, Richard E.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-02-02

    In this study, with the increasing demand for rare earth elements (REEs) in many emerging clean energy technologies, there is an urgent need for the development of new approaches for efficient REE extraction and recovery. As a step toward this goal, we genetically engineered the aerobic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus for REE adsorption through high-density cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags (LBTs) on its S-layer. The LBT-displayed strains exhibited enhanced adsorption of REEs compared to cells lacking LBT, high specificity for REEs, and an adsorption preference for REEs with small atomic radii. Adsorbed Tb3+ could be effectively recovered using citrate,more » consistent with thermodynamic speciation calculations that predicted strong complexation of Tb3+ by citrate. No reduction in Tb3+ adsorption capacity was observed following citrate elution, enabling consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. The LBT-displayed strain was effective for extracting REEs from the acid leachate of core samples collected at a prospective rare earth mine. Our collective results demonstrate a rapid, efficient, and reversible process for REE adsorption with potential industrial application for REE enrichment and separation.« less

  5. Regulation of the cell surface expression of chloride transporters during epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    González, Marco I

    2016-08-15

    The process is commonly known as epileptogenesis refers to the cascade of molecular and cellular changes that transform the brain to make it hyperexcitable and capable of generate recurrent spontaneous seizures. Unfortunately, our understanding of the molecular changes that affect the brain during epileptogenesis remains incomplete. Recent evidence suggests that dysfunction of cation-chloride transporters (CCCs) might be one of the factors that contribute to the deficits in inhibitory neurotransmission observed during epileptogenesis. This study analyzed the cell surface expression of CCCs during epileptogenesis and during chronic epilepsy to evaluate if a loss of CCCs from the plasma membrane might contribute to hyperexcitability. Alterations in the plasma membrane expression of CCCs were mostly detected during the early phase of the epileptogenic period, suggesting that dysfunction of CCCs might contribute to the alterations in the chloride gradient previously detected. Together, the findings presented here suggest that aberrant regulation of the plasma membrane levels of CCCs might contribute to the impartment of GABAergic neurotransmission and that CCCs dysfunction might be relevant for the initial appearance of spontaneous seizures. PMID:27345384

  6. Inmembrane, a bioinformatic workflow for annotation of bacterial cell-surface proteomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The annotation of surface exposed bacterial membrane proteins is an important step in interpretation and validation of proteomic experiments. In particular, proteins detected by cell surface protease shaving experiments can indicate exposed regions of membrane proteins that may contain antigenic determinants or constitute vaccine targets in pathogenic bacteria. Results Inmembrane is a tool to predict the membrane proteins with surface-exposed regions of polypeptide in sets of bacterial protein sequences. We have re-implemented a protocol for Gram-positive bacterial proteomes, and developed a new protocol for Gram-negative bacteria, which interface with multiple predictors of subcellular localization and membrane protein topology. Through the use of a modern scripting language, inmembrane provides an accessible code-base and extensible architecture that is amenable to modification for related sequence annotation tasks. Conclusions Inmembrane easily integrates predictions from both local binaries and web-based queries to help gain an overview of likely surface exposed protein in a bacterial proteome. The program is hosted on the Github repository http://github.com/boscoh/inmembrane. PMID:23506117

  7. Facile Discovery of Cell-Surface Protein Targets of Cancer Cell Aptamers.

    PubMed

    Bing, Tao; Shangguan, Dihua; Wang, Yinsheng

    2015-10-01

    Cancer biomarker discovery constitutes a frontier in cancer research. In recent years, cell-binding aptamers have become useful molecular probes for biomarker discovery. However, there are few successful examples, and the critical barrier resides in the identification of the cell-surface protein targets for the aptamers, where only a limited number of aptamer targets have been identified so far. Herein, we developed a universal SILAC-based quantitative proteomic method for target discovery of cell-binding aptamers. The method allowed for distinguishing specific aptamer-binding proteins from nonspecific proteins based on abundance ratios of proteins bound to aptamer-carrying bait and control bait. In addition, we employed fluorescently labeled aptamers for monitoring and optimizing the binding conditions. We were able to identify and validate selectin L and integrin α4 as the protein targets for two previously reported aptamers, Sgc-3b and Sgc-4e, respectively. This strategy should be generally applicable for the discovery of protein targets for other cell-binding aptamers, which will promote the applications of these aptamers.

  8. Neisseria lactamica selectively induces mitogenic proliferation of the naive B cell pool via cell surface Ig.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Andrew T; Brackenbury, Louise S; Massari, Paola; Davenport, Victoria; Gorringe, Andrew; Heyderman, Robert S; Williams, Neil A

    2010-09-15

    Neisseria lactamica is a commensal bacteria that colonizes the human upper respiratory tract mucosa during early childhood. In contrast to the closely related opportunistic pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, there is an absence of adaptive cell-mediated immunity to N. lactamica during the peak age of carriage. Instead, outer membrane vesicles derived from N. lactamica mediate a B cell-dependent proliferative response in mucosal mononuclear cells that is associated with the production of polyclonal IgM. We demonstrate in this study that this is a mitogenic human B cell response that occurs independently of T cell help and any other accessory cell population. The ability to drive B cell proliferation is a highly conserved property and is present in N. lactamica strains derived from diverse clonal complexes. CFSE staining of purified human tonsillar B cells demonstrated that naive IgD(+) and CD27(-) B cells are selectively induced to proliferate by outer membrane vesicles, including the innate CD5(+) subset. Neither purified lipooligosaccharide nor PorB from N. lactamica is likely to be responsible for this activity. Prior treatment of B cells with pronase to remove cell-surface Ig or treatment with BCR-specific Abs abrogated the proliferative response to N. lactamica outer membrane vesicles, suggesting that this mitogenic response is dependent upon the BCR.

  9. Interaction of outer envelope proteins of Chlamydia psittaci GPIC with the HeLa cell surface.

    PubMed

    Ting, L M; Hsia, R C; Haidaris, C G; Bavoil, P M

    1995-09-01

    The chlamydial life cycle involves the intimate interaction of components of the infectious elementary body (EB) surface with receptors on the susceptible eukaryotic cell plasma membrane. We have developed an in vitro ligand binding assay system for the identification and characterization of detergent-extracted EB envelope proteins capable of binding to glutaraldehyde-fixed HeLa cell surfaces. With this assay, the developmentally regulated cysteine-rich envelope protein Omp2 of Chlamydia psittaci strain guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis was shown to bind specifically to HeLa cells. HeLa cells bound Omp2 selectively over other cell wall-associated proteins, including the major outer membrane protein, and the binding of Omp2 was abolished under conditions which alter its conformation. Furthermore, trypsin treatment, which reduces EB adherence, resulted in the proteolytic removal of a small terminal peptide of Omp2 at the EB surface and inactivated Omp2 in the ligand binding assay, while having a negligible effect on the major outer membrane protein. Collectively, our results suggest that Omp2 possesses the capacity to engage in a specific interaction with the host eukaryotic cell. We speculate that, since Omp2 is present only in the infectious EB form, the observed in vitro interaction may be representative of a determining step of the chlamydial pathogenic process.

  10. Ubiquitin-like epitopes associated with Candida albicans cell surface receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, P; Lopez-Ribot, J L; Gozalbo, D; Cervera, A; Martinez, J P; Chaffin, W L

    1996-01-01

    We have recently reported the cloning of a Candida albicans polyubiquitin gene and the presence of ubiquitin in the cell wall of this fungus. The polyubiquitin cDNA clone was isolated because of its reactivity with antibodies generated against the candidal 37-kDa laminin-binding protein. In the present study, we have further investigated the relationship between ubiquitin and cell wall components displaying receptor-like activities, including the 37-kDa laminin receptor, the 58-kDa fibrinogen-binding mannoprotein, and the candidal C3d receptor. Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis and immunoblot experiments with antibodies against ubiquitin and the individually purified receptor-like molecules confirmed that these cell surface components are ubiquitinated. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polyclonal antisera to each receptor reacted with ubiquitin, thus demonstrating that the purified receptor preparations used as immunogens contained ubiquitin-like epitopes. It is proposed that ubiquitin may play a role in modulating the activity of these receptors and in the interaction of C. albicans cells with host structures. PMID:8926122

  11. Control of Synaptic Connectivity by a Network of Drosophila IgSF Cell Surface Proteins.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Robert A; Özkan, Engin; Menon, Kaushiki P; Nagarkar-Jaiswal, Sonal; Lee, Pei-Tseng; Jeon, Mili; Birnbaum, Michael E; Bellen, Hugo J; Garcia, K Christopher; Zinn, Kai

    2015-12-17

    We have defined a network of interacting Drosophila cell surface proteins in which a 21-member IgSF subfamily, the Dprs, binds to a nine-member subfamily, the DIPs. The structural basis of the Dpr-DIP interaction code appears to be dictated by shape complementarity within the Dpr-DIP binding interface. Each of the six dpr and DIP genes examined here is expressed by a unique subset of larval and pupal neurons. In the neuromuscular system, interactions between Dpr11 and DIP-γ affect presynaptic terminal development, trophic factor responses, and neurotransmission. In the visual system, dpr11 is selectively expressed by R7 photoreceptors that use Rh4 opsin (yR7s). Their primary synaptic targets, Dm8 amacrine neurons, express DIP-γ. In dpr11 or DIP-γ mutants, yR7 terminals extend beyond their normal termination zones in layer M6 of the medulla. DIP-γ is also required for Dm8 survival or differentiation. Our findings suggest that Dpr-DIP interactions are important determinants of synaptic connectivity.

  12. Interference with ubiquitination in CFTR modifies stability of core glycosylated and cell surface pools.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seakwoo; Henderson, Mark J; Schiffhauer, Eric; Despanie, Jordan; Henry, Katherine; Kang, Po Wei; Walker, Douglas; McClure, Michelle L; Wilson, Landon; Sorscher, Eric J; Zeitlin, Pamela L

    2014-07-01

    It is recognized that both wild-type and mutant CFTR proteins undergo ubiquitination at multiple lysines in the proteins and in one or more subcellular locations. We hypothesized that ubiquitin is added to specific sites in wild-type CFTR to stabilize it and at other sites to signal for proteolysis. Mass spectrometric analysis of wild-type CFTR identified ubiquitinated lysines 68, 710, 716, 1041, and 1080. We demonstrate that the ubiquitinated K710, K716, and K1041 residues stabilize wild-type CFTR, protecting it from proteolysis. The polyubiquitin linkage is predominantly K63. N-tail mutants, K14R and K68R, lead to increased mature band CCFTR, which can be augmented by proteasomal (but not lysosomal) inhibition, allowing trafficking to the surface. The amount of CFTR in the K1041R mutant was drastically reduced and consisted of bands A/B, suggesting that the site in transmembrane 10 (TM10) was critical to further processing beyond the proteasome. The K1218R mutant increases total and cell surface CFTR, which is further accumulated by proteasomal and lysosomal inhibition. Thus, ubiquitination at residue 1218 may destabilize wild-type CFTR in both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and recycling pools. Small molecules targeting the region of residue 1218 to block ubiquitination or to preserving structure at residues 710 to 716 might be protein sparing for some forms of cystic fibrosis.

  13. Systemic alteration of cell-surface and secreted glycoprotein expression in malignant breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Timpe, Leslie C; Yen, Roger; Haste, Nicole V; Litsakos-Cheung, Christina; Yen, Ten-Yang; Macher, Bruce A

    2013-11-01

    Breast cancer cell lines express fewer transmembrane and secreted glycoproteins than nonmalignant ones. The objective of these experiments was to characterize the changes in the expression of several hundred glycoproteins quantitatively. Secreted and cell-surface glycoproteins were isolated using a glycoprotein capture protocol and then identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Glycoproteins expressed by a group of cell lines originating from malignant tumors of the breast were compared with those expressed by a nonmalignant set. The average number of spectral counts (proportional to relative protein abundance) and the total number of glycopeptides in the malignant samples were reduced to about two-thirds of the level in the nonmalignant samples. Most glycoproteins were expressed at a different level in the malignant samples, with nearly as many increasing as decreasing. The glycoproteins with reduced expression accounted for a larger change in spectral counts, and hence for the net loss of spectral counts in the malignant lines. Similar results were found when the glycoproteins were studied via identified glycosylation sites only, or through identified sites together with non-glycopeptides. The overall reduction is largely due to the loss of integrins, laminins and other proteins that form or interact with the basement membrane.

  14. A lectin-based cell microarray approach to analyze the mammalian granulosa cell surface glycosylation profile.

    PubMed

    Accogli, Gianluca; Desantis, Salvatore; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena; Gemeiner, Peter; Katrlík, Jaroslav

    2016-10-01

    The high complexity of glycome, the repertoire of glycans expressed in a cell or in an organism, is difficult to analyze and the use of new technologies has accelerated the progress of glycomics analysis. In the last decade, the microarray approaches, and in particular glycan and lectin microarrays, have provided new insights into evaluation of cell glycosylation status. Here we present a cell microarray method based on cell printing on microarray slides for the analysis of the glycosylation pattern of the cell glycocalyx. In order to demonstrate the reliability of the developed method, the glycome profiles of equine native uncultured mural granulosa cells (uGCs) and in vitro cultured mural granulosa cells (cGCs) were determined and compared. The method consists in the isolation of GCs, cell printing into arrays on microarray slide, incubation with a panel of biotinylated lectins, reaction with fluorescent streptavidin and signal intensity detection by a microarray scanner. Cell microarray technology revealed that glycocalyx of both uGCs and cGCs contains N-glycans, sialic acid terminating glycans, N-acetylglucosamine and O-glycans. The comparison of uGCs and cGCs glycan signals indicated an increase in the expression of sialic acids, N-acetylglucosamine, and N-glycans in cGCs. Glycan profiles determined by cell microarray agreed with those revealed by lectin histochemistry. The described cell microarray method represents a simple and sensitive procedure to analyze cell surface glycome in mammalian cells.

  15. Cell Surface Human Airway Trypsin-Like Protease Is Lost During Squamous Cell Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Duhaime, Michael J; Page, Khaliph O; Varela, Fausto A; Murray, Andrew S; Silverman, Michael E; Zoratti, Gina L; List, Karin

    2016-07-01

    Cancer progression is accompanied by increased levels of extracellular proteases that are capable of remodeling the extracellular matrix, as well as cleaving and activating growth factors and receptors that are involved in pro-cancerous signaling pathways. Several members of the type II transmembrane serine protease (TTSP) family have been shown to play critical roles in cancer progression, however, the expression or function of the TTSP Human Airway Trypsin-like protease (HAT) in carcinogenesis has not been examined. In the present study we aimed to determine the expression of HAT during squamous cell carcinogenesis. HAT transcript is present in several tissues containing stratified squamous epithelium and decreased expression is observed in carcinomas. We determined that HAT protein is consistently expressed on the cell surface in suprabasal/apical layers of squamous cells in healthy cervical and esophageal epithelia. To assess whether HAT protein is differentially expressed in normal tissue versus tissue in different stages of carcinogenesis, we performed a comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis of HAT protein expression levels and localization in arrays of paraffin embedded human cervical and esophageal carcinomas compared to the corresponding normal tissue. We found that HAT protein is expressed in the non-proliferating, differentiated cellular strata and is lost during the dedifferentiation of epithelial cells, a hallmark of squamous cell carcinogenesis. Thus, HAT expression may potentially be useful as a marker for clinical grading and assessment of patient prognosis in squamous cell carcinomas.

  16. Microtubules and actin filaments are not critically involved in the biogenesis of epithelial cell surface polarity.

    PubMed

    Salas, P J; Misek, D E; Vega-Salas, D E; Gundersen, D; Cereijido, M; Rodriguez-Boulan, E

    1986-05-01

    We have studied the role of microtubules and actin filaments in the biogenesis of epithelial cell surface polarity, using influenza hemagglutinin and vesicular stomatitis G protein as model apical and basolateral proteins in infected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Addition of colchicine or nocodazole to confluent monolayers at concentrations sufficient to completely disassemble microtubules did not affect the asymmetric budding of influenza or vesicular stomatitis virus and only slightly reduced the typical asymmetric surface distribution of their envelope proteins, despite extensive cytoplasmic redistribution of the Golgi apparatus. Alteration of microtubular function by taxol or dissociation of actin filaments by cytochalasin D also failed to have a significant effect. Furthermore, neither colchicine nor cytochalasin D pretreatment blocked the ability of subconfluent Madin-Darby canine kidney cells to sustain polarized budding of influenza virus a few hours after attachment to the substrate. Our results indicate that domain-specific microtubule or actin filament "tracks" are not responsible for the vectorial delivery of apically or basolaterally directed transport vesicles. In conjunction with currently available evidence, they are compatible with a model in which receptors in the cytoplasmic aspect of apical or basolateral regions provide vectoriality to the transport of vesicles carrying plasma membrane proteins to their final surface localization. PMID:2871031

  17. Cell Surface Glycoprotein of Reactive Stromal Fibroblasts as a Potential Antibody Target in Human Epithelial Cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Old, Lloyd J.; Rettig, Wolfgang J.

    1990-09-01

    The F19 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein (M_r, 95,000) of human sarcomas and proliferating, cultured fibroblasts that is absent from resting fibroblasts in normal adult tissues. Normal and malignant epithelial cells are also F19^-. The present immunohistochemical study describes induction of F19 in the reactive mesenchyme of epithelial tumors. F19^+ fibroblasts were found in primary and metastatic carcinomas, including colorectal (18 of 18 cases studied), breast (14/14), ovarian (21/21), bladder (9/10), and lung carcinomas (13/13). In contrast, the stroma of benign colorectal adenomas, fibrocystic disease and fibroadenomas of breast, benign prostate hyperplasia, in situ bladder carcinomas, and benign ovarian tumors showed no or only moderate numbers of F19^+ fibroblasts. Analysis of dermal incision wounds revealed that F19 is strongly induced during scar formation. Comparison of F19 with the extracellular matrix protein tenascin, a putative marker of tumor mesenchyme, showed a cellular staining pattern for F19 vs. the extracellular matrix pattern for tenascin and widespread expression of tenascin in F19^- normal tissues and benign tumors. Our results suggest that the F19^+ phenotype correlates with specialized fibroblast functions in wound healing and malignant tumor growth. Because of its abundance in tumor mesenchyme, F19 may serve as a target for antibodies labeled with radioisotopes or toxic agents, or inflammatogenic antibodies, in carcinoma patients.

  18. Bioadsorption of Rare Earth Elements through Cell Surface Display of Lanthanide Binding Tags.

    PubMed

    Park, Dan M; Reed, David W; Yung, Mimi C; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M; Anderko, Andrzej; Fujita, Yoshiko; Riman, Richard E; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-03-01

    With the increasing demand for rare earth elements (REEs) in many emerging clean energy technologies, there is an urgent need for the development of new approaches for efficient REE extraction and recovery. As a step toward this goal, we genetically engineered the aerobic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus for REE adsorption through high-density cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags (LBTs) on its S-layer. The LBT-displayed strains exhibited enhanced adsorption of REEs compared to cells lacking LBT, high specificity for REEs, and an adsorption preference for REEs with small atomic radii. Adsorbed Tb(3+) could be effectively recovered using citrate, consistent with thermodynamic speciation calculations that predicted strong complexation of Tb(3+) by citrate. No reduction in Tb(3+) adsorption capacity was observed following citrate elution, enabling consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. The LBT-displayed strain was effective for extracting REEs from the acid leachate of core samples collected at a prospective rare earth mine. Our collective results demonstrate a rapid, efficient, and reversible process for REE adsorption with potential industrial application for REE enrichment and separation. PMID:26836847

  19. Fibronectin and asialoglyprotein receptor mediate hepatitis B surface antigen binding to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Feng; Tian, Linlin; Su, Jing; Zhu, Xiangqian; Lin, Li; Ding, Xiaoran; Wang, Xuejun; Wang, Shengqi

    2010-06-01

    Both fibronectin and the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) have been identified by some investigators as partners for hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope proteins. Because fibronectin is a natural ligand for ASGPR, we speculated that HBV might attach to ASGPR expressed on the hepatocyte surface via fibronectin. To test this hypothesis, we first confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation that ASGPR, fibronectin and HBsAg bind to each other in HepG2.2.15 cells, and possible binding domains were identified by GST pull-down. In addition, by measuring binding of HBsAg to cells, we found that ASGPR and fibronectin enhanced the binding capability of HBsAg to HepG2 cells, and even to 293T and CHO cells, which normally do not bind HBV. In conclusion, our findings suggest that both fibronectin and ASGPR mediate HBsAg binding to the cell surface, which provides further evidence for the potential roles of these two proteins in mediating HBV binding to liver cells. PMID:20364278

  20. Bioadsorption of Rare Earth Elements through Cell Surface Display of Lanthanide Binding Tags.

    PubMed

    Park, Dan M; Reed, David W; Yung, Mimi C; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M; Anderko, Andrzej; Fujita, Yoshiko; Riman, Richard E; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Jiao, Yongqin

    2016-03-01

    With the increasing demand for rare earth elements (REEs) in many emerging clean energy technologies, there is an urgent need for the development of new approaches for efficient REE extraction and recovery. As a step toward this goal, we genetically engineered the aerobic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus for REE adsorption through high-density cell surface display of lanthanide binding tags (LBTs) on its S-layer. The LBT-displayed strains exhibited enhanced adsorption of REEs compared to cells lacking LBT, high specificity for REEs, and an adsorption preference for REEs with small atomic radii. Adsorbed Tb(3+) could be effectively recovered using citrate, consistent with thermodynamic speciation calculations that predicted strong complexation of Tb(3+) by citrate. No reduction in Tb(3+) adsorption capacity was observed following citrate elution, enabling consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. The LBT-displayed strain was effective for extracting REEs from the acid leachate of core samples collected at a prospective rare earth mine. Our collective results demonstrate a rapid, efficient, and reversible process for REE adsorption with potential industrial application for REE enrichment and separation.

  1. CIN85 modulates TGFβ signaling by promoting the presentation of TGFβ receptors on the cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Yakymovych, Ihor; Yakymovych, Mariya; Zang, Guangxiang; Mu, Yabing; Bergh, Anders; Landström, Maréne

    2015-01-01

    Members of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) family initiate cellular responses by binding to TGFβ receptor type II (TβRII) and type I (TβRI) serine/threonine kinases, whereby Smad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated and activated, promoting their association with Smad4. We report here that TβRI interacts with the SH3 domains of the adaptor protein CIN85 in response to TGFβ stimulation in a TRAF6-dependent manner. Small interfering RNA–mediated knockdown of CIN85 resulted in accumulation of TβRI in intracellular compartments and diminished TGFβ-stimulated Smad2 phosphorylation. Overexpression of CIN85 instead increased the amount of TβRI at the cell surface. This effect was inhibited by a dominant-negative mutant of Rab11, suggesting that CIN85 promoted recycling of TGFβ receptors. CIN85 enhanced TGFβ-stimulated Smad2 phosphorylation, transcriptional responses, and cell migration. CIN85 expression correlated with the degree of malignancy of prostate cancers. Collectively, our results reveal that CIN85 promotes recycling of TGFβ receptors and thereby positively regulates TGFβ signaling. PMID:26169354

  2. Molecular Recognition by a Polymorphic Cell Surface Receptor Governs Cooperative Behaviors in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Arup; Wall, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Cell-cell recognition is a fundamental process that allows cells to coordinate multicellular behaviors. Some microbes, such as myxobacteria, build multicellular fruiting bodies from free-living cells. However, how bacterial cells recognize each other by contact is poorly understood. Here we show that myxobacteria engage in recognition through interactions between TraA cell surface receptors, which leads to the fusion and exchange of outer membrane (OM) components. OM exchange is shown to be selective among 17 environmental isolates, as exchange partners parsed into five major recognition groups. TraA is the determinant of molecular specificity because: (i) exchange partners correlated with sequence conservation within its polymorphic PA14-like domain and (ii) traA allele replacements predictably changed partner specificity. Swapping traA alleles also reprogrammed social interactions among strains, including the regulation of motility and conferred immunity from inter-strain killing. We suggest that TraA helps guide the transition of single cells into a coherent bacterial community, by a proposed mechanism that is analogous to mitochondrial fusion and fission cycling that mixes contents to establish a homogenous population. In evolutionary terms, traA functions as a rare greenbeard gene that recognizes others that bear the same allele to confer beneficial treatment. PMID:24244178

  3. The effect of the state of differentiation on labeling of epidermal cell surface glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Brysk, M.M.; Snider, J.M.

    1982-05-01

    Epidermal cells were grown in a medium in which the Ca++ concentration controlled the stage of differentiation. Cell surface molecules of differentiated and undifferentiated cells were compared by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination, by the interaction with /sup 125/I-lectins, and by the metabolic incorporation of L-(/sup 3/H)-fucose. Molecular weights of the labeled components were determined by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. After lactoperoxidase iodination, most of the radioactivity was found in polypeptide bands of 79,000, 65,000 and 56,000 daltons. The 79,000 band is the most intense for undifferentiated cells but disappears as differentiation proceeds. The 56,000 band is present in normal cells at all stages of differentiation but is absent from neoplastic cells. Glycoproteins reacted with /sup 125/I-lectins were found at 180,000, 130,000 and 85,000 daltons. The 130,000 band was the most prominent for differentiated cells labeled with wheat germ agglutinin but was essentially absent from the undifferentiated cells. With Ricinus communis agglutinin, this band was weaker for undifferentiated than for differentiated cells but was the most intense for both. After metabolic incorporation of tritiated fucose, radioactive glycoproteins were found at 130,000 and 85,000 daltons, with comparable intensities for differentiated and undifferentiated cells.

  4. Pattern formation by a cell surface-associated morphogen in Myxococcus xanthus

    PubMed Central

    Jelsbak, Lars; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2002-01-01

    In response to starvation, an unstructured population of identical Myxococcus xanthus cells rearranges into an asymmetric, stable pattern of multicellular fruiting bodies. Central to this pattern formation process are changes in organized cell movements from swarming to aggregation. Aggregation is induced by the cell surface-associated C-signal. To understand how aggregation is accomplished, we have analyzed how C-signal modulates cell behavior. We show that C-signal induces a motility response that includes increases in transient gliding speeds and in the duration of gliding intervals and decreases in stop and reversal frequencies. This response results in a switch in cell behavior from an oscillatory to a unidirectional type of behavior in which the net-distance traveled by a cell per minute is increased. We propose that the C-signal-dependent regulation of the reversal frequency is essential for aggregation and that the remaining C-signal-dependent changes in motility parameters contribute to aggregation by increasing the net-distance traveled by starving cells per minute. In our model for symmetry-breaking and aggregation, C-signal transmission is a local event involving direct contacts between cells that results in a global organization of cells. This pattern formation mechanism does not require a diffusible substance or other actions at a distance. Rather it depends on contact-induced changes in motility behavior to direct cells appropriately PMID:11842199

  5. Cell surface and transcriptional characterization of human adipose-derived adherent stromal (hADAS) cells.

    PubMed

    Katz, Adam J; Tholpady, Ashok; Tholpady, Sunil S; Shang, Hulan; Ogle, Roy C

    2005-03-01

    Adult human subcutaneous adipose tissue contains cells with intriguing multilineage developmental plasticity, much like marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Putative stem or progenitor cells from fat have been given many different names in the literature, reflecting an early and evolving consensus regarding their phenotypic characterization. The study reported here used microarrays to evaluate over 170 genes relating to angiogenesis and extracellular matrix in undifferentiated, early-passage human adipose-derived adherent stromal (hADAS) cells isolated from three separate donors. The hADAS populations unanimously transcribed 66% of the screened genes, and 83% were transcribed by at least two of the three populations. The most highly transcribed genes relate to functional groupings such as cell adhesion, matrix proteins, growth factors and receptors, and proteases. The transcriptome of hADAS cells demonstrated by this work reveals many similarities to published profiles of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In addition, flow analysis of over 24 hADAS cell surface proteins (n = 7 donors) both confirms and expands on the existing literature and reveals strong intergroup correlation, despite an inconsistent nomenclature and the lack of standardized protocols for cell isolation and culture. Finally, based on flow analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction studies, our results suggest that hADAS cells do not express several proteins that are implicated as markers of "stemness" in other stem cell populations, including telomerase, CD133, and the membrane transporter ABCG2.

  6. Inhibition of immune opsonin-independent phagocytosis by antibody to a pulmonary macrophage cell surface antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Parod, R.J.; Godleski, J.J.; Brain J.D.

    1986-03-15

    Unlike other hamster phagoycytes, hamster pulmonary macrophages (PM) avidly ingest albumin-coated latex particles in the absence of serum. They also possess a highly specific cell surface antigen. To evaluate the relationship between these two characteristics, PM were incubated with mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the PM antigen. After unbound antibody was removed, the amount of bound antibody and the phagocytic capability of PM were measured by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Maximum antibody binding produced a 25% inhibition of ingestion. Particle attachment was not affected. This effect was antigen specific, since neither a nonspecific mouse myeloma protein of the same subclass nor a mouse antibody that bound to another hamster surface antigen had any effect on binding or ingestion. If antigen-specific F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments were introduced both before and during the period of phagocytosis, the inhibition of particle ingestion approached 100%. Particle binding increased at low F(ab')/sub 2/ concentrations but declined at higher concentrations. Because calcium may play a role in the ingestion process, the effect of antibody on /sup 45/Ca uptake was evaluated. It was observed that antigen-specific F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments stimulated /sup 45/Ca uptake, whereas control antibodies did not. These results suggest that the antigen reacting with the anti-hamster PM monoclonal antibody is involved in immune opsonin-independent phagocytosis and that calcium participates in this phagocytic process.

  7. Absence of cell surface expression of human ACE leads to perinatal death.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Annie; Acharya, K Ravi; Masuyer, Geoffrey; Quenech'du, Nicole; Gribouval, Olivier; Morinière, Vincent; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Corvol, Pierre

    2014-03-15

    Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) is a recessive autosomal disease characterized most often by perinatal death. It is due to the inactivation of any of the major genes of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), one of which is the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE is present as a tissue-bound enzyme and circulates in plasma after its solubilization. In this report, we present the effect of different ACE mutations associated with RTD on ACE intracellular trafficking, secretion and enzymatic activity. One truncated mutant, R762X, responsible for neonatal death was found to be an enzymatically active, secreted form, not inserted in the plasma membrane. In contrast, another mutant, R1180P, was compatible with life after transient neonatal renal insufficiency. This mutant was located at the plasma membrane and rapidly secreted. These results highlight the importance of tissue-bound ACE versus circulating ACE and show that the total absence of cell surface expression of ACE is incompatible with life. In addition, two missense mutants (W594R and R828H) and two truncated mutants (Q1136X and G1145AX) were also studied. These mutants were neither inserted in the plasma membrane nor secreted. Finally, the structural implications of these ACE mutations were examined by molecular modelling, which suggested some important structural alterations such as disruption of intra-molecular non-covalent interactions (e.g. salt bridges).

  8. Quantum Efficiency Loss after PID Stress: Wavelength Dependence on Cell Surface and Cell Edge

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jaewon; Bowden, Stuart; TamizhMani, GovindaSamy; Hacke, Peter

    2015-06-14

    It is known that the potential induced degradation (PID) stress of conventional p-base solar cells affects power, shunt resistance, junction recombination, and quantum efficiency (QE). One of the primary solutions to address the PID issue is a modification of chemical and physical properties of antireflection coating (ARC) on the cell surface. Depending on the edge isolation method used during cell processing, the ARC layer near the edges may be uniformly or non-uniformly damaged. Therefore, the pathway for sodium migration from glass to the cell junction could be either through all of the ARC surface if surface and edge ARC have low quality or through the cell edge if surface ARC has high quality but edge ARC is defective due to certain edge isolation process. In this study, two PID susceptible cells from two different manufacturers have been investigated. The QE measurements of these cells before and after PID stress were performed at both surface and edge. We observed the wavelength dependent QE loss only in the first manufacturer's cell but not in the second manufacturer's cell. The first manufacturer's cell appeared to have low quality ARC whereas the second manufacturer's cell appeared to have high quality ARC with defective edge. To rapidly screen a large number of cells for PID stress testing, a new but simple test setup that does not require laminated cell coupon has been developed and is used in this investigation.

  9. Cell Surface CD74-MIF Interactions Drive Melanoma Survival in Response to Interferon-γ.

    PubMed

    Tanese, Keiji; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Berkova, Zuzana; Wang, Yuling; Samaniego, Felipe; Lee, Jeffrey E; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Grimm, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Melanoma is believed to be a highly immunogenic tumor and recent developments in immunotherapies are promising. IFN-γ produced by immune cells has a crucial role in tumor immune surveillance; however, it has also been reported to be pro-tumorigenic. In the current study, we found that IFN-γ enhances the expression of CD74, which interacts with its ligand, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and thereby activates the PI3K/AKT pathway in melanoma, promoting tumor survival. IFN-γ increased phosphorylation of AKT Ser473 and upregulated total cell surface expression of CD74 in human melanoma cell lines tested. CD74 was highly expressed in melanoma tissues. Moreover, the expression of CD74 on tumor cells correlated with plasma IFN-γ levels in melanoma patient samples. In our analysis of melanoma cell lines, all produced MIF constitutively. Blockade of CD74-MIF interaction reduced AKT phosphorylation and expression of pro-tumorigenic molecules, including IL-6, IL-8, and BCL-2. Inhibition of CD74-MIF interaction significantly suppressed tumor growth in the presence of IFN-γ in our xenograft mouse model. Thus, we conclude that IFN-γ promotes melanoma cell survival by regulating CD74-MIF signaling, suggesting that targeting the CD74-MIF interaction under IFN-γ-stimulatory conditions would be an effective therapeutic approach for melanoma.

  10. Development of yeast cell factories for consolidated bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol through cell surface engineering.

    PubMed

    Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    To build an energy and material secure future, a next generation of renewable fuels produced from lignocellulosic biomass is required. Although lignocellulosic biomass, which represents an abundant, inexpensive and renewable source for bioethanol production, is of great interest as a feedstock, the complicated ethanol production processes involved make the cost of producing bioethanol from it higher compared to corn starch and cane juice. Therefore, consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), which combines enzyme production, saccharification and fermentation in a single step, has gained increased recognition as a potential bioethanol production system. CBP requires a highly engineered microorganism developed for several different process-specific characteristics. The dominant strategy for engineering a CBP biocatalyst is to express multiple components of a cellulolytic system from either fungi or bacteria in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The development of recombinant yeast strains displaying cellulases and hemicellulases on the cell surface represents significant progress toward realization of CBP. Regardless of the process used for biomass hydrolysis, CBP-enabling microorganisms encounter a variety of toxic compounds produced during biomass pretreatment that inhibit microbial growth and ethanol yield. Systems biology approaches including disruptome screening, transcriptomics, and metabolomics have been recently exploited to gain insight into the molecular and genetic traits involved in tolerance and adaptation to the fermentation inhibitors. In this review, we focus on recent advances in development of yeast strains with both the ability to directly convert lignocellulosic material to ethanol and tolerance in the harsh environments containing toxic compounds in the presence of ethanol.

  11. Recovery of a cell surface fetal antigen from circulating immune complexes of melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Wong, J H; Aguero, B; Gupta, R K; Morton, D L

    1988-01-01

    A well-characterized 69.5 x 10(3) dalton glycoprotein fetal antigen (FA), isolated from the spent culture medium of a melanoma cell line, UCLA-SO-14 (M14), was utilized to characterize the antigen component of circulating immune complexes (CIC) from melanoma patients. Ten serum samples from five patients with stage II melanoma at 1 and 4 months prior to the clinical detection of recurrent disease were selected for study. The CIC were dissociated with low pH and ultrafiltered through a 100 x 10(3) dalton exclusion limit membrane. The low pH treatment resulted in an increase in antibody titer in eight of ten serum samples. The antibody activity in membrane immunofluorescence was quantitatively inhibited by the filtered antigen fraction and purified FA, suggesting the presence of anti-FA antibodies in the treated serum, which possibly were complexed with FA in the untreated sample. As determined by competitive inhibition in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the filtrate (antigen fraction) contained an antigen that was immunologically similar to FA. These results clearly demonstrate that FA, expressed on the cell surface of melanoma cells, is present in CIC of selected melanoma patients.

  12. Nanoscale biophysical properties of the cell surface galactosaminogalactan from the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaussart, Audrey; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Fontaine, Thierry; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-09-01

    Many fungal pathogens produce cell surface polysaccharides that play essential roles in host-pathogen interactions. In Aspergillus fumigatus, the newly discovered polysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) mediates adherence to a variety of substrates through molecular mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here we use atomic force microscopy to unravel the localization and adhesion of GAG on living fungal cells. Using single-molecule imaging with tips bearing anti-GAG antibodies, we found that GAG is massively exposed on wild-type (WT) germ tubes, consistent with the notion that this glycopolymer is secreted by the mycelium of A. fumigatus, while it is lacking on WT resting conidia and on germ tubes from a mutant (Δuge3) deficient in GAG. Imaging germ tubes with tips bearing anti-β-glucan antibodies shows that exposure of β-glucan is strongly increased in the Δuge3 mutant, indicating that this polysaccharide is masked by GAG during hyphal growth. Single-cell force measurements show that expression of GAG on germ tubes promotes specific adhesion to pneumocytes and non-specific adhesion to hydrophobic substrates. These results provide a molecular foundation for the multifunctional adhesion properties of GAG, thus suggesting it could be used as a potential target in anti-adhesion therapy and immunotherapy. Our methodology represents a powerful approach for characterizing the nanoscale organization and adhesion of cell wall polysaccharides during fungal morphogenesis, thereby contributing to increase our understanding of their role in biofilm formation and immune responses.

  13. Thrombomucin, a Novel Cell Surface Protein that Defines Thrombocytes and Multipotent Hematopoietic Progenitors