Science.gov

Sample records for cells identified ultrastructurally

  1. Ultrastructural characteristics of novel epithelial cell types identified in human pathologic liver specimens with chronic ductular reaction.

    PubMed

    De Vos, R; Desmet, V

    1992-06-01

    Previous immunohistochemical studies on human liver biopsies with chronic ductular reaction revealed the presence of "small cells" with bile-duct type cytokeratin profile in the periportal area. This study identified similar cells by electron microscopy. The authors studied 13 human liver specimens with various liver diseases, but all characterized by chronic ductular reaction. In all specimens, variable numbers of "small cells" with common epithelial characteristics were identified in the periportal area. They could be classified into three types. Type I cells showed an oval cell shape and oval nucleus, early or established formation of junctional complexes with adjacent cells, a full assortment of cytoplasmic organelles, and bundles of tonofilaments. Type II cells showed features of bile-duct cell differentiation, including lateral interdigitations, apical microvilli, basal pinocytotic vacuoles, and basement membrane formation. In contrast, type III cells displayed additional features indicating hepatocellular differentiation, such as a more prominent nucleus, formation of a hemicanaliculus, and glycogen rosettes. It is concluded that these small cells of epithelial nature display variable differentiation characteristics of either bile-duct type cells or hepatocytes. These findings support the existence of bipotential progenitor epithelial cells in human liver. They may have implications for liver regeneration and carcinogenesis.

  2. Ultrastructure of intestinal cells of Heterakis gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Zmoray, I; Gutteková, A

    1978-06-01

    Ultrastructure of intestinal cells of Heterakis gallinarum is described and compared with that of Ascaridia galli from ecomorphological point of view. The great analogy in bionomy and ecology of both worms is reflected in the great analogy of ultrastructural construction. A new organoid in the intestinal cells of H. gallinarum, hitherto unknown among nematodes, is also described. It is of a vacuole-like shape running in stripes close under the terminal bar. The paper is also meant to be a supplement to the authors' previous paper (1975) dealing with ultrastructure of muscle cells of Heterakis gallinarum.

  3. [Ultrastructure of peritoneal mesothelial cells].

    PubMed

    Obradovic, M M; Stojimirovic, B B; Trpinac, D P; Milutinovic, D D; Obradovic, D I; Nesic, V B

    2001-01-01

    The introduction of peritoneal dialysis (PD) as a respectable modality of renal replacement therapy some three decades ago, suddenly drew attention of many authors to peritoneal membrane as insufficiently investigated structure. In order to explain the pathological changes in peritoneum due to renal diseases, it became necessary to explore the normal peritoneal structure. The aim of this study was to examine the morphology of peritoneal lining cells in healthy persons. Biopsies of the peritoneum were performed on 20 volunteer kidney donors. Tissue samples were taken during renal transplantation. Special care was taken in getting appropriate samples without artificial damage because of the extreme fragility of the peritoneal tissue. The preparing procedure was standard for routine HE staining and for plastic embedded semifine and fine sections studies. Semifine sections were made on ultramicrotome, stained with Toluidin blue and studied by light microscope, while fine sections were made by ultramicrotome and studied by transmission electron microscope. One layer of cuboidal or flattened lining cells present over the lamina propria connective tissue presented mesothelium. The cells were overlapped like tiles on the roof. Lateral parts of their interdigitated membranes were interconnected with different types of cell junctions: unpermeable, adhesion and communication junctions; inhibiting intercellular transport. Cell surface was often covered with great number of microvilli and lamellar bodies. A single kinocilia was also often present on apical cell surface. Nuclei were euchromatic with well developed nucleoli. Cytoplasm was filled with a great number of ribosomes, mitochondria, cisterns of rough endoplasmatic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, lamellar bodies and lipid inclusions. Numerous pinocytic vesicles on all parts of the membrane as well as in the cytoplasm indicating active endocytosis, egsocytosis and transcytosys in the process of secretion and reabsorption

  4. Effects of ultrasound upon endothelial cell ultrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodemer, Claus; Jenne, Jürgen; Fatar, Marc; Hennerici, Michael G.; Meairs, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    A number of new brain applications for therapeutic ultrasound are emerging including drug delivery through BBB opening, enhancement of angiogenesis, sonothrombolysis and neuromodulation. Safety remains important as alterations in the cytoskeleton and tight junctions of endothelial cells have been described. In this study we characterize the in vitro effects of ultrasound on cell morphology using a new human brain cell line (hCMEC/D3). Changes in ultrastructure were analyzed with antibodies against tubulin, actin and catenin. Transport was analyzed by measuring transferrin uptake. No significant changes were seen after continuous wave ultrasound treatment of hCMEC/D3 cells grown in Opticell{trade mark, serif} chambers. We could not observe disassembled actin stress fibers or variations in the microtubule network. However, severe damage occurred in cells cultured in petri dishes.

  5. Ultrastructural identification of Langerhans cells in normal swine epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Romano, J; Balaguer, L

    1991-01-01

    Langerhans cells of the epidermis of 6-month-old white crossbred farm pigs were identified by electron microscopy. Ultrastructurally they were similar to those described in other mammals. They were present in basal and suprabasal layers and were characterised by a lobulated nucleus and an electrolucent cytoplasm with occasional dendritic processes, and the absence of tonofilaments and specialised unions with surrounding keratinocytes. They were specifically identified by the presence of characteristic rod or racquet-shaped intracytoplasmic granules. Intraepidermal clear cells without specific granules were present, although no melanocytes were observed. This is the first report of the presence of Birbeck granules in porcine Langerhans cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1817140

  6. Ultrastructure study of apple meristem cells during cryopreservation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ultrastructure of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) meristem cells was studied before and after cold acclimation (CA) and during the steps of PVS2 vitrification. We compared cells of in vitro grown shoots of two cultivars, Grushovka Vernenskaya and Voskhod. Cells of the two cultivars were simila...

  7. Ultrastructure Study of Apple Meristem Cells During Cryopreservation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ultrastructure of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) meristem cells was studied before and after cold acclimation (CA) and during the steps of PVS2 vitrification. We compared cells of in vitro grown shoots of two cultivars, Grushovka Vernenskaya and Voskhod. Cells of the two cultivars were simila...

  8. Combined fluorescence and ultrastructural mapping of living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohen, Elli; Hirschberg, Joseph G.; Kohen, Cahide; Prince, Jeffrey; Suckewer, Szymon; Santus, Rene C.; Morliere, Patrice; Dubertret, Louis

    1990-05-01

    The topographic analysis of fluorescence distribution has been carried out pixel-by-pixel by one dimensional, two-dimensional microspectrofluorometry and three-dimensional confocal fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence emission spectra of NAD(P)H and benzo(a)pyrene (or metabolites) were recorded at different excitation wavelengths. Cell bioenergetics are monitored in normal and malignant cells as well as cells with genetic defects by coenzyme responses to microinjections of substrates and modifiers from key metabolic pathways in presence and absence of inhibitors and drugs active on mitochondrial structure and function. Cooperative interactions between organelles involved in detoxification mechanisms are observed in cells treated with fluorescent cytotoxic agents. Such interactions can be directly mapped by the fluorescence of cytotoxic agents, their reaction products or vital probes such as NBD ceramide for the Golgi apparatus. To identify the organelles involved parallel electron microscopic studies are carried out in cells first treated with the cytotoxic agent and then incubated with an electron opaque material. A recently developed combined X-ray laser microscope (COXRALM) holds the promise of carrying out combined phase-fluorescence-and X-ray microscopic observations of fluorescence and ultrastructural correlations in live cell probing. As further versatility is gained in such methods it may become possible to obtain a very detailed structure and function mapping of living cells within the context of cytomatrix analysis, metabolic compartmentation and organelle interactions.

  9. Ultrastructural and Cytochemical Properties of Peripheral Blood Cells of Piebald Naked Carp (Gymnocypris eckloni).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Z X; Tang, Y; Fang, J; Peng, X; Fan, J D; Cui, H M; Yang, L Z

    2017-02-01

    The ultrastructural and cytochemical properties of peripheral blood cells of Gymnocypris eckloni were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and a range of cytochemical techniques to provide clear insight into the structure and function of blood cells from this fish. Ultrastructurally, erythrocytes, leucocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes), thrombocytes and plasma cells were identified in the peripheral blood of G. eckloni. The most special ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in this fish were that neutrophils exhibited only one type of cytoplasmic granules containing an eccentric, spherical or oval electron-dense core, and eosinophils presented two types of granules with non-uniform electronic density and without crystalloids in their cytoplasm. Neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and thrombocytes were positive for periodic acid-Schiff and α-naphthyl acetate esterase staining. Intense peroxidase positive staining was observed in neutrophils and monocytes, but not in eosinophils, lymphocytes and thrombocytes. Neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes were stained positively for acid phosphatase, whereas lymphocytes and thrombocytes did not stain. Leucocytes and thrombocytes were negative for alkaline phosphatase and Sudan black B staining. Erythrocytes were negative for all cytochemical staining. The cytochemical and ultrastructural features of peripheral blood cells of G. eckloni were similar to those of other fish species. However, some important differences were identified in G. eckloni. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Comparative ultrastructure analysis of radiation-induced radioresistant laryngeal cancer hep-2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Tang, Fuqiu; Zhang, Bicheng; Zhao, Yong; Ding, Shifang; Rao, Zhiguo

    2014-08-01

    Radioresistance is one of the main reasons for the failure of radiotherapy in laryngeal cancer. However, the mechanisms of radioresistance of tumor cells have remained elusive. This study was conducted to identify the ultrastructural changes of radiation-induced radioresistant laryngeal cancer hep-2 cell line. First, a radioresistant hep-2R cell line was generated after prolonged exposure to γ-rays for 60 Gy (6 Gy/day, 2 days/week) and was confirmed by clonogenic assay. Next, the ultrastructural differences between hep-2R cells and hep-2 cells were compared by transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the results showed that hep-2R cells showed significant resistance to radiation compared with parental hep-2 cells. Increased cell nucleus atypia, more rough endoplasmic reticulum and less mitochondria were observed in hep-2R cells. The amount of microvilli of hep-2R was similar to hep-2 cell. In summary, these ultrastructural differences revealed the morphological mechanism that hep-2R cells had stronger radioresistance than hep-2 cells.

  11. Considerations on the ultrastructural particularities of the dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Manolea, H; Deva, V; Bogdan, Fl; Moraru, Iren; Pancă, Oana-Adina; Caraivan, O

    2008-01-01

    We realized an ultrastructural study of the cells of the dental pulp, having in view their particularities relative to other types of conjunctive tissue. For this purpose, we selected five cases represented by teeth without subjective or objective symptomatology. Within the paper there are exposed the morphological aspects observed by means of electron microscopy. The results are then discussed in relation with a series of observations made by other researchers regarding the particularities of the pulp cells structures.

  12. [Ultrastructure of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shu-Min; Chen, Guang-Hua; Wang, Yi; Wu, De-Pei

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the ultrastructure of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSC). hUCMSC from full-term newborn umbilical cord were isolated and cultured by collagenase digestion, and then subcultured, amplification, and cell morphology was observed by microscopy. The immunophenotype and trilineage differentiation potential of hUCMSCs at passage 3 were analyzed. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe the ultrastructure of hUCMSC. The results indicated that appearance of hUCMSC was spindle-shaped and polygonal, and nuclei were observed. hUCMSC expressed immunophenotype CD44, CD73, CD105, did not express CD34, CD45, CD31 and human leukocyte antigen HLA-DR. hUCMSC were capable of adipogenic, osteogenic, and cartilage differentiation; the short and thick microvilli processes were seen at the surface of hUCMSC by scanning electron microscope. Two different cell morphologies of hUCMSC were seen under transmission electron microscope, the one was a quiescent period in which a large and round or oval nucleus only one nucleolus were seen, cytoplasmic organelles were less; the other was in a relatively active period in which one or two nuclei in the same one cell were observed, the organelles were rich, structure was clear, expansion of the mitochondria was visible. It is concluded that the cells successfully isolated and cultured from umbilical cord, which possess biological characteristics of MSC and display two different states of ultrastructure.

  13. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of anterior pituitary cells in the female Afghan pika, Ochotona rufescens rufescens.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, F; Suzuki, Y; Yoshimura, F

    1986-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of the anterior pituitary gland of the female Afghan pika was carried out to distinguish the ultrastructural features of GH, PRL, ACTH, TSH and LH cells. The histochemically identified GH cells resembled ultrastructurally oval or round GH cells of the rat laden with large, dense secretory granules. PRL cells were divided into three subtypes based on differences in the diameter of their spherical secretory granules. They lacked polymorphic or irregularly shaped secretory granules. ACTH cells resembled ultrastructurally, in some respects, Siperstein's "corticotrophs" of the rat with peripheral arrangement of secretory granules. However, they were not always stellate, but elongate or angular in shape. The dense secretory granules were concentrated in the peripheral area of cytoplasm. TSH cells were non-stellate, but usually oval in shape, containing the smallest spherical secretory granules (100-200 nm in diameter). Almost all LH cells reacted also with FSH antiserum. They were irregular in shape, sometimes in contact with or surrounded the GH cells. They contained an abundance of medium-sized secretory granules (140-260 nm in diameter) which were larger than those in the LH cells of the female rat throughout the estrous cycle. Large secretory granules in the LH cells of the female pika seemed to be related to the endocrine state of persistent estrus.

  14. Ulcerative colitis: ultrastructure of interstitial cells in myenteric plexus.

    PubMed

    Rumessen, J J; Vanderwinden, J-M; Horn, T

    2010-10-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are key regulatory cells in the gut. In the colon of patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC), myenteric ICC had myoid ultrastructural features and were in close contact with nerve terminals. In all patients as opposed to controls, some ICC profiles showed degenerative changes, such as lipid droplets and irregular vacuoles. Nerve terminals often appeared swollen and empty. Glial cells, muscle cells, and fibroblast-like cells (FLC) showed no alterations. FLC enclosed macrophages (MLC), which were in close contact with naked axon terminals. The organization and cytological changes may be of pathophysiological significance in patients with UC.

  15. Ultrastructure of human Leydig cells at early gonadal embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Makabe, S; Naguro, T; Heyn, R; Motta, P M

    1995-01-01

    The ultrastructure of human Leydig cells at different stages of the testicular prenatal development is described by means of transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Between 5 and 7 weeks of gestation (w.g.) the interstitial tissue of the gonad is filled with small undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, migrating primordial germ cells and blood vessels. When the embryo is 7 to 8 weeks-old Leydig cells (LC) appear in basically two morphological patterns, light and dark cells. Their most significative feature is the development of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) as a dense tubulo-vesicular network and the presence of numerous pleomorphic mitochondria with mainly lamellar cristae. At 14 and 16 w.g. the testicular interstitium reaches the maximum development; the cytoplasm of the LC shows a widespread network of anastomosing tubules of the SER and mitochondria with tubular cristae. Fetal LC show a partial cell coat, lack the crystals of Reinke, have few lipid droplets and show no signs of massive cell degeneration, at least until 16 w.g. These ultrastructural modifications in fetal LC are in accordance with the changes in both steroidogenic activity and hCG levels reported by the literature to occur at this stage of development. Junctional complexes were often observed among LC from 7 to 8 w.g. onwards.

  16. Ultrastructure of Escherichia coli Cells Infected with Bacteriophage R17

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Richard M.; Granboulan, Nicole

    1966-01-01

    Franklin, Richard M. (Institut de Recherches sur le Cancer, Villejuif, Seine, France), and Nicole Granboulan. Ultrastructure of Escherichia coli cells infected with bacteriophage R17. J. Bacteriol. 91:834–848. 1966—Ultrastructural changes in Escherichia coli cells infected with ribonucleic acid (RNA) bacteriophage R17 were studied under conditions of one-step growth. No morphological alterations were seen during the latent period. During the period of rapid viral synthesis, a fibrillar lesion surrounded by ribonucleoprotein particles was observed in a polar region. Late in infection, paracrystalline arrays of virions were found in over 90% of the cells. When protein synthesis was blocked by in over 90% of the cells. When protein synthesis was blocked by chloramphenicol at 20 min postinfection, allowing continued viral RNA synthesis without production of coat protein, a dense fibrillar area appeared in a paranuclear region. Cytochemical studies were done on cells embedded in hydroxypropyl methacrylate, a water-miscible embedding agent. The paracrystalline arrays of virions were digested after extensive treatment with either pepsin or ribonuclease. Shorter digestion with the pepsin resulted in better definition of the crystal regions. The fibrillar area found in chloramphenicol-treated cells was digested by ribonuclease but not by pepsin, and was also resistant to lead extraction. This region probably represents a pool of virus-specific RNA. Images PMID:5327373

  17. Ultrastructural observations reveal the presence of channels between cork cells.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Rita Teresa; Pereira, Helena

    2009-12-01

    The ultrastructure of phellem cells of Quercus suber L. (cork oak) and Calotropis procera (Ait) R. Br. were analyzed using electron transmission microscopy to determine the presence or absence of plasmodesmata (PD). Different types of Q. suber cork samples were studied: one year shoots; virgin cork (first periderm), reproduction cork (traumatic periderm), and wet cork. The channel structures of PD were found in all the samples crossing adjacent cell walls through the suberin layer of the secondary wall. Calotropis phellem also showed PD crossing the cell walls of adjacent cells but in fewer numbers compared to Q. suber. In one year stems of cork oak, it was possible to follow the physiologically active PD with ribosomic accumulation next to the aperture of the channel seen in the phellogen cells to the completely obstructed channels in the dead cells that characterize the phellem tissue.

  18. Ultrastructure of autophagy in plant cells: a review.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Papini, Alessio

    2013-12-01

    Just as with yeasts and animal cells, plant cells show several types of autophagy. Microautophagy is the uptake of cellular constituents by the vacuolar membrane. Although microautophagy seems frequent in plants it is not yet fully proven to occur. Macroautophagy occurs farther away from the vacuole. In plants it is performed by autolysosomes, which are considerably different from the autophagosomes found in yeasts and animal cells, as in plants these organelles contain hydrolases from the onset of their formation. Another type of autophagy in plant cells (called mega-autophagy or mega-autolysis) is the massive degradation of the cell at the end of one type of programmed cell death (PCD). Furthermore, evidence has been found for autophagy during degradation of specific proteins, and during the internal degeneration of chloroplasts. This paper gives a brief overview of the present knowledge on the ultrastructure of autophagic processes in plants.

  19. Odor Sensing Cell Ultrastructure by Electron Microscopy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    conditions in which it could readily oxidize to dehydroascorbic acid. Glucose oxidase and urease were immobilized in acrylamide gel which shows good...the initial studies on immobilized enzymes, the completion of the observations on the regeneration of olfactory cells and centriole migration during

  20. The Ultrastructural Signature of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Jean M; Becker, Klaus A; Stein, Gary S; Nickerson, Jeffrey A

    2017-04-01

    The epigenetics and molecular biology of human embryonic stem cells (hES cells) have received much more attention than their architecture. We present a more complete look at hES cells by electron microscopy, with a special emphasis on the architecture of the nucleus. We propose that there is an ultrastructural signature of pluripotent human cells. hES cell nuclei lack heterochromatin, including the peripheral heterochromatin, that is common in most somatic cell types. The absence of peripheral heterochromatin may be related to the absence of lamins A and C, proteins important for linking chromatin to the nuclear lamina and envelope. Lamins A and C expression and the development of peripheral heterochromatin were early steps in the development of embryoid bodies. While hES cell nuclei had abundant nuclear pores, they also had an abundance of nuclear pores in the cytoplasm in the form of annulate lamellae. These were not a residue of annulate lamellae from germ cells or the early embryos from which hES cells were derived. Subnuclear structures including nucleoli, interchromatin granule clusters, and Cajal bodies were observed in the nuclear interior. The architectural organization of human ES cell nuclei has important implications for cell structure-gene expression relationships and for the maintenance of pluripotency. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 764-774, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. How effectively does a clinostat mimic the ultrastructural effects of microgravity on plant cells?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    Columella cells of seedlings of Zea mays L. cv. Bear Hybrid grown in the microgravity of orbital flight allocate significantly larger relative-volumes to hyaloplasm and lipid bodies, and significantly smaller relative-volumes to dictyosomes, plastids, and starch than do columella cells of seedlings grown at 1 g. The ultrastructure of columella cells of seedlings grown at 1 g and on a rotating clinostat is not significantly different. However, the ultrastructure of cells exposed to these treatments differs significantly from that of seedlings grown in microgravity. These results indicate that the actions of a rotating clinostat do not mimic the ultrastructural effects of microgravity in columella cells of Z. mays.

  2. Dexamethasone induced ultrastructural changes in cultured human trabecular meshwork cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K; McCartney, M D; Miggans, S T; Clark, A F

    1993-09-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced ocular hypertension has been demonstrated in both animals and humans. It is possible that glucocorticoid-induced changes in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells are responsible for this hypertension. In order to elaborate further the effect of glucocorticoids on the trabecular meshwork, the ultrastructural consequences of dexamethasone (DEX) treatment were examined in three different human TM cell lines. Confluent TM cells were treated with 0.1 microM of DEX for 14 days, and then processed for light, epifluorescent microscopy or transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of DEX treatment on TM cell and nuclear size was quantified using computer assisted morphometrics. Morphometric analysis showed a significant increase in both TM cell and nuclear size after 14 days of DEX treatment. Epifluorescent microscopy of rhodamine-phalloidin stained, control TM cells showed the normal arrangement of stress fibers. In contrast, DEX-treated TM cells showed unusual geodesic dome-like cross-linked actin networks. Control TM cells had the normal complement and arrangement of organelles as well as electron dense inclusions and large vacuoles. DEX-treated TM cells showed stacked arrangements of smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, proliferation of the Golgi apparatus, pleomorphic nuclei and increased amounts of extracellular matrix material. The DEX-induced alterations observed in the present study may be an indication of the processes that are occurring in the in vivo disease process.

  3. Actin and Septin Ultrastructures at the Budding Yeast Cell Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rodal, Avital A.; Kozubowski, Lukasz; Goode, Bruce L.; Drubin, David G.; Hartwig, John H.

    2005-01-01

    Budding yeast has been a powerful model organism for studies of the roles of actin in endocytosis and septins in cell division and in signaling. However, the depth of mechanistic understanding that can be obtained from such studies has been severely hindered by a lack of ultrastructural information about how actin and septins are organized at the cell cortex. To address this problem, we developed rapid-freeze and deep-etch techniques to image the yeast cell cortex in spheroplasted cells at high resolution. The cortical actin cytoskeleton assembles into conical or mound-like structures composed of short, cross-linked filaments. The Arp2/3 complex localizes near the apex of these structures, suggesting that actin patch assembly may be initiated from the apex. Mutants in cortical actin patch components with defined defects in endocytosis disrupted different stages of cortical actin patch assembly. Based on these results, we propose a model for actin function during endocytosis. In addition to actin structures, we found that septin-containing filaments assemble into two kinds of higher order structures at the cell cortex: rings and ordered gauzes. These images provide the first high-resolution views of septin organization in cells. PMID:15525671

  4. Ultrastructure and calcium balance in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to extremely low magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, N. A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigations of low magnetic field (LMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planned space flights to other planets where the field intensity does not exceed 10 -5 Oe. Pea ( Pisum sativum L.) seeds were grown in an environment of LMF 3 days. In meristem cells of roots exposed to LMF, one could observe such ultrastructural peculiarities as a noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids. Mitochondria were the most sensitive organelle to LMF application. Their size and relative volume in cells increased, matrix was electron-transparent, and cristae reduced. Because of the significant role of calcium signalling in plant responses to different environmental factors, calcium participation in LMF effects was investigated using a pyroantimonate method to identify the localization of free calcium ions. The intensity of cytochemical reaction in root cells after LMF application was strong. The Ca 2+ pyroantimonate deposits were observed both in all organelles and in a hyaloplasm of the cells. Data obtained suggest that the observed LMF effects on ultrastructure of root cells were due to disruptions in different metabolic systems including effects on Ca 2+ homeostasis.

  5. Ultrastructural identification of Ricinus communis agglutinin-1 positive cells in primary dissociated cell cultures of human embryonic brain.

    PubMed

    Bobryshev, Y; Ashwell, K

    1994-12-01

    While Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA-1) can be used as a specific marker to study the development and differentiation of microglial cells in human embryogenesis, little is known about the structural heterogeneity and nature of RCA-1+ cells. To analyse the structural peculiarities of RCA-1+ cells, we have used primary dissociated cultures of human embryonic brain. These have been used as models for investigating many of the aspects of central nervous system (CNS) HIV infection. We have shown that primary dissociated cultures from human embryos as young as 10 weeks gestation contain RCA-1+ cells. The RCA-1+ cells exist in two forms, those without (type I) and those with (type II) processes. The former have a poorly developed ultrastructure, while the latter have well developed ultrastructural features, such as rough endoplasmic reticulum with short cisternae, abundant ribosomes, mitochondria, lysosomes and vacuoles. Furthermore, some of these cells with processes have well developed cytoskeletal features. In this paper, the classification of RCA-1+ cells of embryonic human brain is considered and their morphology compared to microglia identified in rodent CNS.

  6. The effects of ultraviolet C radiation on the ultrastructure of the liver cells of mole rats.

    PubMed

    Tekın, Saban; Türker, Hüseyin; Güven, Turan; Yel, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the ultrastructural changes in the liver cells of mole rats (Spalax leucodon) exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Thirteen mole rats used in this study were caught from nature. They were divided into four groups. The first group was separated as a control and was not given any radiation. The rest were exposed to ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation for 7, 14, and 21 days. The electron microscopic examinations revealed that significant ultrastructural changes occurred in the liver tissue. These changes were the reduction in cytoplasmic organelles, dilatation in rough endoplasmic reticulum, impairment of nucleus membrane, and broadened and vacuolated mitochondria in the cytoplasm. Also, UVC radiation caused significant changes in liver enzymes of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gama-glutamiltransferase values. After long-term exposure to radiation, some excessive ultrastructural changes occurred. These results indicated that longer exposure to UVR would cause more ultrastructural effects on the liver cells and liver enzymes.

  7. Cadmium-induced ultrastructural changes in Euglena cells

    SciTech Connect

    Duret, S.; Bonaly, J.; Bariaud, A.; Vannereau, A.; Mestre, J.C.

    1986-02-01

    The ultrastructure of Euglena gracilis grown in the presence of Cd showed only numerous myelin-like structures in mitochondria, chloroplasts altered in shape, and thylakoid arrangement and increase of osmiophilic plastoglobuli. These alterations indicate that respiratory processes are the initial target of Cd toxicity.

  8. Ultrastructure of the Epidermal Cell Wall and Cuticle of Tomato Fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during Development.

    PubMed

    Segado, Patricia; Domínguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The epidermis plays a pivotal role in plant development and interaction with the environment. However, it is still poorly understood, especially its outer epidermal wall: a singular wall covered by a cuticle. Changes in the cuticle and cell wall structures are important to fully understand their functions. In this work, an ultrastructure and immunocytochemical approach was taken to identify changes in the cuticle and the main components of the epidermal cell wall during tomato fruit development. A thin and uniform procuticle was already present before fruit set. During cell division, the inner side of the procuticle showed a globular structure with vesicle-like particles in the cell wall close to the cuticle. Transition between cell division and elongation was accompanied by a dramatic increase in cuticle thickness, which represented more than half of the outer epidermal wall, and the lamellate arrangement of the non-cutinized cell wall. Changes in this non-cutinized outer wall during development showed specific features not shared with other cell walls. The coordinated nature of the changes observed in the cuticle and the epidermal cell wall indicate a deep interaction between these two supramolecular structures. Hence, the cuticle should be interpreted within the context of the outer epidermal wall.

  9. Ultrastructural analysis of cell component distribution in the apical cell of Ceratodon protonemata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, L. M.; Sack, F. D.

    1995-01-01

    A distinctive feature of tip-growing plant cells is that cell components are distributed differentially along the length of the cell, although most ultrastructural analyses have been qualitative. The longtitudinal distribution of cell components was studied both qualitatively and quantitatively in the apical cell of dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon. The first 35 micrometers of the apical cell was analyzed stereologically using transmission electron microscopy. There were four types of distributions along the cell's axis, three of them differential: (1) tubular endoplasmic reticulum was evenly distributed, (2) cisternal endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi vesicles were distributed in a tip-to-base gradient, (3) plastids, vacuoles, and Golgi stacks were enriched in specific areas, although the locations of the enrichments varied, and (4) mitochondria were excluded in the tip-most 5 micrometers and evenly distributed throughout the remaining 30 micrometers. This study provides one of the most comprehensive quantitative, ultrastructural analyses of the distribution of cell components in the apex of any tip-growing plant cell. The finding that almost every component had its own spatial arrangement demonstrates the complexity of the organization and regulation of the distribution of components in tip-growing cells.

  10. Ultrastructural analysis of cell component distribution in the apical cell of Ceratodon protonemata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, L. M.; Sack, F. D.

    1995-01-01

    A distinctive feature of tip-growing plant cells is that cell components are distributed differentially along the length of the cell, although most ultrastructural analyses have been qualitative. The longtitudinal distribution of cell components was studied both qualitatively and quantitatively in the apical cell of dark-grown protonemata of the moss Ceratodon. The first 35 micrometers of the apical cell was analyzed stereologically using transmission electron microscopy. There were four types of distributions along the cell's axis, three of them differential: (1) tubular endoplasmic reticulum was evenly distributed, (2) cisternal endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi vesicles were distributed in a tip-to-base gradient, (3) plastids, vacuoles, and Golgi stacks were enriched in specific areas, although the locations of the enrichments varied, and (4) mitochondria were excluded in the tip-most 5 micrometers and evenly distributed throughout the remaining 30 micrometers. This study provides one of the most comprehensive quantitative, ultrastructural analyses of the distribution of cell components in the apex of any tip-growing plant cell. The finding that almost every component had its own spatial arrangement demonstrates the complexity of the organization and regulation of the distribution of components in tip-growing cells.

  11. Array tomography: characterizing FAC-sorted populations of zebrafish immune cells by their 3D ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Irene; Chockley, Peter; Bartels, Carolin; Spomer, Waldemar; Hofmann, Andreas; Gengenbach, Ulrich; Singh, Sachin; Thaler, Marlene; Grabher, Clemens; SCHRÖDER, RASMUS R

    2015-01-01

    For 3D reconstructions of whole immune cells from zebrafish, isolated from adult animals by FAC-sorting we employed array tomography on hundreds of serial sections deposited on silicon wafers. Image stacks were either recorded manually or automatically with the newly released ZEISS Atlas 5 Array Tomography platform on a Zeiss FEGSEM. To characterize different populations of immune cells, organelle inventories were created by segmenting individual cells. In addition, arrays were used for quantification of cell populations with respect to the various cell types they contained. The detection of immunological synapses in cocultures of cell populations from thymus or WKM with cancer cells helped to identify the cytotoxic nature of these cells. Our results demonstrate the practicality and benefit of AT for high-throughput ultrastructural imaging of substantial volumes. Lay Description To look at immune cells from zebrafish we employed array tomography, a technique where arrays of serial sections deposited on solid substrates are used for imaging. Cell populations were isolated from the different organs of zebrafish involved in haematopoiesis, the production of blood cells. They were chemically fixed and centrifuged to concentrate them in a pellet that was then dehydrated and embedded in resin. Using a custom-built handling device it was possible to place hundreds of serial sections on silicon wafers as well ordered arrays. To image a whole cell at a resolution that would allow identifying all the organelles (i.e. compartments surrounded by membranes) inside the cell, stacks of usually 50–100 images were recorded in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This recording was either done manually or automatically using the newly released Atlas Array Tomography platform on a ZEISS SEM. For the imaging of the sections a pixel size of about 5 nm was chosen, which defines membrane boundaries very well and allows segmentation of the membrane topology. After alignment of the

  12. Pollen and microsporangium development in Hovenia dulcis (Rhamnaceae): a different type of tapetal cell ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Gotelli, Marina M; Galati, Beatriz G; Zarlavsky, Gabriela; Medan, Diego

    2016-07-01

    Despite that there is some literature on pollen morphology of Rhamnaceae, studies addressing general aspects of the microsporogenesis, microgametogenesis, and anther development are rare. The aim of this paper is to describe the ultrastructure of pollen grain ontogeny with special attention to tapetum cytology in Hovenia dulcis. Anthers at different stages of development were processed for transmission and scanning electron microscopy, bright-field microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. Different histochemical reactions were carried out. The ultrastructural changes observed during the development of the tapetal cells and pollen grains are described. Large vesicles containing carbohydrates occur in the tapetal cell cytoplasm during the early stages of pollen development. Its origin and composition are described and discussed. This is the first report on the ontogeny and ultrastructure of the pollen grain and related sporophytic structures of H. dulcis.

  13. Ultrastructure of inclusion bodies in annulus cells in the degenerating human intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Gruber, H E; Hanley, E N

    2009-06-01

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) of the cell has an architectural editing function that checks whether protein structure and three-dimensional assembly have occurred properly prior to export of newly synthesized material out of the cell. If these have been faulty, the material is retained within the rER as an inclusion body. Inclusion bodies have been identified previously in chondrocytes and osteoblasts in chondrodysplasias and osteogenesis imperfecta. Inclusion bodies in intervertebral disc cells, however, have only recently been recognized. Our objectives were to use transmission electron microscopy to analyze more fully inclusion bodies in the annulus pulposus and to study the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding cells containing inclusion bodies. ECM frequently encapsulated cells with inclusion bodies, and commonly contained prominent banded aggregates of Type VI collagen. Inclusion body material had several morphologies, including relatively smooth, homogeneous material, or a rougher, less homogeneous feature. Such findings expand our knowledge of the fine structure of the human disc cell and ECM during disc degeneration, and indicate the potential utility of ultrastructural identification of discs with intracellular inclusion bodies as a screening method for molecular studies directed toward identification of defective gene products in degenerating discs.

  14. Ultrastructural Changes in Murine Peritoneal Cells Following Cyclophosphamide Administration

    PubMed Central

    Chin, K. N.; Hudson, G.

    1974-01-01

    Peritoneal cells were studied at intervals of between 6 h and 30 days following a single intravenous injection of a sublethal dose of cyclophosphamide. With the electron microscope, evidence of cell damage and death could be seen at 6 h, and by 12 h large numbers of dead cells were noted, either lying free or within the cytoplasm of macrophages. Most of the damaged cells were lymphocytes but degenerating blast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils and mast cells were also identified. Nuclei were seen in which margination of chromatin had occurred but nuclei of uniform density were also prominent and showed irregular shape and lobulation. Macrophages exhibited all stages of phagocytosis and digestion and a few phagocytes of atypical appearance were noted. By 24 h most of the dead cells lay within the cytoplasm of macrophages which showed many phagocytic inclusions as well as lipid droplets. By 6 days, the peritoneal cells had regained normal appearances although the proportion of lymphoid cells was still reduced. By the 18th day, all features were indistinguishable from normal. The changes observed showed a general similarity to those noted previously in the lymphoreticular cells of the Peyer's patch; they provide no evidence that the environment of the peritoneal cavity protects cells against the action of cyclophosphamide. ImagesFigs. 4-6Figs. 7-9Figs. 10-12Figs. 1-3 PMID:4447790

  15. Cutaneous epithelioid cell histiocytoma: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings suggesting endothelial origin.

    PubMed

    Manente, L; Schmitt, I; Onetti, A M; Peris, K; Caracciolo, E; Chimenti, S

    1997-10-01

    A 13-year-old boy presented with a polypoid nodule localized in the groin. Although the clinical and histopathological features corresponded to previously described diagnostic criteria of epithelioid cell histiocytoma, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings suggested vascular differentiation of the epithelioid cells. In particular, the immunohistochemical negativity of the epithelioid cell elements for Factor XIIIa failed to substantiate the previously forwarded hypothesis that this lesion represents a dendrocytoma. Instead, the presence of histiocytoid, vacuolated cells occasionally containing sparse red blood cells, positive staining for Factor VIII-related antigen, and ultrastructural evidence of endothelial characteristics in epithelioid neoplastic cells favor the hypothesis that "epithelioid cell histiocytoma" is of endothelial origin. We suggest the descriptive term cutaneous histiocytoid hemangioendothelioma for this lesion.

  16. The ultrastructural surface morphology of oral cancer cells and keratinocytes after exposure to chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatimah; Sarsito, A. S.; Wimardhani, Y. S.

    2017-08-01

    Low-molecular-weight chitosan (LMWC) has the same selective cytotoxic effects on oral cancer cells as cisplatin. The cell deaths caused by the anticancer characteristics of chitosan show that apoptosis is not the death pathway of the primary cells involved. The interactions between LMWC and the cells need to be explored. The objective of this study was to compare the ultrastructural morphology of oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC Ca)-922 and noncancer keratinocyte HaCaT cell lines after exposure to LMWC and cisplatin. The cells were treated with LMWC and cisplatin, and their ultrastructural morphology was analyzed using scanning electron micrographs. Features of early apoptosis, seen as the loss of microvilli, were detected in the LMWC-exposed Ca9-22 cells, and there was a material surrounding the cells. In contrast, the LMWC-exposed HaCaT cells showed no changes related to apoptosis. The results were the opposite when cisplatin was used. This study confirms that there are differences in the ultrastructural surface morphology of LMWC-exposed and cisplatin-exposed oral cancer cells and keratinocytes that could be correlated with their biological activity.

  17. Revealing 3D Ultrastructure and Morphology of Stem Cell Spheroids by Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jaros, Josef; Petrov, Michal; Tesarova, Marketa; Hampl, Ales

    2017-01-01

    Cell culture methods have been developed in efforts to produce biologically relevant systems for developmental and disease modeling, and appropriate analytical tools are essential. Knowledge of ultrastructural characteristics represents the basis to reveal in situ the cellular morphology, cell-cell interactions, organelle distribution, niches in which cells reside, and many more. The traditional method for 3D visualization of ultrastructural components, serial sectioning using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), is very labor-intensive due to contentious TEM slice preparation and subsequent image processing of the whole collection. In this chapter, we present serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, together with complex methodology for spheroid formation, contrasting of cellular compartments, image processing, and 3D visualization. The described technique is effective for detailed morphological analysis of stem cell spheroids, organoids, as well as organotypic cell cultures.

  18. Integrin VLA-3: ultrastructural localization at cell-cell contact sites of human cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The integrin VLA-3 is a cell surface receptor, which binds to fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I and VI (Takada, Y., E. A. Wayner, W. G. Carter, and M. E. Hemler. 1988. J. Cell. Biochem. 37:385-393) and is highly expressed in substrate adherent cultures of almost all human cell types. The ligand specificity of VLA-3 and the inhibition of cell adhesion by anti-VLA-3 monoclonal antibodies suggest its involvement in cell-substrate interaction. In normal tissues, VLA-3 is restricted to few cell types, notably the kidney glomeruli and basal cells of the epidermis. In the epidermis, VLA-3 is generally strongly expressed on the entire plasma membrane of basal cells and is not polarized towards the basement membrane (Klein, C. E., C. Cardon-Cardo, R. Soehnchen, R. J. Cote, H. F. Oettgen, M. Eisinger, and L. J. Old. 1987. J. Invest. Dermatol. 89:500-507). Based on this finding we speculated that, in addition to a role of VLA-3 for adhesion of cells to substrate, it could also be relevant for cell-cell interaction. To investigate this, we ultrastructurally localized VLA-3 on the surface of cultured cells by immunoelectron microscopy. In accordance with our concept, we found VLA-3 strongly associated with intercellular contact sites. Interestingly, very little immunoreactivity was detected at the under- surface of cells which had been cultured for 18-32 h. This observation was unexpected but is consistent with previous findings (Kantor, R. R. S., M. J. Mattes, K. D. Lloyd, L. J. Old, and A. P. Albino. 1987. J. Biol. Chem. 262:15158-15165) which suggest that the association of VLA- 3 with the basal surface of substrate adherent tumor cells is a late event occurring after days of culture under confluent conditions. However, we cannot formally rule out VLA-3 expression at the undersurface of cells under our experimental conditions, since VLA-3 molecules at this location could be inaccessible for in situ labeling of unfixed cells because of spatial interferences. In conclusion

  19. Ultrastructure of Zika virus particles in cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-Vieira, Debora Ferreira; Barth, Ortrud Monika; da Silva, Marcos Alexandre Nunes; Santos, Carolina Cardoso; Santos, Aline da Silva; F, Joaquim Batista; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has infected thousands of Brazilian people and spread to other American countries since 2015. The introduction of ZIKV brought a strong impact to public health in Brazil. It is of utmost importance to identify a susceptible cell line that will enable the isolation and identification of the virus from patient samples, viral mass production, and testing of drug and vaccine candidates. Besides real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction diagnosis for detecting the viral genome, virus isolation in cell lines was useful in order to study the structure of the viral particle and its behaviour inside cells. Analysis of ZIKV infected cell lines was achieved using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Blood was obtained from a Brazilian patient during the first days after presenting with signs of the disease, and ZIKV from the patient’s blood was isolated in the C6/36 mosquito cell line. Afterwards, Vero cells were inoculated with the viral suspension, fixed six days after inoculation, embedded in polymers, and ultra-thin cut. Like dengue viruses, this flavivirus showed numerous virus particles present inside cellular vesicles thereby confirming the susceptibility of the Vero cell line to ZIKV replication. TEM is a unique technique available to make the virus visible. PMID:27581122

  20. Ultrastructural characteristics of type A epithelioid cells during BCG-granulomatosis and treatment with lysosomotropic isoniazid.

    PubMed

    Shkurupii, V A; Kozyaev, M A; Nadeev, A P

    2006-04-01

    We studied BCG-granulomas, their cellular composition, and ultrastructure of type A epithelioid cells in the liver of male BALB/c mice with spontaneous granulomatous inflammation. The animals received free isoniazid or isoniazid conjugated with lysosomotropic intracellularly prolonged matrix (dialdehyde dextran, molecular weight 65-75 kDa). Lysosomotropic isoniazid was accumulated in the vacuolar apparatus of epithelioid cells and produced a stimulatory effect on plastic processes in these cells.

  1. Morphometric and ultrastructural analysis of different pituitary cell populations in undernourished monkeys.

    PubMed

    Cónsole, G M; Jurado, S B; Oyhenart, E; Ferese, C; Pucciarelli, H; Gómez Dumm, C L

    2001-01-01

    Undernutrition elicited by a low-protein diet determines a marked reduction of hypophyseal activity and affects the function of the respective target organs. The objective of the present investigation was to study the ultrastructural and quantitative immunohistochemical changes of the different pituitary cell populations in undernourished monkeys that had been previously shown to have significant changes in craniofacial growth. Twenty Saimiri sciureus boliviensis monkeys of both sexes were used. The animals were born in captivity and were separated into two groups at one year of age, i.e., control and undernourished animals. The monkeys were fed ad libitum a 20% (control group) and a 10% (experimental group) protein diet for two years. Pituitaries were processed for light and electron microscopy. The former was immunolabeled with anti-GH, -PRL, -LH, -FSH, -ACTH, and -TSH sera. Volume density and cell density were measured using an image analyzer. Quantitative immunohistochemistry revealed a decrease in these parameters with regard to somatotrophs, lactotrophs, gonadotrophs and thyrotrophs from undernourished animals compared to control ones. In these populations, the ultrastructural study showed changes suggesting compensatory hyperfunction. On the contrary, no significant changes were found in the morphometric parameters or the ultrastructure of the corticotroph population. We conclude that in undernourished monkeys the somatotroph, lactotroph, gonadotroph, and thyrotroph cell populations showed quantitative immunohistochemical changes that can be correlated with ultrastructural findings.

  2. Ultrastructural morphology of adrenal chromaffin cells indicative of a process of piecemeal degranulation.

    PubMed

    Crivellato, Enrico; Nico, Beatrice; Perissin, Laura; Ribatti, Domenico

    2003-02-01

    Chromaffin cells of the mouse adrenal medulla were found by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to exhibit ultrastructural changes suggestive of piecemeal degranulation (PMD), a unique model of cell secretion characterized by the slow release of granule materials without granules opening to the cell exterior. The expression of PMD was recognized in both adrenaline- and noradrenaline-containing cells. Ultrastructural changes included specific granule and cytoplasmic morphologies. In adrenaline-releasing cells the granule content was loosely packed or condensed, and surrounded by a clear halo. In noradrenaline-storing cells, the granule material appeared asymmetrically arranged and exhibited characteristic "semilunar" electron-dense domains within the granule chambers. Notably, altered granules did not fuse with each other or with the plasma membrane, and were intermingled with normal, resting granules. Large, empty cytoplasmic containers or vacuoles filled with partially dissolved matrices were frequently observed. In addition, both adrenaline- and noradrenaline-storing cells presented a rich supply of membrane-bound, smooth vesicles (50-200 nm diameter) that were either free in the cytoplasm or attached to granules. The finding of ultrastructural features characteristic of PMD in adrenal chromaffin cells suggests that such a secretory model may be an alternative secretory pathway to regulated exocytosis. Moreover, these results support the hypothesis that PMD may be a general degranulation pattern in cells involved in paracrine-endocrine secretion. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Ultrastructure and Composition of the Nannochloropsis gaditana Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Matthew J.; Weiss, Taylor L.; Jinkerson, Robert E.; Jing, Jia; Roth, Robyn; Goodenough, Ursula; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Marine algae of the genus Nannochloropsis are promising producers of biofuel precursors and nutraceuticals and are also harvested commercially for aquaculture feed. We have used quick-freeze, deep-etch electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and carbohydrate analyses to characterize the architecture of the Nannochloropsis gaditana (strain CCMP 526) cell wall, whose recalcitrance presents a significant barrier to biocommodity extraction. The data indicate a bilayer structure consisting of a cellulosic inner wall (∼75% of the mass balance) protected by an outer hydrophobic algaenan layer. Cellulase treatment of walls purified after cell lysis generates highly enriched algaenan preparations without using the harsh chemical treatments typically used in algaenan isolation and characterization. Nannochloropsis algaenan was determined to comprise long, straight-chain, saturated aliphatics with ether cross-links, which closely resembles the cutan of vascular plants. Chemical identification of >85% of the isolated cell wall mass is detailed, and genome analysis is used to identify candidate biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:25239976

  4. Ultrastructural analysis of bone nodules formed in vitro by isolated fetal rat calvaria cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, U.; Bar-Lev, M.; Bellows, C.G.; Aubin, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    When cells enzymatically digested from 21 d fetal rat calvaria are grown in ascorbic acid and Na beta-glycerophosphate, they form discrete three-dimensional nodular structures with the histological and immunohistochemical appearance of woven bone. The present investigation was undertaken to verify that bone-like features were identifiable at the ultrastructural level. The nodules formed on top of a fibroblast-like multilayer of cells. The upper surface of the nodules was lined by a continuous layer of cuboidal osteoblastic cells often seen to be joined by adherens junctions. Numerous microvilli, membrane protrusions, and coated pits could be seen on the upper surface of these cells, their cytoplasm contained prominent RER and Golgi membranes, and processes extended from their lower surfaces into a dense, highly organized collagenous matrix. Some osteocyte-like cells were completely embedded within this matrix; they also displayed RER and prominent processes which extended through the matrix and often made both adherens and gap junctional contacts with the processes of other cells. The fibroblastic cells not participating in nodule formation were surrounded by a less dense collagenous matrix and, in contrast to the matrix of the nodules, it did not mineralize. An unmineralized osteoid-like layer was seen directly below the cuboidal top layer of cells. A mineralization front was detectable below this in which small, discrete structures resembling matrix vesicles and feathery mineral crystals were evident and frequently associated with the collagen fibrils. More heavily mineralized areas were seen further into the nodule. Electron microprobe and electron and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the mineral to be hydroxyapatite.

  5. [Ultrastructure of resting cells of some non-spore-forming bacteria].

    PubMed

    Suzina, N E; Muliukin, A L; Kozlova, A N; Shorokhova, A P; Dmitriev, V V; Barinova, E S; Mokhova, O N; El'-Registan, G I; Duda, V I

    2004-01-01

    Using electron microscopy (ultrathin sections and freeze-fractures), we investigated the ultrastructure of the resting cells formed in the cultures of Micrococcus luteus, Arthrobacter globiformis, and Pseudomonas aurantiaca under conditions of prolonged incubation (up to 9 months). These resting cells included cyst-like forms that were characterized by complex cell structure and the following ultrastructural properties: (i) a thickened or multiprofiled cell wall (CW), typically made up of a layer of the preexisting CW and one to three de novo synthesized murein layers; (ii) a thick, structurally differentiated capsule; (iii) presence of large intramembrane particles (d = 180-270 A), occurring both on the PF and EF sides of the membrane fractures of M. luteus and A. globiformis; (iv) a peculiar structure of the cytoplasm, which was either fine-grained or lumpy (coarse-grained) in different parts of the cell population; and (v) a condensed nucleoid. Intense formation of cyst-like cells occurred in aged (2- to 9-month-old) bacterial cultures grown on diluted complex media or on nitrogen-, carbon-, and phosphorus-limited synthetic media, as well as in suspensions of cells incubated in media with sodium silicate. The general morphological properties, ultrastructural organization, and physiological features of cyst-like cells formed during the developmental cycle suggest that constitutive dormancy is characteristic of non-spore-forming bacteria.

  6. Effects of Streptococcus sanguinis Bacteriocin on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Membrane Permeability, and Ultrastructure of Candida Thallus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengli; Zhao, Yingnan; Xia, Xue; Dong, Xue; Ge, Wenyu; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans (C.a) and Candida tropicalis (C.t) were treated with Streptococcus sanguinis bacteriocin (S.s bacteriocin), respectively; the bacteriostatic dynamics of S.s bacteriocin, their effects on cell surface hydrophobicity, leakage of inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance, cytosolic calcium concentration, and ultrastructure changes of Candida thallus were detected and analyzed. The results showed that inhibitory effect of S.s bacteriocin on C.a and C.t reached peak level at 24 h, the cell-surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after S.s bacteriocin treatment, and there was leakage of cytoplasmic inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance from C.a and C.t; cytosolic calcium concentration decreased greatly. After 24 h treatment by S.s bacteriocin, depressive deformity and defect could be found in the cell surface of C.a and C.t; the thallus displayed irregular forms: C.a was shrunken, there was unclear margins abutting upon cell wall and cell membrane, nucleus disappeared, and cytoplasm was inhomogeneous; likewise, C.t was first plasmolysis, and then the cytoplasm was shrunk, the ultrastructure of cell wall and cell membrane was continuously damaged, and the nucleus was karyolysis. It was illustrated that S.s bacteriocin had similar antifungal effect on C.a and C.t; their cell surface hydrophobicity, membrane permeability, and ultrastructure were changed significantly on exposure to S.s bacteriocin.

  7. Effects of Streptococcus sanguinis Bacteriocin on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Membrane Permeability, and Ultrastructure of Candida Thallus

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shengli; Zhao, Yingnan; Xia, Xue; Dong, Xue; Ge, Wenyu; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans (C.a) and Candida tropicalis (C.t) were treated with Streptococcus sanguinis bacteriocin (S.s bacteriocin), respectively; the bacteriostatic dynamics of S.s bacteriocin, their effects on cell surface hydrophobicity, leakage of inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance, cytosolic calcium concentration, and ultrastructure changes of Candida thallus were detected and analyzed. The results showed that inhibitory effect of S.s bacteriocin on C.a and C.t reached peak level at 24 h, the cell-surface hydrophobicity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after S.s bacteriocin treatment, and there was leakage of cytoplasmic inorganic phosphorus and macromolecular substance from C.a and C.t; cytosolic calcium concentration decreased greatly. After 24 h treatment by S.s bacteriocin, depressive deformity and defect could be found in the cell surface of C.a and C.t; the thallus displayed irregular forms: C.a was shrunken, there was unclear margins abutting upon cell wall and cell membrane, nucleus disappeared, and cytoplasm was inhomogeneous; likewise, C.t was first plasmolysis, and then the cytoplasm was shrunk, the ultrastructure of cell wall and cell membrane was continuously damaged, and the nucleus was karyolysis. It was illustrated that S.s bacteriocin had similar antifungal effect on C.a and C.t; their cell surface hydrophobicity, membrane permeability, and ultrastructure were changed significantly on exposure to S.s bacteriocin. PMID:26064919

  8. Programmed cell death in plants: ultrastructural changes in pea guard cells.

    PubMed

    Bakeeva, L E; Dzyubinskaya, E V; Samuilov, V D

    2005-09-01

    Treatment with cyanide of epidermal peels isolated from pea leaves resulted in destruction of nuclei in the guard cells of stomata, which is visible with a light microscope. The process was accelerated by illumination. Electron microscopy revealed significant CN--induced changes in the ultrastructure of guard cells, which increased with time. Margination of chromatin, which is one of the first signs of apoptosis, was observed in the guard cells even after 1 h incubation of the isolated epidermis with CN-. Subsequent chromatin condensation, swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum with formation of large tanks covered with ribosomes, changes in the structure of dictyosomes, and a slight swelling of mitochondria were observed after 3 h of the epidermis incubation with CN-. After 6 h of incubation with CN-, the bulk volume of the guard cells was filled with vacuoles, the cytoplasm occupied the thin marginal layer, the nucleus was in the center similarly to the control experiment, but it was polylobal, extended in narrow cytoplasmic bands, and, despite the loss of the nuclear envelope integrity, appeared to be a self-dependent structure. In the envelope-free open regions of the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts directly contacted with chromatin. Much like the cell nucleus, chloroplasts lost the integrity of the membrane, but did not swell and retained the stroma and integrity of the thylakoid system. An antioxidant di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene prevented ultrastructural changes in the cells observed after 6 h of incubation with CN-. Thus, the CN--induced death of the guard cells of stomata occurs through the mechanism of apoptosis.

  9. Intercalated clear cells or pale cells in the sinus node of canine hearts? An ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Stoletzki, S; Schmiedl, A; Richter, J

    2000-09-01

    Two types of sinus nodal cells were responsible for the main differences in the literature concerning the ultrastructure of the sinuatrial node: the intercalated clear cells and pale cells. Canine hearts were arrested by (1) aortic cross clamping, (2) coronary perfusion with the cardioplegic solution St. Thomas, and (3) coronary perfusion with the cardioplegic solution HTK (Custodiol(R)). After fixation by immersion or perfusion the sinus node tissue was prepared for electron microscopy. Following cardioplegic arrest and perfusion fixation, three nodal cell types in the non-ischemic sinuatrial node were observed: typical nodal cells, transitional cells, and intercalated clear cells. Less than 1% of the non-ischemic sinuatrial cells were intercalated clear cells, surrounded by typical nodal cells or transitional cells. The contractile apparatus of the intercalated clear cells was extremely poorly developed. Great structural variations in the mitochondria were observed in intercalated clear cells, variations that would not appear under conditions of ischemia. In contrast, after 15-25 min of ischemia at 25 degrees C the appearance of the sinus nodal cells was strikingly different from that of the non-ischemic sinuatrial cells. More than 10% of the nodal cells showed typical ischemic alterations, e.g., mitochondrial swelling, clumping of nuclear chromatin, loss of glycogen particles, and cell swelling in varying degrees. Because they look very pale, these nodal cells have been described as pale cells in the literature. Intercalated clear cells appear mainly in non-ischemic nodal tissue. Pale cells are ischemically damaged sinus nodal cells. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. ANF and exocrine pancreas: ultrastructural autoradiographic localization in acinar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chabot, J.G.; Morel, G.; Belles-Isles, M.; Jeandel, L.; Heisler, S.

    1988-03-01

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) binding sites have been recently demonstrated to be present in exocrine pancreas by an in vitro autoradiographic approach. An autoradiographic study was carried out to identify the exocrine cells containing ANF binding sites and to monitor the fate of /sup 125/I-labeled ANF in acinar cells after removal of pancreas at specific time intervals (1-30 min) after intravenous administration. At the light microscopic level, silver grains were found over acinar and centroacinar cells. Concomitant injection of an excess of unlabeled ANF inhibited the binding of labeled peptide by approximately 60%. At the electron microscopic level, the time-course study in acinar cells has revealed that of the cell compartments examined, plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and zymogen granules, the nucleus had distinct labeling patterns. Plasma membrane was maximally labeled 1 and 2 min after injection with /sup 125/I-ANF. Golgi apparatus was significantly labeled from 2 to 30 min after injection, mitochondria from 1 to 30 min after injection, zymogen granules at 1 and 15 min, and the nucleus only at 30 min. The lysosomal compartment was not labeled during the 30-min observation period. These results suggest that after binding to the plasma membrane, ANF is rapidly internalized and distributed to the intracellular organelles as a function of time. Labeling of the zymogen granules suggests that they may bind ANF and that the atrial peptide may be secreted by acinar cells. The significance of association of radioactivity with mitochondria and nuclei remains to be elucidated but may represent intracellular sites of action of ANF complementary to those on plasma membranes.

  11. Ultrastructural features of human adipose-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Manea, Claudiu Marius; Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Constantin, Daniel; Mănoiu, Valentina Mariana; Moldovan, Lucia; Jianu, Adelina Maria

    2014-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSCs) are plastic-adherent cells with a well-established phenotype. Equine, but not human, adipose MMSCs have been characterized ultrastructurally. The purpose of our study was to evaluate ultrastructurally the adipose-derived human MMSCs. Cell cultures were prepared from human lipoaspirate. The flow cytometry evaluation of surface markers of cultured cells confirmed the expected profile of MMSCs, that were positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105, and negative for CD34 and CD45. We examined these human adipose-derived MMSCs in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) by Epon en-face embedding the fixed MMSCs. The main ultrastructural features of MMSCs were the extremely rich content of endosomal/vesicular elements, long mitochondria, dilated RER (rough endoplasmic reticulum) cisternae, and abundant intermediate filaments and microtubules. We found two types of MMSCS prolongations: (a) thick processes, with opposite, vesicular and filaments-rich, sides and (b) slender processes (pseudopodes and filopodes), with occasional proximal dilated segments housing mitochondria, vesicles and secretory granules. These TEM features of MMSCs characterized an in vitro cell population and could use to distinguish between different cell types in culture.

  12. Ultrastructure of growing oocytes and accessory cells in Austrognathia (Gnathostomulida, bursovaginoidea).

    PubMed

    Falleni, A

    1993-10-01

    The ovary of Austrognathia cf. riedli consists of 4-6 oocytes which are located in the mid-body region between the epidermis and the gut epithelium. The ovary is not enveloped by a tunica and each growing oocyte is surrounded by one or more accessory cells, the function of which is hypothesized in this study. Oogenesis is not synchronous and can be subdivided into a previtellogenic phase and a vitellogenic phase. Previtellogenic oocytes undergo a number of cell differentiations which consist mainly of an increase in size of the nucleus and nucleolus and the appearance in the cytoplasm of chromatoid bodies, annulate lamellac and short cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). Vitellogenic oocytes are characterized by the increase of RER, the appearance of numerous Golgi complexes and the accumulation of electron-dense globules, glycogen and lipid droplets. The electron-dense globules have been interpreted as yolk on the basis of both their localization and composition. Yolk synthesis occurs mainly by an endogenous mechanism and, to a lesser extent, by micropinocytosis. No shell-granules have been identified in the oocytes. The present ultrastructural findings are discussed in comparison with those from other lower metazoans.

  13. Potential ultrastructural changes in rat epididymal cell types induced by Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii incense.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mukhtar; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Harrath, Abdul Halim; Alokail, Majed S; Aladakatti, Ravindranath H; Ghodesawar, Mukhtar Ahmed G; Alwasel, Saleh

    2013-08-01

    Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii, known as Arabian incense, diffuses smoke, contaminating the air, which adversely affects human health. Therefore, this study was designed to ascertain the effect of these plants on histopathological and ultrastructure changes in cauda epididymis of Albino rats. Animals were exposed to 4 g/kg body weight of B. papyrifera and B. carterii daily for 120 days along with suitable controls. Our study indicates a significant reduction in epithelial heights. Cells showed signs of degeneration. The ultrastructural study revealed that the cauda epididymis was affected, including its cell types. Furthermore, a decrease in the size of mitochondria, Golgi complex, and both ERs was observed. In all treated groups, plasma fructose decreased considerably, indicating the sign of reduced energy, vital for motility and other sperm functions. The results of this study suggest that these plants systematically affect cauda epididymal cell types and its lumen through its potential toxicity.

  14. Cadmium suppresses the proliferation of piglet Sertoli cells and causes their DNA damage, cell apoptosis and aberrant ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective Very little information is known about the toxic effects of cadmium on somatic cells in mammalian testis. The objective of this study is to explore the toxicity of cadmium on piglet Sertoli cells. Methods Sertoli cells were isolated from piglet testes using a two-step enzyme digestion and followed by differential plating. Piglet Sertoli cells were identified by oil red O staining and Fas ligand (FasL) expression as assayed by immunocytochemistry and expression of transferrin and androgen binding protein by RT-PCR. Sertoli cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum in the absence or presence of various concentrations of cadmium chloride, or treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 and with cadmium chloride exposure. Apoptotic cells in seminiferous tubules of piglets were also performed using TUNEL assay in vivo. Results Cadmium chloride inhibited the proliferation of Piglet Sertoli cells as shown by MTT assay, and it increased malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity. Inhibitor SB202190 alleviated the proliferation inhibition of cadmium on piglet Sertoli cells. Comet assay revealed that cadmium chloride caused DNA damage of Piglet Sertoli cells and resulted in cell apoptosis as assayed by flow cytometry. The in vivo study confirmed that cadmium induced cell apoptosis in seminiferous tubules of piglets. Transmission electronic microscopy showed abnormal and apoptotic ultrastructure in Piglet Sertoli cells treated with cadmium chloride compared to the control. Conclusion cadmium has obvious adverse effects on the proliferation of piglet Sertoli cells and causes their DNA damage, cell apoptosis, and aberrant morphology. This study thus offers novel insights into the toxicology of cadmium on male reproduction. PMID:20712887

  15. [Effects of allelochemical EMA isolated from Phragmites communis on algal cell membrane lipid and ultrastructure].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-min; Hu, Hong-ying; Chong, Yun-xiao; Men, Yu-jie; Guo, Mei-ting

    2007-07-01

    In order to reveal the antialgal mechanisms of allelochemicals, effects of the allelochemical eathyl-2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) on cell membrane lipid and ultrastructure of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Microcystis aeruginosa and Chlorella vulagaris were studied in this paper. The lipid fatty acids of the algal membrane were isolated following the Bligh and Dye method and quantified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. The ultrastructure of algal cells was observed with TEM. The results showed that EMA increased the contents of linolenic acid and linolic acid with increment of 14%, while decreased the content of myristic acid and cetylic acid in C. pyrenoidosa, membrane. The content of unsaturated fatty acids C18:1 and C18:2 increased 12% and 10% in M. aeruginosa with the addition of EMA, while the content of saturated fatty acids C18:0 and C16:0 decreased. EMA showed no significant change in the fatty acid composition in C. vulagaris under the experiment condition. EMA broke off cell wall of C. pyrenoidosa and M. aeruginosa. EMA damaged the cell membrane and the inclusion of algal cell leaked out. Nuclear and mitochondrial structure was damaged with the addition of EMA. EMA showed no significant change in the ultrastructure of C. vulgaris.

  16. Ultrastructural Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego on Midgut Cells of the Cottonwood Leaf Beetle1

    Treesearch

    Leah S. Bauer; Stuart H. Pankratz

    1992-01-01

    Sequential observations of the ultrastructural effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego were made on midgut epithelial cells of the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta F. Larvae imbibed a droplet of B. thuringiensis var. san diego containing endotoxin and live...

  17. [Ultrastructural study of TNT effect on the callus cells and the cells of intact plants of Yucca gloriosa L].

    PubMed

    Gogoberidze, M; Zaalishvili, G; Ramishvili, M; Gogava, M; Chelidze, N

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular distribution of assimilated 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in callus cells, flower buds and leaves of intact Yucca gloriosa L. plants using electron microscope radioautography. The radiotracer was detected in vacuoles, plastids, mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm. It was found that in dedifferentiated callus cells TNT was incorporated in the vacuoles in greater quantities in comparison with the cells of intact plant. Correspondingly the ultrastructural integrity of the dedifferentiated cells is less damaged.

  18. Preparation of Cells for Assessing Ultrastructural Localization of Nanoparticles with Transmission Electron Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    cells for assessing ultrastructural localization of nanoparticles with transmission electron microscopy Amanda M Schrand1, John J Schlager1, Liming ...without significant shrinkage artifacts, favorable staining characteristics and stable sections that can withstand the intense heat and vacuum of the...simply use manual advancement.  crItIcal The ultramicrotome should be properly assembled on a solid table (e.g., slate or concrete ) in an area

  19. Ultrastructural characterization of normal and abnormal chondrogenesis in micromass rat embryo limb bud cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Renault, J Y; Caillaud, J M; Chevalier, J

    1995-02-01

    Inhibition of chondrogenesis in limb bud cell micromass cultures has been proposed as a short-term teratogen detection test. Validation studies were performed by testing large series of reference compounds and comparing their teratogenic potential with their ability to inhibit chondrogenesis; however, there are few reports describing the histological and ultrastructural changes associated with inhibition of chondrogenesis in vitro. The objective of this study was to provide a qualitative description of the histological and ultrastructural alterations induced by three chondrogenesis inhibitors: retinoic acid (RA) and 6-aminonicotinamide (6AN), two teratogens, and doxylamine succinate (DS), a nonteratogen compound. In addition, in order to have a basis for the interpretation of the morphological alterations induced by the test compounds, the histological and ultrastructural changes which occur during the time course of chondrogenesis in control cultures were described and compared with those in rat embryo limb buds. We found that RA at 0.5 micrograms/ml led to a marked decrease in the number and size of cartilaginous foci; most cells lacked morphological signs of differentiation but their ability to proliferate was unaffected. At concentrations of 2 micrograms/ml and more, 6AN delayed cell proliferation, reduced staining of the extracellular matrix, and induced the formation of endoplasmic cisternae. DS at 50 micrograms/ml affected both differentiation and proliferation; pigment deposits were observed in chondrocytes, suggesting phospholipid metabolism disorders. In conclusion, this study showed that inhibition of chondrogenesis in this simple cell culture system can be associated with different types of histological and ultrastructural alterations. Examination of these alterations can provide useful information about the teratogenic potential of tested compounds and their mechanism of action.

  20. Avian minor salivary glands: an ultrastructural study of the secretory granules in mucous and seromucous cells.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, L A; Samar, M E; Avila, R E; de Crosa, M G; Dettin, L

    2000-01-01

    Ultrastructural descriptions in birds are scarce thus, in this study we have characterized the secretory granules of mucous and seromucous cells from the palatine and lingual salivary glands of birds with different diets. The samples were taken from the tongue and palatine mucosa of chicken (Gallus gallus), quail (Coturnix coturnix), chimango (Milvago chimango) and white heron (Egretta thula). The samples were processed for observation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) employing 4% Karnovsky solution for fixation. The most noteworthy finding was the heterogeneous ultrastructural appearance of the secretory granules. Differences in substructure were found between the four species, between the palatine and lingual glands in the same species and even within the same acinus and the same cell. At variance with other authors, these differences cannot be attributed to the type of fixative solution used taking into account that all the samples were processed in the same way. Previous histochemical studies have shown the presence of sulfated and non sulfated glycoconjugates in these glands which can be associated to the maturation of the granules. These granules are probably representative of peculiar storage of the secretory products that would give rise to a heterogeneous and complex ultrastructural pattern of granules in the mucosa and seromucosa cells of these avian species.

  1. The Ultrastructural Changes of the Sertoli and Leydig Cells Following Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kianifard, Davoud; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab Ali; Hasanzadeh, Shapour

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of diabetes on the structure and function of testicular tissue. Materials and Methods Diabetes was induced in male adult rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Body and testicular weight, hormonal analyses, histological and ultrastructural analyses were measured. Results The body and testicular weights were dropped significantly (P< 0.05) in diabetic rats in comparison with control rats. On the other hand, in diabetic rats, the blood glucose level increased significantly (P< 0.05). The blood plasma levels of testosterone, 17-β estradiol, progesterone, FSH and LH were reduced in diabetic rats. Histomorphological studies were revealed reduction in diameter of seminiferous tubules and germinal epithelium height, edema in interstitial tissue, germ cell depletion, decrease in cellular population and activity with disruption of spermatogenesis in diabetic rats. Ultrastructural study showed the mitochondrial change and reduction of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in Sertoli and presence of lipid droplets in Leydig cells of diabetic rat’s testes. Conclusion The results of the present study confirmed that, the ultrastructural changes of Sertoli and Leydig cells, brought about by streptozotocin induced diabetes, because of the alterations in pituitary gonadotropins, and these changes influence the normal spermatogenesis in rats. PMID:23493249

  2. Distribution and ultrastructural characteristics of dark cells in squamous metaplasias of the respiratory tract epithelium. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.; Nettesheim, P.; Pine, A.; Martin, D.

    1981-05-01

    Dark epithelial basal cells were found in both carcinogen-induced and non-carcinogen-induced squamous metaplasias of the tracheal epithelium. Formaldehyde-induced squamous metaplasias exhibited 4% dark cells in the basal layer. Metaplasias induced by vitamin A deficiency and those induced by dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) without atypia showed 18-20% basal dark cells. DMBA-induced metaplasias with moderate to severe atypia exhibited 50% basal dark cells. The labeling index of basal cells in metaplastic epithelia, regardless of the inducing agent, was 16-18%, ie, the same as that of the normal esophageal stratified squamous epithelium. The percentage of labeled dark basal cells per total dark cell population was approximately 19% in the non-carcinogen-induced metaplasias and in the DMBA-induced metaplasias without atypia. In the atypical metaplasias induced by DMA this percentage increased to 26. On the basis of ultrastructural observations, five types of dark epithelial cells could be distinguished in the metaplastic epithelia. Each type of squamous metaplasia could thus be recognized by a determined numerical distribution of dark cells in the basal layer and a specific pattern of distribution of the ultrastructurally defined dark cell categories.

  3. Ultrastructural changes in muscle cells of patients with collagen VI-related myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Tagliavini, Francesca; Sardone, Francesca; Squarzoni, Stefano; Maraldi, Nadir Mario; Merlini, Luciano; Faldini, Cesare; Sabatelli, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Summary Collagen VI is an extracellular matrix protein expressed in several tissues including skeletal muscle. Mutations in COL6A genes cause Bethlem Myopathy (BM), Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (UCMD) and Myosclerosis Myopathy (MM). Collagen VI deficiency causes increased opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), leading to ultrastructural and functional alterations of mitochondria, amplified by impairment of autophagy. Here we report for the first time ultrastructural studies on muscle biopsies from BM and UCMD patients, showing swollen mitochondria with hypodense matrix, disorganized cristae and paracrystalline inclusions, associated with dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum and apoptotic changes. These data were supported by scanning electron microscopy analysis on BM and UCMD cultured cells, showing alterations of the mitochondrial network. Morphometric analysis also revealed a reduced short axis and depicted swelling in about 3% of mitochondria. These data demonstrate that mitochondrial defects underlie the pathogenetic mechanism in muscle tissue of patients affected by collagen VI myopathies. PMID:24596691

  4. Cell death and phagocytosis of haematopoietic elements at the onset of haematopoiesis in the mouse spleen: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, K; Iwatsuki, H; Suda, M; Itano, C

    1993-01-01

    The spleen in fetal and early postnatal mice contains a variety of proliferating haematopoietic cells as well as 2 kinds of phagocytes, scavenger macrophages and mast cells, laden with large heterogeneous inclusions. Their phagocytotic activity is directed towards extruded erythrocyte nuclei, erythrocytes and dying haematopoietic cells. The splenic cords after 18 d of gestation become filled with proliferating haematopoietic cells, and the cords contain a small number of free haematopoietic cells undergoing degeneration. The early signs of cell death can be observed in the nuclear structures: hyperchromasia of the nuclear membrane or nuclear dissolution. Erythroblast nuclei are amongst the most frequent elements engulfed. Phagocytes also take up and digest degenerating blood cells, i.e. erythrocytes, erythroblasts and neutrophil granulocytes. Since the digestion processes are ultrastructurally different for the various haematopoietic elements, the origins of heterolysosomes enclosed by phagocytes can be identified by electron microscopy. Mast cells, originally classified as secretory cells, phagocytose erythroid line cells in the spleen. Cell death in several haematopoietic cell lines is discussed in relation to programmed cell death in the developing spleen. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8270466

  5. Biochemistry and cell ultrastructure changes during senescence of Beta vulgaris L. leaf.

    PubMed

    Romanova, Alla K; Semenova, Galina A; Ignat'ev, Alexander R; Novichkova, Natalia S; Fomina, Irina R

    2016-05-01

    The comparative study of biochemical and ultrastructure features in senescing sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves was carried out. One group of plants was grown under normal conditions in washed river sand and poured in turn with nitrate-containing mineral solution or water (N plants). Another group of plants, after 1 month of normal growth, was further grown with nitrate omitted in the nutritive solution (defN plants). The starting point of normal leaf senescence in N plants was identified by the maximal content of soluble protein. Soluble carbohydrate pools were statistically constant in senescing N plants, whereas glucose pools varied noticeably. A decrease in the contents of soluble protein and chlorophyll (a + b) in the course of senescing was typical for N plant leaves. The cell membrane in N plant leaves remained mostly intact; the central vacuoles in the leaf cells were large, and their membranes remained intact. The chloroplasts and mitochondria in senescing N plant leaves became swollen. The vesicles that were present in the cytoplasm of N plant leaves were especially large in the oldest leaves. It was concluded that senescing of sugar beet leaves at sufficient nitrate nutrition occurs according to a "vacuolar" scenario. In the case of nitrate deficiency, the content of soluble carbohydrates in defN leaves first reached maximum and then decreased in older leaves; the protein and chlorophyll (a + b) contents were totally lower than those in normal leaves and continuously decreased during the experiments. Chloroplasts in mesophyll cells of defN plant leaves became more rounded; starch grains in chloroplasts degraded and the number and size of lipid globules increased. The multitude of membrane impairments and lots of large vesicles-"crystals" appeared during the experiment. The results showed the controlling action of nitrogen nutrition in the senescing of sugar beet leaves.

  6. GABAergic and glycinergic pathways to goldfish retinal ganglion cells: an ultrastructural double label study

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    An ultrastructural double label has been employed to compare GABAergic and glycinergic systems in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the goldfish retina. Electron microscope autoradiography of /sup 3/H-GABA and /sup 3/H-glycine uptake was combined with retrograde HRP-labeling of ganglion cells. When surveyed for distribution, GABAergic and glycinergic synapses were found onto labeled ganglion cells throughout the IPL. This reinforces previous physiological work that described GABAergic and glycinergic influences on a variety of ganglion cells in goldfish and carp; These physiological effects often reflect direct inputs.

  7. Ultrastructural study of Mayaro virus replication in BHK-21 cells.

    PubMed

    Mezencio, J M; de Souza, W; Fonseca, M E; Rebello, M A

    1990-01-01

    The replication of Mayaro virus in BHK-21 cells was studied by electron microscopy. The infected cells show an intense vacuolization and proliferation of membranous structures. At 5 h post-infection, precursor virus particles were seen in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Later, mature virus particles were found outside the cells and budding from the plasma membrane. Enveloped virus particles were also observed inside the vesicles and budding across their membrane. The release of virus particles into the extracellular space by exocytosis was also observed. In a later stage of the infection, inclusion bodies were sometimes present in the cytoplasm of infected cells. We conclude that in BHK-21 cells, budding from the plasma membrane is the main process of Mayaro virus maturation, and in this kind of cell replication differs significantly from that observed in Aedes albopictus cells.

  8. Ultrastructural Assessment of 2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide activity on human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino; da Silva, Lúcia Patrícia Bezerra Gomes; de Lima, Luiza Rayanna Amorim; Longato, Giovanna Barbarini; Padilha, Rafael José Ribeiro; Alves, Luiz Carlos; Brayner, Fábio André; Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; de Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate ultrastructural changes induced by (Z)-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (APHCA) treatment on human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells MCF-7, besides the evaluation of phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation in treated cells. Cell viability analysis demonstrated concentration and time-manner cytotoxicity. Treated MCF-7 cells did not expose phosphatidylserine residues to the external plasma membrane surface and DNA fragmentation was not visualized by electrophoresis. Light microscopy showed compromised cell density and presence of vacuolization after APHCA treatment with 60μM. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies revealed hallmarks of autophagy, namely the presence of membrane bebbling and autophagosomes, besides shrunken cells and cell debris in treated MCF-7 cells. However, more specific tests such as the quantification of mammalian autophagy proteins are necessary to determine the kind of death that is trigged by APHCA.

  9. Effects of shading on the photosynthetic characteristics and mesophyll cell ultrastructure of summer maize.

    PubMed

    Ren, Baizhao; Cui, Haiyan; Camberato, James J; Dong, Shuting; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Jiwang

    2016-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of shading on the photosynthetic characteristics and mesophyll cell ultrastructure of two summer maize hybrids Denghai605 (DH605) and Zhengdan958 (ZD958). The ambient sunlight treatment was used as control (CK) and shading treatments (40 % of ambient sunlight) were applied at different growth stages from silking (R1) to physiological maturity (R6) (S1), from the sixth leaf stage (V6) to R1 (S2), and from seeding to R6 (S3), respectively. The net photosynthetic rate (P n) was significantly decreased after shading. The greatest reduction of P n was found at S3 treatment, followed by S1 and S2 treatments. P n of S3 was decreased by 59 and 48 % for DH605, and 39 and 43 % for ZD958 at tasseling and milk-ripe stages, respectively, compared to that of CK. Additionally, leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll content decreased after shading. In terms of mesophyll cell ultrastructure, chloroplast configuration of mesophyll cells dispersed, and part of chloroplast swelled and became circular. Meanwhile, the major characteristics of chloroplasts showed poorly developed thylakoid structure at the early growth stage, blurry lamellar structure, loose grana, and a large gap between slices and warping granum. Then, plasmolysis occurred in mesophyll cells and the endomembrane system was destroyed, which resulted in the dissolution of cell membrane, karyotheca, mitochondria, and some membrane structures. The damaged mesophyll cell ultrastructure led to the decrease of photosynthetic capacity, and thus resulted in significant yield reduction by 45, 11, and 84 % in S1, S2, and S3 treatments, respectively, compared to that of CK.

  10. Cell Wall Ultrastructure of Stem Wood, Roots, and Needles of a Conifer Varies in Response to Moisture Availability

    DOE PAGES

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Ingwers, Miles W.; Victoriano, Olivia L.; ...

    2016-06-24

    The composition, integrity, and architecture of the macromolecular matrix of cell walls, collectively referred to as cell wall ultrastructure, exhibits variation across species and organs and among cell types within organs. Indirect approaches have suggested that modifications to cell wall ultrastructure occur in response to abiotic stress; however, modifications have not been directly observed. Glycome profiling was used to study cell wall ultrastructure by examining variation in composition and extractability of non-cellulosic glycans in cell walls of stem wood, roots, and needles of loblolly pine saplings exposed to high and low soil moisture. Soil moisture influenced physiological processes and themore » overall composition and extractability of cell wall components differed as a function of soil moisture treatments. The strongest response of cell wall ultrastructure to soil moisture was increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in the low soil moisture treatment. The higher abundance of these pectic backbone epitopes in the oxalate extract indicate that the loosening of cell wall pectic components could be associated with the release of pectic signals as a stress response. The increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in response to low soil moisture availability was more pronounced in stem wood than in roots or needles. Additional responses to low soil moisture availability were observed in lignin associated carbohydrates released in chlorite extracts of stem wood, including an increased abundance of pectic arabinogalactan epitopes. Overall, these results indicate that cell walls of loblolly pine organs undergo changes in their ultrastructural composition and extractability as a response to soil moisture availability and that cell walls of the stem wood are more responsive to low soil moisture availability compared to cell walls of roots and needles. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence, delineated by

  11. Cell Wall Ultrastructure of Stem Wood, Roots, and Needles of a Conifer Varies in Response to Moisture Availability

    PubMed Central

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Ingwers, Miles W.; Victoriano, Olivia L.; Kandemkavil, Sindhu; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O.; Aubrey, Doug P.

    2016-01-01

    The composition, integrity, and architecture of the macromolecular matrix of cell walls, collectively referred to as cell wall ultrastructure, exhibits variation across species and organs and among cell types within organs. Indirect approaches have suggested that modifications to cell wall ultrastructure occur in response to abiotic stress; however, modifications have not been directly observed. Glycome profiling was used to study cell wall ultrastructure by examining variation in composition and extractability of non-cellulosic glycans in cell walls of stem wood, roots, and needles of loblolly pine saplings exposed to high and low soil moisture. Soil moisture influenced physiological processes and the overall composition and extractability of cell wall components differed as a function of soil moisture treatments. The strongest response of cell wall ultrastructure to soil moisture was increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in the low soil moisture treatment. The higher abundance of these pectic backbone epitopes in the oxalate extract indicate that the loosening of cell wall pectic components could be associated with the release of pectic signals as a stress response. The increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in response to low soil moisture availability was more pronounced in stem wood than in roots or needles. Additional responses to low soil moisture availability were observed in lignin-associated carbohydrates released in chlorite extracts of stem wood, including an increased abundance of pectic arabinogalactan epitopes. Overall, these results indicate that cell walls of loblolly pine organs undergo changes in their ultrastructural composition and extractability as a response to soil moisture availability and that cell walls of the stem wood are more responsive to low soil moisture availability compared to cell walls of roots and needles. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence, delineated by glycomic analyses, that

  12. Cell Wall Ultrastructure of Stem Wood, Roots, and Needles of a Conifer Varies in Response to Moisture Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Ingwers, Miles W.; Victoriano, Olivia L.; Kandemkavil, Sindhu; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O.; Aubrey, Doug P.

    2016-06-24

    The composition, integrity, and architecture of the macromolecular matrix of cell walls, collectively referred to as cell wall ultrastructure, exhibits variation across species and organs and among cell types within organs. Indirect approaches have suggested that modifications to cell wall ultrastructure occur in response to abiotic stress; however, modifications have not been directly observed. Glycome profiling was used to study cell wall ultrastructure by examining variation in composition and extractability of non-cellulosic glycans in cell walls of stem wood, roots, and needles of loblolly pine saplings exposed to high and low soil moisture. Soil moisture influenced physiological processes and the overall composition and extractability of cell wall components differed as a function of soil moisture treatments. The strongest response of cell wall ultrastructure to soil moisture was increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in the low soil moisture treatment. The higher abundance of these pectic backbone epitopes in the oxalate extract indicate that the loosening of cell wall pectic components could be associated with the release of pectic signals as a stress response. The increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in response to low soil moisture availability was more pronounced in stem wood than in roots or needles. Additional responses to low soil moisture availability were observed in lignin associated carbohydrates released in chlorite extracts of stem wood, including an increased abundance of pectic arabinogalactan epitopes. Overall, these results indicate that cell walls of loblolly pine organs undergo changes in their ultrastructural composition and extractability as a response to soil moisture availability and that cell walls of the stem wood are more responsive to low soil moisture availability compared to cell walls of roots and needles. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence, delineated by glycomic

  13. Cell Wall Ultrastructure of Stem Wood, Roots, and Needles of a Conifer Varies in Response to Moisture Availability.

    PubMed

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Ingwers, Miles W; Victoriano, Olivia L; Kandemkavil, Sindhu; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Aubrey, Doug P

    2016-01-01

    The composition, integrity, and architecture of the macromolecular matrix of cell walls, collectively referred to as cell wall ultrastructure, exhibits variation across species and organs and among cell types within organs. Indirect approaches have suggested that modifications to cell wall ultrastructure occur in response to abiotic stress; however, modifications have not been directly observed. Glycome profiling was used to study cell wall ultrastructure by examining variation in composition and extractability of non-cellulosic glycans in cell walls of stem wood, roots, and needles of loblolly pine saplings exposed to high and low soil moisture. Soil moisture influenced physiological processes and the overall composition and extractability of cell wall components differed as a function of soil moisture treatments. The strongest response of cell wall ultrastructure to soil moisture was increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in the low soil moisture treatment. The higher abundance of these pectic backbone epitopes in the oxalate extract indicate that the loosening of cell wall pectic components could be associated with the release of pectic signals as a stress response. The increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in response to low soil moisture availability was more pronounced in stem wood than in roots or needles. Additional responses to low soil moisture availability were observed in lignin-associated carbohydrates released in chlorite extracts of stem wood, including an increased abundance of pectic arabinogalactan epitopes. Overall, these results indicate that cell walls of loblolly pine organs undergo changes in their ultrastructural composition and extractability as a response to soil moisture availability and that cell walls of the stem wood are more responsive to low soil moisture availability compared to cell walls of roots and needles. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence, delineated by glycomic analyses, that

  14. Ultrastructural demonstration of Cx43 gap junctions in induced pluripotent stem cells from human cord blood.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Anja; Schubert, Madline; Hainz, Nadine; Haase, Alexandra; Martin, Ulrich; Tschernig, Thomas; Meier, Carola

    2016-11-01

    Gap junction proteins are essential for direct intercellular communication but also influence cellular differentiation and migration. The expression of various connexin gap junction proteins has been demonstrated in embryonic stem cells, with Cx43 being the most intensely studied. As Cx43 is the most prominent gap junction protein in the heart, cardiomyocyte-differentiated stem cells have been studied intensely. To date, however, little is known about the expression and the subcellular distribution of Cx43 in undifferentiated stem cells or about the structural arrangement of channels. We, therefore, here investigate expression of Cx43 in undifferentiated human cord-blood-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (hCBiPS2). For this purpose, we carried out quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. For analysis of Cx43 ultrastructure and protein assembly, we performed freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling (FRIL). Cx43 expression was detected at mRNA and protein level in hCBIPS2 cells. For the first time, ultrastructural data are presented on gap junction morphology in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from cord blood: Our FRIL and electron microscopical analysis revealed the occurrence of gap junction plaques in undifferentiated iPS cells. In addition, these gap junctions were shown to contain the gap junction protein Cx43.

  15. Ultrastructure of Gentiana tibetica proembryogenic cells before and after cooling treatments.

    PubMed

    Mikula, A; Tykarska, T; Kuras, M

    2005-01-01

    The influence of increased concentrations of sucrose, 0.4 M sorbitol, DMSO and vitrification solution (PVS2) on the ultrastructure of non-frozen and frozen suspensions of Gentiana tibetica King ex Hook. F.tissue cells was investigated. Embryogenic aggregates were composed of three groups of cells of different size with various types of plastids. The ultrastructural changes resulting from increasing the sucrose concentration in the medium from 3 to 6 percent for 4 weeks and from treatment with 0.4 M sorbitol for 48 h were similar. Observations showed replacement of large vacuoles by numerous small ones, condensation of cytoplasm, accumulation of starch, and fragmentation of endoplasmic reticulum. Treatment with PVS2 led to degradation of starch, coalescence of amyloplasts and to shrinking of nucleoli from the third group of cells when originating from 6 percent sucrose medium. The mitochondria initially had various shapes, but after PVS2 treatment showed only spherical shapes with sparse cristae. After programmed freezing of tissue protected by sorbitol and DMSO, lethal damage was observed: membrane and nuclei degradation, and cell destruction. Reversible changes after freezing were observed in tissue pretreated with vitrification solution: dilation of cell membranes, mitochondria with electron-lucent vessels, aggregation of numerous vesicles, and degradation of starch in amyloplasts. In cells cooled by a vitrification method, cell organelles appeared normal as early as 5 h after thawing, and anomalies were not observed after 48 h of post-thawing culture.

  16. An ultrastructural analysis of platelets, erythrocytes, white blood cells, and fibrin network in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Etheresia; du Plooy, Jenny; Soma, Prashilla; Gasparyan, Armen Yuri

    2014-07-01

    The study suggests that patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) present with distinct inflammatory ultrastructural changes such as platelets blebbing, generation of platelet-derived microparticles, spontaneous formation of massive fibrin network and fusion of the erythrocytes membranes. Lupoid platelets actively interact with other inflammatory cells, particularly with white blood cells (WBCs), and the massive fibrin network facilitates such an interaction. It is possible that the concerted actions of platelets, erythrocytes and WBC, caught in the inflammatory fibrin network, predispose to pro-thrombotic states in patients with SLE.

  17. Ultrastructural organization of contractile proteins in rat glomerular mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Drenckhahn, D.; Schnittler, H.; Nobiling, R.; Kriz, W.

    1990-01-01

    Glomerular mesangial cells of the rat kidney contain actin, nonmuscle myosin, tropomyosin, and the muscular Z-line protein, alpha-actinin. This was shown for actin, myosin, and alpha-actinin by immunoblotting as well as by immunoelectron microscopy. Tropomyosin was localized in mesangial cells by immunofluorescence. In cultured mesangial cells, actin, myosin, and alpha-actinin constitute a considerable amount of the total cellular protein contents. In mesangial cells in situ actin, myosin and alpha-actinin were found to be colocalized within conspicuous microfilament bundles that traverse the cell body or major processes in various directions and project into either the tonguelike pericapillary processes, which run toward mesangial angles, or into the microvilluslike lateral extensions that abut on the perimesangial portion of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Thereby, the GBM of opposing mesangial angles as well as of opposing portions of the perimesangial GBM are regularly interconnected by filament bundles within mesangial cells that contain actin, myosin, and alpha-actinin. The authors suggest that the major function of actin-, myosin-, and alpha-actinin-containing filament bundles in mesangial cells is to create an isometric tension (or minute isotonic contractions) to counteract the distending forces of the rather high intracapillary hydraulic pressure and its resulting pressure gradients across the capillary wall and across the perimesangial GBM. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2260624

  18. ULTRASTRUCTURAL LOCALIZATION OF ANTIBODY IN DIFFERENTIATING PLASMA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Elizabeth H.; Avrameas, Stratis; Bouteille, Michel

    1968-01-01

    Antibody was localized by electron microscopy within differentiating and mature plasma cells of the spleens of hyperimmunized rabbits. Horseradish peroxidase was used as antigen. Intracellular antibody to peroxidase was revealed in glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue by coupling it with its antigen and then revealing the sites of peroxidase activity cytochemically. Antibody first appears in the perinuclear space of hemocytoblasts where it persists through differentiation into immature plasma cells, but it disappears from this site in mature plasma cells. Concomitant with the development of the ergastoplasm, antibody accumulates in many but not all of its cisternae. Antibody is present in the lamellar portion of the Golgi apparatus in all phases of plasmacytic differentiation. Mature plasma cells exhibit two types of antibody distribution, a concentration into large spherical intracisternal granules or an overflowing into all parts of the cytoplasm. PMID:5635036

  19. Platinum-Based Drugs Differentially Affect the Ultrastructure of Breast Cancer Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    Al-Adawi, Kawther; Al-Nabhani, Abdurahman; Al-Kindi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although platinum-based drugs (PBDs) are effective anticancer agents, responsive patients eventually become resistant. While resistance of some cancers to PBDs has been explored, the cellular responses of BC cells are not studied yet. Therefore, we aim to assess the differential effects of PBDs on BC ultrastructure. Three representative cells were treated with different concentrations and timing of Cisplatin, Carboplatin, and Oxaliplatin. Changes on cell surface and ultrastructure were detected by scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). In SEM, control cells were semiflattened containing microvilli with extending lamellipodia while treated ones were round with irregular surface and several pores, indicating drug entry. Prolonged treatment resembled distinct apoptotic features such as shrinkage, membrane blebs, and narrowing of lamellipodia with blunt microvilli. TEM detected PBDs' deposits that scattered among cellular organelles inducing structural distortion, lumen swelling, chromatin condensation, and nuclear fragmentation. Deposits were attracted to fat droplets, explained by drug hydrophobic properties, while later they were located close to cell membrane, suggesting drug efflux. Phagosomes with destructed organelles and deposits were detected as defending mechanism. Understanding BC cells response to PBDs might provide new insight for an effective treatment. PMID:28377926

  20. [Localization of ATPase activity, respiration and ultrastructure of wheat root cells with modulated ion conductivity of plasma membrane].

    PubMed

    Chernysheva, F A; Alekseeva, V Ia; Polygalova, O O; Gordon, L Kh

    2004-01-01

    Changes in the localization of ATPase activity, respiration and ultrastructure of wheat root cells with modulated ion conductivity of plasma membrane were studied. A 2 h treatment of excised root with valinomycin (20 microM), N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimid (100 microM), gramicidin S (20 microM) and chlorpromazine (100 microM) caused an increased loss of potassium by cells, a decreased respiration and changes in the localization of ATPase activity and in cell ultrastructure. Differences in the observed changes may be conditioned by different mechanisms of action of the membrane active compounds used. It is concluded that changes in the localization of ATPase activity and ultrastructure may indicate some early specific responses of root cells, whereas the increase in the ion conductivity and decrease in respiration under disruption of ion homeostasis caused by membrane active compounds indicate unspecific responses of cells.

  1. Ultrastructure of liver progenitor/oval cells in children with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sobaniec-Łotowska, M E; Lebensztejn, D M; Lotowska, J M; Kańczuga-Koda, L; Sulkowski, S

    2011-01-01

    Very interesting reports have appeared lately on the role of liver progenitor/oval cells in the morphogenesis and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatits (NASH) in adult patients and experimental animals. However, no literature data concerning pediatric patients have been available. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the ultrastructure of the population of liver progenitor/oval cells in the biopsy material from children with previously clinocopathologically diagnosed NASH. Electron-microscopic examinations were conducted on fresh tissue samples collected from 10 children with NASH (aged 2-14 years), which were fixed with a solution of 2% paraformaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer. Ultrastructural examinations of the liver progenitor/oval cells in children with NASH show a quite prominent number of these cells, especially their two types, hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) and intermediate hepatocyte-like cells (IHCs), with intermediate bile-like cells being the least frequent. They were found to occur single or in clusters of two, seldom of three, and frequently in the areas of advanced liver fibrosis or close to them. Many times, these cells were accompanied by hepatocytes showing a varying degree of death, to total cell disintegration. Interesting was the presence of activated nonparenchymal liver cells, i.e. Kupffer cells/macrophages and hepatic stellate cells, frequently found to adhere to the hepatic oval cells. The current study suggests a marked involvement of the population of liver progenitor/oval cells, mainly HPCs and IHCs, in the development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in pediatric patients, especially in fibrosis progression.

  2. Analysis of the changes in the basal cell region of oral lichen planus: An ultrastructural study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Mayura; Shetty, Devi Charan

    2013-01-01

    Context: Oral lichen planus (OLP) affects 0.5-1% of the total world's population. The histological features of oral lichen planus were first described by Dubreuill in 1906. Despite the advent of various techniques, the etiology of lichen planus remains obscure, although many theories for the etiology have been proposed. Aims: By studying OLP electron microscopically, we shall be emphasizing on the cells and its interactions in specific/altered surroundings which would help us in hypothesizing the effects of its specific cell-to-cell interactions. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 cases of oral lichen planus were selected and categorized into erosive and nonerosive forms based upon clinical pattern and confirmed as lichen planus by histopathological analysis. Tissue specimens thus obtained were cut into two halves and fixed in appropriate fixatives, i.e., neutral buffered formalin for paraffin-embedded hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and 2.5% glutaraldehyde and 2% paraformaldehyde for electron microscopic purpose respectively. Results: Ultrastructural comparison among the two forms showed significant differences between them. The basal layer showed cytoplasmic processes, intercellular spaces, desmosomes, nuclei, and signs of degeneration. The erosive form showed elongated, narrow or irregular cytoplasmic projections whereas the nonerosive showed short and broad based projections. Conclusions: The present study confirms the ultrastructural findings of basal cells in OLP with previous authors findings. Besides this, the categorization of the ultrastructural differences between erosive and nonerosive has raised the question of difference in the probable cellular and molecular mechanism between erosive and nonerosive forms. PMID:23798823

  3. Ultrastructural changes in tracheal epithelial cells exposed to oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Harrison, G. A.; Turnbill, C.; Black, S.

    1977-01-01

    White albino rats were sacrificed after 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure to 100% O2 at 1 atm. Tissue was prepared for the scanning electron microscope (SEM) by Critical Point Drying and for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) by plastic embedding. Scanning microscopy showed a loss of microvilli after 48 h of exposure. Cilia appeared relatively normal with SEM, but TEM revealed changes in the outer membrane. In TEM, nonciliated cells appeared swollen and often encroached on the ciliated cells. A heavy mucous blanket remained even after processing. All the changes observed that are induced by oxygen exposure contribute to mucostasis, reducing and/or halting mucociliary clearance.

  4. Ultrastructural changes in tracheal epithelial cells exposed to oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Harrison, G. A.; Turnbill, C.; Black, S.

    1977-01-01

    White albino rats were sacrificed after 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure to 100% O2 at 1 atm. Tissue was prepared for the scanning electron microscope (SEM) by Critical Point Drying and for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) by plastic embedding. Scanning microscopy showed a loss of microvilli after 48 h of exposure. Cilia appeared relatively normal with SEM, but TEM revealed changes in the outer membrane. In TEM, nonciliated cells appeared swollen and often encroached on the ciliated cells. A heavy mucous blanket remained even after processing. All the changes observed that are induced by oxygen exposure contribute to mucostasis, reducing and/or halting mucociliary clearance.

  5. Ultrastructure of Fibre and Parenchyma Cell Walls During Early Stages of Culm Development in Dendrocalamus asper

    PubMed Central

    GRITSCH, CRISTINA SANCHIS; MURPHY, RICHARD J.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The anatomy of bamboo culms and the multilayered structure of fibre cell walls are known to be the main determinant factors for its physical and mechanical properties. Studies on the bamboo cell wall have focussed mainly on fully elongated and mature fibres. The main aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of primary and secondary cell walls in culm tissues of Dendrocalamus asper at different stages of development. • Methods The development of fibre and parenchyma tissues was classified into four stages based on light microscopy observations made in tissues from juvenile plants. The stages were used as a basis for transmission electron microscopy study on the ultrastructure of the cell wall during the process of primary and early secondary cell wall formation. Macerations and phloroglucinol–HCl staining were employed to investigate fibre cell elongation and fibre cell wall lignification, respectively. • Key Results The observations indicated that the primary wall is formed by the deposition of two distinct layers during the elongation of the internode and that secondary wall synthesis may begin before the complete cessation of internode and fibre elongation. Elongation was followed by a maturation phase characterized by the deposition of multiple secondary wall layers, which varied in number according to the cell type, location in the culm tissue and stage of shoot development. Lignification of fibre cell walls started at the period prior to the cessation of internode elongation. • Conclusions The structure of the primary cell wall was comprised of two layers. The fibre secondary cell wall began to be laid down while the cells were still undergoing some elongation, suggesting that it may act to cause the slow-down and eventual cessation of cell elongation. PMID:15665037

  6. Intracellular localization of samarium in the lactating mammary gland cells: ultrastructural and microanalytical study.

    PubMed

    Ahlem, Ayadi; Samira, Maghraoui; Jean-Nicolas, Audinot; Mohamed-Habib, Jaafoura; Henri-Noël, Migeon; Ali, El Hili; Leila, Tekaya

    2012-04-01

    The frequent use of some rare earths in the medical and industrial domains make us worry about their intracellular behavior into the body. Reason for which we have investigated the subcellular localization of one of these elements, the samarium, in the mammary gland of lactating female wistar rats using two very sensitive methods of observation and microanalysis, the transmission electron microscopy and the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The ultrastructural study showed the presence of electron dense deposits in the lactating mammary glandular epithelial cell lysosomes of the samarium-treated rats, but no loaded lysosomes were observed in those of control rats. The microanalytical study allowed both the identification of the chemical species present in those deposits as samarium isotopes ((152) Sm(+)) and the cartography of its distribution. Our results confirm the previous ones showing that lysosomes of the glandular epithelial cells are the site of the intracellular concentration of foreign elements such as gallium. The intralysosomal deposits observed in the mammary glandular cells of the samarium-treated rats are similar in their form and density to those observed with the same element in other varieties of cells, such as liver, bone marrow, and spleen cells. Our ultrastructural and microanalytical results and those obtained in previous studies allow deducing that the intralysosomal deposits are very probably composed of an insoluble samarium phosphate salt. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. [The effect of apoptosis inductor dexamethasone on the energy exchange and ultrastructure of plant cells].

    PubMed

    Rakhmatullina, D F; Gordon, L Kh; Ponomareva, A A; Ogorodnikova, T I

    2009-01-01

    Changes in respiration and cell ultrastructure induced by long-term incubation with dexamethasone (DM) in excised roots of 5-day old wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings were investigated. During 5 h incubation of roots with DM, oxygen consumption was inhibited by 20-30%, while respiratory coefficient did not change and its value was about 1. DM prevented from glucose-induced activation of respiration, which indicated blockade of glycolysis and decrease in oxygen uptake by this apoptotic inductor. It has been suggested that the respiratory inhibition by DM might be also connected with the influence of DM on the 1st segment ofmitochondrial electron transport chains. This suggestion is supported by the fact that succinate prevented DM-induced inhibition of respiration. Furthermore, stabilization of intracellular pH by dipeptide carnosine abolished inhibitory effect of DM on respiration. Probably depression of oxygen consumption by DM is also due to acidification of cytoplasm. Strong vacuolization of cytoplasm, one of the characteristics of cell death, occurred in 5 h after treatment of roots with DM. Vacuolization was to a great extent prevented by carnosine. The ultrastructure of root cells after long-term (23 h) treatment with DM was disturbed, and oxygen consumption was also dramatically decreased. These effects of DM were in part prevented by carnosine. The data obtained suggest that DM causes acidification of cytoplasm, disturbance of energy exchange and cytoplasm vacuolization in root cells, and induces death of these cells.

  8. Histopathologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of a granular cell tumour in an Australian parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Hernández, V; Carrera, E; Méndez, A; Morales, J C; Morales, E; Sánchez, F D

    2012-10-01

    An adult male Australian parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus) presented a firm nodular lesion in the lateral metacarpal region of the right wing. Microscopically, there were neoplastic cells, round and polyhedral in shape, with abundant, slightly eosinophilic granular cytoplasm; they were strongly periodic-acid Schiff-positive and resistant to diastase digestion. Some groups of neoplastic cells were immunopositive for smooth muscle actin and desmin. There was no immunopositivity for S-100 protein, CD68 and cytokeratin. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells were round and polygonal in shape, and they were characterized by abundant cytoplasm with numerous homogeneous osmophilic bodies covered by an electron-dense membrane (lysosomes). The histopathologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of the neoplastic tissue are consistent with a granular cell tumour, which has been described in different animal species and anatomic locations; however, this seems to be an infrequent neoplasm in Australian parakeets. The immunopositivity of the neoplastic cells for smooth muscle actin and desmin, as well as slight positivity for muscle with Masson's trichrome, suggest that this is a tumour of myogenic origin.

  9. Ultrastructure of cells of Ulmus americana cultured in vitro and exposed to the culture filtrate of Ceratocystis ulmi

    Treesearch

    Paula M. Pijut; R. Daniel Lineberger; Subhash C. Domir; Jann M. Ichida; Charles R. Krause

    1990-01-01

    Calli of American elm susceptible and resistant to Dutch elm disease were exposed to a culture filtrate of a pathogenic isolate of Ceratocystis ulmi. Cells from untreated tissue exhibited typical internal composition associated with healthy, actively growing cells. All cells exposed to culture filtrate showed appreciable ultrastructural changes....

  10. An ultrastructural study, effects of Proteus vulgaris OX19 on the rabbit spleen cells.

    PubMed

    Gul, Nursel; Ozkorkmaz, Ebru Gokalp; Kelesoglu, Ilknur; Ozluk, Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Effects of Proteus vulgaris OX19 on the spleen cells of rabbits were investigated. Control group (n=5) and Proteus treated group (n=5) of New Zealand male rabbits were used in this study. Bacteria were injected to the rabbits in five days periods with increasing dosages for one month. Thin sections were examined by transmission electron microscope (Jeol 100CXII). Ultrastructural changes were defined in spleen tissue cells due to the antigenic stimulation of bacteria. Spleen cells observed in control group were in normal structure and cells were in close contact with each other. However, spleen cells of Proteus treated group displayed structural changes with regard to the control group in electron microscopic examinations. Chemotaxis of macrophages, forming of pseudopodia and presence of phagocytic vacuoles were observed. Lymphocytes, the major cells of spleen revealed mitotic activity. In addition, chromatin condensation in nucleus and dilatations in perinuclear space were significant. Interactions of lymphocytes and macrophages were noteworthy.

  11. Influence of parathyroid hormone on bone cell ultrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, J.L.; Talmage, R.V.

    1981-05-01

    A study in rats demonstrated that morphologic changes in the bone osteocytes and osteoblasts are produced following parathyroid hormone (PTH) injection into thyroparathyroidectomized animals. It further showed that similar changes occur in normal rats as the result of extended fasting. The most significant morphologic alterations involved surface microvilli and blebs as determined by scanning electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed alterations in the cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, cell shape varied markedly from the control cuboidal morphology. These morphologic changes occurred during peak periods of plasma calcium change and returned to control morphology as plasma calcium levels normalized. The study supports the concept that osteocytes and lining cells on the surface of bone play a role in maintenance of plasma calcium concentrations. (JMT)

  12. Ultrastructure of the suberized styloid crystal cells in Agave leaves.

    PubMed

    Wattendorff, J

    1976-01-01

    Styloid calcium oxalate crystal idioblasts of Agave americana L. are suberized. Where the crystals do not touch the cell wall directly they are enclosed in a suberinic sheath which is connected with the suberinic wall layer. No polysaccharides are laid down as a tertiary wall layer, nor could any polysaccharides be found in the crystal sheath. These results contradict those of Arnott (1973) but agree fully with those of Rothert and Zalenski (1899).

  13. Ultrastructural study of the blood cells of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae (Rhipidistia: Coelacanthini).

    PubMed

    Jarial, M S

    2005-04-01

    The blood cells in the renal capillaries of the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae Smith were studied by transmission electron microscopic methods. On the basis of ultrastructural similarities of cytoplasmic granules of the leukocytes and by comparison with those of the fish and mammalian cells, erythrocytes and three types of granular leukocytes, namely neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils, and three types of agranular leukocytes, i.e., lymphocytes, monocytes and thrombocytes are characterized. The presence of granular and agranular leukocytes in the blood of Latimeria suggests that these cells appeared early in vertebrate evolution. The display of nuclear blebs on the cytoplasmic phase of the nuclear membrane and the presence of nuclear fragments in the cytoplasm of some erythrocytes suggest that these cells undergo apoptosis in order to delete older erythrocytes from the blood stream. The relatively small size of its nucleated erythrocytes and the striking resemblance of the ultrastructural features of its leukocytes to those of higher vertebrate leukocytes support the view that Latimeria is a close living relative of tetrapods.

  14. Ultrastructural aspects of Cystoisospora belli (syn. Isospora belli) in continuous cell lines.

    PubMed

    Resende, Deisy V; Assis, Dnieber C; Ribeiro, Múcio F Barbosa; Cabrine-Santos, Marlene; Frenkel, Jacob K; Correia, Dalmo; Oliveira-Silva, Márcia B

    2014-06-01

    Cystoisospora belli is an opportunistic protozoan that causes human cystoisosporiasis, an infection characterized by diarrhea, steatorrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. The lack of animal models susceptible to C. belli, and the difficulty in obtaining clinical samples with fair amounts of oocysts have limited the research pertaining to the basic biology of this parasite. This study aimed to describe the ultrastructure of endogenous stages of C. belli in Monkey Rhesus Kidney Cells (MK2) and Human Ileocecal Adenocarcinoma cells (HCT-8). Zoites of C. belli exhibited typical morphological features of coccidia, which included a trilaminar pellicle, an apical complex formed by a conoid, polar rings, rhoptries, and micronemes, in addition to dense granules and the endoplasmic reticulum. No crystalloid body was observed but various lipid and amylopectin granules were usually present in the cytoplasm of zoites. We observed a tendency of the endoplasmic reticulum of the host cell to be located near the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Merozoites were formed by endodyogeny and during replication, the apical complex of the mother cell remained intact. The formation of gametes or oocysts was not observed. The ultrastructural findings of C. belli are further evidence of its proximity to Sarcocystidae family members and corroborate their reclassification as Cystoisospora spp.

  15. Ultrastructure and immunocytochemical characteristics of cells in the octopus cell area of the rat cochlear nucleus: comparison with multipolar cells.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    Cells in the octopus cell area of the rat ventral cochlear nucleus have been connected to the monaural interpretation of spectral patterns of sound such as those derived from speech. This is possible by their fast onset of firing after each octopus cell and its dendrites have been contacted by many auditory fibres carrying different frequencies. The cytological characteristics that make these large cells able to perform such a function have been studied with ultrastructural immunocytochemistry for glycine, GABA and glutamate, and compared to that of other multipolar neurons of other regions of the ventral cochlear nucleus. Cells in the octopus cell area have an ultrastructure similar to large-giant D-multipolar neurons present in other areas of the cochlear nucleus, from which they differ by the presence of a larger excitatory axo-somatic synaptic input and larger mitochondria. Octopus cells are glycine and GABA negative, and glutamate positive with different degree. Large octopus cells receive more axo-somatic boutons than smaller octopus cells. Fusiform octopus cells are found sparsely within the intermediate acoustic striae. These cells are large to giant excitatory neurons (23-35 microm) with 62-85% of their irregular perimeter covered with large axo-somatic synaptic boutons. Most boutons contain round vesicles and are glycine and GABA negative but glutamate positive. The latter excitatory boutons represent about 70% of the input to octopus cells. Glycine positive boutons with flat and pleomorphic vesicles account for 9-10% of the input while GABA-ergic boutons with pleomorphic vesicles represent about 20% of the synaptic input. Other few, multipolar cells within the rat octopus cell area are surrounded by more inhibitory than excitatory terminals which contain flat and pleomorphic vesicles, a feature distinctive from that of true octopus cells. The latter resemble multipolar cells seen outside the octopus cell area that project to the contralateral inferior

  16. Ultrastructural interaction between spermatozoon and human oviductal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Pilar; Salgado, Ana María; Cortés, Manuel E

    2012-04-01

    The oviduct is an important organ for successful mammalian reproduction. In this work, human oviducts were inseminated and their explants analyzed using scanning electron microscopy in order to study, at a finer ultrastructual level, the interaction between spermatozoon and oviduct in vitro. Results show unequivocally a spermatozoon tightly attached through the acrosomal region of its head to several cilia of the human tubal epithelial cells. This finding proves that spermatozoa do indeed adhere to the endosalpinx, a fact of utmost relevance for the physiology of the reproductive process, since it supports the idea of a spermatozoa reservoir being formed in the oviduct, which is also briefly discussed.

  17. [The effect of microgravity on osteogenic cells in culture. Ultrastructural research].

    PubMed

    Berezovskaia, O P; Rodionova, N V

    1998-01-01

    In order to estimate the influence of microgravity on osteogenic cells a comparative ultrastructural study of preosteoblastic cells of line MN7, cultivated in space and in ground conditions has been carried out. Morphometric analysis has revealed that in cells exposed during 9 days on board the biosatellite Cosmos 2229 endoplasmic reticulum was not so expensive and the number of myeline-like structures increased as compared to the ground control. Percentage of cells with nucleoli is lower in the flight samples as well. The increase in specific volume of lipid droplets and changed structure of mitochondria testifies to deviation in energy metabolism. The reaction of osteogenic cells to microgravity resulting in suppression of specific functions may contribute to alterations in the bone metabolism under the space flight conditions.

  18. Ultrastructural Complexity of Nuclear Components During Early Apoptotic Phases in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Christian; Losa, Gabriele A.

    2001-01-01

    Fractal morphometry was used to investigate the ultrastructural features of the plasma membrane, perinuclear membrane and nuclear chromatin in SK‐BR‐3 human breast cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. Cells were incubated with 1 μM calcimycin (A23187) for 24 h. Cells in the early stage of apoptosis had fractal dimension (FD) values indicating that their plasma membranes were less rough (lower FD) than those of control cells, while their perinuclear membranes were unaffected. Changes of the chromatin texture within the entire nucleus and in selected nuclear domains were more pronounced in treated cells. This confirms that the morphological reorganization imputable to a loss of structural complexity (reduced FD) occurs in the early stage of apoptosis, is accompanied by the inhibition of distinct enzymatic events and precedes the onset of conventional cellular markers, which can only be detected during the active phases of the apoptotic process. PMID:11790854

  19. Comparative effectiveness of a clinostat and a slow-turning lateral vessel at mimicking the ultrastructural effects of microgravity in plant cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    The object of this research was to determine how effectively the actions of a clinostat and a fluid-filled, slow-turning lateral vessel (STLV) mimic the ultrastructural effects of microgravity in plant cells. We accomplished this by qualitatively and quantitatively comparing the ultrastructures of cells grown on clinostats and in an STLV with those of cells grown at 1 g and in microgravity aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. Columella cells of Brassica perviridis seedlings grown in microgravity and in an STLV have similar structures. Both contain significantly more lipid bodies, less starch, and fewer dictyosomes than columella cells of seedlings grown at 1 g. Cells of seedlings grown on clinostats have significantly different ultrastructures from those grown in microgravity or in an STLV, indicating that clinostats do not mimic microgravity at the ultrastructural level. The similar structures of columella cells of seedlings grown in an STLV and in microgravity suggest that an STLV effectively mimics microgravity at the ultrastructural level.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of a clinostat and a slow-turning lateral vessel at mimicking the ultrastructural effects of microgravity in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Moore, R

    1990-01-01

    The object of this research was to determine how effectively the actions of a clinostat and a fluid-filled, slow-turning lateral vessel (STLV) mimic the ultrastructural effects of microgravity in plant cells. We accomplished this by qualitatively and quantitatively comparing the ultrastructures of cells grown on clinostats and in an STLV with those of cells grown at 1 g and in microgravity aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. Columella cells of Brassica perviridis seedlings grown in microgravity and in an STLV have similar structures. Both contain significantly more lipid bodies, less starch, and fewer dictyosomes than columella cells of seedlings grown at 1 g. Cells of seedlings grown on clinostats have significantly different ultrastructures from those grown in microgravity or in an STLV, indicating that clinostats do not mimic microgravity at the ultrastructural level. The similar structures of columella cells of seedlings grown in an STLV and in microgravity suggest that an STLV effectively mimics microgravity at the ultrastructural level.

  1. An immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study of the larval anterior intestine of the frog Rana temporaria, with especial reference to endocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Bodegas, M E; Villaro, A C; Burrell, M A; Rovira, J; Valverde, E; Ortiz De Zárate, A; Sesma, P

    1997-10-01

    Endocrine cells of the larval intestine of Rana temporaria tadpoles have been identified by argyrophilic, immunocytochemical and electron-microscopical techniques. Scarce endocrine cells have been found in both the short non-absorptive zone immediately following the stomach, and in the rest of the anterior intestine. Endocrine cells are frequently seen to extend a cytoplasmic process towards the lumen. Immunoreactivity for serotonin, somatostatin, bombesin and cholecystokinin-8 has been detected. According to the ultrastructural traits of the endocrine granules, three larval intestinal endocrine populations have been differentiated.

  2. Ultrastructure of the Epidermal Cell Wall and Cuticle of Tomato Fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) during Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Segado, Patricia; Domínguez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The epidermis plays a pivotal role in plant development and interaction with the environment. However, it is still poorly understood, especially its outer epidermal wall: a singular wall covered by a cuticle. Changes in the cuticle and cell wall structures are important to fully understand their functions. In this work, an ultrastructure and immunocytochemical approach was taken to identify changes in the cuticle and the main components of the epidermal cell wall during tomato fruit development. A thin and uniform procuticle was already present before fruit set. During cell division, the inner side of the procuticle showed a globular structure with vesicle-like particles in the cell wall close to the cuticle. Transition between cell division and elongation was accompanied by a dramatic increase in cuticle thickness, which represented more than half of the outer epidermal wall, and the lamellate arrangement of the non-cutinized cell wall. Changes in this non-cutinized outer wall during development showed specific features not shared with other cell walls. The coordinated nature of the changes observed in the cuticle and the epidermal cell wall indicate a deep interaction between these two supramolecular structures. Hence, the cuticle should be interpreted within the context of the outer epidermal wall. PMID:26668335

  3. Optimization of fixation methods for observation of bacterial cell morphology and surface ultrastructures by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yuanqing; Zhang, Tong

    2011-10-01

    Fixation ability of five common fixation solutions, including 2.5% glutaraldehyde, 10% formalin, 4% paraformaldehyde, methanol/acetone (1:1), and ethanol/acetic acid (3:1) were evaluated by using atomic force microscopy in the present study. Three model bacteria, i.e., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, and Bacillus subtilis were applied to observe the above fixation methods for the morphology preservation of bacterial cells and surface ultrastructures. All the fixation methods could effectively preserve cell morphology. However, for preserving bacterial surface ultrastructures, the methods applying aldehyde fixations performed much better than those using alcohols, since the alcohols could detach the surface filaments (i.e., flagella and pili) significantly. Based on the quantitative and qualitative assessments, the 2.5% glutaraldehyde was proposed as a promising fixation solution both for observing morphology of both bacterial cell and surface ultrastructures, while the methonal/acetone mixture was the worst fixation solution which may obtain unreliable results.

  4. Comparison of nonciliated tracheal epithelial cells in six mammalian species: ultrastructure and population densities.

    PubMed

    Plopper, C G; Mariassy, A T; Wilson, D W; Alley, J L; Nishio, S J; Nettesheim, P

    1983-12-01

    Three types of nonciliated epithelial cells in mammalian conducting respiratory airways are thought to be secretory: mucous (goblet) cells, serous epithelial cells, and Clara cells. Mucous and serous cells are considered to be the secretory cells of the trachea. Clara cells are considered to be the secretory cells of the most distal conducting airways or bronchioles. To ascertain if mucous and serous epithelial cells are common to the tracheal epithelium of mammalian species, we characterized the ultrastructure and population densities of tracheal epithelial cells in six species: hamster (H), rat (Rt), rabbit (Rb), cat (C), Bonnet monkey (M. radiata) (B), and sheep (S). Following fixation by airway infusion with glutaraldehyde/paraformaldehyde, tracheal tissue was processed for light and electron microscopy (EM) by a selective embedding technique. Tracheal epithelium over cartilage was quantitated by light microscopy and characterized by transmission EM. Mucous cells were defined by abundant large nonhomogeneous granules, numerous Golgi complexes, basally located nuclei and granular endoplasmic reticulum (GER). The percentage of mucous cells in the tracheal epithelium was: H (0%), Rt (0.5%), Rb (1.3%), C (20.2%), B (8%), S (5.1%). Serous cells had homogeneous, electron-dense granules and extensive GER. Serous cells were present only in rats (39.2%). Clara cells had homogeneous electron-dense granules, abundant agranular endoplasmic reticulum (AER) and basal GER. Clara cells were found in hamsters (41.4%) and rabbits (17.6%). In sheep trachea, 35.9% of the epithelial cells had small electron-lucent granules, abundant AER and numerous Golgi complexes. In Bonnet monkey trachea, 16% of the epithelial cells had small electron-lucent granules, numerous polyribosomes, perinuclear Golgi apparatus and moderate GER. In cat trachea, 5.4% of the epithelial cells lacked granules, and had moderate numbers of mitochondria, moderate amounts of polyribosomes, a central nucleus, and

  5. Ultrastructure of Kupffer cells and hepatocytes in the Dubin-Johnson syndrome: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta; Lebensztejn, Dariusz Marek

    2006-01-01

    Ultrastructure of Kupffer cells and hepatocytes in liver bioptate was evaluated in a 17-year-old boy with Dubin–Johnson syndrome (DJS). The liver tissue obtained by needle biopsy was fixed in glutaraldehyde and paraformaldehyde and routinely processed for electron microscopic analysis. The ultrastructural examinations of liver bioptate revealed the accumulation of membrane-bound, electron-dense lysosomal granules within the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, characteristic of DJS. They were located mainly in the vicinity of the biliary pole, and preferentially in the centrilobular region that corresponded to the pigment deposits seen under light microscope. The presence of the granules was accompanied by dilated elements of the granular endoplasmic reticulum and paracrystalline mitochondrial inclusions as well as dilation of the bile canaliculi. The changes in hepatocytes co-existed with marked stimulation and enhanced phagocytic activity of Kupffer cells. This was manifested in the accumulation of pigment deposits within their cytoplasm that corresponded to those observed in hepatocytes. Hyperactive pericentral Kupffer cells which are involved in the response to pigmentary material originating from disintegrated hepatocytes may play an essential role in the development of DJS. PMID:16521235

  6. Ultrastructure of Kupffer cells and hepatocytes in the Dubin-Johnson syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta; Lebensztejn, Dariusz Marek

    2006-02-14

    Ultrastructure of Kupffer cells and hepatocytes in liver bioptate was evaluated in a 17-year-old boy with Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS). The liver tissue obtained by needle biopsy was fixed in glutaraldehyde and paraformaldehyde and routinely processed for electron microscopic analysis. The ultrastructural examinations of liver bioptate revealed the accumulation of membrane-bound, electron-dense lysosomal granules within the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, characteristic of DJS. They were located mainly in the vicinity of the biliary pole, and preferentially in the centrilobular region that corresponded to the pigment deposits seen under light microscope. The presence of the granules was accompanied by dilated elements of the granular endoplasmic reticulum and paracrystalline mitochondrial inclusions as well as dilation of the bile canaliculi. The changes in hepatocytes co-existed with marked stimulation and enhanced phagocytic activity of Kupffer cells. This was manifested in the accumulation of pigment deposits within their cytoplasm that corresponded to those observed in hepatocytes. Hyperactive pericentral Kupffer cells which are involved in the response to pigmentary material originating from disintegrated hepatocytes may play an essential role in the development of DJS.

  7. The influenza fingerprints: NS1 and M1 proteins contribute to specific host cell ultrastructure signatures upon infection by different influenza A viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Terrier, Olivier; Moules, Vincent; Carron, Coralie; Cartet, Gaeelle; Frobert, Emilie; Yver, Matthieu; Traversier, Aurelien; Wolff, Thorsten; Naffakh, Nadia; and others

    2012-10-10

    Influenza A are nuclear replicating viruses which hijack host machineries in order to achieve optimal infection. Numerous functional virus-host interactions have now been characterized, but little information has been gathered concerning their link to the virally induced remodeling of the host cellular architecture. In this study, we infected cells with several human and avian influenza viruses and we have analyzed their ultrastructural modifications by using electron and confocal microscopy. We discovered that infections lead to a major and systematic disruption of nucleoli and the formation of a large number of diverse viral structures showing specificity that depended on the subtype origin and genomic composition of viruses. We identified NS1 and M1 proteins as the main actors in the remodeling of the host ultra-structure and our results suggest that each influenza A virus strain could be associated with a specific cellular fingerprint, possibly correlated to the functional properties of their viral components.

  8. Ultrastructural study of the semicircular canal cells of the frog Rana esculenta.

    PubMed

    Oudar, O; Ferrary, E; Feldmann, G

    1988-03-01

    The ultrastructure of the nonsensory cells (dark cells, transitional cells, and undifferentiated cells) of the frog semicircular canal was studied by using transmission electron microscopy in an attempt to correlate the structure with the functions of these epithelial cells. All the nonsensory cells were linked by tight junctions and desmosomes; this suggested that there is little paracellular ionic transport from perilymph to endolymph. In the dark cell epithelium, the apical intercellular spaces were dilated; in the basal part, numerous basolateral plasma membrane infoldings, containing mitochondria, delimited electron-lucent spaces. The undifferentiated cells and the transitional cells were devoid of any basal membrane infolding. Surrounding the semicircular canal, very flattened and interdigitated mesothelial cells constituted a thin multilayer tissue which limited the perilymphatic space. The morphological aspect of the dark cells suggests that they may play a role in the secretion and/or in the reabsorption of endolymph, which bathes the apical pole of these cells. The undifferentiated and transitional cells can play a role in the maintenance of the endolymphatic ionic composition because of their apical tight junctions and desmosomes.

  9. An ultrastructural study of sporidium formation during infection of a rhabditid nematode by large gun cells of Haptoglossa heteromorpha.

    PubMed

    Glockling, S L; Beakes, G W

    2000-10-01

    Recently fired gun cells of Haptoglossa heteromorpha, an aplanosporic nematode parasite, were examined ultrastructurally. The everted tubes of the fired cells had penetrated the cuticle of a nematode, and infective sporidia were developing inside the host body. The nematode cuticle was penetrated by the narrow, walled part of the tube below the needle chamber. The lower unwalled part of the tube tail formed the sporidium. The developing sporidium had a multilayered fibrous outer coating and the plasma membrane was separated from the wall in places. Sporidia contained biphasic membrane-bound vesicles that had been generated by the Golgi dictyosome during gun cell development. Immediately following gun cell firing, the nuclear envelope of the sporidium nucleus was not apparent, and the sporidium nucleus contained clusters of electron-dense particles concentrated in the nucleolar region. We compare the structures and organelles found in the mature gun cell with those in the fired cell and attempt to identify the membranous layers around the sporidium. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  10. Support and satellite cells within the rabbit dorsal root ganglion: ultrastructure of a perineuronal support cell.

    PubMed

    Siemionow, Kris; Weinstein, James N; McLain, Robert F

    2006-08-01

    The membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasmic contents of satellite cells were evaluated using a transmission electron microscope. To delineate satellite cell morphometries. The role of the satellite support cells associated with the neuronal cell bodies remains poorly understood. Previous research has identified one type of satellite support cells. Dorsal root ganglions were excised from 10 adult New Zealand White rabbits. Sections from L2-L5 ganglions were prepared, cut, and analyzed under a transmission electron microscope. A total of 190 neurons and their associated satellite cells were selected for analysis. Three subgroups of satellite cells were identified. The two predominant subgroups consisted of previously described satellite cells. The third subgroup consisted of highly complex and unusual cells. Nineteen satellite cells (4%) did not conform to any previous description of glial cells. Cells were characterized by larger nuclei, with numerous inclusions, and by extensively convoluted reflections of the cellular membrane. These cells were "perched" or "piggy-backed" on top of a convoluted and multilayered cytoplasmic sheet. A new type of support cell representing a different cell line or a highly adapted cell with specific functional capacities was identified.

  11. Ultrastructural characteristics of nurse cell-larva complex of four species of Trichinella in several hosts.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, L; Corona, S; Gajadhar, A A; Pozio, E

    2001-06-01

    The nurse cell-larva complex of nematodes of the genus Trichinella plays an important role in the survival of the larva in decaying muscles, frequently favouring the transmission of the parasite in extreme environmental conditions. The ultrastructure of the nurse cell-larva complex in muscles from different hosts infected with T. nativa (a walrus and a polar bear), T. spiralis (horses and humans), T. pseudospiralis (a laboratory mouse) and T. papuae (a laboratory mouse) were examined. Analysis with transmission electron microscope showed that the typical nurse cell structure was present in all examined samples, irrespective of the species of larva, of the presence of a collagen capsule, of the age of infection and of the host species, suggesting that there exists a molecular mechanism that in the first stage of larva invasion is similar for encapsulated and non-encapsulated species.

  12. Cytogenetical and ultrastructural effects of copper on root meristem cells of Allium sativum L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Donghua; Jiang, Wusheng; Meng, Qingmin; Zou, Jin; Gu, Jiegang; Zeng, Muai

    2009-04-01

    Different copper concentrations, as well as different exposure times, were applied to investigate both cytogenetical and ultrastructural alterations in garlic (Allium sativum L.) meristem cells. Results showed that the mitotic index decreased progressively when either copper concentration or exposure time increased. C-mitosis, anaphase bridges, chromosome stickiness and broken nuclei were observed in the copper treated root tip cells. Some particulates containing the argyrophilic NOR-associated proteins were distributed in the nucleus of the root-tip cells and the amount of this particulate material progressively increased with increasing exposure time. Finally, the nucleolar material was extruded from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. Also, increased dictyosome vesicles in number, formation of cytoplasmic vesicles containing electron dense granules, altered mitochondrial shape, disruption of nuclear membranes, condensation of chromatin material, disintegration of organelles were observed. The mechanisms of detoxification and tolerance of copper are briefly discussed.

  13. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern

  14. Ultrastructure of single cells, callus-like and monospore-like cells in Porphyra yezoensis ueda on semisolid culture medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Junxue; Shen, Songdong; Jiang, Ming; Fei, Xiugeng

    2003-06-01

    It had been demonstrated that individual cells or protoplasts isolated from Porphyra thallus by enzyme could develop into normal leafy thalli in the same way as monospores, and that isolated cells develop in different way in liquid and on semi-solid media. The authors observed the ultrastructure of isolated vegetative cells cultured on semi-solid media and compared them with those of monospores and isolated cells cultured in liquid media. The results showed that subcellular structures were quite different among cells in different conditions. In their development, isolated cells on semi-solid media did not show the characteristic subcellular feature of monospore formation, such as production of fibrous vesicles. Callus-like cells formed on semi-solid media underwent a distinctive modification in cellular organization. They developed characteristic cell inclusions and a special 2-layer cell covering. Golgi bodies, ER, starch grains, mitochondria. Vacuoles were not commonly found in them.

  15. Ultrastructural changes produced in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells by ultraviolet-visible radiation in the presence of melanins

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, P.J.; Pawlowski, A.; Persad, S.D.; Menon, I.A.; Haberman, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in the presence of pheomelanin, i.e., red hair melanin (RHM), has been reported to produce extensive cell lysis. Irradiation in the presence of eumelanin, i.e., black hair melanin (BHM), or irradiation in the absence of either type of melanin did not produce this effect. We observed that RHM particles penetrated the cell membrane without apparent structural damage to the cell or the cell membrane. Irradiation of the cells in the absence of melanin did not produce any changes in the ultrastructure of the cells. Incubation of the cells in the dark in the presence of RHM produced only minor structural, mainly cytoplasmic changes. Irradiation of the cells in the presence of RHM produced extensive ultrastructural changes prior to complete cell lysis; these changes were more severe than the effects of incubation of the cells in the dark in the presence of RHM. When the cells incubated in the dark or irradiated in the presence of latex particles or either one of the eumelanins particles, viz. BHM or synthetic dopa melanin, these particles did not penetrate into the cells or produce any ultrastructural changes. These particles were in fact not even ingested by the cells.

  16. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of pituitary folliculostellate cells during aging in rats.

    PubMed

    Cónsole, G M; Jurado, S B; Riccillo, F L; Gómez Dumm, C L

    2000-01-01

    The impact of aging on pituitary folliculostellate (FS) cells is not well known. The aim of the work reported here was to carry out a quantitative immunohistochemical assessment of the FS population in male and female rats during aging and to correlate the findings with possible changes at the ultrastructural level. Young (4 months), old (20 months) and senescent (29 months) Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were sacrificed by rapid decapitation, their pituitaries dissected and processed by both light immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Serial sections (4 microm) were obtained at different levels and immunostained by means of rabbit anti-S100 serum as the primary antibody and a peroxidase-mediated EnVision System (Dako). Measurement of volume density (VD) and cell density (CD) was made in S100-reacting elements by means of an image analysis system (Imaging Technology, Optimas). These parameters were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in old and senescent rats as compared to young animals. In senescent females, which presented a high incidence of microprolactinomas, a significant (p < 0.01) increment of VD and CD was observed in FS cells in the area surrounding the adenomas, together with a marked decrease in those parameters within the tumors. Sexual dimorphism was not found except for the prolactinoma-bearing female group. The ultrastructure of FS cells showed the typical characteristics previously described in the pituitary gland. Only moderate changes in the endoplasmic reticulum were observed in old and senescent animals. We conclude that aging has a clear effect on the morphology of the pituitary FS cell population. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Ultrastructural Localization of a Bean Glycine-Rich Protein in Unlignified Primary Walls of Protoxylem Cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ryser, U; Keller, B

    1992-01-01

    A polyclonal antibody was used to localize a glycine-rich cell wall protein (GRP 1.8) in French bean hypocotyls with the indirect immunogold method. GRP 1.8 could be localized mainly in the unlignified primary cell walls of the oldest protoxylem elements and also in cell corners of both proto- and metaxylem elements. In addition, GRP 1.8 was detected in phloem using tissue printing. The labeled primary walls of dead protoxylem cells showed a characteristically dispersed ultrastructure, resulting from the action of hydrolases during the final steps of cell maturation and from mechanical stress due to hypocotyl growth. Primary walls of living protoxylem and adjacent parenchyma cells were only weakly labeled. This was true also for the secondary walls of proto- and metaxylem cells, which in addition showed high background labeling. Inhibition of lignification with a specific and potent inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase did not lead to enhanced labeling of secondary walls, showing that lignin does not mask the presence of GRP 1.8 in these walls. Dictyosomes of living proto- and metaxylem cells were not labeled, but dictyosomes of xylem parenchyma cells without secondary walls, adjacent to strongly labeled protoxylem elements, were clearly labeled. These observations suggest that GRP 1.8 is not produced by xylem vessels but by xylem parenchyma cells that export the protein to the wall of protoxylem vessels. PMID:12297662

  18. Ultrastructural changes in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells acutely exposed to colloidal iron.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Mark L; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Taylor, Matthew C; Koina, Mark E; Maxwell, Lesley; Francis, Douglas; Jain, Sanjiv; McLean, Allan J

    2003-07-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells form an important interface between the vascular system, represented by the sinusoids, and the space of Disse that surrounds the hepatocyte microvilli. This study aimed to assess the light microscopic and ultrastructural effects of acute exposure of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells to colloidal iron by injection of rats with iron polymaltose. Eight minutes after a single intravenous injection of iron polymaltose sinusoidal endothelial cells showed defenestration, and thickening and layering as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Kupffer cells and stellate cells appeared activated. These changes were not observed in control animals, experiments using equivalent doses of maltose, or experiments using colloidal carbon except for Kupffer cell activation due to colloidal carbon. No significant light microscopic changes were seen in study or control animals. The findings indicate that acute exposure to colloidal iron causes changes in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells, stellate cells and Kupffer cells. This may be the result of a direct toxic effect of iron or increased production of reactive oxygen species. These observations suggest a possible mechanism for defenestration of sinusoidal endothelial cells in ageing and in disease states.

  19. Ultrastructural evaluation of parathyroid glands and thyroid C cells of cattle fed Solanum malacoxylon.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, W. T.; Capen, C. C.; Döbereiner, J.; Tokarnia, C. H.

    1977-01-01

    Fine structural alterations of thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells were evaluated after feeding dried leaves of the calcinogenic plant, Solanum malacoxylon, to cattle for 1, 6 and 32 days. Thyroid C cells initially were degranulated in response to the hypercalcemia, and parathyroid chief cells accumulated secretory granules. There was hypertrophy of thyroid C cells with well-developed secretory organelles but few secretory granules in the cytoplasm after 6 days of feeding S. malacoxylon. Inactive chief cells with dispersed profiles of endoplasmic reticulum and increased lysosomal bodies predominated in the parathyroid glands. Multiple foci of soft tissue mineralization were present in the heart, lung, and kidney. Thyroid C cells underwent hypertrophy and hyperplasia after 32 days of S. malacoxylon, and parathyroid chief cells were inactive or atrophic in response to the long-term hypercalcemia. Severe soft tissue mineralization was present throughout the cardiovascular system, lung, kidney, and spleen. These ultrastructural changes in thyroid C cells and parathyroid chief cells plus the widespread soft tissue mineralization observed after feeding cattle small amounts of S. malacoxylon are consistent with the recent evidence that leaves of this plant are a potent source of the active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, of vitamin D. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:869016

  20. Morphological and ultrastructural changes in bacterial cells as an indicator of antibacterial mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Cushnie, T P Tim; O'Driscoll, Noëlle H; Lamb, Andrew J

    2016-12-01

    Efforts to reduce the global burden of bacterial disease and contend with escalating bacterial resistance are spurring innovation in antibacterial drug and biocide development and related technologies such as photodynamic therapy and photochemical disinfection. Elucidation of the mechanism of action of these new agents and processes can greatly facilitate their development, but it is a complex endeavour. One strategy that has been popular for many years, and which is garnering increasing interest due to recent technological advances in microscopy and a deeper understanding of the molecular events involved, is the examination of treated bacteria for changes to their morphology and ultrastructure. In this review, we take a critical look at this approach. Variables affecting antibacterial-induced alterations are discussed first. These include characteristics of the test organism (e.g. cell wall structure) and incubation conditions (e.g. growth medium osmolarity). The main body of the review then describes the different alterations that can occur. Micrographs depicting these alterations are presented, together with information on agents that induce the change, and the sequence of molecular events that lead to the change. We close by highlighting those morphological and ultrastructural changes which are consistently induced by agents sharing the same mechanism (e.g. spheroplast formation by peptidoglycan synthesis inhibitors) and explaining how changes that are induced by multiple antibacterial classes (e.g. filamentation by DNA synthesis inhibitors, FtsZ disruptors, and other types of agent) can still yield useful mechanistic information. Lastly, recommendations are made regarding future study design and execution.

  1. Air pollution effects on the ultrastructure of Phlomis fruticosa mesophyll cells

    SciTech Connect

    Psaras, G.K.; Christodoulakis, N.S.

    1987-04-01

    Plant physiologists and environmental scientists suggest that a basic effect of air pollution on plants leads towards the minimization of their productivity. On the other hand the action of individual pollutants on intact plants has been studied from biochemical as well as structural viewpoint. Thus the study of plant responses to SO/sub 2/ exposure revealed that this agent causes acute and chronic injury. Chronic injury results in chlorosis and subsequent necrosis due to destruction of chlorophylls and final chloroplast lysis. It has been documented that ultrastructural characteristics of leaves are affected prior to any visible injury. Electron microscope examination of SO/sub 2/ fumigated plant-attached leaves of Vicia faba revealed chloroplast thylakoids starting to swell whilst photosynthesis rate was drastically reduced. The first light microscope-detected effects of air pollution on the leaf structure of plants common in natural ecosystems of Athens metropolitan area, have been reported. A chlorosis phenomenon in Urginea maritima leaves as well as an indication of detrimental effects of Phlomis fruticosa mesophyll chloroplasts were documented. In this work further investigation has been undertaken in order to elucidate the precise effects of air pollution on the ultrastructure of the photosynthesizing mesophyll cells.

  2. Preparation of cells for assessing ultrastructural localization of nanoparticles with transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schrand, Amanda M; Schlager, John J; Dai, Liming; Hussain, Saber M

    2010-04-01

    We describe the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for cellular ultrastructural examination of nanoparticle (NP)-exposed biomaterials. Preparation and imaging of electron-transparent thin cell sections with TEM provides excellent spatial resolution (approximately 1 nm), which is required to track these elusive materials. This protocol provides a step-by-step method for the mass-basis dosing of cultured cells with NPs, and the process of fixing, dehydrating, staining, resin embedding, ultramicrotome sectioning and subsequently visualizing NP uptake and translocation to specific intracellular locations with TEM. In order to avoid potential artifacts, some technical challenges are addressed. Based on our results, this procedure can be used to elucidate the intracellular fate of NPs, facilitating the development of biosensors and therapeutics, and provide a critical component for understanding NP toxicity. This protocol takes approximately 1 week.

  3. Ultrastructural evidence for differentiation in a human glioblastoma cell line treated with inhibitors of eicosanoid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.E.; Anderson, K.M. ); Seed, T.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Human glioblastoma cells incubated in the presence of inhibitors of eicosanoid biosynthesis show decreased cellular proliferation without cytotoxicity. The authors studied the ultrastructural morphology of a human glioblastoma cell line cultured with nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a lipoxygenase inhibitor, or 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, a cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitor. When glioblastoma cells were treated for 3 days with antiproliferative concentrations of either agent, they shared many morphological characteristics, including evidence for increased astrocytic differentiation with only limited signs of toxicity. The inhibited glioma cells demonstrated an increase in the number and length of astrocytic processes containing greater numbers of glial filaments, and the NDGA-treated cells also demonstrated extensive lateral pseudopod formation along the processes. The glioblastoma cell shape also become more elongated, losing the usual nuclear lobularity and nuclear inclusions, especially in NDGA-treated cells. Many cytoplasmic organelles packed the cytosol of the inhibited glioma cells, including prominent Golgi apparatus, dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum evolving into dilated vesicles, cytoplasmic vacuoles, and numerous concentric laminations. There was limited evidence for toxicity, however, as the mitochondria were more pleomorphic with some mitochondrial distension and disruption of the cristae along with an increase in cytoplasmic vacuolization. The authors conclude that the inhibitors of eicosanoid biosynthesis. NDGA and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, not only suppress glioblastoma cell proliferation, but also include increased astrocytic differentiation.

  4. Ultrastructure of the calcium-sequestering gastrodermal cell in the hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Dandar-Roh, Alicia M; Rogers-Lowery, Constance L; Zellmann, Erhard; Thomas, Mary Beth

    2004-05-01

    Large, free-floating crystals of calcium carbonate occur in vacuoles of gastrodermal cells of the hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus. Here, morphological details about the process by which these cells accumulate and sequester calcium are provided by a cytochemical method designed to demonstrate calcium at the ultrastructural level. Electron-dense material presumably indicative of the presence of calcium was EGTA-sensitive and was shown by parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy spectroscopic imaging (ESI) to contain calcium. Calcium occurred in only one cell type, the endodermally derived gastrodermal cell. In these cells, the electron-dense material appeared first as a fine precipitate in the cytosol and nucleus and later as larger deposits and aggregates in the vacuole. During the life cycle, gastrodermal cells of the uninduced planula and the planula during metamorphic induction sequestered calcium. In primary polyps and polyps from established colonies, gastrodermal cells sequestered calcium, but the endodermal secretory cells did not. Our observations support the hypothesis that gastrodermal cells function as a physiological sink for calcium that enters the organism in conjunction with calcium-requiring processes such as motility, secretion, and metamorphosis. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Glassy droplet inclusions within the cytoplasm of Kupffer cells: A novel ultrastructural feature for the diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Lotowska, Joanna Maria; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta; Daniluk, Urszula; Lebensztejn, Dariusz Marek

    2017-08-01

    Since Kupffer cells/macrophages (KCs/MPs) may be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), this pioneer study was undertaken to evaluate KCs/MPs in pediatric AIH in transmission-electron microscope. Ultrastructural analyses were performed using liver biopsies from 14 children with clinicopathologically diagnosed AIH. In all AIH children, ultrastructural findings revealed changes in the cells lining sinusoidal vessels, especially KCs/MPs and endothelial cells. KCs/MPs showed increased phagocytic activity and damaged mitochondria, frequently with accompanying intense fibrosis. In 10/14 AIH patients, the cytoplasm of sinusoidal KCs/MPs contained characteristic glassy droplet inclusions. They were round, sharply circumscribed, and contained homogeneous material and distinct translucent fields. Their ultrastructure was identical with the Russel bodies of plasma cells, which were also found in liver biopsies in the same patients. Ultrastructural identification of characteristic cytoplasmic droplets with glassy appearance in KCs/MPs, never before described in AIH, provides a useful novel morphological feature in the diagnosis of this disease. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuroendocrine cells in the gills of the bowfin Amia calva. An ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Goniakowska-Witalińska, L; Zaccone, G; Fasulo, S; Mauceri, A; Licata, A; Youson, J

    1995-01-01

    Neuroendocrine (NE) cells were localized by electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry in the gill epithelium of bowfin Amia calva. The NE cells are dispersed in whole epithelium of the gill as solitary cells without intraepithelial innervation. All the observed NE cells do not reach the surface of the epithelium. The NE cells are characterized by a large nucleus with patches of condensed chromatin, numerous mitochondria, a well developed Golgi apparatus and a few dense core vesicles of various size scattered in the cytoplasm. Dense core vesicles range from 100 to 560 nm in diameter, while a clear space between the electron dense core ant the limiting membrane ranges from 20 to 240 nm. Immunocytochemical observations reveal the presence of general neuroendocrine markers such as neuro-specific enolase and bioactive substances: serotonin, leu-enkephalin and met-enkephalin. we demonstrated the presence of endothelin - for the first time in fish - and suggested a local paracrine role for the NE cells. Some ultrastructural aspects and the immunocytochemical characteristics of NE cells of bowfin gills are common with those encountered in such cells of other lower vertebrate species.

  7. Ultrastructural features of degenerated cardiac muscle cells in patients with cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Maron, B. J.; Ferrans, V. J.; Roberts, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Degenerated cardiac muscle cells were present in hypertrophied ventricular muscle obtained at operation from 12 (38%) of 32 patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) or aortic valvular disease. Degenerated cells demonstrated a wide variety of ultrastructural alterations. Mildly altered cells were normal-sized or hypertrophied and showed focal changes, including preferential loss of thick (myosin) filaments, streaming and clumping of Z band material, and proliferation of the tubules of sarcoplasmic reticulum. Moderately and severely degenerated cells were normal-sized or atrophic and showed additional changes, including extensive myofibrillar lysis and loss of T tubules. The appearance of the most severely degenerated cells usually reflected the cytoplasmic organelle (sarcoplasmic reticulum, glycogen, or mitochondria) which underwent proliferation and filled the myofibril-free areas of these cells. Moderately and severely degenerated cells were present in areas of fibrosis, had thickened basement membranes, and had lost their intercellular connections. These observations suggest that degenerated cardiac muscle cells have poor contractile function and may be responsible for impaired cardiac performance in some patients with chronic ventricular hypertrophy. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Figs 4-6 Figs 7-8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Figs 12-15 Fig 16 Fig 17 Figs 18-21 Figs 22-23 Fig 24 Fig 25 Fig 26 Fig 27 Figs 28-29 Fig 30 Figs 31-32 Fig 33 PMID:124533

  8. Ultrastructural Characterization of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands: A Distinct Entity from Acinic Cell Carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Guilmette, Julie; Nielsen, Gunnlaugur P; Faquin, William C; Selig, Martin; Nosé, Vânia; Chi, Anthony W S; Sadow, Peter M

    2017-02-13

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary glands is a recently described neoplasm of the salivary glands with a characteristic morphology complemented by a specific cytogenetic translocation and gene rearrangements. Although immunophenotypic and cytogenetic differences allow for a more reliable distinction, ultrastructural features can also provide important information about the relationship between MASC, classic acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), and AciCC intercalated duct cell-predominant variant. Following approval from the hospital's institutional review board, 7 cases of MASC, 8 cases of classic AciCC, and 4 cases of AciCC intercalated duct cell-predominant variant were retrieved from the pathology files of Massachusetts General Hospital from 2012 to 2015. Electron microscopy was performed using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Ultrastructural features of all 19 neoplasms of the salivary glands were recorded. The predominant cell-types observed in MASC are those with intercalated/striated duct cell differentiation. These features include prominent invaginations of the cell surface studded with microvilli, and some intra- and intercellular lumina also with a microvillous surface. Classic AciCC dominant cell-type recapitulates acinar cell differentiation. These cells contain large intracytoplasmic zymogen-like granules. AciCC intercalated duct cell-predominant variant showed both cell populations in various proportions with the intercalated/striated duct cell type usually being the dominant one. MASC presents with distinctive ultrastructural features that allows its proper differentiation from classic AciCC. However, significant ultrastructural features overlaps between both AciCC intercalated duct cells-predominant and classic AciCC and MASC. These findings indicate a very close proximity between these tumors.

  9. Ultrastructure of Cisternal Synapses on Outer Hair Cells of the Mouse Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Paul Albert; Lehar, Mohamed; Hiel, Hakim

    2015-01-01

    C (cisternal) synapses with a near membrane postsynaptic cistern are found on motor neurons and other central neurons, where their functional role is unknown. Similarly structured cisternal synapses mediate cholinergic inhibition of cochlear hair cells via α9α10-containing ionotropic receptors and associated calcium-activated (SK2) potassium channels, providing the opportunity to examine the ultrastructure of genetically altered cisternal synapses. Serial section electron microscopy was used to examine efferent synapses of outer hair cells (OHCs) in mice with diminished or enhanced cholinergic inhibition. The contact area of efferent terminals, the appositional area of the postsynaptic cistern, the distance of the cistern from the plasma membrane, and the average width of the cisternal lumen were recorded. The synaptic cisterns of wild- type OHCs were closely aligned (14-nm separation) with the hair cell membrane and coextensive with the micrometers-long synaptic terminals. The cisternal lumen averaged 18 nm so that the cisternal volume was approximately 30% larger than that of the cytoplasmic space between the cistern and the plasma membrane. Synaptic ultrastructure of α9L9′T knockin OHCs (acetylcholine receptor gain of function) were like those of wild-type littermates except that cisternal volumes were significantly larger. OHCs of SK2 knockout mice had few small efferent terminals. Synaptic cisterns were present, but smaller than those of wild-type littermates. Taken together, these data suggest that the cistern serves as a sink or buffer to isolate synaptic calcium signals. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:717-729, 2014. PMID:24122766

  10. Disseminated neoplasia in cockles Cerastoderma edule: ultrastructural characterisation and effects on haemolymph cell parameters.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Seila; Renault, Tristan; Villalba, Antonio; Carballal, María Jesús

    2011-09-09

    Disseminated neoplasia (DN) has been detected in cockles from various beds in Galicia (NW Spain). A study was performed to characterise cockle neoplastic cell ultrastructure and to evaluate the effect of this disease at different severity stages on various haemolymph cell parameters. Examination of cockle neoplastic cells with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed round shapes and a lack of pseudopods, a high nucleus:cytoplasm diameter ratio, Golgi complexes, abundant mitochondria, ribosomes, and numerous endoplasmic reticulum tubes and electron-lucent vesicles. Various haemolymph cell parameters (cell mortality, non-specific esterase and lysosome biovolume, reactive oxygen intermediates [ROI] production, phagocytosis ability, intracellular Ca2+ and actin levels) were compared between DN severity categories by flow cytometry; haemocyte mortality, non-specific esterase activities and lysosome biovolume were found to be higher with increasing DN severity. The phagocytic ability of neoplastic cells was sharply reduced with regard to haemocytes. The cytoplasmic-free Ca2+ level was higher and actin content lower in haemolymph cells of diseased cockles compared to unaffected ones. A significant increase in ROI production was detected in later stages of disease progression.

  11. Macro- and microvascular endothelial cells in vitro: maintenance of biochemical heterogeneity despite loss of ultrastructural characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, D.B.; Jacobson, B.S. )

    1991-02-01

    Microvascular endothelial cells from bovine adrenal medulla and brain and macrovessel endothelial cells from bovine aorta were isolated and cultured under similar conditions in order to determine morphologic and biochemical heterogeneity in vitro. All three cell types exhibited nearly identical ultrastructural morphology and two-dimensional gel protein patterns of {sup 35}S-methionine-labeled whole cells. Two-dimensional gel analysis of {sup 35}S-methionine-labeled plasma membrane proteins however, revealed two-dimensional gel protein patterns unique to the tissue type from which the endothelial cells were isolated. This suggests that the functional significance of these specific endothelial cell types is manifested primarily in surface-associated proteins and that many of the differences are sustained in culture. To determine the potential of aorta, brain, and adrenal medulla endothelial cell (EC) cultures to respond to developmentally significant signals, morphology, growth pattern, and cell surface proteins were monitored in the presence and absence of growth factors. A 17 to 26% increase in cell density as well as an increase in the number of elongated and overlapping cells resulted when all three EC types were exposed to a mitogenic medium. Additionally, expression of specific glycoprotein profiles, as determined by Concanavalin A Western blotting of two-dimensional gels, was dependent on the presence or absence of growth factors in the medium. The ability to induce this morphologic and biochemical variation in the three endothelial cell types was maintained into later passage. Taken together, these data imply that endothelial cells isolated from different tissues exhibit and maintain biochemical heterogeneity and do not completely dedifferentiate into a common endothelial cell type in culture.

  12. Hygroscopic swelling and shrinkage of latewood cell wall micropillars reveal ultrastructural anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Stiefel, Michael; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Mokso, Rajmund; Derome, Dominique; Carmeliet, Jan

    2014-06-06

    We document the hygroscopic swelling and shrinkage of the central and the thickest secondary cell wall layer of wood (named S2) in response to changes in environmental humidity using synchrotron radiation-based phase contrast X-ray tomographic nanoscopy. The S2 layer is a natural fibre-reinforced nano-composite polymer and is strongly reactive to water. Using focused ion beam, micropillars with a cross section of few micrometres are fabricated from the S2 layer of the latewood cell walls of Norway spruce softwood. The thin neighbouring cell wall layers are removed to prevent hindering or restraining of moisture-induced deformation during swelling or shrinkage. The proposed experiment intended to get further insights into the microscopic origin of the anisotropic hygro-expansion of wood. It is found that the swelling/shrinkage strains are highly anisotropic in the transverse plane of the cell wall, larger in the normal than in the direction parallel to the cell wall's thickness. This ultrastructural anisotropy may be due to the concentric lamellation of the cellulose microfibrils as the role of the cellulose microfibril angle in the transverse swelling anisotropy is negligible. The volumetric swelling of the cell wall material is found to be substantially larger than the one of wood tissues within the growth ring and wood samples made of several growth rings. The hierarchical configuration in wood optimally increases its dimensional stability in response to a humid environment with higher scales of complexity.

  13. Ultrastructural localization of hydrogen peroxide production in ligninolytic Phanerochaete chrysosporium cells

    SciTech Connect

    Forney, L.J.; Reddy, C.A.; Pankratz, H.S.

    1982-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that the hydroxyl radical derived from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is involved in lignin degradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. In the present study, the ultrastructural sites of H2O2 production in ligninolytic cells of P. chrysosporium were demonstrated by cytochemically staining cells with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB). Hydrogen peroxide production, as evidenced by the presence of oxidized DAB deposits, appeared to be localized in the periplasmic space of cells from ligninolytic cultures grown for 14 days in nitrogen-limited medium. When identical cells were treated with DAB in the presence of aminotriazole, periplasmic deposits of oxidized DAB were not observed, suggesting that the deposits resulted from H2O2-dependent peroxidatic oxidation of DAB by catalase. Cells from cultures grown for 3 or 6 days in nitrogen-limited medium or for 14 days in nitrogen- sufficient medium had little ligninolytic activity and low specific activity for H202 production and did not contain periplasmic oxidized DAB deposits. The results suggest that in cultures grown in nitrogen- limited medium, there is a positive correlation between the occurrence of oxidized DAB deposits, the specific activity for H2O2 production in cell extracts, and ligninolytic activity. (Refs. 25).

  14. Ultrastructure and Membrane Traffic During Cell Division in the Marine Pennate Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsuko; De Martino, Alessandra; Amato, Alberto; Montsant, Anton; Mathieu, Benjamin; Rostaing, Philippe; Tirichine, Leila; Bowler, Chris

    2015-11-01

    The marine pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has become a model for diatom biology, due to its ease of culture and accessibility to reverse genetics approaches. While several features underlying the molecular mechanisms of cell division have been described, morphological analyses are less advanced than they are in other diatoms. We therefore examined cell ultrastructure changes prior to and during cytokinesis. Following chloroplast division, cleavage furrows are formed at both longitudinal ends of the cell and are accompanied by significant vesicle transport. Although neither spindle nor microtubules were observed, the nucleus appeared to be split by the furrow after duplication of the Golgi apparatus. Finally, centripetal cytokinesis was completed by fusion of the furrows. Additionally, F-actin formed a ring structure and its diameter became smaller, accompanying the ingrowing furrows. To further analyse vesicular transport during cytokinesis, we generated transgenic cells expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusions with putative diatom orthologs of small GTPase Sec4 and t-SNARE protein SyntaxinA. Time-lapse observations revealed that SyntaxinA-YFP localization expands from both cell tips toward the center, whereas Sec4-YFP was found in the Golgi and subsequently relocalizes to the future division plane. This work provides fundamental new information about cell replication processes in P. tricornutum.

  15. Ultrastructure of ECL cells in Mastomys after long-term treatment with H2 receptor antagonist loxtidine.

    PubMed

    Vigen, Reidar Alexander; Kidd, Mark; Modlin, Irvin M; Chen, Duan; Zhao, Chun-Mei

    2012-06-01

    Gastric ECL-cell hyperplasia and carcinoids (ECLoma) develop after 1 year in rats treated with omeprazole or 2 months in Mastomys treated with loxtidine. The aim of this study was to examine the ultrastructure of ECL cells in Mastomys after loxtidine treatment with an attempt to evaluate whether an impairment of autophagy was involved in the tumorigenesis. Mastomys were given loxtidine for 8 or 27 weeks. Morphological analysis of ECL cells showed that (1) cell size was not increased after 8 or 27 weeks; (2) secretory vesicles, a hallmark feature of welldifferentiated ECL cells, were unchanged after 8 weeks but reduced after 27 weeks; (3) granules were reduced after 8 or 27 weeks; (4) microvesicles were unchanged after the treatment; and (5) vacuoles and lipofuscin bodies were found occasionally after 8 weeks but not at 27 weeks. In addition, the appearance of ECL-cell ultrastructure differed between loxtidine-treated Mastomys and rats treated with omeprazole or subjected to antrectomy, but was similar between Mastomys treated with loxtidine for 27 weeks and mice deficient in CCK(2) receptor. We suggest that the ultrastructure of ECL cells in Mastomys after long-term treatment with loxtidine displayed an impaired formation of vacuoles and lipofuscin bodies, markers of the autophagic pathway.

  16. Effects of Waterlogging on Leaf Mesophyll Cell Ultrastructure and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Summer Maize

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Baizhao; Zhang, Jiwang; Dong, Shuting; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    A field experiment was performed to study the effects of waterlogging on the leaf mesophyll cell ultrastructure, chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of summer maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids Denghai605 (DH605) and Zhengdan958 (ZD958). The waterlogging treatments were implemented for different durations (3 and 6 days) at the third leaf stage (V3), the sixth leaf stage (V6), and the 10th day after the tasseling stage (10VT). Leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate (Pn), and actual photochemical efficiency (ΦPSII) were reduced after waterlogging, indicating that waterlogging significantly decreased photosynthetic capacity. The chloroplast shapes changed from long and oval to elliptical or circular after waterlogging. In addition, the internal structures of chloroplasts were degenerated after waterlogging. After waterlogging for 6 d at V3, the number of grana and grana lamellae of the third expanded leaf in DH605 were decreased by 26.83% and 55.95%, respectively, compared to the control (CK). Those in ZD958 were reduced by 30.08% and 31.94%, respectively. Waterlogging increased MDA content in both hybrids, suggesting an impact of waterlogging on membrane integrity and thus membrane deterioration. Waterlogging also damaged the biological membrane structure and mitochondria. Our results indicated that the physiological reactions to waterlogging were closely related to lower LAI, chlorophyll content, and Pn and to the destruction of chloroplast ultrastructure. These negative effects resulted in the decrease of grain yield in response to waterlogging. Summer maize was the most susceptible to damage when waterlogging occurred at V3, followed by V6 and 10VT, with damage increasing in the wake of waterlogging duration increasing. PMID:27583803

  17. Structure of xanthan gum and cell ultrastructure at different times of alkali stress.

    PubMed

    Luvielmo, Márcia de Mello; Borges, Caroline Dellinghausen; Toyama, Daniela de Oliveira; Vendruscolo, Claire Tondo; Scamparini, Adilma Regina Pippa

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali stress on the yield, viscosity, gum structure, and cell ultrastructure of xanthan gum was evaluated at the end of fermentation process of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis 280-95. Although greater xanthan production was observed after a 24h-alkali stress process, a lower viscosity was observed when compared to the alkali stress-free gum, regardless of the alkali stress time. However, this outcome is not conclusive as further studies on gum purification are required to remove excess sodium, verify the efficiency loss and the consequent increase in the polymer viscosity. Alkali stress altered the structure of xanthan gum from a polygon-like shape to a star-like form. At the end of the fermentation, early structural changes in the bacterium were observed. After alkali stress, marked structural differences were observed in the cells. A more vacuolated cytoplasm and discontinuities in the membrane cells evidenced the cell lysis. Xanthan was observed in the form of concentric circles instead of agglomerates as observed prior to the alkali stress.

  18. Observation on the ultrastructure morphology of HeLa cells treated with ethanol: Statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Bagdadi, Fakhri; Young, Matthew J; Geaghan, James P; Yao, Shaomian; Barona, Humberto M; Martinez-Ceballos, Eduardo; Yoshimura, Masami

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that 5.9% of all human deaths are attributable to alcohol consumption and that the harmful use of ethanol ranks among the top five risk factors for causing disease, disability, and death worldwide. Ethanol is known to disrupt phospholipid packing and promote membrane hemifusion at lipid bilayers. With the exception of mitochondria involved in hormone synthesis, the sterol content of mitochondrial membranes is low. As membranes that are low in cholesterol have increased membrane fluidity and are the most easily disordered by ethanol, we hypothesize that mitochondria are sensitive targets for ethanol damage. HeLa cells were exposed to 50 mM ethanol and the direct effects of ethanol on cellular ultrastructure were examined utilizing transmission electron microscopy. Our ultramicroscopic analysis revealed that cells exposed to ethanol harbor fewer incidence of apoptotic morphology; however, significant alterations to mitochondria and to nuclei occurred. We observed statistical increases in the amount of irregular cells and cells with multiple nuclei, nuclei harboring indentations, and nuclei with multiple nucleolus-like bodies. Indeed, our analysis revealed that mitochondrial damage is the most extensive type of cellular damage. Rupturing of cristae was the most prominent damage followed by mitochondrial swelling. Ethanol exposure also resulted in increased amounts of mitochondrial rupturing, organelles with linked membranes, and mitochondria localizing to indentations of nuclear membranes. We theorize that these alterations could contribute to cellular defects in oxidative phosphorylation and, by extension, the inability to generate regular levels of cellular adenosine triphosphate.

  19. Structure of xanthan gum and cell ultrastructure at different times of alkali stress

    PubMed Central

    de Mello Luvielmo, Márcia; Borges, Caroline Dellinghausen; de Oliveira Toyama, Daniela; Vendruscolo, Claire Tondo; Scamparini, Adilma Regina Pippa

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali stress on the yield, viscosity, gum structure, and cell ultrastructure of xanthan gum was evaluated at the end of fermentation process of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis 280-95. Although greater xanthan production was observed after a 24 h-alkali stress process, a lower viscosity was observed when compared to the alkali stress-free gum, regardless of the alkali stress time. However, this outcome is not conclusive as further studies on gum purification are required to remove excess sodium, verify the efficiency loss and the consequent increase in the polymer viscosity. Alkali stress altered the structure of xanthan gum from a polygon-like shape to a star-like form. At the end of the fermentation, early structural changes in the bacterium were observed. After alkali stress, marked structural differences were observed in the cells. A more vacuolated cytoplasm and discontinuities in the membrane cells evidenced the cell lysis. Xanthan was observed in the form of concentric circles instead of agglomerates as observed prior to the alkali stress. PMID:26887232

  20. Ultrastructure of the epithelial cells associated with tooth biomineralization in the chiton Acanthopleura hirtosa.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jeremy A; Macey, David J; Brooker, Lesley R; Stockdale, Edward J; Saunders, Martin; Clode, Peta L

    2009-04-01

    The cusp epithelium is a specialized branch of the superior epithelium that surrounds the developing teeth of chitons and is responsible for delivering the elements required for the formation of biominerals within the major lateral teeth. These biominerals are deposited within specific regions of the tooth in sequence, making it possible to conduct a row by row examination of cell development in the cusp epithelium as the teeth progress from the unmineralized to the mineralized state. Cusp epithelium from the chiton Acanthopleura hirtosa was prepared using conventional chemical and microwave assisted tissue processing, for observation by light microscopy, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy filtered TEM. The onset of iron mineralization within the teeth, initiated at row 13, is associated with a number of dramatic changes in the ultrastructure of the apical cusp cell epithelium. Specifically, the presence of ferritin containing siderosomes, the position and number of mitochondria, and the structure of the cell microvilli are each linked to aspects of the mineralization process. These changes in tissue development are discussed in context with their influence over the physiological conditions within both the cells and extracellular compartment of the tooth at the onset of iron mineralization.

  1. [Effects of silicon on the ultrastructures of wheat radical cells under copper stress].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dai-Jing; Ma, Jian-Hui; Yang, Shu-Fang; Chen, Hui-Ting; Liu, Pei; Wang, Wen-Fei; Li, Chun-Xi

    2014-08-01

    To explore the alleviation effect of silicon on wheat growth under copper stress, cultivar Aikang 58 was chosen as the experimental material. The growth, root activities and root tip ultrastructures of wheat seedlings, which were cultured in Hoagland nutrient solution with five different treatments (control, 15 mg x L(-1) Cu2+, 30 mg x L(-1) Cu2+, 15 mg x L(-1) Cu2+ and 50 mg x L(-1) silicon, 30 mg x L(-1) Cu2+ and 50 mg x L(-1) silicon), were fully analyzed. The results showed that root length, plant height and root activities of wheat seedlings were significantly restrained under the copper treatments compared with the control (P < 0.01), while these restraining effects were alleviated after adding silicon to copper-stress Hoagland nutrient solution. Under copper stress, the cell wall and cell membrane of wheat seedling root tips suffered to varying degrees of destruction, which caused the increase of intercellular space and the disappearance of some organelles. After adding silicon, the cell structure was maintained intact, although some cells and organelles were still slightly deformed compared with the control. In conclusion, exogenous silicon could alleviate the copper stress damages on wheat seedlings and cellular components to some extent.

  2. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural identification of pituitary cell types in the protogynous Thalassoma duperrey during adult sexual ontogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parhar, I.S.; Nagahama, Y.; Grau, E.G.; Ross, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Protogynous wrasses (Thalassoma duperrey): females (F), primary males (PM) along with a few terminal-phase males (TM) and sex-changed males (SM), were used to characterize the topographical organization of the pituitary. In general, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural features of the adenohypophyseal cell types of the saddleback wrasse pituitary resemble those of other teleosts. In the rostral pars distalis (RPD), corticotropic cells were found bordering the neurohypophysis (NH) and surrounding the centroventrally located prolactin cells. Thyrotropic cells formed a small group in the anteriodorsal part of the rostral and proximal pars distalis (PPD). The somatotropic cells were distributed in large clusters, mostly organized in cell cords around the interdigitations of the NH of the dorsal PPD. Cells containing gonadotropin I?? subunit were localized in the dorsal parts of the PPD, in close association with somatotropic cells and gonadotropin II?? subunit containing cells were seen in the centroventral parts of the PPD and along the periphery of the pars intermedia (PI). The pars intermedia was composed of melanotropic cells and somatolactin cells that lined the neurohypohysis. Distinct ultrastructural differences in corticotropic and somatotropic cells were not observed between the four groups. In all groups, prolactin cells in the ventral-most RPD could be immature cells or actively secreting prolactin. Gonadotropic II cells of PM and F had relatively higher incidence of "nuclear budding" and cell organelles compared to TM and SM. Besides gonadotropic, the active melanotropic and somatolactin cells might be associated with some aspect(s) of reproduction.

  3. Immunodetection of nucleolar proteins and ultrastructure of nucleoli of soybean root meristematic cells treated with chilling stress and after recovery.

    PubMed

    Stepiński, Dariusz

    2009-03-01

    The nucleolar proteins, fibrillarin and nucleophosmin, have been identified immunofluorescently in the root meristematic cells of soybean seedlings under varying experimental conditions: at 25 degrees C (control), chilling at 10 degrees C for 3 h and 4 days and recovery from the chilling stress at 25 degrees C. In each experimental variant, the immunofluorescence signals were present solely at the nucleolar territories. Fluorescent staining for both proteins was mainly in the shape of circular domains that are assumed to correspond to the dense fibrillar component of the nucleoli. The fewest fluorescent domains were observed in the nucleoli of chilled plants, and the highest number was observed in the plants recovered after chilling. This difference in the number of circular domains in the nucleoli of each variant may indicate various levels of these proteins in each variant. Both the number of circular domains and the level of these nucleolar proteins changed with changes in the transcriptional activity of the nucleoli, with the more metabolically active cell having higher numbers of active areas in the nucleolus and higher levels of nucleolar proteins, and conversely. Electron microscopic studies revealed differences in the ultrastructure of the nucleoli in all experimental variants and confirmed that the number of fibrillar centres surrounded by dense fibrillar component was the lowest in the nucleoli of chilled plants, and the highest in the nucleoli of recovered seedlings.

  4. Changes in Cell Wall Synthesis and Ultrastructure during Paradoxical Growth Effect of Caspofungin on Four Different Candida Species ▿

    PubMed Central

    Bizerra, Fernando C.; Melo, Analy S. A.; Katchburian, Eduardo; Freymüller, Edna; Straus, Anita H.; Takahashi, Hélio K.; Colombo, Arnaldo L.

    2011-01-01

    Paradoxical growth (PG) has been described for echinocandins and is characterized by cell growth at drug concentrations above the MIC. In this study, two isolates each of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. parapsilosis, all of which displaying PG in response to caspofungin, were subjected to MIC, minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and time-kill curve assays to evaluate the levels of PG. Cell wall components and ultrastructural modifications of the PG cells were also investigated. The results showed that when cell growth and survival were evaluated by MFC or time-kill curve assays, high concentrations of caspofungin did not show fungicidal activity against PG cells. Furthermore, for C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis, time-kill curves were more discriminatory than MFCs in detecting the PG effect. The four different Candida species studied demonstrated similar alterations in cell wall components and ultrastructure associated with PG. In PG cells, β-1,3-glucan content decreased from 2.7- to 7.8-fold, whereas chitin content increased from 4.0- to 6.6-fold. An electron microscopy study of the PG cells revealed morphological alterations, clumping of cells, enlarged cells, the absence of filamentation, abnormal septa, and accumulation of chitin in the cell wall. Also, PG cells basically exhibited a single dark high-density layer in the cell wall, indicating the loss of the β-1,3-glucan layer. Our results present novel details about the ultrastructural alterations that occur in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. tropicalis during PG and show that chitin is the major component of the cell walls of PG cells. Stimulation of chitin synthesis may represent a rescue mechanism against caspofungin activity. PMID:21060107

  5. Ultrastructural characteristics of three undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cell lines and their differentiated three-dimensional derivatives: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Suzan; Elsafadi, Mona; Mobarak, Mohammed; Alrwili, Ali; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Manikandan, Muthurangan; Al-Qudsi, Fatma; Karim, Saleh; Al-Nabaheen, May; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Mahmood, Amer

    2014-04-01

    The fine structures of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) grown as colonies and differentiated in three-dimensional (3D) culture as embryoid bodies (EBs) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Undifferentiated mESCs expressed markers that proved their pluripotency. Differentiated EBs expressed different differentiation marker proteins from the three germ layers. The ultrastructure of mESCs revealed the presence of microvilli on the cell surfaces, large and deep infolded nuclei, low cytoplasm-to-nuclear ratios, frequent lipid droplets, nonprominent Golgi apparatus, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found prominent juvenile mitochondria and free ribosomes-rich cytoplasm in mESCs. Ultrastructure of the differentiated mESCs as EBs showed different cell arrangements, which indicate the different stages of EB development and differentiation. The morphologies of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 EBs were very similar at day 4, whereas C57BL/6 EBs were distinct from the others at day 4. This finding suggested that differentiation of EBs from different cell lines occurs in the same pattern but not at the same rate. Conversely, the ultrastructure results of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 ESCs revealed differentiating features, such as the dilated profile of a rough endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found low expression levels of undifferentiated markers on the outer cells of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 mESC colonies, which suggests a faster differentiation potential.

  6. Ultrastructural Characteristics of Three Undifferentiated Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Lines and Their differentiated Three-Dimensional Derivatives: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Elsafadi, Mona; Mobarak, Mohammed; Alrwili, Ali; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Manikandan, Muthurangan; Al-Qudsi, Fatma; Karim, Saleh; Al-Nabaheen, May; Aldahmash, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The fine structures of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) grown as colonies and differentiated in three-dimensional (3D) culture as embryoid bodies (EBs) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Undifferentiated mESCs expressed markers that proved their pluripotency. Differentiated EBs expressed different differentiation marker proteins from the three germ layers. The ultrastructure of mESCs revealed the presence of microvilli on the cell surfaces, large and deep infolded nuclei, low cytoplasm-to-nuclear ratios, frequent lipid droplets, nonprominent Golgi apparatus, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found prominent juvenile mitochondria and free ribosomes-rich cytoplasm in mESCs. Ultrastructure of the differentiated mESCs as EBs showed different cell arrangements, which indicate the different stages of EB development and differentiation. The morphologies of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 EBs were very similar at day 4, whereas C57BL/6 EBs were distinct from the others at day 4. This finding suggested that differentiation of EBs from different cell lines occurs in the same pattern but not at the same rate. Conversely, the ultrastructure results of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 ESCs revealed differentiating features, such as the dilated profile of a rough endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, we found low expression levels of undifferentiated markers on the outer cells of BALB/c and 129 W9.5 mESC colonies, which suggests a faster differentiation potential. PMID:24606239

  7. Ultrastructural anatomy of CALT follicles in the rabbit reveals characteristics of M-cells, germinal centres and high endothelial venules

    PubMed Central

    Knop, Nadja; Knop, Erich

    2005-01-01

    Conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) is a part of the eye-associated lymphoid tissue (EALT) at the ocular surface. Its lymphoid follicles are usually characterized by using light microscopy, but its ultrastructure remains largely unknown. In this study, flat whole-mount conjunctival tissues (n = 42) from 21 young adult rabbits were investigated native in reflected light, and further stained and cleared (n = 6), in paraffin histology sections (n = 6), scanning electron microscopy (SEM, n = 4) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, n = 4). Secondary lymphoid follicles accumulated into a dense group nasally towards the lacrimal punctum of the lower lid. High endothelial venules (HEV) with typical ultrastructure occurred in the parafollicular zone. The bright germinal centre (GC) contained lymphoblasts, follicular dendritic cells, apoptotic cells and tingible body macrophages. The follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) was devoid of goblet cells and contained groups of lymphoid cells. TEM showed these cells to be located in cytoplasmic pockets of superficial electron-lucent cells with a thin cytoplasmic luminal lining that contained a fine filament meshwork and numerous endocytotic vesicles. These M-cells were sitting between and on top of the ordinary dense epithelial cells that were located basally and formed pillar-like structures. In stereoscopic SEM, the surface cells were very large, had a polygonal outline and covered cavernous spaces. The rabbit has a CALT with typical follicular morphology, including HEV for regulated lymphocyte migration and epithelial cells with ultrastructural characteristics of M-cells that allow antigen transport as indicated by the GC-reaction. The arrangement of these M-cells on top of and between epithelial pillar cells may reflect a special structural requirement of the multilayered CALT FAE. PMID:16191169

  8. DYNAMICS OF ACRIDINE ORANGE-CELL INTERACTION. II. DYE-INDUCED ULTRASTRUCTURAL CHANGES IN MULTIVESICULAR BODIES (ACRIDINE ORANGE PARTICLES).

    PubMed

    ROBBINS, E; MARCUS, P I; GONATAS, N K

    1964-04-01

    The brilliantly fluorescent cytoplasmic particles that accumulate in HeLa cells treated with acridine orange, previously referred to as acridine orange particles, are shown to represent acid phosphatase positive multivesicular bodies (MVB). Dynamic changes in the ultrastructure of these organelles may be induced by varying the concentration of extracellular dye and the length of exposure to the dye. Low concentrations of dye for long intervals of time lead to marked hypertrophy of the MVB and accumulation of myelin figures within them, the acid phosphatase activity being retained. High concentrations of dye for short time intervals lead initially to a diffuse distribution of dye through out the cytoplasm (cytoplasmic reddening) as viewed in the fluorescence microscope. When cells are stained in this way and incubated in a dye-free medium, the diffusely distributed dye is segregated into MVB within 1 hour. Ultrastructurally, these MVB show dilatation but no myelin figures. The process of dye segregation is energy dependent and will not occur in starved cells. This energy dependence and the occurrence of segregation via dilatation of the MVB rather than ultrastructural transformation, i.e. formation of new binding sites, suggests that the process involves an active transport mechanism. Of the various energy sources supplied to starved cells, only glucose, mannose, and pyruvate are fully effective in supporting dye segregation. Blockage of the tricarboxylic acid cycle with malonate inhibits the effects of pyruvate but not of glucose, demonstrating the efficacy of both the tricarboxylic acid and glycolytic cycles in supplying energy for the process.

  9. Physiological and ultrastructural features of human induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cell-derived skeletal myocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, Gunnar; Lainé, Jeanne; Darabi, Radbod; Fournier, Emmanuel; Perlingeiro, Rita; Tabti, Nacira

    2014-06-03

    Progress has recently been made toward the production of human skeletal muscle cells from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, the functional and ultrastructural characterization, which is crucial for disease modeling and drug discovery, remains to be documented. We show, for the first time to our knowledge, that the electrophysiological properties of human iPS-derived skeletal myocytes are strictly similar to those of their embryonic stem (ES) cell counterparts, and both are typical of aneural mammalian skeletal muscle. In both cell types, intracellular calcium signaling that links membrane depolarization to contraction occurs in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+), a unique feature of skeletal muscle. Detailed analysis of the Ca(2+) signal revealed diverse kinetics of the rising phase, and hence various rates in the release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This was mirrored by ultrastructural evidence of Ca(2+) release units, which varied in location, shape, and size. Thus, the excitation-contraction coupling machinery of both iPS- and ES-derived skeletal myocytes was functional and specific, but did not reach full maturity in culture. This is in contrast with the myofibrillar network, which displayed the same organization as in adult skeletal muscle. Overall, the present study validates the human iPS-based skeletal myocyte model in comparison with the embryonic system, and provides the functional and ultrastructural basis for its application to human skeletal muscle diseases.

  10. Enhanced effects of nonisotopic hafnium chloride in methanol as a substitute for uranyl acetate in TEM contrast of ultrastructure of fungal and plant cells.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Ken-Ichi; Inoue, Kanako; Kanematsu, Satoko; Horiuchi, Yoshitaka; Park, Pyoyun

    2011-09-01

    This ultrastructural study showed that nonisotopic methanolic hafnium chloride and aqueous lead solution was an excellent new electron stain for enhancing TEM contrasts of fungal and plant cell structures. The ultrastructural definition provided by the new stain was often superior to that provided by conventional staining with uranyl acetate and lead. Definition of fine ultrastructure was also supported by quantitative data on TEM contrast ratios of organelles and components in fungal and plant cells. In particular, polysaccharides, which were localized in cell walls, glycogen particles, starch grains, and plant Golgi vesicle components, were much more reactive to the new stain than to the conventional one. The new nonisotopic stain is useful for enhancing the contrast of ultrastructure in biological tissues and is a safer alternative to uranyl acetate. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Quantitative and qualitative morphologic, cytochemical, and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in captive Asian water monitors.

    PubMed

    Salakij, Chaleow; Salakij, Jarernsak; Prihirunkit, Kreangsak; Narkkong, Naul-Anong; Sanyathitiseree, Pornchai; Kranjanapitukkul, Kwanjai

    2014-12-01

    The Asian water monitor (Varanus salvator) is the most common monitor lizard in Thailand. Reported data regarding hematology and morphology of blood cells for this species are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess routine hematologic variables and characterize the morphology, cytochemical staining, and ultrastructural features of blood cells in the Asian water monitor. Blood samples from 55 monitors (22 males and 33 females) were obtained for a CBC. Cytochemical staining (Sudan black B [SBB], peroxidase [PO], α-naphthyl acetate esterase [ANAE], and beta-glucuronidase [BG]), and scanning and transmission electron microscopy were performed using standard methods. Determined mean (range) hematologic results of all monitors included PCV 0.32 L/L (0.20-0.44 L/L), HGB 106 g/L (62-157 g/L), WBC 15.9 × 10(9) /L (4.0-34.0 × 10(9) /L), heterophil 6.3 × 10(9) /L (1.5-17.1 × 10(9) /L, azurophil 2.6 × 10(9) /L (0.7-9.5 × 10(9) /L), basophil 0.1 (0.1-0.5 × 10(9) /L), lymphocyte 6.8 × 10(9) /L (0.5-13.1 × 10(9) /L), and monocyte 0.2 × 10(9) /L (0.04-1 × 10(9) /L) counts. Heterophils and basophils stained strongly positive with SBB, ANAE, and BG. Heterophils contained 2 types of granules, round SBB-positive and PO-negative granules, and electron-dense, large rod-shaped granules. Gamonts of Hepatozoon sp. were found in <1% RBC of 43 monitors. There was no significant difference between hematologic variables in Hepatozoon-positive and -negative monitors. Heterophils in Asian water monitors may also function as eosinophils based on cytochemical and ultrastructural features. The quantitative results may be used as base for further studies in healthy and diseased Asian water monitors. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  12. Ultrastructural studies of allergic contact dermatitis in man. Infiltrating cells at the earliest phase of spongiotic bulla formation.

    PubMed

    Komura, J; Oguchi, M; Aoshima, T; Ofuji, S

    1980-01-01

    The kind and fine structure of mononuclear cells appearing in the epidermis at about 6 h of allergic contact dermatitis were examined by electron microscopy. They were monocytes and lymphocytes, the number being about equal. The ultrastructure of monocytes was that described for normal ones in blood, and apparently actively moving, streching the intercellular connections of the keratinocytes. Lymphocytes displayed a round or oval nucleus with some electron-dense cytoplasm which contained ribosomes and polysomes but only occasional mitochondria and Golgi complexes.

  13. Ultrastructural evaluation of mesenchymal stem cells from inflamed periodontium in different in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Zaganescu, Raluca; Barbu Tudoran, Lucian; Pall, Emoke; Florea, Adrian; Roman, Alexandra; Soanca, Andrada; Mihaela Mihu, Carmen

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed to observe the behavior of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from periodontal granulation tissue (gt) when manipulated ex vivo to induce three-dimensional (3D) spheroid (aggregates) formation as well as when seeded on two bone scaffolds of animal origin. Periodontal gt was chosen as a MSC source because of its availability, considering that it is eliminated as a waste material during conventional surgical therapies. 3D aggregates of cells were generated; they were grown for 3 and 7 days, respectively, and then prepared for transmission electron microscopic analysis. The two biomaterials were seeded for 72 h with gtMSCs and prepared for scanning electronic microscopic observation. The ultrastructural analysis of 3D spheroids remarked some differences between the inner and the outer cell layers, with a certain commitment observed at the inner cells. Both scaffolds showed a relatively smooth surface at low magnification. Macro- and micropores having a scarce distribution were observed on both bone substitutes. gtMSCs grew with relative difficulty on the biomaterials. After 72 h of proliferation, gtMSCs scarcely covered the surface of bovine bone scaffolds, demonstrating fibroblast-like or star-like shapes with elongated filiform extensions. Our results add other data on the possible usefulness of gtMSC and could question the current paradigm regarding the complete removal of chronically inflamed gts from the defects during periodontal surgeries. Until optimal protocols for ex vivo manipulation of MSCs are available for clinical settings, it is advisable to use biocompatible bone substitutes that allow the development of progenitor cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Differentiation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells: correlation between the synthesis and secretion of immunoglobulins and the ultrastructure of the malignant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rubartelli, A.; Sitia, R.; Zicca, A.; Grossi, C.E.; Ferrarini, M.

    1983-08-01

    The capacity of synthesizing and secreting Ig molecules was studied in 11 patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) whose cells expressed surface IgM, in 3 patients with surface IgG-bearing cells, and in 2 IgM prolymphocytic leukemias (IgM-PLL). Three types of mu chains were detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the endogenously labeled molecules isolated by specific immunoprecipitation. Two of them were isolated from the cell lysates and were identified as the membrane mu chain and the precursor of the secreted molecules, respectively. The latter also possibly contained precursors of the membrane molecules. The third type of molecule was detected only in the culture medium and was identified as secretory mu chain. Not all of the malignant clones possessed the three types of mu chains. Only 7/13 of the IgM-bearing malignant cell clones were capable of secretion, whereas the remaining synthesized the secretory mu chains but degraded them intracellularly. Two types of molecules (membrane and secreted) were found in the IgG-bearing CLL cells from three patients. In all of them, secretion was detected. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that cells from the secreting clones had the features of more mature lymphocytes than the cells from nonsecreting clones. These features were represented by a developed Golgi apparatus, various types of vesicles (smooth and coated), and strands of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. A certain heterogeneity of the degree of maturation of the cells was observed within these clones. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that CLL clones are heterogeneous and can be distinguished through the different degrees of maturation of their cell components.

  15. Signalome-wide RNAi screen identifies GBA1 as a positive mediator of autophagic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Santosh K; Bialik, Shani; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Levin-Salomon, Vered; Merrill, Alfred H; Futerman, Anthony H; Kimchi, Adi

    2017-01-01

    Activating alternative cell death pathways, including autophagic cell death, is a promising direction to overcome the apoptosis resistance observed in various cancers. Yet, whether autophagy acts as a death mechanism by over consumption of intracellular components is still controversial and remains undefined at the ultrastructural and the mechanistic levels. Here we identified conditions under which resveratrol-treated A549 lung cancer cells die by a mechanism that fulfills the previous definition of autophagic cell death. The cells displayed a strong and sustained induction of autophagic flux, cell death was prevented by knocking down autophagic genes and death occurred in the absence of apoptotic or necroptotic pathway activation. Detailed ultrastructural characterization revealed additional critical events, including a continuous increase over time in the number of autophagic vacuoles, in particular autolysosomes, occupying most of the cytoplasm at terminal stages. This was followed by loss of organelles, disruption of intracellular membranes including the swelling of perinuclear space and, occasionally, a unique type of nuclear shedding. A signalome-wide shRNA-based viability screen was applied to identify positive mediators of this type of autophagic cell death. One top hit was GBA1, the Gaucher disease-associated gene, which encodes glucocerebrosidase, an enzyme that metabolizes glucosylceramide to ceramide and glucose. Interestingly, glucocerebrosidase expression levels and activity were elevated, concomitantly with increased intracellular ceramide levels, both of which correlated in time with the appearance of the unique death characteristics. Transfection with siGBA1 attenuated the increase in glucocerebrosidase activity and the intracellular ceramide levels. Most importantly, GBA1 knockdown prevented the strong increase in LC3 lipidation, and many of the ultrastructural changes characteristic of this type of autophagic cell death, including a significant

  16. Spent metal working fluids produced alterations on photosynthetic parameters and cell-ultrastructure of leaves and roots of maize plants.

    PubMed

    Grijalbo, Lucía; Fernandez-Pascual, Mercedes; García-Seco, Daniel; Gutierrez-Mañero, Francisco Javier; Lucas, Jose Antonio

    2013-09-15

    In this work we assess the capacity of maize (Zea mays) plants to phytoremediate spent metal working fluids (MWFs) and its effects on photosynthesis and ultrastructure of mesophyll and root cells. A corn-esparto fibre system patented by us has been used to phytoremediate MWFs in hydroponic culture. Furthermore, a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been used to improve the process. The results show that this system is capable of significantly reducing the chemical oxygen demand, under local legislation limits. However, plant systems are really damaged, mainly its photosynthetic system, as shown by the photosynthetical parameters. Nevertheless, strain inoculated improves these parameters, especially Hill reaction. The ultrastructure of photosynthetic apparatus was also affected. Chloroplast number decreased and becomes degraded in the mesophyll of MWFs treated plants. In some cases even plasmolysis of chloroplast membrane was detected. Early senescence symptoms were detected in root ultrastructural study. Severe cellular damage was observed in the parenchymal root cells of plants grown with MWFs, while vascular bundles cell remained unchanged. It seems that the inoculation minimises the damage originated by the MWFs pollutants, appearing as less degenerative organelles and higher chloroplast number than in non-inoculated ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Single-prolonged stress induce different change in the cell organelle of the hippocampal cells: A study of ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Wan, JunLai; Liu, Dongjuan; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Yuxiu; Han, Fang

    2016-01-01

    MRI studies have revealed structural and functional changes in the hippocampus of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. Previous studies conducted by us in a PTSD animal model found that single prolonged stress (SPS) induced abnormal morphological changes in hippocampal cells. The effects of SPS on cellular organelles of the hippocampal neurons remain unknown; however, these changes have been involved in SPS-induced abnormal hippocampal function. The aim of the present study is to examine ultrastructural changes in cellular organelles, including the lysosomes, mitochondria (Mit), Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), following SPS exposure using transmission electron microscopy, enzyme histochemistry, and enzyme cytochemistry. First, morphological changes of the hippocampal cells and ultrastructural changes in cellular organelles, including lysosomes, ER, and Mit-induced by SPS were observed. Results from histo- and cytochemistry demonstrated that the Mit marker enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), and the lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase, (ACP), increased following exposure to SPS. SPS induced COX release from Mit and led to a wider distribution of ACP in round lysosomes, NLY, and the Golgi. In addition, we found that SPS increased the presence of autophagosomes and induced changes in the autophagy-related protein, Beclin. These results indicated the differential effects of SPS on cellular organelles, that is, a positive effect on lysosomes as well as a negative effect on the Mit and ER. Increased lysosomal function may serve as protection against SPS-induced cell damage. Structural changes in the Mit and ER may be involved in SPS-induced disorders of energy metabolism and protein synthesis and export. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. RNA synthesis in the ultrastructural and biochemical components of the nucleolus of Chinese hamster ovary cells

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    A correlated autoradiographic and biochemical study of RNA synthesis in the nucleoli of chinese hamster ovary cells has been made. Quantitative analysis of the labeling indicates that the fibrillar ribonucleoprotein (RNP) component is labeled faster than 80S RNP and 45S RNA molecules, but approaches simultaneously a steady-state 3H to 14C ratio or grains/mum2 after 30 min of [3H]uridine incorporation. On the other hand, the 55S RNP, the 36S + 32S RNA, and the granular RNP components have the same kinetic of labeling with [3H]uridine. These results suggest that the fibrillar and granular RNP components of the nucleolus are the ultrastructural substratum of, respectively, the 80S RNP (45S RNA) and 55S RNP (36S + 32S RNA). The possibility that precursors to 80S RNP exist also in the fibrillar region of the nucleolus is strongly suggested by the rapid labeling of the fibrils on the autoradiographs. PMID:1171872

  19. The effects of diethylcarbamazine on the ultrastructure of lung cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Florêncio, M S; Saraiva, K L A; Peixoto, C A

    2005-06-01

    The pulmonary surfactant synthesis is disturbed in experimentally induced asthma, as are the intracellular storage capacity and its physical activity. These alterations may also be present in chronic asthmatic patients, and therefore the dysfunction of the pulmonary surfactant system may play an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Some clinical reports have described favorable results with the use of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in patients with bronchial asthma showing that DEC is effective in terminating acute attacks of bronchial asthma. The present study aimed to analyze the ultrastructural alterations of lung cells after treatment in vivo with diethylcarbamazine. After 12 days of treatment with DEC, when compared with control samples, type II pneumocytes showed active nuclei with abundant euchromatin and evident nucleoli, and a substantially greater number of mature secretion vesicle. On the other hand, type I pneumocytes showed no morphological alterations. After DEC treatment, lung macrophages also presented several characteristics of cellular activation such as nuclei with a prominence of euchromatin and central nucleoli as well as an abundance of early and late endossomes distributed throughout the cytoplasm. These results confirm that DEC exerts a role in the activation of important pulmonary cellular pathways, which are probably related to the clinical improvement of asthma symptoms after DEC treatment.

  20. Populus trichocarpa cell wall chemistry and ultrastructure trait variation, genetic control and genetic correlations.

    PubMed

    Porth, Ilga; Klápště, Jaroslav; Skyba, Oleksandr; Lai, Ben S K; Geraldes, Armando; Muchero, Wellington; Tuskan, Gerald A; Douglas, Carl J; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2013-02-01

    The increasing ecological and economical importance of Populus species and hybrids has stimulated research into the investigation of the natural variation of the species and the estimation of the extent of genetic control over its wood quality traits for traditional forestry activities as well as the emerging bioenergy sector. A realized kinship matrix based on informative, high-density, biallelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genetic markers was constructed to estimate trait variance components, heritabilities, and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Seventeen traits related to wood chemistry and ultrastructure were examined in 334 9-yr-old Populus trichocarpa grown in a common-garden plot representing populations spanning the latitudinal range 44° to 58.6°. In these individuals, 9342 SNPs that conformed to Hardy-Weinberg expectations were employed to assess the genomic pair-wise kinship to estimate narrow-sense heritabilities and genetic correlations among traits. The range-wide phenotypic variation in all traits was substantial and several trait heritabilities were > 0.6. In total, 61 significant genetic and phenotypic correlations and a network of highly interrelated traits were identified. The high trait variation, the evidence for moderate to high heritabilities and the identification of advantageous trait combinations of industrially important characteristics should aid in providing the foundation for the enhancement of poplar tree breeding strategies for modern industrial use.

  1. Morphology and ultrastructure of Interfilum and Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta) with special reference to cell division and thallus formation

    PubMed Central

    Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Holzinger, Andreas; Massalski, Andrzej; Karsten, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Representatives of the closely related genera, Interfilum and Klebsormidium, are characterized by unicells, dyads or packets in Interfilum and contrasting uniseriate filaments in Klebsormidium. According to the literature, these distinct thallus forms originate by different types of cell division, sporulation (cytogony) versus vegetative cell division (cytotomy), but investigations of their morphology and ultrastructure show a high degree of similarity. Cell walls of both genera are characterized by triangular spaces between cell walls of neighbouring cells and the parental wall or central space among the walls of a cell packet, exfoliations and projections of the parental wall and cap-like and H-like fragments of the cell wall. In both genera, each cell has its individual cell wall and it also has part of the common parental wall or its remnants. Therefore, vegetative cells of Interfilum and Klebsormidium probably divide by the same type of cell division (sporulation-like). Various strains representing different species of the two genera are characterized by differences in cell wall ultrastructure, particularly the level of preservation, rupture or gelatinization of the parental wall surrounding the daughter cells. The differing morphologies of representatives of various lineages result from features of the parental wall during cell separation and detachment. Cell division in three planes (usual in Interfilum and a rare event in Klebsormidium) takes place in spherical or short cylindrical cells, with the chloroplast positioned perpendicularly or obliquely to the filament (dyad) axis. The morphological differences are mainly a consequence of differing fates of the parental wall after cell division and detachment. The development of different morphologies within the two genera mostly depends on characters such as the shape of cells, texture of cell walls, mechanical interactions between cells and the influence of environmental conditions. PMID:26504365

  2. Mast cell heterogeneity between two different species of Hoplias sp. (Characiformes: Erythrinidae): response to fixatives, anatomical distribution, histochemical contents and ultrastructural features.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Juliana Silva; Chiarini-Garcia, Hélio

    2007-03-01

    Mast cells from two erythrinid species: Hoplias malabaricus and Hoplias lacerdae, were studied in several tissues throughout the body using light and electron microscopy. Mast cells were found in all organs studied, but were especially abundant in the gastrointestinal tract, and were always in association with connective tissue. These cells showed different characteristics between the two species studied, like varied morphology, anatomical distribution, density, basophilic/eosinophilic staining and heparin content. In H. malabaricus, the tissues fixed with Helly's solution contained mast cells that were basophilic, metachromatic and had heparin in their cytoplasmic granules, while the tissues fixed with Karnovsky's solution contained eosinophilic and orthochromatic mast cells in which heparin was not detected. In H. lacerdae, the use of both fixatives resulted in mast cells that were eosinophilic, orthochromatic, with no identifiable heparin content. Exclusively in H. malabaricus oesophagus, the mast cells were additionally seen among the epithelial cells. The ultrastructural studies performed in hindgut fixed with Karnovsky's solution revealed that the cytoplasmic granules seen in H. lacerdae mast cells were better preserved than in H. malabaricus mast cells. The latter had electron-lucent granules that were often merged, forming channels. The present study demonstrated that mast cells from two species belonging to the same genus or even mast cells from the same species but under different fixatives can present heterogeneous characteristics, possibly due to their functional properties or to their sensitivity to fixatives.

  3. [Quantitative changes in the ultrastructure of myocardial cells in Japanese quail during hypergravity, hypodynamia and space flight].

    PubMed

    Bózner, A; Boda, K; Dostál, J; Matĕjková, Z; Devecka, V

    1993-03-01

    The experimental work aimed at the quantitative ultrastructure of the myocardial cells of the Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica during hypergravitation, hypodynamism and space flight in a Soviet satellite. For the determination of quantitative changes of the myocardial ultrastructure a morphometrical method was used with parameters like the number of mitochondria, average mitochondrial size, relative mitochondrial volume, deficiency of cristae and relative volume of myofibrils. The quails were observed in 3 groups. The absolute control consisted of quails living in normal Earth conditions, in the laboratory group the quails were exposed to conditions of hypergravitation and hypodynamism in a specially constructed centrifuge, and in the flying group the quails were exposed to space flight in a Soviet orbital station MIR. In the group of absolute controls no pathological changes of the myocardial ultrastructure were found. In the flying group there were no significant changes, with the exception of decreased relative volume of myofibrils, which however agrees with the findings on symptoms corresponding to human and animal heart weakness during space flights. In the laboratory group, pathological changes were observed in each of the fractions. The most significant pathological findings were found in the group controls in the center and in hypergravitation combined with hypodynamism. It can be concluded that the laboratories can simulate conditions induced by the start and flight of space ships. (Fig. 2, Ref, 8.)

  4. Cytological, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study of the adenohypophyseal pars distalis of the kid (Capra hircus): the TSH cell.

    PubMed

    Gomez, M A; Navarro, J A; Gomez, S; Camara, P; Gomez, J C; Bernabé, A

    1989-12-01

    The structure and ultrastructure of the adenohypophyseal pars distalis in kids of the Murciano-granadiana breed (18 males and 12 females), aged 2-3 months and with an average carcass weight of 8 kg has been studied. Techniques of staining (Tetrachrome Herlant's, and Cleveland-Wolfe) and histochemistry (PAS, PAS-OG and BA-PAS-OG) contrasted with immunolabelling (PAP) have been used. In addition an ultrastructural study has been made and nucleus and cytoplasm, secretory granules, mitochondria and lysosomes have been measured with a semiautomatic image analyzer (IBAS-1). TSH cells are found in sagittal section in the anterior area and in an antero-caudodorsal band, and transversally in the ventral and medial region; they are 6% and their average size is 14.15 microns. Ultrastructurally they are a single cellular type with spherical granules whose size is 195 nm in males and 149 in females; these granules are characterized by a clear halo and a variable electronic density. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is found as slightly enlarged vesicles with a homogeneous and moderately electro-dense content or in concentric stratifications.

  5. Ultrastructural Characterization of Hyperactive Endothelial Cells, Pericytes and Fibroblasts in Hypertrophic and Nodular Port Wine Stain Lesions.

    PubMed

    Gao, L; Yin, R; Wang, H; Guo, W; Song, W; Nelson, J S; Tan, W; Wang, G

    2017-02-09

    Port wine stain (PWS) is a congenital vascular malformation of human skin involving the superficial vascular plexus,(1-4) but the molecular pathogenesis of these lesions remains incompletely understood.(5-8) We herein performed a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study to determine the main pathological characteristics and ultrastructure of various cell types, including endothelial cells (ECs), pericytes, fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in hypertrophic and nodular PWS. The study was approved by the Investigational Review Board at the Xijing Hospital, Xi'an, China. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification and Ultrastructural Characterization of a Novel Nuclear Degradation Complex in Differentiating Lens Fiber Cells

    PubMed Central

    Costello, M. Joseph; Brennan, Lisa A.; Gilliland, Kurt O.; Johnsen, Sönke; Kantorow, Marc

    2016-01-01

    An unresolved issue in structural biology is how the encapsulated lens removes membranous organelles to carry out its role as a transparent optical element. In this ultrastructural study, we establish a mechanism for nuclear elimination in the developing chick lens during the formation of the organelle-free zone. Day 12–15 chick embryo lenses were examined by high-resolution confocal light microscopy and thin section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) following fixation in 10% formalin and 4% paraformaldehyde, and then processing for confocal or TEM as described previously. Examination of developing fiber cells revealed normal nuclei with dispersed chromatin and clear nucleoli typical of cells in active ribosome production to support protein synthesis. Early signs of nuclear degradation were observed about 300 μm from the lens capsule in Day 15 lenses where the nuclei display irregular nuclear stain and prominent indentations that sometimes contained a previously undescribed macromolecular aggregate attached to the nuclear envelope. We have termed this novel structure the nuclear excisosome. This complex by confocal is closely adherent to the nuclear envelope and by TEM appears to degrade the outer leaflet of the nuclear envelope, then the inner leaflet up to 500 μm depth. The images suggest that the nuclear excisosome separates nuclear membrane proteins from lipids, which then form multilamellar assemblies that stain intensely in confocal and in TEM have 5 nm spacing consistent with pure lipid bilayers. The denuded nucleoplasm then degrades by condensation and loss of structure in the range 600 to 700 μm depth producing pyknotic nuclear remnants. None of these stages display any classic autophagic vesicles or lysosomes associated with nuclei. Uniquely, the origin of the nuclear excisosome is from filopodial-like projections of adjacent lens fiber cells that initially contact, and then appear to fuse with the outer nuclear membrane. These filopodial

  7. The role of Kupffer cells in the morphogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis - ultrastructural findings. The first report in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Lotowska, Joanna Maria; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta; Lebensztejn, Dariusz Marek

    2013-03-01

    Until now studies concerning the involvement of hepatic nonparenchymal cells (NPCs), particularly Kupffer cells/macrophages (KCs/MPs), in the pathogenesis of human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have been limited to adult patients; there are no similar reports referring to children. This study aimed to explore, based on ultrastructural analysis, the role of KCs/MPs in the morphogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in children. Ultrastructural investigations of KCs were conducted on liver bioptates obtained from 10 children, aged 2-14 years, with clinicopathologically diagnosed NASH. Bioptatic material was fixed in solution of paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer, routinely processed for transmission-electron microscopic analysis and examined using an Opton EM microscope. The current ultrastructural study revealed within the hepatic sinusoids the presence of numerous enlarged KCs with increased phagocytic activity, which reduced or blocked vascular lumen. Interestingly, the activated KCs not only contained primary and secondary lysosomes, altered mitochondria, and well-developed Golgi apparatus, but also absorbed fragments of erythrocytes. Such macrophages were frequently seen very close to the transformed hepatic stellate cells (T-HSCs) and progenitor/oval cells. Intensive fibrosis was observed in the vicinity of activated KCs/MPs. Bundles of collagen fibers were seen directly adhering to these cells and to other NPCs, especially T-HSCs. KCs are involved in the morphogenesis and development of pediatric NASH. Engulfment of erythrocytes by hepatic macrophages may lead to the accumulation of iron derived from hemoglobin in liver and play a role in triggering the generation of oxidative stress in the disease course.

  8. Assessing light-independent effects of hypericin on cell viability, ultrastructure and metabolism in human glioma and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Huntosova, Veronika; Novotova, Marta; Nichtova, Zuzana; Balogova, Lucia; Maslanakova, Maria; Petrovajova, Dana; Stroffekova, Katarina

    2017-04-01

    Cell exposure to light-independent effects of photosensitizers (PS) used in PDT is clinically relevant when PS affect the pro-apoptotic cascade. In many malignant cells, Hypericin (Hyp) has PS displayed light-dependent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects with no cytotoxicity in the dark. Recent studies have shown that Hyp also exhibited light-independent cytotoxic effects in a wide range of concentrations. The molecular mechanisms underlying Hyp light-independent (dark) toxicity may be due to its interaction with different molecules at the Hyp accumulation sites including mitochondria, and these mechanisms are not understood in detail. Here, we demonstrate that in human glioma and endothelial cells, Hyp displayed light-independent effects at several sub-cellular levels (ultrastructure, mitochondria function and metabolism, and protein synthesis). Taking together previously published and our present results, the findings strongly suggest that Hyp light independent effects: (i) depend on the cell type and metabolism; (ii) underlying molecular mechanisms are due to Hyp interaction with the multiple target molecules including Bcl2 family of proteins. In addition, the findings suggest that Hyp without illumination can be explored as an adjuvant therapeutic drug in combination with chemo- or radiation cancer therapy.

  9. Effects of chronic malnourishment and aging on the ultrastructure of pyramidal cells of the dorsal hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Castro-Chavira, Susana Angelica; Aguilar-Vázquez, Azucena Ruth; Martínez-Chávez, Yvonne; Palma, Lourdes; Padilla-Gómez, Euridice; Diaz-Cintra, Sofia

    2016-10-01

    Malnourishment (M) produces permanent alterations during the development of the CNS and might modify the aging process. In pyramidal neurons (PN) of the hippocampus, which are associated with learning and memory performance, few studies have focused on changes at the subcellular level under chronic malnutrition (ChM) in young (Y, 2 months old) and aged (A, 22 months old) rats. The present work evaluated the extent to which ChM disrupts organelles in PN of the dorsal hippocampus CA1 as compared to controls (C). Ultrastructural analysis was performed at 8000×  and 20 000×  magnification: Nucleus eccentricity and somatic, cytoplasmic, and nuclear areas were measured; and in the PN perikaryon, density indices (number of organelles/cytoplasmic area) of Golgi membrane systems (GMS, normal, and swollen), mitochondria (normal and abnormal), and vacuolated organelles (lysosomes, lipofuscin granules, and multivesicular bodies (MVB)) were determined. The density of abnormal mitochondria, swollen GMS, and MVB increased significantly in the AChM group compared to the other groups. The amount of lipofuscin was significantly greater in the AChM than in the YChM groups - a sign of oxidative stress due to malnutrition and aging; however, in Y animals, ChM showed no effect on organelle density or the cytoplasmic area. An increased density of lysosomes as well as nucleus eccentricity was observed in the AC group, which also showed an increase in the cytoplasmic area. Malnutrition produces subcellular alterations in vulnerable hippocampal pyramidal cells, and these alterations may provide an explanation for the previously reported deficient performance of malnourished animals in a spatial memory task in which aging and malnutrition were shown to impede the maintenance of long-term memory.

  10. Assessment of ultrastructure in isolated cochlear hair cells using a procedure for rapid freezing before freeze-fracture and deep-etching.

    PubMed

    Forge, A; Davies, S; Zajic, G

    1991-06-01

    Separated cochlear outer hair cells and isolated strips of organ of Corti containing hair cells and supporting cells have been rapidly frozen before freeze-fracture and deep-etching by immersion of samples sandwiched between two copper plates into liquid nitrogen-cooled propane: isopentane. Assessment of this procedure has shown that no significant freezing damage occurs. The ultrastructure of the hair cells revealed by freeze-fracture of these non-chemically fixed preparations was generally very similar to that seen in fixed material. This indicates that the processing of cochlear tissue normally used for electron microscopy produces few obvious structural artefacts. It also demonstrated that procedures for isolating cochlear hair cells generally do not affect cell structure significantly. However, some isolated hair cells did show abnormalities within the membranes of the lateral cisternae. Such membrane alterations, which would not be identified by light microscopy, occurred to a variable extent but were more commonly present after prolonged periods in maintenance medium. Deep-etching of the preparations to examine extracellular features around stereocilia revealed clearly lateral cross-links between stereocilia. However, tip-links could not be positively identified in either unfixed or prefixed preparations.

  11. [Ultrastructure of primordial germ cells of Lacerta muralis and Lacerta viridis. Comparison with Lacerta vivipara (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hubert, J

    1974-01-01

    The ultrastructure of primordial germ cells migrating through the embryo and situated in genital crests is described in Lacerta viridis and Lacerta muralis. It is compared with the germ cells of Lacerta vivipara previously studied. The cytoplasmic ultrastructure is the same in the three Lacertilians, but several nuclear differences are observed. The outline of the nucleus is regular and his shape is spheric in Lacerta vivipara, but in the two others Lacertilians the nucleus shows a very sinuous outline with deep cytoplasmic invaginations. There are fibrous nuclear bodies in the three Lacertilians but the germ cells of Lacerta muralis have in addition granular bodies. The nucleolus in Lacerta viridis and Lacerta muralis is very different from the annular nucleolus of the germ cells of Lacerta vivipara. It is possible to distinguish three types of nucleoli: a compact nucleolus in Lacerta viridis and Lacerta muralis, a granular cords nucleolus in Lacerta viridis, a vacuolar nucleolus in Lacerta muralis. Each type can be seen during the migration of the gonocytes or during the colonisation of the genital region. Probably there is a relationship between these different architectures and the activity of nucleolus in synthesis and liberation of ribosomal RNA. However the nuclear fibrillar area which we have previosly called "masse para nucléolaire" in Lacerta vivipara, is present in the germ cells of Lacerta viridis and Lacerta muralis.

  12. Characterisation of cell damage and death in embryonic mesencephalic tissue: a study on ultrastructure, vital stains and protease activity.

    PubMed

    Emgård, M; Blomgren, K; Brundin, P

    2002-01-01

    Dissociated embryonic ventral mesencephalic tissue is a source of dopaminergic neurones in both cell culture and neural transplantation studies. Around 90% of grafted dopaminergic neurones die within 1 week after transplantation. Little is known about when the cell death is triggered and what forms of cell death predominate. Using electron microscopy, we characterised ultrastructural changes in dissected embryonic day 14 rat mesencephalic tissue before and after tissue dissociation. In addition, cell viability was evaluated using Trypan Blue and Hoechst/Ethidium Homodimer. Several cells exhibited leaky outer membranes (permitting entry of vital stains) and ultrastructural degeneration already immediately after the mesencephalon was dissected, and before it was mechanically disrupted. After 2 h at room temperature, 90% of the remaining cells had intact outer membranes. However, when estimating cells lost acutely in the tissue dissociation, in addition to cells exhibiting condensed chromatin and organellar changes, we suggest that only around 14% of the cells initially dissected in the mesencephalic tissue pieces remained healthy after 2 h. There was a peak in calpain activity (specific cleavage of fodrin) immediately following tissue dissociation, and it subsided during the next few hours. Caspase-3 activity was initially low, but increased almost 20-fold 4 h after tissue disruption. Interestingly, extensive degradation of caspase-3 occurred already directly after dissection and was at least partly calpain-dependent. Our data suggest that, in addition to cells undergoing primary necrosis, some cells undergo apoptotic or related changes soon after tissue harvesting, and eventually undergo a secondary necrosis. In summary, embryonic mesencephalic cells exhibit multiple degenerative changes very early on in the neural transplant/tissue culture preparation protocol.

  13. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of interstitial cells of Cajal in the rabbit duodenum. Presence of a single cilium.

    PubMed

    Junquera, Concepción; Martínez-Ciriano, Carmen; Castiella, Tomás; Serrano, Pedro; Azanza, María Jesús; Junquera, Santiago Ramón y Cajal

    2007-01-01

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal discovered a new type of cell related to the myenteric plexus and also to the smooth muscle cells of the circular muscle layer of the intestine. Based on their morphology, relationships and staining characteristics, he considered these cells as primitive neurons. One century later, despite major improvements in cell biology, the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are still controversial for many researchers. The aim of study was to perform an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the ICCs in the rabbit duodenum. We have found interstitial cells that are positive for c-Kit, CD34 and nestin and are also positive for Ki67 protein, tightly associated with somatic cell proliferation. By means of electron microscopy, we describe ICCs around enteric ganglia. They present triangular or spindle forms and a very voluminous nucleus with scarce perinuclear chromatin surrounded by a thin perinuclear cytoplasm that expands with long cytoplasmic processes. ICC processes penetrate among the smooth muscle cells and couple with the processes of other ICCs located in the connective tissue of the circular muscle layer and establish a three-dimensional network. Intercellular contacts by means of gap-like junctions are frequent. ICCs also establish gap-like junctions with smooth muscle cells. We also observe a population of interstitial cells of stellate morphology in the connective tissue that sur-rounds the muscle bundles in the circular muscle layer, usually close to nervous trunks. These cells establish different types of contacts with the muscle cells around them. In addition, the presence of a single cilium showing a structure 9 + 0 in an ICC is demonstrated for the first time. In conclusion, we report positive staining c-Kit, CD34, nestin and Ki 67. ICCs fulfilled the usual transmission electron microscopy (TEM) criteria. A new ultrastructural characteristic of at least some ICCs is demonstrated: the presence of a single cilium. Some

  14. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of interstitial cells of Cajal in the rabbit duodenum. Presence of a single cilium

    PubMed Central

    Junquera, Concepción; Martínez-Ciriano, Carmen; Castiella, Tomás; Serrano, Pedro; Azanza, María Jesús; Ramón y Cajal Junquera, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Santiago Ramón y Cajal discovered a new type of cell related to the myenteric plexus and also to the smooth muscle cells of the circular muscle layer of the intestine. Based on their morphology, relationships and staining characteristics, he considered these cells as primitive neurons. One century later, despite major improvements in cell biology, the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are still controversial for many researchers. The aim of study was to perform an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the ICCs in the rabbit duo-denum. We have found interstitial cells that are positive for c-Kit, CD34 and nestin and are also positive for Ki67 protein, tightly associated with somatic cell proliferation. By means of electron microscopy, we describe ICCs around enteric ganglia. They present triangular or spindle forms and a very voluminous nucleus with scarce per-inuclear chromatin surrounded by a thin perinuclear cytoplasm that expands with long cytoplasmic processes. ICC processes penetrate among the smooth muscle cells and couple with the processes of other ICCs located in the connective tissue of the circular muscle layer and establish a three-dimensional network. Intercellular con-tacts by means of gap-like junctions are frequent. ICCs also establish gap-like junctions with smooth muscle cells. We also observe a population of interstitial cells of stellate morphology in the connective tissue that sur-rounds the muscle bundles in the circular muscle layer, usually close to nervous trunks. These cells establish different types of contacts with the muscle cells around them. In addition, the presence of a single cilium show-ing a structure 9 + 0 in an ICC is demonstrated for the first time. In conclusion, we report positive staining c-kit, CD34, nestin and Ki 67. ICCs fulfilled the usual transmission electron microscopy (TEM) criteria. A new ultrastructural characteristic of at least some ICCs is demonstrated: the presence of a single

  15. High resolution imaging of the ultrastructure of living algal cells using soft x-ray contact microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, T.W.; Cotton, R.A.; Page, A.M.; Tomie, T.; Majima, T.; Stead, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    Soft x-ray contact microscopy provides the biologist with a technique for examining the ultrastructure of living cells at a much higher resolution than that possible by various forms of light microscopy. Readout of the developed photoresist using atomic force microscopy (AFM) produces a detailed map of the carbon densities generated in the resist following exposure of the specimen to water-window soft x-rays (2--4nm) produced by impact of a high energy laser onto a suitable target. The established high resolution imaging method of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has inherent problems in the chemical pre-treatment required for producing the ultrathin sections necessary for this technique. Using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas the ultrastructural appearance of the cells following SXCM and TEM has been compared. While SXCM confirms the basic structural organization of the cell as seen by TEM (e.g., the organization of the thylakoid membranes within the chloroplast; flagellar insertion into the cytoplasm), there are important differences. These are in the appearance of the cell covering and the presence of carbon-dense spherical cellular inclusions.

  16. Silicon alleviates cadmium toxicity by enhanced photosynthetic rate and modified bundle sheath's cell chloroplasts ultrastructure in maize.

    PubMed

    Vaculík, Marek; Pavlovič, Andrej; Lux, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Silicon was shown to alleviate the negative effects of various biotic and abiotic stresses on plant growth. Although the positive role of Si on toxic and heavy metal Cd has been already described, the mechanisms have been explained only partially and still remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effect of Si on photosynthetic-related processes in maize exposed to two different levels of Cd via measurements of net photosynthetic rate (AN), chlorophyll a fluorescence and pigment analysis, as well as studies of leaf tissue anatomy and cell ultrastructure using bright-field and transmission electron microscopy. We found that Si actively alleviated the toxic syndromes of Cd by increasing AN, effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (ϕPSII) and content of assimilation pigments, although did not decrease the concentration of Cd in leaf tissues. Cadmium did not affect the leaf anatomy and ultrastructure of leaf mesophyll's cell chloroplasts; however, Cd negatively affected thylakoid formation in chloroplasts of bundle sheath cells, and this was alleviated by Si. Improved thylakoid formation in bundle sheath's cell chloroplasts may contribute to Si-induced enhancement of photosynthesis and related increase in biomass production in C4 plant maize.

  17. Cloned mouse cells with natural killer function and cloned suppressor T cells express ultrastructural and biochemical features not shared by cloned inducer T cells

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We have examined the morphology, cytochemistry, and biochemistry of mouse leukocyte subsets by analyzing cloned leukocyte populations specialized to perform different immunologic functions. Cloned cells expressing high-affinity plasma membrane receptors for IgE and mediating natural killer (NK) lysis and cloned antigen-specific suppressor T cells contained prominent osmiophilic cytoplasmic granules similar by ultrastructure to those of mouse basophils. Both clones also incorporated 35SO4 into granule-associated sulfated glycosaminoglycans, expressed a characteristic ultrastructural pattern of nonspecific esterase activity, incorporated exogenous [3H]5-hydroxytryptamine, and contained cytoplasmic deposits of particulate glycogen. By contrast, cloned inducer T cells lacked cytoplasmic granules and glycogen, incorporated neither 35SO4 nor [3H]5-hydroxytryptamine, and differed from the other clones in pattern of nonspecific esterase activity. These findings establish that certain cloned cells with NK activity and cloned suppressor T cells express morphologic and biochemical characteristics heretofore associated with basophilic granulocytes. However, these clones differ in surface glycoprotein expression and immunologic function, and the full extent of the similarities and differences among these populations and basophils remains to be determined. PMID:6220105

  18. Phenotypic, ultra-structural and functional characterization of bovine peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dendritic cells (DC) are multifunctional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets...

  19. Changes in ultrastructure and Fourier transform infrared spectrum of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium cells after exposure to stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, A; Prieto, M

    2010-11-01

    The effect of exposure to acid (pH 2.5), alkaline (pH 11.0), heat (55°C), and oxidative (40 mM H₂O₂) lethal conditions on the ultrastructure and global chemical composition of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium CECT 443 cells was studied using transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with multivariate statistical methods (hierarchical cluster analysis and factor analysis). Infrared spectra exhibited marked differences in the five spectral regions for all conditions tested compared to those of nontreated control cells, which suggests the existence of a complex bacterial stress response in which modifications in a wide variety of cellular compounds are involved. The visible spectral changes observed in all of the spectral regions, together with ultrastructural changes observed by transmission electron microscopy and data obtained from membrane integrity tests, indicate the existence of membrane damage or alterations in membrane composition after heat, acid, alkaline, and oxidative treatments. Results obtained in this study indicate the potential of FT-IR spectroscopy to discriminate between intact and injured bacterial cells and between treatment technologies, and they show the adequacy of this technique to study the molecular aspects of bacterial stress response.

  20. Changes in Ultrastructure and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Cells after Exposure to Stress Conditions ▿

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, A.; Prieto, M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of exposure to acid (pH 2.5), alkaline (pH 11.0), heat (55°C), and oxidative (40 mM H2O2) lethal conditions on the ultrastructure and global chemical composition of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium CECT 443 cells was studied using transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with multivariate statistical methods (hierarchical cluster analysis and factor analysis). Infrared spectra exhibited marked differences in the five spectral regions for all conditions tested compared to those of nontreated control cells, which suggests the existence of a complex bacterial stress response in which modifications in a wide variety of cellular compounds are involved. The visible spectral changes observed in all of the spectral regions, together with ultrastructural changes observed by transmission electron microscopy and data obtained from membrane integrity tests, indicate the existence of membrane damage or alterations in membrane composition after heat, acid, alkaline, and oxidative treatments. Results obtained in this study indicate the potential of FT-IR spectroscopy to discriminate between intact and injured bacterial cells and between treatment technologies, and they show the adequacy of this technique to study the molecular aspects of bacterial stress response. PMID:20851964

  1. Putative odour receptors localize in cilia of olfactory receptor cells in rat and mouse: a freeze-substitution ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Menco, B P; Cunningham, A M; Qasba, P; Levy, N; Reed, R R

    1997-05-01

    Two different polyclonal antibodies were raised to synthetic peptides corresponding to distinct putative odour receptors of rat and mouse. Both antibodies selectively labelled olfactory cilia as seen with cryofixation and immunogold ultrastructural procedures. Regions of the olfactory organ where label was detected were consistent with those found at LM levels. Immunopositive cells were rare; only up to about 0.4% of these receptor cells were labelled. Despite chemical, species, and topographic differences both antibodies behaved identically in their ultrastructural labelling patterns. For both antibodies, labelling was very specific for olfactory cilia; both bound amply to the thick proximal and the thinner and long distal parts of the cilia. Dendritic knobs showed little labelling if any. Dendritic receptor cell structures below the knobs, supporting cell structures, and respiratory cilia did not immunolabel. There were no obvious differences in morphology between labelled and unlabelled receptor cells and their cilia. Labelling could be followed up to a distance of about 15 microns from the knobs along the distal parts of the cilia. When labelled cells were observed, this signal was detectable in two, sometimes three, sections taken through these cells while being consistently absent in neighbouring cells. This pattern argues strongly for the specificity of the labelling. In conclusion, very few receptor cells labelled with the antibodies to putative odour receptors. Additionally the olfactory cilia, the cellular regions that first encounter odour molecules and that are thought to transduce the odorous signal, displayed the most intense labelling with both antibodies. Consequently, the results showed these cilia as having many copies of the putative receptors. Finally, similar patterns of subcellular labelling were displayed in two different species, despite the use of different antibodies. Thus, this study provides compelling evidence that the heptahelical

  2. Putative odour receptors localize in cilia of olfactory receptor cells in rat and mouse: a freeze-substitution ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Menco, B P; Cunningham, A M; Qasba, P; Levy, N; Reed, R R

    1997-10-01

    Two different polyclonal antibodies were raised to synthetic peptides corresponding to distinct putative odour receptors of rat and mouse. Both antibodies selectively labelled olfactory cilia as seen with cryofixation and immunogold ultrastructural procedures. Regions of the olfactory organ where label was detected were consistent with those found at LM levels. Immunopositive cells were rare; only up to about 0.4% of these receptor cells were labelled. Despite chemical, species, and topographic differences both antibodies behaved identically in their ultrastructural labelling patterns. For both antibodies, labelling was very specific for olfactory cilia; both bound amply to the thick proximal and the thinner and long distal parts of the cilia. Dendritic knobs showed little labelling if any. Dendritic receptor cell structures below the knobs, supporting cell structures, and respiratory cilia did not immunolabel. There were no obvious differences in morphology between labelled and unlabelled receptor cells and their cilia. Labelling could be followed up to a distance of about 15 microns from the knobs along the distal parts of the cilia. When labelled cells were observed, this signal was detectable in two, sometimes three, sections taken through these cells while being consistently absent in neighbouring cells. This pattern argues strongly for the specificity of the labelling. In conclusion, very few receptor cells labelled with the antibodies to putative odour receptors. Additionally the olfactory cilia, the cellular regions that first encounter odour molecules and that are thought to transduce the odorous signal, displayed the most intense labelling with both antibodies. Consequently, the results showed these cilia as having many copies of the putative receptors. Finally, similar patterns of subcellular labelling were displayed in two different species, despite the use of different antibodies. Thus, this study provides compelling evidence that the heptahelical

  3. Morphological and ultrastructural characterization of ionoregulatory cells in the teleost Oreochromis niloticus following salinity challenge combining complementary confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy using a novel prefixation immunogold labeling technique.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Sophie; Rana, Krishen J; Bron, James E

    2013-10-01

    Aspects of ionoregulatory or mitochondria-rich cell (MRC) differentiation and adaptation in Nile tilapia yolk-sac larvae following transfer from freshwater to elevated salinities, that is, 12.5 and 20 ppt are described. Investigations using immunohistochemistry on whole-mount Nile tilapia larvae using anti- Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase as a primary antibody and Fluoronanogold™ (Nanoprobes) as a secondary immunoprobe allowed fluorescent labeling with the high resolution of confocal scanning laser microscopy combined with the detection of immunolabeled target molecules at an ultrastructural level using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It reports, for the first time, various developmental stages of MRCs within the epithelial layer of the tail of yolk-sac larvae, corresponding to immature, developing, and mature MRCs, identifiable by their own characteristic ultrastructure and form. Following transfer to hyperosmotic salinities the density of immunogold particles and well as the intricacy of the tubular system appeared to increase. In addition, complementary confocal scanning laser microscopy allowed identification of immunopositive ramifying extensions that appeared to emanate from the basolateral portion of the cell that appeared to be correlated with the localization of subsurface tubular areas displaying immunogold labeled Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase. This integrated approach describes a reliable and repeatable prefixation immunogold labeling technique allowing precise visualization of NaK within target cells combined with a 3D imaging that offers valuable insights into MRC dynamics at an ultrastructural level. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Antioxidant activity and ultrastructural changes in gastric cancer cell lines induced by Northeastern Thai edible folk plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phytochemical products have a critical role in the drug discovery process. This promising possibility, however, necessitates the need to confirm their scientific verification before use. Hence, this study aims to evaluate (1) the antioxidant activity, (2) cytotoxicity potential, and (3) the effect on ultrastructural alteration in gastric cancer cell lines through exposure to fractions of three local Northeastern Thai edible plants. Methods Plants, Syzygium gratum, Justicia gangetica and Limnocharis flava were extracted with ethyl acetate, and each crude extract analysed for their total phenolics content by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Their antioxidant activity was assessed using the ABTS system. The extracts were then assayed for cytotoxicity on two gastric cancer cell lines Kato-III and NUGC-4, and compared with Hs27 fibroblasts as a control using the MTT assay. The cell viability (%), IC50 values, as well as the ultrastructural alterations were evaluated after treatment with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results The total phenolic values of the ethyl acetate extracts were well correlated with the antioxidant capacity, with extracted product of S. gratum displaying the highest level of antioxidant activity (a 10-fold greater response) over J. gangetica and L. flava respectively. Exposure of S. gratum and J. gangetica extracts to normal cell lines (Hs27) resulted in marginal cytotoxicity effects. However, through a dose-dependent assay S. gratum and J. gangetica extracts produced cytotoxicological effects in just over 75 percent of Kato-III and NUGC-4 cell lines. In addition, apoptotic characteristic was shown under TEM in both cancer cell lines with these two extracts, whereas characteristics of autophagy was found in cell lines after post exposure to extracts from L. flava. Conclusions From these three plants, S. gratum had the highest contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. All of them found to contain compound(s) with

  5. Rapid microwave fixation of rat mast cells. I. Localization of granule chymase with an ultrastructural postembedding immunogold technique.

    PubMed

    Login, G R; Galli, S J; Morgan, E; Arizono, N; Schwartz, L B; Dvorak, A M

    1987-11-01

    We defined the ultrastructural localization of chymase in rat peritoneal mast cells using standard aldehyde fixation and a newly described microwave fixation method (Login GR, Dvorak AM: Microwave energy fixation for electron microscopy. Am J Pathol 120: 230, 1985; Login GR, Stavinoha WB, Dvorak AM: Ultrafast microwave energy fixation for electron microscopy. J Histochem Cytochem 34:381, 1986) and postembedding immunogold labeling. Thin sections were exposed first to goat IgG anti-rat chymase and second to gold-conjugated rabbit Ig directed against goat IgG. By transmission electron microscopy, gold particles were localized to the matrix of cytoplasmic granules. Control sections treated with nonimmune sera did not exhibit labeling of mast cells. Thin sections treated simultaneously with purified rat mast cell chymase and anti-chymase antibody in competition studies, showed a marked reduction in granule staining. These findings demonstrate that a microwave fixation method can be used to rapidly fix cell suspensions for postembedding immunocytochemical studies.

  6. [Changes of ultrastructure of the capillary endotheliocytes of ischemized and nonaffected muscular tissue after transplantation of human hemopoietic stem cells of fetal liver in experiment in vivo].

    PubMed

    Saliutin, R V; Zadorozhna, T D; Medvets'kyĭ, E B; Driuk, M F; Petrenko, A Iu

    2010-04-01

    In experiment was investigated ultrastructure of the capillaries endothelial cells and histological peculiarities of muscular tissue on various stages after transplantation of hemopoietic stem cells of fetal liver (HSCFL). There was proved, that in ischemic environment HSCFL stimulate processes of angiogenesis, and in the case of transplantation into intact muscular tissue they are differentiating into the tissue macrophages, not interfering with muscular tissue structure.

  7. ABCB5 identifies immunoregulatory dermal cells

    PubMed Central

    Schatton, Tobias; Yang, Jun; Kleffel, Sonja; Uehara, Mayuko; Barthel, Steven R.; Schlapbach, Christoph; Zhan, Qian; Dudeney, Stephen; Mueller, Hansgeorg; Lee, Nayoung; de Vries, Juliane C.; Meier, Barbara; Vander Beken, Seppe; Kluth, Mark A.; Ganss, Christoph; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Abdi, Reza; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Murphy, George F.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Frank, Natasha Y.; Frank, Markus H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cell-based strategies represent a new frontier in the treatment of immune-mediated disorders. However, the paucity of markers for isolation of molecularly-defined immunomodulatory cell populations poses a barrier to this field. Here we show that ATP-binding cassette member B5 (ABCB5) identifies dermal immunoregulatory cells (DIRCs) capable of exerting therapeutic immunoregulatory functions through engagement of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1). Purified Abcb5+ DIRCs suppressed T-cell proliferation, evaded immune rejection, homed to recipient immune tissues and induced Tregs in vivo. In fully MHC-mismatched cardiac allotransplantation models, allogeneic DIRCs significantly prolonged allograft survival. Blockade of DIRC-expressed PD-1 reversed the inhibitory effects of DIRCs on T-cell activation, inhibited DIRC-dependent Treg induction, and attenuated DIRC-induced prolongation of cardiac allograft survival, indicating that DIRC immunoregulatory function is mediated, at least in part, through PD-1. Our results identify ABCB5+ DIRCs as a distinct immunoregulatory cell population and suggest promising roles of this expandable cell subset in cellular immunotherapy. PMID:26321644

  8. Identifying ECM Mediators of Tumor Cell Dormancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    proliferating cells. f) At time of euthanasia, stage of estrous will be determined by vaginal smear so that inter- animal variation due to estrous...ratio of the number of distinct peptides identified for each protein divided by the total number of peptides identified in the two hour run are...displayed as the peptide count ratio. Using this peptide counting label-free quantification approach, surprisingly, suggested that the three fibrillar

  9. Ultrastructural changes in the parenchymal liver cells of rats treated with high doses of rifampicin.

    PubMed Central

    Piriou, A.; Maissiat, R.; Jacqueson, A.; Warnet, J. M.; Claude, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Ultrastructural study of hepatic parenchyma was carried out in female Wistar rats after they had received high doses (400 mg X kg-1) of rifampicin for 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days. Morphological changes in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria were observed as early as day 1 of intoxication. These changes corroborate the biochemical data available regarding RFP-induced fatty liver. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 & 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:3580280

  10. Acute respiratory bronchiolitis: an ultrastructural and autoradiographic study of epithelial cell injury and renewal in Rhesus monkeys exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, W.L.; Dungworth, D.L.; Schwartz, L.W.; Tyler, W.S.

    1980-03-01

    The pathogenesis of acute respiratory bronchiolitis was examined in Rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.8 ppM ozone for 4 to 50 hours. Epithelial injury and renewal were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by correlated techniques of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by light-microscopic autoradiography following labeling with tritiated thymidine. Extensive degeneration and necrosis of Type 1 epithelial cells occurred on the respiratory bronchiolar wall during the initial 4 to 12 hours of exposure. Increased numbers of labeled epithelial cells were present in this region after 18 hours of exposure, and the highest labeling index (18%) was measured after 50 hours of exposure. Most (67 to 80%) of the labeled cells and all the mitotic epithelial cells (22) observed ultrastructurally were cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells. Of the labeled epithelial cells, 20 to 33% were Type 2 epithelial cells. After 50 hours of exposure the respiratory bronchiolar epithelium was hyperplastic. The predominant inflammatory cell in respiratory bronchiolar exudate was the alveolar macrophage. Monkeys that were exposed for 50 hours and allowed to recover in unozonized air for 7 days had incomplete resolution of respiratory bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia. The results indicate that Type 1 epithelial cells lining respiratory bronchioles are the cell types most sensitive to injury and that both cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells and Type 2 epithelial cells function as stem cells in epithelial renewal.

  11. Ultrastructural study of sperm cells in Acanthocolpidae: the case of Stephanostomum murielae and Stephanostomoides tenuis (Digenea)

    PubMed Central

    Bakhoum, Abdoulaye J.S.; Justine, Jean-Lou; Bray, Rodney A.; Bâ, Cheikh T.; Marchand, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    The mature spermatozoa of Stephanostomum murielae and Stephanostomoides tenuis are described by transmission electron microscopy. They present several ultrastructural features previously reported in other digeneans. Their spermatozoa possess two axonemes of different length showing the 9 + ‘1’ trepaxonematan pattern, four attachment zones, two mitochondria (with an anterior moniliform one in S. murielae), a nucleus, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. The main differences between the mature spermatozoon of S. murielae and S. tenuis are the maximum number of cortical microtubules, the morphology of the anterior spermatozoon extremity and the anterior mitochondrion. This study is the first concerning members of the family Acanthocolpidae. The main ultrastructural characteristics discussed are the morphology of the anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, antero-lateral electron dense material, external ornamentations, spine-like bodies and number and morphology of mitochondria. In addition, the phylogenetic significance of all these ultrastructural features is discussed and compared to molecular results in order to highlight the complex relationships in the Digenea. PMID:25699200

  12. Composition and ultrastructure of the suberized cell wall of isolated crystal idioblasts from Agave americana L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Espelie, K E; Wattendorff, J; Kolattukudy, P E

    1982-07-01

    Styloid-calcium-oxalate-crystal-containing idioblasts possess an interior cell-wall layer which has a lamellar ultrastructure. Idioblasts were isolated by centrifugation of an Agave americana leaf homogenate through 2M sucrose. The aliphatic monomers of the polymeric material from an idioblast fraction were primarily ω-hydroxy acids (32%) and dicarboxylic acids (35%), with C18:1 dicarboxylic acid being the most dominant monomer (25%). Nitrobenzene oxidation of the idioblasts yielded syringaldehyde and vanillin in a ratio of 0.46:1. The major class of wax associated with the idioblasts was free fatty acids (34%). A major homologue of both the fatty acid and fatty alcohol fractions of this wax was C22. The hydrocarbon fraction of the wax had a broad chainlength distribution with a large amount of even-numbered (47%) and shorter-chain homologues. The ultrastructure, the composition of the aliphatic and aromatic components of the polymeric material as well as the composition of the wax show that the idioblast cell wall is suberized. The wax and cutin polymer of the epidermis of A. americana leaves were chemically characterized for comparative purposes.

  13. Ultrastructural localization of stem cell factor in canine marrow-derived stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Huss, R; Hong, D S; Beckham, C; Kimball, L; Myerson, D H; Storb, R; Deeg, H J

    1995-01-01

    Stromal cell lines derived from canine long-term bone marrow cultures (LTBMC) were characterized regarding the expression of growth factors and especially the localization of stem cell factor (SCF) (c-kit ligand). One cell line (DO64) was immortalized by transformation with a retroviral vector containing the open reading frames (ORFs) E6 and E7 of the human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16). Transfection did not change cellular characteristics but rendered the cell line more independent from culture conditions. The transformed line DO64 consisted mainly of fibroblast-like cells. In addition, some cells showed endothelial and some smooth-muscle cell features. Stromal cells expressed a broad spectrum of surface markers, including low levels of major histocompatibility-complex (MHC) class-II antigens. A new murine monoclonal antibody (MAb), RG7.6 (IgG1), specific for canine SCF, recognized the majority of fibroblast-like stromal cells. The staining pattern for SCF showed perinuclear and intracytoplasmic dense areas. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed the localization of SCF in secretory vesicles, the perivesicular cytoplasm, and bound to the cytoplasmatic membrane. RNA analysis showed that stromal cells transcribed, in addition to SCF, messages for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-monocyte CSF (GM-CSF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). In summary, we have established and characterized canine marrow-derived stromal cell lines, and using the new MAb RG7.6, we have localized SCF to cytoplasmatic vesicles as well as the membrane of stromal cells.

  14. Interrelationship among testicular cells in wall lizard Hemidactylus flaviviridis (Rüppell): an ultrastructural seasonal and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Khan, U W; Rai, Umesh

    2004-04-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating ultrastructure of different testicular cells and their interactions through various junctional specializations during different phases of reproductive cycle in wall lizard H. flaviviridis to develop an integrated approach of cell-cell interaction in control of testicular functions. Specialized steroid synthesizing cell organelles such as smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and long slender mitochondria with tubulo-vesicular cristae were predominantly seen in Leydig as well as Sertoli cells during spermatogenically active phase, suggesting their active involvement in steroid biosynthesis. Peritubular cells also exhibited marked seasonal variations. Multi-layered fibroblast-like peritubular cells during regressed phase became single layered myoid-like during spermatogenically active phase. The presence of various types of junctions, including gap and tight junctions (occluding junctions) and adhering junctions such as desmosomes, septate-like junction, ectoplasmic specializations and tubulo-bulbar complexes, were demonstrated among testicular cells in wall lizard H. flaviviridis. However, the nature and degree of junctional (environmental) interaction varied with the reproductive state of the wall lizard. Further, administration of dihydrotestosterone in wall lizards during regressed phase resulted in increase of lipid droplets in Leydig cells and accumulation of germ cell debris in seminiferous tubules. Some of the Sertoli cells were seen darker in response to testosterone treatment probably due to its inhibitory effect on lipid metabolism. These results suggest that testosterone either directly or via inhibiting pituitary basal gonadotropin secretion has suppressive effect on testicular cells.

  15. Basal epithelial cells of human prostate gland are not myoepithelial cells. A comparative immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study with the human salivary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Srigley, J. R.; Dardick, I.; Hartwick, R. W.; Klotz, L.

    1990-01-01

    The hypothesis that basal epithelial cells of the human prostate are of myoepithelial origin was investigated using immunohistochemical and ultrastructural methodologies. The immunohistologic analyses show significant phenotypic differences between prostatic basal cells and myoepithelial cells of the salivary gland. Although both cell types stain intensely with the 312C8-1 monoclonal antibody, only true myoepithelial cells demonstrated significant amounts of muscle-specific actin as decorated by the HHF35 monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, using double-labeling experiments, the prostatic basal cells were strongly decorated with a fluorescein-tagged basal cell-specific keratin but were negative with the rhodamine-tagged phalloidin, a chemical that binds specifically to actin microfilaments. Ultrastructural studies also showed an absence of thin microfilament bundles, dense bodies, and micropinocytotic vesicles in the prostatic basal cells. The current investigations show that the prostatic acini do not have a basal myoepithelium. Although some authors have suggested a stem cell role for prostatic basal cells, the weight of experimental work argues against this hypothesis. The exact role of the basal epithelial cells of the prostate is not known, although they may serve endocrine, paracrine, or other regulatory functions and may be involved in modulating signals between prostatic stroma and epithelium. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:1691595

  16. Ultrastructural evidence of exosome secretion by progenitor cells in adult mouse myocardium and adult human cardiospheres.

    PubMed

    Barile, Lucio; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, Laurentiu M; Moccetti, Tiziano; Vassalli, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The demonstration of beneficial effects of cell therapy despite the persistence of only few transplanted cells in vivo suggests secreted factors may be the active component of this treatment. This so-called paracrine hypothesis is supported by observations that culture media conditioned by progenitor cells contain growth factors that mediate proangiogenic and cytoprotective effects. Cardiac progenitor cells in semi-suspension culture form spherical clusters (cardiospheres) that deliver paracrine signals to neighboring cells. A key component of paracrine secretion is exosomes, membrane vesicles that are stored intracellularly in endosomal compartments and are secreted when these structures fuse with the cell plasma membrane. Exosomes have been identified as the active component of proangiogenic effects of bone marrow CD34⁺ stem cells in mice and the regenerative effects of embryonic mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts in pigs and mice. Here, we provide electron microscopic evidence of exosome secretion by progenitor cells in mouse myocardium and human cardiospheres. Exosomes are emerging as an attractive vector of paracrine signals delivered by progenitor cells. They can be stored as an "off-the-shelf" product. As such, exosomes have the potential for circumventing many of the limitations of viable cells for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine.

  17. Ultrastructural and histochemical study on the Paneth cells in the rat ascending colon.

    PubMed

    Mantani, Youhei; Nishida, Miho; Yuasa, Hideto; Yamamoto, Kyouji; Takahara, Ei-Ichirou; Omotehara, Takuya; Udayanga, Kankanam Gamage Sanath; Kawano, Junichi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Paneth cells (PCs) contribute to the host defense against indigenous bacteria in the small intestine. We found Paneth cell-like cells (PLCs) in the rat ascending colon, but the nature of PLCs is never clarified. Therefore, the present study aimed to clarify the cytological characteristics of PLCs and discuss their cellular differentiation. PLCs were localized in the bases of intestinal crypts, especially follicle-associated intestinal crypts in proximal colonic lymphoid tissue, but were very seldom found in the ordinary intestinal crypts of the ascending colon. PLCs possessed specific granules with highly electron-dense cores and haloes, as well as PCs in the small intestine. The secretory granules of PLCs were positive for PAS reaction, lysozyme and soluble phospholipase A2, but negative for Alcian blue staining, β-defensin-1 and -2, as well as the ones of PCs. Furthermore, intermediate cells possessing both the PLC-specific granules and the mucus granules similar to those of goblet cells (GCs) were occasionally found in the vicinity of PLCs. Intermediate cells ranged from goblet cell-like cells rich in mucus granules to PLC-like cells with few mucus granules. The cellular condensation and fragmentation were exclusively found in PLCs but never seen in intermediate cells or GCs. The PLCs, which were identified as PC, were suggested to be transformed from GCs through intermediate cells and finally to die by apoptosis in intestinal crypts of proximal colonic lymphoid tissue in the rat ascending colon. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The effect of culture on ultrastructure of dissociated rabbit adenohypophysial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, P

    1976-01-01

    Cells from the rabbit pars distalis and pars intermedia have been cultured in several ways. In clump cultures the glandular adenohypophysial cells of the primary clump remain identifiable for long periods. Both acidophil and mucoid cells can be maintained in this way for over 50 days. During this time two different modes of granule extrusion are observed, one being found only in acidophil cells and the other being exclusive to mucoid cells. From this it is concluded that specific release of secretory products from these cells can occur in the absence of hypothalmic control. A special form of collagenous fibre is produced in clump cultures. Monolayer cell cultures are derived either from isolated adenohypophysial cells or from secondarily aggregated clumps, but in either case the predominant cells are fibroblasts, which persist for over 50 days (as isolated cultures) and for over 90 days (as spreads from clumps). Rounded cells can be recognized as a separate type in isolated cell culture. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14, 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:179968

  19. Sperm-cell ultrastructure of North American sturgeons. IV. The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DiLauro, M.N.; Walsh, R.A.; Peiffer, M.; Bennett, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm-cell morphology and ultrastructure in the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Metrics and structure were compared with similar metrics obtained from other published descriptions of sturgeon sperm cells. General morphology was found to be similar to that of sperm cells of the white (Acipenser transmontanus), lake (A. fulvescens), stellate (A. stellatus), Chinese (A. sinensis), Russian (A. gueldenstaedti colchicus), and shortnose (A. brevirostrum) sturgeons, which all shared a gradual tapering of the nuclear diameter from posterior to anterior, unlike that of the Atlantic sturgeon (A. oxyrhynchus). The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon was similar in size to that of the Atlantic sturgeon, being only slightly larger. The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon differed from those of other sturgeons chiefly in the acrosomal region, where the posterolateral projections (PLP) have the shape of an acute triangle and are arranged in a spiral about the longitudinal axis of the cell. The PLP were longer than those of other sturgeons, being twice the length of those of the Atlantic sturgeon and 58% longer than those of the lake sturgeon. Also, in cross section the acrosome had the shape of a hollow cone rather than the cap of an oak tree acorn, as was found in ultrastructural studies of other sturgeons. In addition, we were able to confirm that the structural arrangement of the distal centriole of the midpiece is identical with that of the proximal centriole: nine sets of microtubular triplets around the periphery of the centriole. This information is of potential use to fishery biologists, forensic biologists, zoologists, reproductive physiologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, and aquaculturists.

  20. Studies on the effects of microgravity on the ultrastructure and functions of cultured mammalian cells (L-6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Atsushige

    1993-01-01

    The human body consists of 10(exp 13) cells. Understanding the mechanisms by which the cells sense and respond to microgravity is very important as the basis for space biology. The cells were originally isolated aseptically from mammalian bodies and cultured in vitro. A set of cell culture vessels was developed to be applied to three kinds of space flight experiments. Experiment 1 is to practice the cell culture technique in a space laboratory and obtain favorable growth of the cells. Aseptic handling in tryspin treatment and medium renewal will be tested. The cells, following space flight, will be returned to the ground and cultured continuously to investigate the effects of space flight on the cellular characteristics. Experiment 2 is to examine the cytoskeletal structure of the cells under microgravity conditions. The cytoskeletal structure plays essential roles in the morphological construction, movements, axonal transport, and differentiation of the cells. The cells fixed during space flight will be returned and the cytoskeleton and ultrastructure observed using electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Experiment 3 is to study the cellular productivity of valuable substances. The waste medium harvested during space flight are returned and quantitated for the cellular products. The effects of microgravity on mammalian cells will be clarified from the various aspects.

  1. Tendon's ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Tresoldi, Ilaria; Oliva, Francesco; Benvenuto, Monica; Fantini, Massimo; Masuelli, Laura; Bei, Roberto; Modesti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The structure of a tendon is an important example of complexity of ECM three-dimensional organization. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a macromolecular network with both structural and regulatory functions. ECM components belong to four major types of macromolecules: the collagens, elastin, proteoglycans, and noncollagenous glycoproteins. Tendons are made by a fibrous, compact connective tissue that connect muscle to bone designed to transmit forces and withstand tension during muscle contraction. Here we show the ultrastructural features of tendon's components.

  2. Ultrastructural Studies of Germ Cell Development and the Functions of Leydig Cells and Sertoli Cells associated with Spermatogenesis in Kareius bicoloratus (Teleostei, Pleuronectiformes, Pleuronectidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee-Woong; Kim, Sung Hwan; Chung, Jae Seung

    2016-01-01

    The ultrastructures of germ cells and the functions of Leydig cells and Sertoli cells during spermatogenesis inmale Kareius bicoloratus (Pleuronectidae) were investigated by electron microscope observation. Each of the well-developed Leydig cells during active maturation division and before spermiation contained an ovoid vesicular nucleus, a number of smooth endoplasmic reticula, well-developed tubular or vesicular mitochondrial cristae, and several lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. It is assumed that Leydig cells are typical steroidogenic cells showing cytological characteristics associated with male steroidogenesis. No cyclic structural changes in the Leydig cells were observed through the year. However, although no clear evidence of steroidogenesis or of any transfer of nutrients from the Sertoli cells to spermatogenic cells was observed, cyclic structural changes in the Sertoli cells were observed over the year. During the period of undischarged germ cell degeneration after spermiation, the Sertoli cells evidenced a lysosomal system associated with phagocytic function in the seminiferous lobules. In this study, the Sertoli cells function in phagocytosis and the resorption of products originating from degenerating spermatids and spermatozoa after spermiation. The spermatozoon lacks an acrosome, as have been shown in all teleost fish spermatozoa. The flagellum or sperm tail of this species evidences the typical 9+2 array of microtubules. PMID:27294207

  3. Ultrastructural Analysis of the Human Lens Fiber Cell Remodeling Zone and the Initiation of Cellular Compaction

    PubMed Central

    Costello, M. Joseph; Mohamed, Ashik; Gilliland, Kurt O.; Fowler, W. Craig; Johnsen, Sönke

    2013-01-01

    The purpose is to determine the nature of the cellular rearrangements occurring through the remodeling zone (RZ) in human donor lenses, identified previously by confocal microscopy to be about 100 µm from the capsule. Human donor lenses were fixed with 10% formalin followed by 4% paraformaldehyde prior to processing for transmission electron microscopy. Of 27 fixed lenses, ages 22, 55 and 92 years were examined in detail. Overview electron micrographs confirmed the loss of cellular organization present in the outer cortex (80 µm thick) as the cells transitioned into the RZ. The transition occurred within a few cell layers and fiber cells in the RZ completely lost their classical hexagonal cross-sectional appearance. Cell interfaces became unusually interdigitated and irregular even though the radial cell columns were retained. Gap junctions appeared to be unaffected. After the RZ (40 µm thick), the cells were still irregular but more recognizable as fiber cells with typical interdigitations and the appearance of undulating membranes. Cell thickness was irregular after the RZ with some cells compacted, while others were not, up to the zone of full compaction in the adult nucleus. Similar dramatic cellular changes were observed within the RZ for each lens regardless of age. Because the cytoskeleton controls cell shape, dramatic cellular rearrangements that occur in the RZ most likely are due to alterations in the associations of crystallins to the lens-specific cytoskeletal beaded intermediate filaments. It is also likely that cytoskeletal attachments to membranes are altered to allow undulating membranes to develop. PMID:24183661

  4. Mast Cell Interaction with Neutrophils in Human Gastric Carcinomas: Ultrastructural Observations

    PubMed Central

    Branca, Giovanni; Alberto Caruso, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The role of mast cells in cell-cell immune interactions has received increasing attention, although their functional interaction with neutrophils still remains to be clarified in tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between mast cells and neutrophils in a series of gastric carcinomas (GC). Patients and Methods. 52 surgically resected GC specimens were routinely processed for both light and electron microscopy. Only cases showing both mast cells and neutrophils in the tumor stroma were considered in the analysis. Results. Only 9 GC (M : F = 5 : 4; age range: 50–82 years) showed both mast cells and neutrophils in the tumor stroma. At ultrathin sections, we identified heterotypic aggregation and intermingling of mast cells and neutrophils. Mast cells had mature phenotype and showed full complement of granules with homogeneous, scroll, particle, and mixed pattern. In addition, we found normal-appearing or early apoptosis showing neutrophils. Conclusion. Our histological findings showed the likely interaction between mast cells and neutrophils in GC. We hypothesize that the granular content of mast cells may be released in small quantity through a mechanism called “kiss-and-run fusion,” which is alternative to well-known massive anaphylactic or piecemeal degranulation. PMID:27882290

  5. Membrane associated qualitative differences in cell ultrastructure of chemically and high pressure cryofixed plant cells.

    PubMed

    Zechmann, Bernd; Müller, Maria; Zellnig, Günther

    2007-06-01

    Membrane contrast can sometimes be poor in biological samples after high pressure freezing (HPF) and freeze substitution (FS). The addition of water to the FS-medium has been shown to improve membrane contrast in animal tissue and yeast. In the present study we tested the effects of 1% and 5% water added to the FS-medium (2% osmium with 0.2% uranyl acetate in anhydrous acetone) on the quality and visibility of membranes in high pressure frozen leaf samples of Cucurbita pepo L. plants and compared them to chemically fixed cells (3% glutaraldehyde post-fixed with 1% osmium tetroxide). The addition of water to the FS-medium drastically decreased the amounts of well preserved cells and did not significantly improve the quality nor visibility of membranes. In samples that were freeze substituted in FS-media containing 1% and 5% water the width of thylakoid membranes was found to be significantly increased of about 20% and the perinuclear space was up to 76% wider in comparison to what was found in samples which were freeze substituted without water. No differences were found in the thickness of membranes between chemically and cryofixed cells that were freeze substituted in the FS-medium without water. Nevertheless, in chemically fixed cells the intrathylakoidal space was about 120% wider than in cryofixed cells that were freeze substituted with or without water. The present results demonstrate that the addition of water to the FS-medium does not improve membrane contrast but changes the width of thylakoid membranes and the perinuclear space in the present plant material. The addition of water to the FS-medium is therefore not as essential for improved membrane contrast in the investigated plant samples as it was observed in cells of animal tissues and yeast cells.

  6. Pathological and ultrastructural changes in cultured cells induced by venom from the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Rivers, David B; Uçkan, Fevzi; Ergin, Ekrem; Keefer, Donald A

    2010-12-01

    The ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis produces a proteinaceous venom that induces death in fly hosts by non-paralytic mechanisms. Previous in vitro assays have suggested that the primary cause of cell and tissue death is oncosis, a non-programmed cell death (PCD) pathway characterized by cellular swelling and lysis. However, ultrastructural analyses of BTI-TN-5B1 cells exposed to LC(99) doses of wasp venom revealed cellular changes more consistent with apoptosis and/or non-apoptotic PCD than oncosis or necrosis: By 3h after incubation with venom, susceptible cells displayed indentations in the nuclear membranes, large nucleoli, and extensive vacuolization throughout the cytoplasm. In the vast majority of venom treated cells, annexin V bound to the plasma membrane surface within 15 min after treatment, a characteristic consistent with translocation of phosphatidylserine to the cell surface during the early stages of apoptosis. Likewise, mitochondrial transmembrane potential was depressed in cells within 15 min in venom-treated cells, an event that occurred in the absence of mitochondrial swelling or rupturing of cristae. Active caspase 3 was detected by fluorescent labeling in nearly all venom treated cells 3h after exposure to venom, and in turn, the potent caspase 3 inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK attenuated the morphological changes elicited by wasp venom and afforded protection to BTI-TN-5B1-4 cells.

  7. Ultrastructural localization of F-actin using phalloidin and quantum dots in HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cell line after cell death induction by arsenic trioxide.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, Magdalena; Gagat, Maciej; Grzanka, Dariusz; Grzanka, Alina

    2013-06-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are fluorescent nanocrystals whose unique properties are fundamentally different from organic fluorophores. Moreover, their cores display sufficient electron density to be visible under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Here, we report a technique for phalloidin-based TEM detection of F-actin. The ultrastructural reorganization of F-actin after arsenic trioxide (ATO) treatment was estimated using a combination of pre- and post-embedding techniques with biotinylated phalloidin and QD-streptavidin conjugates or colloidal gold (AU) conjugated to streptavidin. Ultrastructural studies showed ATO-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells. Moreover, different patterns of QD-labeled F-actin after ATO treatment were seen. In the case of AU labeling, only a few gold particles were seen and it was impossible to see any difference in F-actin distribution. TEM imaging experiments using QDs and colloidal gold (AU) showed that the strategy of bioconjugation of nanoprobes is the most important factor in biotinylated phalloidin detection of F-actin using streptavidin-coated nanoparticles, especially at the ultrastructural level. Additionally, the results presented in present study confirm the essential role of F-actin in chromatin reorganization during cell death processes.

  8. Quantitative and qualitative morphologic, cytochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in the Crested Serpent eagle and Shikra.

    PubMed

    Salakij, Chaleow; Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Salakij, Jarernsak; Suwannasaeng, Pimsuda; Jakthong, Pattarapong

    2015-08-01

    The Crested Serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela) is a bird of prey found in the tropical rain forest in Thailand. The Shikra (Accipiter badius) is a sparrow hawk and common resident in Thailand. Blood samples from 9 Crested Serpent eagles and 12 Shikras were obtained from September 2010 to November 2014. They were clinically healthy and negative for blood parasites detectable by light microscopy and molecular techniques (partial cytochrome b gene for avian malaria and partial 18S rRNA gene for trypanosome). Cytochemical staining (Sudan black B, peroxidase, α-naphthyl acetate esterase, and β-glucuronidase) and transmission electron microscopy were performed. Hematological results were reported as the mean ± standard deviation and median. Heterophils were the most prevalent leukocytes in the Crested Serpent eagle, but in the Shikra, lymphocytes were the most prevalent leukocytes. In the Shikra, some vacuoles were observed in the cytoplasm of the eosinophils. All blood cells in both types of raptors stained positively for β-glucuronidase but negatively for peroxidase. The ultrastructure of heterophils showed more clearly differentiate long rod granules in Crested Serpent eagle and spindle-shaped granules in Shikra. The ultrastructure of the eosinophils in the Crested Serpent eagle revealed varied electron-dense, round-shaped granules with round, different electron-dense areas in the centers of some granules, which differed from the structure reported for other raptors. These quantitative results may be useful for clinical evaluations of Crested Serpent eagles and Shikras that are undergoing rehabilitation for release.

  9. Study of the Safety of Extracorporeal Cardiac Shock Wave Therapy: Observation of the Ultrastructures in Myocardial Cells by Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Zhang, Yunhe; Jia, Na; Lan, Ming; Du, Ling; Zhao, Dachun; He, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal cardiac shock wave therapy (CSWT) has been used to treat patients with severe coronary heart disease and cardiac failure with good results; however, the safety of this treatment is still controversial. Its safety in clinical setting and on microstructures has been confirmed, but the influence of shock wave on the ultrastructures of myocardial cells is not clear. In this study, 12 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (NC) and CSWT therapy (NC+SW) groups. The heart rate, blood pressure, serum troponin I (TNI), and cardiac ultrasound were evaluated, and the myocardial inflammatory responses and fibrosis changes were compared. The samples were observed by transmission electron microscopy to evaluate the changes in myocardial tissue ultrastructure. The CSWT had no significant influence on rat hemodynamics indices and serum TNI, did not affect left ventricular function, and did not cause myocardial inflammatory response and fibrosis changes. The scores of myocardial ultrastructure damage in the NC and NC+SW groups were 1.39 ± 0.982 and 2.42 ± 1.009, respectively ( P = .103). The CSWT did not cause significant additional damage to myocardial ultrastructures. The safety of CWST has been preliminarily proved at the clinical, microstructure, and ultrastructure levels, but its long-term safety needs further exploration.

  10. An ultrastructural study of ependymal cell differentiation during lizard (Gallotia galloti) midbrain development.

    PubMed Central

    Monzon-Mayor, M; Yanes, C; James, J L; Sturrock, R R

    1991-01-01

    Ependymal cell differentiation was examined in the lizard Gallotia galloti from E31 to adult. From E31 to E34 only one type of cell could be identified making up the pseudostratified columnar neuroepithelium but by E35 to E37 three types of ependymal cell were present. The first type was a narrow, elongated, columnar cell containing rough endoplasmic reticulum filled with an amorphous ground substance similar to that of astrocytes. The second type was broader with the nucleus close to the ventricular surface with numerous lipid droplets of varying sizes in the cytoplasm. The third type had an irregularly shaped apical nucleus and a broad basal process probably extending to the pial surface. The process contained numerous microtubules, glycogen granules and a few filaments. From E38 to hatching the ependyma showed marked regional variation. Much of it was formed by a single layer of moderately dark cuboidal cells but parts were made up of a low columnar epithelium in which the cells had elongated nuclei, frequently indented on the ventricular side. Cilia were common and often cells had cytoplasmic protrusions into the ventricle. Lipid was present in the form of small apical droplets or a large basal droplet. Ependymal cells in the region of the sulcus limitans were packed with lipid as were cells of the adjacent subventricular layer. In the adult the ependymal lining varied from cuboidal to low columnar with nuclear chromatin usually arranged in a reticulated pattern. Two types of ependymal process extending to the pia could be identified. One type was packed with microfilaments whilst the other contained a core of microtubules and scattered glycogen granules. Lipid was still present in the cells of the sulcus limitans. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 PMID:2032939

  11. Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural Study of the Lamellae of Oocytes in Atretic Follicles in Relation to Different Processes of Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, M.L.; Echeverría, O.M.; García, G.; Ortiz, R.; Vázquez-Nin, G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Atresia is the process through which non-selectable oocytes are eliminated; it involves apoptosis and/or autophagy. This study used immunohistochemical and ultrastructural techniques to characterize the lamellae present in the cytoplasm of oocytes in follicles in the process of atresia in prepubertal and adult Wistar rats. The results indicate that the lamellae are positive to tubulin and myosin immunodetection under light and electron microscopy. Labeling is greater with anti-tubulin and lesser with anti-myosin. Our observations indicate that lamellae are present in oocytes at the initial antral stage in prepubertal rats; that is, from day 14 post-birth to adult age. We were able to determine that the increase in altered lamellae principally occurs in the apoptotic cells rather than in the autophagic cells. PMID:26428888

  12. Ultrastructure of oval cells in children with chronic hepatitis B, with special emphasis on the stage of liver fibrosis: The first pediatric study

    PubMed Central

    Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta; Lotowska, Joanna Maria; Lebensztejn, Dariusz Marek

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ultrastructure of oval cells in children with chronic hepatitis B, with special emphasis on their location in areas of collagen fibroplasia. METHODS: Morphological investigations were conducted on biopsy material obtained from 40 children, aged 3-16 years with chronic hepatitis B. The stage of fibrosis was assessed histologically using the arbitrary semiquantitative numerical scoring system proposed by Ishak et al. The material for ultrastructural investigation was fixed in glutaraldehyde and paraformaldehyde and processed for transmission–electron microscopic analysis. RESULTS: Ultrastructural examination of biopsy specimens obtained from children with chronic hepatitis B showed the presence of two types of oval cells, the hepatic progenitor cells and intermediate hepatic-like cells. These cells were present in the parenchyma and were seen most commonly in areas of intense periportal fibrosis (at least stage 2 according to Ishak et al) and in the vicinity of the limiting plate of the lobule. The activated nonparenchymal hepatic cells, i.e. transformed hepatic stellate cells and Kupffer cells were seen in close proximity to the intermediate hepatic-like cells. CONCLUSION: We found a distinct relationship between the prevalence of oval cells (hepatic progenitor cells and intermediate hepatocyte-like cells) and fibrosis stage in pediatric patients with chronic hepatitis B. PMID:17589940

  13. Ultrastructure of oval cells in children with chronic hepatitis B, with special emphasis on the stage of liver fibrosis: the first pediatric study.

    PubMed

    Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta Sobaniec-Lotowska; Lotowska, Joanna Maria; Lebensztejn, Dariusz Marek

    2007-06-07

    To investigate the ultrastructure of oval cells in children with chronic hepatitis B, with special emphasis on their location in areas of collagen fibroplasia. Morphological investigations were conducted on biopsy material obtained from 40 children, aged 3-16 years with chronic hepatitis B. The stage of fibrosis was assessed histologically using the arbitrary semiquantitative numerical scoring system proposed by Ishak et al. The material for ultrastructural investigation was fixed in glutaraldehyde and paraformaldehyde and processed for transmission-electron microscopic analysis. Ultrastructural examination of biopsy specimens obtained from children with chronic hepatitis B showed the presence of two types of oval cells, the hepatic progenitor cells and intermediate hepatic-like cells. These cells were present in the parenchyma and were seen most commonly in areas of intense periportal fibrosis (at least stage 2 according to Ishak et al) and in the vicinity of the limiting plate of the lobule. The activated nonparenchymal hepatic cells, i.e. transformed hepatic stellate cells and Kupffer cells were seen in close proximity to the intermediate hepatic-like cells. We found a distinct relationship between the prevalence of oval cells (hepatic progenitor cells and intermediate hepatocyte-like cells) and fibrosis stage in pediatric patients with chronic hepatitis B.

  14. Histogenesis and ultrastructure of pancreatic islet graft microvasculature. Evidence for graft revascularization by endothelial cells of host origin.

    PubMed Central

    Vajkoczy, P.; Olofsson, A. M.; Lehr, H. A.; Leiderer, R.; Hammersen, F.; Arfors, K. E.; Menger, M. D.

    1995-01-01

    In previous studies we have demonstrated that syngeneic and xenogeneic pancreatic islet grafts are revascularized within a 10 to 14-day period after transplantation. With the combined use of intravital and electron microscopy, as well as immunohistochemistry using a set of species-specific or -crossreacting antibodies to endothelial cell antigens, we investigated 1) the origin of the endothelium of the newly formed capillaries in free pancreatic islet isografts (hamster-->hamster) and xenografts (rat-->hamster), and 2) the ultrastructural characteristics of these microvessels. Intravital microscopy demonstrated that newly formed microvessels grow from the vascular bed of the host muscle tissue into the islet grafts. Immunohistochemical analysis of host tissue and transplanted islets with antibodies against factor VIII (recognizing both hamster and rat factor VIII), bovine PECAM-1 (CD31; endoCAM, crossreacting with hamster but not rat PECAM-1), and rat ICAM-1 (CD54, non-crossreacting with hamster ICAM-1) showed that the transplanted rat islets were revascularized by endothelium of hamster (host) origin. At an ultrastructural level, the endothelial lining of the newly formed microvessels showed diaphragmatic fenestration, a characteristic feature of endothelial cells of pancreatic islets in situ. On the basis of these findings we suggest that pancreatic islet transplantation may take a unique position in the field of organ transplantation, since the generally proposed mechanisms of endothelial cell-dependent antigen recognition as a trigger of graft rejection may not be transferred to islet grafts, containing microvessels lined by endothelial cells of host origin. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7539980

  15. Phenotypic, Ultra-Structural, and Functional Characterization of Bovine Peripheral Blood Dendritic Cell Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Sei, Janet J.; Ochoa, Amanda S.; Bishop, Elizabeth; Barlow, John W.; Golde, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are multi-functional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets directly ex vivo, without further in vitro manipulation. Multi-color flow cytometric analysis revealed that three DC subsets could be identified. Bovine plasmacytoid DC were phenotypically identified by a unique pattern of cell surface protein expression including CD4, exhibited an extensive endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, efficiently internalized and degraded exogenous antigen, and were the only peripheral blood cells specialized in the production of type I IFN following activation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. Conventional DC were identified by expression of a different pattern of cell surface proteins including CD11c, MHC class II, and CD80, among others, the display of extensive dendritic protrusions on their plasma membrane, expression of very high levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, efficient internalization and degradation of exogenous antigen, and ready production of detectable levels of TNF-alpha in response to TLR activation. Our investigations also revealed a third novel DC subset that may be a precursor of conventional DC that were MHC class II+ and CD11c−. These cells exhibited a smooth plasma membrane with a rounded nucleus, produced TNF-alpha in response to TLR-activation (albeit lower than CD11c+ DC), and were the least efficient in internalization/degradation of exogenous antigen. These studies define three bovine blood DC subsets with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics which can be analyzed during immune responses to pathogens and vaccinations of cattle. PMID:25295753

  16. Ultrastructure and cytochemical localization of laccase in two strains of Leptosphaerulina briosiana (Pollaci) Graham and Luttrell.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, L T; Bishop, D S; Hooper, G R

    1979-01-01

    Substrate specificity tests were used to identify the presence of laccase in two strains of Leptosphaerulina briosiana (Poll.) Graham and Luttrell, an ascomycete which causes leaf spot in alfalfa. Cytochemical localization of monophenol monooxygenase (laccase) as well as the ultrastructures of the two strains were investigated. Laccase was observed in the outer layers of the cell walls of both strains. The ultrastructures of vegetative hyphae of both strains were typical of those found in most ascomycetes. Images PMID:104971

  17. Ultrastructural changes on the epithelial cells of uterine tubes of Wistar rats after chronic ethanol ingestion.

    PubMed

    Martinez, M; Branco Júnior, A C; Cagnon, V H; Mello Júnior, W; Garcia, P J; Martinez, F E

    1999-04-01

    The present paper describes the morphological alterations of the epithelial layer of the uterine tubes of rats submitted to experimental chronic alcoholism using anatomical, histological, ultrastructural and morphometric methods. Sixty adult rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) at the same age (3 months) and with a mean body weight of 228 g were divided into two groups. The control group received solid diet (Purina rat chow) and tap water ad libitum. The alcoholic group received the same solid diet and was allowed to drink only sugar cane brandy dissolved in 30 degrees Gay Lussac (v/v). After periods of 90, 180 and 270 days of treatment animals at normal estrus were anaesthetised with ethyl ether, weighed and sacrificed. Subsequently, the uterine tubes were dissected, weighed and prepared for TEM and SEM methods. The final mean body weights were similar in the control and alcoholic groups. The morphometric analysis showed no difference between control and alcoholic epithelial height. The alcoholic animals showed ultrastructural alterations: intense lipid droplet and lysosomes accumulation, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and vacuolization in both periods of treatment. It was concluded that alcohol acts as a toxin on the epithelial layer of the uterine tubes of rats.

  18. Response of the common cutworm Spodoptera litura to lead stress: changes in sex ratio, Pb accumulations, midgut cell ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yinghua; Zhou, Jialiang; Lu, Kai; Li, Keqing; Zhou, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    When cutworm Spodoptera litura larvae were fed on the diets with different lead (Pb) concentrations for one or five generations, changes in growth and food utilization were recorded; Pb accumulations were detected by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer; changes in midgut cell ultrastructure were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The effects of Pb stress on S. litura growth and food utilization differed significantly between insects of the 1st and 5th generation. The male-female rate of 200mgkg(-1) Pb treatment from the 1st generation and 50mgkg(-1) Pb treatment from the 5th generation was significantly higher than control. No significant difference of Pb accumulations was found in larvae, pupae and adults between the 1st and 5th generation. No significant difference of Pb accumulations in corresponding tissues of larvae was found between male and female. Compared to fat body, hemolymph, head, foregut and hindgut, the highest Pb accumulation was found in migut of larvae exposed to 200mgkg(-1) Pb. TEM showed that expanded intercellular spaces were observed in Pb-treated midgut cells. The nuclei were strongly destroyed by Pb stress, evidenced by chromatin condensation and destroyed nuclear envelope. Mitochondria became swollen with some broken cristae after exposure to Pb. Therefore, neither gender nor progeny difference was present in Pb accumulations of S. litura, although effects of Pb stress on S. litura growth and food utilization differed from different generations and genders. Pb accumulations in midgut caused pathological changes in cells ultrastructure, possibly reflected the growth and food utilization of S. litura.

  19. Ultrastructural changes and programmed cell death of trophocytes in the gonad of Isohypsibius granulifer granulifer Thulin, 1928 (Tardigrada, Eutardigrada, Isohypsibiidae).

    PubMed

    Poprawa, Izabela; Hyra, Marta; Kszuk-Jendrysik, Michalina; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena Maria

    2015-03-01

    The studies on the fates of the trophocytes, the apoptosis and autophagy in the gonad of Isohypsibius granulifer granulifer have been described using transmission electron microscope, light and fluorescent microscopes. The results presented here are the first that are connected with the cell death of nurse cells in the gonad of tardigrades. However, here we complete the results presented by Węglarska (1987). The reproductive system of I. g. granulifer contains a single sack-like hermaphroditic gonad and a single gonoduct. The gonad is composed of three parts: a germarium filled with proliferating germ cells (oogonia); a vitellarium that has clusters of female germ cells (the region of oocytes development); and a male part filled with male germ cells in which the sperm cells develop. The trophocytes (nurse cells) show distinct alterations during all of the stages of oogenesis: previtello-, vitello- and choriogenesis. During previtellogenesis the female germ cells situated in the vitellarium are connected by cytoplasmic bridges, and form clusters of cells. No ultrastructural differences appear among the germ cells in a cluster during this stage of oogenesis. In early vitellogenesis, the cells in each cluster start to grow and numerous organelles gradually accumulate in their cytoplasm. However, at the beginning of the middle of vitellogenesis, one cell in each cluster starts to grow in order to differentiate into oocyte, while the remaining cells are trophocytes. Eventually, the cytoplasmic bridges between the oocyte and trophocytes disappear. Autophagosomes also appear in the cytoplasm of nurse cells together with many degenerating organelles. The cytoplasm starts to shrink, which causes the degeneration of the cytoplasmic bridges between trophocytes. Apoptosis begins when the cytoplasm of these cells is full of autophagosomes/autolysosomes and causes their death.

  20. Human lung-derived mature mast cells cultured alone or with mouse 3T3 fibroblasts maintain an ultrastructural phenotype different from that of human mast cells that develop from human cord blood cells cultured with 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, A. M.; Furitsu, T.; Estrella, P.; Ishizaka, T.

    1991-01-01

    Culture systems designed to maintain or develop human mast cells have proved difficult, yet these systems would provide valuable resources for future investigations of human mast cell biology. Cocultures of either isolated mature human lung mast cells (Levi-Schaffer et al., J Immunol 1987, 139:494-500) or human cord blood mononuclear cells (Furitsu, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989, 86:10039-10043) with 3T3 embryonic mouse skin fibroblasts have implicated fibroblasts as an important factor in the successful maintenance and development of human mast cells in vitro. The authors cultured isolated, mature human lung mast cells either with or without 3T3 cells for 1 month and examined their ultrastructural phenotype. Mast cell viability in each circumstance was equivalent, but mast cell yield was improved in the presence of 3T3 cells. The ultrastructural phenotype was identical in both culture systems. Mast cells were shown to maintain the phenotype of their in vivo lung counterparts (ie, scroll granules predominanted, and numerous lipid bodies were present). This ultrastructural phenotype differs from that of mast cells that develop in cocultures of human cord blood cells and 3T3 cells, where developing mast cells with crystalline granules and few lipid bodies prevail, a phenotype much like that of human skin mast cells in vivo (Furitsu, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1989, 86:10039-10043). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1750506

  1. Acute respiratory bronchiolitis: an ultrastructural and autoradiographic study of epithelial cell injury and renewal in rhesus monkeys exposed to ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Castleman, W. L.; Dungworth, D. L.; Schwartz, L. W.; Tyler, W. S.

    1980-01-01

    The pathogenesis of acute respiratory bronchiolitis was examined in rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.8 ppm ozone fpr 4--50 hours. Epithelial injury and renewal was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by correlated techniques of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by light-microscopic autoradiography following labeling with tritiated thymidine. Extensive degeneration and necrosis of Type 1 epithelial cells occurred on the respiratory bronchiolar wall during the initial 4--12 hours of exposure. Increased numbers of labeled epithelial cells were present in this region after 18 hours of exposure, and the highest labeling index (18% was measured after 50 hours of exposure. Most (67--80%) of the labeled cells and all the mitotic epithelial cells (22) observed ultrastructurally were cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells. Of the labeled epithelial cells, 20--33% were Type 2 epithelial cells. After 50 hours of exposure the respiratory bronchiolar epithelium was hyperplastic. The predominant inflammatory cell in respiratory bronchiolar exudate was the alveolar macrophage. Monkeys that were exposed for 50 hours and allowed to recover in unozonized air for 7 days had incomplete resolution of respiratory bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia. The results indicate that Type 1 epithelial cells lining respiratory bronchioles are the cell type most sensitive to injury and that both cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells and Type 2 epithelial cells function as stem cells in epithelial renewal. Images Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:6767409

  2. Three-dimensional ultrastructural analysis of cells in the periodontal ligament using focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope tomography.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Shingo; Ohta, Keisuke; Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Okayama, Satoko; Togo, Akinobu; Uchimura, Naohisa; Kusukawa, Jingo; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro

    2016-12-20

    The accurate comprehension of normal tissue provides essential data to analyse abnormalities such as disease and regenerative processes. In addition, understanding the proper structure of the target tissue and its microenvironment may facilitate successful novel treatment strategies. Many studies have examined the nature and structure of periodontal ligaments (PDLs); however, the three-dimensional (3D) structure of cells in normal PDLs remains poorly understood. In this study, we used focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope tomography to investigate the whole 3D ultrastructure of PDL cells along with quantitatively analysing their structural properties and ascertaining their orientation to the direction of the collagen fibre. PDL cells were shown to be in contact with each other, forming a widespread mesh-like network between the cementum and the alveolar bone. The volume of the cells in the horizontal fibre area was significantly larger than in other areas, whereas the anisotropy of these cells was lower than in other areas. Furthermore, the orientation of cells to the PDL fibres was not parallel to the PDL fibres in each area. As similar evaluations are recognized as being challenging using conventional two-dimensional methods, these novel 3D findings may contribute necessary knowledge for the comprehensive understanding and analysis of PDLs.

  3. Three-dimensional ultrastructural analysis of cells in the periodontal ligament using focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hirashima, Shingo; Ohta, Keisuke; Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Okayama, Satoko; Togo, Akinobu; Uchimura, Naohisa; Kusukawa, Jingo; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    The accurate comprehension of normal tissue provides essential data to analyse abnormalities such as disease and regenerative processes. In addition, understanding the proper structure of the target tissue and its microenvironment may facilitate successful novel treatment strategies. Many studies have examined the nature and structure of periodontal ligaments (PDLs); however, the three-dimensional (3D) structure of cells in normal PDLs remains poorly understood. In this study, we used focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope tomography to investigate the whole 3D ultrastructure of PDL cells along with quantitatively analysing their structural properties and ascertaining their orientation to the direction of the collagen fibre. PDL cells were shown to be in contact with each other, forming a widespread mesh-like network between the cementum and the alveolar bone. The volume of the cells in the horizontal fibre area was significantly larger than in other areas, whereas the anisotropy of these cells was lower than in other areas. Furthermore, the orientation of cells to the PDL fibres was not parallel to the PDL fibres in each area. As similar evaluations are recognized as being challenging using conventional two-dimensional methods, these novel 3D findings may contribute necessary knowledge for the comprehensive understanding and analysis of PDLs. PMID:27995978

  4. Three-dimensional ultrastructure of feeding tubes and interconnected endoplasmic reticulum in root-knot nematode-induced giant cells in rose balsam.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Nao; Koga, Hironori

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the three-dimensional ultrastructure of feeding tubes and the surrounding region in giant cells induced in rose balsam (Impatiens balsamina L.) roots by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, using osmium maceration coupled with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). In the roots of 35-day-old galled rose balsam plants, adult nematodes induced the formation of giant cells containing feeding tubes and numerous organelles, including tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cisternal ER, and mitochondria. The feeding tubes were surrounded by fine tubular structures (20-50 nm in diameter), which were in turn surrounded by tubular ER (approximately 120 nm in diameter). The termini of the fine tubular structures appeared to be connected to the surface of the feeding tubes, suggesting that the fine tubular structures were continuous with narrow channels in the feeding tubes. The tubular ER arose from cisternal ER. Large bundles of tubular ER were present near the feeding tube, in the centers of the giant cells, and in the peripheral regions of the giant cells, such as cell wall ingrowths, while smaller bundles of tubular ER formed networks in the giant cells. These observations suggest that tubular ER functions as vascular bundles in giant cells, facilitating the transport of nutrients. We identified capsule-shaped structures (30 μm in diameter) in the giant cells that consisted of smooth, repeatedly branched ER tubules wrapped in several layers of cisternal ER. We propose that lipids and steroids are synthesized at the smooth branched ER and stored in these capsules until needed by the nematode.

  5. A formalin fixative for immunochemical and ultrastructural studies on gastrointestinal endocrine cells.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, G; Dawson, I

    1979-01-01

    Using indirect immunofluorescence, indirect immunoperoxidase, and unlabelled antibody enzyme techniques, gastrin, pancreatic glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin were localised in sections of both wax- and resin-embedded tissues that had been fixed in a buffered formalin solution. Ultrastructural preservation of the resin-embedded samples was also adequate for combined electron microscopy and light microscope immunochemistry. As the fixative concerned is stable it can be permanently available in surgical units. It is suggested, therefore, that this fixative should prove useful as an alternative to buffered formaldehyde, which must be freshly prepared from paraformaldehyde powder, in institutions where specimen collection is difficult or which have to refer cases with an endocrine involvement to other laboratories for immunochemical and fine structural examination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:372249

  6. 18F-FDG labeling of mesenchymal stem cells and multipotent adult progenitor cells for PET imaging: effects on ultrastructure and differentiation capacity.

    PubMed

    Wolfs, Esther; Struys, Tom; Notelaers, Tineke; Roberts, Scott J; Sohni, Abhishek; Bormans, Guy; Van Laere, Koen; Luyten, Frank P; Gheysens, Olivier; Lambrichts, Ivo; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Deroose, Christophe M

    2013-03-01

    Because of their extended differentiation capacity, stem cells have gained great interest in the field of regenerative medicine. For the development of therapeutic strategies, more knowledge on the in vivo fate of these cells has to be acquired. Therefore, stem cells can be labeled with radioactive tracer molecules such as (18)F-FDG, a positron-emitting glucose analog that is taken up and metabolically trapped by the cells. The aim of this study was to optimize the radioactive labeling of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) in vitro with (18)F-FDG and to investigate the potential radiotoxic effects of this labeling procedure with a range of techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mouse MSCs and rat MAPCs were used for (18)F-FDG uptake kinetics and tracer retention studies. Cell metabolic activity, proliferation, differentiation and ultrastructural changes after labeling were evaluated using an Alamar Blue reagent, doubling time calculations and quantitative TEM, respectively. Additionally, mice were injected with MSCs and MAPCs prelabeled with (18)F-FDG, and stem cell biodistribution was investigated using small-animal PET. The optimal incubation period for (18)F-FDG uptake was 60 min. Significant early tracer washout was observed, with approximately 30%-40% of the tracer being retained inside the cells 3 h after labeling. Cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation capacity were not severely affected by (18)F-FDG labeling. No major changes at the ultrastructural level, considering mitochondrial length, lysosome size, the number of lysosomes, the number of vacuoles, and the average rough endoplasmic reticulum width, were observed with TEM. Small-animal PET experiments with radiolabeled MAPCs and MSCs injected intravenously in mice showed a predominant accumulation in the lungs and a substantial elution of (18)F-FDG from the cells. MSCs and MAPCs can be successfully labeled with (18)F-FDG for

  7. Ultrastructural analysis of oral exfoliated epithelial cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers: A scanning electron microscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sameera Shamim; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Kamboj, Mala

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study was undertaken to correlate epithelial surface pattern changes of oral exfoliated cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers and also to compare them with patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of fifty persons were included in the study, out of which thirty formed the study group (15 each tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers) and twenty formed the control group (ten each of OSCC patients – positive control and ten normal buccal mucosa – negative control). Their oral exfoliated cells were scraped, fixed, and studied under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The statistical analysis was determined using ANOVA, Tukey honestly significant difference, Chi-square test, and statistical SPASS software, P < 0.05. Results: OSCC, Individual cell modifications, intercellular relationships and surface characteristics observed by scanning electron microscopy between OSCC, tobacco smokers, betel nut chewers compared to normal oral mucosa have been tabulated. Conclusion: In normal oral mucosa, cell surface morphology depends on the state of keratinization of the tissue. Thus, it could prove helpful in detecting any carcinomatous change at its incipient stage and also give an insight into the ultra-structural details of cellular differentiations in epithelial tissues. PMID:28182055

  8. Ultrastructural Studies on Oocyte Development and Vitellogenesis associated with Follicle Cells in Female Scapharca subcrenata (Pelecypoda: Arcidae) in Western Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Han

    2016-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies on oocyte development and vitellogenesis in oocytes, and the functions of follicle cells during oogenesis and oocyte degeneration were investigated to clarifyb the reproductive mechanism on vitellogenesis of Scapharca subcrenata using electron microscope observations. In this study, vitellogenesis during oogenesis in the oocytes occured by way of autosynthesis and heterosynthesis. Of two processes of vitellogenesis during oogenesis, the process of endogenous autosynthesis involved the combined activity of the Golgi complex, mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum. However, the process of exogenous heterosynthesis involved endocytotic incorporation of extraovarian precursors at the basal region of the oolema of the early vitellogenic oocytes before the formation of the vitelline coat. In this study, follicle cells, which attached to the previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes, were easily found. In particular, the follicle cells were involved in the development of previtellogenic oocytes by the supply of nutrients, and vitellogenesis in the early and late vitellogenic oocytes by endocytosis of yolk precursors. Based on observations of follicle cells attached to degenerating oocytes after spawning, follicles of this species are involved in lysosomal induction of oocyte degeneration for the resorption phagosomes (phagolysosomes) in the cytoplasm for nutrient storage, as seen in other bivalves. In this study, the functions of follicle cells can accumulate reserves of lipid granules and glycogen particles for vitellogenesis from degenerating oocytes after spawning. PMID:27796004

  9. Ultrastructure of the neurohypophysis of the teleost Poecilia latipinna in relation to neural control of the adenohypophysial cells.

    PubMed

    Batten, T F; Ball, J N

    1977-12-19

    The structure of the neurohypophysis of Poecilia latipinna (green molly, sailfin molly) was studied with the electron microscope. Profile diameters of neurosecretory granules in the non-myelinated neurohypophysial nerve fibres were measured and mathematically corrected for error due to section thickness. Six different types of nerve fibres could be distinguished by statistical classification of their granules and by other ultrastructural features. One fibre-type (type B) contained granules with a mean diameter of 85 nm, and the other five types (types Ala, Alb, A2, A3 and A4) all contained granules with mean diameters greater than 100 nm. Synaptic contacts were observed between type B fibres and all the adenohypophysial cell-types, although in the case of the ACTH cells the synapses were separated from the cell membrane by a continuous double basement membrane. Type A fibres were observed to contact the cells of the proximal pars distalis and pars intermedia, but did not form synapses. However, synapses occurred between type A fibres and pituicytes, and between type A fibres and the pericapillary basement membrane in the interior of the neurohypophysis. The possible roles of the different types of nerve fibres in controlling the adenohypophysial cells are discussed in the context of evidence from other teleosts.

  10. Characterization of human mesenchymal stem cell-engineered cartilage: analysis of its ultrastructure, cell density and chondrocyte phenotype compared to native adult and fetal cartilage.

    PubMed

    Hillel, Alexander T; Taube, Janis M; Cornish, Toby C; Sharma, Blanka; Halushka, Marc; McCarthy, Edward F; Hutchins, Grover M; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2010-01-01

    The production of engineered cartilage from mesenchymal stem cells is a rapidly developing field. Potential applications include the treatment of degenerative joint disease as well as the treatment of traumatic and surgical bone injury. Prior to clinical application, however, further characterization of the morphology, ultrastructure, biocompatibility, and performance of the engineered tissue is warranted. To achieve this, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were grown in vitro in pellet culture for 3 weeks in chondrogenic medium conditions. The resultant engineered cartilage was compared to native adult and fetal tissue. Routine histology, special stains, and ultrastructural and quantitative histomorphometric analyses were performed. The engineered tissue demonstrated a similar chondrocyte phenotype, collagen fibril appearance, and matrix distribution when compared to native cartilage. By histomorphometric analysis, the cell density of the engineered cartilage was between that of native fetal and adult cartilage. The cell-to-matrix ratio and cellular area fraction of engineered cartilage samples was significantly greater than in adult samples, but indistinguishable from fetal cartilage samples, supporting the hypothesis that hMSC-engineered cartilage regeneration may mimic fetal cartilage development.

  11. Ultrastructural analysis of olfactory ensheathing cells derived from olfactory bulb and nerve of neonatal and juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rosa M; Ghotme, Kemel; Botero, Lucía; Bernal, Jaime E; Pérez, Rosalía; Barreto, George E; Bustos, Rosa Helena

    2016-02-01

    Olfactory nerve derived and olfactory bulb derived olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have the ability to promote axonal regeneration and remyelination, both of which are essential in a successful cell transplant. Thus, morphological identification of OECs is a key aspect to develop an applicable cell therapy for injuries to the nervous system. However, there is no clear definition regarding which developmental stage or anatomical origin of OECs is more adequate for neural repair. In the present study, an ultrastructural comparison was made between OECs recovered from primary cultures of olfactory nerve and bulb in two developmental stages. The most notorious difference between cells obtained from olfactory nerve and bulb was the presence of indented nuclei in bulb derived OECs, suggesting a greater ability for possible chemotaxis. In neonatal OECs abundant mitochondria, lipid vacuoles, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum were detected, suggesting an active lipid metabolism, probably involved in synthesis of myelin. Our results suggest that neonatal OECs obtained from olfactory bulb have microscopic properties that could make them more suitable for neural repair. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Acyclic Sesquiterpenes from the Fruit Pericarp of Sapindus saponaria Induce Ultrastructural Alterations and Cell Death in Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Amanda Louzano; Scariot, Débora Botura; Pelegrini, Bruna Luíza; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies reported antiprotozoal activities of Sapindus saponaria L. The aim of this work was the evaluation of antileishmanial activity and mechanism of action of extract and fractions of S. saponaria L. Hydroethanolic extract (EHA) obtained from fruit pericarps was fractionated using solid-phase extraction in a reversed phase, resulting in fractions enriched with saponins (SAP fraction) and acyclic sesquiterpene oligoglycosides (OGSA fraction). The activities of EHA, SAP, and OGSA were evaluated by antiproliferative assays with promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms. Cytotoxicity on macrophages and hemolytic activity were also analyzed. Morphological and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes were evaluated by electron microscopy. Flow cytometry was used to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction and phosphatidylserine exposure. OGSA was more selective for parasites than mammalian J774A1 macrophage cells, with selectivity indices of 3.79 and 7.35, respectively. Our results showed that only the OGSA fraction did not present hemolytic activity at its IC50 for promastigote growth. Electron microscopy revealed changes in parasite flagellum, cell body shape, and organelle size, mainly mitochondria. Flow cytometry analysis indicated mitochondrial membrane and cell membrane dysfunction. OGSA showed antileishmanial activity, resulting in several changes to protozoa cells, including mitochondrial depolarization and early phosphatidylserine exposure, suggesting a possible apoptotic induction. PMID:28904555

  13. Correlative Synchrotron Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Single Molecule Super Resolution Microscopy for the Detection of Composition and Ultrastructure Alterations in Single Cells.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Donna R; Bell, Toby D M

    2015-12-18

    Single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) and synchrotron Fourier transform infrared (S-FTIR) spectroscopy are two techniques capable of elucidating unique and valuable biological detail. SMLM provides images of the structures and distributions of targeted biomolecules at spatial resolutions up to an order of magnitude better than the diffraction limit, whereas IR spectroscopy objectively measures the holistic biochemistry of an entire sample, thereby revealing any variations in overall composition. Both tools are currently applied extensively to detect cellular response to disease, chemical treatment, and environmental change. Here, these two techniques have been applied correlatively at the single cell level to probe the biochemistry of common fixation methods and have detected various fixation-induced losses of biomolecular composition and cellular ultrastructure. Furthermore, by extensive honing and optimizing of fixation protocols, many fixation artifacts previously considered pervasive and regularly identified using IR spectroscopy and fluorescence techniques have been avoided. Both paraformaldehyde and two-step glutaraldehyde fixation were identified as best preserving biochemistry for both SMLM and IR studies while other glutaraldehyde and methanol fixation protocols were demonstrated to cause significant biochemical changes and higher variability between samples. Moreover, the potential complementarity of the two techniques was strikingly demonstrated in the correlated detection of biochemical changes as well as in the detection of fixation-induced damage that was only revealed by one of the two techniques.

  14. Ultrastructural researches on rabbit myxomatosis. Lymphnodal lesions.

    PubMed

    Marcato, P S; Simoni, P

    1977-07-01

    Ultrastructural examination of head and neck lymph nodes in rabbits with spontaneous subacute myxomatosis showed fusion of immature reticuloendothelial cells which lead to the formation of polykarocytes. There was no ultrastructural evidence of viral infection of these polykaryocytes. Histiosyncytial lymphadenitis can be considered a specific lesion of myxomatosis.

  15. Ultrastructure of the attack of eosinophils stimulated by blood mononuclear cell products on schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, J. P.; Lenzi, H. L.; Elsas, P.; Dessein, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    Purified human eosinophils were treated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell supernatants containing eosinophil cytotoxic enhancing activity (ECEA). Schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni which had been coated either with antibody (Ab) from the sera of infected patients or with the lectin concanavalin A (Con A) were incubated with ECEA-treated and untreated cells for 2 minutes to 12 hours and examined ultrastructurally. Killing was assayed at 18 hours. ECEA caused an increase in the killing of Ab-coated worms, but Con-A-coated worms were not killed by either ECEA-treated or untreated cells. Eosinophils began to degranulate on Ab-coated worms within 2 minutes and continued to degranulate, so that by 12 hours about half of the parasites had greater than 50% of their surface covered by discharge material. The ECEA-treated cells degranulated more than the untreated cells. There was much less discharge material on Con-A-coated worms than on Ab-coated worms. Eosinophils adhered to discharge material on the surface of both Ab- and Con-A-coated parasites. At 3 and 12 hours, lysed cells and cell fragments were also seen adhering to discharge material. In the absence of discharge material the cells adhered to residual glycocalyx or to the tegumental outer membrane. These studies suggest that eosinophils kill schistosomula by progressively degranulating onto their surface over many hours and that the increased toxicity caused by ECEA is due to an increase in discharge. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:4037065

  16. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural characterization of endocrine cells in the larval stomach of the frog Rana temporaria tadpoles: a comparison with adult specimens.

    PubMed

    Villaro, A C; Rovira, J; Bodegas, M E; Burrell, M A; García-Ros, D; Sesma, P

    2001-10-01

    According to immunostaining and ultrastructural patterns, Rana temporaria tadpole stomach displays a well-differentiated endocrine population comprising, at least, six cellular types: ECL, EC [serotonin], D [somatostatin] - all three of them abundant -, P [bombesin] - less numerous -, CCK-8 [cholecystokinin/gastrin] and A [glucagon/glicentin] - both very scarce. Larval endocrine cells are mainly located in the surface epithelium and show open or closed morphologies. Cellular diversity is similar in tadpoles and frogs, with the exception of immunoreactivity for gastrin-17, found in adults in numerous cells. Larval cells display mature ultrastructural traits, although with smaller secretory granules. The different distribution of endocrine cells, which in adults are preferentially located in the glands, probably refers to different functional requirements. However, the rich vascular plexus present in larval mucosa may be an efficient transport medium of surface hormones to-gastric targets. The enhancement in adults of endocrine population and correlative increase in hormonal secretion indicates a more active functional role, probably related to the shift from herbivorous to carnivorous habits. In summary, the tadpole gastric endocrine population, although not as numerous as that of adult frogs, displays histological traits that indicate a relevant (immunoreactive and ultrastructural properties, cellular diversity) and specific (surface location, relative abundance of open-type cells) role of local regulatory factors in amphibian larval gastric function.

  17. A new nidovirus (NamDinh virus NDiV): Its ultrastructural characterization in the C6/36 mosquito cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Thuy, Nguyen Thanh; Huy, Tran Quang; Nga, Phan Thi; Morita, Kouichi; Dunia, Irene; Benedetti, Lucio

    2013-09-15

    We describe the ultrastructure of the NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales grown in the C6/36 mosquito cell line. Uninfected and NDiV-infected cells were investigated by electron microscopy 24–48 h after infection. The results show that the viral nucleocapsid-like particles form clusters concentrated in the vacuoles, the endoplasmic reticulum, and are scattered in the cytoplasm. Mature virions of NDiV were released as budding particles on the cell surface where viral components appear to lie beneath and along the plasma membrane. Free homogeneous virus particles were obtained by ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradients of culture fluids. The size of the round-shaped particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter. This is the first study to provide information on the morphogenesis and ultrastructure of the first insect nidovirus NDiV, a missing evolutionary link in the emergence of the viruses with the largest RNA genomes. - Highlights: • NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales was tested in cultured cell line. • The morphogenesis and ultrastructure of NDiV were investigated by electron microscopy. • The viral nucleocapsid-like particles clustered and scattered in the cytoplasm. • NDiVs were released as budding particles on the cell surface. • The size of the viral particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter.

  18. Reorganization of the Endosomal System in Salmonella-Infected Cells: The Ultrastructure of Salmonella-Induced Tubular Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Viktoria; Liebl, David; Zhang, Yuying; Rajashekar, Roopa; Chlanda, Petr; Giesker, Katrin; Chikkaballi, Deepak; Hensel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the intracellular life of Salmonella enterica, a unique membrane-bound compartment termed Salmonella-containing vacuole, or SCV, is formed. By means of translocated effector proteins, intracellular Salmonella also induce the formation of extensive, highly dynamic membrane tubules termed Salmonella-induced filaments or SIF. Here we report the first detailed ultrastructural analyses of the SCV and SIF by electron microscopy (EM), EM tomography and live cell correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM). We found that a subset of SIF is composed of double membranes that enclose portions of host cell cytosol and cytoskeletal filaments within its inner lumen. Despite some morphological similarities, we found that the formation of SIF double membranes is independent from autophagy and requires the function of the effector proteins SseF and SseG. The lumen of SIF network is accessible to various types of endocytosed material and our CLEM analysis of double membrane SIF demonstrated that fluid phase markers accumulate only between the inner and outer membrane of these structures, a space continual with endosomal lumen. Our work reveals how manipulation of the endosomal membrane system by an intracellular pathogen results in a unique tubular membrane compartmentalization of the host cell, generating a shielded niche permissive for intracellular proliferation of Salmonella. PMID:25254663

  19. Ultrastructure and lipid composition of detergent-resistant membranes derived from mammalian sperm and two types of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    van Gestel, Renske A; Brouwers, Jos F; Ultee, Anton; Helms, J Bernd; Gadella, Bart M

    2016-01-01

    Lipid rafts are micro-domains of ordered lipids (Lo phase) in biological membranes. The Lo phase of cellular membranes can be isolated from disordered lipids (Ld phase) after treatment with 1 % Triton  X-100 at 4 °C in which the Lo phase forms the detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) fraction. The lipid composition of DRM derived from Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, McArdle cells and porcine sperm is compared with that of the whole cell. Remarkably, the unsaturation and chain length degree of aliphatic chains attached to phospholipids is virtually the same between DRM and whole cells. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin were enriched in DRMs but to a cell-specific molar ratio. Sulfatides (sphingolipids from MDCK cells) were enriched in the DRM while a seminolipid (an alkylacylglycerolipid from sperm) was depleted from the DRM. Treatment with <5 mM methyl-ß-cyclodextrin (MBCD) caused cholesterol removal from the DRM without affecting the composition and amount of the phospholipid while higher levels disrupted the DRM. The substantial amount of (poly)unsaturated phospholipids in DRMs as well as a low stoichiometric amount of cholesterol suggest that lipid rafts in biological membranes are more fluid and dynamic than previously anticipated. Using negative staining, ultrastructural features of DRM were monitored and in all three cell types the DRMs appeared as multi-lamellar vesicular structures with a similar morphology. The detergent resistance is a result of protein-cholesterol and sphingolipid interactions allowing a relatively passive attraction of phospholipids to maintain the Lo phase. For this special issue, the relevance of our findings is discussed in a sperm physiological context.

  20. Visualization of the ultrastructural interface of cells with the outer and inner-surface of coral skeletons.

    PubMed

    Jeger, Rina; Lichtenfeld, Yona; Peretz, Hagit; Shany, Boaz; Vago, Razi; Baranes, Danny

    2009-04-01

    Crystalline, porous biomaterials, such as marine invertebrate skeletons, have been widely used for functional reconstruction of human tissues like bone and dental implants. Since in such an abrasive microenvironment adequate cell-material interactions are crucial for a successful treatment, it is of great importance to improve the means to examine these interactions. We developed a method that reveals the ultrastructure of the interface between coral skeletons and cultured neural cells to a higher quality than do traditional methods as it does not include damaging procedures like decalcification or sectioning non-decalcified skeletons. It is rather based on generating two electron opacity distinct Araldite masks, of the skeleton and its surrounding, by polymerizing them to different durations. The contrast created at the border of the two masks outlined the fine and fragile crystals of the coral skeleton's outer and inner surfaces and their contact sites with the cells. The skeleton's internal structure contains a mesh of narrow (few microns wide) and large channel-shaped gaps interrupted by irregular-shaped crystalline material. Neural cells grew on the skeleton surface by stretching between crystal tips, with occasional rearrangements of cytoskeletal fibers located near the anchorage focal adherence points. Cell processes infiltrated the skeleton interior by stretching between inter-surface crystals and by adjusting their volume to the space of the conduits they grew into. The technique advances the study of coral biology and of neural cells-hard biomaterial interaction; it can be applied to other biomaterials and cell types and open new ways for studying tissue development and engineering.

  1. A comparison of three methods for trephining donor corneal buttons: endothelial cell loss and microscopic ultrastructural evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moshirfar, Majid; Meyer, Jay J; Kang, Paul C

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the ultrastructure of the cut edge and associated endothelial cell loss following donor cornea trephination with a standard punch, vacuum punch, and vacuum trephine and artificial anterior chamber system. This laboratory investigation compared trephinations (8.0 mm) performed on human corneas using either a standard posterior punch (n = 12), vacuum posterior punch (n = 12), or vacuum trephine and artificial anterior chamber system (n = 12). Specular microscopy was performed before and after trephination to determine central endothelial cell density. Light and scanning electron microscopy were performed to evaluate the structure of the trephined edge. Endothelial cell-free distances from the trephinated edges were measured on light microscopy sections. Central endothelial cell loss (cells/mm(2)) after trephination was -14.0 +/- 49.9 (SD) for the standard posterior punch, -85.6 +/- 87.0 for the vacuum posterior punch, -116.0 +/- 223.1 for the vacuum trephine and artificial anterior chamber system. Endothelial cell-free distances from the trephined margin were 63 +/- 22 microm, 85 +/- 13 microm, and 123 +/- 48 microm for the three respective methods. The edges of grafts cut with anterior trephination were inward sloping from the epithelial to endothelial surfaces, while both posterior punches created outward sloping edges. Increased fibrillar disruption at edges was seen following anterior trephination. Different trephination methods produce distinct cut morphologies with the anterior trephination approach, resulting in more irregular margins. The anterior approach was associated with increased variability and greater endothelial cell loss than the studied posterior approaches. The use of corneal scissors may contribute to the morphologic features of the corneal button seen following anterior trephination.

  2. Effects of water turbulence on variations in cell ultrastructure and metabolism of amino acids in the submersed macrophyte, Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) H. St. John.

    PubMed

    Atapaththu, K S S; Miyagi, A; Atsuzawa, K; Kaneko, Y; Kawai-Yamada, M; Asaeda, T

    2015-09-01

    The interactions between macrophytes and water movement are not yet fully understood, and the causes responsible for the metabolic and ultrastructural variations in plant cells as a consequence of turbulence are largely unknown. In the present study, growth, metabolism and ultrastructural changes were evaluated in the aquatic macrophyte Elodea nuttallii, after exposure to turbulence for 30 days. The turbulence was generated with a vertically oscillating horizontal grid. The turbulence reduced plant growth, plasmolysed leaf cells and strengthened cell walls, and plants exposed to turbulence accumulated starch granules in stem chloroplasts. The size of the starch granules increased with the magnitude of the turbulence. Using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS), analysis of the metabolome found metabolite accumulation in response to the turbulence. Asparagine was the dominant amino acid that was concentrated in stressed plants, and organic acids such as citrate, ascorbate, oxalate and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) also accumulated in response to turbulence. These results indicate that turbulence caused severe stress that affected plant growth, cell ultrastructure and some metabolic functions of E. nuttallii. Our findings offer insights to explain the effects of water movement on the functions of aquatic plants. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. The influence of microgravity and spaceflight on columella cell ultrastructure in starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guisinger, M. M.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1999-01-01

    The ultrastructure of root cap columella cells was studied by morphometric analysis in wild-type, a reduced-starch mutant, and a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis grown in microgravity (F-microgravity) and compared to ground 1g (G-1g) and flight 1g (F-1g) controls. Seedlings of the wild-type and reduced-starch mutant that developed during an experiment on the Space Shuttle (both the F-microgravity samples and the F-lg control) exhibited a decreased starch content in comparison to the G-1g control. These results suggest that some factor associated with spaceflight (and not microgravity per se) affects starch metabolism. Elevated levels of ethylene were found during the experiments on the Space Shuttle, and analysis of ground controls with added ethylene demonstrated that this gas was responsible for decreased starch levels in the columella cells. This is the first study to use an on-board centrifuge as a control when quantifying starch in spaceflight-grown plants. Furthermore, our results show that ethylene levels must be carefully considered and controlled when designing experiments with plants for the International Space Station.

  4. The influence of microgravity and spaceflight on columella cell ultrastructure in starch-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guisinger, M. M.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1999-01-01

    The ultrastructure of root cap columella cells was studied by morphometric analysis in wild-type, a reduced-starch mutant, and a starchless mutant of Arabidopsis grown in microgravity (F-microgravity) and compared to ground 1g (G-1g) and flight 1g (F-1g) controls. Seedlings of the wild-type and reduced-starch mutant that developed during an experiment on the Space Shuttle (both the F-microgravity samples and the F-lg control) exhibited a decreased starch content in comparison to the G-1g control. These results suggest that some factor associated with spaceflight (and not microgravity per se) affects starch metabolism. Elevated levels of ethylene were found during the experiments on the Space Shuttle, and analysis of ground controls with added ethylene demonstrated that this gas was responsible for decreased starch levels in the columella cells. This is the first study to use an on-board centrifuge as a control when quantifying starch in spaceflight-grown plants. Furthermore, our results show that ethylene levels must be carefully considered and controlled when designing experiments with plants for the International Space Station.

  5. Ultrastructural distribution of the death-domain-containing MyD88 protein in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Jaunin, F; Burns, K; Tschopp, J; Martin, T E; Fakan, S

    1998-08-25

    MyD88, a protein implicated in interleukin-1 signaling, was localized in HeLa cells transiently transfected with an epitope-tagged (flag) version of MyD88. Overexpression of MyD88 can induce apoptosis. We have analyzed the fine structural intracellular distribution of MyD88 using immunoelectron microscopy. MyD88 is localized to the nucleus and to the cytoplasm as revealed by immunofluorescence visualization. Ultrastructural immunocytochemistry shows that, in the cytoplasm, this protein is associated with fibrillar aggregates containing beta-actin. In the nucleus, MyD88 was found in fibrillar domains present only in cells not yet displaying morphological signs of apoptosis. These domains are not derived from nucleoli and do not constitute an accumulation site of splicing factors. We suggest that such structures could be involved in the formation of the apoptotic bodies and/or in the modification of the nuclear structure and of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking during apoptosis.

  6. Ultrastructural analysis of contractile cell development in lung microvessels in hyperoxic pulmonary hypertension. Fibroblasts and intermediate cells selectively reorganize nonmuscular segments.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R.

    1992-01-01

    The current study traces the development of contractile cells in the nonmuscular segments of rat lung microvessels in hyperoxic pulmonary hypertension. New intimal cells first develop into a well-defined layer beneath the endothelium and internal to an elastic lamina. Ultrastructurally, these cells are found to be 1) fibroblasts recruited to the vessel wall from the interstitium and 2) intermediate cells, a population of preexisting vascular cells (structurally between a smooth muscle cell and a pericyte). Early in hyperoxia (days 3 through 7), interstitial fibroblasts migrate and align around the smallest vessels in which an elastic lamina is either absent or fragmentary. These cells then are incorporated into the vessel wall by tropoelastin secretion and the formation of an elastic lamina along their abluminal margin. After day 7, the new mural fibroblasts acquire the features of contractile cells, namely a basal lamina, extensive microfilaments, and dense bodies. In other vessels, as early as day 3 of hyperoxia, intermediate cells within the vessel intima begin to acquire the additional filaments and dense bodies of contractile cells. As hyperoxia continues, each cell pathway gives rise to vessels with distinct intimal or medial layers of contractile cells. In this way, thick-walled 'newly muscularized' vessel segments form adjacent to the capillary bed. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 p1500-a Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:1466406

  7. Microstructure Features of Proventriculus and Ultrastructure of the Gastric Gland Cells in Chinese Taihe Black-bone Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson).

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Ge, T; Peng, S; Zhong, S; Zhou, Z

    2016-02-01

    To investigate microstructure of proventriculus and ultrastructure of the gastric gland cells from Chinese Taihe black-bone silky fowl (BSF), the proventriculus of 4-week-old BSF was sampled. Conventional histological and transmission electron microscope (TEM) methods were used in this study. The wall of the Taihe BSF proventriculus was consisted of four layers, the mucous, submucosa, muscularis externa and the serosa as others birds. The muscularis externa of the birds' proventriculus contained three layers. Much of the melanin was present in loose connective tissue of lamina propria, submucosa, and muscularis externa unlike others. In addition, the ultrastructure of the gastric gland cells was observed by TEM. There was only one kind of gland cell, for example oxynticopeptic cell in proventriculus of Taihe BSF. The oxynticopeptic cells contained numerous mitochondria, cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (CRER), intracellular canaliculi (IC) that secrete hydrochloric acid and small amounts of pepsinogen granules. The rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was irregular cisternae with ribosomes and surrounded tightly the mitochondria along their configuration. The electron-dense pepsinogen granules were round with various sizes. The neighbouring oxynticopeptic cells were closed up with tight junction and gap junction. The inter-space between the neighbouring oxynticopeptic cells was stenosis or was filled with electron-dense extracellular substance. In conclusion, the gastric gland cells of Chinese Taihe BSF proventriculus were only oxynticopeptic cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, but no parietal cells and chief cells of mammal. The gastric gland cells of proventriculus were underdeveloped compared with those of mammals.

  8. Correlative Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy for Observing the Three-Dimensional Ultrastructure of Membranous Cell Organelles in Relation to Their Molecular Components.

    PubMed

    Koga, Daisuke; Kusumi, Satoshi; Bochimoto, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    Although the osmium maceration method has been used to observe three-dimensional (3D) structures of membranous cell organelles with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the use of osmium tetroxide for membrane fixation and the removal of cytosolic soluble proteins largely impairs the antigenicity of molecules in the specimens. In the present study, we developed a novel method to combine cryosectioning with the maceration method for correlative immunocytochemical analysis. We first immunocytochemically stained a semi-thin cryosection cut from a pituitary tissue block with a cryo-ultramicrotome, according to the Tokuyasu method, before preparing an osmium-macerated specimen from the remaining tissue block. Correlative microscopy was performed by observing the same area between the immunostained section and the adjacent face of the tissue block. Using this correlative method, we could accurately identify the gonadotropes of pituitary glands in various experimental conditions with SEM. At 4 weeks after castration, dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) were distributed throughout the cytoplasm. On the other hand, an extremely dilated cisterna of the RER occupied the large region of the cytoplasm at 12 weeks after castration. This novel method has the potential to analyze the relationship between the distribution of functional molecules and the 3D ultrastructure in different composite tissues.

  9. Dynamics of ultrastructural alterations in photosensitized crayfish glial and neuronal cells: Structures involved in transport processes and neuroglial interactions.

    PubMed

    Fedorenko, G M; Fedorenko, Y P; Fedorenko, A G; Uzdensky, A B

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for cancer treatment, including brain tumors. To explore the dynamics of photodynamic injury of glial cells and neurons and corresponding neuroglial interactions, we studied ultrastructure of the PDT-treated crayfish stretch receptor that consists of a single sensory neuron enwrapped by glial cells. Just after PDT, swelling of some mitochondria, dictyosomes, and endoplasmic reticulum cisterns occurred in neurons and glial cells. Tubular lattices involved in intraglial transport became swollen and disintegrated. At 1 hr postirradiation, these alterations were expanded to the whole cells. Segregation of the neuronal cytoplasm by Nissl bodies, which were involved in protein synthesis and transport along neurites, was lost. Swelling of submembrane cisterns prevented formation of glial protrusions and double-wall vesicles involved in the glia-to-neuron transport. Five hours later, glial layers lost organelles, stuck together, or dilated locally as a result of edema. In the neuronal cytoplasm, only demises of ER and swollen mitochondria were present, but few mitochondria retained normal structure. Thus, swelling of intracellular organelles, the first sign of photodynamic injury, occurred simultaneously in neurons and glia, but glial organelles were eliminated more quickly. Therefore, glial cells were less resistant to PDT than neurons. Adjacent glial layers were damaged less than remote ones, suggesting their protection by the neuron. The structures involved in glia-to-neuron (neuronal submembrane cisterns, glial protrusions, double-wall vesicles), intraglial (tubular lattices), and intraneuronal (Nissl bodies, Golgi apparatus, microtubular bundles) transport were impaired at the earlier stages of stretch receptor damage. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. From Dynamic Live Cell Imaging to 3D Ultrastructure: Novel Integrated Methods for High Pressure Freezing and Correlative Light-Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Spiegelhalter, Coralie; Tosch, Valérie; Hentsch, Didier; Koch, Marc; Kessler, Pascal; Schwab, Yannick; Laporte, Jocelyn

    2010-01-01

    Background In cell biology, the study of proteins and organelles requires the combination of different imaging approaches, from live recordings with light microscopy (LM) to electron microscopy (EM). Methodology To correlate dynamic events in adherent cells with both ultrastructural and 3D information, we developed a method for cultured cells that combines confocal time-lapse images of GFP-tagged proteins with electron microscopy. With laser micro-patterned culture substrate, we created coordinates that were conserved at every step of the sample preparation and visualization processes. Specifically designed for cryo-fixation, this method allowed a fast freezing of dynamic events within seconds and their ultrastructural characterization. We provide examples of the dynamic oligomerization of GFP-tagged myotubularin (MTM1) phosphoinositides phosphatase induced by osmotic stress, and of the ultrastructure of membrane tubules dependent on amphiphysin 2 (BIN1) expression. Conclusion Accessible and versatile, we show that this approach is efficient to routinely correlate functional and dynamic LM with high resolution morphology by EM, with immuno-EM labeling, with 3D reconstruction using serial immuno-EM or tomography, and with scanning-EM. PMID:20140253

  11. Isolated adrenocortical cells of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus): steroidogenic and ultrastructural properties.

    PubMed

    Carsia, R V; Scanes, C G; Malamed, S

    1985-02-01

    Isolated adrenocortical cells from White Leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) were compared to those from rats (Rattus norvegicus). Cells were prepared from collagenase-dispersed adrenal glands of sexually mature male animals. Corticosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay after incubation for 2 h with steroidogenic agents. Of the four ACTH analogues used, three were 6-17 times more potent with rat cells than with fowl cells (potencies were indicated by half-maximal steroidogenic concentrations). However, 9-tryptophan (O-nitrophenylsulfenyl) ACTH was 8 times more potent with fowl cells than with rat cells, thus suggesting that ACTH receptor differences exist between the two cell types. In addition, cAMP analogues were 10 times more potent with rat cells than with fowl cells suggesting that fowl corticosteroidogenesis is less dependent on cAMP than is rat corticosteroidogenesis. At equal cell concentrations, rat cells secreted 20-40 times more corticosterone than did chicken cells when they were maximally stimulated. Although rat cells converted 8 times more pregnenolone to corticosterone than did fowl cells, the half-maximal steroidogenic concentration for pregnenolone-supported corticosterone synthesis was the same for both cell types (about 5 microM). This suggests that fowl cells have lower steroidogenic enzyme content rather than lower steroidogenic enzyme activity. An unusual feature seen in the isolated fowl adrenocortical cells was an abundance of intracellular filaments.

  12. Chilling-induced ultrastructural changes to mesophyll cells of Arabidopsis grown under short days are almost completely reversible by plant re-warming.

    PubMed

    Vella, Nicole G F; Joss, Tom V; Roberts, Thomas H

    2012-10-01

    Exposure of plants to chilling (low temperatures above freezing) limits growth and development in all environments outside the lowest latitudes. Cell ultrastructure and morphometric studies may allow associations to be made between chilling-induced changes at the ultrastructural level, molecular events and their physiological consequences. We examined changes in the shape, size and membrane organization of the organelles of mesophyll cells in Arabidopsis thaliana (Col 0), a cold-resistant species, after subjecting 6-week-old plants grown at normal growth temperatures to chilling (2.5-4°C; 14-h dark/10-h light cycle) for 6, 24 and 72 h and after a re-warming period of 50 h. No ultrastructural differences were seen in the first 6 h of chilling but after 24 h we observed swollen and rounded chloroplasts with larger starch grains and dilated thylakoids compared to control plants. By 72 h, chilling had resulted in a large accumulation of starch in chloroplasts, an apparent crowding of the cytosol and a lower abundance of peripheral reticulum than in the controls. The average area per chloroplast in cell sections increased after 72-h chilling while the number of chloroplasts remained the same. Ring-shaped and other morphologically aberrant mitochondria were present in significantly higher abundance in plants given 72 h chilling than in the controls. Plant re-warming for 50 h reduced chloroplast size to those of the controls and returned mitochondria to standard morphology, but peripheral reticulum remained less abundant than in plants never given a cold treatment. The near full return to normal ultrastructure upon plant re-warming indicates that the morphological changes may be part of acclimation to cold.

  13. Impact of cadmium on early stages of flax fibre differentiation: ultrastructural aspects and pectic features of cell walls.

    PubMed

    Douchiche, Olfa; Driouich, Azeddine; Morvan, Claudine

    2011-06-01

    The effect of 0.5mM cadmium (Cd) was studied on the ultrastructural aspects and pectin features of the walls of flax cellulosic fibres when the thickening of secondary wall had just started in the hypocotyl of 10-day old seedlings. As seen by PATAg staining in controls, cell-wall formation displayed two distinct steps, secretion and remodelling, which did not occur simultaneously for all the neighbouring fibres. The inner part of the secondary wall, where the cellulose molecules had just been synthesized, appeared very reactive to PATAg. The outer part, where the cellulose fibrils associated in larger microfibril complexes, became non-reactive to PATAg. Under Cd treatment, we noticed some acceleration of fibre differentiation in terms of fibre number, wall thickness and yield. As revealed by PATAg staining, treated fibres exhibited a disturbed cell-wall texture, indicating a modified adhesion between the matrix polysaccharides and the cellulose microfibrils. The Cd impact on the distribution of highly methylesterified homogalacturonans (recognized by JIM7 antibody) was moderate in the cell junctions and low in the primary wall and outer part of secondary wall. The data meant that no early deesterification occurred in these domains, a behaviour related to the specificity of the CW-II metabolism. No large redistribution of low esterified homogalacturonans (recognized by JIM5 antibody) happened either. In parallel, the amount of uronic acid significantly increased in the so-called H(2)SO(4) cell-wall extract, indicating a Cd impact on pectin structure not detected by JIM5 or JIM7 antibodies.

  14. Ultrastructural localization of alpha-actinin and filamin in cultured cells with the immunogold staining (IGS) method

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Monospecific antibodies to chicken gizzard actin, alpha-actinin, and filamin have been used to localize these proteins at the ultrastructural level: secondary cultures of 14-d-old chicken embryo lung epithelial cells and chicken heart fibroblasts were briefly lysed with either a 0.5% Triton X-100/0.25% glutaraldehyde mixture, or 0.1% Triton X-100, fixed with 0.5% glutaraldehyde, and further permeabilized with 0.5% Triton X-100, to allow penetration of the gold-conjugated antibodies. After immunogold staining (De Mey, J., M. Moeremans, G. Geuens, R. Nuydens, and M. De Brabander, 1981, Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 5:889-899), the cells were postfixed in glutaraldehyde-tannic acid and further processed for embedding and thin sectioning. This approach enabled us to document the distribution of alpha-actinin and filamin either on the delicate cortical networks of the cell periphery or in the densely bundled stress fibers and polygonal nets. By using antiactin immunogold staining as a control, we were able to demonstrate the applicability of the method to the microfilament system: the label was distributed homogeneously over all areas containing recognizable microfilaments, except within very thick stress fibers, where the marker did not penetrate completely. Although alpha-actinin specific staining was homogeneously localized along loosely-organized microfilaments, it was concentrated in the dense bodies of stress fibers. The antifilamin-specific staining showed a typically spotty or patchy pattern associated with the fine cortical networks and stress fibers. This pattern occurred along all actin filaments, including the dense bodies also marked by anti-alpha-actinin antibodies. The results confirm and extend the data from light microscopic investigations and provide more information on the structural basis of the microfilament system. PMID:6207180

  15. Qualitative and quantitative ultrastructural observations on retinal ganglion cell layer of rat after intraorbital optic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Barron, K D; Dentinger, M P; Krohel, G; Easton, S K; Mankes, R

    1986-06-01

    Rat retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) was examined ultrastructurally 1-180 days after intraorbital crushing of one optic nerve. It was confirmed quantitatively that axotomized ganglion cells lost cisternal membranes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and showed disintegration of Nissl bodies and ribosomal rosettes 3 days postoperatively. Between 60 and 180 days after neurotomy there was partial reversion of the RER towards normal. At postoperative intervals of 14-60 days, chromatin aggregation became conspicuous and some nuclei were prominently furrowed and contained electron-dense inclusions. Concurrently, profiles of dead ganglion cells were encountered. Mean mitochondrial area increased in axotomized neurons but mitochondrial density declined, while the Golgi apparatus, lamellar specializations of the RER and the size of nuclei did not change significantly. Cytoplasmic atrophy was profound, however. Small nerve cells of the GCL appeared morphologically distinct from ganglion cells and did not undergo appreciable alteration. A decline in neuronal density, approximating 35%, occurred between the third and seventh postoperative day and progressed slowly thereafter. Neuronal density was 32% of normal 180 days postoperatively. A temporary increase in glial density 3-28 days after operation was due to microglial hyperplasia. Müller cell and astrocytic processes hypertrophied, infiltrated nerve fibre bundles, and surrounded and intruded into neuronal somata. Bundles of unmyelinated small axons, invested by astrocytes and basal lamina, were present within the necrotic cavity of the lesioned nerve 28-90 days postoperatively and had cytologic features of regenerative axonal sprouts. We conclude that intraorbital optic nerve crush is followed by a noteworthy degree of regenerative axonal sprouting which occurs and persists against a background of slow but relentless decline in the retinal ganglion cell population. This slow decline follows a rapidly-sustained loss

  16. What we have learned and will learn from cell ultrastructure in embedment-free section electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hisatake

    2008-06-01

    soluble proteins; the lattice-compactness indicates the concentration of soluble proteins in the domain, and the aqueous cytoplasm is equivalent to the aqueous solution. Further, the appearance of two contiguous lattice domains exhibiting differing degrees of compactness in a given cell indicates that cytoplasmic proteins are solated in a domain with less compact lattices, whereas they are gelated in the other domain. These proposed interpretations need to be confirmed by further studies. If confirmed, the control mechanisms of the localization and movement of intracellular organelles could then be understood on the basis not only of information about the cytoskeletons but also of cell ultrastructure-related information on the concentration and sol-gel states of intracellular proteins. In addition, possible interpretations of the significance of strand-lattices in PEG-EM are also applicable to the nucleoplasm, especially extra-heterochromatin (euchromatin) areas. Finally, several potential uses/advantages of PEG-EM in the cell-ultrastructure have also been demonstrated, especially in three-dimensional reconstructions of nonmembranous structures including stereo-viewing using a pair of EM images with appropriate tilting as well as electron microscopic tomography.

  17. Structural and ultrastructural changes in yeast cells during autolysis in a model wine system and in sparkling wines.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, A J; Polo, M C; Carrascosa, A V

    2001-12-04

    This study shows the changes that occur during the autolysis of yeast in a model wine medium and in a sparkling wine after 12 months of aging, using Nomarsky Light Microscopy and Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscopy (LTSEM). The size of the yeasts after 24 h of autolysis in a model medium is much smaller than when they are in the growth stage. With LTSEM. a large number of folds can be observed on the surface of the yeast and practically empty cells. Greater morphological changes, both structural and ultrastructural, can be observed in the yeast after 12 months of aging in wine than in the yeast after 24 h of induced autolysis. However, less of the cytoplasmic content of the yeast that has undergone autolysis in the wine was solubilized than that of the yeast after 24 h of autolysis in the model wine system. These findings indicate that autolysis of yeast in wine is a long-lasting process, which continues for at least 12 months.

  18. Stem cell banking: between traceability and identifiability.

    PubMed

    Knoppers, Bartha M; Isasi, Rosario

    2010-10-05

    Stem cell banks are increasingly seen as an essential resource of biological materials for both basic and translational research. Stem cell banks support transnational access to quality-controlled and ethically sourced stem cell lines from different origins and of varying grades. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, advances in regenerative medicine are leading to the development of a bioeconomy, 'a world where biotechnology contributes to a significant share of economic output'. Consequently, stem cell banks are destined to constitute a pillar of the bioeconomy in many countries. While certain ethical and legal concerns are specific to the nature of stem cells, stem cell banking could do well to examine the approaches fostered by tissue banking generally. Indeed, the past decade has seen a move to simplify and harmonize biological tissue and data banking so as to foster international interoperability. In particular, the issues of consent and of traceability illustrate not only commonalities but the opportunity for stem cell banking to appreciate the lessons learned in biobanking generally. This paper analyzes convergence and divergence in issues surrounding policy harmonization, transnational sharing, informed consent, traceability and return of results in the context of stem cell banks.

  19. Stem cell banking: between traceability and identifiability

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell banks are increasingly seen as an essential resource of biological materials for both basic and translational research. Stem cell banks support transnational access to quality-controlled and ethically sourced stem cell lines from different origins and of varying grades. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, advances in regenerative medicine are leading to the development of a bioeconomy, 'a world where biotechnology contributes to a significant share of economic output'. Consequently, stem cell banks are destined to constitute a pillar of the bioeconomy in many countries. While certain ethical and legal concerns are specific to the nature of stem cells, stem cell banking could do well to examine the approaches fostered by tissue banking generally. Indeed, the past decade has seen a move to simplify and harmonize biological tissue and data banking so as to foster international interoperability. In particular, the issues of consent and of traceability illustrate not only commonalities but the opportunity for stem cell banking to appreciate the lessons learned in biobanking generally. This paper analyzes convergence and divergence in issues surrounding policy harmonization, transnational sharing, informed consent, traceability and return of results in the context of stem cell banks. PMID:20923580

  20. Ultrastructural evidence of a vesicle-mediated mode of cell degranulation in chicken chromaffin cells during the late phase of embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Crivellato, Enrico; Nico, Beatrice; Travan, Luciana; Isola, Miriam; Ribatti, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    In the present investigation, we attempted to determine whether ultrastructural features indicative of a vesicle-mediated mode of cell secretion were detectable in chick chromaffin cells during embryo development. The adrenal anlagen of domestic fowls were examined at embryonic days (E) 12, 15, 19 and 21 by electron microscopy quantitative analysis. Morphometric evaluation revealed a series of granule and cytoplasmic changes highly specific for piecemeal degranulation (PMD), a secretory process based on vesicular transport of cargoes from within granules for extracellular release. At E19 and E21 we found a significant peak in the percentage of granules exhibiting changes indicative of progressive release of secretory materials, i.e. granules with lucent areas in their cores, reduced electron density, disassembled matrices, residual cores and membrane empty containers. A dramatic raise in the density of 30–80-nm-diameter, membrane-bound, electron-dense and electron-lucent vesicles – which were located either next to granules or close to the plasma membrane – was recognizable at E19, that is, during the prehatching phase. The cytoplasmic burst of dense and clear vesicles was paralleled by the appearance of chromaffin granules showing outpouches or protrusions of their profiles (‘budding features’). These ultrastructural data are indicative of an augmented vesicle-mediated transport of chromaffin granule products for extracellular release in chick embryo chromaffin cells during the prehatching stage. In conclusion, this study provides new data on the fine structure of chromaffin cell organelles during organ development and suggests that PMD may be part of an adrenomedullary secretory response that occurs towards the end of chicken embryogenesis. From an evolutionary point of view, this study lends support to the concept that PMD is a secretory mechanism highly conserved throughout vertebrate classes. PMID:19245498

  1. Ultrastructure of the ciliated cells of the free-swimming larva, and sessile stages, of the marine sponge Haliclona indistincta (Demospongiae: Haplosclerida).

    PubMed

    Stephens, Kelly M; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Lalor, Pierce; McCormack, Grace P

    2013-11-01

    We provide a detailed, comparative study of the ciliated cells of the marine haplosclerid sponge Haliclona indistincta, in order to make data available for future phylogenetic comparisons at the ultrastructural level. Our study focuses on the description and analysis of the larval epithelial cells, and choanocytes of the metamorphosed juvenile sponge. The ultrastructure of the two cell types is sufficiently different to prevent our ability to conclusively determine the origin of the choanocytes from the larval ciliated cells. However, ciliated, epithelial cells were observed in a migratory position within the inner cell mass of the larval stages. Some cilia were observed within the cell's cytoplasm, which is indicative of the ciliated epithelial cell undergoing transdifferentiation into a choanocyte; while traces of other ciliated epithelial cells were contained within phagosomes, suggesting they are phagocytosed. We compared our data with other species described in the literature. However, any phylogenetic inference must wait until further detailed comparisons can be made with species whose phylogenetic position has been determined by other means, such as phylogenomics, in order to more closely link genomic, and morphological information.

  2. Ultrastructural analyses of somatic embryo initiation, development and polarity establishment from mesophyll cells of Dactylis glomerata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilenko, A.; McDaniel, J. K.; Conger, B. V.

    2000-01-01

    Somatic embryos initiate and develop directly from single mesophyll cells in in vitro-cultured leaf segments of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Embryogenic cells establish themselves in the predivision stage by formation of thicker cell walls and dense cytoplasm. Electron microscopy observations for embryos ranging from the pre-cell-division stage to 20-cell proembryos confirm previous light microscopy studies showing a single cell origin. They also confirm that the first division is predominantly periclinal and that this division plane is important in establishing embryo polarity and in determining the embryo axis. If the first division is anticlinal or if divisions are in random planes after the first division, divisions may not continue to produce an embryo. This result may produce an embryogenic cell mass, callus formation, or no structure at all. Grant numbers: NAGW-3141, NAG10-0221.

  3. Ultrastructural analyses of somatic embryo initiation, development and polarity establishment from mesophyll cells of Dactylis glomerata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilenko, A.; McDaniel, J. K.; Conger, B. V.

    2000-01-01

    Somatic embryos initiate and develop directly from single mesophyll cells in in vitro-cultured leaf segments of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Embryogenic cells establish themselves in the predivision stage by formation of thicker cell walls and dense cytoplasm. Electron microscopy observations for embryos ranging from the pre-cell-division stage to 20-cell proembryos confirm previous light microscopy studies showing a single cell origin. They also confirm that the first division is predominantly periclinal and that this division plane is important in establishing embryo polarity and in determining the embryo axis. If the first division is anticlinal or if divisions are in random planes after the first division, divisions may not continue to produce an embryo. This result may produce an embryogenic cell mass, callus formation, or no structure at all. Grant numbers: NAGW-3141, NAG10-0221.

  4. Identifying ECM Mediators of Tumor Cell Dormancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    determined by vaginal smear so that inter- animal variation due to estrous can be controlled for across groups. Further, cervical samples will be... peptides identified for each protein divided by the total number of peptides identified in the two hour run are displayed as the peptide count ratio...Using this peptide counting label-free quantification approach, surprisingly, suggested that the three fibrillar collagen chains were at lower levels in

  5. Pre-embedding immunogold labeling of TUNEL stain enables evaluation of DNA strand breaks and ultrastructural alterations in individual cells of neuronal tissue.

    PubMed

    Barth, Martin; Oulmi, Yasmina; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Schilling, Lothar

    2002-12-01

    In the brain apoptosis may occur as a physiological phenomenon during periods of programmed cell death as well as under pathological conditions such as ischemia, trauma, tumor, and degenerative diseases. While the definition of apoptotic cell death was originally based on ultrastructural alterations, the detection of DNA double-strand breaks has become an important feature in studies of apoptosis. Currently, the terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) procedure is widely used for detection of apoptotic cell death. However, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that the TUNEL staining does not label apoptotic alterations exclusively. Therefore, a new staining procedure was developed combining TUNEL methodology with pre-embedding nanogold labeling to detect DNA double-strand breaks in individual cells by electron microscopy and assess the accompanying ultrastructural alterations. In vitro DNAse-treated vibratome sections (thickness, 20 micro m) from normal adult rat brains were used to develop the staining procedure consisting of the following steps: (i) TUNEL staining of free-floating vibratome sections using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled UTP, (ii) conversion of the fluorescence signal into an electron-dense signal using an anti-FITC antibody coupled with ultrasmall (diameter, 0.8 nm) gold particles followed by silver enhancement, and (iii) osmification, embedding in Spurr resin and cutting of ultrathin sections. Early postnatal brain tissue was used to study physiologically occurring apoptotic cell death. Under these conditions different patterns of gold staining were observed probably representing different states of cellular decay along the apoptotic avenue. Severe focal brain ischemia was studied as a pathological situation in which intense TUNEL staining occurs. Under these conditions TUNEL labeling of cells was regularly observed in conjunction with ultrastructural alterations indicative of necrosis. These results

  6. Identify multiple myeloma stem cells: Utopia?

    PubMed

    Saltarella, Ilaria; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Reale, Antonia; Vacca, Angelo; Ria, Roberto

    2015-01-26

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy of monoclonal plasma cells which remains incurable despite recent advances in therapies. The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been demonstrated in many solid and hematologic tumors, so the idea of CSCs has been proposed for MM, even if MM CSCs have not been define yet. The existence of myeloma CSCs with clonotypic B and clonotypic non B cells was postulated by many groups. This review aims to focus on these distinct clonotypic subpopulations and on their ability to develop and sustain MM. The bone marrow microenvironment provides to MM CSCs self-renewal, survival and drug resistance thanks to the presence of normal and cancer stem cell niches. The niches and CSCs interact each other through adhesion molecules and the interplay between ligands and receptors activates stemness signaling (Hedgehog, Wnt and Notch pathways). MM CSCs are also supposed to be responsible for drug resistance that happens in three steps from the initial cancer cell homing microenvironment-mediated to development of microenvironment-independent drug resistance. In this review, we will underline all these aspects of MM CSCs.

  7. An ultrastructural study of sinuatrial node cells in the embryonic rat heart.

    PubMed Central

    Domenech-Mateu, J M; Boya-Vegué, J

    1975-01-01

    Sinuatrial nodal tissue, obtained from rat embryos of 15, 16 and 17 days, was examined with the electron microscope. Embryonic nodal cells were generally similar to adult cells except that (1) they showed thick prolongations of the cytoplasm which insinuated themselves between neighbouring cells; (2) they possessed osmiophilic granules with a predeliction for the region of the Golgi complex; (3) they exhibited a lesser and variable degree of pinocytosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:1133091

  8. Ultra-Structural Alterations in In Vitro Produced Four-Cell Bovine Embryos Following Controlled Slow Freezing or Vitrification.

    PubMed

    Cavusoglu, T; Popken, J; Guengoer, T; Yilmaz, O; Uyanikgil, Y; Ates, U; Baka, M; Oztas, E; Zakhartchenko, V

    2016-08-01

    Cryopreservation is the process of freezing and preserving cells and tissues at low temperatures. Controlled slow freezing and vitrification have successfully been used for cryopreservation of mammalian embryos. We investigated the effect of these two cryopreservation methods on in vitro produced four-cell stage bovine embryos which were classified according to their quality and separated into three groups. The first group was maintained as untreated controls (n = 350). Embryos of the second (n = 385) and the third (n = 385) groups were cryopreserved either by controlled slow freezing or by vitrification. Embryos in groups 2 and 3 were thawed after 1 day. Hundred embryos were randomly selected from the control group, and 100 morphologically intact embryos from the second and third group were thawed after 1 day and cultured to observe the development up to the blastocyst stage. The blastocyst development rate was 22% in the control group, 1% in the slow-freezing group and 3% in the vitrification group. Remaining embryos of all three groups were examined by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy with subsequent histological staining procedures. Cryopreservation caused degenerative changes at the ultra-structural level. Compared with vitrification, slow freezing caused an increased mitochondrial degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolization, disruption of the nuclear and plasma membrane integrity, organelle disintegration, cytoskeletal damage, a reduced thickness of the zona pellucida and a formation of fractures in the zona pellucida. Further studies are required to understand and decrease the harmful effects of cryopreservation.

  9. Relationship between caffeine-induced ocular hypertension and ultrastructure changes of non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Kurata, K; Maeda, M; Nishida, E; Tsukuda, R; Suzuki, T; Ando, T; Tokuriki, M

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to morphologically assess a possible mechanism for caffeine-induced ocular hypertension. Taking into consideration the relationship between the secretion of aqueous humor and the ultrastructure of the ciliary body, the time course of the morphological features in the ciliary epithelium when caffeine was administered intravenously to male Wistar rats was investigated by electron-microscopy. These morphological findings were also compared with the changes in the intraocular pressure (IOP). A significant increase in IOP was noted 15 min and 1 hr after a single dosing of caffeine alone. This change disappeared in all animals within 2 hr after dosing. The IOP in the animals receiving caffeine and the beta-blocker befunolol, which lowers the IOP by inhibiting aqueous humor secretion, decreased significantly from 15 min after dosing, and this change persisted 2 hr after dosing. In electron-microscopy 15 min and/or 1 hr after dosing with caffeine, a slight dilatation in the lateral intercellular spaces near the basement membrane of the non-pigmented ciliary epithelium was observed and the interdigitations between the non-pigmented epithelial cells were intact. Reversal of these changes was observed 2 hr after dosing. On the other hand, the lateral intercellular spaces between the non-pigmented epithelial cells were markedly dilated and the interdigitations were disorganized following dosing with caffeine alone and in combination with befunolol. These results described here indicate that the intravenous administration of caffeine causes ocular hypertension and also changes in the non-pigmented ciliary epithelium, suggesting an enhancement of aqueous humor transportation. This paradigm in the rat is considered to be useful to further assess caffeine-induced ocular hypertension and for use as an animal model in glaucoma research associated with an aqueous humor secretion.

  10. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia presenting multinucleated cells in histology: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, F; Hashimoto, T; Takenouchi, T; Ito, M; Nitto, H

    1998-07-01

    A case of angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia arising on the face of a woman is reported. Histologically, the uniqueness of this case is the presence of multinucleated cells (MNCs), besides the conventional dermal changes. Electron microscopy showed that some of the apparent MNCs are clusters of endothelial cells forming immature vascular lumens with numerous microvilli, and the other MNCs displayed the recognized features of fibrohistiocytic or myofibroblastic cells. Immunohistochemically, some MNCs were positive for Ulex europaeus agglutinin and Factor VIII-related antigen. From these findings, some of the MNCs are histologically endothelial sprouts, and the others are fibrohistiocytic cells in the present case.

  11. Ultrastructure of a magnetotactic spirillum.

    PubMed Central

    Balkwill, D L; Maratea, D; Blakemore, R P

    1980-01-01

    The ultrastructure of a magnetotactic bacterium (strain MS-1) was examined by transmission, scanning, and scanning-transmission electron microscopy. The organism resembled other spirilla in general cell morphology, although some differences were detected at the ultrastructural level. Electron-dense particles within magnetotactic cells were shown by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis to be localizations containing iron. A non-magnetotactic variant of strain MS-1 lacked these novel bacterial inclusion bodies. A chain of these particles traversed each magnetotactic cell in a specific arrangement that was consistent from cell to cell, seemingly associated with the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. Each particle was surrounded by an electron-dense layer separated from the particle surface by an electron-transparent region. The term "magnetosome" is proposed for the electron-dense particles with their enveloping layer(s) as found in this and other magnetotactic bacteria. Images PMID:6245069

  12. Ultrastructure observation on the cells at different life history stages of Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora: Prostomatea), a parasitic ciliate of marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Ni, Bing; Fan, Xinpeng; Warren, Alan; Yin, Fei; Gu, Fukang

    2016-09-01

    Cells of Cryptocaryon irritans at different life history stages were studied using both light and electron microscopy. The characteristics of several organelles were revealed for the first time at the ultrastructural level. It was confirmed that the cytostome of trophonts, protomonts and theronts was surrounded by cilium-palp triplets rather than ciliary triplets. The nematodesmata underlying the circumoral dikinetids were single bundles, whereas these were always paired in Prorodontids. Toxicysts were present in late-stage tomonts and theronts, but were absent in trophonts and protomonts. We posited that toxicysts might play a role in infection and invasion of host-fish tissue by theronts. The adoral brosse was unlike that of any other family of the class Prostomatea based on its location and morphology. Membranous folds were present in trophonts, protomonts and theronts. These folds were longer and more highly developed in C. irritans than in exclusively free-living prostome ciliates suggesting that they might be linked to parasitism in C. irritans. Trophonts, protomonts and theronts had multiple contractile vacuoles. The basic ultrastructure of the contractile vacuole of C. irritans was similar to that of other kinetofragminophoran ciliates. They might play different roles in different stages of the life cycle since their ultrastructure varied among trophonts, protomonts and theronts.

  13. Evolution of acute chest syndrome in sickle cell trait: an ultrastructural and light microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Hasleton, P S; Orr, K; Webster, A; Lawson, R A

    1989-01-01

    Light and electron microscopic studies of a patient with sickle cell trait who had an episode of sickling during coronary artery surgery, from which he died, showed fibrin thrombi, focal alveolar wall necrosis, and epithelial cell damage. It is suggested that in cases of sickle trait full precautionary measures should be taken to prevent sickling in these circumstances. Images PMID:2617448

  14. The ultrastructure of bovine ileal follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells during the perinatal period.

    PubMed Central

    Asari, M; Kano, Y; Wakui, S; Nishita, T; Matsushita, H; Oshige, H

    1989-01-01

    The ileal follicle-associated epithelial (FAE) cells in bovine fetuses and neonates were examined by light and electron microscopy. In 7-9 months old fetuses (68, 82 and 86 cm CRL) the dome epithelium was usually a little thinner than elsewhere and contained more intra-epithelial leucocytes. FAE cells were already distinguishable by their being more cuboidal and eosinophilic than the other epithelial cells. The cytoplasm of the FAE cells bulged noticeably into the lumen and contained numerous mitochondria and vacuoles. At 18 hours and 21 hours after birth, the dome epithelium was more columnar and eosinophilic than previously and contained more intra-epithelial leucocytes. The FAE cells showed characteristic bulging of large cytoplasmic processes into the lumen, as seen in the previous stage. In the cytoplasm, moderate numbers of mitochondria, numerous vesicles and microtubules could be seen. Frequently degenerated FAE cells could also be found among normal FAE cells in the epithelium. After this stage the cytoplasmic processes almost disappeared but distribution of the other organelles was similar to that seen at the previous stage except that multivesicular bodies were frequently seen in the apical cytoplasm. These histological results suggest that bovine ileal FAE cells are histologically and functionally mature by birth and that at birth they seem to be able to react against the penetration of pathogenic substances from the extrauterine environment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:2606783

  15. Phenotypical and ultrastructural features of Oct4-positive cells in the adult mouse lung

    PubMed Central

    Galiger, Celimene; Kostin, Sawa; Golec, Anita; Ahlbrecht, Katrin; Becker, Sven; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela; Popescu, Laurentiu M; Morty, Rory E; Seeger, Werner; Voswinckel, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Octamer binding trascription factor 4 (Oct4) is a transcription factor of POU family specifically expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). A role for maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal of ESCs is assigned to Oct4 as a pluripotency marker. Oct4 can also be detected in adult stem cells such as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Several studies suggest a role for Oct4 in sustaining self-renewal capacity of adult stem cells. However, Oct4 gene ablation in adult stem cells revealed no abnormalities in tissue turnover or regenerative capacity. In the present study we have conspicuously found pulmonary Oct4-positive cells closely resembling the morphology of telocytes (TCs). These cells were found in the perivascular and peribronchial areas and their presence and location were confirmed by electron microscopy. Moreover, we have used Oct4-GFP transgenic mice which revealed a similar localization of the Oct4-GFP signal. We also found that Oct4 co-localized with several described TC markers such as vimentin, Sca-1, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta C-kit and VEGF. By flow cytometry analyses carried out with Oct4-GFP reporter mice, we described a population of EpCAMneg/CD45neg/Oct4-GFPpos that in culture displayed TC features. These results were supported by qRT-PCR with mRNA isolated from lungs by using laser capture microdissection. In addition, Oct4-positive cells were found to express Nanog and Klf4 mRNA. It is concluded for the first time that TCs in adult lung mouse tissue comprise Oct4-positive cells, which express pluripotency-related genes and represent therefore a population of adult stem cells which might contribute to lung regeneration. PMID:24889158

  16. Novel Identified Receptors on Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Migalovich-Sheikhet, Helena; Friedman, Sheli; Mankuta, David; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Mast cells (MC) are major participants in the allergic reaction. In addition they possess immunomodulatory roles in the innate and adaptive immune reactions. Their functions are modulated through a number of activating and inhibitory receptors expressed on their surface. This review deals with some of the most recently described receptors, their expression patterns, ligand(s), signal transduction mechanisms, possible cross-talk with other receptors and, last but not least, regulatory functions that the MC can perform based on their receptor expression in health or in disease. Where the receptor role on MC is still not clear, evidences from other hematopoietic cells expressing them is provided as a possible insight for their function on MC. Suggested strategies to modulate these receptors’ activity for the purpose of therapeutic intervention are also discussed. PMID:22876248

  17. The cells of the rat gastric groove and cardia. An ultrastructural and carbohydrate histochemical study, with special reference to the fibrillovesicular cells.

    PubMed

    Wattel, W; Geuze, J J

    1978-01-31

    The distal wall of the groove between the rat forestomach and glandular stomach is lined with a special type of columnar cells (CCGG) and with fibrillovesicular cells (FVC). The cardiac glands contain cardiac mucosa (CMC) and serous cells (CSC). The CCGG contain small mucous granules and special vesicles and tubules. The CMC are filled with large mucous granules and resemble mucous neck cells. The CSC are filled with large proteinaceous granules. The FVC are characterized by long microvilli, apical bundles of microfilaments and a complex "tubulovesicular system". The pattern of 3H-thymidine incorporation and the presence of immature and transitional forms indicate a possible origin of all the cell types concerned from a common undifferentiated precursor. The membranes of the tubulovesicular system of FVC as well as the apical cell membrane were reactive to Thiéry's carbohydrate stain. However, lanthanum tracing of the extracellular space and ultrastructural stereoscopy did not reveal a permanent continuity between both membrane systems. The absence of 3H-thymidine label showed that FVC were not proliferative. The structural characteristics of FVC do not account for a secretory, resorptive or receptive function. The special arrangement of microfilaments and the tubulovesicular system suggests an ability to fast changes in surface area.

  18. Identifying ECM Mediators of Tumor Cell Dormancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    oil). d) At end of 4 week treatment (Gp2) and after 1 month post-weaning (Gp3), all groups will be euthanized. e) Two hours prior to euthanasia ...inject rats with 50 mg/BrdU i.p. for incorporation into actively proliferating cells. f) At time of euthanasia , stage of estrous will be determined...of New Mexico , ‘Plasticity of the mammary gland extracellular matrix and breast cancer progression’. Albuquerque, New Mexico , Sept 22, 2006

  19. Ultrastructural study of the morphogenesis of human herpesvirus 6 type B in human T-lymphotropic virus type I-producing lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Yuji; Daibata, Masanori; Bandobashi, Kentaro; Lee, Gang-Hong; Furihata, Mutsuo; Yokoyama, Akihito; Miyoshi, Isao

    2008-12-01

    A few studies of the morphogenesis of human herpesvirus (HHV) 6 type A and B (HHV-6A, -6B) have been performed using neurogenic, lymphoid, or epithelial cells. When human MT-4 T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-producing lymphoid cells were coinfected with HHV-6B in vitro, viral-specific proteins were clearly detected. We therefore attempted to detect virus particles at the ultrastructural level, focusing on the morphogenesis of such particles. Ultrastructurally, HHV-6B virus particles could be observed in the nuclei, cytoplasm, and extracellular spaces of MT-4 cells, in addition to extracellular HTLV-I particles of C type. In the nuclei, dense-cored or doughnut-shaped viral capsids were found, as well as peculiar tubular rods. When budding to perinuclear spaces, these intranuclear capsids exhibited a thin tegument on their surfaces. Distinct teguments were found in the intracytoplasmic particles, which budded into cytoplasmic vacuoles during the process of maturation. The mature particles were detected in the extracellular spaces and the intracytoplasmic vacuoles, with a distinct tegument and surface spikes. An electron-dense layer in the outer part of the tegument was found in some mature particles located in the extracellular space, but no such layer was detected in mature particles in intracytoplasmic vacuoles. No annulate lamellae, but intranuclear tubular rods, were found in the cytoplasm of MT-4 cells. These observations indicate that HHV-6B in MT-4 cells is similar to HHV-6A in fine structure, but differs from HHV-7 and HHV-8 in ultrastructural characteristics. Further comparisons of HHV-6B with HHV-6A, HHV-7, and HHV-8 are needed with regard to functional activity.

  20. Ultra-structural changes and expression of chondrogenic and hypertrophic genes during chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells in alginate beads

    PubMed Central

    Dashtdar, Havva; Selvaratnam, Lakshmi; Balaji Raghavendran, Hanumantharao; Suhaeb, Abdulrazzaq Mahmod; Ahmad, Tunku Sara

    2016-01-01

    Chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the form of pellet culture and encapsulation in alginate beads has been widely used as conventional model for in vitro chondrogenesis. However, comparative characterization between differentiation, hypertrophic markers, cell adhesion molecule and ultrastructural changes during alginate and pellet culture has not been described. Hence, the present study was conducted comparing MSCs cultured in pellet and alginate beads with monolayer culture. qPCR was performed to assess the expression of chondrogenic, hypertrophic, and cell adhesion molecule genes, whereas transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to assess the ultrastructural changes. In addition, immunocytochemistry for Collagen type II and aggrecan and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analysis were performed. Our results indicate that pellet and alginate bead cultures were necessary for chondrogenic differentiation of MSC. It also indicates that cultures using alginate bead demonstrated significantly higher (p < 0.05) chondrogenic but lower hypertrophic (p < 0.05) gene expressions as compared with pellet cultures. N-cadherin and N-CAM1 expression were up-regulated in second and third weeks of culture and were comparable between the alginate bead and pellet culture groups, respectively. TEM images demonstrated ultrastructural changes resembling cell death in pellet cultures. Our results indicate that using alginate beads, MSCs express higher chondrogenic but lower hypertrophic gene expression. Enhanced production of extracellular matrix and cell adhesion molecules was also observed in this group. These findings suggest that alginate bead culture may serve as a superior chondrogenic model, whereas pellet culture is more appropriate as a hypertrophic model of chondrogenesis. PMID:26966647

  1. Changes in mouse Leydig cells ultrastructure and testosterone secretion after diethylcarbamazine administration.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Karina Lidianne Alcântara; Silva, Valdemiro Amaro Da; Torres, Dilênia De Oliveira Cipriano; Donato, Mariana Aragão Matos; Peres, Newton Gil; Souza, José Roberto Botelho De; Peixoto, Christina Alves

    2008-07-01

    Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) has been proven to be highly effective against lymphatic filariasis, although its effect on vertebrate cells remains uncertain. Mice Leydig cells after treatment with 200mg/kg of DEC for 12 days showed numerous lipid droplets, degenerated mitochondria, residual bodies and several giant whorl-like smooth endoplasmic reticulum, some of them encircling large lipids droplets. Treatment with lower dosages showed similar alterations on Leydig cells and the morphological effects decreased directly proportional to the drug concentration. Serum testosterone levels were significantly lower only in 200 mg/kg DEC-treated group when compared to the controls. However, no significant changes were observed in the pregnancy rates and offspring number of DEC-treated male-mated female mice in any doses studied. The results obtained in the present study are consistent with the hypothesis that DEC has some effects on mice Leydig cells, although they were not sufficient enough to interfere with the rodent fertility.

  2. Ultrastructural study of the renal tubular system in acute experimental African swine fever: virus replication in glomerular mesangial cells and in the collecting ducts.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Hervás, J; Méndez, A; Carrasco, L; Villeda, C J; Wilkinson, P J; Sierra, M A

    1995-01-01

    Despite the considerable attention given to kidney lesions in African swine fever (ASF), a number of questions remain to be answered. Structural and ultrastructural examination showed that a highly virulent isolate of ASF virus (Malawi 83) replicated in glomerular mesangial cells and renal collecting duct epithelial cells, with hyperplasia of the latter in infected pigs. Replication in mesangial cells may be due to their contact with the bloodstream, as well as to their phagocytic capacity and high metabolism rate. Virus replication in macrophages and endothelial cells of interstitial capillaries, and the necrosis of these infected cells gave rise to a large number of free virus in interstitial tissue. This, together with the lesser thickness of the basal membrane of collecting ducts in comparison to the rest of the tubular system, probably facilitates ASFV infection of tubular epithelial cells. Virus replication in these cells may account for the presence of virus in the urine of pigs with acute ASF where haematuria is not observed.

  3. Ultrastructural and Functional Effects of Lipopolysaccharide and Interleukin-2 on Human NK Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    characteristics of NK cells. They contain glycopro- tein, lysosomal enzymes including acid phosphatase. arylsulfatase (Mang et al., 1987a; Zucker-Franklin et al...have been shown jiY • • to contain acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase , and glycoprotein (Kang et al., 1987a). The presence of lysosomal enzymes in PTA...granules contain lysosomal enzymes and are LPS. Recomtinant IL-2 i,iduced a significant in- involved in cytolysis of target cells (Roder et al., crease

  4. Ultrastructural and biochemical studies of two dynamically expressed cell surface determinants on Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, D L; Cutler, J E

    1986-01-01

    Variability in the expression of two different cell surface carbohydrate determinants was examined with two agglutinating immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibodies (H9 and C6) and immunoelectron microscopy during growth of three strains of Candida albicans. A single strain of Candida parapsilosis did not express either antigen at any time during growth. Antigens were detected on the surface of C. albicans by agglutination tests with either H9 or C6 over a 48-h growth period. The difference in specificities of the monoclonal antibodies was demonstrated by Ouchterlony double-diffusion tests with solubilized antigens and by variabilities in the reactivity of the agglutinins among yeast strains. The antigenic determinants were isolated by specific immunoprecipitation and protease digestion and characterized by methods including high-pressure liquid chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, and mass spectroscopy with both chemical and electron ionization. These determinants both contain mannose and glucose. In the case of antigen H9, an additional carbohydrate was detected with gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. The location of antigens on individual cells was determined by indirect labeling of the determinants, first reacting cells with H9 or C6 followed by goat anti-mouse antibody conjugated with 20-nm colloidal gold particles. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine cells. The antigens that were reactive with the monoclonal antibodies were associated with a flocculent surface layer. Expression of this layer and expression of the antigens is a dynamic process which is growth phase and strain dependent. The antigens were not expressed on very young cells and disappeared from the cell surface of most C. albicans strains with age. The use of monoclonal antibody to cell surface determinants may allow characterization of cell surface antigens of C. albicans and be helpful in establishing receptors which mediate adherence. Images PMID:3510174

  5. Anatomical structure and ultrastructure of the endocarp cell walls of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels (Sapotaceae).

    PubMed

    Sebaa, H S; Harche, M Kaid

    2014-12-01

    The anatomical and histochemical study of young and adult endocarps of Argania spinosa (sampled from Tindouf; Algeria) shows a general structure that is similar to that of majority of stone fruits. These samples consist of tissues that contain lignified and cellulosic cell walls. The majority of the tissues are composed of sclerenchyma cells; with very thick lignified cell walls and conducting tissues. Coniferyl lignins are abundant in the majority of the lignified tissues. However, the coniferyl lignins appear at the primary xylem during lignification. Syringyl lignins are present in small quantities. The electron microscopy observation of the sclerenchyma cell walls of the young endocarp shows polylamellate strates and, cellular microfibrils in arced patterns. This architecture is observed in the cell walls of the adult endocarp only after the incubation of the tissue in methylamine. These configurations (arcs) are the result of a regular and complete rotation with a 180° variation in the microfibril angle; the complete and symmetrical arcs show a helicoidal mode of construction. The observation of the sclerenchyma cells revealed the capacity of helicoidal morphogenesis to adjust itself under the influence of topological constraints, such as the presence of a large number of pit canals, which maintain symplastic transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrastructure and behavior of actin cytoskeleton during cell wall formation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Tomoko; Ishijima, Sanae A; Ochi, Hisako; Osumi, Masako

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy has shown that F-actin of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe forms patch, cable and ring structures. To study the relationship between cell wall formation and the actin cytoskeleton, the process of cell wall regeneration from the protoplast was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) and three-dimensional reconstruction analysis. During cell wall regeneration from the protoplast, localization of F-actin patches was similar to that of the newly synthesized cell wall materials, as shown by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). In serial sectioned TEM images, filasomes were spherical, 100-300 nm in diameter and consisted of a single microvesicle (35-70 nm diameter) surrounded by fine filaments. Filasomes were adjacent to the newly formed glucan fibrils in single, cluster or rosary forms. By IEM analysis, we found that colloidal gold particles indicating actin molecules were present in the filamentous area of filasomes. Three-dimensional reconstruction images of serial sections clarified that the distribution of filasomes corresponded to the distribution of F-actin patches revealed by CLSM. Thus, a filasome is one of the F-actin patch structures appearing in the cytoplasm at the site of the initial formation of the cell wall and it may play an important role in this action.

  7. Ultrastructural Changes in Potato Tuber Pith Cells during Brown Center Development 1

    PubMed Central

    Van Denburgh, Roy W.; Hiller, Larry K.; Koller, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Electron microscopy revealed that subjecting `Russet Burbank' potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants to 2 days of cool temperature growing conditions (18°C days/10°C nights) did not produce visible damage or changes in tuber pith tissue when compared to warm-grown tubers (23°C days/18°C nights). However, damage to some tuber pith cells was observed after 5 days of cool treatment. Eight days of cool treatment produced extensive alterations in cell structure. The cytoplasm of the cool-treated tuber pith cells had become highly vesiculated and there was evidence of complete destruction of amyloplast membranes and tonoplasts. In many cases the starch grains appeared to be undergoing hydrolysis suggesting total disruption of normal cell function. Sixteen days of cool treatment were sufficient to produce visible brown center development in all cool-grown tubers examined. Electron microscopy of these tissues revealed that, although some organelles were still present, the cytoplasm had become extremely vesiculated and lacked any resemblance to that of tissue from warm-grown tubers. Gross, irregular thickening of cell walls was also detected. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:16664768

  8. Analysis of the cell surface layer ultrastructure of the oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia.

    PubMed

    Sekot, Gerhard; Posch, Gerald; Oh, Yoo Jin; Zayni, Sonja; Mayer, Harald F; Pum, Dietmar; Messner, Paul; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Schäffer, Christina

    2012-06-01

    The Gram-negative oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia is decorated with a 2D crystalline surface (S-) layer, with two different S-layer glycoprotein species being present. Prompted by the predicted virulence potential of the S-layer, this study focused on the analysis of the arrangement of the individual S-layer glycoproteins by a combination of microscopic, genetic, and biochemical analyses. The two S-layer genes are transcribed into mRNA and expressed into protein in equal amounts. The S-layer was investigated on intact bacterial cells by transmission electron microscopy, by immune fluorescence microscopy, and by atomic force microscopy. The analyses of wild-type cells revealed a distinct square S-layer lattice with an overall lattice constant of 10.1 ± 0.7 nm. In contrast, a blurred lattice with a lattice constant of 9.0 nm was found on S-layer single-mutant cells. This together with in vitro self-assembly studies using purified (glyco)protein species indicated their increased structural flexibility after self-assembly and/or impaired self-assembly capability. In conjunction with TEM analyses of thin-sectioned cells, this study demonstrates the unusual case that two S-layer glycoproteins are co-assembled into a single S-layer. Additionally, flagella and pilus-like structures were observed on T. forsythia cells, which might impact the pathogenicity of this bacterium.

  9. AN ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF VEGETATIVE CELL DIVISION IN OEDOGONIUM BORISIANUM(1) (2).

    PubMed

    Hill, G J; Machlis, L

    1968-12-01

    Vegetative cell division in Oedogonium borisianum is initiated by the formation of a 3-layered ring adjacent to the wall in the upper portion of the cell. This structure enlarges by the coalescence of vesicles. When the ring is fully developed, the parent wall splits adjacent to the ring, and the ring expands into a cylinder, which becomes the cuticle of the upper daughter cell. The lateral wall then forms between this cuticle and the plasmalemma of the cell. Concurrent with ring development and expansion, the nucleus migrates to a position in the center of the cell and karyokinesis occurs. Commencing with late telophase, evidence of transverse wall formation becomes apparent. The zone between the daughter nuclei contains a layer of microtubules in a plane parallel to the plane in which the transverse wall will develop. Subsequently a random coalescence of vesicles occurs along this plane. During the latter stages of this process, the ring expands and the plane of the transverse wall moves upward to the base of the ring cylinder. The completed transverse wall then fuses at is periphery with the newly formed lateral wall.

  10. Ultrastructural pathology of a Chilean case of tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-cell lymphotropic type I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM).

    PubMed

    Liberski, P P; Buczyński, J; Yanagihara, R; Mora, C; Gibbs, C J; Gajdusek, C; Cartier, L; Verdugo, A; Araya, F; Castillo, L

    1999-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), is the cause of endemic tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) or HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM). Because TSP/HAM is not a fatal disease, the neuropathology of this disease, albeit relatively well understood, is based on the examination of just a few incidental cases. Previously, we demonstrated peculiar lamellated structures, called "multilamellar bodies" (MLB). In this report, we present the ultrastructural neuropathology of a TSP/HAM case from Chile, with further detailed descriptions of MLB. It is tempting to suggest that MLB may represent specific ultrastructural markers of TSP/HAM. The pathology of the anterior and posterior horns was similar and was comprised of axonal degeneration, accompanied by extensive astrocytic gliosis. Lymphocytic infiltration, particularly observed as "cuffs" around blood vessels, was scattered among other cellular elements. Ultrastructurally, myelin sheaths were relatively well preserved, and some demyelinated but not remyelinated fibers were observed. Moreover, axons with abnormal accumulations of neurofilaments, suggestive of axonal degeneration, were detected. Several axons contained Hirano bodies. In many samples, glial processes replaced most of the remaining neuropil. In a few specimens of the anterior and posterior horns of the spinal cord, MLB were observed. These structures consisted of stacks of 30 to 40 electron-dense lamellae, which were interrupted by narrow electron-lucent spaces. All of the lamellae were immersed within an amorphous substance of intermediate density. Neurons of the dorsal root ganglia were basically normal except for increased lipofuscin accumulation. As in the spinal cord, myelinated axons were well preserved, but a few were demyelinated and surrounded by concentric arrays of Schwann cell membranes. Also, axons of the dorsal roots accumulated increased number of neurofilaments. Mast cells and Schwann cells were increased in number, the latter

  11. Serial block face scanning electron microscopy--the future of cell ultrastructure imaging.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Louise; Hawes, Chris; Monteith, Sandy; Vaughan, Sue

    2014-03-01

    One of the major drawbacks in transmission electron microscopy has been the production of three-dimensional views of cells and tissues. Currently, there is no one suitable 3D microscopy technique that answers all questions and serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fills the gap between 3D imaging using high-end fluorescence microscopy and the high resolution offered by electron tomography. In this review, we discuss the potential of the serial block face SEM technique for studying the three-dimensional organisation of animal, plant and microbial cells.

  12. Morphofunctional changes in Leydig cells throughout the continuous spermatogenesis of the freshwater teleost fish, Serrasalmus spilopleura (Characiformes, Characidae): an ultrastructural and enzyme study.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, R H; Quagio-Grassiotto, I

    2007-08-01

    The freshwater fish Serrasalmus spilopleura (piranha) has a continuous type of reproduction; gametes are constantly produced and released during the reproductive cycle. The testes do not undergo seasonal morphological changes but exhibit two constant regions throughout the year: the medullar region (involved with spermatogenesis) and the cortical region (involved with spermiation and sperm storage). We have evaluated the ultrastructure of the Leydig cells and the activity of 3beta-HSD (an essential enzyme related to steroid hormone biosynthesis) and acid phosphatase (AcPase; lysosomal marker enzyme) in these two regions. The activity of 3beta-HSD is stronger in the medullar region, and the Leydig cells in this region have a variety of cytological features that reflect differences in hormone synthesis and/or that could be linked to steroidogenic cells under various degrees of hormonal activity. In the cortical region, 3beta-HSD activity is weak and the Leydig cells exhibit signs of degeneration, as confirmed by their ultrastructure and intense AcPase activity. These degenerative signs are indicative of cytoplasmic remodelling to degrade steroidogenic enzymes, such as 3beta-HSD, that could lead to senescence or even to autophagic cell degeneration. S. spilopleura thus constitutes an interesting model for increasing our understanding of steroidogenesis control in freshwater teleost fish.

  13. Ultra-structural study of insulin granules in pancreatic β-cells of db/db mouse by scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yanhong; Zhao, Wei; Du, Wen; Zhang, Xiang; Ji, Gang; Ying, Wang; Xu, Tao

    2012-07-01

    Insulin granule trafficking is a key step in the secretion of glucose-stimulated insulin from pancreatic β-cells. The main feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the failure of pancreatic β-cells to secrete sufficient amounts of insulin to maintain normal blood glucose levels. In this work, we developed and applied tomography based on scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to image intact insulin granules in the β-cells of mouse pancreatic islets. Using three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, we found decreases in both the number and the grey level of insulin granules in db/db mouse pancreatic β-cells. Moreover, insulin granules were closer to the plasma membrane in diabetic β-cells than in control cells. Thus, 3D ultra-structural tomography may provide new insights into the pathology of insulin secretion in T2D.

  14. [Ultrastructure of the initial stages of interaction between halprowiae (Chlamydiae) and host cells].

    PubMed

    Popov, V L; Beskina, S R; Shatkin, A A; Avakian, A A

    1980-08-01

    The initial stages of the interaction of halprowiae (strain CP-1), isolated in Reiter's syndrome, with a monolayer culture of cells L-929 were studied. The electron-microscopic examination of the cells every 2 hours during the first 24 hours after the inoculation allowed to follow the processes of adsorption, endocytosis of elementary bodies and their transformation into reticulate bodies by the "decondensation" of nucleoid, which indicated the beginning of the vegetative (reproductive) stage of the developmental cycle. During all the periods of observation halprowiae were enclosed into the membranes of phagocytic vacuoles formed by host cells. Besides, in other vacuoles (probably, phagolysosomes) halprowiae at various stages of destruction could be observed. 8--10 hours after inoculation the phagosomes containing reticulate bodies began to merge, thus forming an inoculation the phagosomes containing reticulate bodies began to merge, thus forming an intracytoplasmic inclusion. In this inclusion a new generation of the agent was formed by binary-like fission. At the beginning of the vegetative stage halprowiae seem to be highly sensitive to the action of exo- and endogenic factors which may cause their L-transformation. Depending on the reaction of the host cell at the initial stages of interaction with halprowiae, 3 ways of such interaction are seemingly possible: developmental cycle, destruction in phagolysosomes. L-transformation.

  15. Sucrose synthase affects carbon partitioning to increase cellulose production and altered cell wall ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Heather D; Yan, Jimmy; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2009-08-04

    Overexpression of the Gossypium hirsutum sucrose synthase (SuSy) gene under the control of 2 promoters was examined in hybrid poplar (Populus alba x grandidentata). Analysis of RNA transcript abundance, enzyme activity, cell wall composition, and soluble carbohydrates revealed significant changes in the transgenic lines. All lines showed significantly increased SuSy enzyme activity in developing xylem. This activity manifested in altered secondary cell wall cellulose content per dry weight in all lines, with increases of 2% to 6% over control levels, without influencing plant growth. The elevated concentration of cellulose was associated with an increase in cell wall crystallinity but did not alter secondary wall microfibril angle. This finding suggests that the observed increase in crystallinity is a function of altered carbon partitioning to cellulose biosynthesis rather than the result of tension wood formation. Furthermore, the augmented deposition of cellulose in the transgenic lines resulted in thicker xylem secondary cell wall and consequently improved wood density. These findings clearly implicate SuSy as a key regulator of sink strength in poplar trees and demonstrate the tight association of SuSy with cellulose synthesis and secondary wall formation.

  16. THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF MAUTHNER CELL SYNAPSES AND NODES IN GOLDFISH BRAINS

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, J. David; Bodenheimer, Thomas S.; Stage, David E.

    1963-01-01

    An electron microscope study of goldfish Mauthner cells is reported.1 The cell is covered by a synaptic bed ∼ 5 µ thick containing unusual amounts of extracellular matrix material in which synapses and clear glia processes are implanted. The preterminal synaptic neurites are closely invested by an interwoven layer of filament-containing satellite cell processes. The axoplasm of the club endings contains oriented mitochondria, neurofilaments, neurotubules, and relatively few synaptic vesicles. That of the boutons terminaux contains many unoriented mitochondria and is packed with synaptic vesicles and some glycogen but no neurofilaments or neurotubules. The bare axons of club endings are surrounded by a moderately abundant layer of matrix material. The synaptic membrane complex (SMC) in cross-section shows segments of closure of the synaptic cleft ∼ 0.2 to 0.5 µ long. These alternate with desmosome-like regions of about the same length in which the gap widens to ∼ 150 A and contains a condensed central stratum of dense material. Here, there are also accumulations of dense material in pre- and postsynaptic neuroplasm. The boutons show no such differentiation and the extracellular matrix is largely excluded around them. The axon cap is a dense neuropil of interwoven neural and glial elements free of myelin. It is covered by a closely packed layer of glia cells. The findings are interpreted as suggestive of electrical transmission in the club endings. PMID:14069792

  17. Ablation of lens epithelial cells with a laser photolysis system: Histopathology, ultrastructure, and immunochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Mamalis, Nick; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Waring, George O.; Werner, Liliana; Brubaker, Jacob; Davis, Don; Espandar, Ladan; Walker, Rudolf; Thyzel, Reinhardt

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate efficacy of a neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser photolysis system in removing lens epithelial cells (LECs) and characterize the effect of the laser on laminin and fibronectin involved in LEC adhesion and migration. METHODS Cadaver eyes were evaluated using the Miyake technique. The lenses were removed with phacoemulsification. The modified Nd:YAG laser was used to clean the LECs from the capsule. Only the fornix was cleaned in some eyes and the anterior subcapsular area in other eyes. Some areas were not treated and acted as controls. Standard irrigation/aspiration (I/A) removal of LECs was performed in additional eyes. The eyes were analyzed using light microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS Histopathologic evaluation showed that the laser removed the LECs from the anterior lens capsule and from the fornix. Immunohistochemical staining showed fibronectin and laminin staining in the untreated areas that was absent in the treated areas. Standard I/A removal of the LECs showed absence of cells but persistent laminin and fibronectin. Electron microscopy showed epithelial cells in untreated areas with an absence of the LECs and debris in treated areas. CONCLUSIONS The laser photolysis system removed LECs from the anterior lens capsule and capsule fornix. Along with the cells, laminin, fibronectin, and cell debris remained in the untreated areas but were removed by the treatment. This treatment may be useful in preventing posterior capsule opacification. Financial Disclosure No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Additional disclosures are found in the footnotes. PMID:20494774

  18. Identifying microRNAs that Regulate Neuroblastoma Cell Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0241 TITLE: Identifying that Regulate Neuroblastoma ...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We identified 14 microRNA candidates that induce neuroblastoma cell differentiation based on a high...content screening of neurite outgrowth — the morphological differentiation marker of neuroblastoma cells. We further validated that the identified

  19. [Transmission electron microscopy image of wear particles of joint endoprostheses and ultrastructural cell changes].

    PubMed

    Bos, I; Johannisson, R

    2003-01-01

    Wear particles from joint endoprostheses vary considerably in size, and may be detectable in tissue only by electron microscopy. Wear debris plays a central role in the non-infectious late loosening of prostheses, and it has been estimated that the submicron particles induce increased liberation of mediators of osteolysis by activated macrophages. From the types of prostheses currently in use, bone cement and polyethylene particles greatly predominate over metallic and ceramic particles. Since it had formerly not been possible to reliably identify wear particles in the transmission electron microscopy, and descriptions of them in the literature varied considerably, we analysed ultrathin sections obtained from periprosthetic tissue containing wear particles previously identified by laser microprobe mass analysis. Using this method, it proved possible to classify almost all the wear particles detected in the electron microscope, to determine their size range and to represent the cellular alterations caused by them.

  20. Comparison of the effects of difenacoum and brodifacoum on the ultrastructure of rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Gül, Nursel; Yiğit, Nuri; Saygılı, Fulya; Demirel, Ebru; Geniş, Ceren

    2016-09-01

    We used transmission electron microscopy to examine the cytotoxic effects of the second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides difenacoum and brodifacoum on rat liver. A single dose of difenacoum or brodifacoum was administered to rats by gastric gavage and liver samples were taken after 24 h, four days or seven days. In the livers of rats treated with difenacoum for 24 h, hepatocytes typically showed increased numbers of lysosomes, as well as enlargement of both the perinuclear space and the cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), while sinusoids were irregularly shaped and contained Kupffer cells. Similar irregularities occurred in brodifacoum-treated rats at the same time point, but additionally increased numbers of vacuoles, damaged mitochondrial cristae, and clumping of chromatin were observed in hepatocytes, and hemolysed erythrocytes were noted in the sinusoids. Comparable findings were made in each group of rats after four days. After seven days of difenacoum treatment, hepatocytes suffered loss of cytoplasmic material and mitochondrial shrinkage, while RER cisternae became discontinuous. In contrast, exposure to brodifacoum for seven days caused the formation of numerous vacuoles and lipid droplets, disordered mitochondrial morphology, chromatin clumping and invagination of the nuclear envelope in hepatocytes. Sinusoids in the livers of rodenticide-treated rats contained an accumulation of dense material, lipid droplets, cells with pycnotic nuclei and hemolysed erythrocytes. Overall, our results show that brodifacoum causes more severe effects in liver cells than difenacoum. Thus our microscopic data along with additional biochemical assays point to a severe effect of rodenticide on vertebrates.

  1. Ultrastructural study of mitochondrial damage in CHO cells exposed to hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Cole, A; Armour, E P

    1988-09-01

    A unique direct-view stereo electron microscope technique was used to visualize the structure and three-dimensional distributions of mitochondria in CHO cells in situ following hyperthermic treatments. Aberrations induced by various heating regimens were recorded. The protocol included a trypsin digestion that may have enhanced the expression of the initial heat damage. The developed damage was observed as increasing levels of mitochondrial distortion, swelling, and dissociation. Minimal damage was induced at 42 degrees C for exposures of up to 4 h, while significant damage was induced at 43 degrees C for exposures of more than 30 min and at 45 degrees C for exposures of more than 10 min. For moderate exposures, a partial recovery of mitochondrial integrity was observed when the heat treatment was followed by incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Mitochondrial damage was related to the heat dose in that increasing treatment temperature resulted in greater damage, but when compared to cell survival the damage did not parallel cell killing under all time-temperature conditions.

  2. Effect of Metformin on Viability, Morphology, and Ultrastructure of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Balb/3T3 Embryonic Fibroblast Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Czyrek, Aleksandra; Basinska, Katarzyna; Trynda, Justyna; Skaradzińska, Aneta; Siudzińska, Anna; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Metformin, a popular drug used to treat diabetes, has recently gained attention as a potentially useful therapeutic agent for treating cancer. In our research metformin was added to in vitro cultures of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and Balb/3T3 fibroblast at concentration of 1 mM, 5 mM, and 10 mM. Obtained results indicated that metformin negatively affected proliferation activity of investigated cells. The drug triggered the formation of autophagosomes and apoptotic bodies in all tested cultures. Additionally, we focused on determination of expression of genes involved in insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) signaling pathway. The most striking finding was that the mRNA level of IGF2 was constant in both BMSCs and Balb/3T3. Further, the analysis of IGF2 concentration in cell supernatants showed that it decreased in BMSC cultures after 5 and 10 mM metformin treatments. In case of Balb/3T3 the concentration of IGF2 in culture supernatants decreased after 1 and 5 mM and increased after 10 mM of metformin. Our results suggest that metformin influences the cytophysiology of somatic cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner causing inhibition of proliferation and abnormalities of their morphology and ultrastructure. PMID:26064951

  3. [The ultrastructure of Leydig cells under the influence of drinking mineral water and electromagnetic radiation under the stress conditions in the rats].

    PubMed

    Geniatulina, M S; Korolev, Yu N; Nikulina, L A

    The objective of the present study was elucidate the peculiar features of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LI EMR) and mineral water (MW) on the ultrastructure of rat Leydig cells under conditions of immobilization stress. The experiments were carried out on outbred male rats with the use of electron microscopy. It has been demonstrated that the prophylactic consumption of drinking sulfate-containing mineral water and the application low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (with the flow power density of 1 mcW/cm2 and frequency around 1,000 Hz) or the combination of these two modalities under conditions of immobilization stress reduced the degree of ultrastructural derangement in the rat Leydig cells and stimulated the development of regenerative processes. In the cases of the single-factor impact, drinking mineral water exerted more pronounced action than low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on mitochondrial regeneration. In case of the simultaneous application of the two factors their protective action on the Leydig cells was much more conspicuous than that of either of them applied alone. It is concluded that drinking sulfate-containing mineral water in combination with the application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation enhances resistance of the rat Leydig cells to stress.

  4. Quantification of endocrine cells and ultrastructural study of insulin granules in the large intestine of opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied, 1826).

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Daiane Cristina Marques; Cupertino, Marli do Carmo; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Barbosa, Alfredo Jose Afonso; Fonseca, Cláudio Cesar; Sartori, Sirlene Souza Rodrigues; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the distribution of argyrophil, argentaffin, and insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the large intestine of opossums (Didelphis aurita) and to describe the ultrastructure of the secretory granules of insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells. Fragments of the large intestine of 10 male specimens of D. aurita were collected, processed, and subjected to staining, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. The argyrophil, the argentaffin, and the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were sparsely distributed in the intestinal glands of the mucous layer, among other cell types of the epithelium in all regions studied. Proportionally, the argyrophil, the argentaffin, and the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells represented 62.75%, 36.26%, and 0.99% of the total determined endocrine cells of the large intestine, respectively. Quantitatively, there was no difference between the argyrophil and the argentaffin endocrine cells, whereas insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were less numerous. The insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells were elongated or pyramidal, with rounded nuclei of irregularly contoured, and large amounts of secretory granules distributed throughout the cytoplasm. The granules have different sizes and electron densities and are classified as immature and mature, with the mature granules in predominant form in the overall granular population. In general, the granule is shown with an external electron-lucent halo and electron-dense core. The ultrastructure pattern in the granules of the insulin-immunoreactive endocrine cells was similar to that of the B cells of pancreatic islets in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrastructural evidence for the presence of crystalline structures in pig vaginal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P D; Sierralta, W D

    1994-01-01

    Terminally differentiated intermediate layers of vaginal epithelial cells from the late follicular phase of the pig show crystalline structures. Analysis of two dimensional images by transmission electron microscopy revealed that these structures are composed of rhomboid subunits. The longer side measures 26 nm whereas the smaller side measures 24 nm. The angles between the sides are 100 degrees and 80 degrees. These structures are not associated with any cellular structures and are not evident in other phases of the oestrous cycle. Structurally, they do not match with Reinke's crystals and are probably regulated by hormones.

  6. ARSENIC INDUCES SUSTAINED IMPAIRMENT OF SKELETAL MUSCLE AND MUSCLE PROGENITOR CELL ULTRASTRUCTURE AND BIOENERGETICS

    PubMed Central

    Fabrisia, Ambrosio; Elke, Brown; Donna, Stolz; Ricardo, Ferrari; Bret, Goodpaster; Bridget, Deasy; Giovanna, Distefano; Alexandra, Roperti; Amin, Cheikhi; Yesica, Garciafigueroa; Aaron, Barchowsky

    2014-01-01

    Over 4 million individuals in the US, and over 140 million individuals worldwide, are exposed daily to arsenic-contaminated drinking water. Human exposures can range from below the current limit of 10 µg/L to over 1 mg/L, with 100 µg/L promoting disease in a large portion of those exposed. Although increased attention has recently been paid to myopathy following arsenic exposure, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying clinical symptoms remain poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that arsenic induces lasting muscle mitochondrial dysfunction and impairs metabolism. When compared to non-exposed controls, mice exposed to drinking water containing 100µg/L arsenite for 5 weeks demonstrated impaired muscle function, mitochondrial myopathy, and altered oxygen consumption that were concomitant with increased mitochondrial fusion gene transcription. There was no difference in levels of inorganic arsenic or its mononomethyl- and dimethyl- metabolites between controls and exposed muscles, confirming that arsenic does not accumulate in muscle. Nevertheless, muscle progenitor cells isolated from exposed mice recapitulated the aberrant myofiber phenotype and were more resistant to oxidative stress, generated more reactive oxygen species, and displayed autophagic mitochondrial morphology, as compared to cells isolated from non-exposed mice. These pathological changes from a possible maladaptive oxidative stress response provide insight into declines in muscle functioning caused by exposure to this common environmental contaminant. PMID:24960579

  7. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural characterization of the signet-ring cell carcinoma component in a case of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Yuji; Fukumoto, Tetsuya; Okada, Yuhei; Teratani, Yuki; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Lee, Gang-Hong; Furihata, Mutsuo

    2010-06-01

    Characterization of the signet-ring cell carcinoma (sig) component of a urothelial carcinoma (UC) in the urinary bladder of a 64-year-old man, obtained by transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT), is reported. In the present case, a characteristic sig component was detected in approximately 20% of UC, G2 tissues. The sig cells were morphologically similar to those found in gastric cancers and were positively stained with periodic acid-Schiff reaction and Alcian blue and mucicarmine stains. Immunohistochemically, the sig cells were selectively positive for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), MUC2, and MUC5AC. These immunohistochemical characteristics were similar to those of sig cells in the stomach, except for the positivity with MUC2. It is interesting to note that CAM5.2-positive sig cells were surrounded by CAM5.2-positive UC cells in a solid nest with no apparent associated adenocarcinoma element. In addition, the ultrastructure of sig cells showed multivacuolar cytoplasmic mucin, which proved to be similar to the ultrastructure of gastric cancers. In the present case of UC, G2 was associated with a sig component. Regarding the origin of the sig component in the bladder, it has been suggested that MUC2-positive sig cells in the bladder might be derived directly from metaplasia of UC, without an associated adenocarcinoma component. From this perspective, it may be noteworthy that sig cells in the bladder were selectively positive for MUC2, exhibiting common antigenicity with mucous cells of the gastric intestinal metaplasia. Because UC associated with a sig component carries a worse prognosis than ordinary UC, the presence of the sig component in any UC should be evaluated even within TUR-BT tissues, as in the present case.

  8. Pigments and ultrastructures of pigment cells in xanthic sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna).

    PubMed

    Blanchard, P D; Angus, R A; Morrison, R L; Frost-Mason, S K; Sheetz, J H

    1991-12-01

    Electron micrographs of skin from xanthic (gold) sailfin mollies revealed numerous xanthophores, as well as scattered melanophores. The melanophores were seen to contain premelanosomes in various stages of development. This is consistent with the fact that xanthic mollies have been shown to be tyrosinase positive. Melanosomes in xanthic mollies appear to develop by one of two pathways: 1) from an endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicle which develops an internal lamellar framework, and 2) by fusion of multiple Golgi-derived vesicles which lack an internal lamellar framework. Analysis of the pigments in the skin of the xanthic mollies identified four colorless pteridine pigments (xanthopterin, isoxanthopterin, neopterin, and pterin) and a carotenoid with an absorbance spectrum similar to beta-carotene. It appears that, unlike some other poeciliid fishes, sailfin mollies do not use pteridine pigments for orange coloration. Rather, they appear to rely primarily on carotenoids.

  9. Development and ultrastructure of Cystoisospora canis Nemeséri, 1959 (syn, Isospora canis) monozoic cysts in two noncanine cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sheila M; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2009-08-01

    Cystoisospora canis is a coccidial parasite of the intestinal tract that can cause severe disease in dogs. Clinical signs include watery diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and weight loss. Extraintestinal stages of Cystoisospora spp. have been demonstrated in the mesenteric lymph nodes of paratenic hosts. Information on the biology of extraintestinal stages of canine Cystoisospora species is limited. The current study examined the development of C. canis in 2 noncanine cell lines and the ultrastructure of the monozoic cysts that formed. Monolayers of bovine turbinate cells and African green monkey kidney cells were grown on coverslips and inoculated with excysted C. canis sporozoites. Coverslips were collected on various days and fixed and stained for light microscopy (LM) or transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A single, centrally located, slightly crescent-shaped sporozoite surrounded by a thick cyst wall within a parasitophorous vacuole was observed with the use of LM and TEM. No division and no multinucleated stages were observed with either LM or TEM. With TEM, typical organelles of sporozoites were observed, such as rhoptries, dense granules, a crystalloid body, polysaccharide granules, and a conoid. The structure and ultrastructure of C. canis monozoic cysts produced in vitro are similar to extraintestinal cysts of other Cystoisospora species in experimentally infected animals and those of Cystoisospora belli observed in immunocompromised humans. This is the first study that fully demonstrates in vitro the development of what structurally resemble extraintestinal cysts of a Cystoisospora spp.

  10. Effects of Electroacupuncture on Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC) Ultrastructure and Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guoshan; Xie, Shen; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuer; Liu, Mailan; Liu, Mi; Chang, Xiaorong

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal motility disorder is the main clinical manifestation in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients. Electroacupuncture is effective in improving gastrointestinal motility disorder in FD; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. It has been demonstrated that interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and the pacemaker potential is transmitted to nearby cells through gap junctions between ICC or ICC and the smooth muscle. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of electroacupuncture on ICC ultrastructure and expression of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) in FD rats. Material/Methods The animals were randomized into 3 groups: control, model, and electroacupuncture. Electroacupuncture was applied at Zusanli (ST36) in the electroacupuncture group daily for 10 days, while no electroacupuncture was applied to model group animals. Results Ultrastructure of ICC recovered normally in gastric antrum and small intestine specimens was improved, with Cx43 expression levels in these tissues significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group compared with the model group. Conclusions These findings indicated that electroacupuncture is effective in alleviating ICC damage and reduces Cx43 levels in FD rats, and suggest that ICC and Cx43 are involved in electroacupuncture treatment in rats with FD to improve gastrointestinal motility disorders. PMID:27297942

  11. Association of Paramecium bursaria Chlorella viruses with Paramecium bursaria cells: ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Yashchenko, Varvara V; Gavrilova, Olga V; Rautian, Maria S; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2012-05-01

    Paramecium bursaria Chlorella viruses were observed by applying transmission electron microscopy in the native symbiotic system Paramecium bursaria (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) and the green algae Chlorella (Chlorellaceae, Trebouxiophyceae). Virus particles were abundant and localized in the ciliary pits of the cortex and in the buccal cavity of P. bursaria. This was shown for two types of the symbiotic systems associated with two types of Chlorella viruses - Pbi or NC64A. A novel quantitative stereological approach was applied to test whether virus particles were distributed randomly on the Paramecium surface or preferentially occupied certain zones. The ability of the virus to form an association with the ciliate was investigated experimentally; virus particles were mixed with P. bursaria or with symbiont-free species P. caudatum. Our results confirmed that in the freshwater ecosystems two types of P. bursaria -Chlorella symbiotic systems exist, those without Chlorella viruses and those associated with a large amount of the viruses. The fate of Chlorella virus particles at the Paramecium surface was determined based on obtained statistical data and taking into account ciliate feeding currents and cortical reorganization during cell division. A life cycle of the viruses in the complete symbiotic system is proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrastructural localization of calsequestrin in adult rat atrial and ventricular muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of calsequestrin in rat atrial and ventricular myocardial cells was determined by indirect immunocolloidal gold labeling of ultrathin frozen sections. The results presented show that calsequestrin is confined to the sarcoplasmic reticulum where it is localized in the lumen of the peripheral and the interior junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum as well as in the lumen of the corbular sarcoplasmic reticulum, but absent from the lumen of the network sarcoplasmic reticulum. Comparison of these results with our previous studies on the distribution of the Ca2+ + Mg2+-dependent ATPase of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum show directly that the Ca2+ + Mg2+- dependent ATPase and calsequestrin are confined to distinct regions within the continuous sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. Assuming that calsequestrin provides the major site of Ca2+ sequestration in the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the results presented support the idea that both junctional (interior and peripheral) and specialized nonjunctional (corbular) regions of the sarcoplasmic reticulum are involved in Ca2+ storage and possibly release. Furthermore, the structural differences between the junctional and the corbular sarcoplasmic reticulum support the possibility that Ca2+ storage and/or release from the lumen of the junctional and the corbular sarcoplasmic reticulum are regulated by different physiological signals. PMID:4008530

  13. Ultrastructural changes in the adenohypophysis during the ovarian cycle of the viviparous teleost Poecilia latipinna. III. The growth hormone, adrenocorticotrophic, and prolactin cells and the pars intermedia.

    PubMed

    Young, G; Ball, J N

    1983-10-01

    During the monthly cycle of vitellogenesis, intraovarian gestation, and parturition, the pituitary growth hormone (GH) cells show ultrastructural changes indicative of an increase in secretory activity related to vitellogenesis. In contrast, the pituitary adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) cells are relatively inactive during vitellogenesis, but become active during late pregnancy in the few days before parturition. The prolactin cells and the two cell types of the pars intermedia do not appear to change their secretory activity during the cycle. In discussing these findings it is suggested that GH may play a metabolic role related to vitellogenesis, and that corticosteroids, secreted in response to elevated output of ACTH, may facilitate follicular rupture and/or the expulsion of the brood at the end of pregnancy.

  14. Ultrastructure of the adenohypophysis in the teleost Poecilia latipinna.

    PubMed

    Batten, T; Ball, J N; Benjamin, M

    1975-08-18

    In the sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna, seven morphological endocrine cell-types could be distinguished with the electron microscope. Each of these was identified with one of the seven cell-types distinguished with the light microscope, to most of which endocrine functions have previously been allocated. Corticotrophs and prolactin cells form the rostral pars distalis, and the proximal pars distalis consists of an outer layer of gonadotrophs and an inner zone containing growth hormone cells and thyrotrophs. The pars intermedia contains two cell-types, of uncertain function. Stellate cells (interstitial cells) occur throughout the adenohypophysis, but are most numerous and prominent in the rostral pars distalis. The inner proximal pars distalis contains a cell-type not previously distinguished in this species with the light microscope, the Z-cell, which could be aminergic. The ultrastructural features of each cell-type are described in detail, and discussed in comparisons with the homologous cells described in other teleosts. There is good agreement for different teleosts in the ultrastructural details of each cell type.

  15. Salivary gland monomorphic adenoma. Ultrastructural, immunoperoxidase, and histogenetic aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Dardick, I.; Kahn, H. J.; Van Nostrand, A. W.; Baumal, R.

    1984-01-01

    Monomorphic adenoma of basal cell type is a salivary gland tumor believed to result from a proliferation of a single type of cell. However, ultrastructural and immunocytochemical investigations of 6 monomorphic adenomas (5 from parotid and 1 from intraoral minor salivary gland) indicate that there are two classes of these lesions, one composed of two types of tumor cells and the other wholly or predominantly made up of one type of cell (isomorphic). In the former group, the organization of the tumor cells closely mimicked that of normal and hyperplastic salivary gland intercalated ducts. Aggregates of tumor cells were arranged as an inner layer of luminal epithelial cells which were surrounded by an outer layer of cells that, in some cases, had ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features indicating myoepithelial cell differentiation. In some adenomas formed by two types of tumor cells, basal-lamina-lined extracellular spaces were identified ultrastructurally in relation to modified myoepithelial cells; such spaces had the same fine-structural features as those reported in pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Predominantly isomorphic adenomas were composed exclusively of luminal epithelial cells. These results indicate that despite the varied histologic patterns in the numerous subtypes of monomorphic adenoma, there is a central theme of differentiation and organization in this type of neoplasm which recapitulates the ductoacinar unit of normal salivary gland parenchyma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:6375388

  16. Formation of Essential Ultrastructural Interface between Cultured Hippocampal Cells and Gold Mushroom-Shaped MEA- Toward "IN-CELL" Recordings from Vertebrate Neurons.

    PubMed

    Fendyur, Anna; Mazurski, Noa; Shappir, Joseph; Spira, Micha E

    2011-01-01

    Using cultured Aplysia neurons we recently reported on the development of a novel approach in which an extracellular, non-invasive multi-electrode-array system provides multisite, attenuated, intracellular recordings of subthreshold synaptic potentials, and action potentials (APs), the so called "IN-CELL" recording configuration (to differentiate it from intracellular recordings). Because of its non-invasive nature, the configuration can be used for long term semi intracellular electrophysiological monitoring of APs and synaptic potentials. Three principals converge to generate the IN-CELL configuration: (a) engulfment of approximately 1 μm size gold mushroom-shaped microelectrodes (gMμE) by the neurons, (b) formation of high seal resistance between the cell's plasma membrane and the engulfed gMμE, and (c), autonomous localized increased conductance of the membrane patch facing the gMμE. Using dissociated rat hippocampal cultures we report here that the necessary morphological and ultrastructural relationships to generate the IN-CELL recording configuration are formed between hippocampal cells and the gMμEs. Interestingly, even <1 μm thin branches expand and engulf the gMμE structures. Recordings of spontaneous electrical activity revealed fast ∼2 ms, 0.04-0.75 mV positive monophasic APs (FPMP). We propose that the FPMP are attenuated APs generated by neurons that engulf gMμEs. Computer simulations of analog electrical circuits depicting the cell-gMμE configuration point out the parameters that should be altered to improve the neuron-gMμE electrical coupling.

  17. Ultrastructure of germ cells, Sertoli cells and mitochondria during spermatogenesis in mature testis of the Chinese Taihang black goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Shi, Liguang; Xun, Wenjuan; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Yue, Wenbin; Zhang, Chunxiang; Ren, Youshe; Yang, Rujie

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of germ cells, Sertoli cells and mitochondria in mature testis of the Chinese Taihang black goat. The characteristics of germ cell nucleus and mitochondria changing during spermatogenesis were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the spermatogonium was elliptical, and its nucleus was about 4-5 μm. The round mitochondria can be observed throughout the cytoplasm around the nucleus. Small patches of heterochromatin were distributed throughout the nucleus. Spermatocyte was oval-shaped with a nucleus of about 4-4.5 μm in diameter. The heterochromatin began to attach to the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. Spermatid was about 4 μm and oval in shape. Its nucleus was oval or round and approximately 2-3 μm in diameter. The borderline between nucleus membrane and karyoplasm was distinct. During spermiogenesis, spermatid nucleus was condensed and elongated, and chromatin reached the highest condensation in the mature spermatozoon. The mid-piece was surrounded by mitochondria at the neck region. The sperm tail showed the typical "9+2″ structure, contained axoneme and central singlet microtubules. The nuclei of the Sertoli cells were irregular shaped and showed indentations in the membrane. In the mature testes of goat bucks, abundant mitochondria were around the germ cells and Sertoli cells. The scattered mitochondria were aggregated around the base of the flagellum (axoneme) during the spermatid differentiation stage. In conclusion, the present study showed that the spermatogenic process of Taihang black goat followed the pattern of mammals with some specific.

  18. Establishment of Besnoitia darlingi from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in experimental intermediate and definitive hosts, propagation in cell culture, and description of ultrastructural and genetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S; Rosenthal, B M; Sreekumar, C; Hill, D E; Shen, S K; Kwok, O C H; Rickard, L G; Black, S S; Rashmir-Raven, A

    2002-07-01

    Besnoitia darlingi from naturally infected opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Mississippi, USA, was propagated experimentally in mice, cats, and cell culture and was characterised according to ultrastructural, genetic, and life-history characteristics. Cats fed tissue cysts from opossums shed oocysts with a prepatent period of nine or 11 days. Oocysts, bradyzoites, or tachyzoites were infective to outbred and interferon-gamma gene knockout mice. Tachyzoites were successfully cultivated and maintained in vitro in bovine monocytes and African green monkey cells and revived after an 18-month storage in liquid nitrogen. Schizonts were seen in the small intestinal lamina propria of cats fed experimentally-infected mouse tissues. These schizonts measured up to 45 x 25 microm and contained many merozoites. A few schizonts were present in mesenteric lymph nodes and livers of cats fed tissue cysts. Ultrastructurally, tachyzoites and bradyzoites of B. darlingi were similar to other species of Besnoitia. A close relationship to B. besnoiti and an even closer relationship to B. jellisoni was indicated for B. darlingi on the basis of the small subunit and ITS-1 portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA.

  19. Some ultrastructural information on intact, living bacterial cells and related cell-wall fragments as given by FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, D.

    1984-05-01

    Living bacterial cells of Staphylococcus aureus have been measured from aqueous suspensions taking advantage of the solvent subtraction capabilities of FTIR. All spectral features, between 1800-800 cm -1, of the intact cells could be measured with a reproducibility of better than ±5% when applying strict metabolic control of cell growth and a highly standardized experimental procedure prior to IR measurements. IR bands near 1745, 1656, 1547, 1240 and 1200-1000 cm -1were tentatively assigned to: CO stretching of ester groups, amide I and amide II bands of the various peptides and proteins, asymmetric stretching of phosphate groups and complex vibrational modes resulting from polysaccharidal compounds, respectively. Absorbance subtraction of IR spectra of different intact baterial cells and cell-wall preparations yielded reasonable results on structural variations accompanying: (i) cell growth, (ii) use of different growth media, (iii) chemical treatment of cells and (iv) biochemical isolation processes of cell walls from the intact cells.

  20. Functionally impaired, hypertrophic ECL cells accumulate vacuoles and lipofuscin bodies. An ultrastructural study of ECL cells isolated from hypergastrinemic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C M; Bakke, I; Tostrup-Skogaker, N; Waldum, H L; Håkanson, R; Chen, D

    2001-03-01

    ECL cells in the oxyntic mucosa of stomach control gastric acid secretion by mobilizing histamine in response to gastrin. They respond to gastrin also with hypertrophy and hyperplasia. ECL cells exhibit functional impairment upon long-term gastrin stimulation. The impairment is manifested in a gradual decline of the activity of the histamine-forming enzyme per individual ECL cell and in a failure of gastrin to mobilize histamine. The mechanism behind this impairment is unknown. In the present study, rats were treated with the proton pump inhibitor pantoprazole for 45 days to induce sustained hypergastrinemia. The ECL cells were isolated from normogastrinemic and hypergastrinemic rats and size-separated from other mucosal cells by the elutriation technique. The total ECL cell number was twofold higher in hypergastrinemic rats than in normogastrinemic rats, and most of the cells appeared in elutriation fractions where large cells predominate. The ECL cells of the different fractions were analyzed by quantitative electron microscopy. Normal-sized ECL cells from hypergastrinemic rats displayed a reduced number of secretory vesicles (probably because of degranulation) compared with normal-sized ECL cells from normogastrinemic rats. Hypertrophic ECL cells from hypergastrinemic rats had an unchanged number of secretory vesicles, supporting the view that such cells fail to respond to gastrin with degranulation. Although both normal-sized and hypertrophic ECL cells from hypergastrinemic rats contained vacuoles, those in the hypertrophic ECL cells were larger and more numerous. In addition, hypertrophic ECL cells were found to contain numerous, prominent lipofuscin bodies which are the presumed end product of crinophagia. Conceivably therefore, large vacuoles and lipofuscin bodies cause functional impairment of the hypertrophic ECL cells.

  1. [The ultrastructural manifestations of the regenerative processes in the Sertoli cells under the action of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation in the rats subjected to stress].

    PubMed

    Korolev, Iu N; Geniatulina, M S; Nikulina, L A; Mikhaĭlik, L V

    2015-01-01

    The experiments on the outbred female rats using the electron microscopic technique have demonstrated that the application of ultrahigh frequency low-intensity electromagnetic radiation (LIEMR) with a flux density below 1 mCW/Cm2 and a frequency of approximately 1,000 MHz in the regime of primary prophylaxis and therapeutic-preventive action suppressed the development of the post-stress pathological ultrastructural changes and increased the activity of the regenerative processes in the Sertoli cells. It was shown that the developing adaptive and compensatory changes in the Sertoli cells most frequently involve the energy-producing structures (mitochondria) that undergo the enlargement of their average and total dimensions. Simultaneously, the amount of granular endoplasmic reticulum and the number of ribosomes increased while the intracellular links between the organelles strengthened and the reserve potential of the cells improved. It is concluded that the observed effects may be due to the action of both local and systemic regulation mechanisms.

  2. Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular analysis of 16 cases with a reappraisal of clear cell sarcoma-like tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Stockman, David L; Miettinen, Markku; Suster, Saul; Spagnolo, Dominic; Dominguez-Malagon, Hugo; Hornick, Jason L; Adsay, Volkan; Chou, Pauline M; Amanuel, Benhur; Vantuinen, Peter; Zambrano, Eduardo V

    2012-06-01

    The clinical, histologic, immunophenotypic, ultrastructural, and molecular features of a distinctive gastrointestinal tumor are described. Sixteen patients, 8 women and 8 men aged 17 to 77 years (mean age, 42 y; 63% less than 40 y) presented with abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, and an abdominal mass. Mean tumor size was 5.2 cm (range, 2.4 to 15.0 cm). The tumors arose in the small bowel (10), stomach (4), and colon (2) and were histologically characterized by a sheet-like or nested population of epithelioid or oval-to-spindle cells with small nucleoli and scattered mitoses. Five cases showed focal clearing of the cytoplasm. Scattered osteoclast-type multinucleated giant cells were present in 8 cases. The tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein, SOX10, and vimentin in 100% of cases, for CD56 in 70%, for synaptophysin in 56%, for NB84 in 50%, for NSE in 45%, and for neurofilament protein in 14% of cases. All cases tested were negative for specific melanocytic, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, epithelial, and myoid markers. Ultrastructural examination of 5 cases showed features of primitive neuroectodermal cells with clear secretory vesicles, dense-core granules, occasional gap junctions, and no evidence of melanogenesis. EWSR1 gene rearrangement was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 14 cases. Twelve cases (86%) showed split EWSR1 signal consistent with a chromosomal translocation involving EWSR1. One case showed extra intact signals, indicating that the nuclei possessed either extra copies of the EWSR1 gene or chromosome 22 polysomy. Only 1 case showed no involvement of the EWSR1 gene. Six cases demonstrated rearrangement of the partner fusion gene ATF1 (46%), and 3 showed rearrangement of CREB1 (23%); 2 cases lacked rearrangement of either partner gene. Clinical follow-up was available in 12 patients and ranged from 1.5 to 106 months. Six patients died of their tumors (mean survival, 32 mo; 83% less than 24 mo). At last follow-up, 4

  3. Ultrastructure of Purkinje cell perikarya and their dendritic processes in the rat cerebellar cortex in experimental encephalopathy induced by chronic application of valproate

    PubMed Central

    SOBANIEC-LOTOWSKA, MARIA E

    2001-01-01

    Long-term intragastric administration of the antiepileptic drug sodium valproate (Vuprol ‘Polfa’) to rats for 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, once daily at the effective dose of 200 mg/kg body weight showed morphological evidence of encephalopathy, manifested by numerous nonspecific changes within Purkinje cell perikarya and their dendritic processes. The first ultrastructural abnormalities appeared after 3 months. They became more severe in animals with longer survival and were most pronounced after 12 months. The changes were maintained both 1 and 3 months after drug withdrawal. Mitochondria of Purkinje cell perikarya were most severely affected. Damage to mitochondria was accompanied by disintegration and fragmentation of granular endoplasmic reticulum, dilation of channels and cisterns of Golgi apparatus, enlargement of smooth endoplasmic reticulum elements including submembranous cisterns, and accumulation of profuse lipofuscin deposits. Frequently, Purkinje cells appeared as ‘dark’ ischemic neurones, with focally damaged cellular membrane and features of disintegration. Swollen Bergmann's astrocytes were seen among damaged Purkinje cells or at the site of their loss. The general pattern of submicroscopic alterations of Purkinje cell perikarya suggested severe disorders in several intercellular biochemical extents, including inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and abnormal protein synthesis, both of which could lead to lethal damage. Ultrastructural abnormalities within dendrites were characterized by damage to elements of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which was considerably enlarged, with formation of large vacuolar structures situated deep in the dendroplasm. Mitochondrial lesions and alterations in cytoskeletal elements – disintegration of microtubules or even their complete loss –were also observed. The general pattern of abnormalities within the organelles and cytoskeletal elements of dendritic processes in Purkinje cells in the VPA chronic

  4. Ultrastructure of Purkinje cell perikarya and their dendritic processes in the rat cerebellar cortex in experimental encephalopathy induced by chronic application of valproate.

    PubMed

    Sobaniec-Lotowska, M E

    2001-12-01

    Long-term intragastric administration of the antiepileptic drug sodium valproate (Vuprol Polfa) to rats for 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, once daily at the effective dose of 200 mg/kg body weight showed morphological evidence of encephalopathy, manifested by numerous nonspecific changes within Purkinje cell perikarya and their dendritic processes. The first ultrastructural abnormalities appeared after 3 months. They became more severe in animals with longer survival and were most pronounced after 12 months. The changes were maintained both 1 and 3 months after drug withdrawal. Mitochondria of Purkinje cell perikarya were most severely affected. Damage to mitochondria was accompanied by disintegration and fragmentation of granular endoplasmic reticulum, dilation of channels and cisterns of Golgi apparatus, enlargement of smooth endoplasmic reticulum elements including submembranous cisterns, and accumulation of profuse lipofuscin deposits. Frequently, Purkinje cells appeared as dark ischemic neurones, with focally damaged cellular membrane and features of disintegration. Swollen Bergmann's astrocytes were seen among damaged Purkinje cells or at the site of their loss. The general pattern of submicroscopic alterations of Purkinje cell perikarya suggested severe disorders in several intercellular biochemical extents, including inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and abnormal protein synthesis, both of which could lead to lethal damage. Ultrastructural abnormalities within dendrites were characterized by damage to elements of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which was considerably enlarged, with formation of large vacuolar structures situated deep in the dendroplasm. Mitochondrial lesions and alterations in cytoskeletal elements--disintegration of microtubules or even their complete loss--were also observed. The general pattern of abnormalities within the organelles and cytoskeletal elements of dendritic processes in Purkinje cells in the VPA chronic experimental model

  5. Intracellular ice and cell survival in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum: an ultrastructural study of factors affecting cell and ice structures

    PubMed Central

    Wesley-Smith, James; Berjak, Patricia; Pammenter, N. W.; Walters, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Cryopreservation is the only long-term conservation strategy available for germplasm of recalcitrant-seeded species. Efforts to cryopreserve this form of germplasm are hampered by potentially lethal intracellular freezing events; thus, it is important to understand the relationships among cryo-exposure techniques, water content, structure and survival. Methods Undried embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum and those rapidly dried to two different water contents were cooled at three rates and re-warmed at two rates. Ultrastructural observations were carried out on radicle and shoot tips prepared by freeze-fracture and freeze-substitution to assess immediate (i.e. pre-thaw) responses to cooling treatments. Survival of axes was assessed in vitro. Key Results Intracellular ice formation was not necessarily lethal. Embryo cells survived when crystal diameter was between 0·2 and 0·4 µm and fewer than 20 crystals were distributed per μm2 in the cytoplasm. Ice was not uniformly distributed within the cells. In fully hydrated axes cooled at an intermediate rate, the interiors of many organelles were apparently ice-free; this may have prevented the disruption of vital intracellular machinery. Intracytoplasmic ice formation did not apparently impact the integrity of the plasmalemma. The maximum number of ice crystals was far greater in shoot apices, which were more sensitive than radicles to cryo-exposure. Conclusions The findings challenge the accepted paradigm that intracellular ice formation is always lethal, as the results show that cells can survive intracellular ice if crystals are small and localized in the cytoplasm. Further understanding of the interactions among water content, cooling rate, cell structure and ice structure is required to optimize cryopreservation treatments without undue reliance on empirical approaches. PMID:24368198

  6. Intracellular ice and cell survival in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum: an ultrastructural study of factors affecting cell and ice structures.

    PubMed

    Wesley-Smith, James; Berjak, Patricia; Pammenter, N W; Walters, Christina

    2014-03-01

    Cryopreservation is the only long-term conservation strategy available for germplasm of recalcitrant-seeded species. Efforts to cryopreserve this form of germplasm are hampered by potentially lethal intracellular freezing events; thus, it is important to understand the relationships among cryo-exposure techniques, water content, structure and survival. Undried embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum and those rapidly dried to two different water contents were cooled at three rates and re-warmed at two rates. Ultrastructural observations were carried out on radicle and shoot tips prepared by freeze-fracture and freeze-substitution to assess immediate (i.e. pre-thaw) responses to cooling treatments. Survival of axes was assessed in vitro. Intracellular ice formation was not necessarily lethal. Embryo cells survived when crystal diameter was between 0·2 and 0·4 µm and fewer than 20 crystals were distributed per μm(2) in the cytoplasm. Ice was not uniformly distributed within the cells. In fully hydrated axes cooled at an intermediate rate, the interiors of many organelles were apparently ice-free; this may have prevented the disruption of vital intracellular machinery. Intracytoplasmic ice formation did not apparently impact the integrity of the plasmalemma. The maximum number of ice crystals was far greater in shoot apices, which were more sensitive than radicles to cryo-exposure. The findings challenge the accepted paradigm that intracellular ice formation is always lethal, as the results show that cells can survive intracellular ice if crystals are small and localized in the cytoplasm. Further understanding of the interactions among water content, cooling rate, cell structure and ice structure is required to optimize cryopreservation treatments without undue reliance on empirical approaches.

  7. Identifying microRNAs that Regulate Neuroblastoma Cell Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0241 TITLE: Identifying that Regulate Neuroblastoma Cell Differentiation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Liqin Du...inducing miRNA, miR- 449a. We examined the differentiation-inducing function of miR-449a in multiple neuroblastoma cell lines. We have demonstrated that...miR-449a functions as an inducer of cell differentiation in neuroblastoma cell lines with distinct genetic backgrounds, including the MYCN

  8. Identifying gene expression modules that define human cell fates.

    PubMed

    Germanguz, I; Listgarten, J; Cinkornpumin, J; Solomon, A; Gaeta, X; Lowry, W E

    2016-05-01

    Using a compendium of cell-state-specific gene expression data, we identified genes that uniquely define cell states, including those thought to represent various developmental stages. Our analysis sheds light on human cell fate through the identification of core genes that are altered over several developmental milestones, and across regional specification. Here we present cell-type specific gene expression data for 17 distinct cell states and demonstrate that these modules of genes can in fact define cell fate. Lastly, we introduce a web-based database to disseminate the results. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Three-dimensional ultrastructural analyses of anterior pituitary gland expose spatial relationships between endocrine cell secretory granule localization and capillary distribution

    PubMed Central

    Yoshitomi, Munetake; Ohta, Keisuke; Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Togo, Akinobu; Hirashima, Shingo; Uemura, Kei-ichiro; Okayama, Satoko; Morioka, Motohiro; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine and endothelial cells of the anterior pituitary gland frequently make close appositions or contacts, and the secretory granules of each endocrine cell tend to accumulate at the perivascular regions, which is generally considered to facilitate secretory functions of these cells. However, three-dimensional relationships between the localization pattern of secretory granules and blood vessels are not fully understood. To define and characterize these spatial relationships, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) three-dimensional reconstruction method based on focused ion-beam slicing and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM). Full three-dimensional cellular architectures of the anterior pituitary tissue at ultrastructural resolution revealed that about 70% of endocrine cells were in apposition to the endothelial cells, while almost 30% of endocrine cells were entirely isolated from perivascular space in the tissue. Our three-dimensional analyses also visualized the distribution pattern of secretory granules in individual endocrine cells, showing an accumulation of secretory granules in regions in close apposition to the blood vessels in many cases. However, secretory granules in cells isolated from the perivascular region tended to distribute uniformly in the cytoplasm of these cells. These data suggest that the cellular interactions between the endocrine and endothelial cells promote an uneven cytoplasmic distribution of the secretory granules. PMID:27796315

  10. Three-dimensional ultrastructural analyses of anterior pituitary gland expose spatial relationships between endocrine cell secretory granule localization and capillary distribution.

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, Munetake; Ohta, Keisuke; Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Togo, Akinobu; Hirashima, Shingo; Uemura, Kei-Ichiro; Okayama, Satoko; Morioka, Motohiro; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro

    2016-10-31

    Endocrine and endothelial cells of the anterior pituitary gland frequently make close appositions or contacts, and the secretory granules of each endocrine cell tend to accumulate at the perivascular regions, which is generally considered to facilitate secretory functions of these cells. However, three-dimensional relationships between the localization pattern of secretory granules and blood vessels are not fully understood. To define and characterize these spatial relationships, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) three-dimensional reconstruction method based on focused ion-beam slicing and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM). Full three-dimensional cellular architectures of the anterior pituitary tissue at ultrastructural resolution revealed that about 70% of endocrine cells were in apposition to the endothelial cells, while almost 30% of endocrine cells were entirely isolated from perivascular space in the tissue. Our three-dimensional analyses also visualized the distribution pattern of secretory granules in individual endocrine cells, showing an accumulation of secretory granules in regions in close apposition to the blood vessels in many cases. However, secretory granules in cells isolated from the perivascular region tended to distribute uniformly in the cytoplasm of these cells. These data suggest that the cellular interactions between the endocrine and endothelial cells promote an uneven cytoplasmic distribution of the secretory granules.

  11. The ultrastructure of the muscle coat of human gastro-oesophageal junction, with special reference to "interstitial cells of Cajal".

    PubMed

    Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta; Cortesini, Camillo; Romagnoli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    innervated by varicose nerve fibers that were densely packed with synaptic vesicles; many close junctions to nerve endings were also detected. These morphological data lead us to assume that the interstitial cells demonstrated by the electron microscope do not correspond to the cells initially identified by Cajal and cannot even be considered connective tissue cells. We propose that they are specialized smooth muscle cells that are involved in generating spontaneous, myogenic electrical activity in the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Expression dynamics and ultrastructural localization of epitope-tagged Abutilon mosaic virus nuclear shuttle and movement proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinow, Tatjana; Tanwir, Fariha; Kocher, Cornelia; Krenz, Bjoern; Wege, Christina; Jeske, Holger

    2009-09-01

    The geminivirus Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) encodes two proteins which are essential for viral spread within plants. The nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) transfers viral DNA between the nucleus and cytoplasm, whereas the movement protein (MP) facilitates transport between cells through plasmodesmata and long-distance via phloem. An inducible overexpression system for epitope-tagged NSP and MP in plants yielded unprecedented amounts of both proteins. Western blots revealed extensive posttranslational modification and truncation for MP, but not for NSP. Ultrastructural examination of Nicotiana benthamiana tissues showed characteristic nucleopathic alterations, including fibrillar rings, when epitope-tagged NSP and MP were simultaneously expressed in leaves locally infected with an AbMV DNA A in which the coat protein gene was replaced by a green fluorescent protein encoding gene. Immunogold labelling localized NSP in the nucleoplasm and in the fibrillar rings. MP appeared at the cell periphery, probably the plasma membrane, and plasmodesmata.

  13. Comparative study of effects of magnesium and taurine on electrical parameters of natural and artificial membranes. VIII. Effect on the ultrastructure of human amniotic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Guiet-Bara, A; Bara, M; Durlach, J

    1991-03-01

    The ultrastructure of human amniotic epithelial cells from normal pregnancies, at term, was studied using transmission electron microscopy. The results were analysed by a stereological method which indicates the ratio between the volume of the intercellular space (R1, the microvilli (R2), and the podocytes (R3) versus the cell volume. At low concentration (2 mM), MgCl2 decreased R1 and R3 and had no significant effect on R2. In contrast, taurine (2 mM) increased R1 and had no significant effect on R2 and R3. There is no vicarious action between Mg and taurine. These data are in contrast to the results obtained after electrophysiological studies, which indicates that the structural targets for Mg and taurine are different from the targets responsible for ionic transfer.

  14. Dengue virus-induced autophagosomes and changes in endomembrane ultrastructure imaged by electron tomography and whole-mount grid-cell culture techniques.

    PubMed

    Gangodkar, Shobha; Jain, Preksha; Dixit, Nishikant; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Basu, Atanu

    2010-01-01

    The biogenesis events and formation of dengue virus (DENV) in the infected host cells remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we examined the ultrastructural changes associated with DENV-2 replication in three susceptible host cells, C6/36, Vero and SK Hep1, a cell line of human endothelial origin, using transmission electron microscopy, whole-mount grid-cell culture techniques and electron tomography (ET). The prominent feature in C6/36 cells was the formation of large perinuclear vacuoles with mature DENV particles, and on-grid whole-mount examination of the infected Vero cells showed different forms of DENV core structures associated with cellular membranes within 48 h after infection. Distinct multivesicular structures and prominent autophagic vesicles were seen in the infected SK Hep1 cells when compared with the other two cell lines. ET showed the three-dimensional organization of these vesicles as a continuous system. This is the first report of ET-based analysis of DENV-2 replication in a human endothelial cell line. These results further emphasizes the strong role played by intracellular host membranes-virus interactions in the biogenesis of DENV and strongly argues for the possibility of targeting compounds to block such structure formation as key anti-dengue agents.

  15. Ultrastructural Characteristics of Rat Hepatic Oval Cells and Their Intercellular Contacts in the Model of Biliary Fibrosis: New Insights into Experimental Liver Fibrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lotowska, Joanna Maria; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria Elzbieta; Lebensztejn, Dariusz Marek; Daniluk, Urszula; Sobaniec, Piotr; Sendrowski, Krzysztof; Daniluk, Jaroslaw; Reszec, Joanna; Debek, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Recently, it has been emphasized that hepatic progenitor/oval cells (HPCs) are significantly involved in liver fibrogenesis. We evaluated the multipotential population of HPCs by transmission electron microscope (TEM), including relations with adherent hepatic nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) in rats with biliary fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). The study used 6-week-old Wistar Crl: WI(Han) rats after BDL for 1, 6, and 8 weeks. Current ultrastructural analysis showed considerable proliferation of HPCs in experimental intensive biliary fibrosis. HPCs formed proliferating bile ductules and were scattered in periportal connective tissue. We distinguished 4 main types of HPCs: 0, I, II (bile duct-like cells; most common), and III (hepatocyte-like cells). We observed, very seldom presented in literature, cellular interactions between HPCs and adjacent NPCs, especially commonly found transitional hepatic stellate cells (T-HSCs) and Kupffer cells/macrophages. We showed the phenomenon of penetration of the basement membrane of proliferating bile ductules by cytoplasmic processes sent by T-HSCs and the formation of direct cell-cell contact with ductular epithelial cells related to HPCs. HPC proliferation induced by BDL evidently promotes portal fibrogenesis. Better understanding of the complex cellular interactions between HPCs and adjacent NPCs, especially T-HSCs, may help develop antifibrotic therapies in the future.

  16. Ultrastructural Characteristics of Rat Hepatic Oval Cells and Their Intercellular Contacts in the Model of Biliary Fibrosis: New Insights into Experimental Liver Fibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lebensztejn, Dariusz Marek; Daniluk, Urszula; Sobaniec, Piotr; Sendrowski, Krzysztof; Daniluk, Jaroslaw; Debek, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Recently, it has been emphasized that hepatic progenitor/oval cells (HPCs) are significantly involved in liver fibrogenesis. We evaluated the multipotential population of HPCs by transmission electron microscope (TEM), including relations with adherent hepatic nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) in rats with biliary fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Methods The study used 6-week-old Wistar Crl: WI(Han) rats after BDL for 1, 6, and 8 weeks. Results Current ultrastructural analysis showed considerable proliferation of HPCs in experimental intensive biliary fibrosis. HPCs formed proliferating bile ductules and were scattered in periportal connective tissue. We distinguished 4 main types of HPCs: 0, I, II (bile duct-like cells; most common), and III (hepatocyte-like cells). We observed, very seldom presented in literature, cellular interactions between HPCs and adjacent NPCs, especially commonly found transitional hepatic stellate cells (T-HSCs) and Kupffer cells/macrophages. We showed the phenomenon of penetration of the basement membrane of proliferating bile ductules by cytoplasmic processes sent by T-HSCs and the formation of direct cell-cell contact with ductular epithelial cells related to HPCs. Conclusions HPC proliferation induced by BDL evidently promotes portal fibrogenesis. Better understanding of the complex cellular interactions between HPCs and adjacent NPCs, especially T-HSCs, may help develop antifibrotic therapies in the future. PMID:28769978

  17. The endocrine cells in the gastroenteropancreatic system of the bowfin, Amia calva L.: an immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and immunocytochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Youson, J H; Al-Mahrouki, A A; Naumovski, D; Conlon, J M

    2001-12-01

    The gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) endocrine system of bowfin (Amia calva) was described using light and electron microscopy and immunological methods. The islet organ (endocrine pancreas) consists of diffusely scattered, mostly small islets and isolated patches of cells among and within the exocrine acini. The islets are composed of abundant, centrally located B cells immunoreactive to bovine and lamprey insulin antisera and D cells showing a widespread distribution and specificity to somatostatin antibodies. A and F cells are present at the very periphery of the islets and are immunoreactive with antisera against glucagon (and glucagon-like peptide) and several peptides of the pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-family, respectively. The peptides of the two families usually collocates within the same peripheral islet cells and are the most common immunoreactive peptides present in the extra-islet tissue. Immunocytochemistry and fine structural observations characterised the granule morphology for B and D cells and identified two cell types with granules immunoreactive to glucagon antisera. These two putative A cells had similar granules, which were distinct from either B or D cells, but one of the cells had rod-shaped cytoplasmic inclusions within cisternae of what appeared to be rough endoplasmic reticulum. The inclusions were not immunoreactive to either insulin or glucagon antisera. Only small numbers of cells in the stomach and intestine immunoreacted to antisera against somatostatin, glucagon, and PP-family peptides. The paucity of these cells was reflected in the low concentrations of these peptides in intestinal extracts. The GEP system of bowfin is not unlike that of other actinopterygian fishes, but there are some marked differences that may reflect the antiquity of this system and/or may be a consequence of the ontogeny of this system in this species.

  18. [Effects of purine nucleotide on the expressions of FSH and LH and the ultrastructure of endocrine cells in the pituitary gland of heroin-addicted male rats].

    PubMed

    Cui, Jia-Yue; Hong, Xin-Yu; Wang, Shao-Hua; Liu, Jian-Kai; Cui, Li

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the effects of purine nucleotide on the expressions of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteotrophic hormone (LH) and the ultrastructures of the distal somatotrophic and gonadotrophic cells in the pituitary gland of heroin-addicted and -withdrawal rats. Ninety-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (ip saline for 14 d), a nucleotide group (ip AMP and GMP for 10 d), a heroin group (ip heroin for 10 d), a heroin + nucleotide group (ip AMP and GMP + heroin for 10 d), a 3 d withdrawal group (ip heroin for 10 d and killed at 14 d), a 9 d withdrawal group (ip heroin for 10 d and killed at 20 d), a 3 d nucleotide group (ip nucleotide for 3 d after 10 d heroin administration and killed at 14 d), and a 9 d nucleotide group (ip nucleotide for 9 d after 10 d heroin administration and killed at 20 d). Changes in the mRNA expressions of FSH and LH in the pituitary gland of the rats were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and alterations in the ultrastructures of the distal somatotrophic and gonadotrophic cells were observed under the microscope. The expression of FSH mRNA was significantly increased in the nucleotide, heroin + nucleotide, 3 d nucleotide and 9 d nucleotide groups (0.099 +/- 0.018, 0.177 +/- 0.046, 0.151 +/- 0.030 and 0.184 +/- 0.028) as compared with the control group (0.045 +/- 0.009) (P < 0.01); and so was that of LH mRNA in the heroin + nucleotide, 3 d nucleotide and 9 d nucleotide groups (0.950 +/- 0.169, 0.990 +/- 0.171 and 0.960 +/- 0.147) in comparison with the control group (0.700 +/- 0.099) (P < 0.01). In the heroin group, the nuclei of the distal somatotrophic and gonadotrophic cells exhibited morphological abnormality, unclear membrane, slightly pyknotic matrix, marginal and agglutinated heterochromatin, dilated rough endoplasmic reticula, swollen mitochondria, broken and vacuolated cristae in the cytoplasm, obviously decreased number of secretory granules, and myelin bodies in some cells. However, the

  19. CD39 Expression Identifies Terminally Exhausted CD8+ T Cells.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prakash K; Godec, Jernej; Wolski, David; Adland, Emily; Yates, Kathleen; Pauken, Kristen E; Cosgrove, Cormac; Ledderose, Carola; Junger, Wolfgang G; Robson, Simon C; Wherry, E John; Alter, Galit; Goulder, Philip J R; Klenerman, Paul; Sharpe, Arlene H; Lauer, Georg M; Haining, W Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Exhausted T cells express multiple co-inhibitory molecules that impair their function and limit immunity to chronic viral infection. Defining novel markers of exhaustion is important both for identifying and potentially reversing T cell exhaustion. Herein, we show that the ectonucleotidse CD39 is a marker of exhausted CD8+ T cells. CD8+ T cells specific for HCV or HIV express high levels of CD39, but those specific for EBV and CMV do not. CD39 expressed by CD8+ T cells in chronic infection is enzymatically active, co-expressed with PD-1, marks cells with a transcriptional signature of T cell exhaustion and correlates with viral load in HIV and HCV. In the mouse model of chronic Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus infection, virus-specific CD8+ T cells contain a population of CD39high CD8+ T cells that is absent in functional memory cells elicited by acute infection. This CD39high CD8+ T cell population is enriched for cells with the phenotypic and functional profile of terminal exhaustion. These findings provide a new marker of T cell exhaustion, and implicate the purinergic pathway in the regulation of T cell exhaustion.

  20. Ultrastructural evidence for two-cell and three-cell neural pathways in the tentacle epidermis of the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Jane A; Elliott, Carol F; Carlin, Ryan W

    2002-01-01

    Sensory and ganglion cells in the tentacle epidermis of the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida were traced in serial transmission electron micrographs to their synaptic contacts on other cells. Sensory cell synapses were found on spirocytes, muscle cells, and ganglion cells. Ganglion cells, in turn, synapsed on sensory cells, spirocytes, muscle cells, and other neurons and formed en passant axo-axonal synapses. Axonal synapses on nematocytes and gland cells were not traced to their cells of origin, i.e., identified sensory or ganglion cells. Direct synaptic contacts of sensory cells with spirocytes and sensory cells with muscle cells suggest a local two-cell pathway for spirocyst discharge and muscle cell contraction, whereas interjection of a ganglion cell between the sensory and effector cells creates a local three-cell pathway. The network of ganglion cells and their processes allows for a through-conduction system that is interconnected by chemical synapses. Although the sea anemone nervous system is more complex than that of Hydra, it has similar two-cell and three-cell effector pathways that may function in local responses to tentacle contact with food. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Analysis of individual cells identifies cell-to-cell variability following induction of cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Christopher D; Flynn, James M; Morrissey, Christapher; Lebofsky, Ronald; Shuga, Joe; Dong, Xiao; Unger, Marc A; Vijg, Jan; Melov, Simon; Campisi, Judith

    2017-10-01

    Senescent cells play important roles in both physiological and pathological processes, including cancer and aging. In all cases, however, senescent cells comprise only a small fraction of tissues. Senescent phenotypes have been studied largely in relatively homogeneous populations of cultured cells. In vivo, senescent cells are generally identified by a small number of markers, but whether and how these markers vary among individual cells is unknown. We therefore utilized a combination of single-cell isolation and a nanofluidic PCR platform to determine the contributions of individual cells to the overall gene expression profile of senescent human fibroblast populations. Individual senescent cells were surprisingly heterogeneous in their gene expression signatures. This cell-to-cell variability resulted in a loss of correlation among the expression of several senescence-associated genes. Many genes encoding senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors, a major contributor to the effects of senescent cells in vivo, showed marked variability with a subset of highly induced genes accounting for the increases observed at the population level. Inflammatory genes in clustered genomic loci showed a greater correlation with senescence compared to nonclustered loci, suggesting that these genes are coregulated by genomic location. Together, these data offer new insights into how genes are regulated in senescent cells and suggest that single markers are inadequate to identify senescent cells in vivo. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Ultrastructural studies of unstable angina in living man

    SciTech Connect

    Gotlieb, A.I.; Freeman, M.R.; Salerno, T.A.; Lichtenstein, S.V.; Armstrong, P.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Nineteen patients with refractory unstable angina who were undergoing aortocoronary bypass were studied to assess the extent of platelet aggregation present in the microvasculature. Ultrastructural findings on the morphology of cardiac muscle and microvasculature were correlated with the findings on coronary angiograms and thallium scans. There were no significant correlations. The presence of platelet aggregates was identified in four biopsies, two of which had thrombus by angiographic criteria. Biopsy in areas with thallium defects revealed an increased prevalence of white blood cells without acute myocardial infarction. This study confirms the presence of platelet aggregates in patients with unstable angina, albeit at a reduced frequency when compared with autopsy studies.

  3. Ultrastructure of the embryonic stem cells of the 8-day pig blastocyst before and after in vitro manipulation: development of junctional apparatus and the lethal effects of PBS mediated cell-cell dissociation.

    PubMed

    Talbot, N C; Garrett, W M

    2001-09-01

    Ultrastructural examination of 8-day hatched pig blastocysts (large and small), their cultured inner cell mass (ICM), and cultured epiblast tissue (embryonic stem cells) was undertaken to assess the development of epiblast cell junctions and cytoskeletal elements. In small blastocysts, epiblast cells had no desmosomes or tight junction (TJ) connections and few organized microfilament bundles, whereas in large blastocysts the epiblast cells were connected by TJ and desmosomes with associated microfilaments. ICM isolation by immunodissection damaged the endoderm cells beneath the trophectoderm cells but did not appear to damage the epiblast cells or their associated endoderm cells. Epiblast cells in cultured ICMs were similar in character to those in the intact large blastocyst except that perinuclear microfilaments were observed. Isolated pig epiblasts, cultured for approximately 36 hr on STO feeder layers, formed a monolayer whose cells were connected by TJ, adherens junctions and desmosomes with prominent microfilament bundles running parallel to the apical cytoplasmic membranes. Perinuclear microfilaments were a consistent feature in the approximately 36 hr cultured epiblast cells. A feature characteristic of differentiation into notochordal cells, i.e., a solitary cilium, was also observed in the cultured epiblast. Exposure of the cultured epiblast cells to Ca(++)-Mg(++)-free phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 5-10 min resulted in extensive cell blebbing and lysis. The results may indicate that pig epiblast cells could be more easily dissociated from early blastocysts ( approximately 400 microm in diameter) if immunodissection damage to the ICM can be avoided. It may be difficult, however, to establish them as embryonic stem cell lines because the cultured pig epiblast cells were easily lysed by standard cell-cell dissociation methods.

  4. Lymphocytic Oesophagitis Preliminary Ultrastructural Observations.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carlos A; Villnow, Elisabeth; Schmidt, Peter T

    2016-05-01

    Lymphocytic oesophagitis (LyE) is a newly described entity characterized by a high number of intraepithelial lymphocytes/ high power field (≥40 CD3+IELs/HPF) in the oesophageal epithelium. The aim of the study was to investigate possible ultrastructural changes taking place in LyE at the transmission electron microscopic (TEM) level. Oesopageal biopsies from seven patients were investigated: four were consecutive patients with LyE, one with reflux oesopagitis, one with eosinophilic oesopagitis (EoE) and one with histologically normal squamous epithelium. In LyE, marked intercellular oedema (spongiosis) and a gamut of regressive changes were found in squamous cells, ranging from cytoplasmic oedema and vacuolization, to total cell disintegration. IELs also showed regressive changes ranging from ballooned, oedematous cytoplasm to signs of intracytoplasmatic disintegration. Besides hampered cell nutrition conveyed by spongiosis, putative noxious molecules contained in the intercellular spongiotic oedema might account for the dramatic TEM alterations found in LyE. The present findings provide, for the first time, "inside information" on the ultrastructural alterations taking place in LyE, both in squamous cells and in IELs. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanical Genomics Identifies Diverse Modulators of Bacterial Cell Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Auer, George K; Lee, Timothy K; Rajendram, Manohary; Cesar, Spencer; Miguel, Amanda; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Weibel, Douglas B

    2016-06-22

    Bacteria must maintain mechanical integrity to withstand the large osmotic pressure differential across the cell membrane and wall. Although maintaining mechanical integrity is critical for proper cellular function, a fact exploited by prominent cell-wall-targeting antibiotics, the proteins that contribute to cellular mechanics remain unidentified. Here, we describe a high-throughput optical method for quantifying cell stiffness and apply this technique to a genome-wide collection of ∼4,000 Escherichia coli mutants. We identify genes with roles in diverse functional processes spanning cell-wall synthesis, energy production, and DNA replication and repair that significantly change cell stiffness when deleted. We observe that proteins with biochemically redundant roles in cell-wall synthesis exhibit different stiffness defects when deleted. Correlating our data with chemical screens reveals that reducing membrane potential generally increases cell stiffness. In total, our work demonstrates that bacterial cell stiffness is a property of both the cell wall and broader cell physiology and lays the groundwork for future systematic studies of mechanoregulation.

  6. A basal stem cell signature identifies aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bryan A.; Sokolov, Artem; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Baertsch, Robert; Newton, Yulia; Graim, Kiley; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M.; Witte, Owen N.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from numerous cancers suggests that increased aggressiveness is accompanied by up-regulation of signaling pathways and acquisition of properties common to stem cells. It is unclear if different subtypes of late-stage cancer vary in stemness properties and whether or not these subtypes are transcriptionally similar to normal tissue stem cells. We report a gene signature specific for human prostate basal cells that is differentially enriched in various phenotypes of late-stage metastatic prostate cancer. We FACS-purified and transcriptionally profiled basal and luminal epithelial populations from the benign and cancerous regions of primary human prostates. High-throughput RNA sequencing showed the basal population to be defined by genes associated with stem cell signaling programs and invasiveness. Application of a 91-gene basal signature to gene expression datasets from patients with organ-confined or hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer revealed that metastatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was molecularly more stem-like than either metastatic adenocarcinoma or organ-confined adenocarcinoma. Bioinformatic analysis of the basal cell and two human small cell gene signatures identified a set of E2F target genes common between prostate small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and primary prostate basal cells. Taken together, our data suggest that aggressive prostate cancer shares a conserved transcriptional program with normal adult prostate basal stem cells. PMID:26460041

  7. Reptilian spermatogenesis: A histological and ultrastructural perspective.

    PubMed

    Gribbins, Kevin M

    2011-07-01

    Until recently, the histology and ultrastructural events of spermatogenesis in reptiles were relatively unknown. Most of the available morphological information focuses on specific stages of spermatogenesis, spermiogenesis, and/or of the mature spermatozoa. No study to date has provided complete ultrastructural information on the early events of spermatogenesis, proliferation and meiosis in class Reptilia. Furthermore, no comprehensive data set exists that describes the ultrastructure of the entire ontogenic progression of germ cells through the phases of reptilian spermatogenesis (mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis). The purpose of this review is to provide an ultrastructural and histological atlas of spermatogenesis in reptiles. The morphological details provided here are the first of their kind and can hopefully provide histological information on spermatogenesis that can be compared to that already known for anamniotes (fish and amphibians), birds and mammals. The data supplied in this review will provide a basic model that can be utilized for the study of sperm development in other reptiles. The use of such an atlas will hopefully stimulate more interest in collecting histological and ultrastructural data sets on spermatogenesis that may play important roles in future nontraditional phylogenetic analyses and histopathological studies in reptiles.

  8. Changes in size and shape of smooth muscle cells from the portal vein of spontaneously hypertensive rats: an ultrastructural analysis.

    PubMed

    Todd, M E

    1992-01-01

    The portal vein was investigated in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar strains, in animal 16-20 weeks old. In SHR, the inner circular smooth muscle was unchanged, but the outer longitudinal layer showed marked alterations in shape and size, readily observed in three-dimensional micrographs using scanning electron microscopy. The cells in both Wistar and WKY were elongate and tubular with little variation along their lengths and with a relatively smooth sarcolemma. This applied to both the inner and outer layers of smooth muscle. In contrast, the smooth muscle cells from SHR in the outer layer varied considerably in thickness along their lengths, and had very irregular outlines with numerous pits or depressions of varying sizes. In addition, the cells frequently had major forks or branches. The vasa vasorum running through the muscle layer, fibroblasts and nerve bundles were also identified. Sectioned material (transmission electron microscopy) showed a change in shape and hypertrophy of the smooth muscle cells from the portal vein of SHR, and also demonstrated a significant increase in paracellular connective tissue in the outer layer of smooth muscle. Such major morphological alterations in the outer layer of smooth muscle in the portal vein from SHR could have profound effects on functional studies.

  9. Black carp vasa identifies embryonic and gonadal germ cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ting; Yu, Miao; Pan, Qihua; Wang, Yizhou; Fang, Jian; Li, Lingyu; Deng, Yu; Chen, Kai; Wang, Qian; Chen, Tiansheng

    2017-07-01

    Identification of molecular markers is an essential step in the study of germ cells. Vasa is an RNA helicase and a well-known germ cell marker that plays a crucial role in germ cell development. Here, we identified the Vasa homolog termed Mpvasa as the first germ cell marker in black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). First, a 2819-bp full-length Mpvasa complementary DNA (cDNA) was cloned by PCR using degenerated primers of conserved sequences and gene-specific primers. The Mpvasa cDNA sequence encodes a 637-amino acid protein that contains eight conserved characteristic motifs of the DEAD box protein family, and shares high identity to grass carp (81%) and zebrafish (74%) vasa homologs. Second, Mpvasa expression was restricted to the gonad in adulthood by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The dynamic patterns of temporal-spatial expression of Mpvasa during gametogenesis were examined by in situ hybridization, and Mpvasa transcripts were strictly detected in gonadal germ cells throughout oogenesis, predominantly in immature oocytes (stage I, II, and III oocytes). Third, Mpvasa transcripts were highly detected in unfertilized eggs and early embryos, and the signal indicated a dynamic migration of the primordial germ cells during embryogenesis, suggesting that Mpvasa transcripts were maternally inherited and specifically distributed in germ cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Mpvasa is an applicable molecular marker for identification of gonadal and embryonic germ cells, which facilitates the isolation and utilization of germ cells in black carp.

  10. Distribution and content of microtubules in relation to the transport of lipid. An ultrastructural quantitative study of the absorptive cell of the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    To determine whether microtubules are linked to intracellular transport in absorptive cells of the proximal intestine, quantitative ultrastructural studies were carried out in which microtubule distribution and content were determined in cells from fasting and fed animals. Rats were given a 1-h meal of standard chow, and tissue was taken from the mid-jejunum before, 1/2 h, and 6 h after the meal. The microtubule content of apical, Golgi, and basal regions of cells was quantitated by point-counting stereology. The results show) that microtubules are localized in intracellular regions of enterocytes (apical and Golgi areas) previously shown to be associated with lipid transport, and that the microtubule content within apical and Golgi regions is significantly (P less than 0.01) reduced during transport of foodstuffs. To determine the effect of inhibition of microtubule assembly on transport, colchicine or vinblastine sulfate was administered to postabsorptive rats, and the lipid and microtubule content of enterocytes determined 1 and 3 h later. After treatment with these agents, lipid was found to accumulate in apical regions of the cells; this event was associated with a significant reduction in microtubule content. In conclusion, the regional distribution of microtubules in enterocytes, the decrease in assembled microtubules after a fat-containing meal, and the accumulation of lipid after the administration of antimicrotubule agents suggest that microtubules are related to lipid transport in enterocytes. PMID:264123

  11. [Effect of fucoidan on the ultrastructure of mesophyll cells of Datura stramonium L. and accumulation of potato virus X in them].

    PubMed

    Lapshina, L A; Reunov, A V; Nagorskaia, V P; Zviagintseva, T N; Shevchenko, N M

    2009-01-01

    Influence of fucoidan from brown alga Fucus evanescens C. Ag. on the development of infection induced by potato virus X (PVX) in Datura stramonium leaves was studied. It as been shown that 24 h after the treatment of the leaves with fucoidan and following infection of them with PVX the accumulation of virus particles in infected cells during early infection period was substantially less than that in untreated control. Using ultrastructure-morphometric analysis, it has been established that fucoidan treatment increases at protein-synthesizing capability of cells (nucleolus dimension, amount of mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes become increased). At the same time, the fucoidan treatment causes some activation of lytic compartment which leads to destruction of virus particles and, therefore, might be considered as one of fucoidan-dependent protective mechanisms limiting virus accumulation in cells. Fucoidan stimulation of the formation of PVX-specific laminated structures capable of virus particles binding is possibly another induced antiviral cell mechanism, preventing from virus reproduction and transposition.

  12. Annual changes in the number, testosterone content and ultrastructure of glandular tissue cells of the testis in the marbled newt Triturus marmoratus.

    PubMed Central

    Fraile, B; Paniagua, R; Rodríguez, M C; Sáez, F J; Jimenez, A

    1989-01-01

    The testes of 8 specimens of Triturus marmoratus were collected during each month of 1987 and processed for electron microscopy and light microscopy demonstration of testosterone (T) following the ABC (avidin-biotin peroxidase complex) method. According to their staining affinity for anti-T antibodies, the glandular tissue cells were classified as T-, T+, T++, and T and the annual changes in the numbers of these cell populations, as well as in the volume occupied by the glandular tissue, were calculated. The volume occupied by the glandular tissue increases from September to December; it begins to decrease in April and disappears from June to August. The glandular tissue is formed from the interstitial cells that surround the lobules containing differentiating germ cells. During the spermatogenic process, the interstitial cells do not show staining affinity for anti-T antibodies. In August-September, the interstitial cells around the lobules that have completed spermatogenesis become positively stained (T+) and form the glandular tissue when the spermatozoa leave the testis. The numbers of intensely stained cells in the glandular tissue (T++ and T ) increase from September to November; begin to decrease in December; disappear in January-February; increase again in March and decrease again in April until they disappear in June-September. The interstitial cells, before their transformation in glandular tissue, are ultrastructurally similar to fibroblasts. After their transformation these cells increase in size and develop abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria with tubular cristae and lipid droplets. This morphological pattern is maintained in the glandular tissue from September to April in spite of the changes in staining affinity during this period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 PMID:2630543

  13. [Ultrastructural characteristics of glaucomatous trabecular meshwork].

    PubMed

    Potau, J M; Canals, M; Costa, J; Merindano, M D; Ruano, D

    2000-01-01

    To compare the normal and glaucomatous trabecular meshwork ultrastructure and to relate the observed changes with the intraocular pressure increase characteristic of the primary open angle glaucoma. 21 non glaucomatous trabecular meshworks, aged 23 to 99 years, and 5 from patients diagnosed of primary open angle glaucoma, aged 40 to 65 years, were fixed by Karnovsky's solution and processed and observed by transmission electron microscopy and their morphological characteristics were qualitatively compared. Ultrastructural changes of glaucomatous trabecular meshworks are similar, but much more intense, than those observed in the aged normal trabecular meshworks. These changes are loss of endothelial cells, thickening of basal membranes and trabecular beam central nucleus changes such as an increase of electrodense plaques and collagen degenerative processes. Ultrastructural changes observed in glaucomatous trabecular meshworks are comparable to an early aging of them. These changes can be related with the mechanisms that increase the intraocular pressure in primary open-angle glaucoma.

  14. Alterations of leaf cell ultrastructures and AFLP DNA profiles in Earth-grown tomato plants propagated from long-term six years Mir-flown seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Min; Xue, Huai; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Chunhua; Lu, Jinying

    Leaf cell ultrastructures and DNA variations in the firstand the second-generation of Earthgrown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentun Mill) plants that had been endured a long-term six years spaceflight in the Mir were compared to their ground-based control plants, under observations with a Transmission Electron Microscope and the Amplification Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. For alterations in the morphological ultrastructures, one plant among the 11 first-generation plants generated from 30 Mir-flown seeds had a three-layered palisade cell structure, while other 10 first-generation plants and all ground-based controls had one-layered palisade cell structure in leaves. Starch grains were larger and in clusters, numbers of starch grains increased in the chloroplasts in the Mir-flown plants. Leaf cells became contracted and deformed, and cell shape patterns were different in the Mir-flown plants. For the leaf genomic DNA alterations, 34 DNA bands were polymorphic with a 1.32% polymorphism among 2582 DNA bands in the first-generation Mir-flown plants. Band types in the spaceflight treated plants were also different from those in the ground-based control. Of 11 survived first-generation plants, 7 spaceflight treated plants (Plant Nos. 1-6 and No. 9) had a same 7 polymorphic bands and a same 0.27%DNA mutation. The DNA mutation rate was greatest in Plants No.10 and No.7 (0.90% and 0.94%), less in Plant No.11 (0.31%) and least in Plant No.8 (0.20%). For the 38 send-generation plants propagated from the No. 5 Mir-flown seed, 6 DNA bands were polymorphic with a 0.23% polymorphism among 2564 amplified DNA bands. Among those 38 second-generation plants amplified by primer pair (E4: ACC, M8: CTT), one DNA band disappeared in 29 second-generation plants and in the original Mir-flown No. 5 plant, compared to the ground-base controls. Among the 38 second-generation plants generated from the Mir-flown No. 5 seed, the DNA band types of 29 second-generation plants were

  15. Nutcracker syndrome in a child with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) disease: renal ultrastructural features.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Ayhan; Gonul, Ipek Isik; Sakallioglu, Onur; Oztas, Emin

    2009-12-01

    Renal nutcracker syndrome is an uncommon clinical condition caused by compression of the left renal vein. It is usually accompanied by hematuria and/or orthostatic proteinuria. To date, the pathogenic mechanism of proteinuria and its ultrastructural features have not been clearly identified. Here, we present the glomerular ultrastructural features of nutcracker syndrome and our attempt to analyze the relationship between proteinuria and ultrastructural features. Two months prior to admission, a 11-year-old girl with familial Mediterranean fever who was treated with colchicine was found to have proteinuria. Accompanying hematuria was not identified, and laboratory findings were otherwise normal. Doppler ultrasonography and computerized tomography angiography revealed an entrapment of the left renal vein. A kidney biopsy was performed due to the persistent proteinuria. Light microscopy revealed segmental, minimal increases in the mesangial cells and matrix. No amyloid deposition was present. Neither immunofluorescence nor electron microscopy showed immunoglobulin deposition. Increased thickness of the glomerular basement membrane due to the unequivocal radiolucent widening of the lamina rara interna was the most striking ultrastructural finding. At high magnification, there were no amyloidal fibrils. It has been proposed that hemodynamic alterations and structural changes in glomerular basement membrane glycosaminoglycans may play a role in the pathogenesis of proteinuria. Radiolucent expansion of the lamina rara interna of the glomerular basement membrane in the presenting case would seem to support these data.

  16. The ultrastructural characterization of mitochondria-rich cells as a response to variations in salinity in two types of teleostean pseudobranch: milkfish (Chanos chanos) and Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Hui; Tsai, Jeng-Dau; Kang, Chao-Kai; Yang, Wen-Kai; Kung, Hsiu-Ni; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2017-03-01

    The pseudobranchs of two euryhaline teleost species, the milkfish (Chanos chanos) and the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), were studied after acclimization to different salinities using optical and electron microscopy. The milkfish pseudobranch was the lamellae-free type, with separate lamellae along the filaments containing two groups of mitochondria (Mt)-rich cells: chloride cells (CCs) and pseudobranch type cells (PSCs). Conversely, the tilapia pseudobranch was the embedded type, covered with connective tissues and with only one group of Mt-rich PSCs. Chloride cells were identified according to the apical openings and branched tubular networks around randomly distributed and diversely shaped Mt. Pseudobranchs type cells, however, were characterized according to the orderly arrangement of parallel tubules around closely packed Mt; both the tubules and the Mt were distributed in the vascular side of the cell, but were absent from the apical region. Compared with those of seawater (SW)-acclimated milkfish, the pseudobranchial lamellae of freshwater (FW) specimens were longer on average, and the Mt of the CCs had fewer cristae, were less electron-dense, and were often vacuolated. The Mt in the PSCs of FW-acclimated milkfish and tilapia were larger and more electron-dense than those of their SW-acclimated counterparts; in addition, more tubules were found to aggregately surround the Mt and basolateral membranes in the PSCs of fish from the hypo-osmotic environment. Conversely, the PSCs of tilapia were periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive, and Mt in PSCs were concentrated with more parallel arrays of the tubule system than those of milkfish. Therefore, salinity-dependent changes in the ultrastructures of PSCs suggest their potential role in energy metabolism of both lamellae-free and embedded pseudobranchs, whereas the PAS-positive staining characteristics suggest a role in releasing or storaging polysaccharides in the embedded pseudobranch. J. Morphol

  17. Identifying genes preferentially expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiajun; Leder, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Background The mechanism involved in the maintenance and differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells is incompletely understood. Results To address this issue, we have developed a retroviral gene trap vector that can target genes expressed in undifferentiated ES cells. This gene trap vector harbors both GFP and Neo reporter genes. G-418 drug resistance was used to select ES clones in which the vector was integrated into transcriptionally active loci. This was then followed by GFP FACS profiling to identify ES clones with reduced GFP fluorescence and, hence, reduced transcriptional activity when ES cells differentiate. Reduced expression of the GFP reporter in six of three hundred ES clones in our pilot screening was confirmed to be down-regulated by Northern blot analysis during ES cell differentiation. These six ES clones represent four different genes. Among the six integration sites, one was at Zfp-57 whose gene product is known to be enriched in undifferentiated ES cells. Three were located in an intron of a novel isoform of CSL/RBP-Jkappa which encodes the key transcription factor of the LIN-12/Notch pathway. Another was inside a gene that may encode noncoding RNA transcripts. The last integration event occurred at a locus that may harbor a novel gene. Conclusion Taken together, we demonstrate the use of a novel retroviral gene trap vector in identifying genes preferentially expressed in undifferentiated ES cells. PMID:17725840

  18. Clinorotation Affects the Ultrastructure of Pea Root Mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brykov, Vasyl

    2011-02-01

    Effects of clinorotation on the mitochondrial ultrastructure in cells of meristem, distal and central elongation zones of 3- and 5-day-old etiolated roots of pea seedling roots were studied. It was shown that mitochondria in cells of examined root growth zones revealed a different sensitivity to clinorotation. The ultrastructure of mitochondria in the meristem and central elongation zone cells did not substantially change in comparison with stationary control. At the same time, changes in the mitochondrial ultrastructure in cells of the distal elongation zone under clinorotation were observed, namely: decrease in the size of mitochondria, as well as increase in both matrix electron density and crista volume. Such changes in the mitochondrial ultrastructure under clinorotation are supposed to display the rearrangements of energy metabolism in cells of the distal elongation zone in these conditions.

  19. [Ultrastructure of the retina in flunitrazepam anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Antal, M

    1980-10-01

    Ultrastructure of the retina under experimental flunitrazepam anaesthesia of 1 hour duration was studied. Alterations of neurons and glial cells were not revealed neither after cessation of anaesthesia, nor following 24 or 48 hours after it. These findings seem to indicate that flunitrazepam has no effect on the metabolism of the retina, thus its application in the ophtalmology is free of side effects.

  20. The Spectrum of Mitochondrial Ultrastructural Defects in Mitochondrial Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Amy E.; Ng, Yi Shiau; White, Kathryn; Davey, Tracey; Mannella, Carmen; Falkous, Gavin; Feeney, Catherine; Schaefer, Andrew M.; McFarland, Robert; Gorman, Grainne S.; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.; Picard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial functions are intrinsically linked to their morphology and membrane ultrastructure. Characterizing abnormal mitochondrial structural features may thus provide insight into the underlying pathogenesis of inherited and acquired mitochondrial diseases. Following a systematic literature review on ultrastructural defects in mitochondrial myopathy, we investigated skeletal muscle biopsies from seven subjects with genetically defined mtDNA mutations. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology were characterized using two complimentary approaches: transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and serial block face scanning EM (SBF-SEM) with 3D reconstruction. Six ultrastructural abnormalities were identified including i) paracrystalline inclusions, ii) linearization of cristae and abnormal angular features, iii) concentric layering of cristae membranes, iv) matrix compartmentalization, v) nanotunelling, and vi) donut-shaped mitochondria. In light of recent molecular advances in mitochondrial biology, these findings reveal novel aspects of mitochondrial ultrastructure and morphology in human tissues with implications for understanding the mechanisms linking mitochondrial dysfunction to disease. PMID:27506553

  1. Phenotypic Approaches to Identify Inhibitors of B Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suzie; Wiener, Jake; Rao, Navin L.; Milla, Marcos E.; DiSepio, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    An EPIC label-free phenotypic platform was developed to explore B cell receptor (BCR) and CD40R-mediated B cell activation. The phenotypic assay measured the association of RL non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma B cells expressing lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)-coated EPIC plates. Anti-IgM (immunoglobulin M) mediated BCR activation elicited a response that was blocked by LFA-1/ICAM-1 specific inhibitors and a panel of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors. LFA-1/ICAM-1 association was further increased on coapplication of anti-IgM and mega CD40L when compared to individual application of either. Anti-IgM, mega CD40L, or the combination of both displayed distinct kinetic profiles that were inhibited by treatment with a BTK inhibitor. We also established a FLIPR-based assay to measure B cell activation in Ramos Burkitt’s lymphoma B cells and an RL cell line. Anti-IgM-mediated BCR activation elicited a robust calcium response that was inhibited by a panel of BTK inhibitors. Conversely, CD40R activation did not elicit a calcium response in the FLIPR assay. Compared to the FLIPR, the EPIC assay has the propensity to identify inhibitors of both BCR and CD40R-mediated B cell activation and may provide more pharmacological depth or novel mechanisms of action for inhibition of B cell activation. PMID:25948491

  2. A pneumatically-driven microfluidic system for size-tunable generation of uniform cell-encapsulating collagen microbeads with the ultrastructure similar to native collagen.

    PubMed

    Huang, Song-Bin; Chang, Yu-Han; Lee, Hsin-Chieh; Tsai, Shiao-Wen; Wu, Min-Hsien

    2014-06-01

    This study reports a microfluidic system for high throughput, uniform, and size-tunable generation of cell-containing collagen microbeads. The principle is based on two pneumatically-driven mechanisms to achieve multi-channel mixture suspension transportation, and to actuate the spotting actions of micro-vibrators that continuously generate tiny collagen micro-droplets into a thin oil layer and then a sterile Pluronic® F127 surfactant solution located below. The temporarily formed collagen microdroplets are then thermally gelatinized. By regulating the feeding rate of cells/collagen suspension, and the spotting frequency of micro-vibrator, the size of the collagen microbeads can be manipulated. One of the key technical features is its capability to generate uniform collagen microbeads (coefficient of variation: 5.4-8.6 %) with sizes ranging from 73.9 to 349.3 μm in diameter. This is currently difficult to achieve using the existing methods particularly the generation of cell-encapsulating collagen microbeads with diameter less than 100 μm. Another advantageous trait is that the ultrastructure of the generated collagen microbeads is similar to that found in native collagen. In this study, moreover, the use of the proposed device for the microencapsulation of 3T3 cells in collagen microbeads has been successfully demonstrated showing that the encapsulated cells maintained high cell viability (96 ± 2 %). Furthermore, a reasonable proliferative capability of the encapsulated cells was observed during 7 days culture. As a whole, the proposed device has opened up a new route to generate cell-containing collagen microbeads, which is found particularly meaningful for biomedical applications.

  3. The Newly Identified T Helper 22 Cells Lodge in Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Gholamreza; Rastegar Pouyani, Mohsen; Navabi, Shadi sadat; Yazdani, Reza; Kiaee, Fatemeh; Mirshafiey, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia is a hematological tumor in which the malignant myeloid or lymphoid subsets play a pivotal role. Newly identified T helper cell 22 (Th22) is a subset of CD4+ T cells with distinguished gene expression, function and specific properties apart from other known CD4+ T cell subsets.Th22 cells are characterized by production of a distinct profile of effector cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-22, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The levels of Th22 and cytokine IL-22 are increased and positively related to inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Recently, several studies have reported the changes in frequency and function of Th22 in acute leukemic disorders as AML and ALL. This review discusses the role of Th22 and its cytokine IL-22 in the immunopathogenesis of leukemic disease. PMID:26261700

  4. Impact of drying on wood ultrastructure: similarities in cell wall alteration between native wood and isolated wood-based fibers.

    PubMed

    Suchy, Miro; Kontturi, Eero; Vuorinen, Tapani

    2010-08-09

    Ultrastructural alterations of fresh wood caused by initial drying were compared to changes incurred during drying of never-dried wood pulp fibers of different macromolecular composition. Drying induced inaccessibility of a native wood sample exhibited remarkable similarity to wood pulp samples of different lignin contents. The results suggest that the supramolecular rearrangements in native wood matrix upon dehydration are qualitatively identical to the well-known changes occurring in pulp fibers after drying, although the changes are considerably different in quantity. The alterations were observed and quantified by monitoring the conversion of accessible deuterium exchanged OH groups in fresh wood and wood pulp fibers to inaccessible, reprotonation resistant OD groups during drying. The deuteration/FT-IR measurements correlated well with the water retention measurement of the pulp samples. Irreversible reduction of water retention due to the supramolecular changes implies reduced accessibility of wood polymers in various chemical and mechanical treatments, such as enzymatic conversion of biomass or preparation of cellulosic nano-objects for diverse applications.

  5. Oxygen transfer rate identifies priming compounds in parsley cells.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Jana Viola; Schillheim, Britta; Mahr, Stefan; Reufer, Yannik; Sanjoyo, Sandi; Conrath, Uwe; Büchs, Jochen

    2015-11-25

    In modern agriculture, the call for an alternative crop protection strategy increases because of the desired reduction of fungicide and pesticide use and the continuously evolving resistance of pathogens and pests to agrochemicals. The direct activation of the plant immune system does not provide a promising plant protection measure because of high fitness costs. However, upon treatment with certain natural or synthetic compounds, plant cells can promote to a fitness cost-saving, primed state of enhanced defense. In the primed state, plants respond to biotic and abiotic stress with faster and stronger activation of defense, and this is often associated with immunity and abiotic stress tolerance. Until now, the identification of chemical compounds with priming-inducing activity (so-called plant activators) relied on tedious and invasive approaches, or required the late detection of secreted furanocoumarin phytoalexins in parsley cell cultures. Thus, simple, fast, straightforward, and noninvasive techniques for identifying priming-inducing compounds for plant protection are very welcome. This report demonstrates that a respiration activity-monitoring system (RAMOS) can identify compounds with defense priming-inducing activity in parsley cell suspension in culture. RAMOS relies on the quasi-continuous, noninvasive online determination of the oxygen transfer rate (OTR). Treatment of parsley culture cells with the known plant activator salicylic acid (SA), a natural plant defense signal, resulted in an OTR increase. Addition of the defense elicitor Pep13, a cell wall peptide of Phythophthora sojae, induced two distinctive OTR peaks that were higher in SA-primed cells than in unprimed cells upon Pep13 challenge. Both, the OTR increase after priming with SA and the Pep13 challenge were dose-dependent. Furthermore, there was a close correlation of a compound's activity to enhance the oxygen consumption in parsley cells and its capacity to prime Pep13-induced furanocoumarin

  6. Interaction of Proteins Identified in Human Thyroid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Jessica; Riwaldt, Stefan; Bauer, Johann; Sickmann, Albert; Weber, Gerhard; Grosse, Jirka; Infanger, Manfred; Eilles, Christoph; Grimm, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Influence of gravity forces on the regulation of protein expression by healthy and malignant thyroid cells was studied with the aim to identify protein interactions. Western blot analyses of a limited number of proteins suggested a time-dependent regulation of protein expression by simulated microgravity. After applying free flow isoelectric focusing and mass spectrometry to search for differently expressed proteins by thyroid cells exposed to simulated microgravity for three days, a considerable number of candidates for gravi-sensitive proteins were detected. In order to show how proteins sensitive to microgravity could directly influence other proteins, we investigated all polypeptide chains identified with Mascot scores above 100, looking for groups of interacting proteins. Hence, UniProtKB entry numbers of all detected proteins were entered into the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) and processed. The program indicated that we had detected various groups of interacting proteins in each of the three cell lines studied. The major groups of interacting proteins play a role in pathways of carbohydrate and protein metabolism, regulation of cell growth and cell membrane structuring. Analyzing these groups, networks of interaction could be established which show how a punctual influence of simulated microgravity may propagate via various members of interaction chains. PMID:23303277

  7. Ultrastructural findings in lung biopsy material from children with congenital heart defects.

    PubMed Central

    Meyrick, B.; Reid, L.

    1980-01-01

    The ultrastructural features of pulmonary arteries are described in lung biopsy material from 6 children with congenital heart defects. Right ventricular hypertrophy was found in all 6 children and increased pulmonary artery pressure in all but one. The presence of muscle in smaller and more peripheral arteries than expected for the age of the child was detected in all cases. Ultrastructural examination of the peripheral arteries revealed, for the first time, in the nonmuscular regions of human arterial walls, pericytes and intermediate cells (previously shown to be precursor smooth-muscle cells); in addition, new arterial muscle was found in the normally nonmuscular region. In the 4 cases where medial thickness of the normally muscular arteries was increased, the smooth-muscle cells were hypertrophied and the extracellular connective tissue increased. In all cases, junctions between endothelial cells and smooth-muscle cells, intermediate cells, or pericytes were found. These changes are similar to those described in the rat with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. In addition, in 2 of the 6 cases, bundles of nerve axons in Schwann cell sheaths were found in adventitial layer of small, intraacinar muscular arteries (not previously demonstrated ultrastructurally at this site in the human lung); varicosities with agranular and granular vesicles, probably adrenergic, were also identified. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7446706

  8. [Ultrastructural observation of morphologically abnormal sperm: Advances in studies and application].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-xiong; Shi, Yi-chao; Yang, Shen-min

    2016-01-01

    Sperm ultrastructural abnormalities are often associated with sperm motility, the integrity of genetic material, and the fertilization potential. The investigation of sperm ultrastructural abnormalities is based on the evolution of microscopy techniques. In his paper, we review the improvement of the microscopy techniques and the ultrastructure of several specific morphological defects and he apoptotic spermatogenic cells in order to expound the significance of sperm ultrastructural observation in clinical practice. We deem it necessary to analyze the sperm ultrastructure before exploring the pathology and adopting assisted reproductive technology for some special patients with teratozoospermia.

  9. Exocytosis sensitivity to growth hormone-releasing hormone in subsets of GH cells in rats under different corticosterone conditions. Ultrastructural study using microwave irradiation for fixation and immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Hitoshi; Han, Fang; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2004-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) cells in the rat anterior pituitary have been morphologically classified into three subtypes: type I (mature) containing large secretory granules about 350 nm in diameter, type II (intermediate) containing a mixture of large and small granules, and type III (immature) containing small granules about 150 nm in diameter. However, the functional implications of morphological heterogeneity, especially the different sensitivities to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) under different corticosteroid conditions have not been elucidated to date. In the present study, by application of microwave irradiation (MWI) for fixation and immunocytochemistry, new findings of the exocytotic response have been revealed among the subsets of GH cells following adrenalectomy (ADX), corticosterone treatment and/or GRH treatment. The MWI gave effective results for fixation, especially for the permeability of the fixative, and showed good results for immunoelectron microscopy using the protein-A gold method. Moreover, the use of MWI greatly shortened the fixation, processing and immunolabeling times without compromising the quality of ultrastructural preservation and the specificity of labeling. The number of exocytotic figures was low in all subtypes of GH cells in the sham-operated control rats. GRH treatment induced a significant increase in exocytosis in each subtype of GH cells, particularly in type I (mature) and type II (intermediate) GH cells in the control rats. GRH injection to rats for 4 days after ADX also showed an increase in exocytosis, but the degree was significantly less in comparison with the GRH injection in the control group. Corticosterone replacement given to ADX rats induced a clear recovery of the exocytotic response to GRH to the control level. Serum GH content measured by radioimmunoassay correlated with these morphological results. These results suggest that the secretion of GH stimulated by GRH is closely related to corticosteroids, and

  10. Metabolism of fatty acid in yeast: addition of reducing agents to the reaction medium influences beta-oxidation activities, gamma-decalactone production, and cell ultrastructure in Sporidiobolus ruinenii cultivated on ricinoleic acid methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Feron, Gilles; Mauvais, Geneviève; Lherminier, Jeanine; Michel, Joël; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Viel, Christophe; Cachon, Rémy

    2007-06-01

    The sensitivity of Sporidiobolus ruinenii yeast to the use of reducing agents, reflected in changes in the oxidoreduction potential at pH 7 (Eh7) environment, ricinoleic acid methyl ester catabolism, gamma-decalactone synthesis, cofactor level, beta-oxidation activity, and ultrastructure of the cell, was studied. Three environmental conditions (corresponding to oxidative, neutral, and reducing conditions) were fixed with the use of air or air and reducing agents (hydrogen and dithiothreitol). Lowering Eh7 to neutral conditions (Eh7 = +30 mV and +2.5 mV) favoured the production of lactone more than the more oxidative condition (Eh7 = +350 mV). In contrast, when a reducing condition was used (Eh7 = -130 mV), the production of gamma-decalactone was very low. These results were linked to changes in the cofactor ratio during lactone production, to the beta-oxidation activity involved in decanolide synthesis, and to ultrastructural modification of the cell.

  11. Some physiological properties of identified mammalian neuroglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, M. J.; Gerschenfeld, H. M.

    1969-01-01

    Mammalian glial cells were identified and studied in the optic nerves of anaesthetized rats. Cells with membrane potentials of 77-85 mV were located in the optic nerve with capillary micropipettes. These were shown to be neuroglia by iontophoretic injection of a fluorescent dye through the recording electrode, followed by histological verification of the location of the dye. No distinction was made between astroglia and oligodendroglia. Neuroglial cells gave no impulse activity. Their membrane potential was studied in isolated optic nerves by varying the ionic composition of the bathing fluid. The glial membrane potential depends predominantly on a transmembrane gradient of potassium ions. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5821876

  12. Identifying Francisella tularensis Genes Required for Growth in Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brunton, J.; Steele, S.; Miller, C.; Lovullo, E.; Taft-Benz, S.

    2015-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent Gram-negative intracellular pathogen capable of infecting a vast diversity of hosts, ranging from amoebae to humans. A hallmark of F. tularensis virulence is its ability to quickly grow to high densities within a diverse set of host cells, including, but not limited to, macrophages and epithelial cells. We developed a luminescence reporter system to facilitate a large-scale transposon mutagenesis screen to identify genes required for growth in macrophage and epithelial cell lines. We screened 7,454 individual mutants, 269 of which exhibited reduced intracellular growth. Transposon insertions in the 269 growth-defective strains mapped to 68 different genes. FTT_0924, a gene of unknown function but highly conserved among Francisella species, was identified in this screen to be defective for intracellular growth within both macrophage and epithelial cell lines. FTT_0924 was required for full Schu S4 virulence in a murine pulmonary infection model. The ΔFTT_0924 mutant bacterial membrane is permeable when replicating in hypotonic solution and within macrophages, resulting in strongly reduced viability. The permeability and reduced viability were rescued when the mutant was grown in a hypertonic solution, indicating that FTT_0924 is required for resisting osmotic stress. The ΔFTT_0924 mutant was also significantly more sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics than Schu S4. Taken together, the data strongly suggest that FTT_0924 is required for maintaining peptidoglycan integrity and virulence. PMID:25987704

  13. Identifying Francisella tularensis genes required for growth in host cells.

    PubMed

    Brunton, J; Steele, S; Miller, C; Lovullo, E; Taft-Benz, S; Kawula, T

    2015-08-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent Gram-negative intracellular pathogen capable of infecting a vast diversity of hosts, ranging from amoebae to humans. A hallmark of F. tularensis virulence is its ability to quickly grow to high densities within a diverse set of host cells, including, but not limited to, macrophages and epithelial cells. We developed a luminescence reporter system to facilitate a large-scale transposon mutagenesis screen to identify genes required for growth in macrophage and epithelial cell lines. We screened 7,454 individual mutants, 269 of which exhibited reduced intracellular growth. Transposon insertions in the 269 growth-defective strains mapped to 68 different genes. FTT_0924, a gene of unknown function but highly conserved among Francisella species, was identified in this screen to be defective for intracellular growth within both macrophage and epithelial cell lines. FTT_0924 was required for full Schu S4 virulence in a murine pulmonary infection model. The ΔFTT_0924 mutant bacterial membrane is permeable when replicating in hypotonic solution and within macrophages, resulting in strongly reduced viability. The permeability and reduced viability were rescued when the mutant was grown in a hypertonic solution, indicating that FTT_0924 is required for resisting osmotic stress. The ΔFTT_0924 mutant was also significantly more sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics than Schu S4. Taken together, the data strongly suggest that FTT_0924 is required for maintaining peptidoglycan integrity and virulence.

  14. [Cell composition and ultrastructure of the thymus in offspring during changes in the hormonal background in the mother-fetus functional system].

    PubMed

    Torbek, V E

    1988-10-01

    Micro- and ultrastructure has been studied in newborn rats, developed under conditions of an altered hormonal background in the functional system mother--fetus (FSMF), when hydrocortisone acetate is injected on the 17th-18th days of pregnancy, and at bilateral adrenalectomy of pregnant females. A number of similar changes in the offspring thymus are revealed under both procedure: the portion of mitotically dividing and blast forms of cells decreases, there is a certain tendency to increasing destructively altered cells and intensity of the processes in differentiation of cellular elements and subcellular structures, that is, evidently, depended on increasing contents of corticosteroids in the developing organism. When hydrocortisone acetate is injected to the pregnant rats, some amount of the drug can penetrate across the placenta and a superfluous concentration of glucocorticoids is created in the fetus blood. When adrenalectomy is performed in the pregnant rats, the main cause of elevated secretion of corticosteroids in the fetuses is, evidently, stimulation of the adrenals with their own ACTH, that is produced as a response to a decreased concentration of corticosteroids in FSMF. Nevertheless, in the fetal thymus reaction to the effects mentioned there are some differences. In the experiments with adrenalectomy in the pregnant rats, in the offspring thymus signs of degradation of lymphocytes and reticuloepitheliocytes are manifested more distinctly; that can be connected with a high concentration of endogenic corticosteroids in the fetus blood and with a qualitative composition of the hormones.

  15. Identifying genes that mediate anthracyline toxicity in immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Amber; Suzuki, Oscar T.; Benton, Cristina; Parks, Bethany; Fedoriw, Yuri; Richards, Kristy L.; Thomas, Russell S.; Wiltshire, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The role of the immune system in response to chemotherapeutic agents remains elusive. The interpatient variability observed in immune and chemotherapeutic cytotoxic responses is likely, at least in part, due to complex genetic differences. Through the use of a panel of genetically diverse mouse inbred strains, we developed a drug screening platform aimed at identifying genes underlying these chemotherapeutic cytotoxic effects on immune cells. Using genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we identified four genome-wide significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contributed to the sensitivity of doxorubicin and idarubicin in immune cells. Of particular interest, a locus on chromosome 16 was significantly associated with cell viability following idarubicin administration (p = 5.01 × 10−8). Within this QTL lies App, which encodes amyloid beta precursor protein. Comparison of dose-response curves verified that T-cells in App knockout mice were more sensitive to idarubicin than those of C57BL/6J control mice (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the cellular screening approach coupled with GWAS led to the identification and subsequent validation of a gene involved in T-cell viability after idarubicin treatment. Previous studies have suggested a role for App in in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity to anticancer agents; the overexpression of App enhances resistance, while the knockdown of this gene is deleterious to cell viability. Further investigations should include performing mechanistic studies, validating additional genes from the GWAS, including Ppfia1 and Ppfibp1, and ultimately translating the findings to in vivo and human studies. PMID:25926793

  16. Soluble Signals from Cells Identified at the Cell Wall Establish a Developmental Pathway in Carrot.

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, P. F.; Valentine, T. A.; Forsberg, L. S.; Pennell, R. I.

    1997-01-01

    Cells in a plant differentiate according to their positions and use cell-cell communication to assess these positions. Similarly, single cells in suspension cultures can develop into somatic embryos, and cell-cell communication is thought to control this process. The monoclonal antibody JIM8 labels an epitope on cells in specific positions in plants. JIM8 also labels certain cells in carrot embryogenic suspension cultures. We have used JIM8 and secondary antibodies coupled to paramagnetic beads to label and immunomagnetically sort single cells in a carrot embryogenic suspension culture into pure populations. Cells in the JIM8(+) population develop into somatic embryos, whereas cells in the JIM8(-) population do not form somatic embryos. However, certain cells in JIM8(+) cultures (state B cells) undergo asymmetric divisions, resulting in daughter cells (state C cells) that do not label with JIM8 and that sort to JIM8(-) cultures. State C cells are competent to form somatic embryos, and we show here that a conditioned growth medium from a culture of JIM8(+) cells allows state C cells in a JIM8(-) culture to go on and develop into somatic embryos. JIM8 labels cells in suspension cultures at the cell wall. Therefore, a cell with a role in cell-cell communication and early cell fate selection can be identified by an epitope in its cell wall. PMID:12237357

  17. Ultrastructural and spectrophotometric study on the effects of putative triggers on aortic valve interstitial cells in in vitro models simulating metastatic calcification.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Antonella; Della Mora, Alberto; Contin, Magali; Tubaro, Franco; Marchini, Maurizio; Ortolani, Fulvia

    2012-07-01

    Metastatic calcification of cardiac valves is a common complication in patients affected by chronic renal failure. In this study, primary bovine aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) were subjected to pro-calcific treatments consisting in cell stimulation with (i) elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi = 3 mM), to simulate hyperphosphatemic conditions; (ii) bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), simulating direct effects by microbial agents; and (iii) conditioned media (CM) derived from cultures of either LPS-stimulated heterogenic macrophages (commercial murine RAW264.7 cells) or LPS-stimulated fresh allogenic monocytes/macrophages (bCM), simulating consequent inflammatory responses, alone or combined. Compared to control cultures, spectrophotometric assays revealed shared treatment-dependent higher values of both calcium amounts and alkaline phosphatase activity for cultures involving the presence of elevated Pi. Ultrastructurally, shared peculiar pro-calcific degeneration patterns were exhibited by AVICs from these latter cultures irrespectively of the additional treatments. Disappearance of all cytomembranes and concurrent formation of material showing positivity to Cuprolinic Blue and co-localizing with silver precipitation were followed by the outcropping of such a material, which transformed in layers outlining the dead cells. Subsequent budding of these layers resulted in the formation of bubbling bodies and concentrically laminated calcospherulae mirroring those in actual soft tissue calcification. In conclusion, the in vitro models employed appear to be reliable tools for simulating metastatic calcification and indicate that hyperphosphatemic-like conditions could trigger valve calcification per se, with LPS and allogenic macrophage-derived secretory products acting as possible calcific enhancers via inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Ultrastructural analysis of testicular tissue and sperm by transmission and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chemes, Hector E

    2013-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies have provided the basis for an in-depth understanding of the cell biology and normal functioning of the testis and male gametes and have opened the way to characterize the functional role played by specific organelles in spermatogenesis and sperm function. The development of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) extended these boundaries to the recognition of cell and organ surface features and the architectural array of cells and tissues. The merging of immunocytochemical and histochemical approaches with electron microscopy has completed a series of technical improvements that integrate structural and functional features to provide a broad understanding of cell biology in health and disease. With these advances the detailed study of the intricate structural and molecular organization as well as the chemical composition of cellular organelles is now possible. Immunocytochemistry is used to identify proteins or other components and localize them in specific cells or organelles with high specificity and sensitivity, and histochemistry can be used to understand their function (i.e., enzyme activity). When these techniques are used in conjunction with electron microscopy their resolving power is further increased to subcellular levels. In the present chapter we will describe in detail various ultrastructural techniques that are now available for basic or translational research in reproductive biology and reproductive medicine. These include TEM, ultrastructural immunocytochemistry, ultrastructural histochemistry, and SEM.

  19. Forecasting hailfall using parameters for convective cells identified by radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigo, Tomeu; Carmen Llasat, M.

    2016-03-01

    The main goal of the present paper is to propose some new criteria that will improve the diagnosis for hail at the surface in real-time, so that they can be applied to surveillance tasks and for nowcasting purposes. The criteria are based on a better knowledge of convective cells that produce hail during their life cycle and better distinguishing between these cells and cells that do not produce hail on the surface. The work focused on a region in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, selecting hail events that occurred in the 2004-2012 period and using the information provided by the Meteorological Service of Catalonia's weather radar network. The methodology deals with the analysis of the level of reflectivity associated with the maximum values, which can be considered as the core of the convective vertical development. The chosen radar parameters are operative and they take into consideration the following: the reflectivity, the vertically integrated liquid, the highest altitude at which radar echoes have been observed over a determined reflectivity threshold, as well as the direction and the duration of the convective cells. This work aims to complement all the previous work carried out by different authors, in order to better identify hail in the chosen region.

  20. IMMUNO-ELECTRON MICROSCOPE ANALYSIS OF THE SURFACE LAYERS OF THE UNFERTILISED SEA URCHIN EGG. I. EFFECTS OF THE ANTISERA ON THE CELL ULTRASTRUCTURE.

    PubMed

    BAXANDALL, J; PERLMANN, P; AFZELIUS, B A

    1964-12-01

    The response of unfertilised Paracentrotus lividus eggs to gamma-globulin fractions of antisera against isolated homologous jelly coat substance or homologous homogenates of jellyless eggs has been studied at the ultrastructural level. The antijelly gamma-globulin caused precipitation of the jelly layer, the density of precipitation varying between different eggs and being proportional to the gamma-globulin concentration. Agglutination of the jelly substance of adjacent eggs, which is species specific, occurred frequently with higher gamma-globulin concentrations. Antiegg gamma-globulins (from antiserum against total homogenates of jelly-free eggs or the heat-stable fraction thereof) did not produce these effects. Instead, these gamma-globulins caused various structural alterations mostly representing stages in parthenogenetic activation. This species-specific activation was induced by the reaction of antibodies with some heat-stable egg antigens different from those involved in jelly precipitation. Surface alterations included the formation of small papillae, membrane blisters, hyaline layer, and activation membrane, the release of material from the cell surface, and the breakdown of cortical granules. These alterations were dependent on both gamma-globulin concentration and the variable reactivity among different females. Aster formation, found intracellularly, verified that the surface responses represented real parthenogenetic activation and were not the result of immune lysis. No such alterations appeared in the controls.

  1. Studies on batch and continuous cultures of Botryococcus braunii: hydrocarbon production in relation to physiological state, cell ultrastructure, and phosphate nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Casadevall, E.; Dif, D.; Largeau, C.; Gudin, C.; Chaumont, D.; Desanti, O.

    1985-01-01

    The growth of the hydrocarbon-rich alga Botryococcus braunii was studied under air-lift conditions using batch and continuous cultures. Large variations in the physiological state of B. braunii were achieved in batch cultures and in continuous cultures with various dilution rates. The possible effects of these variations upon hydrocarbons (nature, relative abundance, location, level, productivity) and also on the production of exocellular polysaccharides were examined. The relationships between the physiological state of B. braunii and its hydrocarbon and polysaccharide production were discussed and compared with those generally observed in unicellular algae. The factors giving rise to the transition from high to low productivity stages were considered. To this end the authors examined, at first, the variations in cell ultrastructure and the resulting degeneration occurring during batch cultures. Afterward the parallel changes in some parameters of the medium (pH, phosphate level) were determined and their possible relationships with B. braunii growth and hydrocarbon production were discussed. The main features of phosphate nutrition in B. braunii and its effects on hydrocarbons were finally examined.

  2. [The biological effects in animals in relation to the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station. 11. The ultrastructure of the bone marrow cells in different generations of rats].

    PubMed

    Afanas'eva, V V; Zak, K P; Indyk, V M; Serkiz, Ia I; Tron'ko, N D

    1991-01-01

    In studying the bone marrow cell ultrastructure in male rats (F0-F2 generations) aged 3 months, which were brought up within the thirty kilometer Chernobyl A.P.S. disaster area, considerable submicroscopic changes have been revealed in the cells at all stages of maturation, including undifferentiated blasts and mature forms of cells of the neutrophilic, eosinophilic, monocytic and erythroid haemopoiesis series, as well as stromal elements of the microenvironment, megakaryocytes and endothelium. The severity of these changes increases, as the number of generations grows, displaying frequently a destructive character.

  3. Thymosin Beta 4 May Translocate from the Cytoplasm in to the Nucleus in HepG2 Cells following Serum Starvation. An Ultrastructural Study

    PubMed Central

    Piludu, Marco; Piras, Monica; Pichiri, Giuseppina; Coni, Pierpaolo; Orrù, Germano; Cabras, Tiziana; Messana, Irene; Faa, Gavino; Castagnola, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Due to its actin-sequestering properties, thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is considered to play a significant role in the cellular metabolism. Several physiological properties of Tβ4 have been reported;, however, many questions concerning its cellular function remain to be ascertained. To better understand the role of this small peptide we have analyzed by means of transmission immunoelectron microscopy techniques the ultrastructural localization of Tβ4 in HepG2 cells. Samples of HepG2 cells were fixed in a mixture of 3% formaldehyde and 0.1% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer and processed for standard electron microscopic techniques. The samples were dehydrated in a cold graded methanol series and embedded in LR gold resin. Ultrathin sections were labeled with rabbit antibodies to Tβ4, followed by gold-labeled goat anti-rabbit, stained with uranyl acetate and bismuth subnitrate, observed and photographed in a JEOL 100S transmission electron microscope. High-resolution electron microscopy showed that Tβ4 was mainly restricted to the cytoplasm of HepG2 growing in complete medium. A strong Tβ4 reactivity was detected in the perinuclear region of the cytoplasmic compartment where gold particles appeared strictly associated to the nuclear membrane. In the nucleus specific Tβ4 labeling was observed in the nucleolus. The above electron microscopic results confirm and extend previous observations at light microscopic level, highlighting the subcellular distribution of Tβ4 in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments of HepG2 cells. The meaning of Tβ4 presence in the nucleolus is not on the best of our knowledge clarified yet. It could account for the interaction of Tβ4 with nucleolar actin and according with this hypothesis, Tβ4 could contribute together with the other nucleolar acting binding proteins to modulate the transcription activity of the RNA polymerases. PMID:25835495

  4. Formation of Essential Ultrastructural Interface between Cultured Hippocampal Cells and Gold Mushroom-Shaped MEA- Toward “IN-CELL” Recordings from Vertebrate Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Fendyur, Anna; Mazurski, Noa; Shappir, Joseph; Spira, Micha E.

    2011-01-01

    Using cultured Aplysia neurons we recently reported on the development of a novel approach in which an extracellular, non-invasive multi-electrode-array system provides multisite, attenuated, intracellular recordings of subthreshold synaptic potentials, and action potentials (APs), the so called “IN-CELL” recording configuration (to differentiate it from intracellular recordings). Because of its non-invasive nature, the configuration can be used for long term semi intracellular electrophysiological monitoring of APs and synaptic potentials. Three principals converge to generate the IN-CELL configuration: (a) engulfment of approximately 1 μm size gold mushroom-shaped microelectrodes (gMμE) by the neurons, (b) formation of high seal resistance between the cell’s plasma membrane and the engulfed gMμE, and (c), autonomous localized increased conductance of the membrane patch facing the gMμE. Using dissociated rat hippocampal cultures we report here that the necessary morphological and ultrastructural relationships to generate the IN-CELL recording configuration are formed between hippocampal cells and the gMμEs. Interestingly, even <1 μm thin branches expand and engulf the gMμE structures. Recordings of spontaneous electrical activity revealed fast ∼2 ms, 0.04–0.75 mV positive monophasic APs (FPMP). We propose that the FPMP are attenuated APs generated by neurons that engulf gMμEs. Computer simulations of analog electrical circuits depicting the cell–gMμE configuration point out the parameters that should be altered to improve the neuron–gMμE electrical coupling. PMID:22163219

  5. [Changes in the ultrastructure of the stomach mucous membrane parietal cells caused by inhibitors of hydrochloric acid secretion].

    PubMed

    Dondukova, G V; Morozov, I A

    2002-01-01

    The study of the action of phamotidine and omeprazol on the stomach parietal cells in patients with duodenal ulcer has shown that phamotidin results in changes of secretory membrane of the parietal cells increasing its secretory potential while omeprazol reduces energetic metabolism of the lining cell by the impact on its mitochondrial apparatus. Both in children and adults with duodenal ulcer more developed mitochondrial cell activity was found after omeprazol treatment.

  6. Identifying Novel B Cell Epitopes within Toxoplasma gondii GRA6

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhua; Wang, Guangxiang; Cai, Jian Ping

    2016-01-01

    The study of antigenic epitopes from Toxoplasma gondii has not only enhanced our understanding of the structure and function of antigens, the reactions between antigens and antibodies, and many other aspects of immunology, but it also plays a significant role in the development of new diagnostic reagents and vaccines. In the present study, T. gondii GRA6 epitopes were identified using bioinformatics tools and a synthetic peptide technique. The potential B cell epitopes of GRA6 predicted by bioinformatics tools concentrated upon 3 regions of GRA6, 1-20 aa, 44-103 aa, and 172-221 aa. Ten shorter peptides from the 3 regions were synthesized and assessed by ELISA using pig sera from different time points after infection. Three of the 10 peptides (amino acids 44-63, 172-191, and 192-211) tested were recognized by all sera and determined to be immunodominant B-cell epitopes of GRA6. The results indicated that we precisely and accurately located the T. gondii GRA6 epitopes using pig sera collected at different time points after infection. The identified epitopes may be very useful for further studies of epitope-based vaccines and diagnostic reagents. PMID:27658594

  7. Identifying states along the hematopoietic stem cell differentiation hierarchy with single cell specificity via Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ilin, Yelena; Choi, Ji Sun; Harley, Brendan A. C.; Kraft, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge for expanding specific types of hematopoietic cells ex vivo for the treatment of blood cell pathologies is identifying the combinations of cellular and matrix cues that direct hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to self-renew or differentiate into cell populations ex vivo. Microscale screening platforms enable minimizing the number of rare HSCs required to screen the effects of numerous cues on HSC fate decisions. These platforms create a strong demand for label-free methods that accurately identify the fate decisions of individual hematopoietic cells at specific locations on the platform. We demonstrate the capacity to identify discrete cells along the HSC differentiation hierarchy via multivariate analysis of Raman spectra. Notably, cell state identification is accurate for individual cells and independent of the biophysical properties of the functionalized polyacrylamide gels upon which these cells are cultured. We report partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models of single cell Raman spectra enable identifying four dissimilar hematopoietic cell populations across the HSC lineage specification. Successful discrimination was obtained for a population enriched for long-term repopulating HSCs (LT-HSCs) versus their more differentiated progeny, including closely-related short-term repopulating HSCs (ST-HSCs), and fully differentiated lymphoid (B cells) and myeloid (granulocytes) cells. The lineage-specific differentiation states of cells from these four sub-populations were accurately identified independent of the stiffness of the underlying biomaterial substrate, indicating subtle spectral variations that discriminated these populations were not masked by features from the culture substrate. This approach enables identifying the lineage-specific differentiation stages of hematopoietic cells on biomaterial substrates of differing composition, and may facilitate correlating hematopoietic cell fate decisions with the extrinsic cues that

  8. Ultrastructural studies of the interaction between liposome-activated human blood monocytes and allogeneic tumor cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bucana, C. D.; Hoyer, L. C.; Schroit, A. J.; Kleinerman, E.; Fidler, I. J.

    1983-01-01

    Human blood monocytes were activated to become tumoricidal by incubation with liposomes containing muramyl tripeptide-phosphatidylethanolamine, a lipophilic derivative of muramyl dipeptide. The interaction of both tumoricidal and control monocytes with target melanoma cells was analyzed by means of light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The authors found increased clustering around the melanoma cells by tumoricidal monocytes as compared with the control monocytes. The initial clustering of the tumoricidal monocytes around the tumor cells was followed by the establishment of numerous focal points of contact (binding), some of which actually exhibited areas of discontinuous membrane, a finding confirmed by stereophotography. By 24-48 hours of cocultivation, many of the target cells exhibited zones of vacuolation in the immediate vicinity of the tumoricidal monocytes, suggesting target cell damage. (This finding was confirmed by time-course cytotoxicity assays.) The authors conclude that tumor cell lysis mediated by activated human blood monocytes occurs as the final step in a process that includes the establishment of a direct cell-cell contact, damage to the target cell membrane, and the development of areas of vacuolation in the target cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:6859224

  9. Cell Surface Proteome of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Identified by Label-Free Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Niehage, Christian; Karbanová, Jana; Steenblock, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising tools for regenerative medicine. They can be isolated from different sources based on their plastic-adherence property. The identification of reliable cell surface markers thus becomes the Holy Grail for their prospective isolation. Here, we determine the cell surface proteomes of human dental pulp-derived MSCs isolated from single donors after culture expansion in low (2%) or high (10%) serum-containing media. Cell surface proteins were tagged on intact cells using cell impermeable, cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin, which allows their enrichment by streptavidin pull-down. For the proteomic analyses, we first compared label-free methods to analyze cell surface proteomes i.e. composition, enrichment and proteomic differences, and we developed a new mathematical model to determine cell surface protein enrichment using a combinatorial gene ontology query. Using this workflow, we identified 101 cluster of differentiation (CD) markers and 286 non-CD cell surface proteins. Based on this proteome profiling, we identified 14 cell surface proteins, which varied consistently in abundance when cells were cultured under low or high serum conditions. Collectively, our analytical methods provide a basis for identifying the cell surface proteome of dental pulp stem cells isolated from single donors and its evolution during culture or differentiation. Our data provide a comprehensive cell surface proteome for the precise identification of dental pulp-derived MSC populations and their isolation for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:27490675

  10. Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies diverse roles of epithelial cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Takako; Sridharan, Anusha; Du, Yina; Guo, Minzhe; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; Perl, Anne-Karina T.; Funari, Vincent A.; Gokey, Jason J.; Stripp, Barry R.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by airway remodeling, inflammation, alveolar destruction, and fibrosis. We utilized single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to identify epithelial cell types and associated biological processes involved in the pathogenesis of IPF. Transcriptomic analysis of normal human lung epithelial cells defined gene expression patterns associated with highly differentiated alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells, indicated by enrichment of RNAs critical for surfactant homeostasis. In contrast, scRNA-seq of IPF cells identified 3 distinct subsets of epithelial cell types with characteristics of conducting airway basal and goblet cells and an additional atypical transitional cell that contributes to pathological processes in IPF. Individual IPF cells frequently coexpressed alveolar type 1 (AT1), AT2, and conducting airway selective markers, demonstrating “indeterminate” states of differentiation not seen in normal lung development. Pathway analysis predicted aberrant activation of canonical signaling via TGF-β, HIPPO/YAP, P53, WNT, and AKT/PI3K. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy identified the disruption of alveolar structure and loss of the normal proximal-peripheral differentiation of pulmonary epithelial cells. scRNA-seq analyses identified loss of normal epithelial cell identities and unique contributions of epithelial cells to the pathogenesis of IPF. The present study provides a rich data source to further explore lung health and disease. PMID:27942595

  11. Ultrastructure of the renal juxtaglomerular complex and peripolar cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and toad (Bufo marinus).

    PubMed Central

    Hanner, R H; Ryan, G B

    1980-01-01

    Renal juxtaglomerular regions were examined in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and toad (Bufo marinus). Prominent granulated peripolar epithelial cells were found surrounding the origin of the glomerular tuft in the axolotl. These cells resembled the peripolar cells recently discovered in mammalian species. They contained multiple electron-dense cytoplasmic granules, some of which showed a paracrystalline substructure and signs of exocytoxic activity. Such cells were difficult to find and smaller in the toad. In contrast, granulated juxtaglomerular arteriolar myoephithelial cells were much more readily found and larger in the toad than in the axolotl. No consistent differences were noted in juxtaglomerular cells or their granules in response to changes in environmental chloride concentration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7410189

  12. Ultrastructural changes in the ovary cells of engorged Rhipicephalus sanguineus female ticks treated with esters of ricinoleic acid from castor oil (Ricinus communis).

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Arnosti, André; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo

    2012-05-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus is a widely distributed tick species that has adapted to the urban environment, and the dog is its main host. This species is also known as a vector and reservoir of diseases caused by bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Currently, acaricides of synthetic chemical origin have been widely and indiscriminately used, leading to the development of resistance to these products by ticks and causing damage to the environment. Thus, these issues have made it necessary to seek other forms of controlling these ectoparasites. R. sanguineus was artificially infested in host New Zealand White rabbits, which were divided into four treatment groups: control (CG1 and CG2) and treatment (TG1 and TG2) groups. TG1 and TG2 hosts were provided with feed supplemented with esters of ricinoleic acid from castor oil at a concentration of 5 g/kg of feed for 7 and 15 days. Afterward, the ovaries of the female ticks were removed for analysis by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed ultrastructural changes in the somatic and germ cells of ovaries from TG1 and TG2 females, particularly with respect to chorion deposition, a protective membrane of the oocyte, as well as in the transport process of vitellogenic materials via the hemolymph and pedicel cells. Moreover, the mitochondria were less electron-dense and had cristae that were more disorganized than the mitochondria from CG1 and CG2 individuals. Thus, this study demonstrated the action of esters on the ovaries of R. sanguineus, signaling the prospect of a way to control this ectoparasite without affecting nontarget organisms or the environment.

  13. Loss of Sleep Affects the Ultrastructure of Pyramidal Neurons in the Adolescent Mouse Frontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    de Vivo, Luisa; Nelson, Aaron B.; Bellesi, Michele; Noguti, Juliana; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: The adolescent brain may be uniquely affected by acute sleep deprivation (ASD) and chronic sleep restriction (CSR), but direct evidence is lacking. We used electron microscopy to examine how ASD and CSR affect pyramidal neurons in the frontal cortex of adolescent mice, focusing on mitochondria, endosomes, and lysosomes that together perform most basic cellular functions, from nutrient intake to prevention of cellular stress. Methods: Adolescent (1-mo-old) mice slept (S) or were sleep deprived (ASD, with novel objects and running wheels) during the first 6–8 h of the light period, chronically sleep restricted (CSR) for > 4 days (using novel objects, running wheels, social interaction, forced locomotion, caffeinated water), or allowed to recover sleep (RS) for ∼32 h after CSR. Ultrastructural analysis of 350 pyramidal neurons was performed (S = 82; ASD = 86; CSR = 103; RS = 79; 4 to 5 mice/group). Results: Several ultrastructural parameters differed in S versus ASD, S versus CSR, CSR versus RS, and S versus RS, although the different methods used to enforce wake may have contributed to some of the differences between short and long sleep loss. Differences included larger cytoplasmic area occupied by mitochondria in CSR versus S, and higher number of secondary lysosomes in CSR versus S and RS. We also found that sleep loss may unmask interindividual differences not obvious during baseline sleep. Moreover, using a combination of 11 ultrastructural parameters, we could predict in up to 80% of cases whether sleep or wake occurred at the single cell level. Conclusions: Ultrastructural analysis may be a powerful tool to identify which cellular organelles, and thus which cellular functions, are most affected by sleep and sleep loss. Citation: de Vivo L, Nelson AB, Bellesi M, Noguti J, Tononi G, Cirelli C. Loss of sleep affects the ultrastructure of pyramidal neurons in the adolescent mouse frontal cortex. SLEEP 2016;39(4):861–874. PMID:26715225

  14. Ultrastructural and functional characterization of circulating hemocytes from Galleria mellonella larva: Cell types and their role in the innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gongqing; Liu, Yi; Ding, Ying; Yi, Yunhong

    2016-08-01

    Galleria mellonella larvae have been widely used as a model to study the virulence of various human pathogens. Hemocytes play important roles in the innate immune response of G. mellonella. In this study, the hemocytes of G. mellonella larvae were analyzed by transmission electron microscope, light microscope, and cytochemistry. The cytological and morphological analyses revealed four types of hemocytes; Plasmatocytes, granular cells, spherule cells and oenocytoids. Differential hemocyte counts showed that under our conditions plasmatocytes and granular cells were the most abundant circulating cell types in the hemolymph. We also investigated the role of different types of hemocytes in the cellular and humoral immune defenses. The in-vivo experiment showed that plasmatocytes, granular cells and oenocytoids phagocytized FITC-labelled Escherichia coli bacteria in larvae of G. mellonella, whereas the granular cells exhibited the strongest phagocytic ability against these microbial cells. After incubation with L-DOPA, plasmatocytes, granular cells and oenocytoids are stained brown, indicating the presence of phenoloxidase activity. These results shed new light on our understanding of the immune function of G. mellonella hemocytes.

  15. Ultrastructure in C cell hyperplasia in asymptomatic patients with hypercalcitoninemia and a family history of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Asaadi, A A

    1981-07-01

    C cell hyperplasia and occult medullary carcinoma of the thyroid in asymptomatic individuals at genetic risk can be detected by measurement of serum calcitonin concentrations before and after stimulation with a secretagogue. Electron microscopy was used to confirm the presence of C cell hyperplasia afte demonstration of elevated serum calcitonin values in three asymptomatic young women from two affected kindreds. Nodules of hyperplastic cells were observed in each of the three thyroids and were composed of two types of cells, one rich in secretory granules and the other in mitochondria. In one thyroid relatively large nodules also contained extracellular deposits of amyloid. Although the presence of the two types of cells and amyloid deposits is characteristic of medullary carcinoma, there was no evidence that the C cell nodules were malignant. However, such nodules may represent a certain stage in the development of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. We believe, therefore, that electron microscopy can demonstrate incipient C cell neoplasia in needle biopsy specimens. Confirmation of C cell neoplasia is desirable for positive diagnosis and hence for genetic counseling in patients with a family history of the disease.

  16. Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies distinct mouse medial ganglionic eminence cell types

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Jiun J.; Friedman, Brad A.; Ha, Connie; Durinck, Steffen; Liu, Jinfeng; Rubenstein, John L.; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Modrusan, Zora

    2017-01-01

    Many subtypes of cortical interneurons (CINs) are found in adult mouse cortices, but the mechanism generating their diversity remains elusive. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on the mouse embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), the major birthplace for CINs, and on MGE-like cells differentiated from embryonic stem cells. Two distinct cell types were identified as proliferating neural progenitors and immature neurons, both of which comprised sub-populations. Although lineage development of MGE progenitors was reconstructed and immature neurons were characterized as GABAergic, cells that might correspond to precursors of different CINs were not identified. A few non-neuronal cell types were detected, including microglia. In vitro MGE-like cells resembled bona fide MGE cells but expressed lower levels of Foxg1 and Epha4. Together, our data provide detailed understanding of the embryonic MGE developmental program and suggest how CINs are specified. PMID:28361918

  17. Cell wall ultrastructure of flocculent and non-flocculent Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains. Effect of cell wall hydrolysing enzymes on flocculation and cell wall ultastructure.

    PubMed

    Geleta, Anna; Kristóf, Z; Maráz, Anna

    2007-03-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies revealed the presence of slime-like, amorphous material on the surface of Schizosaccahromyces pombe RIVE 4-2-1 cells, independently, whether they were in flocculated or in non-flocculated state. Close contact of the adjacent cells via the merging outermost cell wall layers was found, however, only in the case of floc formation, which was induced by cultivating the cells in the presence of 6% (v/v) ethanol. Irreversible loss of the flocculation ability of the cells by treatment with proteinases suggests that proteinaceous cell surface molecules as lectins contribute to the cell-to-cell interaction during flocculation. Both proteinase K and pronase treatments removed a distinct outer layer of the cell wall, which indicated that the protein moieties of the phosphogalactomannan outer surface layer has a crucial role in the maintenance of cell wall integrity. In the case of lysing enzyme treatment the removal of the outermost layer was also observed as the first step of the cell wall digestion, while driselase treatment resulted in almost complete digestion of the cell wall.

  18. Phenotypic and ultrastructural characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage cells of lentivirus-infected lambs treated with recombinant ovine IFN-tau.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Ott, T L; Bazer, F W; de la Concha-Bermejillo, A

    2001-09-01

    Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) belongs to the family Retroviridae and closely resembles the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Pulmonary lesions in OvLV-infected sheep consist of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) and lymphocytic alveolitis. Similar pulmonary lesions occur in up to 40% of HIV-infected children and in some adults with AIDS. Interferon-tau (IFN-tau), a type I IFN, is produced by trophectoderm of ruminant conceptuses and is the pregnancy recognition signal in these species. To evaluate changes in phenotypes of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells of OvLV-infected lambs treated with recombinant ovine IFN-tau (rOvIFN-tau), 24 lambs were randomly allocated to one of four groups (n = 6 per group): 1, no virus + placebo (NVP); 2, no virus + rOvIFN-tau (NVI); 3, virus + placebo (VP); 4, virus + rOvIFN-tau (VI). The BAL cells from 3 lambs in each group were labeled with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to cell surface markers at 16 weeks of treatment, and cells from the remaining 3 lambs in each group were labeled with mAb at 34 weeks of treatment. After labeling, BAL cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The morphology of BAL cells from all experimental lambs was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). At week 16, no differences in the relative proportions of BAL cell phenotypes were detected among the experimental groups. At week 34, VI lambs had higher proportions of CD8(+), gammadelta(+), MHC class II(+), and L-selectin (LS(+)) BAL cells compared with VP lambs. Higher proportions of CD14(+) and CD44(+) cells were found in VP lambs compared with NVP lambs at 34 weeks. OvLV-like particles were detected only in bronchoalveolar macrophages of VP lambs. In this study, rOvIFN-tau increased the proportions of primary antiviral gammadelta(+) and CD8(+) immune cells in OvLV-infected lambs. This may represent a cellular mechanism to explain the antiviral and therapeutic efficacy of this cytokine, in addition to its direct antiviral effect. However, because the

  19. A cell-based phenotypic assay to identify cardioprotective agents

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Stephanie; Olm-Shipman, Adam; Walters, Andrew; Urciuoli, William R.; Devito, Stefanie; Nadtochiy, Sergiy M.; Wojtovich, Andrew P.; Brookes, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Tissue ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury underlies several leading causes of death such as heart-attack and stroke. The lack of clinical therapies for IR injury may be partly due to the difficulty of adapting IR injury models to high-throughput screening (HTS). Objective To develop a model of IR injury that is both physiologically relevant and amenable to HTS. Methods and Results A micro-plate based respirometry apparatus was used. Controlling gas flow in the plate head space, coupled with the instrument’s mechanical systems, yielded a 24 well model of IR injury in which H9c2 cardiomyocytes were transiently trapped in a small volume, rendering them ischemic. Following initial validation with known protective molecules, the model was used to screen a 2000 molecule library, with post IR cell death as an endpoint. pO2 and pH monitoring in each well also afforded metabolic data. Ten protective, detrimental and inert molecules from the screen were subsequently tested in a Langendorff perfused heart model of IR injury, revealing strong correlations between the screening endpoint and both recovery of cardiac function (negative r2=0.66), and infarct size (positive, r2=0.62). Relationships between the effects of added molecules on cellular bioenergetics, and protection against IR injury, were also studied. Conclusion This novel cell-based assay can predict either protective or detrimental effects on IR injury in the intact heart. Its application may help identify therapeutic or harmful molecules. PMID:22394516

  20. Familial testicular germ cell tumor: no associated syndromic pattern identified

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is the most common malignancy in young men. Familial clustering, epidemiologic evidence of increased risk with family or personal history, and the association of TGCT with genitourinary (GU) tract anomalies have suggested an underlying genetic predisposition. Linkage data have not identified a rare, highly-penetrant, single gene in familial TGCT (FTGCT) cases. Based on its association with congenital GU tract anomalies and suggestions that there is an intrauterine origin to TGCT, we hypothesized the existence of unrecognized dysmorphic features in FTGCT. Methods We evaluated 38 FTGCT individuals and 41 first-degree relatives from 22 multiple-case families with detailed dysmorphology examinations, physician-based medical history and physical examination, laboratory testing, and genitourinary imaging studies. Results The prevalence of major abnormalities and minor variants did not significantly differ between either FTGCT individuals or their first-degree relatives when compared with normal population controls, except for tall stature, macrocephaly, flat midface, and retro-/micrognathia. However, these four traits were not manifest as a constellation of features in any one individual or family. We did detect an excess prevalence of the genitourinary anomalies cryptorchidism and congenital inguinal hernia in our population, as previously described in sporadic TGCT, but no congenital renal, retroperitoneal or mediastinal anomalies were detected. Conclusions Overall, our study did not identify a constellation of dysmorphic features in FTGCT individuals, which is consistent with results of genetic studies suggesting that multiple low-penetrance genes are likely responsible for FTGCT susceptibility. PMID:24559313

  1. [Changes in microstructure and ultrastructure between differentiation of cold and heat syndrome in chronic atrophied gastritis and exfoliative cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Guo, Z Q

    1989-06-01

    In this paper, exfoliative cells of fur in 56 cases of chronic atrophied gastritis (CAG) with Cold or Heat syndrome was observed by means of microscopy and electron microscopy. With microscopy, the authors found that keratinization of epithelial cells of fur in Cold syndrome group of CAG were markedly fewer than those in Heat syndrome group (P less than 0.01); while pre-keratinization cells were much more than those in Heat syndrome group (P less than 0.01); the constituent ratio of complete keratinization cells of fur in the two groups were markedly different. With the electron microscopy, fibrosis changes was appeared in pre-keratinization cells of Cold syndrome patients with CAG; desmosome was disappeared; metachromasia was appeared in nucleus; fibrosis change in Heat syndrome group was not obvious. Cells were still joined to one another by fingered protrusion. There were bacterias in both Cold and Heat syndrome groups. The change of exfoliative cells of fur in Cold and Heat syndromes in CAG, probably, can offer us a microcosmic sign for its early differentiation or diagnosis.

  2. s-SHIP expression identifies a subset of murine basal prostate cells as neonatal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Brocqueville, Guillaume; Chmelar, Renee S.; Bauderlique-Le Roy, Hélène; Deruy, Emeric; Tian, Lu; Vessella, Robert L.; Greenberg, Norman M.; Bourette, Roland P.

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of prostate stem cells (PSCs) is crucial for understanding their biology during normal development and tumorigenesis. In this aim, we used a transgenic mouse model expressing GFP from the stem cell-specific s-SHIP promoter to mark putative stem cells during postnatal prostate development. Here we show that cells identified by GFP expression are present transiently during early prostate development and localize to the basal cell layer of the epithelium. These prostate GFP+ cells are a subpopulation of the Lin− CD24+ Sca-1+ CD49f+ cells and are capable of self-renewal together with enhanced growth potential in sphere-forming assay in vitro, a phenotype consistent with that of a PSC population. Transplantation assays of prostate GFP+ cells demonstrate reconstitution of prostate ducts containing both basal and luminal cells in renal grafts. Altogether, these results demonstrate that s-SHIP promoter expression is a new marker for neonatal basal prostate cells exhibiting stem cell properties that enables PSCs in situ identification and isolation via a single consistent parameter. Transcriptional profiling of these GFP+ neonatal stem cells showed an increased expression of several components of the Wnt signaling pathway. It also identified stem cell regulators with potential applications for further analyses of normal and cancer stem cells. PMID:27081082

  3. The interaction of microgravity and ethylene on the ultrastructure cell and Ca2+ localization in soybean hook hypocotyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedukha, O. M.; Kordyum, E. L.; Brown, C.; Chapman, D.

    2001-01-01

    Calcium ions are secondary messenger in numerous cellular processes of plant grown at 1 g. Ca2+ are connected with oxygen atoms, of pectin carboxy groups and/or with H(+)-groups of protein (Roux and Slocum, 1982; Hepler and Wayne, 1985). The influence of altered gravity on the calcium balance in some cells is established. The increased synthesis of ethylene in plant grown in microgravity caused the change of the structural-functional organization of cell (Hensel and Iversen, 1980; Hilaire et al., 1996). Available data put the new question: how do high ethylene level and microgravity influence on the redistribution of Ca2+ in cell of seedling in early stage of growth? Therefore, the goal of our data was the comparable study of the cell ulltrastructure and localization of Ca2+ in hook hypocotyl of soybean seedling under interaction of microgravity and ethylene.

  4. The interaction of microgravity and ethylene on the ultrastructure cell and Ca2+ localization in soybean hook hypocotyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedukha, O. M.; Kordyum, E. L.; Brown, C.; Chapman, D.

    2001-01-01

    Calcium ions are secondary messenger in numerous cellular processes of plant grown at 1 g. Ca2+ are connected with oxygen atoms, of pectin carboxy groups and/or with H(+)-groups of protein (Roux and Slocum, 1982; Hepler and Wayne, 1985). The influence of altered gravity on the calcium balance in some cells is established. The increased synthesis of ethylene in plant grown in microgravity caused the change of the structural-functional organization of cell (Hensel and Iversen, 1980; Hilaire et al., 1996). Available data put the new question: how do high ethylene level and microgravity influence on the redistribution of Ca2+ in cell of seedling in early stage of growth? Therefore, the goal of our data was the comparable study of the cell ulltrastructure and localization of Ca2+ in hook hypocotyl of soybean seedling under interaction of microgravity and ethylene.

  5. Ultrastructural differences between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Grover, Madhusudan; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Bernard, Cheryl E; Lurken, Matthew S; Smyrk, Thomas C; Parkman, Henry P; Abell, Thomas L; Snape, William J; Hasler, William L; Ünalp-Arida, Aynur; Nguyen, Linda; Koch, Kenneth L; Calles, Jorges; Lee, Linda; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank A; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The ultrastructural changes in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis are not well studied and it is not known whether there are different defects in the two disorders. As part of the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium, full thickness gastric body biopsies from 20 diabetic and 20 idiopathic gastroparetics were studied by light microscopy. Abnormalities were found in many (83%) but not all patients. Among the common defects were loss of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and neural abnormalities. No distinguishing features were seen between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. Our aim was to provide a detailed description of the ultrastructural abnormalities, compare findings between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis and determine if patients with apparently normal immunohistological features have ultrastructural abnormalities. Tissues from 40 gastroparetic patients and 24 age- and sex-matched controls were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interstitial cells of Cajal showing changes suggestive of injury, large and empty nerve endings, presence of lipofuscin and lamellar bodies in the smooth muscle cells were found in all patients. However, the ultrastructural changes in ICC and nerves differed between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis and were more severe in idiopathic gastroparesis. A thickened basal lamina around smooth muscle cells and nerves was characteristic of diabetic gastroparesis whereas idiopathic gastroparetics had fibrosis, especially around the nerves. In conclusion, in all the patients TEM showed abnormalities in ICC, nerves and smooth muscle consistent with the delay in gastric emptying. The significant differences found between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis offers insight into pathophysiology as well as into potential targeted therapies. PMID:21914127

  6. Ultrastructure of eccrine cystadenoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M O; Khan, M A

    1979-10-01

    A case of eccrine cystadenoma was studied by electron microscopy. The tumor showed two types of cells, luminal and basal cells. The cells lacked the characteristics of the secretory segment of the sweat glands. The features of the luminal cells are similar to those of the intradermal portion of the eccrine sweat duct. In some areas, the lesion showed features characteristic of apocrine gland structure. Nuclear bodies were very frequent. The ultrastructural findings of eccrine cystadenoma support an origin from the ductal portion of eccrine sweat glands.

  7. Synergistic effect of aluminum and ionizing radiation upon ultrastructure, oxidative stress and apoptotic alterations in Paneth cells of rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Eltahawy, N A; Elsonbaty, S M; Abunour, S; Zahran, W E

    2017-03-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to aluminum along with ionizing radiation results in serious health problems. This study was planned to investigate the impact of oxidative stress provoked by exposure to ionizing radiation with aluminum administration upon cellular ultra structure and apoptotic changes in Paneth cells of rat small intestine . Animals received daily aluminum chloride by gastric gavage at a dose 0.5 mg/Kg BW for 4 weeks. Whole body gamma irradiation was applied at a dose 2 Gy/week up to 8 Gy. Ileum malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and protein carbonyl were assessed as biomarkers of lipid peroxidation along with superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities as enzyme antioxidants. Moreover, analyses of cell cycle division and apoptotic changes were evaluated by flow cytometry. Intestinal cellular ultra structure was investigated using transmission electron microscope. Oxidative stress assessment in the ileum of rats revealed that aluminum and ionizing radiation exposure either alone or in combination exhibits a significant effect upon the increase in biomarkers of lipid peroxidation along with tumor necrosis factor-α with concomitant significant decrease of the antioxidant enzyme activities. Flow cytometric analyses showed significant alterations in the percentage of cells during cell cycle division phases along with significant increase in apoptotic cells. Ultra structurally, intestinal cellular alterations with marked injury in Paneth cells at the sites of bacterial translocation in the crypt of lumens were recorded. The results of this study have clearly suggested that aluminum exposure and ionizing either alone or in combination induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in the Paneth cells of rat intestine, which appeared to play a major role in the pathogenesis of cellular damage. Furthermore, the interaction of these two intestinal toxic routes was found to be synergistic.

  8. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles for several migrating cell types identifies cell migration regulators.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Kyung; Macabenta, Frank; Curtis, Heather Leigh; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2017-04-18

    Cell migration is an instrumental process that ensures cells are properly positioned to support the specification of distinct tissue types during development. To provide insight, we used fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate two migrating cell types from the Drosophila embryo: caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM) cells, precursors of longitudinal muscles of the gut, and hemocytes (HCs), the Drosophila equivalent of blood cells. ~350 genes were identified from each of the sorted samples using RNA-seq, and in situ hybridization was used to confirm expression within each cell type or, alternatively, within other interacting, co-sorted cell types. To start, the two gene expression profiling datasets were compared to identify cell migration regulators that are potentially generally-acting. 73 genes were present in both CVM cell and HC gene expression profiles, including the transcription factor zinc finger homeodomain-1 (zfh1). Comparisons with gene expression profiles of Drosophila border cells that migrate during oogenesis had a more limited overlap, with only the genes neyo (neo) and singed (sn) found to be expressed in border cells as well as CVM cells and HCs, respectively. Neo encodes a protein with Zona pellucida domain linked to cell polarity, while sn encodes an actin binding protein. Tissue specific RNAi expression coupled with live in vivo imaging was used to confirm cell-autonomous roles for zfh1 and neo in supporting CVM cell migration, whereas previous studies had demonstrated a role for Sn in supporting HC migration. In addition, comparisons were made to migrating cells from vertebrates. Seven genes were found expressed by chick neural crest cells, CVM cells, and HCs including extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and proteases. In summary, we show that genes shared in common between CVM cells, HCs, and other migrating cell types can help identify regulators of cell migration. Our analyses show that neo in addition to zfh1 and sn studied

  9. Effects of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) extract and N-nitro-L-arginine on renal function and ultrastructure of kidney cells in experimental type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ozbayer, Cansu; Kurt, Hulyam; Kalender, Suna; Ozden, Hilmi; Gunes, Hasan V; Basaran, Ayse; Cakmak, Ecir A; Civi, Kismet; Kalender, Yusuf; Degirmenci, Irfan

    2011-10-01

    Diabetes is the leading cause of chronic renal failure. Our purpose was to determine the effects of N-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA) and an extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) (SrB) leaves on renal function in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA)-induced diabetic rats. Rats were divided into seven groups. Three of these groups were controls. Diabetes was induced by STZ-NA in the other four. Diabetic rats were treated with SrB (200 mg/kg), L-NNA (100 mg/kg), or SrB + L-NNA for 15 days after 5-8 weeks of diabetes. At the end of the experiments, urine and blood samples were collected from the rats, and kidney tissue samples were collected with the animals under ether anesthesia. Renal filtration changes were determined by measuring urine pH, urine volume, and serum and urine creatinine. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was measured in kidney homogenates. Alterations in kidney ultrastructure were determined by electron microscopy, and histological changes were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. No statistical differences were observed in urine creatinine or creatinine clearance. Even so, we observed higher NOS activity in SrB-treated diabetic rats. SrB-treated diabetic rats had less mitochondrial swelling and vacuolization in thin kidney sections than other diabetic groups. The control groups showed normal histological structure, whereas in the diabetic groups, membrane thickening, tubular epithelial cells, and cellular degeneration were observed. Thus, SrB has beneficial effects on diabetes compared with l-NNA. Our results support the validity of SrB for the management of diabetes as well as diabetes-induced renal disorders.

  10. Histopathological and ultrastructural features of enlarged cells of humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis challenged with Megalocytivirus (family Iridoviridae) after vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mahardika, Ketut; Haryanti; Muzaki, Ahmad; Miyazaki, Teruo

    2008-04-01

    The genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae encompasses isolates of red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) and grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV). In the present study, humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis juveniles were challenged with GSDIV after vaccination with a commercial RSIV vaccine. The unvaccinated group (in duplicate) showed higher mortalities (59.3 to 66.7%) than the vaccination group (0% mortalitiy, in duplicate). Surviving fish in the vaccinated group displayed masses of enlarged cells in the spleen. Electron microscopy revealed that they contained hemosiderin granules within the cytoplasm. In contrast, moribund fish from the unvaccinated group exhibited large numbers of inclusion body-bearing cells (IBCs) in the spleen, while surviving fish displayed masses of enlarged cells in which a small number of GSDIV virions were assembled.

  11. Functional and ultrastructural changes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus cells induced by Cinnamomum verum essential oil.

    PubMed

    Bouhdid, S; Abrini, J; Amensour, M; Zhiri, A; Espuny, M J; Manresa, A

    2010-10-01

    To study cellular damage induced by Cinnamomum verum essential oil in Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. The effect of cinnamon bark essential oil on these two strains was evaluated by plate counts, potassium leakage, flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Exposure to this oil induced alterations in the bacterial membrane of Ps. aeruginosa, which led to the collapse of membrane potential, as demonstrated by bis-oxonol staining, and loss of membrane-selective permeability, as indicated by efflux of K(+) and propidium iodide accumulation. Thus, respiratory activity was inhibited, leading to cell death. In Staph. aureus, cells treated with the oil entered a viable but noncultivable (VNC) state. The oil initially caused a considerable decrease in the metabolic activity and in the replication capacity of these bacterial cells. The loss of membrane integrity appeared later, as indicated by bis-oxonol and Propidium iodide (PI) staining. Data provided by TEM showed various structural effects in response to cinnamon essential oil. In Ps. aeruginosa cells, coagulated cytoplasmic material was observed, and intracellular material was seen in the surrounding environment, while oil-treated Staph. aureus showed fibres extending from the cell surface. Cinnamon essential oil damages the cellular membrane of Ps. aeruginosa, which leads to cell death. There is evidence of VNC Staph. aureus after exposure to the oil. Cinnamon essential oil shows effective antimicrobial activity and health benefits and is therefore considered a potential food additive. To use this oil as a natural food preservative, especially in combination with other preservation methods, a thorough understanding of the mechanism through which this oil exerts its antibacterial action is required. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to Moroccan Government works.

  12. Tendon’s ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Tresoldi, Ilaria; Oliva, Francesco; Benvenuto, Monica; Fantini, Massimo; Masuelli, Laura; Bei, Roberto; Modesti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Summary The structure of a tendon is an important example of complexity of ECM three-dimensional organization. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a macromolecular network with both structural and regulatory functions. ECM components belong to four major types of macromolecules: the collagens, elastin, proteoglycans, and noncollagenous glycoproteins. Tendons are made by a fibrous, compact connective tissue that connect muscle to bone designed to transmit forces and withstand tension during muscle contraction. Here we show the ultrastructural features of tendon’s components. PMID:23885339

  13. Effect of Bacterial Endotoxin and Interleukin-2 on Human Leu-11(+) NK cells: Ultrastructural and Functional Correlations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Carl, Lorrita P. Watson lysosomal enzymes such as acid Leu-ll+ effectors to K562 target phosphatase and arylsulfatase cells (Carl et al., 1987). (Kang...many membrane- enzyme was observed in the Golgi bound dense granules, vacuoles, saccules and vesicles, cisternae centrioles, parallel tubular of rough

  14. Immunophenotypic and Ultrastructural Analysis of Mast Cells in Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Type-1: A Possible Connection to Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kirshenbaum, Arnold S.; Cruse, Glenn; Desai, Avanti; Bandara, Geethani; Leerkes, Maarten; Lee, Chyi-Chia R.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; O’Brien, Kevin J.; Gochuico, Bernadette R.; Stone, Kelly; Gahl, William A.; Metcalfe, Dean D.

    2016-01-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome type-1 (HPS-1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in HPS1 which result in reduced expression of the HPS-1 protein, defective lysosome-related organelle (LRO) transport and absence of platelet delta granules. Patients with HPS-1 exhibit oculocutaneous albinism, colitis, bleeding and pulmonary fibrosis postulated to result from a dysregulated immune response. The effect of the HPS1 mutation on human mast cells (HuMCs) is unknown. Since HuMC granules classify as LROs along with platelet granules and melanosomes, we set out to determine if HPS-1 cutaneous and CD34+ culture-derived HuMCs have distinct granular and cellular characteristics. Cutaneous and cultured CD34+-derived HuMCs from HPS-1 patients were compared with normal cutaneous and control HuMCs, respectively, for any morphological and functional differences. One cytokine-independent HPS-1 culture was expanded, cloned, designated the HP proMastocyte (HPM) cell line and characterized. HPS-1 and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) alveolar interstitium showed numerous HuMCs; HPS-1 dermal mast cells exhibited abnormal granules when compared to healthy controls. HPS-1 HuMCs showed increased CD63, CD203c and reduced mediator release following FcɛRI aggregation when compared with normal HuMCs. HPM cells also had the duplication defect, expressed FcɛRI and intracytoplasmic proteases and exhibited less mediator release following FcɛRI aggregation. HPM cells constitutively released IL-6, which was elevated in patients’ serum, in addition to IL-8, fibronectin-1 (FN-1) and galectin-3 (LGALS3). Transduction with HPS1 rescued the abnormal HPM morphology, cytokine and matrix secretion. Microarray analysis of HPS-1 HuMCs and non-transduced HPM cells confirmed upregulation of differentially expressed genes involved in fibrogenesis and degranulation. Cultured HPS-1 HuMCs appear activated as evidenced by surface activation marker expression, a decrease in mediator content and

  15. Special dyeing, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and ultrastructure: A study of mast cells/eosinophilic granules cells (MCs/EGC) from Centropomus parallelus intestine.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Wémeson F; Simões, Manuel J; Gutierre, Robson C; Egami, Mizue I; Santos, Antenor A; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Sasso, Gisela R; Ranzani-Paiva, Maria José T

    2017-01-01

    Intestine mast cells/eosinophilic granule cells (MCs/EGC) of the marine species Centropomus parallelus (fat snook) were first studied using light and electron microscopy techniques. Mast cells are cells from the connective tissue found in almost all organs and tissues of vertebrates. In fish, they appear in greater numbers in parts of their bodies that are exposed to their environment, such as skin, gills and intestine. The granules in fat snook's mast cell contain a variety of substances, such as histamine, heparin, chondroitin sulfate, serotonin, proteases and cytokines. The present study of intestine MCs/EGC was carried out in 20 specimens of fat snook. Samples of tissue were fixed in Bouin solution and in buffered formalin. Ferric hematoxylin - Congo red, pH6 acridine orange, pH2.5 and pH0,5 Alcian Blue (AB), toluidine blue, PAS, AB + PAS and immunohistochemistry protocols were used. In the mucosa and submucosa layers, MCs/EGCs granules with basic contents were evidenced by Congo red staining, and with acid contents granules were identified through pH 2.5 and 0,5 AB, and acridine orange. Basic and acid contents were simultaneously evidenced using ferric hematoxylin - Congo red stain. Metachromasia was observed in both mucosal and submucosal mast cells. Neutral glycoproteins were evidenced by using PAS protocol, glycosaminoglycan through AB and both simultaneously through AB + PAS. In immunohistochemistry assays, MCs/EGC were positive for tryptase, chymase and serotonin. As in mammals, the study of samples fixed in modified Karnovsky for transmission electron microscopy evidenced that most of the MCs granules were spherical and showed varying electron density, as described in previous reports on other teleost fish species. The metachromasia observed and the identification of tryptase, chymase and serotonin suggest a great similarity between fat snook's MCs/EGC and those described in the mucosa of mammals.

  16. Satellited 4q identified in amniotic fluid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, I.; Hsieh, C.L.; Songster, G.

    1995-01-16

    Extra material was identified on the distal long arm of a chromosome 4 in an amniotic fluid specimen sampled at 16.6 weeks of gestational age. There was no visible loss of material from chromosome 4, and no evidence for a balanced rearrangement. The primary counseling issue in this case was advanced maternal age. Ultrasound findings were normal, and family history was unremarkable. The identical 4qs chromosome was observed in cells from a paternal peripheral blood specimen and appeared to be an unbalanced rearrangement. This extra material was NOR positive in lymphocytes from the father, but was negative in the fetal amniocytes. Father`s relatives were studied to verify the familial origin of this anomaly. In situ hybridization with both exon and intron sequences of ribosomal DNA demonstrated that ribosomal DNA is present at the terminus of the 4qs chromosome in the fetus, father, and paternal grandmother. This satellited 4q might have been derived from a translocation event that resulted in very little or no loss from the 4q and no specific phenotype. This derivative chromosome 4 has been inherited through at least 3 generations of phenotypically normal individuals. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Harnessing Single Cell Sorting to Identify Cell Division Genes and Regulators in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Catherine; Liu, Michael; Britton, Warwick; Triccas, James A.; Thomas, Torsten; Smith, Adrian L.; Allen, Steven; Salomon, Robert; Harry, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Cell division is an essential cellular process that requires an array of known and unknown proteins for its spatial and temporal regulation. Here we develop a novel, high-throughput screening method for the identification of bacterial cell division genes and regulators. The method combines the over-expression of a shotgun genomic expression library to perturb the cell division process with high-throughput flow cytometry sorting to screen many thousands of clones. Using this approach, we recovered clones with a filamentous morphology for the model bacterium, Escherichia coli. Genetic analysis revealed that our screen identified both known cell division genes, and genes that have not previously been identified to be involved in cell division. This novel screening strategy is applicable to a wide range of organisms, including pathogenic bacteria, where cell division genes and regulators are attractive drug targets for antibiotic development. PMID:23565292

  18. Harnessing single cell sorting to identify cell division genes and regulators in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Burke, Catherine; Liu, Michael; Britton, Warwick; Triccas, James A; Thomas, Torsten; Smith, Adrian L; Allen, Steven; Salomon, Robert; Harry, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Cell division is an essential cellular process that requires an array of known and unknown proteins for its spatial and temporal regulation. Here we develop a novel, high-throughput screening method for the identification of bacterial cell division genes and regulators. The method combines the over-expression of a shotgun genomic expression library to perturb the cell division process with high-throughput flow cytometry sorting to screen many thousands of clones. Using this approach, we recovered clones with a filamentous morphology for the model bacterium, Escherichia coli. Genetic analysis revealed that our screen identified both known cell division genes, and genes that have not previously been identified to be involved in cell division. This novel screening strategy is applicable to a wide range of organisms, including pathogenic bacteria, where cell division genes and regulators are attractive drug targets for antibiotic development.

  19. Identifying Tumor Progenitor Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    All cells within a tumor are not identical. In fact, only a small subset appears to be capable of actually generating the tumor. These tumor-initiating cells tend to resemble normal stem cells, which have the unique ability to give rise to differentiated cells while simultaneously producing additional undifferentiated stem cells. Most chemotherapeutics affect the bulk of a tumor but spare the stem-like cells, allowing the tumor to re-grow once chemotherapy is stopped. If, however, the cancer-initiating cells could be successfully targeted, cancer recurrence could be prevented.

  20. Ciliary ultrastructure of polyplacophorans (Mollusca, Amphineura, Polyplacophora).

    PubMed

    Lundin, K; Schander, C

    2001-01-01

    This study is part of a series of papers aiming to investigate the phylogenetic significance of ciliary ultrastructure among molluscs and to test the hypothesis of a relationship between Xenoturbella and the molluscs. The ultrastructure of the ciliary apparatus on the gills of the polyplacophorans Leptochiton asellus and Tonicella rubra was studied. The gill cilia of the two species are similar in shape. The free part of the cilium is long with a slender distal part. There are two ciliary rootlets. One of them is short, broad and placed on the anterior face of the basal body. The other rootlet is conical and has a vertical orientation. Among the mollusca, two ciliary rootlets in the ciliary apparatus of multiciliate ectodermal cells have only been reported from the Chaetodermomorpha and Neomeniomorpha. This character state is likely plesiomorphic for the Mollusca and indicates a basal (nonderived) position of these taxa among the molluscs. No possible synapomorphic character with Xenoturbella bocki was found.

  1. Nematodes ultrastructure: complex systems and processes.

    PubMed

    Basyoni, Maha M A; Rizk, Enas M A

    2016-12-01

    Nematode worms are among the most ubiquitous organisms on earth. They include free-living forms as well as parasites of plants, insects, humans and other animals. Recently, there has been an explosion of interest in nematode biology, including the area of nematode ultrastructure. Nematodes are round with a body cavity. They have one way guts with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other. They have a pseudocoelom that is lined on one side with mesoderm and on the other side with endoderm. It appears that the cuticle is a very complex and evolutionarily plastic feature with important functions involving protection, body movement and maintaining shape. They only have longitudinal muscles so; they seem to thrash back and forth. While nematodes have digestive, reproductive, nervous and excretory systems, they do not have discrete circulatory or respiratory systems. Nematodes use chemosensory and mechanosensory neurons embedded in the cuticle to orient and respond to a wide range of environmental stimuli. Adults are made up of roughly 1000 somatic cells and hundreds of those cells are typically associated with the reproductive systems. Nematodes ultrastructure seeks to provide studies which enable their use as models for diverse biological processes including; human diseases, immunity, host-parasitic interactions and the expression of phylogenomics. The latter has, however, not been brought into a single inclusive entity. Consequently, in the current review we tried to provide a comprehensive approach to the current knowledge available for nematodes ultrastructures.

  2. Differential responses of the antioxidant defence system and ultrastructure in a salt-adapted potato cell line.

    PubMed

    Queirós, Filipa; Rodrigues, José A; Almeida, José M; Almeida, Domingos P F; Fidalgo, Fernanda

    2011-12-01

    Changes in lipid peroxidation and ion content and the possible involvement of the antioxidant system in salt tolerance at the cellular level was studied in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) callus line grown on 150 mM NaCl (salt-adapted) and in a non-adapted line exposed to 150 mM NaCl (salt-stressed). Salinity reduced the growth rate and increased lipid peroxidation in salt-stressed line, which remained unaltered in the adapted line. Na⁺ and Cl⁻ content increased due to salinity in both lines, but the adapted line displayed greater K⁺/Na⁺ ratio than the stressed one. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) activities decreased in both salt-exposed lines; catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity did not change in the adapted line, but decreased in the stressed cell line. Salinity caused the suppression of one GR isoform, while the isozyme patterns of SOD, APX, and CAT were not affected. Ascorbate and reduced glutathione increased in both salt-exposed calli lines. α-Tocopherol increased as a result of salt exposure, with higher levels found in adapted calli. Electron microscopy showed that neither the structural integrity of the cells nor membrane structure were affected by salinity, but plastids from adapted cells had higher starch content. The results suggest that the enzymic and non-enzymic components of the antioxidant system are differentially modulated by salt. Different concentrations of antioxidant metabolites are more relevant to the adaptive response to salinity in potato calli than the differences in activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrastructural modifications in the mitochondrion of mouse Sertoli cells after inhalation of lead, cadmium or lead-cadmium mixture.

    PubMed

    Bizarro, Patricia; Acevedo, Sandra; Niño-Cabrera, Geraldine; Mussali-Galante, Patricia; Pasos, Francisco; Avila-Costa, Maria Rosa; Fortoul, Teresa I

    2003-01-01

    CD-1 mice inhaled 0.01 M lead acetate, 0.006 M cadmium chloride or Pb-Cd mixture during 1h twice a week during 4 weeks. Testes were processed for transmission electron microscopic analysis. The percentage of damaged mitochondria was related to exposure time and the type of metal inhaled, noticing more damage when the mixture was administered. A dose-time relationship was found. Cadmium chloride caused the most severe mitochondrial alteration compared to lead acetate, whereas the mixture was more aggressive compared with each metal alone. Our results suggest that the changes in Sertoli cell could lead to a transformation process that may interfere with spermatogenesis.

  4. [Ultrastructural localization of lysosomal and nuclear beta-glycerophosphatase activity in the urethral discharge cells of gonorrhea].

    PubMed

    Delektorskiĭ, V V; Dmitriev, G A; Bukhvalov, I B

    1976-01-01

    Activity of acid phosphotase in the urethra discharge in patients with various forms of gonorrhea (acute, torpid, and chronic) was studied with the use of electron-microscopy and biochemical methods. A positive reaction of nuclei of the epithelial cells to acid phosphotase in lysosomes and perichromatin granules was demonstrated. In polymorphononuclear leucocytes the positive reaction to acid phosphotase could be also sometimes observed in granules of the cytoplasm. The electronograms presented testify to heterogeneity and high activity of acid phosphotase in lysosomes. Neither electron-microscopy nor biochemical methods could help reveal any differences in the activity of acid phosphotase in various forms of gonorrhea.

  5. The glucan components of the cell wall of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) considered in relation to its ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Bacon, J S; Farmer, V C; Jones, D; Taylor, I F

    1969-09-01

    1. Commercial pressed baker's yeast, and cell walls prepared from it, were extracted in various ways and the products examined by a number of techniques, including infrared spectroscopy and electron microscopy. 2. The glucan components of the walls cannot be extracted from intact yeast cells by 3% (w/v) sodium hydroxide at 75 degrees , but at least one-third of the glucan of cell wall preparations is dissolved under these conditions, and more will dissolve after ultrasonic treatment. 3. If intact cells are given a preliminary treatment with acid the wall glucans dissolve in dilute aqueous alkali. 4. Acid conditions as mild as sodium acetate buffer, pH5.0, for 3hr. at 75 degrees are sufficient for this preliminary treatment; the glucan then dissolves in 3% sodium hydroxide at 75 degrees leaving a very small residue, which contains chitin and about 1% of the initial glucan of the wall. Dissolution is hindered by exclusion of air, or by a preliminary reduction with sodium borohydride, suggesting that some degradation of the glucan by alkali is taking place. 5. After treatment with 0.5m-acetic acid for 24hr. at 90 degrees the glucan dissolves slowly at room temperature in 3% sodium hydroxide, or in dimethyl sulphoxide. The extraction with acetic acid removes glycogen and a predominantly beta-(1-->6)-linked glucan (not hitherto recognized as a component of baker's yeast), but none of the beta-(1-->3)-glucan, which remains water-insoluble. 6. Without treatment with acid, the glucan is not significantly soluble in dimethyl sulphoxide, but can be induced to dissolve by ultrasonic treatment. 7. These results are interpreted by postulating the presence of an enclosing membrane, composed of chitin and glucan, that when intact acts as a semipermeable membrane preventing the escape of the alkali- and dimethyl sulphoxide-soluble fraction of the glucan. Mild acid treatments damage this membrane, and ultrasonic and ballistic disintegration disrupt it. 8. Some support for this

  6. Wishbone identifies bifurcating developmental trajectories from single-cell data.

    PubMed

    Setty, Manu; Tadmor, Michelle D; Reich-Zeliger, Shlomit; Angel, Omer; Salame, Tomer Meir; Kathail, Pooja; Choi, Kristy; Bendall, Sean; Friedman, Nir; Pe'er, Dana

    2016-06-01

    Recent single-cell analysis technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate developmental pathways. Here we present Wishbone, an algorithm for positioning single cells along bifurcating developmental trajectories with high resolution. Wishbone uses multi-dimensional single-cell data, such as mass cytometry or RNA-Seq data, as input and orders cells according to their developmental progression, and it pinpoints bifurcation points by labeling each cell as pre-bifurcation or as one of two post-bifurcation cell fates. Using 30-channel mass cytometry data, we show that Wishbone accurately recovers the known stages of T-cell development in the mouse thymus, including the bifurcation point. We also apply the algorithm to mouse myeloid differentiation and demonstrate its generalization to additional lineages. A comparison of Wishbone to diffusion maps, SCUBA and Monocle shows that it outperforms these methods both in the accuracy of ordering cells and in the correct identification of branch points.

  7. Wishbone identifies bifurcating developmental trajectories from single-cell data

    PubMed Central

    Setty, Manu; Tadmor, Michelle D; Reich-Zeliger, Shlomit; Angel, Omer; Salame, Tomer Meir; Kathail, Pooja; Choi, Kristy; Bendall, Sean; Friedman, Nir; Pe’er, Dana

    2016-01-01

    Recent single-cell analysis technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate developmental pathways. Here we present Wishbone, an algorithm for positioning single cells along bifurcating developmental trajectories with high resolution. Wishbone uses multi-dimensional single-cell data, such as mass cytometry or RNA-seq data, as input and orders cells according to their developmental progression by pinpointing bifurcation points and labeling each cell as pre-bifurcation or as one of two post-bifurcation cell fates. Using 30-channel mass cytometry data, we show that Wishbone accurately recovers the known stages of T cell development in the mouse thymus, including the bifurcation point. We also apply the algorithm to mouse myeloid differentiation and demonstrate its generalization to additional lineages. A comparison of Wishbone to diffusion maps, SCUBA and Monocle shows that it outperforms these methods both in the accuracy of ordering cells and in the correct identification of branch points. PMID:27136076

  8. Ultrastructural distribution of DNA within the nucleolus of various animal cell lines or tissues revealed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase.

    PubMed

    Thiry, M; Ploton, D; Menager, M; Goessens, G

    1993-01-01

    We have used the highly sensitive in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase method, applied to ultrathin sections, to investigate the location of DNA within nucleoli of various animal cells. In all the nucleoli studied, intense labelling is revealed over the peri- and intranucleolar condensed chromatin. Gold particles are also consistently found over the fibrillar centres, especially at their periphery, namely in the border area between the fibrillar centres and the dense fibrillar component, whereas the dense fibrillar component itself seems to be free of label in nucleoli in which these two compartments can be distinguished. We conclude that, in transcriptionally active nucleoli of this type, DNA is a characteristic constituent of the fibrillar centres, distinguishing them functionally from the dense fibrillar component. Some nucleoli exhibit neither fibrillar centres nor a dense fibrillar component, but have a single, albeit heterogeneous accumulation of fibrillar material; gold particles are consistently seen over some parts of this fibrillar compartment. This suggests that certain parts of the fibrillar material are functionally similar to the fibrillar centres of those nucleoli that possess them.

  9. Morphology, cytochemical staining, and ultrastructural characteristics of the blood cells of the giant lizard of El Hierro (Gallotia simonyi).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Silvestre, A; Marco, I; Rodriguez-Dominguez, M A; Lavín, S; Cuenca, R

    2005-04-01

    The object of this study was to examine the erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes of the giant lizard of El Hierro (Gallotia simonyi) by light and electron (TEM) microscopy, and cytochemical staining. Smears were prepared from blood from the ventral coccygeal vein of 10 healthy adult lizards (five males and five females) from the Giant Lizard of El Hierro Reproduction and Research Centre, Canary Islands, Spain. The cytochemical stains used were: benzidine peroxidase (BP), chloroacetate esterase (CAE), alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE), acid phosphatase (AP), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), toluidine blue (TB) and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG). Electron microscopy was also performed on all samples. Heterophils had granules that were heterogeneous in both size and electron density, and stained with BP, PAS and ANAE. Eosinophil granules were homogeneously electron-dense and stained for AP, CAE and ANAE. Basophils had both highly and moderately electron-dense granules, and stained with TB and ANAE. Azurophil granules were of low electron-density and stained for AP, CAE and ANAE. Azurophil cytoplasm was vacuolated on TEM. The cytoplasm of lymphocytes contained many ribosomes and was positive for AP. Monocytes had a large nucleus and a vacuolated cytoplasm but did not stain by any of the cytochemical methods used. Thrombocytes had a relatively large nucleus but little cytoplasm; they did not stain cytochemically. The blood cells of the giant lizards of El Hierro differ from those of other members of the Order Squamata both morphologically and cytochemically. The variation in cytochemical responses in the blood of reptiles makes it necessary to study species individually if meaningful clinical decisions are to be made.

  10. Platelets: production, morphology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Thon, Jonathan N; Italiano, Joseph E

    2012-01-01

    Platelets are anucleate, discoid cells, roughly 2-3 μm in diameter that function primarily as regulators of hemostasis, but also play secondary roles in angiogensis and innate immunity. Although human adults contain nearly one trillion platelets in circulation that are turned over every 8-10 days, our understanding of the mechanisms involved in platelet production is still incomplete. Platelets stem from large (30-100 μm) nucleated cells called megakaryocytes that reside primarily in the bone marrow. During maturation megakaryocytes extend long proplatelet elongations into sinusoidal blood vessels from which platelets ultimately release. During this process, platelets develop a number of distinguishable structural elements including: a delimited plasma membrane; invaginations of the surface membrane that form the open canalicular system (OCS); a closed-channel network of residual endoplasmic reticulum that form the dense tubular system (DTS); a spectrin-based membrane skeleton; an actin-based cytoskeletal network; a peripheral band of microtubules; and numerous organelles including α-granules, dense-granules, peroxisomes, lysosomes, and mitochondria. Proplatelet elongation and platelet production is an elaborate and complex process that defines the morphology and ultrastructure of circulating platelets, and is critical in understanding their increasingly numerous and varied biological functions.

  11. In silico lineage tracing through single cell transcriptomics identifies a neural stem cell population in planarians.

    PubMed

    Molinaro, Alyssa M; Pearson, Bret J

    2016-04-27

    The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea is a master regenerator with a large adult stem cell compartment. The lack of transgenic labeling techniques in this animal has hindered the study of lineage progression and has made understanding the mechanisms of tissue regeneration a challenge. However, recent advances in single-cell transcriptomics and analysis methods allow for the discovery of novel cell lineages as differentiation progresses from stem cell to terminally differentiated cell. Here we apply pseudotime analysis and single-cell transcriptomics to identify adult stem cells belonging to specific cellular lineages and identify novel candidate genes for future in vivo lineage studies. We purify 168 single stem and progeny cells from the planarian head, which were subjected to single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq). Pseudotime analysis with Waterfall and gene set enrichment analysis predicts a molecularly distinct neoblast sub-population with neural character (νNeoblasts) as well as a novel alternative lineage. Using the predicted νNeoblast markers, we demonstrate that a novel proliferative stem cell population exists adjacent to the brain. scRNAseq coupled with in silico lineage analysis offers a new approach for studying lineage progression in planarians. The lineages identified here are extracted from a highly heterogeneous dataset with minimal prior knowledge of planarian lineages, demonstrating that lineage purification by transgenic labeling is not a prerequisite for this approach. The identification of the νNeoblast lineage demonstrates the usefulness of the planarian system for computationally predicting cellular lineages in an adult context coupled with in vivo verification.

  12. Identifying and removing the cell-cycle effect from single-cell RNA-Sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Martin; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Single-cell RNA-Sequencing (scRNA-Seq) is a revolutionary technique for discovering and describing cell types in heterogeneous tissues, yet its measurement of expression often suffers from large systematic bias. A major source of this bias is the cell cycle, which introduces large within-cell-type heterogeneity that can obscure the differences in expression between cell types. The current method for removing the cell-cycle effect is unable to effectively identify this effect and has a high risk of removing other biological components of interest, compromising downstream analysis. We present ccRemover, a new method that reliably identifies the cell-cycle effect and removes it. ccRemover preserves other biological signals of interest in the data and thus can serve as an important pre-processing step for many scRNA-Seq data analyses. The effectiveness of ccRemover is demonstrated using simulation data and three real scRNA-Seq datasets, where it boosts the performance of existing clustering algorithms in distinguishing between cell types. PMID:27670849

  13. COMPASS identifies T-cell subsets correlated with clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Finak, Greg; Ushey, Kevin; Seshadri, Chetan; Hawn, Thomas R; Frahm, Nicole; Scriba, Thomas J; Mahomed, Hassan; Hanekom, Willem; Bart, Pierre-Alexandre; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Tomaras, Georgia D; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Michael, Nelson L; Kim, Jerome H; Robb, Merlin L; O'Connell, Robert J; Karasavvas, Nicos; Gilbert, Peter; C De Rosa, Stephen; McElrath, M Juliana; Gottardo, Raphael

    2015-06-01

    Advances in flow cytometry and other single-cell technologies have enabled high-dimensional, high-throughput measurements of individual cells as well as the interrogation of cell population heterogeneity. However, in many instances, computational tools to analyze the wealth of data generated by these technologies are lacking. Here, we present a computational framework for unbiased combinatorial polyfunctionality analysis of antigen-specific T-cell subsets (COMPASS). COMPASS uses a Bayesian hierarchical framework to model all observed cell subsets and select those most likely to have antigen-specific responses. Cell-subset responses are quantified by posterior probabilities, and human subject-level responses are quantified by two summary statistics that describe the quality of an individual's polyfunctional response and can be correlated directly with clinical outcome. Using three clinical data sets of cytokine production, we demonstrate how COMPASS improves characterization of antigen-specific T cells and reveals cellular 'correlates of protection/immunity' in the RV144 HIV vaccine efficacy trial that are missed by other methods. COMPASS is available as open-source software.

  14. COMPASS identifies T-cell subsets correlated with clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lin; Finak, Greg; Ushey, Kevin; Seshadri, Chetan; Hawn, Thomas R.; Frahm, Nicole; Scriba, Thomas J.; Mahomed, Hassan; Hanekom, Willem; Bart, Pierre-Alexandre; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Michael, Nelson L.; Kim, Jerome H.; Robb, Merlin L.; O’Connell, Robert J.; Karasavvas, Nicos; Gilbert, Peter; DeRosa, Stephen; McElrath, M. Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Advances in flow cytometry and other single-cell technologies have enabled high-dimensional, high-throughput measurements of individual cells and allowed interrogation of cell population heterogeneity. Computational tools to take full advantage of these technologies are lacking. Here, we present COMPASS, a computational framework for unbiased polyfunctionality analysis of antigen-specific T-cell subsets. COMPASS uses a Bayesian hierarchical framework to model all observed functional cell subsets and select those most likely to exhibit antigen-specific responses. Cell-subset responses are quantified by posterior probabilities, while subject-level responses are quantified by two novel summary statistics that can be correlated directly with clinical outcome, and describe the quality of an individual’s (poly)functional response. Using three clinical datasets of cytokine production we demonstrate how COMPASS improves characterization of antigen-specific T cells and reveals novel cellular correlates of protection in the RV144 HIV vaccine efficacy trial that are missed by other methods. COMPASS is available as open-source software. PMID:26006008

  15. Malignant lymphoma of the cervix uteri: histology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, I; Hill, A S; Hancock, B; Neal, F F

    1976-01-01

    Two cases of primary lymphoma of the cervix uteri are described. Both responded to radiotherapy; both were composed at the ultrastructural level of mature macrophages and immature, apparently neoplastic lymphoreticular cells and are classified as reticulum cell lymphoma. Images PMID:783205

  16. Ultrastructural immunochemistry of J chains in chickens.

    PubMed

    Moriya, O; Ichikawa, Y

    1990-01-01

    Using ultrastructural immunochemistry, we have determined subcellular localization of J chain molecules in chicken splenic cells. The majority of J chain positive cells (JPC) were lymphoblast-like cells. The data show that J chains predominantly are localized in cytoplasm with a considerable amount distributed on the cell surface. In the cytoplasm, J chains were diffusely expressed. Furthermore, these J chain molecules were clearly seen as cluster type. In addition to the J chain localization of subcellular organelles as described above, J chains were partly found on perinuclear spaces. As J chains are key protein in B cell differentiation into immunoglobulin (Ig) producing cells, these findings might help for studying regulation of B cell differentiation in addition to revealing the molecular assembly of polymeric Ig.

  17. Cytological and ultrastructural studies on root tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, R. D.; Gaynor, J. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1984-01-01

    The anatomy and fine structure of roots from oat and mung bean seedlings, grown under microgravity conditions for 8 days aboard the Space Shuttle, was examined and compared to that of roots from ground control plants grown under similar conditions. Roots from both sets of oat seedlings exhibited characteristic monocotyledonous tissue organization and normal ultrastructural features, except for cortex cell mitochondria, which exhibited a 'swollen' morphology. Various stages of cell division were observed in the meristematic tissues of oat roots. Ground control and flight-grown mung bean roots also showed normal tissue organization, but root cap cells in the flight-grown roots were collapsed and degraded in appearance, especially at the cap periphery. At the ultrastructural level, these cells exhibited a loss of organelle integrity and a highly-condensed cytoplasm. This latter observation perhaps suggests a differing tissue sensitivity for the two species to growth conditions employed in space flight. The basis for abnormal root cap cell development is not understood, but the loss of these putative gravity-sensing cells holds potential significance for long term plant growth orientation during space flight.

  18. Cytological and ultrastructural studies on root tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, R. D.; Gaynor, J. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1984-01-01

    The anatomy and fine structure of roots from oat and mung bean seedlings, grown under microgravity conditions for 8 days aboard the Space Shuttle, was examined and compared to that of roots from ground control plants grown under similar conditions. Roots from both sets of oat seedlings exhibited characteristic monocotyledonous tissue organization and normal ultrastructural features, except for cortex cell mitochondria, which exhibited a 'swollen' morphology. Various stages of cell division were observed in the meristematic tissues of oat roots. Ground control and flight-grown mung bean roots also showed normal tissue organization, but root cap cells in the flight-grown roots were collapsed and degraded in appearance, especially at the cap periphery. At the ultrastructural level, these cells exhibited a loss of organelle integrity and a highly-condensed cytoplasm. This latter observation perhaps suggests a differing tissue sensitivity for the two species to growth conditions employed in space flight. The basis for abnormal root cap cell development is not understood, but the loss of these putative gravity-sensing cells holds potential significance for long term plant growth orientation during space flight.

  19. Basilar artery of the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris): an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Islam, S; Ribeiro, A A C M; Loesch, A

    2004-04-01

    The present study investigated the ultrastructural features of the basilar artery of the largest rodent species, the capybara. The study suggests that the general ultrastructural morphological organization of the basilar artery of the capybara is similar to that of small rodents. However, there are some exceptions. The basilar artery of the capybara contains a subpopulation of 'granular' vascular smooth muscle cells resembling monocytes and/or macrophages. The possibility cannot be excluded that the presence of these cells reflects the remodelling processes of the artery due to animal maturation and the regression of the internal carotid artery. To clarify this issue, more systemic studies are required involving capybaras of various ages.

  20. Identifying Cell Types from Spatially Referenced Single-Cell Expression Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Achim, Kaia; Richardson, Sylvia; Azizi, Lamiae; Marioni, John

    2014-01-01

    Complex tissues, such as the brain, are composed of multiple different cell types, each of which have distinct and important roles, for example in neural function. Moreover, it has recently been appreciated that the cells that make up these sub-cell types themselves harbour significant cell-to-cell heterogeneity, in particular at the level of gene expression. The ability to study this heterogeneity has been revolutionised by advances in experimental technology, such as Wholemount in Situ Hybridizations (WiSH) and single-cell RNA-sequencing. Consequently, it is now possible to study gene expression levels in thousands of cells from the same tissue type. After generating such data one of the key goals is to cluster the cells into groups that correspond to both known and putatively novel cell types. Whilst many clustering algorithms exist, they are typically unable to incorporate information about the spatial dependence between cells within the tissue under study. When such information exists it provides important insights that should be directly included in the clustering scheme. To this end we have developed a clustering method that uses a Hidden Markov Random Field (HMRF) model to exploit both quantitative measures of expression and spatial information. To accurately reflect the underlying biology, we extend current HMRF approaches by allowing the degree of spatial coherency to differ between clusters. We demonstrate the utility of our method using simulated data before applying it to cluster single cell gene expression data generated by applying WiSH to study expression patterns in the brain of the marine annelid Platynereis dumereilii. Our approach allows known cell types to be identified as well as revealing new, previously unexplored cell types within the brain of this important model system. PMID:25254363

  1. Identifying cell types from spatially referenced single-cell expression datasets.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Jean-Baptiste; Tomer, Raju; Achim, Kaia; Richardson, Sylvia; Azizi, Lamiae; Marioni, John

    2014-09-01

    Complex tissues, such as the brain, a