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Sample records for cells mediates mechanical

  1. Mast Cell-Mediated Mechanisms of Nociception

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Anupam; Afrin, Lawrence B.; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that release immuno-modulators, chemo-attractants, vasoactive compounds, neuropeptides and growth factors in response to allergens and pathogens constituting a first line of host defense. The neuroimmune interface of immune cells modulating synaptic responses has been of increasing interest, and mast cells have been proposed as key players in orchestrating inflammation-associated pain pathobiology due to their proximity to both vasculature and nerve fibers. Molecular underpinnings of mast cell-mediated pain can be disease-specific. Understanding such mechanisms is critical for developing disease-specific targeted therapeutics to improve analgesic outcomes. We review molecular mechanisms that may contribute to nociception in a disease-specific manner. PMID:26690128

  2. Mast Cell-Mediated Mechanisms of Nociception.

    PubMed

    Aich, Anupam; Afrin, Lawrence B; Gupta, Kalpna

    2015-12-04

    Mast cells are tissue-resident immune cells that release immuno-modulators, chemo-attractants, vasoactive compounds, neuropeptides and growth factors in response to allergens and pathogens constituting a first line of host defense. The neuroimmune interface of immune cells modulating synaptic responses has been of increasing interest, and mast cells have been proposed as key players in orchestrating inflammation-associated pain pathobiology due to their proximity to both vasculature and nerve fibers. Molecular underpinnings of mast cell-mediated pain can be disease-specific. Understanding such mechanisms is critical for developing disease-specific targeted therapeutics to improve analgesic outcomes. We review molecular mechanisms that may contribute to nociception in a disease-specific manner.

  3. Mechanisms of cytoskeleton-mediated mechanical signal transmission in cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yongyun; Gouget, Cecile L.M.; Barakat, Abdul I.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated very rapid long-distance transmission of mechanical forces within cells. Because the speed of this transmission greatly exceeds that of reaction-diffusion signaling, it has been conjectured that it occurs via the propagation of elastic waves through the actin stress fiber network. To explore the plausibility of this conjecture, we recently developed a model of small amplitude stress fiber deformations in prestressed viscoelastic stress fibers subjected to external forces. The model results demonstrated that rapid mechanical signal transmission is only possible when the external force is applied orthogonal to the stress fiber axis and that the dynamics of this transmission are governed by a balance between the prestress in the stress fiber and the stress fiber's material viscosity. The present study, which is a follow-up on our previous model, uses dimensional analysis to: (1) further evaluate the plausibility of the elastic wave conjecture and (2) obtain insight into mechanical signal transmission dynamics in simple stress fiber networks. We show that the elastic wave scenario is likely not the mechanism of rapid mechanical signal transmission in actin stress fibers due to the highly viscoelastic character of these fibers. Our analysis also demonstrates that the time constant characterizing mechanical stimulus transmission is strongly dependent on the topology of the stress fiber network, implying that network organization plays an important role in determining the dynamics of cellular responsiveness to mechanical stimulation. PMID:23336020

  4. Mechanisms of strain-mediated mesenchymal stem cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kearney, E M; Prendergast, P J; Campbell, V A

    2008-12-01

    Mechanical conditioning of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been adopted widely as a biophysical signal to aid tissue engineering applications. The replication of in vivo mechanical signaling has been used in in vitro environments to regulate cell differentiation, and extracellular matrix synthesis, so that both the chemical and mechanical properties of the tissue-engineered construct are compatible with the implant site. While research in these areas contributes to tissue engineering, the effects of mechanical strain on MSC apoptosis remain poorly defined. To evaluate the effects of uniaxial cyclic tensile strain on MSC apoptosis and to investigate mechanotransduction associated with strain-mediated cell death, MSCs seeded on a 2D silicone membrane were stimulated by a range of strain magnitudes for 3 days. Mechanotransduction was investigated using the stretch-activated cation channel blocker gadolinium chloride, the L-type voltage-activated calcium channel blocker nicardipine, the c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) blocker D-JNK inhibitor 1, and the calpain inhibitor MDL 28170. Apoptosis was assessed through DNA fragmentation using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated-UTP-end nick labeling method. Results demonstrated that tensile strains of 7.5% or greater induce apoptosis in MSCs. L-type voltage-activated calcium channels coupled mechanical stress to activation of calpain and JNK, which lead to apoptosis through DNA fragmentation. The definition of the in vitro boundary conditions for tensile strain and MSCs along with a proposed mechanism for apoptosis induced by mechanical events positively contributes to the development of MSC biology, bioreactor design for tissue engineering, and development of computational methods for mechanobiology.

  5. Chemically Mediated Mechanical Expansion of the Pollen Tube Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Enrique R.; Hotton, Scott; Dumais, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Morphogenesis of plant cells is tantamount to the shaping of the stiff cell wall that surrounds them. To this end, these cells integrate two concomitant processes: 1), deposition of new material into the existing wall, and 2), mechanical deformation of this material by the turgor pressure. However, due to uncertainty regarding the mechanisms that coordinate these processes, existing models typically adopt a limiting case in which either one or the other dictates morphogenesis. In this report, we formulate a simple mechanism in pollen tubes by which deposition causes turnover of cell wall cross-links, thereby facilitating mechanical deformation. Accordingly, deposition and mechanics are coupled and are both integral aspects of the morphogenetic process. Among the key experimental qualifications of this model are: its ability to precisely reproduce the morphologies of pollen tubes; its prediction of the growth oscillations exhibited by rapidly growing pollen tubes; and its prediction of the observed phase relationships between variables such as wall thickness, cell morphology, and growth rate within oscillatory cells. In short, the model captures the rich phenomenology of pollen tube morphogenesis and has implications for other plant cell types. PMID:22004737

  6. Signaling mechanisms that mediate invasion in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, L; Marchiani, S; Muratori, M; Carloni, V; Forti, G; Baldi, E

    2004-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates that androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells have a less malignant phenotype characterized by reduced migration and invasion. We investigated whether the presence of the androgen receptor could affect EGFR-mediated signaling by evaluating autotransphosphorylation of the receptor as well as activation of the downstream signaling pathway PI3K/AKT. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated a reduction of EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR in PC3-AR cells. In addition, EGF-stimulated PI3K activity, a key signaling pathway for invasion of these cells, was decreased in PC3-AR cells and further reduced by treatment with R1881, indicating decreased functionality of EGFR. Our results suggest that the expression of androgen receptors by transfection in PC3 cells confers a less malignant phenotype by interfering with EGFR autophosphorylation and signaling leading to invasion in response to EGF. We used the selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the EGFR gefitinib (also known as Iressa or ZD1839) to further investigate the role of EGFR in the invasion and growth of PC cells. We demonstrate that in the androgen-insensitive cell lines PC3 and DU145 this compound was able to decrease in vitro invasion of Matrigel by inhibiting EGFR autotransphosphorylation and subsequent PI3K activation. Gefitinib may be useful in the treatment of androgen-independent prostate cancer to limit not only the proliferation but also the invasion of these tumors.

  7. Fas and its ligand in a general mechanism of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Hanabuchi, S; Koyanagi, M; Kawasaki, A; Shinohara, N; Matsuzawa, A; Nishimura, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Yonehara, S; Yagita, H; Okumura, K

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, we estimated the involvement of apoptosis-inducing Fas molecule on the target cells and its ligand on the effector cells. When redirected by ConA or anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, a CD4+ T-cell clone, BK1, could lyse the target cells expressing wild-type Fas molecule but not those expressing death signaling-deficient mutants. This indicates the involvement of Fas-mediated signal transduction in the target cell lysis by BK1. Anti-CD3-activated but not resting BK1 expressed Fas ligand as detected by binding of a soluble Fas-Ig fusion protein, and the BK1-mediated cytotoxicity was blocked by the addition of Fas-Ig, implicating the inducible Fas ligand in the BK1 cytotoxicity. Ability to exert the Fas-mediated cytotoxicity was not confined to BK1, but splenic CD4+ T cells and, to a lesser extent, CD8+ T cells could also exert the Fas-dependent target cell lysis. This indicates that the Fas-mediated target cell lytic pathway can be generally involved in the T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Interestingly, CD4+ T cells prepared from gld/gld mice did not mediate the Fas-mediated cytotoxicity, indicating defective expression of functional Fas ligand in gld mice. PMID:7515183

  8. IFNγ Regulates Activated Vδ2+ T Cells through a Feedback Mechanism Mediated by Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fechter, Karoline; Dorronsoro, Akaitz; Jakobsson, Emma; Ferrin, Izaskun; Lang, Valérie; Sepulveda, Pilar; Pennington, Daniel J.; Trigueros, César

    2017-01-01

    γδ T cells play a role in a wide range of diseases such as autoimmunity and cancer. The majority of circulating human γδ T lymphocytes express a Vγ9Vδ2+ (Vδ2+) T cell receptor (TCR) and following activation release pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we show that IFNγ, produced by Vδ2+ cells, activates mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated immunosupression, which in turn exerts a negative feedback mechanism on γδ T cell function ranging from cytokine production to proliferation. Importantly, this modulatory effect is limited to a short period of time (<24 hours) post-T cell activation, after which MSCs can no longer exert their immunoregulatory capacity. Using genetically modified MSCs with the IFNγ receptor 1 constitutively silenced, we demonstrate that IFNγ is essential to this process. Activated γδ T cells induce expression of several factors by MSCs that participate in the depletion of amino acids. In particular, we show that indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme involved in L-tryptophan degradation, is responsible for MSC-mediated immunosuppression of Vδ2+ T cells. Thus, our data demonstrate that γδ T cell responses can be immuno-modulated by different signals derived from MSC. PMID:28076364

  9. [Molecular mechanisms underlying cell adhesion--molecules mediating lymphocyte migration].

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, M

    2000-01-01

    Adhesion molecules play crucial roles in a variety of in vivo responses such as development of various tissues in embryos and also in the body defence mechanism in the postnatal period. Defects in adhesion molecules thus result in various pathological disorders. Recent investigation has identified a large number of novel adhesion molecules, particularly those involved in the extravasation of leukocytes including lymphocytes. However, there still appears to be a substantial number of unidentified adhesion molecules. In addition, signal transduction as well as regulatory mechanisms of adhesion molecules remain not fully explored. I will herein describe general characteristics of adhesion molecules and also discuss issues that need to be urgently resolved in the field of cell adhesion.

  10. Signalling mechanisms mediating Zn2+-induced TRPM2 channel activation and cell death in microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mortadza, Sharifah Syed; Sim, Joan A.; Stacey, Martin; Jiang, Lin-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Excessive Zn2+ causes brain damage via promoting ROS generation. Here we investigated the role of ROS-sensitive TRPM2 channel in H2O2/Zn2+-induced Ca2+ signalling and cell death in microglial cells. H2O2/Zn2+ induced concentration-dependent increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c), which was inhibited by PJ34, a PARP inhibitor, and abolished by TRPM2 knockout (TRPM2-KO). Pathological concentrations of H2O2/Zn2+ induced substantial cell death that was inhibited by PJ34 and DPQ, PARP inhibitors, 2-APB, a TRPM2 channel inhibitor, and prevented by TRPM2-KO. Further analysis indicate that Zn2+ induced ROS production, PARP-1 stimulation, increase in the [Ca2+]c and cell death, all of which were suppressed by chelerythrine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, DPI, a NADPH-dependent oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, GKT137831, a NOX1/4 inhibitor, and Phox-I2, a NOX2 inhibitor. Furthermore, Zn2+-induced PARP-1 stimulation, increase in the [Ca2+]c and cell death were inhibited by PF431396, a Ca2+-sensitive PYK2 inhibitor, and U0126, a MEK/ERK inhibitor. Taken together, our study shows PKC/NOX-mediated ROS generation and PARP-1 activation as an important mechanism in Zn2+-induced TRPM2 channel activation and, TRPM2-mediated increase in the [Ca2+]c to trigger the PYK2/MEK/ERK signalling pathway as a positive feedback mechanism that amplifies the TRPM2 channel activation. Activation of these TRPM2-depenent signalling mechanisms ultimately drives Zn2+-induced Ca2+ overloading and cell death. PMID:28322340

  11. Ciprofloxacin mediates cancer stem cell phenotypes in lung cancer cells through caveolin-1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Phiboonchaiyanan, Preeyaporn Plaimee; Kiratipaiboon, Chayanin; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2016-04-25

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation of cancer cells with high aggressive behaviors, have been identified in many types of cancer including lung cancer as one of the key mediators driving cancer progression and metastasis. Here, we have reported for the first time that ciprofloxacin (CIP), a widely used anti-microbial drug, has a potentiating effect on CSC-like features in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. CIP treatment promoted CSC-like phenotypes, including enhanced anchorage-independent growth and spheroid formation. The known lung CSC markers: CD133, CD44, ABCG2 and ALDH1A1 were found to be significantly increased, while the factors involving in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT): Slug and Snail, were depleted. Also, self-renewal transcription factors Oct-4 and Nanog were found to be up-regulated in CIP-treated cells. The treatment of CIP on CSC-rich populations obtained from secondary spheroids resulted in the further increase of CSC markers. In addition, we have proven that the mechanistic insight of the CIP induced stemness is through Caveolin-1 (Cav-1)-dependent mechanism. The specific suppression of Cav-1 by stably transfected Cav-1 shRNA plasmid dramatically reduced the effect of CIP on CSC markers as well as the CIP-induced spheroid formation ability. Cav-1 was shown to activate protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways in CSC-rich population; however, such an effect was rarely found in the main lung cancer cells population. These findings reveal a novel effect of CIP in positively regulating CSCs in lung cancer cells via the activation of Cav-1, Akt and ERK, and may provoke the awareness of appropriate therapeutic strategy in cancer patients.

  12. Nanoscale imaging and mechanical analysis of Fc receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis against cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao; Xiao, Xiubin; Zhang, Weijing

    2014-02-18

    Fc receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis against cancer cells is an important mechanism in the immune therapy of cancers. Traditional research about macrophage phagocytosis was based on optical microscopy, which cannot reveal detailed information because of the 200-nm-resolution limit. Quantitatively investigating the macrophage phagocytosis at micro- and nanoscale levels is still scarce. The advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) offers an excellent analytical instrument for quantitatively investigating the biological processes at single-cell and single-molecule levels under native conditions. In this work, we combined AFM and fluorescence microscopy to visualize and quantify the detailed changes in cell morphology and mechanical properties during the process of Fc receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis against cancer cells. Lymphoma cells were discernible by fluorescence staining. Then, the dynamic process of phagocytosis was observed by time-lapse optical microscopy. Next, AFM was applied to investigate the detailed cellular behaviors during macrophage phagocytosis under the guidance of fluorescence recognition. AFM imaging revealed the distinct features in cellular ultramicrostructures for the different steps of macrophage phagocytosis. AFM cell mechanical property measurements indicated that the binding of cancer cells to macrophages could make macrophages become stiffer. The experimental results provide novel insights in understanding the Fc-receptor-mediated macrophage phagocytosis.

  13. The nature and mechanisms of DN regulatory T-cell mediated suppression.

    PubMed

    Young, Kevin J; Zhang, Li

    2002-10-01

    Regulatory T cells have been reported to enhance survival of transplanted allografts. We have recently identified and cloned a novel CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) (double negative, DN) regulatory T cell from mice that were given a single class I mismatched donor lymphocyte infusion and permanently accepted donor-specific skin allografts. When infused into naïve syngeneic mice, these DN T cells prolonged the survival of class I mismatched donor skin allografts. Here we further characterize the nature and mechanism of DN T-cell mediated suppression. This present study reveals that DN T cells are able to specifically eliminate activated syngeneic CD8(+) T cells that share the same T cell receptor (TCR) specificity as DN T cells in vitro. Similarly, we found that, along with an increase of recipient DN T cells in the peripheral blood, anti-donor CD8(+) T cells were also eliminated in vivo following a donor lymphocyte infusion. We further demonstrate that DN T regulatory cells do not mediate suppression by competition for growth factors or antigen presenting cells (APC) nor by modulation of APC, but require cell contact with the activated target CD8(+) T cells. This contact can be mediated either by the TCR on CD8(+) T cells that recognize constitutively expressed or acquired MHC molecules on DN T cells, or by the TCR on DN T cells that recognize constitutively expressed MHC molecules on CD8(+) T cells. Together, these data extend our previous findings, and expand the conditions in which DN T cells can potentially be used to specifically suppress allogeneic immune responses.

  14. MMPs initiate Schwann cell-mediated MBP degradation and mechanical nociception after nerve damage

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hideo; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Kato, Kinshi; Dolkas, Jennifer; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi; Myers, Robert R.; Shubayev, Veronica I.

    2010-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) emerge as modulators of neuropathic pain. Because myelin protects Aβ afferents from ectopic hyperexcitability and nociception from innocuous mechanical stimuli (or mechanical allodynia), we analyzed the role of MMPs in the development of mechanical allodynia through myelin protein degradation after rat and MMP-9−/− mouse L5 spinal nerve crush (L5 SNC). MMPs were shown to promote selective degradation of myelin basic protein (MBP), with MMP-9 regulating initial Schwann cell-mediated MBP processing after L5 SNC. Acute and long-term therapy with GM6001 (broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor) protected from injury-induced MBP degradation, caspase-mediated apoptosis, macrophage infiltration in the spinal nerve and inhibited astrocyte activation in the spinal cord. The effect of GM6001 therapy on attenuation of mechanical allodynia was robust, immediate and sustained through the course of L5 SNC. In conclusion, MMPs mediate the initiation and maintenance of mechanical nociception through Schwann cell-mediated MBP processing and support of neuroinflammation. PMID:18817874

  15. P-cadherin promotes collective cell migration via a Cdc42-mediated increase in mechanical forces.

    PubMed

    Plutoni, Cédric; Bazellieres, Elsa; Le Borgne-Rochet, Maïlys; Comunale, Franck; Brugues, Agusti; Séveno, Martial; Planchon, Damien; Thuault, Sylvie; Morin, Nathalie; Bodin, Stéphane; Trepat, Xavier; Gauthier-Rouvière, Cécile

    2016-01-18

    Collective cell migration (CCM) is essential for organism development, wound healing, and metastatic transition, the primary cause of cancer-related death, and it involves cell-cell adhesion molecules of the cadherin family. Increased P-cadherin expression levels are correlated with tumor aggressiveness in carcinoma and aggressive sarcoma; however, how P-cadherin promotes tumor malignancy remains unknown. Here, using integrated cell biology and biophysical approaches, we determined that P-cadherin specifically induces polarization and CCM through an increase in the strength and anisotropy of mechanical forces. We show that this mechanical regulation is mediated by the P-cadherin/β-PIX/Cdc42 axis; P-cadherin specifically activates Cdc42 through β-PIX, which is specifically recruited at cell-cell contacts upon CCM. This mechanism of cell polarization and migration is absent in cells expressing E- or R-cadherin. Thus, we identify a specific role of P-cadherin through β-PIX-mediated Cdc42 activation in the regulation of cell polarity and force anisotropy that drives CCM. © 2016 Plutoni et al.

  16. Tips, Stalks, Tubes: Notch-Mediated Cell Fate Determination and Mechanisms of Tubulogenesis during Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jennifer J.; Tattersall, Ian W.; Kitajewski, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of developing vascular sprouts from existing blood vessels. Luminal endothelial cells convert into “tip” cells that contribute to the development of a multicellular stalk, which then undergoes lumen formation. In this review, we consider a variety of cellular and molecular pathways that mediate these transitions. We focus first on Notch signaling in cell fate determination as a mechanism to define tip and stalk cells. We next discuss the current models of lumen formation and describe new players in this process, such as chloride intracellular channel proteins. Finally, we consider the possible medical therapeutic benefits of understanding these processes and acknowledge potential obstacles in drug development. PMID:22355796

  17. Mechanisms of coronavirus cell entry mediated by the viral spike protein.

    PubMed

    Belouzard, Sandrine; Millet, Jean K; Licitra, Beth N; Whittaker, Gary R

    2012-06-01

    Coronaviruses are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm. To deliver their nucleocapsid into the host cell, they rely on the fusion of their envelope with the host cell membrane. The spike glycoprotein (S) mediates virus entry and is a primary determinant of cell tropism and pathogenesis. It is classified as a class I fusion protein, and is responsible for binding to the receptor on the host cell as well as mediating the fusion of host and viral membranes-A process driven by major conformational changes of the S protein. This review discusses coronavirus entry mechanisms focusing on the different triggers used by coronaviruses to initiate the conformational change of the S protein: receptor binding, low pH exposure and proteolytic activation. We also highlight commonalities between coronavirus S proteins and other class I viral fusion proteins, as well as distinctive features that confer distinct tropism, pathogenicity and host interspecies transmission characteristics to coronaviruses.

  18. P-cadherin promotes collective cell migration via a Cdc42-mediated increase in mechanical forces

    PubMed Central

    Plutoni, Cédric; Bazellieres, Elsa; Le Borgne-Rochet, Maïlys; Comunale, Franck; Brugues, Agusti; Séveno, Martial; Planchon, Damien; Thuault, Sylvie; Morin, Nathalie; Bodin, Stéphane; Trepat, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Collective cell migration (CCM) is essential for organism development, wound healing, and metastatic transition, the primary cause of cancer-related death, and it involves cell–cell adhesion molecules of the cadherin family. Increased P-cadherin expression levels are correlated with tumor aggressiveness in carcinoma and aggressive sarcoma; however, how P-cadherin promotes tumor malignancy remains unknown. Here, using integrated cell biology and biophysical approaches, we determined that P-cadherin specifically induces polarization and CCM through an increase in the strength and anisotropy of mechanical forces. We show that this mechanical regulation is mediated by the P-cadherin/β-PIX/Cdc42 axis; P-cadherin specifically activates Cdc42 through β-PIX, which is specifically recruited at cell–cell contacts upon CCM. This mechanism of cell polarization and migration is absent in cells expressing E- or R-cadherin. Thus, we identify a specific role of P-cadherin through β-PIX–mediated Cdc42 activation in the regulation of cell polarity and force anisotropy that drives CCM. PMID:26783302

  19. Comparison of molecular mechanisms mediating cell contact phenomena in model developmental systems: an exploration of universality.

    PubMed

    Bowers-Morrow, Vivienne M; Ali, Sinan O; Williams, Keith L

    2004-08-01

    Are there universal molecular mechanisms associated with cell contact phenomena during metazoan ontogenesis? Comparison of adhesion systems in disparate model systems indicates the existence of unifying principles. Requirements for multicellularity are (a) the construction of three-dimensional structures involving a crucial balance between adhesiveness and motility; and (b) the establishment of integration at molecular, cellular, tissue, and organismal levels of organization. Mechanisms for (i) cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion, (ii) cell movement, (iii) cell-cell communication, (iv) cellular responses, (v) regulation of these processes, and (vi) their integration with patterning, growth, and other developmental processes are all crucial to metazoan development, and must have been present for the emergence and radiation of Metazoa. The principal unifying themes of this review are the dynamics and regulation of cell contact phenomena. Our knowledge of the dynamic molecular mechanisms underlying cell contact phenomena remains fragmentary. Here we examine the molecular bases of cell contact phenomena using extant model developmental systems (representing a wide range of phyla) including the simplest i.e. sponges, and the eukaryotic protist Dictyostelium discoideum, the more complex Drosophila melanogaster, and vertebrate systems. We discuss cell contact phenomena in a broad developmental context. The molecular language of cell contact phenomena is complex; it involves a plethora of structurally and functionally diverse molecules, and diverse modes of intermolecular interactions mediated by protein and/or carbohydrate moieties. Reasons for this are presumably the necessity for a high degree of specificity of intermolecular interactions, the requirement for a multitude of different signals, and the apparent requirement for an increasingly large repertoire of cell contact molecules in more complex developmental systems, such as the developing vertebrate nervous

  20. Autophagy as a Survival Mechanism for Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells in Endonuclease G-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Masui, Atsushi; Hamada, Masakazu; Kameyama, Hiroyasu; Wakabayashi, Ken; Takasu, Ayako; Imai, Tomoaki; Iwai, Soichi; Yura, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Safingol, L- threo-dihydrosphingosine, induces cell death in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells through an endonuclease G (endoG) -mediated pathway. We herein determined whether safingol induced apoptosis and autophagy in oral SCC cells. Safingol induced apoptotic cell death in oral SCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. In safingol-treated cells, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-I was changed to LC3-II and the cytoplasmic expression of LC3, amount of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) stained by acridine orange and autophagic vacuoles were increased, indicating the occurrence of autophagy. An inhibitor of autophagy, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), enhanced the suppressive effects of safingol on cell viability, and this was accompanied by an increase in the number of apoptotic cells and extent of nuclear fragmentation. The nuclear translocation of endoG was minimal at a low concentration of safingol, but markedly increased when combined with 3-MA. The suppressive effects of safingol and 3-MA on cell viability were reduced in endoG siRNA- transfected cells. The scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) prevented cell death induced by the combinational treatment, whereas a pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk did not. These results indicated that safingol induced apoptosis and autophagy in SCC cells and that the suppression of autophagy by 3-MA enhanced apoptosis. Autophagy supports cell survival, but not cell death in the SCC cell system in which apoptosis occurs in an endoG-mediated manner. PMID:27658240

  1. [An active, cell-mediated process, resembling osteogenesis in molecular mechanism of vascular calcification].

    PubMed

    Iijima, Katsuya

    2011-07-01

    Vascular calcification causes management of hemodynamics more difficult and finally leads to cardiovascular events in the clinical setting. Thinking about the crucial mechanisms of vascular calcification, recent researches reveal the evidence of a biological linkage between bone and vascular calcification. Accumulating evidences show that vascular calcification is attributable to an active 'cell-mediated process' resembling osteogenesis in bone rather than passive mineral precipitation, so called calcium shift theory, as a previous hypothesis. Especially, major mechanism shows the importance of phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells into osteo/chondrocytic-like cells under correlation of bone morphogenetic proteins, potent osteo/chondrogenic transcription factors Runx2, and so on. The detailed understanding of the complex mechanisms may lead to new opportunity to find the therapeutic strategies, concordantly enhancing bone mineral density and preventing vascular calcification.

  2. Tamoxifen Toxicity in Cultured Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Is Mediated by Concurrent Regulated Cell Death Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Leo A.; Amarnani, Dhanesh; Gnanaguru, Gopalan; Tseng, Wen Allen; Vavvas, Demetrios G.; D'Amore, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the mechanism of tamoxifen-induced cell death in human cultured RPE cells, and to investigate concurrent cell death mechanisms including pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis. Methods. Human RPE cells were cultured until confluence and treated with tamoxifen; cell death was measured by detecting LDH release. Tamoxifen-induced cell death was further confirmed by 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) and annexin V staining. Lysosomal destabilization was assessed using lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) and acridine orange staining. The roles of lysosomal enzymes cathepsin B and L were examined by blocking their activity. Caspase activity was evaluated by caspase-1, -3, -8, and -9 specific inhibition. Cells were primed with IL-1α and treated with tamoxifen; mature IL-1β production was quantified via ELISA. Caspase activity was verified with the fluorochrome-labeled inhibitor of caspases (FLICA) probe specific for each caspase. Regulated cell necrosis or necroptosis was examined with 7-AAD and inhibition of receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) kinase using necrostatin-1 (Nec-1). Results. Cell death occurred within 2 hours of tamoxifen treatment of confluent RPE cells and was accompanied by lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Blockade of cathepsin B and L activity led to a significant decrease in cell death, indicating that lysosomal destabilization and cathepsin release occur prior to regulated cell death. Tamoxifen-induced toxicity was shown to occur through both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death pathways. Treatment of RPE cells with caspase inhibitors and Nec-1 resulted in a near complete rescue from cell death. Conclusions. Tamoxifen-induced cell death occurs through concurrent regulated cell death mechanisms. Simultaneous inhibition of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death pathways is required to protect cells from tamoxifen. Inhibition of upstream activators, such as the cathepsins, may represent a

  3. T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity: immune mechanisms and their clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Fenfen; Lee, Frederick J; Pichler, Werner J

    2016-01-01

    T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity represents a significant proportion of immune mediated drug hypersensitivity reactions. In the recent years, there has been an increase in understanding the immune mechanisms behind T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity. According to hapten mechanism, drug specific T-cell response is stimulated by drug-protein conjugate presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as it is presented as a new antigenic determinant. On the other hand, p-i concept suggests that a drug can stimulate T cells via noncovalent direct interaction with T-cell receptor and/or peptide-MHC. The drug binding site is quite variable and this leads to several different mechanisms within p-i concept. Altered peptide repertoire can be regarded as an 'atypical' subset of p-i concept since the mode of the drug binding and the binding site are essentially identical to p-i concept. However, the intracellular binding of abacavir to HLA-B*57:01 additionally results in alteration in peptide repertoire. Furthermore the T-cell response to altered peptide repertoire model is only shown for abacavir and HLA-B*57:01 and therefore it may not be generalised to other drug hypersensitivity. Danger hypothesis has been postulated to play an important role in drug hypersensitivity by providing signal 2 but its experimental data is lacking at this point in time. Furthermore, the recently described allo-immune response suggests that danger signal may be unnecessary. Finally, in view of these new understanding, the classification and the definition of type B adverse drug reaction should be revised. PMID:27141480

  4. Investigating dynamic structural and mechanical changes of neuroblastoma cells associated with glutamate-mediated neurodegeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yuqiang; Iu, Catherine Y. Y.; Lui, Cathy N. P.; Zou, Yukai; Fung, Carmen K. M.; Li, Hung Wing; Xi, Ning; Yung, Ken K. L.; Lai, King W. C.

    2014-11-01

    Glutamate-mediated neurodegeneration resulting from excessive activation of glutamate receptors is recognized as one of the major causes of various neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms in the neurodegenerative process remain unidentified. Here, we investigate the real-time dynamic structural and mechanical changes associated with the neurodegeneration induced by the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (a subtype of glutamate receptors) at the nanoscale. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is employed to measure the three-dimensional (3-D) topography and mechanical properties of live SH-SY5Y cells under stimulus of NMDA receptors. A significant increase in surface roughness and stiffness of the cell is observed after NMDA treatment, which indicates the time-dependent neuronal cell behavior under NMDA-mediated neurodegeneration. The present AFM based study further advance our understanding of the neurodegenerative process to elucidate the pathways and mechanisms that govern NMDA induced neurodegeneration, so as to facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Cellular and viral mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission mediated by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Christopher M; Gelais, Corine St; Wu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in the initial infection and cell-to-cell transmission events that occur upon HIV-1 infection. DCs interact closely with CD4(+) T cells, the main target of HIV-1 replication. HIV-1 challenged DCs and target CD4(+) T cells form a virological synapse that allows highly efficient transmission of HIV-1 to the target CD4(+) T cells, in the absence of productive HIV-1 replication in the DCs. Immature and subsets of mature DCs show distinct patterns of HIV-1 replication and cell-to-cell transmission, depending upon the maturation stimulus that is used. The cellular and viral mechanisms that promote formation of the virological synapse have been the subject of intense study and the most recent progress is discussed here. Characterizing the cellular and viral factors that affect DC-mediated cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 to CD4(+) T cells is vitally important to understanding, and potentially blocking, the initial dissemination of HIV-1 in vivo.

  6. Metal-mediated DNA damage and cell death: mechanisms, detection methods, and cellular consequences.

    PubMed

    Angelé-Martínez, Carlos; Goodman, Craig; Brumaghim, Julia

    2014-08-01

    The redox activity of metal ions can lead to the formation of highly reactive species that damage DNA, producing different oxidation products and types of damage depending upon the redox potentials of the DNA bases, formation of intermediate adducts, and identity of the reactive species. Other factors are also important in determining the degree of metal-mediated DNA damage, such as localization and redox chemistry of the metal ions or complexes and lifetimes of the reactive oxygen species generated. This review examines the types of DNA damage mediated by first-row transition metals under oxidative stress conditions, with emphasis on work published in the past ten years. Similarities and differences between DNA damage mechanisms of the first-row transition metals in vitro and in E. coli and human cells are compared and their relationship to disease development are discussed. Methods to detect this metal-mediated DNA damage, including backbone breakage, base oxidation, inter- and intra-strand crosslinking, and DNA-protein crosslinking are also briefly reviewed, as well as detection methods for reactive oxygen species generated by these metal ions. Understanding the conditions that cause metal-mediated DNA damage and metal generation of reactive oxygen species in vitro and in cells is required to develop effective drugs to prevent and treat chronic disease.

  7. Mechanism of arctigenin-mediated specific cytotoxicity against human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Susanti, Siti; Iwasaki, Hironori; Inafuku, Masashi; Taira, Naoyuki; Oku, Hirosuke

    2013-12-15

    The lignan arctigenin (ARG) from the herb Arctium lappa L. possesses anti-cancer activity, however the mechanism of action of ARG has been found to vary among tissues and types of cancer cells. The current study aims to gain insight into the ARG mediated mechanism of action involved in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in lung adenocarcinoma cells. This study also delineates the cancer cell specificity of ARG by comparison with its effects on various normal cell lines. ARG selectively arrested the proliferation of cancer cells at the G0/G1 phase through the down-regulation of NPAT protein expression. This down-regulation occurred via the suppression of either cyclin E/CDK2 or cyclin H/CDK7, while apoptosis was induced through the modulation of the Akt-1-related signaling pathway. Furthermore, a GSH synthase inhibitor specifically enhanced the cytotoxicity of ARG against cancer cells, suggesting that the intracellular GSH content was another factor influencing the susceptibility of cancer cells to ARG. These findings suggest that specific cytotoxicity of ARG against lung cancer cells was explained by its selective modulation of the expression of NPAT, which is involved in histone biosynthesis. The cytotoxicity of ARG appeared to be dependent on the intracellular GSH level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduced expression IRF7 in nasal epithelial cells from smokers as a potential mechanism mediating enhanced susceptibility to influenza

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Smokers are more susceptible to viral infections, including influenza virus, yet the mechanisms mediating this effect are not known. Methods: We have established an in vitro model of differentiated nasal epithelial cells from smokers, which maintain enhanced levels...

  9. Reduced expression IRF7 in nasal epithelial cells from smokers as a potential mechanism mediating enhanced susceptibility to influenza

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Smokers are more susceptible to viral infections, including influenza virus, yet the mechanisms mediating this effect are not known. Methods: We have established an in vitro model of differentiated nasal epithelial cells from smokers, which maintain enhanced levels...

  10. Endothelial Cells in Antibody-Mediated Rejection of Kidney Transplantation: Pathogenesis Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Wang, Jina; Yang, Cheng; Xu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) has been identified as a main obstacle for stable immune tolerance and long survival of kidney allografts. In spite of new insights into the underlying mechanisms of AMR, accurate diagnosis and efficient treatment are still challenges in clinical practice. Endothelium is the first barrier between recipients' immune systems and grafts in vascularized organ transplants. Considering that endothelial cells express a number of antigens that can be attacked by various allo- and autoantibodies, endothelial cells act as main targets for the recipients' humoral immune responses. Importantly, emerging evidence has shown that endothelial cells in transplants could also initiate protective mechanisms in response to immune injuries. A better understanding of the role of endothelial cells during the pathogenesis of AMR might provide novel therapeutic targets. In the present review, we summarize the antigens expressed by endothelial cells and also discuss the activation and accommodation of endothelial cells as well as their clinical implications. Collectively, the progress discussed in this review indicates endothelial cells as promising targets to improve current diagnosis and therapeutic regimens for AMR. PMID:28255564

  11. Endothelial Cells in Antibody-Mediated Rejection of Kidney Transplantation: Pathogenesis Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Jina; Yang, Cheng; Xu, Ming; Rong, Ruiming; Zhu, Tongyu; Zhu, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) has been identified as a main obstacle for stable immune tolerance and long survival of kidney allografts. In spite of new insights into the underlying mechanisms of AMR, accurate diagnosis and efficient treatment are still challenges in clinical practice. Endothelium is the first barrier between recipients' immune systems and grafts in vascularized organ transplants. Considering that endothelial cells express a number of antigens that can be attacked by various allo- and autoantibodies, endothelial cells act as main targets for the recipients' humoral immune responses. Importantly, emerging evidence has shown that endothelial cells in transplants could also initiate protective mechanisms in response to immune injuries. A better understanding of the role of endothelial cells during the pathogenesis of AMR might provide novel therapeutic targets. In the present review, we summarize the antigens expressed by endothelial cells and also discuss the activation and accommodation of endothelial cells as well as their clinical implications. Collectively, the progress discussed in this review indicates endothelial cells as promising targets to improve current diagnosis and therapeutic regimens for AMR.

  12. "Epithelial Cell TRPV1-Mediated Airway Sensitivity as a Mechanism for Respiratory Symptoms Associated with Gulf War Illness?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    TITLE: “Epithelial Cell TRPV1 -Mediated Airway Sensitivity as a Mechanism for Respiratory Symptoms Associated with Gulf War Illness” PRINCIPAL...66,),&$7,212) E7(/(3+21(180%(5 ,QFOXGHDUHDFRGH 01-06-2010 Annual Report 1 JUN 2009 - 31 MAY 2010 Epithelial Cell TRPV1 -Mediated Airway...express functional TRPV1 . More recently we found that these cells also express another important irritant receptor, namely TRPA1. Activation of

  13. A mechanism of hypoxia-mediated escape from adaptive immunity in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, Ivraym B; Smallwood, Chelsea A; Siemens, D Robert; Graham, Charles H

    2014-02-01

    Immune escape is a fundamental trait of cancer in which mechanistic knowledge is incomplete. Here, we describe a novel mechanism by which hypoxia contributes to tumoral immune escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Exposure of human or murine cancer cells to hypoxia for 24 hours led to upregulation of the immune inhibitory molecule programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1; also known as B7-H1), in a manner dependent on the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). In vivo studies also demonstrated cellular colocalization of HIF-1α and PD-L1 in tumors. Hypoxia-induced expression of PD-L1 in cancer cells increased their resistance to CTL-mediated lysis. Using glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), an agonist of nitric oxide (NO) signaling known to block HIF-1α accumulation in hypoxic cells, we prevented hypoxia-induced PD-L1 expression and diminished resistance to CTL-mediated lysis. Moreover, transdermal administration of GTN attenuated tumor growth in mice. We found that higher expression of PD-L1 induced in tumor cells by exposure to hypoxia led to increased apoptosis of cocultured CTLs and Jurkat leukemia T cells. This increase in apoptosis was prevented by blocking the interaction of PD-L1 with PD-1, the PD-L1 receptor on T cells, or by addition of GTN. Our findings point to a role for hypoxia/HIF-1 in driving immune escape from CTL, and they suggest a novel cancer immunotherapy to block PD-L1 expression in hypoxic-tumor cells by administering NO mimetics.

  14. HUVEC cell affinity evaluation and integrin-mediated mechanism study on PHSRN-modified polymer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jun; Yuan, Zhi; Tang, Shiming; Liu, Min; Tang, Hua

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the role of the peptide Pro-His-Ser-Arg-Asn (PHSRN) in cell adhesion and growth, PHSRN- and Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS)-containing polymers (P-PN5 and P-GS5, respectively) were synthesized by modification of poly(D,L-lactide-co-beta-malic acid) (PLMA) with the corresponding peptides. The cell affinities of the modified polymers were evaluated by adhesion and proliferation experiments with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results showed that P-PN5 had comparable ability to that of P-GS5 in supporting HUVEC adhesion and growth. Furthermore, the integrin-mediated mechanism of cell-substrate interaction was investigated. The results showed that P-PN5 had similar binding affinity and binding strength towards α(5)β(1) compared to those of P-GS5. The findings suggest that PHSRN is capable of mediating the adhesion and growth of HUVECs independently and that PHSRN-modified polymers might be used as biologically compatible materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Androgen stimulates endothelial cell proliferation via an androgen receptor/VEGF/cyclin A-mediated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jingjing; Hong, Yuan; Weng, Chunyan; Tan, Chen; Imperato-McGinley, Julianne

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidences support that androgen displays beneficial effects on cardiovascular functions although the mechanism of androgen actions remains to be elucidated. Modulation of endothelial cell growth and function is a potential mechanism of androgen actions. We demonstrated in the present study that androgens [dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone], but not 17β-estradiol, produced a time- and dose-dependent induction of cell proliferation in primary human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) as evident by increases in viable cell number and DNA biosynthesis. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis showed that DHT induced androgen receptor (AR), cyclin A, cyclin D1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The addition of casodex, a specific AR antagonist, or transfection of a specific AR siRNA blocked DHT-induced cell proliferation and target gene expression, indicating that the DHT effects are mediated via AR. Moreover, coadministration of SU5416 to block VEGF receptors, or transfection of a specific VEGF-A siRNA to knockdown VEGF expression, produced a dose-dependent blockade of DHT induction of cell proliferation and cyclin A gene expression. Interestingly, roscovitine, a selective cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, also blocked the DHT stimulation of cell proliferation with a selective inhibition of DHT-induced VEGF-A expression. These results indicate that androgens acting on AR stimulate cell proliferation through upregulation of VEGF-A, cyclin A, and cyclin D1 in HAECs, which may be beneficial to cardiovascular functions since endothelial cell proliferation could assist the repair of endothelial injury/damage in cardiovascular system. PMID:21257919

  16. Intracellular mechanisms mediating tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in neoplastic mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Paul W; Shah, Sumit

    2005-01-01

    Tocotrienols and tocopherols represent the two subgroups that make up the vitamin E family of compounds. However, tocotrienols display significantly more potent apoptotic activity in neoplastic mammary epithelial cells than tocopherols. Studies were conducted to determine the intracellular mechanism(s) mediating tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in neoplastic +SA mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro. An initial step in apoptosis is the activation of 'initiator' caspases (caspase-8 or -9) that subsequently activate 'effector' caspases (caspase-3, -6 and -7) and induce apoptosis. Treatment with cytotoxic doses of alpha-tocotrienol (20 microM) resulted in a time-dependent increase in caspase-8 and caspase-3 activity. Combined treatment with specific caspase-8 or caspase-3 inhibitors completely blocked alpha-tocotrienol-induced apoptosis and caspase-8 or caspase-3 activity, respectively. In contrast, alpha-tocotrienol treatment had no effect on caspase-9 activation, and combined treatment with a specific caspase-9 inhibitor did not block alpha-tocotrienol-induced apoptosis in (+)SA cells. Since caspase-8 activation is associated with the activation of death receptors, such as Fas, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors, studies were conducted to determine the exact death receptor(s) and ligand(s) involved in mediating tocotrienol-induced caspase-8 activation and apoptosis. Treatment with Fas-ligand (FasL), Fas-activating antibody, or TRAIL failed to induce cell death in (+)SA neoplastic mammary epithelial cells, suggesting that these cells are resistant to death receptor-induced apoptosis. Moreover, treatment with cytotoxic doses of alpha-tocotrienol did not alter the intracellular levels of Fas, FasL, or Fas-associated death domain (FADD) in these cells. Western blot analysis also showed that alpha-tocotrienol did not induce FasL or FADD translocation from the cytosolic to membrane fraction in these cells. Finally

  17. Calmodulin-mediated cell cycle regulation: new mechanisms for old observations.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaehyun; Husain, Mansoor

    2006-10-01

    The significance of divalent calcium ions (Ca(2+)) to cell cycle progression has been a subject of study for several decades, with a regulatory role for Ca(2+) suggested in distinct cell types and multiple organisms. Our interest in proliferative vascular diseases led us to focus on mammalian vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in particular, in which we and others had shown that a coordinate elevation in the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration is required for G(1) to S phase cell cycle progression. However, the molecular basis for this Ca(2+)-sensitive cell cycle transition was not known. Our recent discovery of a functional protein-protein interaction between the late G1-active cyclin E1 and the major calcium signal-transducing factor calmodulin (CaM) sheds new light on the mechanism(s) through which Ca2+ concentrations regulate cell cycle. Having identified a CaM-binding site on cyclin E1, our studies support a direct role for CaM in mediating Ca2+-sensitive cyclin E/CDK2 activity and G1 to S phase transitions in VSMC. The CaM binding site identified on cyclin E1 has a Kd for CaM consistent with that of known CaM-binding proteins, and is composed of a 22 amino acids N-terminal sequence that is highly conserved across several mammalian species. Deletion of this binding site abolished CaM binding and Ca2+-sensitive cyclin E/Cdk2 activity. Here we provide our perspectives on the literature supporting a role for Ca2+ in cell cycle regulation, focusing on the evidence implicating CaM in this functionality, and discuss the potential for therapeutic modulation of CaM-dependent cell cycle machinery.

  18. CDI Systems Are Stably Maintained by a Cell-Contact Mediated Surveillance Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Annette J.; Leung, Nicole Y.; Hayes, Christopher S.; Low, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems are widespread amongst Gram-negative bacteria where they play important roles in inter-cellular competition and biofilm formation. CDI+ bacteria use cell-surface CdiA proteins to bind neighboring bacteria and deliver C-terminal toxin domains. CDI+ cells also express CdiI immunity proteins that specifically neutralize toxins delivered from adjacent siblings. Genomic analyses indicate that cdi loci are commonly found on plasmids and genomic islands, suggesting that these Type 5 secretion systems are spread through horizontal gene transfer. Here, we examine whether CDI toxin and immunity activities serve to stabilize mobile genetic elements using a minimal F plasmid that fails to partition properly during cell division. This F plasmid is lost from Escherichia coli populations within 50 cell generations, but is maintained in ~60% of the cells after 100 generations when the plasmid carries the cdi gene cluster from E. coli strain EC93. By contrast, the ccdAB "plasmid addiction" module normally found on F exerts only a modest stabilizing effect. cdi-dependent plasmid stabilization requires the BamA receptor for CdiA, suggesting that plasmid-free daughter cells are inhibited by siblings that retain the CDI+ plasmid. In support of this model, the CDI+ F plasmid is lost rapidly from cells that carry an additional cdiI immunity gene on a separate plasmid. These results indicate that plasmid stabilization occurs through elimination of non-immune cells arising in the population via plasmid loss. Thus, genetic stabilization reflects a strong selection for immunity to CDI. After long-term passage for more than 300 generations, CDI+ plasmids acquire mutations that increase copy number and result in 100% carriage in the population. Together, these results show that CDI stabilizes genetic elements through a toxin-mediated surveillance mechanism in which cells that lose the CDI system are detected and eliminated by their siblings

  19. Molecular mechanisms of CD8+ T cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity: implications for allergies, asthma, and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Kalish, R S; Askenase, P W

    1999-02-01

    Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) is defined as the recruitment of T cells into tissues to be activated by antigen-presenting cells to produce cytokines that mediate local inflammation. CD8+ T cells are now known to mediate DTH responses in allergic contact dermatitis, drug eruptions, asthma, and autoimmune diseases. This inflammatory effector capability of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells was previously poorly recognized, but there is now considerable evidence that these diseases may be mediated by CD8+ DTH. The difference between CD8+ T cells and CD4+ T cells mediating DTH relates to the molecular mechanisms by which antigens are processed and presented to the T cells. Antigens external to the cell are phagocytosed and processed for presentation on MHC class II molecules (eg, HLA-DR) to CD4+ T cells. In contrast, internal cytoplasmic antigens are processed by the endogenous pathway for presentation on MHC class I molecules (eg, HLA-A, -B, and -C) to CD8+ T cells. External allergens can also enter the endogenous pathway to be presented to CD8+ T cells. These include many contact sensitizers, chemical and protein respiratory allergens, viral antigens, metabolic products of drugs, and autoantigens. The resulting CD8+ T-cell response explains the role of CD8+ T-cell DTH mechanisms in allergic contact dermatitis, asthma, drug eruptions, and autoimmune diseases.

  20. Ceruloplasmin enhances smooth muscle cell- and endothelial cell-mediated low density lipoprotein oxidation by a superoxide-dependent mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Ehrenwald, E.; Fox, P. L.

    1996-01-01

    Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells (EC) stimulate low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by free radical-mediated, transition metal-dependent mechanisms. The physiological source(s) of metal ions is not known; however, purified ceruloplasmin, a plasma protein containing 7 coppers, oxidizes LDL in vitro. We now show that ceruloplasmin also increases LDL oxidation by vascular cells. In metal ion-free medium, human ceruloplasmin increased bovine aortic SMC- and EC-mediated LDL oxidation by up to 30- and 15-fold, respectively. The maximal response was at 100-300 microg ceruloplasmin/ml, a level at or below the unevoked physiological plasma concentration. Oxidant activity was dependent on protein structure as a specific proteolytic cleavage or removal of one of the seven ceruloplasmin copper atoms inhibited activity. Three lines of evidence indicated a critical role for cellular superoxide (O2.) in ceruloplasmin-stimulated oxidation. First, the rate of production of O2. by cells correlated with their rates of LDL oxidation. Second, superoxide dismutase effectively blocked ceruloplasmin-stimulated oxidation by both cell types. Finally, O2. production by SMC quantitatively accounted for the observed rate of LDL oxidation. To show this, the course of O2. production by SMC was simulated by repeated addition of xanthine and xanthine oxidase to culture medium under cell-free conditions. Neither ceruloplasmin nor O2. alone increased LDL oxidation, but together they completely reconstituted the oxidation rate of ceruloplasmin-stimulated SMC. These results are the first to show that ceruloplasmin stimulates EC- and SMC-mediated oxidation of LDL and that cell-derived O2. accounts quantitatively for metal-dependent, free radical-initiated oxidation of LDL by these cells.

  1. Ceruloplasmin enhances smooth muscle cell- and endothelial cell-mediated low density lipoprotein oxidation by a superoxide-dependent mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Ehrenwald, E.; Fox, P. L.

    1996-01-01

    Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells (EC) stimulate low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by free radical-mediated, transition metal-dependent mechanisms. The physiological source(s) of metal ions is not known; however, purified ceruloplasmin, a plasma protein containing 7 coppers, oxidizes LDL in vitro. We now show that ceruloplasmin also increases LDL oxidation by vascular cells. In metal ion-free medium, human ceruloplasmin increased bovine aortic SMC- and EC-mediated LDL oxidation by up to 30- and 15-fold, respectively. The maximal response was at 100-300 microg ceruloplasmin/ml, a level at or below the unevoked physiological plasma concentration. Oxidant activity was dependent on protein structure as a specific proteolytic cleavage or removal of one of the seven ceruloplasmin copper atoms inhibited activity. Three lines of evidence indicated a critical role for cellular superoxide (O2.) in ceruloplasmin-stimulated oxidation. First, the rate of production of O2. by cells correlated with their rates of LDL oxidation. Second, superoxide dismutase effectively blocked ceruloplasmin-stimulated oxidation by both cell types. Finally, O2. production by SMC quantitatively accounted for the observed rate of LDL oxidation. To show this, the course of O2. production by SMC was simulated by repeated addition of xanthine and xanthine oxidase to culture medium under cell-free conditions. Neither ceruloplasmin nor O2. alone increased LDL oxidation, but together they completely reconstituted the oxidation rate of ceruloplasmin-stimulated SMC. These results are the first to show that ceruloplasmin stimulates EC- and SMC-mediated oxidation of LDL and that cell-derived O2. accounts quantitatively for metal-dependent, free radical-initiated oxidation of LDL by these cells.

  2. Distinct terminal and cell body mechanisms in the nociceptor mediate hyperalgesic priming.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Luiz F; Araldi, Dioneia; Levine, Jon D

    2015-04-15

    Hyperalgesic priming, a form of neuroplasticity in nociceptors, is a model of the transition from acute to chronic pain in the rat, which involves signaling from the site of an acute tissue insult in the vicinity of the peripheral terminal of a nociceptor to its cell body that, in turn, induces a signal that travels back to the terminal to mediate a marked prolongation of prostaglandin E2-induced hyperalgesia. In the present experiments, we studied the underlying mechanisms in the cell body and compared them to the mechanisms in the nerve terminal. Injection of a cell-permeant cAMP analog, 8-bromo cAMP, into the dorsal root ganglion induced mechanical hyperalgesia and priming with an onset more rapid than when induced at the peripheral terminal. Priming induced by intraganglion 8-bromo cAMP was prevented by an oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to mRNA for a transcription factor, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and by an inhibitor of importin, which is required for activated CREB to get into the nucleus. While peripheral administration of 8-bromo cAMP also produced hyperalgesia, it did not produce priming. Conversely, interventions administered in the vicinity of the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor that induces priming-PKCε activator, NGF, and TNF-α-when injected into the ganglion produce hyperalgesia but not priming. The protein translation inhibitor cordycepin, injected at the peripheral terminal but not into the ganglion, reverses priming induced at either the ganglion or peripheral terminal of the nociceptor. These data implicate different mechanisms in the soma and terminal in the transition to chronic pain.

  3. Distinct Terminal and Cell Body Mechanisms in the Nociceptor Mediate Hyperalgesic Priming

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Luiz F.; Araldi, Dioneia

    2015-01-01

    Hyperalgesic priming, a form of neuroplasticity in nociceptors, is a model of the transition from acute to chronic pain in the rat, which involves signaling from the site of an acute tissue insult in the vicinity of the peripheral terminal of a nociceptor to its cell body that, in turn, induces a signal that travels back to the terminal to mediate a marked prolongation of prostaglandin E2-induced hyperalgesia. In the present experiments, we studied the underlying mechanisms in the cell body and compared them to the mechanisms in the nerve terminal. Injection of a cell-permeant cAMP analog, 8-bromo cAMP, into the dorsal root ganglion induced mechanical hyperalgesia and priming with an onset more rapid than when induced at the peripheral terminal. Priming induced by intraganglion 8-bromo cAMP was prevented by an oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to mRNA for a transcription factor, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and by an inhibitor of importin, which is required for activated CREB to get into the nucleus. While peripheral administration of 8-bromo cAMP also produced hyperalgesia, it did not produce priming. Conversely, interventions administered in the vicinity of the peripheral terminal of the nociceptor that induces priming—PKCε activator, NGF, and TNF-α—when injected into the ganglion produce hyperalgesia but not priming. The protein translation inhibitor cordycepin, injected at the peripheral terminal but not into the ganglion, reverses priming induced at either the ganglion or peripheral terminal of the nociceptor. These data implicate different mechanisms in the soma and terminal in the transition to chronic pain. PMID:25878283

  4. Ionic mechanisms mediating oscillatory membrane potentials in wide-field retinal amacrine cells.

    PubMed

    Vigh, Jozsef; Solessio, Eduardo; Morgans, Catherine W; Lasater, Eric M

    2003-07-01

    Particular types of amacrine cells of the vertebrate retina show oscillatory membrane potentials (OMPs) in response to light stimulation. Historically it has been thought the oscillations arose as a result of circuit properties. In a previous study we found that in some amacrine cells, the ability to oscillate was an intrinsic property of the cell. Here we characterized the ionic mechanisms responsible for the oscillations in wide-field amacrine cells (WFACs) in an effort to better understand the functional properties of the cell. The OMPs were found to be calcium (Ca2+) dependent; blocking voltage-gated Ca2+ channels eliminated the oscillations, whereas elevating extracellular Ca2+ enhanced them. Strong intracellular Ca2+ buffering (10 mM EGTA or bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) eliminated any attenuation in the OMPs as well as a Ca2+-dependent inactivation of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Pharmacological and immunohistochemical characterization revealed that WFACs express L- and N-type voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels. Block of the L-type channels eliminated the OMPs, but omega-conotoxin GVIA did not, suggesting a different function for the N-type channels. The L-type channels in WFACs are functionally coupled to a set of calcium-dependent potassium (K(Ca)) channels to mediate OMPs. The initiation of OMPs depended on penitrem-A-sensitive (BK) K(Ca) channels, whereas their duration is under apamin-sensitive (SK) K(Ca) channel control. The Ca2+ current is essential to evoke the OMPs and triggering the K(Ca) currents, which here act as resonant currents, enhances the resonance as an amplifying current, influences the filtering characteristics of the cell membrane, and attenuates the OMPs via CDI of the L-type Ca2+ channel.

  5. Therapeutic targeting of myeloid-derived suppressor cells involves a novel mechanism mediated by clusterin

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junmin; Donatelli, Sarah S.; Gilvary, Danielle L.; Tejera, Melba M.; Eksioglu, Erika A.; Chen, Xianghong; Coppola, Domenico; Wei, Sheng; Djeu, Julie Y.

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) constitute a key checkpoint that impedes tumor immunity against cancer. Chemotherapeutic intervention of MDSCs has gained ground as a strategy for cancer therapy but its mechanism remains obscure.We report here a unique mechanism by which monocytic (M)-MDSCs are spared, allowing them to polarize towards M1 macrophages for reactivation of immunity against breast cancer. We first demonstrated that curcumin, like docetaxel (DTX), can selectively target CD11b+Ly6G+Ly6Clow granulocytic (G)-MDSCs, sparing CD11b+Ly6G−Ly6Chigh M-MDSCs, with reduced tumor burden in 4T1-Neu tumor-bearing mice. Curcumin treatment polarized surviving M-MDSCs toward CCR7+ Dectin-1−M1 cells, accompanied by IFN-γ production and cytolytic function in T cells. Selective M-MDSC chemoresistence to curcumin and DTX was mediated by secretory/cytoplasmic clusterin (sCLU). sCLU functions by trapping Bax from mitochondrial translocation, preventing the apoptotic cascade. Importantly, sCLU was only found in M-MDSCs but not in G-MDSCs. Knockdown of sCLU in M-MDSCs and RAW264.7 macrophages was found to reverse their natural chemoresistance. Clinically, breast cancer patients possess sCLU expression only in mature CD68+ macrophages but not in immature CD33+ immunosuppressive myeloid cells infiltrating the tumors. We thus made the seminal discovery that sCLU expression in M-MDSCs accounts for positive immunomodulation by chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27405665

  6. Development of a tailorable and tunable mechanism for cell-responsive substrate-mediated gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blocker, Kory M.

    Due to the spatial and temporal control as well as the cell-type specificity necessary to extend gene delivery to therapeutic applications, there exists a need to create systems capable of gene transfer that are well-understood and easily manipulated. Furthermore, the creation of such materials will enable further exploration of the correlation between biochemical cues and the resulting cellular responses. In response to this as yet unmet need, a method to promote cell-responsive substrate-mediated gene delivery was developed for this dissertation. Through the use of non-viral gene delivery, flexibility of the vehicle design was incorporated into the system. Using PNA technology, pDNA was able to be specifically tethered to a self-assembled monolayer via an enzymatically-labile peptide tether. This construct was shown to promote cell-responsive delivery while retaining flexibility over the chemical and physical properties of the vehicle and substrate. By alteration of some design parameters including tether number, pDNA surface coverage, and complexation agent, temporal control over the release profile was demonstrated. Furthermore, the ability to extend the applicability of the system was detailed by transitioning to a poly-D-lysine coated substrate upon which the pDNA is immobilized. This dissertation details proof-of-principle work in the formation of a controlled release gene delivery mechanism that may be used to promote understanding of cellular responses to biochemical signaling as well as be extended to use in tissue engineering applications.

  7. Mechanisms of synthetic serine protease inhibitor (FUT-175)-mediated cell death.

    PubMed

    Uwagawa, Tadashi; Li, Zhongkui; Chang, Zhe; Xia, Qianghua; Peng, Bailu; Sclabas, Guido M; Ishiyama, Satoshi; Hung, Mien-Chie; Evans, Douglas B; Abbruzzese, James L; Chiao, Paul J

    2007-05-15

    Constitutive activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a frequent molecular alteration in pancreatic cancer and a number of studies have suggested that constitutive NF-kappaB activity plays a key role in the aggressive behavior of this disease. In an attempt to identify an effective therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer, the authors studied the role of FUT-175, a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, in the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and the induction of apoptotic responses. To examine the effect of FUT-175 on the inhibition of NF-kappaB and the induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cell lines, Western and Northern blot analyses, electromobility shift (EMSA), luciferase reporter gene, DNA fragmentation, immunoprecipitation, in vitro kinase, small interfering RNA (siRNA), and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed. In a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner, FUT-175 inhibited IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation, thereby inhibiting the antiapoptotic activity of NF-kappaB. Simultaneously, FUT-175 up-regulated the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1), which in turn activated the proapoptotic caspase-8 and Bid pathways and induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. FUT-175-induced activation of Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and caspase-8 was suppressed by RNA interference-mediated inhibition of TNFR1 expression. Furthermore, expression of the transcription factor PEA3 was up-regulated by FUT-175 and was involved in FUT-175-mediated TNFR1 expression. These results suggested a possible mechanism by which FUT-175 may disrupt interconnected signaling pathways by both suppressing the NF-kappaB antiapoptotic activity and inducing TNFR-mediated apoptosis. Supported by this unique function as a NF-kappaB inhibitor and apoptosis inducer, this well-established synthetic serine protease inhibitor with as-of-yet poorly understood mechanisms of actions appears to be a potentially therapeutic

  8. Vimentin contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition cancer cell mechanics by mediating cytoskeletal organization and focal adhesion maturation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ching-Yi; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Tang, Ming-Jer; Wang, Yang-Kao

    2015-01-01

    Modulations of cytoskeletal organization and focal adhesion turnover correlate to tumorigenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the latter process accompanied by the loss of epithelial markers and the gain of mesenchymal markers (e.g., vimentin). Clinical microarray results demonstrated that increased levels of vimentin mRNA after chemotherapy correlated to a poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. We hypothesized that vimentin mediated the reorganization of cytoskeletons to maintain the mechanical integrity in EMT cancer cells. By using knockdown strategy, the results showed reduced cell proliferation, impaired wound healing, loss of directional migration, and increased large membrane extension in MDA-MB 231 cells. Vimentin depletion also induced reorganization of cytoskeletons and reduced focal adhesions, which resulted in impaired mechanical strength because of reduced cell stiffness and contractile force. In addition, overexpressing vimentin in MCF7 cells increased cell stiffness, elevated cell motility and directional migration, reoriented microtubule polarity, and increased EMT phenotypes due to the increased β1-integrin and the loss of junction protein E-cadherin. The EMT-related transcription factor slug was also mediated by vimentin. The current study demonstrated that vimentin serves as a regulator to maintain intracellular mechanical homeostasis by mediating cytoskeleton architecture and the balance of cell force generation in EMT cancer cells. PMID:25965826

  9. Vimentin contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition cancer cell mechanics by mediating cytoskeletal organization and focal adhesion maturation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ching-Yi; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Tang, Ming-Jer; Wang, Yang-Kao

    2015-06-30

    Modulations of cytoskeletal organization and focal adhesion turnover correlate to tumorigenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the latter process accompanied by the loss of epithelial markers and the gain of mesenchymal markers (e.g., vimentin). Clinical microarray results demonstrated that increased levels of vimentin mRNA after chemotherapy correlated to a poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. We hypothesized that vimentin mediated the reorganization of cytoskeletons to maintain the mechanical integrity in EMT cancer cells. By using knockdown strategy, the results showed reduced cell proliferation, impaired wound healing, loss of directional migration, and increased large membrane extension in MDA-MB 231 cells. Vimentin depletion also induced reorganization of cytoskeletons and reduced focal adhesions, which resulted in impaired mechanical strength because of reduced cell stiffness and contractile force. In addition, overexpressing vimentin in MCF7 cells increased cell stiffness, elevated cell motility and directional migration, reoriented microtubule polarity, and increased EMT phenotypes due to the increased β1-integrin and the loss of junction protein E-cadherin. The EMT-related transcription factor slug was also mediated by vimentin. The current study demonstrated that vimentin serves as a regulator to maintain intracellular mechanical homeostasis by mediating cytoskeleton architecture and the balance of cell force generation in EMT cancer cells.

  10. Exosomes are released by bystander cells exposed to radiation-induced biophoton signals: Reconciling the mechanisms mediating the bystander effect.

    PubMed

    Le, Michelle; Fernandez-Palomo, Cristian; McNeill, Fiona E; Seymour, Colin B; Rainbow, Andrew J; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2017-01-01

    The objective of our study was to explore a possible molecular mechanism by which ultraviolet (UV) biophotons could elicit bystander responses in reporter cells and resolve the problem of seemingly mutually exclusive mechanisms of a physical UV signal & a soluble factor-mediated bystander signal. The human colon carcinoma cell line, HCT116 p53 +/+, was directly irradiated with 0.5 Gy tritium beta particles to induce ultraviolet biophoton emission. Bystander cells were not directly irradiated but were exposed to the emitted UV biophotons. Medium was subsequently harvested from UV-exposed bystander cells. The exosomes extracted from this medium were incubated with reporter cell populations. These reporter cells were then assayed for clonogenic survival and mitochondrial membrane potential with and without prior treatment of the exosomes with RNase. Clonogenic cell survival was significantly reduced in reporter cells incubated with exosomes extracted from cells exposed to secondarily-emitted UV. These exosomes also induced significant mitochondrial membrane depolarization in receiving reporter cells. Conversely, exosomes extracted from non-UV-exposed cells did not produce bystander effects in reporter cells. The treatment of exosomes with RNase prior to their incubation with reporter cells effectively abolished bystander effects in reporter cells and this suggests a role for RNA in mediating the bystander response elicited by UV biophotons and their produced exosomes. This study supports a role for exosomes released from UV biophoton-exposed bystander cells in eliciting bystander responses and also indicates a reconciliation between the UV-mediated bystander effect and the bystander effect which has been suggested in the literature to be mediated by soluble factors.

  11. Exosomes are released by bystander cells exposed to radiation-induced biophoton signals: Reconciling the mechanisms mediating the bystander effect

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Palomo, Cristian; McNeill, Fiona E.; Seymour, Colin B.; Rainbow, Andrew J.; Mothersill, Carmel E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of our study was to explore a possible molecular mechanism by which ultraviolet (UV) biophotons could elicit bystander responses in reporter cells and resolve the problem of seemingly mutually exclusive mechanisms of a physical UV signal & a soluble factor-mediated bystander signal. Methods The human colon carcinoma cell line, HCT116 p53 +/+, was directly irradiated with 0.5 Gy tritium beta particles to induce ultraviolet biophoton emission. Bystander cells were not directly irradiated but were exposed to the emitted UV biophotons. Medium was subsequently harvested from UV-exposed bystander cells. The exosomes extracted from this medium were incubated with reporter cell populations. These reporter cells were then assayed for clonogenic survival and mitochondrial membrane potential with and without prior treatment of the exosomes with RNase. Results Clonogenic cell survival was significantly reduced in reporter cells incubated with exosomes extracted from cells exposed to secondarily-emitted UV. These exosomes also induced significant mitochondrial membrane depolarization in receiving reporter cells. Conversely, exosomes extracted from non-UV-exposed cells did not produce bystander effects in reporter cells. The treatment of exosomes with RNase prior to their incubation with reporter cells effectively abolished bystander effects in reporter cells and this suggests a role for RNA in mediating the bystander response elicited by UV biophotons and their produced exosomes. Conclusion This study supports a role for exosomes released from UV biophoton-exposed bystander cells in eliciting bystander responses and also indicates a reconciliation between the UV-mediated bystander effect and the bystander effect which has been suggested in the literature to be mediated by soluble factors. PMID:28278290

  12. ADAR1-Mediated RNA Editing, A Novel Mechanism Controlling Phenotypic Modulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Fei, Jia; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Jia-Ning; Dong, Kun; Chen, Shi-You

    2016-07-22

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic modulation is characterized by the downregulation of SMC contractile genes. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB, a well-known stimulator of SMC phenotypic modulation, downregulates SMC genes via posttranscriptional regulation. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown. To establish RNA editing as a novel mechanism controlling SMC phenotypic modulation. Precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNA) of SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle α-actin were accumulated while their mature mRNAs were downregulated during SMC phenotypic modulation, suggesting an abnormal splicing of the pre-mRNAs. The abnormal splicing resulted from SMC marker pre-mRNA editing that was facilitated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1), an enzyme converting adenosines to inosines (A→I editing) in RNA sequences. ADAR1 expression inversely correlated with SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle α-actin levels; knockdown of ADAR1 restored SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle α-actin expression in phenotypically modulated SMC, and editase domain mutation diminished the ADAR1-mediated abnormal splicing of SMC marker pre-mRNAs. Moreover, the abnormal splicing/editing of SMC myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle α-actin pre-mRNAs occurred during injury-induced vascular remodeling. Importantly, heterozygous knockout of ADAR1 dramatically inhibited injury-induced neointima formation and restored SMC marker expression, demonstrating a critical role of ADAR1 in SMC phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling in vivo. Our results unraveled a novel molecular mechanism, that is, pre-mRNA editing, governing SMC phenotypic modulation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Functionalized fullerenes mediate photodynamic killing of cancer cells: Type I versus Type II photochemical mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Mroz, Pawel; Pawlak, Anna; Satti, Minahil; Lee, Haeryeon; Wharton, Tim; Gali, Hariprasad; Sarna, Tadeusz; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs the combination of non-toxic photosensitizers (PS) and harmless visible light to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and kill cells. Most clinically studied PS are based on the tetrapyrrole structure of porphyrins, chlorins and related molecules, but new non-tetrapyrrole PS are being sought. Fullerenes are soccer-ball shaped molecules composed of sixty or seventy carbon atoms and have attracted interest in connection with the search for biomedical applications of nanotechnology. Fullerenes are biologically inert unless derivatized with functional groups, whereupon they become soluble and can act as PS. We have compared the photodynamic activity of six functionalized fullerenes with 1, 2, or 3 hydrophilic or 1, 2, or 3 cationic groups. The octanol-water partition coefficients were determined and the relative contributions of Type I photochemistry (photogeneration of superoxide in the presence of NADH) and Type II photochemistry (photogeneration of singlet oxygen) were studied by measurement of oxygen consumption, 1270-nm luminescence and EPR spin-trapping of the superoxide product. We studied three mouse cancer cell lines: (J774, LLC and CT26) incubated for 24 h with fullerenes and illuminated with white light. The order of effectiveness as PS was inversely proportional to the degree of substitution of the fullerene nucleus for both the neutral and cationic series. The mono-pyrrolidinium fullerene was the most active PS against all cell lines and induced apoptosis 4–6 hours after illumination. It produced diffuse intracellular fluorescence when dichlorodihydrofluorescein was added as an ROS probe suggesting a Type I mechanism for phototoxicity. We conclude that certain functionalized fullerenes have potential as novel PDT agents and phototoxicity may be mediated both by superoxide and by singlet oxygen. PMID:17664135

  14. trans-10,cis-12 CLA promotes osteoblastogenesis via SMAD mediated mechanism in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonggun; Park, Yooheon; Park, Yeonhwa

    2014-01-01

    The inverse relationship between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells has been linked to overall bone mass. It has previously been reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits adipogenesis via a peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) mediated mechanism, while it increases osteoblastogenesis via a PPARγ-independent mechanism in mesenchymal stem cells. This suggests potential implication of CLA on improving bone mass. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine involvement of CLA on regulation of osteoblastogenesis in murine mesenchymal stem cells by focusing on the Mothers against decapentaplegic (MAD)-related family of molecules 8 (SMAD8), one of key regulators of osteoblastogenesis. The trans-10,cis-12 CLA, but not the cis-9,trans-11, significantly increased osteoblastogenesis via SMAD8, and inhibited adipogenesis independent of SMAD8, while inhibiting factors regulating osteoclastogenesis in this model. These suggest that CLA may help improve osteoblastogenesis via a SMAD8 mediated mechanism. PMID:25035711

  15. trans-10,cis-12 CLA promotes osteoblastogenesis via SMAD mediated mechanism in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonggun; Park, Yooheon; Park, Yeonhwa

    2014-05-01

    The inverse relationship between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells has been linked to overall bone mass. It has previously been reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits adipogenesis via a peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) mediated mechanism, while it increases osteoblastogenesis via a PPARγ-independent mechanism in mesenchymal stem cells. This suggests potential implication of CLA on improving bone mass. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine involvement of CLA on regulation of osteoblastogenesis in murine mesenchymal stem cells by focusing on the Mothers against decapentaplegic (MAD)-related family of molecules 8 (SMAD8), one of key regulators of osteoblastogenesis. The trans-10,cis-12 CLA, but not the cis-9,trans-11, significantly increased osteoblastogenesis via SMAD8, and inhibited adipogenesis independent of SMAD8, while inhibiting factors regulating osteoclastogenesis in this model. These suggest that CLA may help improve osteoblastogenesis via a SMAD8 mediated mechanism.

  16. Mechanisms of Contact-Mediated Killing of Yeast Cells on Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces▿

    PubMed Central

    Quaranta, Davide; Krans, Travis; Santo, Christophe Espírito; Elowsky, Christian G.; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Surfaces made of copper or its alloys have strong antimicrobial properties against a wide variety of microorganisms. However, the molecular mode of action responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy of metallic copper is not known. Here, we show that dry copper surfaces inactivate Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae within minutes in a process called contact-mediated killing. Cellular copper ion homeostasis systems influenced the kinetics of contact-mediated killing in both organisms. Deregulated copper ion uptake through a hyperactive S. cerevisiae Ctr1p (ScCtr1p) copper uptake transporter in Saccharomyces resulted in faster inactivation of mutant cells than of wild-type cells. Similarly, lack of the C. albicans Crp1p (CaCrp1p) copper-efflux P-type ATPase or the metallothionein CaCup1p caused more-rapid killing of Candida mutant cells than of wild-type cells. Candida and Saccharomyces took up large quantities of copper ions as soon as they were in contact with copper surfaces, as indicated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis and by the intracellular copper ion-reporting dye coppersensor-1. Exposure to metallic copper did not cause lethality through genotoxicity, deleterious action on a cell's genetic material, as indicated by a mutation assay with Saccharomyces. Instead, toxicity mediated by metallic copper surfaces targeted membranes in both yeast species. With the use of Live/Dead staining, onset of rapid and extensive cytoplasmic membrane damage was observed in cells from copper surfaces. Fluorescence microscopy using the indicator dye DiSBaC2(3) indicated that cell membranes were depolarized. Also, during contact-mediated killing, vacuoles first became enlarged and then disappeared from the cells. Lastly, in metallic copper-stressed yeasts, oxidative stress in the cytoplasm and in mitochondria was elevated. PMID:21097600

  17. Magnetic nanoparticle-mediated massively-parallel mechanical modulation of single-cell behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Peter; Judy, Jack W.; Di Carlo, Dino

    2012-01-01

    We report a technique for generating controllable, time-varying and localizable forces on arrays of cells in a massively parallel fashion. To achieve this, we grow magnetic nanoparticle-dosed cells in defined patterns on micro-magnetic substrates. By manipulating and coalescing nanoparticles within cells, we apply localized nanoparticle-mediated forces approaching cellular yield tensions on the cortex of HeLa cells. We observed highly coordinated responses in cellular behavior, including the p21-activated kinase (PAK)-dependent generation of active, leading-edge type filopodia, and biasing of the metaphase plate during mitosis. The large sample size and rapid sample generation inherent to this approach allow the analysis of cells at an unprecedented rate; a single experiment can potentially stimulate tens of thousands of cells for high statistical accuracy in measurements. This technique shows promise as a tool for both cell analysis and control. PMID:23064517

  18. Wnt5a promotes cancer cell invasion and proliferation by receptor-mediated endocytosis-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively

    PubMed Central

    Shojima, Kensaku; Sato, Akira; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsujimoto, Ikuko; Nakamura, Masahiro; Hattori, Kazunari; Sato, Yuji; Dohi, Keiji; Hirata, Michinari; Yamamoto, Hideki; Kikuchi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Wnt5a activates the Wnt/β-catenin-independent pathway and its overexpression is associated with tumor aggressiveness enhancing invasive activity. For this action, Wnt5a-induced receptor endocytosis with clathrin is required. Wnt5a expression was previously believed to be associated with cancer cell motility but not proliferation. Recently, it was reported that Wnt5a is also implicated in cancer cell proliferation, but the mechanism was not clear. In this study, we generated a neutralizing anti-Wnt5a monoclonal antibody (mAb5A16) to investigate the mechanism by which Wnt5a regulates cancer cell proliferation. Wnt5a stimulated both invasion and proliferation of certain types of cancer cells, including HeLaS3 cervical cancer cells and A549 lung cancer cells although Wnt5a promoted invasion but not proliferation in other cancer cells such as KKLS gastric cancer cells. mAb5A16 did not affect the binding of Wnt5a to its receptor, but it suppressed Wnt5a-induced receptor-mediated endocytosis. mAb5A16 inhibited invasion but not proliferation of HeLaS3 and A549 cells. Wnt5a activated Src family kinases (SFKs) and Wnt5a-dependent cancer cell proliferation was dependent on SFKs, yet blockade of receptor-mediated endocytosis did not affect cancer cell proliferation and SFK activity. These results suggest that Wnt5a promotes invasion and proliferation of certain types of cancer cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. PMID:25622531

  19. Monocytes regulate the mechanism of T-cell death by inducing Fas-mediated apoptosis during bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Daigneault, Marc; De Silva, Thushan I; Bewley, Martin A; Preston, Julie A; Marriott, Helen M; Mitchell, Andrea M; Mitchell, Timothy J; Read, Robert C; Whyte, Moira K B; Dockrell, David H

    2012-01-01

    Monocytes and T-cells are critical to the host response to acute bacterial infection but monocytes are primarily viewed as amplifying the inflammatory signal. The mechanisms of cell death regulating T-cell numbers at sites of infection are incompletely characterized. T-cell death in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) showed 'classic' features of apoptosis following exposure to pneumococci. Conversely, purified CD3(+) T-cells cultured with pneumococci demonstrated necrosis with membrane permeabilization. The death of purified CD3(+) T-cells was not inhibited by necrostatin, but required the bacterial toxin pneumolysin. Apoptosis of CD3(+) T-cells in PBMC cultures required 'classical' CD14(+) monocytes, which enhanced T-cell activation. CD3(+) T-cell death was enhanced in HIV-seropositive individuals. Monocyte-mediated CD3(+) T-cell apoptotic death was Fas-dependent both in vitro and in vivo. In the early stages of the T-cell dependent host response to pneumococci reduced Fas ligand mediated T-cell apoptosis was associated with decreased bacterial clearance in the lung and increased bacteremia. In summary monocytes converted pathogen-associated necrosis into Fas-dependent apoptosis and regulated levels of activated T-cells at sites of acute bacterial infection. These changes were associated with enhanced bacterial clearance in the lung and reduced levels of invasive pneumococcal disease.

  20. Mechanism of pentoxifylline mediated down-regulation of killer lineage cell functions

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, P.; Sheth, K.; Einspenner, M.; Al-Sedairy, S.

    1993-01-01

    The authors reported recently that endotoxaemia mediated elevated levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-1α (IL-1α) were involved in the pathophysiology of acute heat stroke patients. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is known to modulate neutrophil functions. In the present study the effects of PTX on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cytokine induced T-cell and macrophage (ΦM) activation, and on natural killer (NK) cell and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell mediated cytotoxicity were examined. Finally, the effect of PTX on the expression of adhesion molecules (LFA-1, Mac-1 and ICAM-1), and cytokine (IL-1α, IL-2, TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ) production and their surface receptor expression in response to LPS activation was investigated. PTX free cultures served as a control. Results revealed that PTX can down-regulate all the above-mentioned immunological parameters in a dosedependent manner. These findings might have far reaching clinical implications. PMID:18475549

  1. An Fcγ receptor-dependent mechanism drives antibody-mediated target-receptor signaling in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nicholas S; Yang, Becky; Yang, Annie; Loeser, Stefanie; Marsters, Scot; Lawrence, David; Li, Yun; Pitti, Robert; Totpal, Klara; Yee, Sharon; Ross, Sarajane; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Lu, Yanmei; Adams, Cam; Offringa, Rienk; Kelley, Bob; Hymowitz, Sarah; Daniel, Dylan; Meng, Gloria; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2011-01-18

    Antibodies to cell-surface antigens trigger activatory Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated retrograde signals in leukocytes to control immune effector functions. Here, we uncover an FcγR mechanism that drives antibody-dependent forward signaling in target cells. Agonistic antibodies to death receptor 5 (DR5) induce cancer-cell apoptosis and are in clinical trials; however, their mechanism of action in vivo is not fully defined. Interaction of the DR5-agonistic antibody drozitumab with leukocyte FcγRs promoted DR5-mediated tumor-cell apoptosis. Whereas the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab required activatory FcγRs for tumoricidal function, drozitumab was effective in the context of either activatory or inhibitory FcγRs. A CD40-agonistic antibody required similar FcγR interactions to stimulate nuclear factor-κB activity in B cells. Thus, FcγRs can drive antibody-mediated receptor signaling in target cells.

  2. Mitochondria-Mediated Protein Regulation Mechanism of Polymorphs-Dependent Inhibition of Nanoselenium on Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ge; Guo, Yuming; Yang, Gai; Yang, Lin; Ma, Xiaoming; Wang, Kui; Zhu, Lin; Sun, Jiaojiao; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Hua

    2016-08-01

    The present study was (i) to prepare two types of selenium nanoparticles, namely an amorphous form of selenium quantum dots (A-SeQDs) and a crystalline form of selenium quantum dots (C-SeQDs); and (ii) to investigate the nano-bio interactions of A-SeQDs and C-SeQDs in MCF-7, HepG2, HeLa, NIH/3T3, L929 cells and BRL-3A cells. It was found that A-SeQDs could induce the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, necrosis and death of cells, while C-SeQDs had much weaker effects. This polymorphs-dependent anti-proliferative activity of nano-selenium was scarcely reported. Further investigation demonstrated that A-SeQDs could differentially regulate 61 proteins and several pathways related to stress response, protein synthesis, cell migration and cell cycle, including “p38 MAPK Signaling”, “p53 Signaling”, “14-3-3-mediated Signaling”, “p70S6K Signaling” and “Protein Ubiquitination Pathway”. This was the first report to demonstrate the involvement of protein synthesis and post-translational modification pathways in the anti-proliferative activity associated with NMs. Compared with previously fragmentary studies, this study use a nanomics approach combining bioinformatics and proteomics to systematically investigate the nano-bio interactions of selenium nanoparticles in cancer cells.

  3. Mitochondria-Mediated Protein Regulation Mechanism of Polymorphs-Dependent Inhibition of Nanoselenium on Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ge; Guo, Yuming; Yang, Gai; Yang, Lin; Ma, Xiaoming; Wang, Kui; Zhu, Lin; Sun, Jiaojiao; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The present study was (i) to prepare two types of selenium nanoparticles, namely an amorphous form of selenium quantum dots (A-SeQDs) and a crystalline form of selenium quantum dots (C-SeQDs); and (ii) to investigate the nano-bio interactions of A-SeQDs and C-SeQDs in MCF-7, HepG2, HeLa, NIH/3T3, L929 cells and BRL-3A cells. It was found that A-SeQDs could induce the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, necrosis and death of cells, while C-SeQDs had much weaker effects. This polymorphs-dependent anti-proliferative activity of nano-selenium was scarcely reported. Further investigation demonstrated that A-SeQDs could differentially regulate 61 proteins and several pathways related to stress response, protein synthesis, cell migration and cell cycle, including “p38 MAPK Signaling”, “p53 Signaling”, “14-3-3-mediated Signaling”, “p70S6K Signaling” and “Protein Ubiquitination Pathway”. This was the first report to demonstrate the involvement of protein synthesis and post-translational modification pathways in the anti-proliferative activity associated with NMs. Compared with previously fragmentary studies, this study use a nanomics approach combining bioinformatics and proteomics to systematically investigate the nano-bio interactions of selenium nanoparticles in cancer cells. PMID:27514819

  4. CD8+ T Cell-Independent Immune-Mediated Mechanisms of Anti-Tumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pluhar, G. Elizabeth; Pennell, Christopher A.; Olin, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing number of preclinical and clinical trials focused on immunotherapy for the treatment of malignant gliomas, the prognosis for this disease remains grim. Cancer immunotherapy seeks to recruit an effective immune response to eliminate tumor cells. To date, cancer vaccines have shown only limited effectiveness because of our incomplete understanding of the necessary effector cells and mechanisms that yield efficient tumor clearance. CD8+ T cell cytotoxic activity has long been proposed as the primary effector function necessary for tumor regression. However, there is increasing evidence that indicates that components of the immune system other than CD8+ T cells play important roles in tumor eradication and control. The following review should provide an understanding of the mechanisms involved in an effective antitumor response to guide future therapeutic designs. The information provided suggests an alternate means of effective tumor clearance in malignant glioma to the canonical CD8+ cytotoxic T cell mechanism. PMID:26351148

  5. Hypoxia-induced angiotensin II by the lactate-chymase-dependent mechanism mediates radioresistance of hypoxic tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Guozhu; Liu, Ying; Yao, Qiwei; Zheng, Rong; Zhang, Lanfang; Lin, Jie; Guo, Zhaoze; Du, Shasha; Ren, Chen; Yuan, Quan; Yuan, Yawei

    2017-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a principal determinant of arterial blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance. RAS component dysregulation was recently found in some malignancies and correlated with poor patient outcomes. However, the exact mechanism of local RAS activation in tumors is still unclear. Here, we find that the local angiotensin II predominantly exists in the hypoxic regions of tumor formed by nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells and breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, where these tumor cells autocrinely produce angiotensin II by a chymase-dependent rather than an angiotensin converting enzyme-dependent mechanism. We further demonstrate in nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 and 5–8F cells that this chymase-dependent effect is mediated by increased levels of lactate, a by-product of glycolytic metabolism. Finally, we show that the enhanced angiotensin II plays an important role in the intracellular accumulation of HIF-1α of hypoxic nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and mediates the radiation-resistant phenotype of these nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Thus, our findings reveal the critical role of hypoxia in producing local angiotensin II by a lactate-chymase-dependent mechanism and highlight the importance of local angiotensin II in regulating radioresistance of hypoxic tumor cells. PMID:28205588

  6. Molecular Mechanisms by Which a Fucus vesiculosus Extract Mediates Cell Cycle Inhibition and Cell Death in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Geisen, Ulf; Zenthoefer, Marion; Peipp, Matthias; Kerber, Jannik; Plenge, Johannes; Managò, Antonella; Fuhrmann, Markus; Geyer, Roland; Hennig, Steffen; Adam, Dieter; Piker, Levent; Rimbach, Gerald; Kalthoff, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive cancer entities, with an extremely poor 5-year survival rate. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents with specific modes of action are urgently needed. Marine organisms represent a promising source to identify new pharmacologically active substances. Secondary metabolites derived from marine algae are of particular interest. The present work describes cellular and molecular mechanisms induced by an HPLC-fractionated, hydrophilic extract derived from the Baltic brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus (Fv1). Treatment with Fv1 resulted in a strong inhibition of viability in various pancreatic cancer cell lines. This extract inhibited the cell cycle of proliferating cells due to the up-regulation of cell cycle inhibitors, shown on the mRNA (microarray data) and protein level. As a result, cells were dying in a caspase-independent manner. Experiments with non-dividing cells showed that proliferation is a prerequisite for the effectiveness of Fv1. Importantly, Fv1 showed low cytotoxic activity against non-malignant resting T cells and terminally differentiated cells like erythrocytes. Interestingly, accelerated killing effects were observed in combination with inhibitors of autophagy. Our in vitro data suggest that Fv1 may represent a promising new agent that deserves further development towards clinical application. PMID:26204945

  7. Molecular Mechanisms by Which a Fucus vesiculosus Extract Mediates Cell Cycle Inhibition and Cell Death in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Geisen, Ulf; Zenthoefer, Marion; Peipp, Matthias; Kerber, Jannik; Plenge, Johannes; Managò, Antonella; Fuhrmann, Markus; Geyer, Roland; Hennig, Steffen; Adam, Dieter; Piker, Levent; Rimbach, Gerald; Kalthoff, Holger

    2015-07-20

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive cancer entities, with an extremely poor 5-year survival rate. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents with specific modes of action are urgently needed. Marine organisms represent a promising source to identify new pharmacologically active substances. Secondary metabolites derived from marine algae are of particular interest. The present work describes cellular and molecular mechanisms induced by an HPLC-fractionated, hydrophilic extract derived from the Baltic brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus (Fv1). Treatment with Fv1 resulted in a strong inhibition of viability in various pancreatic cancer cell lines. This extract inhibited the cell cycle of proliferating cells due to the up-regulation of cell cycle inhibitors, shown on the mRNA (microarray data) and protein level. As a result, cells were dying in a caspase-independent manner. Experiments with non-dividing cells showed that proliferation is a prerequisite for the effectiveness of Fv1. Importantly, Fv1 showed low cytotoxic activity against non-malignant resting T cells and terminally differentiated cells like erythrocytes. Interestingly, accelerated killing effects were observed in combination with inhibitors of autophagy. Our in vitro data suggest that Fv1 may represent a promising new agent that deserves further development towards clinical application.

  8. The molecular mechanism of mediation of adsorbed serum proteins to endothelial cells adhesion and growth on biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dayun; Lü, Xiaoying; Hong, Ying; Xi, Tingfei; Zhang, Deyuan

    2013-07-01

    To explore molecular mechanism of mediation of adsorbed proteins to cell adhesion and growth on biomaterials, this study examined endothelial cell adhesion, morphology and viability on bare and titanium nitride (TiN) coated nickel titanium (NiTi) alloys and chitosan film firstly, and then identified the type and amount of serum proteins adsorbed on the three surfaces by proteomic technology. Subsequently, the mediation role of the identified proteins to cell adhesion and growth was investigated with bioinformatics analyses, and further confirmed by a series of cellular and molecular biological experiments. Results showed that the type and amount of adsorbed serum proteins associated with cell adhesion and growth was obviously higher on the alloys than on the chitosan film, and these proteins mediated endothelial cell adhesion and growth on the alloys via four ways. First, proteins such as adiponectin in the adsorbed protein layer bound with cell surface receptors to generate signal transduction, which activated cell surface integrins through increasing intracellular calcium level. Another way, thrombospondin 1 in the adsorbed protein layer promoted TGF-β signaling pathway activation and enhanced integrins expression. The third, RGD sequence containing proteins such as fibronectin 1, vitronectin and thrombospondin 1 in the adsorbed protein layer bound with activated integrins to activate focal adhesion pathway, increased focal adhesion formation and actin cytoskeleton organization and mediated cell adhesion and spreading. In addition, the activated focal adhesion pathway promoted the expression of cell growth related genes and resulted in cell proliferation. The fourth route, coagulation factor II (F2) and fibronectin 1 in the adsorbed protein layer bound with cell surface F2 receptor and integrin, activated regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathway and regulated actin cytoskeleton organization.

  9. Comparative mechanisms of protein transduction mediated by cell-penetrating peptides in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Betty Revon; Huang, Yue-Wern; Aronstam, Robert S; Lee, Han-Jung

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial and archaeal cell envelopes are complex multilayered barriers that serve to protect these microorganisms from their extremely harsh and often hostile environments. Import of exogenous proteins and nanoparticles into cells is important for biotechnological applications in prokaryotes. In this report, we demonstrate that cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), both bacteria-expressed nona-arginine peptide (R9) and synthetic R9 (SR9), are able to deliver noncovalently associated proteins or quantum dots into four representative species of prokaryotes: cyanobacteria (Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803), bacteria (Escherichia coli DH5α and Arthrobacter ilicis D-50), and archaea (Thermus aquaticus). Although energy-dependent endocytosis is generally accepted as a hallmark that distinguishes eukaryotes from prokaryotes, cellular uptake of uncomplexed green fluorescent protein (GFP) by cyanobacteria was mediated by classical endocytosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that macropinocytosis plays a critical and major role in CPP-mediated protein transduction in all four prokaryotes. Membrane damage was not observed when cyanobacterial cells were treated with R9/GFP complexes, nor was cytotoxicity detected when bacteria or archaea were treated with SR9/QD complexes in the presence of macropinocytic inhibitors. These results indicate that the uptake of protein is not due to a compromise of membrane integrity in cyanobacteria, and that CPP can be an effective and safe carrier for membrane trafficking in prokaryotic cells. Our investigation provides important new insights into the transport of exogenous proteins and nanoparticles across the complex membrane systems of prokaryotes.

  10. A molecular mechanism for TNF-α-mediated down-regulation of B cell responses1

    PubMed Central

    Frasca, Daniela; Romero, Maria; Diaz, Alain; Alter-Wolf, Sarah; Ratliff, Michelle; Landin, Ana Marie; Riley, Richard L; Blomberg, Bonnie B.

    2011-01-01

    B cell function with age is decreased in class switch recombination (CSR), activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and stability of E47 mRNA. The latter is regulated at least in part by tristetraprolin (TTP) which is increased in aged B cells and also negatively regulates TNF-α. Here, we investigate whether B cells produce TNF-α, whether this changes with age, and how this affects their function upon stimulation. Our hypothesis is that in aging there is a feedback mechanism of autocrine inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α) that lowers the expression of AID and CSR. Our results show that unstimulated B cells from old BALB/c mice make significantly more TNF-α mRNA and protein than B cells from young mice, but after stimulation the old make less than young, thus they are refractory to stimulation. The increase in TNF-α made by old B cells is primarily due to follicular, but not minor subsets of B cells. Pre-incubation of B cells with TNF-α before LPS stimulation decreases both young and old B cell responses. Importantly, B cell function was restored by adding anti-TNF-α antibody in cultured B cells. To address a molecular mechanism, we found that pre-incubation of B cells with TNF-α, before LPS stimulation, induces tristetraprolin, a physiological regulator of mRNA stability of the transcription factor E47, crucial for CSR. Finally, anti-TNF-α given in vivo was able to increase follicular B cell function in old but not in young follicular B cells. These results suggest new molecular mechanisms which contribute to reduced antibody responses in aging. PMID:22116831

  11. The mechanism of anti-CD20–mediated B cell depletion revealed by intravital imaging

    PubMed Central

    Montalvao, Fabricio; Garcia, Zacarias; Celli, Susanna; Breart, Béatrice; Deguine, Jacques; Van Rooijen, Nico; Bousso, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Anti-CD20 Ab therapy has proven successful for treating B cell malignancies and a number of autoimmune diseases. However, how anti-CD20 Abs operate in vivo to mediate B cell depletion is not fully understood. In particular, the anatomical location, the type of effector cells, and the mechanism underlying anti-CD20 therapy remain uncertain. Here, we found that the liver is a major site for B cell depletion and that recirculation accounts for the decrease in B cell numbers observed in secondary lymphoid organs. Using intravital imaging, we established that, upon anti-CD20 treatment, Kupffer cells (KCs) mediate the abrupt arrest and subsequent engulfment of B cells circulating in the liver sinusoids. KCs were also effective in depleting malignant B cells in a model of spontaneous lymphoma. Our results identify Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis by KCs as a primary mechanism of anti-CD20 therapy and provide an experimental framework for optimizing the efficacy of therapeutic Abs. PMID:24177426

  12. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells mediate anti-inflammatory responses to a gut commensal molecule via both innate and adaptive mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Suryasarathi; Erturk-Hasdemir, Deniz; Ochoa-Reparaz, Javier; Reinecker, Hans-Christian; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-04-09

    Polysaccharide A (PSA), the archetypical immunomodulatory molecule of the gut commensal Bacteroides fragilis, induces regulatory T cells to secrete the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). The cellular mediators of PSA's immunomodulatory properties are incompletely understood. In a mouse model of colitis, we find that PSA requires both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms to generate protection. Plasmacytoid DCs (PDCs) exposed to PSA do not produce proinflammatory cytokines, but instead they specifically stimulate IL-10 secretion by CD4+ T cells and efficiently mediate PSA-afforded immunoprotection. PSA induces and preferentially ligates Toll-like receptor 2 on PDCs but not on conventional DCs. Compared with other TLR2 ligands, PSA is better at enhancing PDC expression of costimulatory molecules required for protection against colitis. PDCs can thus orchestrate the beneficial immunoregulatory interaction of commensal microbial molecules, such as PSA, through both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Mechanisms for cAMP-Mediated Immunoregulation in T cells – Role of Anchored Protein Kinase A Signaling Units

    PubMed Central

    Wehbi, Vanessa L.; Taskén, Kjetil

    2016-01-01

    The cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) pathway is one of the most common and versatile signal pathways in eukaryotic cells. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) target PKA to specific substrates and distinct subcellular compartments providing spatial and temporal specificity for mediation of biological effects channeled through the cAMP/PKA pathway. In the immune system, cAMP is a potent negative regulator of T cell receptor-mediated activation of effector T cells (Teff) acting through a proximal PKA/Csk/Lck pathway anchored via a scaffold consisting of the AKAP Ezrin holding PKA, the linker protein EBP50, and the anchoring protein phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains holding Csk. As PKA activates Csk and Csk inhibits Lck, this pathway in response to cAMP shuts down proximal T cell activation. This immunomodulating pathway in Teff mediates clinically important responses to regulatory T cell (Treg) suppression and inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins (PGs), adrenergic stimuli, adenosine, and a number of other ligands. A major inducer of T cell cAMP levels is PG E2 (PGE2) acting through EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors. PGE2 plays a crucial role in the normal physiological control of immune homeostasis as well as in inflammation and cancer immune evasion. Peripherally induced Tregs express cyclooxygenase-2, secrete PGE2, and elicit the immunosuppressive cAMP pathway in Teff as one tumor immune evasion mechanism. Moreover, a cAMP increase can also be induced by indirect mechanisms, such as intercellular transfer between T cells. Indeed, Treg, known to have elevated levels of intracellular cAMP, may mediate their suppressive function by transferring cAMP to Teff through gap junctions, which we speculate could also be regulated by PKA/AKAP complexes. In this review, we present an updated overview on the influence of cAMP-mediated immunoregulatory mechanisms acting through localized cAMP signaling and the therapeutical

  14. FGF2-mediated reciprocal tumor cell-endothelial cell interplay contributes to the growth of chemoresistant cells: a potential mechanism for superficial bladder cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yule; Zhu, Guodong; Wu, Kaijie; Gao, Yang; Zeng, Jin; Shi, Qi; Guo, Peng; Wang, Xinyang; Chang, Luke S; Li, Lei; He, Dalin

    2016-04-01

    Patients with superficial bladder cancer can be definitively cured by one single transurethral resection (TUR) with additional intravesical chemotherapy; however, up to 75 % of cases display frequent and multiple recurrences. One of the major causes of recurrence is that chemotherapeutic drugs used in intravesical regimens may induce chemoresistance. However, the mechanisms by which these chemoresistant cells develop into recurrent tumors remain unclear. Recent clinical evidence revealed that the expression of pro-angiogenic factor FGF2 was associated with early local relapse in patients with superficial bladder cancer. In this study, we conducted a preliminary investigation of the mechanisms of chemoresistant cells mediated bladder cancer recurrence, focusing on FGF2-initiated tumor cell-endothelial cell interaction on chemoresistant cancer cell growth. We found that the expression of FGF2 was increased in chemoresistant bladder cell lines and in bladder tissues after intravesical chemotherapy. Although chemoresistant bladder cells grow slower than parental cells, chemoresistant bladder cancer cells had stronger ability than parental cells to stimulate endothelial cell migration, growth, and tube formation by producing FGF2. Inversely, endothelial cells significantly promoted chemoresistant bladder cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. Thus, targeting chemotherapy-induced FGF2 upregulation may provide a promising approach to manage the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer.

  15. The Enemy within: Innate Surveillance-Mediated Cell Death, the Common Mechanism of Neurodegenerative Disease

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Robert I.; Robertson, Sarah A.; O'Keefe, Louise V.; Fornarino, Dani; Scott, Andrew; Lardelli, Michael; Baune, Bernhard T.

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases comprise an array of progressive neurological disorders all characterized by the selective death of neurons in the central nervous system. Although, rare (familial) and common (sporadic) forms can occur for the same disease, it is unclear whether this reflects several distinct pathogenic pathways or the convergence of different causes into a common form of nerve cell death. Remarkably, neurodegenerative diseases are increasingly found to be accompanied by activation of the innate immune surveillance system normally associated with pathogen recognition and response. Innate surveillance is the cell's quality control system for the purpose of detecting such danger signals and responding in an appropriate manner. Innate surveillance is an “intelligent system,” in that the manner of response is relevant to the magnitude and duration of the threat. If possible, the threat is dealt with within the cell in which it is detected, by degrading the danger signal(s) and restoring homeostasis. If this is not successful then an inflammatory response is instigated that is aimed at restricting the spread of the threat by elevating degradative pathways, sensitizing neighboring cells, and recruiting specialized cell types to the site. If the danger signal persists, then the ultimate response can include not only the programmed cell death of the original cell, but the contents of this dead cell can also bring about the death of adjacent sensitized cells. These responses are clearly aimed at destroying the ability of the detected pathogen to propagate and spread. Innate surveillance comprises intracellular, extracellular, non-cell autonomous and systemic processes. Recent studies have revealed how multiple steps in these processes involve proteins that, through their mutation, have been linked to many familial forms of neurodegenerative disease. This suggests that individuals harboring these mutations may have an amplified response to innate-mediated

  16. The Enemy within: Innate Surveillance-Mediated Cell Death, the Common Mechanism of Neurodegenerative Disease.

    PubMed

    Richards, Robert I; Robertson, Sarah A; O'Keefe, Louise V; Fornarino, Dani; Scott, Andrew; Lardelli, Michael; Baune, Bernhard T

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases comprise an array of progressive neurological disorders all characterized by the selective death of neurons in the central nervous system. Although, rare (familial) and common (sporadic) forms can occur for the same disease, it is unclear whether this reflects several distinct pathogenic pathways or the convergence of different causes into a common form of nerve cell death. Remarkably, neurodegenerative diseases are increasingly found to be accompanied by activation of the innate immune surveillance system normally associated with pathogen recognition and response. Innate surveillance is the cell's quality control system for the purpose of detecting such danger signals and responding in an appropriate manner. Innate surveillance is an "intelligent system," in that the manner of response is relevant to the magnitude and duration of the threat. If possible, the threat is dealt with within the cell in which it is detected, by degrading the danger signal(s) and restoring homeostasis. If this is not successful then an inflammatory response is instigated that is aimed at restricting the spread of the threat by elevating degradative pathways, sensitizing neighboring cells, and recruiting specialized cell types to the site. If the danger signal persists, then the ultimate response can include not only the programmed cell death of the original cell, but the contents of this dead cell can also bring about the death of adjacent sensitized cells. These responses are clearly aimed at destroying the ability of the detected pathogen to propagate and spread. Innate surveillance comprises intracellular, extracellular, non-cell autonomous and systemic processes. Recent studies have revealed how multiple steps in these processes involve proteins that, through their mutation, have been linked to many familial forms of neurodegenerative disease. This suggests that individuals harboring these mutations may have an amplified response to innate-mediated damage

  17. ECE-1 influences prostate cancer cell invasion via ET-1-mediated FAK phosphorylation and ET-1-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Whyteside, A R; Hinsley, E E; Lambert, L A; McDermott, P J; Turner, A J

    2010-08-01

    Plasma concentrations of the mitogenic peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) are significantly elevated in men with metastatic prostate cancer (PC). ET-1 also contributes to the transition of hormonally regulated androgen-dependent PC to androgen-independent disease. ET-1 is generated from big-ET-1 by endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE-1). ECE-1 is present in PC cell lines and primary tissue and is elevated in primary malignant stromal cells compared with benign. siRNA or shRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous ECE-1 in either the epithelial or stromal compartment significantly reduced PC cell (PC-3) invasion and migration. The re-addition of ET-1 only partially recovered the effect, suggesting ET-1-dependent and -independent functions for ECE-1 in pPC. The ET-1-independent effect of ECE-1 on PC invasion may be due to modulation of downstream signalling events. Addition of an ECE-1 specific inhibitor to PC-3 cells reduced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a signalling molecule known to play a role in PC. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ECE-1 resulted in a significant reduction in FAK phosphorylation. Accordingly, transient ECE-1 overexpression in PNT1-a cells increased FAK phosphorylation. In conclusion, ECE-1 influences PC cell invasion via both ET-1-mediated FAK phosphorylation and ET-1 independent mechanisms.

  18. Cytoprotective Mechanisms Mediated by Polyphenols from Chilean Native Berries against Free Radical-Induced Damage on AGS Cells

    PubMed Central

    Theoduloz, Cristina; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Dorta, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of cytoprotective mechanisms induced by polyphenols such as activation of intracellular antioxidant responses (ICM) and direct free radical scavenging was investigated in native Chilean species of strawberries, raspberries, and currants. Human gastric epithelial cells were co- and preincubated with polyphenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs) from Chilean raspberries (Rubus geoides), strawberries (Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis f. chiloensis), and currants (Ribes magellanicum) and challenged with peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Cellular protection was determined in terms of cell viability, glyoxalase I and glutathione s-transferases activities, and carboxymethyl lysine (CML) and malondialdehyde levels. Our results indicate that cytoprotection induced by ICM was the prevalent mechanism for Rubus geoides and F. chiloensis. This agreed with increased levels of glyoxalase I and glutathione S-transferase activities in cells preincubated with PEEs. ORAC index indicated that F. chiloensis was the most efficient peroxyl radical scavenger. Moreover, ICM mediated by F. chiloensis was effective in protecting cells from CML accumulation in contrast to the protective effects induced by free radical scavenging. Our results indicate that although both polyphenol-mediated mechanisms can exert protective effects, ICM was the most prevalent in AGS cells. These results suggest a potential use of these native berries as functional food. PMID:28553436

  19. Cytoprotective Mechanisms Mediated by Polyphenols from Chilean Native Berries against Free Radical-Induced Damage on AGS Cells.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Dorta, Eva; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of cytoprotective mechanisms induced by polyphenols such as activation of intracellular antioxidant responses (ICM) and direct free radical scavenging was investigated in native Chilean species of strawberries, raspberries, and currants. Human gastric epithelial cells were co- and preincubated with polyphenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs) from Chilean raspberries (Rubus geoides), strawberries (Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis f. chiloensis), and currants (Ribes magellanicum) and challenged with peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Cellular protection was determined in terms of cell viability, glyoxalase I and glutathione s-transferases activities, and carboxymethyl lysine (CML) and malondialdehyde levels. Our results indicate that cytoprotection induced by ICM was the prevalent mechanism for Rubus geoides and F. chiloensis. This agreed with increased levels of glyoxalase I and glutathione S-transferase activities in cells preincubated with PEEs. ORAC index indicated that F. chiloensis was the most efficient peroxyl radical scavenger. Moreover, ICM mediated by F. chiloensis was effective in protecting cells from CML accumulation in contrast to the protective effects induced by free radical scavenging. Our results indicate that although both polyphenol-mediated mechanisms can exert protective effects, ICM was the most prevalent in AGS cells. These results suggest a potential use of these native berries as functional food.

  20. E-cadherin-mediated force transduction signals regulate global cell mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Muhamed, Ismaeel; Wu, Jun; Sehgal, Poonam; Kong, Xinyu; Tajik, Arash; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This report elucidates an E-cadherin-based force-transduction pathway that triggers changes in cell mechanics through a mechanism requiring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and the downstream formation of new integrin adhesions. This mechanism operates in addition to local cytoskeletal remodeling triggered by conformational changes in the E-cadherin-associated protein α-catenin, at sites of mechanical perturbation. Studies using magnetic twisting cytometry (MTC), together with traction force microscopy (TFM) and confocal imaging identified force-activated E-cadherin-specific signals that integrate cadherin force transduction, integrin activation and cell contractility. EGFR is required for the downstream activation of PI3K and myosin-II-dependent cell stiffening. Our findings also demonstrated that α-catenin-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling at perturbed E-cadherin adhesions does not require cell stiffening. These results broaden the repertoire of E-cadherin-based force transduction mechanisms, and define the force-sensitive signaling network underlying the mechano-chemical integration of spatially segregated adhesion receptors. PMID:26966187

  1. Immunoregulatory mechanisms in Chagas disease: modulation of apoptosis in T-cell mediated immune responses.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Ana Thereza; de Assis Silva Gomes Estanislau, Juliana; Fiuza, Jacqueline Araújo; Carvalho, Andréa Teixeira; Ferreira, Karine Silvestre; Fares, Rafaelle Christine Gomes; Guimarães, Pedro Henrique Gazzinelli; de Souza Fagundes, Elaine Maria; Morato, Maria José; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; da Costa Rocha, Manoel Otávio; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-04-30

    Chronic Chagas disease presents different clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic (namely indeterminate) to severe cardiac and/or digestive. Previous results have shown that the immune response plays an important role, although no all mechanisms are understood. Immunoregulatory mechanisms such as apoptosis are important for the control of Chagas disease, possibly affecting the morbidity in chronic clinical forms. Apoptosis has been suggested to be an important mechanism of cellular response during T. cruzi infection. We aimed to further understand the putative role of apoptosis in Chagas disease and its relation to the clinical forms of the disease. Apoptosis of lymphocytes, under antigenic stimuli (soluble T. cruzi antigens - TcAg) where compared to that of non-stimulated cells. Apoptosis was evaluated using the expression of annexin and caspase 3(+) by T cells and the percentage of cells positive evaluated by flow cytometry. In addition activation and T cell markers were used for the identification of TCD4(+) and TCD8(+) subpopulations. The presence of intracellular and plasma cytokines were also evaluated. Analysis of the activation status of the peripheral blood cells showed that patients with Chagas disease presented higher levels of activation determined by the expression of activation markers, after TcAg stimulation. PCR array were used to evaluate the contribution of this mechanism in specific cell populations from patients with different clinical forms of human Chagas disease. Our results showed a reduced proliferative response associated a high expression of T CD4(+)CD62L(-) cells in CARD patients when compared with IND group and NI individuals. We also observed that both groups of patients presented a significant increase of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets in undergoing apoptosis after in vitro stimulation with T. cruzi antigens. In CARD patients, both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressing TNF-α were highly susceptible to undergo apoptosis

  2. Gemcitabine/cannabinoid combination triggers autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells through a ROS-mediated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Donadelli, M; Dando, I; Zaniboni, T; Costanzo, C; Dalla Pozza, E; Scupoli, M T; Scarpa, A; Zappavigna, S; Marra, M; Abbruzzese, A; Bifulco, M; Caraglia, M; Palmieri, M

    2011-01-01

    Gemcitabine (GEM, 2′,2′-difluorodeoxycytidine) is currently used in advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma, with a response rate of < 20%. The purpose of our work was to improve GEM activity by addition of cannabinoids. Here, we show that GEM induces both cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) receptors by an NF-κB-dependent mechanism and that its association with cannabinoids synergistically inhibits pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell growth and increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by single treatments. The antiproliferative synergism is prevented by the radical scavenger N-acetyl--cysteine and by the specific NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7085, demonstrating that the induction of ROS by GEM/cannabinoids and of NF-κB by GEM is required for this effect. In addition, we report that neither apoptotic nor cytostatic mechanisms are responsible for the synergistic cell growth inhibition, which is strictly associated with the enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagic cell death. Noteworthy, the antiproliferative synergism is stronger in GEM-resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines compared with GEM-sensitive pancreatic cancer cell lines. The combined treatment strongly inhibits growth of human pancreatic tumor cells xenografted in nude mice without apparent toxic effects. These findings support a key role of the ROS-dependent activation of an autophagic program in the synergistic growth inhibition induced by GEM/cannabinoid combination in human pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:21525939

  3. Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Retinal Reactive Gliosis Following Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tassoni, Alessia; Gutteridge, Alex; Barber, Amanda C; Osborne, Andrew; Martin, Keith R

    2015-10-01

    A variety of diseases lead to degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons within the optic nerve resulting in loss of visual function. Although current therapies may delay RGC loss, they do not restore visual function or completely halt disease progression. Regenerative medicine has recently focused on stem cell therapy for both neuroprotective and regenerative purposes. However, significant problems remain to be addressed, such as the long-term impact of reactive gliosis occurring in the host retina in response to transplanted stem cells. The aim of this work was to investigate retinal glial responses to intravitreally transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) to help identify factors able to modulate graft-induced reactive gliosis. We found in vivo that intravitreal BM-MSC transplantation is associated with gliosis-mediated retinal folding, upregulation of intermediate filaments, and recruitment of macrophages. These responses were accompanied by significant JAK/STAT3 and MAPK (ERK1/2 and JNK) cascade activation in retinal Muller glia. Lipocalin-2 (Lcn-2) was identified as a potential new indicator of graft-induced reactive gliosis. Pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 in BM-MSC cocultured retinal explants successfully reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in retinal Muller glia and increased BM-MSC retinal engraftment. Inhibition of stem cell-induced reactive gliosis is critical for successful transplantation-based strategies for neuroprotection, replacement, and regeneration of the optic nerve.

  4. Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Retinal Reactive Gliosis Following Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tassoni, Alessia; Gutteridge, Alex; Barber, Amanda C.; Osborne, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    abstract A variety of diseases lead to degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons within the optic nerve resulting in loss of visual function. Although current therapies may delay RGC loss, they do not restore visual function or completely halt disease progression. Regenerative medicine has recently focused on stem cell therapy for both neuroprotective and regenerative purposes. However, significant problems remain to be addressed, such as the long‐term impact of reactive gliosis occurring in the host retina in response to transplanted stem cells. The aim of this work was to investigate retinal glial responses to intravitreally transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM‐MSCs) to help identify factors able to modulate graft‐induced reactive gliosis. We found in vivo that intravitreal BM‐MSC transplantation is associated with gliosis‐mediated retinal folding, upregulation of intermediate filaments, and recruitment of macrophages. These responses were accompanied by significant JAK/STAT3 and MAPK (ERK1/2 and JNK) cascade activation in retinal Muller glia. Lipocalin‐2 (Lcn‐2) was identified as a potential new indicator of graft‐induced reactive gliosis. Pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 in BM‐MSC cocultured retinal explants successfully reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in retinal Muller glia and increased BM‐MSC retinal engraftment. Inhibition of stem cell‐induced reactive gliosis is critical for successful transplantation‐based strategies for neuroprotection, replacement, and regeneration of the optic nerve. Stem Cells 2015;33:3006–3016 PMID:26175331

  5. Cell receptors: definition, mechanisms and regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Féger, J; Gil-Falgon, S; Lamaze, C

    1994-12-01

    Receptors allow the cells to recognize specific ligands and to receive extracellular messages. They can be classified into five families: 1) receptors for lipidic or lipophilic ligands; 2) the seven transmembrane receptors which mediate their messages by transduction through the activation of G-proteins, effectors and second messengers to amplify the response; 3) receptors which present an enzymatic activity on their transmembrane domains; 4) channel-receptors, transmembrane oligomeric molecules which let ions flow into the cell and 5) receptors which role is to internalize ligands, whatever their various functions. In parallel a concept of membrane plasticity was developed: vesicles are constantly formed from the plasma membrane, addressing complexes of ligand-receptors to specific intracellular compartments. This receptor-mediated endocytosis of ligand plays a critical role in regulating the number of a given receptor at the plasma membrane and in the cellular uptake of nutrients, growth factors and hormones. Many pathways exist for these transports but little is known about the signals which select the ligands or the receptors and direct them to their appropriate intracellular destination.

  6. Mechanism of colon cancer cell apoptosis mediated by pyropheophorbide-a methylester photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Matroule, J Y; Carthy, C M; Granville, D J; Jolois, O; Hunt, D W; Piette, J

    2001-07-05

    Pyropheophorbide-a methylester (PPME) is a second generation of photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). We demonstrated that PPME photosensitization triggered apoptosis of colon cancer cells as measured by using several classical parameters such as DNA laddering, PARP cleavage, caspase activation and mitochondrial release of cytochrome c. Preincubation of cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or pyrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) protected against apoptosis mediated by PPME photosensitization showing that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved as second messengers. On the other hand, photosensitization carried out in the presence of deuterium oxide (D2O) which enhances singlet oxygen (1O2) lifetime only increases necrosis without affecting apoptosis. Since PPME was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi system and lysosomes, other messengers than ROS were tested such as calcium, Bid, Bap31, phosphorylated Bcl-2 and caspase-12 but none was clearly identified as being involved in triggering cytochrome c release from mitochondria. On the other hand, we demonstrated that the transduction pathways leading to NF-kappaB activation and apoptosis were clearly independent although NF-kappaB was shown to counteract apoptosis mediated by PPME photosensitization.

  7. Embryonic stem cells improve cardiac function in Doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy mediated through multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Singla, Dinender K; Ahmed, Aisha; Singla, Reetu; Yan, Binbin

    2012-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective antineoplastic agent used for the treatment of a variety of cancers. Unfortunately, its use is limited as this drug induces cardiotoxicity and heart failure as a side effect. There is no report that describes whether transplanted embryonic stem (ES) cells or their conditioned medium (CM) in DOX-induced cardiomyopathy (DIC) can repair and regenerate myocardium. Therefore, we transplanted ES cells or CM in DIC to examine apoptosis, fibrosis, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and myofibrillar loss and their associated Akt and ERK pathway. Moreover, we also determined activation of endogenous c-kit(+ve) cardiac stem cells (CSCs), levels of HGF and IGF-1, growth factors required for c-kit cell activation, and their differentiation into cardiac myocytes, which also contributes in cardiac regeneration and improved heart function. We generated DIC in C57Bl/6 mice (cumulative dose of DOX 12 mg/kg body weight, IP), and animals were treated with ES cells, CM, or cell culture medium in controls. Two weeks post-DIC, ES cells or CM transplanted hearts showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in cardiac apoptotic nuclei and their regulation with Akt and ERK pathway. Cardiac fibrosis observed in the ES cell or CM groups was significantly less compared with DOX and cell culture medium groups (p < 0.05). Next, cytoplasmic vacuolization and myofibrillar loss was reduced (p < 0.05) following treatment with ES cells or CM. Moreover, our data also demonstrated increased levels of c-kit(+ve) CSCs in ES cells or CM hearts and differentiated cardiac myocytes from these CSCs, suggesting endogenous cardiac regeneration. Importantly, the levels of HFG and IGF-1 were significantly increased in ES cells or CM transplanted hearts. In conclusion, we reported that transplanted ES cells or CM in DIC hearts significantly decreases various adverse pathological mechanisms as well as enhances cardiac regeneration that effectively contributes to improved heart function.

  8. Mechanical unloading of bone in microgravity reduces mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Blaber, E A; Dvorochkin, N; Torres, M L; Yousuf, R; Burns, B P; Globus, R K; Almeida, E A C

    2014-09-01

    Mechanical loading of mammalian tissues is a potent promoter of tissue growth and regeneration, whilst unloading in microgravity can cause reduced tissue regeneration, possibly through effects on stem cell tissue progenitors. To test the specific hypothesis that mechanical unloading alters differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cell lineages, we studied cellular and molecular aspects of how bone marrow in the mouse proximal femur responds to unloading in microgravity. Trabecular and cortical endosteal bone surfaces in the femoral head underwent significant bone resorption in microgravity, enlarging the marrow cavity. Cells isolated from the femoral head marrow compartment showed significant down-regulation of gene expression markers for early mesenchymal and hematopoietic differentiation, including FUT1(-6.72), CSF2(-3.30), CD90(-3.33), PTPRC(-2.79), and GDF15(-2.45), but not stem cell markers, such as SOX2. At the cellular level, in situ histological analysis revealed decreased megakaryocyte numbers whilst erythrocytes were increased 2.33 fold. Furthermore, erythrocytes displayed elevated fucosylation and clustering adjacent to sinuses forming the marrow-blood barrier, possibly providing a mechanistic basis for explaining spaceflight anemia. Culture of isolated bone marrow cells immediately after microgravity exposure increased the marrow progenitor's potential for mesenchymal differentiation into in-vitro mineralized bone nodules, and hematopoietic differentiation into osteoclasts, suggesting an accumulation of undifferentiated progenitors during exposure to microgravity. These results support the idea that mechanical unloading of mammalian tissues in microgravity is a strong inhibitor of tissue growth and regeneration mechanisms, acting at the level of early mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cell differentiation.

  9. Comprehensive profiling reveals mechanisms of SOX2-mediated cell fate specification in human ESCs and NPCs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenlin; Yang, Xiaoqin; Sun, Yiyang; Yu, Hongyao; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Ying

    2016-02-01

    SOX2 is a key regulator of multiple types of stem cells, especially embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Understanding the mechanism underlying the function of SOX2 is of great importance for realizing the full potential of ESCs and NPCs. Here, through genome-wide comparative studies, we show that SOX2 executes its distinct functions in human ESCs (hESCs) and hESC-derived NPCs (hNPCs) through cell type- and stage-dependent transcription programs. Importantly, SOX2 suppresses non-neural lineages in hESCs and regulates neurogenesis from hNPCs by inhibiting canonical Wnt signaling. In hESCs, SOX2 achieves such inhibition by direct transcriptional regulation of important Wnt signaling modulators, WLS and SFRP2. Moreover, SOX2 ensures pluripotent epigenetic landscapes via interacting with histone variant H2A.Z and recruiting polycomb repressor complex 2 to poise developmental genes in hESCs. Together, our results advance our understanding of the mechanism by which cell type-specific transcription factors control lineage-specific gene expression programs and specify cell fate.

  10. Comprehensive profiling reveals mechanisms of SOX2-mediated cell fate specification in human ESCs and NPCs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chenlin; Yang, Xiaoqin; Sun, Yiyang; Yu, Hongyao; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Ying

    2016-01-01

    SOX2 is a key regulator of multiple types of stem cells, especially embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Understanding the mechanism underlying the function of SOX2 is of great importance for realizing the full potential of ESCs and NPCs. Here, through genome-wide comparative studies, we show that SOX2 executes its distinct functions in human ESCs (hESCs) and hESC-derived NPCs (hNPCs) through cell type- and stage-dependent transcription programs. Importantly, SOX2 suppresses non-neural lineages in hESCs and regulates neurogenesis from hNPCs by inhibiting canonical Wnt signaling. In hESCs, SOX2 achieves such inhibition by direct transcriptional regulation of important Wnt signaling modulators, WLS and SFRP2. Moreover, SOX2 ensures pluripotent epigenetic landscapes via interacting with histone variant H2A.Z and recruiting polycomb repressor complex 2 to poise developmental genes in hESCs. Together, our results advance our understanding of the mechanism by which cell type-specific transcription factors control lineage-specific gene expression programs and specify cell fate. PMID:26809499

  11. Targeting p53-deficient chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo by ROS-mediated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinyun; Chen, Gang; Pelicano, Helene; Liao, Jianwei; Huang, Jie; Feng, Li; Keating, Michael J.; Huang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukemia in Western countries. Loss of p53 function in CLL cells due to chromosome 17p deletion or p53 mutations often leads to a more malignant disease phenotype and is associated with drug resistance and poor clinical outcome. Thus, development of novel therapeutic strategies to effectively target CLL cells with p53 deficiency is clinically important. Here we showed that p53-null CLL cells were highly sensitive to ROS-mediated cell killing due to their intrinsic ROS stress. We further demonstrated that a natural compound phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) was able to effectively kill CLL cells with loss of p53, even under the protection of stromal cells. In p53-defficient CLL cells, PEITC induced a rapid depletion of glutathione and a severe accumulation of ROS, leading to massive leukemia cell death in the stromal microenvironment. The drug-induced cell death was associated with a significant decrease of in MCL-1 survival molecule. We further showed that ROS-mediated cell death was the key mechanism by which PEITC induced cytotoxicity, since such cell death could be prevented by addition of antioxidant NAC. Importantly, in vivo study showed that PEITC was able to induce substantial leukemia cell death in mice. Treatment of CLL mice harboring TCL1-Tg:p53−/− genotype with PEITC significantly prolonged the median survival time of the animals. Our study identifies a vulnerability of p53-null CLL cells with high sensitivity to ROS-generating agents, and suggests that PEITC may potentially be useful for clinical treatment of CLL with 17p deletion and p53 mutations. PMID:27655686

  12. CD11b+Ly6G− myeloid cells mediate mechanical inflammatory pain hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemlou, Nader; Chiu, Isaac M.; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2015-01-01

    Pain hypersensitivity at the site of inflammation as a result of chronic immune diseases, pathogenic infection, and tissue injury is a common medical condition. However, the specific contributions of the innate and adaptive immune system to the generation of pain during inflammation have not been systematically elucidated. We therefore set out to characterize the cellular and molecular immune response in two widely used preclinical models of inflammatory pain: (i) intraplantar injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) as a model of adjuvant- and pathogen-based inflammation and (ii) a plantar incisional wound as a model of tissue injury-based inflammation. Our findings reveal differences in temporal patterns of immune cell recruitment and activation states, cytokine production, and pain in these two models, with CFA causing a nonresolving granulomatous inflammatory response whereas tissue incision induced resolving immune and pain responses. These findings highlight the significant differences and potential clinical relevance of the incisional wound model compared with the CFA model. By using various cell-depletion strategies, we find that, whereas lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus G (Ly)6G+CD11b+ neutrophils and T-cell receptor (TCR) β+ T cells do not contribute to the development of thermal or mechanical pain hypersensitivity in either model, proliferating CD11b+Ly6G− myeloid cells were necessary for mechanical hypersensitivity during incisional pain, and, to a lesser extent, CFA-induced inflammation. However, inflammatory (CCR2+Ly6Chi) monocytes were not responsible for these effects. The finding that a population of proliferating CD11b+Ly6G− myeloid cells contribute to mechanical inflammatory pain provides a potential cellular target for its treatment in wound inflammation. PMID:26598697

  13. Cytotoxicity mechanism of α-MMC in normal liver cells through LRP1 mediated endocytosis and JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Shen, Fubing; Zhang, Min; He, Qianchuan; Zhao, Hui; Yu, Xiaoping; Yang, Shuxia; Liu, Yang; Deng, Nianhua; Zheng, Juecun; Zhu, Lixia; Liu, Xiaolan

    2016-05-16

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC), a type I ribosome-inactivating protein isolated from Momordica charantia, is a potential drug candidate with strong anti-tumor activity. However, α-MMC has a severe hepatotoxicity when applied in vivo, which may greatly hinders its use in clinic in the future. The biological mechanism of hepatotoxicity induced by α-MMC is largely unknown, especially the mechanism by which α-MMC enters the hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated α-MMC-induced cytotoxicity in normal liver L02 cell line as well as the mechanism underlying it. As expected, α-MMC is more toxic in L02 cells than in various normal cells from other organs. The cytotoxic effect of α-MMC on L02 cells is found to be mediated through cell apoptosis as detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Importantly, α-MMC was shown to bind to a specific receptor on cell membrane, as the density of the cell membrane receptor is closely related to both the amount of α-MMC endocytosed and the cytotoxicity in different cell lines. By using LRP1 competitive inhibitor α2-M or siRNA targeting LRP1, we further identified that LRP1 protein served as the membrane receptor for α-MMC. Both α2-M and siRNA targeting LRP1 can significantly inhibit α-MMC's endocytosis as well as its cytotoxicity in L02 cells. In addition, it was found that α-MMC can activate the JNK signalling pathways via LRP1 in L02 cells. As JNK activation often leads to cell apoptosis, the activation of JNK may play an important role in α-MMC-induced cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that LRP1 mediates the cytotoxicity of α-MMC through (1) endocytosis and induced apoptosis and (2) the activation of the JNK pathway. Our findings shed light on the fundamental mechanism of hepatotoxicity of α-MMC and offer reference to understand its mechanism of lymphocytotoxicity and neurotoxicity.

  14. Mechanism of parathyroid hormone-mediated suppression of calcification markers in human intervertebral disc cells.

    PubMed

    Madiraju, P; Gawri, R; Wang, H; Antoniou, J; Mwale, F

    2013-05-02

    In degenerative intervertebral discs (IVD), type X collagen (COL X) expression (associated with hypertrophic differentiation) and calcification has been demonstrated. Suppression of COL X expression and calcification during disc degeneration can be therapeutic. In the present study we investigated the potential of human parathyroid hormone 1-34 (PTH) in suppressing indicators of calcification potential (alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Ca(2+), inorganic phosphate (Pi)), and COL X expression. Further, we sought to elucidate the mechanism of PTH action in annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells from human lumbar IVDs with moderate to advanced degeneration. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling and alterations in the markers of calcification potential were analysed. PTH increased type II collagen (COL II) expression in AF (~200 %) and NP cells (~163 %) and decreased COL X levels both in AF and NP cells (~75 %). These changes in the expression of collagens were preceded by MAPK phosphorylation, which was increased in both AF and NP cells by PTH after 30 min. MAPK signalling inhibitor U0126 and protein kinase-A inhibitor H-89 DCH attenuated PTH stimulated COL II expression in both cell types. PTH decreased ALP activity and increased Ca(2+) release only in NP cells. The present study demonstrates that PTH can potentially retard IVD degeneration by stimulating matrix synthesis and suppressing markers of calcification potential in degenerated disc cells via both MAPK and PKA signalling pathways. Inhibition of further mineral deposition may therefore be a viable therapeutic option for improving the status of degenerating discs.

  15. Different immune cells mediate mechanical pain hypersensitivity in male and female mice

    PubMed Central

    Sorge, Robert E.; Mapplebeck, Josiane C.S.; Rosen, Sarah; Beggs, Simon; Taves, Sarah; Alexander, Jessica K.; Martin, Loren J.; Austin, Jean-Sebastien; Sotocinal, Susana G.; Chen, Di; Yang, Mu; Shi, Xiang Qun; Huang, Hao; Pillon, Nicolas J.; Bilan, Philip J.; Tu, Yu Shan; Klip, Amira; Ji, Ru-Rong; Zhang, Ji; Salter, Michael W.; Mogil, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    A large and rapidly increasing body of evidence indicates that microglia-neuron signaling is essential for chronic pain hypersensitivity. Here we show using multiple approaches that microglia are not required for mechanical pain hypersensitivity in female mice; female mice achieve similar levels of pain hypersensitivity using adaptive immune cells, likely T-lymphocytes. This sexual dimorphism suggests that male mice cannot be used as proxies for females in pain research. PMID:26120961

  16. Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Involvement of Glial Cells in Brain Plastic Remodeling in Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Khaspekov, L G; Frumkina, L E

    2017-03-01

    In this review we summarize published data on the involvement of glial cells in molecular mechanisms underlying brain plastic reorganization in epilepsy. The role of astrocytes as glial elements in pathological plasticity in epilepsy is discussed. Data on the involvement of aquaporin-4 in epileptogenic plastic changes and on participation of microglia and extracellular matrix in dysregulation of synaptic transmission and plastic remodeling in epileptic brain tissue are reviewed.

  17. Inhibition of adenylate cyclase by delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in mouse spleen cells: a potential mechanism for cannabinoid-mediated immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Schatz, A R; Kessler, F K; Kaminski, N E

    1992-01-01

    The ability of delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) to modulate adenylate cyclase activity in mouse spleen cells was investigated. These studies were prompted by the recent identification and cloning of a G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptor localized in certain regions of the brain and the potential for a common mechanism between cannabinoid-mediated CNS effects and immunosuppression. Temporal addition studies were initially performed to identify the period of time when spleen cells in culture were most susceptible to the inhibitory effects of delta 9-THC, as measured by the day 5 IgM antibody forming cell response. delta 9-THC was only inhibitory when added to spleen cell cultures during the first 2 hr following antigen sensitization. In light of this time course, adenylate cyclase activity was measured in spleen cells incubated in the presence of 22 microM delta 9-THC for 5 min and subsequently stimulated with forskolin. delta 9-THC treated spleen cells demonstrated a 33% inhibition and a 66% inhibition in intracellular cAMP after a 5 or 15 min stimulation with forskolin, respectively. These studies suggest that inhibition of immune function by delta 9-THC may be mediated through the inhibition of intracellular cAMP early after antigen stimulation.

  18. Catecholamines as immunomodulators: a role for adrenoceptor-mediated mechanisms in fine tuning of T-cell development.

    PubMed

    Leposavić, Gordana; Pilipović, Ivan; Radojević, Katarina; Pesić, Vesna; Perisić, Milica; Kosec, Dusko

    2008-12-15

    In its simplest form, effective T cell-mediated immunity emanates from the expansion of specific T cells activated in response to antigen. In establishing and maintaining the peripheral T-cell pool, the thymus plays a critical role. It does so by providing a microenvironment within which T-cell precursors proliferate, differentiate and undergo selection processes to create a fully functional population of major histocompatibility complex restricted, self-tolerant T cells. The control of the thymic function involves intrathymic, as well as sympathetic nervous and endocrine system signalling. In addition to postganglionic noradrenergic fibres, both thymic lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells, including epithelial cells and macrophages, have been demonstrated to express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and suggested to form a local non-neural catecholaminergic cell network. A higher level of noradrenaline has been found in male than in female rat thymi, and a role of gonadal hormones in providing this dimorphism has been demonstrated. In addition, thymic lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells, including those expressing TH, have been found to bear beta- and alpha1-adrenoceptors (ARs) and a role of gonadal hormones in regulation of, at least, beta-AR density and signalling has been suggested. These findings have also entailed conclusion that catecholamines (CAs) influence T-cell development, not only via neurocrine/endocrine, but also via autocrine/paracrine action. Generally, CAs have been shown to exert an inhibitory influence on thymopoiesis. Role of alpha1- and beta-AR-mediated mechanisms in maintaining thymic homeostasis and in fine tuning of both conventional and regulatory T-cell development is discussed in the manuscript.

  19. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis reveals the mechanisms of silicon-mediated cadmium tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Sheng, Huachun; Li, Xiuli; Wang, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    Silicon (Si) can alleviate cadmium (Cd) stress in rice (Oryza sativa) plants, however, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the single-cell level remains limited. To address these questions, we investigated suspension cells of rice cultured in the dark environment in the absence and presence of Si with either short- (12 h) or long-term (5 d) Cd treatments using a combination of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ), fluorescent staining, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). We identified 100 proteins differentially regulated by Si under the short- or long-term Cd stress. 70% of these proteins were down-regulated, suggesting that Si may improve protein use efficiency by maintaining cells in the normal physiological status. Furthermore, we showed two different mechanisms for Si-mediated Cd tolerance. Under the short-term Cd stress, the Si-modified cell walls inhibited the uptake of Cd ions into cells and consequently reduced the expressions of glycosidase, cell surface non-specific lipid-transfer proteins (nsLTPs), and several stress-related proteins. Under the long-term Cd stress, the amount of Cd in the cytoplasm in Si-accumulating (+Si) cells was decreased by compartmentation of Cd into vacuoles, thus leading to a lower expression of glutathione S-transferases (GST). These results provide protein-level insights into the Si-mediated Cd detoxification in rice single cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of dasatinib on EMT-mediated-mechanism of resistance against EGFR inhibitors in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sesumi, Yuichi; Suda, Kenichi; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Yoshihisa; Sato, Katsuaki; Chiba, Masato; Shimoji, Masaki; Tomizawa, Kenji; Takemoto, Toshiki; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2017-02-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in certain non-small cell lung cancers that harbor EGFR mutations. Because no currently available drugs specifically kill cancer cells via EMT, novel treatment strategies that overcome or prevent EMT are needed. A recent report suggested that dasatinib (an ABL/Src kinase inhibitor) inhibits EMT induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in lung cancer cells (Wilson et al., 2014). In this study, we analyzed effects of dasatinib on the resistance mechanism in HCC4006 cells, which tend to acquire resistance to EGFR-TKIs via EMT. Sensitivity to dasatinib in HCC4006 and HCC4006 erlotinib-resistant (ER) cells with an EMT phenotype was analyzed. HCC4006 cells acquired resistance against the combination of erlotinib and dasatinib (HCC4006EDR) following chronic treatment with these drugs. The expression of EMT markers and the resistance mechanism were analyzed. Short-term or long-term treatment with dasatinib did not reverse EMT in HCC4006ER. In contrast, HCC4006EDR cells maintained an epithelial phenotype, and the mechanism underlying resistance to erlotinib plus dasatinib combination therapy was attributable to a T790M secondary mutation. HCC4006EDR cells, but not HCC4006ER cells, were highly sensitive to a third-generation EGFR-TKI, osimertinib. Although dasatinib monotherapy did not reverse EMT in HCC4006ER cells, preemptive combination treatment with erlotinib and dasatinib prevented the emergence of acquired resistance via EMT, and led to the emergence of T790M. Our results indicate that preemptive combination therapy may be a promising strategy to prevent the emergence of EMT-mediated resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A high-affinity and specific carrier-mediated mechanism for uptake of thiamine pyrophosphate by human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nabokina, Svetlana M; Said, Hamid M

    2012-08-01

    All mammals require exogenous sources of thiamine (vitamin B1), as they lack the ability to synthesize the vitamin. These sources are dietary and bacterial (the latter is in reference to the vitamin, which is synthesized by the normal microflora of the large intestine). Bacterially generated thiamine exists in the free, as well as the pyrophosphorylated [thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)], form. With no (or very little) phosphatase activity in the colon, we hypothesized that the bacterially generated TPP can also be taken up by colonocytes. To test this hypothesis, we examined [(3)H]TPP uptake in the human-derived, nontransformed colonic epithelial NCM460 cells and purified apical membrane vesicles isolated from the colon of human organ donors. Uptake of TPP by NCM460 cells occurred without metabolic alterations in the transported substrate and 1) was pH- and Na(+)-independent, but energy-dependent, 2) was saturable as a function of concentration (apparent K(m) = 0.157 ± 0.028 μM), 3) was highly specific for TPP and not affected by free thiamine (or its analogs) or by thiamine monophosphate and unrelated folate derivatives, 4) was adaptively regulated by extracellular substrate (TPP) level via what appears to be a transcriptionally mediated mechanism(s), and 5) appeared to be influenced by an intracellular Ca(2+)/calmodulin-mediated regulatory pathway. These findings suggest the involvement of a carrier-mediated mechanism for TPP uptake by colonic NCM460 cells, which was further confirmed by results from studies of native human colonic apical membrane vesicles. The results also suggest that the bacterially synthesized TPP in the large intestine is bioavailable and may contribute to overall body homeostasis of vitamin B1 and, especially, to the cellular nutrition of the local colonocytes.

  2. Structural study of TTR-52 reveals the mechanism by which a bridging molecule mediates apoptotic cell engulfment

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yanyong; Zhao, Dongfeng; Liang, Huanhuan; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qinwen; Wang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yingfang

    2012-01-01

    During apoptosis, apoptotic cells are removed by professional phagocytes or neighboring engulfing cells either directly through phagocytic receptors or indirectly through bridging molecules that cross-link dying cells to phagocytes. However, how bridging molecules recognize “eat me” signals and phagocytic receptors to mediate engulfment remains unclear. Here, we report the structural and functional studies of Caenorhabditis elegans TTR-52, a recently identified bridging molecule that cross-links surface-exposed phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) on apoptotic cells to the CED-1 receptor on phagocytes. Crystal structure studies show that TTR-52 has an open β-barrel-like structure with some similarities to the PKCα-C2 domain. TTR-52 is proposed to bind PtdSer via an “ion-mediating” PtdSer-binding mode. Intensive functional studies show that CED-1 binds TTR-52 through its N-terminal EMI domain and that the hydrophobic region of the TTR-52 C terminus is involved in this interaction. In addition, unlike other PtdSer-binding domains, TTR-52 forms dimers, and its dimerization is important for its function in vivo. Our results reveal the first full-length structure of a bridging molecule and the mechanism underlying bridging molecule-mediated apoptotic cell recognition. PMID:22713871

  3. Amiloride-Insensitive Salt Taste Is Mediated by Two Populations of Type III Taste Cells with Distinct Transduction Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Sunil K.; Margolskee, Robert F.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Responses in the amiloride-insensitive (AI) pathway, one of the two pathways mediating salty taste in mammals, are modulated by the size of the anion of a salt. This “anion effect” has been hypothesized to result from inhibitory transepithelial potentials (TPs) generated across the lingual epithelium as cations permeate through tight junctions and leave their larger and less permeable anions behind (Ye et al., 1991). We tested directly the necessity of TPs for the anion effect by measuring responses to NaCl and Na-gluconate (small and large anion sodium salts, respectively) in isolated taste cells from mouse circumvallate papillae. Using calcium imaging, we identified AI salt-responsive type III taste cells and demonstrated that they compose a subpopulation of acid-responsive taste cells. Even in the absence of TPs, many (66%) AI salt-responsive type III taste cells still exhibited the anion effect, demonstrating that some component of the transduction machinery for salty taste in type III cells is sensitive to anion size. We hypothesized that osmotic responses could explain why a minority of type III cells (34%) had AI salt responses but lacked anion sensitivity. All AI type III cells had osmotic responses to cellobiose, which were significantly modulated by extracellular sodium concentration, suggesting the presence of a sodium-conducting osmotically sensitive ion channel. However, these responses were significantly larger in AI type III cells that did not exhibit the anion effect. These findings indicate that multiple mechanisms could underlie AI salt responses in type III taste cells, one of which may contribute to the anion effect. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the mechanisms underlying salty taste will help inform strategies to combat the health problems associated with NaCl overconsumption by humans. Of the two pathways underlying salty taste in mammals, the amiloride-insensitive (AI) pathway is the least understood. Using calcium imaging of

  4. Amiloride-Insensitive Salt Taste Is Mediated by Two Populations of Type III Taste Cells with Distinct Transduction Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Brian C; Sukumaran, Sunil K; Margolskee, Robert F; Bachmanov, Alexander A

    2016-02-10

    Responses in the amiloride-insensitive (AI) pathway, one of the two pathways mediating salty taste in mammals, are modulated by the size of the anion of a salt. This "anion effect" has been hypothesized to result from inhibitory transepithelial potentials (TPs) generated across the lingual epithelium as cations permeate through tight junctions and leave their larger and less permeable anions behind (Ye et al., 1991). We tested directly the necessity of TPs for the anion effect by measuring responses to NaCl and Na-gluconate (small and large anion sodium salts, respectively) in isolated taste cells from mouse circumvallate papillae. Using calcium imaging, we identified AI salt-responsive type III taste cells and demonstrated that they compose a subpopulation of acid-responsive taste cells. Even in the absence of TPs, many (66%) AI salt-responsive type III taste cells still exhibited the anion effect, demonstrating that some component of the transduction machinery for salty taste in type III cells is sensitive to anion size. We hypothesized that osmotic responses could explain why a minority of type III cells (34%) had AI salt responses but lacked anion sensitivity. All AI type III cells had osmotic responses to cellobiose, which were significantly modulated by extracellular sodium concentration, suggesting the presence of a sodium-conducting osmotically sensitive ion channel. However, these responses were significantly larger in AI type III cells that did not exhibit the anion effect. These findings indicate that multiple mechanisms could underlie AI salt responses in type III taste cells, one of which may contribute to the anion effect. Understanding the mechanisms underlying salty taste will help inform strategies to combat the health problems associated with NaCl overconsumption by humans. Of the two pathways underlying salty taste in mammals, the amiloride-insensitive (AI) pathway is the least understood. Using calcium imaging of isolated mouse taste cells, we

  5. TRPV6 calcium channel translocates to the plasma membrane via Orai1-mediated mechanism and controls cancer cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Raphaël, Maylis; Lehen’kyi, V’yacheslav; Vandenberghe, Matthieu; Beck, Benjamin; Khalimonchyk, Sergiy; Vanden Abeele, Fabien; Farsetti, Leonardo; Germain, Emmanuelle; Bokhobza, Alexandre; Mihalache, Adriana; Gosset, Pierre; Romanin, Christoph; Clézardin, Philippe; Skryma, Roman; Prevarskaya, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 6 (TRPV6) is a highly selective calcium channel that has been considered as a part of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Despite its first discovery in the early 2000s, the role of this channel in prostate cancer (PCa) remained, until now, obscure. Here we show that TRPV6 mediates calcium entry, which is highly increased in PCa due to the remodeling mechanism involving the translocation of the TRPV6 channel to the plasma membrane via the Orai1/TRPC1-mediated Ca2+/Annexin I/S100A11 pathway, partially contributing to SOCE. The TRPV6 calcium channel is expressed de novo by the PCa cell to increase its survival by enhancing proliferation and conferring apoptosis resistance. Xenografts in nude mice and bone metastasis models confirmed the remarkable aggressiveness of TRPV6-overexpressing tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis of these demonstrated the increased expression of clinical markers such as Ki-67, prostate specific antigen, synaptophysin, CD31, and CD56, which are strongly associated with a poor prognosis. Thus, the TRPV6 channel acquires its oncogenic potential in PCa due to the remodeling mechanism via the Orai1-mediated Ca2+/Annexin I/S100A11 pathway. PMID:25172921

  6. TRPV6 calcium channel translocates to the plasma membrane via Orai1-mediated mechanism and controls cancer cell survival.

    PubMed

    Raphaël, Maylis; Lehen'kyi, V'yacheslav; Vandenberghe, Matthieu; Beck, Benjamin; Khalimonchyk, Sergiy; Vanden Abeele, Fabien; Farsetti, Leonardo; Germain, Emmanuelle; Bokhobza, Alexandre; Mihalache, Adriana; Gosset, Pierre; Romanin, Christoph; Clézardin, Philippe; Skryma, Roman; Prevarskaya, Natalia

    2014-09-16

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 6 (TRPV6) is a highly selective calcium channel that has been considered as a part of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Despite its first discovery in the early 2000s, the role of this channel in prostate cancer (PCa) remained, until now, obscure. Here we show that TRPV6 mediates calcium entry, which is highly increased in PCa due to the remodeling mechanism involving the translocation of the TRPV6 channel to the plasma membrane via the Orai1/TRPC1-mediated Ca(2+)/Annexin I/S100A11 pathway, partially contributing to SOCE. The TRPV6 calcium channel is expressed de novo by the PCa cell to increase its survival by enhancing proliferation and conferring apoptosis resistance. Xenografts in nude mice and bone metastasis models confirmed the remarkable aggressiveness of TRPV6-overexpressing tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis of these demonstrated the increased expression of clinical markers such as Ki-67, prostate specific antigen, synaptophysin, CD31, and CD56, which are strongly associated with a poor prognosis. Thus, the TRPV6 channel acquires its oncogenic potential in PCa due to the remodeling mechanism via the Orai1-mediated Ca(2+)/Annexin I/S100A11 pathway.

  7. Molecular mechanism of inositol hexaphosphate-mediated apoptosis in human malignant glioblastoma T98G cells.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Surajit; Banik, Naren L; Ray, Swapan K

    2007-12-01

    Glioblastoma is the deadliest brain tumor in humans. Current therapies are mostly ineffective and new agents need to be explored for controlling this devastating disease. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a phytochemical that is widely found in corns, cereals, nuts, and high fiber-content foods. Previous studies demonstrated anti-cancer properties of IP6 in several in vitro and in vivo tumor models. However, therapeutic efficacy of IP6 has not yet been evaluated in glioblastoma. Here, we explored the molecular mechanism of action of IP6 in human malignant glioblastoma T98G cells. The viability of T98G cells decreased following treatment with increasing doses of IP6. T98G cells exposed to 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mM IP6 for 24 h showed morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis. Western blotting indicated changes in expression of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins resulting in an increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and upregulation of cytosolic levels of cytochrome c and Smac/Diablo, suggesting involvement of mitochondria-dependent caspase cascade in apoptosis. IP6 downregulated cell survival factors such as baculovirus inhibitor-of-apoptosis repeat containing-2 (BIRC-2) protein and telomerase to promote apoptosis. Upregulation of calpain and caspase-9 occurred in course of apoptosis. Increased activities of calpain and caspase-3 cleaved 270 kD alpha-spectrin at specific sites generating 145 kD spectrin break down product (SBDP) and 120 kD SBDP, respectively. Increased caspase-3 activity also cleaved inhibitor of caspase-3-activated DNase and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Collectively, our results demonstrated that IP6 down regulated the survival factors BIRC-2 and telomerase and upregulated calpain and caspase-3 activities for apoptosis in T98G cells.

  8. The rapid rejection of allogeneic lymphocytes by a non-adaptive, cell-mediated mechanism (NK activity).

    PubMed Central

    Rolstad, B; Fossum, S; Bazin, H; Kimber, I; Marshall, J; Sparshott, S M; Ford, W L

    1985-01-01

    The fate of allogeneic lymphocytes (AO or DA) transferred to non-immune PVG recipients was studied in the light of previous evidence (Heslop & McNeilage, 1983; Rolstad & Ford, 1983) that allogeneic lymphocytes can be rapidly destroyed in certain strain combinations of rats and mice by a mechanism that is distinct from either T-cell mediated immunity or an alloantibody response. AO lymphocytes injected into PVG recipients were discriminated from syngeneic lymphocytes within 15-30 min of i.v. injection, as testified by the excess release of 51Cr into the lymph plasma of the recipient. The following experiments were intended to distinguish between natural antibody and natural killer (NK) cells as the mechanism responsible for the allogeneic lymphocyte cytotoxicity (ALC) displayed by PVG rats. Nude rats treated from birth with anti-mu chain serum and shown to be lacking B and T lymphocytes, as well as being profoundly deficient in immunoglobulin, displayed more aggressive ALC than did control nude rats which, in turn, showed stronger ALC than did euthymic rats. Serum from PVG nude rats exerted no inhibitory or destructive effect on allogeneic lymphocytes in an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity system, an assay of graft-versus-host activity, or when injected into 3-4-week-old PVG rats which had not yet developed ALC. Treatment of nude rats with anti-asialo GM 1 antiserum depressed ALC and NK activity in parallel, thus adding to a wide range of circumstances in which ALC and NK activity are closely correlated. In conclusion, ALC is implemented by a non-adaptive, cell-mediated mechanism independent of immunoglobulin, but the precise identity of the effector cell in the recipients' lymphatic tissues remains to be settled. Images Figure 2 PMID:3972430

  9. Targeting B cells in immune-mediated inflammatory disease: a comprehensive review of mechanisms of action and identification of biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Dörner, Thomas; Kinnman, Nils; Tak, Paul P

    2010-03-01

    B cell-depletion therapy, particularly using anti-CD20 treatment, has provided proof of concept that targeting B cells and the humoral response may result in clinical improvements in immune-mediated inflammatory disease. In this review, the mechanisms of action of B cell-targeting drugs are investigated, and potential biomarkers associated with response to treatment in patients with autoimmune diseases are identified. Most available data relate to B cell depletion using anti-CD20 therapy (rituximab) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Treatment leads to significant clinical benefit, but apparently fails to deplete long-lived plasma cells, and discontinuation is associated with relapse. Biomarkers commonly used in studies of B cell-targeted therapies include rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies, and immunoglobulin (Ig) levels. More recently, there has been interest in markers such as B cell phenotype analysis, and B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS)/a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), the latter particularly in studies of the IgG Fc-transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI) fusion protein (atacicept) and anti-BLyS therapy (belimumab). Data from clinical trials of B cell-depleting agents in RA suggest that specific autoantibodies, BLyS, APRIL, and circulating and synovial B lineage cell levels may have potential as biomarkers predictive of response to treatment. Further trials validating these markers against clinical outcomes in RA are required. In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, Fc receptors and levels of circulating immune cells (including B cells and natural killer cells) may be relevant markers.

  10. Viral infection transiently reverses activation receptor-mediated NK cell hyporesponsiveness in an MHC class I-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Budhaditya; Bolanos, Fred D; Tripathy, Sandeep K

    2013-05-01

    Continuous engagement of the Ly49H activating receptor with its ligand (m157) in a transgenic mouse expressing m157 (m157-Tg) results in hyporesponsiveness of Ly49H(+) NK cells. The same interaction, during murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, leads to activation of Ly49H(+) NK cells. MCMV infection results in decreased MHC class I (MHC-I) expression on the infected cell as well as inflammatory responses, both of which do not take place in the uninfected m157-Tg mouse, potentially allowing for activation of NK cells in the context of MCMV infection. In this study, we demonstrated that viral infection transiently reverses activation receptor-mediated NK cell hyporesponsiveness in an MHC-I-independent mechanism. Furthermore, Ly49H(+) NK cells in an MHC-I-deficient environment remained hyporesponsive in the context of m157 expression, even when mature WT splenocytes were transferred into m157-Tg mice in an MHC-I-deficient environment. However, the administration of cytokines TNF-α, IL-12, and IFN-β resulted in a partial recovery from activation receptor-induced hyporesponsiveness. Thus, the release of the aforementioned cytokines during MCMV infection and not the downregulation of MHC-I expression appears to be responsible for partial resolution of Ly49H receptor-induced NK cell hyporesponsiveness.

  11. An ATP-dependent mechanism mediates intercellular calcium signaling in bone cell network under single cell nanoindentation.

    PubMed

    Huo, Bo; Lu, Xin L; Costa, Kevin D; Xu, Qiaobing; Guo, X Edward

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the roles of intercellular gap junctions and extracellular ATP diffusion in bone cell calcium signaling propagation in bone tissue, in vitro bone cell networks were constructed by using microcontact printing and self-assembled monolayer technologies. In the network, neighboring cells were interconnected through functional gap junctions. A single cell at the center of the network was mechanically stimulated by using an AFM nanoindenter. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+](i)) responses of the bone cell network were recorded and analyzed. In the untreated groups, calcium propagation from the stimulated cell to neighboring cells was observed in 40% of the tests. No significant difference was observed in this percentage when the intercellular gap junctions were blocked. This number, however, decreased to 10% in the extracellular ATP-pathway-blocked group. When both the gap junction and ATP pathways were blocked, intercellular calcium waves were abolished. When the intracellular calcium store in ER was depleted, the indented cell can generate calcium transients, but no [Ca2+](i) signal can be propagated to the neighboring cells. No [Ca2+](i) response was detected in the cell network when the extracellular calcium source was removed. These findings identified the biochemical pathways involved in the calcium signaling propagation in bone cell networks. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.

  12. An ATP-Dependent Mechanism Mediates Intercellular Calcium Signaling in Bone Cell Network under Single Cell Nanoindentation

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Bo; Lu, Xin L.; Costa, Kevin D.; Xu, Qiaobing; Guo, X. Edward

    2010-01-01

    Summary To investigate the roles of intercellular gap junctions and extracellular ATP diffusion in bone cell calcium signaling propagation in bone tissue, in vitro bone cell networks were constructed by using microcontact printing and self-assembled monolayer technologies. In the network, neighboring cells were interconnected through functional gap junctions. A single cell at the center of the network was mechanically stimulated by using an AFM nanoindenter. Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) responses of the bone cell network were recorded and analyzed. In the untreated groups, calcium propagation from the stimulated cell to neighboring cells was observed in 40% of the tests. No significant difference was observed in this percentage when the intercellular gap junctions were blocked. This number, however, decreased to 10% in the extracellular ATP-pathway-blocked group. When both the gap junction and ATP pathways were blocked, intercellular calcium waves were abolished. When the intracellular calcium store in ER was depleted, the indented cell can generate calcium transients, but no [Ca2+]i signal can be propagated to the neighboring cells. No [Ca2+]i response was detected in the cell network when the extracellular calcium source was removed. These findings identified the biochemical pathways involved in the calcium signaling propagation in bone cell networks. PMID:20060586

  13. Mechanisms of pressure-mediated cell death and injury in Escherichia coli: from fundamentals to food applications

    PubMed Central

    Gänzle, Michael; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is commercially applied to extend the shelf life of foods, and to improve food safety. Current applications operate at ambient temperature and 600 MPa or less. However, bacteria that may resist this pressure level include the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and strains of Escherichia coli, including shiga-toxin producing E. coli. The resistance of E. coli to pressure is variable between strains and highly dependent on the food matrix. The targeted design of processes for the safe elimination of E. coli thus necessitates deeper insights into mechanisms of interaction and matrix-strain interactions. Cellular targets of high pressure treatment in E. coli include the barrier properties of the outer membrane, the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane as well as the activity of membrane-bound enzymes, and the integrity of ribosomes. The pressure-induced denaturation of membrane bound enzymes results in generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent cell death caused by oxidative stress. Remarkably, pressure resistance at the single cell level relates to the disposition of misfolded proteins in inclusion bodies. While the pressure resistance E. coli can be manipulated by over-expression or deletion of (stress) proteins, the mechanisms of pressure resistance in wild type strains is multi-factorial and not fully understood. This review aims to provide an overview on mechanisms of pressure-mediated cell death in E. coli, and the use of this information for optimization of high pressure processing of foods. PMID:26157424

  14. New animal model to study epigenetic mechanisms mediating altered gravity effects upon cell growth and morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Dvorochkin, Natasha; Radugina, Elena A.; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Novikova, Julia; Almeida, Eduardo

    The gravitational field and its variations act as a major environmental factor that can impact morphogenesis developing through epigenetic molecular mechanisms. The mechanisms can be thoroughly investigated by using adequate animal models that reveal changes in the morpho-genesis of a growing organ as a function of gravitational effects. Two cooperative US/Russian experiments on Foton-M2 (2005) and Foton-M3 (2007) were the first to demonstrate differences in the shape of regenerating tails of space-flown and ground control newts. The space-flown and aquarium (simulated microgravity) animals developed lancet-shaped tails whereas 1 g con-trols (kept in space-type habitats) showed hook-like regenerates. These visual observations were supported by computer-aided processing of the images and statistical analysis of the results. Morphological examinations and cell proliferation measurements using BrdU demon-strated dorsal-ventral asymmetry as well as enhanced epithelial growth on the dorsal area of regenerating tails in 1 g newts. These findings were reproduced in laboratory tests on newts kept at 1 g and in large water tanks at cut g. The 1 g animals showed statistically significant deviations of the lancet-like tail shape typically seen in aquarium animals. Such modifications were found as early as regeneration stages III-IV and proved irreversible. The authors believe that the above phenomenon detected in newts used in many space experiments can serve as an adequate model for studying molecular mechanisms underlying gravitational effects upon animal morphogenesis.

  15. [The molecular mechanisms of curcuma wenyujin extract-mediated inhibitory effects on human esophageal carcinoma cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Jing, Zhao; Zou, Hai-Zhou; Xu, Fang

    2012-09-01

    To study the molecular mechanisms of Curcuma Wenyujin extract-mediated inhibitory effects on human esophageal carcinoma cells. The Curcuma Wenyujin extract was obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. TE-1 cells were divided into 4 groups after adherence. 100 microL RMPI-1640 culture medium containing 0.1% DMSO was added in Group 1 as the control group. 100 microL 25, 50, and 100 mg/L Curcuma Wenyujin extract complete culture medium was respectively added in the rest 3 groups as the low, middle, and high dose Curcuma Wenyujin extract groups. The effects of different doses of Curcuma Wenyujin extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/L) on the proliferation of human esophageal carcinoma cell line TE-1 in vitro were analyzed by MTT assay. The gene expression profile was identified by cDNA microarrays in esophageal carcinoma TE-1 cells exposed to Curcuma Wenyujin extract for 48 h. The differential expression genes were further analyzed by Gene Ontology function analysis. Compared with the control group, MTT results showed that Curcuma Wenyujin extract significantly inhibited the proliferation of TE-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The expression level of 88 genes changed with significance, including 66 up-regulation genes and 22 down-regulation genes. Gene Ontology analysis indicated the genes coding for proteins was involved in signal transduction (6), cell cycle (8), apoptosis (14), and cell differentiation (10). The Curcuma Wenyujin extract could inhibit the growth of human esophageal carcinoma cell line TE-1 in vitro. The molecular mechanisms might be associated with regulating genes expressions at multi-levels.

  16. The Mechanism of Nucleotide Excision Repair-Mediated UV-Induced Mutagenesis in Nonproliferating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kozmin, Stanislav G.; Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Following the irradiation of nondividing yeast cells with ultraviolet (UV) light, most induced mutations are inherited by both daughter cells, indicating that complementary changes are introduced into both strands of duplex DNA prior to replication. Early analyses demonstrated that such two-strand mutations depend on functional nucleotide excision repair (NER), but the molecular mechanism of this unique type of mutagenesis has not been further explored. In the experiments reported here, an ade2 adeX colony-color system was used to examine the genetic control of UV-induced mutagenesis in nondividing cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We confirmed a strong suppression of two-strand mutagenesis in NER-deficient backgrounds and demonstrated that neither mismatch repair nor interstrand crosslink repair affects the production of these mutations. By contrast, proteins involved in the error-prone bypass of DNA damage (Rev3, Rev1, PCNA, Rad18, Pol32, and Rad5) and in the early steps of the DNA-damage checkpoint response (Rad17, Mec3, Ddc1, Mec1, and Rad9) were required for the production of two-strand mutations. There was no involvement, however, for the Pol η translesion synthesis DNA polymerase, the Mms2-Ubc13 postreplication repair complex, downstream DNA-damage checkpoint factors (Rad53, Chk1, and Dun1), or the Exo1 exonuclease. Our data support models in which UV-induced mutagenesis in nondividing cells occurs during the Pol ζ-dependent filling of lesion-containing, NER-generated gaps. The requirement for specific DNA-damage checkpoint proteins suggests roles in recruiting and/or activating factors required to fill such gaps. PMID:23307894

  17. The mechanism of nucleotide excision repair-mediated UV-induced mutagenesis in nonproliferating cells.

    PubMed

    Kozmin, Stanislav G; Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2013-03-01

    Following the irradiation of nondividing yeast cells with ultraviolet (UV) light, most induced mutations are inherited by both daughter cells, indicating that complementary changes are introduced into both strands of duplex DNA prior to replication. Early analyses demonstrated that such two-strand mutations depend on functional nucleotide excision repair (NER), but the molecular mechanism of this unique type of mutagenesis has not been further explored. In the experiments reported here, an ade2 adeX colony-color system was used to examine the genetic control of UV-induced mutagenesis in nondividing cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We confirmed a strong suppression of two-strand mutagenesis in NER-deficient backgrounds and demonstrated that neither mismatch repair nor interstrand crosslink repair affects the production of these mutations. By contrast, proteins involved in the error-prone bypass of DNA damage (Rev3, Rev1, PCNA, Rad18, Pol32, and Rad5) and in the early steps of the DNA-damage checkpoint response (Rad17, Mec3, Ddc1, Mec1, and Rad9) were required for the production of two-strand mutations. There was no involvement, however, for the Pol η translesion synthesis DNA polymerase, the Mms2-Ubc13 postreplication repair complex, downstream DNA-damage checkpoint factors (Rad53, Chk1, and Dun1), or the Exo1 exonuclease. Our data support models in which UV-induced mutagenesis in nondividing cells occurs during the Pol ζ-dependent filling of lesion-containing, NER-generated gaps. The requirement for specific DNA-damage checkpoint proteins suggests roles in recruiting and/or activating factors required to fill such gaps.

  18. Autotaxin Regulates Maintenance of Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells through Lysophosphatidic Acid-Mediated Autocrine Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eun Jin; Kwon, Yang Woo; Jang, Il Ho; Kim, Dae Kyoung; Lee, Soo In; Choi, Eun Jung; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Suh, Dong-Soo; Lee, Jeong Hee; Choi, Kyung Un; Lee, Jae Won; Mok, Hyuck Jun; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Aoki, Junken; Kim, Jae Ho

    2016-03-01

    Ovarian cancer shows high mortality due to development of resistance to chemotherapy and relapse. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been suggested to be a major contributor in developing drug resistance and relapse in ovarian cancer. In this study, we isolated CSCs through sphere culture of A2780, SKOV3, OVCAR3 epithelial ovarian cancer cells and primary ovarian cancer cells from patients. We identified heat-stable factors secreted from ovarian CSCs stimulated migration and proliferation of CSCs. Mass spectrometry and ELISA analysis revealed that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was significantly elevated in CSC culture media compared with non-CSC culture media. Treatment of CSCs with LPA resulted in augmented CSC characteristics such as sphere-forming ability, resistance to anticancer drugs, tumorigenic potential in xenograft transplantation, and high expression of CSC-associated genes, including OCT4, SOX2, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1. Treatment of CSCs with LPA receptor 1-specific inhibitors or silencing of LPA receptor 1 expression abrogated the LPA-stimulated CSC properties. Autotaxin, an LPA-producing enzyme, is highly secreted from ovarian CSCs, and pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of autotaxin markedly attenuated the LPA-producing, tumorigenic, and drug resistance potentials of CSCs. Clinicopathological analysis showed a significant survival disadvantage of patients with positive staining of autotaxin. In addition, we further identified that AKT1 activity was upregulated in ovarian CSCs through an LPA-dependent mechanism and silencing of AKT1 expression led to suppression of CSC characteristics. These results suggest that autotaxin-LPA-LPA receptor 1-AKT1 signaling axis is critical for maintaining CSC characteristics through an autocrine loop and provide a novel therapeutic target for ovarian CSCs. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  19. Mitochondrial inhibitor sensitizes non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by reactive oxygen species and Bcl-XL/p53-mediated amplification mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Y-L; Feng, S; Chen, W; Hua, Z-C; Bian, J-J; Yin, W

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising agent for anticancer therapy; however, non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells are relatively TRAIL resistant. Identification of small molecules that can restore NSCLC susceptibility to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is meaningful. We found here that rotenone, as a mitochondrial respiration inhibitor, preferentially increased NSCLC cells sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis at subtoxic concentrations, the mechanisms by which were accounted by the upregulation of death receptors and the downregulation of c-FLIP (cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein). Further analysis revealed that death receptors expression by rotenone was regulated by p53, whereas c-FLIP downregulation was blocked by Bcl-XL overexpression. Rotenone triggered the mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which subsequently led to Bcl-XL downregulation and PUMA upregulation. As PUMA expression was regulated by p53, the PUMA, Bcl-XL and p53 in rotenone-treated cells form a positive feedback amplification loop to increase the apoptosis sensitivity. Mitochondria-derived ROS, however, promote the formation of this amplification loop. Collectively, we concluded that ROS generation, Bcl-XL and p53-mediated amplification mechanisms had an important role in the sensitization of NSCLC cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by rotenone. The combined TRAIL and rotenone treatment may be appreciated as a useful approach for the therapy of NSCLC that warrants further investigation. PMID:25522273

  20. Amphiphilic Lipopeptide-Mediated Transport of Insulin and Cell Membrane Penetration Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Lei; Han, Mei; Hu, Jiaoyin; Zhang, Liefeng

    2015-12-03

    Arginine octamer (R8) and its derivatives were developed in this study for the enhanced mucosal permeation of insulin. R8 was substituted with different aminos, then modified with stearic acid (SA). We found that the SAR6EW-insulin complex had stronger intermolecular interactions and higher complex stability. The amphiphilic lipopeptide (SAR6EW) was significantly more efficient for the permeation of insulin than R8 and R6EW both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, different cellular internalization mechanisms were observed for the complexes. When the effectiveness of the complexes in delivering insulin in vivo was examined, it was found that the SAR6EW-insulin complex provided a significant and sustained (six hours) reduction in the blood glucose levels of diabetic rats. The improved absorption could be the comprehensive result of stronger intermolecular interactions, better enzymatic stability, altered internalization pathways, and increased transportation efficacy. In addition, no sign of toxicity was observed after consecutive administrations of SAR6EW. These results demonstrate that SAR6EW is a promising epithelium permeation enhancer for insulin and suggest that the chemical modification of cell-penetrating peptides is a feasible strategy to enhance their potential.

  1. Induction of Osteogenic Differentiation of Adipose Derived Stem Cells by Microstructured Nitinol Actuator-Mediated Mechanical Stress

    PubMed Central

    Strauß, Sarah; Dudziak, Sonja; Hagemann, Ronny; Barcikowski, Stephan; Fliess, Malte; Israelowitz, Meir; Kracht, Dietmar; Kuhbier, Jörn W.; Radtke, Christine; Reimers, Kerstin; Vogt, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The development of large tissue engineered bone remains a challenge in vitro, therefore the use of hybrid-implants might offer a bridge between tissue engineering and dense metal or ceramic implants. Especially the combination of the pseudoelastic implant material Nitinol (NiTi) with adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) opens new opportunities, as ASCs are able to differentiate osteogenically and therefore enhance osseointegration of implants. Due to limited knowledge about the effects of NiTi-structures manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) on ASCs the study started with an evaluation of cytocompatibility followed by the investigation of the use of SLM-generated 3-dimensional NiTi-structures preseeded with ASCs as osteoimplant model. In this study we could demonstrate for the first time that osteogenic differentiation of ASCs can be induced by implant-mediated mechanical stimulation without support of osteogenic cell culture media. By use of an innovative implant design and synthesis via SLM-technique we achieved high rates of vital cells, proper osteogenic differentiation and mechanically loadable NiTi-scaffolds could be achieved. PMID:23236461

  2. Agent-based modeling traction force mediated compaction of cell-populated collagen gels using physically realistic fibril mechanics.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, James W; Gooch, Keith J

    2014-02-01

    Agent-based modeling was used to model collagen fibrils, composed of a string of nodes serially connected by links that act as Hookean springs. Bending mechanics are implemented as torsional springs that act upon each set of three serially connected nodes as a linear function of angular deflection about the central node. These fibrils were evaluated under conditions that simulated axial extension, simple three-point bending and an end-loaded cantilever. The deformation of fibrils under axial loading varied <0.001% from the analytical solution for linearly elastic fibrils. For fibrils between 100 μm and 200 μm in length experiencing small deflections, differences between simulated deflections and their analytical solutions were <1% for fibrils experiencing three-point bending and <7% for fibrils experiencing cantilever bending. When these new rules for fibril mechanics were introduced into a model that allowed for cross-linking of fibrils to form a network and the application of cell traction force, the fibrous network underwent macroscopic compaction and aligned between cells. Further, fibril density increased between cells to a greater extent than that observed macroscopically and appeared similar to matrical tracks that have been observed experimentally in cell-populated collagen gels. This behavior is consistent with observations in previous versions of the model that did not allow for the physically realistic simulation of fibril mechanics. The significance of the torsional spring constant value was then explored to determine its impact on remodeling of the simulated fibrous network. Although a stronger torsional spring constant reduced the degree of quantitative remodeling that occurred, the inclusion of torsional springs in the model was not necessary for the model to reproduce key qualitative aspects of remodeling, indicating that the presence of Hookean springs is essential for this behavior. These results suggest that traction force mediated

  3. R(+)-methanandamide induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human neuroglioma cells via a non-cannabinoid receptor-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ramer, R; Brune, K; Pahl, A; Hinz, B

    2001-09-07

    Cannabinoids affect prostaglandin (PG) formation in the central nervous system through as yet unidentified mechanisms. Using H4 human neuroglioma cells, the present study investigates the effect of R(+)-methanandamide (metabolically stable analogue of the endocannabinoid anandamide) on the expression of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme. Incubation of cells with R(+)-methanandamide was accompanied by concentration-dependent increases in COX-2 mRNA, COX-2 protein, and COX-2-dependent PGE(2) synthesis. Moreover, treatment of cells with R(+)-methanandamide in the presence of interleukin-1beta led to an overadditive induction of COX-2 expression. The stimulatory effect of R(+)-methanandamide on COX-2 expression was mimicked by the structurally unrelated cannabinoid Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Stimulation of both COX-2 mRNA expression and subsequent PGE(2) synthesis by R(+)-methanandamide was not affected by the selective CB(1) receptor antagonist AM-251 or the G(i/o) protein inactivator pertussis toxin. Enhancement of COX-2 expression by R(+)-methanandamide was paralleled by time-dependent phosphorylations of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p42/44 MAPK. Consistent with the activation of both kinases, R(+)-methanandamide-induced COX-2 mRNA expression and PGE(2) formation were abrogated in the presence of specific inhibitors of p38 MAPK (SB203580) and p42/44 MAPK activation (PD98059). Together, our results demonstrate that R(+)-methanandamide induces COX-2 expression in human neuroglioma cells via a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism involving activation of the MAPK pathway. In conclusion, induction of COX-2 expression may represent a novel mechanism by which cannabinoids mediate PG-dependent effects within the central nervous system.

  4. In vivo testing confirms a blunting of the human cell-mediated immune mechanism during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Janney, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    The cell-mediated immune (CMI) mechanism was evaluated in 10 space shuttle astronauts by measuring their delayed-type hypersensitivity response to seven common recall antigens. The Multitest CMI test system was used to administer antigens of tetanus, diphtheria, Streptococcus, Proteus, old tuberculin, Candida, and Trichophyton to the forearm 46 h before nominal mission termination; readings were conducted 2 h after landing. The mean number of reactions was reduced from 4.5 preflight to 3.0 inflight, and the mean reaction score was reduced from 21.4 to 13.7 mm inflight. The data presented suggest that the CMI system is still being degraded by space flight conditions on day 4 and that between day 5 and day 10, the depression maximizes and the system begins to adjust to the new conditions. The relation of these in vivo findings to previously reported in vitro results is discussed.

  5. In vivo testing confirms a blunting of the human cell-mediated immune mechanism during space flight.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G R; Janney, R P

    1992-02-01

    The cell-mediated immune (CMI) mechanism was evaluated in 10 space shuttle astronauts by measuring their delayed-type hypersensitivity response to seven common recall antigens. The Multitest CMI test system was used to administer antigens of tetanus, diphtheria, Streptococcus, Proteus, old tuberculin, Candida, and Trichophyton to the forearm 46 h before nominal mission termination; readings were conducted 2 h after landing. The mean number of reactions was reduced from 4.5 preflight to 3.0 inflight, and the mean reaction score was reduced from 21.4 to 13.7 mm inflight. The data presented suggest that the CMI system is still being degraded by space flight conditions on day 4 and that between day 5 and day 10, the depression maximizes and the system begins to adjust to the new conditions. The relation of these in vivo findings to previously reported in vitro results is discussed.

  6. Schwann Cell-Mediated Preservation of Vision in Retinal Degenerative Diseases via the Reduction of Oxidative Stress: A Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    MAHMOUDZADEH, Raziyeh; HEIDARI-KESHEL, Saeed; LASHAY, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    After injury to the central nervous system (CNS), regeneration is often inadequate, except in the case of remyelination. This remyelination capacity of the CNS is a good example of a stem/precursor cell-mediated renewal process. Schwann cells have been found to act as remyelinating agents in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), but several studies have highlighted their potential role in remyelination in the CNS too. Schwann cells are able to protect and support retinal cells by secreting growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Retinal degenerative diseases can be highly debilitating, and they are a major concern in countries with an ageing populations. One of the leading causes of permanent loss of vision in the West is a retinal degenerative disease known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the United States, nearly 1.75 million people over the age of 40 have advanced AMD, and it is estimated that this number will increase to approximately 3 million people by 2020. One of the most common pathways involved in the initiation and development of retinal diseases is the oxidative stress pathway. In patients with diabetes, Schwann cells have been shown to be able to secrete large amounts of antioxidant enzymes that protect the PNS from the oxidative stress that results from fluctuations in blood glucose levels. This antioxidant ability may be involved in the mechanism by which Schwann cells are able to promote reconstruction in the CNS, especially in individuals with retinal injuries and degenerative diseases. PMID:28293647

  7. Murine neural stem cells model Hunter disease in vitro: glial cell-mediated neurodegeneration as a possible mechanism involved.

    PubMed

    Fusar Poli, E; Zalfa, C; D'Avanzo, F; Tomanin, R; Carlessi, L; Bossi, M; Nodari, L Rota; Binda, E; Marmiroli, P; Scarpa, M; Delia, D; Vescovi, A L; De Filippis, L

    2013-11-07

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPSII or Hunter Syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficit of iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS) activity and characterized by progressive systemic and neurological impairment. As the early mechanisms leading to neuronal degeneration remain elusive, we chose to examine the properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from an animal model of the disease in order to evaluate whether their neurogenic potential could be used to recapitulate the early phases of neurogenesis in the brain of Hunter disease patients. Experiments here reported show that NSCs derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of early symptomatic IDS-knockout (IDS-ko) mouse retained self-renewal capacity in vitro, but differentiated earlier than wild-type (wt) cells, displaying an evident lysosomal aggregation in oligodendroglial and astroglial cells. Consistently, the SVZ of IDS-ko mice appeared similar to the wt SVZ, whereas the cortex and striatum presented a disorganized neuronal pattern together with a significant increase of glial apoptotic cells, suggesting that glial degeneration likely precedes neuronal demise. Interestingly, a very similar pattern was observed in the brain cortex of a Hunter patient. These observations both in vitro, in our model, and in vivo suggest that IDS deficit seems to affect the late phases of neurogenesis and/or the survival of mature cells rather than NSC self-renewal. In particular, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive (PDGFR-α+) glial progenitors appeared reduced in both the IDS-ko NSCs and in the IDS-ko mouse and human Hunter brains, compared with the respective healthy controls. Treatment of mutant NSCs with IDS or PDGF throughout differentiation was able to increase the number of PDGFR-α+ cells and to reduce that of apoptotic cells to levels comparable to wt. This evidence supports IDS-ko NSCs as a reliable in vitro model of the disease, and suggests the rescue of PDGFR-α+ glial cells as a

  8. Mechanisms Underlying Helper T cell Plasticity: Implications for Immune-mediated Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Poholek, Amanda; Vahedi, Golnaz; Laurence, Arian; Kanno, Yuka; Milner, Joshua D.; O’Shea, John J.

    2013-01-01

    CD4 helper T cells are critical for proper immune cell homeostasis and host defense, but are also major contributes to immune and inflammatory disease. Arising from a simple, biphasic model of differentiation, Th1 and Th2 cells, a bewildering number of fates seem to possible for helper T cells. To what extent different helper cell subsets maintain their characteristic gene expression profiles or exhibit functional plasticity is a hotly debated topic. In this review, we will discuss how the expression of “signature cytokines” and “master regulator” transcription factors do not neatly conform to a simple T helper paradigm. While this may seem confusing, the good news is that the newly recognized complexity fits better with our understanding of immunopathogenesis. Finally, we will discuss factors include epigenetic regulation and metabolic alterations that contribute to helper cell specific and plasticity. PMID:23622118

  9. Mechanisms of Invariant Natural Killer T Cell-Mediated Immunoregulation in Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    immunoregulatory phenotype. Specifically, three non-mutually exclusive hypothesis will be tested –1) that a lipid antigen derived from 4T1 tumor cells can be...made significant progress in demonstrating that lipid antigen/s derived from 4T1 tumors can differentially modulate the maturational markers in...4 INTRODUCTION Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells comprise a unique group of immune cells that specifically recognize lipid antigens

  10. Distinct Mechanisms Underlying Resveratrol-Mediated Protection from Types of Cellular Stress in C6 Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Means, John C; Gerdes, Bryan C; Koulen, Peter

    2017-07-14

    The polyphenolic phytostilbene, trans-resveratrol, is found in high amounts in several types and tissues of plants, including grapes, and has been proposed to have beneficial effects in the central nervous system due to its activity as an antioxidant. The objective of the present study was to identify the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of resveratrol under conditions of oxidative stress or DNA damage, induced by the extracellularly applied oxidant, tert-butyl hydrogen peroxide, or UV-irradiation, respectively. In C6 glioma cells, a model system for glial cell biology and pharmacology, resveratrol was protective against both types of insult. Prevention of tau protein cleavage and of the formation of neurofibrillary tangles were identified as mechanisms of action of resveratrol-mediated protection in both paradigms of cellular damage. However, depending on the type of insult, resveratrol exerted its protective activity differentially: under conditions of chemically induced oxidative stress, inhibition of caspase activity, while with DNA damage, resveratrol regulated tau phosphorylation at Ser(422). Results advance our understanding of resveratrol's complex impact on cellular signaling pathway and contribute to the notion of resveratrol's role as a pleiotropic therapeutic agent.

  11. Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Transplantation after a Complete Spinal Cord Transection Mediates Neuroprotective and Immunomodulatory Mechanisms to Facilitate Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Khankan, Rana R; Griffis, Khris G; Haggerty-Skeans, James R; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie; Phelps, Patricia E

    2016-06-08

    Multiple neural and peripheral cell types rapidly respond to tissue damage after spinal cord injury to form a structurally and chemically inhibitory scar that limits axon regeneration. Astrocytes form an astroglial scar and produce chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), activate microglia, and recruit blood-derived immune cells to the lesion for debris removal. One beneficial therapy, olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation, results in functional improvements and promotes axon regeneration after spinal cord injury. The lack of an OEC-specific marker, however, has limited the investigation of mechanisms underlying their proregenerative effects. We compared the effects of enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled fibroblast (FB) and OEC transplants acutely after a complete low-thoracic spinal cord transection in adult rats. We assessed the preservation of neurons and serotonergic axons, the levels of inhibitory CSPGs and myelin debris, and the extent of immune cell activation between 1 and 8 weeks postinjury. Our findings indicate that OECs survive longer than FBs post-transplantation, preserve axons and neurons, and reduce inhibitory molecules in the lesion core. Additionally, we show that OECs limit immune-cell activation and infiltration, whereas FBs alter astroglial scar formation and increase immune-cell infiltration and concomitant secondary tissue damage. Administration of cyclosporine-A to enhance graft survival demonstrated that immune suppression can augment OEC contact-mediated protection of axons and neurons during the first 2 weeks postinjury. Collectively, these data suggest that OECs have neuroprotective and immunomodulatory mechanisms that create a supportive environment for neuronal survival and axon regeneration after spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury creates physical and chemical barriers to axon regeneration. We used a complete spinal cord transection model and olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) or fibroblast (FB; control

  12. Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Transplantation after a Complete Spinal Cord Transection Mediates Neuroprotective and Immunomodulatory Mechanisms to Facilitate Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Khankan, Rana R.; Griffis, Khris G.; Haggerty-Skeans, James R.; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2016-01-01

    Multiple neural and peripheral cell types rapidly respond to tissue damage after spinal cord injury to form a structurally and chemically inhibitory scar that limits axon regeneration. Astrocytes form an astroglial scar and produce chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), activate microglia, and recruit blood-derived immune cells to the lesion for debris removal. One beneficial therapy, olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation, results in functional improvements and promotes axon regeneration after spinal cord injury. The lack of an OEC-specific marker, however, has limited the investigation of mechanisms underlying their proregenerative effects. We compared the effects of enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled fibroblast (FB) and OEC transplants acutely after a complete low-thoracic spinal cord transection in adult rats. We assessed the preservation of neurons and serotonergic axons, the levels of inhibitory CSPGs and myelin debris, and the extent of immune cell activation between 1 and 8 weeks postinjury. Our findings indicate that OECs survive longer than FBs post-transplantation, preserve axons and neurons, and reduce inhibitory molecules in the lesion core. Additionally, we show that OECs limit immune-cell activation and infiltration, whereas FBs alter astroglial scar formation and increase immune-cell infiltration and concomitant secondary tissue damage. Administration of cyclosporine-A to enhance graft survival demonstrated that immune suppression can augment OEC contact-mediated protection of axons and neurons during the first 2 weeks postinjury. Collectively, these data suggest that OECs have neuroprotective and immunomodulatory mechanisms that create a supportive environment for neuronal survival and axon regeneration after spinal cord injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spinal cord injury creates physical and chemical barriers to axon regeneration. We used a complete spinal cord transection model and olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) or

  13. Investigation of cell adhesion to silica nanoparticle-decorated surfaces and the associated protein-mediated mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Jake D.

    sizes examined. For the first time, this study offers insight into a molecular mechanism that is linked to nanostructured material surface feature size through quantified changes in protein structure and cell adhesion behavior. These results provide an explanation of the molecular level events occurring on nanostructured material surfaces that contribute to protein-mediated size-selective and cell type-specific responses of various cell types.

  14. Concurrent Phosphorus Recovery and Energy Generation in Mediator-Less Dual Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells: Mechanisms and Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Almatouq, Abdullah; Babatunde, Akintunde O.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanism and key factors influencing concurrent phosphorus (P) recovery and energy generation in microbial fuel cells (MFC) during wastewater treatment. Using a mediator-less dual chamber microbial fuel cell operated for 120 days; P was shown to precipitate as struvite when ammonium and magnesium chloride solutions were added to the cathode chamber. Monitoring data for chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and aeration flow rate showed that a maximum 38% P recovery was achieved; and this corresponds to 1.5 g/L, pH > 8, −550 ± 10 mV and 50 mL/min respectively, for COD, pHcathode, ORP and cathode aeration flow rate. More importantly, COD and aeration flow rate were shown to be the key influencing factors for the P recovery and energy generation. Results further show that the maximum P recovery corresponds to 72 mW/m2 power density. However, the energy generated at maximum P recovery was not the optimum; this shows that whilst P recovery and energy generation can be concurrently achieved in a microbial fuel cell, neither can be at the optimal value. PMID:27043584

  15. Concurrent Phosphorus Recovery and Energy Generation in Mediator-Less Dual Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells: Mechanisms and Influencing Factors.

    PubMed

    Almatouq, Abdullah; Babatunde, Akintunde O

    2016-03-29

    This study investigated the mechanism and key factors influencing concurrent phosphorus (P) recovery and energy generation in microbial fuel cells (MFC) during wastewater treatment. Using a mediator-less dual chamber microbial fuel cell operated for 120 days; P was shown to precipitate as struvite when ammonium and magnesium chloride solutions were added to the cathode chamber. Monitoring data for chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and aeration flow rate showed that a maximum 38% P recovery was achieved; and this corresponds to 1.5 g/L, pH > 8, -550 ± 10 mV and 50 mL/min respectively, for COD, pH(cathode), ORP and cathode aeration flow rate. More importantly, COD and aeration flow rate were shown to be the key influencing factors for the P recovery and energy generation. Results further show that the maximum P recovery corresponds to 72 mW/m² power density. However, the energy generated at maximum P recovery was not the optimum; this shows that whilst P recovery and energy generation can be concurrently achieved in a microbial fuel cell, neither can be at the optimal value.

  16. Cocaine mediated apoptosis of vascular cells as a mechanism for carotid artery dissection leading to ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Dabbouseh, Noura M; Ardelt, Agnieszka

    2011-08-01

    In arterial dissection, blood may enter the arterial wall through an intimal tear, splitting the arterial wall and activating the coagulation cascade at the site of endothelial damage. Dissection of extracranial and intracranial vessels may lead to ischemic stroke through thromboembolic or hemodynamic mechanisms. Major blunt trauma or rapid acceleration-deceleration may cause dissection, but in patients with inherent arterial wall weakness, dissection can occur spontaneously or as a result of minor neck movement. Cocaine use has been associated with dissection of the aortic arch and coronary and renal arteries through cocaine-mediated hypertension. Recent preclinical studies have suggested, however, that cocaine may cause apoptosis of cells in the vascular wall. In this article, we postulate that cocaine may cause apoptosis of vascular endothelial and/or smooth muscle cells, thus weakening the vascular wall and resulting in a dissection-prone state. We review the literature and propose a biological basis for vasculopathy, vascular dissection, and ischemic stroke in the setting of cocaine use. Further research studies on vascular cells, as well as focused analysis of human pathological material, will be important in providing evidence for or against our hypotheses.

  17. 2-methoxyestradiol mediates apoptosis through caspase-dependent and independent mechanisms in ovarian cancer cells but not in normal counterparts.

    PubMed

    Kato, Sumie; Sadarangani, Anil; Lange, Soledad; Delpiano, Ana M; Vargas, Macarena; Brañes, Jorge; Carvajal, Jorge; Lipkowitz, Stanley; Owen, Gareth I; Cuello, Mauricio A

    2008-11-01

    The estrogen metabolite 2-methoxyestradiol has shown antitumorigenic action in some epithelial tumors. In the present work we investigate its effects in ovarian cancer used alone or in combination with other apoptotic-inducing reagents such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. To assess the effect of 2-methoxyestradiol, dose response and time courses in ovarian cancer and normal cells were conducted. Apoptosis was confirmed through DNA laddering, by flow cytometry, and Western blotting of proteins involved in the apoptotic cascade. 2-Methoxyestradiol induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells but not in normal counterparts. 2-Methoxyestradiol activates both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. 2-Methoxyestradiol-mediated apoptosis involves reactive oxygen species generation and caspase-dependent and caspase-independent mechanisms. We also demonstrate that 2-methoxyestradiol selectively induces an additive/synergistic apoptotic response in ovarian cancer cells when used in combination with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. 2-Methoxyestradiol, alone or in combination with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, should be considered as a potential treatment for ovarian cancer.

  18. Estrogen promotes the brain metastatic colonization of triple negative breast cancer cells via an astrocyte-mediated paracrine mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sartorius, Carol A.; Hanna, Colton T.; Gril, Brunilde; Cruz, Hazel; Serkova, Natalie J.; Huber, Kendra M.; Kabos, Peter; Schedin, Troy B.; Borges, Virginia F.; Steeg, Patricia S.; Cittelly, Diana M.

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases (BM) are a devastating consequence of breast cancer. BM occur more frequently in patients with estrogen receptor-negative (ER−) breast cancer subtypes; HER2 overexpressing (HER2+) tumors and triple-negative (TN) (ER−, progesterone receptor-negative (PR−) and normal HER2) tumors. Young age is an independent risk factor for development of BM, thus we speculated that higher circulating estrogens in young, pre-menopausal women could exert paracrine effects through the highly estrogen-responsive brain microenvironment. Using a TN experimental metastases model, we demonstrate that ovariectomy decreased the frequency of MRI detectable lesions by 56% as compared to estrogen supplementation, and that the combination of ovariectomy and letrozole further reduced the frequency of large lesions to 14.4% of the estrogen control. Human BM expressed 4.2-48.4% ER+ stromal area, particularly ER+ astrocytes. In vitro, E2-treated astrocytes increased proliferation, migration and invasion of 231BR-EGFP cells in an ER-dependent manner. E2 upregulated EGFR ligands Egf, Ereg, and Tgfa mRNA and protein levels in astrocytes, and activated EGFR in brain metastatic cells. Co-culture of 231BR-EGFP cells with E2-treated astrocytes led to upregulation of the metastatic mediator S100 Calcium-binding protein A4 (S100A4) (1.78-fold, P<0.05). Exogenous EGF increased S100A4 mRNA levels in 231BR-EGFP cells (1.40±0.02 fold, P<0.01 compared to vehicle-control) and an EGFR/HER2 inhibitor blocked this effect, suggesting that S100A4 is a downstream effector of EGFR activation. ShRNA-mediated S100A4 silencing in 231BR-EGFP cells decreased their migration and invasion in response to E2-CM, abolished their increased proliferation in co-cultures with E2-treated astrocytes, and decreased brain metastatic colonization. Thus, S100A4 is one effector of the paracrine action of E2 in brain metastatic cells. These studies provide a novel mechanism by which estrogens, acting through ER

  19. Adipose-derived stem cells inhibit epidermal melanocytes through an interleukin-6-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deok-Woo; Jeon, Byung-Joon; Hwang, Na-Hyun; Kim, Min-Sook; Park, Seung-Ha; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Yoon, Eul-Sik; Lee, Byung-Il

    2014-09-01

    Several investigators have postulated that human adipose-derived stem cells can be used for skin rejuvenation, but there have been few reports about their direct effects on human epidermal melanocytes. The authors studied the effects on melanocytes, and the causative agent of those effects was further investigated in this study. Human epidermal melanocytes were divided into three groups and cultured in adipose-derived stem cell-conditioned medium, human dermal fibroblast-conditioned medium, or control medium. Concentrations of melanogenic cytokines in these media were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. After 3 and 7 days of incubation, cell proliferation, melanin content, tyrosinase activity, and melanogenic gene expression were measured. Interleukin-6-neutralizing antibodies were mixed with adipose-derived stem cell-conditioned medium in which human epidermal melanocytes were cultured, and melanocyte growth and melanogenesis were measured again. Interleukin-6 concentrations in adipose-derived stem cell- and human epidermal melanocyte-conditioned media were 1373 and 495 pg/ml, respectively. Both types of medium suppressed melanocyte proliferation and melanin synthesis (p < 0.05), but adipose-derived stem cell-conditioned medium was more effective than human dermal fibroblast-conditioned medium in inhibition of human epidermal melanocyte proliferation, melanin synthesis, and tyrosinase activity (p < 0.05). Interleukin-6-neutralizing antibody sufficiently reversed the antimelanogenic effects of adipose-derived stem cell-conditioned medium such that human epidermal melanocyte proliferation, melanin content, tyrosinase activity, and tyrosinase mRNA levels were restored (p < 0.05). Adipose-derived stem cell-conditioned medium inhibited melanocyte proliferation and melanin synthesis by down-regulating melanogenic enzymes. Interleukin-6 plays a pivotal role in inhibition of melanocytes.

  20. Mechanism of T-cell mediated protection in newborn mice against a Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sukumar; de la Maza, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the immune components needed for protection of newborn mice against Chlamydia muridarum, animals born to Chlamydia-immunized and to sham-immunized dams were infected intranasally with C. muridarum at 2 post-natal days. T-cells isolated from immunized or sham-immunized adult mice were adoptively transferred to newborn mice at the time of infection. Also, to establish what cytokines are involved in protection, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-12 were passively transferred to newborn mice. To assess the Chlamydia burden in the lungs mice were euthanized at 12 post-natal days. When T-cells from immunized adult mice were transferred, mice born to and fed by immunized dams were significantly protected as evidenced by the reduced number of Chlamydia isolated from the lungs compared to mice born to and fed by sham-immunized dams. Transfer of IFN-γ and TNF-α also significantly reduced the number of Chlamydia in the lungs of mice born to immunized dams. Transfer of IL-10 or IL-12 did not result in a significant reduction of Chlamydia. In vitro T-cell proliferation data suggest that neonatal antigen presenting cells can present Chlamydia antigens to adult T-cells. In conclusion, maternal antibodies and Chlamydia specific T-cells or Th1 cytokines are required for protection of neonates against this pathogen.

  1. An Alkylphenol Mix Promotes Seminoma Derived Cell Proliferation through an ERalpha36-Mediated Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ajj, Hussein; Chesnel, Amand; Pinel, Sophie; Plenat, François; Flament, Stephane; Dumond, Helene

    2013-01-01

    Long chain alkylphenols are man-made compounds still present in industrial and agricultural processes. Their main use is domestic and they are widespread in household products, cleansers and cosmetics, leading to a global environmental and human contamination. These molecules are known to exert estrogen-like activities through binding to classical estrogen receptors. In vitro, they can also interact with the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor. Testicular germ cell tumor etiology and progression are proposed to be stimulated by lifelong estrogeno-mimetic exposure. We studied the transduction signaling pathways through which an alkyphenol mixture triggers testicular cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Proliferation assays were monitored after exposure to a realistic mixture of 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol of either TCam-2 seminoma derived cells, NT2/D1 embryonal carcinoma cells or testis tumor in xenografted nude mice. Specific pharmacological inhibitors and gene-silencing strategies were used in TCam-2 cells in order to demonstrate that the alkylphenol mix triggers CREB-phosphorylation through a rapid, ERα36-PI3kinase non genomic pathway. Microarray analysis of the mixture target genes revealed that this pathway can modulate the expression of the DNA-methyltransferase-3 (Dnmt3) gene family which is involved in DNA methylation control. Our results highlight a key role for ERα36 in alkylphenol non genomic signaling in testicular germ cell tumors. Hence, ERα36-dependent control of the epigenetic status opens the way for the understanding of the link between endocrine disruptor exposure and the burden of hormone sensitive cancers. PMID:23626723

  2. TRAIL(+) human plasmacytoid dendritic cells kill tumor cells in vitro: mechanisms of imiquimod- and IFN-α-mediated antitumor reactivity.

    PubMed

    Kalb, Madeleine L; Glaser, Astrid; Stary, Georg; Koszik, Frieder; Stingl, Georg

    2012-02-15

    Dendritic cells (DCs) not only exhibit the unique capacity to evoke primary immune responses, but may also acquire TLR-triggered cytotoxic activity. We and others have previously shown that TLR7/8- and TLR9-stimulated plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) isolated from human peripheral blood express the effector molecule TRAIL. The exact mechanisms through which pDCs acquire and elicit their cytotoxic activity are still not clear. We now show that in the absence of costimulators, TRAIL induction on pDCs occurs with agonists to intracellular TLRs only and is accompanied by a phenotypic as well as functional maturation, as evidenced by a comparatively superior MLR stimulatory capacity. pDCs acquired TRAIL in an IFN-α/β-dependent fashion and, notably, TRAIL expression on pDCs could be induced by IFN-α stimulation alone. At a functional level, both TLR7/8- (imiquimod [IMQ]) and TLR9-stimulated (CpG2216) pDCs lysed Jurkat T cells in a TRAIL- and cell contact-dependent fashion. More importantly, IFN-α-activated pDCs acquired similar cytotoxic properties, independent of TLR stimulation and maturation. Both IMQ- and IFN-α-activated pDCs could also lyse certain melanoma cell lines in a TRAIL-dependent fashion. Interestingly, suboptimal doses of IMQ and IFN-α exhibited synergistic action, leading to optimal TRAIL expression and melanoma cell lysis by pDCs. Our data imply that tumor immunity in patients receiving adjuvant IMQ and/or IFN-α may involve the active participation of cytotoxic pDCs.

  3. The Mechanism of Tetinoblastoma Protein-Mediated Terminal Cell Cycle Arrest

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    SantaCruz Biotech) or cyclin Dl (AB-3, Neomarker) antibody, c-Fos, c-Jun, Fra-2 and MyoD antibody ( SantaCruz Biotech Inc., USA). Figure 3. The temporal...promoter. Figure 12. Chormatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay for differentiated genuine mouse myoblast cells using MyoD antibody ( SantaCruz Biotech, SC

  4. A mechanism of action for morphine-induced immunosuppression: corticosterone mediates morphine-induced suppression of natural killer cell activity.

    PubMed

    Freier, D O; Fuchs, B A

    1994-09-01

    Morphine is a drug of abuse with an ability to down-regulate immune responsiveness that could have potentially serious consequences in both heroin addicts and in the clinical environment. The exact mechanism of action by which morphine induces immunosuppression has yet to be clearly determined. A direct mechanism of action is suggested to operate through lymphocyte opiate receptors, but the nature of such receptors is still in question. The alternative, an indirect mechanism of action is proposed to be mediated by two possible pathways, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation with increased production of adrenal corticosteroids, or activation of the sympathetic nervous system and concomitant catecholamine release. Natural killer (NK) cell activity was used to determine potential indirect mechanisms of action for morphine. NK activity in the B6C3F1 mouse was suppressed between 12 and 48 hr after implantation of 75 mg timed-release morphine pellets. Morphine suppressed NK activity in a dose-responsive manner. The opiate antagonists naloxone and naltrexone completely blocked morphine-induced suppression of NK activity, whereas naloxone methiodide, a congener that crosses the blood-brain barrier much more slowly than naloxone, produced very little blockade. Implantation of the 75-mg morphine pellets produced a significant elevation in serum corticosterone levels. In vitro exposure to corticosterone is known to suppress NK activity directly, whereas in vitro morphine was unable to alter directly NK activity. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist Roussel-Uclaf 38486 blocked morphine-induced suppression of NK activity in a dose-responsive fashion. Naltrexone (10-mg pellet) antagonized the morphine-induced elevation in serum corticosterone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Norgestrel and gestodene stimulate breast cancer cell growth through an oestrogen receptor mediated mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Catherino, W. H.; Jeng, M. H.; Jordan, V. C.

    1993-01-01

    There is great concern over the long-term influence of oral contraceptives on the development of breast cancer in women. Oestrogens are known to stimulate the growth of human breast cancer cells, and this laboratory has previously reported (Jeng & Jordan, 1991) that the 19-norprogestin norethindrone could stimulate the proliferation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. We studied the influence of the 19-norprogestins norgestrel and gestodene compared to a 'non' 19-norprogestin medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on MCF-7 cell proliferation. The 19-norprogestins stimulated proliferation at a concentration of 10(-8) M, while MPA could not stimulate proliferation at concentrations as great as 3 x 10(-6) M. The stimulatory activity of the 19-norprogestins could be blocked by the antioestrogen ICI 164,384, but not by the antiprogestin RU486. Transfection studies with the reporter plasmids containing an oestrogen response element or progesterone response element (vitERE-CAT, pS2ERE-CAT, and PRE15-CAT) were performed to determine the intracellular action of norgestrel and gestodene. The 19-norprogestins stimulated the vitERE-CAT activity maximally at 10(-6) M, and this stimulation was inhibited by the addition of ICI 164,384. MPA did not stimulate vitERE-CAT activity. A single base pair alteration in the palindromic sequence of vitERE (resulting in the pS2ERE) led to a dramatic decrease in CAT expression by the 19-norprogestins, suggesting that the progestin activity required specific response element base sequencing. PRE15-CAT activity was stimulated by norgestrel, gestodene and MPA at concentrations well below growth stimulatory activity. This stimulation could be blocked by RU486. These studies suggest that the 19-norprogestins norgestrel and gestodene stimulate MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth by activating the oestrogen receptor. PMID:8494728

  6. Microglial VPAC1R mediates a novel mechanism of neuroimmune-modulation of hippocampal precursor cells via IL-4 release

    PubMed Central

    Nunan, Robert; Sivasathiaseelan, Harri; Khan, Damla; Zaben, Malik; Gray, William

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis, the production of new neurons from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), occurs throughout adulthood in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, where it supports learning and memory. The innate and adaptive immune systems are increasingly recognized as important modulators of hippocampal neurogenesis under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms by which the immune system regulates hippocampal neurogenesis are incompletely understood. In particular, the role of microglia, the brains resident immune cell is complex, as they have been reported to both positively and negatively regulate neurogenesis. Interestingly, neuronal activity can also regulate the function of the immune system. Here, we show that depleting microglia from hippocampal cultures reduces NSPC survival and proliferation. Furthermore, addition of purified hippocampal microglia, or their conditioned media, is trophic and proliferative to NSPCs. VIP, a neuropeptide released by dentate gyrus interneurons, enhances the proliferative and pro-neurogenic effect of microglia via the VPAC1 receptor. This VIP-induced enhancement is mediated by IL-4 release, which directly targets NSPCs. This demonstrates a potential neuro-immuno-neurogenic pathway, disruption of which may have significant implications in conditions where combined cognitive impairments, interneuron loss, and immune system activation occurs, such as temporal lobe epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24801739

  7. Microglial VPAC1R mediates a novel mechanism of neuroimmune-modulation of hippocampal precursor cells via IL-4 release.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Robert; Sivasathiaseelan, Harri; Khan, Damla; Zaben, Malik; Gray, William

    2014-08-01

    Neurogenesis, the production of new neurons from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), occurs throughout adulthood in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, where it supports learning and memory. The innate and adaptive immune systems are increasingly recognized as important modulators of hippocampal neurogenesis under both physiological and pathological conditions. However, the mechanisms by which the immune system regulates hippocampal neurogenesis are incompletely understood. In particular, the role of microglia, the brains resident immune cell is complex, as they have been reported to both positively and negatively regulate neurogenesis. Interestingly, neuronal activity can also regulate the function of the immune system. Here, we show that depleting microglia from hippocampal cultures reduces NSPC survival and proliferation. Furthermore, addition of purified hippocampal microglia, or their conditioned media, is trophic and proliferative to NSPCs. VIP, a neuropeptide released by dentate gyrus interneurons, enhances the proliferative and pro-neurogenic effect of microglia via the VPAC1 receptor. This VIP-induced enhancement is mediated by IL-4 release, which directly targets NSPCs. This demonstrates a potential neuro-immuno-neurogenic pathway, disruption of which may have significant implications in conditions where combined cognitive impairments, interneuron loss, and immune system activation occurs, such as temporal lobe epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Diabetes reduces mesenchymal stem cells in fracture healing through a TNFα-mediated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chen; Alblowi, Jazia; Kayal, Rayyan A.; Einhorn, Thomas A.; Gerstenfeld, Louis C.; Pignolo, Robert J.; Graves, Dana T.

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Diabetes interferes with bone formation and impairs fracture healing, an important complication in humans and animal models. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of diabetes on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during fracture repair. Methods Fracture of the long bones was induced in a streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mouse model with or without insulin or a specific TNFα inhibitor, pegsunercept. MSCs were detected with cluster designation-271 (also known as p75 neurotrophin receptor) or stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) antibodies in areas of new endochondral bone formation in the calluses. MSC apoptosis was measured by TUNEL assay and proliferation was measured by Ki67 antibody. In vitro apoptosis and proliferation were examined in C3H10T1/2 and human-bone-marrow-derived MSCs following transfection with FOXO1 small interfering (si)RNA. Results Diabetes significantly increased TNFα levels and reduced MSC numbers in new bone area. MSC numbers were restored to normal levels with insulin or pegsunercept treatment. Inhibition of TNFα significantly reduced MSC loss by increasing MSC proliferation and decreasing MSC apoptosis in diabetic animals, but had no effect on MSCs in normoglycaemic animals. In vitro experiments established that TNFα alone was sufficient to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of MSCs. Furthermore, silencing forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) prevented TNFα-induced MSC apoptosis and reduced proliferation by regulating apoptotic and cell cycle genes. Conclusions/interpretation Diabetes-enhanced TNFα significantly reduced MSC numbers in new bone areas during fracture healing. Mechanistically, diabetes-enhanced TNFα reduced MSC proliferation and increased MSC apoptosis. Reducing the activity of TNFα in vivo may help to preserve endogenous MSCs and maximise regenerative potential in diabetic patients. PMID:25563724

  9. Mechanisms of hepatocyte growth factor-mediated signaling in differentiation of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells into insulin-producing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin-Yu; Zhan, Xiao-Rong; Lu, Chong; Liu, Xiao-Min; Wang, Xiao-Chen

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} A hypothesis that the differentiation of PDEC is through MAPKs or PI3K/AKT pathways. {yields} Determine if kinases (ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and AKT) are activated in these pathways. {yields} Determine signal pathway(s) that may effect on HGF-induced differentiation of PDEC. {yields} PI3K-AKT pathway is involved in the differentiation of PDECs induced by HGF. {yields} MEK-ERK pathway effect on the proliferation of PDECs but not the differentiation. -- Abstract: Pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDECs) were induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in our previous study, but the mechanism through which this induction occurs is still unknown. HGF is a ligand that activates a tyrosine kinase encoded by the c-Met proto-oncogene. This activation is followed by indirect activation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways (including MAPKs and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways) that initiate various biological effects. Therefore, we speculated that the differentiation of PDECs is through either the MAPK signaling pathway or the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. To test this hypothesis, isolated PDECs from adult rats were stimulated by adding HGF to their medium for 28 days. Then, the expression levels of several protein kinases, including MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and AKT, were determined by Western blotting to determine if specific protein kinases are activated in these pathways. Subsequently, re-isolated from adult rats and cultured PDECs were pre-treated with specific inhibitors of proteins shown to be activated in these signaling pathways; these cells were then induced to differentiate by the addition of HGF. The expression levels of protein kinases were determined by Western blotting, and the differentiation rate of insulin-positive cells was determined by flow cytometry. The change of PDEC differentiation rates were compared between the groups in which cells with or without inhibitors

  10. Microalgae mediated bio-electrocatalytic fuel cell facilitates bioelectricity generation through oxygenic photomixotrophic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Venkata Subhash, G; Chandra, Rashmi; Venkata Mohan, S

    2013-05-01

    Electrogenic activity of oxygenic photo-bioelectrocatalytic fuel cell (PhFCOX) under mixotrophic mode was evaluated using atmospheric CO2 and domestic wastewater as carbon sources for harnessing bioelectricity with mixed microalgae as anodic biocatalyst. PhFCOX operation showed good electrogenic activity (3.55 μW/m(2)) associated with higher biomass growth (2.87 g/l) and chlorophyll content (5.12 mg/l). Electrogenic activity was relatively higher during the day time (46 mV; 0.6 mA) compared to the night (6 mV; 0.01 mA). Performance of PhFCOX undergoing oxygenic photosynthesis (DO; 3.5 mg/l) was compared with the mixotrophic fuel cell (PhFCAX) with photosynthetic bacteria as biocatalyst under anoxygenic conditions (DO; 0.45 mg/l). The dissolved oxygen produced during photolysis of water in oxygenic photosynthesis is a major limiting factor affecting the electrogenic activity. Voltammetric and amperometric analysis along with electron transfer kinetics (Tafel analysis) supported the bio-electrochemical behavior of PhFCOX and PhFCAX.

  11. Shear-mediated platelet activation in the free flow: Perspectives on the emerging spectrum of cell mechanobiological mechanisms mediating cardiovascular implant thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Slepian, Marvin J; Sheriff, Jawaad; Hutchinson, Marcus; Tran, Phat; Bajaj, Naing; Garcia, Joe G N; Scott Saavedra, S; Bluestein, Danny

    2017-01-04

    Shear-mediated platelet activation (SMPA) is central in thrombosis of implantable cardiovascular therapeutic devices. Despite the morbidity and mortality associated with thrombosis of these devices, our understanding of mechanisms operative in SMPA, particularly in free flowing blood, remains limited. Herein we present and discuss a range of emerging mechanisms for consideration for "free flow" activation under supraphysiologic shear. Further definition and manipulation of these mechanisms will afford opportunities for novel pharmacologic and mechanical strategies to limit SMPA and enhance overall implant device safety.

  12. Two distinct mechanisms mediate the involvement of bone marrow cells in islet remodeling: neogenesis of insulin-producing cells and support of islet recovery.

    PubMed

    Iskovich, Svetlana; Goldenberg-Cohen, Nitza; Sadikov, Tamila; Yaniv, Isaac; Stein, Jerry; Askenasy, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    We have recently reported that small-sized bone marrow cells (BMCs) isolated by counterflow centrifugal elutriation and depleted of lineage markers (Fr25lin(-)) have the capacity to differentiate and contribute to regeneration of injured islets. In this study, we assess some of the characteristics of these cells compared to elutriated hematopoietic progenitors (R/O) and whole BMCs in a murine model of streptozotocin-induced chemical diabetes. The GFP(bright)CD45(+) progeny of whole BMCs and R/O progenitors progressively infiltrate the pancreas with evolution of donor chimerism; are found at islet perimeter, vascular, and ductal walls; and have a modest impact on islet recovery from injury. In contrast, Fr25lin(-) cells incorporate in the islets, convert to GFP(dim)CD45(-)PDX-1(+) phenotypes, produce proinsulin, and secrete insulin with significant contribution to stabilization of glucose homeostasis. The elutriated Fr25lin(-) cells express low levels of CD45 and are negative for SCA-1 and c-kit, as removal of cells expressing these markers did not impair conversion to produce insulin. BMCs mediate two synergistic mechanisms that contribute to islet recovery from injury: support of islet remodeling by hematopoietic cells and neogenesis of insulin-producing cells from stem cells.

  13. Cervical Remodeling/Ripening at Term and Preterm Delivery: The Same Mechanism Initiated by Different Mediators and Different Effector Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Juan M.; Dong, Zhong; Romero, Roberto; Girardi, Guillermina

    2011-01-01

    Background Premature cervical remodeling/ripening is believed to contribute to preterm delivery (PTD), the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Despite considerable research, the causes of term and PTD remain unclear, and there is no effective treatment for PTD. We previously demonstrated that complement activation plays a causative role in cervical remodeling that leads to PTD in mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we found that complement activation is not required for the physiological process that leads to term delivery in mice. Neither increased C3 cervical deposition nor increased C3a and C5a serum levels were observed at term. In addition, macrophages infiltration was found in PTD in contrast to term delivery were no leukocytes were found. Despite the different role of complement and different cellular effector cells, PTD and term delivery share a common dowsntream pathway characterized by increased metalloproteinases (MMPs) release and increased collagen degradation. However, different sources of MMPs were identified. Macrophages are the source of MMPs in PTD while cervical fibroblasts and columnar epithelial cells synthesize MMPs at term delivery. A dramatic diminution in serum progesterone levels precedes parturition at term but not in PTD, suggesting that progesterone withdrawal initiates cervical remodeling at term. On the other hand, MMPs release in PTD is triggered by C5a. Conclusion and Significance In conclusion, preterm and term cervical remodeling occur through the same mechanism but they are initiated by different mediators and effector cells. That complement activation is required for PTD but not for the physiological process that leads to term delivery, suggests that complement is a potential specific biomarker and selective target to prevent PTD and thus avert neonatal mortality and morbidity. PMID:22073213

  14. Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sawcer, Stephen; Hellenthal, Garrett; Pirinen, Matti; Spencer, Chris C A; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Moutsianas, Loukas; Dilthey, Alexander; Su, Zhan; Freeman, Colin; Hunt, Sarah E; Edkins, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Booth, David R; Potter, Simon C; Goris, An; Band, Gavin; Oturai, Annette Bang; Strange, Amy; Saarela, Janna; Bellenguez, Céline; Fontaine, Bertrand; Gillman, Matthew; Hemmer, Bernhard; Gwilliam, Rhian; Zipp, Frauke; Jayakumar, Alagurevathi; Martin, Roland; Leslie, Stephen; Hawkins, Stanley; Giannoulatou, Eleni; D'alfonso, Sandra; Blackburn, Hannah; Martinelli Boneschi, Filippo; Liddle, Jennifer; Harbo, Hanne F; Perez, Marc L; Spurkland, Anne; Waller, Matthew J; Mycko, Marcin P; Ricketts, Michelle; Comabella, Manuel; Hammond, Naomi; Kockum, Ingrid; McCann, Owen T; Ban, Maria; Whittaker, Pamela; Kemppinen, Anu; Weston, Paul; Hawkins, Clive; Widaa, Sara; Zajicek, John; Dronov, Serge; Robertson, Neil; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Barcellos, Lisa F; Ravindrarajah, Rathi; Abraham, Roby; Alfredsson, Lars; Ardlie, Kristin; Aubin, Cristin; Baker, Amie; Baker, Katharine; Baranzini, Sergio E; Bergamaschi, Laura; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Bernstein, Allan; Berthele, Achim; Boggild, Mike; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Brassat, David; Broadley, Simon A; Buck, Dorothea; Butzkueven, Helmut; Capra, Ruggero; Carroll, William M; Cavalla, Paola; Celius, Elisabeth G; Cepok, Sabine; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Clerget-Darpoux, Françoise; Clysters, Katleen; Comi, Giancarlo; Cossburn, Mark; Cournu-Rebeix, Isabelle; Cox, Mathew B; Cozen, Wendy; Cree, Bruce A C; Cross, Anne H; Cusi, Daniele; Daly, Mark J; Davis, Emma; de Bakker, Paul I W; Debouverie, Marc; D'hooghe, Marie Beatrice; Dixon, Katherine; Dobosi, Rita; Dubois, Bénédicte; Ellinghaus, David; Elovaara, Irina; Esposito, Federica; Fontenille, Claire; Foote, Simon; Franke, Andre; Galimberti, Daniela; Ghezzi, Angelo; Glessner, Joseph; Gomez, Refujia; Gout, Olivier; Graham, Colin; Grant, Struan F A; Guerini, Franca Rosa; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Heard, Rob N; Heath, Simon; Hobart, Jeremy; Hoshi, Muna; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Ingram, Gillian; Ingram, Wendy; Islam, Talat; Jagodic, Maja; Kabesch, Michael; Kermode, Allan G; Kilpatrick, Trevor J; Kim, Cecilia; Klopp, Norman; Koivisto, Keijo; Larsson, Malin; Lathrop, Mark; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette S; Leone, Maurizio A; Leppä, Virpi; Liljedahl, Ulrika; Bomfim, Izaura Lima; Lincoln, Robin R; Link, Jenny; Liu, Jianjun; Lorentzen, Aslaug R; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Mack, Thomas; Marriott, Mark; Martinelli, Vittorio; Mason, Deborah; McCauley, Jacob L; Mentch, Frank; Mero, Inger-Lise; Mihalova, Tania; Montalban, Xavier; Mottershead, John; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Naldi, Paola; Ollier, William; Page, Alison; Palotie, Aarno; Pelletier, Jean; Piccio, Laura; Pickersgill, Trevor; Piehl, Fredrik; Pobywajlo, Susan; Quach, Hong L; Ramsay, Patricia P; Reunanen, Mauri; Reynolds, Richard; Rioux, John D; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Roesner, Sabine; Rubio, Justin P; Rückert, Ina-Maria; Salvetti, Marco; Salvi, Erika; Santaniello, Adam; Schaefer, Catherine A; Schreiber, Stefan; Schulze, Christian; Scott, Rodney J; Sellebjerg, Finn; Selmaj, Krzysztof W; Sexton, David; Shen, Ling; Simms-Acuna, Brigid; Skidmore, Sheila; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Smestad, Cathrine; Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Stankovich, Jim; Strange, Richard C; Sulonen, Anna-Maija; Sundqvist, Emilie; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Taddeo, Francesca; Taylor, Bruce; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Tienari, Pentti; Bramon, Elvira; Tourbah, Ayman; Brown, Matthew A; Tronczynska, Ewa; Casas, Juan P; Tubridy, Niall; Corvin, Aiden; Vickery, Jane; Jankowski, Janusz; Villoslada, Pablo; Markus, Hugh S; Wang, Kai; Mathew, Christopher G; Wason, James; Palmer, Colin N A; Wichmann, H-Erich; Plomin, Robert; Willoughby, Ernest; Rautanen, Anna; Winkelmann, Juliane; Wittig, Michael; Trembath, Richard C; Yaouanq, Jacqueline; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Zhang, Haitao; Wood, Nicholas W; Zuvich, Rebecca; Deloukas, Panos; Langford, Cordelia; Duncanson, Audrey; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Haines, Jonathan L; Olsson, Tomas; Hillert, Jan; Ivinson, Adrian J; De Jager, Philip L; Peltonen, Leena; Stewart, Graeme J; Hafler, David A; Hauser, Stephen L; McVean, Gil; Donnelly, Peter; Compston, Alastair

    2011-08-10

    Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals, and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk. Modestly powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects have a key role in disease susceptibility. Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9,772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the HLA-DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly overrepresented among those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T-helper-cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.

  15. Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sawcer, Stephen; Hellenthal, Garrett; Pirinen, Matti; Spencer, Chris C.A.; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Moutsianas, Loukas; Dilthey, Alexander; Su, Zhan; Freeman, Colin; Hunt, Sarah E.; Edkins, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Booth, David R.; Potter, Simon C.; Goris, An; Band, Gavin; Oturai, Annette Bang; Strange, Amy; Saarela, Janna; Bellenguez, Céline; Fontaine, Bertrand; Gillman, Matthew; Hemmer, Bernhard; Gwilliam, Rhian; Zipp, Frauke; Jayakumar, Alagurevathi; Martin, Roland; Leslie, Stephen; Hawkins, Stanley; Giannoulatou, Eleni; D’alfonso, Sandra; Blackburn, Hannah; Boneschi, Filippo Martinelli; Liddle, Jennifer; Harbo, Hanne F.; Perez, Marc L.; Spurkland, Anne; Waller, Matthew J; Mycko, Marcin P.; Ricketts, Michelle; Comabella, Manuel; Hammond, Naomi; Kockum, Ingrid; McCann, Owen T.; Ban, Maria; Whittaker, Pamela; Kemppinen, Anu; Weston, Paul; Hawkins, Clive; Widaa, Sara; Zajicek, John; Dronov, Serge; Robertson, Neil; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Barcellos, Lisa F.; Ravindrarajah, Rathi; Abraham, Roby; Alfredsson, Lars; Ardlie, Kristin; Aubin, Cristin; Baker, Amie; Baker, Katharine; Baranzini, Sergio E.; Bergamaschi, Laura; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Bernstein, Allan; Berthele, Achim; Boggild, Mike; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Brassat, David; Broadley, Simon A.; Buck, Dorothea; Butzkueven, Helmut; Capra, Ruggero; Carroll, William M.; Cavalla, Paola; Celius, Elisabeth G.; Cepok, Sabine; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Clerget-Darpoux, Françoise; Clysters, Katleen; Comi, Giancarlo; Cossburn, Mark; Cournu-Rebeix, Isabelle; Cox, Mathew B.; Cozen, Wendy; Cree, Bruce A.C.; Cross, Anne H.; Cusi, Daniele; Daly, Mark J.; Davis, Emma; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Debouverie, Marc; D’hooghe, Marie Beatrice; Dixon, Katherine; Dobosi, Rita; Dubois, Bénédicte; Ellinghaus, David; Elovaara, Irina; Esposito, Federica; Fontenille, Claire; Foote, Simon; Franke, Andre; Galimberti, Daniela; Ghezzi, Angelo; Glessner, Joseph; Gomez, Refujia; Gout, Olivier; Graham, Colin; Grant, Struan F.A.; Guerini, Franca Rosa; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Heard, Rob N.; Heath, Simon; Hobart, Jeremy; Hoshi, Muna; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Ingram, Gillian; Ingram, Wendy; Islam, Talat; Jagodic, Maja; Kabesch, Michael; Kermode, Allan G.; Kilpatrick, Trevor J.; Kim, Cecilia; Klopp, Norman; Koivisto, Keijo; Larsson, Malin; Lathrop, Mark; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette S.; Leone, Maurizio A.; Leppä, Virpi; Liljedahl, Ulrika; Bomfim, Izaura Lima; Lincoln, Robin R.; Link, Jenny; Liu, Jianjun; Lorentzen, Åslaug R.; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Mack, Thomas; Marriott, Mark; Martinelli, Vittorio; Mason, Deborah; McCauley, Jacob L.; Mentch, Frank; Mero, Inger-Lise; Mihalova, Tania; Montalban, Xavier; Mottershead, John; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Naldi, Paola; Ollier, William; Page, Alison; Palotie, Aarno; Pelletier, Jean; Piccio, Laura; Pickersgill, Trevor; Piehl, Fredrik; Pobywajlo, Susan; Quach, Hong L.; Ramsay, Patricia P.; Reunanen, Mauri; Reynolds, Richard; Rioux, John D.; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Roesner, Sabine; Rubio, Justin P.; Rückert, Ina-Maria; Salvetti, Marco; Salvi, Erika; Santaniello, Adam; Schaefer, Catherine A.; Schreiber, Stefan; Schulze, Christian; Scott, Rodney J.; Sellebjerg, Finn; Selmaj, Krzysztof W.; Sexton, David; Shen, Ling; Simms-Acuna, Brigid; Skidmore, Sheila; Sleiman, Patrick M.A.; Smestad, Cathrine; Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Stankovich, Jim; Strange, Richard C.; Sulonen, Anna-Maija; Sundqvist, Emilie; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Taddeo, Francesca; Taylor, Bruce; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Tienari, Pentti; Bramon, Elvira; Tourbah, Ayman; Brown, Matthew A.; Tronczynska, Ewa; Casas, Juan P.; Tubridy, Niall; Corvin, Aiden; Vickery, Jane; Jankowski, Janusz; Villoslada, Pablo; Markus, Hugh S.; Wang, Kai; Mathew, Christopher G.; Wason, James; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Wichmann, H-Erich; Plomin, Robert; Willoughby, Ernest; Rautanen, Anna; Winkelmann, Juliane; Wittig, Michael; Trembath, Richard C.; Yaouanq, Jacqueline; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Zhang, Haitao; Wood, Nicholas W.; Zuvich, Rebecca; Deloukas, Panos; Langford, Cordelia; Duncanson, Audrey; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Olsson, Tomas; Hillert, Jan; Ivinson, Adrian J.; De Jager, Philip L.; Peltonen, Leena; Stewart, Graeme J.; Hafler, David A.; Hauser, Stephen L.; McVean, Gil; Donnelly, Peter; Compston, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (OMIM 126200) is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability.1 Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals;2,3 and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk.4 Modestly powered Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS)5-10 have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects play a key role in disease susceptibility.11 Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the Class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly over-represented amongst those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T helper cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. PMID:21833088

  16. Single-stranded oligonucleotide-mediated gene repair in mammalian cells has a mechanism distinct from homologous recombination repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zai; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Liu, De-Pei; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2006-11-24

    Single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide (SSO)-mediated gene repair has great potentials for gene therapy and functional genomic studies. However, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. Previous studies from other groups have suggested that DNA damage response via the ATM/ATR pathway may be involved in this process. In this study, we measured the effect of two ATM/ATR inhibitors caffeine and pentoxifylline on the correction efficiency in SSO-mediated gene repair. We also checked their effect on double-stranded break (DSB)-induced homologous recombination repair (HRR) as a control, which is well known to be dependent on the ATM/ATR pathway. We found these inhibitors could completely inhibit DSB-induced HRR, but could only partially inhibit SSO-mediated process, indicating SSO-mediated gene repair is not dependent on the ATM/ATR pathway. Furthermore, we found that thymidine treatment promotes SSO-mediated gene repair, but inhibits DSB-induced HRR. Collectively, our results demonstrate that SSO-mediated and DSB-induced gene repairs have distinct mechanisms.

  17. Many Mechanisms Mediating Mobilization: An Alliterative Review

    PubMed Central

    Hoggatt, Jonathan; Pelus, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review Blood cell production is maintained by hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that reside in specialized niches within bone marrow. Treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) causes HSC egress from bone marrow niches and trafficking to the peripheral blood, a process termed “mobilization”. Although the mobilization phenomenon has been known for some time and is utilized clinically to acquire HSC for transplant, the mechanisms mediating HSC release are not completely understood. We discuss recent advances and controversies in defining mechanisms responsible for G-CSF induced mobilization. Recent findings New reports define a role for resident monocytes/macrophages in maintaining niche cells, which is diminished after G-CSF treatment, suggesting a new mechanism for mobilization. While osteoblasts have been reported to be a primary component of the HSC niche, new results suggest a unique niche composed of innervated mesenchymal stem cells. Modulating bioactive lipid signaling also facilitates mobilization, and may define a future therapeutic strategy. Summary Hematopoietic mobilization by G-CSF is primarily mediated by alterations to the bone marrow niche by both direct and indirect mechanisms, rather than directly altering HSC function. Further understanding of the processes mediating mobilization will advance our understanding on the cellular and molecular components of the HSC niche. PMID:21537168

  18. Many mechanisms mediating mobilization: an alliterative review.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Jonathan; Pelus, Louis M

    2011-07-01

    Blood cell production is maintained by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that reside in specialized niches within bone marrow. Treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) causes HSC egress from bone marrow niches and trafficking to the peripheral blood, a process termed 'mobilization'. Although the mobilization phenomenon has been known for some time and is utilized clinically to acquire HSC for transplant, the mechanisms mediating HSC release are not completely understood. We discuss recent advances and controversies in defining the mechanisms responsible for G-CSF-induced mobilization. New reports define a role for resident monocytes/macrophages in maintaining niche cells, which is diminished after G-CSF treatment, suggesting a new mechanism for mobilization. Although osteoblasts have been reported to be a primary component of the HSC niche, new results suggest a unique niche composed of innervated mesenchymal stem cells. Modulating bioactive lipid signaling also facilitates mobilization, and may define a future therapeutic strategy. Hematopoietic mobilization by G-CSF is primarily mediated by alterations to the bone marrow niche by both direct and indirect mechanisms, rather than directly altering HSC function. Further understanding of the processes mediating mobilization will advance our understanding on the cellular and molecular components of the HSC niche.

  19. Complement-mediated cell death induced by rituximab in B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is mediated in vitro by a caspase-independent mechanism involving the generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Bellosillo, B; Villamor, N; López-Guillermo, A; Marcé, S; Esteve, J; Campo, E; Colomer, D; Montserrat, E

    2001-11-01

    Mechanisms involving the in vitro effect of rituximab in cells from 55 patients with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders were investigated. No cytotoxic effect was observed when cells were incubated with rituximab alone, but in the presence of human AB serum rituximab induced complement-dependent cell death (R-CDC). A cytotoxic effect was observed in cells from 9 of 33 patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 16 of 16 patients with mantle-cell lymphoma, 4 of 4 patients with follicular lymphoma, and 2 of 2 patients with hairy-cell leukemia. R-CDC was observed in cells from patients expressing more than 50 x 10(3) CD20 molecules per cell, and directly correlated with the number of CD20 molecules per cell. Preincubation with anti-CD59 increased the cytotoxic effect of rituximab and sensitized cells from nonsensitive cases. Neither cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) nor activation of caspase-3 was observed in R-CDC. In addition, no cells with a hypodiploid DNA content were detected and R-CDC was not prevented by a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, suggesting a caspase-independent mechanism. Incubation with rituximab in the presence of AB serum induced a rapid and intense production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). R-CDC was blocked by the incubation of cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or Tiron, 2 ROS scavengers, indicating that the cytotoxic effect was due to the generation of superoxide (O) radicals. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that CD20, CD59, and complement have a role in the in vitro cytotoxic effect of rituximab, which is mediated by a caspase-independent process that involves ROS generation.

  20. A novel profibrotic mechanism mediated by TGF-β-stimulated collagen prolyl hydroxylase expression in fibrotic lung mesenchymal cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yongfeng; Xu, Wei; Chen, Hui; Warburton, David; Dong, Rachel; Qian, Bangping; Selman, Moisés; Gauldie, Jack; Kolb, Martin; Shi, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a severe chronic lung disease with a high mortality rate. Excessive TGF-β signaling is recognized as a central player in lung fibrosis. However, the related mechanisms remain unclear. Herein we used a novel Tbx4 lung enhancer-driven Tet-On transgenic system to inhibit TGF-β signaling in mouse lung resident mesenchymal cells at different stages of bleomycin-induced fibrosis by conditionally knocking out TGF-β receptor II or expressing a dominant-negative TGF-β receptor II. Abrogation of mesenchymal TGF-β signaling markedly attenuated bleomycin-induced fibrotic pathology, which was independent of altered early inflammation. Furthermore, a novel TGF-β downstream target gene P4HA3 (an α-subunit of collagen prolyl hydroxylase) was identified, and its expression was significantly increased in fibroblastic foci of both bleomycin-induced fibrotic mouse lungs and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients’ lungs. The relationship between activated TGF-β signaling, upregulation of P4HA3, as well as increased hydroxyproline/collagen production was further verified in cultured lung fibroblasts. Moreover, inhibition of collagen prolyl hydroxylase by pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylate attenuated both TGF-β-stimulated collagen production in cultured fibroblasts and bleomycin-induced mouse lung fibrosis. These data indicate that increased expression and activity of collagen prolyl hydroxylase is one of the important mechanisms underlying TGF-β-mediated profibrotic effects. Inhibition of collagen prolyl hydroxylase may be a new promising approach for preventing and treating pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25779936

  1. Oxidative stress and mitochondria-mediated cell death mechanisms triggered by the familial Danish dementia ADan amyloid.

    PubMed

    Todd, Krysti; Ghiso, Jorge; Rostagno, Agueda

    2016-01-01

    Familial Danish Dementia (FDD), an early-onset non-amyloid-β (Aβ) cerebral amyloidosis, is neuropathologically characterized by widespread cerebral amyloid angiopathy, parenchymal amyloid and preamyloid deposits, as well as neurofibrillary degeneration indistinguishable to that seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main amyloid subunit composing FDD lesions, a 34-amino acid de-novo generated peptide ADan, is the direct result of a genetic defect at the 3'-end of the BRI2 gene and the physiologic action of furin-like proteolytic processing at the C-terminal region of the ADan precursor protein. We aimed to study the impact of the FDD mutation, the additional formation of the pyroglutamate (pE) posttranslational modification as well as the relevance of C-terminal truncations -all major components of the heterogeneous FDD deposits- on the structural and neurotoxic properties of the molecule. Our data indicates that whereas the mutation generated a β-sheet-rich hydrophobic ADan subunit of high oligomerization/fibrillization propensity and the pE modification further enhanced these properties, C-terminal truncations had the opposite effect mostly abolishing these features. The potentiation of pro-amyloidogenic properties correlated with the initiation of neuronal cell death mechanisms involving oxidative stress, perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and downstream activation of caspase-mediated apoptotic pathways. The amyloid-induced toxicity was inhibited by targeting specific components of these detrimental cellular pathways, using reactive oxygen scavengers and monoclonal antibodies recognizing the pathological amyloid subunit. Taken together, the data indicate that the FDD mutation and the pE posttranslational modification are both primary elements driving intact ADan into an amyloidogenic/neurotoxic pathway while truncations at the C-terminus eliminate the pro-amyloidogenic characteristics of the molecule

  2. Intestinal tuft cells regulate the ATM mediated DNA Damage response via Dclk1 dependent mechanism for crypt restitution following radiation injury

    PubMed Central

    Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; May, Randal; Weygant, Nathaniel; Qu, Dongfeng; Berry, William L.; Sureban, Sripathi M.; Ali, Naushad; Rao, Chinthalapally; Huycke, Mark; Bronze, Michael S.; Houchen, Courtney W.

    2016-01-01

    Crypt epithelial survival and regeneration after injury require highly coordinated complex interplay between resident stem cells and diverse cell types. The function of Dclk1 expressing tuft cells regulating intestinal epithelial DNA damage response for cell survival/self-renewal after radiation-induced injury is unclear. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were isolated and purified and utilized for experimental analysis. We found that small intestinal crypts of VillinCre;Dclk1f/f mice were hypoplastic and more apoptotic 24 h post-total body irradiation, a time when stem cell survival is p53-independent. Injury-induced ATM mediated DNA damage response, pro-survival genes, stem cell markers, and self-renewal ability for survival and restitution were reduced in the isolated intestinal epithelial cells. An even greater reduction in these signaling pathways was observed 3.5 days post-TBI, when peak crypt regeneration occurs. We found that interaction with Dclk1 is critical for ATM and COX2 activation in response to injury. We determined that Dclk1 expressing tuft cells regulate the whole intestinal epithelial cells following injury through paracrine mechanism. These findings suggest that intestinal tuft cells play an important role in regulating the ATM mediated DNA damage response, for epithelial cell survival/self-renewal via a Dclk1 dependent mechanism, and these processes are indispensable for restitution and function after severe radiation-induced injury. PMID:27876863

  3. Mechanism of nuclear factor of activated T-cells mediated FasL expression in corticosterone -treated mouse Leydig tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Wei-Ran; Chen, Yong; Wang, Qian; Gao, Hui-Bao

    2008-01-01

    Background Fas and FasL is important mediators of apoptosis. We have previously reported that the stress levels of corticosterone (CORT, glucocorticoid in rat) increase expression of Fas/FasL and activate Fas/FasL signal pathway in rat Leydig cells, which consequently leads to apoptosis. Moreover, our another study showed that nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) may play a potential role in up-regulation of FasL during CORT-treated rat Leydig cell. It is not clear yet how NFAT is involved in CORT-induced up-regulation of FasL. The aim of the present study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms of NFAT-mediated FasL expression in CORT-treated Leydig cells. Results Western blot analysis showed that NFAT2 expression is present in mouse Leydig tumor cell (mLTC-1). CORT-induced increase in FasL expression in mLTC-1 was ascertained by Western Blot analysis and CORT-induced increase in apoptotic frequency of mLTC-1 cells was detected by FACS with annexin-V labeling. Confocal imaging of NFAT2-GFP in mLTC-1 showed that high level of CORT stimulated NFAT translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of NFAT2 significantly attenuated CORT-induced up-regulation of FasL expression in mLTC. These results corroborated our previous finding that NFAT2 is involved in CORT-induced FasL expression in rat Leydig cells and showed that mLTC-1 is a suitable model for investigating the mechanism of CORT-induced FasL expression. The analysis of reporter constructs revealed that the sequence between -201 and +71 of mouse FasL gene is essential for CORT-induced FasL expression. The mutation analysis demonstrated that CORT-induced FasL expression is mediated via an NFAT binding element located in the -201 to +71 region. Co-transfection studies with an NFAT2 expression vector and reporter construct containing -201 to +71 region of FasL gene showed that NFAT2 confer a strong inducible activity to the FasL promoter at its regulatory region. In

  4. Investigation of biophysical mechanisms in gold nanoparticle mediated laser manipulation of cells using a multimodal holographic and fluorescence imaging setup.

    PubMed

    Kalies, Stefan; Antonopoulos, Georgios C; Rakoski, Mirko S; Heinemann, Dag; Schomaker, Markus; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Laser based cell manipulation has proven to be a versatile tool in biomedical applications. In this context, combining weakly focused laser pulses and nanostructures, e.g. gold nanoparticles, promises to be useful for high throughput cell manipulation, such as transfection and photothermal therapy. Interactions between laser pulses and gold nanoparticles are well understood. However, it is still necessary to study cell behavior in gold nanoparticle mediated laser manipulation. While parameters like cell viability or perforation efficiency are commonly addressed, the influence of the manipulation process on other essential cell parameters is not sufficiently investigated yet. Thus, we set out to study four relevant cell properties: cell volume and area, ion exchange and cytoskeleton structure after gold nanoparticle based laser manipulation. For this, we designed a multimodal imaging and manipulation setup. 200 nm gold nanoparticles were attached unspecifically to canine cells and irradiated by weakly focused 850 ps laser pulses. Volume and area change in the first minute post laser manipulation was monitored using digital holography. Calcium imaging and cells expressing a marker for filamentous actin (F-actin) served to analyze the ion exchange and the cytoskeleton, respectively. High radiant exposures led to cells exhibiting a tendency to shrink in volume and area, possibly due to outflow of cytoplasm. An intracellular raise in calcium was observed and accompanied by an intercellular calcium wave. This multimodal approach enabled for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the cell behavior in gold nanoparticle mediated cell manipulation. Additionally, this work can pave the way for a better understanding and the evaluation of new applications in the context of cell transfection or photothermal therapy.

  5. Investigation of Biophysical Mechanisms in Gold Nanoparticle Mediated Laser Manipulation of Cells Using a Multimodal Holographic and Fluorescence Imaging Setup

    PubMed Central

    Rakoski, Mirko S.; Heinemann, Dag; Schomaker, Markus; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Laser based cell manipulation has proven to be a versatile tool in biomedical applications. In this context, combining weakly focused laser pulses and nanostructures, e.g. gold nanoparticles, promises to be useful for high throughput cell manipulation, such as transfection and photothermal therapy. Interactions between laser pulses and gold nanoparticles are well understood. However, it is still necessary to study cell behavior in gold nanoparticle mediated laser manipulation. While parameters like cell viability or perforation efficiency are commonly addressed, the influence of the manipulation process on other essential cell parameters is not sufficiently investigated yet. Thus, we set out to study four relevant cell properties: cell volume and area, ion exchange and cytoskeleton structure after gold nanoparticle based laser manipulation. For this, we designed a multimodal imaging and manipulation setup. 200 nm gold nanoparticles were attached unspecifically to canine cells and irradiated by weakly focused 850 ps laser pulses. Volume and area change in the first minute post laser manipulation was monitored using digital holography. Calcium imaging and cells expressing a marker for filamentous actin (F-actin) served to analyze the ion exchange and the cytoskeleton, respectively. High radiant exposures led to cells exhibiting a tendency to shrink in volume and area, possibly due to outflow of cytoplasm. An intracellular raise in calcium was observed and accompanied by an intercellular calcium wave. This multimodal approach enabled for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the cell behavior in gold nanoparticle mediated cell manipulation. Additionally, this work can pave the way for a better understanding and the evaluation of new applications in the context of cell transfection or photothermal therapy. PMID:25909631

  6. Protection of HepG2 cells against acrolein toxicity by 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide via glutathione-mediated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Halley; Speen, Adam M; Saunders, Christina; Brooke, Elizabeth AS; Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Zhu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Acrolein is an environmental toxicant, mainly found in smoke released from incomplete combustion of organic matter. Several studies showed that exposure to acrolein can lead to liver damage. The mechanisms involved in acrolein-induced hepatocellular toxicity, however, are not completely understood. This study examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of acrolein on HepG2 cells. Acrolein at pathophysiological concentrations was shown to cause apoptotic cell death and an increase in levels of protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive acid substances. Acrolein also rapidly depleted intracellular glutathione (GSH), GSH-linked glutathione-S-transferases, and aldose reductase, three critical cellular defenses that detoxify reactive aldehydes. Results further showed that depletion of cellular GSH by acrolein preceded the loss of cell viability. To further determine the role of cellular GSH in acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) was used to inhibit cellular GSH biosynthesis. It was observed that depletion of cellular GSH by BSO led to a marked potentiation of acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. To further assess the contribution of these events to acrolein-induced cytotoxicity, triterpenoid compound 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) was used for induction of GSH. Induction of GSH by CDDO-Im afforded cytoprotection against acrolein toxicity in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, BSO significantly inhibited CDDO-Im-mediated induction in cellular GSH levels and also reversed cytoprotective effects of CDDO-Im in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that GSH is a predominant mechanism underlying acrolein-induced cytotoxicity as well as CDDO-Im-mediated cytoprotection. This study may provide understanding on the molecular action of acrolein which may be important to develop novel strategies for the prevention of acrolein-mediated toxicity. PMID:25504014

  7. Ionic channel mechanisms mediating the intrinsic excitability of Kenyon cells in the mushroom body of the cricket brain.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shigeki; Murata, Kaoru; Tanaka, Aiko; Kakuta, Eri; Tanemura, Saori; Hatakeyama, Shiori; Nakamura, Atsunao; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Hasebe, Masaharu; Kosakai, Kumiko; Yoshino, Masami

    2014-09-01

    Intrinsic neurons within the mushroom body of the insect brain, called Kenyon cells, play an important role in olfactory associative learning. In this study, we examined the ionic mechanisms mediating the intrinsic excitability of Kenyon cells in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. A perforated whole-cell clamp study using β-escin indicated the existence of several inward and outward currents. Three types of inward currents (INaf, INaP, and ICa) were identified. The transient sodium current (INaf) activated at -40 mV, peaked at -26 mV, and half-inactivated at -46.7 mV. The persistent sodium current (INaP) activated at -51 mV, peaked at -23 mV, and half-inactivated at -30.7 mV. Tetrodotoxin (TTX; 1 μM) completely blocked both INaf and INaP, but 10nM TTX blocked INaf more potently than INaP. Cd(2+) (50 μM) potently blocked INaP with little effect on INaf. Riluzole (>20 μM) nonselectively blocked both INaP and INaf. The voltage-dependent calcium current (ICa) activated at -30 mV, peaked at -11.3 mV, and half-inactivated at -34 mV. The Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil (100 μM) blocked ICa in a use-dependent manner. Cell-attached patch-clamp recordings showed the presence of a large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channel, and the activity of this channel was decreased by removing the extracellular Ca(2+) or adding verapamil or nifedipine, and increased by adding the Ca(2+) agonist Bay K8644, indicating that Ca(2+) entry via the L-type Ca(2+) channel regulates BK channel activity. Under the current-clamp condition, membrane depolarization generated membrane oscillations in the presence of 10nM TTX or 100 μM riluzole in the bath solution. These membrane oscillations disappeared with 1 μM TTX, 50 μM Cd(2+), replacement of external Na(+) with choline, and blockage of Na(+)-activated K(+) current (IKNa) with 50 μM quinidine, indicating that membrane oscillations are primarily mediated by INaP in cooperation with IKNa. The plateau potentials observed either in

  8. Synergistic Antiproliferative Effects of Combined γ -Tocotrienol and PPAR γ Antagonist Treatment Are Mediated through PPAR γ -Independent Mechanisms in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, Abhita; Sylvester, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Previous findings showed that the anticancer effects of combined γ -tocotrienol and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ) antagonist treatment caused a large reduction in PPAR γ expression. However, other studies suggest that the antiproliferative effects of γ -tocotrienol and/or PPAR γ antagonists are mediated, at least in part, through PPAR γ -independent mechanism(s). Studies were conducted to characterize the role of PPAR γ in mediating the effects of combined treatment of γ -tocotrienol with PPAR γ agonists or antagonists on the growth of PPAR γ negative +SA mammary cells and PPAR γ -positive and PPAR γ -silenced MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Combined treatment of γ -tocotrienol with PPAR γ antagonist decreased, while combined treatment of γ -tocotrienol with PPAR γ agonist increased, growth of all cancer cells. However, treatment with high doses of 15d-PGJ2, an endogenous natural ligand for PPAR γ , had no effect on cancer cell growth. Western blot and qRT-PCR studies showed that the growth inhibitory effects of combined γ -tocotrienol and PPAR γ antagonist treatment decreased cyclooxygenase (COX-2), prostaglandin synthase (PGDS), and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) synthesis. In conclusion, the anticancer effects of combined γ -tocotrienol and PPAR γ antagonists treatment in PPAR γ negative/silenced breast cancer cells are mediated through PPAR γ -independent mechanisms that are associated with a downregulation in COX-2, PGDS, and PGD2 synthesis.

  9. Two mechanisms for platelet-mediated killing of tumour cells: one cyclo-oxygenase dependent and the other nitric oxide dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Okada, M; Sagawa, T; Tominaga, A; Kodama, T; Hitsumoto, Y

    1996-01-01

    We have tried to identify the cytotoxic effectors in platelet-mediated tumour cell killing, using two tumour cell lines K562 (a chronic myelogenic leukaemic cell line) and LU99A (a lung cancer cell line), which are both sensitive to platelet cytotoxicity. Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and indomethacin, effectively inhibited the platelet-mediated killing of K562 cells, but not that of LU99A cells. In contrast, inhibitors of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway. NG-nitro-1-arginine (L-NA), haemoglobin and methylene blue, reduced the cytotoxic activity of platelets against LU99A, but not against K562. Synthetic analogues of platelet cyclo-oxygenase products thromboxane A2/ prostaglandin H2(TXA2/PGH2) exerted cytotoxicity against K562 cells but not against LU99A cells. Electron microscopic study showed that TXA2/PGH2 analogues induced bleb formation and disruption of the plasma membrane of K562 cells. K562 cells enhanced the production of TXA2 by platelets, as inferred from the accumulation of thromboxane B2 (TXB2), a spontaneous hydrolysis product of TXA2. LU99A cells had no such effects. These results indicate that platelets kill these two tumour cell lines through different mechanisms. In K562, the cyclooxygenase products TXA2/PGH2 possibly play a significant role but in LU99A the NO pathway seems to be involved. Images Figure 5 PMID:8911154

  10. Distinct kinetic and mechanical properties govern mucin 16- and podocalyxin-mediated tumor cell adhesion to E- and L-selectin in shear flow

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Daniel J.; Wirtz, Denis; Stebe, Kathleen J.; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Selectin-mediated tumor cell tethering to host cells, such as vascular endothelial cells, is a critical step in the process of cancer metastasis. We recently identified sialofucosylated mucin16 (MUC16) and podocalyxin (PODXL) as the major functional E- and L-selectin ligands expressed on the surface of metastatic pancreatic cancer cells. While the biophysics of leukocyte binding to selectins has been well studied, little is known about the mechanics of selectin-mediated adhesion pertinent to cancer metastasis. We thus sought to evaluate the critical parameters of selectin-mediated pancreatic tumor cell tethering and rolling. Using force spectroscopy, we characterized the binding interactions of MUC16 and PODXL to E- and L-selectin at the single-molecule level. To further analyze the response of these molecular interactions under physiologically relevant regimes, we used a microfluidic assay in conjunction with a mathematical model to study the biophysics of selectin-ligand binding as a function of fluid shear stress. We demonstrate that both MUC16 and PODXL-E-selectin-mediated interactions are mechanically stronger than like L-selectin interactions at the single-molecule level, and display a higher binding frequency at all contact times. The single-molecule kinetic and micromechanical properties of selectin-ligand bonds, along with the number of receptor-ligand bonds needed to initiate tethering, regulate the average velocity of ligand-coated microspheres rolling on selectin-coated surfaces in shear flow. Understanding the biophysics of selectin-ligand bonds and their responses to physiologically relevant shear stresses is vital for developing diagnostic assays and/or preventing the metastatic spread of tumor cells by interfering with selectin-mediated adhesion. PMID:26329844

  11. From AIDS to parasite infection: pathogen-mediated subversion of programmed cell death as a mechanism for immune dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Ameisen, J C; Estaquier, J; Idziorek, T

    1994-12-01

    Premature cell death can result either from cell injury or degeneration, leading to necrosis, or from the activation of a physiological cell-suicide process, termed programmed cell death or apoptosis, that is regulated by intercellular signalling. This process plays an essential role in the selection of developing lymphocytes, and is also involved in the function of the mature adaptative immune system. A growing number of experimental findings during the last 4 years has provided support to our hypothesis that inappropriate HIV-mediated dysregulation of programmed T-cell death is relevant to AIDS pathogenesis. A series of recent experimental results also supports the general concept that the persistence and pathogenesis of several infectious pathogens, ranging from retroviruses to parasites, may be related to their capacity to dysregulate programmed cell death in various cell populations including lymphocytes. Subversion by pathogens of the physiological control of programmed cell death provides a paradigm for the pathogenesis of a wide range of infectious diseases that involve immune dysregulation and suggests therapeutic potential for the in vivo modulation of cell signalling.

  12. IL-12-dependent innate immunity arrests endothelial cells in G0-G1 phase by a p21(Cip1/Waf1)-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Napione, Lucia; Strasly, Marina; Meda, Claudia; Mitola, Stefania; Alvaro, Maria; Doronzo, Gabriella; Marchiò, Serena; Giraudo, Enrico; Primo, Luca; Arese, Marco; Bussolino, Federico

    2012-12-01

    Innate immunity may activate paracrine circuits able to entail vascular system in the onset and progression of several chronic degenerative diseases. In particular, interleukin (IL)-12 triggers a genetic program in lymphomononuclear cells characterized by the production of interferon-γ and specific chemokines resulting in an angiostatic activity. The aim of this study is to identify molecules involved in the regulation of cell cycle in endothelial cells co-cultured with IL-12-stimulated lymphomonuclear cells. By using a transwell mediated co-culture system we demonstrated that IL-12-stimulated lymphomonuclear cells induce an arrest of endothelial cells cycle in G1, which is mainly mediated by the up-regulation of p21(Cip1/Waf1), an inhibitor of cyclin kinases. This effect requires the activation of STAT1, PKCδ and p38 MAPK, while p53 is ineffective. In accordance, siRNA-dependent silencing of these molecules in endothelial cells inhibited the increase of p21(Cip1/Waf1) and the modification in cell cycle promoted by IL-12-stimulated lymphomonuclear cells. These results indicate that the angiostatic action of IL-12-stimulated lymphomononuclear cells may lie in the capability to arrest endothelial cells in G1 phase through a mechanisms mainly based on the specific up-regulation of p21(Cip1/Waf1) induced by the combined activity of STAT1, PKCδ and p38 MAPK.

  13. Smokeless tobacco extract (STE)-induced toxicity in mammalian cells is mediated by the disruption of cellular microtubule network: a key mechanism of cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Das, Amlan; Bhattacharya, Abhijit; Chakrabarty, Subhendu; Ganguli, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco usage is a growing public health problem worldwide. The molecular mechanism(s) underlying smokeless tobacco associated tissue damage remain largely unidentified. In the present study we have tried to explore the effects of aqueous extract of smokeless tobacco (STE) on tubulin-microtubule, the major cytoskeleton protein that maintains cells morphology and participates in cell division. Exposure to STE resulted in dose-dependent cytotoxicity in a variety of mammalian transformed cell lines such as human lung epithelial cells A549, human liver epithelial cells HepG2, and mouse squamous epithelial cells SCC7, [corrected] as well as non-tumorogenic human peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMC. Cellular morphology of STE-treated cells was altered and the associated disruption of microtubule network indicates that STE targets tubulin-microtubule system in both cell lines. Furthermore it was also observed that STE-treatment resulted in the selective degradation of cellular tubulin, whereas actin remains unaltered. In vitro, polymerization of purified tubulin was inhibited by STE with the IC50 value∼150 µg/ml and this is associated with the loss of reactive cysteine residues of tubulin. Application of thiol-based antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly abrogates STE-mediated microtubule damage and associated cytotoxicity in both A549 and HepG2 cells. These results suggest that microtubule damage is one of the key mechanisms of STE-induced cytotoxity in mammalian cells.

  14. Smokeless Tobacco Extract (STE)-Induced Toxicity in Mammalian Cells is Mediated by the Disruption of Cellular Microtubule Network: A Key Mechanism of Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, Subhendu; Ganguli, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco usage is a growing public health problem worldwide. The molecular mechanism(s) underlying smokeless tobacco associated tissue damage remain largely unidentified. In the present study we have tried to explore the effects of aqueous extract of smokeless tobacco (STE) on tubulin-microtubule, the major cytoskeleton protein that maintains cells morphology and participates in cell division. Exposure to STE resulted in dose-dependent cytotoxicity in a variety of mammalian transformed cell lines such as human lung epithelial cells A549, human liver epithelial cells HepG2, and mouse squamous epithelial cells HCC7, as well as non-tumorogenic human peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMC. Cellular morphology of STE-treated cells was altered and the associated disruption of microtubule network indicates that STE targets tubulin-microtubule system in both cell lines. Furthermore it was also observed that STE-treatment resulted in the selective degradation of cellular tubulin, whereas actin remains unaltered. In vitro, polymerization of purified tubulin was inhibited by STE with the IC50 value∼150 µg/ml and this is associated with the loss of reactive cysteine residues of tubulin. Application of thiol-based antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly abrogates STE-mediated microtubule damage and associated cytotoxicity in both A549 and HepG2 cells. These results suggest that microtubule damage is one of the key mechanisms of STE-induced cytotoxity in mammalian cells. PMID:23874548

  15. Molecular mechanisms regulating CD13-mediated adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mallika; Gerber, Claire; Rahman, M Mamunur; Vernier, Kaitlyn M; Pereira, Flavia E; Subramani, Jaganathan; Caromile, Leslie A; Shapiro, Linda H

    2014-01-01

    CD13/Aminopeptidase N is a transmembrane metalloproteinase that is expressed in many tissues where it regulates various cellular functions. In inflammation, CD13 is expressed on myeloid cells, is up-regulated on endothelial cells at sites of inflammation and mediates monocyte/endothelial adhesion by homotypic interactions. In animal models the lack of CD13 alters the profiles of infiltrating inflammatory cells at sites of ischaemic injury. Here, we found that CD13 expression is enriched specifically on the pro-inflammatory subset of monocytes, suggesting that CD13 may regulate trafficking and function of specific subsets of immune cells. To further dissect the mechanisms regulating CD13-dependent trafficking we used the murine model of thioglycollate-induced sterile peritonitis. Peritoneal monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells were significantly decreased in inflammatory exudates from global CD13KO animals when compared with wild-type controls. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of wild-type and CD13KO primary myeloid cells, or wild-type myeloid cells pre-treated with CD13-blocking antibodies into thioglycollate-challenged wild-type recipients demonstrated fewer CD13KO or treated cells in the lavage, suggesting that CD13 expression confers a competitive advantage in trafficking. Similarly, both wild-type and CD13KO cells were reduced in infiltrates in CD13KO recipients, confirming that both monocytic and endothelial CD13 contribute to trafficking. Finally, murine monocyte cell lines expressing mouse/human chimeric CD13 molecules demonstrated that the C-terminal domain of the protein mediates CD13 adhesion. Therefore, this work verifies that the altered inflammatory trafficking in CD13KO mice is the result of aberrant myeloid cell subset trafficking and further defines the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. PMID:24627994

  16. Cadmium down-regulates expression of XIAP at the post-transcriptional level in prostate cancer cells through an NF-κB-independent, proteasome-mediated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cadmium has been classified as a human carcinogen, affecting health through occupational and environmental exposure. Cadmium has a long biological half-life (>25 years), due to the flat kinetics of its excretion. The prostate is one of the organs with highest levels of cadmium accumulation. Importantly, patients with prostate cancer appear to have higher levels of cadmium both in the circulation and in prostatic tissues. Results In the current report, we demonstrate for the first time that cadmium down-regulates expression of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) in prostate cancer cells. Cadmium-mediated XIAP depletion occurs at the post-transcriptional level via an NF-κB-independent, proteasome-mediated mechanism and coincides with an increased sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to TNF-α-mediated apoptosis. Prolonged treatment with cadmium results in selection of prostate cancer cells with apoptosis-resistant phenotype. Development of apoptosis-resistance coincides with restoration of XIAP expression in cadmium-selected PC-3 cells. Conclusions Selection of cadmium-resistant cells could represent an adaptive survival mechanism that may contribute to progression of prostatic malignancies. PMID:20618956

  17. Control of cell cycle by metabolites of prostaglandin D2 through a non-cAMP mediated mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Fukushima, M.

    1993-01-01

    The dehydration products of PGD2, 9-deoxy-9 prostaglandin D2(PGJ2), 9-deoxy-delta 9, delta 12, delta 13 dehydroprostaglandin D2 (delta 12 PGJ2), and PGA2 all contain an unsaturated cyclopentenone structure which is characteristic of prostaglandins which effectively inhibit cell growth. It has been suggested that the action of the inhibitory prostaglandins may be through a cAMP mechanism. In this study, we use S49 wild type (WT) and adenylate cyclase variant (cyc-) cells to show that PGD2 and PGJ2 are not acting via a cyclic AMP mechanism. First, the increase in cyclic AMP in wild type S-49 cells is not proportional to its effects on DNA synthesis. More importantly, when S-49 cyc- cells were exposed to PGJ2, the adenylate cyclase (cyc-) mutant had decreased DNA synthesis with no change in its nominal cAMP content. Short-term (2 hours or less) exposure of the cyc- cells to prostaglandin J2 caused an inhibition of DNA synthesis. PGJ2 caused cytolysis at high concentrations. Long-term exposure (>14 hrs) of the cells to PGJ2, delta 12PGJ2 or delta 12, delta 14PGJ2 caused a cell cycle arrest in G1 demonstrating a cell cycle specific mechanism of action for growth inhibition by naturally occurring biological products independent of cAMP.

  18. Control of cell cycle by metabolites of prostaglandin D2 through a non-cAMP mediated mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Fukushima, M.

    1993-01-01

    The dehydration products of PGD2, 9-deoxy-9 prostaglandin D2(PGJ2), 9-deoxy-delta 9, delta 12, delta 13 dehydroprostaglandin D2 (delta 12 PGJ2), and PGA2 all contain an unsaturated cyclopentenone structure which is characteristic of prostaglandins which effectively inhibit cell growth. It has been suggested that the action of the inhibitory prostaglandins may be through a cAMP mechanism. In this study, we use S49 wild type (WT) and adenylate cyclase variant (cyc-) cells to show that PGD2 and PGJ2 are not acting via a cyclic AMP mechanism. First, the increase in cyclic AMP in wild type S-49 cells is not proportional to its effects on DNA synthesis. More importantly, when S-49 cyc- cells were exposed to PGJ2, the adenylate cyclase (cyc-) mutant had decreased DNA synthesis with no change in its nominal cAMP content. Short-term (2 hours or less) exposure of the cyc- cells to prostaglandin J2 caused an inhibition of DNA synthesis. PGJ2 caused cytolysis at high concentrations. Long-term exposure (>14 hrs) of the cells to PGJ2, delta 12PGJ2 or delta 12, delta 14PGJ2 caused a cell cycle arrest in G1 demonstrating a cell cycle specific mechanism of action for growth inhibition by naturally occurring biological products independent of cAMP.

  19. Cell-Mediated Drugs Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Batrakova, Elena V.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Drug targeting to sites of tissue injury, tumor or infection with limited toxicity is the goal for successful pharmaceutics. Immunocytes (including mononuclear phagocytes (dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages), neutrophils, and lymphocytes) are highly mobile; they can migrate across impermeable barriers and release their drug cargo at sites of infection or tissue injury. Thus immune cells can be exploited as trojan horses for drug delivery. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW This paper reviews how immunocytes laden with drugs can cross the blood brain or blood tumor barriers, to facilitate treatments for infectious diseases, injury, cancer, or inflammatory diseases. The promises and perils of cell-mediated drug delivery are reviewed, with examples of how immunocytes can be harnessed to improve therapeutic end points. EXPERT OPINION Using cells as delivery vehicles enables targeted drug transport, and prolonged circulation times, along with reductions in cell and tissue toxicities. Such systems for drug carriage and targeted release represent a novel disease combating strategy being applied to a spectrum of human disorders. The design of nanocarriers for cell-mediated drug delivery may differ from those used for conventional drug delivery systems; nevertheless, engaging different defense mechanisms into drug delivery may open new perspectives for the active delivery of drugs. PMID:21348773

  20. Expression of the proteoglycan syndecan-4 and the mechanism by which it mediates stress fiber formation in folliculostellate cells in the rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Kouki, Tom; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Ly, Floren; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    Folliculostellate (FS) cells in the anterior pituitary gland appear to have multifunctional properties. FS cells connect to each other at gap junctions and thereby form a histological and functional network. We have performed a series of studies on network formation in FS cells and recently reported that FS cells markedly prolong their cytoplasmic processes and form numerous interconnections with neighboring FS cells in the presence of laminin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) component of the basement membrane. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of this extension of FS cell cytoplasmic processes under the influence of laminin and found that laminin promoted stress fiber formation within FS cells. Next, we noted that formation of stress fibers in FS cells was mediated by syndecan-4, a transmembrane proteoglycan that binds ECM and soluble factors via their extracellular glycosaminoglycan chain. We then observed that expressions of syndecan-4 and α-actinin (a microfilament bundling protein that cross-links actin stress fibers in FS cells) were upregulated by laminin. Using specific siRNA of syndecan-4, actin polymerization of FS cells was inhibited. Our findings suggest that FS cells received a signal from laminin-syndecan-4 interaction, which resulted in morphological changes, and that the formation of a morphological and functional network in FS cells was transduced by a syndecan-4-dependent mechanism in the presence of ECM.

  1. Impact of a cell phone intervention on mediating mechanisms of smoking cessation in individuals living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Vidrine, Damon J; Arduino, Roberto C; Gritz, Ellen R

    2006-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that smokers living with HIV/AIDS have a significantly increased risk of numerous adverse health outcomes (both AIDS- and non-AIDS-related) compared with HIV-positive nonsmokers. Therefore, efforts to design and implement effective cessation programs for this ever-growing special population are warranted. The present study assessed the effects of a cell phone intervention (CPI) on hypothesized mediators (i.e., changes in depression, anxiety, social support, and self-efficacy) demonstrated to influence cessation outcomes in other populations. Ninety-five participants from an inner-city AIDS clinic were randomized to receive either the CPI or recommended standard of care (RSOC) smoking cessation treatment. Participants randomized to the RSOC group (n=47) received brief advice to quit, a 10-week supply of nicotine patches, and self-help materials. Participants randomized to the CPI group (n=48) received RSOC components plus a series of eight proactive counseling sessions delivered via cell phones. A series of regression analyses (linear and logistic) was used to assess the relationships between treatment group, the hypothesized mediators, and biochemically confirmed smoking cessation outcomes. Results indicated that the CPI group experienced greater reductions in anxiety and depression, and increases in self-efficacy compared with the RSOC group. Further, changes in depression, anxiety, and self-efficacy weakened the association between treatment group and cessation outcome. The mediator hypothesis, however, for social support was rejected, as the difference score was not significantly associated with treatment group. These results suggest that the efficacy of the CPI is at least partially mediated by its ability to decrease symptoms of distress while increasing self-efficacy.

  2. NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species: A new mechanism for X-ray-induced HeLa cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Qing; He Xiaoqing; Liu Yongsheng; Du Bingbing; Wang Xiaoyan; Zhang Weisheng; Jia Pengfei; Dong Jingmei; Ma Jianxiu; Wang Xiaohu; Li Sha; Zhang Hong

    2008-12-19

    Oxidative damage is an important mechanism in X-ray-induced cell death. Radiolysis of water molecules is a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that contribute to X-ray-induced cell death. In this study, we showed by ROS detection and a cell survival assay that NADPH oxidase has a very important role in X-ray-induced cell death. Under X-ray irradiation, the upregulation of the expression of NADPH oxidase membrane subunit gp91{sup phox} was dose-dependent. Meanwhile, the cytoplasmic subunit p47{sup phox} was translocated to the cell membrane and localized with p22{sup phox} and gp91{sup phox} to form reactive NADPH oxidase. Our data suggest, for the first time, that NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of ROS is an important contributor to X-ray-induced cell death. This suggests a new target for combined gene transfer and radiotherapy.

  3. Mobilization of Intracellular Copper by Gossypol and Apogossypolone Leads to Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Cell Death: Putative Anticancer Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Haseeb; Azim, Shafquat; Khan, Husain Yar; Ullah, Mohammad Fahad; Wu, Daocheng; Singh, Ajay Pratap; Hadi, Sheikh Mumtaz; Ahmad, Aamir

    2016-06-20

    There is compelling evidence that serum, tissue and intracellular levels of copper are elevated in all types of cancer. Copper has been suggested as an important co-factor for angiogenesis. It is also a major metal ion present inside the nucleus, bound to DNA bases, particularly guanine. We have earlier proposed that the interaction of phenolic-antioxidants with intracellular copper leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that ultimately serve as DNA cleaving agents. To further validate our hypothesis we show here that the antioxidant gossypol and its semi-synthetic derivative apogossypolone induce copper-mediated apoptosis in breast MDA-MB-231, prostate PC3 and pancreatic BxPC-3 cancer cells, through the generation of ROS. MCF10A breast epithelial cells refractory to the cytotoxic property of these compounds become sensitized to treatment against gossypol, as well as apogossypolone, when pre-incubated with copper. Our present results confirm our earlier findings and strengthen our hypothesis that plant-derived antioxidants mobilize intracellular copper instigating ROS-mediated cellular DNA breakage. As cancer cells exist under significant oxidative stress, this increase in ROS-stress to cytotoxic levels could be a successful anticancer approach.

  4. Mechanism of mammalian cell lysis mediated by peptide defensins. Evidence for an initial alteration of the plasma membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, A

    1991-01-01

    Defensins induce ion channels in model lipid bilayers and permeabilize the membranes of Escherichia coli. We investigated whether similar membrane-active events occur during defensin-mediated cytolysis of tumor cells. Although defensin-treated K562 targets did not release chromium-labeled cytoplasmic components for 5-6 h, they experienced a rapid collapse (within minutes) of the membrane potential, efflux of rubidium, and influx of trypan blue. Defensin treatment also blunted the subsequent acidification response induced by nigericin, thereby further supporting the notion of enhanced transmembrane ion flow during exposure. These initial effects on the plasma membrane were not sufficient for subsequent lysis; a second phase of injury was required which involved the continued presence of defensin. The rapid membrane permeabilization phase was inhibited by azide/2-deoxyglucose, cytochalasin B, and increased concentrations of extracellular potassium and was unaffected by actinomycin-D, cycloheximide, and varying the calcium concentration. In contrast, the second phase was unaffected by cytochalasin B, inhibited by azide/2-deoxyglucose, enhanced by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, and varied with calcium concentration. These results indicate the initial adverse effect of defensins on mammalian cells occurs at the cell membrane. It is possible that the second phase of injury is mediated intracellularly by defensin that has been internalized through this leaky membrane. PMID:2056135

  5. Mechanisms underlying aspirin-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of cyclooxygenase-2 negative colon cancer cell line SW480

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ming-Yu; Huang, Jie-An; Liang, Zhi-Hai; Jiang, Hai-Xing; Tang, Guo-Du

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) on proliferation and apoptosis of colorectal cancer cell line SW480 and its mechanism. METHODS: Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 negative colorectal cancer cell line SW480 was treated with aspirin at concentrations of 2.5 mmol/L, 5.0 mmol/L, 10.0 mmol/L for different periods in vitro. Anti-proliferation effect of aspirin on SW480 was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were observed by flow cytometry (FCM). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used for morphological study. Apoptosis-associated genes were detected by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. RESULTS: Aspirin inhibited SW480 proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment with different concentrations of aspirin significantly increased the proportions of cells at the G0/G1 phase and decreased the proportions of cells at the S- and G2/M phases in a concentration-dependent manner. Aspirin not only induced apoptosis but also caused cell necrosis at a high concentration as well. After treatment with aspirin, SW480 cells displayed typically morphological features of apoptosis and necrosis under TEM, and increased the Bcl-2 expression in cells, but the expression of Bax was down regulated. CONCLUSION: Aspirin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of SW480 cells. Its anti-tumor mechanism may arrest cell cycle and shift Bax/Bcl-2 balance in cells. PMID:18636671

  6. Mechanisms regulating enhanced HLA class II-mediated CD4+ T cell recognition of human B-cell lymphoma by resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    RADWAN, FAISAL F. Y.; ZHANG, LIXIA; HOSSAIN, AZIM; DOONAN, BENTLY P.; GOD, JASON; HAQUE, AZIZUL

    2015-01-01

    Malignant B-cells express measurable levels of HLA class II proteins, but often escape immune recognition by CD4+ T cells. Resveratrol (Resv) has been the focus of numerous investigations due to its potential chemopreventive and anti-cancer effects, but it has never been tested in the regulation of immune components in B-cell tumors. Here, we show for the first time that Resv treatment enhances HLA class II-mediated immune detection of B-cell lymphomas by altering immune components and class II presentation in tumor cells. Resv treatment induced an upregulation of both classical and non-classical HLA class II proteins (DR and DM) in B-lymphoma cells. Resv also altered endolysosomal cathepsins (Cat S, B and D) and a thiol reductase (GILT), increasing HLA class II-mediated antigen (Ag) processing in B-cell lymphomas and their subsequent recognition by CD4+ T cells. Mechanistic study demonstrated that Resv treatment activated the recycling class II pathway of Ag presentation through upregulation of Rab 4B protein expression in B-lymphoma cells. These findings suggest that HLA class II-mediated immune recognition of malignant B-cells can be improved by Resv treatment, thus encouraging its potential use in chemoimmunotherapy of B-cell lymphoma. PMID:21854084

  7. System modeling reveals the molecular mechanisms of HSC cell cycle alteration mediated by Maff and Egr3 under leukemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Rudong; Wang, Yin; Cheng, Hui; Liu, Gang; Cheng, Tao; Liu, Yunlong; Liu, Lei

    2017-10-03

    Molecular mechanisms of the functional alteration of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in leukemic environment attract intensive research interests. As known in previous researches, Maff and Egr3 are two important genes having opposite functions on cell cycle; however, they are both highly expressed in HSCs under leukemia. Hence, exploring the molecular mechanisms of how the genes act on cell cycle will help revealing the functional alteration of HSCs. We herein utilize the bioinformatic resources to computationally model the acting mechanisms of Maff and Egr3 on cell cycle. Using the data of functional experiments as reference, molecular acting mechanisms are optimally enumerated through model selection. The results are consolidated by evidences from gene sequence analysis, thus having enhanced the confidence of our pilot findings, which suggest that HSCs possibly undergo a "adaptation - suppression" process in response to the malignant environment of leukemia. As a pilot research, our results may provide valuable insights for further experimental studies. Meanwhile, our research method combining computational modeling and data from functional experiments can be worthwhile for knowledge discovery; and it can be generalized and extended to other biological/biomedical studies.

  8. Effects of the in vitro manipulation of stem cells: epigenetic mechanisms as mediators of induced metabolic fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Paldi, András

    2013-08-01

    The increasing popularity of stem cells in life science research has at least two major causes. On one hand, the study of stem cells may provide insights into one of the major secrets of biology: the mechanisms of cell differentiation. On the other hand, stem cells are potentially promising tools for regenerative therapy. The understanding of how environmental stimuli are translated into phenotypic differentiation through gene expression changes and how the same stimuli at the same time may perturb the normal process of cellular differentiation, growth and maintenance is a central issue for fundamental research but is also essential for the development of efficient and safe procedures for therapeutic use. This article assembles the known facts, as pieces of a puzzle, into a coherent picture around the idea of why stem cells are so sensitive to their culture environment and what practical consequences this implies.

  9. Amyloid-β Peptide on Sialyl-LewisX-Selectin-Mediated Membrane Tether Mechanics at the Cerebral Endothelial Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Askarova, Sholpan; Sun, Zhe; Sun, Grace Y.; Meininger, Gerald A.; Lee, James C-M.

    2013-01-01

    Increased deposition of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) at the cerebral endothelial cell (CEC) surface has been implicated in enhancement of transmigration of monocytes across the brain blood barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy (QIM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) with cantilevers biofunctionalized by sialyl-Lewisx (sLex) were employed to investigate Aβ-altered mechanics of membrane tethers formed by bonding between sLex and p-selectin at the CEC surface, the initial mechanical step governing the transmigration of monocytes. QIM results indicated the ability for Aβ to increase p-selectin expression at the cell surface and promote actin polymerization in both bEND3 cells (immortalized mouse CECs) and human primary CECs. AFM data also showed the ability for Aβ to increase cell stiffness and adhesion probability in bEND3 cells. On the contrary, Aβ lowered the overall force of membrane tether formation (Fmtf), and produced a bimodal population of Fmtf, suggesting subcellular mechanical alterations in membrane tethering. The lower Fmtf population was similar to the results obtained from cells treated with an F-actin-disrupting drug, latrunculin A. Indeed, AFM results also showed that both Aβ and latrunculin A decreased membrane stiffness, suggesting a lower membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion, a factor resulting in lower Fmtf. In addition, these cerebral endothelial alterations induced by Aβ were abrogated by lovastatin, consistent with its anti-inflammatory effects. In sum, these results demonstrated the ability for Aβ to enhance p-selectin expression at the CEC surface and induce cytoskeleton reorganization, which in turn, resulted in changes in membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion and membrane tethering, mechanical factors important in transmigration of monocytes through the BBB. PMID:23593361

  10. Amyloid-β peptide on sialyl-Lewis(X)-selectin-mediated membrane tether mechanics at the cerebral endothelial cell surface.

    PubMed

    Askarova, Sholpan; Sun, Zhe; Sun, Grace Y; Meininger, Gerald A; Lee, James C-M

    2013-01-01

    Increased deposition of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) at the cerebral endothelial cell (CEC) surface has been implicated in enhancement of transmigration of monocytes across the brain blood barrier (BBB) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy (QIM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) with cantilevers biofunctionalized by sialyl-Lewis(x) (sLe(x)) were employed to investigate Aβ-altered mechanics of membrane tethers formed by bonding between sLe(x) and p-selectin at the CEC surface, the initial mechanical step governing the transmigration of monocytes. QIM results indicated the ability for Aβ to increase p-selectin expression at the cell surface and promote actin polymerization in both bEND3 cells (immortalized mouse CECs) and human primary CECs. AFM data also showed the ability for Aβ to increase cell stiffness and adhesion probability in bEND3 cells. On the contrary, Aβ lowered the overall force of membrane tether formation (Fmtf ), and produced a bimodal population of Fmtf , suggesting subcellular mechanical alterations in membrane tethering. The lower Fmtf population was similar to the results obtained from cells treated with an F-actin-disrupting drug, latrunculin A. Indeed, AFM results also showed that both Aβ and latrunculin A decreased membrane stiffness, suggesting a lower membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion, a factor resulting in lower Fmtf . In addition, these cerebral endothelial alterations induced by Aβ were abrogated by lovastatin, consistent with its anti-inflammatory effects. In sum, these results demonstrated the ability for Aβ to enhance p-selectin expression at the CEC surface and induce cytoskeleton reorganization, which in turn, resulted in changes in membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion and membrane tethering, mechanical factors important in transmigration of monocytes through the BBB.

  11. Akt-mediated liver growth promotes induction of cyclin E through a novel translational mechanism and a p21-mediated cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Lisa K; Nelsen, Christopher J; Hanse, Eric A; Goggin, Melissa M; Anttila, Chelsea K; Peterson, Mark; Bitterman, Peter B; Raghavan, Arvind; Crary, Gretchen S; Albrecht, Jeffrey H

    2007-07-20

    The control of hepatocyte growth is relevant to the processes of liver regeneration, development, metabolic homeostasis, and cancer. A key component of growth control is the protein kinase Akt, which acts downstream of mitogens and nutrients to affect protein translation and cell cycle progression. In this study, we found that transient transfection of activated Akt triggered a 3-4-fold increase in liver size within days but only minimal hepatocyte proliferation. Akt-induced liver growth was associated with marked up-regulation of cyclin E but not cyclin D1. Analysis of liver polyribosomes demonstrated that the post-transcriptional induction of cyclin E was associated with increased translational efficiency of this mRNA, suggesting that cell growth promotes expression of this protein through a translational mechanism that is distinct from the cyclin D-E2F pathway. Treatment of Akt-transfected mice with rapamycin only partially inhibited liver growth and did not prevent the induction of cyclin E protein, indicating that target of rapamycin activity is not necessary for this response. In the enlarged livers, cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes were present in high abundance but were inactive due to increased binding of p21 to these complexes. Akt transfection of p21(-/-) mice promoted liver growth, activation of Cdk2, and enhanced hepatocyte proliferation. In conclusion, growth promotes cyclin E expression through a novel translational mechanism in the liver, suggesting a new link between cell growth and the cell cycle machinery. Furthermore, p21 suppresses proliferation in the overgrown livers and may play a role in preventing cell cycle progression in response to organ size homeostatic mechanisms.

  12. Acetylcholine mediates the release of IL-8 in human bronchial epithelial cells by a NFkB/ERK-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Profita, Mirella; Bonanno, Anna; Siena, Liboria; Ferraro, Maria; Montalbano, Angela M; Pompeo, Flora; Riccobono, Loredana; Pieper, Michael P; Gjomarkaj, Mark

    2008-03-17

    Acetylcholine may play a role in cell activation and airway inflammation. We evaluated the levels of both mRNA and protein of muscarinic M(1), M(2), M(3) receptors in human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE). 16HBE cells were also stimulated with acetylcholine and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and NFkB pathway activation as well as the IL-8 release was assessed in the presence or absence of the inhibitor of Protein-kinase (PKC) (GF109203X), of the inhibitor of mitogenic activated protein-kinase kinase (MAPKK) (PDO9805), of the inhibitor of kinaseB-alpha phosphorilation (pIkBalpha) (BAY11-7082), and of muscarinic receptor antagonists tiotropium bromide, 4-Diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP), telenzepine, gallamine. Additionally, we tested the IL-8-mediated neutrophil chemotactic activity of 16HBE supernatants stimulated with acetylcholine in the presence or absence of tiotropium. 16HBE cells expressed both protein and mRNA for muscarinic M(3), M(2) and M(1) receptors with levels of muscarinic M(3) receptor>muscarinic M(1) receptor>muscarinic M(2) receptor. Acetylcholine (10 microM) significantly stimulated ERK1/2 and NFkB activation as well as IL-8 release in 16HBE cells when compared to basal values. Furthermore, while the use of tiotropium, 4-DAMP, GF109203X, PDO98059, BAY11-7082 completely abolished these events, the use of telenzepine and gallamine were only partially able to downregulate these effects. Additionally, acetylcholine-mediated IL-8 release from 16HBE cells significantly increased chemotaxis toward neutrophils and this effect was blocked by tiotropium. In conclusion, acetylcholine activates the release of IL-8 from 16HBE involving PKC, ERK1/2 and NFkB pathways via muscarinic receptors, suggesting that it is likely to contribute to IL-8 related neutrophilic inflammatory disorders in the airway. Thus, muscarinic antagonists may contribute to control inflammatory processes in airway diseases.

  13. Urokinase-mediated recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and their suppressive mechanisms are blocked by MUC1/sec

    PubMed Central

    Ilkovitch, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The transmembrane isoform of mucin 1 (MUC1/TM) is a well-recognized tumor antigen, contributing to tumorigenesis and immune evasion. Although MUC1/TM has been correlated with malignancy, we have previously reported on antitumor properties and prevention of tumor development by a secreted splice variant of MUC1 (MUC1/sec). Because myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a critical role in tumor-induced immunosuppression, we investigated their recruitment by tumor cells expressing either MUC1/TM or MUC1/sec. DA-3 tumor cells expressing MUC1/sec recruit dramatically lower levels of MDSCs, relative to MUC1/TM-expressing DA-3 cells. Because MUC1/sec was previously shown to down-regulate tumor expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), a protease linked to tumor aggressiveness and metastasis, the potential role of uPA in MDSC recruitment was investigated. Tumor-derived uPA is capable of recruiting MDSCs, and correlates with tumor development. In addition to diminishing recruitment of MDSCs, the effect of MUC1/sec on MDSC-suppressive mechanisms was investigated. MUC1/sec, or its unique immunoenhancing peptide, is capable of blocking expression of arginase 1 and production of reactive oxygen species in MDSCs, implicated in the suppression of T cells. These findings demonstrate a new mechanism of MDSC recruitment, and provide evidence that MUC1/sec has antitumor properties affecting MDSCs. PMID:19196663

  14. Urokinase-mediated recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and their suppressive mechanisms are blocked by MUC1/sec.

    PubMed

    Ilkovitch, Dan; Lopez, Diana M

    2009-05-07

    The transmembrane isoform of mucin 1 (MUC1/TM) is a well-recognized tumor antigen, contributing to tumorigenesis and immune evasion. Although MUC1/TM has been correlated with malignancy, we have previously reported on antitumor properties and prevention of tumor development by a secreted splice variant of MUC1 (MUC1/sec). Because myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a critical role in tumor-induced immunosuppression, we investigated their recruitment by tumor cells expressing either MUC1/TM or MUC1/sec. DA-3 tumor cells expressing MUC1/sec recruit dramatically lower levels of MDSCs, relative to MUC1/TM-expressing DA-3 cells. Because MUC1/sec was previously shown to down-regulate tumor expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), a protease linked to tumor aggressiveness and metastasis, the potential role of uPA in MDSC recruitment was investigated. Tumor-derived uPA is capable of recruiting MDSCs, and correlates with tumor development. In addition to diminishing recruitment of MDSCs, the effect of MUC1/sec on MDSC-suppressive mechanisms was investigated. MUC1/sec, or its unique immunoenhancing peptide, is capable of blocking expression of arginase 1 and production of reactive oxygen species in MDSCs, implicated in the suppression of T cells. These findings demonstrate a new mechanism of MDSC recruitment, and provide evidence that MUC1/sec has antitumor properties affecting MDSCs.

  15. Increased intestinal endotoxin absorption during enteric nematode but not protozoal infections through a mast cell-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Farid, Ayman Samir; Jimi, Fumiko; Inagaki-Ohara, Kyoko; Horii, Yoichiro

    2008-06-01

    It is known that hypersensitivity reactions in the gastrointestinal tract, which are primarily mediated by mast cells, are associated with a secretory response of the epithelium and often increased permeability to macromolecules. Studies to date have not examined the effects of hyperpermeability on the absorption of toxic substances normally present in the intestinal lumen such as bacterial LPS. In the present study, we observed that Strongyloides venezuelensis infection in mice decreases the mRNA expression of intestinal epithelial cell junctional molecules (occludin and zonula occludens 1) and increases portal endotoxin levels 4 h after intragastric administration of LPS (20 mg/kg body weight). Furthermore, an increase in the flux of immunoglobulin G into the intestinal lumen was observed 10 days postinfection (PI). An increased rate of LPS absorption was also seen in mice infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis on day 14 PI and rats concurrently infected with S. venezuelensis and N. brasiliensis on day 20 PI. On the other hand, infection with Eimeria vermiformis and Eimeria pragensis was not observed to enhance LPS absorption 4 h after intragastric administration of LPS (20 mg/kg body weight), although E. vermiformis infection did inhibit the epithelial cell mRNA expression of zonula occludens 1, but not occludin, on day 9 PI, resulting in a reduced immunoglobulin G flux than that produced by S. venezuelensis infection. Our results suggest that mastocytosis accompanying intestinal nematode infection increases the intestinal absorption of LPS into the portal circulation by suppressing the expression of tight junction molecules.

  16. Histamine-mediated Increases in Cytosolic [Ca2+] Involve Different Mechanisms in Human Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle and Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mauban, Joseph R. H.; Wilkinson, Katherine; Schach, Christian; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Agonist stimulation of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle (PASMC) and endothelial (PAEC) cells with histamine showed similar spatiotemporal patterns of Ca2+ release. Both sustained elevation and oscillatory patterns of changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) were observed in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. Capacitative Ca2+ entry (CCE) was induced in PASMC and PAEC by passive depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores with 10-μM cyclopiazonic acid (CPA, for 15-30 min). The pyrazole derivative BTP2 inhibited the CPA-activated Ca2+ influx, suggesting that depletion of CPA-sensitive internal stores is sufficient to induce CCE in both PASMC and PAEC. The recourse of histamine-mediated Ca2+ release was examined after exposure of the cells to CPA, thapsigargin, caffeine, ryanodine, FCCP, or bafilomycin. In PASMC bathed in Ca2+-free solution, treatment with CPA almost abolished histamine-induced rises in [Ca2+]cyt. In PAEC bathed in Ca2+-free solution, however, treatment with CPA eliminated the histamine-induced sustained and oscillatory rises in [Ca2+]cyt, but did not affect the initial transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt. Furthermore, treatment of PAEC with a combination of CPA (or thapsigargin) and caffeine (and ryanodine), FCCP, or bafilomycin did not abolish the histamine-induced transient [Ca2+]cyt increases. These observations indicate that a) depletion of CPA-sensitive stores is sufficient to cause CCE in both PASMC and PAEC; b) induction of CCE in PAEC does not require depletion of all internal Ca2+ stores; c) the histamine-releasable internal stores in PASMC are mainly CPA-sensitive stores; d) PAEC, in addition to a functional pool that is sensitive to CPA, contain other stores that are insensitive to CPA, thapsigargin, caffeine, ryanodine, FCCP, and bafilomycin; and e) the CPA-insensitive stores in PAEC, while may not contribute to CCE, contribute to histamine-mediated Ca2+ release. PMID:16162658

  17. Stress-mediated progression of solid tumors: effect of mechanical stress on tissue oxygenation, cancer cell proliferation and drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mpekris, Fotios; Angeli, Stelios; Pirentis, Athanassios P.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen supply plays a central role in cancer cell proliferation. While vascular density increases at the early stages of carcinogenesis, mechanical solid stresses developed during growth compress tumor blood vessels and, thus, drastically reduce the supply of oxygen, but also the delivery of drugs at inner tumor regions. Among other effects, hypoxia and reduced drug delivery compromise the efficacy of radiation and chemo/nano therapy, respectively. In the present study, we developed a mathematical model of tumor growth to investigate the interconnections among tumor oxygenation that supports cancer cell proliferation, the heterogeneous accumulation of mechanical stresses owing to tumor growth, the non-uniform compression of intratumoral blood vessels due to the mechanical stresses, and the insufficient delivery of oxygen and therapeutic agents because of vessel compression. We found that the high vascular density and increased cancer cell proliferation often observed in the periphery compared to the interior of a tumor can be attributed to heterogeneous solid stress accumulation. Highly vascularized peripheral regions are also associated with greater oxygenation compared with the compressed, less vascularized inner regions. We also modeled the delivery of drugs of two distinct sizes, namely chemotherapy and nanomedicine. Model predictions suggest that drug delivery is affected negatively by vessel compression independently of the size of the therapeutic agent. Finally, we demonstrated the applicability of our model to actual geometries, employing a breast tumor model derived from MR images. PMID:25968141

  18. A tumor-promoting mechanism mediated by retrotransposon-encoded reverse transcriptase is active in human transformed cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sciamanna, Ilaria; Gualtieri, Alberto; Cossetti, Cristina; Osimo, Emanuele Felice; Ferracin, Manuela; Macchia, Gianfranco; Aricò, Eleonora; Prosseda, Gianni; Vitullo, Patrizia; Misteli, Tom; Spadafora, Corrado

    2013-01-01

    LINE-1 elements make up the most abundant retrotransposon family in the human genome. Full-length LINE-1 elements encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) activity required for their own retrotranpsosition as well as that of non-autonomous Alu elements. LINE-1 are poorly expressed in normal cells and abundantly in cancer cells. Decreasing RT activity in cancer cells, by either LINE-1-specific RNA interference, or by RT inhibitory drugs, was previously found to reduce proliferation and promote differentiation and to antagonize tumor growth in animal models. Here we have investigated how RT exerts these global regulatory functions. We report that the RT inhibitor efavirenz (EFV) selectively downregulates proliferation of transformed cell lines, while exerting only mild effects on non-transformed cells; this differential sensitivity matches a differential RT abundance, which is high in the former and undetectable in the latter. Using CsCl density gradients, we selectively identify Alu and LINE-1 containing DNA:RNA hybrid molecules in cancer but not in normal cells. Remarkably, hybrid molecules fail to form in tumor cells treated with EFV under the same conditions that repress proliferation and induce the reprogramming of expression profiles of coding genes, microRNAs (miRNAs) and ultraconserved regions (UCRs). The RT-sensitive miRNAs and UCRs are significantly associated with Alu sequences. The results suggest that LINE-1-encoded RT governs the balance between single-stranded and double-stranded RNA production. In cancer cells the abundant RT reverse-transcribes retroelement-derived mRNAs forming RNA:DNA hybrids. We propose that this impairs the formation of double-stranded RNAs and the ensuing production of small regulatory RNAs, with a direct impact on gene expression. RT inhibition restores the ‘normal’ small RNA profile and the regulatory networks that depend on them. Thus, the retrotransposon-encoded RT drives a previously unrecognized mechanism crucial to the

  19. A tumor-promoting mechanism mediated by retrotransposon-encoded reverse transcriptase is active in human transformed cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sciamanna, Ilaria; Gualtieri, Alberto; Cossetti, Cristina; Osimo, Emanuele Felice; Ferracin, Manuela; Macchia, Gianfranco; Aricò, Eleonora; Prosseda, Gianni; Vitullo, Patrizia; Misteli, Tom; Spadafora, Corrado

    2013-12-01

    LINE-1 elements make up the most abundant retrotransposon family in the human genome. Full-length LINE-1 elements encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) activity required for their own retrotranpsosition as well as that of non-autonomous Alu elements. LINE-1 are poorly expressed in normal cells and abundantly in cancer cells. Decreasing RT activity in cancer cells, by either LINE-1-specific RNA interference, or by RT inhibitory drugs, was previously found to reduce proliferation and promote differentiation and to antagonize tumor growth in animal models. Here we have investigated how RT exerts these global regulatory functions. We report that the RT inhibitor efavirenz (EFV) selectively downregulates proliferation of transformed cell lines, while exerting only mild effects on non-transformed cells; this differential sensitivity matches a differential RT abundance, which is high in the former and undetectable in the latter. Using CsCl density gradients, we selectively identify Alu and LINE-1 containing DNA:RNA hybrid molecules in cancer but not in normal cells. Remarkably, hybrid molecules fail to form in tumor cells treated with EFV under the same conditions that repress proliferation and induce the reprogramming of expression profiles of coding genes, microRNAs (miRNAs) and ultraconserved regions (UCRs). The RT-sensitive miRNAs and UCRs are significantly associated with Alu sequences. The results suggest that LINE-1-encoded RT governs the balance between single-stranded and double-stranded RNA production. In cancer cells the abundant RT reverse-transcribes retroelement-derived mRNAs forming RNA:DNA hybrids. We propose that this impairs the formation of double-stranded RNAs and the ensuing production of small regulatory RNAs, with a direct impact on gene expression. RT inhibition restores the 'normal' small RNA profile and the regulatory networks that depend on them. Thus, the retrotransposon-encoded RT drives a previously unrecognized mechanism crucial to the

  20. Involvement of medullary dorsal horn glial cell activation in mediation of masseter mechanical allodynia induced by experimental tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Jing-Jie; Sun, Lei; Chen, Liang-Wei; Rao, Zhi-Ren; Duan, Li; Cao, Rong; Wang, Mei-Qing

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the involvement of microglial and astrocytic activation in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) during the mediation of masseter area allodynia induced by experimental tooth movement (ETM). Five groups of adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were divided into control (CON), minocycline (MIN), ETM, and 10mg/kg or 30mg/kg MIN plus ETM (METM) groups. The upper-first-molar was moved mesially for rats in ETM and METM groups. Rats were pre-injected with minocycline in the MIN (30mg/kg) and METM (10mg/kg or 30mg/kg) groups. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) in masseter area was tested from day 0 to 14 for all 5 groups. Immunohistochemistry against OX42 (microglial marker) or GFAP (astrocytic maker) in the MDH was examined at days 1, 3, 7 and 14 for CON, MIN and 30mg/kg METM groups. Baseline PPT was expectedly seen in either CON or MIN groups, masseter mechanical allodynia was detected in the ETM group from day 4 to 13 (P<0.05). OX42 expression level at days 1, 3 and 7, and GFAP expression level at days 3, 7 and 14 were higher in ETM (P<0.05), but not in 30mg/kg METM, than in CON group. Minocycline reduced activation of microglia and astrocytes, and significantly attenuated the development of masseter mechanical allodynia in this model. These results indicate that mechanical allodynia in the masseter area induced by ETM can be attenuated by minocycline. Activation of microglia, possibly together with subsequent activation of astrocytes, seems to contribute to masseter mechanical allodynia.

  1. Mechanism of riboflavin uptake by cultured human retinal pigment epithelial ARPE-19 cells: possible regulation by an intracellular Ca2+-calmodulin-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Said, Hamid M; Wang, Shuling; Ma, Thomas Y

    2005-07-15

    In mammalian cells (including those of the ocular system), the water-soluble vitamin B2 (riboflavin, RF) assumes an essential role in a variety of metabolic reactions and is critical for normal cellular functions, growth and development. Cells of the human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE) play an important role in providing a sufficient supply of RF to the retina, but nothing is known about the mechanism of the vitamin uptake by these cells and its regulation. Our aim in the present study was to address this issue using the hRPE ARPE-19 cells as the retinal epithelial model. Our results show RF uptake in the hRPE to be: (1) energy and temperature dependent and occurring without metabolic alteration in the transported substrate, (2) pH but not Na+ dependent, (3) saturable as a function of concentration with an apparent Km of 80 +/- 14 nM, (4) trans-stimulated by unlabelled RF and its structural analogue lumiflavine, (5) cis-inhibited by the RF structural analogues lumiflavine and lumichrome but not by unrelated compounds, and (6) inhibited by the anion transport inhibitors 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) and 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (SITS) as well as by the Na+ -H+ exchange inhibitor amiloride and the sulfhydryl group inhibitor p-chloromercuriphenylsulphonate (p-CMPS). Maintaining the hRPE cells in a RF-deficient medium led to a specific and significant up-regulation in RF uptake which was mediated via changes in the number and affinity of the RF uptake carriers. While modulating the activities of intracellular protein kinase A (PKA)-, protein kinase C (PKC)-, protein tyrosine kinase (PTK)-, and nitric oxide (NO)-mediated pathways were found to have no role in regulating RF uptake, a role for the Ca2+ -calmodulin-mediated pathway was observed. These studies demonstrate for the first time the involvement of a specialized carrier-mediated mechanism for RF uptake by hRPE cells and show that the process is

  2. Inter-tissue mechanical stress affects Frizzled-mediated planar cell polarity in the Drosophila notum epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Olguín, Patricio; Glavic, Alvaro; Mlodzik, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Summary Frizzled/Planar Cell Polarity (Fz/PCP) signaling controls the orientation of sensory bristles and cellular hairs (trichomes) along the antero-posterior axis of the Drosophila thorax (notum) [1–4]. A subset of the trichome-producing notum cells differentiate as “tendon cells”, serving as attachment sites for the indirect flight muscles (IFMs) to the exoskeleton [5]. Through the analysis of chascon (chas), a gene identified by its ability to disrupt Fz/PCP signaling under overexpression conditions, and jitterbug (jbug)/filamin [6], we show that maintenance of antero-posterior planar polarization requires the notum epithelia to balance mechanical stress generated by the attachment of the IFMs. chas is expressed in notum tendon cells and its loss-of-function disturbs cellular orientation at and near the regions where IFMs attach to the epidermis. This effect is independent of the Fz/PCP and fat (ft)/dachsous (ds) systems [7]. The chas phenotype arises during normal shortening of the IFMs [8] and is suppressed by genetic ablation of the IFMs. chas acts through jbug/filamin and cooperates with MyosinII to modulate the mechano-response of notum tendon cells. These observations support the notion that the ability of epithelia to respond to mechanical stress generated by interaction(s) with other tissues during development/organogenesis influences the maintenance of its shape and PCP features. PMID:21276726

  3. A tale of two plaques: convergent mechanisms of T-cell-mediated inflammation in psoriasis and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, April W; Voyles, Stephanie V; Armstrong, Ehrin J; Fuller, Erin N; Rutledge, John C

    2011-07-01

    Psoriasis and atherosclerosis are diseases in which effector T lymphocytes such as Helper T cells type 1 (Th1) and 17 (Th17) play integral roles in disease pathogenesis and progression. Regulatory T cells (Treg) also exert clinically important anti-inflammatory effects that are pathologically altered in psoriasis and atherosclerosis. We review the immunological pathways involving Th1, Th17 and Treg cells that are common to psoriasis and atherosclerosis. These shared pathways provide the basis for mechanisms that may explain the epidemiologic observation that patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of heart disease. Improved understanding of these pathways will guide future experiments and may lead to the development of therapeutics that prevent or treat cardiovascular complications in patients with psoriasis.

  4. Selective intestinal decontamination with norfloxacin enhances a regulatory T cell-mediated inflammatory control mechanism in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Juanola, Oriol; Gómez-Hurtado, Isabel; Zapater, Pedro; Moratalla, Alba; Caparrós, Esther; Piñero, Paula; González-Navajas, José M; Giménez, Paula; Such, José; Francés, Rubén

    2016-12-01

    Norfloxacin exerts immunomodulatory effects in cirrhosis beyond its bactericidal activity. We aimed at identifying the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells in the norfloxacin mechanism that compensates the inflammatory environment in cirrhosis. Consecutively admitted patients with cirrhosis and ascitic fluid (AF) with: spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), non-infected AF, and norfloxacin as secondary SBP prophylaxis (SID group). Tregs were defined by flow-cytometry as CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) were purified for co-stimulatory signalling evaluation and norfloxacin and IL-10 levels were measured in serum. Wildtype and recombination activating gene 1 (Rag1)-deficient mice with CCl4 -induced cirrhosis were used for adoptive-transfer experiments using naïve CD4(+) T cells and Tregs. Eighty-four patients were included. Treg percentage was significantly increased in SID patients compared with SBP or non-infected AF patients. A positive correlation was observed between Tregs and serum norfloxacin and IL-10 levels. DCs from SID patients showed a significantly decreased expression of CD80 and CD86 compared with SBP and non-infected AF patients and correlated with norfloxacin levels. Modulation of co-stimulatory signalling by norfloxacin was not detected in Rag1-deficient mice and Rag1-deficient mice reconstituted with naïve T-cells. However, reconstitution with naïve T-cells and Tregs was associated with significantly downregulated CD80 and CD86 expression in the presence of norfloxacin. Norfloxacin immunomodulatory effect on IL-2 and IFN-gamma reduction and on the increase of IL-10 was significantly achieved only when the Tregs were restored in Rag1-deficient mice. These results provide a plausible mechanism for the immunomodulatory effects of norfloxacin in cirrhosis beyond its bactericidal effect. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Fibronectin mediates cell attachment to C1q: a mechanism for the localization of fibrosis in inflammatory disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rennard, S I; Chen, Y F; Robbins, R A; Gadek, J E; Crystal, R G

    1983-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory processes frequently lead to the abnormal replacement of normal tissue elements by increased numbers of fibroblasts and fibrous connective tissue, i.e., fibrosis. Since the growth of fibroblasts requires that these cells be attached to an extracellular support, the current study was designed to determine if the interaction between the fibroblast attachment factor fibronectin and the C1q component of complement could support fibroblast attachment and growth and thus could form a basis for the attachment of fibroblasts in abnormal tissue locations in those inflammatory states where C1q is bound. Fibronectin purified from human plasma supported attachment of both Chinese hamster ovary cells and of normal fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) to C1q coated substrates. The attachment activity was approximately twice that of attachment to collagen, and was specific, as no attachment occurred to albumin coated substrates. Cells attached to C1q substrates demonstrated characteristic 'spreading' similar to those on collagen. Moreover, the C1q substrate resembled collagen in its ability to support fibroblast growth. Further, the ability of the interaction between C1q and fibronectin to mediate attachment of fibroblasts to immune complexes was demonstrated by the formation of fibroblast-red blood cell-immune complex rosettes, a process that was dependent on both fibronectin and C1q. Thus, the interaction between fibronectin and C1q could serve as the basis for fibroblast attachment and growth in abnormal tissue sites where immune complexes are formed and could be a contributing factor to the development of fibrosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:6604609

  6. Prostaglandin E2 Regulates Its Own Inactivating Enzyme, 15-PGDH, by EP2 Receptor-Mediated Cervical Cell-Specific Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, A. Hari; Owens, David

    2014-01-01

    Context: Prostaglandins play important roles in parturition and have been used to induce cervical ripening and labor. Prior to cervical ripening at term, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is highly expressed in the cervix and metabolizes cyclooxygenase-2-mediated increases in active prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to inactive 15-keto PGE2. At term, 15-PGDH gene expression decreases and PGE2 accumulates, leading to cervical ripening and labor. Previously, we found that the cervical isoform of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF-CX) serves as a progestational transcription factor that represses IL-8 and hypoxia-mediated increases in cyclooxygenase-2. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that PGE2 regulates its own inactivation through MiTF-CX. Design: We used human cervical stromal cells to investigate the regulation of 15-PGDH. Setting: This was a laboratory-based study using cells from clinical tissue samples. Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated the mechanisms by which PGE2 regulates 15-PGDH in human cervical stromal cells. Results: PGE2 repressed MiTF-CX and 15-PGDH, whereas ectopic overexpression of MiTF-CX induced 15-PGDH expression levels. Stabilization of HIF-1α by deferoxamine resulted in concomitant down-regulation of MiTF-CX and 15-PGDH. Ectopic overexpression of MiTF-CX abrogated PGE2- and deferoxamine-mediated loss of MiTF-CX and 15-PGDH. PGE2-induced loss of MiTF-CX and 15-PGDH was mediated through prostaglandin E2 receptor (EP2) receptors (PTGER2), but not cAMP. Conclusions: The 15-PGDH gene is a MiTF-CX target gene in cervical stromal cells and is down-regulated by PGE2 through EP2 receptors. The findings suggest that EP2 receptor-specific antagonists may be used as an adjunct to present clinical management for the prevention of preterm cervical ripening and preterm labor. PMID:24471568

  7. Human Articular Cartilage Progenitor Cells Are Responsive to Mechanical Stimulation and Adenoviral-Mediated Overexpression of Bone-Morphogenetic Protein 2.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Alexander J; Gardner, Oliver F W; Williams, Rebecca; Alini, Mauro; Archer, Charles W; Stoddart, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage progenitor cells (ACPCs) represent a new and potentially powerful alternative cell source to commonly used cell sources for cartilage repair, such as chondrocytes and bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This is particularly due to the apparent resistance of ACPCs to hypertrophy. The current study opted to investigate whether human ACPCs (hACPCs) are responsive towards mechanical stimulation and/or adenoviral-mediated overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). hACPCs were cultured in fibrin-polyurethane composite scaffolds. Cells were cultured in a defined chondro-permissive medium, lacking exogenous growth factors. Constructs were cultured, for 7 or 28 days, under free-swelling conditions or with the application of complex mechanical stimulation, using a custom built bioreactor that is able to generate joint-like movements. Outcome parameters were quantification of BMP-2 and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) concentration within the cell culture medium, biochemical and gene expression analyses, histology and immunohistochemistry. The application of mechanical stimulation alone resulted in the initiation of chondrogenesis, demonstrating the cells are mechanoresponsive. This was evidenced by increased GAG production, lack of expression of hypertrophic markers and a promising gene expression profile (significant up-regulation of cartilaginous marker genes, specifically collagen type II, accompanied by no increase in the hypertrophic marker collagen type X or the osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase). To further investigate the resistance of ACPCs to hypertrophy, overexpression of a factor associated with hypertrophic differentiation, BMP-2, was investigated. A novel, three-dimensional, transduction protocol was used to transduce cells with an adenovirus coding for BMP-2. Over-expression of BMP-2, independent of load, led to an increase in markers associated with hypertropy. Taken together ACPCs represent a

  8. Human Articular Cartilage Progenitor Cells Are Responsive to Mechanical Stimulation and Adenoviral-Mediated Overexpression of Bone-Morphogenetic Protein 2

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Alexander J.; Gardner, Oliver F. W.; Williams, Rebecca; Alini, Mauro; Archer, Charles W.; Stoddart, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage progenitor cells (ACPCs) represent a new and potentially powerful alternative cell source to commonly used cell sources for cartilage repair, such as chondrocytes and bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). This is particularly due to the apparent resistance of ACPCs to hypertrophy. The current study opted to investigate whether human ACPCs (hACPCs) are responsive towards mechanical stimulation and/or adenoviral-mediated overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). hACPCs were cultured in fibrin-polyurethane composite scaffolds. Cells were cultured in a defined chondro-permissive medium, lacking exogenous growth factors. Constructs were cultured, for 7 or 28 days, under free-swelling conditions or with the application of complex mechanical stimulation, using a custom built bioreactor that is able to generate joint-like movements. Outcome parameters were quantification of BMP-2 and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) concentration within the cell culture medium, biochemical and gene expression analyses, histology and immunohistochemistry. The application of mechanical stimulation alone resulted in the initiation of chondrogenesis, demonstrating the cells are mechanoresponsive. This was evidenced by increased GAG production, lack of expression of hypertrophic markers and a promising gene expression profile (significant up-regulation of cartilaginous marker genes, specifically collagen type II, accompanied by no increase in the hypertrophic marker collagen type X or the osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase). To further investigate the resistance of ACPCs to hypertrophy, overexpression of a factor associated with hypertrophic differentiation, BMP-2, was investigated. A novel, three-dimensional, transduction protocol was used to transduce cells with an adenovirus coding for BMP-2. Over-expression of BMP-2, independent of load, led to an increase in markers associated with hypertropy. Taken together ACPCs represent a

  9. The influence of ascorbic acid, TGF-beta1, and cell-mediated remodeling on the bulk mechanical properties of 3-D PEG-fibrinogen constructs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Peter D; Peyton, Shelly R; VanStrien, Amy J; Putnam, Andrew J

    2009-08-01

    Two-dimensional cell culture studies have shown that matrix rigidity can influence cell function, but little is known about how matrix physical properties, and their changes with time, influence cell function in 3-D. Biosynthetic hydrogels based on PEGylated fibrinogen permit the initial decoupling of matrix chemical and mechanical properties, and are thus potentially attractive for addressing this question. However, the mechanical stability of these gels due to passive hydrolysis and cell-mediated remodeling has not previously been addressed. Here, we show that the bulk mechanical properties of acellular PEG-fibrinogen hydrogels significantly decrease over time in PBS regardless of matrix cross-linking density in 7 days. To compensate, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were encapsulated and stimulated to produce their own matrix using ascorbic acid or TGF-beta1. Ascorbic acid treatment improved the mechanical properties of the constructs after 14 days in less cross-linked matrices, but TGF-beta1 did not. The increase in matrix modulus of the constructs was not due to an increase in type I collagen deposition, which remained low and pericellular regardless of cross-link density or the soluble factor applied. Instead, ascorbic acid, but not TGF-beta1, preferentially enhanced the contractile SMC phenotype in the less cross-linked gels. Inhibition of contractility reduced cell spreading and the expression of contractile markers, and eliminated any beneficial increase in matrix modulus induced by cell-generated contraction of the gels. Together, these data show that PEG-fibrinogen hydrogels are susceptible to both hydrolysis and proteolysis, and suggest that some soluble factors may stimulate matrix remodeling by modulating SMC phenotype instead of inducing ECM synthesis in a 3-D matrix.

  10. CD3ζ-based chimeric antigen receptors mediate T cell activation via cis- and trans-signalling mechanisms: implications for optimization of receptor structure for adoptive cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Bridgeman, J S; Ladell, K; Sheard, V E; Miners, K; Hawkins, R E; Price, D A; Gilham, D E

    2014-02-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) can mediate redirected lysis of tumour cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-independent manner, thereby enabling autologous adoptive T cell therapy for a variety of malignant neoplasms. Currently, most CARs incorporate the T cell receptor (TCR) CD3ζ signalling chain; however, the precise mechanisms responsible for CAR-mediated T cell activation are unclear. In this study, we used a series of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-mutant and transmembrane-modified receptors to demonstrate that CARs activate T cells both directly via the antigen-ligated signalling chain and indirectly via associated chains within the TCR complex. These observations allowed us to generate new receptors capable of eliciting polyfunctional responses in primary human T cells. This work increases our understanding of CAR function and identifies new avenues for the optimization of CAR-based therapeutic interventions.

  11. Drosophila Lipophorin Receptors Mediate the Uptake of Neutral Lipids in Oocytes and Imaginal Disc Cells by an Endocytosis-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Peralbo, Esmeralda; Culi, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Lipids are constantly shuttled through the body to redistribute energy and metabolites between sites of absorption, storage, and catabolism in a complex homeostatic equilibrium. In Drosophila, lipids are transported through the hemolymph in the form of lipoprotein particles, known as lipophorins. The mechanisms by which cells interact with circulating lipophorins and acquire their lipidic cargo are poorly understood. We have found that lipophorin receptor 1 and 2 (lpr1 and lpr2), two partially redundant genes belonging to the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR) family, are essential for the efficient uptake and accumulation of neutral lipids by oocytes and cells of the imaginal discs. Females lacking the lpr2 gene lay eggs with low lipid content and have reduced fertility, revealing a central role for lpr2 in mediating Drosophila vitellogenesis. lpr1 and lpr2 are transcribed into multiple isoforms. Interestingly, only a subset of these isoforms containing a particular LDLR type A module mediate neutral lipid uptake. Expression of these isoforms induces the extracellular stabilization of lipophorins. Furthermore, our data indicate that endocytosis of the lipophorin receptors is not required to mediate the uptake of neutral lipids. These findings suggest a model where lipophorin receptors promote the extracellular lipolysis of lipophorins. This model is reminiscent of the lipolytic processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins that occurs at the mammalian capillary endothelium, suggesting an ancient role for LDLR–like proteins in this process. PMID:21347279

  12. VEGFR2-mediated vascular dilation as a mechanism of VEGF-induced anemia and bone marrow cell mobilization.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sharon; Zhang, Yin; Zhang, Danfang; Chen, Fang; Hosaka, Kayoko; Feng, Ninghan; Seki, Takahiro; Andersson, Patrik; Li, Jingrong; Zang, Jingwu; Sun, Baocun; Cao, Yihai

    2014-10-23

    Molecular mechanisms underlying tumor VEGF-induced host anemia and bone marrow cell (BMC) mobilization remain unknown. Here, we report that tumor VEGF markedly induced sinusoidal vasculature dilation in bone marrow (BM) and BMC mobilization to tumors and peripheral tissues in mouse and human tumor models. Unexpectedly, anti-VEGFR2, but not anti-VEGFR1, treatment completely blocked VEGF-induced anemia and BMC mobilization. Genetic deletion of Vegfr2 in endothelial cells markedly ablated VEGF-stimulated BMC mobilization. Conversely, deletion of the tyrosine kinase domain from Vegfr1 gene (Vegfr1(TK-/-)) did not affect VEGF-induced BMC mobilization. Analysis of VEGFR1(+)/VEGFR2(+) populations in peripheral blood and BM showed no significant ratio difference between VEGF- and control tumor-bearing animals. These findings demonstrate that vascular dilation through the VEGFR2 signaling is the mechanism underlying VEGF-induced BM mobilization and anemia. Thus, our data provide mechanistic insights on VEGF-induced BMC mobilization in tumors and have therapeutic implications by targeting VEGFR2 for cancer therapy.

  13. IL-15 Mediates Mitochondrial Activity through a PPARδ-Dependent-PPARα-Independent Mechanism in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mediators of metabolic processes, to increase energy expenditure, have become a focus for therapies of obesity. The discovery of cytokines secreted from the skeletal muscle (SKM), termed “myokines,” has garnered attention due to their positive effects on metabolic processes. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a myokine that has numerous positive metabolic effects and is linked to the PPAR family of mitochondrial regulators. Here, we aimed to determine the importance of PPARα and/or PPARδ as targets of IL-15 signaling. C2C12 SKM cells were differentiated for 6 days and treated every other day with IL-15 (100 ng/mL), a PPARα inhibitor (GW-6471), a PPARδ inhibitor (GSK-3787), or both IL-15 and the inhibitors. IL-15 increased mitochondrial activity and induced PPARα, PPARδ, PGC1α, PGC1β, UCP2, and Nrf1 expression. There was no effect of inhibiting PPARα, in combination with IL-15, on the aforementioned mRNA levels except for PGC1β and Nrf1. However, with PPARδ inhibition, IL-15 failed to induce the expression levels of PGC1α, PGC1β, UCP2, and Nrf1. Further, inhibition of PPARδ abolished IL-15 induced increases in citrate synthase activity, ATP production, and overall mitochondrial activity. IL-15 had no effects on mitochondrial biogenesis. Our data indicates that PPARδ activity is required for the beneficial metabolic effects of IL-15 signaling in SKM. PMID:27738421

  14. Chondrogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells is modulated by complex mechanical stimulation and adenoviral-mediated overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Alexander J; Alini, Mauro; Archer, Charles W; Stoddart, Martin J

    2013-06-01

    Currently available methods to treat articular cartilage defects still fail to demonstrate satisfactory outcomes for many patients. Functional tissue engineering using human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is a promising alternative approach for the treatment of these defects. This study strived to investigate the combined effect of complex mechanical stimulation and adenoviral-mediated overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) on hMSC chondrogenesis. hMSCs were encapsulated in a fibrin hydrogel and seeded into biodegradable polyurethane (PU) scaffolds. A novel three-dimensional transduction protocol was used to transduce cells with an adenovirus encoding for BMP-2 (Ad.BMP-2). Control cells were left untransduced. Cells were cultured for 7 or 28 days in a chondropermessive medium, which lacks any exogenous growth factors. Thereby, the in vivo situation is mimicked more precisely. hMSCs in fibrin-PU composite scaffolds were either left as free-swelling controls or mechanically stimulated using a custom-built bioreactor system that is able to generate joint-like forces. Outcome parameters measured were BMP-2 concentration within the culture medium, and biochemical and gene expression analysis. Mechanical stimulation resulted in an upregulation of chondrogenic genes. Further, glycosaminoglycan (GAG)/DNA ratios were elevated in mechanically stimulated groups. Transduction with Ad.BMP-2 led to a pronounced upregulation of the gene aggrecan and an upregulation of Sox9 message after 7 days. Furthermore, a synergistic effect in combination with mechanical stimulation on collagen 2 message was detected after 7 days. This synergistic increase was more than 8-fold if compared to the additive effect of the application of each stimulus on its own. However, BMP-2 overexpression consistently resulted in a trend toward decreased GAG/DNA ratios in both mechanical stimulated and unloaded groups.

  15. Activation of Proinflammatory Responses in Cells of the Airway Mucosa by Particulate Matter: Oxidant- and Non-Oxidant-Mediated Triggering Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Øvrevik, Johan; Refsnes, Magne; Låg, Marit; Holme, Jørn A.; Schwarze, Per E.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is considered to play a central role in a diverse range of disease outcomes associated with exposure to various types of inhalable particulates. The initial mechanisms through which particles trigger cellular responses leading to activation of inflammatory responses are crucial to clarify in order to understand what physico-chemical characteristics govern the inflammogenic activity of particulate matter and why some particles are more harmful than others. Recent research suggests that molecular triggering mechanisms involved in activation of proinflammatory genes and onset of inflammatory reactions by particles or soluble particle components can be categorized into direct formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with subsequent oxidative stress, interaction with the lipid layer of cellular membranes, activation of cell surface receptors, and direct interactions with intracellular molecular targets. The present review focuses on the immediate effects and responses in cells exposed to particles and central down-stream signaling mechanisms involved in regulation of proinflammatory genes, with special emphasis on the role of oxidant and non-oxidant triggering mechanisms. Importantly, ROS act as a central second-messenger in a variety of signaling pathways. Even non-oxidant mediated triggering mechanisms are therefore also likely to activate downstream redox-regulated events. PMID:26147224

  16. Activation of Proinflammatory Responses in Cells of the Airway Mucosa by Particulate Matter: Oxidant- and Non-Oxidant-Mediated Triggering Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Øvrevik, Johan; Refsnes, Magne; Låg, Marit; Holme, Jørn A; Schwarze, Per E

    2015-07-02

    Inflammation is considered to play a central role in a diverse range of disease outcomes associated with exposure to various types of inhalable particulates. The initial mechanisms through which particles trigger cellular responses leading to activation of inflammatory responses are crucial to clarify in order to understand what physico-chemical characteristics govern the inflammogenic activity of particulate matter and why some particles are more harmful than others. Recent research suggests that molecular triggering mechanisms involved in activation of proinflammatory genes and onset of inflammatory reactions by particles or soluble particle components can be categorized into direct formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with subsequent oxidative stress, interaction with the lipid layer of cellular membranes, activation of cell surface receptors, and direct interactions with intracellular molecular targets. The present review focuses on the immediate effects and responses in cells exposed to particles and central down-stream signaling mechanisms involved in regulation of proinflammatory genes, with special emphasis on the role of oxidant and non-oxidant triggering mechanisms. Importantly, ROS act as a central second-messenger in a variety of signaling pathways. Even non-oxidant mediated triggering mechanisms are therefore also likely to activate downstream redox-regulated events.

  17. Endothelin Receptor Down-Regulation Mediated Ligand Regulation Mechanisms Protect Against Cellular Hypoxia Injury in Rat Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Hu, Mushuang; Zheng, Long; Zhang, Chao; Li, Jiawei; Rong, Ruiming; Zhu, Tongyu; Jia, Yichen

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the effect of endothelin receptor A (ETaR)-targeting small interfering RNA (siRNA) on rat vascular endothelial cellular hypoxia injury, as well as its underlying mechanism. An in vitro rat vascular smooth muscle cells - endothelial cells co-culture model was established and transfected with ETaR siRNA before hypoxia treatment. Cell culture supernatant, cellular protein and RNA were collected and examined at 0.5hrs, 1hrs, 2hrs, 4hrs, 8hrs, 16hrs, 24hrs and 48hrs of hypoxia with 1% oxygen. The time point at which the best silencing effect was achieved was chosen, eNOS inhibitor L-NAME was added, and post hypoxia cell culture supernatant, cellular protein and RNA was collected for further examination. After hypoxic treatment, endothelial-1 (ET-1) and ETaR expression levels gradually increased as oxygen deprivation extended. ET-1 and ETaR expression levels were significantly lower in the ETaR siRNA group compared with the Hypoxia group (P<0.001). Such difference peaked at 4hrs of hypoxia. ELISA examination of cell culture supernatant revealed that the amount of ET-1 and TGF-βin the ETaR siRNA group were significantly lower compared to the Hypoxia group at all times, while the amount of NO and eNOS was higher. After 4 hrs of hypoxia, Smad2, Smad3, HIF-1, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, MCP-1, NF-κb, ET-1 and ANG II mRNA expression in endothelial cells and ETaR mRNA expression in A-10 cells of the ETaR siRNA group were lower than those of the Hypoxia siRNA group, while such results were much higher in the L-NAME group. Western Blot results showed lower expression of ETaR in the ETaR siRNA group compared with the hypoxia and negative siRNA groups, as well as significantly higher ETaR expression in the L-NAME group compared with the ETaR siRNA group. PI3K and p-AKT expression levels were mildly elevated after mild oxygen deprivation, and ETaR siRNA was able to enhance such elevation induced by hypoxia. In the L-NAME group, PI3K and p-AKT expression was much higher

  18. An Analysis of Pathological Activities of CCN Proteins in Joint Disorders: Mechanical Stretch-Mediated CCN2 Expression in Cultured Meniscus Cells.

    PubMed

    Furumatsu, Takayuki; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-01-01

    The multifunctional growth factor CYR61/CTGF/NOV (CCN) 2, also known as connective tissue growth factor, regulates cellular proliferation, differentiation, and tissue regeneration. Recent literatures have described important roles of CCN2 in the meniscus metabolism. However, the mechanical stress-mediated transcriptional regulation of CCN2 in the meniscus remains unclear. The meniscus is a fibrocartilaginous tissue that controls complex biomechanics of the knee joint. Therefore, the injured unstable meniscus has a poor healing potential especially in the avascular inner region. In addition, dysfunction of the meniscus correlates with the progression of degenerative knee joint disorders and joint space narrowing. Here, we describe an experimental approach that investigates the distinct cellular behavior of inner and outer meniscus cells in response to mechanical stretch. Our experimental model can analyze the relationships between stretch-induced CCN2 expression and its functional role in the meniscus homeostasis.

  19. Transcriptional mechanisms and protein kinase signaling mediate organic dust induction of IL-8 expression in lung epithelial and THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Gottipati, Koteswara R.; Bandari, Shiva Kumar; Nonnenmann, Matthew W.; Levin, Jeffrey L.; Dooley, Gregory P.; Reynolds, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to the agricultural work environment is a risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms and chronic lung diseases. Inflammation is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of tissue injury and disease. Cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating lung inflammatory responses to agricultural dust are not yet fully understood. We studied the effects of poultry dust extract on molecular regulation of interleukin-8 (IL-8), a proinflammatory cytokine, in A549 and Beas2B lung epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cells. Our findings indicate that poultry dust extract potently induces IL-8 levels by increasing IL-8 gene transcription without altering IL-8 mRNA stability. Increase in IL-8 promoter activity was due to enhanced binding of activator protein 1 and NF-κB. IL-8 induction was associated with protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and inhibited by PKC and MAPK inhibitors. IL-8 increase was not inhibited by polymyxin B or l-nitroarginine methyl ester, indicating lack of involvement of lipopolysaccharide and nitric oxide in the induction. Lung epithelial and THP-1 cells share common mechanisms for induction of IL-8 levels. Our findings identify key roles for transcriptional mechanisms and protein kinase signaling pathways for IL-8 induction and provide insights into the mechanisms regulating lung inflammatory responses to organic dust exposure. PMID:25398986

  20. Augmentation of Valpha14 NKT cell-mediated cytotoxicity by interleukin 4 in an autocrine mechanism resulting in the development of concanavalin A-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Y; Harada, M; Kawano, T; Yamashita, M; Shibata, Y; Gejyo, F; Nakayama, T; Taniguchi, M

    2000-01-03

    The administration of concanavalin A (Con A) induces a rapid severe injury of hepatocytes in mice. Although the Con A-induced hepatitis is considered to be an experimental model of human autoimmune hepatitis, the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms that induce hepatocyte injury remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Valpha14 NKT cells are required and sufficient for induction of this hepatitis. Moreover, interleukin (IL)-4 produced by Con A-activated Valpha14 NKT cells is found to play a crucial role in disease development by augmenting the cytotoxic activity of Valpha14 NKT cells in an autocrine fashion. Indeed, short-term treatment with IL-4 induces an increase in the expression of granzyme B and Fas ligand (L) in Valpha14 NKT cells. Moreover, Valpha14 NKT cells from either perforin knock-out mice or FasL-mutant gld/gld mice fail to induce hepatitis, and hence perforin-granzyme B and FasL appear to be effector molecules in Con A-induced Valpha14 NKT cell-mediated hepatocyte injury.

  1. Cell mechanics: a dialogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jiaxiang; Li, Yizeng; Vig, Dhruv K.; Sun, Sean X.

    2017-03-01

    Under the microscope, eukaryotic animal cells can adopt a variety of different shapes and sizes. These cells also move and deform, and the physical mechanisms driving these movements and shape changes are important in fundamental cell biology, tissue mechanics, as well as disease biology. This article reviews some of the basic mechanical concepts in cells, emphasizing continuum mechanics description of cytoskeletal networks and hydrodynamic flows across the cell membrane. We discuss how cells can generate movement and shape changes by controlling mass fluxes at the cell boundary. These mass fluxes can come from polymerization/depolymerization of actin cytoskeleton, as well as osmotic and hydraulic pressure-driven flow of water across the cell membrane. By combining hydraulic pressure control with force balance conditions at the cell surface, we discuss a quantitative mechanism of cell shape and volume control. The broad consequences of this model on cell mechanosensation and tissue mechanics are outlined.

  2. Cell mechanics: a dialogue.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jiaxiang; Li, Yizeng; Vig, Dhruv K; Sun, Sean X

    2017-03-01

    Under the microscope, eukaryotic animal cells can adopt a variety of different shapes and sizes. These cells also move and deform, and the physical mechanisms driving these movements and shape changes are important in fundamental cell biology, tissue mechanics, as well as disease biology. This article reviews some of the basic mechanical concepts in cells, emphasizing continuum mechanics description of cytoskeletal networks and hydrodynamic flows across the cell membrane. We discuss how cells can generate movement and shape changes by controlling mass fluxes at the cell boundary. These mass fluxes can come from polymerization/depolymerization of actin cytoskeleton, as well as osmotic and hydraulic pressure-driven flow of water across the cell membrane. By combining hydraulic pressure control with force balance conditions at the cell surface, we discuss a quantitative mechanism of cell shape and volume control. The broad consequences of this model on cell mechanosensation and tissue mechanics are outlined.

  3. Cell mechanics: a dialogue

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jiaxiang; Li, Yizeng; Vig, Dhruv K; Sun, Sean X

    2017-01-01

    Under the microscope, eukaryotic animal cells can adopt a variety of different shapes and sizes. These cells also move and deform, and the physical mechanisms driving these movements and shape changes are important in fundamental cell biology, tissue mechanics, as well as disease biology. This article reviews some of the basic mechanical concepts in cells, emphasizing continuum mechanics description of cytoskeletal networks and hydrodynamic flows across the cell membrane. We discuss how cells can generate movement and shape changes by controlling mass fluxes at the cell boundary. These mass fluxes can come from polymerization/depolymerization of actin cytoskeleton, as well as osmotic and hydraulic pressure-driven flow of water across the cell membrane. By combining hydraulic pressure control with force balance conditions at the cell surface, we discuss a quantitative mechanism of cell shape and volume control. The broad consequences of this model on cell mechanosensation and tissue mechanics are outlined. PMID:28129208

  4. Regulatory mechanisms in cell-mediated immune responses. VIII. Differential expression of I-region determinants by suppressor cells and their targets in suppression of mixed leukocyte reactions

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    activated by 24 h culture in MLR in the absence of MLR-TsF. Brief MLR- TsF pulse after antiserum treatment generated marked suppression regardless of blocking or absence of cells bearing serologically detected I-region determinants. I-C restricted suppression may thus be mediated not by interaction with I-C-bearing cells, but by target cells which exist in requisite association with populations of I-C+ cells. PMID:91654

  5. The Ang II-induced growth of vascular smooth muscle cells involves a phospholipase D-mediated signaling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Freeman, E J

    2000-02-15

    Angiotensin (Ang) II acts as a mitogen in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) via the activation of multiple signaling cascades, including phospholipase C, tyrosine kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. However, increasing evidence supports signal-activated phospholipases A(2) and D (PLD) as additional mechanisms. Stimulation of PLD results in phosphatidic acid (PA) formation, and PA has been linked to cell growth. However, the direct involvement of PA or its metabolite diacylglycerol (DAG) in Ang II-induced growth is unclear. PLD activity was measured in cultured rat VSMC prelabeled with [(3)H]oleic acid, while the incorporation of [(3)H]thymidine was used to monitor growth. We have previously reported the Ang II-dependent, AT(1)-coupled stimulation of PLD and growth in VSMC. Here, we show that Ang II (100 nM) and exogenous PLD (0.1-100 units/mL; Streptomyces chromofuscus) stimulated thymidine incorporation (43-208% above control). PA (100 nM-1 microM) also increased thymidine incorporation to 135% of control. Propranolol (100 nM-10 microM), which inhibits PA phosphohydrolase, blocked the growth stimulated by Ang II, PLD, or PA by as much as 95%, an effect not shared by other beta-adrenergic antagonists. Propranolol also increased the production of PA in the presence of Ang II by 320% and reduced DAG and arachidonic acid (AA) accumulation. The DAG lipase inhibitor RHC-80267 (1-10 microM) increased Ang II-induced DAG production, while attenuating thymidine incorporation and release of AA. Thus, it appears that activation of PLD, formation of PA, conversion of PA to DAG, and metabolism of DAG comprise an important signaling cascade in Ang II-induced growth of VSMC. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. Mechanisms involved in antibody- and complement-mediated allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection has become critical clinically because this form of rejection is usually unresponsive to conventional anti-rejection therapy, and therefore, it has been recognized as a major cause of allograft loss. Our group developed experimental animal models of vascularized organ transplantation to study pathogenesis of antibody- and complement-mediated endothelial cell injury leading to graft rejection. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of antibody-mediated graft rejection resulting from activation of complement by C1q- and MBL (mannose-binding lectin)-dependent pathways and interactions with a variety of effector cells, including macrophages and monocytes through Fcγ receptors and complement receptors. PMID:20135240

  7. Vascular endothelial cells mediate mechanical stimulation-induced enhancement of endothelin hyperalgesia via activation of P2X2/3 receptors on nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Elizabeth K; Green, Paul G; Bogen, Oliver; Alvarez, Pedro; Levine, Jon D

    2013-02-13

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is unique among a broad range of hyperalgesic agents in that it induces hyperalgesia in rats that is markedly enhanced by repeated mechanical stimulation at the site of administration. Antagonists to the ET-1 receptors, ET(A) and ET(B), attenuated both initial as well as stimulation-induced enhancement of hyperalgesia (SIEH) by endothelin. However, administering antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to attenuate ET(A) receptor expression on nociceptors attenuated ET-1 hyperalgesia but had no effect on SIEH, suggesting that this is mediated via a non-neuronal cell. Because vascular endothelial cells are both stretch sensitive and express ET(A) and ET(B) receptors, we tested the hypothesis that SIEH is dependent on endothelial cells by impairing vascular endothelial function with octoxynol-9 administration; this procedure eliminated SIEH without attenuating ET-1 hyperalgesia. A role for protein kinase Cε (PKCε), a second messenger implicated in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain, was explored. Intrathecal antisense for PKCε did not inhibit either ET-1 hyperalgesia or SIEH, suggesting no role for neuronal PKCε; however, administration of a PKCε inhibitor at the site of testing selectively attenuated SIEH. Compatible with endothelial cells releasing ATP in response to mechanical stimulation, P2X(2/3) receptor antagonists eliminated SIEH. The endothelium also appears to contribute to hyperalgesia in two ergonomic pain models (eccentric exercise and hindlimb vibration) and in a model of endometriosis. We propose that SIEH is produced by an effect of ET-1 on vascular endothelial cells, sensitizing its release of ATP in response to mechanical stimulation; ATP in turn acts at the nociceptor P2X(2/3) receptor.

  8. Vascular Endothelial Cells Mediate Mechanical Stimulation-Induced Enhancement of Endothelin Hyperalgesia via Activation of P2X2/3 Receptors on Nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Elizabeth K.; Green, Paul G.; Bogen, Oliver; Alvarez, Pedro; Levine, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is unique amongst a broad range of hyperalgesic agents in that it induces hyperalgesia in rats that is markedly enhanced by repeated mechanical stimulation at the site of administration. Antagonists to the ET-1 receptors, ETA and ETB, attenuated both initial as well as stimulation-induced enhancement of hyperalgesia (SIEH) by endothelin. However, administering antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to attenuate ETA receptor expression on nociceptors attenuated ET-1 hyperalgesia, but had no effect on SIEH suggesting that this is mediated via a non-neuronal cell. Since vascular endothelial cells are both stretch-sensitive and express ETA and ETB receptors, we tested the hypothesis that SIEH is dependent on endothelial cells by impairing vascular endothelial function with octoxynol-9 administration; this procedure eliminated SIEH without attenuating ET-1 hyperalgesia. A role for protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), a second messenger implicated in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain, was explored. Intrathecal antisense for PKCε did not inhibit either ET-1 hyperalgesia or SIEH, suggesting no role for neuronal PKCε; however, administration of a PKCε inhibitor at the site of testing selectively attenuated SIEH. Compatible with endothelial cells releasing ATP in response to mechanical stimulation, P2X2/3 receptor antagonists eliminated SIEH. The endothelium also appears to contribute to hyperalgesia in two ergonomic pain models (eccentric exercise and hind limb vibration) and in model of endometriosis. We propose that SIEH is produced by an effect of ET-1 on vascular endothelial cells, sensitizing its release of ATP in response to mechanical stimulation; ATP in turn acts at the nociceptor P2X2/3 receptor. PMID:23407944

  9. Valproic Acid Upregulates NKG2D Ligand Expression through an ERK-dependent Mechanism and Potentially Enhances NK Cell-mediated Lysis of Myeloma1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaosong; Tao, Yi; Hou, Jun; Meng, Xiuqin; Shi, Jumei

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of the antitumor immune response through the engagement of NKG2D receptors with their ligands (L) on targets represents a promising therapeutic approach against cancer. In this study, we tested the effect of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, on the expression of NKG2D ligands in myeloma cells. We demonstrated that VPA was able to upregulate both protein and mRNA expression of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain (MIC) A/B and UL16-binding protein (ULBP) 2 without any significant effect on the expression of ULBP1, ULBP3, and ULBP4 or induction of other natural killer (NK) cell ligands, such as NKp30-L, NKp44-L, and NKp46-L in myeloma cells. A 51Cr release assay and degranulation assay indicated that the induction of MICA/B and ULBP2 augmented NK cell-mediated lysis of myeloma cells, which was abolished by the addition of a blocking NKG2D antibody. Activation of constitutively phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by VPA is essential for the up-regulation of MICA/B and ULBP2 expressions. Inhibition of ERK using ERK inhibitor PD98059 decreased both MICA/B and ULBP2 expressions and NK cell cytotoxicity. Furthermore, overexpression of constitutively active ERK in ARK resulted in increased MICA/B and ULBP2 expressions and enhanced NK cell lysis. These data indicate that increased sensitivity of VPA-treated myeloma cells to NK cell lysis is caused by higher NKG2D ligand expression, resulting from more active ERK signaling pathway. Our results provide evidence that targeting ERK signaling pathway may be an additional mechanism supporting the antimyeloma activity of HDAC inhibitors and suggest its possible immunotherapeutic value for myeloma treatment. PMID:23308050

  10. Oridonin, a novel lysine acetyltransferases inhibitor, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in gastric cancer cells through p53- and caspase-3-mediated mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Diao, Hua; Li, Guangming; Xu, Ling; Wang, Ting; Wei, Jue; Meng, Wenying; Ma, Jia-Li; Yu, Heguo; Wang, Yu-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation has been reported to involve in the pathogenesis of multiple diseases including cancer. In our screening study to identify natural compounds with lysine acetyltransferase inhibitor (KATi) activity, oridonin was found to possess acetyltransferase-inhibitory effects on multiple acetyltransferases including P300, GCN5, Tip60, and pCAF. In gastric cancer cells, oridonin treatment inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner and down-regulated the expression of p53 downstream genes, whereas p53 inhibition by PFT-α reversed the antiproliferative effects of oridonin. Moreover, oridonin treatment induced cell apoptosis, increased the levels of activated caspase-3 and caspase-9, and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in gastric cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Caspase-3 inhibition by Ac-DEVD-CHO reversed the proapoptosis effect of oridonin. In conclusion, our study identified oridonin as a novel KATi and demonstrated its tumor suppressive effects in gastric cancer cells at least partially through p53-and caspase-3-mediated mechanisms. PMID:26980707

  11. Hydroxyl radical mediates cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human hair follicle dermal papilla cells and keratinocytes through Bcl-2-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Luanpitpong, Sudjit; Nimmannit, Ubonthip; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Leonard, Stephen S; Pongrakhananon, Varisa; Wang, Liying; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2011-08-01

    Induction of massive apoptosis of hair follicle cells by chemotherapy has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA), but the underlying mechanisms of regulation are not well understood. The present study investigated the apoptotic effect of cisplatin in human hair follicle dermal papilla cells and HaCaT keratinocytes, and determined the identity and role of specific reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved in the process. Treatment of the cells with cisplatin induced ROS generation and a parallel increase in caspase activation and apoptotic cell death. Inhibition of ROS generation by antioxidants inhibited the apoptotic effect of cisplatin, indicating the role of ROS in the process. Studies using specific ROS scavengers further showed that hydroxyl radical, but not hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion, is the primary oxidative species responsible for the apoptotic effect of cisplatin. Electron spin resonance studies confirmed the formation of hydroxyl radicals induced by cisplatin. The mechanism by which hydroxyl radical mediates the apoptotic effect of cisplatin was shown to involve down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 through ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation. Bcl-2 was also shown to have a negative regulatory role on hydroxyl radical. Together, our results indicate an essential role of hydroxyl radical in cisplatin-induced cell death of hair follicle cells through Bcl-2 regulation. Since CIA is a major side effect of cisplatin and many other chemotherapeutic agents with no known effective treatments, the knowledge gained from this study could be useful in the design of preventive treatment strategies for CIA through localized therapy without compromising the chemotherapy efficacy.

  12. Notch-Mediated Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Notch family members are generally recognized as signaling molecules that control various cellular responses in metazoan organisms. Early fly studies and our mammalian studies demonstrated that Notch family members are also cell adhesion molecules; however, information on the physiological roles of this function and its origin is limited. In this review, we discuss the potential present and ancestral roles of Notch-mediated cell adhesion in order to explore its origin and the initial roles of Notch family members dating back to metazoan evolution. We hypothesize that Notch family members may have initially emerged as cell adhesion molecules in order to mediate multicellularity in the last common ancestor of metazoan organisms. PMID:26784245

  13. Magnesium modification of a calcium phosphate cement alters bone marrow stromal cell behavior via an integrin-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Ma, Xiaoyu; Lin, Dan; Shi, Hengsong; Yuan, Yuan; Tang, Wei; Zhou, Huanjun; Guo, Han; Qian, Jiangchao; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-06-01

    The chemical composition, structure and surface characteristics of biomaterials/scaffold can affect the adsorption of proteins, and this in turn influences the subsequent cellular response and tissue regeneration. With magnesium/calcium phosphate cements (MCPC) as model, the effects of magnesium (Mg) on the initial adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) as well as the underlying mechanism were investigated. A series of MCPCs with different magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) content (0∼20%) in calcium phosphate cement (CPC) were synthesized. MCPCs with moderate proportion of MPC (5% and 10%, referred to as 5MCPC and 10MCPC) were found to effectively modulate the orientation of the adsorbed fibronectin (Fn) to exhibit enhanced receptor binding affinity, and to up-regulate integrin α5β1 expression of BMSCs, especially for 5MCPC. As a result, the attachment, morphology, focal adhesion formation, actin filaments assembly and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs on 5MCPC were strongly enhanced. Further in vivo experiments confirmed that 5MCPC induced promoted osteogenesis in comparison to ot her CPC/MCPCs. Our results also suggested that the Mg on the underlying substrates but not the dissolved Mg ions was the main contributor to the above positive effects. Based on these results, it can be inferred that the specific interaction of Fn and integrin α5β1 had predominant effect on the MCPC-induced enhanced cellular response of BMSCs. These results provide a new strategy to regulate BMSCs adhesion and osteogenic differentiation by adjusting the Mg/Ca content and distribution in CPC, guiding the development of osteoinductive scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

  14. T Cell-Independent Mechanisms Associated with Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation and Selective Autophagy in IL-17A-Mediated Epidermal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Erika; Maverakis, Emanual; Sarin, Ritu; Bouchareychas, Laura; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Nestle, Frank O; Adamopoulos, Iannis E

    2016-12-01

    IL-17A has been strongly associated with epidermal hyperplasia in many cutaneous disorders. However, because IL-17A is mainly produced by αβ and γδT cells in response to IL-23, the role of T cells and IL-23 has overshadowed any IL-17A-independent actions. In this article, we report that IL-17A gene transfer induces epidermal hyperplasia in Il23r(-/-)Rag1(-/-)- and Tcrδ-deficient mice, which can be prevented by neutrophil depletion. Moreover, adoptive transfer of CD11b(+)Gr-1(hi) cells, after IL-17A gene transfer, was sufficient to phenocopy the disease. We further show that the IL-17A-induced pathology was prevented in transgenic mice with impaired neutrophil extracellular trap formation and/or neutrophils with conditional deletion of the master regulator of selective autophagy, Wdfy3. Our data demonstrate a novel T cell-independent mechanism that is associated with neutrophil extracellular trap formation and selective autophagy in IL-17A-mediated epidermal hyperplasia. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-mediated differentiation: a mutation in colon cancer cells reveals divergent and cell type-specific mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajnish A; Sarraf, Pasha; Mueller, Elisabetta; Brockman, Jeffrey A; Prusakiewicz, Jeffery J; Eng, Charis; Willson, Timothy M; DuBois, Raymond N

    2003-06-20

    Activation of the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) inhibits cell growth and induces differentiation in both adipocyte and epithelial cell lineages, although it is unclear whether this occurs through common or cell-type specific mechanisms. We have identified four human colon cancer cell lines that do no undergo growth inhibition or induce markers of differentiation after exposure to PPARgamma agonists. Sequence analysis of the PPARgamma gene revealed that all four cell lines contain a previously unidentified point mutation in the ninth alpha-helix of the ligand binding domain at codon 422 (K422Q). The mutant receptor did not exhibit any defects in DNA binding or retinoid X receptor heterodimerization and was transcriptionally active in an artificial reporter assay. However, only retroviral transduction of the wild-type (WT), but not mutant, receptor could restore PPARgamma ligand-induced growth inhibition and differentiation in resistant colon cancer cell lines. In contrast, there was no difference in the ability of fibroblast cells expressing WT or K422Q mutant receptor to undergo growth inhibition, express adipocyte differentiation markers, or uptake lipid after treatment with a PPARgamma agonist. Finally, analysis of direct PPARgamma target genes in colon cancer cells expressing the WT or K422Q mutant allele suggests that the mutation may disrupt the ability of PPARgamma to repress the basal expression of a subset of genes in the absence of exogenous ligand. Collectively, these data argue that codon 422 may be a part of a co-factor(s) interaction domain necessary for PPARgamma to induce terminal differentiation in epithelial, but not adipocyte, cell lineages and argues that the receptor induces growth inhibition and differentiation via cell lineage-specific mechanisms.

  16. Direct growth-inhibitory effects of prostaglandin E2 in pancreatic cancer cells in vitro through an EP4/PKA-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Andrea; Sinnett-Smith, James; Young, Steven; Chang, Hui-Hua; Hines, O Joe; Dawson, David W; Rozengurt, Enrique; Eibl, Guido

    2017-06-01

    cell growth through an EP4-mediated mechanism. Together with our gene expression and survival analysis, this observation suggests a protective role of EP4 receptors in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma that expresses E-type prostaglandin receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear Mechanics and Stem Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xinjian; Gavara, Nuria; Song, Guanbin

    2015-12-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential. Stem cell differentiation is a prerequisite for the application of stem cells in regenerative medicine and clinical therapy. In addition to chemical stimulation, mechanical cues play a significant role in regulating stem cell differentiation. The integrity of mechanical sensors is necessary for the ability of cells to respond to mechanical signals. The nucleus, the largest and stiffest cellular organelle, interacts with the cytoskeleton as a key mediator of cell mechanics. Nuclear mechanics are involved in the complicated interactions of lamins, chromatin and nucleoskeleton-related proteins. Thus, stem cell differentiation is intimately associated with nuclear mechanics due to its indispensable role in mechanotransduction and mechanical response. This paper reviews several main contributions of nuclear mechanics, highlights the hallmarks of the nuclear mechanics of stem cells, and provides insight into the relationship between nuclear mechanics and stem cell differentiation, which may guide clinical applications in the future.

  18. Polymeric mechanical amplifiers of immune cytokine-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Michael J.; Webster, Jamie; Chung, Amanda; Guimarães, Pedro P. G.; Khan, Omar F.; Langer, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Physical forces affect tumour growth, progression and metastasis. Here, we develop polymeric mechanical amplifiers that exploit in vitro and in vivo physical forces to increase immune cytokine-mediated tumour cell apoptosis. Mechanical amplifiers, consisting of biodegradable polymeric particles tethered to the tumour cell surface via polyethylene glycol linkers, increase the apoptotic effect of an immune cytokine on tumour cells under fluid shear exposure by as much as 50% compared with treatment under static conditions. We show that targeted polymeric particles delivered to tumour cells in vivo amplify the apoptotic effect of a subsequent treatment of immune cytokine, reduce circulating tumour cells in blood and overall tumour cell burden by over 90% and reduce solid tumour growth in combination with the antioxidant resveratrol. The work introduces a potentially new application for a broad range of micro- and nanoparticles to maximize receptor-mediated signalling and function in the presence of physical forces. PMID:28317839

  19. Polymeric mechanical amplifiers of immune cytokine-mediated apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Michael J.; Webster, Jamie; Chung, Amanda; Guimarães, Pedro P. G.; Khan, Omar F.; Langer, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Physical forces affect tumour growth, progression and metastasis. Here, we develop polymeric mechanical amplifiers that exploit in vitro and in vivo physical forces to increase immune cytokine-mediated tumour cell apoptosis. Mechanical amplifiers, consisting of biodegradable polymeric particles tethered to the tumour cell surface via polyethylene glycol linkers, increase the apoptotic effect of an immune cytokine on tumour cells under fluid shear exposure by as much as 50% compared with treatment under static conditions. We show that targeted polymeric particles delivered to tumour cells in vivo amplify the apoptotic effect of a subsequent treatment of immune cytokine, reduce circulating tumour cells in blood and overall tumour cell burden by over 90% and reduce solid tumour growth in combination with the antioxidant resveratrol. The work introduces a potentially new application for a broad range of micro- and nanoparticles to maximize receptor-mediated signalling and function in the presence of physical forces.

  20. Mediation of cimetidine secretion by P-glycoprotein and a novel H(+)-coupled mechanism in cultured renal epithelial monolayers of LLC-PK1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, A. J.; Brown, C. D.

    1996-01-01

    1. Previous studies have shown that the weak base, cimetidine, is actively secreted by the renal proximal tubule. In this study we have examined the transport of cimetidine by renal LLC-PK1 epithelial cell monolayers. 2. In LLC-PK1 cell monolayers the basal-to-apical flux of cimetidine was significantly greater than the apical-to basal flux, consistent with net secretion of cimetidine in a basal-to-apical direction. 3. Net secretion of cimetidine was significantly (70%) reduced by the addition of either 100 microM verapamil or 100 microM nifedipine to the apical membrane. The reduction in net secretion was the result of an inhibition of basal-to-apical flux; these agents had no effect upon flux in the apical-to-basal direction. These results suggest that cimetidine secretion is mediated primarily by P-glycoprotein located in the apical membrane. In addition we found no evidence of a role for organic cation antiport in the secretion of cimetidine. 4. In the presence of an inwardly directed proton gradient across the apical membrane (pH 6.0), cimetidine secretion was significantly reduced compared to that measured at an apical pH of 7.4. The reduction in net secretion at pH 6.0 was the result of a stimulation of cimetidine uptake across the apical membrane. This pH-dependent uptake mechanism was sensitive to inhibition by DIDS (100 microM). 5. Experiments with BCECF (2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein) loaded monolayers demonstrated that cimetidine influx across the apical membrane was associated with proton flow into the cell and was sensitive to inhibition by DIDS. 6. These results suggest that net secretion of cimetidine across the apical membrane is a function of the relative magnitudes of cimetidine secretion mediated by P-glycoprotein and cimetidine absorption mediated by a novel proton-coupled, DIDS-sensitive transport mechanism. PMID:8882608

  1. Neuroprotective Mechanisms Mediated by CDK5 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Gohar; Greig, Nigel H.; Anwar, Firoz; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A.; Zamzami, Mazin A.; Al-Talhi, Hasan A.; Kamal, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase belonging to the family of cyclin-dependent kinases. In addition to maintaining the neuronal architecture, CDK5 plays an important role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter release, neuron migration and neurite outgrowth. Although various reports have shown links between neurodegeneration and deregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases, the specific role of CDK5 inhibition in causing neuroprotection in cases of neuronal insult or in neurodegenerative diseases is not well-understood. This article discusses current evidence for the involvement of CDK5 deregulation in neurodegenerative disorders and neurodegeneration associated with stroke through various mechanisms. These include upregulation of cyclin D1 and overactivation of CDK5 mediated neuronal cell death pathways, aberrant hyperphosphorylation of human tau proteins and/or neurofilament proteins, formation of neurofibrillary lesions, excitotoxicity, cytoskeletal disruption, motor neuron death (due to abnormally high levels of CDK5/p25) and colchicine-induced apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons. A better understanding of the role of CDK5 inhibition in neuroprotective mechanisms will help scientists and researchers to develop selective, safe and efficacious pharmacological inhibitors of CDK5 for therapeutic use against human neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and neuronal loss associated with stroke. PMID:26601962

  2. CD95/CD95L-mediated apoptosis of the hepatic stellate cell. A mechanism terminating uncontrolled hepatic stellate cell proliferation during hepatic tissue repair.

    PubMed Central

    Saile, B.; Knittel, T.; Matthes, N.; Schott, P.; Ramadori, G.

    1997-01-01

    During liver tissue repair, hepatic stellate cells (HSC), a pericyte-like mesenchymal liver cell population, transform from a "quiescent" status ("resting" HSC) into myofibroblast-like cells ("activated" HSC) with the latter representing the principle matrix synthesizing cell of the liver. Presently, the mechanisms that terminate HSC cell proliferation when tissue repair is concluded are poorly understood. Controlled cell death known as apoptosis could be a mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Therefore, apoptosis and its regulation were studied in HSC using an in vitro and in vivo approach. Spontaneous apoptosis became detectable in parallel with HSC activation because resting cells (2 days after isolation) displayed no sign of apoptosis, whereas apoptosis was present in 8% (+/- 5%) of "transitional" cells (day 4) and in 18% (+/- 8%) of fully activated cells (day 7). Both CD95 (APO-1/Fas) and CD95L (APO-1-/Fas-ligand) became increasingly expressed during the course of activation. Apoptosis could be fully blocked by CD95-blocking antibodies in normal cells and HSC already entering the apoptotic cycle. Using CD95-activating antibodies, transition of more than 95% cells into apoptosis was evident at each activation step. The apoptosis-regulating proteins Bcl-2 and p53 could not be detected in resting cells but were found in increasing amounts at days 4 and 7 of cultivation. Whereas p53 expression was induced by the CD95-activating antibody, no change was inducible in Bcl-2 expression. The Bcl-2-related protein bax could be found at days 2 and 4 in similar expression, was considerably up-regulated at day 7, but was not regulated by CD95-agonistic antibodies. In vivo, acute tissue damage was first accompanied by activation and proliferation of HSC displaying no sign of apoptosis. In the recovery phase, apoptotic HSC were detectable in parallel to a reduction in the total number of HSC present in the liver tissue. The data demonstrate that apoptosis becomes detectable

  3. The apoptotic effect of nanosilver is mediated by a ROS- and JNK-dependent mechanism involving the mitochondrial pathway in NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Hsin, Yi-Hong; Chen, Chun-Feng; Huang, Shing; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lai, Ping-Shan; Chueh, Pin Ju

    2008-07-10

    Nanomaterials and nanoparticles have received considerable attention recently because of their unique properties and diverse biotechnology and life sciences applications. Nanosilver products, which have well-known antimicrobial properties, have been used extensively in a range of medical settings. Despite the widespread use of nanosilver products, relatively few studies have been undertaken to determine the biological effects of nanosilver exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of nanosilver and to elucidate possible molecular mechanisms underlying the biological effects of nanosilver. Here, we show that nanosilver is cytotoxic, inducing apoptosis in NIH3T3 fibroblast cells. Treatment with nanosilver induced the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol and translocation of Bax to mitochondria, indicating that nanosilver-mediated apoptosis is mitochondria-dependent. Nanosilver-induced apoptosis was associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and JNK activation, and inhibition of either ROS or JNK attenuated nanosilver-induced apoptosis. In nanosilver-resistant HCT116 cells, up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 appeared to be associated with a diminished apoptotic response. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence for a molecular mechanism of nanosilver cytotoxicity, showing that nanosilver acts through ROS and JNK to induce apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway.

  4. IL-4 inhibits TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation by inhibition of RANKL expression in TNF-α-activated stromal cells and direct inhibition of TNF-α-activated osteoclast precursors via a T-cell-independent mechanism in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshiya; Kitaura, Hideki; Kimura, Keisuke; Hakami, Zaki Weli; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2012-10-01

    It has been reported that osteoclastogenesis is induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Interleukin (IL)-4 is the most important cytokine involved in humoral immunity. However, no studies have investigated the effect of IL-4 on TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-4 on TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in vivo. TNF-α was administered with and without IL-4 into the supracalvariae of mice. The number of osteoclasts and the levels of mRNA for cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphate, both osteoclast markers, in mice administered TNF-α and IL-4 were lower than those in mice administered TNF-α alone. The level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase form 5b (TRACP5b) as a marker of bone resorption in mice administered both TNF-α and IL-4 was also lower. We showed that IL-4 inhibited TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in osteoclast precursors in vitro. Expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) in TNF-α-activated stromal cells was also inhibited. Furthermore, we investigated whether IL-4 had effects on both stromal cells and osteoclast precursors in TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in vivo. Using mice whose stromal cells and osteoclast precursors were chimeric for the presence of TNF receptors, IL-4 inhibited TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in the presence of TNF-α-responsive stromal cells, and TNF-α-responsive osteoclast precursors in vivo. IL-4 also inhibited TNF-α-induced RANKL expression in the presence of TNF-α-responsive stromal cells in vivo. This event is dependent on p38 inhibition in vitro. Additionally, IL-4 inhibited TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in T cell-depleted mice. In summary, we conclude that IL-4 inhibited TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation by inhibiting expression of RANKL in TNF-α-activated stromal cells, and directly inhibited TNF-α-activated osteoclast precursors in vivo via a T cell-independent mechanism.

  5. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP)-mediated cell differentiation to proteolysis mechanism networks from human normal adjacent tissues to lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Huang, Juxiang; Jiang, Minghu; Diao, Haizhen; Zhou, Huilei; Li, Xiaohe; Chen, Qingchun; Jiang, Zhenfu; Feng, Haitao; Wolfl, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    To understand cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) mechanism network from human normal adjacent tissues to lung adenocarcinoma. COMP complete different activated (all no positive correlation, Pearson CC < 0.25) and uncomplete (partly no positive correlation except COMP, Pearson CC < 0.25) network were identified in higher lung adenocarcinoma compared with lower human normal adjacent tissues from the corresponding COMP-stimulated (≥0.25) or inhibited (Pearson CC ≤ -0.25) overlapping molecules of Pearson correlation coefficient (CC) and GRNInfer, respectively. COMP complete different activated and inhibited (all no positive correlation, Pearson CC < 0.25) mechanisms networks of higher lung adenocarcinoma and lower human normal adjacent tissues were constructed by integration of Pearson CC, GRNInfer and GO. As visualized by integration of GO, KEGG, GenMAPP, BioCarta and Disease, we deduced COMP complete different activated and inhibited network in higher lung adenocarcinoma and lower human normal adjacent tissues. As visualized by GO, KEGG, GenMAPP, BioCarta and disease database integration, we proposed mainly that the mechanism and function of COMP complete different activated network in higher lung adenocarcinoma was involved in COMP activation with matrix-localized insulin-like factor coupling carboxypeptidase to metallopeptidase-induced proteolysis, whereas the corresponding inhibited network in lower human normal adjacent tissues participated in COMP inhibition with nucleus-localized vasculogenesis, B and T cell differentiation and neural endocrine factors coupling pyrophosphatase-mediated proteolysis. However, COMP complete different inhibited network in higher lung adenocarcinoma included COMP inhibition with nucleus-localized chromatin maintenance, licensing and assembly factors coupling phosphatase-inhibitor to cytokinesis regulators-mediated cell differentiation, whereas the corresponding activated network in lower human normal adjacent tissues

  6. Humoral and cell-mediated immune mechanisms in the production of pathology in avirulent Semliki Forest virus encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, M L

    1980-01-01

    Seven days after peripheral inoculation with an avirulent strain of Semliki Forest virus, the brains of CBA and nude mice exhibited a mononuclear inflammation and spongiform degeneration. Mice that had received cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg) 24 h after infection showed no pathology until day 11. However, immunofluorescence studies of the brains of immunosuppressed, infected mice demonstrated viral antigen within the soma and processes of neurons at earlier periods. The brain lesions could be reconstituted on day 7 in immunosuppressed, infected recipients with 6-day immune spleen cells. Immune spleen cells depleted of T lymphocytes, the non-immunoglobulin-bearing population deficient in B lymphocytes, or immune sera plus nonimmune bone marrow cells could also reconstitute the lesions. However, inflammation and spongiform changes were reduced when donor immune cells were depleted of either T or B lymphocytes. When both T and B lymphocytes were removed from the donor immune population, recipient brains did not show pathology. The results demonstrate that either antibody or immune T cells can trigger pathology, but there is also participation of nonimmune bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells, probably of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6254882

  7. Prostate Cancer Cell Growth: Role of Neurotensin in Mediating Effect of Dietary Fat and Mechanism of Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    S6-kinase, and in 24 hrs by a stimulation of DNA synthesis . We found that NT and EGF stimulated 3H-AA release form PC3 cells and that lipoxygenase (LOX...inhibitors blocked basal and NT-induced DNA synthesis . This suggests that EGF and NT act by way of PLA2 f-Lox and 12-LOX. Cell growth responses...depend on the hormonal milieu. In the presence of a Gs stimulus, NT enhances cAMP production and his results in an inhibition of DNA synthesis . Thus, NT

  8. Bacterial Cell Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Auer, George K; Weibel, Douglas B

    2017-07-25

    Cellular mechanical properties play an integral role in bacterial survival and adaptation. Historically, the bacterial cell wall and, in particular, the layer of polymeric material called the peptidoglycan were the elements to which cell mechanics could be primarily attributed. Disrupting the biochemical machinery that assembles the peptidoglycan (e.g., using the β-lactam family of antibiotics) alters the structure of this material, leads to mechanical defects, and results in cell lysis. Decades after the discovery of peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes, the mechanisms that underlie their positioning and regulation are still not entirely understood. In addition, recent evidence suggests a diverse group of other biochemical elements influence bacterial cell mechanics, may be regulated by new cellular mechanisms, and may be triggered in different environmental contexts to enable cell adaptation and survival. This review summarizes the contributions that different biomolecular components of the cell wall (e.g., lipopolysaccharides, wall and lipoteichoic acids, lipid bilayers, peptidoglycan, and proteins) make to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cell mechanics. We discuss the contribution of individual proteins and macromolecular complexes in cell mechanics and the tools that make it possible to quantitatively decipher the biochemical machinery that contributes to bacterial cell mechanics. Advances in this area may provide insight into new biology and influence the development of antibacterial chemotherapies.

  9. Cellular Mechanisms of Restored β-Cell Tolerance Mediated by Protective Alleles of Idd3 and Idd5

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Williams, Emma E.; Cheung, Jocelyn; Rainbow, Daniel B.; Hunter, Kara M.; Wicker, Linda S.; Sherman, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes genes within the interleukin (IL)-2, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte--associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), and natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP1) pathways influence development of autoimmune diabetes in humans and NOD mice. In NOD mice, when present together, protective alleles encoding IL-2, Idd3 candidate gene, CTLA-4, NRAMP1, and acetyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, long-chain (ACADL) (candidate genes for the Idd5.1, Idd5.2, and Idd5.3 subregions) provide nearly complete diabetes protection. To define where the protective alleles of Idd3 and the Idd5 subregions must be present to protect from diabetes and tolerize islet-specific CD8+ T cells, SCID mice were reconstituted so that the host and lymphocytes expressed various combinations of protective and susceptibility alleles at Idd3 and Idd5. Although protective Idd3 alleles in the lymphocytes and protective Idd5 alleles in the SCID host contributed most significantly to CD8 tolerance, both were required together in both lymphocyte and nonlymphocyte cells to recapitulate the potent diabetes protection observed in intact Idd3/5 mice. We conclude that genetic regions involved in autoimmune disease are not restricted in their influence to individual cell types. Even a single protective gene product, such as IL-2, must be expressed in both the lymphocytes and dendritic cells to exert its full extent of disease protection. These studies highlight the pleiotropic effects of genes that determine autoimmune disease susceptibility. PMID:22106155

  10. Mechanisms of cyclic AMP/protein kinase A- and glucocorticoid-mediated apoptosis using S49 lymphoma cells as a model system

    PubMed Central

    Keshwani, Malik M.; Kanter, Joan R.; Ma, Yuliang; Wilderman, Andrea; Darshi, Manjula; Insel, Paul A.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) and glucocorticoids promote the death of many cell types, including cells of hematopoietic origin. In wild-type (WT) S49 T-lymphoma cells, signaling by cAMP and glucocorticoids converges on the induction of the proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma-family protein Bim to produce mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Kin–, a clonal variant of WT S49 cells, lacks PKA catalytic (PKA-Cα) activity and is resistant to cAMP-mediated apoptosis. Using sorbitol density gradient fractionation, we show here that in kin– S49 cells PKA-Cα is not only depleted but the residual PKA-Cα mislocalizes to heavier cell fractions and is not phosphorylated at two conserved residues (Ser338 or Thr197). In WT S49 cells, PKA-regulatory subunit I (RI) and Bim coimmunoprecipitate upon treatment with cAMP analogs and forskolin (which increases endogenous cAMP concentrations). By contrast, in kin– cells, expression of PKA-RIα and Bim is prominently decreased, and increases in cAMP do not increase Bim expression. Even so, kin– cells undergo apoptosis in response to treatment with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex). In WT cells, glucorticoid-mediated apoptosis involves an increase in Bim, but in kin– cells, Dex-promoted cell death appears to occur by a caspase 3-independent apoptosis-inducing factor pathway. Thus, although cAMP/PKA-Cα and PKA-R1α/Bim mediate apoptotic cell death in WT S49 cells, kin– cells resist this response because of lower levels of PKA-Cα and PKA-RIα subunits as well as Bim. The findings for Dex-promoted apoptosis imply that these lymphoma cells have adapted to selective pressure that promotes cell death by altering canonical signaling pathways. PMID:26417071

  11. MicroRNA-627 Mediates the Epigenetic Mechanisms of Vitamin D to Suppress Proliferation of Human Colorectal Cancer Cells and Growth of Xenograft Tumors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Padi, Sathish K.R.; Zhang, Qunshu; Rustum, Youcef M; Morrison, Carl; Guo, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Vitamin D protects against colorectal cancer by unclear mechanisms. We investigated the effects of calcitriol (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the active form of vitamin D) on levels of different microRNAs (miRs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells from humans and xenograft tumors in mice. Methods Expression of microRNAs in CRC cell lines was examined using the Ambion mirVana miRNA Bioarray. The effects of calcitriol on expression of miR-627 and cell proliferation were determined by real-time PCR and WST-1 assay, respectively; growth of colorectal xenograft tumors was examined in nude mice. Real-time PCR was used to analyze levels of miR-627 in human colon adenocarcinoma samples and non-tumor colon mucosa tissues (controls). Results In HT-29 cells, miR-627 was the only microRNA significantly upregulated by calcitriol. Jumonji domain containing 1A (JMJD1A), which encodes a histone demethylase, was found to be a target of miR-627. By downregulating JMJD1A, miR-627 increased methylation of histone H3K9 and suppressed expression of proliferative factors such as GDF15. Calcitriol induced expression of miR-627, which downregulated JMJD1A and suppressed growth of xenograft tumors from HCT-116 cells in nude mice. Overexpression of miR-627 prevented proliferation of CRC cell lines in culture and growth of xenograft tumors in mice. Conversely, blocking the activity of miR-627 inhibited the tumor suppressive effects of calcitriol in cultured CRC cells and in mice. Levels of miR-627 were decreased in human colon adenocarcinoma samples, compared with controls. Conclusions miR-627 mediates tumor-suppressive epigenetic activities of vitamin D on CRC cells and xenograft tumors in mice. The mRNA that encodes the histone demethylase JMJD1A is a direct target of miR-627. Reagents designed to target JMJD1A or its mRNA, or increase the function of miR-627, might have the same antitumor activities of vitamin D without the hypercalcemic side effects. PMID:23619147

  12. Estrogen Receptor α Mediates Proliferation of Osteoblastic Cells Stimulated by Estrogen and Mechanical Strain, but Their Acute Down-regulation of the Wnt Antagonist Sost Is Mediated by Estrogen Receptor β*

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Gabriel L.; Meakin, Lee B.; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Zebda, Noureddine; Sunters, Andrew; Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; Stein, Gary S.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Lanyon, Lance E.; Price, Joanna S.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical strain and estrogens both stimulate osteoblast proliferation through estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated effects, and both down-regulate the Wnt antagonist Sost/sclerostin. Here, we investigate the differential effects of ERα and -β in these processes in mouse long bone-derived osteoblastic cells and human Saos-2 cells. Recruitment to the cell cycle following strain or 17β-estradiol occurs within 30 min, as determined by Ki-67 staining, and is prevented by the ERα antagonist 1,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-[4-(2-piperidinylethoxy)phenol]-1H-pyrazole dihydrochloride. ERβ inhibition with 4-[2-phenyl-5,7-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazolo[1,5-β]pyrimidin-3-yl] phenol (PTHPP) increases basal proliferation similarly to strain or estradiol. Both strain and estradiol down-regulate Sost expression, as does in vitro inhibition or in vivo deletion of ERα. The ERβ agonists 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile and ERB041 also down-regulated Sost expression in vitro, whereas the ERα agonist 4,4′,4″-[4-propyl-(1H)-pyrazol-1,3,5-triyl]tris-phenol or the ERβ antagonist PTHPP has no effect. Tamoxifen, a nongenomic ERβ agonist, down-regulates Sost expression in vitro and in bones in vivo. Inhibition of both ERs with fulvestrant or selective antagonism of ERβ, but not ERα, prevents Sost down-regulation by strain or estradiol. Sost down-regulation by strain or ERβ activation is prevented by MEK/ERK blockade. Exogenous sclerostin has no effect on estradiol-induced proliferation but prevents that following strain. Thus, in osteoblastic cells the acute proliferative effects of both estradiol and strain are ERα-mediated. Basal Sost down-regulation follows decreased activity of ERα and increased activity of ERβ. Sost down-regulation by strain or increased estrogens is mediated by ERβ, not ERα. ER-targeting therapy may facilitate structurally appropriate bone formation by enhancing the distinct ligand-independent, strain-related contributions to proliferation

  13. Heterogeneous populations of cells mediate spontaneous synchronous bursting in the developing hippocampus through a frequency-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Menendez de la Prida, L; Sanchez-Andres, J V

    2000-01-01

    Under normal conditions, hippocampal slices from newborn rats and rabbits (postnatal days 0-8) show spontaneous synchronous bursts known as giant depolarizing potentials. These bursts are recorded from CA3, CA1 and the fascia dentata in both intact slices and isolated hipocampal regions. Giant depolarizing potentials are network-driven events resulting from the synergistic activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxadepropionate and GABA(A) receptors, the latter playing an excitatory role. Recently, we showed that they spontaneously emerge in an all-or-none manner after the increase of synaptic and cellular activity beyond a threshold frequency [Menendez de la Prida L. and Sanchez-Andres J. V. (1999) J. Neurophysiol. 82, 202-208]. Under this framework, background levels of spontaneous activity at individual neurons build up network synchronization 100-300ms prior to the onset of giant depolarizing potentials. However, the role of distinct cellular populations and connectivity in determining the threshold frequency has not been examined. By performing simultaneous intracellular recordings from pyramidal cells, non-pyramidal cells and interneurons, we investigated their participation in the generation of giant depolarizing potentials. Electrodes containing Neurobiotin were used to examine the cellular morphology. We found that giant depolarizing potentials were not initiated from a single pacemaker cellular group; instead, they involved recurrent cooperation among these groups, which contributed differently according to their intrinsic firing capability. In all the neurons examined, the onset of these bursts took place in an all-or-none frequency-dependent manner, both spontaneously (depending on the frequency of the excitatory postsynaptic potentials) or when triggered by extracellular stimulation. The CA3 threshold of frequency was at 12Hz in both pyramidal cells and interneurons, while in the fascia dentata it was 17Hz. The

  14. PI(4,5)P2-Mediated Cell Signaling: Emerging Principles and PTEN as a Paradigm for Regulatory Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Gericke, Arne; Leslie, Nicholas R.; Lösche, Mathias; Ross, Alonzo H.

    2013-01-01

    PI(4,5)P2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) is a relatively common anionic lipid that regulates cellular functions by multiple mechanisms. Hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 by phospholipase C yields inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. Phosphorylation by phosphoinositide 3-kinase yields PI(3,4,5)P3, which is a potent signal for survival and proliferation. Also, PI(4,5)P2 can bind directly to integral and peripheral membrane proteins. As an example of regulation by PI(4,5)P2, we discuss phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in detail. PTEN is an important tumor suppressor and hydrolyzes PI(3,4,5)P3. PI(4,5)P2 enhances PTEN association with the plasma membrane and activates its phosphatase activity. This is a critical regulatory mechanism, but a detailed description of this process from a structural point of view is lacking. The disordered lipid bilayer environment hinders structural determinations of membrane-bound PTEN. A new method to analyze membrane-bound protein measures neutron reflectivity for proteins bound to tethered phospholipid membranes. These methods allow determination of the orientation and shape of membrane-bound proteins. In combination with molecular dynamics simulations, these studies will provide crucial structural information that can serve as a foundation for our understanding of PTEN regulation in normal and pathological processes. PMID:23775692

  15. Potent Elastase Inhibitors from Cyanobacteria: Structural Basis and Mechanisms Mediating Cytoprotective and Anti-inflammatory Effects in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Lilibeth A.; Taori, Kanchan; Biggs, Jason S.; Jakoncic, Jean; Ostrov, David A.; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    We discovered new structural diversity to a prevalent, yet medicinally underappreciated, cyanobacterial protease inhibitor scaffold and undertook comprehensive protease profiling to reveal potent and selective elastase inhibition. SAR and X-ray cocrystal structure analysis allowed a detailed assessment of critical and tunable structural elements. To realize the therapeutic potential of these cyclodepsipeptides, we probed the cellular effects of a novel and representative family member, symplostatin 5 (1), which attenuated the downstream cellular effects of elastase in an epithelial lung airway model system, alleviating clinical hallmarks of chronic pulmonary diseases such as cell death, cell detachment and inflammation. This compound attenuated the effects of elastase on receptor activation, proteolytic processing of the adhesion protein ICAM-1, NF-κB activation and transcriptomic changes, including the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1A, IL1B and IL8. Compound 1 exhibited activity comparable to the clinically-approved elastase inhibitor sivelestat in short-term assays and demonstrated superior sustained activity in longer-term assays. PMID:23350733

  16. Forgiveness and relationship satisfaction: mediating mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Selby, Edward A; Fincham, Frank D

    2011-08-01

    Although the ability to forgive transgressions has been linked to overall relationship satisfaction, the mechanisms that mediate this association have not been established. We propose that the tendency to forgive a romantic partner increases relationship satisfaction via increased relational effort and decreased negative conflict. In two studies, we used structural equations modeling to examine these variables as potential mechanisms that drive this association. In Study 1 (N = 523) and Study 2 (N = 446) we found that these variables significantly mediated the association between forgiveness and relationship satisfaction. The findings were robust when examined concurrently and longitudinally, across multiple measures of forgiveness, and when accounting for baseline relationship satisfaction and interpersonal commitment. These two mechanisms parallel theorized positive and negative dimensions of forgiveness and the motivational transformation that is said to underlie forgiveness. Theoretical implications and implications for intervention are discussed.

  17. Forgiveness and Relationship Satisfaction: Mediating Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Scott R.; Selby, Edward A.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2011-01-01

    Although the ability to forgive transgressions has been linked to overall relationship satisfaction, the mechanisms that mediate this association have not been established. We propose that the tendency to forgive a romantic partner increases relationship satisfaction via increased relational effort and decreased negative conflict. In two studies, we used structural equations modeling to examine these variables as potential mechanisms that drive this association. In Study 1 (N = 523) and Study 2 (N = 446) we found that these variables significantly mediated the association between forgiveness and relationship satisfaction. The findings were robust when examined concurrently and longitudinally, across multiple measures of forgiveness, and when accounting for baseline relationship satisfaction and interpersonal commitment. These two mechanisms parallel theorized positive and negative dimensions of forgiveness and the motivational transformation that is said to underlie forgiveness. Theoretical implications and implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:21707170

  18. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  19. The study of the mechanism of arsenite toxicity in respiration-deficient cells reveals that NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide promotes the same downstream events mediated by mitochondrial superoxide in respiration-proficient cells.

    PubMed

    Guidarelli, Andrea; Fiorani, Mara; Carloni, Silvia; Cerioni, Liana; Balduini, Walter; Cantoni, Orazio

    2016-09-15

    We herein report the results from a comparative study of arsenite toxicity in respiration-proficient (RP) and -deficient (RD) U937 cells. An initial characterization of these cells led to the demonstration that the respiration-deficient phenotype is not associated with apparent changes in mitochondrial mass and membrane potential. In addition, similar levels of superoxide (O2(.-)) were generated by RP and RD cells in response to stimuli specifically triggering respiratory chain-independent mitochondrial mechanisms or extramitochondrial, NADPH-oxidase dependent, mechanisms. At the concentration of 2.5μM, arsenite elicited selective formation of O2(.-) in the respiratory chain of RP cells, with hardly any contribution of the above mechanisms. Under these conditions, O2(.-) triggered downstream events leading to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, autophagy and apoptosis. RD cells challenged with similar levels of arsenite failed to generate O2(.-) because of the lack of a functional respiratory chain and were therefore resistant to the toxic effects mediated by the metalloid. Their resistance, however, was lost after exposure to four fold greater concentrations of arsenite, coincidentally with the release of O2(.-) mediated by NADPH oxidase. Interestingly, extramitochondrial O2(.-) triggered the same downstream events and an identical mode of death previously observed in RP cells. Taken together, the results obtained in this study indicate that arsenite toxicity is strictly dependent on O2(.-) availability that, regardless of whether generated in the mitochondrial or extramitochondrial compartments, triggers similar downstream events leading to ER stress, autophagy and apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonthermal-plasma-mediated animal cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wanil; Woo, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Animal cell death comprising necrosis and apoptosis occurred in a well-regulated manner upon specific stimuli. The physiological meanings and detailed molecular mechanisms of cell death have been continuously investigated over several decades. Necrotic cell death has typical morphological changes, such as cell swelling and cell lysis followed by DNA degradation, whereas apoptosis shows blebbing formation and regular DNA fragmentation. Cell death is usually adopted to terminate cancer cells in vivo. The current strategies against tumour are based on the induction of cell death by adopting various methods, including radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. Among these, radiotherapy is the most frequently used treatment method, but it still has obvious limitations. Recent studies have suggested that the use of nonthermal air plasma can be a prominent method for inducing cancer cell death. Plasma-irradiated cells showed the loss of genomic integrity, mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane damage, etc. Tumour elimination with plasma irradiation is an emerging concept in cancer therapy and can be accelerated by targeting certain tumour-specific proteins with gold nanoparticles. Here, some recent developments are described so that the mechanisms related to plasma-mediated cell death and its perspectives in cancer treatment can be understood.

  1. Novel CAR-mediated mechanism for synergistic activation of two distinct elements within the human cytochrome P450 2B6 gene in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Swales, Karen; Kakizaki, Satoru; Yamamoto, Yukio; Inoue, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Negishi, Masahiko

    2005-02-04

    The constitutive active receptor (CAR) regulates the induction of the cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) gene by phenobarbital-type inducers, such as 1,4 bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) via the distal phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM, at -1732/-1685 bp). Activation of the PBREM by TCPOBOP generated a 10-fold induction of CYP2B6 mRNA in HepG2 cells stably expressing mouse CAR (Ym17). Co-treatment with the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) synergistically increased this induction over 100-fold without directly activating CAR or the PBREM. Although OA synergy required the presence of PBREM, deletion assays delineated the OA-responsive activity to a proximal 24-bp (-256/-233) sequence (OARE) in the CYP2B6 promoter. CAR did not directly bind to the OARE in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. However, both DNA affinity and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed a significant increase in CAR association with the OARE after co-treatment with TCPOBOP and OA, indicating the indirect binding of CAR to the OARE. The two cis-acting elements, the distal PBREM and the proximal OARE, within the chromatin structure are both regulated by CAR in response to TCPOBOP and OA, respectively, to maximally induce the CYP2B6 promoter. This functional interaction between the two sites expands the current understanding of the mechanism of CAR-mediated inducible transcription.

  2. Li-O2 Cell with LiI(3-hydroxypropionitrile)2 as a Redox Mediator: Insight into the Working Mechanism of I(-) during Charge in Anhydrous Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Dong, Shanmu; Chen, Bingbing; Lu, Chenglong; Liu, Kailiang; Zhang, Zhonghua; Du, Huiping; Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Xiao; Zhou, Xinhong; Cui, Guanglei

    2017-09-07

    Redox mediators (RMs) have been widely applied to reduce the charge overpotential of nonaqueous lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. Among the reported RMs, LiI is under hot debate with lots of controversial reports. However, there is a limited understanding of the charge mechanism of I(-) in anhydrous Li-O2 batteries. Here, we study the chemical reactivity between the oxidized state of I(-) and Li2O2. We confirm that the Li2O2 particles could be chemically oxidized by I2 rather than I3(-) species. Furthermore, our work demonstrates that the generated I(-) from Li2O2 oxidation would combine with I2 to give I3(-) species, hindering further oxidation of Li2O2 by I2. To improve the working efficiency of I(-) RMs, we introduce a compound LiI(3-hydroxypropionitrile)2 (LiI(HPN)2) with a high binding ability of I(-). Compared with LiI, the cell that contained LiI(HPN)2 shows a significantly increased amount of I2 species during charge and enhanced Li2O2 oxidation efficiency under the same working conditions.

  3. Cyclooxygenase-2 deficiency impairs muscle-derived stem cell-mediated bone regeneration via cellular autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xueqin; Usas, Arvydas; Lu, Aiping; Kozemchak, Adam; Tang, Ying; Poddar, Minakshi; Sun, Xuying; Cummins, James H; Huard, Johnny

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression by donor and host cells in muscle-derived stem cell (MDSC)-mediated bone regeneration utilizing a critical size calvarial defect model. We found that BMP4/green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transduced MDSCs formed significantly less bone in COX-2 knock-out (Cox-2KO) than in COX-2 wild-type (WT) mice. BMP4/GFP-transduced Cox-2KO MDSCs also formed significantly less bone than transduced WT MDSCs when transplanted into calvarial defects created in CD-1 nude mice. The impaired bone regeneration in the Cox-2KO MDSCBMP4/GFP group is associated with downregulation of BMP4-pSMAD1/5 signaling, decreased osteogenic differentiation and lowered proliferation capacity after transplantation, compared with WT MDSCBMP4/GFP cells. The Cox-2KO MDSCBMP4/GFP group demonstrated a reduction in cell survival and direct osteogenic differentiation in vitro These effects were mediated in part by the downregulation of Igf1 and Igf2. In addition, the Cox-2KO MDSCBMP4/GFP cells recruited fewer macrophages than the WT MDSC/BMP4/GFP cells in the early phase after injury. We concluded that the bone regeneration capacity of Cox-2KO MDSCs was impaired because of a reduction in cell proliferation and survival capacities, reduction in osteogenic differentiation and a decrease in the ability of the cells to recruit host cells to the injury site.

  4. Mitotic wavefronts mediated by mechanical signaling in early Drosophila embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Louis; Idema, Timon; Liu, Andrea; Lubensky, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Mitosis in the early Drosophila embryo demonstrates spatial and temporal correlations in the form of wavefronts that travel across the embryo in each cell cycle. This coordinated phenomenon requires a signaling mechanism, which we suggest is mechanical in origin. We have constructed a theoretical model that supports nonlinear wavefront propagation in a mechanically-excitable medium. Previously, we have shown that this model captures quantitatively the wavefront speed as it varies with cell cycle number, for reasonable values of the elastic moduli and damping coefficient of the medium. Now we show that our model also captures the displacements of cell nuclei in the embryo in response to the traveling wavefront. This new result further supports that mechanical signaling may play an important role in mediating mitotic wavefronts.

  5. Chronic infection by Leishmania amazonensis mediated through MAPK ERK mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Pedro A; Petersen, Christine A

    2014-08-01

    Leishmania amazonensis is an intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). CL is a neglected tropical disease responsible for infecting millions of people worldwide. L. amazonensis promotes alteration of various signaling pathways that are essential for host cell survival. Specifically, through parasite-mediated phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), L. amazonensis inhibits cell-mediated parasite killing and promotes its own survival by co-opting multiple host cell functions. In this review, we highlight Leishmania-host cell signaling alterations focusing on those specific to (1) motor proteins, (2) prevention of NADPH subunit phosphorylation impairing reactive oxygen species production, and (3) localized endosomal signaling to up-regulate ERK phosphorylation. This review will focus upon mechanisms and possible explanations as to how Leishmania spp. evades the various layers of defense employed by the host immune response.

  6. Mechanics of receptor-mediated endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huajian; Shi, Wendong; Freund, Lambert B.

    2005-07-01

    Most viruses and bioparticles endocytosed by cells have characteristic sizes in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometers. The process of viruses entering and leaving animal cells is mediated by the binding interaction between ligand molecules on the viral capid and their receptor molecules on the cell membrane. How does the size of a bioparticle affect receptor-mediated endocytosis? Here, we study how a cell membrane containing diffusive mobile receptors wraps around a ligand-coated cylindrical or spherical particle. It is shown that particles in the size range of tens to hundreds of nanometers can enter or exit cells via wrapping even in the absence of clathrin or caveolin coats, and an optimal particles size exists for the smallest wrapping time. This model can also be extended to include the effect of clathrin coat. The results seem to show broad agreement with experimental observations. Author contributions: H.G. and L.B.F. designed research; H.G., W.S., and L.B.F. performed research; and H.G., W.S., and L.B.F. wrote the paper.Abbreviations: CNT, carbon nanotube; SWNT, single-walled nanotube.

  7. MicroRNA-mediated somatic cell reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chih-Hao; Ying, Shao-Yao

    2013-02-01

    Since the first report of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), much focus has been placed on iPSCs due to their great therapeutic potential for diseases such as abnormal development, degenerative disorders, and even cancers. Subsequently, Takahashi and Yamanaka took a novel approach by using four defined transcription factors to generate iPSCs in mice and human fibroblast cells. Scientists have since been trying to refine or develop better approaches to reprogramming, either by using different combinations of transcription factors or delivery methods. However, recent reports showed that the microRNA expression pattern plays a crucial role in somatic cell reprogramming and ectopic introduction of embryonic stem cell-specific microRNAs revert cells back to an ESC-like state, although, the exact mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. This review describes recent work that has focused on microRNA-mediated approaches to somatic cell reprogramming as well as some of the pros and cons to these approaches and a possible mechanism of action. Based on the pivotal role of microRNAs in embryogenesis and somatic cell reprogramming, studies in this area must continue in order to gain a better understanding of the role of microRNAs in stem cells regulation and activity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A dual-mediated liposomal drug delivery system targeting the brain: rational construction, integrity evaluation across the blood–brain barrier, and the transporting mechanism to glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Liu, Xiao-Na; Wang, Gui-Ling; Hei, Yu; Meng, Shuai; Yang, Ling-Fei; Yuan, Lan; Xie, Ying

    2017-01-01

    As the global population ages, cancer rates increase worldwide, and degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), brain tumors, and inflammation threaten human health more frequently. We designed a dual-mediated (receptor-mediated and adsorption-mediated) liposome, named transferrin–cell penetrating peptide–sterically stabilized liposome (TF-CPP-SSL), to improve therapy for gliomas through combining molecular recognition of transferrin receptors (TF-Rs) on the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and glioma cells with the internalization and lysosomal escaping ability of CPP. Based on the systematic investigation of structure–activity relations on the cellular level, we constructed TF-CPP-SSL rationally by conjugating TF and CPP moieties to the liposomes via PEG3.4K and PEG2.0K, respectively, and found the optimum densities of TF and CPP were 1.8% and 4%, respectively. These liposomes had the highest targeting efficacy for brain microvascular endothelial cell and C6 cell uptake but avoided capture by normal cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer technology and coculture models of BBB and glioma C6 cells indicated that TF-CPP-SSL was transported across the BBB without drug leakage, liposome breakup, or cleavage of ligand. TF-CPP-SSL offered advantages for crossing the BBB and entering into glioma C6 cells. Real-time confocal viewing revealed that TF-CPP-SSL was entrapped in endosomes of glioma C6 cells and then escaped from lysosomes successfully to release the liposomal contents into the cytosol. Entrapped contents, such as doxorubicin, could then enter the nucleus to exert pharmacological effects. PMID:28405164

  9. siRNA-Mediated Knockdown of the mTOR Inhibitor RTP801 Promotes Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival and Axon Elongation by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Warren, Peter J; O'Neill, Jenna; de Cogan, Felicity; Spivak, Igor; Ashush, Hagit; Kalinski, Hagar; Ahmed, Zubair; Berry, Martin; Feinstein, Elena; Scott, Robert A H; Logan, Ann

    2016-02-01

    To investigate, using in vivo and in vitro models, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) neuroprotective and axon regenerative effects and underlying mechanisms of siRTP801, a translatable small-interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the mTOR negative regulator RTP801. Adult rats underwent optic nerve (ON) crush (ONC) followed by intravitreal siRTP801 or control siRNA (siEGFP) every 8 days, with Brn3a+ RGC survival, GFAP+ reactive gliosis, and GAP43+ regenerating axons analyzed immunohistochemically 24 days after injury. Retinal cultures, prepared from uninjured animals or 5 days after ONC to activate retinal glia, were treated with siRTP801/controls in the presence/absence of rapamycin and subsequently assessed for RGC survival and neurite outgrowth, RTP801 expression, glial responses, and mTOR activity. Conditioned medium was analyzed for neurotrophin titers by ELISA. Intravitreal siRTP801 enabled 82% RGC survival compared to 45% with siEGFP 24 days after ONC, correlated with greater GAP43+ axon regeneration at 400 to 1200 μm beyond the ONC site, and potentiated the reactive GFAP+ Müller glial response. In culture, siRTP801 had a direct RGC neuroprotective effect, but required GFAP+ activated glia to stimulate neurite elongation. The siRTP801-induced neuroprotection was significantly reduced, but not abolished, by rapamycin. The siRTP801 potentiated the production and release of neurotrophins NGF, NT-3, and BDNF, and prevented downregulation of RGC mTOR activity. The RTP801 knockdown promoted RGC survival and axon elongation after ONC, without increasing de novo regenerative sprouting. The neuroprotection was predominantly direct, with mTORC1-dependent and -independent components. Enhanced neurite/axon elongation by siRTP801 required the presence of activated retinal glia and was mediated by potentiated secretion of neurotrophic factors.

  10. Photodynamic Action Mechanism Mediated by Zinc(II) 2,9,16,23-Tetrakis[4-(N-methylpyridyloxy)]phthalocyanine in Candida albicans Cells.

    PubMed

    Di Palma, María Albana; Alvarez, María Gabriela; Durantini, Edgardo N

    2015-01-01

    The photoreaction type I/type II pathways mediated by zinc(II) 2,9,16,23-tetrakis[4-(N-methylpyridyloxy)]phthalocyanine (ZnPPc(4+) ) was studied in Candida albicans cells. This photosensitizer was strongly bound to C. albicans cells at short times. After 30 min irradiation, 5 μM ZnPPc(4+) produced ~5 log decrease in cell viability. Different probes were used to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell suspensions (~10(6) CFU mL(-1) ). Singlet molecular oxygen, O2 ((1) Δg ), was observed by the reaction with 9,10-dimethylanthracene (DMA) and tetrasodium 2,2-(anthracene-9,10-diyl)bis(methylmalonate) (ABMM), whereas the nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) method was used to sense superoxide anion radical (O2·-). Moreover, the effects produced by an anoxic atmosphere and cell suspensions in D2 O, as well as the addition of sodium azide and mannitol as ROS trapping were evaluated in the PDI of C. albicans. These investigation indicates that O2 ((1) Δg ) is generated in the cells, although a minor extension other radical species can also be involved in the PDI of C. albicans mediated by ZnPPc(4+) .

  11. Mechanisms of PDL1-mediated regulation of autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Indira; Gubbels Bupp, Melanie; Dada, Shirine; Fife, Brian; Tang, Qizhi; Ansari, Mohammed Javeed; Trikudanathan, Subbulaxmi; Vadivel, Nidyanandh; Fiorina, Paolo; Yagita, Hideo; Azuma, Miyuki; Atkinson, Mark; Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Sayegh, Mohamed H

    2007-10-01

    The PD-1-PDL1 pathway plays a critical role in regulating autoimmune diabetes as blockade or deficiency of PD-1 or PDL1 results in accelerated disease in NOD mice. We explored the cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of these autoimmune responses by investigations involving various gene-deficient mice on the NOD background. Administration of blocking anti-PDL1 antibody to CD4+ T cell-deficient, CD8+ T cell-deficient and B cell-deficient mice demonstrated that PDL1-mediated regulation of autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is critical for diabetes development. This concept was confirmed by adoptive transfer studies utilizing lymphocytes from BDC2.5 and 4.1 (CD4+) TCR transgenic mice and 8.3 (CD8+) TCR transgenic mice; efforts showing increased proliferation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following PDL1 blockade in vivo. Furthermore, we observed that anti-PDL1-mediated acceleration is dependent upon events occurring in the pancreatic lymph nodes during early disease stages, but becomes independent of the pancreatic lymph nodes during later disease stages. These data provide strong evidence that PDL1 regulates autoimmune diabetes by limiting the expansion of CD4+ and CD8+ autoreactive T cells, and define the timing and locale of PDL1-mediated regulation of type 1 diabetes.

  12. An antioxidant agent prevents NO sub 2 -induced inhibition of mast cell mediator release: Evidence that the mechanism involves free radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimaki, Hidekazu; Shiraishi, Fujio; Wakamori, Kazuo Jikei Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo )

    1990-12-01

    Previously we established that in vitro NO{sub 2} exposure induced inhibition of histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (PMC) stimulated with secretagogues such as compound 48/80 or substance P. To further explore the effects of NO{sub 2} exposure on mast cells, we investigated whether the addition of an antioxidant agent, 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), can prevent NO{sub 2}-induced inhibition of mediator release from PMC. Histamine release from 5 ppm NO{sub 2}-exposed PMC stimulated with 20 {mu}M substance P was also significantly inhibited compared with that from the controls. {beta}-Hexosaminidase release from 5 ppm NO{sub 2}-exposed PMC stimulated with 20 {mu}M substance P was also significantly inhibited. However, the inhibition of both histamine and {beta}-hexosaminidase release from exposed PMC was diminished by the addition of 5 mM 2-ME during NO{sub 2} exposure. Although IgE-mediated histamine release from NO{sub 2} exposed PMC was markedly inhibited, the addition of 5 mM 2-ME during NO{sub 2} exposure induced no inhibition of histamine release. These results suggest a possible relationship between NO{sub 2}-induced inhibition of mast cell mediator release and production of free radicals by the action of NO{sub 2}.

  13. Rapid and selective apoptosis in human leukemic cells induced by Aplidine through a Fas/CD95- and mitochondrial-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gajate, Consuelo; An, Feiyun; Mollinedo, Faustino

    2003-04-01

    Aplidine is a promising antitumor agent derived from the Mediterranean tunicate Aplidium albicans. We have found that Aplidine at nM concentrations (10-100 nM) induced apoptosis in human leukemic cell lines and primary leukemic cell cultures from leukemic patients. Inhibition of the Fas (CD95)/Fas ligand (CD95L) signaling pathway with an antagonistic anti-Fas antibody partially inhibited Aplidine-induced apoptosis. L929 cells were resistant to Aplidine action but underwent apoptosis after transfection with human Fas cDNA. Aplidine induced a rapid and sustained c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation, and pretreatment with curcumin or SP600125 inhibited Aplidine-induced c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation and apoptosis. However, inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 kinase signaling pathways did not affect Aplidine-induced apoptosis. Aplidine induced caspase-3 activation, and caspase inhibition prevented Aplidine-induced apoptosis. Aplidine failed to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, defective in caspase-3, additionally implicating caspase-3 in its proapoptotic action. Aplidine also triggered an early release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and overexpression of bcl-2 by gene transfer abrogated mitochondrial cytochrome c release and apoptosis. Aplidine rapidly induced cleavage of Bid, a mediator that connects the Fas/CD95 cell death receptor to the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Primary cultures of normal human cells, including hepatocytes and resting peripheral blood lymphocytes, were spared or weakly affected after Aplidine treatment. Nevertheless, mitogen (phytohemagglutinin/interleukin-2)-activated T lymphocytes resulted sensitively to the apoptotic action of Aplidine. Thus, Aplidine is an extremely potent and rapid apoptotic inducer on leukemic cells that triggers Fas/CD95- and mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling routes, and shows a rather selective apoptotic action on cancer cells and activated T cells.

  14. Mitochondrial inheritance is mediated by microtubules in mammalian cell division.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Elizabeth; Mandato, Craig

    2013-11-01

    The mitochondrial network fragments and becomes uniformly dispersed within the cytoplasm when mammalian cells enter mitosis. Such morphology and distribution of mitochondria was previously thought to facilitate the stochastic inheritance of mitochondria by daughter cells. In contrast, we recently reported that mitochondria in dividing mammalian cells are inherited by an ordered mechanism of inheritance mediated by microtubules. We showed that mitochondria are progressively enriched at the cell equator and depleted at the poles throughout division. Furthermore, the mitochondrial distribution during division is dependent on microtubules, indicating an ordered inheritance strategy. The microtubule-mediated positioning of mitochondria in dividing mammalian cells may have functional consequences for cell division and/or mitochondrial inheritance.

  15. [Tc1-mediated contact sensitivity reaction, its mechanism and regulation].

    PubMed

    Zemelka-Wiącek, Magdalena; Szczepanik, Marian

    2014-07-04

    The contact hypersensitivity reaction (CHS) to haptens is a classic example of cell-mediated immune response. In the effector phase, two stages can be distinguished: an early component, that appears only 2 hours after subsequent contact with the hapten, and the late component that develops approximately 24 hours later which is mediated by TCRαβ+ cells. The effector lymphocytes may be CD4+ T helper 1 (Th1) cells or CD8+ T cytotoxic 1 (Tc1) cells, which depends on the employed hapten and/or mice strain. NKT lymphocytes play the crucial role in the CHS initiation, by supporting B1 cells in the antigen-specific IgM antibodies production. The development of an early component is essential for the recruitment of T effector (Teff) cells to the side of hapten deposition and for the complete expansion of inflammatory reaction. The CHS reaction is under T regulatory (Treg) cells control, both in the induction phase as well as in the effector phase. A new view of a negative regulation of the Tc1 mediated CHS response is based on the suppression induced by epicutaneous (EC) application of protein antigen. The DNP-BSA skin application, on a gauze patch, leads to a state of immunosuppression. This maneuver results in rising the population of Treg cells with TCRαβ+CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ phenotype. The mechanism of suppression requires direct contact between Treg cells and Teff cells and the participation of CTLA-4 molecule is also necessary. The described method of evoking immune tolerance via EC immunization may contribute to elaborate a new method of allergic contact dermatitis therapy. This is because of its effectiveness, ease of induction and non-invasive protein antigen application.

  16. The Spliceosomal Phosphopeptide P140 Controls the Lupus Disease by Interacting with the HSC70 Protein and via a Mechanism Mediated by γδ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Page, Nicolas; Schall, Nicolas; Strub, Jean-Marc; Quinternet, Marc; Chaloin, Olivier; Décossas, Marion; Cung, Manh Thong; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Briand, Jean-Paul; Muller, Sylviane

    2009-01-01

    The phosphopeptide P140 issued from the spliceosomal U1-70K snRNP protein is recognized by lupus CD4+ T cells, transiently abolishes T cell reactivity to other spliceosomal peptides in P140-treated MRL/lpr mice, and ameliorates their clinical features. P140 modulates lupus patients' T cell response ex vivo and is currently included in phase IIb clinical trials. Its underlying mechanism of action remains elusive. Here we show that P140 peptide binds a unique cell-surface receptor, the constitutively-expressed chaperone HSC70 protein, known as a presenting-protein. P140 induces apoptosis of activated MRL/lpr CD4+ T cells. In P140-treated mice, it increases peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and decreases B cell, activated T cell, and CD4−CD8−B220+ T cell counts via a specific mechanism strictly depending on γδ T cells. Expression of inflammation-linked genes is rapidly regulated in CD4+ T cells. This work led us to identify a powerful pathway taken by a newly-designed therapeutic peptide to immunomodulate lupus autoimmunity. PMID:19390596

  17. The spliceosomal phosphopeptide P140 controls the lupus disease by interacting with the HSC70 protein and via a mechanism mediated by gammadelta T cells.

    PubMed

    Page, Nicolas; Schall, Nicolas; Strub, Jean-Marc; Quinternet, Marc; Chaloin, Olivier; Décossas, Marion; Cung, Manh Thong; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Briand, Jean-Paul; Muller, Sylviane

    2009-01-01

    The phosphopeptide P140 issued from the spliceosomal U1-70K snRNP protein is recognized by lupus CD4(+) T cells, transiently abolishes T cell reactivity to other spliceosomal peptides in P140-treated MRL/lpr mice, and ameliorates their clinical features. P140 modulates lupus patients' T cell response ex vivo and is currently included in phase IIb clinical trials. Its underlying mechanism of action remains elusive. Here we show that P140 peptide binds a unique cell-surface receptor, the constitutively-expressed chaperone HSC70 protein, known as a presenting-protein. P140 induces apoptosis of activated MRL/lpr CD4(+) T cells. In P140-treated mice, it increases peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and decreases B cell, activated T cell, and CD4(-)CD8(-)B220(+) T cell counts via a specific mechanism strictly depending on gammadelta T cells. Expression of inflammation-linked genes is rapidly regulated in CD4(+) T cells. This work led us to identify a powerful pathway taken by a newly-designed therapeutic peptide to immunomodulate lupus autoimmunity.

  18. Pathogenesis and mechanisms of antibody-mediated hemolysis

    PubMed Central

    Flegel, Willy A

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical consequences of antibodies to red blood cells (RBC) have been studied for a century. Most clinically relevant antibodies can be detected by sensitive in vitro assays. Several mechanisms of antibody-mediated hemolysis are well understood. Such hemolysis following transfusion is reliably avoided in a donor/recipient pair, if one individual is negative for the cognate antigen to which the other has the antibody. Study design and results Mechanisms of antibody-mediated hemolysis were reviewed based on a presentation at the Strategies to Address Hemolytic Complications of Immune Globulin Infusions Workshop addressing intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and ABO antibodies. The presented topics included the rates of intravascular and extravascular hemolysis; IgM and IgG isoagglutinins; auto- and alloantibodies; antibody specificity; A, B, A,B and A1 antigens; A1 versus A2 phenotypes; monocytes/macrophages, other immune cells and complement; monocyte monolayer assay (MMA); antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC); and transfusion reactions due to ABO and other antibodies. Conclusion Several clinically relevant questions remained unresolved, and diagnostic tools were lacking to routinely and reliably predict the clinical consequences of RBC antibodies. Most hemolytic transfusion reactions associated with IVIG were due to ABO antibodies. Reducing the titers of such antibodies in IVIG may lower the frequency of this kind of adverse event. The only way to stop these events is to have no anti-A or anti-B antibodies in the IVIG products. PMID:26174897

  19. Mechanisms for virus-induced liver disease: tumor necrosis factor-mediated pathology independent of natural killer and T cells during murine cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Orange, J S; Salazar-Mather, T P; Opal, S M; Biron, C A

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of endogenous NK cells and cytokines to virus-induced liver pathology was evaluated during murine cytomegalovirus infections of mice. In immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice, the virus induced a self-limited liver disease characterized by hepatitis, with focal inflammation, and large grossly visible subcapsular necrotic foci. The inflammatory foci were most numerous and contained the greatest number of cells 3 days after infection; they colocalized with areas of viral antigen expression. The largest number of necrotic foci was found 2 days after infection. Overall hepatic damage, assessed as increased expression of liver enzymes in serum, accompanied the development of inflammatory and necrotic foci. Experiments with neutralizing antibodies demonstrated that although virus-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) can have antiviral effects, it also mediated significant liver pathology. TNF was required for development of hepatic necrotic foci and increased levels of liver enzymes in serum but not for increased numbers of inflammatory foci. The necrotic foci and liver enzyme indications of pathology occurred independently of NK and T cells, because mice rendered NK-cell deficient by treatment with antibodies, T- and B-cell-deficient Rag-/- mice, and NK- and T-cell-deficient E26 mice all manifested both parameters of disease. Development of necrotic foci and maximally increased levels of liver enzymes in serum also were TNF dependent in NK-cell-deficient mice. Moreover, in the immunodeficient E26 mice, virus-induced liver disease was progressive, with eventual death of the host, and neutralization of TNF significantly increased longevity. These results establish conditions separating hepatitis from significant liver damage and demonstrate a cytokine-mediated component to viral pathogenesis. PMID:9371583

  20. Cre-mediated cell ablation contests mast cell contribution in models of antibody- and T cell-mediated autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Weiser, Anne; Tietz, Annette; Stassen, Michael; Harris, Nicola; Kopf, Manfred; Radermacher, Peter; Möller, Peter; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane; Fehling, Hans Jörg; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2011-11-23

    Immunological functions of mast cells remain poorly understood. Studies in Kit mutant mice suggest key roles for mast cells in certain antibody- and T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. However, Kit mutations affect multiple cell types of both immune and nonimmune origin. Here, we show that targeted insertion of Cre-recombinase into the mast cell carboxypeptidase A3 locus deleted mast cells in connective and mucosal tissues by a genotoxic Trp53-dependent mechanism. Cre-mediated mast cell eradication (Cre-Master) mice had, with the exception of a lack of mast cells and reduced basophils, a normal immune system. Cre-Master mice were refractory to IgE-mediated anaphylaxis, and this defect was rescued by mast cell reconstitution. This mast cell-deficient strain was fully susceptible to antibody-induced autoimmune arthritis and to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Differences comparing Kit mutant mast cell deficiency models to selectively mast cell-deficient mice call for a systematic re-evaluation of immunological functions of mast cells beyond allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Alpha B-crystallin induction in skeletal muscle cells under redox imbalance is mediated by a JNK-dependent regulatory mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fittipaldi, Simona; Mercatelli, Neri; Dimauro, Ivan; Jackson, Malcolm J; Paronetto, Maria Paola; Caporossi, Daniela

    2015-09-01

    The small heat shock protein α-B-crystallin (CRYAB) is critically involved in stress-related cellular processes such as differentiation, apoptosis, and redox homeostasis. The up-regulation of CRYAB plays a key role in the cytoprotective and antioxidant response, but the molecular pathway driving its expression in muscle cells during oxidative stress still remains unknown. Here we show that noncytotoxic exposure to sodium meta-arsenite (NaAsO2) inducing redox imbalance is able to increase the CRYAB content of C2C12 myoblasts in a transcription-dependent manner. Our in silico analysis revealed a genomic region upstream of the Cryab promoter containing two putative antioxidant-responsive elements motifs and one AP-1-like binding site. The redox-sensitive transcription factors Nrf2 and the AP-1 component c-Jun were found to be up-regulated in NaAsO2-treated cells, and we demonstrated a specific NaAsO2-mediated increase of c-Jun and Nrf2 binding activity to the genomic region identified, supporting their putative involvement in CRYAB regulation following a shift in redox balance. These changes also correlated with a specific phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK kinases, the well-known molecular mediators of signaling pathways leading to the activation of these transcription factors. Pretreatment of C2C12 cells with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 induced a decrease in c-Jun and Nrf2 content and was able to counteract the NaAsO2-mediated increase in CRYAB expression. Thus these data show a direct role of JNK in CRYAB regulation under redox imbalance and also point to a previously unrecognized link between c-Jun and Nrf2 transcription factors and redox-induced CRYAB expression in muscle cells.

  2. Analysis of the mechanism of allograft rejection and cell-mediated immunity. I. Accelerated rejection of tumour allografts without augmented cytotoxicity in the spleen cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nanishi, F; Nomoto, K; Taniguchi, K; Kubo, C

    1980-01-01

    While immunization with allogeneic spleen cells did not generate positive cytotoxic activity, it produced accelerated rejection of subsequent tumour grafts carrying the same H-2 antigen. No augmented generation of cytotoxicity was detectable by 51Cr-release assay in the host spleen cells, even in the presence of accelerated rejection of tumour allografts. However, augmented cytotoxicity was generated in mixed lymphocyte culture and in peritoneal lymphocytes after an intraperitoneal boost. These results indicate that while immunization with allogeneic spleen cells does not generate mature cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) detectable by the present assay, it may produce premature CTL that rapidly differentiate into mature CTL after direct contact with antigen at the site of graft rejection. The inability to generate a high degree of cytotoxicity in the spleen cells may be ascribed to the early development of CTL at the rejection site. The relationship between accelerated rejection of allogeneic tumour grafts and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions is also discussed. PMID:7419243

  3. Oxidative Mechanisms of Monocyte-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Stephen J.; Lobuglio, Albert F.; Kessler, Howard B.

    1980-01-01

    Human monocytes stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate were able to rapidly destroy autologous erythrocyte targets. Monocyte-mediated cytotoxicity was related to phorbol myristate acetate concentration and monocyte number. Purified preparations of lymphocytes were incapable of mediating erythrocyte lysis in this system. The ability of phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated monocytes to lyse erythrocyte targets was markedly impaired by catalase or superoxide dismutase but not by heat-inactivated enzymes or albumin. Despite a simultaneous requirement for superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in the cytotoxic event, a variety of hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen scavengers did not effect cytolysis. However, tryptophan significantly inhibited cytotoxicity. The myeloperoxidase inhibitor cyanide enhanced erythrocyte destruction, whereas azide reduced it modestly. The inability of cyanide to reduce cytotoxicity coupled with the protective effect of superoxide dismutase suggests that cytotoxicity is independent of the classic myeloperoxidase system. We conclude that monocytes, stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate, generate superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, which together play an integral role in this cytotoxic mechanism.

  4. Resolution of cell-mediated airways diseases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    "Inflammation resolution" has of late become a topical research area. Activation of resolution phase mechanisms, involving select post-transcriptional regulons, transcription factors, 'autacoids', and cell phenotypes, is now considered to resolve inflammatory diseases. Critical to this discourse on resolution is the elimination of inflammatory cells through apoptosis and phagocytosis. For major inflammatory diseases such as asthma and COPD we propose an alternative path to apoptosis for cell elimination. We argue that transepithelial migration of airway wall leukocytes, followed by mucociliary clearance, efficiently and non-injuriously eliminates pro-inflammatory cells from diseased airway tissues. First, it seems clear that numerous infiltrated granulocytes and lymphocytes can be speedily transmitted into the airway lumen without harming the epithelial barrier. Then there are a wide range of 'unexpected' findings demonstrating that clinical improvement of asthma and COPD is not only associated with decreasing numbers of airway wall inflammatory cells but also with increasing numbers of these cells in the airway lumen. Finally, effects of inhibition of transepithelial migration support the present hypothesis. Airway inflammatory processes have thus been much aggravated when transepithelial exit of leukocytes has been inhibited. In conclusion, the present hypothesis highlights risks involved in drug-induced inhibition of transepithelial migration of airway wall leukocytes. It helps interpretation of common airway lumen data, and suggests approaches to treat cell-mediated airway inflammation. PMID:20540713

  5. A cytoplasmic gel network capable of mediating the conversion of chemical energy to mechanical work in diverse cell processes: a speculation.

    PubMed

    Gallyas, F

    2010-12-01

    Enigmatic morphological features of the formation and fate of "dark" (hyper-basophilic, hyper-argyrophilic and hyper-electrondense) neurons suggest that the mechanical work causing their dramatic shrinkage (whole-cell ultrastructural compaction) is done by a previously "unknown" ultrastructural component residing in the spaces between their "known" (i.e. visible in the conventional transmission electron microscopy) ultrastructural constituents. Embedment-free section electron microscopy revealed in these spaces the existence of a continuous network of gel microdomains, which is embedded in a continuous network of fluid-filled lacunae. We gathered experimental facts suggesting that this gel network is capable of a volume-reducing phase-transition (an established physico-chemical phenomenon), which could be the motor of the whole-cell ultrastructural compaction. The present paper revisits our relevant observations and speculates how such a continuous whole-cell gel network can do both whole-cell and compartmentalized mechanical work.

  6. Force nanoscopy of cell mechanics and cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufrêne, Yves F.; Pelling, Andrew E.

    2013-05-01

    Cells are constantly exposed to mechanical stimuli in their environment and have several evolved mechanisms to sense and respond to these cues. It is becoming increasingly recognized that many cell types, from bacteria to mammalian cells, possess a diverse set of proteins to translate mechanical cues into biochemical signalling and to mediate cell surface interactions such as cell adhesion. Moreover, the mechanical properties of cells are involved in regulating cell function as well as serving as indicators of disease states. Importantly, the recent development of biophysical tools and nanoscale methods has facilitated a deeper understanding of the role that physical forces play in modulating cell mechanics and cell adhesion. Here, we discuss how atomic force microscopy (AFM) has recently been used to investigate cell mechanics and cell adhesion at the single-cell and single-molecule levels. This knowledge is critical to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern mechanosensing, mechanotransduction, and mechanoresponse in living cells. While pushing living cells with the AFM tip provides a means to quantify their mechanical properties and examine their response to nanoscale forces, pulling single surface proteins with a functionalized tip allows one to understand their role in sensing and adhesion. The combination of these nanoscale techniques with modern molecular biology approaches, genetic engineering and optical microscopies provides a powerful platform for understanding the sophisticated functions of the cell surface machinery, and its role in the onset and progression of complex diseases.

  7. [Dihydrotestosterone inhibits foam cell formation via a lectin-like ox-low-density lipoprotein receptor mediated mechanism in J774.1 cell line].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y; Hu, H D; Hu, B Q; Chen, X Y; Xu, P Y; Cui, L; Li, P; Liu, C; Li, L

    2016-11-15

    Objective: To investigate the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on lectin-like ox- low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor(LOX-1)expression and foam cell formation in the female macrophage cell line J774.1. Methods: In cultured J774.1 cells, after pretreated with DHT at concentrations of 1×10(-9) mol/L and 1×10(-8) mol/L, ox-LDL-induced LOX-1 expression and foam cell formation were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and oil-red O staining. Results: DHT at concentrations of 1×10(-9) mol/L and 1×10(-8) mol/L inhibited ox-LDL-induced LOX-1 mRNA (2.81±0.46 and 2.29±0.21 vs 4.71±0.31, both P<0.01) and protein expression (1.35±0.06 and 1.09±0.04 vs 1.75±0.11, both P<0.05). The effect was partly reversed by the androgen receptor (AR) blocker flutamide (87.6%, P=0.004). Oil-red O staining also revealed that DHT at concentrations of 1×10(-9) mol/L and 1×10(-8) mol/L suppressed ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation as quantified by the number of foam cells per high-power field (HPF) (36.0±3.0 and 29.1±1.3 vs 45.9±3.7, both P<0.05) and by the area of oil-red O stained particles per HPF (7 983±1 035 and 4 060±390 vs 14 750±2 489, both P<0.05). Conclusion: DHT at concentrations of 1×10(-9) mol/L and 1×10(-8) mol/L decreases LOX-1 expression and foam cell formation via AR.

  8. Cigarette smoke induces mucin hypersecretion and inflammatory response through the p66shc adaptor protein-mediated mechanism in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Yu, H M; Zhou, X D; Huang, H P; Han, Zh; Kolosov, V P; Perelman, J M

    2016-01-01

    The p66Shc adaptor protein is a newly recognized mediator of mitochondrial dysfunction and might play a role in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway epithelial cell injury. CS can induce an excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which can cause mitochondrial depolarization and injury through the oxidative stress-mediated Serine36 phosphorylation of p66Shc. The excessive production of ROS can trigger an inflammatory response and mucin hypersecretion by enhancing the transcriptional activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mucin genes. Therefore, we speculate that p66Shc plays an essential role in airway epithelial cell injury and the process of mucin generation in CS-induced chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Our present study focuses on the role of p66Shc in ROS generation, and on the resulting mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory response and mucus hypersecretion in CS-stimulated human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE). We found that CS disturbed the mitochondrial function by increasing the level of phosphorylated p66Shc in these cells and that the effects were significantly reduced by silencing p66Shc. Conversely, the ectopic overexpression of wild-type p66Shc enhanced these effects. We also found that high levels of ROS inhibited FOXO3a transcriptional activity, which led to NF-κB activation. Subsequently, activated NF-κB promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine production and mucin hypersecretion. Thus, manipulating p66Shc might offer a new therapeutic modality with which to treat chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cytoneme-mediated cell-cell contacts for Hedgehog reception.

    PubMed

    González-Méndez, Laura; Seijo-Barandiarán, Irene; Guerrero, Isabel

    2017-08-21

    Morphogens regulate tissue patterning through their distribution in concentration gradients. Emerging research establishes a role for specialized signalling filopodia, or cytonemes, in morphogen dispersion and signalling. Previously we demonstrated that Hedgehog (Hh) morphogen is transported via vesicles along cytonemes emanating from signal-producing cells to form a gradient in Drosophila epithelia. However, the mechanisms for signal reception and transfer are still undefined. Here, we demonstrate that cytonemes protruding from Hh-receiving cells contribute to Hh gradient formation. The canonical Hh receptor Patched is localized in these cellular protrusions and Hh reception takes place in membrane contact sites between Hh-sending and Hh-receiving cytonemes. These two sets of cytonemes have similar dynamics and both fall in two different dynamic behaviours. Furthermore, both the Hh co-receptor Interference hedgehog (Ihog) and the glypicans are critical for this cell-cell cytoneme mediated interaction. These findings suggest that the described contact sites might facilitate morphogen presentation and reception.

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of HTLV-1 Cell-to-Cell Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Christine; Thoma-Kress, Andrea K.

    2016-01-01

    The tumorvirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a member of the delta-retrovirus family, is transmitted via cell-containing body fluids such as blood products, semen, and breast milk. In vivo, HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells, and to a lesser extent, CD8+ T-cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes. Efficient infection of CD4+ T-cells requires cell-cell contacts while cell-free virus transmission is inefficient. Two types of cell-cell contacts have been described to be critical for HTLV-1 transmission, tight junctions and cellular conduits. Further, two non-exclusive mechanisms of virus transmission at cell-cell contacts have been proposed: (1) polarized budding of HTLV-1 into synaptic clefts; and (2) cell surface transfer of viral biofilms at virological synapses. In contrast to CD4+ T-cells, dendritic cells can be infected cell-free and, to a greater extent, via viral biofilms in vitro. Cell-to-cell transmission of HTLV-1 requires a coordinated action of steps in the virus infectious cycle with events in the cell-cell adhesion process; therefore, virus propagation from cell-to-cell depends on specific interactions between cellular and viral proteins. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 transmission with a focus on the HTLV-1-encoded proteins Tax and p8, their impact on host cell factors mediating cell-cell contacts, cytoskeletal remodeling, and thus, virus propagation. PMID:27005656

  11. Ionic mechanisms in pancreatic β cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shao-Nian; Shi, Yue; Yang, Guang; Li, Yuxin; Yu, Jia; Berggren, Per-Olof

    2014-11-01

    The function and survival of pancreatic β cells critically rely on complex electrical signaling systems composed of a series of ionic events, namely fluxes of K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Cl(-) across the β cell membranes. These electrical signaling systems not only sense events occurring in the extracellular space and intracellular milieu of pancreatic islet cells, but also control different β cell activities, most notably glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Three major ion fluxes including K(+) efflux through ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels, the voltage-gated Ca(2+) (CaV) channel-mediated Ca(2+) influx and K(+) efflux through voltage-gated K(+) (KV) channels operate in the β cell. These ion fluxes set the resting membrane potential and the shape, rate and pattern of firing of action potentials under different metabolic conditions. The KATP channel-mediated K(+) efflux determines the resting membrane potential and keeps the excitability of the β cell at low levels. Ca(2+) influx through CaV1 channels, a major type of β cell CaV channels, causes the upstroke or depolarization phase of the action potential and regulates a wide range of β cell functions including the most elementary β cell function, insulin secretion. K(+) efflux mediated by KV2.1 delayed rectifier K(+) channels, a predominant form of β cell KV channels, brings about the downstroke or repolarization phase of the action potential, which acts as a brake for insulin secretion owing to shutting down the CaV channel-mediated Ca(2+) entry. These three ion channel-mediated ion fluxes are the most important ionic events in β cell signaling. This review concisely discusses various ionic mechanisms in β cell signaling and highlights KATP channel-, CaV1 channel- and KV2.1 channel-mediated ion fluxes.

  12. A Novel Mechanism of Soluble HLA-G Mediated Immune Modulation: Downregulation of T Cell Chemokine Receptor Expression and Impairment of Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Morandi, Fabio; Ferretti, Elisa; Bocca, Paola; Prigione, Ignazia; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Pistoia, Vito

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years, many immunoregulatory functions have been ascribed to soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G). Since chemotaxis is crucial for an efficient immune response, we have investigated for the first time the effects of sHLA-G on chemokine receptor expression and function in different human T cell populations. Methodology/Principal Findings T cell populations isolated from peripheral blood were stimulated in the presence or absence of sHLA-G. Chemokine receptors expression was evaluated by flow cytometry. sHLA-G downregulated expression of i) CCR2, CXCR3 and CXCR5 in CD4+ T cells, ii) CXCR3 in CD8+ T cells, iii) CXCR3 in Th1 clones iv) CXCR3 in TCR Vδ2γ9 T cells, and upregulated CXCR4 expression in TCR Vδ2γ9 T cells. sHLA-G inhibited in vitro chemotaxis of i) CD4+ T cells towards CCL2, CCL8, CXCL10 and CXCL11, ii) CD8+ T cells towards CXCL10 and CXCL11, iii) Th1 clones towards CXCL10, and iv) TCR Vδ2γ9 T cells towards CXCL10 and CXCL11. Downregulation of CXCR3 expression on CD4+ T cells by sHLA-G was partially reverted by adding a blocking antibody against ILT2/CD85j, a receptor for sHLA-G, suggesting that sHLA-G downregulated chemokine receptor expression mainly through the interaction with ILT2/CD85j. Follicular helper T cells (TFH) were isolated from human tonsils and stimulated as described above. sHLA-G impaired CXCR5 expression in TFH and chemotaxis of the latter cells towards CXCL13. Moreover, sHLA-G expression was detected in tonsils by immunohistochemistry, suggesting a role of sHLA-G in local control of TFH cell chemotaxis. Intracellular pathways were investigated by Western Blot analysis on total extracts from CD4+ T cells. Phosphorylation of Stat5, p70 s6k, β-arrestin and SHP2 was modulated by sHLA-G treatment. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrated that sHLA-G impairs expression and functionality of different chemokine receptors in T cells. These findings delineate a novel mechanism whereby sHLA-G modulates T cell recruitment in

  13. Mechanical Properties of Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Robert; Becerril, Joseph; Jeevarajan, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Many physiologic and pathologic processes alter the biomechanical properties of the tissue they affect, and these changes may be manifest at the single cell level. The normal and abnormal mechanical properties of a given cell type can be established with the aid of an atomic force microscope (AFM), nonetheless, consistency in the area of the tip has been a mayor limitation of using the AFM for quantitative measurements of mechanical properties. This project attempts to overcome this limitation by using materials with a known elastic modulus, which resembles the one of the cell, to create force-deformation curves to calculate the area of indentation by means of Hooke s Law (sigma = E(epsilon)), which states that stress (sigma) is proportional to the strain (epsilon) where the constant of proportionality, E, is called the Young s modulus, also referred as the elastic modulus. Hook s Law can be rearranged to find the area of indentation (Area= Force/ E(epsilon)), where the indentation force is defined by the means of the added mass spring calibration method.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Robert; Becerril, Joseph; Jeevarajan, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Many physiologic and pathologic processes alter the biomechanical properties of the tissue they affect, and these changes may be manifest at the single cell level. The normal and abnormal mechanical properties of a given cell type can be established with the aid of an atomic force microscope (AFM), nonetheless, consistency in the area of the tip has been a mayor limitation of using the AFM for quantitative measurements of mechanical properties. This project attempts to overcome this limitation by using materials with a known elastic modulus, which resembles the one of the cell, to create force-deformation curves to calculate the area of indentation by means of Hooke s Law (sigma = E(epsilon)), which states that stress (sigma) is proportional to the strain (epsilon) where the constant of proportionality, E, is called the Young s modulus, also referred as the elastic modulus. Hook s Law can be rearranged to find the area of indentation (Area= Force/ E(epsilon)), where the indentation force is defined by the means of the added mass spring calibration method.

  15. Maslinic Acid, a Natural Triterpene, Induces a Death Receptor-Mediated Apoptotic Mechanism in Caco-2 p53-Deficient Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J.; Rufino-Palomares, Eva E.; García-Salguero, Leticia; Peragón, Juan; Medina, Pedro P.; Parra, Andrés; Cascante, Marta; Lupiáñez, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Maslinic acid (MA) is a natural triterpene present in high concentrations in the waxy skin of olives. We have previously reported that MA induces apoptotic cell death via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HT29 colon cancer cells. Here, we show that MA induces apoptosis in Caco-2 colon cancer cells via the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in a dose-dependent manner. MA triggered a series of effects associated with apoptosis, including the cleavage of caspases -8 and -3, and increased the levels of t-Bid within a few hours of its addition to the culture medium. MA had no effect on the expression of the Bax protein, release of cytochrome-c or on the mitochondrial membrane potential. This suggests that MA triggered the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in this cell type, as opposed to the intrinsic pathway found in the HT29 colon-cancer cell line. Our results suggest that the apoptotic mechanism induced in Caco-2 may be different from that found in HT29 colon-cancer cells, and that in Caco-2 cells MA seems to work independently of p53. Natural antitumoral agents capable of activating both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways could be of great use in treating colon-cancer of whatever origin. PMID:26751572

  16. PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 pathway mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress response is involved in osteodifferentiation of human periodontal ligament cells under cyclic mechanical force.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuang-Yan; Wei, Fu-Lan; Hu, Li-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ling

    2016-08-01

    To prevent excess accumulation of unfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), eukaryotic cells have signaling pathways from the ER to the cytosol or nucleus. These processes are known as the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) response. Protein kinase R like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is a major transducer of the ERS response and it directly phosphorylate α-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), resulting in translational attenuation. Phosphorylated eIF2α specifically promoted the translation of the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). ATF4 is a known important transcription factor which plays a pivotal role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Furthermore, ATF4 is a downstream target of PERK. Studies have shown that PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signal pathway mediated by ERS was involved in osteoblastic differentiation of osteoblasts. We have known that orthodontic tooth movement is a process of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) osteodifferentiation and alveolar bone remodeling under mechanical force. However, the involvement of PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signal pathway mediated by ERS in osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs under mechanical force has not been unclear. In our study, we applied the cyclic mechanical force at 10% elongation with 0.5Hz to mimic occlusal force, and explored whether PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signaling pathway mediated by ERS involved in osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs under mechanical force. Firstly, cyclic mechanical force will induce ERS and intensify several osteoblast marker genes (ATF4, OCN, and BSP). Next, we found that PERK overexpression increased eIF2α phosphorylation and expression of ATF4, furthermore induced BSP, OCN expression, thus it will promote osteodifferentiation of hPDLCs; mechanical force could promote this effect. However, PERK(-/-) cells showed the opposite changes, which will inhibit osteodifferentiation of hPDLCs. Taken together, our study proved that PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signaling pathway

  17. c-Jun-mediated β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 8 expression: A novel mechanism regulating the invasion and metastasis of colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunliang; Qiu, Hao; Yu, Meiyun; Wang, Zerong; Yuan, Yaqin; Jiang, Zhi; Shao, Xuejun; Hua, Dong; Liu, Min; Wu, Shiliang

    2017-09-01

    β-1,3-N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase 8 (β3GnT8) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the formation of polylactosamine glycan structures by transferring GlcNAc to tetra-antennary β1-6-branched N-glycans, and it has been reported to participate in tumor invasion and metastasis by regulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) and polylactosamine. By contrast, the role of transcription factor c-Jun in cell cycle progression has been well established. c-Jun has an important role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which c-Jun regulates these processes in colorectal carcinoma cells are not fully elucidated. In the present study, c-Jun had a significant effect on the invasive and migratory abilities of SW480 and LoVo cells. Additionally, overexpression of c-Jun was able to increase the expression of β3GnT8, MMPs, CD147 and polylactosamine. Similarly, knockdown of c-Jun was able to decrease the expression of β3GnT8, MMPs, CD147 and polylactosamine. These results suggest that c-Jun is able to regulate colorectal carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis via β3GnT8. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that c-Jun is able to bind directly to the promoter regions of β3GnT8 in SW480 and LoVo cells. This leads to transcriptional activation of β3GnT8, which in turn regulates the expression of tumor invasion and metastasis-associated genes. The results of the present study demonstrate a novel mechanism underlying colorectal carcinoma cell invasion and metastasis, where β3GnT8 is transcriptionally activated via c-Jun binding to its promoter.

  18. Psychological stress impairs the local CD8+ T cell response to mucosal HSV-1 infection and allows for increased pathogenicity via a glucocorticoid receptor-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Kathleen A; Hunzeker, John; Bonneau, Robert H

    2008-08-01

    Psychological stress and its associated increases in corticosterone are generally immunosuppressive and contribute to increased herpes simplex virus (HSV)-associated pathogenicity. However, the impact of stress on local control of the initial mucosal-based HSV infection has not been elucidated, nor have the ramifications of such failures of the immune response in terms of viral spread. To address these gaps in knowledge, the studies described herein sought to determine how psychological stress and associated increases in corticosterone may increase susceptibility to HSV encephalitis by allowing for increased viral titers at the site of initial infection. We have shown that in mice intranasally infected with HSV-1, a cell-mediated immune response occurs in the nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN), and superficial cervical lymph nodes (CLN). However, psychological stress induced by restraint decreased the number of lymphocytes in these tissues in HSV-infected mice. Surprisingly, the effects of this restraint stress on HSV-specific CTL function varied by immune tissue. Increased viral titers were found in the nasal cavity of stressed mice, an observation which correlated with an increased CD8+ cell response in the CLN. These findings led us to extend our studies to also determine the ramifications of decreased numbers of locally derived lymphocytes on viral titers following infection. Using an approach in which the NALT was surgically removed prior to infection, we confirmed that decreased numbers of NALT-derived lymphocytes at the time of infection allows for increased viral replication. We conclude that the increased viral titers observed in mice experiencing psychological stress are the consequence of a glucocorticoid-mediated reduction in the numbers of lymphocytes responsible for resolving the initial infection.

  19. Nongenomic mechanisms of physiological estrogen-mediated dopamine efflux.

    PubMed

    Alyea, Rebecca A; Watson, Cheryl S

    2009-06-16

    Neurological diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders that vary depending on female life stages suggest that sex hormones may influence the function of neurotransmitter regulatory machinery such as the dopamine transporter (DAT). In this study we tested the rapid nongenomic effects of several physiological estrogens [estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), and estriol (E3)] on dopamine efflux via the DAT in a non-transfected, NGF-differentiated, rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell model that expresses membrane estrogen receptors (ERs) alpha, beta, and GPR30. We examined kinase, ionic, and physical interaction mechanisms involved in estrogenic regulation of the DAT function. E2-mediated dopamine efflux is DAT-specific and not dependent on extracellular Ca2+-mediated exocytotic release from vesicular monoamine transporter vesicles (VMATs). Using kinase inhibitors we also showed that E2-mediated dopamine efflux is dependent on protein kinase C and MEK activation, but not on PI3K or protein kinase A. In plasma membrane there are ligand-independent associations of ERalpha and ERbeta (but not GPR30) with DAT. Conditions which cause efflux (a 9 min 10(-9) M E2 treatment) cause trafficking of ERalpha (stimulatory) to the plasma membrane and trafficking of ERbeta (inhibitory) away from the plasma membrane. In contrast, E1 and E3 can inhibit efflux with a nonmonotonic dose pattern, and cause DAT to leave the plasma membrane. Such mechanisms explain how gender biases in some DAT-dependent diseases can occur.

  20. Cu(II)-coumestrol interaction leads to ROS-mediated DNA damage and cell death: a putative mechanism for anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Atif; Singh, Swarnendra; Naseem, Imrana

    2016-07-01

    Phytoestrogens have attracted considerable interest as natural alternatives to hormone replacement therapy and their potential as cancer therapeutic agents. Among phytoestrogens, coumestrol has shown multipharmacological properties such as antiinflammatory, neuroprotective, osteoblastic differentiation and anticancer. Though several studies have described anticancer effects of coumestrol, a clear underlying molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. Unlike normal cells, cancer cells contain elevated copper levels that play an integral role in angiogenesis. Copper is an important metal ion associated with the chromatin DNA, particularly with guanine. Thus, targeting copper in cancer cells can serve as effective anticancer strategy. Using human peripheral lymphocytes, we assessed lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage and apoptosis by coumestrol in the presence of exogenously added Cu(II) in cells to simulate malignancy-like condition. Results showed that Cu(II)-coumestrol interaction leads to lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation (markers of oxidative stress), DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in treated lymphocytes. Further, incubation of lymphocytes with ROS scavengers and membrane-permeant copper chelator, neocuproine, resulted in inhibition of DNA damage and apoptosis. This suggests that coumestrol engages in redox cycling of Cu(II) to generate ROS that leads to DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. In conclusion, this is the first report showing that coumestrol targets cellular copper to induce prooxidant death in malignant cells. We believe that such a prooxidant cytotoxic mechanism better explains the anticancer activity of coumestrol. These findings will provide significant insights into the development of new chemical molecules with better copper-chelating and prooxidant properties against cancer cells.

  1. Cell mechanics: integrating cell responses to mechanical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Janmey, Paul A; McCulloch, Christopher A

    2007-01-01

    Forces are increasingly recognized as major regulators of cell structure and function, and the mechanical properties of cells are essential to the mechanisms by which cells sense forces, transmit them to the cell interior or to other cells, and transduce them into chemical signals that impact a spectrum of cellular responses. Comparison of the mechanical properties of intact cells with those of the purified cytoskeletal biopolymers that are thought to dominate their elasticity reveal the extent to which the studies of purified systems can account for the mechanical properties of the much more heterogeneous and complex cell. This review summarizes selected aspects of current work on cell mechanics with an emphasis on the structures that are activated in cell-cell contacts, that regulate ion flow across the plasma membrane, and that may sense fluid flow that produces low levels of shear stress.

  2. hCG-induced Sprouty2 mediates amphiregulin-stimulated COX-2/PGE2 up-regulation in human granulosa cells: a potential mechanism for the OHSS

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Fang, Lanlan; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Sun, Ying-Pu; Leung, Peter C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Sprouty2 (SPRY2) is an important intracellular regulator for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated ERK1/2 signaling. In human granulosa cells, although SPRY2 is expressed, its regulation and function remains complete unknown and must be defined. Our previous study has shown that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)/luteinizing hormone (LH) up-regulates the expression levels of EGF-like growth factor, amphiregulin (AREG), which subsequently contributes to the hCG/LH-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hCG on SPRY2 expression and the role of hCG-induced SPRY2 in AREG-stimulated COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in human granulosa cells. Our results demonstrated that the expression of SPRY2 was up-regulated by hCG treatment. Using pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA knockdown, we showed that activation of ERK1/2 signaling was required for hCG-induced up-regulation of SPRY2 expression. Further, SPRY2 knockdown attenuated the AREG-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production by inhibiting AREG-activated ERK1/2 signaling. Interestingly, we showed that SPRY2 expression levels were significantly increased in granulosa cells of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) patients. These results for the first time elucidate the physiological roles of SPRY2 in human granulosa cells and suggest that aberrant expression of SPRY2 may contribute to the pathogenesis of OHSS. PMID:27539669

  3. Convergent effects on cell signaling mechanisms mediate the actions of different neurobehavioral teratogens: alterations in cholinergic regulation of protein kinase C in chick and avian models.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Joseph; Beer, Avital; Huleihel, Rabab; Izrael, Michal; Katz, Sofia; Levi, Yaarit; Rozenboim, Israel; Yaniv, Shiri P; Slotkin, Theodore A

    2004-10-01

    Although the actions of heroin on central nervous system (CNS) development are mediated through opioid receptors, the net effects converge on dysfunction of cholinergic systems. We explored the mechanisms underlying neurobehavioral deficits in mouse and avian (chick, Cayuga duck) models. In mice, prenatal heroin exposure (10 mg/kg on gestation days 9-18) elicited deficits in behaviors related to hippocampal cholinergic innervation, characterized by concomitant pre- and postsynaptic hyperactivity, but ending in a reduction of basal levels of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms betaII and gamma and their desensitization to cholinergic receptor-induced activation. PKCalpha, which is not involved in the behaviors studied, was unaffected. Because mammalian models possess inherent confounding factors from maternal effects, we conducted parallel studies using avian embryos, evaluating hyperstriatal nucleus (intermedial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale, IMHV)-related, filial imprinting behavior. Heroin injection to the eggs (20 mg/kg) on incubation days 0 and 5 diminished the post-hatch imprinting ability and reduced PKCg and bII content in the IMHV membrane fraction. Two otherwise unrelated agents that converge on cholinergic systems, chlorpyrifos and nicotine, elicited the same spectrum of effects on PKC isoforms and imprinting but had more robust actions. Pharmacological characterization also excluded direct effects of opioid receptors on the expression of imprinting; instead, it indicated participation of serotonergic innervation. The avian models can provide rapid screening of neuroteratogens, exploration of common mechanisms of behavioral disruption, and the potential design of therapies to reverse neurobehavioral deficits.

  4. Identifying immune mechanisms mediating the hypertension during preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Denise C.; Harmon, Ashlyn C.; Amaral, Lorena M.; Cunningham, Mark W.; Faulkner, Jessica L.; Wallace, Kedra

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-associated disorder that affects 5–8% of pregnancies and is a major cause of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Hallmark characteristics of PE are new onset hypertension after 20 wk gestation with or without proteinuria, chronic immune activation, fetal growth restriction, and maternal endothelial dysfunction. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to the development of PE are poorly understood. Recent data from studies of both clinical and animal models demonstrate an imbalance in the subpopulations of CD4+ T cells and a role for these cells as mediators of inflammation and hypertension during pregnancy. Specifically, it has been proposed that the imbalance between two CD4+ T cell subtypes, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T-helper 17 cells (Th17s), is involved in the pathophysiology of PE. Studies from our laboratory highlighting how this imbalance contributes to vasoactive factors, endothelial dysfunction, and hypertension during pregnancy will be discussed in this review. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to highlight hypertensive mechanisms stimulated by inflammatory factors in response to placental ischemia, thereby elucidating a role PMID:27097659

  5. Adipokines and the cardiovascular system: mechanisms mediating health and disease.

    PubMed

    Northcott, Josette M; Yeganeh, Azadeh; Taylor, Carla G; Zahradka, Peter; Wigle, Jeffrey T

    2012-08-01

    This review focuses on the role of adipokines in the maintenance of a healthy cardiovascular system, and the mechanisms by which these factors mediate the development of cardiovascular disease in obesity. Adipocytes are the major cell type comprising the adipose tissue. These cells secrete numerous factors, termed adipokines, into the blood, including adiponectin, leptin, resistin, chemerin, omentin, vaspin, and visfatin. Adipose tissue is a highly vascularised endocrine organ, and different adipose depots have distinct adipokine secretion profiles, which are altered with obesity. The ability of many adipokines to stimulate angiogenesis is crucial for adipose tissue expansion; however, excessive blood vessel growth is deleterious. As well, some adipokines induce inflammation, which promotes cardiovascular disease progression. We discuss how these 7 aforementioned adipokines act upon the various cardiovascular cell types (endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, cardiomyocytes, and cardiac fibroblasts), the direct effects of these actions, and their overall impact on the cardiovascular system. These were chosen, as these adipokines are secreted predominantly from adipocytes and have known effects on cardiovascular cells.

  6. High-content live-cell imaging assay used to establish mechanism of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1)--mediated inhibition of platelet production.

    PubMed

    Thon, Jonathan N; Devine, Matthew T; Jurak Begonja, Antonija; Tibbitts, Jay; Italiano, Joseph E

    2012-09-06

    Proplatelet production represents a terminal stage of megakaryocyte development during which long, branching processes composed of platelet-sized swellings are extended and released into the surrounding culture. Whereas the cytoskeletal mechanics driving these transformations have been the focus of many studies, significant limitations in our ability to quantify the rate and extent of proplatelet production have restricted the field to qualitative analyses of a limited number of cells over short intervals. A novel high-content, quantitative, live-cell imaging assay using the IncuCyte system (Essen BioScience) was therefore developed to measure the rate and extent of megakaryocyte maturation and proplatelet production under live culture conditions for extended periods of time. As proof of concept, we used this system in the present study to establish a mechanism by which trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), an Ab-drug conjugate currently in clinical development for cancer, affects platelet production. High-content analysis of primary cell cultures revealed that T-DM1 is taken up by mouse megakaryocytes, inhibits megakaryocyte differentiation, and disrupts proplatelet formation by inducing abnormal tubulin organization and suppressing microtubule dynamic instability. Defining the pathways by which therapeutics such as T-DM1 affect megakaryocyte differentiation and proplatelet production may yield strategies to manage drug-induced thrombocytopenias.

  7. Mechanism of protection from graft-vs-host disease in murine mixed allogeneic chimeras. I. Development of a null cell population suppressive of cell-mediated lympholysis responses and derived from the syngeneic bone marrow component

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, M.; Eisenthal, A.; Sachs, D.H.

    1988-05-01

    Splenocyte populations from whole body-irradiated recipients of mixed T cell-depleted (TCD) syngeneic and allogeneic (complete H-2 disparity) bone marrow, or of TCD syngeneic marrow alone, contain cells with the ability to suppress the generation of cell-mediated lympholysis responses in vitro. This activity, which is present by 8 days after bone marrow transplantation and persists for several weeks, has been analyzed for possible veto-like or other specificity. Although reproducible patterns of suppression were observed, depending both on host strain and on the genetic combination of the response examined, the overall suppression in vitro most closely resembles that which has been ascribed to natural suppressor cells in other systems. The suppression appears to be mediated by a non-T cell, non-B cell, nonadherent, asialo GM1-negative population. Cold target inhibition and CTL activity of chimeric cells have been ruled out as factors contributing to the observed suppression. Significantly, in mixed chimeras, suppression was found to be mediated exclusively by cells which were syngeneic to the recipient in both recipient strains tested. The rapid development of this suppressive activity may explain the resistance to graft-vs-host disease conferred on whole body-irradiated mice by the addition of TCD syngeneic marrow to an allogeneic graft-vs-host disease-producing inoculum.

  8. Altered iron homeostasis involvement in arsenite-mediated cell transformation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Eckard, Jonathan; Chen, Haobin; Costa, Max; Frenkel, Krystyna; Huang, Xi

    2010-01-01

    Chronic exposure to low doses of arsenite causes transformation of human osteogenic sarcoma (HOS) cells. Although oxidative stress is considered important in arsenite-induced cell transformation, the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which arsenite transforms human cells are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether altered iron homeostasis, known to affect cellular oxidative stress, can contribute to the arsenite-mediated cell transformation. Using arsenite-induced HOS cell transformation as a model, it was found that total iron levels are significantly higher in transformed HOS cells in comparison to parental control HOS cells. Under normal iron metabolism conditions, iron homeostasis is tightly controlled by inverse regulation of ferritin and transferrin receptor (TfR) through iron regulatory proteins (IRP). Increased iron levels in arsenite transformed cells should theoretically lead to higher ferritin and lower TfR in these cells than in controls. However, the results showed that both ferritin and TfR are decreased, apparently through two different mechanisms. A lower ferritin level in cytoplasm was due to the decreased mRNA in the arsenite-transformed HOS cells, while the decline in TfR was due to a lowered IRP-binding activity. By challenging cells with iron, it was further established that arsenite-transformed HOS cells are less responsive to iron treatment than control HOS cells, which allows accumulation of iron in the transformed cells, as exemplified by significantly lower ferritin induction. On the other hand, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an antioxidant previously shown to suppress As-mediated cell transformation, prevents As-mediated ferritin depletion. In conclusion, our results suggest that altered iron homeostasis contributes to arsenite-induced oxidative stress and, thus, may be involved in arsenite-mediated cell transformation. PMID:16443159

  9. AMPK-mediated autophagy is a survival mechanism in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells subjected to androgen deprivation and hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Wu, Yue; Ip, Clement

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate (i) the role of AMPK activation in inducing autophagy in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells subjected to androgen deprivation and hypoxia, and (ii) whether autophagy offers a survival advantage under these harsh conditions. Low androgen and low oxygen are two co-existing conditions frequently found in prostate cancer tissue following surgical or medical castration. In LNCaP cells, androgen deprivation and hypoxia together boosted AMPK activation to a higher level than that seen with either condition alone. The augmented AMPK response was associated with improved viability and the induction of autophagy. These observations suggest that a threshold of AMPK activity has to be attained in order to trigger autophagy, since neither androgen deprivation nor hypoxia by itself was capable of pushing AMPK activity past that threshold. Beclin-1 was identified as a potential downstream target of AMPK in turning on the autophagic cascade. If autophagy was blocked by chemical inhibition or RNA interference of key regulators, e.g., AMPK or beclin-1, more cells would die by apoptosis. The occurrence of autophagy is thus a survival mechanism for androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells to escape from an androgen-deprived and hypoxic subsistence. PMID:21554950

  10. Prostaglandin E2 activates the mTORC1 pathway through an EP4/cAMP/PKA- and EP1/Ca2+-mediated mechanism in the human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Hua; Young, Steven H; Sinnett-Smith, James; Chou, Caroline Ei Ne; Moro, Aune; Hertzer, Kathleen M; Hines, Oscar Joe; Rozengurt, Enrique; Eibl, Guido

    2015-11-15

    Obesity, a known risk factor for pancreatic cancer, is associated with inflammation and insulin resistance. Proinflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and elevated insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1), related to insulin resistance, are shown to play critical roles in pancreatic cancer progression. We aimed to explore a potential cross talk between PGE2 signaling and the IGF-1/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in pancreatic cancer, which may be a key to unraveling the obesity-cancer link. In PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells, we showed that PGE2 stimulated mTORC1 activity independently of Akt, as evaluated by downstream signaling events. Subsequently, using pharmacological and genetic approaches, we demonstrated that PGE2-induced mTORC1 activation is mediated by the EP4/cAMP/PKA pathway, as well as an EP1/Ca(2+)-dependent pathway. The cooperative roles of the two pathways were supported by the maximal inhibition achieved with the combined pharmacological blockade, and the coexistence of highly expressed EP1 (mediating the Ca(2+) response) and EP2 or EP4 (mediating the cAMP/PKA pathway) in PANC-1 cells and in the prostate cancer line PC-3, which also robustly exhibited PGE2-induced mTORC1 activation, as identified from a screen in various cancer cell lines. Importantly, we showed a reinforcing interaction between PGE2 and IGF-1 on mTORC1 signaling, with an increase in IL-23 production as a cellular outcome. Our data reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism of PGE2-stimulated mTORC1 activation mediated by EP4/cAMP/PKA and EP1/Ca(2+) signaling, which may be of great importance in elucidating the promoting effects of obesity in pancreatic cancer. Ultimately, a precise understanding of these molecular links may provide novel targets for efficacious interventions devoid of adverse effects.

  11. An intracellular adrenomedullin system reduces IL-6 release via a NF-kB-mediated, cAMP-independent transcriptional mechanism in rat thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Giulia; Paliuri, Giovanna; Orso, Genny; Paccagnella, Nicola; D'Amore, Claudio; Facci, Laura; Cima, Francesca; Caicci, Federico; Palatini, Pietro; Bova, Sergio; De Martin, Sara

    2016-12-01

    Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) play a key role in the regulation of central immune tolerance by expressing autoantigens and eliminating self-reactive T cells. In a previous paper we reported that adrenomedullin (ADM) and its co-receptor protein RAMP2 are located intracellularly in newborn human thymic epithelial cells (TECs). This work has two main aims: (1) to examine the cellular localization of ADM and its receptor in TECs of adult Wistar rats to validate this animal model for the study of the ADM system and its function(s) in thymus; (2) to investigate the potential modulating effect of ADM on the NF-kB pathway, which is involved through the production of cytokines such as IL-6, in the maturation of T-lymphocytes and immunological tolerance. Our results show that, similarly to human newborn TECs, ADM is localized to the cytoplasm of adult rat TECs, and RAMP2 is expressed in the nucleus but not in the plasma membrane. Pretreatment of TECs for 4h with ADM significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of IL-6 (P<0.001) and expression of the p65 subunit of NF-kB, while doubled the expression of IkBα (P<0.001), the physiological inhibitor of NF-kB nuclear translocation. These effects were not mediated by activation of the cAMP pathway, a signalling cascade that is rapidly activated by ADM in cells that express plasma membrane RAMP2, but were the consequence of a reduction in the transcription of p65 (P<0.001) and an increase in the transcription of IkBα (P<0.05). On the basis of these findings we propose that in rat TECs ADM reduces IL-6 secretion by modulating NF-kB genes transcription through an interaction with a receptor localized to the nucleus. This may partly explain the protective effects of ADM in autoimmune diseases and points to the ADM system of TECs as a novel potential target for immunomodulating drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasmodesmata-Mediated Cell-to-Cell Communication in the Shoot Apical Meristem: How Stem Cells Talk

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Munenori; Jackson, David

    2017-01-01

    Positional information is crucial for the determination of plant cell fates, and it is established based on coordinated cell-to-cell communication, which in turn is essential for plant growth and development. Plants have evolved a unique communication pathway, with tiny channels called plasmodesmata (PD) spanning the cell wall. PD interconnect most cells in the plant and generate a cytoplasmic continuum, to mediate short- and long-distance trafficking of various molecules. Cell-to-cell communication through PD plays a role in transmitting positional signals, however, the regulatory mechanisms of PD-mediated trafficking are still largely unknown. The induction and maintenance of stem cells in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) depends on PD-mediated cell-to-cell communication, hence, it is an optimal model for dissecting the regulatory mechanisms of PD-mediated cell-to-cell communication and its function in specifying cell fates. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge of PD-mediated cell-to-cell communication in the SAM, and discuss mechanisms underlying molecular trafficking through PD and its role in plant development. PMID:28257070

  13. Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Learning and Memory Function in Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain-Damaged Rats via an IL-8-Mediated Secretion Mechanism Rather than Differentiation Pattern Induction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoqin; Gu, Jialu; Gu, Yan; He, Mulan; Bi, Yang; Chen, Jie; Li, Tingyu

    2015-01-01

    MSCs are a promising therapeutic resource. Paracrine effects and the induction of differentiation patterns are thought to represent the two primary mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation in vivo. However, it is unclear which mechanism is involved in the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord-derived MSC (hUC-MSC) transplantation. Based on flow cytometry analysis, hUC-MSCs exhibited the morphological characteristics and surface markers of MSCs. Following directed neural induction, these cells displayed a neuron-like morphology and expressed high levels of neural markers. All types of hUC-MSCs, including differentiated and redifferentiated cells, promoted learning and memory function recovery in hypoxic-ischemic brain damaged (HIBD) rats. The hUC-MSCs secreted IL-8, which enhanced angiogenesis in the hippocampus via the JNK pathway. However, the differentiated and redifferentiated cells did not exert significantly greater therapeutic effects than the undifferentiated hUC-MSCs. hUC-MSCs display the biological properties and neural differentiation potential of MSCs and provide therapeutic advantages by secreting IL-8, which participates in angiogenesis in the rat HIBD model. These data suggest that hUC-MSC transplantation improves the recovery of neuronal function via an IL-8-mediated secretion mechanism, whereas differentiation pattern induction was limited. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Cationic lipid-nanoceria hybrids, a novel nonviral vector-mediated gene delivery into mammalian cells: investigation of the cellular uptake mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Das, Joydeep; Han, Jae Woong; Choi, Yun-Jung; Song, Hyuk; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Park, Chankyu; Seo, Han Geuk; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy is a promising technique for the treatment of various diseases. The development of minimally toxic and highly efficient non-viral gene delivery vectors is the most challenging undertaking in the field of gene therapy. Here, we developed dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DODAB)–nanoceria (CeO2) hybrids as a new class of non-viral gene delivery vectors. These DODAB-modified CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2/DODAB) could effectively compact the pDNA, allowing for highly efficient gene transfection into the selected cell lines. The CeO2/DODAB nanovectors were also found to be non-toxic and did not induce ROS formation as well as any stress responsive and pro-survival signaling pathways. The overall vector performance of CeO2/DODAB nanohybrids was comparable with lipofectamine and DOTAP, and higher than calcium phosphate and DEAE-dextran for transfecting small plasmids. The increased cellular uptake of the nanovector/DNA complexes through clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis and subsequent release from the endosomes further support the increased gene transfection efficiency of the CeO2/DODAB vectors. Besides, CeO2/DODAB nanovectors could transfect genes in vivo without any sign of toxicity. Taken together, this new nano-vector has the potential to be used for gene delivery in biomedical applications. PMID:27380727

  15. Prostate apoptosis response 4 (PAR4) expression modulates WNT signaling pathways in MCF7 breast cancer cells: A possible mechanism underlying PAR4-mediated docetaxel chemosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    De Bessa Garcia, Simone Aparecida; Pavanelli, Ana Carolina; Melo, Natália Cruz E; Nagai, Maria Aparecida

    2017-01-01

    Docetaxel is an effective drug for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. However, the exact mechanisms and/or markers associated with chemosensitivity or resistance to docetaxel remain unclear. We previously showed that the expression of prostate apoptosis response 4 (PAR4) inhibits the growth of MCF7 breast cancer cells and increases their sensitivity to docetaxel. Using cDNA microarray analysis, we evaluated transcriptome changes in MCF7 cells expressing increased levels of PAR4 and control cells before and after docetaxel treatment. Some of the top gene networks generated from the differentially expressed genes were related to the wingless-type MMTV integration 1 (WNT) canonical (WNT/β-catenin) and non-canonical (β-catenin-independent) pathways. The Human WNT signaling pathway RT2 profiler™ PCR array was used to validate the effects of PAR4 on the expression pattern of genes involved in the WNT pathway. CACNAD2A3, GDF5 and IL6 were upregulated and NANOG was downregulated in the MCF7 breast cancer cells expressing increased levels of PAR4 after treatment with docetaxel, likely indicating inactivation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway. Upregulation of FGF7, LEF1 and TWIST1 indicated activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway. Although preliminary, our findings could be of particular interest for understanding the action of PAR4 in chemosensitivity, particularly to increase the specificity and effectiveness of drug treatment and overcome resistance to chemotherapy. Further studies are needed to better understand the biological roles of PAR4 in the regulation of WNT pathways in breast cancer cells in response to docetaxel and other chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:28259909

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Bcl10-Mediated NF-kappaB Signal Transduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-04

    Ph.D. Department ofPathology Member ~~~ Name of Candidate: Felicia Langel Doctor ofPhilosophy Degree 4 April 2004 Title of Dissertation: " Molecular ...The author hereby certifies that the use of any copyrighted material in the thesis manuscript entitled: " Molecular mechanisms of BcllO-mediated NF-KB...34 /" Molecular and Cell Biology Program Uniformed Services University of the copyright owner. i Abstract Title: Molecular Mechanisms of Bcl10-Mediated NF

  17. A novel mechanism of FSH regulation of DNA synthesis in the granulosa cells of hamster preantral follicles. Involvement of a protein kinase C mediated MAP kinase 3/1 self- activation loop

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peixin; Roy, Shyamal K.

    2006-01-01

    Summary FSH- or EGF-induced granulosa cell proliferation in intact preantral follicles depends on a novel PKC-mediated MAPK3/1 self-activation loop. The objective was to reveal whether a PKC-mediated self-sustaining MAPK3/1 activation loop was necessary for FSH- or EGF-induced DNA synthesis in the granulosa cells of intact preantral follicles. For this purpose, hamster preantral follicles were cultured with FSH or EGF in the presence of selective kinase inhibitors. FSH or EGF phosphorylated RAF1, MAP2K1 and MAPK3/1. However, relatively higher dose of EGF was necessary to sustain the MAPK3/1 activity, which was essential for CDK4 activation and DNA synthesis. In intact preantral follicles, FSH or EGF stimulated DNA synthesis only in the granulosa cells. Sustained activation of MAPK3/1 beyond 3h was independent of EGFR kinase activity, but dependent on PKC activity, which appeared to form a self-sustaining MAPK3/1 activation loop by activating RAF1, MAP2K1 and PLA2G4. Inhibition of PKC activity as late as 4h after the administration of FSH or EGF arrested DNA synthesis, which corresponded with attenuated phosphorylation of RAF1 and MAPK3/1, thus suggesting an essential role of PKC in MAPK3/1 activation. Collectively, these data present a novel self-sustaining mechanism comprised of MAPK3/1, PLA2G4, PKC and RAF1 for CDK4 activation leading to DNA synthesis in granulosa cells. Either FSH or EGF can activate the loop to activate CDK4 and initiate DNA synthesis; however, consistent with our previous findings, FSH effect seems to be mediated by EGF, which initiates the event by stimulating EGFR kinase. PMID:16525034

  18. Mitochondrial inheritance is mediated by microtubules in mammalian cell division

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Elizabeth; Mandato, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The mitochondrial network fragments and becomes uniformly dispersed within the cytoplasm when mammalian cells enter mitosis. Such morphology and distribution of mitochondria was previously thought to facilitate the stochastic inheritance of mitochondria by daughter cells. In contrast, we recently reported that mitochondria in dividing mammalian cells are inherited by an ordered mechanism of inheritance mediated by microtubules. We showed that mitochondria are progressively enriched at the cell equator and depleted at the poles throughout division. Furthermore, the mitochondrial distribution during division is dependent on microtubules, indicating an ordered inheritance strategy. The microtubule-mediated positioning of mitochondria in dividing mammalian cells may have functional consequences for cell division and/or mitochondrial inheritance. PMID:24567781

  19. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor stimulation of phospholipase A2 and of adenylate cyclase in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells is mediated by different mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.; Halenda, S.P.; Bylund, D.B. )

    1991-02-01

    The effect of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor activation on adenylate cyclase activity in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with the alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor gene is biphasic. At lower concentrations of epinephrine forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production is inhibited, but at higher concentrations the inhibition is reversed. Both of these effects are blocked by the alpha 2 antagonist yohimbine but not by the alpha 1 antagonist prazosin. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin attenuates inhibition at lower concentrations of epinephrine and greatly potentiates forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production at higher concentrations of epinephrine. alpha 2-Adrenergic receptor stimulation also causes arachidonic acid mobilization, presumably via phospholipase A2. This effect is blocked by yohimbine, quinacrine, removal of extracellular Ca2+, and pretreatment with pertussis toxin. Quinacrine and removal of extracellular Ca2+, in contrast, have no effect on the enhanced forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production. Thus, it appears that the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor in these cells can simultaneously activate distinct signal transduction systems; inhibition of adenylate cyclase and stimulation of phospholipase A2, both via G1, and potentiation of cyclic AMP production by a different (pertussis toxin-insensitive) mechanism.

  20. Glutamate-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells is mediated via caspase-dependent and independent mechanisms involving calpain and caspase-3 proteases as well as apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and this process is inhibited by equine estrogens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, YueMei; Bhavnani, Bhagu R

    2006-01-01

    Background Glutamate, a major excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter, causes apoptotic neuronal cell death at high concentrations. Our previous studies have shown that depending on the neuronal cell type, glutamate-induced apoptotic cell death was associated with regulation of genes such as Bcl-2, Bax, and/or caspase-3 and mitochondrial cytochrome c. To further delineate the intracellular mechanisms, we have investigated the role of calpain, an important calcium-dependent protease thought to be involved in apoptosis along with mitochondrial apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) and caspase-3 in primary cortical cells and a mouse hippocampal cell line HT22. Results Glutamate-induced apoptotic cell death in neuronal cells was associated with characteristic DNA fragmentation, morphological changes, activation of calpain and caspase-3 as well as the upregulation and/or translocation of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol and nuclei. Our results reveal that primary cortical cells and HT22 cells display different patterns of regulation of these genes/proteins. In primary cortical cells, glutamate induces activation of calpain, caspase-3 and translocation of AIF from mitochondria to cytosol and nuclei. In contrast, in HT22 cells, only the activation of calpain and upregulation and translocation of AIF occurred. In both cell types, these processes were inhibited/reversed by 17β-estradiol and Δ8,17β-estradiol with the latter being more potent. Conclusion Depending upon the neuronal cell type, at least two mechanisms are involved in glutamate-induced apoptosis: a caspase-3-dependent pathway and a caspase-independent pathway involving calpain and AIF. Since HT22 cells lack caspase-3, glutamate-induced apoptosis is mediated via the caspase-independent pathway in this cell line. Kinetics of this apoptotic pathway further indicate that calpain rather than caspase-3, plays a critical role in the glutamate-induced apoptosis. Our studies further indicate that glutamate- induced changes

  1. Human Papillomavirus Type 8 Interferes with a Novel C/EBPβ-Mediated Mechanism of Keratinocyte CCL20 Chemokine Expression and Langerhans Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Walch-Rückheim, Barbara; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Doorbar, John; Pfister, Herbert; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Majewski, Sławomir; Keates, Andrew C.; Smola, Sigrun

    2012-01-01

    Infection with genus beta human papillomaviruses (HPV) is implicated in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. This was first evidenced for HPV5 and 8 in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a genetic skin disease. So far, it has been unknown how these viruses overcome cutaneous immune control allowing their persistence in lesional epidermis of these patients. Here we demonstrate that Langerhans cells, essential for skin immunosurveillance, are strongly reduced in HPV8-positive lesional epidermis from EV patients. Interestingly, the same lesions were largely devoid of the important Langerhans cells chemoattractant protein CCL20. Applying bioinformatic tools, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and functional studies we identified the differentiation-associated transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) as a critical regulator of CCL20 gene expression in normal human keratinocytes. The physiological relevance of this finding is supported by our in vivo studies showing that the expression patterns of CCL20 and nuclear C/EBPβ converge spatially in the most differentiated layers of human epidermis. Our analyses further identified C/EBPβ as a novel target of the HPV8 E7 oncoprotein, which co-localizes with C/EBPβ in the nucleus, co-precipitates with it and interferes with its binding to the CCL20 promoter in vivo. As a consequence, the HPV8 E7 but not E6 oncoprotein suppressed C/EBPβ-inducible and constitutive CCL20 gene expression as well as Langerhans cell migration. In conclusion, our study unraveled a novel molecular mechanism central to cutaneous host defense. Interference of the HPV8 E7 oncoprotein with this regulatory pathway allows the virus to disrupt the immune barrier, a major prerequisite for its epithelial persistence and procarcinogenic activity. PMID:22911498

  2. T follicular helper cell programming by cytokine-mediated events.

    PubMed

    Read, Kaitlin A; Powell, Michael D; Oestreich, Kenneth J

    2016-11-01

    CD4(+) T cells, or T helper cells, are critical mediators and coordinators of adaptive immunity. Unique effector T helper cell populations have been identified that perform distinct functions in response to pathogenic infection. The T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are one such subset, which has been identified as the primary T-cell population responsible for interacting with B cells to promote effective antibody-mediated immune responses. Since their initial description at the turn of the century, and subsequent classification as a distinct T helper cell subset, there has been substantial interest in elucidating the regulatory mechanisms that govern Tfh cell formation. The collective insight from this body of work has demonstrated that Tfh cell differentiation is a complex and multistage process regulated by a litany of cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors. As with the development of the other recognized T helper cell subsets, specific cytokines exercise prominent roles in both the positive and negative regulation of Tfh cell development. However, the exact composition of, and stage-specific requirements for, these environmental factors in the governance of Tfh cell differentiation remain incompletely understood. In this review, we summarize what is known regarding the role of cytokines in both the promotion and inhibition of Tfh cell differentiation and function. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Molecular Mechanism of Cyclodextrin Mediated Cholesterol Extraction

    PubMed Central

    López, Cesar A.; de Vries, Alex H.; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2011-01-01

    The depletion of cholesterol from membranes, mediated by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) is well known and documented, but the molecular details of this process are largely unknown. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have been able to study the CD mediated extraction of cholesterol from model membranes, in particular from a pure cholesterol monolayer, at atomic resolution. Our results show that efficient cholesterol extraction depends on the structural distribution of the CDs on the surface of the monolayer. With a suitably oriented dimer, cholesterol is extracted spontaneously on a nanosecond time scale. Additional free energy calculations reveal that the CDs have a strong affinity to bind to the membrane surface, and, by doing so, destabilize the local packing of cholesterol molecules making their extraction favorable. Our results have implications for the interpretation of experimental measurements, and may help in the rational design of efficient CD based nano-carriers. PMID:21455285

  4. An immunosurveillance mechanism controls cancer cell ploidy.

    PubMed

    Senovilla, Laura; Vitale, Ilio; Martins, Isabelle; Tailler, Maximilien; Pailleret, Claire; Michaud, Mickaël; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Adjemian, Sandy; Kepp, Oliver; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Shen, Shensi; Mariño, Guillermo; Criollo, Alfredo; Boilève, Alice; Job, Bastien; Ladoire, Sylvain; Ghiringhelli, François; Sistigu, Antonella; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Rello-Varona, Santiago; Locher, Clara; Poirier-Colame, Vichnou; Talbot, Monique; Valent, Alexander; Berardinelli, Francesco; Antoccia, Antonio; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Fimia, Gian Maria; Piacentini, Mauro; Fueyo, Antonio; Messina, Nicole L; Li, Ming; Chan, Christopher J; Sigl, Verena; Pourcher, Guillaume; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Lazar, Vladimir; Penninger, Josef M; Madeo, Frank; López-Otín, Carlos; Smyth, Mark J; Zitvogel, Laurence; Castedo, Maria; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-09-28

    Cancer cells accommodate multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations that initially activate intrinsic (cell-autonomous) and extrinsic (immune-mediated) oncosuppressive mechanisms. Only once these barriers to oncogenesis have been overcome can malignant growth proceed unrestrained. Tetraploidization can contribute to oncogenesis because hyperploid cells are genomically unstable. We report that hyperploid cancer cells become immunogenic because of a constitutive endoplasmic reticulum stress response resulting in the aberrant cell surface exposure of calreticulin. Hyperploid, calreticulin-exposing cancer cells readily proliferated in immunodeficient mice and conserved their increased DNA content. In contrast, hyperploid cells injected into immunocompetent mice generated tumors only after a delay, and such tumors exhibited reduced DNA content, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and calreticulin exposure. Our results unveil an immunosurveillance system that imposes immunoselection against hyperploidy in carcinogen- and oncogene-induced cancers.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of HTLV-1 Cell-to-Cell Transmission.

    PubMed

    Gross, Christine; Thoma-Kress, Andrea K

    2016-03-09

    The tumorvirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a member of the delta-retrovirus family, is transmitted via cell-containing body fluids such as blood products, semen, and breast milk. In vivo, HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4⁺ T-cells, and to a lesser extent, CD8⁺ T-cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes. Efficient infection of CD4⁺ T-cells requires cell-cell contacts while cell-free virus transmission is inefficient. Two types of cell-cell contacts have been described to be critical for HTLV-1 transmission, tight junctions and cellular conduits. Further, two non-exclusive mechanisms of virus transmission at cell-cell contacts have been proposed: (1) polarized budding of HTLV-1 into synaptic clefts; and (2) cell surface transfer of viral biofilms at virological synapses. In contrast to CD4⁺ T-cells, dendritic cells can be infected cell-free and, to a greater extent, via viral biofilms in vitro. Cell-to-cell transmission of HTLV-1 requires a coordinated action of steps in the virus infectious cycle with events in the cell-cell adhesion process; therefore, virus propagation from cell-to-cell depends on specific interactions between cellular and viral proteins. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 transmission with a focus on the HTLV-1-encoded proteins Tax and p8, their impact on host cell factors mediating cell-cell contacts, cytoskeletal remodeling, and thus, virus propagation.

  6. Mediators and mechanisms of relaxation in rabbit urethral smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Waldeck, Kristian; Ny, Lars; Persson, Katarina; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    1998-01-01

    Electrophysiological and mechanical experiments were performed to investigate whether the nitric oxide (NO)-mediated relaxation of rabbit urethral smooth muscle is associated with a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential. In addition, a possible role for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and carbon monoxide (CO) as relaxant agents in rabbit urethra was investigated. Immunohistochemical experiments were performed to characterize the NO-synthase (NOS) and VIP innervation. Possible target cells for NO were studied by using antisera against cyclic GMP. The cyclic GMP-immunoreactivity was investigated on tissues pretreated with 1 mM IBMX, 0.1 mM zaprinast and 1 mM sodium nitroprusside. Intracellular recordings of the membrane potential in the circular smooth muscle layer revealed two types of spontaneous depolarizations, slow waves with a duration of 3–4 s and an amplitude of 30–40 mV, and faster (0.5–1 s), more irregular depolarizations with an amplitude of 5–15 mV. The resting membrane potential was 39±1 mV (n=12). Application of NO (30 μM), CO (30 μM) or VIP (1 μM) did not change the resting membrane potential. Both NO (1–100 μM) and VIP (1 nM–1 μM) produced concentration-dependent relaxations amounting to 87±4% and 97±2% (n=6), respectively. The relaxant effect of CO (1–30 μM) amounted to 27±4% (n=5) at the highest concentration used. Immunohistochemical experiments revealed a rich supply of NOS-immunoreactive nerve fibres in the smooth muscle layers. Numerous spinous cyclic GMP-immunoreactive cells were found interspersed between the smooth muscle bundles, mainly localized in the outer layer. These cells had long processes forming a network surrounding the smooth muscle bundles. VIP-immunoreactivity was sparse in comparison to NOS-immunoreactive nerves. The rich supply of NOS-immunoreactive nerve fibres supports the view that NO is an important NANC-mediator in the rabbit urethra. In contrast to several

  7. Plasmodesmata-Mediated Cell-to-Cell Communication in the Shoot Apical Meristem: How Stem Cells Talk.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Munenori; Jackson, David

    2017-03-01

    Positional information is crucial for the determination of plant cell fates, and it is established based on coordinated cell-to-cell communication, which in turn is essential for plant growth and development. Plants have evolved a unique communication pathway, with tiny channels called plasmodesmata (PD) spanning the cell wall. PD interconnect most cells in the plant and generate a cytoplasmic continuum, to mediate short- and long-distance trafficking of various molecules. Cell-to-cell communication through PD plays a role in transmitting positional signals, however, the regulatory mechanisms of PD-mediated trafficking are still largely unknown. The induction and maintenance of stem cells in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) depends on PDmediated cell-to-cell communication, hence, it is an optimal model for dissecting the regulatory mechanisms of PD-mediated cell-to-cell communication and its function in specifying cell fates. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge of PD-mediated cell-to-cell communication in the SAM, and discuss mechanisms underlying molecular trafficking through PD and its role in plant development.

  8. Mechanisms of p53-Mediated Apoptosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Np63-9, p73-2, and p73-31 were as previously described (13, 68, 69). EB and H1299 cells were maintained in Dul- becco’s modified Eagle medium...cotransfected by using the calcium phosphate method into MCF7, H1299 , or EB cells. A dual luciferase assay was performed in triplicate according to the...to activate the IGFBP3 promoter in EB colon and H1299 non- small cell lung carcinoma cells. We found the same pattern of activation in EB and H1299

  9. Transcriptional regulator Id2 mediates CD8+ T cell immunity.

    PubMed

    Cannarile, Michael A; Lind, Nicholas A; Rivera, Richard; Sheridan, Alison D; Camfield, Kristin A; Wu, Bei Bei; Cheung, Kitty P; Ding, Zhaoqing; Goldrath, Ananda W

    2006-12-01

    Transcriptional programs that initiate and sustain the proliferation, differentiation and survival of CD8(+) T cells during immune responses are not completely understood. Here we show that inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2), an antagonist of E protein transcription factors, was upregulated in CD8(+) T cells during infection and that expression of Id2 was maintained in memory CD8(+) T cells. Although Id2-deficient naive CD8(+) T cells recognized antigen and proliferated normally early after infection, effector CD8(+) T cells did not accumulate because the cells were highly susceptible to apoptosis. Id2-deficient CD8(+) T cells responding to infection had changes in the expression of genes that influence survival and had altered memory formation. Our data emphasize the importance of Id2 in regulating gene expression by CD8(+) T cells and the magnitude of effector responses, suggesting a mechanism involving Id protein- and E protein-mediated survival and differentiation of mature T cells.

  10. Possible mechanism of polycation liposome (PCL)-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Mayu; Matsuura, Mituso; Takeuchi, Yoshito; Kosaka, Jun; Nango, Mamoru; Oku, Naoto

    2004-01-28

    A novel gene transfer system utilizing polycation liposomes (PCLs), obtained by modifying liposomes with cetyl polyethylenimine (PEI), was previously developed (Gene Ther. 7 (2002) 1148). PCLs show notable transfection efficiency with low cytotoxicity. However, the mechanism of PCL-mediated gene transfer is still unclear. In this study, we examined the intracellular trafficking of PCL-DNA complexes by using HT1080 cells, fluorescent probe-labeled materials, and confocal laser scan microscopy. We found that the PCL-DNA complexes were taken up into cells by the endosomal pathway, since both cellular uptake of the complex and gene expression were blocked by wortmannin, an inhibitor of this pathway. We also observed that the plasmid DNA and cetyl PEI complex became detached from the PCL lipids and was preferentially transferred into the nucleus in the form of the complex, whereas the PCL lipids remained in the cytoplasmic area, possibly in the endosomes. In fact, nigericin, which dissipates the pH gradient across the endosomal membrane, inhibited the detachment of lipids from the PCL-DNA complex and subsequent gene expression. Taken together, our data indicate the following mechanism for gene transfer by PCLs: PCLs effectively transfer DNA to endosomes and release cetyl PEI-DNA complexes into the cytosol. Furthermore, cetyl PEI also contributes to gene entry into the nucleus.

  11. Cytoneme-mediated cell-cell contacts for Hedgehog reception

    PubMed Central

    González-Méndez, Laura; Seijo-Barandiarán, Irene; Guerrero, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Morphogens regulate tissue patterning through their distribution in concentration gradients. Emerging research establishes a role for specialized signalling filopodia, or cytonemes, in morphogen dispersion and signalling. Previously we demonstrated that Hedgehog (Hh) morphogen is transported via vesicles along cytonemes emanating from signal-producing cells to form a gradient in Drosophila epithelia. However, the mechanisms for signal reception and transfer are still undefined. Here, we demonstrate that cytonemes protruding from Hh-receiving cells contribute to Hh gradient formation. The canonical Hh receptor Patched is localized in these cellular protrusions and Hh reception takes place in membrane contact sites between Hh-sending and Hh-receiving cytonemes. These two sets of cytonemes have similar dynamics and both fall in two different dynamic behaviours. Furthermore, both the Hh co-receptor Interference hedgehog (Ihog) and the glypicans are critical for this cell-cell cytoneme mediated interaction. These findings suggest that the described contact sites might facilitate morphogen presentation and reception. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24045.001 PMID:28825565

  12. ARID1B-mediated disorders: Mutations and possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Joe C. H.; White, Susan M; Lockhart, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mutations in the gene encoding AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1B (ARID1B) were recently associated with multiple syndromes characterized by developmental delay and intellectual disability, in addition to nonsyndromic intellectual disability. While the majority of ARID1B mutations identified to date are predicted to result in haploinsufficiency, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms have yet to be fully understood. ARID1B is a DNA-binding subunit of the Brahma-associated factor chromatin remodelling complexes, which play a key role in the regulation of gene activity. The function of remodelling complexes can be regulated by their subunit composition, and there is some evidence that ARID1B is a component of the neuron-specific chromatin remodelling complex. This complex is involved in the regulation of stem/progenitor cells exiting the cell cycle and differentiating into postmitotic neurons. Recent research has indicated that alterations in the cell cycle contribute to the underlying pathogenesis of syndromes associated with ARID1B haploinsufficiency in fibroblasts derived from affected individuals. This review describes studies linking ARID1B to neurodevelopmental disorders and it summarizes the function of ARID1B to provide insights into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying ARID1B-mediated disorders. In conclusion, ARID1B is likely to play a key role in neurodevelopment and reduced levels of wild-type protein compromise normal brain development. Additional studies are required to determine the mechanisms by which impaired neural development contributes to the intellectual disability and speech impairment that are consistently observed in individuals with ARID1B haploinsufficiency. PMID:25674384

  13. In-cell infection: a novel pathway for Epstein-Barr virus infection mediated by cell-in-cell structures

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Chao; Chen, Yuhui; Zeng, Musheng; Pei, Rongjuan; Du, Yong; Tang, Linquan; Wang, Mengyi; Hu, Yazhuo; Zhu, Hanyu; He, Meifang; Wei, Xiawei; Wang, Shan; Ning, Xiangkai; Wang, Manna; Wang, Jufang; Ma, Li; Chen, Xinwen; Sun, Qiang; Tang, Hong; Wang, Ying; Wang, Xiaoning

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can infect both susceptible B lymphocytes and non-susceptible epithelial cells (ECs). Viral tropism analyses have revealed two intriguing means of EBV infection, either by a receptor-mediated infection of B cells or by a cell-to-cell contact-mediated infection of non-susceptible ECs. Herein, we report a novel “in-cell infection” mechanism for EBV infection of non-susceptible ECs through the formation of cell-in-cell structures. Epithelial CNE-2 cells were invaded by EBV-infected Akata B cells to form cell-in-cell structures in vitro. Such unique cellular structures could be readily observed in the specimens of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Importantly, the formation of cell-in-cell structures led to the autonomous activation of EBV within Akata cells and subsequent viral transmission to CNE-2 cells, as evidenced by the expression of viral genes and the presence of virion particles in CNE-2 cells. Significantly, EBV generated from in-cell infected ECs displayed altered tropism with higher infection efficacy to both B cells and ECs. In addition to CNE-2 tumor cells, cell-in-cell structure formation could also mediate EBV infection of NPEC1-Bmi1 cells, an immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line. Furthermore, efficient infection by this mechanism involved the activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Thus, our study identified “in-cell infection” as a novel mechanism for EBV infection. Given the diversity of virus-infected cells and the prevalence of cell-in-cell structures during chronic infection, we speculate that “in-cell infection” is likely a general mechanism for EBV and other viruses to infect non-susceptible ECs. PMID:25916549

  14. Adenine suppresses IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Silwal, Prashanta; Shin, Keuna; Choi, Seulgi; Kang, Seong Wook; Park, Jin Bong; Lee, Hyang-Joo; Koo, Suk-Jin; Chung, Kun-Hoe; Namgung, Uk; Lim, Kyu; Heo, Jun-Young; Park, Jong Il; Park, Seung-Kiel

    2015-06-01

    Nucleobase adenine is produced by dividing human lymphoblasts mainly from polyamine synthesis and inhibits immunological functions of lymphocytes. We investigated the anti-allergic effect of adenine on IgE-mediated mast cell activation in vitro and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of adenine to IgE-sensitized mice attenuated IgE-mediated PCA reaction in a dose dependent manner, resulting in a median effective concentration of 4.21 mg/kg. In mast cell cultures, only adenine among cytosine, adenine, adenosine, ADP and ATP dose-dependently suppressed FcɛRI (a high affinity receptor for IgE)-mediated degranulation with a median inhibitory concentration of 1.6mM. It also blocked the production of LTB4, an inflammatory lipid mediator, and inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-4. In addition, adenine blocked thapsigargin-induced degranulation which is FcɛRI-independent but shares FcɛRI-dependent signaling events. Adenine inhibited the phosphorylation of signaling molecules important to FcɛRI-mediated allergic reactions such as Syk, PLCγ2, Gab2, Akt, and mitogen activated protein kinases ERK and JNK. From this result, we report for the first time that adenine inhibits PCA in mice and allergic reaction by inhibiting FcɛRI-mediated signaling events in mast cells. Therefore, adenine may be useful for the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic diseases. Also, the upregulation of adenine production may provide another mechanism for suppressing mast cell activity especially at inflammatory sites.

  15. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms for p53-mediated differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chylicki, K; Ehinger, M; Svedberg, H; Gullberg, U

    2000-11-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor protein can induce both apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Moreover, we and others have shown previously that p53 is a potent mediator of differentiation. For example, expression of ptsp53, a temperature-inducible form of p53, induces differentiation of leukemic monoblastic U-937 cells. The functions of p53 have for long been believed to be dependent on the transactivating capacity of p53. However, recent data show that both p53-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis can be induced independently of p53-mediated transcriptional activation, indicating alternative pathways for p53-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The bcl-2 proto-oncogene contributes to the development of certain malignancies, probably by inhibition of apoptosis. Interestingly, Bcl-2 has been shown to inhibit p53-mediated apoptosis as well as p53-mediated transcriptional activation. Asking whether Bcl-2 would interfere with the p53-mediated differentiation of U-937 cells, we stably transfected bcl-2 to U-937 cells inducibly expressing p53. Although the established Bcl-2-expressing clones were resistant to p53-mediated apoptosis, we did not observe any interference of Bcl-2 with the p53-mediated differentiation, suggesting separable pathways for p53 in mediating apoptosis and differentiation of U-937 cells. Neither did expression of Bcl-2 interfere with p53-induced expression of endogenous p21, suggesting that p53-induced differentiation might be dependent on the transcriptional activity of p53. To further investigate whether the p53-mediated differentiation of U-937 cells depends on the transcriptional activity of p53, we overexpressed transactivation-deficient p53, a transcriptionally inactive p53 mutant in these cells. However, in contrast to the effects of wild-type p53, expression of trans-activation-deficient p53 did neither induce signs of apoptosis nor of differentiation in U-937 cells. Our results indicate that the transcriptional activity of p53 is essential

  16. Environmental properties set cell mechanics and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janmey, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Many cell types are sensitive to mechanical signals that are produced either by application of exogenous force to their surfaces, or by the resistance that their surroundings place on forces generated by the cells themselves. Cell morphology, motility, proliferation, and protein expression all change in response to substrate stiffness. Changing the elastic moduli of substrates alters the formation of focal adhesions, the assembly of actin filaments into bundles, and the stability of intermediate filaments. The range of stiffness over which different primary cell types respond can vary over a wide range and generally reflects the elastic modulus of the tissue from which these cells were isolated. Mechanosensing depends on the type of adhesion receptor by which the cell binds, and therefore on both the molecular composition of the extracellular matrix and the nature of its link to the cytoskeleton. Many cell types can alter their own stiffness to match that of the substrate to which they adhere. The maximal elastic modulus that cells such as fibroblasts can attain is similar to that of crosslinked actin networks at the concentrations in the cell cortex. The precise mechanisms of mechanosensing are not well defined, but they presumably require an elastic connection between cell and substrate, mediated by transmembrane proteins. The viscoelastic properties of different extracellular matrices and cytoskeletal elements strongly influence the response of cells to mechanical signals, and the unusual non-linear elasticity of many biopolymer gels, characterized by strain-stiffening, leads to novel mechanisms by which cells alter their stiffness by engagement of molecular motors that produce internal stresses. Cell cortical elasticity is dominated by cytoskeletal polymer networks and can be modulated by internal tension. Simultaneous control of substrate stiffness and adhesive patterns suggests that stiffness sensing occurs on a length scale much larger than single molecular

  17. Microarray and Pathway Analysis Reveal Distinct Mechanisms Underlying Cannabinoid-Mediated Modulation of LPS-Induced Activation of BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Juknat, Ana; Kozela, Ewa; Rimmerman, Neta; Levy, Rivka; Gao, Fuying; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel; Vogel, Zvi

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoids are known to exert immunosuppressive activities. However, the mechanisms which contribute to these effects are unknown. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to activate BV-2 microglial cells, we examined how Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana, and cannabidiol (CBD) the non-psychoactive component, modulate the inflammatory response. Microarray analysis of genome-wide mRNA levels was performed using Illumina platform and the resulting expression patterns analyzed using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify functional subsets of genes, and the Ingenuity System Database to denote the gene networks regulated by CBD and THC. From the 5338 transcripts that were differentially expressed across treatments, 400 transcripts were found to be upregulated by LPS, 502 by CBD+LPS and 424 by THC+LPS, while 145 were downregulated by LPS, 297 by CBD+LPS and 149 by THC+LPS, by 2-fold or more (p≤0.005). Results clearly link the effects of CBD and THC to inflammatory signaling pathways and identify new cannabinoid targets in the MAPK pathway (Dusp1, Dusp8, Dusp2), cell cycle related (Cdkn2b, Gadd45a) as well as JAK/STAT regulatory molecules (Socs3, Cish, Stat1). The impact of CBD on LPS-stimulated gene expression was greater than that of THC. We attribute this difference to the fact that CBD highly upregulated several genes encoding negative regulators of both NFκB and AP-1 transcriptional activities, such as Trib3 and Dusp1 known to be modulated through Nrf2 activation. The CBD-specific expression profile reflected changes associated with oxidative stress and glutathione depletion via Trib3 and expression of ATF4 target genes. Furthermore, the CBD affected genes were shown to be controlled by nuclear factors usually involved in regulation of stress response and inflammation, mainly via Nrf2/Hmox1 axis and the Nrf2/ATF4-Trib3 pathway. These observations indicate that CBD, and less so THC, induce a cellular stress response and

  18. Post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantion immune-mediated cytopenias.

    PubMed

    Tsirigotis, Panagiotis D; Resnick, Igor B; Or, Reuven; Elad, Sharon; Zilberman, Irina; Yoffe, Luba; Levovic, Alexander; Miron, Svetlana; Gesundheit, Benjamin; Slavin, Shimon; Shapira, Michael-Yechiel

    2009-01-01

    Immune-mediated cytopenias after allogeneic stem cell transplantation can be categorized as either alloimmune when host or donor immunity reacts against donor or host elements, respectively, or autoimmune when donor immunity reacts against donor hematopoietic tissue, owing to poorly understood mechanisms that result in severe impairment of central and peripheral tolerance. Immune cytopenias are manifested as monolineage or more rarely as bilineage cytopenias, and are usually mediated through humoral immune mechanisms. On the contrary, immune-mediated pancytopenia is a rare event with only few cases reported in the literature. The exact pathogenesis of immune pancytopenia is not well known although it is possible that cellular immunity may play a significant role. The importance of these syndromes lies in the fact that they can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Differential diagnosis from other causes of post-transplant pancytopenia is of extreme value because these disorders can respond to various treatment modalities.

  19. Mechanism of enhanced responses after combination photodynamic therapy (cPDT) in carcinoma cells involves C/EBP-mediated transcriptional upregulation of the coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO) gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Sanjay; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.

    2013-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with aminolevulinate (ALA) is widely accepted as an effective treatment for superficial carcinomas and pre-cancers. However, PDT is still suboptimal for deeper tumors, mainly due to inadequate ALA penetration and subsequent conversion to PpIX. We are interested in improving the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for deep tumors, using a combination approach (cPDT) in which target protoporphyrin (PpIX) levels are significantly enhanced by differentiation caused by giving Vitamin D or methotrexate (MTX) for 3 days prior to ALAPDT. In LNCaP and MEL cells, a strong correlation between inducible differentiation and expression of C/EBP transcription factors, as well as between differentiation and mRNA levels of CPO (a key heme-synthetic enzyme), indicates the possibility of CPO transcriptional regulation by the C/EBPs. Sequence analysis of the first 1300 base pairs of the murine CPO upstream region revealed 15 consensus C/EBP binding sites. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assays (EMSA) proved that these sites form specific complexes that have strong, moderate or weak affinities for C/EBPs. However, in the context of the full-length CPO promoter, inactivation of any type of site (strong or weak) reduced CPO promoter activity (luciferase assay) to nearly the same extent, suggesting cooperative interactions. A comparative analysis of murine and human CPO promoters revealed possible protein-protein interactions between C/EBPs and several neighboring transcription factors such as NFkB, Sp1, AP-1, CBP/p300 and CREB (an enhanceosome complex). Overall, these results confirm that C/EBP's are important for CPO expression via complex mechanisms which upregulate PpIX and enhance the outcome of cPDT.

  20. Multiple Proteins Mediate IQGAP1-Stimulated Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Mataraza, Jennifer M.; Zhigang, Li; Jeong, Ha-Won; Brown, Matthew D.; Sacks, David B.

    2007-01-01

    Cell migration, a highly complex physiological phenomenon that requires the co-ordinated and tightly regulated function of several proteins, is mediated by a number of signalling pathways. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of cell migration impacts our comprehension of numerous cell functions, ranging from development and immune surveillance to angiogenesis and metastasis. The scaffold protein IQGAP1, which binds multiple proteins and regulates their functions, promotes cell motility. Many of the IQGAP1 binding proteins have been implicated in cell migration. In this study, we employed a multifaceted strategy to identify proteins that contribute to IQGAP1-stimulated cell migration. Using specific IQGAP1 point mutant constructs, an interaction with actin was shown to be essential for IQGAP1 to increase cell migration. In contrast, eliminating the binding of Ca2+/calmodulin, but not Ca2+-free calmodulin, augmented the ability of IQGAP1 to stimulate cell migration. Consistent with these findings, selective inhibition of calmodulin function at the plasma membrane with a specific peptide inhibitor enhanced cell migration mediated by IQGAP1. Interestingly, immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy suggest that localization of Cdc42 at the leading edge is not necessary for maximal migration of epithelial cells. Coupled with the observations that Cdc42 and Rac1 contribute to IQGAP1-stimulated cell migration, these data suggest that IQGAP1 serves as a junction to integrate multiple signalling molecules to facilitate cell migration. PMID:17544257

  1. Secretome identification of immune cell factors mediating metastatic cell homing

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Brian A.; Wu, Jia J.; Azarin, Samira M.; Nanavati, Dhaval; Rao, Shreyas S.; Bushnell, Grace G.; Medicherla, Chaitanya B.; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic cell homing is a complex process mediated in part by diffusible factors secreted from immune cells found at a pre-metastatic niche. We report on connecting secretomics and TRanscriptional Activity CEll aRray (TRACER) data to identify functional paracrine interactions between immune cells and metastatic cells as novel mediators of homing. Metastatic breast cancer mouse models were used to generate a diseased splenocyte conditioned media (D-SCM) containing immune cell secreted factors. MDA-MB-231 metastatic cell activity including cell invasion, migration, transendothelial migration, and proliferation were increased in D-SCM relative to control media. Our D-SCM secretome analysis yielded 144 secreted factor candidates that contribute to increased metastatic cell activity. The functional mediators of homing were identified using MetaCore software to determine interactions between the immune cell secretome and the TRACER-identified active transcription factors within metastatic cells. Among the 5 candidate homing factors identified, haptoglobin was selected and validated in vitro and in vivo as a key mediator of homing. Our studies demonstrate a novel systems biology approach to identify functional signaling factors associated with a cellular phenotype, which provides an enabling tool that complements large-scale protein identification provided by proteomics. PMID:26634905

  2. Structural mechanisms of chaperone mediated protein disaggregation

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The ClpB/Hsp104 and Hsp70 classes of molecular chaperones use ATP hydrolysis to dissociate protein aggregates and complexes, and to move proteins through membranes. ClpB/Hsp104 are members of the AAA+ family of proteins which form ring-shaped hexamers. Loops lining the pore in the ring engage substrate proteins as extended polypeptides. Interdomain rotations and conformational changes in these loops coupled to ATP hydrolysis unfold and pull proteins through the pore. This provides a mechanism that progressively disrupts local secondary and tertiary structure in substrates, allowing these chaperones to dissociate stable aggregates such as β-sheet rich prions or coiled coil SNARE complexes. While the ClpB/Hsp104 mechanism appears to embody a true power-stroke in which an ATP powered conformational change in one protein is directly coupled to movement or structural change in another, the mechanism of force generation by Hsp70s is distinct and less well understood. Both active power-stroke and purely passive mechanisms in which Hsp70 captures spontaneous fluctuations in a substrate have been proposed, while a third proposed mechanism—entropic pulling—may be able to generate forces larger than seen in ATP-driven molecular motors without the conformational coupling required for a power-stroke. The disaggregase activity of these chaperones is required for thermotolerance, but unrestrained protein complex/aggregate dissociation is potentially detrimental. Disaggregating chaperones are strongly auto-repressed, and are regulated by co-chaperones which recruit them to protein substrates and activate the disaggregases via mechanisms involving either sequential transfer of substrate from one chaperone to another and/or simultaneous interaction of substrate with multiple chaperones. By effectively subjecting substrates to multiple levels of selection by multiple chaperones, this may insure that these potent disaggregases are only activated in the appropriate context. PMID

  3. Mechanics of Nascent Cell Adhesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejean, Cecile O.; Schaefer, Andrew W.; Forscher, Paul; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2009-03-01

    Cells have the ability to sense and respond to mechanical and biochemical cues from their environment. In neurons, the binding and restraint of transmembrane cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) can trigger acute periods of axon growth. Preceding growth, the cell must create a stiff mechanical linkage between the CAM and the cytoskeleton. Using holographic optical tweezers, we manipulate CAM-coated beads on the membrane of the cell. We investigate the dynamics of the mechanical properties of this linkage as a function of time, applied force, and CAM density. We find that CAM-coated beads exhibit stochastic intermittent binding to the cytoskeleton. In time, we observed that the adhesions stiffen and their mechanical properties depend on the applied force. Treatment of cells with small molecules that alter cytoskeletal dynamics are used to probe the roles of actin filament assembly and myosin motor activity in adhesion formation.

  4. VZV T cell-mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Adriana; Levin, Myron J

    2010-01-01

    Primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection (varicella) induces VZV-specific antibody and VZV-specific T cell-mediated immunity. T cell-mediated immunity, which is detected within 1-2 weeks after appearance of rash, and consists of both CD4 and CD8 effector and memory T cells, is essential for recovery from varicella. Administration of a varicella vaccine also generates VZV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. The memory cell responses that develop during varicella or after vaccination contribute to protection following re-exposure to VZV. These responses are subsequently boosted either by endogenous re-exposure (silent reactivation of latent virus) or exogenous re-exposure (environmental). VZV-specific T cell-mediated immunity is also necessary to maintain latent VZV in a subclinical state in sensory ganglia. When these responses decline, as occurs with aging or iatrogenic immune suppression, reactivation of VZV leads to herpes zoster. Similarly, the magnitude of these responses early after the onset of herpes zoster correlates with the extent of zoster-associated pain. These essential immune responses are boosted by the VZV vaccine developed to prevent herpes zoster.

  5. In Search of the Molecular Mechanisms Mediating the Inhibitory Effect of the GnRH Antagonist Degarelix on Human Prostate Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Monica; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B.; Patterson, Nathan H.; Chaurand, Pierre; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Degarelix is a gonadrotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor (GnRHR) antagonist used in patients with prostate cancer who need androgen deprivation therapy. GnRHRs have been found in extra-pituitary tissues, including prostate, which may be affected by the GnRH and GnRH analogues used in therapy. The direct effect of degarelix on human prostate cell growth was evaluated. Normal prostate myofibroblast WPMY-1 and epithelial WPE1-NA22 cells, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-1 cells, androgen-independent PC-3 and androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells, as well as VCaP cells derived from a patient with castration-resistant prostate cancer were used. Discriminatory protein and lipid fingerprints of normal, hyperplastic, and cancer cells were generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS). The investigated cell lines express GNRHR1 and GNRHR2 and their endogenous ligands. Degarelix treatment reduced cell viability in all prostate cell lines tested, with the exception of the PC-3 cells; this can be attributed to increased apoptosis, as indicated by increased caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 levels. WPE1-NA22, BPH-1, LNCaP, and VCaP cell viability was not affected by treatment with the GnRH agonists leuprolide and goserelin. Using MALDI MS, we detected changes in m/z signals that were robust enough to create a complete discriminatory profile induced by degarelix. Transcriptomic analysis of BPH-1 cells provided a global map of genes affected by degarelix and indicated that the biological processes affected were related to cell growth, G-coupled receptors, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, angiogenesis and cell adhesion. Taken together, these data demonstrate that (i) the GnRH antagonist degarelix exerts a direct effect on prostate cell growth through apoptosis; (ii) MALDI MS analysis provided a basis to fingerprint degarelix-treated prostate cells; and (iii) the clusters of genes affected by degarelix suggest that

  6. Fibronectin on the Surface of Myeloma Cell-derived Exosomes Mediates Exosome-Cell Interactions.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, Anurag; Bandari, Shyam Kumar; Liu, Jian; Mobley, James A; Brown, Elizabeth E; Sanderson, Ralph D

    2016-01-22

    Exosomes regulate cell behavior by binding to and delivering their cargo to target cells; however, the mechanisms mediating exosome-cell interactions are poorly understood. Heparan sulfates on target cell surfaces can act as receptors for exosome uptake, but the ligand for heparan sulfate on exosomes has not been identified. Using exosomes isolated from myeloma cell lines and from myeloma patients, we identify exosomal fibronectin as a key heparan sulfate-binding ligand and mediator of exosome-cell interactions. We discovered that heparan sulfate plays a dual role in exosome-cell interaction; heparan sulfate on exosomes captures fibronectin, and on target cells it acts as a receptor for fibronectin. Removal of heparan sulfate from the exosome surface releases fibronectin and dramatically inhibits exosome-target cell interaction. Antibody specific for the Hep-II heparin-binding domain of fibronectin blocks exosome interaction with tumor cells or with marrow stromal cells. Regarding exosome function, fibronectin-mediated binding of exosomes to myeloma cells activated p38 and pERK signaling and expression of downstream target genes DKK1 and MMP-9, two molecules that promote myeloma progression. Antibody against fibronectin inhibited the ability of myeloma-derived exosomes to stimulate endothelial cell invasion. Heparin or heparin mimetics including Roneparstat, a modified heparin in phase I trials in myeloma patients, significantly inhibited exosome-cell interactions. These studies provide the first evidence that fibronectin binding to heparan sulfate mediates exosome-cell interactions, revealing a fundamental mechanism important for exosome-mediated cross-talk within tumor microenvironments. Moreover, these results imply that therapeutic disruption of fibronectin-heparan sulfate interactions will negatively impact myeloma tumor growth and progression.

  7. Fibronectin on the Surface of Myeloma Cell-derived Exosomes Mediates Exosome-Cell Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    Purushothaman, Anurag; Bandari, Shyam Kumar; Liu, Jian; Mobley, James A.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Sanderson, Ralph D.

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes regulate cell behavior by binding to and delivering their cargo to target cells; however, the mechanisms mediating exosome-cell interactions are poorly understood. Heparan sulfates on target cell surfaces can act as receptors for exosome uptake, but the ligand for heparan sulfate on exosomes has not been identified. Using exosomes isolated from myeloma cell lines and from myeloma patients, we identify exosomal fibronectin as a key heparan sulfate-binding ligand and mediator of exosome-cell interactions. We discovered that heparan sulfate plays a dual role in exosome-cell interaction; heparan sulfate on exosomes captures fibronectin, and on target cells it acts as a receptor for fibronectin. Removal of heparan sulfate from the exosome surface releases fibronectin and dramatically inhibits exosome-target cell interaction. Antibody specific for the Hep-II heparin-binding domain of fibronectin blocks exosome interaction with tumor cells or with marrow stromal cells. Regarding exosome function, fibronectin-mediated binding of exosomes to myeloma cells activated p38 and pERK signaling and expression of downstream target genes DKK1 and MMP-9, two molecules that promote myeloma progression. Antibody against fibronectin inhibited the ability of myeloma-derived exosomes to stimulate endothelial cell invasion. Heparin or heparin mimetics including Roneparstat, a modified heparin in phase I trials in myeloma patients, significantly inhibited exosome-cell interactions. These studies provide the first evidence that fibronectin binding to heparan sulfate mediates exosome-cell interactions, revealing a fundamental mechanism important for exosome-mediated cross-talk within tumor microenvironments. Moreover, these results imply that therapeutic disruption of fibronectin-heparan sulfate interactions will negatively impact myeloma tumor growth and progression. PMID:26601950

  8. Molecular mechanism of statin-mediated LOX-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Biocca, Silvia; Iacovelli, Federico; Matarazzo, Sara; Vindigni, Giulia; Oteri, Francesco; Desideri, Alessandro; Falconi, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    Statins are largely used in clinics in the treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases for their effect on lowering circulating cholesterol. Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LOX-1), the primary receptor for ox-LDL, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders. We have recently shown that chronic exposure of cells to lovastatin disrupts LOX-1 receptor cluster distribution in plasma membranes, leading to a marked loss of LOX-1 function. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism of statin-mediated LOX-1 inhibition and we demonstrate that all tested statins are able to displace the binding of fluorescent ox-LDL to LOX-1 by a direct interaction with LOX-1 receptors in a cell-based binding assay. Molecular docking simulations confirm the interaction and indicate that statins completely fill the hydrophobic tunnel that crosses the C-type lectin-like (CTLD) recognition domain of LOX-1. Classical molecular dynamics simulation technique applied to the LOX-1 CTLD, considered in the entire receptor structure with or without a statin ligand inside the tunnel, indicates that the presence of a ligand largely increases the dimer stability. Electrophoretic separation and western blot confirm that different statins binding stabilize the dimer assembly of LOX-1 receptors in vivo. The simulative and experimental results allow us to propose a CTLD clamp motion, which enables the receptor-substrate coupling. These findings reveal a novel and significant functional effect of statins.

  9. Cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica radix on human colon (HT29) and gastric (MKN45) cancer cells mediated through oxidative and apoptotic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, S; Moradzadeh, M; Mousavi, S H; Sadeghnia, H R

    2016-10-15

    Defects in the apoptotic pathways are responsible for both the colorectal cancer pathogenesis and resistance to therapy. In this study, we examined the level of cellular oxidants, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by hydroalcoholic extract of U. dioica radix (0-2000 µg/mL) and oxaliplatin (0-1000 µg/mL, as positive control) in human gastric (MKN45) and colon (HT29) cancer, as well as normal human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells. Exposure to U. dioica or oxaliplatin showed a concentration dependent suppression in cell survival with IC50 values of 24.7, 249.9 and 857.5 µg/mL for HT29, MKN45 and HFF cells after 72 h treatment, respectively. ROS formation and lipid peroxidation were also concentration-dependently increased following treatment with U. dioica, similar to oxaliplatin. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells significantly increased concomitantly with concentration of U. dioica as compared with control cells, which is similar to oxaliplatin and serum-deprived cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that U. dioica inhibited proliferation of gastric and colorectal cancer cells while posing no significant toxic effect on normal cells. U. dioica not only increased levels of oxidants, but also induced concomitant increase of apoptosis. The precise signaling pathway by which U. dioica induce apoptosis needs further research.

  10. Human vascular smooth muscle cells undergo vesicle-mediated calcification in response to changes in extracellular calcium and phosphate concentrations: a potential mechanism for accelerated vascular calcification in ESRD.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Joanne L; Joannides, Alexis J; Skepper, Jeremy N; McNair, Rosamund; Schurgers, Leon J; Proudfoot, Diane; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Weissberg, Peter L; Shanahan, Catherine M

    2004-11-01

    Patients with ESRD have a high circulating calcium (Ca) x phosphate (P) product and develop extensive vascular calcification that may contribute to their high cardiovascular morbidity. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying vascular calcification in this context are poorly understood. In an in vitro model, elevated Ca or P induced human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification independently and synergistically, a process that was potently inhibited by serum. Calcification was initiated by release from living VSMC of membrane-bound matrix vesicles (MV) and also by apoptotic bodies from dying cells. Vesicles released by VSMC after prolonged exposure to Ca and P contained preformed basic calcium phosphate and calcified extensively. However, vesicles released in the presence of serum did not contain basic calcium phosphate, co-purified with the mineralization inhibitor fetuin-A and calcified minimally. Importantly, MV released under normal physiologic conditions did not calcify, and VSMC were also able to inhibit the spontaneous precipitation of Ca and P in solution. The potent mineralization inhibitor matrix Gla protein was found to be present in MV, and pretreatment of VSMC with warfarin markedly enhanced vesicle calcification. These data suggest that in the context of raised Ca and P, vascular calcification is a modifiable, cell-mediated process regulated by vesicle release. These vesicles contain mineralization inhibitors derived from VSMC and serum, and perturbation of the production or function of these inhibitors would lead to accelerated vascular calcification.

  11. Mechanisms of gut microbiota-mediated bone remodeling.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Takakura, Ayumi; Zandi-Nejad, Kambiz; Charles, Julia F

    2017-09-29

    The mechanisms underlying the systemic effects mediated by gut microbiota are under active investigation. In addition to local, direct effects of gut microbiota on the host, metabolic products from microbiota may act peripherally, reaching distal organs through the circulation. In our recent publication we demonstrated that gut microbiota influence bone remodeling distally, promoting both bone resorption and formation. We proposed that these effects are mediated, at least in part, by the induction of insulin like growth factor (IGF-1) by the microbiota metabolite short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Here we explore additional mechanisms by which microbial metabolites could directly or indirectly alter host bone remodeling. We discuss whether SCFA directly modulate bone resorption by their actions on osteoclasts, and test the possibility that serotonin is another gut microbiota derived long-distance mediator of effects on bone remodeling. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms of microbiota effect on bone remodeling could help establish potential therapeutic strategies to promote bone health.

  12. Immunological Mechanisms Mediating Hantavirus Persistence in Rodent Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Easterbrook, Judith D.; Klein, Sabra L.

    2008-01-01

    Hantaviruses, similar to several emerging zoonotic viruses, persistently infect their natural reservoir hosts, without causing overt signs of disease. Spillover to incidental human hosts results in morbidity and mortality mediated by excessive proinflammatory and cellular immune responses. The mechanisms mediating the persistence of hantaviruses and the absence of clinical symptoms in rodent reservoirs are only starting to be uncovered. Recent studies indicate that during hantavirus infection, proinflammatory and antiviral responses are reduced and regulatory responses are elevated at sites of increased virus replication in rodents. The recent discovery of structural and non-structural proteins that suppress type I interferon responses in humans suggests that immune responses in rodent hosts could be mediated directly by the virus. Alternatively, several host factors, including sex steroids, glucocorticoids, and genetic factors, are reported to alter host susceptibility and may contribute to persistence of hantaviruses in rodents. Humans and reservoir hosts differ in infection outcomes and in immune responses to hantavirus infection; thus, understanding the mechanisms mediating viral persistence and the absence of disease in rodents may provide insight into the prevention and treatment of disease in humans. Consideration of the coevolutionary mechanisms mediating hantaviral persistence and rodent host survival is providing insight into the mechanisms by which zoonotic viruses have remained in the environment for millions of years and continue to be transmitted to humans. PMID:19043585

  13. Acetylcholine released by endothelial cells facilitates flow‐mediated dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Calum; Lee, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The endothelium plays a pivotal role in the vascular response to chemical and mechanical stimuli.The endothelium is exquisitely sensitive to ACh, although the physiological significance of ACh‐induced activation of the endothelium is unknown.In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of flow‐mediated endothelial calcium signalling.Our data establish that flow‐mediated endothelial calcium responses arise from the autocrine action of non‐neuronal ACh released by the endothelium. Abstract Circulating blood generates frictional forces (shear stress) on the walls of blood vessels. These frictional forces critically regulate vascular function. The endothelium senses these frictional forces and, in response, releases various vasodilators that relax smooth muscle cells in a process termed flow‐mediated dilatation. Although some elements of the signalling mechanisms have been identified, precisely how flow is sensed and transduced to cause the release of relaxing factors is poorly understood. By imaging signalling in large areas of the endothelium of intact arteries, we show that the endothelium responds to flow by releasing ACh. Once liberated, ACh acts to trigger calcium release from the internal store in endothelial cells, nitric oxide production and artery relaxation. Flow‐activated release of ACh from the endothelium is non‐vesicular and occurs via organic cation transporters. ACh is generated following mitochondrial production of acetylCoA. Thus, we show ACh is an autocrine signalling molecule released from endothelial cells, and identify a new role for the classical neurotransmitter in endothelial mechanotransduction. PMID:27730645

  14. Multiple mechanisms mediate aluminum kinetics and neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Provan, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting that calcium (Ca) and membrane Ca-regulating systems may influence the kinetics and neurotoxicity of aluminum (Al). These interactions likely occur at the membrane level under physiological conditions. To more fully examine these mechanisms, the hypothesis that Al would interact with membranes under physiological conditions was tested. The results suggest that Al, under these conditions, could interact with and traverse biological membranes. A biological membrane model was used to test the hypothesis that Al interacts with an intestinal Ca transporting system. To evaluate the effects of a Ca deficient diet on Al absorption, rats were maintained on a Ca-deficient or Ca-replete diet for up to four weeks. A modified in situ preparations was prepared. Rats maintained on the Ca-deficient diet exhibited a more rapid disappearance rate from the gut and greater extent of absorption into the portal blood. To evaluate Al distribution, rats were injected with Al and maintained on the above diets for four weeks. There was generally more Al in the tissues of rats maintained on a Ca-deficient diet with the exception of heart and muscle. More Al accumulated within the hippocampus than the cerebral cortex in those rats fed a Ca-deficient diet and injected with 400 {mu}mol Al/kg. The release of radiolabeled glutamate from transverse, rat hippocampal slices was used as a model of Al neurotoxicity.

  15. Mast Cell-Derived Histamine Mediates Cystitis Pain

    PubMed Central

    Rudick, Charles N.; Bryce, Paul J.; Guichelaar, Laura A.; Berry, Ruth E.; Klumpp, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Mast cells trigger inflammation that is associated with local pain, but the mechanisms mediating pain are unclear. Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a bladder disease that causes debilitating pelvic pain of unknown origin and without consistent inflammation, but IC symptoms correlate with elevated bladder lamina propria mast cell counts. We hypothesized that mast cells mediate pelvic pain directly and examined pain behavior using a murine model that recapitulates key aspects of IC. Methods and Findings Infection of mice with pseudorabies virus (PRV) induces a neurogenic cystitis associated with lamina propria mast cell accumulation dependent upon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), TNF-mediated bladder barrier dysfunction, and pelvic pain behavior, but the molecular basis for pelvic pain is unknown. In this study, both PRV-induced pelvic pain and bladder pathophysiology were abrogated in mast cell-deficient mice but were restored by reconstitution with wild type bone marrow. Pelvic pain developed normally in TNF- and TNF receptor-deficient mice, while bladder pathophysiology was abrogated. Conversely, genetic or pharmacologic disruption of histamine receptor H1R or H2R attenuated pelvic pain without altering pathophysiology. Conclusions These data demonstrate that mast cells promote cystitis pain and bladder pathophysiology through the separable actions of histamine and TNF, respectively. Therefore, pain is independent of pathology and inflammation, and histamine receptors represent direct therapeutic targets for pain in IC and other chronic pain conditions. PMID:18461160

  16. Mechanisms of peripheral T-cell tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lechler, R; Marelli-Berg, F M

    1997-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the control of self-reactivity involves peripheral mechanisms that supplement thymic negative selection. It is now generally accepted that T-cell activation depends upon both T-cell receptor engagement and the delivery of B7-mediated costimulation by specialized antigen presenting cells (APC). In contrast, failure to deliver B7-mediated costimulation can result in the induction of antigen-specific non-responsiveness. In physiological terms, costimulation-deficient antigen presentation is the prerogative of those cells that do not express B7 molecules, even during inflammatory conditions, such as tissue parenchymal cells. The consequences of such costimulation-deficient antigen presentation are illustrated by the allospecific tolerance that is observed in animal models of transplantation following the depletion of bone marrow-derived APC from an allograft. In this paper the possible role of antigen presentation by tissue parenchymal cells in the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance is discussed, with particular attention to the important contribution that the liver may make to these events.

  17. PERK-mediated Autophagy in Osteosarcoma Cells Resists ER Stress-induced Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Guang-rong; Yu, Nai-chun; Xue, Xiang; Li, Zong-guang

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a bone cancer that develops commonly in children and adolescents. However, osteosarcoma treatments often fail by the development of chemoresistance to apoptosis, and the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we propose that autophagy is responsible for osteosarcomatous resistance to apoptosis. We implicate PERK-mediated autophagy as a significant contributor to apoptosis resistance due to ER stress in osteosarcoma cells. By immunostainings and western blots, we identified that PERK activated osteosarcomatous autophagy via inhibiting mTORC1 pathway, thereby preventing cell apoptosis. While using RNAi, we knocked down PERK and found that autophagy was suppressed, result in osteosarcomatous apoptosis. Our results identify a novel role of PERK-mediated autophagy as a significant mechanism for osteosarcoma cell survival. These results will help to understand the mechanism of chemoresistance in osteosarcoma cells, and indicate a novel target for improving osteosarcoma therapy. PMID:26078722

  18. PERK-mediated Autophagy in Osteosarcoma Cells Resists ER Stress-induced Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Guang-rong; Yu, Nai-chun; Xue, Xiang; Li, Zong-guang

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a bone cancer that develops commonly in children and adolescents. However, osteosarcoma treatments often fail by the development of chemoresistance to apoptosis, and the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we propose that autophagy is responsible for osteosarcomatous resistance to apoptosis. We implicate PERK-mediated autophagy as a significant contributor to apoptosis resistance due to ER stress in osteosarcoma cells. By immunostainings and western blots, we identified that PERK activated osteosarcomatous autophagy via inhibiting mTORC1 pathway, thereby preventing cell apoptosis. While using RNAi, we knocked down PERK and found that autophagy was suppressed, result in osteosarcomatous apoptosis. Our results identify a novel role of PERK-mediated autophagy as a significant mechanism for osteosarcoma cell survival. These results will help to understand the mechanism of chemoresistance in osteosarcoma cells, and indicate a novel target for improving osteosarcoma therapy.

  19. Redox polymer mediation for enzymatic biofuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallaway, Joshua

    Mediated biocatalytic cathodes prepared from the oxygen-reducing enzyme laccase and redox-conducting osmium hydrogels were characterized for use as cathodes in enzymatic biofuel cells. A series of osmium-based redox polymers was synthesized with redox potentials spanning the range from 0.11 V to 0.85 V (SHE), and the resulting biocatalytic electrodes were modeled to determine reaction kinetic constants using the current response, measured osmium concentration, and measured apparent electron diffusion. As in solution-phase systems, the bimolecular rate constant for mediation was found to vary greatly with mediator potential---from 250 s-1M-1 when mediator and enzyme were close in potential to 9.4 x 10 4 s-1M-1 when this overpotential was large. Optimum mediator potential for a cell operating with a non-limiting platinum anode and having no mass transport limitation from bulk solution was found to be 0.66 V (SHE). Redox polymers were synthesized under different concentrations, producing osmium variation. An increase from 6.6% to 7.2% osmium increased current response from 1.2 to 2.1 mA/cm2 for a planar film in 40°C oxygen-saturated pH 4 buffer, rotating at 900 rpm. These results translated to high surface area electrodes, nearly doubling current density to 13 mA/cm2, the highest to date for such an electrode. The typical fungal laccase from Trametes versicolor was replaced by a bacterially-expressed small laccase from Streptomyces coelicolor, resulting in biocatalytic films that reduced oxygen at increased pH, with full functionality at pH 7, producing 1.5 mA/cm 2 in planar configuration. Current response was biphasic with pH, matching the activity profile of the free enzyme in solution. The mediated enzyme electrode system was modeled with respect to apparent electron diffusion, mediator concentration, and transport of oxygen from bulk solution, all of which are to some extent controlled by design. Each factor was found to limit performance in certain circumstances

  20. Ageing and cell-mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Fixa, B; Komárková, O; Chmelar, V

    1975-01-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test with phytohemagglutinin as mitogen estimated according to the incorporation of 2-(14)C-thymidine in DNA was used as an indicator of cell-mediated reactivity in 53 healthy subjects. Three age groups were examined: up to 20 years (21 subjects), 21-40 years (10 subjects) and over 70 years (22 subjects). The responsiveness of lymphocytes decreased significantly with age. In the highest age group 12 pathologically low values were found.

  1. The mechanics of cell crawling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolgemuth, Charles; Mogilner, Alex; Oster, George

    2004-03-01

    Crawling eukaryotic cells play many roles in biology. White blood cells chemotactically track down pathogens. Fibroblasts crawl and pull skin back together during wound healing. Cancer cells become metastatic and migrate to other points in the body. Therefore, understanding the physical mechanism driving crawling motility is very important. In crawling cells, a polymer meshwork, usually composed of actin filaments, provides both the structural integrity of the cell and is reponsible for the force production during migration. We present a theory that describes the dynamics of this actin gel and apply it to the crawling motility of nematode sperm cells. This model maintains the shape of the cell during crawling as occurs during the migration of Ascaris suum spermatozoa and also produces forces comparable to what has been measured in other crawling cells.

  2. Potential crosstalk of Ca2+-ROS-dependent mechanism involved in apoptosis of Kasumi-1 cells mediated by heme oxygenase-1 small interfering RNA.

    PubMed

    Wei, Sixi; Wang, Yating; Chai, Qixiang; Fang, Qin; Zhang, Yaming; Wang, Jishi

    2014-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) requires new therapies on the molecular level. Downregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by gene silencing improves the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapy drugs and promotes apoptosis. For the first time, we verified that endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways were activated by small interfering RNA that targeted-silenced the expression of HO-1 in AML-M2 Kasumi-1 cells. Ca2+ was prone to accumulation and reactive oxygen species were easily generated, while mitochondrial transmembrane potential was reduced. Thus, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to the cytoplasm and caspases were activated for the following cascade to facilitate apoptosis.

  3. Oxidative stress-mediated, post-translational loss of MafA protein as a contributing mechanism to loss of insulin gene expression in glucotoxic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jamie S; Stein, Roland; Robertson, R Paul

    2005-03-25

    Glucose toxicity in pancreatic islet beta cells causes loss of insulin gene expression, content, and secretion due to loss of binding of transcription factors, most notably PDX-1 and RIPE-3b1 activator, to the promoter region of the insulin gene. Recently, RIPE-3b1 activator was cloned and identified as the mammalian homologue of avian MafA/Maf-L (MafA). This enabled us to carry out more extensive studies of the role of MafA in glucotoxicity than were hitherto possible. Northern analysis of glucotoxic HIT-T15 cells revealed normal amounts of MafA mRNA, but Western analysis demonstrated a 97 +/- 1% reduction in MafA protein (p < 0.0001). The proteasome is a likely site for MafA degradation as lactacystin, an irreversible proteasome inhibitor, caused an accumulation of MafA protein. Antioxidants have previously been shown to prevent the adverse effects of glucose toxicity on beta cell function both in vivo and in vitro. In the current study, chronic culturing of HIT-T15 cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prevented loss of MafA protein (late passage = 18.9 +/- 10.4% of early passage, p < 0.001; late passage with NAC = 68.7 +/- 19.7% of early passage, p = not significant) and loss of DNA binding (late passage = 63.7 +/- 9% of early passage, p < 0.02; late passage with NAC = 116 +/- 10% of early passage, p = not significant). Additionally, transient transfection of PDX-1 or MafA cDNA into glucotoxic cells increased PDX-1 and MafA protein levels and individually increased insulin promoter activity (untreated = 34%, PDX-1 = 70%, MafA = 78%; percentage of activity of early passage cells), whereas the combined transfection of MafA and PDX-1 completely restored insulin promoter activity. This recovery of promoter activity following transient transfection had no effect on endogenous insulin mRNA. However, adenoviral infection of MafA and PDX-1 significantly increased endogenous insulin mRNA levels by 93% (121 +/- 9 versus 233 +/- 18 density light units; n = 5

  4. The Effect of Class II Major Histocompatibility Complex Expression on Adherence of Helicobacter pylori and Induction of Apoptosis in Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Mechanism for T Helper Cell Type 1–mediated Damage

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xuejun; Crowe, Sheila E.; Behar, Simon; Gunasena, Harshani; Ye, Gang; Haeberle, Helene; Van Houten, Nancy; Gourley, William K.; Ernst, Peter B.; Reyes, Victor E.

    1998-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastric epithelial damage, including apoptosis, ulceration, and cancer. Although bacterial factors and the host response are believed to contribute to gastric disease, no receptor has been identified that explains how the bacteria attach and signal the host cell to undergo apoptosis. Using H. pylori as “bait” to capture receptor proteins in solubilized membranes of gastric epithelial cells, class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules were identified as a possible receptor. Signaling through class II MHC molecules leading to the induction of apoptosis was confirmed using cross-linking IgM antibodies to surface class II MHC molecules. Moreover, binding of H. pylori and the induction of apoptosis were inhibited by antibodies recognizing class II MHC. Since type 1 T helper cells are present during infection and produce interferon (IFN)-γ, which increases class II MHC expression, gastric epithelial cell lines were exposed to H. pylori in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. IFN-γ increased the attachment of the bacteria as well as the induction of apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells. In contrast to MHC II–negative cell lines, H. pylori induced apoptosis in cells expressing class II MHC molecules constitutively or after gene transfection. These data describe a novel receptor for H. pylori and provide a mechanism by which bacteria and the host response interact in the pathogenesis of gastric epithelial cell damage. PMID:9584144

  5. Single-cell force spectroscopy of pili-mediated adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullan, Ruby May A.; Beaussart, Audrey; Tripathi, Prachi; Derclaye, Sylvie; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Li, James K.; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-12-01

    Although bacterial pili are known to mediate cell adhesion to a variety of substrates, the molecular interactions behind this process are poorly understood. We report the direct measurement of the forces guiding pili-mediated adhesion, focusing on the medically important probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). Using non-invasive single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS), we quantify the adhesion forces between individual bacteria and biotic (mucin, intestinal cells) or abiotic (hydrophobic monolayers) surfaces. On hydrophobic surfaces, bacterial pili strengthen adhesion through remarkable nanospring properties, which - presumably - enable the bacteria to resist high shear forces under physiological conditions. On mucin, nanosprings are more frequent and adhesion forces larger, reflecting the influence of specific pili-mucin bonds. Interestingly, these mechanical responses are no longer observed on human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Rather, force curves exhibit constant force plateaus with extended ruptures reflecting the extraction of membrane nanotethers. These single-cell analyses provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms by which piliated bacteria colonize surfaces (nanosprings, nanotethers), and offer exciting avenues in nanomedicine for understanding and controlling the adhesion of microbial cells (probiotics, pathogens).

  6. Drosophila neurotactin mediates heterophilic cell adhesion.

    PubMed Central

    Barthalay, Y; Hipeau-Jacquotte, R; de la Escalera, S; Jiménez, F; Piovant, M

    1990-01-01

    Neurotactin is a 135 kd membrane glycoprotein which consists of a core protein, with an apparent molecular weight of 120 kd, and of N-linked oligosaccharides. In vivo, the protein can be phosphorylated in presence of radioactive orthophosphate. Neurotactin expression in the larval CNS and in primary embryonic cell cultures suggests that it behaves as a contact molecule between neurons or epithelial cells. Electron microscopy studies reveal that neurotactin is uniformly expressed along the areas of contacts between cells, without, however, being restricted to a particular type of junction. It putative adhesive properties have been tested by transfecting non adhesive Drosophila S2 cells with neurotactin cDNA. Heat shocked transfected cells do not aggregate, suggesting that neurotactin does not mediate homophilic cell adhesion. However, these transfected cells bind to a subpopulation of embryonic cells which probably possess a related ligand. The location at cellular junctions between specific neurons or epithelial cells, the heterophilic binding to a putative ligand and the ability to be phosphorylated are consistent with the suggestion that neurotactin functions as an adhesion molecule. Images Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3 Fig.4 Fig.5 PMID:2120048

  7. Nature of "memory" in T-cell-mediated antibacterial immunity: anamnestic production of mediator T cells.

    PubMed Central

    North, R J

    1975-01-01

    Mice that survived an immunizing infection with Listeria monocytogenes remained specifically resistant to lethal secondary infection for several months. This acquired, long-lived state of resistance was not dependent on activated macrophages that remained after the primary response. It depended, instead, on an acquired long-lived capacity on the part of immunized mice for generating mediator T cells faster and in larger numbers than normal mice. The number of mediator T cells generated in response to secondary infection was proportional to the level of infection. The results suggest that the accelerated production of mediator T cells that occurs in response to secondary infection represents the expression of a state of immunological T-cell memory. PMID:811558

  8. Non-small cell lung cancer-derived soluble mediators enhance apoptosis in activated T lymphocytes through an I kappa B kinase-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Batra, Raj K; Lin, Ying; Sharma, Sherven; Dohadwala, Mariam; Luo, Jie; Pold, Mehis; Dubinett, Steven M

    2003-02-01

    T lymphocyte survival is critical for the development and maintenance of an effective host antitumor immune response; however, the tumor environment can negatively impact T-cell survival. Lymphocytes exposed to tumor supernatants (TSNs) were evaluated for apoptosis after mitogen stimulation. TSN was observed to significantly enhance phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin- and anti-CD3-stimulated lymphocyte apoptosis. Enhanced lymphocyte apoptosis was associated with an impairment of nuclear factor kappa B nuclear translocation and diminished I kappa B alpha degradation. In lymphocytes stimulated after exposure to TSNs, cytoplasmic I kappa B alpha persisted as a result of alterations in I kappa B kinase (IKK) activity. Accordingly, although there were no apparent differences in IKK component concentrations, lymphocytes preexposed to TSNs exhibited markedly reduced IKK activity. We conclude that non-small cell lung cancer-derived soluble factors promote apoptosis in activated lymphocytes by an IKK-dependent pathway.

  9. The adaptor protein GULP promotes Jedi-1-mediated phagocytosis through a clathrin-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Chelsea S; Scheib, Jami L; Ma, Zhong; Dang, Rajan P; Schafer, Johanna M; Hickman, Francis E; Brodsky, Frances M; Ravichandran, Kodi S; Carter, Bruce D

    2014-06-15

    During the development of the peripheral nervous system, the large number of apoptotic neurons generated are phagocytosed by glial precursor cells. This clearance is mediated, in part, through the mammalian engulfment receptor Jedi-1. However, the mechanisms by which Jedi-1 mediates phagocytosis are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Jedi-1 associates with GULP, the mammalian homologue of CED-6, an adaptor protein required for phagocytosis mediated by the nematode engulfment receptor CED-1. Silencing GULP or mutating the NPXY motif in Jedi-1, which is required for GULP binding, prevents Jedi-1-mediated phagocytosis. How GULP promotes engulfment is not known. Of interest, we find that Jedi-1-induced phagocytosis requires GULP binding to clathrin heavy chain (CHC). During engulfment, CHC is tyrosine phosphorylated, which is required for Jedi-mediated engulfment. Both phosphoclathrin and actin accumulate around engulfed microspheres. Furthermore, knockdown of CHC in HeLa cells prevents Jedi-1-mediated engulfment of microspheres, and knockdown in glial precursors prevents the engulfment of apoptotic neurons. Taken together, these results reveal that Jedi-1 signals through recruitment of GULP, which promotes phagocytosis through a noncanonical phosphoclathrin-dependent mechanism. © 2014 Sullivan et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. Anaphylaxis: mechanisms of mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Kalesnikoff, Janet; Galli, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a severe systemic allergic response that is rapid in onset and potentially lethal, and that typically is induced by an otherwise innocuous substance. In IgE-dependent and other examples of anaphylaxis, tissue mast cells and circulating basophilic granulocytes (basophils) are thought to represent major (if not the major) sources of the biologically active mediators that contribute to the pathology and, in unfortunate individuals, fatal outcome, of anaphylaxis. In this chapter, we will describe the mechanisms of mast cell (and basophil) activation in anaphylaxis, with a focus on IgE-dependent activation, which is thought to be responsible for most examples of antigen-induced anaphylaxis in humans. We will also discuss the use of mouse models to investigate the mechanisms that can contribute to anaphylaxis in that species in vivo, and the relevance of such mouse studies to human anaphylaxis. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. BK channels mediate a novel ionic mechanism that regulates glucose-dependent electrical activity and insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Houamed, Khaled M; Sweet, Ian R; Satin, Leslie S

    2010-01-01

    BK channels are large unitary conductance K+ channels cooperatively activated by intracellular calcium and membrane depolarisation. We show that BK channels regulate electrical activity in β-cells of mouse pancreatic islets exposed to elevated glucose. In 11.1 mm glucose, the non-peptidyl BK channel blocker paxilline increased the height of β-cell action potentials (APs) by 21 mV without affecting burst- or silent-period durations. In isolated β-cells, paxilline increased AP height by 16 mV without affecting resting membrane potential. In voltage clamp, paxilline blocked a transient component of outward current activated by a short depolarisation, which accounted for at least 90% of the initial outward K+ current. This BK current (IBK) was blocked by the Ca2+ channel blockers Cd2+ (200 μm) or nimodipine (1 μm), and potentiated by FPL-64176 (1 μm). IBK was also 56% blocked by the BK channel blocker iberiotoxin (100 nm). IBK activated more than 10-fold faster than the delayed rectifier IKv over the physiological voltage range, and partially inactivated. An AP-like command revealed that IBK activated and deactivated faster than IKv and accounted for 86% of peak IK, explaining why IBK block increased AP height. A higher amplitude AP-like command, patterned on an AP recorded in 11.1 mm glucose plus paxilline, activated 4-fold more IKv and significantly increased Ca2+ entry. Paxilline increased insulin secretion in islets exposed to 11.1 mm glucose by 67%, but did not affect basal secretion in 2.8 mm glucose. These data suggest a modified model of β-cell AP generation where IBK and IKv coordinate the AP repolarisation. PMID:20643769

  12. Proteasome inhibitor MG-132 enhances histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA-induced cell death of chronic myeloid leukemia cells by an ROS-mediated mechanism and downregulation of the Bcr-Abl fusion protein

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, WENJING; ZHU, WEIWEI; MA, LIYA; XIAO, FENG; QIAN, WENBIN

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been progress in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, novel therapeutic strategies are required in order to address the emerging problem of imatinib resistance. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and proteasome inhibitors are promising alternatives, and may be amenable to integration with current therapeutic approaches. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these two agents remain unclear. The present study assessed the cytotoxic effect of the HDACi, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), in combination with the proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, in imatinib-sensitive K562 and imatinib-resistant K562G cells, and investigated the mechanism underlying this effect. Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and protein expression levels were determined by western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation levels were observed under a fluorescence microscope The results indicated that SAHA and MG-132 act in a synergistic manner to induce cell death in K562 and K562G cells. This effect was associated with Bcr-Abl downregulation and the production of ROS. Notably, the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, almost fully reversed the cell death and Bcr-Abl downregulation that was induced by the combination of SAHA and MG-132. By contrast, the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, only partially reversed the cell death induced by these two drugs in CML cells. These results indicated that increased intracellular ROS levels are important in the induction of cell death and the downregulation of Bcr-Abl. In conclusion, the present results suggested that combined SAHA and MG-132 may be a promising treatment for CML. PMID:26722260

  13. Dscam-Mediated Cell Recognition Regulates Neural Circuit Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Daisuke; Millard, S. Sean; Wojtowicz, Woj M.; Zipursky, S. Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    The Dscam family of immunoglobulin cell surface proteins mediates recognition events between neurons that play an essential role in the establishment of neural circuits. The Drosophila Dscam1 locus encodes tens of thousands of cell surface proteins via alternative splicing. These isoforms exhibit exquisite isoform-specific binding in vitro that mediates homophilic repulsion in vivo. These properties provide the molecular basis for self-avoidance, an essential developmental mechanism that allows axonal and dendritic processes to uniformly cover their synaptic fields. In a mechanistically similar fashion, homophilic repulsion mediated by Drosophila Dscam2 prevents processes from the same class of cells from occupying overlapping synaptic fields through a process called tiling. Genetic studies in the mouse visual system support the view that vertebrate DSCAM also promotes both self-avoidance and tiling. By contrast, DSCAM and DSCAM-L promote layer-specific targeting in the chick visual system, presumably through promoting homophilic adhesion. The fly and mouse studies underscore the importance of homophilic repulsion in regulating neural circuit assembly, whereas the chick studies suggest that DSCA Mproteins may mediate a variety of different recognition events during wiring in a context-dependent fashion. PMID:18837673

  14. Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: Molecular Mechanisms Mediating Viral Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schleiss, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is responsible for approximately 40,000 congenital infections in the United States each year. Congenital CMV disease frequently produces serious neurodevelopmental disability, as well as vision impairment and sensorineural hearing loss. Development of a CMV vaccine is therefore considered to be a major public health priority. The mechanisms by which CMV injures the fetus are complex and likely include a combination of direct fetal injury induced by pathologic virally-encoded gene products, an inability of the maternal immune response to control infection, and the direct impact of infection on placental function. CMV encodes gene products that function, both at the RNA and the protein level, to interfere with many cellular processes. These include gene products that modify the cell cycle; interfere with apoptosis; induce an inflammatory response; mediate vascular injury; induce site-specific breakage of chromosomes; promote oncogenesis; dysregulate cellular proliferation; and facilitate evasion of host immune responses. This minireview summarizes current concepts regarding these aspects of the molecular virology of CMV and the potential pathogenic impact of viral gene expression on the developing fetus. Areas for potential development of novel therapeutic intervention are suggested for improving the outcome of this disabling congenital infection. PMID:21827434

  15. Distinct Neural Mechanisms Mediate Olfactory Memory Formation at Different Timescales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Ann Marie; Magidson, Phillip D.; Linster, Christiane; Wilson, Donald A.; Cleland, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Habituation is one of the oldest forms of learning, broadly expressed across sensory systems and taxa. Here, we demonstrate that olfactory habituation induced at different timescales (comprising different odor exposure and intertrial interval durations) is mediated by different neural mechanisms. First, the persistence of habituation memory is…

  16. Distinct Neural Mechanisms Mediate Olfactory Memory Formation at Different Timescales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Ann Marie; Magidson, Phillip D.; Linster, Christiane; Wilson, Donald A.; Cleland, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Habituation is one of the oldest forms of learning, broadly expressed across sensory systems and taxa. Here, we demonstrate that olfactory habituation induced at different timescales (comprising different odor exposure and intertrial interval durations) is mediated by different neural mechanisms. First, the persistence of habituation memory is…

  17. Single cell mechanics of keratinocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Lulevich, Valentin; Yang, Hsin-ya; Isseroff, R Rivkah; Liu, Gang-yu

    2010-11-01

    Keratinocytes represent the major cell type of the uppermost layer of human skin, the epidermis. Using AFM-based single cell compression, the ability of individual keratinocytes to resist external pressure and global rupturing forces is investigated and compared with various cell types. Keratinocytes are found to be 6-70 times stiffer than other cell types, such as white blood, breast epithelial, fibroblast, or neuronal cells, and in contrast to other cell types they retain high mechanic strength even after the cell's death. The absence of membrane rupturing peaks in the force-deformation profiles of keratinocytes and their high stiffness during a second load cycle suggests that their unique mechanical resistance is dictated by the cytoskeleton. A simple analytical model enables the quantification of Young's modulus of keratinocyte cytoskeleton, as high as 120-340 Pa. Selective disruption of the two major cytoskeletal networks, actin filaments and microtubules, does not significantly affect keratinocyte mechanics. F-actin is found to impact cell deformation under pressure. During keratinocyte compression, the plasma membrane stretches to form peripheral blebs. Instead of blebbing, cells with depolymerized F-actin respond to pressure by detaching the plasma membrane from the cytoskeleton underneath. On the other hand, the compression force of keratinocytes expressing a mutated keratin (cell line, KEB-7) is 1.6-2.2 times less than that for the control cell line that has normal keratin networks. Therefore, we infer that the keratin intermediate filament network is responsible for the extremely high keratinocyte stiffness and resilience. This could manifest into the rugged protective nature of the human epidermis.

  18. Mechanical tension drives cell membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Ren, Yixin; Ng, Win Pin; Li, Shuo; Son, Sungmin; Kee, Yee-Seir; Zhang, Shiliang; Zhang, Guofeng; Fletcher, Daniel A; Robinson, Douglas N; Chen, Elizabeth H

    2015-03-09

    Membrane fusion is an energy-consuming process that requires tight juxtaposition of two lipid bilayers. Little is known about how cells overcome energy barriers to bring their membranes together for fusion. Previously, we have shown that cell-cell fusion is an asymmetric process in which an "attacking" cell drills finger-like protrusions into the "receiving" cell to promote cell fusion. Here, we show that the receiving cell mounts a Myosin II (MyoII)-mediated mechanosensory response to its invasive fusion partner. MyoII acts as a mechanosensor, which directs its force-induced recruitment to the fusion site, and the mechanosensory response of MyoII is amplified by chemical signaling initiated by cell adhesion molecules. The accumulated MyoII, in turn, increases cortical tension and promotes fusion pore formation. We propose that the protrusive and resisting forces from fusion partners put the fusogenic synapse under high mechanical tension, which helps to overcome energy barriers for membrane apposition and drives cell membrane fusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells adhere to physiologic STAT3- vs STAT5-dependent hematopoietic programming, establishing diverse tumor-mediated mechanisms of immunologic escape.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Peter A; Ko, Jennifer S; Storkus, Walter J; Spencer, Christopher D; Bradley, Judy M; Gorman, Jessica E; McCurry, Dustin B; Zorro-Manrique, Soroya; Dominguez, Anna Lucia; Pathangey, Latha B; Rayman, Patricia A; Rini, Brian I; Gendler, Sandra J; Finke, James H

    2012-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, is astonishingly effective in its capacity to reduce MDSCs in peripheral tissues such as blood (human) and spleen (mouse), restoring responsiveness of bystander T lymphocytes to TcR stimulation. Sunitinib blocks proliferation of undifferentiated MDSCs and decreases survival of more differentiated neutrophilic MDSC (n-MDSC) progeny. Ironically, sunitinib's profound effects are observed even in a total absence of detectable anti-tumor therapeutic response. This is best explained by the presence of disparate MDSC-conditioning stimuli within individual body compartments, allowing sensitivity and resistance to sunitinib to coexist within the same mouse or patient. The presence or absence of GM-CSF is likely the major determinant in each compartment, given that GM-CSF's capacity to preempt STAT3-dependent with dominant STAT5-dependent hematopoietic programming confers sunitinib resistance and redirects differentiation from the n-MDSC lineage to the more versatile monocytoid (m-MDSC) lineage. The clinical sunitinib experience underscores that strategies for MDSC and Treg depletions must be mindful of disparities among body compartments to avoid sanctuary effects. Ironically, m-MDSCs manifesting resistance to sunitinib also have the greatest potential to differentiate into tumoricidal accessory cells, by virtue of their capacity to respond to T cell-secreted IFN-γ or to TLR agonists with nitric oxide and peroxynitrate production.

  20. Calsequestrin-Mediated Mechanism for Cellular Calcium Transient Alternans

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Juan G.; Weiss, James N.; Karma, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Intracellular calcium transient alternans (CTA) has a recognized role in arrhythmogenesis, but its origin is not yet fully understood. Recent models of CTA are based on a steep relationship between calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and its calcium load before release. This mechanism alone, however, does not explain recent observations of CTA without diastolic SR calcium content alternations. In addition, nanoscopic imaging of calcium dynamics has revealed that the elementary calcium release units of the SR can become refractory independently of their local calcium content. Here we show using a new physiologically detailed mathematical model of calcium cycling that luminal gating of the calcium release channels (RyRs) mediated by the luminal buffer calsequestrin (CSQN) can cause CTA independently of the steepness of the release-load relationship. In this complementary mechanism, CTA is caused by a beat-to-beat alternation in the number of refractory RyR channels and can occur with or without diastolic SR calcium content alternans depending on pacing conditions and uptake dynamics. The model has unique features, in that it treats a realistic number of spatially distributed and diffusively coupled dyads, each one with a realistic number of RyR channels, and that luminal CSQN buffering and gating is incorporated based on experimental data that characterizes the effect of the conformational state of CSQN on its buffering properties. In addition to reproducing observed features of CTA, this multiscale model is able to describe recent experiments in which CSQN expression levels were genetically altered as well as to reproduce nanoscopic measurements of spark restitution properties. The ability to link microscopic properties of the calcium release units to whole cell behavior makes this model a powerful tool to investigate the arrhythmogenic role of abnormal calcium handling in many pathological settings. PMID:18676655

  1. Modeling the capture rate by a radially oscillating spherical bubble. A bio-mimetic model for studying the mechanically-mediated uptake by cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raudino, Antonio; Raciti, Domenica; Grassi, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The surface of living cells constitutes a dynamic environment submitted to complex oscillatory motions. Oscillations may modify the uptake of incoming molecules. In this study we explored a bio-mimetic system formed by oscillating bubbles suspended in a sea of randomly distributed diffusants. We investigated by a time-dependent Fokker-Planck equation the effect of the periodic motions on the adsorption of a diffusant onto the moving bubble surface. We introduced both direct interactions between the diffusant and the fluctuating surface and indirect interactions due to the hydrodynamic motions around a vibrating surface. Results are expressed in terms of oscillation frequencies and amplitudes. An overall reduction of the bound diffusant at the bubble surface was observed.

  2. Cell mechanics and the cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Daniel A.; Mullins, R. Dyche

    2010-01-01

    The ability of a eukaryotic cell to resist deformation, to transport intracellular cargo and to change shape during movement depends on the cytoskeleton, an interconnected network of filamentous polymers and regulatory proteins. Recent work has demonstrated that both internal and external physical forces can act through the cytoskeleton to affect local mechanical properties and cellular behaviour. Attention is now focused on how cytoskeletal networks generate, transmit and respond to mechanical signals over both short and long timescales. An important insight emerging from this work is that long-lived cytoskeletal structures may act as epigenetic determinants of cell shape, function and fate. PMID:20110992

  3. Amphiphilic cationic peptides mediate cell adhesion to plastic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rideout, D C; Lambert, M; Kendall, D A; Moe, G R; Osterman, D G; Tao, H P; Weinstein, I B; Kaiser, E T

    1985-09-01

    Four amphiphilic peptides, each with net charges of +2 or more at neutrality and molecular weights under 4 kilodaltons, were found to mediate the adhesion of normal rat kidney fibroblasts to polystyrene surfaces. Two of these peptides, a model for calcitonin (peptide 1, MCT) and melittin (peptide 2, MEL), form amphiphilic alpha-helical structures at aqueous/nonpolar interfaces. The other two, a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone model (peptide 3, LHM) and a platelet factor model (peptide 4, MPF) form beta-strand structures in amphiphilic environments. Although it contains only 10 residues, LHM mediated adhesion to surfaces coated with solutions containing as little as 10 pmoles/ml of peptide. All four of these peptides were capable of forming monolayers at air-buffer interfaces with collapse pressures greater than 20 dynes/cm. None of these four peptides contains the tetrapeptide sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser, which has been associated with fibronectin-mediated cell adhesion. Ten polypeptides that also lacked the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser but were nonamphiphilic and/or had net charges less than +2 at neutrality were all incapable of mediating cell adhesion (Pierschbacher and Ruoslahti, 1984). The morphologies of NRK cells spread on polystyrene coated with peptide LHM resemble the morphologies on fibronectin-coated surfaces, whereas cells spread on surfaces coated with MCT or MEL exhibit strikingly different morphologies. The adhesiveness of MCT, MEL, LHM, and MPF implies that many amphiphilic cationic peptides could prove useful as well defined adhesive substrata for cell culture and for studies of the mechanism of cell adhesion.

  4. Cell cycle specificity of Fas-mediated apoptosis in WIL-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Beletskaya, I V; Nikonova, L V; Beletsky, I P

    1997-07-21

    Antibodies to Fas/APO1 receptor induce effective apoptosis in WIL-2 cells of the human B-lymphoid line. Quantitative assessment of the extent of the death in cells synchronized by thymidine block revealed a significant increase in their sensitivity to the cytocidal effect mediated by Fas/APO1 during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Western analysis of the content of the p53 antigen in the cytoplasm and nuclei of the cells showed that the Fas/APO1-induced death is accompanied by massive translocation of the p53 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. These findings suggest that cell vulnerability to the Fas/APO1-mediated apoptosis is subjected to regulation by cell cycle-dependent mechanisms, one of which is probably the function of the p53 antigen.

  5. Inferring RBP-Mediated Regulation in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lafzi, Atefeh; Kazan, Hilal

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play key roles in post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs. Dysregulations in RBP-mediated mechanisms have been found to be associated with many steps of cancer initiation and progression. Despite this, previous studies of gene expression in cancer have ignored the effect of RBPs. To this end, we developed a lasso regression model that predicts gene expression in cancer by incorporating RBP-mediated regulation as well as the effects of other well-studied factors such as copy-number variation, DNA methylation, TFs and miRNAs. As a case study, we applied our model to Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) data as we found that there are several RBPs differentially expressed in LUSC. Including RBP-mediated regulatory effects in addition to the other features significantly increased the Spearman rank correlation between predicted and measured expression of held-out genes. Using a feature selection procedure that accounts for the adaptive search employed by lasso regularization, we identified the candidate regulators in LUSC. Remarkably, several of these candidate regulators are RBPs. Furthermore, majority of the candidate regulators have been previously found to be associated with lung cancer. To investigate the mechanisms that are controlled by these regulators, we predicted their target gene sets based on our model. We validated the target gene sets by comparing against experimentally verified targets. Our results suggest that the future studies of gene expression in cancer must consider the effect of RBP-mediated regulation. PMID:27186987

  6. Mechanisms of Regulating Tissue Elongation in Drosophila Wing: Impact of Oriented Cell Divisions, Oriented Mechanical Forces, and Reduced Cell Size

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingzi; Naveed, Hammad; Kachalo, Sema; Xu, Lisa X.; Liang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cell growth and cell division plays fundamental roles in tissue morphogenesis. However, the mechanisms of regulating tissue elongation through cell growth and cell division are still not well understood. The wing imaginal disc of Drosophila provides a model system that has been widely used to study tissue morphogenesis. Here we use a recently developed two-dimensional cellular model to study the mechanisms of regulating tissue elongation in Drosophila wing. We simulate the effects of directional cues on tissue elongation. We also computationally analyze the role of reduced cell size. Our simulation results indicate that oriented cell divisions, oriented mechanical forces, and reduced cell size can all mediate tissue elongation, but they function differently. We show that oriented cell divisions and oriented mechanical forces act as directional cues during tissue elongation. Between these two directional cues, oriented mechanical forces have a stronger influence than oriented cell divisions. In addition, we raise the novel hypothesis that reduced cell size may significantly promote tissue elongation. We find that reduced cell size alone cannot drive tissue elongation. However, when combined with directional cues, such as oriented cell divisions or oriented mechanical forces, reduced cell size can significantly enhance tissue elongation in Drosophila wing. Furthermore, our simulation results suggest that reduced cell size has a short-term effect on cell topology by decreasing the frequency of hexagonal cells, which is consistent with experimental observations. Our simulation results suggest that cell divisions without cell growth play essential roles in tissue elongation. PMID:24504016

  7. NKG2D ligands mediate immunosurveillance of senescent cells

    PubMed Central

    Moshayev, Zhana; Vadai, Ezra; Wensveen, Felix; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Golani, Ofra; Polic, Bojan; Krizhanovsky, Valery

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stress response mechanism that limits tumorigenesis and tissue damage. Induction of cellular senescence commonly coincides with an immunogenic phenotype that promotes self-elimination by components of the immune system, thereby facilitating tumor suppression and limiting excess fibrosis during wound repair. The mechanisms by which senescent cells regulate their immune surveillance are not completely understood. Here we show that ligands of an activating Natural Killer (NK) cell receptor (NKG2D), MICA and ULBP2 are consistently up-regulated following induction of replicative senescence, oncogene-induced senescence and DNA damage - induced senescence. MICA and ULBP2 proteins are necessary for efficient NK-mediated cytotoxicity towards senescent fibroblasts. The mechanisms regulating the initial expression of NKG2D ligands in senescent cells are dependent on a DNA damage response, whilst continuous expression of these ligands is regulated by the ERK signaling pathway. In liver fibrosis, the accumulation of senescent activated stellate cells is increased in mice lacking NKG2D receptor leading to increased fibrosis. Overall, our results provide new insights into the mechanisms regulating the expression of immune ligands in senescent cells and reveal the importance of NKG2D receptor-ligand interaction in protecting against liver fibrosis. PMID:26878797

  8. Mechanisms of iPS cell generation and beyond.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) achieved by overexpression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, transformed our classical views of the cellular epigenetic landscape and delivered a new concept for cell and tissue engineering. In addition to iPSCs, several other cell types have also been generated by master transcription factor (TF)-mediated transdifferentiation. However, the critical molecular mechanisms amongst diverse cellular identity changes are not well understood. Through the investigation of reprogramming mechanisms, we recently revealed that over-expression of constitutive active Smad3 boosted not only iPSC generation, but also 3 other master TF-mediated conversions, from B cells to macrophages, myoblasts to adipocytes, and human fibroblasts to neurons. This demonstrated that there were common mechanisms underlying different master TF-mediated cell conversions. To illuminate such mechanisms further, we have recently performed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome-wide knockout screening during reprogramming with a lentiviral gRNA library containing 90,000 gRNAs. This screening provided us with ~15 novel reprogramming roadblock genes as well as ~20 candidate genes essential for the reprogramming process but not for ES cell self-renewal. This data set will be a valuable resource to further understand how overexpression of master TFs alters cellular identity, and to achieve more faithful, efficient cell conversions for regenerative medicine.(Presented at the 1934th Meeting, March 17, 2017).

  9. B-Cell-Mediated Strategies to Fight Chronic Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Dalloul, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Solid organs have been transplanted for decades. Since the improvement in graft selection and in medical and surgical procedures, the likelihood of graft function after 1 year is now close to 90%. Nonetheless even well-matched recipients continue to need medications for the rest of their lives hence adverse side effects and enhanced morbidity. Understanding Immune rejection mechanisms, is of increasing importance since the greater use of living-unrelated donors and genetically unmatched individuals. Chronic rejection is devoted to T-cells, however the role of B-cells in rejection has been appreciated recently by the observation that B-cell depletion improve graft survival. By contrast however, B-cells can be beneficial to the grafted tissue. This protective effect is secondary to either the secretion of protective antibodies or the induction of B-cells that restrain excessive inflammatory responses, chiefly by local provision of IL-10, or inhibit effector T-cells by direct cellular interactions. As a proof of concept B-cell-mediated infectious transplantation tolerance could be achieved in animal models, and evidence emerged that the presence of such B-cells in transplanted patients correlate with a favorable outcome. Among these populations, regulatory B-cells constitute a recently described population. These cells may develop as a feedback mechanism to prevent uncontrolled reactivity to antigens and inflammatory stimuli. The difficult task for the clinician, is to quantify the respective ratios and functions of “tolerant” vs. effector B-cells within a transplanted organ, at a given time point in order to modulate B-cell-directed therapy. Several receptors at the B-cell membrane as well as signaling molecules, can now be targeted for this purpose. Understanding the temporal expansion of regulatory B-cells in grafted patients and the stimuli that activate them will help in the future to implement specific strategies aimed at fighting chronic allograft

  10. Cord blood T cells mediate enhanced antitumor effects compared with adult peripheral blood T cells.

    PubMed

    Hiwarkar, Prashant; Qasim, Waseem; Ricciardelli, Ida; Gilmour, Kimberly; Quezada, Sergio; Saudemont, Aurore; Amrolia, Persis; Veys, Paul

    2015-12-24

    Unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) without in vivo T-cell depletion is increasingly used to treat high-risk hematologic malignancies. Following T-replete CBT, naïve CB T cells undergo rapid peripheral expansion with memory-effector differentiation. Emerging data suggest that unrelated CBT, particularly in the context of HLA mismatch and a T-replete graft, may reduce leukemic relapse. To study the role of CB T cells in mediating graft-versus-tumor responses and dissect the underlying immune mechanisms for this, we compared the ability of HLA-mismatched CB and adult peripheral blood (PB) T cells to eliminate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven human B-cell lymphoma in a xenogeneic NOD/SCID/IL2rg(null) mouse model. CB T cells mediated enhanced tumor rejection compared with equal numbers of PB T cells, leading to improved survival in the CB group (P < .0003). Comparison of CB T cells that were autologous vs allogeneic to the lymphoma demonstrated that this antitumor effect was mediated by alloreactive rather than EBV-specific T cells. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes demonstrated that CB T cells mediated this enhanced antitumor effect by rapid infiltration of the tumor with CCR7(+)CD8(+) T cells and prompt induction of cytotoxic CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-helper (Th1) T cells in the tumor microenvironment. In contrast, in the PB group, this antilymphoma effect is impaired because of delayed tumoral infiltration of PB T cells and a relative bias toward suppressive Th2 and T-regulatory cells. Our data suggest that, despite being naturally programmed toward tolerance, reconstituting T cells after unrelated T-replete CBT may provide superior Tc1-Th1 antitumor effects against high-risk hematologic malignancies.

  11. Superoxide anion is a natural inhibitor of FAS-mediated cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Clément, M V; Stamenkovic, I

    1996-01-01

    The cell surface receptor Fas is a major trigger of apoptosis. However, expression of the Fas receptor in many tumor cell types does not correlate with sensitivity to Fas-mediated cell death. Because a prooxidant state is a common feature of tumor cells, we examined the role of intracellular reactive oxygen intermediates in the regulation of Fas-mediated cytotoxicity. Our results show that an oxidative stress induced by increasing the intracellular superoxide anion (O2-) concentration can abrogate Fas-mediated apoptosis in cells which are constitutively sensitive to Fas. Conversely, an O2- concentration decrease is observed to sensitize cells which are naturally resistant to Fas signals. These observations suggest that intracellular O2- may play a key role in regulating cell sensitivity to a potentially lethal signal and provide tumor cells with a natural, inducible mechanism of resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Images PMID:8617197

  12. Mechanisms of Growth Factor Attenuation of Cell Death in Chemotherapy Treated Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    cells treated with chemotherapy or radiation. To this end, we have focused on the survival kinase, Akt and also the kinase which conveys cell death messages...these cells are resistant to the cell death pathway that is typically activated with chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Therefore, we are currently...studying new mechanisms for Akt mediated cell survival. Our work to identify how JNK conveys cell death signals in response to UV or chemotherapy

  13. Sphingosine kinase-1 mediates androgen-induced osteoblast cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Claire; Lafosse, Jean-Michel; Malavaud, Bernard; Cuvillier, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Herein we report that the lipid kinase sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) is instrumental in mediating androgen-induced cell proliferation in osteoblasts. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) triggered cell growth in steroid-deprived MC3T3 cells, which was associated with a rapid stimulation of SphK1 and activation of both Akt and ERK signaling pathways. This mechanism relied on functional androgen receptor/PI3K/Akt nongenotropic signaling as pharmacological antagonists could block SphK1 stimulation by DHT and its consequences. Finally, SphK1 inhibition not only abrogated DHT-induced ERK activation but also blocked cell proliferation, while ERK inhibition had no impact, suggesting that SphK1 was critical for DHT signaling yet independently of the ERK.

  14. Minimal synthetic cells to study integrin-mediated adhesion.

    PubMed

    Frohnmayer, Johannes P; Brüggemann, Dorothea; Eberhard, Christian; Neubauer, Stefanie; Mollenhauer, Christine; Boehm, Heike; Kessler, Horst; Geiger, Benjamin; Spatz, Joachim P

    2015-10-12

    To shed light on cell-adhesion-related molecular pathways, synthetic cells offer the unique advantage of a well-controlled model system with reduced molecular complexity. Herein, we show that liposomes with the reconstituted platelet integrin αIIb β3 as the adhesion-mediating transmembrane protein are a functional minimal cell model for studying cellular adhesion mechanisms in a defined environment. The interaction of these synthetic cells with various extracellular matrix proteins was analyzed using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The data indicated that integrin was functionally incorporated into the lipid vesicles, thus enabling integrin-specific adhesion of the engineered liposomes to fibrinogen- and fibronectin-functionalized surfaces. Then, we were able to initiate the detachment of integrin liposomes from these surfaces in the presence of the peptide GRGDSP, a process that is even faster with our newly synthesized peptide mimetic SN529, which specifically inhibits the integrin αIIb β3 .

  15. Suppression of autophagy exacerbates Mefloquine-mediated cell death.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji Hyun; Park, So Jung; Jo, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Eun Sung; Kang, Hee; Park, Ji-Ho; Lee, Eunjoo H; Cho, Dong-Hyung

    2012-05-02

    Mefloquine is an effective treatment drug for malaria. However, it can cause several adverse side effects, and the precise mechanism associated with the adverse neurological effects of Mefloquine is not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Mefloquine on autophagy in neuroblastoma cells. Mefloquine treatment highly induced the formation of autophagosomes and the conversion of LC3I into LC3II. Moreover, Mefloquine-induced autophagy was efficiently suppressed by an autophagy inhibitor and by down regulation of ATG6. The autophagy was also completely blocked in ATG5 deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Moreover, suppression of autophagy significantly intensified Mefloquine-mediated cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Our findings suggest that suppression of autophagy may exacerbate Mefloquine toxicity in neuroblastoma cells.

  16. Minimal Synthetic Cells to Study Integrin-Mediated Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Frohnmayer, Johannes P; Brüggemann, Dorothea; Eberhard, Christian; Neubauer, Stefanie; Mollenhauer, Christine; Boehm, Heike; Kessler, Horst; Geiger, Benjamin; Spatz, Joachim P

    2015-01-01

    To shed light on cell-adhesion-related molecular pathways, synthetic cells offer the unique advantage of a well-controlled model system with reduced molecular complexity. Herein, we show that liposomes with the reconstituted platelet integrin αIIbβ3 as the adhesion-mediating transmembrane protein are a functional minimal cell model for studying cellular adhesion mechanisms in a defined environment. The interaction of these synthetic cells with various extracellular matrix proteins was analyzed using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The data indicated that integrin was functionally incorporated into the lipid vesicles, thus enabling integrin-specific adhesion of the engineered liposomes to fibrinogen- and fibronectin-functionalized surfaces. Then, we were able to initiate the detachment of integrin liposomes from these surfaces in the presence of the peptide GRGDSP, a process that is even faster with our newly synthesized peptide mimetic SN529, which specifically inhibits the integrin αIIbβ3. PMID:26257266

  17. Animal cryptochromes mediate magnetoreception by an unconventional photochemical mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Gegear, Robert J.; Foley, Lauren E.; Casselman, Amy; Reppert, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the biophysical basis of animal magnetoreception has been one of the greatest challenges in sensory biology. Recently, it was discovered that the light-dependent magnetic sense of Drosophila melanogaster is mediated by the ultraviolet (UV)-A/blue light photoreceptor Cryptochrome (Cry)1. We now show using a transgenic approach that the photoreceptive, Drosophila-like Type 1 Cry and the transcriptionally repressive, vertebrate-like Type 2 Cry of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) can both function in the magnetoreception system of Drosophila and require UV-A/blue light (<420nm) to do so. The lack of magnetic responses for both Cry types under wavelengths >420 nm does not fit the widely held view that tryptophan triad-generated radical pairs mediate Cry’s ability to sense a magnetic field. We bolster this assessment using a mutant form of Drosophila and monarch Type 1 Cry and confirm that the tryptophan triad pathway does not play a critical role in magnetic transduction. Together, these results suggest that animal Crys can mediate light-dependent magnetoreception, but do so through an unconventional photochemical mechanism. This work emphasizes the utility of Drosophila transgenesis for elucidating the precise mechanisms of Cry-mediated magnetosensitivity in insects and also in vertebrates, like migrating birds. PMID:20098414

  18. Cutting edge: regulatory T cells do not mediate suppression via programmed cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Szymczak-Workman, Andrea L; Delgoffe, Greg M; Green, Douglas R; Vignali, Dario A A

    2011-11-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in the immune system to regulate peripheral tolerance and prevent autoimmunity. However, the relative importance of different mechanisms of Treg function remains obscure. In this article, we reveal a limited role for programmed cell death pathways in mediating Treg suppression of conventional T cells. We show that Tregs are able to suppress the proliferation of conventional T cells that are resistant to apoptosis (Bim(-/-), Bim(-/-)Puma(-/-), Bcl-2 transgenic) or receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase-dependent necrosis (also referred to as regulated necrosis or necroptosis) (Ripk3(-/-)) in several in vitro and in vivo assays. These data suggest that programmed cell death pathways, such as apoptosis and receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase-dependent necrosis, are not required for Treg-mediated suppression.

  19. Cooperative cell invasion: matrix metalloproteinase–mediated incorporation between cells

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Camilla B.; O’Neill, Geraldine M.

    2016-01-01

    Progression to metastatic disease is a leading cause of cancer death. Tumors are a complex mixture of cell types, both genetically heterogeneous malignant cells and associated nonmalignant cells. Models mimicking this heterogeneous cell environment have revealed that invasive cell populations can induce dissemination by otherwise poorly/noninvasive tumor cells, known as cooperative invasion. Neuroblastoma tumors arise in children and are characterized by mixed cellular populations in vivo, consisting chiefly of neuronal (N)-type and substrate (S)-type cells. The S-type cells have all the hallmarks of invasive leader cell populations and have been coisolated with N-type cells from metastatic bone lesions, but to date their ability to induce cooperative invasion has not been investigated. Therefore, in the present study, we analyzed the invasive behavior of mixed N-type and S-type multicellular spheroids embedded in three-dimensional collagen gels. Our analyses show that S-type cells induce invasion of either single cells or small cell clusters of N-type cells. In contrast to other reports of cooperative invasion in which mixed cultures exhibit a follow-the-leader mechanism, we show coincident emergence of S- and N-type cells from mixed spheroids. Our data suggest mutual effects between the two cell types. Thus, whereas coculture with S-type cells induces N-type invasion, coculture with N-type cells slows S-type invasion. Using matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors and cell incorporation assays, we demonstrate that MMP activity is required for S-type cells to insert into layers of N-type cells. Our study therefore highlights an important role for S-type neuroblastoma cells in the invasion process and reveals a new mechanism of cooperative invasion. PMID:27605703

  20. Separating monocular and binocular neural mechanisms mediating chromatic contextual interactions

    PubMed Central

    D'Antona, Anthony D.; Christiansen, Jens H.; Shevell, Steven K.

    2014-01-01

    When seen in isolation, a light that varies in chromaticity over time is perceived to oscillate in color. Perception of that same time-varying light may be altered by a surrounding light that is also temporally varying in chromaticity. The neural mechanisms that mediate these contextual interactions are the focus of this article. Observers viewed a central test stimulus that varied in chromaticity over time within a larger surround that also varied in chromaticity at the same temporal frequency. Center and surround were presented either to the same eye (monocular condition) or to opposite eyes (dichoptic condition) at the same frequency (3.125, 6.25, or 9.375 Hz). Relative phase between center and surround modulation was varied. In both the monocular and dichoptic conditions, the perceived modulation depth of the central light depended on the relative phase of the surround. A simple model implementing a linear combination of center and surround modulation fit the measurements well. At the lowest temporal frequency (3.125 Hz), the surround's influence was virtually identical for monocular and dichoptic conditions, suggesting that at this frequency, the surround's influence is mediated primarily by a binocular neural mechanism. At higher frequencies, the surround's influence was greater for the monocular condition than for the dichoptic condition, and this difference increased with temporal frequency. Our findings show that two separate neural mechanisms mediate chromatic contextual interactions: one binocular and dominant at lower temporal frequencies and the other monocular and dominant at higher frequencies (6–10 Hz). PMID:24744449

  1. Separating monocular and binocular neural mechanisms mediating chromatic contextual interactions.

    PubMed

    D'Antona, Anthony D; Christiansen, Jens H; Shevell, Steven K

    2014-04-17

    When seen in isolation, a light that varies in chromaticity over time is perceived to oscillate in color. Perception of that same time-varying light may be altered by a surrounding light that is also temporally varying in chromaticity. The neural mechanisms that mediate these contextual interactions are the focus of this article. Observers viewed a central test stimulus that varied in chromaticity over time within a larger surround that also varied in chromaticity at the same temporal frequency. Center and surround were presented either to the same eye (monocular condition) or to opposite eyes (dichoptic condition) at the same frequency (3.125, 6.25, or 9.375 Hz). Relative phase between center and surround modulation was varied. In both the monocular and dichoptic conditions, the perceived modulation depth of the central light depended on the relative phase of the surround. A simple model implementing a linear combination of center and surround modulation fit the measurements well. At the lowest temporal frequency (3.125 Hz), the surround's influence was virtually identical for monocular and dichoptic conditions, suggesting that at this frequency, the surround's influence is mediated primarily by a binocular neural mechanism. At higher frequencies, the surround's influence was greater for the monocular condition than for the dichoptic condition, and this difference increased with temporal frequency. Our findings show that two separate neural mechanisms mediate chromatic contextual interactions: one binocular and dominant at lower temporal frequencies and the other monocular and dominant at higher frequencies (6-10 Hz).

  2. Novel Lipid Mediators and Resolution Mechanisms in Acute Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Serhan, Charles N.

    2010-01-01

    Because inflammation is appreciated as a unifying basis of many widely occurring diseases, the mechanisms involved in its natural resolution are of considerable interest. Using contained, self-limited inflammatory exudates and a systems approach, novel lipid-derived mediators and pathways were uncovered in the resolution of inflammatory exudates. These new families of local mediators control both the duration and magnitude of acute inflammation as well as the return of the site to homeostasis in the process of catabasis. This new genus of specialized proresolving mediators (SPM) includes essential fatty acid–derived lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and, most recently, maresins. These families were named based on their unique structures and potent stereoselective actions. The temporally initiated biosynthesis of SPM and their direct impact on leukocyte trafficking and macrophage-directed clearance mechanisms provide clear evidence that resolution is an active, programmed response at the tissue level. Moreover, SPM that possess anti-inflammatory (ie, limiting PMN infiltration) and proresolving (enhance macrophage uptake and clearance of apoptotic PMN and microbial particles) actions as well as stimulating mucosal antimicrobial responses demonstrate that anti-inflammation and proresolution are different responses of the host and novel defining properties of these molecules. The mapping of new resolution circuits has opened the possibility for understanding mechanisms that lead from acute to chronic inflammation, or to the resolution thereof, as well as to potential, resolution-based immunopharmacological therapies. PMID:20813960

  3. Shifting foundations: the mechanical cell wall and development.

    PubMed

    Braybrook, Siobhan A; Jönsson, Henrik

    2016-02-01

    The cell wall has long been acknowledged as an important physical mediator of growth in plants. Recent experimental and modelling work has brought the importance of cell wall mechanics into the forefront again. These data have challenged existing dogmas that relate cell wall structure to cell/organ growth, that uncouple elasticity from extensibility, and those which treat the cell wall as a passive and non-stressed material. Within this review we describe experiments and models which have changed the ways in which we view the mechanical cell wall, leading to new hypotheses and research avenues. It has become increasingly apparent that while we often wish to simplify our systems, we now require more complex multi-scale experiments and models in order to gain further insight into growth mechanics. We are currently experiencing an exciting and challenging shift in the foundations of our understanding of cell wall mechanics in growth and development.

  4. Quinolone resistance in bacteria: emphasis on plasmid-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Zhi

    2005-06-01

    Bacterial resistance to quinolones/fluoroquinolones has emerged rapidly and such resistance has traditionally been attributed to the chromosomally mediated mechanisms that alter the quinolone targets (i.e. DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV) and/or overproduce multidrug resistance efflux pumps. However, the discovery of the plasmid-borne quinolone resistance determinant, named qnr, has substantially broadened our horizon on the molecular mechanisms of quinolone resistance. Several recent reports of Qnr or its homologues encoded by transferable plasmids in Gram-negative bacteria isolated worldwide highlight the significance of the emerging plasmid-mediated mechanism(s). This also alerts us to the potential rapid dissemination of quinolone resistance determinants. Qnr belongs to the pentapeptide repeat family and protects DNA gyrase from the action of quinolone agents including the newer fluoroquinolones. This protection interplays with chromosomal mechanisms to raise significantly the resistance levels. The qnr-bearing strains generate quinolone-resistant mutants at a much higher frequency than those qnr-free strains. Furthermore, the qnr-plasmids are integron-associated and carry multiple resistance determinants providing resistance to several classes of antimicrobials including beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. The high quinolone resistance rates in Escherichia coli are used to address issues of quinolone resistance, and possible strategies for minimising quinolone resistance are discussed.

  5. Fatty Acids, Lipid Mediators, and T-Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Anja J.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Toes, René E. M.; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Research toward the mechanisms underlying obesity-linked complications has intensified during the last years. As a consequence, it has become clear that metabolism and immunity are intimately linked. Free fatty acids and other lipids acquired in excess by current feeding patterns have been proposed to mediate this link due to their immune modulatory capacity. The functional differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in combination with their dietary intake are believed to modulate the outcome of immune responses. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids can be oxidized in a tightly regulated and specific manner to generate either potent pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving lipid mediators. These oxidative derivatives of fatty acids have received detailed attention during the last years, as they have proven to have strong immune modulatory capacity, even in pM ranges. Both fatty acids and oxidized fatty acids have been studied especially in relation to macrophage and T-cells functions. In this review, we propose to focus on the effect of fatty acids and their oxidative derivatives on T-cells, as it is an active area of research during the past 5 years. The effect of fatty acids and their derivatives on activation and proliferation of T-cells, as well as the delicate balance between stimulation and lipotoxicity will be discussed. Moreover, the receptors involved in the interaction between free fatty acids and their derivatives with T-cells will be summarized. Finally, the mechanisms involved in modulation of T-cells by fatty acids will be addressed, including cellular signaling and metabolism of T-cells. The in vitro results will be placed in context of in vivo studies both in humans and mice. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the immune modulatory function of lipids on T-cells and will point out novel directions for future research. PMID:25352844

  6. Listeria monocytogenes-Induced Cell Death Inhibits the Generation of Cell-Mediated Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Theisen, Erin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influence of cell death on adaptive immunity has been studied for decades. Despite these efforts, the intricacies of how various cell death pathways shape immune responses in the context of infection remain unclear, particularly with regard to more recently discovered pathways such as pyroptosis. The emergence of Listeria monocytogenes as a promising immunotherapeutic platform demands a thorough understanding of how cell death induced in the context of infection influences the generation of CD8+ T-cell-mediated immune responses. To begin to address this question, we designed strains of L. monocytogenes that robustly activate necrosis, apoptosis, or pyroptosis. We hypothesized that proinflammatory cell death such as necrosis would be proimmunogenic while apoptosis would be detrimental, as has previously been reported in the context of sterile cell death. Surprisingly, we found that the activation of any host cell death in the context of L. monocytogenes infection inhibited the generation of protective immunity and specifically the activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Importantly, the mechanism of attenuation was unique for each type of cell death, ranging from deficits in costimulation in the context of necrosis to a suboptimal inflammatory milieu in the case of pyroptosis. Our results suggest that cell death in the context of infection is different from sterile-environment-induced cell death and that inhibition of cell death or its downstream consequences is necessary for developing effective cell-mediated immune responses using L. monocytogenes-based immunotherapeutic platforms. PMID:27821585

  7. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Characterization of the effector cells.

    PubMed Central

    De Bracco, M M; Isturiz, M A; Manni, J A

    1976-01-01

    Isolated human mononuclear cells were fractionated according to their membrane characteristics or physical properties. Adherent cells were depleted by filtration through glass columns; phagocytic cells were removed by iron treatment and cell subpopulations capable of forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes (E), erythrocyte-antibody-complement (EAC) and chicken erythrocyte-antibody complexes (CEA) were separated by centrifugation of Ficoll-Hypaque gradients. The functional activity of the cell subpopulations obtained was assayed by testing PHA-induced cytoxicity (PIC), antibody-dependent cytoxicity (ADCC) and blast transformation by PHA. The results of this study demonstrate that: (1) cells reacting in PIC and ADCC assays are different, adherent and phagocytic cells being necessary for full expression of PIC and not for ADCC; (2) PHA induces direct blast transformation of purified E-RFC in the absence of PIC cytotoxic cells; (3) cell populations specifically enriched in E or EAC rosette-forming cells<