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Sample records for cells reduces migration

  1. Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Trepat, Xavier; Chen, Zaozao; Jacobson, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to establishing and maintaining the proper organization of multicellular organisms. Morphogenesis can be viewed as a consequence, in part, of cell locomotion, from large-scale migrations of epithelial sheets during gastrulation, to the movement of individual cells during development of the nervous system. In an adult organism, cell migration is essential for proper immune response, wound repair, and tissue homeostasis, while aberrant cell migration is found in various pathologies. Indeed, as our knowledge of migration increases, we can look forward to, for example, abating the spread of highly malignant cancer cells, retarding the invasion of white cells in the inflammatory process, or enhancing the healing of wounds. This article is organized in two main sections. The first section is devoted to the single-cell migrating in isolation such as occurs when leukocytes migrate during the immune response or when fibroblasts squeeze through connective tissue. The second section is devoted to cells collectively migrating as part of multicellular clusters or sheets. This second type of migration is prevalent in development, wound healing, and in some forms of cancer metastasis. PMID:23720251

  2. Reduced migration of Ishikawa cells associated with downregulation of aquaporin-5

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, XIU XIU; XU, KAI HONG; MA, JUN YAN; TIAN, YONG HONG; GUO, XIAO YAN; LIN, JUN; WU, RUI JIN

    2012-01-01

    Aquaporin (AQP)-dependent cell migration has broad implications in angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, wound healing, glial scarring and other events requiring cell movement. There are 13 isoforms of AQP (0–12) that have been identified in mammals. It is unclear whether AQP5 plays a role in the development of endometrial cancer. We recently demonstrated that ovarian steroids may affect the expression of AQP5 in the female genital tract. In this study, we considered whether AQP5 may affect cell migration in Ishikawa cells, an adenocarcinoma cell line derived from the endometrium. The results showed that the downregulation of AQP5 results in reduced Ishikawa cell migration. The estrogen (E2) receptor in the promoter of AQP5 mediated the regulation of AQP5 expression in the normal endometrium and endometrial cancer. By contrast, the upregulation of AQP5 by E2 increased cell migration, invasion and adhesion through increased annexin-2, which is responsible for F-actin remodeling and rearrangement. E2 regulates Ishikawa cell migration by regulating the AQP5 expression. PMID:22844365

  3. Adiponectin Reduces Hepatic Stellate Cell Migration by Promoting Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani-Moghadam, Mehdi; Wang, Jianhua; Ho, Vikki; Iseli, Tristan J.; Alzahrani, Badr; Xu, Aimin; Van der Poorten, David; Qiao, Liang; George, Jacob; Hebbard, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are central players in liver fibrosis that when activated, proliferate, migrate to sites of liver injury, and secrete extracellular matrix. Obesity, a known risk factor for liver fibrosis is associated with reduced levels of adiponectin, a protein that inhibits liver fibrosis in vivo and limits HSC proliferation and migration in vitro. Adiponectin-mediated activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) inhibits HSC proliferation, but the mechanism by which it limits HSC migration to sites of injury is unknown. Here we sought to elucidate how adiponectin regulates HSC motility. Primary rat HSCs were isolated and treated with adiponectin in migration assays. The in vivo actions of adiponectin were examined by treating mice with carbon tetrachloride for 12 weeks and then injecting them with adiponectin. Cell and tissue samples were collected and analyzed for gene expression, signaling, and histology. Serum from patients with liver fibrosis was examined for adiponectin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) protein. Adiponectin administration into mice increased TIMP-1 gene and protein expression. In cultured HSCs, adiponectin promoted TIMP-1 expression and through binding of TIMP-1 to the CD63/β1-integrin complex reduced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase to limit HSC migration. In mice with liver fibrosis, adiponectin had similar effects and limited focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation. Finally, in patients with advanced fibrosis, there was a positive correlation between serum adiponectin and TIMP-1 levels. In sum, these data show that adiponectin stimulates TIMP-1 secretion by HSCs to retard their migration and contributes to the anti-fibrotic effects of adiponectin. PMID:25575598

  4. Aquaporins and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, M C; Saadoun, S; Verkman, A S

    2008-07-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are expressed primarily in cell plasma membranes. In this paper, we review recent evidence that AQPs facilitate cell migration. AQP-dependent cell migration has been found in a variety of cell types in vitro and in mice in vivo. AQP1 deletion reduces endothelial cell migration, limiting tumor angiogenesis and growth. AQP4 deletion slows the migration of reactive astrocytes, impairing glial scarring after brain stab injury. AQP1-expressing tumor cells have enhanced metastatic potential and local infiltration. Impaired cell migration has also been seen in AQP1-deficient proximal tubule epithelial cells, and AQP3-deficient corneal epithelial cells, enterocytes, and skin keratinocytes. The mechanisms by which AQPs enhance cell migration are under investigation. We propose that, as a consequence of actin polymerization/depolymerization and transmembrane ionic fluxes, the cytoplasm adjacent to the leading edge of migrating cells undergoes rapid changes in osmolality. AQPs could thus facilitate osmotic water flow across the plasma membrane in cell protrusions that form during migration. AQP-dependent cell migration has potentially broad implications in angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, wound healing, glial scarring, and other events requiring rapid, directed cell movement. AQP inhibitors may thus have therapeutic potential in modulating these events, such as slowing tumor growth and spread, and reducing glial scarring after injury to allow neuronal regeneration. PMID:17968585

  5. Flavonoid Fraction of Citrus reticulata Juice Reduces Proliferation and Migration of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Celano, Marilena; Maggisano, Valentina; De Rose, Roberta Francesca; Bulotta, Stefania; Maiuolo, Jessica; Navarra, Michele; Russo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Effects of flavonoids extracted from Citrus reticulata (mandarin) juice on proliferation and migration of 3 human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cell lines were evaluated. Flavonoid components of Mandarin juice extract (MJe) were analyzed by uHPLC. Proliferation of CAL-62, C-643, and 8505C cells, measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, was significantly reduced by MJe in a concentration- and time-dependent way, with maximal effect elicited at 0.5 mg/ml concentration after 48 h. Cytofluorimetric analysis showed a block in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, accompanied by low cell mortality owed to autophagic death. The extract caused also a reduction of cell migration, associated with decreased activity of the metalloproteinase MMP-2. These findings demonstrate that the flavonoid fraction of mandarin juice exerts in vitro antiproliferative effects on ATC cells, associated with a reduction of migration, suggesting for such a functional food a potential use as adjuvant in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

  6. Flavonoid Fraction of Citrus reticulata Juice Reduces Proliferation and Migration of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Celano, Marilena; Maggisano, Valentina; De Rose, Roberta Francesca; Bulotta, Stefania; Maiuolo, Jessica; Navarra, Michele; Russo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Effects of flavonoids extracted from Citrus reticulata (mandarin) juice on proliferation and migration of 3 human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cell lines were evaluated. Flavonoid components of Mandarin juice extract (MJe) were analyzed by uHPLC. Proliferation of CAL-62, C-643, and 8505C cells, measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, was significantly reduced by MJe in a concentration- and time-dependent way, with maximal effect elicited at 0.5 mg/ml concentration after 48 h. Cytofluorimetric analysis showed a block in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, accompanied by low cell mortality owed to autophagic death. The extract caused also a reduction of cell migration, associated with decreased activity of the metalloproteinase MMP-2. These findings demonstrate that the flavonoid fraction of mandarin juice exerts in vitro antiproliferative effects on ATC cells, associated with a reduction of migration, suggesting for such a functional food a potential use as adjuvant in the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:26365817

  7. NME2 reduces proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells to limit metastasis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-fei; Yang, Aijun; Liu, Wei; Wang, Chenyu; Wang, Min; Zhang, Lihan; Wang, Dongcang; Dong, Jing-fei; Li, Min

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and has a high rate of metastasis. We hypothesize that NME2 (Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase 2), which has previously been considered as an anti-metastatic gene, plays a role in the invasiveness of gastric cancer cells. Using a tissue chip technology and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that NME2 expression was associated with levels of differentiation of gastric cancer cells and their metastasis into the lymph nodes. When the NME2 gene product was over-expressed by ;in vitro stable transfection, cells from BGC823 and MKN45 gastric cancer cell lines had reduced rates of proliferation, migration, and invasion through the collagen matrix, suggesting an inhibitory activity of NME2 in the propagation and invasion of gastric cancer. NME2 could, therefore, severe as a risk marker for gastric cancer invasiveness and a potential new target for gene therapy to enhance or induce NME2 expression. PMID:25700270

  8. α-Solanine inhibits human melanoma cell migration and invasion by reducing matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 activities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Kun; Shih, Yuan-Wei; Chang Chien, Tzu-Tsung; Fang, Li-Heng; Huang, Hsiang-Ching; Chen, Pin-Shern

    2010-01-01

    α-Solanine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid in potato sprouts, was found to possess anti-carcinogenic properties, such as inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the effect of α-solanine on cancer metastasis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of α-solanine on metastasis in vitro. Data demonstrated that α-solanine inhibited proliferation of human melanoma cell line A2058 in a dose-dependent manner. When treated with non-toxic doses of α-solanine, cell migration and invasion were markedly suppressed. Furthermore, α-solanine reduced the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, which are involved in the migration and invasion of cancer cells. Our biochemical assays indicated that α-solanine potently suppressed the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) and Akt, while it did not affect phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK). In addition, α-solanine significantly decreased the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), suggesting that α-solanine inhibited NF-κB activity. Taken together, the results suggested that α-solanine inhibited migration and invasion of A2058 cells by reducing MMP-2/9 activities. It also inhibited JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways as well as NF-κB activity. These findings reveal new therapeutic potential for α-solanine in anti-metastatic therapy.

  9. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, inhibits melanoma cancer cell migration by reducing the expressions of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tripti; Vaid, Mudit; Katiyar, Nandan; Sharma, Samriti; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin disease due, in large part, to its propensity to metastasize. We have examined the effect of berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, on human melanoma cancer cell migration and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using melanoma cell lines, A375 and Hs294. Using an in vitro cell migration assay, we show that over expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGE2 receptors promote the migration of cells. We found that treatment of A375 and Hs294 cells with berberine resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of migration of these cells, which was associated with a reduction in the levels of COX-2, PGE2 and PGE2 receptors (EP2 and EP4). Treatment of cells with celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, or transient transfection of cells with COX-2 small interfering RNA, also inhibited cell migration. Treatment of the cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), an inducer of COX-2 or PGE2, enhanced cell migration, whereas berberine inhibited TPA- or PGE2-promoted cell migration. Berberine reduced the basal levels as well as PGE2-stimulated expression levels of EP2 and EP4. Treatment of the cells with the EP4 agonist stimulated cell migration and berberine blocked EP4 agonist-induced cell migration activity. Moreover, berberine inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), an upstream regulator of COX-2, in A375 cells, and treatment of cells with caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an inhibitor of NF-κB, inhibited cell migration. Together, these results indicate for the first time that berberine inhibits melanoma cell migration, an essential step in invasion and metastasis, by inhibition of COX-2, PGE2 and PGE2 receptors. PMID:20974686

  10. Ampelopsin reduces the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells via inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianfeng; Liu, Peishu; Ding, Feng; Yu, Nina; Li, Shihong; Wang, Surong; Zhang, Xiaofei; Sun, Xiangxiu; Chen, Ying; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Yunhe; Li, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Ampelopsin has displayed anticancer activity in several types of cancers. However, no evidence has been reported for the direct effect of ampelopsin on ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion, and the underling mechanisms have not yet been clearly established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of ampelopsin on the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer. Proliferation and viability of the ovarian cancer cells were detected by MTT assay. Migration and invasion of the cells were detected, respectively, by scratch wound healing assay and Transwell assay. The expression levels of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were detected at the protein level after stimulation with ampelopsin. Then, the expression levels of NF-κB and p-IκBα were detected with western blot analysis. Meanwhile, an inhibitor of NF-κB was used to investigate the effect of ampelopsin. Finally, the expression of Snail was also detected. Proliferation, migration and invasion of the A2780 cells were all inhibited following the application of ampelopsin. Ampelopsin upregulated E-cadherin and downregulated N-cadherin and vimentin in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Ampelopsin also exerted its ability to suppress the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB pathway. Administration of the inhibitor BAY11-7082 confirmed the roles of NF-κB in the expression of EMT markers and its transcription factor. These results demonstrated that ampelopsin inhibited EMT and reduced the invasion of ovarian cancer cells via the NF-κB/Snail pathway. PMID:25502786

  11. Ampelopsin reduces the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells via inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianfeng; Liu, Peishu; Ding, Feng; Yu, Nina; Li, Shihong; Wang, Surong; Zhang, Xiaofei; Sun, Xiangxiu; Chen, Ying; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Yunhe; Li, Bo

    2015-02-01

    Ampelopsin has displayed anticancer activity in several types of cancers. However, no evidence has been reported for the direct effect of ampelopsin on ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion, and the underling mechanisms have not yet been clearly established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of ampelopsin on the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer. Proliferation and viability of the ovarian cancer cells were detected by MTT assay. Migration and invasion of the cells were detected, respectively, by scratch wound healing assay and Transwell assay. The expression levels of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were detected at the protein level after stimulation with ampelopsin. Then, the expression levels of NF-κB and p-IκBα were detected with western blot analysis. Meanwhile, an inhibitor of NF-κB was used to investigate the effect of ampelopsin. Finally, the expression of Snail was also detected. Proliferation, migration and invasion of the A2780 cells were all inhibited following the application of ampelopsin. Ampelopsin upregulated E-cadherin and downregulated N-cadherin and vimentin in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Ampelopsin also exerted its ability to suppress the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB pathway. Administration of the inhibitor BAY11-7082 confirmed the roles of NF-κB in the expression of EMT markers and its transcription factor. These results demonstrated that ampelopsin inhibited EMT and reduced the invasion of ovarian cancer cells via the NF-κB/Snail pathway.

  12. Unripe Rubus coreanus Miquel suppresses migration and invasion of human prostate cancer cells by reducing matrix metalloproteinase expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yesl; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM) is used to promote prostate health and has been shown to have anti-oxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. However, the effects and mechanisms of RCM on prostate cancer metastasis remain unclear. PC-3 and DU 145 cells were treated with ethanol or water extract of unripe or ripe RCM and examined for cell invasion, migration, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity and expression. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt activities were examined. Unripe RCM extracts exerted significant inhibitory effects on cell migration, invasion, and MMPs activities. A significant reduction in MMPs activities by unripe RCM ethanol extract treatment (UE) was associated with reduction of MMPs expression and induction of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) expression. Furthermore, PI3K/Akt activity was diminished by UE treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that UE decreased metastatic potential of prostate cancer cells by reducing MMPs expression through the suppression of PI3K/Akt phosphorylation, thereby decreasing MMP activity and enhancing TIMPs expression.

  13. IAPs and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Dubrez, Laurence; Rajalingam, Krishnaraj

    2015-03-01

    Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) constitute a family of cell signaling regulators controlling several fundamental biological processes such as innate immunity, inflammation, cell death, cell proliferation, and cell differentiation. Increasing evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies indicate a function for IAPs in the modulation of invasive and migratory properties of cells. Here, we present and discuss the mechanisms whereby IAPs can control cell migration.

  14. Maraviroc decreases CCL8-mediated migration of CCR5(+) regulatory T cells and reduces metastatic tumor growth in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, E C; Hamilton, M J; Young, A; Wadsworth, B J; LePard, N E; Lee, H N; Firmino, N; Collier, J L; Bennewith, K L

    2016-06-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial physiological role in the regulation of immune homeostasis, although recent data suggest Tregs can contribute to primary tumor growth by suppressing antitumor immune responses. Tregs may also influence the development of tumor metastases, although there is a paucity of information regarding the phenotype and function of Tregs in metastatic target organs. Herein, we demonstrate that orthotopically implanted metastatic mammary tumors induce significant Treg accumulation in the lungs, which is a site of mammary tumor metastasis. Tregs in the primary tumor and metastatic lungs express high levels of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) relative to Tregs in the mammary fat pad and lungs of tumor-free mice, and Tregs in the metastatic lungs are enriched for CCR5 expression in comparison to other immune cell populations. We also identify that C-C chemokine ligand 8 (CCL8), an endogenous ligand of CCR5, is produced by F4/80(+) macrophages in the lungs of mice with metastatic primary tumors. Migration of Tregs toward CCL8 ex vivo is reduced in the presence of the CCR5 inhibitor Maraviroc. Importantly, treatment of mice with Maraviroc (MVC) reduces the level of CCR5(+) Tregs and metastatic tumor burden in the lungs. This work provides evidence of a CCL8/CCR5 signaling axis driving Treg recruitment to the lungs of mice bearing metastatic primary tumors, representing a potential therapeutic target to decrease Treg accumulation and metastatic tumor growth.

  15. Doxycycline reduces the migration of tuberous sclerosis complex-2 null cells - effects on RhoA-GTPase and focal adhesion kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ho Yin; Oliver, Brian Gregory George; Burgess, Janette Kay; Krymskaya, Vera P; Black, Judith Lee; Moir, Lyn M

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is associated with dysfunction of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) leading to enhanced cell proliferation and migration. This study aims to examine whether doxycycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, can inhibit the enhanced migration of TSC2-deficient cells, identify signalling pathways through which doxycycline works and to assess the effectiveness of combining doxycycline with rapamycin (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitor) in controlling cell migration, proliferation and wound closure. TSC2-positive and TSC2-negative mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), 323-TSC2-positive and 323-TSC2-null MEF and Eker rat uterine leiomyoma (ELT3) cells were treated with doxycycline or rapamycin alone, or in combination. Migration, wound closure and proliferation were assessed using a transwell migration assay, time-lapse microscopy and manual cell counts respectively. RhoA-GTPase activity, phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in TSC2-negative MEF treated with doxycycline were examined using ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. The enhanced migration of TSC2-null cells was reduced by doxycycline at concentrations as low as 20 pM, while the rate of wound closure was reduced at 2–59 μM. Doxycycline decreased RhoA-GTPase activity and phosphorylation of FAK in these cells but had no effect on the phosphorylation of p70S6K, ERK1/2 or AKT. Combining doxycycline with rapamycin significantly reduced the rate of wound closure at lower concentrations than achieved with either drug alone. This study shows that doxycycline inhibits TSC2-null cell migration. Thus doxycycline has potential as an anti-migratory agent in the treatment of diseases with TSC2 dysfunction. PMID:26282580

  16. Legume seeds and colorectal cancer revisited: Protease inhibitors reduce MMP-9 activity and colon cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Lima, A I G; Mota, J; Monteiro, S A V S; Ferreira, R M S B

    2016-04-15

    MMP-9 activity is strongly related to cancer growth and metastization. This study aimed at assessing the inhibitory potential of the major seed protein fractions from eight selected legume species towards MMP-9 activity in colon carcinoma cells. Albumin and globulin fractions were screened for MMP-9 inhibitors, using a fluorometric assay and gelatin zymography. Their effect on HT29 cell proliferation and cell migration was tested, as well as on the corresponding intrinsic cellular MMP-9 activities. Seed proteins include potent inhibitors of MMP-9, particularly low molecular mass proteins. Their effectiveness differs greatly among species, with a positive correlation detected between their inhibitory activity and the reduction in cell migration. Lupin seeds contain the most efficient MMP-9 inhibitors of all legume seeds analyzed, inhibiting both gelatinases and HT29 migration and growth, while pea seeds showed no effect. Results reveal legume protein MMPIs as novel metalloproteinase inhibitors with possible pharmacological interest. This may be important for selecting leguminous species with potential use in anti-cancer diets.

  17. Caffeic Acid Reduces the Viability and Migration Rate of Oral Carcinoma Cells (SCC-25) Exposed to Low Concentrations of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Arkadiusz; Kubina, Robert; Kabała-Dzik, Agata; Wojtyczka, Robert D.; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Bułdak, Rafał J.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol increases the risk of carcinoma originated from oral epithelium, but the biological effects of ultra-low doses of ethanol on existing carcinoma cells in combination with natural substances are still unclear. A role for ethanol (EtOH), taken in small amounts as an ingredient of some beverages or mouthwashes to change the growth behavior of established squamous cell carcinoma, has still not been examined sufficiently. We designed an in vitro study to determine the effect of caffeic acid (CFA) on viability and migration ability of malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes, exposed to ultra-low concentrations (maximum 100 mmol/L) EtOH. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assays were used to assess the cytotoxic effect of EtOH/CFA and the viability of squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells (ATCC CRL-1628, mobile part of the tongue). Tested EtOH concentrations were: 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/L, along with an equal CFA concentration of 50 μmol/L. Carcinoma cells’ migration was investigated by monolayer “wound” healing assay. We demonstrated that very low concentrations of EtOH ranging between 2.5 and 10 mmol/L may induce the viability of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, while the results following addition of CFA reveal an antagonistic effect, attenuating pro-proliferative EtOH activity. The migration rate of oral squamous carcinoma cells can be significantly inhibited by the biological activity of caffeic acid. PMID:25329614

  18. BAG-1 enhances cell-cell adhesion, reduces proliferation and induces chaperone-independent suppression of hepatocyte growth factor-induced epidermal keratinocyte migration

    SciTech Connect

    Hinitt, C.A.M.; Wood, J.; Lee, S.S.; Williams, A.C.; Howarth, J.L.; Glover, C.P.; Uney, J.B.; Hague, A.

    2010-08-01

    Cell motility is important in maintaining tissue homeostasis, facilitating epithelial wound repair and in tumour formation and progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether BAG-1 isoforms regulate epidermal cell migration in in vitro models of wound healing. In the human epidermal cell line HaCaT, endogenous BAG-1 is primarily nuclear and increases with confluence. Both transient and stable p36-Bag-1 overexpression resulted in increased cellular cohesion. Stable transfection of either of the three human BAG-1 isoforms p36-Bag-1 (BAG-1S), p46-Bag-1 (BAG-1M) and p50-Bag-1 (BAG-1L) inhibited growth and wound closure in serum-containing medium. However, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in serum-free medium, BAG-1S/M reduced communal motility and colony scattering, but BAG-1L did not. In the presence of HGF, p36-Bag-1 transfectants retained proliferative response to HGF with no change in ERK1/2 activation. However, the cells retained E-cadherin localisation at cell-cell junctions and exhibited pronounced cortical actin. Point mutations in the BAG domain showed that BAG-1 inhibition of motility is independent of its function as a chaperone regulator. These findings are the first to suggest that BAG-1 plays a role in regulating cell-cell adhesion and suggest an important function in epidermal cohesion.

  19. Deletion of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1) reduces cell migration and invasion, conferring protection from aerodigestive tract carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Jadav, Rathan S; Kumar, Dharmika; Buwa, Natasha; Ganguli, Shubhra; Thampatty, Sitalakshmi R; Balasubramanian, Nagaraj; Bhandari, Rashna

    2016-08-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), a family of enzymes found in all eukaryotes, are responsible for the synthesis of 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7) from inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). Three isoforms of IP6Ks are found in mammals, and gene deletions of each isoform lead to diverse, non-overlapping phenotypes in mice. Previous studies show a facilitatory role for IP6K2 in cell migration and invasion, properties that are essential for the early stages of tumorigenesis. However, IP6K2 also has an essential role in cancer cell apoptosis, and mice lacking this protein are more susceptible to the development of aerodigestive tract carcinoma upon treatment with the oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Not much is known about the functions of the equally abundant and ubiquitously expressed IP6K1 isoform in cell migration, invasion and cancer progression. We conducted a gene expression analysis on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking IP6K1, revealing a role for this protein in cell receptor-extracellular matrix interactions that regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Consequently, cells lacking IP6K1 manifest defects in adhesion-dependent signaling, evident by lower FAK and Paxillin activation, leading to reduced cell spreading and migration. Expression of active, but not inactive IP6K1 reverses migration defects in IP6K1 knockout MEFs, suggesting that 5-IP7 synthesis by IP6K1 promotes cell locomotion. Actin cytoskeleton remodeling and cell migration support the ability of cancer cells to achieve their complete oncogenic potential. Cancer cells with lower IP6K1 levels display reduced migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. When fed an oral carcinogen, mice lacking IP6K1 show reduced progression from epithelial dysplasia to invasive carcinoma. Thus, our data reveal that like IP6K2, IP6K1 is also involved in early cytoskeleton remodeling events during cancer progression. However, unlike IP6K2, IP6K1 is essential for 4NQO

  20. Deletion of inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1) reduces cell migration and invasion, conferring protection from aerodigestive tract carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Jadav, Rathan S; Kumar, Dharmika; Buwa, Natasha; Ganguli, Shubhra; Thampatty, Sitalakshmi R; Balasubramanian, Nagaraj; Bhandari, Rashna

    2016-08-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), a family of enzymes found in all eukaryotes, are responsible for the synthesis of 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7) from inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). Three isoforms of IP6Ks are found in mammals, and gene deletions of each isoform lead to diverse, non-overlapping phenotypes in mice. Previous studies show a facilitatory role for IP6K2 in cell migration and invasion, properties that are essential for the early stages of tumorigenesis. However, IP6K2 also has an essential role in cancer cell apoptosis, and mice lacking this protein are more susceptible to the development of aerodigestive tract carcinoma upon treatment with the oral carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Not much is known about the functions of the equally abundant and ubiquitously expressed IP6K1 isoform in cell migration, invasion and cancer progression. We conducted a gene expression analysis on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking IP6K1, revealing a role for this protein in cell receptor-extracellular matrix interactions that regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Consequently, cells lacking IP6K1 manifest defects in adhesion-dependent signaling, evident by lower FAK and Paxillin activation, leading to reduced cell spreading and migration. Expression of active, but not inactive IP6K1 reverses migration defects in IP6K1 knockout MEFs, suggesting that 5-IP7 synthesis by IP6K1 promotes cell locomotion. Actin cytoskeleton remodeling and cell migration support the ability of cancer cells to achieve their complete oncogenic potential. Cancer cells with lower IP6K1 levels display reduced migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth. When fed an oral carcinogen, mice lacking IP6K1 show reduced progression from epithelial dysplasia to invasive carcinoma. Thus, our data reveal that like IP6K2, IP6K1 is also involved in early cytoskeleton remodeling events during cancer progression. However, unlike IP6K2, IP6K1 is essential for 4NQO

  1. Inhibiting CREPT reduces the proliferation and migration of non-small cell lung cancer cells by down-regulating cell cycle related protein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Li, Wei-Miao; Wang, Wu-Ping; Sun, Ying; Ni, Yun-Feng; Xing, Hao; Xia, Jing-Hua; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Zhi-Pei; Li, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that CREPT acts as a highly expressed oncogene in a variety of tumors, affecting cyclin D1 signal pathways. However, the distribution and clinical significance of CREPT in NSCLC remains poorly understood. Our study focused on the role of CREPT on the regulation ofnon-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We found that CREPT mRNA and protein expression was significantly increased in NSCLC compared with adjacent lung tissues and was increased in various NSCLC cell lines compared with the normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell line. siRNA-induced knockingdown of CREPT significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of NSCLC cell lines by arresting cell cycle in S phase. Moreover, CREPT knocking down affected the expression of cell cycle proteins including c-mycand CDC25A. Finally, we found there were obvious correlations between CREPT with c-myc expression in histological type, differentiation, and pTNM stages of NSCLC (P<0.05, rs>0.3). Immunohistofluorescence studies demonstrated a co-localization phenomenon when CREPT and c-myc were expressed. Thus, we propose that CREPT may promote NSCLC cell growth and migration through the c-myc and CDC25A signaling molecules. PMID:27347318

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibitors reduce WB-F344 oval cell viability and migration capability by suppressing AKT/mTOR signaling in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Wu, Ying; Hu, Ronglin; Li, Dongming; Du, Jun; Jiao, Xingyuan; He, Xiaoshun

    2016-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) can blockDNA replication and transcription and altered HDAC expression was associated with tumorigenesis. This study investigated the effects of HDAC inhibitors on hepatic oval cells and aimed to delineate the underlying molecular events. Hepatic oval cells were treated with two different HDAC inhibitors, suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid (SAHA) and trichostatin-A (TSA). Cells were subjected to cell morphology, cell viability, cell cycle, and wound healing assays. The expression of proteins related to both apoptosis and the cell cycle, and proteins of the AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway were analyzed by Western blot. The data showed that HDAC inhibitors reduced oval cell viability and migration capability, and arrested oval cells at the G0/G1 and S phases of the cell cycle, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HDAC inhibitors altered cell morphology and reduced oval cell viability, and downregulated the expression of PCNA, cyclinD1, c-Myc and Bmi1 proteins, while also suppressing AKT/mTOR and its downstream target activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that HDAC inhibitors affect oval cells by suppressing AKT/mTOR signaling. PMID:26558695

  3. Beta-Adrenoceptor Activation Reduces Both Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cell Migration via a cAMP-Dependent Mechanism and Wound Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Andrew P; Fox, James M; Pullar, Christine E

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process during tissue regeneration; however, the amount of angiogenesis directly correlates with the level of wound scarring. Angiogenesis is lower in scar-free foetal wounds while angiogenesis is raised and abnormal in pathophysiological scarring such as hypertrophic scars and keloids. Delineating the mechanisms that modulate angiogenesis and could reduce scarring would be clinically useful. Beta-adrenoceptors (β-AR) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed on all skin cell-types. They play a role in wound repair but their specific role in angiogenesis is unknown. In this study, a range of in vitro assays (single cell migration, scratch wound healing, ELISAs for angiogenic growth factors and tubule formation) were performed with human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) to investigate and dissect mechanisms underpinning β-AR-mediated modulation of angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) and murine excisional skin wounds. β-AR activation reduced HDMEC migration via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent and protein kinase A (PKA)-independent mechanisms as demonstrated through use of an EPAC agonist that auto-inhibited the cAMP-mediated β-AR transduced reduction in HDMEC motility; a PKA inhibitor was, conversely, ineffective. ELISA studies demonstrated that β-AR activation reduced pro-angiogenic growth factor secretion from HDMECs (fibroblast growth factor 2) and keratinocytes (vascular endothelial growth factor A) revealing possible β-AR-mediated autocrine and paracrine anti-angiogenic mechanisms. In more complex environments, β-AR activation delayed HDMEC tubule formation and decreased angiogenesis both in the CAM assay and in murine excisional skin wounds in vivo. β-AR activation reduced HDMEC function in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo; therefore, β-AR agonists could be promising anti-angiogenic modulators in skin. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 356–365, 2015. © 2014 The Authors. Journal

  4. Plakoglobin Reduces the in vitro Growth, Migration and Invasion of Ovarian Cancer Cells Expressing N-Cadherin and Mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Alaee, Mahsa; Danesh, Ghazal; Pasdar, Manijeh

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of cadherins and catenins plays pivotal roles in ovarian cancer development and progression. Plakoglobin (PG, γ-catenin) is a paralog of β-catenin with dual adhesive and signaling functions. While β-catenin has known oncogenic function, PG generally acts as a tumor/metastasis suppressor. We recently showed that PG interacted with p53 and that its growth/metastasis inhibitory function may be mediated by this interaction. Very little is known about the role of PG in ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated the in vitro tumor/metastasis suppressor effects of PG in ovarian cancer cell lines with mutant p53 expression and different cadherin profiles. We showed that the N-cadherin expressing and E-cadherin and PG deficient ES-2 cells were highly migratory and invasive, whereas OV-90 cells that express E-cadherin, PG and very little/no N-cadherin were not. Exogenous expression of PG or E-cadherin or N-cadherin knockdown in ES-2 cells (ES-2-E-cad, ES-2-PG and ES-2-shN-cad) significantly reduced their migration and invasion. Also, PG expression or N-cadherin knockdown significantly decreased ES-2 cells growth. Furthermore, PG interacted with both cadherins and with wild type and mutant p53 in normal ovarian and ES-2-PG cell lines, respectively. PMID:27144941

  5. Olive oil compounds inhibit the paracrine regulation of TNF-α-induced endothelial cell migration through reduced glioblastoma cell cyclooxygenase-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Sylvie; Ben Saad, Aroua; Zgheib, Alain; Annabi, Borhane

    2016-01-01

    The established causal relationship between the chronic inflammatory microenvironment, tumor development and cancer recurrence has provided leads for developing novel preventive strategies. Accumulating experimental, clinical and epidemiological data has provided support for the chemopreventive properties of olive oil compounds traditionally found within the Mediterranean diet. In this study, we investigated whether tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein and oleic acid (OA), four compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil, can prevent tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (an inflammation biomarker) in a human glioblastoma cell (U-87 MG) model. We found that Tyr and OA significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced COX-2 gene and protein expression, as well as PGE2 secretion. Both compounds also inhibited TNF-α-induced JNK and ERK phosphorylation, whereas only Tyr inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB phosphorylation. Paracrine-regulated migration of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) was assessed using growth factor-enriched conditioned media (CM) isolated from U-87 MG cells. We found that while PGE2 triggered HBMEC migration, the CM isolated from U-87 MG cells, where either COX-2 or NF-κB had been silenced or had been treated with Tyr or OA, exhibited decreased chemotactic properties. These observations demonstrate that olive oil compounds inhibit the effect of the chronic inflammatory microenvironment on glioblastoma progression through TNF-α actions and may be useful in cancer chemoprevention.

  6. Targeting the testis-specific heat-shock protein 70-2 (HSP70-2) reduces cellular growth, migration, and invasion in renal cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Swarnendra; Suri, Anil

    2014-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents one of the most resistant tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Current therapies for the RCC patients are limited owing to lack of diagnosis and therapeutic treatments. Testis-specific heat-shock protein 70-2 (HSP70-2), a member of HSP70 chaperone family, has been shown to be associated with various cancers. In the present study, we investigated the putative role of HSP70-2 in various malignant properties of the RCC cells. HSP70-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression was investigated in A704, ACHN, and Caki-1 cells derived from the RCC patients. We assessed the expression of HSP70-2 gene and protein by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. The expression of HSP70-2 protein was further validated by performing indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and flow cytometry. The malignant properties of high-grade invasive A704 and Caki-1 cells, such as cellular proliferation, colony formation, migration, invasion, and wound healing, were evaluated by silencing the expression of HSP70-2 gene in these cells. Statistical significance was defined using Student's t test. Our RT-PCR and Western blotting data showed the expression of HSP70-2 in all RCC cells. Our results showed that HSP70-2 was predominantly expressed in cytoplasm and found to be colocalized with endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi body, and plasma membrane but not the nuclear envelope. Knockdown of HSP70-2 expression with specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) demonstrated significant reduction in cell growth and colony formation. Further, a marked reduction in cell migration and invasion was also observed, indicating the potential role of HSP70-2 in metastasis. Collectively, our data suggest that HSP70-2 plays a key role in cancerous growth and invasive potential of RCC cells. Thus, HSP70-2 could serve as a novel potential therapeutic target for the RCC.

  7. A Discrete Cell Migration Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J; Kruse, Kara L; Ward, Richard C; O'Quinn, Elizabeth; Woerner, Matthew M; Beckerman, Barbara G

    2007-01-01

    Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells is a fundamental process in the development of intimal hyperplasia, a precursor to development of cardiovascular disease and a potential response to injury of an arterial wall. Boyden chamber experiments are used to quantify the motion of cell populations in response to a chemoattractant gradient (i.e., cell chemotaxis). We are developing a mathematical model of cell migration within the Boyden chamber, while simultaneously conducting experiments to obtain parameter values for the migration process. In the future, the model and parameters will be used as building blocks for a detailed model of the process that causes intimal hyperplasia. The cell migration model presented in this paper is based on the notion of a cell as a moving sensor that responds to an evolving chemoattractant gradient. We compare the results of our three-dimensional hybrid model with results from a one-dimensional continuum model. Some preliminary experimental data that is being used to refine the model is also presented.

  8. Intravenous implanted neural stem cells migrate to injury site, reduce infarct volume, and improve behavior after cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Lin, Chen-Huan; Yang, Yi-Chin; Chiao, Ming-Tsang; Cheng, Wen-Yu; Ko, Jiunn-Liang

    2010-08-01

    Stroke represents one of the leading causes of death and disability in humans, but despite intense research, only a few options exist for the treatment of stroke-related infarction of brain tissue. Thus far, in experimental strokes, cell therapy appears to partly reverse some behavioral deficits. However, the mechanisms of action remain uncertain as most studies reveal only little, if any, evidence for neuronal replacement and observed behavioral improvements. This present study was performed to test rodent fetus forebrain derived neural stem cells (NSCs) implantation into rats subjected to suture-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Efficacy of cell therapy was studied regarding behavior recovery, infarct volume, and protection possibility of related molecular mechanisms. Here, we show that grafted cells can home in on damaged regions by MCAO and significantly improve behavior of ischemic rats. Infarct volumes and brain atrophy were diminished after grafted NSCs treatment. Furthermore, we detected inflammation related molecules such as COX-2 and IL-1beta and found that grafted NSCs treatment after ischemic stroke could repress expression of inflammation molecular protein levels. We also detected protein levels of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) as a protective protein against apoptosis. The results showed that grafted NSCs treatment induced the protein level of HSP27 and down-regulated activity of caspase-3 compared with the vehicle control. Our results demonstrate that transplanted NSCs provide benefits in behavioral function recovery after MCAO and increase neuroprotection whilst repressing inflammatory destruction. These data reveal another essential explanation of cellular transplantation therapy in damage recovery from ischemic stroke and offer new therapeutic possibilities. PMID:20560882

  9. Zebrafish germ cells: motility and guided migration.

    PubMed

    Paksa, Azadeh; Raz, Erez

    2015-10-01

    In the course of embryonic development, the process of cell migration is critical for establishment of the embryonic body plan, for morphogenesis and for organ function. Investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying cell migration is thus crucial for understanding developmental processes and clinical conditions resulting from abnormal cell migration such as cancer metastasis. The long-range migration of primordial germ cells toward the region at which the gonad develops occurs in embryos of various species and thus constitutes a useful in vivo model for single-cell migration. Recent studies employing zebrafish embryos have greatly contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms facilitating the migration of these cells en route to their target.

  10. Endothelial cells enhance migration of meniscus cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaoning; Eng, George M.; Arkonac, Derya E.; Chao, Pen-hsiu Grace; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the interactions between vascular endothelial cells and meniscal fibrochondrocytes from the inner avascular and outer vascular regions of the meniscus, and identify angiogenic factors that enhance cell migration and integrative repair. Methods Bovine meniscal fibrochondrocytes (bMFCs) from the inner and outer regions of meniscus were cultured for seven days with and without human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a micropatterned three-dimensional hydrogel system for cell migration. Angiogenic factors secreted by HUVECs were probed for their role in paracrine mechanisms governing bMFC migration, and applied to a full-thickness defect model of meniscal repair in explants from the inner and outer regions over four weeks. Results Endothelial cells enhanced migration of inner and outer bMFCs in the micropatterned system via endothelin-1 (ET-1) signaling. Supplementation of ET-1 significantly enhanced integration strength of full-thickness defects in inner and outer explants, and cell migration at the macro-scale, compared to controls without ET-1 treatment. Conclusion We report for the first time that bMFCs from both the avascular and vascular regions respond to the presence of endothelial cells with increased migration. Paracrine signaling by endothelial cells regulates the bMFCs differentially by region, but we identify ET-1 as an angiogenic factor that stimulates migration of inner and outer cells at the micro-scale, and integrative repair of inner and outer explants at the macro-scale. These findings reveal the regional interactions between vasculature and MFCs, and suggest ET-1 as a potential new treatment modality for avascular meniscal injuries, in order to prevent the development of osteoarthritis. PMID:25307081

  11. Silencing the Nucleocytoplasmic O-GlcNAc Transferase Reduces Proliferation, Adhesion, and Migration of Cancer and Fetal Human Colon Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Steenackers, Agata; Olivier-Van Stichelen, Stéphanie; Baldini, Steffi F; Dehennaut, Vanessa; Toillon, Robert-Alain; Le Bourhis, Xuefen; El Yazidi-Belkoura, Ikram; Lefebvre, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The post-translational modification of proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is regulated by a unique couple of enzymes. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) transfers the GlcNAc residue from UDP-GlcNAc, the final product of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), whereas O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removes it. This study and others show that OGT and O-GlcNAcylation levels are increased in cancer cell lines. In that context, we studied the effect of OGT silencing in the colon cancer cell lines HT29 and HCT116 and the primary colon cell line CCD841CoN. Herein, we report that OGT silencing diminished proliferation, in vitro cell survival and adhesion of primary and cancer cell lines. SiOGT dramatically decreased HT29 and CCD841CoN migration, CCD841CoN harboring high capabilities of migration in Boyden chamber system when compared to HT29 and HCT116. The expression levels of actin and tubulin were unaffected by OGT knockdown but siOGT seemed to disorganize microfilament, microtubule, and vinculin networks in CCD841CoN. While cancer cell lines harbor higher levels of OGT and O-GlcNAcylation to fulfill their proliferative and migratory properties, in agreement with their higher consumption of HBP main substrates glucose and glutamine, our data demonstrate that OGT expression is not only necessary for the biological properties of cancer cell lines but also for normal cells.

  12. Reducing PICC migrations and improving patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Elen Hughes, Meinir

    Inadvertent migration of central venous catheters can lead to several issues including delayed therapy and clinical morbidities such as thrombosis. Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are particularly at risk of movement. An innovative new device which allows anchorage of the catheter has proved very successful in the minimisation of catheter migration. The SecurAcath device incorporates a small blunt anchor which lies beneath the skin in order to secure the catheter in place and prevent inadvertent movement. An evaluation of 31 patients with a SecurAcath device in situ to secure a PICC found only one case of insignificant catheter migration. Some initial problems with infection and pain were encountered and interventions were put in place to minimise their incidence. SecurAcath removal proved to be the most significant challenge but this can be overcome with suitable guidance and training.

  13. Characterization of Collective Cell Migration Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Rachel; Yue, Haicen; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Losert, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    During cancer progression, tumor cells invade the surrounding tissue and migrate throughout the body, forming clinically dangerous secondary tumors. This metastatic process begins when cells leave the primary tumor, either as individual cells or collectively migrating groups. Here we present data on the migration dynamics of epithelial sheets composed of many cells. Using quantitative image analysis techniques, we are able to extract motion information from time-lapse images of cell lines with varying malignancy. Adapting metrics originally used to study fluid flows we are able to characterize the migration dynamics of these cell lines. By describing the migration dynamics in great detail, we are able to make a clear comparison of our results to a simulation of collective cell migration. Specifically, we explore whether leader cells are required to describe our expanding sheets of cells and whether the answer depends on individual cell activity.

  14. Schwann cells promote endothelial cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Tiago; Ahmed, Maqsood; Wieringa, Paul; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Directed cell migration is a crucial orchestrated process in embryonic development, wound healing, and immune response. The underlying substrate can provide physical and/or chemical cues that promote directed cell migration. Here, using electrospinning we developed substrates of aligned poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofibres to study the influence of glial cells on endothelial cells (ECs) in a 3-dimensional (3D) co-culture model. ECs build blood vessels and regulate their plasticity in coordination with neurons. Likewise, neurons construct nerves and regulate their circuits in coordination with ECs. In our model, the neuro-vascular cross-talk was assessed using a direct co-culture model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rat Schwann cells (rSCs). The effect of rSCs on ECs behavior was demonstrated by earlier and higher velocity values and genetic expression profiles different of those of HUVECs when seeded alone. We observed 2 different gene expression trends in the co-culture models: (i) a later gene expression of angiogenic factors, such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and (ii) an higher gene expression of genes involved in actin filaments rearrangement, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 13 (MAPKAPK13), Vinculin (VCL), and Profilin (PROF). These results suggested that the higher ECs migration is mainly due to proteins involved in the actin filaments rearrangement and in the directed cell migration rather than the effect of angiogenic factors. This co-culture model provides an approach to enlighten the neurovascular interactions, with particular focus on endothelial cell migration. PMID:26491999

  15. 11-epi-Sinulariolide Acetate Reduces Cell Migration and Invasion of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Reducing the Activation of ERK1/2, p38MAPK and FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jen-Jie; Su, Jui-Hsin; Tsai, Chi-Chu; Chen, Yi-Jen; Liao, Ming-Hui; Wu, Yu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is one of the major causes of death in cancer. An active compound, 11-epi-sinulariolide acetate (11-epi-SA), isolated from the cultured soft coral Sinularia flexibilis has been examined for potential anti-cell migration and invasion effects on hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC). However, the molecular mechanism of anti-migration and invasion by 11-epi-SA on HCC, along with their corresponding effects, remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated anti-migration and invasion effects and the underlying mechanism of 11-epi-SA in HA22T cells, and discovered by trans-well migration and invasion assays that 11-epi-SA provided a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the migration of human HCC HA22T cells. After treatment with 11-epi-SA for 24 h, there were suppressed protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in HA22T cells. Meanwhile, the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) were increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Further investigation revealed that 11-epi-SA suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38MAPK. The 11-epi-SA also suppressed the expression of the phosphorylation of FAK/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways. PMID:25222667

  16. Factors controlling cardiac neural crest cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, Mary R

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac neural crest cells originate as part of the postotic caudal rhombencephalic neural crest stream. Ectomesenchymal cells in this stream migrate to the circumpharyngeal ridge and then into the caudal pharyngeal arches where they condense to form first a sheath and then the smooth muscle tunics of the persisting pharyngeal arch arteries. A subset of the cells continues migrating into the cardiac outflow tract where they will condense to form the aorticopulmonary septum. Cell signaling, extracellular matrix and cell-cell contacts are all critical for the initial migration, pauses, continued migration and condensation of these cells. This Review elucidates what is currently known about these factors. PMID:20890117

  17. HIF-1α Promotes A Hypoxia-Independent Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Li, Liyuan; Madu, Chikezie O; Lu, Andrew; Lu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is known as a transactivator for VEGF gene promoter. It can be induced by hypoxia. However, no study has been done so far to dissect HIF-1α-mediated effects from hypoxia or VEGF-mediated effects. By using a HIF-1α knockout (HIF-1α KO) cell system in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells, this study analyzes cell migration and HIF-1α, hypoxia and VEGF activation. A hypoxia-mediated HIF-1α induction and VEGF transactivation were observed: both HIF-1α WT lines had significantly increased VEGF transactivation, as an indicator for HIF-1α induction, in hypoxia compared to normoxia; in contrast, HIF-1α KO line had no increased VEGF transactivation under hypoxia. HIF-1α promotes cell migration: HIF-1α-KO cells had a significantly reduced migration compared to that of the HIF-1α WT cells under both normoxia and hypoxia. The significantly reduced cell migration in HIF-1α KO cells can be partially rescued by the restoration of WT HIF-1α expression mediated by adenoviral-mediated gene transfer. Interestingly, hypoxia has no effect on cell migration: the cells had a similar cell migration rate under hypoxic and normoxic conditions for both HIF-1α WT and HIF-1α KO lines, respectively. Collectively, these data suggest that HIF-1α plays a role in MEF cell migration that is independent from hypoxia-mediated effects.

  18. HIF-1α Promotes A Hypoxia-Independent Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liyuan; Madu, Chikezie O.; Lu, Andrew; Lu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is known as a transactivator for VEGF gene promoter. It can be induced by hypoxia. However, no study has been done so far to dissect HIF-1α-mediated effects from hypoxia or VEGF-mediated effects. By using a HIF-1α knockout (HIF-1α KO) cell system in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells, this study analyzes cell migration and HIF-1α, hypoxia and VEGF activation. A hypoxia-mediated HIF-1α induction and VEGF transactivation were observed: both HIF-1α WT lines had significantly increased VEGF transactivation, as an indicator for HIF-1α induction, in hypoxia compared to normoxia; in contrast, HIF-1α KO line had no increased VEGF transactivation under hypoxia. HIF-1α promotes cell migration: HIF-1α-KO cells had a significantly reduced migration compared to that of the HIF-1α WT cells under both normoxia and hypoxia. The significantly reduced cell migration in HIF-1α KO cells can be partially rescued by the restoration of WT HIF-1α expression mediated by adenoviral-mediated gene transfer. Interestingly, hypoxia has no effect on cell migration: the cells had a similar cell migration rate under hypoxic and normoxic conditions for both HIF-1α WT and HIF-1α KO lines, respectively. Collectively, these data suggest that HIF-1α plays a role in MEF cell migration that is independent from hypoxia-mediated effects. PMID:20882121

  19. Glycation of extracellular matrix proteins impairs migration of immune cells.

    PubMed

    Haucke, Elisa; Navarrete-Santos, Alexander; Simm, Andreas; Silber, Rolf-Edgar; Hofmann, Britt

    2014-01-01

    The immune response during aging and diabetes is disturbed and may be due to the altered migration of immune cells in an aged tissue. Our study should prove the hypothesis that age and diabetes-related advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have an impact on the migration and adhesion of human T-cells. To achieve our purpose, we used in vitro AGE-modified proteins (soluble albumin and fibronectin [FN]), as well as human collagen obtained from bypass graft. A Boyden chamber was used to study cell migration. Migrated Jurkat T-cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and cell adhesion by crystal violet staining. Actin polymerization was determined by phalloidin-Alexa-fluor 488-labeled antibody and fluorescence microscopy. We found that significantly fewer cells (50%, p = 0.003) migrated through methylglyoxal modified FN. The attachment to FN in the presence of AGE-bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also reduced (p < 0.05). In ex vivo experiments, isolated collagen from human vein graft material negatively affected the migration of the cells depending on the grade of AGE modification of the collagen. Collagen with a low AGE level reduced the cell migration by 30%, and collagen with a high AGE level by 60%. Interaction of the cells with an AGE-modified matrix, but not with soluble AGEs like BSA-AGE per se, was responsible for a disturbed migration. The reduced migration was accompanied by an impaired actin polymerization. We conclude that AGEs-modified matrix protein inhibits cell migration and adhesion of Jurkat T-cells. PMID:24635174

  20. Glycation of extracellular matrix proteins impairs migration of immune cells.

    PubMed

    Haucke, Elisa; Navarrete-Santos, Alexander; Simm, Andreas; Silber, Rolf-Edgar; Hofmann, Britt

    2014-01-01

    The immune response during aging and diabetes is disturbed and may be due to the altered migration of immune cells in an aged tissue. Our study should prove the hypothesis that age and diabetes-related advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have an impact on the migration and adhesion of human T-cells. To achieve our purpose, we used in vitro AGE-modified proteins (soluble albumin and fibronectin [FN]), as well as human collagen obtained from bypass graft. A Boyden chamber was used to study cell migration. Migrated Jurkat T-cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and cell adhesion by crystal violet staining. Actin polymerization was determined by phalloidin-Alexa-fluor 488-labeled antibody and fluorescence microscopy. We found that significantly fewer cells (50%, p = 0.003) migrated through methylglyoxal modified FN. The attachment to FN in the presence of AGE-bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also reduced (p < 0.05). In ex vivo experiments, isolated collagen from human vein graft material negatively affected the migration of the cells depending on the grade of AGE modification of the collagen. Collagen with a low AGE level reduced the cell migration by 30%, and collagen with a high AGE level by 60%. Interaction of the cells with an AGE-modified matrix, but not with soluble AGEs like BSA-AGE per se, was responsible for a disturbed migration. The reduced migration was accompanied by an impaired actin polymerization. We conclude that AGEs-modified matrix protein inhibits cell migration and adhesion of Jurkat T-cells.

  1. Transplantation stimulates interstitial cell migration in hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, T.; David, C.N.; Bosch, T.C. )

    1990-04-01

    Migration of interstitial cells and nerve cell precursors was analyzed in Hydra magnipapillata and Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). Axial grafts were made between ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled donor and unlabeled host tissue. Migration of labeled cells into the unlabeled half was followed for 4 days. The results indicate that the rate of migration was initially high and then slowed on Days 2-4. Regrafting fresh donor tissue on Days 2-4 maintained high levels of migration. Thus, migration appears to be stimulated by the grafting procedure itself.

  2. Regulation of C6 glioma cell migration by thymol

    PubMed Central

    LEE, KANG PA; KIM, JAI-EUN; PARK, WON-HWAN; HONG, HEEOK

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cell motility exhibits a crucial role in tumor development. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether thymol could reduce C6 glioma cell migration. Cell viability was determined using the EZ-Cytox Cell Viability kit. The scratch wound healing and Boyden chamber assays were performed to test C6 glioma cell migration in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS). Additionally, the study investigated whether signaling proteins relevant to C6 glioma cell migration, i.e., extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, protein kinase Cα (PKCα), matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)9 and MMP2, were affected by thymol treatment. Up to 30 µM, thymol did not alter cell viability, whereas 100 µM thymol induced the death of ~20% of the cells. Furthermore, thymol (30 µM) significantly reduced FBS-induced migration. In the FBS-stimulated C6 glioma cells, thymol (30 µM) suppressed PKCα and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. MMP9 and MMP2 production was also significantly reduced by treatment with 30 µM thymol in the C6 glioma cells. Taken together, these results indicate that thymol attenuates C6 glioma cell migration. Additionally, the study suggests that the effect of thymol on the FBS-induced migration of C6 glioma cells affects PKCα and ERK1/2 signaling, and suppresses MMP9 and MMP2 production. PMID:27073528

  3. Epithelial MUC1 promotes cell migration, reduces apoptosis and affects levels of mucosal modulators during acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)-induced gastropathy.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debashish; Fernandez, Harvey Robert; Patil, Pradeep Bhatu; Premaratne, Pushpa; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne; Lindén, Sara Katarina

    2015-02-01

    MUC1 is a transmembrane mucin highly expressed in the stomach. Although extensive research has uncovered many of its roles in cancer, knowledge about the functions of MUC1 in normal tissues is limited. In the present study, we showed that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; aspirin) up-regulated MUC1/Muc1 expression in the gastric mucosa of humans and wild-type (WT) mice. ASA induced mucosal injury in all mice to a similar extent; however, WT animals and those chimaeras with Muc1 on the epithelia recovered faster than Muc1-knockout (KO) mice and chimaeras carrying Muc1 on haemopoietic but not epithelial cells. MUC1 enhanced proliferation and migration of the human gastric cell line MKN-7 and increased resistance to apoptosis. The repeated treatment regime used caused a reduction in cyclo-oxygenase-1 (Cox-1) expression, though WT animals returned faster towards pre-treatment levels and had increased Cox-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels during recovery. Thus we found that epithelial Muc1 is more important for the healing process than haemopoietic Muc1 and Muc1/MUC1 facilitates wound healing by enhancing cell migration and proliferation, protecting against apoptosis and mediating expression of mucosal modulators. Thus MUC1 plays essential roles during wound healing and development of treatment modalities targeting enhanced expression of MUC1 may be beneficial to treat mucosal wounds.

  4. Dynamic contact guidance of migrating cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losert, Wolfgang; Sun, Xiaoyu; Guven, Can; Driscoll, Meghan; Fourkas, John

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the effects of nanotopographical surfaces on the cell migration and cell shape dynamics of the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Amoeboid motion exhibits significant contact guidance along surfaces with nanoscale ridges or grooves. We show quantitatively that nanoridges spaced 1.5 μm apart exhibit the greatest contact guidance efficiency. Using principal component analysis, we characterize the dynamics of the cell shape modulated by the coupling between the cell membrane and ridges. We show that motion parallel to the ridges is enhanced, while the turning, at the largest spatial scales, is suppressed. Since protrusion dynamics are principally governed by actin dynamics, we imaged the actin polymerization of cells on ridges. We found that actin polymerization occurs preferentially along nanoridges in a ``monorail'' like fashion. The ridges then provide us with a tool to study actin dynamics in an effectively reduced dimensional system.

  5. Rho GTPase signalling in cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, Anne J

    2015-01-01

    Cells migrate in multiple different ways depending on their environment, which includes the extracellular matrix composition, interactions with other cells, and chemical stimuli. For all types of cell migration, Rho GTPases play a central role, although the relative contribution of each Rho GTPase depends on the environment and cell type. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of how Rho GTPases contribute to different types of migration, comparing lamellipodium-driven versus bleb-driven migration modes. I also describe how cells migrate across the endothelium. In addition to Rho, Rac and Cdc42, which are well known to regulate migration, I discuss the roles of other less-well characterized members of the Rho family. PMID:26363959

  6. Screening of genes involved in cell migration in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, Akira; Uyeda, Taro Q P

    2008-03-10

    A single cell of wild-type Dictyostelium discoideum forms a visible colony on a plastic dish in several days, but due to enhanced cell migration, amiB-null mutant cells scatter over a large area and do not form noticeable colonies. Here, with an aim to identify genes involved in cell migration, we isolated suppresser mutants of amiB-null mutants that restore the ability to form colonies. From REMI (restriction enzyme-mediated integration)-mutagenized pool of double-mutants, we identified 18 responsible genes from them. These genes can be categorized into several biological processes. One cell line, Sab16 (Suppressor of amiB) was chosen for further analysis, which had a disrupted phospholipase D pldB gene. To confirm the role of pldB gene in cell migration, we knocked out the pldB gene and over-expressed gfp-pldB in wild-type cells. GFP-PLDB localized to plasma membrane and on vesicles, and in migrating cells, at the protruding regions of pseudopodia. Migration speed of vegetative pldB-null cells was reduced to 73% of that of the wild-type. These results suggest that PLDB plays an important role in migration in Dictyostelium cells, and that our screening system is useful for the identification of genes involved in cell migration. PMID:18164290

  7. Silk Film Topography Directs Collective Epithelial Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    The following study provides new insight into how surface topography dictates directed collective epithelial cell sheet growth through the guidance of individual cell movement. Collective cell behavior of migrating human corneal limbal-epithelial cell sheets were studied on highly biocompatible flat and micro-patterned silk film surfaces. The silk film edge topography guided the migratory direction of individual cells making up the collective epithelial sheet, which resulted in a 75% increase in total culture elongation. This was due to a 3-fold decrease in cell sheet migration rate efficiency for movement perpendicular to the topography edge. Individual cell migration direction is preferred in the parallel approach to the edge topography where localization of cytoskeletal proteins to the topography’s edge region is reduced, which results in the directed growth of the collective epithelial sheet. Findings indicate customized biomaterial surfaces may be created to direct both the migration rate and direction of tissue epithelialization. PMID:23185573

  8. Multiscale Cues Drive Collective Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Peter; Wood, David K.; Kwon, Sunghoon; Provenzano, Paolo P.; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-07-01

    To investigate complex biophysical relationships driving directed cell migration, we developed a biomimetic platform that allows perturbation of microscale geometric constraints with concomitant nanoscale contact guidance architectures. This permits us to elucidate the influence, and parse out the relative contribution, of multiscale features, and define how these physical inputs are jointly processed with oncogenic signaling. We demonstrate that collective cell migration is profoundly enhanced by the addition of contract guidance cues when not otherwise constrained. However, while nanoscale cues promoted migration in all cases, microscale directed migration cues are dominant as the geometric constraint narrows, a behavior that is well explained by stochastic diffusion anisotropy modeling. Further, oncogene activation (i.e. mutant PIK3CA) resulted in profoundly increased migration where extracellular multiscale directed migration cues and intrinsic signaling synergistically conspire to greatly outperform normal cells or any extracellular guidance cues in isolation.

  9. Multiscale Cues Drive Collective Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Peter; Wood, David K.; Kwon, Sunghoon; Provenzano, Paolo P.; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    To investigate complex biophysical relationships driving directed cell migration, we developed a biomimetic platform that allows perturbation of microscale geometric constraints with concomitant nanoscale contact guidance architectures. This permits us to elucidate the influence, and parse out the relative contribution, of multiscale features, and define how these physical inputs are jointly processed with oncogenic signaling. We demonstrate that collective cell migration is profoundly enhanced by the addition of contract guidance cues when not otherwise constrained. However, while nanoscale cues promoted migration in all cases, microscale directed migration cues are dominant as the geometric constraint narrows, a behavior that is well explained by stochastic diffusion anisotropy modeling. Further, oncogene activation (i.e. mutant PIK3CA) resulted in profoundly increased migration where extracellular multiscale directed migration cues and intrinsic signaling synergistically conspire to greatly outperform normal cells or any extracellular guidance cues in isolation. PMID:27460294

  10. Cyclin D1 functions in cell migration.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiping; Wang, Chenguang; Prendergast, George C; Pestell, Richard G

    2006-11-01

    Cell migration is essential for developmental morphogenesis, tissue repair, and tumor metastasis. A recent study reveals that cyclin D1 acts to promote cell migration by inhibiting Rho/ROCK signaling and expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), an extracellular matrix protein that regulates cell migration in many settings including cancer. Given the frequent overexpression of cyclin D1 in cancer cells, due to its upregulation by Ras, Rho, Src, and other genes that drive malignant development, the new findings suggest that cyclin D1 may have a central role in mediating invasion and metastasis of cancer cells by controlling Rho/ROCK signaling and matrix deposition of TSP-1.

  11. Dynamic cell adhesion and migration on nanoscale grooved substrates.

    PubMed

    Lamers, E; te Riet, J; Domanski, M; Luttge, R; Figdor, C G; Gardeniers, J G E; Walboomers, X F; Jansen, J A

    2012-01-01

    Organised nanotopography mimicking the natural extracellular matrix can be used to control morphology, cell motility, and differentiation. However, it is still unknown how specific cell types react with specific patterns. Both initial adhesion and preferential cell migration may be important to initiate and increase cell locomotion and coverage with cells, and thus achieve an enhanced wound healing response around an implantable material. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate how MC3T3-E1 osteoblast initial adhesion and directional migration are influenced by nanogrooves with pitches ranging from 150 nm up to 1000 nm. In this study, we used a multi-patterned substrate with five different groove patterns and a smooth area with either a concentric or radial orientation. Initial cell adhesion measurements after 10 s were performed using atomic force spectroscopy-assisted single-cell force spectroscopy, and demonstrated that nascent cell adhesion was highly induced by a 600 nm pitch and reduced by a 150 nm pitch. Addition of RGD peptide significantly reduced adhesion, indicating that integrins and cell adhesive proteins (e.g. fibronectin or vitronectin) are key factors in specific cell adhesion on nanogrooved substrates. Also, cell migration was highly dependent on the groove pitch; the highest directional migration parallel to the grooves was observed on a 600 nm pitch, whereas a 150 nm pitch restrained directional cell migration. From this study, we conclude that grooves with a pitch of 600 nm may be favourable to enhance fast wound closure, thereby promoting tissue regeneration.

  12. Centrosome Positioning in 1D Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlerz, Katrina; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    During cell migration, the positioning of the centrosome and nucleus define a cell's polarity. For a cell migrating on a two-dimensional substrate the centrosome is positioned in front of the nucleus. Under one-dimensional confinement, however, the centrosome is positioned behind the nucleus in 60% of cells. It is known that the centrosome is positioned by CDC42 and dynein for cells moving on a 2D substrate in a wound-healing assay. It is currently unknown, however, if this is also true for cells moving under 1D confinement, where the centrosome position is often reversed. Therefore, centrosome positioning was studied in cells migrating under 1D confinement, which mimics cells migrating through 3D matrices. 3 to 5 μm fibronectin lines were stamped onto a glass substrate and cells with fluorescently labeled nuclei and centrosomes migrated on the lines. Our results show that when a cell changes directions the centrosome position is maintained. That is, when the centrosome is between the nucleus and the cell's trailing edge and the cell changes direction, the centrosome will be translocated across the nucleus to the back of the cell again. A dynein inhibitor did have an influence on centrosome positioning in 1D migration and change of directions.

  13. Nuclear stiffening inhibits migration of invasive melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Alexandre J.S.; Khanna, Payal; Sukumar, Aishwarya; Dong, Cheng; Dahl, Kris Noel

    2014-01-01

    During metastasis, melanoma cells must be sufficiently deformable to squeeze through extracellular barriers with small pore sizes. We visualize and quantify deformability of single cells using micropipette aspiration and examine the migration potential of a population of melanoma cells using a flow migration apparatus. We artificially stiffen the nucleus with recombinant overexpression of Δ50 lamin A, which is found in patients with Hutchison Gilford progeria syndrome and in aged individuals. Melanoma cells, both WM35 and Lu1205, both show reduced nuclear deformability and reduced cell invasion with the expression of Δ50 lamin A. These studies suggest that cellular aging including expression of Δ50 lamin A and nuclear stiffening may reduce the potential for metastatic cancer migration. Thus, the pathway of cancer metastasis may be kept in check by mechanical factors in addition to known chemical pathway regulation. PMID:25544862

  14. Hydralazine reduces leukocyte migration through different mechanisms in spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; de Oliveira, Maria A; dos Santos, Rosangela A; Soares, Antonio G; de Cássia Tostes, Rita; Carvalho, Maria Helena C; Fortes, Zuleica B

    2008-07-28

    In addition to reducing blood pressure, hydralazine can reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines and reduce the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules. Differences in leukocyte behavior and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) compared to normotensive rats have been reported. However, whether hydralazine can reduce leukocyte migration in vivo in hypertension and in normotension remains unknown. To address this question, male SHR and Wistar rats were treated for 15 days with hydralazine at a dose of ~3.5 mg/kg or ~14 mg/kg in their drinking water. The numbers of rollers and adherent and migrated cells were determined by direct vital microscopy, and blood pressure was assessed by tail plethysmography. In addition, following treatment with the higher dose, immunohistochemistry was used to measure the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), P-selectin, and platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) in endothelial cells, while flow cytometry was used to evaluate the expression of leukocyte CD18 and L-selectin. Hydralazine reduced leukocyte adherence and migration in SHR either at the higher, that reduced blood pressure levels, or lower dose, which did not reduce it. Reduced ICAM-1 expression might be involved in the reduced migration observed in SHR. In Wistar rats, only at the higher dose hydralazine reduced blood pressure levels and leukocyte migration. Reduced P-selectin expression might be involved. We therefore conclude that hydralazine reduces leukocyte migration by different mechanisms in SHR and Wistar rats, specifically by reducing ICAM-1 expression in the former and P-selectin expression in the latter.

  15. Glutamate involvement in calcium–dependent migration of astrocytoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Astrocytoma are known to have altered glutamate machinery that results in the release of large amounts of glutamate into the extracellular space but the precise role of glutamate in favoring cancer processes has not yet been fully established. Several studies suggested that glutamate might provoke active killing of neurons thereby producing space for cancer cells to proliferate and migrate. Previously, we observed that calcium promotes disassembly of integrin-containing focal adhesions in astrocytoma, thus providing a link between calcium signaling and cell migration. The aim of this study was to determine how calcium signaling and glutamate transmission cooperate to promote enhanced astrocytoma migration. Methods The wound-healing model was used to assay migration of human U87MG astrocytoma cells and allowed to monitor calcium signaling during the migration process. The effect of glutamate on calcium signaling was evaluated together with the amount of glutamate released by astrocytoma during cell migration. Results We observed that glutamate stimulates motility in serum-starved cells, whereas in the presence of serum, inhibitors of glutamate receptors reduce migration. Migration speed was also reduced in presence of an intracellular calcium chelator. During migration, cells displayed spontaneous Ca2+ transients. L-THA, an inhibitor of glutamate re-uptake increased the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations in oscillating cells and induced Ca2+ oscillations in quiescent cells. The frequency of migration-associated Ca2+ oscillations was reduced by prior incubation with glutamate receptor antagonists or with an anti-β1 integrin antibody. Application of glutamate induced increases in internal free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Finally we found that compounds known to increase [Ca2+]i in astrocytomas such as thapsigagin, ionomycin or the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist t-ACPD, are able to induce glutamate release. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that

  16. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell assembly and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Andrew M.; Torraco, Dennis; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Spernjak, Dusan; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rod L.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2015-10-02

    Cerium migration between PEM fuel cell components is influenced by potential-driven mobility, ionic diffusion, and gradients in water content. These factors were investigated in ex situ experiments and in operating fuel cells. Potential-induced migration was measured ex situ in hydrated window cells. Cerium-containing MEAs were also fabricated and tested under ASTs. MEA disassembly and subsequent XRF analysis were used to observe rapid cerium migration during cell assembly and operation. During MEA hot pressing, humidification, and low RH operation at OCV, ionic diffusion causes uniform migration from the membrane into the catalyst layers. During high RH operation at OCV, in-plane cerium gradients arise due to variations in water content. These gradients may diminish the scavenging efficacy of cerium by reducing its proximity to generated radicals.

  17. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell assembly and operation

    DOE PAGES

    Baker, Andrew M.; Torraco, Dennis; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Spernjak, Dusan; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rod L.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2015-09-14

    Cerium migration between PEM fuel cell components is influenced by potential-driven mobility, ionic diffusion, and gradients in water content. These factors were investigated in ex situ experiments and in operating fuel cells. Potential-induced migration was measured ex situ in hydrated window cells. Cerium-containing MEAs were also fabricated and tested under ASTs. MEA disassembly and subsequent XRF analysis were used to observe rapid cerium migration during cell assembly and operation. During MEA hot pressing, humidification, and low RH operation at OCV, ionic diffusion causes uniform migration from the membrane into the catalyst layers. During high RH operation at OCV, in-plane ceriummore » gradients arise due to variations in water content. These gradients may diminish the scavenging efficacy of cerium by reducing its proximity to generated radicals.« less

  18. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell assembly and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Andrew M.; Torraco, Dennis; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Spernjak, Dusan; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rod L.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2015-09-14

    Cerium migration between PEM fuel cell components is influenced by potential-driven mobility, ionic diffusion, and gradients in water content. These factors were investigated in ex situ experiments and in operating fuel cells. Potential-induced migration was measured ex situ in hydrated window cells. Cerium-containing MEAs were also fabricated and tested under ASTs. MEA disassembly and subsequent XRF analysis were used to observe rapid cerium migration during cell assembly and operation. During MEA hot pressing, humidification, and low RH operation at OCV, ionic diffusion causes uniform migration from the membrane into the catalyst layers. During high RH operation at OCV, in-plane cerium gradients arise due to variations in water content. These gradients may diminish the scavenging efficacy of cerium by reducing its proximity to generated radicals.

  19. Migration of Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gerthoffer, William T.

    2008-01-01

    Migration of smooth muscle cells is a process fundamental to development of hollow organs, including blood vessels and the airways. Migration is also thought to be part of the response to tissue injury. It has also been suggested to contribute to airways remodeling triggered by chronic inflammation. In both nonmuscle and smooth muscle cells numerous external signaling molecules and internal signal transduction pathways contribute to cell migration. The review includes evidence for the functional significance of airway smooth muscle migration, a summary of promigratory and antimigratory agents, and summaries of important signaling pathways mediating migration. Important signaling pathways and effector proteins described include small G proteins, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3-K), Rho activated protein kinase (ROCK), p21-activated protein kinases (PAK), Src family tyrosine kinases, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). These signaling modules control multiple critical effector proteins including actin nucleating, capping and severing proteins, myosin motors, and proteins that remodel microtubules. Actin filament remodeling, focal contact remodeling and propulsive force of molecular motors are all coordinated to move cells along gradients of chemical cues, matrix adhesiveness, or matrix stiffness. Airway smooth muscle cell migration can be modulated in vitro by drugs commonly used in pulmonary medicine including β-adrenergic agonists and corticosteroids. Future studies of airway smooth muscle cell migration may uncover novel targets for drugs aimed at modifying airway remodeling. PMID:18094091

  20. Emergence of oligarchy in collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Linus; Maini, Philip; Baker, Ruth

    Identifying the principles of collective cell migration has the potential to help prevent birth defects, improve regenerative therapies and develop model systems for cancer metastasis. In collaboration with experimental biologists, we use computational simulations of a hybrid model, comprising individual-based stochastic cell movement coupled to a reaction-diffusion equation for a chemoattractant, to explore the role of cell specialisation in the guidance of collective cell migration. In the neural crest, an important migratory cell population in vertebrate embryo development, we present evidence that just a few cells are guiding group migration in a cell-induced chemoattractant gradient that determines the switch between ``leader'' and ``follower'' behaviour in individual cells. This leads us to more generally consider under what conditions cell specialisation might become advantageous for collective migration. Alternatively, individual cell responses to locally different microenvironmental conditions could create the (artefactual) appearance of heterogeneity in a population of otherwise identical cellular agents. We explore these questions using a self-propelled particle model as a minimal description for collective cell migration in two and three dimensions.

  1. Entropy measures of collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, Ariadne; Parrinello, Simona; Faisal, Aldo

    2015-03-01

    Collective cell migration is a critical process during tissue formation and repair. To this end there is a need to develop tools to quantitatively measure the dynamics of collective cell migration obtained from microscopy data. Drawing on statistical physics we use entropy of velocity fields derived from dense optic flow to quantitatively measure collective migration. Using peripheral nerve repair after injury as experimental system, we study how Schwann cells, guided by fibroblasts, migrate in cord-like structures across the cut, paving a highway for neurons. This process of emergence of organised behaviour is key for successful repair, yet the emergence of leader cells and transition from a random to ordered state is not understood. We find fibroblasts induce correlated directionality in migrating Schwann cells as measured by a decrease in the entropy of motion vector. We show our method is robust with respect to image resolution in time and space, giving a principled assessment of how various molecular mechanisms affect macroscopic features of collective cell migration. Finally, the generality of our method allows us to process both simulated cell movement and microscopic data, enabling principled fitting and comparison of in silico to in vitro. ICCS, Imperial College London & MRC Clinical Sciences Centre.

  2. Cell density determines epithelial migration in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, P; Misfeldt, D S

    1980-01-01

    The dog kidney epithelial cell line (MDCK) has been shown to exhibit a density-correlated inhibition of growth at approxmately 6.6 X 10(5) cells per cm2. When a confluent monolayer at its maximal density was wounded by removal of a wide swath of cells, migration of the cell sheet into the denuded area occurred. Precise measurements of the rate of migration for 5 day showed that the cells accelerated at a uniform rate of 0.24 micrometer . hr-2 and, by extrapolation, possessed an apparent initial velocity of 2.8 micrometer . hr-1 at the time of wounding. The apparent initial velocity was considered to be the result of a brief (< 10 hr) and rapid acceleration dependent on cell density. To verify this, wounds were made at different densities below the maximum. In these experiments, the cells did not migrate until a "threshold" density of 2.0 X 10(5) cells per cm2 was reached regardless of the density at the time of wounding. At the threshold density, the cell sheet began to accelerate at the previously measured rate (0.24 micrometer . hr-2). Any increase in density by cell division was balanced by cell migration, so that the same threshold density was maintained by the migrating cells. Each migrating cell sustained the movement of the cell sheet at a constant rate of acceleration. It is proposed that an acceleration is, in general, characteristic of the vectorial movement of an epithelial cell sheet. Images PMID:6933523

  3. Phosphorylation of actopaxin regulates cell spreading and migration

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Dominic M.; Brown, Michael C.; LaLonde, David P.; Turner, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    Actopaxin is an actin and paxillin binding protein that localizes to focal adhesions. It regulates cell spreading and is phosphorylated during mitosis. Herein, we identify a role for actopaxin phosphorylation in cell spreading and migration. Stable clones of U2OS cells expressing actopaxin wild-type (WT), nonphosphorylatable, and phosphomimetic mutants were developed to evaluate actopaxin function. All proteins targeted to focal adhesions, however the nonphosphorylatable mutant inhibited spreading whereas the phosphomimetic mutant cells spread more efficiently than WT cells. Endogenous and WT actopaxin, but not the nonphosphorylatable mutant, were phosphorylated in vivo during cell adhesion/spreading. Expression of the nonphosphorylatable actopaxin mutant significantly reduced cell migration, whereas expression of the phosphomimetic increased cell migration in scrape wound and Boyden chamber migration assays. In vitro kinase assays demonstrate that extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase phosphorylates actopaxin, and treatment of U2OS cells with the MEK1 inhibitor UO126 inhibited adhesion-induced phosphorylation of actopaxin and also inhibited cell migration. PMID:15353548

  4. Laser-photophoretic migration and fractionation of human blood cells.

    PubMed

    Monjushiro, Hideaki; Tanahashi, Yuko; Watarai, Hitoshi

    2013-05-13

    Laser photophoretic migration behavior of human blood cells in saline solution was investigated under the irradiation of Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) in the absence and the presence of the flow in a fused silica capillary. Red blood cells (RBC) were migrated faster than white blood cells (WBC) and blood pellets to the direction of propagation of laser light. The observed photophoretic velocity of RBC was about 11 times faster than those of others. This was understood from the larger photophoretic efficiency of RBC than that of WBC, which was simulated based on the Mie scattering theory. Furthermore, it was found that, during the photophoretic migration, RBCs spontaneously orientated parallel to the migration direction so as to reduce the drag force. Finally, it was demonstrated that RBC and WBC were separated in a micro-channel flow system by the laser photophoresis.

  5. Chemistry and biology of the compounds that modulate cell migration.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Etsu; Imoto, Masaya

    2016-03-01

    Cell migration is a fundamental step for embryonic development, wound repair, immune responses, and tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Extensive studies have attempted to reveal the molecular mechanisms behind cell migration; however, they remain largely unclear. Bioactive compounds that modulate cell migration show promise as not only extremely powerful tools for studying the mechanisms behind cell migration but also as drug seeds for chemotherapy against tumor metastasis. Therefore, we have screened cell migration inhibitors and analyzed their mechanisms for the inhibition of cell migration. In this mini-review, we introduce our chemical and biological studies of three cell migration inhibitors: moverastin, UTKO1, and BU-4664L.

  6. Molecular analysis of cell surface beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase function during cell migration.

    PubMed Central

    Appeddu, P A; Shur, B D

    1994-01-01

    Despite the identification and characterization of cell surface receptors for the extracellular matrix, it is unknown how their relative expression and cytoskeletal association regulate cell migration. Previous studies have identified beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (GalTase; EC 2.4.1.38) on the surface of migrating cells, where it mediates cell migration on basal lamina matrices by associating with the cytoskeleton and binding to N-linked oligosaccharides in the E8 domain of laminin. In this study, the function of GalTase during cell migration was examined directly by analyzing the migration rate of stably transfected cell lines in which the relative level of surface GalTase and its ability to associate with the cytoskeleton were altered. We show here that the cytoskeleton contains a limiting, saturable, number of binding sites for surface GalTase. Furthermore, the rate of cell migration was inversely related to the ability of surface GalTase to associate with the cytoskeleton. Elevating surface GalTase in excess of the number of cytoskeleton-binding sites reduced the rate of cell migration, whereas decreasing the amount of surface GalTase available to bind the cytoskeleton increased migration rates. These results show that the rate of cell migration on basal lamina is directly dependent upon the expression of surface GalTase and the ability of this protein to associate with a limiting number of cytoskeleton-binding sites. Images PMID:8134355

  7. Cell migration in the postnatal subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Menezes, J R L; Marins, M; Alves, J A J; Froes, M M; Hedin-Pereira, C

    2002-12-01

    New neurons are constantly added to the olfactory bulb of rodents from birth to adulthood. This accretion is not only dependent on sustained neurogenesis, but also on the migration of neuroblasts and immature neurons from the cortical and striatal subventricular zone (SVZ) to the olfactory bulb. Migration along this long tangential pathway, known as the rostral migratory stream (RMS), is in many ways opposite to the classical radial migration of immature neurons: it is faster, spans a longer distance, does not require radial glial guidance, and is not limited to postmitotic neurons. In recent years many molecules have been found to be expressed specifically in this pathway and to directly affect this migration. Soluble factors with inhibitory, attractive and inductive roles in migration have been described, as well as molecules mediating cell-to-cell and cell-substrate interactions. However, it is still unclear how the various molecules and cells interact to account for the special migratory behavior in the RMS. Here we will propose some candidate mechanisms for roles in initiating and stopping SVZ/RMS migration.

  8. Vitamin A facilitates enteric nervous system precursor migration by reducing Pten accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ming; Sato, Yoshiharu; Lyons-Warren, Ariel; Zhang, Bin; Kane, Maureen A.; Napoli, Joseph L.; Heuckeroth, Robert O.

    2010-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease is a serious disorder of enteric nervous system (ENS) development caused by the failure of ENS precursor migration into the distal bowel. We now demonstrate that retinoic acid (RA) is crucial for GDNF-induced ENS precursor migration, cell polarization and lamellipodia formation, and that vitamin A depletion causes distal bowel aganglionosis in serum retinol-binding-protein-deficient (Rbp4–/–) mice. Ret heterozygosity increases the incidence and severity of distal bowel aganglionosis induced by vitamin A deficiency in Rbp4–/– animals. Furthermore, RA reduces phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) accumulation in migrating cells, whereas Pten overexpression slows ENS precursor migration. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that vitamin A deficiency is a non-genetic risk factor that increases Hirschsprung disease penetrance and expressivity, suggesting that some cases of Hirschsprung disease might be preventable by optimizing maternal nutrition. PMID:20110328

  9. Visualizing T Cell Migration in situ

    PubMed Central

    Benechet, Alexandre P.; Menon, Manisha; Khanna, Kamal M.

    2014-01-01

    Mounting a protective immune response is critically dependent on the orchestrated movement of cells within lymphoid tissues. The structure of secondary lymphoid organs regulates immune responses by promoting optimal cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions. Naïve T cells are initially activated by antigen presenting cells in secondary lymphoid organs. Following priming, effector T cells migrate to the site of infection to exert their functions. Majority of the effector cells die while a small population of antigen-specific T cells persists as memory cells in distinct anatomical locations. The persistence and location of memory cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues is critical to protect the host from re-infection. The localization of memory T cells is carefully regulated by several factors including the highly organized secondary lymphoid structure, the cellular expression of chemokine receptors and compartmentalized secretion of their cognate ligands. This balance between the anatomy and the ordered expression of cell surface and soluble proteins regulates the subtle choreography of T cell migration. In recent years, our understanding of cellular dynamics of T cells has been advanced by the development of new imaging techniques allowing in situ visualization of T cell responses. Here, we review the past and more recent studies that have utilized sophisticated imaging technologies to investigate the migration dynamics of naïve, effector, and memory T cells. PMID:25120547

  10. Multiscale wolf predation risk for elk: does migration reduce risk?

    PubMed

    Hebblewhite, Mark; Merrill, Evelyn H

    2007-05-01

    While migration is hypothesized to reduce predation risk for ungulates, there have been few direct empirical tests of this hypothesis. Furthermore, few studies examined multiscale predation risk avoidance by migrant ungulates, yet recent research reveals that predator-prey interactions occur at multiple scales. We test the predation risk reduction hypothesis at two spatial scales in a partially migratory elk (Cervus elaphus) population by comparing exposure of migrant and resident elk to wolf (Canis lupus) predation risk. We used GPS and VHF telemetry data collected from 67 migrant and 44 resident elk over the summers of 2002-2004 in and adjacent to Banff National Park (BNP), Canada. We used wolf GPS and VHF telemetry data to estimate predation risk as a function of the relative probability of wolf occurrence weighted by a spatial density model that adjusted for varying pack sizes. We validated the predation risk model using independent data on wolf-killed elk, and showed that combining wolf presence and spatial density best predicted where an elk was likely to be killed. Predation risk on summer ranges of migrant elk was reduced by 70% compared to within resident elk summer ranges. Because wolves avoided areas near high human activity, however, fine-scale selection by resident elk for areas near high human activity reduced their predation risk exposure to only 15% higher than migrants, a difference significant in only one of three summers. Finally, during actual migration, elk were exposed to 1.7 times more predation risk than residents, even though migration was rapid. Our results support the hypothesis that large-scale migrations can reduce predation. However, we also show that where small-scale spatial variation in predation risk exists, nonmigratory elk may equally reduce predation risk as effectively as migrants under some circumstances.

  11. Junctional communication is induced in migrating capillary endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Using an in vitro model in which a confluent monolayer of capillary endothelial cells is mechanically wounded, gap junction-mediated intercellular communication has been studied by loading the cells with the fluorescent dye, Lucifer Yellow. Approximately 40-50% of the cells in a nonwounded confluent monolayer were coupled in groups of four to five cells (basal level). Basal levels of communication were also observed in sparse and preconfluent cultures, but were reduced in postconfluent monolayers. 30 min after wounding, coupling was markedly reduced between cells lining the wound. Communication at the wound was partially reestablished by 2 h, exceeded basal levels after 6 h and reached a maximum after 24 h, at which stage approximately 90% of the cells were coupled in groups of six to seven cells. When the wound had closed (after 8 d), the increase in communication was no longer observed. Induction of wound-associated communication was unaffected by exposure of the cells to the DNA synthesis inhibitor mitomycin C, but was prevented by the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. The induction of wound-associated communication was also inhibited when migration was prevented by placing the cells immediately after wounding at 22 degrees C or after exposure to cytochalasin D, suggesting that the increase in communication is dependent on cells migrating into the wound area. In contrast, migration was not prevented when coupling was blocked by exposure of the cells to retinoic acid, although this agent did disrupt the characteristic sheet-like pattern of migration typically seen during endothelial repair. These results suggest that junctional communication may play an important role in wound repair, possibly by coordinating capillary endothelial cell migration. PMID:2592412

  12. Primordial Germ Cell Specification and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are the progenitor cells that give rise to the gametes. In some animals, the germline is induced by zygotic transcription factors, whereas in others, primordial germ cell specification occurs via inheritance of maternally provided gene products known as germ plasm. Once specified, the primordial germ cells of some animals must acquire motility and migrate to the gonad in order to survive. In all animals examined, perinuclear structures called germ granules form within germ cells. This review focuses on some of the recent studies, conducted by several groups using diverse systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates, which have provided mechanistic insight into the molecular regulation of germ cell specification and migration. PMID:26918157

  13. Bursts of activity in collective cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Chepizhko, Oleksandr; Giampietro, Costanza; Mastrapasqua, Eleonora; Nourazar, Mehdi; Ascagni, Miriam; Sugni, Michela; Fascio, Umberto; Leggio, Livio; Malinverno, Chiara; Scita, Giorgio; Santucci, Stéphane; Alava, Mikko J.; Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dense monolayers of living cells display intriguing relaxation dynamics, reminiscent of soft and glassy materials close to the jamming transition, and migrate collectively when space is available, as in wound healing or in cancer invasion. Here we show that collective cell migration occurs in bursts that are similar to those recorded in the propagation of cracks, fluid fronts in porous media, and ferromagnetic domain walls. In analogy with these systems, the distribution of activity bursts displays scaling laws that are universal in different cell types and for cells moving on different substrates. The main features of the invasion dynamics are quantitatively captured by a model of interacting active particles moving in a disordered landscape. Our results illustrate that collective motion of living cells is analogous to the corresponding dynamics in driven, but inanimate, systems. PMID:27681632

  14. Networking galore: intermediate filaments and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Chung, Byung-Min; Rotty, Jeremy D; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2013-10-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) are assembled from a diverse group of evolutionarily conserved proteins and are specified in a tissue-dependent, cell type-dependent, and context-dependent fashion in the body. IFs are involved in multiple cellular processes that are crucial for the maintenance of cell and tissue integrity and the response and adaptation to various stresses, as conveyed by the broad array of crippling clinical disorders caused by inherited mutations in IF coding sequences. Accordingly, the expression, assembly, and organization of IFs are tightly regulated. Migration is a fitting example of a cell-based phenomenon in which IFs participate as both effectors and regulators. With a particular focus on vimentin and keratin, we here review how the contributions of IFs to the cell's mechanical properties, to cytoarchitecture and adhesion, and to regulatory pathways collectively exert a significant impact on cell migration.

  15. Impact of jamming on collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nnetu, Kenechukwu David; Knorr, Melanie; Pawlizak, Steve; Fuhs, Thomas; Zink, Mareike; KäS, Josef A.

    2012-02-01

    Multi-cellular migration plays an important role in physiological processes such as embryogenesis, cancer metastasis and tissue repair. During migration, single cells undergo cycles of extension, adhesion and retraction resulting in morphological changes. In a confluent monolayer, there are inter-cellular interactions and crowding, however, the impact of these interactions on the dynamics and elasticity of the monolayer at the multi-cellular and single cell level is not well understood. Here we study the dynamics of a confluent epithelial monolayer by simultaneously measuring cell motion at the multi-cellular and single cell level for various cell densities and tensile elasticity. At the multi-cellular level, the system exhibited spatial kinetic transitions from isotropic to anisotropic migration on long times and the velocity of the monolayer decreased with increasing cell density. Moreover, the dynamics was spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Interestingly, the dynamics was also heterogeneous in wound-healing assays and the correlation length was fitted by compressed exponential. On the single cell scale, we observed transient caging effects with increasing cage rearrangement times as the system age due to an increase in density. Also, the density dependent elastic modulus of the monolayer scaled as a weak power law. Together, these findings suggest that caging effects at the single cell level initiates a slow and heterogeneous dynamics at the multi-cellular level which is similar to the glassy dynamics of deformable colloidal systems.

  16. Contractile forces in tumor cell migration.

    PubMed

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja; Rösel, Daniel; Fabry, Ben; Brábek, Jan

    2008-09-01

    Cancer is a deadly disease primarily because of the ability of tumor cells to spread from the primary tumor, to invade into the connective tissue, and to form metastases at distant sites. In contrast to cell migration on a planar surface where large cell tractions and contractile forces are not essential, tractions and forces are thought to be crucial for overcoming the resistance and steric hindrance of a dense three-dimensional connective tissue matrix. In this review, we describe recently developed biophysical tools, including 2-D and 3-D traction microscopy to measure contractile forces of cells. We discuss evidence indicating that tumor cell invasiveness is associated with increased contractile force generation.

  17. Inhibition of REST Suppresses Proliferation and Migration in Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dianbao; Li, Ying; Wang, Rui; Li, Yunna; Shi, Ping; Kan, Zhoumi; Pang, Xining

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor, with poor prognosis and a lack of effective therapeutic options. The aberrant expression of transcription factor REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor) had been reported in different kinds of tumors. However, the function of REST and its mechanisms in GBM remain elusive. Here, REST expression was inhibited by siRNA silencing in U-87 and U-251 GBM cells. Then CCK-8 assay showed significantly decreased cell proliferation, and the inhibition of migration was verified by scratch wound healing assay and transwell assay. Using cell cycle analysis and Annexin V/PI straining assay, G1 phase cell cycle arrest was found to be a reason for the suppression of cell proliferation and migration upon REST silencing, while apoptosis was not affected by REST silencing. Further, the detection of REST-downstream genes involved in cytostasis and migration inhibition demonstrated that CCND1 and CCNE1 were reduced; CDK5R1, BBC3, EGR1, SLC25A4, PDCD7, MAPK11, MAPK12, FADD and DAXX were enhanced, among which BBC3 and DAXX were direct targets of REST, as verified by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) and Western blotting. These data suggested that REST is a master regulator that maintains GBM cells proliferation and migration, partly through regulating cell cycle by repressing downstream genes, which might represent a potential target for GBM therapy. PMID:27153061

  18. Inhibition of REST Suppresses Proliferation and Migration in Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dianbao; Li, Ying; Wang, Rui; Li, Yunna; Shi, Ping; Kan, Zhoumi; Pang, Xining

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor, with poor prognosis and a lack of effective therapeutic options. The aberrant expression of transcription factor REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor) had been reported in different kinds of tumors. However, the function of REST and its mechanisms in GBM remain elusive. Here, REST expression was inhibited by siRNA silencing in U-87 and U-251 GBM cells. Then CCK-8 assay showed significantly decreased cell proliferation, and the inhibition of migration was verified by scratch wound healing assay and transwell assay. Using cell cycle analysis and Annexin V/PI straining assay, G1 phase cell cycle arrest was found to be a reason for the suppression of cell proliferation and migration upon REST silencing, while apoptosis was not affected by REST silencing. Further, the detection of REST-downstream genes involved in cytostasis and migration inhibition demonstrated that CCND1 and CCNE1 were reduced; CDK5R1, BBC3, EGR1, SLC25A4, PDCD7, MAPK11, MAPK12, FADD and DAXX were enhanced, among which BBC3 and DAXX were direct targets of REST, as verified by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) and Western blotting. These data suggested that REST is a master regulator that maintains GBM cells proliferation and migration, partly through regulating cell cycle by repressing downstream genes, which might represent a potential target for GBM therapy. PMID:27153061

  19. Cell migration in paediatric glioma; characterisation and potential therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Cockle, J V; Picton, S; Levesley, J; Ilett, E; Carcaboso, A M; Short, S; Steel, L P; Melcher, A; Lawler, S E; Brüning-Richardson, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paediatric high grade glioma (pHGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) are highly aggressive brain tumours. Their invasive phenotype contributes to their limited therapeutic response, and novel treatments that block brain tumour invasion are needed. Methods: Here, we examine the migratory characteristics and treatment effect of small molecule glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors, lithium chloride (LiCl) and the indirubin derivative 6-bromoindirubin-oxime (BIO), previously shown to inhibit the migration of adult glioma cells, on two pHGG cell lines (SF188 and KNS42) and one patient-derived DIPG line (HSJD-DIPG-007) using 2D (transwell membrane, immunofluorescence, live cell imaging) and 3D (migration on nanofibre plates and spheroid invasion in collagen) assays. Results: All lines were migratory, but there were differences in morphology and migration rates. Both LiCl and BIO reduced migration and instigated cytoskeletal rearrangement of stress fibres and focal adhesions when viewed by immunofluorescence. In the presence of drugs, loss of polarity and differences in cellular movement were observed by live cell imaging. Conclusions: Ours is the first study to demonstrate that it is possible to pharmacologically target migration of paediatric glioma in vitro using LiCl and BIO, and we conclude that these agents and their derivatives warrant further preclinical investigation as potential anti-migratory therapeutics for these devastating tumours. PMID:25628092

  20. T cell migration, search strategies and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Krummel, Matthew F; Bartumeus, Frederic; Gérard, Audrey

    2016-03-01

    T cell migration is essential for T cell responses; it allows for the detection of cognate antigen at the surface of antigen-presenting cells and for interactions with other cells involved in the immune response. Although appearing random, growing evidence suggests that T cell motility patterns are strategic and governed by mechanisms that are optimized for both the activation stage of the cell and for environment-specific cues. In this Opinion article, we discuss how the combined effects of T cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic forces influence T cell motility patterns in the context of highly complex tissues that are filled with other cells involved in parallel motility. In particular, we examine how insights from 'search theory' can be used to describe T cell movement across an 'exploitation-exploration trade-off' in the context of activation versus effector function and lymph nodes versus peripheral tissues. PMID:26852928

  1. Collisions of deformable cells lead to collective migration

    SciTech Connect

    Löber, Jakob; Ziebert, Falko; Aranson, Igor S.

    2015-03-17

    Collective migration of eukaryotic cells plays a fundamental role in tissue growth, wound healing and immune response. The motion, arising spontaneously or in response to chemical and mechanical stimuli, is also important for understanding life-threatening pathologies, such as cancer and metastasis formation. We present a phase-field model to describe the movement of many self-organized, interacting cells. The model takes into account the main mechanisms of cell motility – acto-myosin dynamics, as well as substrate-mediated and cell-cell adhesion. It predicts that collective cell migration emerges spontaneously as a result of inelastic collisions between neighboring cells: collisions lead to a mutual alignment of the cell velocities and to the formation of coherently-moving multi-cellular clusters. Small cell-to-cell adhesion, in turn, reduces the propensity for large-scale collective migration, while higher adhesion leads to the formation of moving bands. Our study provides valuable insight into biological processes associated with collective cell motility.

  2. Collisions of deformable cells lead to collective migration

    DOE PAGES

    Löber, Jakob; Ziebert, Falko; Aranson, Igor S.

    2015-03-17

    Collective migration of eukaryotic cells plays a fundamental role in tissue growth, wound healing and immune response. The motion, arising spontaneously or in response to chemical and mechanical stimuli, is also important for understanding life-threatening pathologies, such as cancer and metastasis formation. We present a phase-field model to describe the movement of many self-organized, interacting cells. The model takes into account the main mechanisms of cell motility – acto-myosin dynamics, as well as substrate-mediated and cell-cell adhesion. It predicts that collective cell migration emerges spontaneously as a result of inelastic collisions between neighboring cells: collisions lead to a mutual alignmentmore » of the cell velocities and to the formation of coherently-moving multi-cellular clusters. Small cell-to-cell adhesion, in turn, reduces the propensity for large-scale collective migration, while higher adhesion leads to the formation of moving bands. Our study provides valuable insight into biological processes associated with collective cell motility.« less

  3. Flow and Diffusion in Channel-Guided Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Marel, Anna-Kristina; Zorn, Matthias; Klingner, Christoph; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Frey, Erwin; Rädler, Joachim O.

    2014-01-01

    Collective migration of mechanically coupled cell layers is a notable feature of wound healing, embryonic development, and cancer progression. In confluent epithelial sheets, the dynamics have been found to be highly heterogeneous, exhibiting spontaneous formation of swirls, long-range correlations, and glass-like dynamic arrest as a function of cell density. In contrast, the flow-like properties of one-sided cell-sheet expansion in confining geometries are not well understood. Here, we studied the short- and long-term flow of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells as they moved through microchannels. Using single-cell tracking and particle image velocimetry (PIV), we found that a defined averaged stationary cell current emerged that exhibited a velocity gradient in the direction of migration and a plug-flow-like profile across the advancing sheet. The observed flow velocity can be decomposed into a constant term of directed cell migration and a diffusion-like contribution that increases with density gradient. The diffusive component is consistent with the cell-density profile and front propagation speed predicted by the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation. To connect diffusion-mediated transport to underlying cellular motility, we studied single-cell trajectories and occurrence of vorticity. We discovered that the directed large-scale cell flow altered fluctuations in cellular motion at short length scales: vorticity maps showed a reduced frequency of swirl formation in channel flow compared with resting sheets of equal cell density. Furthermore, under flow, single-cell trajectories showed persistent long-range, random-walk behavior superimposed on drift, whereas cells in resting tissue did not show significant displacements with respect to neighboring cells. Our work thus suggests that active cell migration manifests itself in an underlying, spatially uniform drift as well as in randomized bursts of short-range correlated motion that lead to a diffusion-mediated transport

  4. SIRT1 regulates lamellipodium extension and migration of melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kunimoto, Risa; Jimbow, Kowichi; Tanimura, Akihiko; Sato, Masahiro; Horimoto, Kouhei; Hayashi, Takashi; Hisahara, Shin; Sugino, Toshiya; Hirobe, Tomohisa; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Horio, Yoshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    Melanoma is highly metastatic, but the mechanism of melanoma cell migration is still unclear. We found that melanoma cells expressed the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1 in the cytoplasm. Cell membrane extension and migration of melanoma cells were inhibited by SIRT1 inhibitors or SIRT1 knockdown, whereas SIRT1 activators enhanced elongation of protrusion and cellular motility. In B16F1 cells, growth factor stimulation induced lamellipodium extension, a characteristic feature at the leading edge of migrating cells, and SIRT1 was found in the lamellipodium. SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM) or SIRT1 small interfering RNAs suppressed the lamellipodium extension by serum or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The lamellipodium formation by dominant-active Rac1 was also inhibited by NAM, a SIRT1 inhibitor. NAM inhibited the accumulation of phosphorylated Akt at the submembrane by serum or PDGF. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we found that NAM impaired PDGF-dependent increase in the phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate level at the leading edge. NAM inhibited the abdominal metastasis of transplanted B16F1 melanoma cells in C57BL6/J mice and improved survival. Finally, SIRT1-knockdown B16F1 cells showed significantly reduced metastasis in transplanted mice compared with that in control B16F1 cells. These results indicate that SIRT1 inhibition is a strategy to suppress metastasis of melanoma cells. PMID:24480879

  5. Cadmium migration in aerospace nickel cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P. P.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of temperature, the nature of separator material, charge and discharge, carbonate contamination, and the mode of storage are studied with respect to the migration of active material from the negative toward the positive plate. A theoretical model is proposed which takes into account the solubility of cadmium in various concentrations of hydroxide and carbonate at different temperatures, the generation of the cadmiate ion, Cd(OH)3(-), during discharge, the migration of the cadmiate ion and particulate Cd(OH)2 due to electrophoretic effects and the movement of electrolyte in and out of the negative plate and, finally, the recrystallization of cadmiate ion in the separator as Cd(OH)2. Application of the theoretical model to observations of cadmium migration in cycled cells is also discussed.

  6. Nestin(+) cells direct inflammatory cell migration in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Del Toro, Raquel; Chèvre, Raphael; Rodríguez, Cristina; Ordóñez, Antonio; Martínez-González, José; Andrés, Vicente; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading death cause. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells participate in atherogenesis, but it is unclear whether other mesenchymal cells contribute to this process. Bone marrow (BM) nestin(+) cells cooperate with endothelial cells in directing monocyte egress to bloodstream in response to infections. However, it remains unknown whether nestin(+) cells regulate inflammatory cells in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Here, we show that nestin(+) cells direct inflammatory cell migration during chronic inflammation. In Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice fed with high-fat diet, BM nestin(+) cells regulate the egress of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils. In the aorta, nestin(+) stromal cells increase ∼30 times and contribute to the atheroma plaque. Mcp1 deletion in nestin(+) cells-but not in endothelial cells only- increases circulating inflammatory cells, but decreases their aortic infiltration, delaying atheroma plaque formation and aortic valve calcification. Therefore, nestin expression marks cells that regulate inflammatory cell migration during atherosclerosis. PMID:27586429

  7. Knockdown of Legumain Suppresses Cervical Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fei; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading type of cancer in women living in less developed countries. The pathological and molecular mechanisms of cervical cancer are not comprehensively known. Though legumain has been found to be highly expressed in various types of solid tumors, its expression and biological function in cervical cancer remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate legumain expression and functions in cervical cancer. We found that legumain was highly expressed in cervical cancer cells. When knocked down, legumain expression in HeLa and SiHa cells significantly reduced its migration and invasion abilities compared with control cells. Furthermore, legumain silencing suppressed the activation of matrix metalloproteases (MMP2 and MMP3) in cervical cancer cells. This study indicates that legumain might play an important role in cervical cancer cell migration and invasion. Legumain might be a potential therapeutic target for cervical cancer therapy.

  8. Cell migration during heart regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Naoyuki; Brush, Michael; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2016-07-01

    Zebrafish possess the remarkable ability to regenerate injured hearts as adults, which contrasts the very limited ability in mammals. Although very limited, mammalian hearts do in fact have measurable levels of cardiomyocyte regeneration. Therefore, elucidating mechanisms of zebrafish heart regeneration would provide information of naturally occurring regeneration to potentially apply to mammalian studies, in addition to addressing this biologically interesting phenomenon in itself. Studies over the past 13 years have identified processes and mechanisms of heart regeneration in zebrafish. After heart injury, pre-existing cardiomyocytes dedifferentiate, enter the cell cycle, and repair the injured myocardium. This process requires interaction with epicardial cells, endocardial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. Epicardial cells envelope the heart, while endocardial cells make up the inner lining of the heart. They provide paracrine signals to cardiomyocytes to regenerate the injured myocardium, which is vascularized during heart regeneration. In addition, accumulating results suggest that local migration of these major cardiac cell types have roles in heart regeneration. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of various heart injury methods used in the research community and regeneration of the major cardiac cell types. Then, we discuss local migration of these cardiac cell types and immune cells during heart regeneration. Developmental Dynamics 245:774-787, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27085002

  9. Nestin+ cells direct inflammatory cell migration in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    del Toro, Raquel; Chèvre, Raphael; Rodríguez, Cristina; Ordóñez, Antonio; Martínez-González, José; Andrés, Vicente; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading death cause. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells participate in atherogenesis, but it is unclear whether other mesenchymal cells contribute to this process. Bone marrow (BM) nestin+ cells cooperate with endothelial cells in directing monocyte egress to bloodstream in response to infections. However, it remains unknown whether nestin+ cells regulate inflammatory cells in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Here, we show that nestin+ cells direct inflammatory cell migration during chronic inflammation. In Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice fed with high-fat diet, BM nestin+ cells regulate the egress of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils. In the aorta, nestin+ stromal cells increase ∼30 times and contribute to the atheroma plaque. Mcp1 deletion in nestin+ cells—but not in endothelial cells only— increases circulating inflammatory cells, but decreases their aortic infiltration, delaying atheroma plaque formation and aortic valve calcification. Therefore, nestin expression marks cells that regulate inflammatory cell migration during atherosclerosis. PMID:27586429

  10. CD4+ T Cell Migration into the Cornea is Reduced in CXCL9 Deficient but not CXCL10 Deficient Mice following Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection1

    PubMed Central

    Wuest, Todd; Farber, Joshua; Luster, Andrew; Carr, Daniel J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The role of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in the ocular immune response to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection was investigated using mice deficient in either CXCL9 or CXCL10. CXCL10 but not CXCL9 deficient mice showed an increase in sensitivity to ocular virus infection as measured by an elevation in virus titer recovered in the tear film and corneal tissue. The increase in virus was associated with an increase in the expression of the chemokine CCL2 but no significant change in the infiltration of CD4+ T cells or NK cells into the corneal stroma. In contrast, a significant reduction in CD4+ T cell infiltration into the cornea was found in CXCL9 deficient mice following HSV-1 infection consistent with the absence of CXCL9 expression and reduction in expression of other chemokines including CCL3, CCL5, CXCL1, and CXCL10. Collectively, the results suggest a non-redundant role for CXCL9 and CXCL10 in response to ocular HSV-1 infection in terms of controlling virus replication and recruitment of CD4+ T cells into the cornea. PMID:17296171

  11. Altering FAK-Paxillin Interactions Reduces Adhesion, Migration and Invasion Processes

    PubMed Central

    Deramaudt, Thérèse B.; Dujardin, Denis; Noulet, Fanny; Martin, Sophie; Vauchelles, Romain; Takeda, Ken; Rondé, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays an important role in signal transduction pathways initiated at sites of integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Thus, FAK is involved in many aspects of the metastatic process including adhesion, migration and invasion. Recently, several small molecule inhibitors which target FAK catalytic activity have been developed by pharmaceutical companies. The current study was aimed at addressing whether inhibiting FAK targeting to focal adhesions (FA) represents an efficient alternative strategy to inhibit FAK downstream pathways. Using a mutagenesis approach to alter the targeting domain of FAK, we constructed a FAK mutant that fails to bind paxillin. Inhibiting FAK-paxillin interactions led to a complete loss of FAK localization at FAs together with reduced phosphorylation of FAK and FAK targets such as paxillin and p130Cas. This in turn resulted in altered FA dynamics and inhibition of cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Moreover, the migration properties of cells expressing the FAK mutant were reduced as compared to FAK-/- cells. This was correlated with a decrease in both phospho-Src and phospho-p130Cas levels at FAs. We conclude that targeting FAK-paxillin interactions is an efficient strategy to reduce FAK signalling and thus may represent a target for the development of new FAK inhibitors. PMID:24642576

  12. Absence of K-Ras Reduces Proliferation and Migration But Increases Extracellular Matrix Synthesis in Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Félix, José M; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Cuesta, Cristina; Eleno, Nélida; Crespo, Piero; López-Novoa, José M; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The involvement of Ras-GTPases in the development of renal fibrosis has been addressed in the last decade. We have previously shown that H- and N-Ras isoforms participate in the regulation of fibrosis. Herein, we assessed the role of K-Ras in cellular processes involved in the development of fibrosis: proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins synthesis. K-Ras knockout (KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (K-ras(-/-) ) stimulated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) exhibited reduced proliferation and impaired mobility than wild-type fibroblasts. Moreover, an increase on ECM production was observed in K-Ras KO fibroblasts in basal conditions. The absence of K-Ras was accompanied by reduced Ras activation and ERK phosphorylation, and increased AKT phosphorylation, but no differences were observed in TGF-β1-induced Smad signaling. The MEK inhibitor U0126 decreased cell proliferation independently of the presence of K-ras but reduced migration and ECM proteins expression only in wild-type fibroblasts, while the PI3K-AKT inhibitor LY294002 decreased cell proliferation, migration, and ECM synthesis in both types of fibroblasts. Thus, our data unveil that K-Ras and its downstream effector pathways distinctively regulate key biological processes in the development of fibrosis. Moreover, we show that K-Ras may be a crucial mediator in TGF-β1-mediated effects in this cell type. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2224-2235, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Taking Aim at Moving Targets in Computational Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Masuzzo, Paola; Van Troys, Marleen; Ampe, Christophe; Martens, Lennart

    2016-02-01

    Cell migration is central to the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Fundamental understanding of cell migration can, for example, direct novel therapeutic strategies to control invasive tumor cells. However, the study of cell migration yields an overabundance of experimental data that require demanding processing and analysis for results extraction. Computational methods and tools have therefore become essential in the quantification and modeling of cell migration data. We review computational approaches for the key tasks in the quantification of in vitro cell migration: image pre-processing, motion estimation and feature extraction. Moreover, we summarize the current state-of-the-art for in silico modeling of cell migration. Finally, we provide a list of available software tools for cell migration to assist researchers in choosing the most appropriate solution for their needs.

  14. Experimental Investigation on Bubble Thermocapillary Migration and Bubble Coalescence in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, H. L.; Hu, L.; Duan, L.; Kang, Q.

    In this paper some results from a space experiment are presented on bubble thermocapillary migration on board the Chinese 22 nd recoverable satellite in 2005 A bubble or drop will move when placed in another fluid and subjected to a temperature gradient This motion arises as a consequence of the variation of interfacial tension with temperature Such a phenomenon is already known as Marangoni or thermocapillary migration problem Bubble and drop dynamics becomes a hot point of research because this investigation is very important for basic research as well as for applications in reduced gravity environment such as space material science chemical engineering and so on The space experiment of bubble thermocapillary migration were done in a KF-96L series silicone oil of nominal viscosity 5cst This paper discussed the characteristic of fluid field firstly The temperature gradient in test cell is corrected with the temperature measurement data at six points and numerical simulating taking account to the temperature field disturbed by accumulated upper bubbles The effective temperature gradient is 1 4 times as that calculated with temperature data at the six points Moreover the disturbance in velocity field to bubble migration can be neglected with the help of numerical results In the experiment Marangoni number Ma of bubble thermocapillary migrations is from 98 04 to 9288 The most Marangoni number is larger than that attained in the prior flight experiments The experimental results are consistent with earlier results and are compared

  15. Integrin-mediated cell migration is blocked by inhibitors of human neuraminidase.

    PubMed

    Jia, Feng; Howlader, Md Amran; Cairo, Christopher W

    2016-09-01

    Integrins are critical receptors in cell migration and adhesion. A number of mechanisms are known to regulate the function of integrins, including phosphorylation, conformational change, and cytoskeletal anchoring. We investigated whether native neuraminidase (Neu, or sialidase) enzymes which modify glycolipids could play a role in regulating integrin-mediated cell migration. Using a scratch assay, we found that exogenously added Neu3 and Neu4 activity altered rates of cell migration. We observed that Neu4 increased the rate of migration in two cell lines (HeLa, A549); while Neu3 only increased migration in HeLa cells. A bacterial neuraminidase was able to increase the rate of migration in HeLa, but not in A549 cells. Treatment of cells with complex gangliosides (GM1, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b) resulted in decreased cell migration rates, while LacCer was able to increase rates of migration in both lines. Importantly, our results show that treatment of cells with inhibitors of native Neu enzymes had a dramatic effect on the rates of cell migration. The most potent compound tested targeted the human Neu4 isoenzyme, and was able to substantially reduce the rate of cell migration. We found that the lateral mobility of integrins was reduced by treatment of cells with Neu3, suggesting that Neu3 enzyme activity resulted in changes to integrin-co-receptor or integrin-cytoskeleton interactions. Finally, our results support the hypothesis that inhibitors of human Neu can be used to investigate mechanisms of cell migration and for the development of anti-adhesive therapies.

  16. T Cell Migration in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Mario; Martínez-Muñoz, Laura; Cascio, Graciela; Lucas, Pilar; Pablos, José L; Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in joints, associated with synovial hyperplasia and with bone and cartilage destruction. Although the primacy of T cell-related events early in the disease continues to be debated, there is strong evidence that autoantigen recognition by specific T cells is crucial to the pathophysiology of rheumatoid synovitis. In addition, T cells are key components of the immune cell infiltrate detected in the joints of RA patients. Initial analysis of the cytokines released into the synovial membrane showed an imbalance, with a predominance of proinflammatory mediators, indicating a deleterious effect of Th1 T cells. There is nonetheless evidence that Th17 cells also play an important role in RA. T cells migrate from the bloodstream to the synovial tissue via their interactions with the endothelial cells that line synovial postcapillary venules. At this stage, selectins, integrins, and chemokines have a central role in blood cell invasion of synovial tissue, and therefore in the intensity of the inflammatory response. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms involved in T cell attraction to the joint, the proteins involved in their extravasation from blood vessels, and the signaling pathways activated. Knowledge of these processes will lead to a better understanding of the mechanism by which the systemic immune response causes local joint disorders and will help to provide a molecular basis for therapeutic strategies.

  17. T Cell Migration in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mellado, Mario; Martínez-Muñoz, Laura; Cascio, Graciela; Lucas, Pilar; Pablos, José L.; Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in joints, associated with synovial hyperplasia and with bone and cartilage destruction. Although the primacy of T cell-related events early in the disease continues to be debated, there is strong evidence that autoantigen recognition by specific T cells is crucial to the pathophysiology of rheumatoid synovitis. In addition, T cells are key components of the immune cell infiltrate detected in the joints of RA patients. Initial analysis of the cytokines released into the synovial membrane showed an imbalance, with a predominance of proinflammatory mediators, indicating a deleterious effect of Th1 T cells. There is nonetheless evidence that Th17 cells also play an important role in RA. T cells migrate from the bloodstream to the synovial tissue via their interactions with the endothelial cells that line synovial postcapillary venules. At this stage, selectins, integrins, and chemokines have a central role in blood cell invasion of synovial tissue, and therefore in the intensity of the inflammatory response. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms involved in T cell attraction to the joint, the proteins involved in their extravasation from blood vessels, and the signaling pathways activated. Knowledge of these processes will lead to a better understanding of the mechanism by which the systemic immune response causes local joint disorders and will help to provide a molecular basis for therapeutic strategies. PMID:26284069

  18. Silencing of VAMP3 inhibits cell migration and integrin-mediated adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Luftman, Kevin; Hasan, Nazarul; Day, Paul; Hardee, Deborah; Hu Chuan

    2009-02-27

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. In cell migration, integrins are endocytosed from the plasma membrane or the cell surface, transported in vesicles and exocytosed actively at the cell front. In the present study, we examined the roles of VAMP3, a SNARE protein that mediates exocytosis, in cell migration and integrin trafficking. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced silencing of VAMP3 inhibited chemotactic cell migration by more than 60% without affecting cell proliferation. VAMP3 silencing reduced the levels of {beta}1 integrin at the cell surface but had no effect on total cellular {beta}1 integrin, indicating that VAMP3 is required for trafficking of {beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, VAMP3 silencing diminished cell adhesion to laminin but not to fibronectin or collagen. Taken together, these data suggest that VAMP3-dependent integrin trafficking is crucial in cell migration and cell adhesion to laminin.

  19. Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 suppression and arginine restriction inhibit cell migration in gastric cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yan-Shen; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Lai, Ming-Derg; Yen, Meng-Chi; Chen, Wei-Ching; Fang, Jung-Hua; Weng, Tzu-Yang; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer metastasis remains a major cause of cancer-related deaths. There is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic approaches targeting metastatic gastric cancer. Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1) expression is increased in gastric cancer. We detected the protein expression of ASS1 in human gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, NCI-N87, and MKN45) and in murine gastric cancer cell lines (3I and 3IB2). We used vector-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression to silence ASS1 expression in the MKN45 and 3IB2 cell lines, and analyzed the effects of this protein on cell migration and metastasis. We demonstrated that ASS1 silencing suppressed cell migration in the MKN45 and 3IB2 cell lines. ASS1 knockdown significantly reduced liver metastasis in mice after the intrasplenic implantation of 3IB2 cancer cell clones. To determine whether arginine restriction may represent a therapeutic approach to treat gastric cancer, the sensitivity of tumor cells to arginine depletion was determined in gastric cancer cells. Arginine depletion significantly inhibited cell migration in the gastric cancer cell line. The silencing of ASS1 expression in MKN45 and 3IB2 gastric cancer cells markedly decreased STAT3 protein expression. In conclusion, our results indicate that the ASS1 protein is required for cell migration in gastric cancer cell lines. PMID:25928182

  20. Alignment of cell division axes in directed epithelial cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marel, Anna-Kristina; Podewitz, Nils; Zorn, Matthias; Oskar Rädler, Joachim; Elgeti, Jens

    2014-11-01

    Cell division is an essential dynamic event in tissue remodeling during wound healing, cancer and embryogenesis. In collective migration, tensile stresses affect cell shape and polarity, hence, the orientation of the cell division axis is expected to depend on cellular flow patterns. Here, we study the degree of orientation of cell division axes in migrating and resting epithelial cell sheets. We use microstructured channels to create a defined scenario of directed cell invasion and compare this situation to resting but proliferating cell monolayers. In experiments, we find a strong alignment of the axis due to directed flow while resting sheets show very weak global order, but local flow gradients still correlate strongly with the cell division axis. We compare experimental results with a previously published mesoscopic particle based simulation model. Most of the observed effects are reproduced by the simulations.

  1. Flow-Driven Cell Migration under External Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yizeng; Mori, Yoichiro; Sun, Sean X.

    2015-12-01

    Electric fields influence many aspects of cell physiology, including various forms of cell migration. Many cells are sensitive to electric fields, and they can migrate toward a cathode or an anode, depending on the cell type. In this Letter, we examine an actomyosin-independent mode of cell migration under electrical fields. Our theory considers a one-dimensional cell with water and ionic fluxes at the cell boundary. Water fluxes through the membrane are governed by the osmotic pressure difference across the cell membrane. Fluxes of cations and anions across the cell membrane are determined by the properties of the ion channels as well as the external electric field. Results show that without actin polymerization and myosin contraction, electric fields can also drive cell migration, even when the cell is not polarized. The direction of migration with respect to the electric field direction is influenced by the properties of ion channels, and are cell-type dependent.

  2. Anandamide inhibits adhesion and migration of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grimaldi, Claudia; Pisanti, Simona; Laezza, Chiara; Malfitano, Anna Maria; Santoro, Antonietta; Vitale, Mario; Caruso, Maria Gabriella; Notarnicola, Maria; Iacuzzo, Irma; Portella, Giuseppe; Di Marzo, Vincenzo . E-mail: vdimarzo@icmib.na.cnr.it; Bifulco, Maurizio . E-mail: maubiful@unina.it

    2006-02-15

    The endocannabinoid system regulates cell proliferation in human breast cancer cells. We reasoned that stimulation of cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptors could induce a non-invasive phenotype in breast mtastatic cells. In a model of metastatic spreading in vivo, the metabolically stable anandamide analogue, 2-methyl-2'-F-anandamide (Met-F-AEA), significantly reduced the number and dimension of metastatic nodes, this effect being antagonized by the selective CB{sub 1} antagonist SR141716A. In MDA-MB-231 cells, a highly invasive human breast cancer cell line, and in TSA-E1 cells, a murine breast cancer cell line, Met-F-AEA inhibited adhesion and migration on type IV collagen in vitro without modifying integrin expression: both these effects were antagonized by SR141716A. In order to understand the molecular mechanism involved in these processes, we analyzed the phosphorylation of FAK and Src, two tyrosine kinases involved in migration and adhesion. In Met-F-AEA-treated cells, we observed a decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of both FAK and Src, this effect being attenuated by SR141716A. We propose that CB{sub 1} receptor agonists inhibit tumor cell invasion and metastasis by modulating FAK phosphorylation, and that CB{sub 1} receptor activation might represent a novel therapeutic strategy to slow down the growth of breast carcinoma and to inhibit its metastatic diffusion in vivo.

  3. Migrating Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Swell Prior to Soma Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Happel, Patrick; Möller, Kerstin; Schwering, Nina K.; Dietzel, Irmgard D.

    2013-01-01

    The migration of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to the white matter is an indispensable requirement for an intact brain function. The mechanism of cell migration in general is not yet completely understood. Nevertheless, evidence is accumulating that besides the coordinated rearrangement of the cytoskeleton, a finetuned interplay of ion and water fluxes across the cell membrane is essential for cell migration. One part of a general hypothesis is that a local volume increase towards the direction of movement triggers a mechano-activated calcium influx that regulates various procedures at the rear end of a migrating cell. Here, we investigated cell volume changes of migrating OPCs using scanning ion conductance microscopy. We found that during accelerated migration OPCs undergo an increase in the frontal cell body volume. These findings are supplemented with time lapse calcium imaging data that hint an increase in calcium content the frontal part of the cell soma. PMID:23657670

  4. Capsaicin modulates proliferation, migration, and activation of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, Shanna; Mesquita, Fernanda; Basso, Bruno; Schmid, Júlia; Ferreira, Gabriela; Rizzo, Lucas; Bauer, Moises; Bartrons, Ramon; Ventura, Francesc; Rosa, Jose Luis; Mannaerts, Inge; van Grunsven, Leo Adrianus; Oliveira, Jarbas

    2014-03-01

    Capsaicin, the active component of chili pepper, has been reported to have antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects on a variety of cell lines. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of capsaicin during HSC activation and maintenance. Activated and freshly isolated HSCs were treated with capsaicin. Proliferation was measured by incorporation of EdU. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were investigated using flow cytometry. The migratory response to chemotactic stimuli was evaluated by a modified Boyden chamber assay. Activation markers and inflammatory cytokines were determined by qPCR, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry. Our results show that capsaicin reduces HSC proliferation, migration, and expression of profibrogenic markers of activated and primary mouse HSCs. In conclusion, the present study shows that capsaicin modulates proliferation, migration, and activation of HSC in vitro. PMID:23955514

  5. ERP44 inhibits human lung cancer cell migration mainly via IP3R2.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xue; Jin, Meng; Chen, Ying-Xiao; Wang, Jun; Zhai, Kui; Chang, Yan; Yuan, Qi; Yao, Kai-Tai; Ji, Guangju

    2016-06-01

    Cancer cell migration is involved in tumour metastasis. However, the relationship between calcium signalling and cancer migration is not well elucidated. In this study, we used the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line to examine the role of endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERP44), which has been reported to regulate calcium release inside of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in cell migration. We found that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs/ITPRs) inhibitor 2-APB significantly inhibited A549 cell migration by inhibiting cell polarization and pseudopodium protrusion, which suggests that Ca2+ is necessary for A549 cell migration. Similarly, the overexpression of ERP44 reduced intracellular Ca2+ release via IP3Rs, altered cell morphology and significantly inhibited the migration of A549 cells. These phenomena were primarily dependent on IP3R2 because wound healing in A549 cells with IP3R2 rather than IP3R1 or IP3R3 siRNA was markedly inhibited. Moreover, the overexpression of ERP44 did not affect the migration of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, which mainly expresses IP3R1. Based on the above observations, we conclude that ERP44 regulates A549 cell migration mainly via an IP3R2-dependent pathway.

  6. ERP44 inhibits human lung cancer cell migration mainly via IP3R2

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Kui; Chang, Yan; Yuan, Qi; Yao, Kai-Tai; Ji, Guangju

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cell migration is involved in tumour metastasis. However, the relationship between calcium signalling and cancer migration is not well elucidated. In this study, we used the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line to examine the role of endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERP44), which has been reported to regulate calcium release inside of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in cell migration. We found that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs/ITPRs) inhibitor 2-APB significantly inhibited A549 cell migration by inhibiting cell polarization and pseudopodium protrusion, which suggests that Ca2+ is necessary for A549 cell migration. Similarly, the overexpression of ERP44 reduced intracellular Ca2+ release via IP3Rs, altered cell morphology and significantly inhibited the migration of A549 cells. These phenomena were primarily dependent on IP3R2 because wound healing in A549 cells with IP3R2 rather than IP3R1 or IP3R3 siRNA was markedly inhibited. Moreover, the overexpression of ERP44 did not affect the migration of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, which mainly expresses IP3R1. Based on the above observations, we conclude that ERP44 regulates A549 cell migration mainly via an IP3R2-dependent pathway. PMID:27347718

  7. Mechanisms guiding primordial germ cell migration: strategies from different organisms

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Brian E.; Lehmann, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Preface The regulated migration of cells is essential for development and tissue homeostasis, and aberrant cell migration can lead to an impaired immune response and the progression of cancer. Primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursors to sperm and eggs, have to migrate across the embryo to reach somatic gonadal precursors (SGPs) and fulfill their function. Studies of model organisms have revealed that, despite important differences, several features of PGC migration are conserved. PGCs require both an intrinsic motility program and external guidance cues to survive and successfully migrate. Proper guidance involves both attractive and repulsive cues mediated by protein and lipid signalling. PMID:20027186

  8. Hsc70 regulates cell surface ASIC2 expression and vascular smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Grifoni, Samira C; McKey, Susan E; Drummond, Heather A

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies suggest members of the degenerin (DEG)/epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC)/acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) protein family play an important role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration. In a previous investigation, we found suppression of a certain DEG/ENaC/ASIC member, ASIC2, increased VSMC chemotactic migration, raising the possibility that ASIC2 may play an inhibitory role. Because ASIC2 protein was retained in the cytoplasm, we reasoned increasing surface expression of ASIC2 might unmask the inhibitory role of ASIC2 in VSMC migration so we could test the hypothesis that ASIC2 inhibits VSMC migration. Therefore, we used the chemical chaperone glycerol to enhance ASIC2 expression. Glycerol 1) increased cytoplasm ASIC2 expression, 2) permitted detection of ASIC2 at the cell surface, and 3) inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-bb mediated VSMC migration. Furthermore, ASIC2 silencing completely abolished the inhibitory effect of glycerol on migration, suggesting upregulation of ASIC2 is responsible for glycerol-induced inhibition of VSMC migration. Because other investigators have shown that glycerol regulates ENaC/ASIC via interactions with a certain heat shock protein, heat shock protein 70 (Hsc70), we wanted to determine the importance of Hsc70 on ASIC2 expression in VSMCs. We found that Hsc70 silencing increases ASIC2 cell surface expression and inhibits VSMC migration, which is abolished by cosilencing ASIC2. These data demonstrate that Hsc70 inhibits ASIC2 expression, and, when the inhibitory effect of Hsc70 is removed, ASIC2 expression increases, resulting in reduced VSMC migration. Because VSMC migration contributes to vasculogenesis and remodeling following vascular injury, our findings raise the possibility that ASIC2-Hsc70 interactions may play a role in these processes. PMID:18310515

  9. Light activated cell migration in synthetic extracellular matrices.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiongyu; Wang, Xiaobo; Tibbitt, Mark W; Anseth, Kristi S; Montell, Denise J; Elisseeff, Jennifer H

    2012-11-01

    Synthetic extracellular matrices provide a framework in which cells can be exposed to defined physical and biological cues. However no method exists to manipulate single cells within these matrices. It is desirable to develop such methods in order to understand fundamental principles of cell migration and define conditions that support or inhibit cell movement within these matrices. Here, we present a strategy for manipulating individual mammalian stem cells in defined synthetic hydrogels through selective optical activation of Rac, which is an intracellular signaling protein that plays a key role in cell migration. Photoactivated cell migration in synthetic hydrogels depended on mechanical and biological cues in the biomaterial. Real-time hydrogel photodegradation was employed to create geometrically defined channels and spaces in which cells could be photoactivated to migrate. Cell migration speed was significantly higher in the photo-etched channels and cells could easily change direction of movement compared to the bulk hydrogels.

  10. Differential migration and proliferation of geometrical ensembles of cell clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Girish; Chen, Bo; Co, Carlos C.; Ho, Chia-Chi

    2011-06-10

    Differential cell migration and growth drives the organization of specific tissue forms and plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue morphogenesis, and tumor invasion. Localized gradients of soluble factors and extracellular matrix have been shown to modulate cell migration and proliferation. Here we show that in addition to these factors, initial tissue geometry can feedback to generate differential proliferation, cell polarity, and migration patterns. We apply layer by layer polyelectrolyte assembly to confine multicellular organization and subsequently release cells to demonstrate the spatial patterns of cell migration and growth. The cell shapes, spreading areas, and cell-cell contacts are influenced strongly by the confining geometry. Cells within geometric ensembles are morphologically polarized. Symmetry breaking was observed for cells on the circular pattern and cells migrate toward the corners and in the direction parallel to the longest dimension of the geometric shapes. This migration pattern is disrupted when actomyosin based tension was inhibited. Cells near the edge or corner of geometric shapes proliferate while cells within do not. Regions of higher rate of cell migration corresponded to regions of concentrated growth. These findings demonstrate that multicellular organization can result in spatial patterns of migration and proliferation.

  11. Water permeation drives tumor cell migration in confined microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Stroka, Kimberly M; Jiang, Hongyuan; Chen, Shih-Hsun; Tong, Ziqiu; Wirtz, Denis; Sun, Sean X; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-04-24

    Cell migration is a critical process for diverse (patho)physiological phenomena. Intriguingly, cell migration through physically confined spaces can persist even when typical hallmarks of 2D planar migration, such as actin polymerization and myosin II-mediated contractility, are inhibited. Here, we present an integrated experimental and theoretical approach ("Osmotic Engine Model") and demonstrate that directed water permeation is a major mechanism of cell migration in confined microenvironments. Using microfluidic and imaging techniques along with mathematical modeling, we show that tumor cells confined in a narrow channel establish a polarized distribution of Na+/H+ pumps and aquaporins in the cell membrane, which creates a net inflow of water and ions at the cell leading edge and a net outflow of water and ions at the trailing edge, leading to net cell displacement. Collectively, this study presents an alternate mechanism of cell migration in confinement that depends on cell-volume regulation via water permeation. PMID:24726433

  12. Water Permeation Drives Tumor Cell Migration in Confined Microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Stroka, Kimberly M.; Jiang, Hongyuan; Chen, Shih-Hsun; Tong, Ziqiu; Wirtz, Denis; Sun, Sean X.; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Cell migration is a critical process for diverse (patho) physiological phenomena. Intriguingly, cell migration through physically confined spaces can persist even when typical hallmarks of 2D planar migration, such as actin polymerization and myosin II-mediated contractility, are inhibited. Here, we present an integrated experimental and theoretical approach (“Osmotic Engine Model”) and demonstrate that directed water permeation is a major mechanism of cell migration in confined microenvironments. Using microfluidic and imaging techniques along with mathematical modeling, we show that tumor cells confined in a narrow channel establish a polarized distribution of Na+/H+ pumps and aquaporins in the cell membrane, which creates a net inflow of water and ions at the cell leading edge and a net outflow of water and ions at the trailing edge, leading to net cell displacement. Collectively, this study presents an alternate mechanism of cell migration in confinement that depends on cell-volume regulation via water permeation. PMID:24726433

  13. Coexpressing shRNA with fluorescence tags for quantification of cell migration studies.

    PubMed

    Koo, Christine Xing'er; Fang, Wanru; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Leong, David Tai

    2012-07-01

    Understanding migration of cells has many implications in human physiology; some examples include developmental biology, healing, immune responses and tissue remodeling. On the other hand, invasive migration by tumor cells is pathological and is a major cause of mortality amongst cancer sufferers. Cell migration assays have been widely used to quantify potentially metastatic genes. In recent years, the use of RNAi has significantly increased the tools available in cell migration research due to its specific gene targeting for knockdown. The inability to ensure 100% transfection/transduction efficiency reduces the sensitivity of cell migration assays because cells not successfully transfected/transduced with the RNAi are also included in the calculations. This study introduces a different experimental setup mathematically expressed in our named normalized relative infected cell count (N-RICC) that analyses cell migration assays by co-expressing retrovirally transduced shRNA with fluorescence tags from a single vector. Vectors transduced into cells are visible under fluorescence, thus alleviating the problems involved with transduction efficiency by individually identifying cells with targeted genes. Designed shRNAs were targeted against a list of potentially metastatic genes in a highly migratory breast cancer cell line model, MDA-MB-231. We have successfully applied N-RICC analysis to show greater sensitivity of integrin alpha5 (ITGA5) and Ras homologue A (RhoA) in cell metastasis over conventional methods in scratch-wound assays and migration chambers assays.

  14. Nonpolarized signaling reveals two distinct modes of 3D cell migration.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Ryan J; Gavara, Núria; Chadwick, Richard S; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2012-04-30

    We search in this paper for context-specific modes of three-dimensional (3D) cell migration using imaging for phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) and active Rac1 and Cdc42 in primary fibroblasts migrating within different 3D environments. In 3D collagen, PIP3 and active Rac1 and Cdc42 were targeted to the leading edge, consistent with lamellipodia-based migration. In contrast, elongated cells migrating inside dermal explants and the cell-derived matrix (CDM) formed blunt, cylindrical protrusions, termed lobopodia, and Rac1, Cdc42, and PIP3 signaling was nonpolarized. Reducing RhoA, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), or myosin II activity switched the cells to lamellipodia-based 3D migration. These modes of 3D migration were regulated by matrix physical properties. Specifically, experimentally modifying the elasticity of the CDM or collagen gels established that nonlinear elasticity supported lamellipodia-based migration, whereas linear elasticity switched cells to lobopodia-based migration. Thus, the relative polarization of intracellular signaling identifies two distinct modes of 3D cell migration governed intrinsically by RhoA, ROCK, and myosin II and extrinsically by the elastic behavior of the 3D extracellular matrix.

  15. Nonpolarized signaling reveals two distinct modes of 3D cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Gavara, Núria; Chadwick, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    We search in this paper for context-specific modes of three-dimensional (3D) cell migration using imaging for phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) and active Rac1 and Cdc42 in primary fibroblasts migrating within different 3D environments. In 3D collagen, PIP3 and active Rac1 and Cdc42 were targeted to the leading edge, consistent with lamellipodia-based migration. In contrast, elongated cells migrating inside dermal explants and the cell-derived matrix (CDM) formed blunt, cylindrical protrusions, termed lobopodia, and Rac1, Cdc42, and PIP3 signaling was nonpolarized. Reducing RhoA, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), or myosin II activity switched the cells to lamellipodia-based 3D migration. These modes of 3D migration were regulated by matrix physical properties. Specifically, experimentally modifying the elasticity of the CDM or collagen gels established that nonlinear elasticity supported lamellipodia-based migration, whereas linear elasticity switched cells to lobopodia-based migration. Thus, the relative polarization of intracellular signaling identifies two distinct modes of 3D cell migration governed intrinsically by RhoA, ROCK, and myosin II and extrinsically by the elastic behavior of the 3D extracellular matrix. PMID:22547408

  16. Texture sensing of cytoskeletal dynamics in cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Satarupa; Lee, Rachel; Hourwitz, Matthew J.; Sun, Xiaoyu; Parent, Carole; Fourkas, John T.; Losert, Wolfgang

    Migrating cells can be directed towards a target by gradients in properties such as chemical concentration or mechanical properties of the surrounding microenvironment. In previous studies we have shown that micro/nanotopographical features on scales comparable to those of natural collagen fibers can guide fast migrating amoeboid cells by aligning actin polymerization waves to such nanostructures. We find that actin microfilaments and microtubules are aligned along the nanoridge topographies, modulating overall cell polarity and directional migration in epithelial cells. This work shows that topographic features on a biologically relevant length scale can modulate migration outcomes by affecting the texture sensing property of the cytoskeleton.

  17. Systems microscopy approaches to understand cancer cell migration and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Le Dévédec, Sylvia E.; Yan, Kuan; de Bont, Hans; Ghotra, Veerander; Truong, Hoa; Danen, Erik H.; Verbeek, Fons

    2010-01-01

    Cell migration is essential in a number of processes, including wound healing, angiogenesis and cancer metastasis. Especially, invasion of cancer cells in the surrounding tissue is a crucial step that requires increased cell motility. Cell migration is a well-orchestrated process that involves the continuous formation and disassembly of matrix adhesions. Those structural anchor points interact with the extra-cellular matrix and also participate in adhesion-dependent signalling. Although these processes are essential for cancer metastasis, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate adhesion dynamics during tumour cell migration. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advanced imaging strategies together with quantitative image analysis that can be implemented to understand the dynamics of matrix adhesions and its molecular components in relation to tumour cell migration. This dynamic cell imaging together with multiparametric image analysis will help in understanding the molecular mechanisms that define cancer cell migration. PMID:20556632

  18. Lutein inhibits the migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells via cytosolic and mitochondrial Akt pathways (lutein inhibits RPE cells migration).

    PubMed

    Su, Ching-Chieh; Chan, Chi-Ming; Chen, Han-Min; Wu, Chia-Chun; Hsiao, Chien-Yu; Lee, Pei-Lan; Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang; Hung, Chi-Feng

    2014-08-08

    During the course of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells will de-differentiate, proliferate, and migrate onto the surfaces of the sensory retina. Several studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can induce migration of RPE cells via an Akt-related pathway. In this study, the effect of lutein on PDGF-BB-induced RPE cells migration was examined using transwell migration assays and Western blot analyses. We found that both phosphorylation of Akt and mitochondrial translocation of Akt in RPE cells induced by PDGF-BB stimulation were suppressed by lutein. Furthermore, the increased migration observed in RPE cells with overexpressed mitochondrial Akt could also be suppressed by lutein. Our results demonstrate that lutein can inhibit PDGF-BB induced RPE cells migration through the inhibition of both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Akt activation.

  19. Cell migration does not produce membrane flow

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    We have previously reported that rearward migration of surface particles on slowly moving cells is not driven by membrane flow (Sheetz, M. P., S. Turney, H. Qian, and E. L. Elson. 1989. Nature (Lond.). 340:284-288) and recent photobleaching measurements have ruled out any rapid rearward lipid flow (Lee, J., M. Gustafsson, D. E. Magnussen, and K. Jacobson. 1990. Science (Wash. DC.) 247:1229-1233). It was not possible, however, to conclude from those studies that a slower or tank-tread membrane lipid flow does not occur. Therefore, we have used the technology of single particle tracking to examine the movements of diffusing particles on rapidly locomoting fish keratocytes where the membrane current is likely to be greatest. The keratocytes had a smooth lamellipodial surface on which bound Con A-coated gold particles were observed either to track toward the nuclear region (velocity of 0.35 +/- 0.15 micron/s) or to diffuse randomly (apparent diffusion coefficient of [3.5 +/- 2.0] x 10(-10) cm2/s). We detected no systematic drift relative to the cell edge of particles undergoing random diffusion even after the cell had moved many micrometers. The average net particle displacement was 0.01 +/- 2.7% of the cell displacement. These results strongly suggest that neither the motions of membrane proteins driven by the cytoskeleton nor other possible factors produce a bulk flow of membrane lipid. PMID:2211827

  20. Loss of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-3 enhances cell migration in rat lung tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Mai; Okabe, Kyoko; Yamawaki, Yasuna; Teranishi, Miki; Honoki, Kanya; Mori, Toshio; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Loss of the Lpar3 expression due to aberrant DNA methylation occurred in rat lung tumor cells. {yields} The Lpar3 inhibited cell migration of rat lung tumor cells. {yields} The Lpar3 may act as a negative regulator of rat lung tumor cells. -- Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) indicates several biological effects, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. LPA interacts with G protein-coupled transmembrane LPA receptors. In our previous report, we detected that loss of the LPA receptor-1 (Lpar1) expression is due to its aberrant DNA methylation in rat tumor cell lines. In this study, to assess an involvement of the other LPA receptor, Lpar3, in the pathogenesis of rat lung tumor cells, we measured the expression levels of the Lpar3 gene and its DNA methylation status by reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bisulfite sequencing analyses, respectively. RLCNR lung adenocarcinoma cells showed reduced expression of the Lpar3, compared with normal lung tissues. In the 5' upstream region of the Lpar3, normal lung tissues were unmethylated. By contrast, RLCNR cells were highly methylated, correlating with reduced expressions of the Lpar3. Based on these results, we generated the Lpar3-expressing RLCNR-a3 cells and measured the cell migration ability. Interestingly, the cell migration of RLCNR-a3 cells was significantly lower than that of RLCNR cells. This study suggests that loss of the Lpar3 due to aberrant DNA methylation may be involved in the progression of rat lung tumor cells.

  1. Senescent dermal fibroblasts enhance stem cell migration through CCL2/CCR2 axis.

    PubMed

    Ohgo, Shiro; Hasegawa, Seiji; Hasebe, Yuichi; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru; Akamatsu, Hirohiko

    2015-07-01

    During aging, increases in the number of senescent cells are seen in various tissues. On the other hand, stem cells play crucial roles in tissue repair and homeostasis. Therefore, it is likely that stem cells give rise to new cells that replace senescent cells. However, how stem cells contribute to homeostasis in the dermis has not been elucidated. Here, we investigated the effects of factors secreted from senescent fibroblasts on stem cells. We found that senescent human dermal fibroblast (HDF) conditioned medium (CM) significantly enhanced stem cell migration compared with young HDF CM. The senescent HDF CM strongly secreted chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). Furthermore, CCL2 was found to enhance stem cell migration, and the inhibition of CCR2, a receptor for CCL2, reduced stem cell migration. These results suggest that senescent fibroblasts recruit stem cells by secreting various factors and that the CCL2/CCR2 axis is one of the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon.

  2. Leader Cells Define Directionality of Trunk, but Not Cranial, Neural Crest Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jo; Gauert, Anton; Briones Montecinos, Luis; Fanlo, Lucía; Alhashem, Zainalabdeen Mohmammed; Assar, Rodrigo; Marti, Elisa; Kabla, Alexandre; Härtel, Steffen; Linker, Claudia

    2016-05-31

    Collective cell migration is fundamental for life and a hallmark of cancer. Neural crest (NC) cells migrate collectively, but the mechanisms governing this process remain controversial. Previous analyses in Xenopus indicate that cranial NC (CNC) cells are a homogeneous population relying on cell-cell interactions for directional migration, while chick embryo analyses suggest a heterogeneous population with leader cells instructing directionality. Our data in chick and zebrafish embryos show that CNC cells do not require leader cells for migration and all cells present similar migratory capacities. In contrast, laser ablation of trunk NC (TNC) cells shows that leader cells direct movement and cell-cell contacts are required for migration. Moreover, leader and follower identities are acquired before the initiation of migration and remain fixed thereafter. Thus, two distinct mechanisms establish the directionality of CNC cells and TNC cells. This implies the existence of multiple molecular mechanisms for collective cell migration.

  3. 3D cancer cell migration in a confined matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alobaidi, Amani; Sun, Bo

    Cancer cell migration is widely studied in 2D motion, which does not mimic the invasion processes in vivo. More recently, 3D cell migration studies have been performed. The ability of cancer cells to migrate within the extracellular matrix depends on the physical and biochemical features of the extracellular matrix. We present a model of cell motility in confined matrix geometry. The aim of the study is to study cancer migration in collagen matrix, as a soft tissue, to investigate their motility within the confined and surrounding collagen environment. Different collagen concentrations have been used to show the ability of these cancer cells to move through such a complex structure by measuring Cancer cell migration velocity as well as the displacement. Graduate student physics department.

  4. Physical role for the nucleus in cell migration.

    PubMed

    Fruleux, Antoine; Hawkins, Rhoda J

    2016-09-14

    Cell migration is important for the function of many eukaryotic cells. Recently the nucleus has been shown to play an important role in cell motility. After giving an overview of cell motility mechanisms we review what is currently known about the mechanical properties of the nucleus and the connections between it and the cytoskeleton. We also discuss connections to the extracellular matrix and mechanotransduction. We identify key physical roles of the nucleus in cell migration.

  5. Physical role for the nucleus in cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruleux, Antoine; Hawkins, Rhoda J.

    2016-09-01

    Cell migration is important for the function of many eukaryotic cells. Recently the nucleus has been shown to play an important role in cell motility. After giving an overview of cell motility mechanisms we review what is currently known about the mechanical properties of the nucleus and the connections between it and the cytoskeleton. We also discuss connections to the extracellular matrix and mechanotransduction. We identify key physical roles of the nucleus in cell migration.

  6. Physical role for the nucleus in cell migration.

    PubMed

    Fruleux, Antoine; Hawkins, Rhoda J

    2016-09-14

    Cell migration is important for the function of many eukaryotic cells. Recently the nucleus has been shown to play an important role in cell motility. After giving an overview of cell motility mechanisms we review what is currently known about the mechanical properties of the nucleus and the connections between it and the cytoskeleton. We also discuss connections to the extracellular matrix and mechanotransduction. We identify key physical roles of the nucleus in cell migration. PMID:27406341

  7. How does cancer cell metabolism affect tumor migration and invasion?

    PubMed

    Han, Tianyu; Kang, De; Ji, Daokun; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhan, Weihua; Fu, Minggui; Xin, Hong-Bo; Wang, Jian-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer-associated death. Accordingly, identification of the regulatory mechanisms that control whether or not tumor cells become "directed walkers" is a crucial issue of cancer research. The deregulation of cell migration during cancer progression determines the capacity of tumor cells to escape from the primary tumors and invade adjacent tissues to finally form metastases. The ability to switch from a predominantly oxidative metabolism to glycolysis and the production of lactate even when oxygen is plentiful is a key characteristic of cancer cells. This metabolic switch, known as the Warburg effect, was first described in 1920s, and affected not only tumor cell growth but also tumor cell migration. In this review, we will focus on the recent studies on how cancer cell metabolism affects tumor cell migration and invasion. Understanding the new aspects on molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways controlling tumor cell migration is critical for development of therapeutic strategies for cancer patients.

  8. Follow-the-leader cell migration requires biased cell-cell contact and local microenvironmental signals.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Michelle L; Rupp, Paul; Trainor, Paul A; Schnell, Santiago; Kulesa, Paul M

    2013-06-01

    Directed cell migration often involves at least two types of cell motility that include multicellular streaming and chain migration. However, what is unclear is how cell contact dynamics and the distinct microenvironments through which cells travel influence the selection of one migratory mode or the other. The embryonic and highly invasive neural crest (NC) are an excellent model system to study this question since NC cells have been observed in vivo to display both of these types of cell motility. Here, we present data from tissue transplantation experiments in chick and in silico modeling that test our hypothesis that cell contact dynamics with each other and the microenvironment promote and sustain either multicellular stream or chain migration. We show that when premigratory cranial NC cells (at the pre-otic level) are transplanted into a more caudal region in the head (at the post-otic level), cells alter their characteristic stream behavior and migrate in chains. Similarly, post-otic NC cells migrate in streams after transplantation into the pre-otic hindbrain, suggesting that local microenvironmental signals dictate the mode of NC cell migration. Simulations of an agent-based model (ABM) that integrates the NC cell behavioral data predict that chain migration critically depends on the interplay of biased cell-cell contact and local microenvironment signals. Together, this integrated modeling and experimental approach suggests new experiments and offers a powerful tool to examine mechanisms that underlie complex cell migration patterns.

  9. An open data ecosystem for cell migration research.

    PubMed

    Masuzzo, Paola; Martens, Lennart; Ampe, Christophe; Anderson, Kurt I; Barry, Joseph; De Wever, Olivier; Debeir, Olivier; Decaestecker, Christine; Dolznig, Helmut; Friedl, Peter; Gaggioli, Cedric; Geiger, Benjamin; Goldberg, Ilya G; Horn, Elias; Horwitz, Rick; Kam, Zvi; Le Dévédec, Sylvia E; Vignjevic, Danijela Matic; Moore, Josh; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Sahai, Erik; Sansone, Susanna A; Sanz-Moreno, Victoria; Strömblad, Staffan; Swedlow, Jason; Textor, Johannes; Van Troys, Marleen; Zantl, Roman

    2015-02-01

    Cell migration research has recently become both a high content and a high throughput field thanks to technological, computational, and methodological advances. Simultaneously, however, urgent bioinformatics needs regarding data management, standardization, and dissemination have emerged. To address these concerns, we propose to establish an open data ecosystem for cell migration research.

  10. Controlled skeletal progenitor cell migration on nanostructured porous silicon/silicon micropatterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Costa, V.; Sánchez-Vaquero, V.; Muñoz-Noval, Á.; González-Méndez, L.; Punzón-Quijorna, E.; Gallach-Pérez, D.; Manso-Silván, M.; Martínez-Muñoz, G.; Climent-Font, A.; García-Ruiz, J. P.; Martín-Palma, R. J.

    2011-10-01

    In this work nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS) was used for the fabrication of surface micropatterns aiming at controlling cell adhesion and migration. In particular, surface patterns of nanoPS and Si were engineered by high-energy ion-beam irradiation and subsequent anodization. It was found that human skeletal progenitor cells are sensitive to oneand two-dimensional patterns and that focal adhesion is inhibited on nanoPS areas. In spite of this anti-fouling characteristics, studies on patterns with reduced Si areas show that cells conform to nanoPS pathways favoring migration through cell protrusion, body translocation and tail retraction from two parallel Si traction rails. Moreover, migration can be blocked and cells tend to arrange when grid patterns with the appropriate dimensions are fabricated. The experimental results confirm that progenitor cells are able to exploit nanoPS anti-fouling designs by adapting to it for migration purposes.

  11. Osteoactivin Promotes Migration of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Arosarena, Oneida A; Dela Cadena, Raul A; Denny, Michael F; Bryant, Evan; Barr, Eric W; Thorpe, Ryan; Safadi, Fayez F

    2016-08-01

    Nearly 50% of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) die of metastases or locoregional recurrence. Metastasis is mediated by cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Osteoactivin (OA) overexpression plays a role in metastases in several malignancies. The aims were to determine how integrin interactions modulate OA-induced OSCC cell migration; and to investigate OA effects on cell survival and proliferation. We confirmed OA mRNA and protein overexpression in OSCC cell lines. We assessed OA's interactions with integrins using adhesion inhibition assays, fluorescent immunocytochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation. We investigated OA-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cell survival. Integrin inhibition effects on OA-mediated cell migration were determined. We assessed effects of OA knock-down on cell migration and proliferation. OA is overexpressed in OSCC cell lines, and serves as a migration-promoting adhesion molecule. OA co-localized with integrin subunits, and co-immunoprecipitated with the subunits. Integrin blocking antibodies, especially those directed against the β1 subunit, inhibited cell adhesion (P = 0.03 for SCC15 cells). Adhesion to OA activated MAPKs in UMSCC14a cells and OA treatment promoted survival of SCC15 cells. Integrin-neutralizing antibodies enhanced cell migration with OA in the extracellular matrix. OA knock-down resulted in decreased proliferation of SCC15 and SCC25 cells, but did not inhibit cell migration. OA in the extracellular matrix promotes OSCC cell adhesion and migration, and may be a novel target in the prevention of HNSCC spread. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1761-1770, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26636434

  12. Osteoactivin Promotes Migration of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Arosarena, Oneida A; Dela Cadena, Raul A; Denny, Michael F; Bryant, Evan; Barr, Eric W; Thorpe, Ryan; Safadi, Fayez F

    2016-08-01

    Nearly 50% of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) die of metastases or locoregional recurrence. Metastasis is mediated by cancer cell adhesion, migration, and invasion. Osteoactivin (OA) overexpression plays a role in metastases in several malignancies. The aims were to determine how integrin interactions modulate OA-induced OSCC cell migration; and to investigate OA effects on cell survival and proliferation. We confirmed OA mRNA and protein overexpression in OSCC cell lines. We assessed OA's interactions with integrins using adhesion inhibition assays, fluorescent immunocytochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation. We investigated OA-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cell survival. Integrin inhibition effects on OA-mediated cell migration were determined. We assessed effects of OA knock-down on cell migration and proliferation. OA is overexpressed in OSCC cell lines, and serves as a migration-promoting adhesion molecule. OA co-localized with integrin subunits, and co-immunoprecipitated with the subunits. Integrin blocking antibodies, especially those directed against the β1 subunit, inhibited cell adhesion (P = 0.03 for SCC15 cells). Adhesion to OA activated MAPKs in UMSCC14a cells and OA treatment promoted survival of SCC15 cells. Integrin-neutralizing antibodies enhanced cell migration with OA in the extracellular matrix. OA knock-down resulted in decreased proliferation of SCC15 and SCC25 cells, but did not inhibit cell migration. OA in the extracellular matrix promotes OSCC cell adhesion and migration, and may be a novel target in the prevention of HNSCC spread. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1761-1770, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Vimentin contributes to human mammary epithelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Gilles, C; Polette, M; Zahm, J M; Tournier, J M; Volders, L; Foidart, J M; Birembaut, P

    1999-12-01

    Vimentin expression in human mammary epithelial MCF10A cells was examined as a function of their migratory status using an in vitro wound-healing model. Analysis of the trajectories of the cells and their migratory speeds by time lapse-video microscopy revealed that vimentin mRNA and protein expression were exclusively induced in cells at the wound's edge which were actively migrating towards the center of the lesion. Actin labeling showed the reorganization of actin filaments in cells at the wound's edge which confirmed the migratory phenotype of this cell subpopulation. Moreover, the vimentin protein disappeared when the cells became stationary after wound closure. Using cells transfected with the vimentin promoter controlling the green fluorescent protein gene, we also demonstrated the specific activation of the vimentin promoter in the migratory cells at the wound's edge. Transfection of the antisense vimentin cDNA into MCF10A cells clearly reduced both their ability to express vimentin and their migratory speed. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that vimentin is transiently associated with, and could be functionally involved in, the migratory status of human epithelial cells.

  14. Cerebellar granule cell migration and the effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yulan; Kumada, Tatsuro; Cameron, D Bryant; Komuro, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    In the developing brain the majority of neurons migrate from their birthplace to their final destination. This active movement is essential for the formation of cortical layers and nuclei. The impairment of migration does not affect the viability of neurons but often results in abnormal differentiation. The proper migration of neurons requires the orchestrated activities of multiple cellular and molecular events, such as pathway selection, the activation of specific receptors and channels, and the assembly and disassembly of cytoskeletal components. The migration of neurons is very vulnerable to exposure to environmental toxins, such as alcohol. In this article, we will focus on recent developments in the migration of cerebellar granule cells. First, we will describe when, where and how granule cells migrate through different cortical layers to reach their final destination. Second, we will present how internal programs control the sequential changes in granule cell migration. Third, we will review the roles of external guidance cues and transmembrane signals in granule cell migration. Finally, we will reveal mechanisms by which alcohol exposure impairs granule cell migration. PMID:18075250

  15. Chemokine-Dependent pH Elevation at the Cell Front Sustains Polarity in Directionally Migrating Zebrafish Germ Cells.

    PubMed

    Tarbashevich, Katsiaryna; Reichman-Fried, Michal; Grimaldi, Cecilia; Raz, Erez

    2015-04-20

    Directional cell migration requires cell polarization with respect to the distribution of the guidance cue. Cell polarization often includes asymmetric distribution of response components as well as elements of the motility machinery. Importantly, the function and regulation of most of these molecules are known to be pH dependent. Intracellular pH gradients were shown to occur in certain cells migrating in vitro, but the functional relevance of such gradients for cell migration and for the response to directional cues, particularly in the intact organism, is currently unknown. In this study, we find that primordial germ cells migrating in the context of the developing embryo respond to the graded distribution of the chemokine Cxcl12 by establishing elevated intracellular pH at the cell front. We provide insight into the mechanisms by which a polar pH distribution contributes to efficient cell migration. Specifically, we show that Carbonic Anhydrase 15b, an enzyme controlling the pH in many cell types, including metastatic cancer cells, is expressed in migrating germ cells and is crucial for establishing and maintaining an asymmetric pH distribution within them. Reducing the level of the protein and thereby erasing the pH elevation at the cell front resulted in abnormal cell migration and impaired arrival at the target. The basis for the disrupted migration is found in the stringent requirement for pH conditions in the cell for regulating contractility, for the polarization of Rac1 activity, and hence for the formation of actin-rich structures at the leading edge of the migrating cells.

  16. From Cell Differentiation to Cell Collectives: Bacillus subtilis Uses Division of Labor to Migrate

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The organization of cells, emerging from cell–cell interactions, can give rise to collective properties. These properties are adaptive when together cells can face environmental challenges that they separately cannot. One particular challenge that is important for microorganisms is migration. In this study, we show how flagellum-independent migration is driven by the division of labor of two cell types that appear during Bacillus subtilis sliding motility. Cell collectives organize themselves into bundles (called “van Gogh bundles”) of tightly aligned cell chains that form filamentous loops at the colony edge. We show, by time-course microscopy, that these loops migrate by pushing themselves away from the colony. The formation of van Gogh bundles depends critically on the synergistic interaction of surfactin-producing and matrix-producing cells. We propose that surfactin-producing cells reduce the friction between cells and their substrate, thereby facilitating matrix-producing cells to form bundles. The folding properties of these bundles determine the rate of colony expansion. Our study illustrates how the simple organization of cells within a community can yield a strong ecological advantage. This is a key factor underlying the diverse origins of multicellularity. PMID:25894589

  17. ATM regulation of IL-8 links oxidative stress to cancer cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Ebelt, Nancy D; Stracker, Travis H; Xhemalce, Blerta; Van Den Berg, Carla L; Miller, Kyle M

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) and is associated with cancer suppression. Here we report a cancer-promoting role for ATM. ATM depletion in metastatic cancer cells reduced cell migration and invasion. Transcription analyses identified a gene network, including the chemokine IL-8, regulated by ATM. IL-8 expression required ATM and was regulated by oxidative stress. IL-8 was validated as an ATM target by its ability to rescue cell migration and invasion defects in ATM-depleted cells. Finally, ATM-depletion in human breast cancer cells reduced lung tumors in a mouse xenograft model and clinical data validated IL-8 in lung metastasis. These findings provide insights into how ATM activation by oxidative stress regulates IL-8 to sustain cell migration and invasion in cancer cells to promote metastatic potential. Thus, in addition to well-established roles in tumor suppression, these findings identify a role for ATM in tumor progression.

  18. Melatonin reduces migratory restlessness in Sylvia warblers during autumnal migration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A remarkable aspect of bird migration is its nocturnality, particularly common in Passeriformes. The switch in activity from purely diurnal to also nocturnal is evident even in caged birds that during migratory periods develop an intense nocturnal restlessness, termed Zugunruhe. The mechanisms that control this major change in activity are mostly unknown. Previous work with Sylvia warblers suggested an involvement of melatonin, a hormone associated with day-night cycles in most vertebrates. In a recent study we found no effects of melatonin administration on Zugunruhe during spring migration. However, previous studies indicated that the response to melatonin manipulation could differ between spring and autumn migration, which are in fact separate life history stages. Here we tested whether a non-invasive treatment with melatonin can alter Zugunruhe in wild garden warblers S. borin and blackcaps S. atricapilla subject to temporary captivity at an autumnal stopover site. Food availability in the cage (yes/no) was added as a second factor because previous work showed that it enhanced Zugunruhe. Results The melatonin treatment significantly decreased the amount of Zugunruhe, while the availability of food only tended to increase the amount of Zugunruhe. Fuel deposits also had a strong effect on the amount of nocturnal activity: lean birds with a fat score of 1 showed significantly less Zugunruhe than fatter birds. The change in body mass during the time spent in the recording cage depended on food availability, but not on any of the other factors. Conclusions This study shows that the migratory programme of two Sylvia warblers can be manipulated by administration of exogenous melatonin and confirms that this hormone is involved in the control of migratory behaviour. To our knowledge, this is one of the first demonstrations that the autumn migratory programme can be altered by hormonal manipulation in migrating birds. The comparison with a similar study

  19. Neuronal Neuregulin 1 type III directs Schwann cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Perlin, Julie R.; Lush, Mark E.; Stephens, W. Zac; Piotrowski, Tatjana; Talbot, William S.

    2011-01-01

    During peripheral nerve development, each segment of a myelinated axon is matched with a single Schwann cell. Tight regulation of Schwann cell movement, proliferation and differentiation is essential to ensure that these glial cells properly associate with axons. ErbB receptors are required for Schwann cell migration, but the operative ligand and its mechanism of action have remained unknown. We demonstrate that zebrafish Neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) type III, which signals through ErbB receptors, controls Schwann cell migration in addition to its previously known roles in proliferation and myelination. Chimera analyses indicate that ErbB receptors are required in all migrating Schwann cells, and that Nrg1 type III is required in neurons for migration. Surprisingly, expression of the ligand in a few axons is sufficient to induce migration along a chimeric nerve constituted largely of nrg1 type III mutant axons. These studies also reveal a mechanism that allows Schwann cells to fasciculate axons regardless of nrg1 type III expression. Time-lapse imaging of transgenic embryos demonstrated that misexpression of human NRG1 type III results in ectopic Schwann cell migration, allowing them to aberrantly enter the central nervous system. These results demonstrate that Nrg1 type III is an essential signal that controls Schwann cell migration to ensure that these glia are present in the correct numbers and positions in developing nerves. PMID:21965611

  20. Microfluidic platform to evaluate migration of cells from patients with DYT1 dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Edward Y.; Hettich, Jasmin; Mempel, Thorsten R.; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Irimia, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background Microfluidic platforms for quantitative evaluation of cell biologic processes allow low cost and time efficient research studies of biological and pathological events, such as monitoring cell migration by real-time imaging. In healthy and disease states, cell migration is crucial in development and wound healing, as well as to maintain the body's homeostasis. New Method The microfluidic chambers allow precise measurements to investigate whether fibroblasts carrying a mutation in the TOR1A gene, underlying the hereditary neurologic disease - DYT1 dystonia, have decreased migration properties when compared to control cells. Results We observed that fibroblasts from DYT1 patients showed abnormalities in basic features of cell migration, such as reduced velocity and persistence of movement. Comparison with Existing Method The microfluidic method enabled us to demonstrate reduced polarization of the nucleus and abnormal orientation of nuclei and Golgi inside the moving DYT1 patient cells compared to control cells, as well as vectorial movement of single cells. Conclusion We report here different assays useful in determining various parameters of cell migration in DYT1 patient cells as a consequence of the TOR1A gene mutation, including a microfluidic platform, which provides a means to evaluate real-time vectorial movement with single cell resolution in a three-dimensional environment. PMID:24880044

  1. PIK3R1 targeting by miR-21 suppresses tumor cell migration and invasion by reducing PI3K/AKT signaling and reversing EMT, and predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Xu; Liu, Yan-Hui; Xiang, Jian-Wen; Wu, Qi-Nian; Xu, Lei-Bo; Luo, Xin-Lan; Zhu, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Chao; Xu, Fang-Ping; Luo, Dong-Lan; Mei, Ping; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Ke-Ping; Chen, Jie

    2016-02-01

    We have previously shown that dysregulation of miR-21 functioned as an oncomiR in breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which miR-21 regulate breast tumor migration and invasion. We applied pathway analysis on genome microarray data and target-predicting algorithms for miR-21 target screening, and used luciferase reporting assay to confirm the direct target. Thereafter, we investigated the function of the target gene phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (α) (PIK3R1), and detected PIK3R1 coding protein (p85α) by immunohistochemistry and miR-21 by RT-qPCR on 320 archival paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer to evaluate the correlation of their expression with prognosis. First, we found that PIK3R1 suppressed growth, invasiveness, and metastatic properties of breast cancer cells. Next, we identified the PIK3R1 as a direct target of miR-21 and showed that it was negatively regulated by miR-21. Furthermore, we demonstrated that p85α overexpression phenocopied the suppression effects of antimiR-21 on breast cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, indicating its tumor suppressor role in breast cancer. On the contrary, PIK3R1 knockdown abrogated antimiR‑21-induced effect on breast cancer cells. Notably, antimiR-21 induction increased p85α, accompanied by decreased p-AKT level. Besides, antimiR-21/PIK3R1-induced suppression of invasiveness in breast cancer cells was mediated by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). p85α downregulation was found in 25 (7.8%) of the 320 breast cancer patients, and was associated with inferior 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Taken together, we provide novel evidence that miR-21 knockdown suppresses cell growth, migration and invasion partly by inhibiting PI3K/AKT activation via direct targeting PIK3R1 and reversing EMT in breast cancer. p85α downregulation defined a specific subgroup of breast cancer with shorter 5-year DFS and OS

  2. PIK3R1 targeting by miR-21 suppresses tumor cell migration and invasion by reducing PI3K/AKT signaling and reversing EMT, and predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    YAN, LI-XU; LIU, YAN-HUI; XIANG, JIAN-WEN; WU, QI-NIAN; XU, LEI-BO; LUO, XIN-LAN; ZHU, XIAO-LAN; LIU, CHAO; XU, FANG-PING; LUO, DONG-LAN; MEI, PING; XU, JIE; ZHANG, KE-PING; CHEN, JIE

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that dysregulation of miR-21 functioned as an oncomiR in breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which miR-21 regulate breast tumor migration and invasion. We applied pathway analysis on genome microarray data and target-predicting algorithms for miR-21 target screening, and used luciferase reporting assay to confirm the direct target. Thereafter, we investigated the function of the target gene phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (α) (PIK3R1), and detected PIK3R1 coding protein (p85α) by immunohistochemistry and miR-21 by RT-qPCR on 320 archival paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer to evaluate the correlation of their expression with prognosis. First, we found that PIK3R1 suppressed growth, invasiveness, and metastatic properties of breast cancer cells. Next, we identified the PIK3R1 as a direct target of miR-21 and showed that it was negatively regulated by miR-21. Furthermore, we demonstrated that p85α overexpression phenocopied the suppression effects of antimiR-21 on breast cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, indicating its tumor suppressor role in breast cancer. On the contrary, PIK3R1 knockdown abrogated antimiR-21-induced effect on breast cancer cells. Notably, antimiR-21 induction increased p85α, accompanied by decreased p-AKT level. Besides, antimiR-21/PIK3R1-induced suppression of invasiveness in breast cancer cells was mediated by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). p85α downregulation was found in 25 (7.8%) of the 320 breast cancer patients, and was associated with inferior 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Taken together, we provide novel evidence that miR-21 knockdown suppresses cell growth, migration and invasion partly by inhibiting PI3K/AKT activation via direct targeting PIK3R1 and reversing EMT in breast cancer. p85α downregulation defined a specific subgroup of breast cancer with shorter 5-year DFS and OS

  3. Downregulation of SENP1 inhibits cell proliferation, migration and promotes apoptosis in human glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, QIU-SHENG; ZHANG, MENG; HUANG, XIAN-JIAN; LIU, XIAO-JIA; LI, WEI-PING

    2016-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-related modifier protein (SUMO) is an evolutionarily conserved protein in a broad range of eukaryotic organisms. De-SUMOylation, the reverse reaction of SUMOylation, is regulated by a family of SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs). SENP1 is a member of the de-SUMOylation protease family involved in the de-SUMOylation of a variety of SUMOylated proteins. The present study demonstrates that small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated downregulation of SENP1 inhibits cell proliferation and migration, and promotes apoptosis in human glioma cells. Firstly, LN-299 cells were transfected with a plasmid expressing SENP1 shRNA (pGenesil-1-SENP1). The messenger RNA and protein expression of SENP1 was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. Cell proliferation in vitro was assessed using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect the apoptosis of LN-299 cells. The effect of the downregulation of SENP1 on cell migration was detected by a Transwell migration system. The present results showed that, compared with the control shRNA group, the expression of SENP1 was significantly reduced in the SENP1 shRNA group. The proliferation was markedly inhibited in the SENP1 shRNA group. FCM findings revealed that apoptosis increased significantly in the SENP1 shRNA group. In addition, it was found that downregulation of SENP1 evidently suppressed tumor cell migration. Downregulation of SENP1 expression inhibited the proliferation and migration and promoted apoptosis in LN-299 cells. These results indirectly demonstrate that SENP1 is likely to play a critical role in human glioma cells. PMID:27347128

  4. Timosaponin AIII inhibits melanoma cell migration by suppressing COX-2 and in vivo tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Mo; Im, A-Rang; Kim, Seung Hyung; Hyun, Jin Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2016-02-01

    Melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin disease, due in large part to its propensity to metastasize. We examined the effects of timosaponin AIII, a compound isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, on melanoma cancer cell migration and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using B16-F10 and WM-115 melanoma cells lines. Overexpression of COX-2, its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and PGE2 receptors (EP2 and EP4) promoted cell migration in vitro. Exposure to timosaponin AIII resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of cell migration, which was associated with reduced levels of COX-2, PGE2, and PGE2 receptors. Transient transfection of COX-2 siRNA also inhibited cell migration. Exposure to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbal-13-acetate enhanced cell migration, whereas timosaponin AIII inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbal-13-acetate-induced cell migration and reduced basal levels of EP2 and EP4. Moreover, timosaponin AIII inhibited activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), an upstream regulator of COX-2 in B16-F10 cells. Consistent with our in vitro findings, in vivo studies showed that timosaponin AIII treatment significantly reduced the total number of metastatic nodules in the mouse lung and improved histological alterations in B16-F10-injected C57BL/6 mice. In addition, C57BL/6 mice treated with timosaponin AIII showed reduced expression of COX-2 and NF-κB in the lung. Together, these results indicate that timosaponin AIII has the capacity to inhibit melanoma cell migration, an essential step in the process of metastasis, by inhibiting expression of COX-2, NF-κB, PGE2, and PGE2 receptors.

  5. Cell migration in the normal and pathological postnatal mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Canoll, Peter; Goldman, James E.

    2009-01-01

    In the developing brain, cell migration is a crucial process for structural organization, and is therefore highly regulated to allow the correct formation of complex networks, wiring neurons, and glia. In the early postnatal brain, late developmental processes such as the production and migration of astrocyte and oligodendrocyte progenitors still occur. Although the brain is completely formed and structured few weeks after birth, it maintains a degree of plasticity throughout life, including axonal remodeling, synaptogenesis, but also neural cell birth, migration and integration. The subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (DG) are the two main neurogenic niches in the adult brain. Neural stem cells reside in these structures and produce progenitors that migrate toward their ultimate location: the olfactory bulb and granular cell layer of the DG respectively. The aim of this review is to synthesize the increasing information concerning the organization, regulation and function of cell migration in a mature brain. In a normal brain, protein involved in cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions together with secreted proteins acting as chemoattractant or chemorepellant play key roles in the regulation of neural progenitor cell migration. In addition, recent data suggest that gliomas arise from the transformation of neural stem cells or progenitor cells and that glioma cell infiltration recapitulates key aspects of glial progenitor migration. Thus, we will consider glioma migration in the context of progenitor migration. Finally, many observations show that brain lesions and neurological diseases trigger neural stem/progenitor cell activation and migration towards altered structures. The factors involved in such cell migration/recruitment are just beginning to be understood. Inflammation which has long been considered as thoroughly disastrous for brain repair is now known to produce some positive effects on stem/progenitor cell recruitment via

  6. Single cell migration dynamics mediated by geometric confinement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Hou, Ruixia; Xiao, Peng; Xing, Rubo; Chen, Tao; Han, Yanchun; Ren, Penggang; Fu, Jun

    2016-09-01

    The migration dynamics of cells plays a key role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Previous studies mostly focus on regulating stem cell fate and phenotype by biophysical cues. In contrast, less is known about how the geometric cues mediate the migration dynamics of cells. Here, we fabricate graphene oxide (GO) microstripes on cell non-adhesive PEG substrate by using micromolding in capillary (MIMIC) method. Such micropatterns with alternating cell adhesion and cell resistance enable an effective control of selective adhesion and migration of single cells. The sharp contrast in cell adhesion minimizes the invasion of cells into the PEG patterns, and thereby strongly confines the cells on GO microstripes. As a result, the cells are forced to adapt highly polarized, elongated, and oriented geometry to fit the patterns. A series of pattern widths have been fabricated to modulate the extent of cell deformation and polarization. Under strong confinement, the cytoskeleton contractility, intracellular traction, and actin filament elongation are highly promoted, which result in enhanced cell migration along the patterns. This work provides an important insight into developing combinatorial graphene-based patterns for the control of cell migration dynamics, which is of great significance for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:27137805

  7. Glass-like dynamics in collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, Thomas; Weitz, David

    2011-03-01

    The collective movement of tissue cells is essential to fundamental biological processes in both health and disease, and occurs throughout embryonic development, during wound healing, and in cancerous tumor invasion. Most knowledge of cell migration, however, comes from single cell studies. Single cells migrate by executing cyclic processes of extension, adhesion, and retraction, during which the cell body fluctuates dramatically and the cell changes direction erratically. These sub-cellular motions must be coupled between neighbors in confluent layers, yet the influence of this coupling on collective migration is not known. In this talk we present a study of motion in confluent epithelial cell sheets. We measure collective migration and sub-cellular motions, covering a broad range of length-scales, time-scales, and cell densities. We find that that collective cell migration exhibits many behaviors characteristic of classical supercooled particulate fluids, including growing dynamic heterogeneities in the migration velocity field, non-Arrhenius relaxation behavior, and peaks in the density of states analogous to the Boson peak. These results provide a suggestive analogy between collective cell motion and the dynamics of supercooled fluids approaching a glass transition.

  8. The Hippo pathway controls border cell migration through distinct mechanisms in outer border cells and polar cells of the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Huai; Yeh, Tsung-Han; Wang, Tsu-Wei; Yu, Jenn-Yah

    2014-11-01

    The Hippo pathway is a key signaling cascade in controlling organ size. The core components of this pathway are two kinases, Hippo (Hpo) and Warts (Wts), and a transcriptional coactivator, Yorkie (Yki). Yes-associated protein (YAP, a Yki homolog in mammals) promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell migration in vitro. Here, we use border cells in the Drosophila ovary as a model to study Hippo pathway functions in cell migration in vivo. During oogenesis, polar cells secrete Unpaired (Upd), which activates JAK/STAT signaling of neighboring cells and specifies them into outer border cells. The outer border cells form a cluster with polar cells and undergo migration. We find that hpo and wts are required for migration of the border cell cluster. In outer border cells, overexpression of hpo disrupts polarization of the actin cytoskeleton and attenuates migration. In polar cells, knockdown of hpo and wts or overexpression of yki impairs border cell induction and disrupts migration. These manipulations in polar cells reduce JAK/STAT activity in outer border cells. Expression of upd-lacZ is increased and decreased in yki and hpo mutant polar cells, respectively. Furthermore, forced expression of upd in polar cells rescues defects of border cell induction and migration caused by wts knockdown. These results suggest that Yki negatively regulates border cell induction by inhibiting JAK/STAT signaling. Together, our data elucidate two distinct mechanisms of the Hippo pathway in controlling border cell migration: (1) in outer border cells, it regulates polarized distribution of the actin cytoskeleton; (2) in polar cells, it regulates upd expression to control border cell induction and migration.

  9. Berberine suppresses migration of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through down-regulation of chemokine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadiankia, Naghmeh; Moghaddam, Hamid Kalalian; Mishan, Mohammad Amir; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Bidkhori, Hamid Reza; Moghaddam, Maryam; Mirfeyzi, Seyed Jamal Aldin

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Berberine is one of the main alkaloids and it has been proven to have different pharmacological effects including inhibition of cell cycle and progression of apoptosis in various cancerous cells; however, its effects on cancer metastasis are not well known. Cancer cells obtain the ability to change their chemokine system and convert into metastatic cells. In this study, we examined the effect of berberine on breast cancer cell migration and its probable interaction with the chemokine system in cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was cultured, and then, treated with berberine (10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/ml) for 24 hr. MTT assay was used in order to determine the cytotoxic effect of berberine on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Wound healing assay was applied to determine the inhibitory effect of berberine on cell migration. Moreover, real-time quantitative PCR analysis of selected chemokine receptors was performed to determine the probable molecular mechanism underlying the effect of berberine on breast cancer cell migration. Results: The results of wound healing assay revealed that berberine decreases cell migration. Moreover, we found that the mRNA levels of some chemokine receptors were reduced after berberine treatment, and this may be the underlying mechanism for decreased cell migration. Conclusion: Our results indicate that berberine might be a potential preventive biofactor for human breast cancer metastasis by targeting chemokine receptor genes. PMID:27081456

  10. Bioengineering Paradigms for Cell Migration in Confined Microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Stroka, Kimberly M.; Gu, Zhizhan; Sun, Sean X.; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration is a fundamental process underlying diverse (patho)physiological phenomena. The classical understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cell migration has been based on in vitro studies on two-dimensional substrates. More recently, mounting evidence from intravital studies has shown that during metastasis, tumor cells must navigate complex microenvironments in vivo, including narrow, pre-existing microtracks created by anatomical structures. It is becoming apparent that unraveling the mechanisms of confined cell migration in this context requires a multi-disciplinary approach through integration of in vivo and in vitro studies, along with sophisticated bioengineering techniques and mathematical modeling. Here, we highlight such an approach that has led to discovery of a new model for cell migration in confined microenvironments (i.e., the Osmotic Engine Model). PMID:24973724

  11. Bioengineering paradigms for cell migration in confined microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Stroka, Kimberly M; Gu, Zhizhan; Sun, Sean X; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-10-01

    Cell migration is a fundamental process underlying diverse (patho)physiological phenomena. The classical understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cell migration has been based on in vitro studies on two-dimensional substrates. More recently, mounting evidence from intravital studies has shown that during metastasis, tumor cells must navigate complex microenvironments in vivo, including narrow, pre-existing microtracks created by anatomical structures. It is becoming apparent that unraveling the mechanisms of confined cell migration in this context requires a multi-disciplinary approach through integration of in vivo and in vitro studies, along with sophisticated bioengineering techniques and mathematical modeling. Here, we highlight such an approach that has led to discovery of a new model for cell migration in confined microenvironments (i.e., the Osmotic Engine Model). PMID:24973724

  12. Migration of adhesive glioma cells: Front propagation and fingering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khain, Evgeniy; Katakowski, Mark; Charteris, Nicholas; Jiang, Feng; Chopp, Michael

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the migration of glioma cells as a front propagation phenomenon both theoretically (by using both discrete lattice modeling and a continuum approach) and experimentally. For small effective strength of cell-cell adhesion q, the front velocity does not depend on q. When q exceeds a critical threshold, a fingeringlike front propagation is observed due to cluster formation in the invasive zone. We show that the experiments correspond to the transient regime, before the regime of front propagation is established. We performed an additional experiment on cell migration. A detailed comparison with experimental observations showed that the theory correctly predicts the maximal migration distance but underestimates the migration of the main mass of cells.

  13. Fundulus deep cells: directional migration in response to epithelial wounding.

    PubMed

    Fink, R D; Trinkaus, J P

    1988-09-01

    During the normal embryogenesis of the killifish Fundulus heteroclitus deep cells migrate in an apparently random fashion throughout the subepithelial space of the yolk sac. These cells migrate by blebbing locomotion, and individual cells show tendencies for persistence in the directionality of their movement. Immediately after the wounding of the yolk sac epithelium (the enveloping layer), these deep cells reorient and migrate directionally toward the site of wound closure. This directional migration results in the aggregation of a large number of cells at the wound site. The response is both rapid and widespread; cells as far away as 800 micron respond as quickly as those nearby, and by 100 min after wounding up to 90% of the blebbing deep cells within this radius have clustered about the wound site. Then, cells begin to disperse, and by 150 min after wounding, it is almost impossible to tell where the wound had been made. Because of the transparency of the Fundulus yolk sac, this phenomenon can be utilized as a model system for observing details of in vivo directional cell movements. Time-lapse video micrography has revealed that the modes, rates, and overall cell morphologies during locomotion are identical for cells migrating in both unwounded and wounded embryos. What is different in the wounded embryos is that a single directionality is imposed upon a large population of cells, resulting in aggregation. Several aspects of the aggregation phenomenon suggest that a possible attractant originating at the wound site may travel through the subepithelial space by diffusion.

  14. Live Imaging of Border Cell Migration in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei; Montell, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    Border cells are a cluster of cells that migrate from the anterior tip of the Drosophila egg chamber to the border of the oocyte in stage 9. They serve as a useful model to study collective cell migration in a native tissue environment. Here we describe a protocol for preparing ex vivo egg chamber cultures from transgenic flies expressing fluorescent proteins in the border cells, and using confocal microscopy to take a multi-positional time-lapse movie. We include an image analysis method for tracking border cell cluster dynamics as well as tracking individual cell movements. PMID:27271901

  15. Live Imaging of Border Cell Migration in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei; Montell, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    Border cells are a cluster of cells that migrate from the anterior tip of the Drosophila egg chamber to the border of the oocyte in stage 9. They serve as a useful model to study collective cell migration in a native tissue environment. Here we describe a protocol for preparing ex vivo egg chamber cultures from transgenic flies expressing fluorescent proteins in the border cells, and using confocal microscopy to take a multi-positional time-lapse movie. We include an image analysis method for tracking border cell cluster dynamics as well as tracking individual cell movements.

  16. The thioredoxin system in breast cancer cell invasion and migration.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Maneet; McGrath, Kelly L; Di Trapani, Giovanna; Charoentong, Pornpimol; Shah, Fenil; King, Mallory M; Clarke, Frank M; Tonissen, Kathryn F

    2016-08-01

    Metastasis is the most life threatening aspect of breast cancer. It is a multi-step process involving invasion and migration of primary tumor cells with a subsequent colonization of these cells at a secondary location. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of thioredoxin (Trx1) in the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells and to assess the strength of the association between high levels of Trx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) expression with breast cancer patient survival. Our results indicate that the expression of both Trx1 and TrxR1 are statistically significantly increased in breast cancer patient cells compared with paired normal breast tissue from the same patient. Over-expression of Trx1 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines enhanced cell invasion in in vitro assays while expression of a redox inactive mutant form of Trx1 (designated 1SS) or the antisense mRNA inhibited cell invasion. Addition of exogenous Trx1 also enhanced cell invasion, while addition of a specific monoclonal antibody that inhibits Trx1 redox function decreased cell invasion. Over-expression of intracellular Trx1 did not increase cell migration but expression of intracellular 1SS inhibited migration. Addition of exogenous Trx1 enhanced cell migration while 1SS had no effect. Treatment with auranofin inhibited TrxR activity, cell migration and clonogenic activity of MDA-MB-231 cells, while increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Analysis of 25 independent cohorts with 5910 patients showed that Trx1 and TrxR1 were both associated with a poor patient prognosis in terms of overall survival, distant metastasis free survival and disease free survival. Therefore, targeting the Trx system with auranofin or other specific inhibitors may provide improved breast cancer patient outcomes through inhibition of cancer invasion and migration.

  17. The thioredoxin system in breast cancer cell invasion and migration.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Maneet; McGrath, Kelly L; Di Trapani, Giovanna; Charoentong, Pornpimol; Shah, Fenil; King, Mallory M; Clarke, Frank M; Tonissen, Kathryn F

    2016-08-01

    Metastasis is the most life threatening aspect of breast cancer. It is a multi-step process involving invasion and migration of primary tumor cells with a subsequent colonization of these cells at a secondary location. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of thioredoxin (Trx1) in the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells and to assess the strength of the association between high levels of Trx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) expression with breast cancer patient survival. Our results indicate that the expression of both Trx1 and TrxR1 are statistically significantly increased in breast cancer patient cells compared with paired normal breast tissue from the same patient. Over-expression of Trx1 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines enhanced cell invasion in in vitro assays while expression of a redox inactive mutant form of Trx1 (designated 1SS) or the antisense mRNA inhibited cell invasion. Addition of exogenous Trx1 also enhanced cell invasion, while addition of a specific monoclonal antibody that inhibits Trx1 redox function decreased cell invasion. Over-expression of intracellular Trx1 did not increase cell migration but expression of intracellular 1SS inhibited migration. Addition of exogenous Trx1 enhanced cell migration while 1SS had no effect. Treatment with auranofin inhibited TrxR activity, cell migration and clonogenic activity of MDA-MB-231 cells, while increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Analysis of 25 independent cohorts with 5910 patients showed that Trx1 and TrxR1 were both associated with a poor patient prognosis in terms of overall survival, distant metastasis free survival and disease free survival. Therefore, targeting the Trx system with auranofin or other specific inhibitors may provide improved breast cancer patient outcomes through inhibition of cancer invasion and migration. PMID:26760912

  18. The thioredoxin system in breast cancer cell invasion and migration

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Maneet; McGrath, Kelly L.; Di Trapani, Giovanna; Charoentong, Pornpimol; Shah, Fenil; King, Mallory M.; Clarke, Frank M.; Tonissen, Kathryn F.

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the most life threatening aspect of breast cancer. It is a multi-step process involving invasion and migration of primary tumor cells with a subsequent colonization of these cells at a secondary location. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of thioredoxin (Trx1) in the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells and to assess the strength of the association between high levels of Trx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) expression with breast cancer patient survival. Our results indicate that the expression of both Trx1 and TrxR1 are statistically significantly increased in breast cancer patient cells compared with paired normal breast tissue from the same patient. Over-expression of Trx1 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines enhanced cell invasion in in vitro assays while expression of a redox inactive mutant form of Trx1 (designated 1SS) or the antisense mRNA inhibited cell invasion. Addition of exogenous Trx1 also enhanced cell invasion, while addition of a specific monoclonal antibody that inhibits Trx1 redox function decreased cell invasion. Over-expression of intracellular Trx1 did not increase cell migration but expression of intracellular 1SS inhibited migration. Addition of exogenous Trx1 enhanced cell migration while 1SS had no effect. Treatment with auranofin inhibited TrxR activity, cell migration and clonogenic activity of MDA-MB-231 cells, while increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Analysis of 25 independent cohorts with 5910 patients showed that Trx1 and TrxR1 were both associated with a poor patient prognosis in terms of overall survival, distant metastasis free survival and disease free survival. Therefore, targeting the Trx system with auranofin or other specific inhibitors may provide improved breast cancer patient outcomes through inhibition of cancer invasion and migration. PMID:26760912

  19. Collective dynamics of cell migration and cell rearrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabla, Alexandre

    Understanding multicellular processes such as embryo development or cancer metastasis requires to decipher the contributions of local cell autonomous behaviours and long range interactions with the tissue environment. A key question in this context concerns the emergence of large scale coordination in cell behaviours, a requirement for collective cell migration or convergent extension. I will present a few examples where physical and mechanical aspects play a significant role in driving tissue scale dynamics.

  1. Cell migration and division in amoeboid-like fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Flor-Parra, Ignacio; Bernal, Manuel; Zhurinsky, Jacob; Daga, Rafael R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Yeast cells are non-motile and are encased in a cell wall that supports high internal turgor pressure. The cell wall is also essential for cellular morphogenesis and cell division. Here, we report unexpected morphogenetic changes in a Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutant defective in cell wall biogenesis. These cells form dynamic cytoplasmic protrusions caused by internal turgor pressure and also exhibit amoeboid-like cell migration resulting from repeated protrusive cycles. The cytokinetic ring responsible for cell division in wild-type yeast often fails in these cells; however, they were still able to divide using a ring-independent alternative mechanism relying on extrusion of the cell body through a hole in the cell wall. This mechanism of cell division may resemble an ancestral mode of division in the absence of cytokinetic machinery. Our findings highlight how a single gene change can lead to the emergence of different modes of cell growth, migration and division. PMID:24357230

  2. Mammary collective cell migration involves transient loss of epithelial features and individual cell migration within the epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, Andrew J.; Huebner, Robert J.; Palsdottir, Hildur; Lee, Jessie K.; Perez, Melissa J.; Jorgens, Danielle M.; Tauscher, Andrew N.; Cheung, Kevin J.; Werb, Zena; Auer, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Normal mammary morphogenesis involves transitions between simple and multilayered epithelial organizations. We used electron microscopy and molecular markers to determine whether intercellular junctions and apico-basal polarity were maintained in the multilayered epithelium. We found that multilayered elongating ducts had polarized apical and basal tissue surfaces both in three-dimensional culture and in vivo. However, individual cells were only polarized on surfaces in contact with the lumen or extracellular matrix. The basolateral marker scribble and the apical marker atypical protein kinase C zeta localized to all interior cell membranes, whereas PAR3 displayed a cytoplasmic localization, suggesting that the apico-basal polarity was incomplete. Despite membrane localization of E-cadherin and β-catenin, we did not observe a defined zonula adherens connecting interior cells. Instead, interior cells were connected through desmosomes and exhibited complex interdigitating membrane protrusions. Single-cell labeling revealed that individual cells were both protrusive and migratory within the epithelial multilayer. Inhibition of Rho kinase (ROCK) further reduced intercellular adhesion on apical and lateral surfaces but did not disrupt basal tissue organization. Following morphogenesis, segregated membrane domains were re-established and junctional complexes re-formed. We observed similar epithelial organization during mammary morphogenesis in organotypic culture and in vivo. We conclude that mammary epithelial morphogenesis involves a reversible, spatially limited, reduction in polarity and intercellular junctions and active individualistic cell migration. Our data suggest that reductions in polarity and adhesion during breast cancer progression might reflect partial recapitulation of a normal developmental program. PMID:22344263

  3. Interior decoration: tropomyosin in actin dynamics and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Lees, Justin G; Bach, Cuc T T; O'Neill, Geraldine M

    2011-01-01

    Cell migration and invasion requires the precise temporal and spatial orchestration of a variety of biological processes. Filaments of polymerized actin are critical players in these diverse processes, including the regulation of cell anchorage points (both cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix), the uptake and delivery of molecules via endocytic pathways and the generation of force for both membrane protrusion and retraction. How the actin filaments are specialized for each of these discrete functions is yet to be comprehensively elucidated. The cytoskeletal tropomyosins are a family of actin associating proteins that form head-to-tail polymers which lay in the major groove of polymerized actin filaments. In the present review we summarize the emerging isoform-specific functions of tropomyosins in cell migration and invasion and discuss their potential roles in the specialization of actin filaments for the diverse cellular processes that together regulate cell migration and invasion.

  4. Estrogen Stimulation of Cell Migration Involves Multiple Signaling Pathway Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Ping; Santen, Richard J.; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Park, Hoyong; Fan, Ping; Yue, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Hormone-dependent breast cancers respond to inhibitors of estrogen synthesis or action with tumor regression and with a reduction of new metastases. The mechanisms underlying the effects of estrogen on metastasis likely differ from those on tumor regression. Cell migration is a key first step in the metastatic process. Based on our prior work and other published data, we designed and tested a working model that suggested that estrogen receptor α, epidermal growth factor receptor, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, p60 Src tyrosine kinase (c-Src), c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and MAPK interact to facilitate estradiol (E2)-induced cell migration. Accordingly, we examined the effect of E2 on activation of these pathways and demonstrated mechanistic effects by blocking each component and assessing cell migration as a biologic endpoint. Initial studies validated a robust cell migration assay characterized by highly reproducible, dose-dependent responses to E2. Examining various mechanisms involved in migration, we showed that E2 induced activation of c-Src, FAK, and paxillin with early peaks within 5–30 min and later peaks at 24 h. ERK and protein kinase B phosphorylation exhibited only early peaks. Blockade of various steps in these signaling pathways with use of small interfering RNA or specific inhibitors demonstrated mechanistic effects of these signaling molecules on cell migration. Our results suggest that the effects of E2 on cell migration involve multiple, interacting signaling pathways. Important effects are mediated by the MAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways and use FAK, paxillin, and c-Src for activation. Each pathway represents a potential target for blocking cell migration and metastasis of breast cancer cells. PMID:20861240

  5. Displacement measurement of the depth migration of transparent cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Makoto; Ishimaru, Ichirou; Ishizaki, Katsumi; Yasokawa, Toshiki; Kuriyama, Shigeki; Masaki, Tsutomu; Nakai, Seiji; Takegawa, Kaoru; Tanaka, Naoyuki

    2006-12-11

    This letter reports a method for displacement measurement of the depth migration of transparent cells. This proposed optical spatial filtering method allows visualization of the transparent cells and determination of depth migration as a horizontal displacement positive or negative first order diffracted light on the detector surface. When the sample is displaced upward or downward from the focal plane, first and negative first order diffracted light form images at a different point as a light circle. The coordinates of these two light circles on the detector surface change places when the displacement of depth migration moves to the opposite direction.

  6. Transforming potential and matrix stiffness co-regulate confinement sensitivity of tumor cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Amit

    2013-01-01

    It is now well established that tumor cell invasion through tissue is strongly regulated by the microstructural and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, it remains unclear how these physical microenvironmental inputs are jointly processed with oncogenic lesions to drive invasion. In this study, we address this open question by combining a microfabricated polyacrylamide channel (μPAC) platform that enables independent control of ECM stiffness and confinement with an isogenically-matched breast tumor progression series in which the oncogenes ErbB2 and 14-3-3ζ are overexpressed independently or in tandem. We find that increasing channel confinement and overexpressing ErbB2 both promote cell migration to a similar degree when other parameters are kept constant. In contrast, 14-3-3ζ overexpression slows migration speed, and does so in a fashion that dwarfs effects of ECM confinement and stiffness. We also find that ECM stiffness dramatically enhances cell motility when combined with ErbB2 overexpression, demonstrating that biophysical cues and cell-intrinsic parameters promote cell invasion in an integrative manner. Morphometric analysis of cells inside the μPAC platform reveals that the rapid cell migration induced by narrow channels and ErbB2 overexpression both are accompanied by increased cell polarization. Disruption of this polarization by pharmacological inhibition of Rac GTPase phenocopies 14-3-3ζ overexpression by reducing cell polarization and slowing migration. By systematically measuring migration speed as a function of matrix stiffness and confinement, we also quantify for the first time the sensitivity of migration speed to microchannel properties and transforming potential. These results demonstrate that oncogenic lesions and ECM biophysical properties can synergistically interact to drive invasive migration, and that both inputs may act through common molecular mechanisms to enhance migration speed. PMID:23832051

  7. Gap junctions are involved in cell migration in the early postnatal subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Marins, Mônica; Xavier, Anna L R; Viana, Nathan B; Fortes, Fábio S A; Fróes, Maira M; Menezes, João R L

    2009-09-15

    The massive migration of neuroblasts and young neurons through the anterior extension of the postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ), known as the rostral migratory stream (RMS) is still poorly understood on its molecular basis. In this work, we investigated the involvement of gap junctional communication (GJC) in the robust centrifugal migration from SVZ/RMS explants obtained from early postnatal (P4) rats. Cells were dye-coupled in homocellular and heterocellular pairings and expressed at least two connexins, Cx 43 and 45. Treatment with the uncoupler agent carbenoxolone (CBX, 10-100 microM) reversibly reduced outgrowth from SVZ explants, while its inactive analog, glycyrhizinic acid (GZA), had no effect. Consistent with a direct effect on cell migration, time-lapse video microscopy show that different pharmacological uncouplers cause an abrupt and reversible arrest of cell movement in explants. Our results indicate that GJC is positively involved in the migration of neuroblasts within the SVZ/RMS.

  8. Epithelial cell migration requires the interaction between the vimentin and keratin intermediate filaments

    PubMed Central

    Velez-delValle, Cristina; Marsch-Moreno, Meytha; Castro-Muñozledo, Federico; Galván-Mendoza, Ivan J.; Kuri-Harcuch, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial migration plays a central role in development, wound repair and tumor metastasis, but the role of intermediate filament in this important event is unknown. We showed recently that vimentin coexists in the same cell with keratin-KRT14 at the leading edge of the migrating epidermal cells, and knockdown of vimentin impaired colony growth. Here we demonstrate that vimentin co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with keratin-KRT14, and mutations in the -YRKLLEGEE- sequence of vimentin significantly reduced migration of the keratinocytes. Our data demonstrates that keratinocyte migration requires the interaction between vimentin and keratins at the -YRKLLEGEE- sequence at the helical 2B domain of vimentin. These findings have broad implications for understanding the roles of vimentin intermediate filaments in normal and neoplastic epithelial cells. PMID:27072292

  9. Mast cell heparin stimulates migration of capillary endothelial cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Migration of capillary endothelial cells is an important component of angiogenesis in vivo. Increased numbers of mast cells have been associated with several types of angiogenesis. We have used a quantitative assay in vitro to demonstrate that mast cells release a factor that significantly increases bovine capillary endothelial cell migration. The factor is present in medium conditioned by mast cells as well as lysates of mast cells. The stimulatory effect of mast cells on migration is specific for capillary endothelial cells. Furthermore, mast cells have no mitogenic activity for capillary endothelial cells. Of all the secretory products of mast cells tested, only heparin stimulated capillary endothelial cell migration in vitro. Heparin preparations from a variety of sources stimulated capillary endothelial cell migration to the same degree but did not stimulate migration of several other cell types. The migration activity of heparin and mast cell conditioned medium was blocked by specific antagonists of heparin (protamine and heparinase), but not by chondroitinase ABC. The migration activity of mast cell conditioned medium was resistant to heat (100 degrees C) and incubation with proteolytic enzymes. These results suggest that the role of mast cells in angiogenesis may be to enhance migration of the endothelial cells of growing capillaries. PMID:7420025

  10. Hedgehog does not guide migrating Drosophila germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Renault, Andrew D.; Ricardo, Sara; Kunwar, Prabhat S.; Santos, Ana; Starz-Gaiano, Michelle; Stein, Jennifer; Lehmann, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    In many species, the germ cells, precursors of sperm and egg, migrate during embryogenesis. The signals that regulate this migration are thus essential for fertility. In flies, lipid signals have been shown to affect germ cell guidance. In particular, the synthesis of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate through the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) pathway is critical for attracting germ cells to their target tissue. In a genetic analysis of signaling pathways known to affect cell migration of other migratory cells, we failed to find a role for the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in germ cell migration. However, previous reports had implicated Hh as a germ cell attractant in flies and suggested that Hh signaling is enhanced through the action of the Hmgcr pathway. We therefore repeated several critical experiments and carried out further experiments to test specifically whether Hh is a germ cell attractant in flies. In contrast to previously reported findings and consistent with findings in zebrafish our data do not support the notion that Hh has a direct role in the guidance of migrating germ cells in flies. PMID:19389345

  11. Membrane nanowaves in single and collective cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zouani, Omar F; Gocheva, Veronika; Durrieu, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    We report the characterization of three-dimensional membrane waves for migrating single and collective cells and describe their propagation using wide-field optical profiling technique with nanometer resolution. We reveal the existence of small and large membrane waves the amplitudes of which are in the range of ∼ 3-7 nm to ∼ 16-25 nm respectively, through the cell. For migrating single-cells, the amplitude of these waves is about 30 nm near the cell edge. Two or more different directions of propagation of the membrane nanowaves inside the same cell can be observed. After increasing the migration velocity by BMP-2 treatment, only one wave direction of propagation exists with an increase in the average amplitude (more than 80 nm near the cell edge). Furthermore for collective-cell migration, these membrane nanowaves are attenuated on the leader cells and poor transmission of these nanowaves to follower cells was observed. After BMP-2 treatment, the membrane nanowaves are transmitted from the leader cell to several rows of follower cells. Surprisingly, the vast majority of the observed membrane nanowaves is shared between the adjacent cells. These results give a new view on how single and collective-cells modulate their motility. This work has significant implications for the therapeutic use of BMPs for the regeneration of skin tissue. PMID:24846182

  12. Berberine reduces Toll-like receptor-mediated macrophage migration by suppression of Src enhancement.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei-Erh; Ying Chang, Miao; Wei, Jyun-Yan; Chen, Yen-Jen; Maa, Ming-Chei; Leu, Tzeng-Horng

    2015-06-15

    Berberine is an isoquinoline with anti-inflammatory activity. We previously demonstrated that there was a loop of signal amplification between nuclear factor kappa B and Src for macrophage mobility triggered by the engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The simultaneous suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase 2, and cell mobility in berberine-treated macrophages suggested Src might be a target of berberine. Indeed, th reduced migration, greatly suppressed Src induction in both protein and RNA transcript by berberine were observed in macrophages exposed to LPS, peptidoglycan, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides. In addition to Src induction, berberine also inhibited LPS-mediated Src activation in Src overexpressing macrophages and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (a nitric oxide donor) could partly restore it. Moreover, berberine suppressed Src activity in fibronectin-stimulated macrophages and in v-Src transformed cells. These results implied that by effectively reducing Src expression and activity, berberine inhibited TLR-mediated cell motility in macrophages.

  13. A Sensitized PiggyBac-Based Screen for Regulators of Border Cell Migration in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Juliette; Sung, Hsin-Ho; Pugieux, Céline; Soetaert, Jan; Rorth, Pernille

    2007-01-01

    Migration of border cells during Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis is a good model system for investigating the genetic requirements for cell migration in vivo. We present a sensitized loss-of-function screen used to identify new genes required in border cells for their migration. Chromosomes bearing FRTs on all four major autosomal arms were mutagenized by insertions of the transposable element PiggyBac, allowing multiple parallel clonal screens and easy identification of the mutated gene. For border cells, we analyzed homozygous mutant clones positively marked with lacZ and sensitized by expression of dominant-negative PVR, the guidance receptor. We identified new alleles of genes already known to be required for border cell migration, including aop/yan, DIAP1, and taiman as well as a conserved Slbo-regulated enhancer downstream of shg/DE–cadherin. Mutations in genes not previously described to be required in border cells were also uncovered: hrp48, vir, rme-8, kismet, and puckered. puckered was unique in that the migration defects were observed only when PVR signaling was reduced. We present evidence that an excess of JNK signaling is deleterious for migration in the absence of PVR activity at least in part through Fos transcriptional activity and possibly through antagonistic effects on DIAP1. PMID:17483425

  14. Energy barriers and cell migration in confluent tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Dapeng; Lopez, J. H.; Schwarz, J. M.; Manning, M. Lisa

    2014-03-01

    Biological processes such as embryogensis, tumorigenesis and wound healing require cells to move within a tissue. While the migration of single cells has been extensively studied, it has remained unclear how single cell properties control migration through a confluent tissue. We develop numerical and theoretical models to calculate energy barriers to cell rearrangements, which govern cell motility. In contrast to sheared foams where energy barriers are power-law distributed, energy barriers in tissues are exponentially distributed and depend systematically on the cell's number of neighbors. Using simple extensions of `trap' and `Soft Glassy Rheology' models, we demonstrate that these energy barrier distributions give rise to glassy behavior and use the models to make testable predictions for two-time correlation functions and caging times. We incorporate these ideas into a continuum model that combines glassy rheology with active polarization to better understand collective migration in epithelial sheets.

  15. Modelling Rho GTPase biochemistry to predict collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Brian; Feng, James

    The collective migration of cells, due to individual cell polarization and intercellular contact inhibition of locomotion, features prominently in embryogenesis and metastatic cancers. Existing methods for modelling collectively migrating cells tend to rely either on highly abstracted agent-based models, or on continuum approximations of the group. Both of these frameworks represent intercellular interactions such as contact inhibition of locomotion as hard-coded rules defining model cells. In contrast, we present a vertex-dynamics framework which predicts polarization and contact inhibition of locomotion naturally from an underlying model of Rho GTPase biochemistry and cortical mechanics. We simulate the interaction between many such model cells, and study how modulating Rho GTPases affects migratory characteristics of the group, in the context of long-distance collective migration of neural crest cells during embryogenesis.

  16. Cell migration in confinement: a micro-channel-based assay.

    PubMed

    Heuzé, Mélina L; Collin, Olivier; Terriac, Emmanuel; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria; Piel, Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes a method to study cells migrating in micro-channels, a confining environment of well-defined geometry. This assay is a complement to more complex 3D migration systems and provides several advantages even if it does not recapitulate the full complexity of 3D migration. Important parameters such as degree of adhesion, degree of confinement, mechanical properties, and geometry can be varied independently of each other. The device is fully compatible with almost any type of light microscopy and the simple geometry makes automated analysis very easy to perform, which allows screening strategy. The chapters is divided into five parts describing the design of different types of migration chambers, the fabrication of a mold by photolithography, the assembly of the chamber, the loading of cells, and finally the imaging on live or fixed cells. PMID:21748692

  17. Inhibition of the proliferation and acceleration of migration of vascular endothelial cells by increased cysteine-rich motor neuron 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Yukiko; Morimoto, Mayuka; Toda, Ken-ichi; Shinya, Tomohiro; Sato, Keizo; Takahashi, Satoru

    2015-07-03

    Cysteine-rich motor neuron 1 (CRIM1) is upregulated only in extracellular matrix gels by angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It then plays a critical role in the tube formation of endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of increased CRIM1 on other endothelial functions such as proliferation and migration. Knock down of CRIM1 had no effect on VEGF-induced proliferation or migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), indicating that basal CRIM1 is not involved in the proliferation or migration of endothelial cells. Stable CRIM1-overexpressing endothelial F-2 cells, termed CR1 and CR2, were constructed, because it was difficult to prepare monolayer HUVECs that expressed high levels of CRIM1. Proliferation was reduced and migration was accelerated in both CR1 and CR2 cells, compared with normal F-2 cells. Furthermore, the transient overexpression of CRIM1 resulted in decreased proliferation and increased migration of bovine aortic endothelial cells. In contrast, neither proliferation nor migration of COS-7 cells were changed by the overexpression of CRIM1. These results demonstrate that increased CRIM1 reduces the proliferation and accelerates the migration of endothelial cells. These CRIM1 effects might contribute to tube formation of endothelial cells. CRIM1 induced by angiogenic factors may serve as a regulator in endothelial cells to switch from proliferating cells to morphological differentiation. - Highlights: • CRIM1 was upregulated only in tubular endothelial cells, but not in monolayers. • Increased CRIM1 reduced the proliferation of endothelial cells. • Increased CRIM1 accelerated the migration of endothelial cells. • Increased CRIM1 had no effect on the proliferation or migration of COS-7 cells.

  18. A Photoactivatable Nanopatterned Substrate for Analyzing Collective Cell Migration with Precisely Tuned Cell-Extracellular Matrix Ligand Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Boehm, Heike; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Spatz, Joachim P.; Nakanishi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Collective cell migration is involved in many biological and pathological processes. Various factors have been shown to regulate the decision to migrate collectively or individually, but the impact of cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions is still debated. Here, we developed a method for analyzing collective cell migration by precisely tuning the interactions between cells and ECM ligands. Gold nanoparticles are arrayed on a glass substrate with a defined nanometer spacing by block copolymer micellar nanolithography (BCML), and photocleavable poly(ethylene glycol) (Mw  =  12 kDa, PEG12K) and a cyclic RGD peptide, as an ECM ligand, are immobilized on this substrate. The remaining glass regions are passivated with PEG2K-silane to make cells interact with the surface via the nanoperiodically presented cyclic RGD ligands upon the photocleavage of PEG12K. On this nanostructured substrate, HeLa cells are first patterned in photo-illuminated regions, and cell migration is induced by a second photocleavage of the surrounding PEG12K. The HeLa cells gradually lose their cell-cell contacts and become disconnected on the nanopatterned substrate with 10-nm particles and 57-nm spacing, in contrast to their behavior on the homogenous substrate. Interestingly, the relationship between the observed migration collectivity and the cell-ECM ligand interactions is the opposite of that expected based on conventional soft matter models. It is likely that the reduced phosphorylation at tyrosine-861 of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on the nanopatterned surface is responsible for this unique migration behavior. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the presented method in understanding the process of determining collective and non-collective migration features in defined micro- and nano-environments and resolving the crosstalk between cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesions. PMID:24632806

  19. Dietary spices protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and inhibit nicotine-induced cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, R; Kanthimathi, M S

    2012-10-01

    Spices are rich sources of antioxidants due to the presence of phenols and flavonoids. In this study, the DNA protecting activity and inhibition of nicotine-induced cancer cell migration of 9 spices were analysed. Murine fibroblasts (3T3-L1) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells were pre-treated with spice extracts and then exposed to H₂O₂ and nicotine. The comet assay was used to analyse the DNA damage. Among the 9 spices, ginger, at 50 μg/ml protected against 68% of DNA damage in 3T3-L1 cells. Caraway, cumin and fennel showed statistically significant (p<0.05) DNA protecting activity. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with nicotine induced cell migration, whereas pre-treatment with spices reduced this migration. Pepper, long pepper and ginger exhibited a high rate of inhibition of cell migration. The results of this study prove that spices protect DNA and inhibit cancer cell migration. PMID:25005983

  20. Mechanics in Mechanosensitivity of Cell Adhesion and its Roles in Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yuan; He, Shijie; Ji, Baohua

    2012-12-01

    Cells sense and respond to external stimuli and properties of their environment through focal adhesion complexes (FACs) to regulate a broad range of physiological and pathological processes, including cell migration. Currently, the basic principles in mechanics of the mechanosensitivity of cell adhesion and migration have not been fully understood. In this paper, an FEM-based mechano-chemical coupling model is proposed for studying the cell migration behaviors in which the dynamics of stability of FACs and the effect of cell shape on cell traction force distribution are considered. We find that the driving force of cell migration is produced by the competition of stability of cell adhesion between the cell front and cell rear, which consequently controls the speed of cell migration. We show that the rigidity gradient of matrix can bias this competition which allows cell to exhibit a durotaxis behavior, i.e. the larger the gradient, the higher the cell speed.

  1. Annexin A6 and Late Endosomal Cholesterol Modulate Integrin Recycling and Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    García-Melero, Ana; Reverter, Meritxell; Hoque, Monira; Meneses-Salas, Elsa; Koese, Meryem; Conway, James R W; Johnsen, Camilla H; Alvarez-Guaita, Anna; Morales-Paytuvi, Frederic; Elmaghrabi, Yasmin A; Pol, Albert; Tebar, Francesc; Murray, Rachael Z; Timpson, Paul; Enrich, Carlos; Grewal, Thomas; Rentero, Carles

    2016-01-15

    Annexins are a family of proteins that bind to phospholipids in a calcium-dependent manner. Earlier studies implicated annexin A6 (AnxA6) to inhibit secretion and participate in the organization of the extracellular matrix. We recently showed that elevated AnxA6 levels significantly reduced secretion of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN). Because FN is directly linked to the ability of cells to migrate, this prompted us to investigate the role of AnxA6 in cell migration. Up-regulation of AnxA6 in several cell models was associated with reduced cell migration in wound healing, individual cell tracking and three-dimensional migration/invasion assays. The reduced ability of AnxA6-expressing cells to migrate was associated with decreased cell surface expression of αVβ3 and α5β1 integrins, both FN receptors. Mechanistically, we found that elevated AnxA6 levels interfered with syntaxin-6 (Stx6)-dependent recycling of integrins to the cell surface. AnxA6 overexpression caused mislocalization and accumulation of Stx6 and integrins in recycling endosomes, whereas siRNA-mediated AnxA6 knockdown did not modify the trafficking of integrins. Given our recent findings that inhibition of cholesterol export from late endosomes (LEs) inhibits Stx6-dependent integrin recycling and that elevated AnxA6 levels cause LE cholesterol accumulation, we propose that AnxA6 and blockage of LE cholesterol transport are critical for endosomal function required for Stx6-mediated recycling of integrins in cell migration.

  2. NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells in part through regulating AQP5 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Kai; Jin, Faguang

    2015-09-25

    The osmoregulated transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5(NFAT5), has been found to play important roles in the development of many kinds of human cancers, including breast cancer, colon carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. The aim of the present study was to determine whether NFAT5 is involved in the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found that NFAT5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of NFAT5 decreased proliferation and migration of the cells, accompanied by a significant reduction in the expression of AQP5. AQP5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of AQP5 also inhibited proliferation and migration of the cells as knockdown of NFAT5 did. Moreover, overexpression of NFAT5 promoted proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells, accompanied by a significant increase in the expression of AQP5. These results indicate that NFAT5 plays important roles in proliferation and migration of human lung adenocarcinoma cells through regulating AQP5 expression, providing a new therapeutic option for lung adenocarcinoma therapy. - Highlights: • NFAT5 expression is higher in lung adenocarcinoma cells compared with normal cells. • NFAT5 knockdown decreases proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Knockdown of NFAT5 reduces AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 increases AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  3. Commensal bacteria promote migration of mast cells into the intestine.

    PubMed

    Kunii, Junichi; Takahashi, Kyoko; Kasakura, Kazumi; Tsuda, Masato; Nakano, Kou; Hosono, Akira; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2011-06-01

    Mast cells differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and migrate via the circulation to peripheral tissues, where they play a pivotal role in induction of both innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, the effect of intestinal commensal bacteria on the migration of mast cells into the intestine was investigated. Histochemical analyses showed that germ-free (GF) mice had lower mast cell densities in the small intestine than normal mice. It was also shown that GF mice had lower mast cell proportion out of lamina propria leukocytes in the small intestine and higher mast cell percentages in the blood than normal mice by flow cytometry. These results indicate that migration of mast cells from the blood to the intestine is promoted by intestinal commensal bacteria. In addition, MyD88⁻/⁻ mice had lower densities of intestinal mast cells than CV mice, suggesting that the promotive effect of commensals is, at least in part, TLR-dependent. The ligands of CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), which is critical for homing of mast cells to the intestine, were expressed higher in intestinal tissues and in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of normal mice than in those of GF or MyD88⁻/⁻ mice. Collectively, it is suggested that commensals promote migration of mast cells into the intestine through the induction of CXCR2 ligands from IECs in a TLR-dependent manner.

  4. A Novel Role of Cab45-G in Mediating Cell Migration in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Judong; Li, Zengpeng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Chenying; Zheng, Weibin; He, Yan; Song, Jianyuan; Wang, Wenjie; Zhou, Xifa; Lu, Xujing; Zhang, Shuyu; Chen, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Ca2+-binding protein of 45 kDa (Cab45), a CREC family member, is reported to be associated with Ca2+-dependent secretory pathways and involved in multiple diseases including cancers. Cab45-G, a Cab45 isoform protein, plays an important role in protein sorting and secretion at Golgi complex. However, its role in cancer cell migration remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that Cab45-G exhibited an increased expression in cell lines with higher metastatic potential and promoted cell migration in multiple types of cancer cells. Overexpression of Cab45-G resulted in an altered expression of the molecular mediators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a critical step in the tumor metastasis. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that overexpression of Cab45-G increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -7 (MMP-2 and MMP-7). Conversely, knock-down of Cab45-G reduced the expression of the above MMPs. Moreover, forced expression of Cab45-G upregulated the level of phosphorylated ERK and modulated the secretion of extracellular proteins fibronectin and fibulin. Furthermore, in human cervical and esophageal cancer tissues, the expression of Cab45-G was found to be significantly correlated with that of MMP-2, further supporting the importance of Cab45-G on regulating cancer metastasis. Taken together, these results suggest that Cab45-G could regulate cancer cell migration through various molecular mechanisms, which may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancers. PMID:27194945

  5. A Novel Role of Cab45-G in Mediating Cell Migration in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Judong; Li, Zengpeng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Chenying; Zheng, Weibin; He, Yan; Song, Jianyuan; Wang, Wenjie; Zhou, Xifa; Lu, Xujing; Zhang, Shuyu; Chen, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Ca(2+)-binding protein of 45 kDa (Cab45), a CREC family member, is reported to be associated with Ca(2+)-dependent secretory pathways and involved in multiple diseases including cancers. Cab45-G, a Cab45 isoform protein, plays an important role in protein sorting and secretion at Golgi complex. However, its role in cancer cell migration remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that Cab45-G exhibited an increased expression in cell lines with higher metastatic potential and promoted cell migration in multiple types of cancer cells. Overexpression of Cab45-G resulted in an altered expression of the molecular mediators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a critical step in the tumor metastasis. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that overexpression of Cab45-G increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -7 (MMP-2 and MMP-7). Conversely, knock-down of Cab45-G reduced the expression of the above MMPs. Moreover, forced expression of Cab45-G upregulated the level of phosphorylated ERK and modulated the secretion of extracellular proteins fibronectin and fibulin. Furthermore, in human cervical and esophageal cancer tissues, the expression of Cab45-G was found to be significantly correlated with that of MMP-2, further supporting the importance of Cab45-G on regulating cancer metastasis. Taken together, these results suggest that Cab45-G could regulate cancer cell migration through various molecular mechanisms, which may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancers. PMID:27194945

  6. Mathematical Modeling of Eukaryotic Cell Migration: Insights Beyond Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Danuser, Gaudenz; Allard, Jun; Mogilner, Alex

    2014-01-01

    A migrating cell is a molecular machine made of tens of thousands of short-lived and interacting parts. Understanding migration means understanding the self-organization of these parts into a system of functional units. This task is one of tackling complexity: First, the system integrates numerous chemical and mechanical component processes. Second, these processes are connected in feedback interactions and over a large range of spatial and temporal scales. Third, many processes are stochastic, which leads to heterogeneous migration behaviors. Early on in the research of cell migration it became evident that this complexity exceeds human intuition. Thus, the cell migration community has led the charge to build mathematical models that could integrate the diverse experimental observations and measurements in consistent frameworks, first in conceptual and more recently in molecularly explicit models. The main goal of this review is to sift through a series of important conceptual and explicit mathematical models of cell migration and to evaluate their contribution to the field in their ability to integrate critical experimental data. PMID:23909278

  7. Chemokine-Mediated Migration of Mesencephalic Neural Crest Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rezzoug, Francine; Seelan, Ratnam S.; Bhattacherjee, Vasker; Greene, Robert M.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2011-01-01

    Clefts of the lip and/or palate are among the most prevalent birth defects affecting approximately 7000 newborns in the United States annually. Disruption of the developmentally programmed migration of neural crest cells (NCCs) into the orofacial region is thought to be one of the major causes of orofacial clefting. Signaling of the chemokine SDF-1 (Stromal Derived Factor-1) through its specific receptor, CXCR4, is required for the migration of many stem cell and progenitor cell populations from their respective sites of emergence to the regions where they differentiate into complex cell types, tissues and organs. In the present study, “transwell” assays of chick embryo mesencephalic (cranial) NCC migration and ex ovo whole embryo “bead implantation” assays were utilized to determine whether SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling mediates mesencephalic NCC migration. Results from this study demonstrate that attenuation of SDF-1 signaling, through the use of specific CXCR4 antagonists (AMD3100 and TN14003), disrupts the migration of mesencephalic NCCs into the orofacial region, suggesting a novel role for SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling in the directed migration of mesencephalic NCCs in the early stage embryo. PMID:22015108

  8. Cell collectivity regulation within migrating cell cluster during Kupffer's vesicle formation in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Bessho, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    Although cell adhesion is thought to fasten cells tightly, cells that adhere to each other can migrate directionally. This group behavior, called “collective cell migration,” is observed during normal development, wound healing, and cancer invasion. Loss-of-function of cell adhesion molecules in several model systems of collective cell migration results in delay or inhibition of migration of cell groups but does not lead to dissociation of the cell groups, suggesting that mechanisms of cells staying assembled as a single cell cluster, termed as “cell collectivity,” remain largely unknown. During the formation of Kupffer's vesicle (KV, an organ of laterality in zebrafish), KV progenitors form a cluster and migrate together toward the vegetal pole. Importantly, in this model system of collective cell migration, knockdown of cell adhesion molecules or signal components leads to failure of cell collectivity. In this review, we summarize recent findings in cell collectivity regulation during collective migration of KV progenitor cells and describe our current understanding of how cell collectivity is regulated during collective cell migration. PMID:26000276

  9. Crosstalk between colon cancer cells and macrophages via inflammatory mediators and CD47 promotes tumour cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Sime, Wondossen; Juhas, Maria; Sjölander, Anita

    2013-10-01

    Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) of the M2 phenotype are present in the stroma of many tumours and are frequently associated with the progression of several types of cancer. We investigated the role of M2 macrophages in colon cancer progression and found that human colon cancer tissue had elevated numbers of CD68(+) (macrophage marker) cells and CD206(+) (M2 macrophage marker) cells and increased CD47 expression. To explore potential interplay between colon cancer cells and M2 macrophages, we differentiated the monocyte cell line THP-1 into M1 and M2 macrophages (CD206(high) and Th2 cytokine-secreting cells), respectively. M2 macrophages migrated faster than M1 macrophages towards SW480-conditioned medium. Similarly, M2 macrophage-conditioned medium induced SW480 cell migration and CD47 expression. Factors released by macrophages were involved in this induction. In addition, SW480 cells migrated faster when co-cultured with M2 macrophages. Inhibition of CD47 with blocking antibodies or siRNA significantly reduced the migration of SW480 cells in the presence of M2 macrophages. This effect was further decreased via blocking antibodies against the CD47 ligand signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα). Additionally, cancer cells also secreted significant levels of IL-10, thereby promoting M2 macrophage differentiation. These findings indicate that a TAM-enriched tumour microenvironment promotes colon cancer cell migration and metastasis.

  10. Phototherapy promotes cell migration in the presence of hydroxyurea.

    PubMed

    Zungu, I L; Mbene, A B; Hawkins Evans, D H; Houreld, N N; Abrahamse, H

    2009-03-01

    Phototherapy has been shown to cause an increase in cell proliferation and migration. This study focused on viability (trypan blue), proliferation [sodium 3'-(1-(phenylaminocarbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium)-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro)-benzene sulphonic acid hydrate (XTT) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)] and migration of WS1 cells following irradiation in the presence of hydroxyurea (HU), which is an inhibitor of proliferation. Wounded cells were irradiated on days 1 and 4 with a fluence of 5 J/cm(2) with a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser at 632.8 nm. After a repair time of 24 h, cellular responses were assessed. Wounded irradiated cells without HU showed an increase in cell viability and proliferation, which was confirmed by complete wound closure by day 4. Although wounded irradiated cells treated with 5 mM HU showed incomplete wound closure, these cells showed increased migration compared with that of control cells. This study showed that laser irradiation using an He-Ne laser with a fluence of 5 J/cm(2) stimulates cell viability. The HU results confirmed that laser irradiation promotes cell migration and proliferation. PMID:18214574

  11. Protrusive waves guide 3D cell migration along nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Guetta-Terrier, Charlotte; Monzo, Pascale; Zhu, Jie; Long, Hongyan; Venkatraman, Lakshmi; Zhou, Yue; Wang, PeiPei; Chew, Sing Yian; Mogilner, Alexander; Ladoux, Benoit; Gauthier, Nils C

    2015-11-01

    In vivo, cells migrate on complex three-dimensional (3D) fibrous matrices, which has made investigation of the key molecular and physical mechanisms that drive cell migration difficult. Using reductionist approaches based on 3D electrospun fibers, we report for various cell types that single-cell migration along fibronectin-coated nanofibers is associated with lateral actin-based waves. These cyclical waves have a fin-like shape and propagate up to several hundred micrometers from the cell body, extending the leading edge and promoting highly persistent directional movement. Cells generate these waves through balanced activation of the Rac1/N-WASP/Arp2/3 and Rho/formins pathways. The waves originate from one major adhesion site at leading end of the cell body, which is linked through actomyosin contractility to another site at the back of the cell, allowing force generation, matrix deformation and cell translocation. By combining experimental and modeling data, we demonstrate that cell migration in a fibrous environment requires the formation and propagation of dynamic, actin based fin-like protrusions.

  12. Protrusive waves guide 3D cell migration along nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Guetta-Terrier, Charlotte; Monzo, Pascale; Zhu, Jie; Long, Hongyan; Venkatraman, Lakshmi; Zhou, Yue; Wang, PeiPei; Chew, Sing Yian; Mogilner, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In vivo, cells migrate on complex three-dimensional (3D) fibrous matrices, which has made investigation of the key molecular and physical mechanisms that drive cell migration difficult. Using reductionist approaches based on 3D electrospun fibers, we report for various cell types that single-cell migration along fibronectin-coated nanofibers is associated with lateral actin-based waves. These cyclical waves have a fin-like shape and propagate up to several hundred micrometers from the cell body, extending the leading edge and promoting highly persistent directional movement. Cells generate these waves through balanced activation of the Rac1/N-WASP/Arp2/3 and Rho/formins pathways. The waves originate from one major adhesion site at leading end of the cell body, which is linked through actomyosin contractility to another site at the back of the cell, allowing force generation, matrix deformation and cell translocation. By combining experimental and modeling data, we demonstrate that cell migration in a fibrous environment requires the formation and propagation of dynamic, actin based fin-like protrusions. PMID:26553933

  13. Effect of RhoA gene silencing on proliferation and migration of gastric MGC-803 cells

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ju-Tao; Wang, Xi-Mo; Zhang, Shu-Quan; Zhao, Guan-Jie

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the expression of silencing RhoA gene in gastric MGC-803 Cells was investigated, in order to discuss the effect of RhoA gene on cell proliferation, cell cycles and tumor migration. SiRNA sequence of RhoA gene was designed and synthesized; MGC-803 cells were transfected by LipofectamineTM2000. The expression of RhoA gene in mRNA and protein after interference was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot; flow cytometry was used to detect the cell cycle; cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 assay and cell migration was detected by scratch healing assay. RhoA expression in mRNA and protein of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group and blank group, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The growth rate significantly slowed down in experimental group; the cell cycle was arrested in the G0/G1 phase and the number of cells in S-phase reduced; there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Scratch healing assay showed that cell migration of the experimental group was significantly decreased, with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Specific interference on RhoA gene expression could inhibit the proliferation and migration of MGC-803 cells; therefore, siRNA sequences of RhoA gene may be an effective target for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:26550428

  14. Molecular mechanisms underlying progesterone-enhanced breast cancer cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui-Chen; Lee, Wen-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone (P4) was demonstrated to inhibit migration in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), but to enhance migration in T47D breast cancer cells. To investigate the mechanism responsible for this switch in P4 action, we examined the signaling pathway responsible for the P4-induced migration enhancement in breast cancer cell lines, T47D and MCF-7. Here, we demonstrated that P4 activated the cSrc/AKT signaling pathway, subsequently inducing RSK1 activation, which in turn increased phosphorylation of p27 at T198 and formation of the p27pT198-RhoA complex in the cytosol, thereby preventing RhoA degradation, and eventually enhanced migration in T47D cells. These findings were confirmed in the P4-treated MCF-7. Comparing the P4-induced molecular events in between breast cancer cells and VSMCs, we found that P4 increased p27 phosphorylation at T198 in breast cancer cells through RSK1 activation, while P4 increased p27 phosphorlation at Ser10 in VSMCs through KIS activation. P27pT198 formed the complex with RhoA and prevented RhoA degradation in T47D cells, whereas p-p27Ser10 formed the complex with RhoA and caused RhoA degradation in VSMCs. The results of this study highlight the molecular mechanism underlying P4-enhanced breast cancer cell migration, and suggest that RSK1 activation is responsible for the P4-induced migration enhancement in breast cancer cells. PMID:27510838

  15. Multidisciplinary approaches to understanding collective cell migration in developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Linus J; Kulesa, Paul M; McLennan, Rebecca; Baker, Ruth E; Maini, Philip K

    2016-06-01

    Mathematical models are becoming increasingly integrated with experimental efforts in the study of biological systems. Collective cell migration in developmental biology is a particularly fruitful application area for the development of theoretical models to predict the behaviour of complex multicellular systems with many interacting parts. In this context, mathematical models provide a tool to assess the consistency of experimental observations with testable mechanistic hypotheses. In this review, we showcase examples from recent years of multidisciplinary investigations of neural crest cell migration. The neural crest model system has been used to study how collective migration of cell populations is shaped by cell-cell interactions, cell-environmental interactions and heterogeneity between cells. The wide range of emergent behaviours exhibited by neural crest cells in different embryonal locations and in different organisms helps us chart out the spectrum of collective cell migration. At the same time, this diversity in migratory characteristics highlights the need to reconcile or unify the array of currently hypothesized mechanisms through the next generation of experimental data and generalized theoretical descriptions. PMID:27278647

  16. TIMP-1 inhibits microvascular endothelial cell migration by MMP-dependent and MMP-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Akahane, Takemi; Akahane, Manabu; Shah, Amy; Connor, Christine M; Thorgeirsson, Unnur P

    2004-12-10

    It was reported over a decade ago that tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) suppresses angiogenesis in experimental models but the mechanism is still incompletely understood. This in vitro study focused on the molecular basis of TIMP-1-mediated inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) migration, a key step in the angiogenic process. Both recombinant human TIMP-1 and the synthetic MMP inhibitors, GM6001 and MMP-2-MMP-9 Inhibitor III, suppressed migration of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVEC) in a dose-dependent fashion. The MMP-dependent inhibition of migration was associated with increased expression of the junctional adhesion proteins, VE-cadherin and PECAM-1, and VE-cadherin accumulation at cell-cell junctions. TIMP-1 also caused MMP-independent dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (pY397) and paxillin, which was associated with reduced number of F-actin stress fibers and focal adhesions. Moreover, TIMP-1 stimulated expression of PTEN that has been shown to reduce phosphorylation of FAK and inhibit cell migration. Our data suggest that TIMP-1 inhibits HDMVEC migration through MMP-dependent stimulation of VE-cadherin and MMP-independent stimulation of PTEN with subsequent dephosphorylation of FAK and cytoskeletal remodeling. PMID:15530852

  17. Aquaporin-3 Controls Breast Cancer Cell Migration by Regulating Hydrogen Peroxide Transport and Its Downstream Cell Signaling.

    PubMed

    Satooka, Hiroki; Hara-Chikuma, Mariko

    2016-04-01

    Most breast cancer mortality is due to clinical relapse associated with metastasis. CXCL12/CXCR4-dependent cell migration is a critical process in breast cancer progression; however, its underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that the water/glycerol channel protein aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is required for CXCL12/CXCR4-dependent breast cancer cell migration through a mechanism involving its hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) transport function. Extracellular H2O2, produced by CXCL12-activated membrane NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2), was transported into breast cancer cells via AQP3. Transient H2O2 accumulation was observed around the membrane during CXCL12-induced migration, which may be facilitated by the association of AQP3 with Nox2. Intracellular H2O2 then oxidized PTEN and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) followed by activation of the Akt pathway. This contributed to directional cell migration. The expression level of AQP3 in breast cancer cells was related to their migration ability both in vitro and in vivo through CXCL12/CXCR4- or H2O2-dependent pathways. Coincidentally, spontaneous metastasis of orthotopic xenografts to the lung was reduced upon AQP3 knockdown. These findings underscore the importance of AQP3-transported H2O2 in CXCL12/CXCR4-dependent signaling and migration in breast cancer cells and suggest that AQP3 has potential as a therapeutic target for breast cancer.

  18. Migration of myeloid cells during inflammation is differentially regulated by the cell surface receptors Slamf1 and Slamf8.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoxing; van Driel, Boaz J; Liao, Gongxian; O'Keeffe, Michael S; Halibozek, Peter J; Flipse, Jacky; Yigit, Burcu; Azcutia, Veronica; Luscinskas, Francis W; Wang, Ninghai; Terhorst, Cox

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the cell surface receptor Slamf1 (CD150) is requisite for optimal NADPH-oxidase (Nox2) dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by phagocytes in response to Gram- bacteria. By contrast, Slamf8 (CD353) is a negative regulator of ROS in response to Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. Employing in vivo migration after skin sensitization, induction of peritonitis, and repopulation of the small intestine demonstrates that in vivo migration of Slamf1-/- dendritic cells and macrophages is reduced, as compared to wt mice. By contrast, in vivo migration of Slamf8-/- dendritic cells, macrophages and neutrophils is accelerated. These opposing effects of Slamf1 and Slamf8 are cell-intrinsic as judged by in vitro migration in transwell chambers in response to CCL19, CCL21 or CSF-1. Importantly, inhibiting ROS production of Slamf8-/- macrophages by diphenyleneiodonium chloride blocks this in vitro migration. We conclude that Slamf1 and Slamf8 govern ROS-dependent innate immune responses of myeloid cells, thus modulating migration of these cells during inflammation in an opposing manner.

  19. Migration of Myeloid Cells during Inflammation Is Differentially Regulated by the Cell Surface Receptors Slamf1 and Slamf8

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Gongxian; O’Keeffe, Michael S.; Halibozek, Peter J.; Flipse, Jacky; Yigit, Burcu; Azcutia, Veronica; Luscinskas, Francis W.; Wang, Ninghai; Terhorst, Cox

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the cell surface receptor Slamf1 (CD150) is requisite for optimal NADPH-oxidase (Nox2) dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by phagocytes in response to Gram- bacteria. By contrast, Slamf8 (CD353) is a negative regulator of ROS in response to Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. Employing in vivo migration after skin sensitization, induction of peritonitis, and repopulation of the small intestine demonstrates that in vivo migration of Slamf1-/- dendritic cells and macrophages is reduced, as compared to wt mice. By contrast, in vivo migration of Slamf8-/- dendritic cells, macrophages and neutrophils is accelerated. These opposing effects of Slamf1 and Slamf8 are cell-intrinsic as judged by in vitro migration in transwell chambers in response to CCL19, CCL21 or CSF-1. Importantly, inhibiting ROS production of Slamf8-/- macrophages by diphenyleneiodonium chloride blocks this in vitro migration. We conclude that Slamf1 and Slamf8 govern ROS–dependent innate immune responses of myeloid cells, thus modulating migration of these cells during inflammation in an opposing manner. PMID:25799045

  20. Amyloid precursor protein regulates migration and metalloproteinase gene expression in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Toshiaki; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Inoue, Satoshi

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • APP knockdown reduced proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells. • APP knockdown reduced expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes. • APP overexpression promoted LNCaP cell migration. • APP overexpression increased expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes. - Abstract: Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a type I transmembrane protein, and one of its processed forms, β-amyloid, is considered to play a central role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. We previously showed that APP is a primary androgen-responsive gene in prostate cancer and that its increased expression is correlated with poor prognosis for patients with prostate cancer. APP has also been implicated in several human malignancies. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying the pro-proliferative effects of APP on cancers is still not well-understood. In the present study, we explored a pathophysiological role for APP in prostate cancer cells using siRNA targeting APP (siAPP). The proliferation and migration of LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells were significantly suppressed by siAPP. Differentially expressed genes in siAPP-treated cells compared to control siRNA-treated cells were identified by microarray analysis. Notably, several metalloproteinase genes, such as ADAM10 and ADAM17, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes, such as VIM, and SNAI2, were downregulated in siAPP-treated cells as compared to control cells. The expression of these genes was upregulated in LNCaP cells stably expressing APP when compared with control cells. APP-overexpressing LNCaP cells exhibited enhanced migration in comparison to control cells. These results suggest that APP may contribute to the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells by modulating the expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes.

  1. Syndecan-4 regulates the bFGF-induced chemotactic migration of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Wu, Han; Xie, Jun; Li, Guannan; Gu, Rong; Kang, Lina; Wang, Lian; Xu, Biao

    2016-10-01

    Chemotactic migration of endothelial cells (ECs) guided by extracellular attractants is essential for blood vessel formation. Synd4 is a ubiquitous heparin sulfate proteoglycan receptor on the cell surface that has been identified to promote angiogenesis during tissue repair. Here, the role synd4 played in chemotactic migration of ECs was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were transfected with Lenti-synd4-RNAi or Lenti-null. Cell migration was observed in a 2D-chemotaxis slide with a stable gradient of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for 18 h using time-lapse microscopy. Synd4 knockdown HUVECs showed reduced mobility compared with the control. In animal studies, Matrigel premixed with bFGF was used to induce the migration of ECs. The cells migrated less distance from the skin in the Matrigel plugs of synd4 null mice compared with the control mice. Then recombinant adenoviruses containing the synd4 gene (Ad-synd4) or null (Ad-null) were constructed to enhance the synd4 expression of migratory cells in Matrigel plugs of wild-type mice. Migratory cells with synd4 overexpression did not invade further in the Matrigel plugs of wild-type mice, but showed a high ability to proliferate. PMID:27541034

  2. Syndecan-4 regulates the bFGF-induced chemotactic migration of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Wu, Han; Xie, Jun; Li, Guannan; Gu, Rong; Kang, Lina; Wang, Lian; Xu, Biao

    2016-10-01

    Chemotactic migration of endothelial cells (ECs) guided by extracellular attractants is essential for blood vessel formation. Synd4 is a ubiquitous heparin sulfate proteoglycan receptor on the cell surface that has been identified to promote angiogenesis during tissue repair. Here, the role synd4 played in chemotactic migration of ECs was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were transfected with Lenti-synd4-RNAi or Lenti-null. Cell migration was observed in a 2D-chemotaxis slide with a stable gradient of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for 18 h using time-lapse microscopy. Synd4 knockdown HUVECs showed reduced mobility compared with the control. In animal studies, Matrigel premixed with bFGF was used to induce the migration of ECs. The cells migrated less distance from the skin in the Matrigel plugs of synd4 null mice compared with the control mice. Then recombinant adenoviruses containing the synd4 gene (Ad-synd4) or null (Ad-null) were constructed to enhance the synd4 expression of migratory cells in Matrigel plugs of wild-type mice. Migratory cells with synd4 overexpression did not invade further in the Matrigel plugs of wild-type mice, but showed a high ability to proliferate.

  3. Capping protein is essential for cell migration in vivo and for filopodial morphology and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sinnar, Shamim A.; Antoku, Susumu; Saffin, Jean-Michel; Cooper, Jon A.; Halpain, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Capping protein (CP) binds to barbed ends of growing actin filaments and inhibits elongation. CP is essential for actin-based motility in cell-free systems and in Dictyostelium. Even though CP is believed to be critical for creating the lamellipodial actin structure necessary for protrusion and migration, CP's role in mammalian cell migration has not been directly tested. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that structures besides lamellipodia, including lamella and filopodia, may have unappreciated roles in cell migration. CP has been postulated to be absent from filopodia, and thus its role in filopodial activity has remained unexplored. We report that silencing CP in both cultured mammalian B16F10 cells and in neurons of developing neocortex impaired cell migration. Moreover, we unexpectedly observed that low levels of CP were detectable in the majority of filopodia. CP depletion decreased filopodial length, altered filopodial shape, and reduced filopodial dynamics. Our results support an expansion of the potential roles that CP plays in cell motility by implicating CP in filopodia as well as in lamellipodia, both of which are important for locomotion in many types of migrating cells. PMID:24829386

  4. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell accelerated stress testing

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Andrew M.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L.; Spernjak, Dusan; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2016-01-01

    Cerium is a radical scavenger which improves polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell durability. During operation, however, cerium rapidly migrates in the PEM and into the catalyst layers (CLs). In this work, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were subjected to accelerated stress tests (ASTs) under different humidity conditions. Cerium migration was characterized in the MEAs after ASTs using X-ray fluorescence. During fully humidified operation, water flux from cell inlet to outlet generated in-plane cerium gradients. Conversely, cerium profiles were flat during low humidity operation, where in-plane water flux was negligible, however, migration from the PEM into the CLs was enhanced. Humidity cycling resulted in both in-plane cerium gradients due to water flux during the hydration component of the cycle, and significant migration into the CLs. Fluoride and cerium emissions into effluent cell waters were measured during ASTs and correlated, which signifies that ionomer degradation products serve as possible counter-ions for cerium emissions. Fluoride emission rates were also correlated to final PEM cerium contents, which indicates that PEM degradation and cerium migration are coupled. Lastly, it is proposed that cerium migrates from the PEM due to humidification conditions and degradation, and is subsequently stabilized in the CLs by carbon catalyst supports.

  5. How Tissue Mechanical Properties Affect Enteric Neural Crest Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, N. R.; Gazguez, E.; Bidault, L.; Guilbert, T.; Vias, C.; Vian, E.; Watanabe, Y.; Muller, L.; Germain, S.; Bondurand, N.; Dufour, S.; Fleury, V.

    2016-02-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a population of multipotent cells that migrate extensively during vertebrate development. Alterations to neural crest ontogenesis cause several diseases, including cancers and congenital defects, such as Hirschprung disease, which results from incomplete colonization of the colon by enteric NCCs (ENCCs). We investigated the influence of the stiffness and structure of the environment on ENCC migration in vitro and during colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in chicken and mouse embryos. We showed using tensile stretching and atomic force microscopy (AFM) that the mesenchyme of the gut was initially soft but gradually stiffened during the period of ENCC colonization. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy revealed that this stiffening was associated with a gradual organization and enrichment of collagen fibers in the developing gut. Ex-vivo 2D cell migration assays showed that ENCCs migrated on substrates with very low levels of stiffness. In 3D collagen gels, the speed of the ENCC migratory front decreased with increasing gel stiffness, whereas no correlation was found between porosity and ENCC migration behavior. Metalloprotease inhibition experiments showed that ENCCs actively degraded collagen in order to progress. These results shed light on the role of the mechanical properties of tissues in ENCC migration during development.

  6. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell accelerated stress testing

    DOE PAGES

    Baker, Andrew M.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L.; Spernjak, Dusan; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2016-01-01

    Cerium is a radical scavenger which improves polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell durability. During operation, however, cerium rapidly migrates in the PEM and into the catalyst layers (CLs). In this work, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were subjected to accelerated stress tests (ASTs) under different humidity conditions. Cerium migration was characterized in the MEAs after ASTs using X-ray fluorescence. During fully humidified operation, water flux from cell inlet to outlet generated in-plane cerium gradients. Conversely, cerium profiles were flat during low humidity operation, where in-plane water flux was negligible, however, migration from the PEM into the CLs was enhanced. Humiditymore » cycling resulted in both in-plane cerium gradients due to water flux during the hydration component of the cycle, and significant migration into the CLs. Fluoride and cerium emissions into effluent cell waters were measured during ASTs and correlated, which signifies that ionomer degradation products serve as possible counter-ions for cerium emissions. Fluoride emission rates were also correlated to final PEM cerium contents, which indicates that PEM degradation and cerium migration are coupled. Lastly, it is proposed that cerium migrates from the PEM due to humidification conditions and degradation, and is subsequently stabilized in the CLs by carbon catalyst supports.« less

  7. How Tissue Mechanical Properties Affect Enteric Neural Crest Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, N.R.; Gazguez, E.; Bidault, L.; Guilbert, T.; Vias, C.; Vian, E.; Watanabe, Y.; Muller, L.; Germain, S.; Bondurand, N.; Dufour, S.; Fleury, V.

    2016-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a population of multipotent cells that migrate extensively during vertebrate development. Alterations to neural crest ontogenesis cause several diseases, including cancers and congenital defects, such as Hirschprung disease, which results from incomplete colonization of the colon by enteric NCCs (ENCCs). We investigated the influence of the stiffness and structure of the environment on ENCC migration in vitro and during colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in chicken and mouse embryos. We showed using tensile stretching and atomic force microscopy (AFM) that the mesenchyme of the gut was initially soft but gradually stiffened during the period of ENCC colonization. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy revealed that this stiffening was associated with a gradual organization and enrichment of collagen fibers in the developing gut. Ex-vivo 2D cell migration assays showed that ENCCs migrated on substrates with very low levels of stiffness. In 3D collagen gels, the speed of the ENCC migratory front decreased with increasing gel stiffness, whereas no correlation was found between porosity and ENCC migration behavior. Metalloprotease inhibition experiments showed that ENCCs actively degraded collagen in order to progress. These results shed light on the role of the mechanical properties of tissues in ENCC migration during development. PMID:26887292

  8. Cellular Polarization and Contractility in Collective Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utuje, Kazage J. Christophe; Notbohm, Jacob; Banerjee, Shiladitya; Gweon, Bomi; Jang, Hwanseok; Park, Yongdoo; Shin, Jennifer; Butler, James P.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    Collective cell migration drives many biological processes such as metastasis, morphogenesis and wound healing. These coordinated motions are driven by active forces. The physical nature of these forces and the mechanisms by which they generate collective cell migration are still not fully understood. We have developed a minimum physical model of a cell monolayer as an elastic continuum whose deformation field is coupled to two internal degrees of freedom: the concentration of a chemical signal, controlling cell Contractility, and the polarization field controlling the direction of local cell motion. By combining theory with experiments, we show that these two internal variables account for the sloshing waves and the systematic deviations of the direction of cell polarization from that of local cell velocity observed in confined cell monolayers. KJCU and MCM were supported by the Simons Foundation.

  9. Controlled architectural and chemotactic studies of 3D cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Tayalia, Prakriti; Mazur, Eric; Mooney, David

    2010-01-01

    Chemotaxis plays a critical role in tissue development and wound repair, and is widely studied using ex vivo model systems in applications such as immunotherapy. However, typical chemotactic models employ 2D systems that are less physiologically relevant or use end-point assays, that reveal little about the stepwise dynamics of the migration process. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new model system using microfabrication techniques, sustained drug delivery approaches, and theoretical modeling of chemotactic agent diffusion. This model system allows us to study the effects of 3D architecture and chemotactic agent gradient on immune cell migration in real time. We find that dendritic cell migration is characterized by a strong interplay between matrix architecture and chemotactic gradients, and migration is also influenced dramatically by the cell activation state. Our results indicate that Lipopolysaccharide-activated dendritic cells studied in a traditional transwell system actually exhibit anomalous migration behavior. Such a 3D ex vivo system lends itself for analyzing cell migratory behavior in response to single or multiple competitive cues and could prove useful in vaccine development. PMID:21237507

  10. Morelloflavone blocks injury-induced neointimal formation by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Pinkaew, Decha; Cho, Sung Gook; Hui, David Y.; Wiktorowicz, John E.; Hutadilok-Towatana, Nongporn; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Tonganunt, Moltira; Stafford, Lewis J.; Phongdara, Amornrat; Liu, Mingyao; Fujise, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Background In-stent restenosis, or renarrowing within a coronary stent, is the most ominous complication of percutaneous coronary intervention, caused by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration into and proliferation in the intima. Although drug-eluting stents reduce restenosis, they delay the tissue healing of the injured arteries. No promising alternative anti-restenosis treatments are currently on the horizon. Methods & Results In endothelium-denudated mouse carotid arteries, oral morelloflavone—an active ingredient of the Thai medicinal plant Garcinia dulcis—significantly decreased the degree of neointimal hyperplasia, without affecting neointimal cell cycle progression or apoptosis as evaluated by Ki-67 and TUNEL staining, respectively. At the cellular level, morelloflavone robustly inhibited VSMC migration as shown by both scratch wound and invasion assays. In addition, morelloflavone prevented VSMCs from forming lamellipodia, a VSMC migration apparatus. Mechanistically, the inhibition by morelloflavone of VSMC migration was through its negative regulatory effects on several migration-related kinases, including FAK, Src, ERK, and RhoA. Consistently with the animal data, morelloflavone did not affect VSMC cell cycle progression or induce apoptosis. Conclusion These data suggest that morelloflavone blocks injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia via the inhibition of VSMC migration, without inducing apoptosis or cell cycle arrest. General Significance We propose morelloflavone to be a viable oral agent for the prevention of restenosis, without compromising effects on the integrity and healing of the injured arteries. PMID:18930785

  11. ASB2α regulates migration of immature dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Lamsoul, Isabelle; Métais, Arnaud; Gouot, Emmanuelle; Heuzé, Mélina L; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria; Moog-Lutz, Christel; Lutz, Pierre G

    2013-07-25

    The actin-binding protein filamins (FLNs) are major organizers of the actin cytoskeleton. They control the elasticity and stiffness of the actin network and provide connections with the extracellular microenvironment by anchoring transmembrane receptors to the actin filaments. Although numerous studies have revealed the importance of FLN levels, relatively little is known about the regulation of its stability in physiological relevant settings. Here, we show that the ASB2α cullin 5-ring E3 ubiquitin ligase is highly expressed in immature dendritic cells (DCs) and is down-regulated after DC maturation. We further demonstrate that FLNs are substrates of ASB2α in immature DCs and therefore are not stably expressed in these cells, whereas they exhibit high levels of expression in mature DCs. Using ASB2 conditional knockout mice, we show that ASB2α is a critical regulator of cell spreading and podosome rosette formation in immature DCs. Furthermore, we show that ASB2(-/-) immature DCs exhibit reduced matrix-degrading function leading to defective migration. Altogether, our results point to ASB2α and FLNs as newcomers in DC biology. PMID:23632887

  12. ASB2α regulates migration of immature dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Lamsoul, Isabelle; Métais, Arnaud; Gouot, Emmanuelle; Heuzé, Mélina L; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria; Moog-Lutz, Christel; Lutz, Pierre G

    2013-07-25

    The actin-binding protein filamins (FLNs) are major organizers of the actin cytoskeleton. They control the elasticity and stiffness of the actin network and provide connections with the extracellular microenvironment by anchoring transmembrane receptors to the actin filaments. Although numerous studies have revealed the importance of FLN levels, relatively little is known about the regulation of its stability in physiological relevant settings. Here, we show that the ASB2α cullin 5-ring E3 ubiquitin ligase is highly expressed in immature dendritic cells (DCs) and is down-regulated after DC maturation. We further demonstrate that FLNs are substrates of ASB2α in immature DCs and therefore are not stably expressed in these cells, whereas they exhibit high levels of expression in mature DCs. Using ASB2 conditional knockout mice, we show that ASB2α is a critical regulator of cell spreading and podosome rosette formation in immature DCs. Furthermore, we show that ASB2(-/-) immature DCs exhibit reduced matrix-degrading function leading to defective migration. Altogether, our results point to ASB2α and FLNs as newcomers in DC biology.

  13. Nanotopography guides and directs cell migration in amoeboid and epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Rachel; Das, Satarupa; Hourwitz, Matthew; Sun, Xiaoyu; Parent, Carole; Fourkas, John; Losert, Wolfgang

    Cell migration plays a critical role in development, angiogenesis, immune response, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. In many cases, cells also move in the context of a matrix of collagen fibers, and the alignment of these fibers can both affect the migration phenotype and guide cells. Here we show that both fast and slow migrating cells - amoeboid HL-60 and epithelial MCF10A - are affected in similar ways by micro/nanostructures with dimensions similar to those of collagen fibers. Cell alignment enhances the efficiency of migration by increasing directional persistence.

  14. Live cell imaging analysis of the epigenetic regulation of the human endothelial cell migration at single-cell resolution.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chunhong; Yu, Zhilong; Zhou, Ying; Tao, Louis; Pang, Yuhong; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Xiannian; Qiu, Haiwei; Zhou, Hongwei; Chen, Zitian; Huang, Yanyi

    2012-09-01

    Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in cell migration. Although many methods have been developed to measure the motility of mammalian cells, accurate quantitative assessments of the migration speed of individual cells remain a major challenge. It is difficult for conventional scratch assays to differentiate proliferation from migration during the so-called wound-healing processes because of the long experimental time required. In addition, it is also challenging to create identical conditions for evaluating cell migration by conventional methods. We developed a microfluidic device with precisely created blanks allowing for robust and reproducible cell migration inside accurately-controlled microenvironments to study the regulatory effect of the epigenetic regulator histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) on cell migration. Through analyzing time-lapse imaging of the cells migrating into individual blank regions, we can measure the migration speed parameter for human primary cells within a few hours, eliminating the confounding effect of cell proliferation. We also developed an automatic image analysis and a numeric model-based data fitting to set up an integrated cell migration analysis system at single-cell resolution. Using this system, we measured the motility of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the migration speed reduction due to the silencing of HDAC7 and various other genes. We showed that the migration behaviour of these human primary cells are clearly regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, demonstrating the great potential of this accurate and robust assay in the fields of quantitatively migration studies and high-throughput screening.

  15. A new technique of "midline anchoring" in spinal cord stimulation dramatically reduces lead migration.

    PubMed

    Mironer, Y Eugene; Brown, Christopher; Satterthwaite, John R; Cohen, Mary; Tonder, Lisa M; Grumman, Steve

    2004-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a popular method of treatment of chronic pain. Unfortunately, migration of the lead continues to be a serious complication of this therapy. In an attempt to reduce lateral migration of the SCS lead, we performed a retrospective assessment of a new technique of percutaneous lead placement. This new method of "midline anchoring" of the lead using the plica mediana dorsalis was tested against conventional technique in a retrospective study involving 122 trials and 91 implants of SCS over a period of five years. The use of "midline anchoring" resulted in a decrease in lead migration from 23% to 6% after trial insertion and from 24% to 7% after implantation. We conclude that "midline anchoring" of the SCS lead is an effective method of preventing lead migration.

  16. Analyzing In Vivo Cell Migration using Cell Transplantations and Time-lapse Imaging in Zebrafish Embryos.

    PubMed

    Giger, Florence A; Dumortier, Julien G; David, Nicolas B

    2016-04-29

    Cell migration is key to many physiological and pathological conditions, including cancer metastasis. The cellular and molecular bases of cell migration have been thoroughly analyzed in vitro. However, in vivo cell migration somehow differs from in vitro migration, and has proven more difficult to analyze, being less accessible to direct observation and manipulation. This protocol uses the migration of the prospective prechordal plate in the early zebrafish embryo as a model system to study the function of candidate genes in cell migration. Prechordal plate progenitors form a group of cells which, during gastrulation, undergoes a directed migration from the embryonic organizer to the animal pole of the embryo. The proposed protocol uses cell transplantation to create mosaic embryos. This offers the combined advantages of labeling isolated cells, which is key to good imaging, and of limiting gain/loss of function effects to the observed cells, hence ensuring cell-autonomous effects. We describe here how we assessed the function of the TORC2 component Sin1 in cell migration, but the protocol can be used to analyze the function of any candidate gene in controlling cell migration in vivo.

  17. The effects of acoustic vibration on fibroblast cell migration.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Taybia; Murphy, Mark F; Lilley, Francis; Burton, David R; Bezombes, Frederic

    2016-12-01

    Cells are known to interact and respond to external mechanical cues and recent work has shown that application of mechanical stimulation, delivered via acoustic vibration, can be used to control complex cell behaviours. Fibroblast cells are known to respond to physical cues generated in the extracellular matrix and it is thought that such cues are important regulators of the wound healing process. Many conditions are associated with poor wound healing, so there is need for treatments/interventions, which can help accelerate the wound healing process. The primary aim of this research was to investigate the effects of mechanical stimulation upon the migratory and morphological properties of two different fibroblast cells namely; human lung fibroblast cells (LL24) and subcutaneous areolar/adipose mouse fibroblast cells (L929). Using a speaker-based system, the effects of mechanical stimulation (0-1600Hz for 5min) on the mean cell migration distance (μm) and actin organisation was investigated. The results show that 100Hz acoustic vibration enhanced cell migration for both cell lines whereas acoustic vibration above 100Hz was found to decrease cell migration in a frequency dependent manner. Mechanical stimulation was also found to promote changes to the morphology of both cell lines, particularly the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia. Overall lamellipodia was the most prominent actin structure displayed by the lung cell (LL24), whereas filopodia was the most prominent actin feature displayed by the fibroblast derived from subcutaneous areolar/adipose tissue. Mechanical stimulation at all the frequencies used here was found not to affect cell viability. These results suggest that low-frequency acoustic vibration may be used as a tool to manipulate the mechanosensitivity of cells to promote cell migration. PMID:27612824

  18. Leukotrienes induce the migration of Th17 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonyong; Su Kim, Hyeong; Lee, Gap Ryol

    2015-01-01

    Th17 cell trafficking in response to leukotriene signaling is poorly understood. Here we showed that Th17 cells express high levels of leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (LTB4R1) and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLTR1). Th17 cells migrated under the guidance of leukotriene B4 and D4. The migration of Th17 cells was more efficient than that of Th1 and Th2 cells, and it was blocked by specific inhibitors of LTB4R1 or CysLTR1. Studies in an animal model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis revealed that treatment with montelukast alleviated disease symptoms and inhibited the recruitment of Th17 cells to the central nervous system. Thus, leukotrienes may act as chemoattractants for Th17 cells. PMID:25512344

  19. EMT Involved in Migration of Stem/Progenitor Cells for Pituitary Development and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Saishu; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration are important processes in embryonic development of many tissues as well as oncogenesis. The pituitary gland is a master endocrine tissue and recent studies indicate that Sox2-expressing stem/progenitor cells actively migrate and develop this tissue during embryogenesis. Notably, although migration activity of stem/progenitor cells in the postnatal period seems to be reduced compared to that in the embryonic period, it is hypothesized that stem/progenitor cells in the adult pituitary re-migrate from their microenvironment niche to contribute to the regeneration system. Therefore, elucidation of EMT in the pituitary stem/progenitor cells will promote understanding of pituitary development and regeneration, as well as diseases such as pituitary adenoma. In this review, so as to gain more insights into the mechanisms of pituitary development and regeneration, we summarize the EMT in the pituitary by focusing on the migration of pituitary stem/progenitor cells during both embryonic and postnatal organogenesis. PMID:27058562

  20. Multidisciplinary approaches to understanding collective cell migration in developmental biology

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Linus J.; Kulesa, Paul M.; McLennan, Rebecca; Baker, Ruth E.; Maini, Philip K.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models are becoming increasingly integrated with experimental efforts in the study of biological systems. Collective cell migration in developmental biology is a particularly fruitful application area for the development of theoretical models to predict the behaviour of complex multicellular systems with many interacting parts. In this context, mathematical models provide a tool to assess the consistency of experimental observations with testable mechanistic hypotheses. In this review, we showcase examples from recent years of multidisciplinary investigations of neural crest cell migration. The neural crest model system has been used to study how collective migration of cell populations is shaped by cell–cell interactions, cell–environmental interactions and heterogeneity between cells. The wide range of emergent behaviours exhibited by neural crest cells in different embryonal locations and in different organisms helps us chart out the spectrum of collective cell migration. At the same time, this diversity in migratory characteristics highlights the need to reconcile or unify the array of currently hypothesized mechanisms through the next generation of experimental data and generalized theoretical descriptions. PMID:27278647

  1. High Glucose-Mediated Oxidative Stress Impairs Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Lamers, Marcelo L.; Almeida, Maíra E. S.; Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Horwitz, Alan F.; Santos, Marinilce F.

    2011-01-01

    Deficient wound healing in diabetic patients is very frequent, but the cellular and molecular causes are poorly defined. In this study, we evaluate the hypothesis that high glucose concentrations inhibit cell migration. Using CHO.K1 cells, NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, mouse embryonic fibroblasts and primary skin fibroblasts from control and diabetic rats cultured in 5 mM D-glucose (low glucose, LG), 25 mM D-glucose (high glucose, HG) or 25 mM L-glucose medium (osmotic control - OC), we analyzed the migration speed, protrusion stability, cell polarity, adhesion maturation and the activity of the small Rho GTPase Rac1. We also analyzed the effects of reactive oxygen species by incubating cells with the antioxidant N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC). We observed that HG conditions inhibited cell migration when compared to LG or OC. This inhibition resulted from impaired cell polarity, protrusion destabilization and inhibition of adhesion maturation. Conversely, Rac1 activity, which promotes protrusion and blocks adhesion maturation, was increased in HG conditions, thus providing a mechanistic basis for the HG phenotype. Most of the HG effects were partially or completely rescued by treatment with NAC. These findings demonstrate that HG impairs cell migration due to an increase in oxidative stress that causes polarity loss, deficient adhesion and protrusion. These alterations arise, in large part, from increased Rac1 activity and may contribute to the poor wound healing observed in diabetic patients. PMID:21826213

  2. Epac Activation Regulates Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Migration and Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiao-Le; Deng, Ruixia; Chung, Sookja K; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung

    2016-04-01

    How to enhance the homing of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to the target tissues remains a clinical challenge nowadays. To overcome this barrier, the mechanism responsible for the hMSCs migration and engraftment has to be defined. Currently, the exact mechanism involved in migration and adhesion of hMSCs remains unknown. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), a novel protein discovered in cAMP signaling pathway, may have a potential role in regulating cells adhesion and migration by triggering the downstream Rap family signaling cascades. However, the exact role of Epac in cells homing is elusive. Our study evaluated the role of Epac in the homing of hMSCs. We confirmed that hMSCs expressed functional Epac and its activation enhanced the migration and adhesion of hMSCs significantly. The Epac activation was further found to be contributed directly to the chemotactic responses induced by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) which is a known chemokine in regulating hMSCs homing. These findings suggested Epac is connected to the SDF-1 signaling cascades. In conclusion, our study revealed that Epac plays a role in hMSCs homing by promoting adhesion and migration. Appropriate manipulation of Epac may enhance the homing of hMSCs and facilitate their future clinical applications. PMID:26727165

  3. Bromoenol Lactone Attenuates Nicotine-Induced Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Lindsay E.; Liu, Shu; Arnold, Nova; Breakall, Bethany; Rollins, Joseph; Ndinguri, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Calcium independent group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β) and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are upregulated in many disease states; their involvement with cancer cell migration has been a recent subject for study. Further, the molecular mechanisms mediating nicotine-induced breast cancer cell progression have not been fully investigated. This study aims to investigate whether iPLA2β mediates nicotine-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and migration through both in-vitro and in-vivo techniques. Subsequently, the ability of Bromoenol Lactone (BEL) to attenuate the severity of nicotine-induced breast cancer was examined. Method and Results We found that BEL significantly attenuated both basal and nicotine-induced 4T1 breast cancer cell proliferation, via an MTT proliferation assay. Breast cancer cell migration was examined by both a scratch and transwell assay, in which, BEL was found to significantly decrease both basal and nicotine-induced migration. Additionally, nicotine-induced MMP-9 expression was found to be mediated in an iPLA2β dependent manner. These results suggest that iPLA2β plays a critical role in mediating both basal and nicotine-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and migration in-vitro. In an in-vivo mouse breast cancer model, BEL treatment was found to significantly reduce both basal (p<0.05) and nicotine-induced tumor growth (p<0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis showed BEL decreased nicotine-induced MMP-9, HIF-1alpha, and CD31 tumor tissue expression. Subsequently, BEL was observed to reduce nicotine-induced lung metastasis. Conclusion The present study indicates that nicotine-induced migration is mediated by MMP-9 production in an iPLA2β dependent manner. Our data suggests that BEL is a possible chemotherapeutic agent as it was found to reduce both nicotine-induced breast cancer tumor growth and lung metastasis. PMID:26588686

  4. Intermediate filaments in cell migration and invasion: the unusual suspects.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Cécile; Etienne-Manneville, Sandrine

    2015-02-01

    Cell migration is a multistep process which relies on the coordination of cytoskeletal structures in space and time. While the roles of actin and microtubules have been investigated in great details, the lack of inhibitors and visualizing tools and the large number of proteins forming intermediate filaments (IFs) have delayed the characterization of IF functions during migration. However, a large body of evidence has progressively pointed to changes in IF composition as an important parameter in the regulation of cell migratory properties both during development and tumor invasion. More recent in-depth analyses show that IFs are dynamically reorganized to participate, together with microfilaments and microtubules, to the key steps leading to cell migration.

  5. Modeling keratinocyte wound healing dynamics: Cell-cell adhesion promotes sustained collective migration.

    PubMed

    Nardini, John T; Chapnick, Douglas A; Liu, Xuedong; Bortz, David M

    2016-07-01

    The in vitro migration of keratinocyte cell sheets displays behavioral and biochemical similarities to the in vivo wound healing response of keratinocytes in animal model systems. In both cases, ligand-dependent Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) activation is sufficient to elicit collective cell migration into the wound. Previous mathematical modeling studies of in vitro wound healing assays assume that physical connections between cells have a hindering effect on cell migration, but biological literature suggests a more complicated story. By combining mathematical modeling and experimental observations of collectively migrating sheets of keratinocytes, we investigate the role of cell-cell adhesion during in vitro keratinocyte wound healing assays. We develop and compare two nonlinear diffusion models of the wound healing process in which cell-cell adhesion either hinders or promotes migration. Both models can accurately fit the leading edge propagation of cell sheets during wound healing when using a time-dependent rate of cell-cell adhesion strength. The model that assumes a positive role of cell-cell adhesion on migration, however, is robust to changes in the leading edge definition and yields a qualitatively accurate density profile. Using RNAi for the critical adherens junction protein, α-catenin, we demonstrate that cell sheets with wild type cell-cell adhesion expression maintain migration into the wound longer than cell sheets with decreased cell-cell adhesion expression, which fails to exhibit collective migration. Our modeling and experimental data thus suggest that cell-cell adhesion promotes sustained migration as cells pull neighboring cells into the wound during wound healing.

  6. Modeling keratinocyte wound healing dynamics: Cell-cell adhesion promotes sustained collective migration.

    PubMed

    Nardini, John T; Chapnick, Douglas A; Liu, Xuedong; Bortz, David M

    2016-07-01

    The in vitro migration of keratinocyte cell sheets displays behavioral and biochemical similarities to the in vivo wound healing response of keratinocytes in animal model systems. In both cases, ligand-dependent Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) activation is sufficient to elicit collective cell migration into the wound. Previous mathematical modeling studies of in vitro wound healing assays assume that physical connections between cells have a hindering effect on cell migration, but biological literature suggests a more complicated story. By combining mathematical modeling and experimental observations of collectively migrating sheets of keratinocytes, we investigate the role of cell-cell adhesion during in vitro keratinocyte wound healing assays. We develop and compare two nonlinear diffusion models of the wound healing process in which cell-cell adhesion either hinders or promotes migration. Both models can accurately fit the leading edge propagation of cell sheets during wound healing when using a time-dependent rate of cell-cell adhesion strength. The model that assumes a positive role of cell-cell adhesion on migration, however, is robust to changes in the leading edge definition and yields a qualitatively accurate density profile. Using RNAi for the critical adherens junction protein, α-catenin, we demonstrate that cell sheets with wild type cell-cell adhesion expression maintain migration into the wound longer than cell sheets with decreased cell-cell adhesion expression, which fails to exhibit collective migration. Our modeling and experimental data thus suggest that cell-cell adhesion promotes sustained migration as cells pull neighboring cells into the wound during wound healing. PMID:27105673

  7. Single-cell Migration Chip for Chemotaxis-based Microfluidic Selection of Heterogeneous Cell Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Allen, Steven G.; Ingram, Patrick N.; Buckanovich, Ronald; Merajver, Sofia D.; Yoon, Euisik

    2015-05-01

    Tumor cell migration toward and intravasation into capillaries is an early and key event in cancer metastasis, yet not all cancer cells are imbued with the same capability to do so. This heterogeneity within a tumor is a fundamental property of cancer. Tools to help us understand what molecular characteristics allow a certain subpopulation of cells to spread from the primary tumor are thus critical for overcoming metastasis. Conventional in vitro migration platforms treat populations in aggregate, which leads to a masking of intrinsic differences among cells. Some migration assays reported recently have single-cell resolution, but these platforms do not provide for selective retrieval of the distinct migrating and non-migrating cell populations for further analysis. Thus, to study the intrinsic differences in cells responsible for chemotactic heterogeneity, we developed a single-cell migration platform so that individual cells’ migration behavior can be studied and the heterogeneous population sorted based upon chemotactic phenotype. Furthermore, after migration, the highly chemotactic and non-chemotactic cells were retrieved and proved viable for later molecular analysis of their differences. Moreover, we modified the migration channel to resemble lymphatic capillaries to better understand how certain cancer cells are able to move through geometrically confining spaces.

  8. Ethanol impaired neuronal migration is associated with reduced aspartyl-asparaginyl-beta-hydroxylase expression.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jade J; Tong, Ming; Silbermann, Elizabeth; Lahousse, Stephanie A; Ding, Fei Fei; Longato, Lisa; Roper, Nitin; Wands, Jack R; de la Monte, Suzanne M

    2008-09-01

    Cerebellar hypoplasia in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is associated with inhibition of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling in the brain. Aspartyl (asparaginyl)-beta-hydroxylase (AAH) is a mediator of neuronal motility, and stimulated by insulin and IGF activation of PI3 kinase-Akt, or inhibition of GSK-3beta. Since ethanol inhibits PI3 Kinase-Akt and increases GSK-3beta activity in brain, we examined the effects of ethanol and GSK-3beta on AAH expression and directional motility in neuronal cells. Control and ethanol-exposed (100 mM x 48 h) human PNET2 cerebellar neuronal cells were stimulated with IGF-1 and used to measure AAH expression and directional motility. Molecular and biochemical approaches were used to characterize GSK-3beta regulation of AAH and neuronal motility. Ethanol reduced IGF-1 stimulated AAH protein expression and directional motility without inhibiting AAH's mRNA. Further analysis revealed that: (1) AAH protein could be phosphorylated by GSK-3beta; (2) high levels of GSK-3beta activity decreased AAH protein; (3) inhibition of GSK-3beta and/or global Caspases increased AAH protein; (4) AAH protein was relatively more phosphorylated in ethanol-treated compared with control cells; and (5) chemical inhibition of GSK-3beta and/or global Caspases partially rescued ethanol-impaired AAH protein expression and motility. Ethanol-impaired neuronal migration is associated with reduced IGF-I stimulated AAH protein expression. This effect may be mediated by increased GSK-3beta phosphorylation and Caspase degradation of AAH. Therapeutic strategies to rectify CNS developmental abnormalities in FASD should target factors underlying the ethanol-associated increases in GSK-3beta and Caspase activation, e.g. IGF resistance and increased oxidative stress. PMID:18478238

  9. Electrolytic cell stack with molten electrolyte migration control

    DOEpatents

    Kunz, H.R.; Guthrie, R.J.; Katz, M.

    1987-03-17

    An electrolytic cell stack includes inactive electrolyte reservoirs at the upper and lower end portions thereof. The reservoirs are separated from the stack of the complete cells by impermeable, electrically conductive separators. Reservoirs at the negative end are initially low in electrolyte and the reservoirs at the positive end are high in electrolyte fill. During stack operation electrolyte migration from the positive to the negative end will be offset by the inactive reservoir capacity. In combination with the inactive reservoirs, a sealing member of high porosity and low electrolyte retention is employed to limit the electrolyte migration rate. 5 figs.

  10. Electrolytic cell stack with molten electrolyte migration control

    DOEpatents

    Kunz, H. Russell; Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray

    1988-08-02

    An electrolytic cell stack includes inactive electrolyte reservoirs at the upper and lower end portions thereof. The reservoirs are separated from the stack of the complete cells by impermeable, electrically conductive separators. Reservoirs at the negative end are initially low in electrolyte and the reservoirs at the positive end are high in electrolyte fill. During stack operation electrolyte migration from the positive to the negative end will be offset by the inactive reservoir capacity. In combination with the inactive reservoirs, a sealing member of high porosity and low electrolyte retention is employed to limit the electrolyte migration rate.

  11. Nuclear envelope rupture and repair during cancer cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Denais, Celine M.; Gilbert, Rachel M.; Isermann, Philipp; McGregor, Alexandra L.; te Lindert, Mariska; Weigelin, Bettina; Davidson, Patricia M.; Friedl, Peter; Wolf, Katarina; Lammerding, Jan

    2016-01-01

    During cancer metastasis, tumor cells penetrate tissues through tight interstitial spaces, requiring extensive deformation of the cell and its nucleus. Here, we investigated tumor cell migration in confining microenvironments in vitro and in vivo. Nuclear deformation caused localized loss of nuclear envelope (NE) integrity, which led to the uncontrolled exchange of nucleo-cytoplasmic content, herniation of chromatin across the NE, and DNA damage. The incidence of NE rupture increased with cell confinement and with depletion of nuclear lamins, NE proteins that structurally support the nucleus. Cells restored NE integrity using components of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport-III (ESCRT-III) machinery. Our findings indicate that cell migration incurs substantial physical stress on the NE and its content, requiring efficient NE and DNA damage repair for survival. PMID:27013428

  12. A role for multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4; ABCC4) in human dendritic cell migration.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Rieneke; Scheffer, George L; Reurs, Anneke W; Lindenberg, Jelle J; Oerlemans, Ruud; Jansen, Gerrit; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Glasgow, Joel N; Pereboev, Alexander; Curiel, David T; Scheper, Rik J; de Gruijl, Tanja D

    2008-09-15

    The capacity of dendritic cells (DCs) to migrate from peripheral organs to lymph nodes (LNs) is important in the initiation of a T cell-mediated immune response. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1) and the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1; ABCC1) have been shown to play a role in both human and murine DC migration. Here we show that a more recently discovered family member, MRP4 (ABCC4), is expressed on both epidermal and dermal human skin DCs and contributes to the migratory capacity of DCs. Pharmacological inhibition of MRP4 activity or down-regulation through RNAi in DCs resulted in reduced migration of DCs from human skin explants and of in vitro generated Langerhans cells. The responsible MRP4 substrate remains to be identified as exogenous addition of MRP4's known substrates prostaglandin E(2), leukotriene B(4) and D(4), or cyclic nucleotides (all previously implicated in DC migration) could not restore migration. This notwithstanding, our data show that MRP4 is an important protein, significantly contributing to human DC migration toward the draining lymph nodes, and therefore relevant for the initiation of an immune response and a possible target for immunotherapy.

  13. Vinculin regulates directionality and cell polarity in two- and three-dimensional matrix and three-dimensional microtrack migration

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Aniqua; Carey, Shawn P.; Kraning-Rush, Casey M.; Goldblatt, Zachary E.; Bordeleau, Francois; Lampi, Marsha C.; Lin, Deanna Y.; García, Andrés J.; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    During metastasis, cells can use proteolytic activity to form tube-like “microtracks” within the extracellular matrix (ECM). Using these microtracks, cells can migrate unimpeded through the stroma. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of microtrack migration, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) micromolded collagen platform. When in microtracks, cells tend to migrate unidirectionally. Because focal adhesions are the primary mechanism by which cells interact with the ECM, we examined the roles of several focal adhesion molecules in driving unidirectional motion. Vinculin knockdown results in the repeated reversal of migration direction compared with control cells. Tracking the position of the Golgi centroid relative to the position of the nucleus centroid reveals that vinculin knockdown disrupts cell polarity in microtracks. Vinculin also directs migration on two-dimensional (2D) substrates and in 3D uniform collagen matrices, as indicated by reduced speed, shorter net displacement, and decreased directionality in vinculin-deficient cells. In addition, vinculin is necessary for focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation in three dimensions, as vinculin knockdown results in reduced FAK activation in both 3D uniform collagen matrices and microtracks but not on 2D substrates, and, accordingly, FAK inhibition halts cell migration in 3D microtracks. Together these data indicate that vinculin plays a key role in polarization during migration. PMID:26960796

  14. Roles of endothelial A-type lamins in migration of T cells on and under endothelial layers

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Jaehyun; Park, HyoungJun; Kim, Hye Mi; Park, Jeehun; Kwon, Keon Woo; Doh, Junsang

    2016-01-01

    Stiff nuclei in cell-dense microenvironments may serve as distinct biomechanical cues for cell migration, but such a possibility has not been tested experimentally. As a first step addressing this question, we altered nuclear stiffness of endothelial cells (ECs) by reducing the expression of A-type lamins using siRNA, and investigated the migration of T cells on and under EC layers. While most T cells crawling on control EC layers avoided crossing over EC nuclei, a significantly higher fraction of T cells on EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins crossed over EC nuclei. This result suggests that stiff EC nuclei underlying T cells may serve as “duro-repulsive” cues to direct T cell migration toward less stiff EC cytoplasm. During subendothelial migration under EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins, T cells made prolonged contact and substantially deformed EC nuclei, resulting in reduced speed and directional persistence. This result suggests that EC nuclear stiffness promotes fast and directionally persistent subendothelial migration of T cells by allowing minimum interaction between T cells and EC nuclei. PMID:26996137

  15. Roles of endothelial A-type lamins in migration of T cells on and under endothelial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Jaehyun; Park, Hyoungjun; Kim, Hye Mi; Park, Jeehun; Kwon, Keon Woo; Doh, Junsang

    2016-03-01

    Stiff nuclei in cell-dense microenvironments may serve as distinct biomechanical cues for cell migration, but such a possibility has not been tested experimentally. As a first step addressing this question, we altered nuclear stiffness of endothelial cells (ECs) by reducing the expression of A-type lamins using siRNA, and investigated the migration of T cells on and under EC layers. While most T cells crawling on control EC layers avoided crossing over EC nuclei, a significantly higher fraction of T cells on EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins crossed over EC nuclei. This result suggests that stiff EC nuclei underlying T cells may serve as “duro-repulsive” cues to direct T cell migration toward less stiff EC cytoplasm. During subendothelial migration under EC layers with reduced expression of A-type lamins, T cells made prolonged contact and substantially deformed EC nuclei, resulting in reduced speed and directional persistence. This result suggests that EC nuclear stiffness promotes fast and directionally persistent subendothelial migration of T cells by allowing minimum interaction between T cells and EC nuclei.

  16. Integrin {alpha}6 cleavage: A novel modification to modulate cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Pawar, Sangita C.; Demetriou, Manolis C.; Nagle, Raymond B.; Bowden, G. Tim; Cress, Anne E. . E-mail: acress@azcc.arizona.edu

    2007-04-01

    Integrins play a major role in cell adhesion and migration. Previous work reported that a cleaved form of integrin {alpha}6 ({alpha}6p) was detected in invasive human prostate cancer tissue, absent in normal prostate tissue and was produced by urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator (uPA) in a plasmin-independent manner. Using site-directed mutagenesis we identified amino acid residues R594 and R595, located in the 'stalk' region of integrin {alpha}6, as essential for cleavage. The cleavage site is located on the extracellular region of the protein between the {beta}-barrel domain and the thigh domain. Prostate cancer cells (PC3N) were stably transfected to overexpress the cleavable, wild-type (PC3N-{alpha}6-WT) or the non-cleavable form of integrin {alpha}6 (PC3N-{alpha}6-RR). The number of cells invading laminin 111- and laminin 332-coated filters by PC3N-{alpha}6-WT cells increased by threefold as compared to PC3N-{alpha}6-RR cells. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) reduced the invasion of PC3N-{alpha}6-WT cells by approximately 42% through laminin 332-coated filters and plasmin inhibitor aprotinin had no significant effect. Linear cell migration increased production of integrin {alpha}6p in the PC3N-{alpha}6-WT cells and not in the PC3N-{alpha}6-RR cells and 32% of the PC3N-{alpha}6-WT cells migrated on laminin 111 in the linear migration assay as compared to the 5% PC3N-{alpha}6-RR cells. These data taken together suggest that the uPA-mediated cell surface cleavage of the {alpha}6 integrin extracellular domain is involved in tumor cell invasion and migration on laminin.

  17. INTEGRIN α6 CLEAVAGE: A NOVEL MODIFICATION TO MODULATE CELL MIGRATION

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Sangita C.; Demetriou, Manolis C.; Nagle, Raymond B.; Bowden, G. Tim; Cress, Anne E.

    2007-01-01

    Integrins play a major role in cell adhesion and migration. Previous work reported that a cleaved form of integrin α6 (α6p) was detected in invasive human prostate cancer tissue, absent in normal prostate tissue and was produced by urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator (uPA) in a plasmin-independent manner. Using site-directed mutagenesis we identified amino acid residues R594 and R595, located in the “stalk” region of integrin α6, as essential for cleavage. The cleavage site is located on the extracellular region of the protein between the β-barrel domain and the thigh domain. Prostate cancer cells (PC3N) were stably transfected to over express the cleavable, wild type (PC3N-α6-WT) or the non-cleavable form of integrin α6 (PC3N-α6-RR). The number of cells invading laminin 111 and laminin 332 coated filters by PC3N-α6-WT cells increased by three fold as compared to PC3N-α6-RR cells. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) reduced the invasion of PC3N-α6-WT cells by approximately 42% through laminin 332 coated filters and plasmin inhibitor aprotinin had no significant effect. Linear cell migration increased production of integrin α6p in the PC3N-α6-WT cells and not in the PC3N-α6-RR cells and 32% of the PC3N-α6-WT cells migrated on laminin 111 in the linear migration assay as compared to the 5% PC3N-α6-RR cells. These data taken together suggest that the uPA mediated cell surface cleavage of the α6 integrin extracellular domain is involved in tumor cell invasion and migration on laminin. PMID:17303120

  18. Study of dendritic cell migration using micro-fabrication.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Pablo; Chabaud, Mélanie; Thiam, Hawa-Racine; Lankar, Danielle; Piel, Matthieu; Lennon-Dumenil, Ana-Maria

    2016-05-01

    Cell migration is a hallmark of dendritic cells (DCs) function. It is needed for DCs to scan their environment in search for antigens as well as to reach lymphatic organs in order to trigger T lymphocyte's activation. Such interaction leads to tolerance in the case of DCs migrating under homeostatic conditions or to immunity in the case of DCs migrating upon encounter with pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Cell migration is therefore essential for DCs to transfer information from peripheral tissues to lymphoid organs, thereby linking innate to adaptive immunity. This stresses the need to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved. However, the tremendous complexity of the tissue microenvironment as well as the limited spatio-temporal resolution of in vivo imaging techniques has made this task difficult. To bypass this problem, we have developed microfabrication-based experimental tools that are compatible with high-resolution imaging. Here, we will discuss how such devices can be used to study DC migration under controlled conditions that mimic their physiological environment in a robust quantitative manner.

  19. Nox4 and Duox1/2 Mediate Redox Activation of Mesenchymal Cell Migration by PDGF.

    PubMed

    Tyurin-Kuzmin, Pyotr A; Zhdanovskaya, Nadezhda D; Sukhova, Anna A; Sagaradze, George D; Albert, Eugene A; Ageeva, Ludmila V; Sharonov, George V; Vorotnikov, Alexander V; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A

    2016-01-01

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) orchestrates wound healing and tissue regeneration by regulating recruitment of the precursor mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and fibroblasts. PDGF stimulates generation of hydrogen peroxide that is required for cell migration, but the sources and intracellular targets of H2O2 remain obscure. Here we demonstrate sustained live responses of H2O2 to PDGF and identify PKB/Akt, but not Erk1/2, as the target for redox regulation in cultured 3T3 fibroblasts and MSC. Apocynin, cell-permeable catalase and LY294002 inhibited PDGF-induced migration and mitotic activity of these cells indicating involvement of PI3-kinase pathway and H2O2. Real-time PCR revealed Nox4 and Duox1/2 as the potential sources of H2O2. Silencing of Duox1/2 in fibroblasts or Nox4 in MSC reduced PDGF-stimulated intracellular H2O2, PKB/Akt phosphorylation and migration, but had no such effect on Erk1/2. In contrast to PDGF, EGF failed to increase cytoplasmic H2O2, phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and migration of fibroblasts and MSC, confirming the critical impact of redox signaling. We conclude that PDGF-induced migration of mesenchymal cells requires Nox4 and Duox1/2 enzymes, which mediate redox-sensitive activation of PI3-kinase pathway and PKB/Akt. PMID:27110716

  20. Nox4 and Duox1/2 Mediate Redox Activation of Mesenchymal Cell Migration by PDGF

    PubMed Central

    Sukhova, Anna A.; Sagaradze, George D.; Albert, Eugene A.; Ageeva, Ludmila V.; Sharonov, George V.; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) orchestrates wound healing and tissue regeneration by regulating recruitment of the precursor mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and fibroblasts. PDGF stimulates generation of hydrogen peroxide that is required for cell migration, but the sources and intracellular targets of H2O2 remain obscure. Here we demonstrate sustained live responses of H2O2 to PDGF and identify PKB/Akt, but not Erk1/2, as the target for redox regulation in cultured 3T3 fibroblasts and MSC. Apocynin, cell-permeable catalase and LY294002 inhibited PDGF-induced migration and mitotic activity of these cells indicating involvement of PI3-kinase pathway and H2O2. Real-time PCR revealed Nox4 and Duox1/2 as the potential sources of H2O2. Silencing of Duox1/2 in fibroblasts or Nox4 in MSC reduced PDGF-stimulated intracellular H2O2, PKB/Akt phosphorylation and migration, but had no such effect on Erk1/2. In contrast to PDGF, EGF failed to increase cytoplasmic H2O2, phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and migration of fibroblasts and MSC, confirming the critical impact of redox signaling. We conclude that PDGF-induced migration of mesenchymal cells requires Nox4 and Duox1/2 enzymes, which mediate redox-sensitive activation of PI3-kinase pathway and PKB/Akt. PMID:27110716

  1. Knockdown of ezrin suppresses the migration and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang-ping; Huang, Lei; Tian, Xun; Liang, Feng-qi; Wei, Jun-cheng; Zhang, Xian; Li, Sha; Zhang, Qing-hua

    2016-04-01

    Progressive tumor growth is dependent on angiogenesis. The mechanisms by which endothelial cells (ECs) are incorporated to develop new blood vessels are not well understood. Recent studies reveal that the ezrin radixin moesin (ERM) family members are key regulators of cellular activities such as adhesion, morphogenetic change, and migration. We hypothesized that ezrin, one of the ERM family members, may play important roles in ECs organization during angiogenesis, and new vessels formation in preexisting tissues. To test this hypothesis, in this study, we investigated the effects of ezrin gene silencing on the migration and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. HUVECs were transfected with plasmids with ezrin-targeting short hairpin RNA by using the lipofectamine-2000 system. Wound assay in vitro and three-dimensional culture were used to detect the migration and angiogenesis capacity of HUVECs. The morphological changes of transfected cells were observed by confocal and phase contrast microscopy. Our results demonstrated that the decreased expression of ezrin in HUVECs significantly induced the morphogenetic changes and cytoskeletal reorganization of the transfected cells, and also reduced cell migration and angiogenesis capacity in vitro, suggesting that ezrin play an important role in the process of HUVECs migration and angiogenesis. PMID:27072970

  2. Drosophila KASH-domain protein Klarsicht regulates microtubule stability and integrin receptor localization during collective cell migration.

    PubMed

    Myat, M M; Rashmi, R N; Manna, D; Xu, N; Patel, U; Galiano, M; Zielinski, K; Lam, A; Welte, M A

    2015-11-01

    During collective migration of the Drosophila embryonic salivary gland, cells rearrange to form a tube of a distinct shape and size. Here, we report a novel role for the Drosophila Klarsicht-Anc-Syne Homology (KASH) domain protein Klarsicht (Klar) in the regulation of microtubule (MT) stability and integrin receptor localization during salivary gland migration. In wild-type salivary glands, MTs became progressively stabilized as gland migration progressed. In embryos specifically lacking the KASH domain containing isoforms of Klar, salivary gland cells failed to rearrange and migrate, and these defects were accompanied by decreased MT stability and altered integrin receptor localization. In muscles and photoreceptors, KASH isoforms of Klar work together with Klaroid (Koi), a SUN domain protein, to position nuclei; however, loss of Koi had no effect on salivary gland migration, suggesting that Klar controls gland migration through novel interactors. The disrupted cell rearrangement and integrin localization observed in klar mutants could be mimicked by overexpressing Spastin (Spas), a MT severing protein, in otherwise wild-type salivary glands. In turn, promoting MT stability by reducing spas gene dosage in klar mutant embryos rescued the integrin localization, cell rearrangement and gland migration defects. Klar genetically interacts with the Rho1 small GTPase in salivary gland migration and is required for the subcellular localization of Rho1. We also show that Klar binds tubulin directly in vitro. Our studies provide the first evidence that a KASH-domain protein regulates the MT cytoskeleton and integrin localization during collective cell migration.

  3. Glucocorticoid receptor beta increases migration of human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    McBeth, Lucien; Nwaneri, Assumpta C; Grabnar, Maria; Demeter, Jonathan; Nestor-Kalinoski, Andrea; Hinds, Terry D

    2016-05-10

    Bladder cancer is observed worldwide having been associated with a host of environmental and lifestyle risk factors. Recent investigations on anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid signaling point to a pathway that may impact bladder cancer. Here we show an inverse effect on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform signaling that may lead to bladder cancer. We found similar GRα expression levels in the transitional uroepithelial cancer cell lines T24 and UMUC-3. However, the T24 cells showed a significant (p < 0.05) increased expression of GRβ compared to UMUC-3, which also correlated with higher migration rates. Knockdown of GRβ in the T24 cells resulted in a decreased migration rate. Mutational analysis of the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of human GRβ revealed that miR144 might positively regulate expression. Indeed, overexpression of miR144 increased GRβ by 3.8 fold. In addition, miR144 and GRβ were upregulated during migration. We used a peptide nucleic acid conjugated to a cell penetrating-peptide (Sweet-P) to block the binding site for miR144 in the 3'UTR of GRβ. Sweet-P effectively prevented miR144 actions and decreased GRβ expression, as well as the migration of the T24 human bladder cancer cells. Therefore, GRβ may have a significant role in bladder cancer, and possibly serve as a therapeutic target for the disease. PMID:27036026

  4. A lateral signalling pathway coordinates shape volatility during cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Luga, Valbona; Armitage, Sarah K.; Musiol, Martin; Won, Amy; Yip, Christopher M.; Plotnikov, Sergey V.; Wrana, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental for both physiological and pathological processes. Migrating cells usually display high dynamics in morphology, which is orchestrated by an integrative array of signalling pathways. Here we identify a novel pathway, we term lateral signalling, comprised of the planar cell polarity (PCP) protein Pk1 and the RhoGAPs, Arhgap21/23. We show that the Pk1–Arhgap21/23 complex inhibits RhoA, is localized on the non-protrusive lateral membrane cortex and its disruption leads to the disorganization of the actomyosin network and altered focal adhesion dynamics. Pk1-mediated lateral signalling confines protrusive activity and is regulated by Smurf2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase in the PCP pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that dynamic interplay between lateral and protrusive signalling generates cyclical fluctuations in cell shape that we quantify here as shape volatility, which strongly correlates with migration speed. These studies uncover a previously unrecognized lateral signalling pathway that coordinates shape volatility during productive cell migration. PMID:27226243

  5. Glucocorticoid receptor beta increases migration of human bladder cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    McBeth, Lucien; Nwaneri, Assumpta C.; Grabnar, Maria; Demeter, Jonathan; Nestor-Kalinoski, Andrea; Hinds, Terry D.

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is observed worldwide having been associated with a host of environmental and lifestyle risk factors. Recent investigations on anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid signaling point to a pathway that may impact bladder cancer. Here we show an inverse effect on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform signaling that may lead to bladder cancer. We found similar GRα expression levels in the transitional uroepithelial cancer cell lines T24 and UMUC-3. However, the T24 cells showed a significant (p < 0.05) increased expression of GRβ compared to UMUC-3, which also correlated with higher migration rates. Knockdown of GRβ in the T24 cells resulted in a decreased migration rate. Mutational analysis of the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of human GRβ revealed that miR144 might positively regulate expression. Indeed, overexpression of miR144 increased GRβ by 3.8 fold. In addition, miR144 and GRβ were upregulated during migration. We used a peptide nucleic acid conjugated to a cell penetrating-peptide (Sweet-P) to block the binding site for miR144 in the 3′UTR of GRβ. Sweet-P effectively prevented miR144 actions and decreased GRβ expression, as well as the migration of the T24 human bladder cancer cells. Therefore, GRβ may have a significant role in bladder cancer, and possibly serve as a therapeutic target for the disease. PMID:27036026

  6. Dcx reexpression reduces subcortical band heterotopia and seizure threshold in an animal model of neuronal migration disorder.

    PubMed

    Manent, Jean-Bernard; Wang, Yu; Chang, Yoonjeung; Paramasivam, Murugan; LoTurco, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    Disorders of neuronal migration can lead to malformations of the cerebral neocortex that greatly increase the risk of seizures. It remains untested whether malformations caused by disorders in neuronal migration can be reduced by reactivating cellular migration and whether such repair can decrease seizure risk. Here we show, in a rat model of subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) generated by in utero RNA interference of the Dcx gene, that aberrantly positioned neurons can be stimulated to migrate by reexpressing Dcx after birth. Restarting migration in this way both reduces neocortical malformations and restores neuronal patterning. We further find that the capacity to reduce SBH continues into early postnatal development. Moreover, intervention after birth reduces the convulsant-induced seizure threshold to a level similar to that in malformation-free controls. These results suggest that disorders of neuronal migration may be eventually treatable by reengaging developmental programs both to reduce the size of cortical malformations and to reduce seizure risk.

  7. Heparan sulfate inhibits hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell migration and engraftment in mucopolysaccharidosis I.

    PubMed

    Watson, H Angharad; Holley, Rebecca J; Langford-Smith, Kia J; Wilkinson, Fiona L; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Wynn, Robert F; Wraith, J Edmond; Merry, Catherine L R; Bigger, Brian W

    2014-12-26

    Mucopolysaccharidosis I Hurler (MPSI-H) is a pediatric lysosomal storage disease caused by genetic deficiencies in IDUA, coding for α-l-iduronidase. Idua(-/-) mice share similar clinical pathology with patients, including the accumulation of the undegraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) heparan sulfate (HS), and dermatan sulfate (DS), progressive neurodegeneration, and dysostosis multiplex. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the most effective treatment for Hurler patients, but reduced intensity conditioning is a risk factor in transplantation, suggesting an underlying defect in hematopoietic cell engraftment. HS is a co-receptor in the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) migration to the bone marrow (BM), but the effect of HS alterations on HSPC migration, or the functional role of HS in MPSI-H are unknown. We demonstrate defective WT HSPC engraftment and migration in Idua(-/-) recipient BM, particularly under reduced intensity conditioning. Both intra- but especially extracellular Idua(-/-) BM HS was significantly increased and abnormally sulfated. Soluble heparinase-sensitive GAGs from Idua(-/-) BM and specifically 2-O-sulfated HS, elevated in Idua(-/-) BM, both inhibited CXCL12-mediated WT HSPC transwell migration, while DS had no effect. Thus we have shown that excess overly sulfated extracellular HS binds, and sequesters CXCL12, limiting hematopoietic migration and providing a potential mechanism for the limited scope of HSCT in Hurler disease.

  8. Optimal chemotaxis in intermittent migration of animal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanczuk, P.; Salbreux, G.

    2015-04-01

    Animal cells can sense chemical gradients without moving and are faced with the challenge of migrating towards a target despite noisy information on the target position. Here we discuss optimal search strategies for a chaser that moves by switching between two phases of motion ("run" and "tumble"), reorienting itself towards the target during tumble phases, and performing persistent migration during run phases. We show that the chaser average run time can be adjusted to minimize the target catching time or the spatial dispersion of the chasers. We obtain analytical results for the catching time and for the spatial dispersion in the limits of small and large ratios of run time to tumble time and scaling laws for the optimal run times. Our findings have implications for optimal chemotactic strategies in animal cell migration.

  9. Optimal chemotaxis in intermittent migration of animal cells.

    PubMed

    Romanczuk, P; Salbreux, G

    2015-04-01

    Animal cells can sense chemical gradients without moving and are faced with the challenge of migrating towards a target despite noisy information on the target position. Here we discuss optimal search strategies for a chaser that moves by switching between two phases of motion ("run" and "tumble"), reorienting itself towards the target during tumble phases, and performing persistent migration during run phases. We show that the chaser average run time can be adjusted to minimize the target catching time or the spatial dispersion of the chasers. We obtain analytical results for the catching time and for the spatial dispersion in the limits of small and large ratios of run time to tumble time and scaling laws for the optimal run times. Our findings have implications for optimal chemotactic strategies in animal cell migration.

  10. Defective neuroepithelial cell cohesion affects tangential branchiomotor neuron migration in the zebrafish neural tube.

    PubMed

    Stockinger, Petra; Maître, Jean-Léon; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2011-11-01

    Facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs) in zebrafish and mouse embryonic hindbrain undergo a characteristic tangential migration from rhombomere (r) 4, where they are born, to r6/7. Cohesion among neuroepithelial cells (NCs) has been suggested to function in FBMN migration by inhibiting FBMNs positioned in the basal neuroepithelium such that they move apically between NCs towards the midline of the neuroepithelium instead of tangentially along the basal side of the neuroepithelium towards r6/7. However, direct experimental evaluation of this hypothesis is still lacking. Here, we have used a combination of biophysical cell adhesion measurements and high-resolution time-lapse microscopy to determine the role of NC cohesion in FBMN migration. We show that reducing NC cohesion by interfering with Cadherin 2 (Cdh2) activity results in FBMNs positioned at the basal side of the neuroepithelium moving apically towards the neural tube midline instead of tangentially towards r6/7. In embryos with strongly reduced NC cohesion, ectopic apical FBMN movement frequently results in fusion of the bilateral FBMN clusters over the apical midline of the neural tube. By contrast, reducing cohesion among FBMNs by interfering with Contactin 2 (Cntn2) expression in these cells has little effect on apical FBMN movement, but reduces the fusion of the bilateral FBMN clusters in embryos with strongly diminished NC cohesion. These data provide direct experimental evidence that NC cohesion functions in tangential FBMN migration by restricting their apical movement.

  11. Short-Lived, Transitory Cell-Cell Interactions Foster Migration-Dependent Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Melissa D.; Asthagiri, Anand R.

    2012-01-01

    During embryonic development, motile cells aggregate into cohesive groups, which give rise to tissues and organs. The role of cell migration in regulating aggregation is unclear. The current paradigm for aggregation is based on an equilibrium model of differential cell adhesivity to neighboring cells versus the underlying substratum. In many biological contexts, however, dynamics is critical. Here, we provide evidence that multicellular aggregation dynamics involves both local adhesive interactions and transport by cell migration. Using time-lapse video microscopy, we quantified the duration of cell-cell contacts among migrating cells that collided and adhered to another cell. This lifetime of cell-cell interactions exhibited a monotonic decreasing dependence on substratum adhesivity. Parallel quantitative measurements of cell migration speed revealed that across the tested range of adhesive substrata, the mean time needed for cells to migrate and encounter another cell was greater than the mean adhesion lifetime, suggesting that aggregation dynamics may depend on cell motility instead of the local differential adhesivity of cells. Consistent with this hypothesis, aggregate size exhibited a biphasic dependence on substratum adhesivity, matching the trend we observed for cell migration speed. Our findings suggest a new role for cell motility, alongside differential adhesion, in regulating developmental aggregation events and motivate new design principles for tuning aggregation dynamics in tissue engineering applications. PMID:22912835

  12. Fascin Regulates Nuclear Movement and Deformation in Migrating Cells.

    PubMed

    Jayo, Asier; Malboubi, Majid; Antoku, Susumu; Chang, Wakam; Ortiz-Zapater, Elena; Groen, Christopher; Pfisterer, Karin; Tootle, Tina; Charras, Guillaume; Gundersen, Gregg G; Parsons, Maddy

    2016-08-22

    Fascin is an F-actin-bundling protein shown to stabilize filopodia and regulate adhesion dynamics in migrating cells, and its expression is correlated with poor prognosis and increased metastatic potential in a number of cancers. Here, we identified the nuclear envelope protein nesprin-2 as a binding partner for fascin in a range of cell types in vitro and in vivo. Nesprin-2 interacts with fascin through a direct, F-actin-independent interaction, and this binding is distinct and separable from a role for fascin within filopodia at the cell periphery. Moreover, disrupting the interaction between fascin and nesprin-2 C-terminal domain leads to specific defects in F-actin coupling to the nuclear envelope, nuclear movement, and the ability of cells to deform their nucleus to invade through confined spaces. Together, our results uncover a role for fascin that operates independently of filopodia assembly to promote efficient cell migration and invasion. PMID:27554857

  13. Quantification of hydrodynamic factors influencing cell lateral migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nix, Stephanie; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2015-11-01

    The study of the migration of blood cells perpendicular to the direction of blood flow, or lateral migration, is motivated by the differing behavior of the various types of blood cells. In vivo, red blood cells are observed to flow in the central region of the blood vessel, particularly in the microcirculation, while other types of cells in the blood, including white blood cells and platelets, are observed to flow disproportionately near the vessel wall. However, the specifics regarding the effect of hydrodynamic and biological factors are still unknown. Thus, in this study, we aim to quantify the effect of hydrodynamic factors on a cell model numerically using the boundary integral method. By using the boundary integral method, we can isolate the effect of a single hydrodynamic factor, such as a wall or given flow distribution, in an otherwise infinite flow. Then, we can use the obtained numerical results to develop a semi-analytical model describing the cell lateral migration dependent on only the flow geometry and the viscosity ratio between the cell and external fluid.

  14. Syndecan-1 Regulates Cell Migration and Fibronectin Fibril Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Mary Ann; Daley, William P.; Bernstein, Audrey M.; Pal-Ghosh, Sonali; Tadvalkar, Gauri; Shashurin, Alexey; Palsen, Sarah; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Larsen, Melinda

    2011-01-01

    Corneal scarring is a major cause of blindness worldwide and can result from the deposition of abnormal amounts of collagen fibers lacking the correct size and spacing required to produce a clear cornea. Collagen fiber formation requires a preformed fibronectin (FN) matrix. We demonstrate that the loss of syndecan1 (sdc1) in corneal stromal cells (CSC) impacts cell migration rates, the sizes and composition of focal and fibrillar adhesions, the activation of integrins, and the assembly of fibronectin into fibrils. Integrin and fibronectin expression are not altered on sdc1 null CSCs. Cell adhesion, spreading, and migration studies using low compared to high concentrations of FN and collagen I (CNI) or vitronectin (VN) with and without activation of integrins by manganese chloride show that the impact of sdc1 depletion on integrin activation varies depending on the integrin-mediated activity evaluated. Differences in FN-fibrillogenesis and migration in sdc1 null CSCs are reversed by addition of manganese chloride but cell spreading differences remain. To determine if our findings on sdc1 were specific to the cornea, we compared the phenotypes of sdc1 null dermal fibroblasts with those of CSCs. We found that without sdc1, both cell types migrate faster; however, cell-type specific differences in FN expression and its assembly into fibrils exist between these two cell types. Together, our data demonstrate that sdc1 functions to regulate integrin activity in multiple cell types. Loss of sdc1-mediated integrin function results in cell-type specific differences in matrix assembly. A better understanding of how different cell types regulate FN fibril formation via syndecans and integrins will lead to better treatments for scarring and fibrosis. PMID:20580707

  15. YAP Regulates Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Steroidogenesis in Adult Granulosa Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Fu, David; Lv, Xiangmin; Hua, Guohua; He, Chunbo; Dong, Jixin; Lele, Subodh M.; Li, David Wan-Cheng; Zhai, Qiongli; Davis, John S.; Wang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway has been implicated as a conserved regulator of organ size in both Drosophila and mammals. Yes associated protein (YAP), the central component of the Hippo signaling cascade, functions as an oncogene in several malignancies. Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are characterized by enlargement of ovary, excess production of estrogen, high frequency of recurrence and potential of malignancy and metastasis. Whether the Hippo pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of GCT is unknown. This study was conducted to examine the expression of YAP in human adult GCTs and to determine the role of YAP in the proliferation and steroidogenesis of GCT cells. Compared with age-matched normal human ovaries, GCT tissues exhibited higher levels of YAP expression. YAP protein was predominantly expressed in the nucleus of tumor cells, whereas the non-tumor ovarian stromal cells expressed very low levels of YAP. YAP was also expressed in cultured primary human granulosa cells and in KGN and COV434 GCT cell lines. siRNA-mediated knockdown of YAP in KGN cells resulted in a significant reduction in cell proliferation (P<0.001). Conversely, overexpression of wild-type YAP or a constitutively active YAP mutant resulted in a significant increase in KGN cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, YAP knockdown reduced FSH-induced aromatase (CYP19A1) protein expression and estrogen production in KGN cells. These results demonstrate that YAP plays an important role in regulating GCT cell proliferation, migration and steroidogenesis. Targeting the Hippo/YAP pathway may provide a novel therapeutic approach for GCT. PMID:24389730

  16. Probing cell migration in confined environments by plasma lithography.

    PubMed

    Junkin, Michael; Wong, Pak Kin

    2011-03-01

    Cellular processes are regulated by various mechanical and physical factors in their local microenvironment such as geometric confinements, cell-substrate interactions, and cell-cell contact. Systematic elucidation of these regulatory mechanisms is crucial for fundamental understanding of cell biology and for rational design of biomedical devices and regenerative medicine. Here, we report a generally applicable plasma lithography technique, which performs selective surface functionalization on large substrate areas, for achieving long-term, stable confinements with length scales from 100 nm to 1 cm toward the investigation of cell-microenvironment interactions. In particular, we applied plasma lithography for cellular confinement of neuroblastomas, myoblasts, endothelial cells, and mammary gland epithelial cells, and examined the motion of mouse embryonic fibroblasts in directionality-confined environments for studying the effect of confinements on migratory behavior. In conjunction with live cell imaging, the distance traveled, velocity, and angular motion of individual cells and collective cell migration behaviors were measured in confined environments with dimensions comparable to a cell. A critical length scale that a cell could conceivably occupy and migrate to was also identified by investigating the behaviors of cells using confined environments with subcellular length scales.

  17. Enkephalins stimulate leukemia cell migration and surface expression of CD9.

    PubMed Central

    Heagy, W; Duca, K; Finberg, R W

    1995-01-01

    Opioid peptides have been implicated in the regulation of tumor growth and biology; however, little attention has been given to the mechanisms that are involved. In this study we show that physiological concentrations of the endogenous opioid neuropeptide methionine-enkephalin (MET-ENK) and the synthetic enkephalins D-Ala2, Me-Phe4, Gly(ol)5 and D-Ala2, D-Leu5 are stimulants for the in vitro migration of pre-B acute lymphoblastoid leukemia (ALL) cells. Activation of the human pre-B ALL cell lines NALM 6 and LAZ 221 with MET-ENK resulted in both an increase in their migration and an augmentation in the surface expression of the leukemia cell marker CD9. The opiate receptor antagonist naloxone reversed these enkephalin-induced effects on the leukemia cells. When the pre-B ALL cells were preincubated with an anti-CD9 mAb before challenge with MET-ENK their migration to the enkephalin was markedly reduced. These studies show that endogenous and synthetic opioid peptides are stimulants for pre-B ALL cell migration and suggest that CD9 is important in the regulation of leukemia cell motility. Images PMID:7657811

  18. A new role for GABA: inhibition of tumor cell migration.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Arturo

    2003-04-01

    GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, participates outside the CNS in diverse functions such as platelet aggregation and the acrosomal reaction in spermatozoa. A recent study now demonstrates that GABA inhibits the migration of colon carcinoma cells, paving the way to the development of specific pharmacological agents that delay or inhibit invasion and metastasis of various cancer types.

  19. Describing Directional Cell Migration with a Characteristic Directionality Time

    PubMed Central

    Loosley, Alex J.; O’Brien, Xian M.; Reichner, Jonathan S.; Tang, Jay X.

    2015-01-01

    Many cell types can bias their direction of locomotion by coupling to external cues. Characteristics such as how fast a cell migrates and the directedness of its migration path can be quantified to provide metrics that determine which biochemical and biomechanical factors affect directional cell migration, and by how much. To be useful, these metrics must be reproducible from one experimental setting to another. However, most are not reproducible because their numerical values depend on technical parameters like sampling interval and measurement error. To address the need for a reproducible metric, we analytically derive a metric called directionality time, the minimum observation time required to identify motion as directionally biased. We show that the corresponding fit function is applicable to a variety of ergodic, directionally biased motions. A motion is ergodic when the underlying dynamical properties such as speed or directional bias do not change over time. Measuring the directionality of nonergodic motion is less straightforward but we also show how this class of motion can be analyzed. Simulations are used to show the robustness of directionality time measurements and its decoupling from measurement errors. As a practical example, we demonstrate the measurement of directionality time, step-by-step, on noisy, nonergodic trajectories of chemotactic neutrophils. Because of its inherent generality, directionality time ought to be useful for characterizing a broad range of motions including intracellular transport, cell motility, and animal migration. PMID:25992908

  20. A paracrine loop between tumor cells and macrophages is required for tumor cell migration in mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Wang, Weigang; Lin, Elaine Y; Wang, Yarong; Pixley, Fiona; Stanley, E Richard; Graf, Thomas; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Segall, Jeffrey; Condeelis, John

    2004-10-01

    Invasion of tumor cells into the surrounding connective tissue and blood vessels is a key step in the metastatic spread of breast tumors. Although the presence of macrophages in primary tumors is associated with increased metastatic potential, the mechanistic basis for this observation is unknown. Using a chemotaxis-based in vivo invasion assay and multiphoton-based intravital imaging, we show that the interaction between macrophages and tumor cells facilitates the migration of carcinoma cells in the primary tumor. Gradients of either epidermal growth factor (EGF) or colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) stimulate collection into microneedles of tumor cells and macrophages even though tumor cells express only EGF receptor and macrophages express only CSF-1 receptor. Intravital imaging shows that macrophages and tumor cells migrate toward microneedles containing either EGF or CSF-1. Inhibition of either CSF-1- or EGF-stimulated signaling reduces the migration of both cell types. This work provides the first direct evidence for a synergistic interaction between macrophages and tumor cells during cell migration in vivo and indicates a mechanism for how macrophages may contribute to metastasis.

  1. p63 Inhibits Extravillous Trophoblast Migration and Maintains Cells in a Cytotrophoblast Stem Cell-Like State

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingchun; Moretto-Zita, Matteo; Leon-Garcia, Sandra; Parast, Mana M.

    2015-01-01

    Proper differentiation of placental epithelial cells, called trophoblast, is required for implantation. Early during placentation, trophoblast cell columns help anchor the developing embryo in the uterine wall. Although proximally continuous with villous cytotrophoblast (CTB) distally, these cells differentiate into invasive extravillous trophoblast. We previously reported that p63, a p53 family member, is highly expressed in proliferative villous CTB and required for induction of the trophoblast lineage in human pluripotent stem cells. We now further explore its function in human trophoblast by using both primary CTB from the early placenta and established trophoblast cell lines. We show that p63 is expressed in epidermal growth factor receptor-positive CTB and that its expression decreases with differentiation into HLA-G+ extravillous trophoblast. In trophoblast cell lines, p63 is expressed in JEG3 cells but absent from HTR8 cells. Overexpression of p63 in both cell lines enhances cell proliferation and significantly reduces cell migration; conversely, down-regulation of p63 in JEG3 cells reduces cell proliferation and restores cell migration. Analysis of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cell adhesion, and matrix degradation pathways shows that p63 blocks epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, promotes a CTB-specific cell adhesion profile, and inhibits expression of matrix metalloproteinases. Taken together, these data show that p63 maintains the proliferative CTB state, at least partially through regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cell adhesion, and matrix degradation pathways. PMID:25307348

  2. C3G regulates cortical neuron migration, preplate splitting and radial glial cell attachment.

    PubMed

    Voss, Anne K; Britto, Joanne M; Dixon, Mathew P; Sheikh, Bilal N; Collin, Caitlin; Tan, Seong-Seng; Thomas, Tim

    2008-06-01

    Neuronal migration is integral to the development of the cerebral cortex and higher brain function. Cortical neuron migration defects lead to mental disorders such as lissencephaly and epilepsy. Interaction of neurons with their extracellular environment regulates cortical neuron migration through cell surface receptors. However, it is unclear how the signals from extracellular matrix proteins are transduced intracellularly. We report here that mouse embryos lacking the Ras family guanine nucleotide exchange factor, C3G (Rapgef1, Grf2), exhibit a cortical neuron migration defect resulting in a failure to split the preplate into marginal zone and subplate and a failure to form a cortical plate. C3G-deficient cortical neurons fail to migrate. Instead, they arrest in a multipolar state and accumulate below the preplate. The basement membrane is disrupted and radial glial processes are disorganised and lack attachment in C3G-deficient brains. C3G is activated in response to reelin in cortical neurons, which, in turn, leads to activation of the small GTPase Rap1. In C3G-deficient cells, Rap1 GTP loading in response to reelin stimulation is reduced. In conclusion, the Ras family regulator C3G is essential for two aspects of cortex development, namely radial glial attachment and neuronal migration.

  3. A role for multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4; ABCC4) in human dendritic cell migration

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Rieneke; Scheffer, George L.; Reurs, Anneke W.; Lindenberg, Jelle J.; Oerlemans, Ruud; Jansen, Gerrit; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Glasgow, Joel N.; Pereboev, Alexander; Curiel, David T.; Scheper, Rik J.

    2008-01-01

    The capacity of dendritic cells (DCs) to migrate from peripheral organs to lymph nodes (LNs) is important in the initiation of a T cell–mediated immune response. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1) and the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1; ABCC1) have been shown to play a role in both human and murine DC migration. Here we show that a more recently discovered family member, MRP4 (ABCC4), is expressed on both epidermal and dermal human skin DCs and contributes to the migratory capacity of DCs. Pharmacological inhibition of MRP4 activity or down-regulation through RNAi in DCs resulted in reduced migration of DCs from human skin explants and of in vitro generated Langerhans cells. The responsible MRP4 substrate remains to be identified as exogenous addition of MRP4's known substrates prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4 and D4, or cyclic nucleotides (all previously implicated in DC migration) could not restore migration. This notwithstanding, our data show that MRP4 is an important protein, significantly contributing to human DC migration toward the draining lymph nodes, and therefore relevant for the initiation of an immune response and a possible target for immunotherapy. PMID:18625884

  4. Endogenous electric fields as guiding cue for cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Richard H. W.

    2015-01-01

    This review covers two topics: (1) “membrane potential of low magnitude and related electric fields (bioelectricity)” and (2) “cell migration under the guiding cue of electric fields (EF).”Membrane potentials for this “bioelectricity” arise from the segregation of charges by special molecular machines (pumps, transporters, ion channels) situated within the plasma membrane of each cell type (including eukaryotic non-neural animal cells). The arising patterns of ion gradients direct many cell- and molecular biological processes such as embryogenesis, wound healing, regeneration. Furthermore, EF are important as guiding cues for cell migration and are often overriding chemical or topographic cues. In osteoblasts, for instance, the directional information of EF is captured by charged transporters on the cell membrane and transferred into signaling mechanisms that modulate the cytoskeleton and motor proteins. This results in a persistent directional migration along an EF guiding cue. As an outlook, we discuss questions concerning the fluctuation of EF and the frequencies and mapping of the “electric” interior of the cell. Another exciting topic for further research is the modeling of field concepts for such distant, non-chemical cellular interactions. PMID:26029113

  5. Exo70 Generates Membrane Curvature for Morphogenesis and Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuting; Liu, Jianglan; Yang, Changsong; Capraro, Benjamin R.; Baumgart, Tobias; Bradley, Ryan P.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Xu, Xiaowei; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Svitkina, Tatyana; Guo, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic shape changes of the plasma membrane are fundamental to many processes ranging from morphogenesis and cell migration to phagocytosis and viral propagation. Here we demonstrate that Exo70, a component of the exocyst complex, induces tubular membrane invaginations towards the lumen of synthetic vesicles in vitro and generates protrusions on the surface of cells. Biochemical analyses using Exo70 mutants and independent molecular dynamics simulations based on Exo70 structure demonstrate that Exo70 generates negative membrane curvature through an oligomerization-based mechanism. In cells, the membrane-deformation function of Exo70 is required for protrusion formation and directional cell migration. Exo70 thus represents a membrane-bending protein that may couple actin dynamics and plasma membrane remodeling for morphogenesis. PMID:23948253

  6. Thermocapillary migration of bubbles and drops at moderate values of the Marangoni number in reduced gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Lacy, Claud E.; Woniak, Günter; Subramanian, R. Shankar

    1996-04-01

    Experiments were performed on the motion of isolated drops and bubbles in a Dow-Corning silicone oil under the action of an applied temperature gradient in a reduced gravity environment aboard the NASA Space Shuttle in orbit. Images of the interior of the test cell during these experiments were recorded on cine film and later analyzed to obtain data on the migration velocity as a function of size and the applied temperature gradient. The data are presented in scaled form. Predictions are available in the case of gas bubbles, and it is found that the scaled velocity decreases with increasing Marangoni number qualitatively as expected even though there are quantitative discrepancies. The scaled velocity also appears to approach a theoretical asymptote predicted in the limit of large values of the Marangoni number for Stokes motion. Finally, sample results from a preliminary experiment on a pair of drops are presented. They display the remarkable feature that a small drop which leads a large drop in a temperature gradient can significantly retard the motion of the large trailing drop while itself moving as though it is virtually unaffected by the presence of the large drop.

  7. IAP proteins: regulators of cell migration and development.

    PubMed

    Kenneth, Niall S; Duckett, Colin S

    2012-12-01

    The cytoprotective properties of vertebrate inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins have been the subject of much study. These proteins have, however, emerged as key signaling intermediates modulating a variety of cellular functions through their ability to act as E3 ubiquitin ligases. This review will focus on the cell death-independent roles of the IAP proteins, focusing on recent reports indicating that c-IAPs and XIAP are key molecules involved in modulating cell migration and development.

  8. Fasudil inhibits LPS-induced migration of retinal microglial cells via regulating p38-MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fan; Xu, Yue; Zhu, Liqiong; Rao, Pinhong; Wen, Jiamin; Sang, Yunyun; Shang, Fu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect and possible molecular mechanisms of fasudil on retinal microglial (RMG) cell migration. Methods Primary cultured RMG cells were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), fasudil, and/or SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor). RMG cell motility was determined with the scratch wound assay and the Transwell migration assay. The phosphorylation of p38 and levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 were measured with western blot. Results In the scratch-induced migration assay, as well as in the Transwell migration assay, the results indicated that LPS stimulated the migratory potential of RMG cells and fasudil significantly reduced LPS-stimulated RMG cell migration in a concentration-dependent manner. However, fasudil had no effect on RMG cell migration in the absence of LPS stimulation. Moreover, fasudil reduced the level of phosphor-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38-MAPK) in a concentration-dependent manner, without effects on the levels of phospho-p44/42 (p-ERK1/2) and phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK). Cotreatment with SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor) and fasudil resulted in the synergistic reduction of MMP-2, MMP-9, and p-p38-MAPK, as well as a reduction in the LPS-stimulated migration capabilities of the RMG cells, suggesting fasudil suppresses the LPS-stimulated migration of RMG cells via directly downregulating the p38-MAPK signaling pathway. Conclusions Our studies indicated that fasudil inhibited LPS-stimulated RMG cell migration via suppression of the p38-MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:27441000

  9. Migration of amoeba cells in an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Isabella; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2015-03-01

    Exogenous and endogenous electric fields play a role in cell physiology as a guiding mechanism for the orientation and migration of cells. Electrotaxis of living cells has been observed for several cell types, e.g. neurons, fibroblasts, leukocytes, neural crest cells, cancer cells. Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd), an intensively investigated chemotactic model organism, also exhibits a strong electrotactic behavior moving toward the cathode under the influence of electric fields. Here we report experiments on the effects of DC electric fields on the directional migration of Dd cells. We apply the electric field to cells seeded into microfluidic devices equipped with agar bridges to avoid any harmful effects of the electric field on the cells (ions formation, pH changes, etc.) and a constant flow to prevent the build-up of chemical gradient that elicits chemotaxis. Our results show that the cells linearly increase their speed over time when a constant electric field is applied for a prolonged duration (2 hours). This novel phenomenon cannot be attributed to mechanotaxis as the drag force of the electroosmotic flow is too small to produce shear forces that can reorient cells. It is independent of the cellular developmental stage and to our knowledge, it was not observed in chemotaxis. This work is supported by MaxSynBio project of the Max Planck Society.

  10. Cellular adhesome screen identifies critical modulators of focal adhesion dynamics, cellular traction forces and cell migration behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Fokkelman, Michiel; Balcıoğlu, Hayri E.; Klip, Janna E.; Yan, Kuan; Verbeek, Fons J.; Danen, Erik H. J.; van de Water, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells migrate from the primary tumour into surrounding tissue in order to form metastasis. Cell migration is a highly complex process, which requires continuous remodelling and re-organization of the cytoskeleton and cell-matrix adhesions. Here, we aimed to identify genes controlling aspects of tumour cell migration, including the dynamic organization of cell-matrix adhesions and cellular traction forces. In a siRNA screen targeting most cell adhesion-related genes we identified 200+ genes that regulate size and/or dynamics of cell-matrix adhesions in MCF7 breast cancer cells. In a subsequent secondary screen, the 64 most effective genes were evaluated for growth factor-induced cell migration and validated by tertiary RNAi pool deconvolution experiments. Four validated hits showed significantly enlarged adhesions accompanied by reduced cell migration upon siRNA-mediated knockdown. Furthermore, loss of PPP1R12B, HIPK3 or RAC2 caused cells to exert higher traction forces, as determined by traction force microscopy with elastomeric micropillar post arrays, and led to considerably reduced force turnover. Altogether, we identified genes that co-regulate cell-matrix adhesion dynamics and traction force turnover, thereby modulating overall motility behaviour. PMID:27531518

  11. Cellular adhesome screen identifies critical modulators of focal adhesion dynamics, cellular traction forces and cell migration behaviour.

    PubMed

    Fokkelman, Michiel; Balcıoğlu, Hayri E; Klip, Janna E; Yan, Kuan; Verbeek, Fons J; Danen, Erik H J; van de Water, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells migrate from the primary tumour into surrounding tissue in order to form metastasis. Cell migration is a highly complex process, which requires continuous remodelling and re-organization of the cytoskeleton and cell-matrix adhesions. Here, we aimed to identify genes controlling aspects of tumour cell migration, including the dynamic organization of cell-matrix adhesions and cellular traction forces. In a siRNA screen targeting most cell adhesion-related genes we identified 200+ genes that regulate size and/or dynamics of cell-matrix adhesions in MCF7 breast cancer cells. In a subsequent secondary screen, the 64 most effective genes were evaluated for growth factor-induced cell migration and validated by tertiary RNAi pool deconvolution experiments. Four validated hits showed significantly enlarged adhesions accompanied by reduced cell migration upon siRNA-mediated knockdown. Furthermore, loss of PPP1R12B, HIPK3 or RAC2 caused cells to exert higher traction forces, as determined by traction force microscopy with elastomeric micropillar post arrays, and led to considerably reduced force turnover. Altogether, we identified genes that co-regulate cell-matrix adhesion dynamics and traction force turnover, thereby modulating overall motility behaviour. PMID:27531518

  12. Chordin-Like 1 Suppresses Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4-Induced Breast Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Cyr-Depauw, Chanèle; Northey, Jason J.; Tabariès, Sébastien; Annis, Matthew G.; Dong, Zhifeng; Cory, Sean; Hallett, Michael; Rennhack, Jonathan P.; Andrechek, Eran R.

    2016-01-01

    ShcA is an important mediator of ErbB2- and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-induced breast cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. We show that in the context of reduced ShcA levels, the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist chordin-like 1 (Chrdl1) is upregulated in numerous breast cancer cells following TGF-β stimulation. BMPs have emerged as important modulators of breast cancer aggressiveness, and we have investigated the ability of Chrdl1 to block BMP-induced increases in breast cancer cell migration and invasion. Breast cancer-derived conditioned medium containing elevated concentrations of endogenous Chrdl1, as well as medium containing recombinant Chrdl1, suppresses BMP4-induced signaling in multiple breast cancer cell lines. Live-cell migration assays reveal that BMP4 induces breast cancer migration, which is effectively blocked by Chrdl1. We demonstrate that BMP4 also stimulated breast cancer cell invasion and matrix degradation, in part, through enhanced metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 activity that is antagonized by Chrdl1. Finally, high Chrdl1 expression was associated with better clinical outcomes in patients with breast cancer. Together, our data reveal that Chrdl1 acts as a negative regulator of malignant breast cancer phenotypes through inhibition of BMP signaling. PMID:26976638

  13. Cadherin-11 endocytosis through binding to clathrin promotes cadherin-11-mediated migration in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Satcher, Robert L; Pan, Tianhong; Bilen, Mehmet A; Li, Xiaoxia; Lee, Yu-Chen; Ortiz, Angelica; Kowalczyk, Andrew P; Yu-Lee, Li-Yuan; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2015-12-15

    Cadherin-11 (Cad11) cell adhesion molecule plays a role in prostate cancer cell migration. Because disassembly of adhesion complexes through endocytosis of adhesion proteins has been shown to play a role in cell migration, we examined whether Cad11 endocytosis plays a role in Cad11-mediated migration. The mechanism by which Cad11 is internalized is unknown. Using a GST pulldown assay, we found that clathrin binds to the Cad11 cytoplasmic domain but not to that of E-cadherin. Using deletion analysis, we identified a unique sequence motif, VFEEE, in the Cad11 membrane proximal region (amino acid residues 11-15) that binds to clathrin. Endocytosis assays using K(+)-depletion buffer showed that Cad11 internalization is clathrin dependent. Proximity ligation assays showed that Cad11 colocalizes with clathrin, and immunofluorescence assays showed that Cad11 localizes in vesicles that stain for the early endosomal marker Rab5. Deletion of the VFEEE sequence from the Cad11 cytoplasmic domain (Cad11-cla-Δ5) leads to inhibition of Cad11 internalization and reduces Cad11-mediated cell migration in C4-2B and PC3-mm2 prostate cancer cells. These observations suggest that clathrin-mediated internalization of Cad11 regulates surface trafficking of Cad11 and that dynamic turnover of Cad11 regulates the migratory function of Cad11 in prostate cancer cells.

  14. Inhibition of TRPM7 by carvacrol suppresses glioblastoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Liang; Barszczyk, Andrew; Turlova, Ekaterina; Deurloo, Marielle; Liu, Baosong; Yang, Burton B.; Rutka, James T.; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Sun, Hong-Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastomas are progressive brain tumors with devastating proliferative and invasive characteristics. Ion channels are the second largest target class for drug development. In this study, we investigated the effects of the TRPM7 inhibitor carvacrol on the viability, resistance to apoptosis, migration, and invasiveness of the human U87 glioblastoma cell line. The expression levels of TRPM7 mRNA and protein in U87 cells were detected by RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence. TRPM7 currents were recorded using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. An MTT assay was used to assess cell viability and proliferation. Wound healing and transwell experiments were used to evaluate cell migration and invasion. Protein levels of p-Akt/t-Akt, p-ERK1/2/t-ERK1/2, cleaved caspase-3, MMP-2 and phosphorylated cofilin were also detected. TRPM7 mRNA and protein expression in U87 cells is higher than in normal human astrocytes. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording showed that carvacrol blocks recombinant TRPM7 current in HEK293 cells and endogenous TRPM7-like current in U87 cells. Carvacrol treatment reduced the viability, migration and invasion of U87 cells. Carvacrol also decreased MMP-2 protein expression and promoted the phosphorylation of cofilin. Furthermore, carvacrol inhibited the Ras/MEK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Therefore, carvacrol may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of glioblastomas through its inhibition of TRPM7 channels. PMID:25965832

  15. Ndm, a coiled-coil domain protein that suppresses macropinocytosis and has effects on cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Jessica S; Fastman, Nathan M; Noratel, Elizabeth F; Blumberg, Daphne D

    2012-09-01

    The ampA gene has a role in cell migration in Dictyostelium discoideum. Cells overexpressing AmpA show an increase in cell migration, forming large plaques on bacterial lawns. A second-site suppressor of this ampA-overexpressing phenotype identified a previously uncharacterized gene, ndm, which is described here. The Ndm protein is predicted to contain a coiled-coil BAR-like domain-a domain involved in endocytosis and membrane bending. ndm-knockout and Ndm-monomeric red fluorescent protein-expressing cell lines were used to establish a role for ndm in suppressing endocytosis. An increase in the rate of endocytosis and in the number of endosomes was detected in ndm(-) cells. During migration ndm(-) cells formed numerous endocytic cups instead of the broad lamellipodia structure characteristic of moving cells. A second lamellipodia-based function-cell spreading-was also defective in the ndm(-) cells. The increase in endocytosis and the defect in lamellipodia formation were associated with reduced chemotaxis in ndm(-) cells. Immunofluorescence results and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays revealed an association of Ndm with coronin and F-actin. The results establish ndm as a gene important in regulating the balance between formation of endocytic cups and lamellipodia structures. PMID:22809629

  16. Effects of neuritin on the migration, senescence and proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuhui; Liu, Chunyan; Xu, Fen; Cui, Lijuan; Tan, Siwei; Chen, Rong; Yang, Lei; Huang, Jin

    2015-09-01

    Neuritin is a neurotrophic factor associated with neuroplasticity. Most studies on neuritin focus on the nervous system; however, there has been no comprehensive evaluation of neuritin in non-neuronal cells. In this study, we screened 11 cell lines and found that neuritin was not expressed in bone marrowderived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Neuritin-expressing BMSCs were obtained by transfection. In the neuritin-expressing BMSC model, we observed significantly greater cell migration and improved anti-senescence protection, in addition to reduced proliferation and viability. In conclusion, neuritin not only plays an important role in the nervous system but also has an effect on the migration, senescence, proliferation, and viability of stem cells. This study provides a theoretical basis for understanding the function of neuritin. PMID:26208391

  17. Dentin Matrix Protein-1 Isoforms Promote Differential Cell Attachment and Migration*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    von Marschall, Zofia; Fisher, Larry W.

    2008-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteopontin (OPN) are three SIBLINGs (small integrin-binding ligand, N-linked glycoproteins) co-expressed/secreted by skeletal and active ductal epithelial cells. Although etiological mechanisms remain unclear, DMP1 is the only one of these three genes currently known to have mutations resulting in human disease, and yet it remains the least studied. All three contain the highly conserved integrin-binding tripeptide, RGD, and experiments comparing the cell attachment and haptotactic migration-enhancing properties of DMP1 to BSP and OPN were performed using human skeletal (MG63 and primary dental pulp cells) and salivary gland (HSG) cells. Mutation of any SIBLING's RGD destroyed all attachment and migration activity. Using itsαVβ5 integrin, HSG cells attached to BSP but not to DMP1 or OPN. However, HSG cells could not migrate onto BSP in a modified Boyden chamber assay. Expression of αVβ3 integrin enhanced HSG attachment to DMP1 and OPN and promoted haptotactic migration onto all three proteins. Interchanging the first four coding exons or the conserved amino acids adjacent to the RGD of DMP1 with corresponding sequences of BSP did not enhance the ability of DMP1 to bindαVβ5. For αVβ3-expressing cells, intact DMP1, its BMP1-cleaved C-terminal fragment, and exon six lacking all post-translational modifications worked equally well but the proteoglycan isoform of DMP1 had greatly reduced ability for cell attachment and migration. The sequence specificity of the proposed BMP1-cleavage site of DMP1 was verified by mutation analysis. Direct comparison of the three proteins showed that cells discriminate among these SIBLINGs and among DMP1 isoforms. PMID:18819913

  18. Regulation of Cell Migration and β1 Integrin Trafficking by the Endosomal Adaptor GGA3.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, Colin D H; Sahgal, Pranshu; Parachoniak, Christine A; Ivaska, Johanna; Park, Morag

    2016-06-01

    The integrin family of cell adhesion receptors link extracellular matrices to intracellular signaling pathways and the actin cytoskeleton; and regulate cell migration, proliferation and survival in normal and diseased tissues. The subcellular location of integrin receptors is critical for their function and deregulated trafficking is implicated in various human diseases. Here we identify a role for Golgi-localized gamma-ear containing Arf-binding protein 3 (GGA3), in regulating trafficking of β1 integrin. GGA3 knockdown reduces cell surface and total levels of α2, α5 and β1 integrin subunits, inhibits cell spreading, reduces focal adhesion number, as well as cell migration. In the absence of GGA3, integrins are increasingly retained inside the cell, traffic toward the perinuclear lysosomal compartment and their degradation is enhanced. Integrin traffic and maintenance of integrin levels are dependent on the integrity of the Arf binding site of GGA3. Furthermore, sorting nexin 17 (SNX17), a critical regulator of integrin recycling, becomes mislocalized to enlarged late endosomes upon GGA3 depletion. These data support a model whereby GGA3, through its ability to regulate SNX17 endosomal localization and through interaction with Arf6 diverts integrins from the degradative pathway supporting cell migration. PMID:26935970

  19. ATM regulation of IL-8 links oxidative stress to cancer cell migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Ebelt, Nancy D; Stracker, Travis H; Xhemalce, Blerta; Van Den Berg, Carla L; Miller, Kyle M

    2015-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) and is associated with cancer suppression. Here we report a cancer-promoting role for ATM. ATM depletion in metastatic cancer cells reduced cell migration and invasion. Transcription analyses identified a gene network, including the chemokine IL-8, regulated by ATM. IL-8 expression required ATM and was regulated by oxidative stress. IL-8 was validated as an ATM target by its ability to rescue cell migration and invasion defects in ATM-depleted cells. Finally, ATM-depletion in human breast cancer cells reduced lung tumors in a mouse xenograft model and clinical data validated IL-8 in lung metastasis. These findings provide insights into how ATM activation by oxidative stress regulates IL-8 to sustain cell migration and invasion in cancer cells to promote metastatic potential. Thus, in addition to well-established roles in tumor suppression, these findings identify a role for ATM in tumor progression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07270.001 PMID:26030852

  20. Designer self-assembling hydrogel scaffolds can impact skin cell proliferation and migration

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Michael; Ho, Diwei; Fear, Mark W.; Gelain, Fabrizio; Wood, Fiona M.; Iyer, K. Swaminathan

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to develop economical, efficient and widely available therapeutic approaches to enhance the rate of skin wound healing. The optimal outcome of wound healing is restoration to the pre-wound quality of health. In this study we investigate the cellular response to biological stimuli using functionalized nanofibers from the self-assembling peptide, RADA16. We demonstrate that adding different functional motifs to the RADA16 base peptide can influence the rate of proliferation and migration of keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Relative to unmodified RADA16; the Collagen I motif significantly promotes cell migration, and reduces proliferation. PMID:25384420

  1. Designer self-assembling hydrogel scaffolds can impact skin cell proliferation and migration.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Michael; Ho, Diwei; Fear, Mark W; Gelain, Fabrizio; Wood, Fiona M; Iyer, K Swaminathan

    2014-11-11

    There is a need to develop economical, efficient and widely available therapeutic approaches to enhance the rate of skin wound healing. The optimal outcome of wound healing is restoration to the pre-wound quality of health. In this study we investigate the cellular response to biological stimuli using functionalized nanofibers from the self-assembling peptide, RADA16. We demonstrate that adding different functional motifs to the RADA16 base peptide can influence the rate of proliferation and migration of keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Relative to unmodified RADA16; the Collagen I motif significantly promotes cell migration, and reduces proliferation.

  2. Designer self-assembling hydrogel scaffolds can impact skin cell proliferation and migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Michael; Ho, Diwei; Fear, Mark W.; Gelain, Fabrizio; Wood, Fiona M.; Iyer, K. Swaminathan

    2014-11-01

    There is a need to develop economical, efficient and widely available therapeutic approaches to enhance the rate of skin wound healing. The optimal outcome of wound healing is restoration to the pre-wound quality of health. In this study we investigate the cellular response to biological stimuli using functionalized nanofibers from the self-assembling peptide, RADA16. We demonstrate that adding different functional motifs to the RADA16 base peptide can influence the rate of proliferation and migration of keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Relative to unmodified RADA16; the Collagen I motif significantly promotes cell migration, and reduces proliferation.

  3. T-cell Migration, Search Strategies and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Krummel, Matthew F; Bartumeus, Frederic; Gérard, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    T cell migration is essential for T cell responses, allowing for detection of cognate antigen at the surface of an Antigen-Presenting Cell (APC) and for interactions with other cells involved in the immune response. Although appearing random, growing evidence supports that T cell motility patterns are strategic and governed by mechanisms that are optimized for both activation-stage and environment-specific attributes. In this Opinion Article, we will discuss how to understand the combined effects of T cell- intrinsic and -extrinsic forces upon these motility patterns when viewed in highly complex tissues filled with other cells involved in parallel motility. In particular, we will examine how insights from ‘search theory’ describe T cell movement across exploitation-exploration gradients, in the context of activation versus effector function and in the context of lymph nodes versus peripheral tissues. PMID:26852928

  4. Chemokine-guided cell migration and motility in zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Jeroen; Raz, Erez

    2015-05-12

    Chemokines are vertebrate-specific, structurally related proteins that function primarily in controlling cell movements by activating specific 7-transmembrane receptors. Chemokines play critical roles in a large number of biological processes and are also involved in a range of pathological conditions. For these reasons, chemokines are at the focus of studies in developmental biology and of clinically oriented research aimed at controlling cancer, inflammation, and immunological diseases. The small size of the zebrafish embryos, their rapid external development, and optical properties as well as the large number of eggs and the fast expansion in genetic tools available make this model an extremely useful one for studying the function of chemokines and chemokine receptors in an in vivo setting. Here, we review the findings relevant to the role that chemokines play in the context of directed single-cell migration, primarily in neutrophils and germ cells, and compare it to the collective cell migration of the zebrafish lateral line. We present the current knowledge concerning the formation of the chemokine gradient, its interpretation within the cell, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular response to chemokine signals during directed migration.

  5. Optogenetic approaches to cell migration and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Weitzman, Matthew; Hahn, Klaus M.

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetics, the use of genetically encoded tools to control protein function with light, can generate localized changes in signaling within living cells and animals. For years it has been focused on channel proteins for neurobiology, but has recently expanded to cover many different types of proteins, using a broad array of different protein engineering approaches. These methods have largely been directed at proteins involved in motility, cytoskeletal regulation and gene expression. This review provides a survey of non-channel proteins that have been engineered for optogenetics. Existing molecules are used to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the many imaginative new approaches that the reader can use to create light-controlled proteins. PMID:25216352

  6. The Origin And Migration Of Primordial Germ Cells In Sturgeons

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Taiju; Pšenička, Martin; Goto, Rie; Adachi, Shinji; Inoue, Kunio; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

    2014-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) arise elsewhere in the embryo and migrate into developing gonadal ridges during embryonic development. In several model animals, formation and migration patterns of PGCs have been studied, and it is known that these patterns vary. Sturgeons (genus Acipenser) have great potential for comparative and evolutionary studies of development. Sturgeons belong to the super class Actinoptergii, and their developmental pattern is similar to that of amphibians, although their phylogenetic position is an out-group to teleost fishes. Here, we reveal an injection technique for sturgeon eggs allowing visualization of germplasm and PGCs. Using this technique, we demonstrate that the PGCs are generated at the vegetal pole of the egg and they migrate on the yolky cell mass toward the gonadal ridge. We also provide evidence showing that PGCs are specified by inheritance of maternally supplied germplasm. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the migratory mechanism is well-conserved between sturgeon and other remotely related teleosts, such as goldfish, by a single PGCs transplantation (SPT) assay. The mode of PGCs specification in sturgeon is similar to that of anurans, but the migration pattern resembles that of teleosts. PMID:24505272

  7. Active migration into the subcellular space precedes Campylobacter jejuni invasion of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    van Alphen, Lieke B; Bleumink-Pluym, Nancy M C; Rochat, Klazina D; van Balkom, Bas W M; Wösten, Marc M S M; van Putten, Jos P M

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni invades mucosal cells via largely undefined and rather inefficient (0.01-2 bacteria per cell) mechanisms. Here we report a novel, highly efficient C. jejuni infection pathway resulting in 10-15 intracellular bacteria per cell within 3 h of infection. Electron microscopy, pulse-chase infection assays and time-lapse multiphoton laser confocal microscopy demonstrated that the mechanism involved active and rapid migration of the pathogen into the subcellular space (termed 'subvasion'), followed by bacterial entry ('invasion') at the cell basis. Efficient subvasion was maximal after repeated rounds of selection for the subvasive phenotype. Targeted mutagenesis indicated that the CadF, JlpA or PEB1 adhesins were not required. Dissection of the selected and parental phenotypes by SDS-PAGE yielded comparable capsule polysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide profiles. Proteomics revealed reduced amounts of the chemotaxis protein CheW for the subvasive phenotype. Swarming assays confirmed that the selected phenotype exhibited altered migration behaviour. Introduction of a plasmid carrying chemotaxis genes into the subvasive strain yielded wild-type subvasion levels and migration behaviour. These results indicate that alterations in the bacterial migration machinery enable C. jejuni to actively penetrate the subcellular space and gain access to the cell interior with unprecedented efficiency. PMID:18052944

  8. AHNAK is highly expressed and plays a key role in cell migration and invasion in mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Hitomi; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Sugyo, Aya; Abe, Masaaki; Hino, Okio; Saga, Tsuneo

    2014-02-01

    The worldwide incidence of the highly aggressive tumor mesothelioma is expected to increase. Mesothelioma is classified into three main histological subtypes: epithelioid, sarcomatoid and biphasic. Although the pathological diagnostic markers for epithelioid are established, to date no adequate marker for sarcomatoid mesothelioma has been found. Thus, a reliable diagnostic marker of sarcomatoid mesothelioma is necessary. In this study, to identify an unknown protein with 120 kDa expressed only in the mesothelioma cell line 211H, we conducted proteomic analysis and found five candidate proteins. One such protein, AHNAK, was highly expressed in all seven mesothelioma cell lines (211H, H28, H226, H2052, H2452, MESO1 and MESO4), but not in the mesothelial cell line MeT-5A by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, we confirmed high AHNAK expression not only in xenografts but also in human mesothelioma specimens including sarcomatoid, epithelioid and biphasic mesothelioma using immunohistochemical staining. These findings suggest that AHNAK has the potential to be a new marker for detecting mesothelioma. Since AHNAK is involved in cell migration and invasion in other metastatic tumor cells, we conducted migration and invasion assays in mesothelioma cell lines. The number of migrating cells in six of seven mesothelioma cell lines and the number of invading cells in all seven cell lines were significantly increased compared with those in MeT-5A. Knockdown of AHNAK significantly reduced the cell migration and invasion ability in all seven mesothelioma cell lines. These results support further clinical evaluation of the association of AHNAK and metastasis in mesothelioma.

  9. Cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic processes coupled by myosin II in dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Chabaud, Mélanie; Heuzé, Mélina L.; Bretou, Marine; Vargas, Pablo; Maiuri, Paolo; Solanes, Paola; Maurin, Mathieu; Terriac, Emmanuel; Le Berre, Maël; Lankar, Danielle; Piolot, Tristan; Adelstein, Robert S.; Zhang, Yingfan; Sixt, Michael; Jacobelli, Jordan; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël; Piel, Matthieu; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    The immune response relies on the migration of leukocytes and on their ability to stop in precise anatomical locations to fulfil their task. How leukocyte migration and function are coordinated is unknown. Here we show that in immature dendritic cells, which patrol their environment by engulfing extracellular material, cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic. This antagonism results from transient enrichment of myosin IIA at the cell front, which disrupts the back-to-front gradient of the motor protein, slowing down locomotion but promoting antigen capture. We further highlight that myosin IIA enrichment at the cell front requires the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii). Thus, by controlling myosin IIA localization, Ii imposes on dendritic cells an intermittent antigen capture behaviour that might facilitate environment patrolling. We propose that the requirement for myosin II in both cell migration and specific cell functions may provide a general mechanism for their coordination in time and space. PMID:26109323

  10. Aquaporin-5: A Marker Protein for Proliferation and Migration of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun Jun; Park, Ji-Young; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Kwon, Tae-Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) is a family of transmembrane proteins for water transport. Recent studies revealed that AQPs are likely to play a role in tumor progression and invasion. We aimed to examine the potential role of AQP5 in the progression of human breast cancer cells. Expression of AQP5 mRNA and protein was seen in human breast cancer cell line (both MCF7 and MDA-MB-231) by RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis. Immunoperoxidase labeling of AQP5 was observed at ductal epithelial cells of human breast tissues. In benign tumor, AQP5 labeling was mainly seen at the apical domains of ductal epithelial cells. In contrast, in invasive ductal carcinoma, prominent AQP5 labeling was associated with cancer cells, whereas some ducts were unlabeled and apical polarity of AQP5 in ducts was lost. Cell proliferation (BrdU incorporation assay) and migration of MCF7 cells were significantly attenuated by lentivirus-mediated AQP5-shRNA transduction. Hyperosmotic stress induced by sorbitol treatment (100 mM, 24 h) reduced AQP5 expression in MCF7 cells, which was also associated with a significant reduction in cell proliferation and migration. Taken together, prominent AQP5 expression in breast cancer cells with the loss of polarity of ductal epithelial cells was seen during the progression of breast carcinoma. shRNA- or hyperosmotic stress-induced reduction in AQP5 expression of MCF7 cells was associated with significantly reduced cell proliferation and migration. In conclusion, AQP5 overexpression is likely to play a role in cell growth and metastasis of human breast cancer and could be a novel target for anti-breast cancer treatment. PMID:22145049

  11. Actein Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Migration in Human Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Wu, Jingdong; Guo, Qinghao

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteosarcoma is one of the most common malignant bone cancers worldwide. Although the traditional chemotherapies have made some progression in the past decades, the mortality of osteosarcoma in children and adolescent is very high. Herein, the role of actein in osteosarcoma was explored. Material/Methods Cell viability assay was performed in osteosarcoma cell lines 143B and U2OS. Colony formation analysis was included when cells were treated with different doses of actin. Cell cycle assay was conducted to further examine the role of actein. Cell apoptotic rate and the relative activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were detected in 143B and U2OS osteosarcoma cells. Moreover, transwell assays were used to explore the effects of actein on cell metastasis. Results Actein significantly inhibited osteosarcoma cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Actein also dramatically suppressed the colony formation ability in osteosarcoma143B and U2OS cells. It was revealed that osteosarcoma cells were arrested in G0/G1 phase in the cell cycle progression and induced to apoptosis by administration of actein. The activities of pro-apoptotic factors such as caspase-3 and caspase-9 were significantly increased by actein. Furthermore, administration of actein decreased cell migrated and invasive abilities in both 143B and U2OS cell lines. Conclusions Actein inhibits tumor growth by inducing cell apoptosis in osteosarcoma. The inhibitive roles of actein in cell proliferation, migration and invasion suggest that actein may serve as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:27173526

  12. Migration of Drosophila intestinal stem cells across organ boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Shigeo; Paul, Manash; Aghajanian, Patrick; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-01-01

    All components of the Drosophila intestinal tract, including the endodermal midgut and ectodermal hindgut/Malpighian tubules, maintain populations of dividing stem cells. In the midgut and hindgut, these stem cells originate from within larger populations of intestinal progenitors that proliferate during the larval stage and form the adult intestine during metamorphosis. The origin of stem cells found in the excretory Malpighian tubules (‘renal stem cells’) has not been established. In this paper, we investigate the migration patterns of intestinal progenitors that take place during metamorphosis. Our data demonstrate that a subset of adult midgut progenitors (AMPs) move posteriorly to form the adult ureters and, consecutively, the renal stem cells. Inhibiting cell migration by AMP-directed expression of a dominant-negative form of Rac1 protein results in the absence of stem cells in the Malpighian tubules. As the majority of the hindgut progenitor cells migrate posteriorly and differentiate into hindgut enterocytes, a group of the progenitor cells, unexpectedly, invades anteriorly into the midgut territory. Consequently, these progenitor cells differentiate into midgut enterocytes. The midgut determinant GATAe is required for the differentiation of midgut enterocytes derived from hindgut progenitors. Wingless signaling acts to balance the proportion of hindgut progenitors that differentiate as midgut versus hindgut enterocytes. Our findings indicate that a stable boundary between midgut and hindgut/Malpighian tubules is not established during early embryonic development; instead, pluripotent progenitor populations cross in between these organs in both directions, and are able to adopt the fate of the organ in which they come to reside. PMID:23571215

  13. Depletion of C3orf1/TIMMDC1 inhibits migration and proliferation in 95D lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huiling; Wang, Wenbing; Xu, Huaxi

    2014-01-01

    In our previous study, we identified an association of high expression of c3orf1, also known as TIMMDC1 (translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane domain-containing protein 1), with metastatic characteristics in lung carcinoma cells. To investigate the preliminary function and mechanism of this mitochondrial protein, we depleted C3orf1 expression by introducing siRNA into 95D lung carcinoma cells. We demonstrated that C3orf1 depletion significantly suppressed 95D cell growth and migration. We confirmed C3orf1 localization in the inner mitochondrial membrane and showed that mitochondrial viability, membrane potential, and ATPase activity were remarkably reduced upon depletion of C3orf1. Microarray data indicated that genes involved in regulation of cell death, migration, and cell-cycle arrest were significantly altered after C3orf1 depletion for 48 h. The expression of genes involved in focal adhesion, ECM-receptor interaction, and p53-signaling pathways were notably altered. Furthermore, cell-cycle arrest genes such as CCNG2 and PTEN as well as genes involved in cell migration inhibition, such as TIMP3 and COL3A1, were upregulated after C3orf1 depletion in 95D cells. Concurrently, expression of the migration-promoting gene NUPR1 was markedly reduced, as confirmed by real-time PCR. We conclude that C3orf1 is critical for mitochondrial function, migration, and proliferation in 95D lung carcinoma cells. Depletion of C3orf1 inhibited cell migration and cell proliferation in association with upregulation of genes involved in cell-cycle arrest and cell migration inhibition. These results suggest that C3orf1 (TIMMDC1) may be a viable treatment target for lung carcinoma, and that further study of the role of this protein in lung carcinoma pathogenesis is justified. PMID:25391042

  14. Nifedipine Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong-Qing; Zhang, Hao; Tan, Sheng-Jiang; Gu, Yu-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Nifedipine is widely used as a calcium channel blocker (CCB) to treat angina and hypertension,but it is controversial with respect the risk of stimulation of cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that nifedipine promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells both invivo and invitro. However, verapamil, another calcium channel blocker, didn’t exert the similar effects. Nifedipine and high concentration KCl failed to alter the [Ca2+]i in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that such nifedipine effect was not related with calcium channel. Moreover, nifedipine decreased miRNA-524-5p, resulting in the up-regulation of brain protein I3 (BRI3). Erk pathway was consequently activated and led to the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Silencing BRI3 reversed the promoting effect of nifedipine on the breast cancer. In a summary, nifedipine stimulated the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells via the axis of miRNA-524-5p-BRI3–Erk pathway independently of its calcium channel-blocking activity. Our findings highlight that nifedipine but not verapamil is conducive for breast cancer growth and metastasis, urging that the caution should be taken in clinic to prescribe nifedipine to women who suffering both hypertension and breast cancer, and hypertension with a tendency in breast cancers. PMID:25436889

  15. SENP1 regulates cell migration and invasion in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Xiang-Ming, Yan; Zhi-Qiang, Xu; Ting, Zhang; Jian, Wang; Jian, Pan; Li-Qun, Yuan; Ming-Cui, Fu; Hong-Liang, Xia; Xu, Cao; Yun, Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is an embryonic solid tumor derived from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system, and accounts for 11% of childhood cancers and around 15% of cancer deaths in children. SUMOylation and deSUMOylation are dynamic mechanisms regulating a spectrum of protein activities. The SUMO proteases (SENP) remove SUMO conjugate from proteins, and their expression is deregulated in diverse cancers. However, nothing is known about the role of SENPs in NBL. In the present study, we found that SENP1 expression was significantly high in metastatic NB tissues compared with primary NB tissues. Overexpression of SENP1 promoted NB cells migration and invasion. Inhibition of SENP1 could significantly suppress NB cell migration and invasion. Moreover, we found that SENP1 could regulate the expression of CDH1, MMP9, and MMP2. In summary, the data presented here indicate a significant role of SENP1 in the regulation of cell migration and invasion in NB and suppress SENP1 expression as promising candidates for novel treatment strategies of NB.

  16. Transient receptor potential melastatin 4 channel contributes to migration of androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kilch, Tatiana; Jochum, Marcus Martin; Urban, Sabine Katharina; Jung, Volker; Stöckle, Michael; Rother, Karen; Greiner, Markus; Peinelt, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Impaired Ca2+ signaling in prostate cancer contributes to several cancer hallmarks, such as enhanced proliferation and migration and a decreased ability to induce apoptosis. Na+ influx via transient receptor potential melastatin 4 channel (TRPM4) can reduce store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) by decreasing the driving force for Ca2+. In patients with prostate cancer, gene expression of TRPM4 is elevated. Recently, TRPM4 was identified as a cancer driver gene in androgen-insensitive prostate cancer. We investigated TRPM4 protein expression in cancer tissue samples from 20 patients with prostate cancer. We found elevated TRPM4 protein levels in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostate cancer tissue compared to healthy tissue. In primary human prostate epithelial cells (hPEC) from healthy tissue and in the androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC3, TRPM4 mediated large Na+ currents. We demonstrated significantly increased SOCE after siRNA targeting of TRPM4 in hPEC and DU145 cells. In addition, knockdown of TRPM4 reduced migration but not proliferation of DU145 and PC3 cells. Taken together, our data identify TRPM4 as a regulator of SOCE in hPEC and DU145 cells, demonstrate a role for TRPM4 in cancer cell migration and suggest that TRPM4 is a promising potential therapeutic target. PMID:26496025

  17. NFAT transcription factors regulate survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pérez, María C; Fernández, Miriam; Neria, Fernando; Berjón-Otero, Mónica; Doncel-Pérez, Ernesto; Cano, Eva; Tranque, Pedro

    2015-06-01

    The study of factors that regulate the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) is essential to understand neural development as well as brain regeneration. The Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells (NFAT) is a family of transcription factors that can affect these processes besides playing key roles during development, such as stimulating axonal growth in neurons, maturation of immune system cells, heart valve formation, and differentiation of skeletal muscle and bone. Interestingly, NFAT signaling can also promote cell differentiation in adults, participating in tissue regeneration. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the expression of NFAT isoforms in NPCs, and to investigate its possible role in NPC survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Our findings indicate that NFAT proteins are active not only in neurogenic brain regions such as hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ), but also in cultured NPCs. The inhibition of NFAT activation with the peptide VIVIT reduced neurosphere size and cell density in NPC cultures by decreasing proliferation and increasing cell death. VIVIT also decreased NPC migration and differentiation of astrocytes and neurons from NPCs. In addition, we identified NFATc3 as a predominant NFAT isoform in NPC cultures, finding that a constitutively-active form of NFATc3 expressed by adenoviral infection reduces NPC proliferation, stimulates migration, and is a potent inducer of NPC differentiation into astrocytes and neurons. In summary, our work uncovers active roles for NFAT signaling in NPC survival, proliferation and differentiation, and highlights its therapeutic potential for tissue regeneration.

  18. MYADM regulates Rac1 targeting to ordered membranes required for cell spreading and migration.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Juan F; Reglero-Real, Natalia; Kremer, Leonor; Marcos-Ramiro, Beatriz; Ruiz-Sáenz, Ana; Calvo, María; Enrich, Carlos; Correas, Isabel; Millán, Jaime; Alonso, Miguel A

    2011-04-15

    Membrane organization into condensed domains or rafts provides molecular platforms for selective recruitment of proteins. Cell migration is a general process that requires spatiotemporal targeting of Rac1 to membrane rafts. The protein machinery responsible for making rafts competent to recruit Rac1 remains elusive. Some members of the MAL family of proteins are involved in specialized processes dependent on this type of membrane. Because condensed membrane domains are a general feature of the plasma membrane of all mammalian cells, we hypothesized that MAL family members with ubiquitous expression and plasma membrane distribution could be involved in the organization of membranes for cell migration. We show that myeloid-associated differentiation marker (MYADM), a protein with unique features within the MAL family, colocalizes with Rac1 in membrane protrusions at the cell surface and distributes in condensed membranes. MYADM knockdown (KD) cells had altered membrane condensation and showed deficient incorporation of Rac1 to membrane raft fractions and, similar to Rac1 KD cells, exhibited reduced cell spreading and migration. Results of rescue-of-function experiments by expression of MYADM or active Rac1L61 in cells knocked down for Rac1 or MYADM, respectively, are consistent with the idea that MYADM and Rac1 act on parallel pathways that lead to similar functional outcomes. PMID:21325632

  19. Baicalein inhibits the migration and invasive properties of human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lin, Tseng-Hsi; Huang, Wen-Shih; Teng, Chun-Yuh; Liou, Yi-Sheng; Kuo, Wu-Hsien; Lin, Wea-Lung; Huang, Hai-I; Tung, Jai-Nien; Huang, Chih-Yang; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Wang, Wen-Hung; Hwang, Jin-Ming

    2011-09-15

    Flavonoids have been demonstrated to exert health benefits in humans. We investigated whether the flavonoid baicalein would inhibit the adhesion, migration, invasion, and growth of human hepatoma cell lines, and we also investigated its mechanism of action. The separate effects of baicalein and baicalin on the viability of HA22T/VGH and SK-Hep1 cells were investigated for 24 h. To evaluate their invasive properties, cells were incubated on matrigel-coated transwell membranes in the presence or absence of baicalein. We examined the effect of baicalein on the adhesion of cells, on the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), protein kinase C (PKC), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and on tumor growth in vivo. We observed that baicalein suppresses hepatoma cell growth by 55%, baicalein-treated cells showed lower levels of migration than untreated cells, and cell invasion was significantly reduced to 28%. Incubation of hepatoma cells with baicalein also significantly inhibited cell adhesion to matrigel, collagen I, and gelatin-coated substrate. Baicalein also decreased the gelatinolytic activities of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA, decreased p50 and p65 nuclear translocation, and decreased phosphorylated I-kappa-B (IKB)-{beta}. In addition, baicalein reduced the phosphorylation levels of PKC{alpha} and p38 proteins, which regulate invasion in poorly differentiated hepatoma cells. Finally, when SK-Hep1 cells were grown as xenografts in nude mice, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of baicalein induced a significant dose-dependent decrease in tumor growth. These results demonstrate the anticancer properties of baicalein, which include the inhibition of adhesion, invasion, migration, and proliferation of human hepatoma cells in vivo. - Highlight: > Baicalein inhibits several essential steps in the onset of metastasis.

  20. Microglia Activate Migration of Glioma Cells through a Pyk2 Intracellular Pathway.

    PubMed

    Rolón-Reyes, Kimberleve; Kucheryavykh, Yuriy V; Cubano, Luis A; Inyushin, Mikhail; Skatchkov, Serguei N; Eaton, Misty J; Harrison, Jeffrey K; Kucheryavykh, Lilia Y

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive and fatal brain cancers due to the highly invasive nature of glioma cells. Microglia infiltrate most glioma tumors and, therefore, make up an important component of the glioma microenvironment. In the tumor environment, microglia release factors that lead to the degradation of the extracellular matrix and stimulate signaling pathways to promote glioma cell invasion. In the present study, we demonstrated that microglia can promote glioma migration through a mechanism independent of extracellular matrix degradation. Using western blot analysis, we found upregulation of proline rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) protein phosphorylated at Tyr579/580 in glioma cells treated with microglia conditioned medium. This upregulation occurred in rodent C6 and GL261 as well as in human glioma cell lines with varying levels of invasiveness (U-87MG, A172, and HS683). siRNA knock-down of Pyk2 protein and pharmacological blockade by the Pyk2/focal-adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor PF-562,271 reversed the stimulatory effect of microglia on glioma migration in all cell lines. A lower concentration of PF-562,271 that selectively inhibits FAK, but not Pyk2, did not have any effect on glioma cell migration. Moreover, with the use of the CD11b-HSVTK microglia ablation mouse model we demonstrated that elimination of microglia in the implanted tumors (GL261 glioma cells were used for brain implantation) by the local in-tumor administration of Ganciclovir, significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Pyk2 at Tyr579/580 in implanted tumor cells. Taken together, these data indicate that microglial cells activate glioma cell migration/dispersal through the pro-migratory Pyk2 signaling pathway in glioma cells. PMID:26098895

  1. Microglia Activate Migration of Glioma Cells through a Pyk2 Intracellular Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rolón-Reyes, Kimberleve; Kucheryavykh, Yuriy V.; Cubano, Luis A.; Inyushin, Mikhail; Skatchkov, Serguei N.; Eaton, Misty J.; Harrison, Jeffrey K.; Kucheryavykh, Lilia Y.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive and fatal brain cancers due to the highly invasive nature of glioma cells. Microglia infiltrate most glioma tumors and, therefore, make up an important component of the glioma microenvironment. In the tumor environment, microglia release factors that lead to the degradation of the extracellular matrix and stimulate signaling pathways to promote glioma cell invasion. In the present study, we demonstrated that microglia can promote glioma migration through a mechanism independent of extracellular matrix degradation. Using western blot analysis, we found upregulation of proline rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) protein phosphorylated at Tyr579/580 in glioma cells treated with microglia conditioned medium. This upregulation occurred in rodent C6 and GL261 as well as in human glioma cell lines with varying levels of invasiveness (U-87MG, A172, and HS683). siRNA knock-down of Pyk2 protein and pharmacological blockade by the Pyk2/focal-adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor PF-562,271 reversed the stimulatory effect of microglia on glioma migration in all cell lines. A lower concentration of PF-562,271 that selectively inhibits FAK, but not Pyk2, did not have any effect on glioma cell migration. Moreover, with the use of the CD11b-HSVTK microglia ablation mouse model we demonstrated that elimination of microglia in the implanted tumors (GL261 glioma cells were used for brain implantation) by the local in-tumor administration of Ganciclovir, significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Pyk2 at Tyr579/580 in implanted tumor cells. Taken together, these data indicate that microglial cells activate glioma cell migration/dispersal through the pro-migratory Pyk2 signaling pathway in glioma cells. PMID:26098895

  2. Fluid-flow-induced mesenchymal stem cell migration: role of focal adhesion kinase and RhoA kinase sensors.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Brandon D; Lee, Jeong Soon; Ha, Ligyeom; Lim, Jung Yul

    2015-03-01

    The study of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) migration under flow conditions with investigation of the underlying molecular mechanism could lead to a better understanding and outcome in stem-cell-based cell therapy and regenerative medicine. We used peer-reviewed open source software to develop methods for efficiently and accurately tracking, measuring and processing cell migration as well as morphology. Using these tools, we investigated MSC migration under flow-induced shear and tested the molecular mechanism with stable knockdown of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and RhoA kinase (ROCK). Under steady flow, MSCs migrated following the flow direction in a shear stress magnitude-dependent manner, as assessed by root mean square displacement and mean square displacement, motility coefficient and confinement ratio. Silencing FAK in MSCs suppressed morphology adaptation capability and reduced cellular motility for both static and flow conditions. Interestingly, ROCK silencing significantly increased migration tendency especially under flow. Blocking ROCK, which is known to reduce cytoskeletal tension, may lower the resistance to skeletal remodelling during the flow-induced migration. Our data thus propose a potentially differential role of focal adhesion and cytoskeletal tension signalling elements in MSC migration under flow shear.

  3. Capturing relevant extracellular matrices for investigating cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Keely, Patricia; Nain, Amrinder

    2015-01-01

    Much progress in understanding cell migration has been determined by using classic two-dimensional (2D) tissue culture platforms. However, increasingly, it is appreciated that certain properties of cell migration in vivo are not represented by strictly 2D assays. There is much interest in creating relevant three-dimensional (3D) culture environments and engineered platforms to better represent features of the extracellular matrix and stromal microenvironment that are not captured in 2D platforms. Important to this goal is a solid understanding of the features of the extracellular matrix—composition, stiffness, topography, and alignment—in different tissues and disease states and the development of means to capture these features PMID:26918156

  4. Epithelial bridges maintain tissue integrity during collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, Sri Ram Krishna; Hirata, Hiroaki; Nai, Mui Hoon; Brugués, Agustí; Toyama, Yusuke; Trepat, Xavier; Lim, Chwee Teck; Ladoux, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    The ability of skin to act as a barrier is primarily determined by the efficiency of skin cells to maintain and restore its continuity and integrity. In fact, during wound healing keratinocytes migrate collectively to maintain their cohesion despite heterogeneities in the extracellular matrix. Here, we show that monolayers of human keratinocytes migrating along functionalized micropatterned surfaces comprising alternating strips of extracellular matrix (fibronectin) and non-adherent polymer form suspended multicellular bridges over the non-adherent areas. The bridges are held together by intercellular adhesion and are subjected to considerable tension, as indicated by the presence of prominent actin bundles. We also show that a model based on force propagation through an elastic material reproduces the main features of bridge maintenance and tension distribution. Our findings suggest that multicellular bridges maintain tissue integrity during wound healing when cell-substrate interactions are weak and may prove helpful in the design of artificial scaffolds for skin regeneration.

  5. Pancreatic Tumor Cell Secreted CCN1/Cyr61 Promotes Endothelial cell migration and Aberrant Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Gargi; Mehta, Smita; Haque, Inamul; Dhar, Kakali; Sarkar, Sandipto; Banerjee, Sushanta K.; Banerjee, Snigdha

    2014-01-01

    The complex signaling networks between cancer cells and adjacent endothelial cells make it challenging to unravel how cancer cells send extracellular messages to promote aberrant vascularization or tumor angiogenesis. Here, in vitro and in vivo models show that pancreatic cancer cell generated unique microenvironments can underlie endothelial cell migration and tumor angiogenesis. Mechanistically, we find that pancreatic cancer cell secreted CCN1/Cyr61 matricellular protein rewires the microenvironment to promote endothelial cell migration and tumor angiogenesis. This event can be overcome by Sonic Hedgehog (SHh) antibody treatment. Collectively, these studies identify a novel CCN1 signaling program in pancreatic cancer cells which activates SHh through autocrine-paracrine circuits to promote endothelial cell migration and tumor angiogenesis and suggests that CCN1 signaling of pancreatic cancer cells is vital for the regulation of tumor angiogenesis. Thus CCN1 signaling could be an ideal target for tumor vascular disruption in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24833309

  6. The cyclophilin-binding agent Sanglifehrin A is a dendritic cell chemokine and migration inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Immecke, Sabrina N; Baal, Nelli; Wilhelm, Jochen; Bechtel, Juliane; Knoche, Angela; Bein, Gregor; Hackstein, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Sanglifehrin A (SFA) is a cyclophilin-binding immunosuppressant but the immunobiology of action is poorly understood. We and others have reported that SFA inhibits IL-12 production and antigen uptake in dendritic cells (DC) and exhibits lower activity against lymphocytes. Here we show that SFA suppresses DC chemokine production and migration. Gene expression analysis and subsequent protein level confirmation revealed that SFA suppressed CCL5, CCL17, CCL19, CXCL9 and CXCL10 expression in human monocyte-derived DC (moDC). A systems biology analysis, Onto Express, confirmed that SFA interferes with chemokine-chemokine receptor gene expression with the highest impact. Direct comparison with the related agent cyclosporine A (CsA) and dexamethasone indicated that SFA uniquely suppresses moDC chemokine expression. Competitive experiments with a 100-fold molar excess of CsA and with N-Methyl-Val-4-cyclosporin, representing a nonimmunosuppressive derivative of CsA indicated chemokine suppression through a cyclophilin-A independent pathway. Functional assays confirmed reduced migration of CD4+ Tcells and moDCs to supernatant of SFA-exposed moDCs. Vice versa, SFA-exposed moDC exhibited reduced migration against CCL19. Moreover, SFA suppressed expression of the ectoenzyme CD38 that was reported to regulate DC migration and cytokine production. These results identify SFA as a DC chemokine and migration inhibitor and provide novel insight into the immunobiology of SFA. PMID:21483789

  7. The Cyclophilin-Binding Agent Sanglifehrin A Is a Dendritic Cell Chemokine and Migration Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Immecke, Sabrina N.; Baal, Nelli; Wilhelm, Jochen; Bechtel, Juliane; Knoche, Angela; Bein, Gregor; Hackstein, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Sanglifehrin A (SFA) is a cyclophilin-binding immunosuppressant but the immunobiology of action is poorly understood. We and others have reported that SFA inhibits IL-12 production and antigen uptake in dendritic cells (DC) and exhibits lower activity against lymphocytes. Here we show that SFA suppresses DC chemokine production and migration. Gene expression analysis and subsequent protein level confirmation revealed that SFA suppressed CCL5, CCL17, CCL19, CXCL9 and CXCL10 expression in human monocyte-derived DC (moDC). A systems biology analysis, Onto Express, confirmed that SFA interferes with chemokine-chemokine receptor gene expression with the highest impact. Direct comparison with the related agent cyclosporine A (CsA) and dexamethasone indicated that SFA uniquely suppresses moDC chemokine expression. Competitive experiments with a 100-fold molar excess of CsA and with N-Methyl-Val-4-cyclosporin, representing a nonimmunosuppressive derivative of CsA indicated chemokine suppression through a cyclophilin-A independent pathway. Functional assays confirmed reduced migration of CD4+ Tcells and moDCs to supernatant of SFA-exposed moDCs. Vice versa, SFA-exposed moDC exhibited reduced migration against CCL19. Moreover, SFA suppressed expression of the ectoenzyme CD38 that was reported to regulate DC migration and cytokine production. These results identify SFA as a DC chemokine and migration inhibitor and provide novel insight into the immunobiology of SFA. PMID:21483789

  8. Iodine Affects Differentiation and Migration Process in Trophoblastic Cells.

    PubMed

    Olivo-Vidal, Zendy Evelyn; Rodríguez, Roció Coutiño; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar

    2016-02-01

    Iodine deficiency is associated with oxidative stress increase and preeclampsia during gestation, suggesting that iodine concentration plays an important role in the normal placenta physiology. The question raised is to analyze the effect of iodine deficiency on oxidative stress, viability, differentiation, and migration process and changes in the expression of differentiation and migration markers. Iodine deprivation was done using potassium perchlorate (KCLO4) to block sodium iodide symporter (NIS) transporter and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid DIDS to inhibit pendrine (PEN) transport for 3-48 h. Then trophoblast cells were treated with low iodine doses of 5-500 μM and high iodine doses of 100-5000 μM. Oxidative stress, viability, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hGC) were measured by colorimetric methods. Migration throphoblast cells were evaluated by both wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. Changes in mRNA expression were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Iodine deprivation induces a significant increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), viability, and migration process vs control cells. We found a significant overregulation in the mRNA's peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-gamma), Snail, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) mRNA's in cells deprived of iodine, as well as a down glial cell missing-1 (GCM-1) regulation, hGC, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), and E-cadherin mRNA expression. The expression of hypoxic induction factor alpha (HIFα) mRNA does not change with iodine deprivation. In cells deprived of iodine, supplementing low iodine doses (5-500 μM) does not induce any significant changes in viability. However, ROS and migration process were decreased, although we found an increased human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretion as a differentiation marker. In addition, we found that PPAR-gamma, Snail, and MPP-9 mRNAs expression are downregulated with low iodine doses, in contrast with GCM-1, PAPP

  9. Directional Collective Cell Migration Emerges as a Property of Cell Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Mae L.; Carmona-Fontaine, Carlos; Barnes, Chris P.; Couzin, Iain D.; Mayor, Roberto; Page, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Collective cell migration is a fundamental process, occurring during embryogenesis and cancer metastasis. Neural crest cells exhibit such coordinated migration, where aberrant motion can lead to fatality or dysfunction of the embryo. Migration involves at least two complementary mechanisms: contact inhibition of locomotion (a repulsive interaction corresponding to a directional change of migration upon contact with a reciprocating cell), and co-attraction (a mutual chemoattraction mechanism). Here, we develop and employ a parameterized discrete element model of neural crest cells, to investigate how these mechanisms contribute to long-range directional migration during development. Motion is characterized using a coherence parameter and the time taken to reach, collectively, a target location. The simulated cell group is shown to switch from a diffusive to a persistent state as the response-rate to co-attraction is increased. Furthermore, the model predicts that when co-attraction is inhibited, neural crest cells can migrate into restrictive regions. Indeed, inhibition of co-attraction in vivo and in vitro leads to cell invasion into restrictive areas, confirming the prediction of the model. This suggests that the interplay between the complementary mechanisms may contribute to guidance of the neural crest. We conclude that directional migration is a system property and does not require action of external chemoattractants. PMID:25181349

  10. Novel interactions between erythroblast macrophage protein and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Javan, Gulnaz T; Can, Ismail; Yeboah, Fred; Lee, Youngil; Soni, Shivani

    2016-09-01

    Erythroblast macrophage protein is a novel protein known to mediate attachment of erythroid cells to macrophages to form erythroblastic islands in bone marrow during erythropoiesis. Emp-null macrophages are small with round morphologies, and lack cytoplasmic projections which imply immature structure. The role of Emp in macrophage development and function is not fully elucidated. Macrophages perform varied functions (e.g. homeostasis, erythropoiesis), and are implicated in numerous pathophysiological conditions such as cellular malignancy. The objective of the current study is to investigate the interaction of Emp with cytoskeletal- and cell migration-associated proteins involved in macrophage functions. A short hairpin RNA lentiviral system was use to down-regulate the expression of Emp in macrophage cells. A cell migration assay revealed that the relocation of macrophages was significantly inhibited when Emp expression was decreased. To further analyze changes in gene expression related to cell motility, PCR array was performed by down-regulating Emp expression. The results indicated that expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 and thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1 were significantly higher when Emp was down-regulated. The results implicate Emp in abnormal cell motility, thus, warrants to assess its role in cancer where tumor cell motility is required for invasion and metastasis. PMID:27519940

  11. Novel interactions between erythroblast macrophage protein and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Javan, Gulnaz T; Can, Ismail; Yeboah, Fred; Lee, Youngil; Soni, Shivani

    2016-09-01

    Erythroblast macrophage protein is a novel protein known to mediate attachment of erythroid cells to macrophages to form erythroblastic islands in bone marrow during erythropoiesis. Emp-null macrophages are small with round morphologies, and lack cytoplasmic projections which imply immature structure. The role of Emp in macrophage development and function is not fully elucidated. Macrophages perform varied functions (e.g. homeostasis, erythropoiesis), and are implicated in numerous pathophysiological conditions such as cellular malignancy. The objective of the current study is to investigate the interaction of Emp with cytoskeletal- and cell migration-associated proteins involved in macrophage functions. A short hairpin RNA lentiviral system was use to down-regulate the expression of Emp in macrophage cells. A cell migration assay revealed that the relocation of macrophages was significantly inhibited when Emp expression was decreased. To further analyze changes in gene expression related to cell motility, PCR array was performed by down-regulating Emp expression. The results indicated that expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 and thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1 were significantly higher when Emp was down-regulated. The results implicate Emp in abnormal cell motility, thus, warrants to assess its role in cancer where tumor cell motility is required for invasion and metastasis.

  12. Lysophosphatidic acid induces cell migration through the selective activation of Akt1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; Yun, Sung Ji; Do, Kee Hun; Kim, Min Sung; Cho, Mong; Suh, Dong-Soo; Kim, Chi Dae; Kim, Jae Ho; Birnbaum, Morris J.

    2008-01-01

    Akt plays pivotal roles in many physiological responses including growth, proliferation, survival, metabolism, and migration. In the current studies, we have evaluated the isoform-specific role of akt in lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced cell migration. Ascites from ovarian cancer patients (AOCP) induced mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, ascites from liver cirrhosis patients (ALCP) did not induce MEF cell migration. AOCP-induced MEF cell migration was completely blocked by pre-treatment of cells with LPA receptor antagonist, Ki16425. Both LPA- and AOCP-induced MEF cell migration was completely attenuated by PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. Furthermore, cells lacking Akt1 displayed defect in LPA-induced cell migration. Re-expression of Akt1 in DKO (Akt1-/-Akt2-/-) cells restored LPA-induced cell migration, whereas re-expression of Akt2 in DKO cells could not restore the LPA-induced cell migration. Finally, Akt1 was selectively phosphorylated by LPA and AOCP stimulation. These results suggest that LPA is a major factor responsible for AOCP-induced cell migration and signaling specificity of Akt1 may dictate LPA-induced cell migration. PMID:18779657

  13. Serotonin induces pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Day, Regina M.; Agyeman, Abena S.; Segel, Michael J.; Chévere, Rubén D.; Angelosanto, Jill M.; Suzuki, Yuichiro J.; Fanburg, Barry L.

    2007-01-01

    The chronic phase of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with vascular remodeling, especially thickening of the smooth muscle layer of large pulmonary arteries and muscularization of small pulmonary vessels, which normally have no associated smooth muscle. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has been shown to induce proliferation and hypertrophy of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC), and may be important for in vivo pulmonary vascular remodeling. Here, we show that 5-HT stimulates migration of pulmonary artery PASMC. Treatment with 5-HT for 16 h increased migration of PASMC up to four-fold as monitored in a modified Boyden chamber assay. Increased migratory responses were associated with cellular morphological changes and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. 5-HT-induced alterations in morphology were previously shown in our laboratory to require cAMP [Lee SL, Fanburg BL. Serotonin produces a configurational change of cultured smooth muscle cells that is associated with elevation of intracellular cAMP. J Cell Phys 1992;150(2):396–405], and the 5-HT4 receptor was pharmacologically determined to be the primary activator of cAMP in bovine PASMC [Becker BN, Gettys TW, Middleton JP, Olsen CL, Albers FJ, Lee SL, et al. 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin-responsive 5-hydroxytryptamine4-like receptor expressed in bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Mol Pharmacol 1992;42(5):817–25]. We examined the role of the 5-HT4 receptor and cAMP in 5-HT-induced bovine PASMC migration. PASMC express 5-HT4 receptor mRNA, and a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist and a cAMP antagonist completely blocked 5-HT-induced cellular migration. Consistent with our previous report that a cAMP-dependent Cl− channel is required for 5-HT-induced morphological changes in PASMC, phenylanthranilic acid, a Cl− channel blocker, inhibited actin cytoskeletal reorganization and migration produced by 5-HT. We conclude that 5-HT stimulates PASMC migration and

  14. Golgi Anti-apoptotic Proteins Are Highly Conserved Ion Channels That Affect Apoptosis and Cell Migration*

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Guia; Saraiva, Nuno; Parsons, Maddy; Byrne, Bernadette; Prole, David L.; Taylor, Colin W.; Smith, Geoffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Golgi anti-apoptotic proteins (GAAPs) are multitransmembrane proteins that are expressed in the Golgi apparatus and are able to homo-oligomerize. They are highly conserved throughout eukaryotes and are present in some prokaryotes and orthopoxviruses. Within eukaryotes, GAAPs regulate the Ca2+ content of intracellular stores, inhibit apoptosis, and promote cell adhesion and migration. Data presented here demonstrate that purified viral GAAPs (vGAAPs) and human Bax inhibitor 1 form ion channels and that vGAAP from camelpox virus is selective for cations. Mutagenesis of vGAAP, including some residues conserved in the recently solved structure of a related bacterial protein, BsYetJ, altered the conductance (E207Q and D219N) and ion selectivity (E207Q) of the channel. Mutation of residue Glu-207 or -178 reduced the effects of GAAP on cell migration and adhesion without affecting protection from apoptosis. In contrast, mutation of Asp-219 abrogated the anti-apoptotic activity of GAAP but not its effects on cell migration and adhesion. These results demonstrate that GAAPs are ion channels and define residues that contribute to the ion-conducting pore and affect apoptosis, cell adhesion, and migration independently. PMID:25713081

  15. Trihydrophobin 1 Phosphorylation by c-Src Regulates MAPK/ERK Signaling and Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weibin; Sun, Zhichao; Wu, Jingwen; Peng, Xiaomin; Gan, Huacheng; Zhang, Chunyi; Ji, Lingling; Xie, Jianhui; Zhu, Haiyan; Ren, Shifang

    2012-01-01

    c-Src activates Ras-MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and regulates cell migration, while trihydrophobin 1 (TH1) inhibits MAPK/ERK activation and cell migration through interaction with A-Raf and PAK1 and inhibiting their kinase activities. Here we show that c-Src interacts with TH1 by GST-pull down assay, coimmunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy assay. The interaction leads to phosphorylation of TH1 at Tyr-6 in vivo and in vitro. Phosphorylation of TH1 decreases its association with A-Raf and PAK1. Further study reveals that Tyr-6 phosphorylation of TH1 reduces its inhibition on MAPK/ERK signaling, enhances c-Src mediated cell migration. Moreover, induced tyrosine phosphorylation of TH1 has been found by EGF and estrogen treatments. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism for the comprehensive regulation of Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling and cell migration involving tyrosine phosphorylation of TH1 by c-Src. PMID:22238675

  16. The Role of Thrombin and Cell Contractility in Regulating Clustering and Collective Migration of Corneal Fibroblasts in Different ECM Environments

    PubMed Central

    Miron-Mendoza, Miguel; Graham, Eric; Kivanany, Pouriska; Quiring, Jonathan; Petroll, W. Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We previously reported that extracellular matrix composition (fibrin versus collagen) modulates the pattern of corneal fibroblast spreading and migration in 3-D culture. In this study, we investigate the role of thrombin and cell contractility in mediating these differences in cell behavior. Methods. To assess cell spreading, corneal fibroblasts were plated on top of fibrillar collagen and fibrin matrices. To assess 3-dimensional cell migration, compacted collagen matrices seeded with corneal fibroblasts were embedded inside acellular collagen or fibrin matrices. Constructs were cultured in serum-free media containing platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), with or without thrombin, the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632, and/or the myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin. We used 3-dimensional and 4-dimensional imaging to assess cell mechanical behavior, connectivity and cytoskeletal organization. Results. Thrombin stimulated increased contractility of corneal fibroblasts. Thrombin also induced Rho kinase–dependent clustering of cells plated on top of compliant collagen matrices, but not on rigid substrates. In contrast, cells on fibrin matrices coalesced into clusters even when Rho kinase was inhibited. In nested matrices, cells always migrated independently through collagen, even in the presence of thrombin. In contrast, cells migrating into fibrin formed an interconnected network. Both Y-27632 and blebbistatin reduced the migration rate in fibrin, but cells continued to migrate collectively. Conclusions. The results suggest that while thrombin-induced actomyosin contraction can induce clustering of fibroblasts plated on top of compliant collagen matrices, it does not induce collective cell migration inside 3-D collagen constructs. Furthermore, increased contractility is not required for clustering or collective migration of corneal fibroblasts interacting with fibin. PMID:25736789

  17. Chinese herbal formula QHF inhibits liver cancer cell invasion and migration

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, TAO; WANG, QUAN; LI, YUNXIAO; HUANG, HEFEI; HU, WEI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to observe the effects of the Chinese herbal formula QHF (Q, Qingrejiedu; H, Huoxuehuayu; and F, Fuzhengguben) on the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cells and to elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms involved. HepG2 cells were treated with various concentrations of QHF, and scratch and Transwell® migration assays were used to qualitatively analyze differences in the migration and invasion activity of these cells. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors were subsequently introduced in order to study the association between QHF and the invasion of HepG2 cells. The protein expression levels of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in HepG2 cells in the presence and absence of QHF were additionally determined using western blot analysis. The results showed that QHF significantly inhibited the proliferation of the HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, in addition to inhibiting cell movement, which reduced the ability of the cells to invade and migrate. Western blot analysis indicated that the effects of QHF on HCC HepG2 cells after 24 h were to significantly decrease the expression of phosphorylated- (p-)ERK and to increase the expression of p-p38 and p-JNK; however, the total quantity of ERK, p38 and JNK protein remained unchanged. The administration of an inhibitor of ERK altered p38 and JNK expression and promoted the anti-invasion effects of QHF, whereas p38 and JNK inhibitors only partially reversed this effect. The results of the present study indicate, therefore, that QHF is able to inhibit the migratory and invasive activity of HepG2 cells. A possible underlying mechanism involves the activation of the p38 and JNK MAPK signaling pathway and the attenuation of the ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27284329

  18. Metformin inhibits proliferation and migration of glioblastoma cells independently of TGF-β2.

    PubMed

    Seliger, Corinna; Meyer, Anne-Louise; Renner, Kathrin; Leidgens, Verena; Moeckel, Sylvia; Jachnik, Birgit; Dettmer, Katja; Tischler, Ulrike; Gerthofer, Valeria; Rauer, Lisa; Uhl, Martin; Proescholdt, Martin; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Riemenschneider, Markus J; Oefner, Peter J; Kreutz, Marina; Vollmann-Zwerenz, Arabel; Hau, Peter

    2016-07-01

    To this day, glioblastoma (GBM) remains an incurable brain tumor. Previous research has shown that metformin, an oral anti-diabetic drug, may decrease GBM cell proliferation and migration especially in brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs). As transforming growth factor β 2 (TGF-β2) has been reported to promote high-grade glioma and is inhibited by metformin in other tumors, we explored whether metformin directly interferes with TGF-β2-signaling. Functional investigation of proliferation and migration of primary BTICs after treatment with metformin+/-TGF-β2 revealed that metformin doses as low as 0.01 mM metformin thrice a day were able to inhibit proliferation of susceptible cell lines, whereas migration was impacted only at higher doses. Known cellular mechanisms of metformin, such as increased lactate secretion, reduced oxygen consumption and activated AMPK-signaling, could be confirmed. However, TGF-β2 and metformin did not act as functional antagonists, but both rather inhibited proliferation and/or migration, if significant effects were present. We did not observe a relevant influence of metformin on TGF-β2 mRNA expression (qRT-PCR), TGF-β2 protein expression (ELISA) or SMAD-signaling (Western blot). Therefore, it seems that metformin does not exert its inhibitory effects on GBM BTIC proliferation and migration by altering TGF-β2-signaling. Nonetheless, as low doses of metformin are able to reduce proliferation of certain GBM cells, further exploration of predictors of BTICs' susceptibility to metformin appears justified.

  19. Betacellulin induces Slug-mediated down-regulation of E-cadherin and cell migration in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianfang; Klausen, Christian; Qiu, Xin; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among gynaecological cancers. Previous studies have demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands can induce ovarian cancer cell invasion by down-regulating E-cadherin. Betacellulin is a unique member of the EGF family. It is overexpressed in a variety of cancers and is associated with reduced survival. However, the biological functions and clinical significance of betacellulin in ovarian cancer remain unknown. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that betacellulin induces ovarian cancer cell migration by suppressing E-cadherin expression. Treatment of SKOV3 and OVCAR5 ovarian cancer cell lines with betacellulin down-regulated E-cadherin, but not N-cadherin. In addition, betacellulin treatment increased the expression of Snail and Slug, and these effects were completely blocked by pre-treatment with EGFR inhibitor AG1478. Interestingly, only knockdown of Slug reversed the down-regulation of E-cadherin by betacellulin. Betacellulin treatment induced the activation of both the MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways, and it also significantly increased ovarian cancer cell migration. Importantly, the effects of betacellulin on E-cadherin, Slug and cell migration were attenuated by pre-treatment with either U0126 or LY294002. Our results suggest that betacellulin induces ovarian cancer migration and Slug-dependent E-cadherin down-regulation via EGFR-mediated MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt signaling. PMID:27129169

  20. Overexpression of LASP-1 mediates migration and proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells and influences zyxin localisation

    PubMed Central

    Grunewald, T G P; Kammerer, U; Winkler, C; Schindler, D; Sickmann, A; Honig, A; Butt, E

    2007-01-01

    LIM and SH3 protein 1 (LASP-1), initially identified from human breast cancer, is a specific focal adhesion protein involved in cell proliferation and migration. In the present work, we analysed the effect of LASP-1 on biology and function of human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3 using small interfering RNA technique (siRNA).Transfection with LASP-1-specific siRNA resulted in a reduced protein level of LASP-1 in SKOV-3 cells. The siRNA-treated cells were arrested in G2/M phase of the cell cycle and proliferation of the tumour cells was suppressed by 60–90% corresponding to around 70% of the cells being transfected successfully as seen by immunofluorescence. Moreover, transfected tumour cells showed a 40% reduced migration. LASP-1 silencing is accompanied by a reduced binding of the LASP-1-binding partner zyxin to focal contacts without changes in actin stress fibre and microtubule organisation or focal adhesion morphology as observed by immunofluorescence. In contrast, silencing of zyxin is not influencing cell migration and had neither influence on LASP-1 expression nor actin cytoskeleton and focal contact morphology suggesting that LASP-1 is necessary and sufficient for recruiting zyxin to focal contacts.The data provide evidence for an essential role of LASP-1 in tumour cell growth and migration, possibly through influencing zyxin localization. PMID:17211471

  1. Lidocaine inhibits the invasion and migration of TRPV6-expressing cancer cells by TRPV6 downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan; Gou, Hui; Zhu, Jiang; Tian, Si; Yu, Lehua

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of pharmacological actions, acting as nerve blocks, and treating pain and cardiac arrhythmias via blocking of the sodium channel. The use of local anesthetics could reduce the possibility of cancer metastasis and recurrence following surgical tumor excision. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of lidocaine upon the invasion and migration of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 6 (TRPV6)-expressing cancer cells. Human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, prostatic cancer PC-3 cells and ovarian cancer ES-2 cells were treated with lidocaine. Cell viability was quantitatively determined by MTT assay. The migration of the cells was evaluated using the wound healing assay, and the invasion of the cells was assessed using a Transwell assay. Calcium (Ca2+) measurements were performed using a Fluo-3 AM fluorescence kit. The expression of TRPV6 mRNA and protein in the cells was determined by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. The results suggested that lidocaine inhibits the cell invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231, PC-3 and ES-2 cells at lower than clinical concentrations. The inhibitory effect of lidocaine on TRPV6-expressing cancer cells was associated with a reduced rate of calcium influx, and could occur partly as a result of the downregulation of TRPV6 expression. The use of appropriate local anesthetics may confer potential benefits in clinical practice for the treatment of patients with TRPV6-expressing cancer. PMID:27446413

  2. PTK6 Promotes Cancer Migration and Invasion in Pancreatic Cancer Cells Dependent on ERK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hiroaki; Basson, Marc D.; Ito, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Protein Tyrosine Kinase 6 (PTK6) is a non-receptor type tyrosine kinase that may be involved in some cancers. However, the biological role and expression status of PTK6 in pancreatic cancer is unknown. Therefore in this study, we evaluated the functional role of PTK6 on pancreatic cancer invasion. Five pancreatic cancer cell lines expressed PTK6 at varying levels. PTK6 expression was also observed in human pancreatic adenocarcinomas. PTK6 suppression by siRNA significantly reduced both cellular migration and invasion (0.59/0.49 fold for BxPC3, 0.61/0.62 for Panc1, 0.42/0.39 for MIAPaCa2, respectively, p<0.05 for each). In contrast, forced overexpression of PTK6 by transfection of a PTK6 expression vector in Panc1 and MIAPaCa2 cells increased cellular migration and invasion (1.57/1.67 fold for Panc1, 1.44/1.57 for MIAPaCa2, respectively, p<0.05). Silencing PTK6 reduced ERK1/2 activation, but not AKT or STAT3 activation, while PTK6 overexpression increased ERK1/2 activation. U0126, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2, completely abolished the effect of PTK6 overexpression on cellular migration and invasion. These results suggest that PTK6 regulates cellular migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer via ERK signaling. PTK6 may be a novel therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. PMID:24788754

  3. Cu Migration in Polycrystalline CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Da; Akis, Richard; Brinkman, Daniel; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Vasileska, Dragica; Ringhofer, Christian

    2014-03-12

    An impurity reaction-diffusion model is applied to Cu defects and related intrinsic defects in polycrystalline CdTe for a better understanding of Cu’s role in the cell level reliability of CdTe PV devices. The simulation yields transient Cu distributions in polycrystalline CdTe during solar cell processing and stressing. Preliminary results for Cu migration using available diffusivity and solubility data show that Cu accumulates near the back contact, a phenomena that is commonly observed in devices after back-contact processing or stress conditions.

  4. DAPK loss in colon cancer tumor buds: implications for migration capacity of disseminating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Karamitopoulou, Eva; Dawson, Heather; Koelzer, Viktor Hendrik; Agaimy, Abbas; Garreis, Fabian; Söder, Stephan; Laqua, William; Lugli, Alessandro; Hartmann, Arndt; Rau, Tilman T.; Schneider-Stock, Regine

    2015-01-01

    Defining new therapeutic strategies to overcome therapy resistance due to tumor heterogeneity in colon cancer is challenging. One option is to explore the molecular profile of aggressive disseminating tumor cells. The cytoskeleton-associated Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is involved in the cross talk between tumor and immune cells at the invasion front of colorectal cancer. Here dedifferentiated tumor cells histologically defined as tumor budding are associated with a high risk of metastasis and poor prognosis. Analyzing samples from 144 colorectal cancer patients we investigated immunhistochemical DAPK expression in different tumor regions such as center, invasion front, and buds. Functional consequences for tumor aggressiveness were studied in a panel of colon tumor cell lines using different migration, wound healing, and invasion assays. DAPK levels were experimentally modified by siRNA transfection and overexpression as well as inhibitor treatments. We found that DAPK expression was reduced towards the invasion front and was nearly absent in tumor buds. Applying the ECIS system with HCT116 and HCT116 stable lentiviral DAPK knock down cells (HCTshDAPK) we identified an important role for DAPK in decreasing the migratory capacity whereas proliferation was not affected. Furthermore, the migration pattern differed with HCTshDAPK cells showing a cluster-like migration of tumor cell groups. DAPK inhibitor treatment revealed that the migration rate was independent of DAPK's catalytic activity. Modulation of DAPK expression level in SW480 and DLD1 colorectal cancer cells significantly influenced wound closure rate. DAPK seems to be a major player that influences the migratory capability of disseminating tumor cells and possibly affects the dynamic interface between pro- and anti-survival factors at the invasion front of colorectal cancer. This interesting and new finding requires further evaluation. PMID:26405175

  5. Functional screening with a live cell imaging-based random cell migration assay.

    PubMed

    van Roosmalen, Wies; Le Dévédec, Sylvia E; Zovko, Sandra; de Bont, Hans; van de Water, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Cell migration, essential in cancer progression, is a complex process comprising a number of spatiotemporally regulated and well-coordinated mechanisms. In order to study (random) cell migration in the context of responses to various external cues (such as growth factors) or intrinsic cell signaling, a number of different tools and approaches have been developed. In order to unravel the key pathways and players involved in the regulation of (cancer) cell migration, a systematical mapping of the players/pathways is required. For this purpose, we developed a cell migration assay based on automatic high-throughput microscopy screen. This approach allows for screening of hundreds of genes, e.g., those encoding various kinases and phosphatases but can also be used for screening of drugs libraries. Moreover, we have developed an automatic analysis pipeline comprising of (a) automatic data acquisition (movie) and (b) automatic analysis of the acquired movies of the migrating cells. Here, we describe various facets of this approach. Since cell migration is essential in progression of cancer metastasis, we describe two examples of experiments performed on highly motile (metastatic) cancer cells.

  6. Cell traction in collective cell migration and morphogenesis: The chase and run mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, András; Mayor, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Directional collective cell migration plays an important role in development, physiology, and disease. An increasing number of studies revealed key aspects of how cells coordinate their movement through distances surpassing several cell diameters. While physical modeling and measurements of forces during collective cell movements helped to reveal key mechanisms, most of these studies focus on tightly connected epithelial cultures. Less is known about collective migration of mesenchymal cells. A typical example of such behavior is the migration of the neural crest cells, which migrate large distances as a group. A recent study revealed that this persistent migration is aided by the interaction between the neural crest and the neighboring placode cells, whereby neural crest chase the placodes via chemotaxis, but upon contact both populations undergo contact inhibition of locomotion and a rapid reorganization of cellular traction. The resulting asymmetric traction field of the placodes forces them to run away from the chasers. We argue that this chase and run interaction may not be specific only to the neural crest system, but could serve as the underlying mechanism for several morphogenetic processes involving collective cell migration. PMID:26267782

  7. Phosphorylation of serine-504 of tNOX (ENOX2) modulates cell proliferation and migration in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Zih-Ming; Chuang, Show-Mei; Chang, Ting-Chia; Hong, Chen-Wei; Chou, Jou-Chun; Yang, Jaw-Ji; Chueh, Pin Ju

    2012-08-15

    Tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX; ENOX2) is a growth-related protein expressed in transformed cells. Consistent with this function, tNOX knockdown by RNA interference leads to a significant reduction in cell proliferation and migration in HeLa cells, whereas tNOX overexpression confers an aggressive phenotype. Here, for the first time, we report that tNOX is phosphorylated by protein kinase C{delta} (PKC{delta}) both in vitro and in vivo. Replacement of serine-504 with alanine significantly reduces phosphorylation by PKC{delta}. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments reveal an interaction between tNOX and PKC{delta}. Moreover, whereas overexpression of wild-type tNOX in NIH3T3 cells increases cell proliferation and migration, overexpression of the S504A tNOX mutant leads to diminished cell proliferation and migration, reflecting reduced stability of the unphosphorylatable tNOX mutant protein. Collectively, these results suggest that phosphorylation of serine-504 by PKC{delta} modulates the biological function of tNOX.

  8. 10-Shogaol, an Antioxidant from Zingiber officinale for Skin Cell Proliferation and Migration Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Chang, Andy Y; Lin, Ying-Ting; Hseu, You-Cheng; Wang, Hui-Min

    2012-01-01

    In this work, one of Zingiber officinale components, 10-shogaol, was tested with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, metal chelating ability, and reducing power to show antioxidant activity. 10-Shogaol promoted human normal epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts cell growths. 10-Shogaol enhanced growth factor production in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), platelet derived growth factor-αβ (PDGF-αβ) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) of both cells. In the in vitro wound healing assay for 12 or 24 h, with 10-shogaol, the fibroblasts and keratinocytes migrated more rapidly than the vehicle control group. Thus, this study substantiates the target compound, 10-shogaol, as an antioxidant for human skin cell growth and a migration enhancer with potential to be a novel wound repair agent. PMID:22408422

  9. 10-Shogaol, an antioxidant from Zingiber officinale for skin cell proliferation and migration enhancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Chang, Andy Y; Lin, Ying-Ting; Hseu, You-Cheng; Wang, Hui-Min

    2012-01-01

    In this work, one of Zingiber officinale components, 10-shogaol, was tested with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, metal chelating ability, and reducing power to show antioxidant activity. 10-Shogaol promoted human normal epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts cell growths. 10-Shogaol enhanced growth factor production in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), platelet derived growth factor-αβ (PDGF-αβ) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) of both cells. In the in vitro wound healing assay for 12 or 24 h, with 10-shogaol, the fibroblasts and keratinocytes migrated more rapidly than the vehicle control group. Thus, this study substantiates the target compound, 10-shogaol, as an antioxidant for human skin cell growth and a migration enhancer with potential to be a novel wound repair agent.

  10. Securin promotes migration and invasion via matrix metalloproteinases in glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    YAN, HAICHENG; WANG, WEI; DOU, CHANGWU; TIAN, FUMING; QI, SONGTAO

    2015-01-01

    Human securin, encoded by pituitary tumor transforming gene 1, is implicated in several oncogenic processes in the pathogenesis of brain tumors, including glioma. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of securin on the migration and invasion of glioma cells. The results revealed that the overexpression of securin in glioma LN-229 cells significantly increased the invasion and transmigration abilities. By contrast, these abilities were significantly reduced by the downregulation of securin in glioma U373 cells. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that securin overexpression and downregulation significantly increased and decreased the levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9, respectively. These findings indicate a promotive role for securin in glioma migration and invasion, which may involve the action of matrix metalloproteinases. PMID:26137166

  11. Directing cell migration and organization via nanocrater-patterned cell-repellent interfaces.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hojeong; Koo, Sangmo; Reese, Willie Mae; Loskill, Peter; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Healy, Kevin E

    2015-09-01

    Although adhesive interactions between cells and nanostructured interfaces have been studied extensively, there is a paucity of data on how nanostructured interfaces repel cells by directing cell migration and cell-colony organization. Here, by using multiphoton ablation lithography to pattern surfaces with nanoscale craters of various aspect ratios and pitches, we show that the surfaces altered the cells' focal-adhesion size and distribution, thus affecting cell morphology, migration and ultimately localization. We also show that nanocrater pitch can disrupt the formation of mature focal adhesions to favour the migration of cells towards higher-pitched regions, which present increased planar area for the formation of stable focal adhesions. Moreover, by designing surfaces with variable pitch but constant nanocrater dimensions, we were able to create circular and striped cellular patterns. Our surface-patterning approach, which does not involve chemical treatments and can be applied to various materials, represents a simple method to control cell behaviour on surfaces. PMID:26213899

  12. Mechanobiology of cell migration in the context of dynamic two-way cell-matrix interactions.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, Nicholas A; Chaudhuri, Parthiv Kant; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2016-05-24

    Migration of cells is integral in various physiological processes in all facets of life. These range from embryonic development, morphogenesis, and wound healing, to disease pathology such as cancer metastasis. While cell migratory behavior has been traditionally studied using simple assays on culture dishes, in recent years it has been increasingly realized that the physical, mechanical, and chemical aspects of the matrix are key determinants of the migration mechanism. In this paper, we will describe the mechanobiological changes that accompany the dynamic cell-matrix interactions during cell migration. Furthermore, we will review what is to date known about how these changes feed back to the dynamics and biomechanical properties of the cell and the matrix. Elucidating the role of these intimate cell-matrix interactions will provide not only a better multi-scale understanding of cell motility in its physiological context, but also a more holistic perspective for designing approaches to regulate cell behavior.

  13. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) regulates cell migration in a myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Tao, Tao; Wen, Cheng; He, Wei-Qi; Qiao, Yan-Ning; Gao, Yun-Qian; Chen, Xin; Wang, Pei; Chen, Cai-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Hua-Qun; Ye, An-Pei; Peng, Ya-Jing; Zhu, Min-Sheng

    2014-10-10

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) has long been implicated in the myosin phosphorylation and force generation required for cell migration. Here, we surprisingly found that the deletion of MLCK resulted in fast cell migration, enhanced protrusion formation, and no alteration of myosin light chain phosphorylation. The mutant cells showed reduced membrane tether force and fewer membrane F-actin filaments. This phenotype was rescued by either kinase-dead MLCK or five-DFRXXL motif, a MLCK fragment with potent F-actin-binding activity. Pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that the absence of MLCK led to attenuated formation of transmembrane complexes, including myosin II, integrins and fibronectin. We suggest that MLCK is not required for myosin phosphorylation in a migrating cell. A critical role of MLCK in cell migration involves regulating the cell membrane tension and protrusion necessary for migration, thereby stabilizing the membrane skeleton through F-actin-binding activity. This finding sheds light on a novel regulatory mechanism of protrusion during cell migration.

  14. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Morphology and Migration on Microtextured Titanium

    PubMed Central

    Banik, Brittany L.; Riley, Thomas R.; Platt, Christina J.; Brown, Justin L.

    2016-01-01

    The implant used in spinal fusion procedures is an essential component to achieving successful arthrodesis. At the cellular level, the implant impacts healing and fusion through a series of steps: first, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) need to adhere and proliferate to cover the implant; second, the MSCs must differentiate into osteoblasts; third, the osteoid matrix produced by the osteoblasts needs to generate new bone tissue, thoroughly integrating the implant with the vertebrate above and below. Previous research has demonstrated that microtextured titanium is advantageous over smooth titanium and PEEK implants for both promoting osteogenic differentiation and integrating with host bone tissue; however, no investigation to date has examined the early morphology and migration of MSCs on these surfaces. This study details cell spreading and morphology changes over 24 h, rate and directionality of migration 6–18 h post-seeding, differentiation markers at 10 days, and the long-term morphology of MSCs at 7 days, on microtextured, acid-etched titanium (endoskeleton), smooth titanium, and smooth PEEK surfaces. The results demonstrate that in all metrics, the two titanium surfaces outperformed the PEEK surface. Furthermore, the rough acid-etched titanium surface presented the most favorable overall results, demonstrating the random migration needed to efficiently cover a surface in addition to morphologies consistent with osteoblasts and preosteoblasts. PMID:27243001

  15. Exploring the control circuit of cell migration by mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Satulovsky, Javier; Lui, Roger; Wang, Yu-li

    2008-05-01

    We have developed a top-down, rule-based mathematical model to explore the basic principles that coordinate mechanochemical events during animal cell migration, particularly the local-stimulation-global-inhibition model suggested originally for chemotaxis. Cells were modeled as a shape machine that protrudes or retracts in response to a combination of local protrusion and global retraction signals. Using an optimization algorithm to identify parameters that generate specific shapes and migration patterns, we show that the mechanism of local stimulation global inhibition can readily account for the behavior of Dictyostelium under a large collection of conditions. Within this collection, some parameters showed strong correlation, indicating that a normal phenotype may be maintained by complementation among functional modules. In addition, comparison of parameters for control and nocodazole-treated Dictyostelium identified the most prominent effect of microtubules as regulating the rates of retraction and protrusion signal decay, and the extent of global inhibition. Other changes in parameters can lead to profound transformations from amoeboid cells into cells mimicking keratocytes, neurons, or fibroblasts. Thus, a simple circuit of local stimulation-global inhibition can account for a wide range of cell behaviors. A similar top-down approach may be applied to other complex problems and combined with molecular manipulations to define specific protein functions.

  16. The effects of laser immunotherapy on cancer cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahavar, Cody F.; Zhou, Feifan; Hasanjee, Aamr M.; Layton, Elivia; Lam, Anh; Chen, Wei R.; Vaughan, Melville B.

    2016-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) uses laser irradiation and immunological stimulation to target all types of metastases and creates a long-term tumor resistance. Glycated chitosan (GC) is the immunological stimulant used in LIT. Interestingly, GC can act as a surfactant for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to immunologically modify SWNTs. SWNT-GC retains the optical properties of SWNTs and the immunological functions of GC to help increase the selectivity of the laser and create a more optimal immune response. One essential aspect of understanding this immune response is knowing how laser irradiation affects cancer cells' ability to metastasize. In this experiment, a cell migration assay was performed. A 2mm circular elastomer plugs were placed at the bottom of multi-well dishes. Pre-cancerous keratinocytes, different tumor cells, and fibroblasts were then plated separately in treated wells. Once the cells reached 100% confluence, they were irradiated by either a 980nm or 805nm wavelength laser. The goal was to determine the effects of laser irradiation and immunological stimulation on cancer cell migration in vitro, paying the way to understand the mechanism of LIT in treating metastatic tumors in cancer patients.

  17. Iptakalim inhibits PDGF-BB-induced human airway smooth muscle cells proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenrui; Kong, Hui; Zeng, Xiaoning; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Zailiang; Yan, Xiaopei; Wang, Yanli; Xie, Weiping Wang, Hong

    2015-08-15

    Chronic airway diseases are characterized by airway remodeling which is attributed partly to the proliferation and migration of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs). ATP-sensitive potassium (K{sub ATP}) channels have been identified in ASMCs. Mount evidence has suggested that K{sub ATP} channel openers can reduce airway hyperresponsiveness and alleviate airway remodeling. Opening K{sup +} channels triggers K{sup +} efflux, which leading to membrane hyperpolarization, preventing Ca{sup 2+}entry through closing voltage-operated Ca{sup 2+} channels. Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} is the most important regulator of muscle contraction, cell proliferation and migration. K{sup +} efflux decreases Ca{sup 2+} influx, which consequently influences ASMCs proliferation and migration. As a K{sub ATP} channel opener, iptakalim (Ipt) has been reported to restrain the proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) involved in vascular remodeling, while little is known about its impact on ASMCs. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Ipt on human ASMCs and the mechanisms underlying. Results obtained from cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), flow cytometry and 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation showed that Ipt significantly inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced ASMCs proliferation. ASMCs migration induced by PDGF-BB was also suppressed by Ipt in transwell migration and scratch assay. Besides, the phosphorylation of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase B (Akt), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) were as well alleviated by Ipt administration. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition of Ipt on the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and migration in human ASMCs was blocked by glibenclamide (Gli), a selective K{sub ATP} channel antagonist. These findings provide a strong evidence to support that Ipt

  18. Protein migration from transplanted nuclei in Amoeba proteus. I. The relation to the cell cycle and RNA migration, as studied by autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, K.I.; Bell, L.G.

    1982-11-01

    Autoradiography has been used to examine the migration of proteins from a radioactivity labelled amoeba nucleus following transplantation into an unlabelled homophasic amoeba. Nuclei were transferred at three times in the cell cycle coinciding with DNA synthesis (4 h post-division); a peak of RNA synthesis (25 h); and a relative lull in synthetic activity (43 h). Six amino acids were added individually to the culture medium to label the nuclear proteins. Migration of the proteins from the donor nucleui and least with proteins labelled with the basic amino acids. All amino acids exhibited the greatest extent of migration following the 25-h transfers, i.e., coinciding with a peak of RNA synthesis at 26-27.5 h. Actinomycin D (actD) inhibition of RNA synthesis reduced, but did not eliminate the extent of protein migration from the transplanted nucleus, thus indicating the existence of two classes of migratory proteins. Firstly, proteins, associated with RNA transport, which migrated mainly into the host cytoplasm. The second class migrated into the host nucleus from the transplanted nucleus, irrespective of RNA synthesis. The shuttling character of the latter class of proteins is consistent with a role of regulation of nuclear activity.

  19. Fisetin inhibits migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of LMP1-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Zhao, Yinhai; Chen, Jin; Shao, Songjun; Zhang, Xiujuan

    2014-02-01

    Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) has been reported to possess certain anticancer properties. It may inhibit tumor cell proliferation, metastasis and induce apoptosis. However, the effects of fisetin in preventing the metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells remain to be determined. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in several metastatic malignancies including NPC. It has been reported that the Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) induced EMT and is associated with the metastasis of NPC. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of fisetin in preventing the migration and invasion of LMP1-expressing NPC cells (CNE1-LMP1 cells), as well as to investigate whether fisetin may inhibit the molecular changes associated with EMT induced by LMP1. The investigation demonstrated that fisetin suppressed the migration and invasion of CNE1-LMP1 cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Fisetin inhibited molecular changes associated with EMT induced by LMP1, upregulated the epithelial marker, E-cadherin protein, and downregulated the mesenchymal marker, vimentin protein, levels. Fisetin also significantly reduced the levels of Twist protein, an EMT regulator. The investigation suggested that fisetin inhibits the migration and invasion of LMP1-positive NPC cells, and the molecular mechanism involves fisetin reversing the EMT induced by LMP1 and downregulates the expression of Twist. This study indicated that fisetin serves as a potential candidate for the treatment of cancer metastasis.

  20. GAR22β regulates cell migration, sperm motility, and axoneme structure.

    PubMed

    Gamper, Ivonne; Fleck, David; Barlin, Meltem; Spehr, Marc; El Sayad, Sara; Kleine, Henning; Maxeiner, Sebastian; Schalla, Carmen; Aydin, Gülcan; Hoss, Mareike; Litchfield, David W; Lüscher, Bernhard; Zenke, Martin; Sechi, Antonio

    2016-01-15

    Spatiotemporal cytoskeleton remodeling is pivotal for cell adhesion and migration. Here we investigated the function of Gas2-related protein on chromosome 22 (GAR22β), a poorly characterized protein that interacts with actin and microtubules. Primary and immortalized GAR22β(-/-) Sertoli cells moved faster than wild-type cells. In addition, GAR22β(-/-) cells showed a more prominent focal adhesion turnover. GAR22β overexpression or its reexpression in GAR22β(-/-) cells reduced cell motility and focal adhesion turnover. GAR22β-actin interaction was stronger than GAR22β-microtubule interaction, resulting in GAR22β localization and dynamics that mirrored those of the actin cytoskeleton. Mechanistically, GAR22β interacted with the regulator of microtubule dynamics end-binding protein 1 (EB1) via a novel noncanonical amino acid sequence, and this GAR22β-EB1 interaction was required for the ability of GAR22β to modulate cell motility. We found that GAR22β is highly expressed in mouse testes, and its absence resulted in reduced spermatozoa generation, lower actin levels in testes, and impaired motility and ultrastructural disorganization of spermatozoa. Collectively our findings identify GAR22β as a novel regulator of cell adhesion and migration and provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis of diverse cytoskeleton-dependent processes. PMID:26564797

  1. GAR22β regulates cell migration, sperm motility, and axoneme structure

    PubMed Central

    Gamper, Ivonne; Fleck, David; Barlin, Meltem; Spehr, Marc; Sayad, Sara El; Kleine, Henning; Maxeiner, Sebastian; Schalla, Carmen; Aydin, Gülcan; Hoss, Mareike; Litchfield, David W.; Lüscher, Bernhard; Zenke, Martin; Sechi, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal cytoskeleton remodeling is pivotal for cell adhesion and migration. Here we investigated the function of Gas2-related protein on chromosome 22 (GAR22β), a poorly characterized protein that interacts with actin and microtubules. Primary and immortalized GAR22β−/− Sertoli cells moved faster than wild-type cells. In addition, GAR22β−/− cells showed a more prominent focal adhesion turnover. GAR22β overexpression or its reexpression in GAR22β−/− cells reduced cell motility and focal adhesion turnover. GAR22β–actin interaction was stronger than GAR22β–microtubule interaction, resulting in GAR22β localization and dynamics that mirrored those of the actin cytoskeleton. Mechanistically, GAR22β interacted with the regulator of microtubule dynamics end-binding protein 1 (EB1) via a novel noncanonical amino acid sequence, and this GAR22β–EB1 interaction was required for the ability of GAR22β to modulate cell motility. We found that GAR22β is highly expressed in mouse testes, and its absence resulted in reduced spermatozoa generation, lower actin levels in testes, and impaired motility and ultrastructural disorganization of spermatozoa. Collectively our findings identify GAR22β as a novel regulator of cell adhesion and migration and provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis of diverse cytoskeleton-dependent processes. PMID:26564797

  2. Invadopodia and Matrix Degradation, a New Property of Prostate Cancer Cells during Migration and Invasion*

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Bhavik; Ma, Tao; Chellaiah, Meenakshi A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study demonstrated that invadopodia are associated with invasion by degradation of matrix in prostate cancer cells PC3. To find out the presence of invadopodia in PC3 cells, we performed a few comparative analyses with osteoclasts, which utilize podosomes for migration. Our investigations indeed demonstrated that invadopodia are comparable to podosomes in the localization of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)/matrix metalloproteinase-9 and the degradation of matrix. Invadopodia are different from podosomes in the localization of actin/vinculin, distribution during migration, and the mode of degradation of extracellular matrix. Invadopodia enable polarized invasion of PC3 cells into the gelatin matrix in a time-dependent manner. Gelatin degradation was confined within the periphery of the cell. Osteoclasts demonstrated directional migration with extensive degradation of matrix underneath and around the osteoclasts. A pathway of degradation of matrix representing a migratory track was observed due to the rearrangement of podosomes as rosettes or clusters at the leading edge. Reducing the matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels by RNA interference inhibited the degradation of matrix but not the formation of podosomes or invadopodia. Competition experiments with TAT-fused WASP peptides suggest that actin polymerization and formation of invadopodia involve the WASP-Arp2/3 complex pathway. Moreover, PC3 cells overexpressing osteopontin (OPN) displayed an increase in the number of invadopodia and gelatinolytic activity as compared with PC3 cells and PC3 cells expressing mutant OPN in integrin-binding domain and null for OPN. Thus, we conclude that OPN/integrin αvβ3 signaling participates in the process of migration and invasion of PC3 cells through regulating processes essential for the formation and function of invadopodia. PMID:18337256

  3. Inhibition of Kv channel expression by NSAIDs depolarizes membrane potential and inhibits cell migration by disrupting calpain signaling.

    PubMed

    Silver, Kristopher; Littlejohn, Alaina; Thomas, Laurel; Marsh, Elizabeth; Lillich, James D

    2015-12-15

    Clinical use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is well known to cause gastrointestinal ulcer formation via several mechanisms that include inhibiting epithelial cell migration and mucosal restitution. The drug-affected signaling pathways that contribute to inhibition of migration by NSAIDs are poorly understood, though previous studies have shown that NSAIDs depolarize membrane potential and suppress expression of calpain proteases and voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel subunits. Kv channels play significant roles in cell migration and are targets of NSAID activity in white blood cells, but the specific functional effects of NSAID-induced changes in Kv channel expression, particularly on cell migration, are unknown in intestinal epithelial cells. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of NSAIDs on expression of Kv1.3, 1.4, and 1.6 in vitro and/or in vivo and evaluated the functional significance of loss of Kv subunit expression. Indomethacin or NS-398 reduced total and plasma membrane protein expression of Kv1.3 in cultured intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). Additionally, depolarization of membrane potential with margatoxin (MgTx), 40mM K(+), or silencing of Kv channel expression with siRNA significantly reduced IEC-6 cell migration and disrupted calpain activity. Furthermore, in rat small intestinal epithelia, indomethacin and NS-398 had significant, yet distinct, effects on gene and protein expression of Kv1.3, 1.4, or 1.6, suggesting that these may be clinically relevant targets. Our results show that inhibition of epithelial cell migration by NSAIDs is associated with decreased expression of Kv channel subunits, and provide a mechanism through which NSAIDs inhibit cell migration and may contribute to NSAID-induced gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity.

  4. Co-culture with Sertoli cells promotes proliferation and migration of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fenxi; Hong, Yan; Liang, Wenmei; Ren, Tongming; Jing, Suhua; Lin, Juntang

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-culture of Sertoli cells (SCs) with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of SCs dramatically increased proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of SCs stimulated expression of Mdm2, Akt, CDC2, Cyclin D, CXCR4, MAPKs. -- Abstract: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been recently used in transplant therapy. The proliferation and migration of MSCs are the determinants of the efficiency of MSC transplant therapy. Sertoli cells are a kind of 'nurse' cells that support the development of sperm cells. Recent studies show that Sertoli cells promote proliferation of endothelial cells and neural stem cells in co-culture. We hypothesized that co-culture of UCMSCs with Sertoli cells may also promote proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated UCMSCs from human cords and Sertoli cells from mouse testes, and co-cultured them using a Transwell system. We found that UCMSCs exhibited strong proliferation ability and potential to differentiate to other cell lineages such as osteocytes and adipocytes. The presence of Sertoli cells in co-culture significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration potential of UCMSCs (P < 0.01). Moreover, these phenotypic changes were accompanied with upregulation of multiple genes involved in cell proliferation and migration including phospho-Akt, Mdm2, phospho-CDC2, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3 as well as CXCR4, phospho-p44 MAPK and phospho-p38 MAPK. These findings indicate that Sertoli cells boost UCMSC proliferation and migration potential.

  5. Blockade of Retinol Metabolism Protects T Cell-Induced Hepatitis by Increasing Migration of Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Sun; Yi, Hyon-Seung; Suh, Yang-Gun; Byun, Jin-Seok; Eun, Hyuk Soo; Kim, So Yeon; Seo, Wonhyo; Jeong, Jong-Min; Choi, Won-Mook; Kim, Myung-Ho; Kim, Ji Hoon; Park, Keun-Gyu; Jeong, Won-Il

    2015-01-01

    Retinols are metabolized into retinoic acids by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (Raldh). However, their roles have yet to be clarified in hepatitis despite enriched retinols in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Therefore, we investigated the effects of retinols on Concanavalin A (Con A)-mediated hepatitis. Con A was injected into wild type (WT), Raldh1 knock-out (Raldh1−/−), CCL2−/− and CCR2−/− mice. For migration study of regulatory T cells (Tregs), we used in vivo and ex vivo adoptive transfer systems. Blockade of retinol metabolism in mice given 4-methylpyrazole, an inhibitor of ADH, and ablated Raldh1 gene manifested increased migration of Tregs, eventually protected against Con A-mediated hepatitis by decreasing interferon-γ in T cells. Moreover, interferon-γ treatment increased the expression of ADH3 and Raldh1, but it suppressed that of CCL2 and IL-6 in HSCs. However, the expression of CCL2 and IL-6 was inversely increased upon the pharmacologic or genetic ablation of ADH3 and Raldh1 in HSCs. Indeed, IL-6 treatment increased CCR2 expression of Tregs. In migration assay, ablated CCR2 in Tregs showed reduced migration to HSCs. In adoptive transfer of Tregs in vivo and ex vivo, Raldh1-deficient mice showed more increased migration of Tregs than WT mice. Furthermore, inhibited retinol metabolism increased survival rate (75%) compared with that of the controls (25%) in Con A-induced hepatitis. These results suggest that blockade of retinol metabolism protects against acute liver injury by increased Treg migration, and it may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to control T cell-mediated acute hepatitis. PMID:26537191

  6. Protein phosphatase 2A Cα regulates proliferation, migration, and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Di; Okamura, Hirohiko; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Teramachi, Jumpei; Haneji, Tatsuji

    2016-10-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary bone tumor. Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) participates in regulating many important physiological processes, such as cell cycle, growth, apoptosis, and signal transduction. In this study, we examined the expression and function of PP2A Cα in osteosarcoma cells. PP2A Cα expression was expected to be higher in malignant osteosarcoma tissues. PP2A Cα expression level and PP2A activity was higher in malignant osteosarcoma LM8 cells compared with that in primary osteoblasts and in the osteoblast-like cell line MC3T3-E1. Okadaic acid, an inhibitor of PP2A, reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in LM8 cells. PP2A Cα-knockdown LM8 cells (shPP2A) exhibited less striking filopodial and lamellipodial structures than that in original LM8 cells. Focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation and NF-κB activity decreased in shPP2A-treated cells. Sensitivity to serum deprivation-induced apoptosis increased in shPP2A-treated cells, accompanied by a lower expression level of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 in these cells. Reduction of PP2A Cα resulted in a decrease in the migration ability of LM8 cells in vitro. Reduction in PP2A Cα levels in vivo suppressed proliferation and metastasis in LM8 cells. PP2A Cα expression was also higher in human osteosarcoma MG63 and SaOS-2 cells than that in primary osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells, and reduction in PP2A Cα levels suppressed the cell proliferation rate and migration ability of MG63 cells. These results indicate that PP2A Cα has a critical role in the proliferation and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells; therefore, its inhibition could potentially suppress the malignancy of osteosarcoma cells. PMID:27617401

  7. Anabolic androgens affect the competitive interactions in cell migration and adhesion between normal mouse urothelial cells and urothelial carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Ping; Hsieh, Teng-Fu; Chen, Chi-Cheng; Hung, Xiao-Fan; Yu, Ai-Lin; Chang, Chawnshang; Shyr, Chih-Rong

    2014-09-26

    The urothelium is constantly rebuilt by normal urothelial cells to regenerate damaged tissues caused by stimuli in urine. However, the urothelial carcinoma cells expand the territory by aberrant growth of tumor cells, which migrate and occupy the damaged tissues to spread outside and disrupt the normal cells and organized tissues and form a tumor. Therefore, the interaction between normal urothelial cells and urothelial carcinoma cells affect the initiation and progression of urothelial tumors if normal urothelial cells fail to migrate and adhere to the damages sites to regenerate the tissues. Here, comparing normal murine urothelial cells with murine urothelial carcinoma cells (MBT-2), we found that normal cells had less migration ability than carcinoma cells. And in our co-culture system we found that carcinoma cells had propensity migrating toward normal urothelial cells and carcinoma cells had more advantages to adhere than normal cells. To reverse this condition, we used anabolic androgen, dihyrotestosterone (DHT) to treat normal cells and found that DHT treatment increased the migration ability of normal urothelial cells toward carcinoma cells and the adhesion capacity in competition with carcinoma cells. This study provides the base of a novel therapeutic approach by using anabolic hormone-enforced normal urothelial cells to regenerate the damage urothelium and defend against the occupancy of carcinoma cells to thwart cancer development and recurrence.

  8. Collective migration and cell jamming in asthma, cancer and development.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Ah; Atia, Lior; Mitchel, Jennifer A; Fredberg, Jeffrey J; Butler, James P

    2016-09-15

    Collective cellular migration within the epithelial layer impacts upon development, wound healing and cancer invasion, but remains poorly understood. Prevailing conceptual frameworks tend to focus on the isolated role of each particular underlying factor - taken one at a time or at most a few at a time - and thus might not be tailored to describe a cellular collective that embodies a wide palette of physical and molecular interactions that are both strong and complex. To bridge this gap, we shift the spotlight to the emerging concept of cell jamming, which points to only a small set of parameters that govern when a cellular collective might jam and rigidify like a solid, or instead unjam and flow like a fluid. As gateways to cellular migration, the unjamming transition (UJT) and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) share certain superficial similarities, but their congruence - or lack thereof - remains unclear. In this Commentary, we discuss aspects of cell jamming, its established role in human epithelial cell layers derived from the airways of non-asthmatic and asthmatic donors, and its speculative but emerging roles in development and cancer cell invasion. PMID:27550520

  9. MEC-17 deficiency leads to reduced α-tubulin acetylation and impaired migration of cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wei, Dan; Wang, Qiong; Pan, Jing; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Xu; Bao, Lan

    2012-09-12

    Neuronal migration is a fundamental process during the development of the cerebral cortex and is regulated by cytoskeletal components. Microtubule dynamics can be modulated by posttranslational modifications to tubulin subunits. Acetylation of α-tubulin at lysine 40 is important in regulating microtubule properties, and this process is controlled by acetyltransferase and deacetylase. MEC-17 is a newly discovered α-tubulin acetyltransferase that has been found to play a major role in the acetylation of α-tubulin in different species in vivo. However, the physiological function of MEC-17 during neural development is largely unknown. Here, we report that MEC-17 is critical for the migration of cortical neurons in the rat. MEC-17 was strongly expressed in the cerebral cortex during development. MEC-17 deficiency caused migratory defects in the cortical projection neurons and interneurons, and perturbed the transition of projection neurons from the multipolar stage to the unipolar/bipolar stage in the intermediate zone of the cortex. Furthermore, knockdown of α-tubulin deacetylase HDAC6 or overexpression of tubulin(K40Q) to mimic acetylated α-tubulin could reduce the migratory and morphological defects caused by MEC-17 deficiency in cortical projection neurons. Thus, MEC-17, which regulates the acetylation of α-tubulin, appears to control the migration and morphological transition of cortical neurons. This finding reveals the importance of MEC-17 and α-tubulin acetylation in cortical development.

  10. Probing Leader Cells in Endothelial Collective Migration by Plasma Lithography Geometric Confinement

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongliang; Jamilpour, Nima; Yao, Baoyin; Dean, Zachary S.; Riahi, Reza; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-01-01

    When blood vessels are injured, leader cells emerge in the endothelium to heal the wound and restore the vasculature integrity. The characteristics of leader cells during endothelial collective migration under diverse physiological conditions, however, are poorly understood. Here we investigate the regulation and function of endothelial leader cells by plasma lithography geometric confinement generated. Endothelial leader cells display an aggressive phenotype, connect to follower cells via peripheral actin cables and discontinuous adherens junctions, and lead migrating clusters near the leading edge. Time-lapse microscopy, immunostaining, and particle image velocimetry reveal that the density of leader cells and the speed of migrating clusters are tightly regulated in a wide range of geometric patterns. By challenging the cells with converging, diverging and competing patterns, we show that the density of leader cells correlates with the size and coherence of the migrating clusters. Collectively, our data provide evidence that leader cells control endothelial collective migration by regualting the migrating clusters. PMID:26936382

  11. Probing Leader Cells in Endothelial Collective Migration by Plasma Lithography Geometric Confinement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongliang; Jamilpour, Nima; Yao, Baoyin; Dean, Zachary S; Riahi, Reza; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-03-03

    When blood vessels are injured, leader cells emerge in the endothelium to heal the wound and restore the vasculature integrity. The characteristics of leader cells during endothelial collective migration under diverse physiological conditions, however, are poorly understood. Here we investigate the regulation and function of endothelial leader cells by plasma lithography geometric confinement generated. Endothelial leader cells display an aggressive phenotype, connect to follower cells via peripheral actin cables and discontinuous adherens junctions, and lead migrating clusters near the leading edge. Time-lapse microscopy, immunostaining, and particle image velocimetry reveal that the density of leader cells and the speed of migrating clusters are tightly regulated in a wide range of geometric patterns. By challenging the cells with converging, diverging and competing patterns, we show that the density of leader cells correlates with the size and coherence of the migrating clusters. Collectively, our data provide evidence that leader cells control endothelial collective migration by regualting the migrating clusters.

  12. Probing Leader Cells in Endothelial Collective Migration by Plasma Lithography Geometric Confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongliang; Jamilpour, Nima; Yao, Baoyin; Dean, Zachary S.; Riahi, Reza; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-03-01

    When blood vessels are injured, leader cells emerge in the endothelium to heal the wound and restore the vasculature integrity. The characteristics of leader cells during endothelial collective migration under diverse physiological conditions, however, are poorly understood. Here we investigate the regulation and function of endothelial leader cells by plasma lithography geometric confinement generated. Endothelial leader cells display an aggressive phenotype, connect to follower cells via peripheral actin cables and discontinuous adherens junctions, and lead migrating clusters near the leading edge. Time-lapse microscopy, immunostaining, and particle image velocimetry reveal that the density of leader cells and the speed of migrating clusters are tightly regulated in a wide range of geometric patterns. By challenging the cells with converging, diverging and competing patterns, we show that the density of leader cells correlates with the size and coherence of the migrating clusters. Collectively, our data provide evidence that leader cells control endothelial collective migration by regualting the migrating clusters.

  13. The migrations of Drosophila muscle founders and primordial germ cells are interdependent.

    PubMed

    Stepanik, Vincent; Dunipace, Leslie; Bae, Young-Kyung; Macabenta, Frank; Sun, Jingjing; Trisnadi, Nathanie; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2016-09-01

    Caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM) cells migrate from posterior to anterior of the Drosophila embryo as two bilateral streams of cells to support the specification of longitudinal muscles along the midgut. To accomplish this long-distance migration, CVM cells receive input from their environment, but little is known about how this collective cell migration is regulated. In a screen we found that wunen mutants exhibit CVM cell migration defects. Wunens are lipid phosphate phosphatases known to regulate the directional migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs). PGC and CVM cell types interact while PGCs are en route to the somatic gonadal mesoderm, and previous studies have shown that CVM impacts PGC migration. In turn, we found here that CVM cells exhibit an affinity for PGCs, localizing to the position of PGCs whether mislocalized or trapped in the endoderm. In the absence of PGCs, CVM cells exhibit subtle changes, including more cohesive movement of the migrating collective, and an increased number of longitudinal muscles is found at anterior sections of the larval midgut. These data demonstrate that PGC and CVM cell migrations are interdependent and suggest that distinct migrating cell types can coordinately influence each other to promote effective cell migration during development. PMID:27578182

  14. To The Abercrombie Meeting and back again: a journey into the world of cell migration.

    PubMed

    Makowska, Katarzyna Anna

    2013-01-01

    The 7th Abercrombie Meeting took place in Oxford this past summer. It was organized by The Royal Microscopical Society with the support of The British Society for Cell Biology. Michael Abercrombie was a pioneer in the field of investigating cell behavior using time-lapse microscopy. The meeting was focused on "multi-dimensional cell migration in development and disease" and it brought together many of the world's leading researchers in the area, providing an opportunity to discuss the very latest advances and possible future developments in the field. The meeting sessions included Invasive Migration, Invasive Adhesions in Migrating Cells, Signaling in Migration, Immune Cell Migration, Migrations during Morphogenesis and Migration and Disease. As with all Abercrombie meetings, the conference delegates were treated to a staggering array of live cell imaging, in vivo imaging and images generated by the latest developments in microscopy.

  15. SRPX2 promotes cell migration and invasion via FAK dependent pathway in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenyuan; Zhang, Jingjing; Bi, Minghong; Han, Xiao; Han, Zhengquan; Wang, Hongya; Ou, Yimei

    2015-01-01

    Sushi repeat-containing protein, X-linked 2, abbreviated as SRPX2, is a candidate downstream target protein for E2A-HLF and involved in disorders of language cortex and cognition. Recent studies have demonstrated that elevated SRPX2 exhibits crucial roles in gastric cancer, however, underlying clinical significance and biological function of SRPX2 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), remains unclear. Data from Oncomine database showed that higher SRPX2 expression is more commonly observed in PDAC compared with normal pancreatic duct, similar results were also found in 12 matched PDAC tissue samples, 7 PDAC cell lines and a tissue microarray containing 81 PDAC specimens as demonstrated by real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Besides, higher SRPX2 expression was closely correlated with advanced TNM stage. Silencing of endogenous SRPX2 expression reduced abilities of cell migration and invasion of PDAC cells. Further studies revealed that SRPX2 expression in PDAC tissues significantly correlated with the phosphorylation levels of FAK, indicating that FAK dependent pathway may be account for the effect of SRPX2 on cell migration and invasion in PDAC. Collectively, this study reveals that frequently elevated SRPX2 contributes to cell migration and invasion in PDAC and SRPX2-related pathways might be a potential therapeutic target for PDAC. PMID:26191169

  16. VI-14, a novel flavonoid derivative, inhibits migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fanni; Li, Chenglin; Zhang, Haiwei; Lu, Zhijian; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Lu, Na; Guo, Qinglong

    2012-06-01

    It has been well characterized that flavonoids possess pronounced anticancer potentials including anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis, and pro-apoptosis. Herein, we report, for the first time, that VI-14, a novel flavonoid derivative, possesses anti-cancer properties. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-migration and anti-invasion activities of VI-14 in breast cancer cells. Our data indicate that VI-14 inhibits adhesion, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 human breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 cells treated with VI-14 display reduced activities and expressions of ECM degradation-associated proteins including matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and 9 (MMP-9) at both the protein and mRNA levels. Meanwhile, VI-14 treatment induces an up-regulated expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) and 2 (TIMP-2) in MDA-MB-231 cells. Western blotting results show that phosphorylation levels of critical components of the MAPK signaling pathway, including ERK, JNK and P38, are dramatically decreased in VI-14-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, treatment of VI-14 significantly decreases the nuclear levels and the binding ability of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Taken together, our data suggest that VI-14 treatment suppresses migration and motility of breast cancer cells, and VI-14 may be a potential compound for cancer therapy. Highlights: ► We report for the first time that VI-14 possesses anti-cancer properties. ► VI-14 weakens the adhesion, migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells. ► VI-14 decreases the activities and expressions of MMP-2/9. ► VI-14 suppresses the phosphorylation levels of the MAPK signaling pathway. ► VI-14 decreases the nuclear levels and the binding ability of NF-κB and AP-1.

  17. Time-lapse microscopy and image processing for stem cell research: modeling cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Tomas; Althoff, Karin; Degerman, Johan; Olsson, Torsten; Thoreson, Ann-Catrin; Thorlin, Thorleif; Eriksson, Peter

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents hardware and software procedures for automated cell tracking and migration modeling. A time-lapse microscopy system equipped with a computer controllable motorized stage was developed. The performance of this stage was improved by incorporating software algorithms for stage motion displacement compensation and auto focus. The microscope is suitable for in-vitro stem cell studies and allows for multiple cell culture image sequence acquisition. This enables comparative studies concerning rate of cell splits, average cell motion velocity, cell motion as a function of cell sample density and many more. Several cell segmentation procedures are described as well as a cell tracking algorithm. Statistical methods for describing cell migration patterns are presented. In particular, the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) was investigated. Results indicate that if the cell motion can be described as a non-stationary stochastic process, then the HMM can adequately model aspects of its dynamic behavior.

  18. Interplay of RhoA and mechanical forces in collective cell migration driven by leader cells.

    PubMed

    Reffay, M; Parrini, M C; Cochet-Escartin, O; Ladoux, B; Buguin, A; Coscoy, S; Amblard, F; Camonis, J; Silberzan, P

    2014-03-01

    The leading front of a collectively migrating epithelium often destabilizes into multicellular migration fingers where a cell initially similar to the others becomes a leader cell while its neighbours do not alter. The determinants of these leader cells include mechanical and biochemical cues, often under the control of small GTPases. However, an accurate dynamic cartography of both mechanical and biochemical activities remains to be established. Here, by mapping the mechanical traction forces exerted on the surface by MDCK migration fingers, we show that these structures are mechanical global entities with the leader cells exerting a large traction force. Moreover, the spatial distribution of RhoA differential activity at the basal plane strikingly mirrors this force cartography. We propose that RhoA controls the development of these fingers through mechanical cues: the leader cell drags the structure and the peripheral pluricellular acto-myosin cable prevents the initiation of new leader cells.

  19. Tre1, a G Protein-Coupled Receptor, Directs Transepithelial Migration of Drosophila Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    In most organisms, germ cells are formed distant from the somatic part of the gonad and thus have to migrate along and through a variety of tissues to reach the gonad. Transepithelial migration through the posterior midgut (PMG) is the first active step during Drosophila germ cell migration. Here we report the identification of a novel G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), Tre1, that is essential for this migration step. Maternal tre1 RNA is localized to germ cells, and tre1 is required cell autonomously in germ cells. In tre1 mutant embryos, most germ cells do not exit the PMG. The few germ cells that do leave the midgut early migrate normally to the gonad, suggesting that this gene is specifically required for transepithelial migration and that mutant germ cells are still able to recognize other guidance cues. Additionally, inhibiting small Rho GTPases in germ cells affects transepithelial migration, suggesting that Tre1 signals through Rho1. We propose that Tre1 acts in a manner similar to chemokine receptors required during transepithelial migration of leukocytes, implying an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of transepithelial migration. Recently, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 was shown to direct migration in vertebrate germ cells. Thus, germ cells may more generally use GPCR signaling to navigate the embryo toward their target. PMID:14691551

  20. Glioma migration: clues from the biology of neural progenitor cells and embryonic CNS cell migration.

    PubMed

    Dirks, P B

    2001-06-01

    Neural stem cells have recently come to the forefront in neurobiology because of the possibilities for CNS repair by transplantation. Further understanding of the biology of these cells is critical for making their use in CNS repair possible. It is likely that these discoveries will also have spin-offs for neuro-oncology as primary brain tumors may arise from a CNS progenitor cell. An understanding of the normal migratory ability of these cells is also likely to have a very important impact on the knowledge of brain tumor invasion.

  1. Vitamin C inhibit the proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal-transition of lens epithelial cells by destabilizing HIF-1α

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lin; Quan, Yanlong; Wang, Jianming; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Yuping; Zhou, Aiyi

    2015-01-01

    Posterior capsular opacification (PCO), the main complication of cataract surgery, is mainly caused by the proliferation, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the residual lens epithelial cells (LECs).Vitamin C was reported to reduce the risk of forming a cataract. However, there has been no study showing the association between vitamin C and PCO. In this study, we found that vitamin C could inhibit the migration and proliferation of human lens epithelial cells. We also found that vitamin C could increase the proline hydroxylation of HIF-1α and reduce the activity of HIF-1α. Moreover, vitamin C could not inhibit the activity of proline-mutant HIF-1α (402/564). Overexpression of wild-type HIF-1α or proline-mutant HIF-1α was found to increase the proliferation and migration of human lens epithelial cells. Differently, vitamin C could inhibit the proliferation and migration in wild-type HIF-1α-overexpressing lens epithelial cells but not the proline-mutant HIF-1α-overexpressing cells. Additionally, vitamin C was also found to inhibit the expression of EMT transcription factors TWIST. We then found that vitamin C could repress the EMT phenotypes induced by the overexpression of wild-type HIF-1α but not the proline-mutant HIF-1α. These results provide evidence that vitamin C plays a role in the repression of proliferation, migration, and EMT of human lens epithelial cells by destabilizing HIF-1α. PMID:26628999

  2. Jak3 Is Involved in Dendritic Cell Maturation and CCR7-Dependent Migration

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Caicedo, Ana; Soldevila, Gloria; Fortoul, Teresa I.; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A.

    2009-01-01

    Background CCR7-mediated signalling is important for dendritic cell maturation and homing to the lymph nodes. We have previously demonstrated that Jak3 participates in the signalling pathway of CCR7 in T lymphocytes. Methodology and Principal Findings Here, we used Jak3−/− mice to analyze the role of Jak3 in CCR7-mediated dendritic cells migration and function. First, we found no differences in the generation of DCs from Jak3−/− bone marrow progenitors, when compared to wild type cells. However, phenotypic analysis of the bone marrow derived DCs obtained from Jak3−/− mice showed reduced expression of co-stimulatory molecules compared to wild type (Jak3+/+). In addition, when we analyzed the migration of Jak3−/− and Jak3+/+ mature DCs in response to CCL19 and CCL21 chemokines, we found that the absence of Jak3 results in impaired chemotactic responses both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, lymphocyte proliferation and contact hypersensitivity experiments showed that DC-mediated T lymphocyte activation is reduced in the absence of Jak3. Conclusion/Significance Altogether, our data provide strong evidence that Jak3 is important for DC maturation, migration and function, through a CCR7-mediated signalling pathway. PMID:19759904

  3. Notch1-Dll4 signalling and mechanical force regulate leader cell formation during collective cell migration.

    PubMed

    Riahi, Reza; Sun, Jian; Wang, Shue; Long, Min; Zhang, Donna D; Wong, Pak Kin

    2015-03-13

    At the onset of collective cell migration, a subset of cells within an initially homogenous population acquires a distinct 'leader' phenotype with characteristic morphology and motility. However, the factors driving the leader cell formation as well as the mechanisms regulating leader cell density during the migration process remain to be determined. Here we use single-cell gene expression analysis and computational modelling to show that the leader cell identity is dynamically regulated by Dll4 signalling through both Notch1 and cellular stress in a migrating epithelium. Time-lapse microscopy reveals that Dll4 is induced in leader cells after the creation of the cell-free region and leader cells are regulated via Notch1-Dll4 lateral inhibition. Furthermore, mechanical stress inhibits Dll4 expression and leader cell formation in the monolayer. Collectively, our findings suggest that a reduction of mechanical force near the boundary promotes Notch1-Dll4 signalling to dynamically regulate the density of leader cells during collective cell migration.

  4. Epigenetic modification suppresses proliferation, migration and invasion of urothelial cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Brockmeyer, Phillipp; Hemmerlein, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic approaches offer additional therapeutic options, including apoptosis induction, modification of cell cycle regulating proteins and the re-expression of pharmaceutical targets, such as hormone receptors. The present study analyzed the effect of the epigenetic modifiers 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and Trichostatin A on the proliferative, migratory and invasive behavior of four urinary bladder cancer cell lines (RT-4, RT-112, VMCUB-1 and T-24), and the expression of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays revealed that treatment with the two epigenetic modifiers resulted in proliferation inhibition in all cell lines, and migration and invasion inhibition in RT-4, RT-112 and T-24 cell lines. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the mRNA expression of a broad selection of MMPs and their TIMPs was induced in all cell lines, and MMP-14 mRNA expression was suppressed in all cell lines, with the exception of RT-4. In conclusion, epigenetic modifications suppressed the motility and invasiveness of three out of four urothelial cancer cell lines. The inhibitory effect on cell motility appears to be crucial for reduced invasive properties. However, even a broad spectrum of mRNA analysis does not sufficiently explain the loss of invasiveness, as it does not allow for functional conclusions. Further complex urothelial tumour models should be applied to investigate whether epigenetic therapeutic approaches may be an option in urothelial cancer.

  5. Epigenetic modification suppresses proliferation, migration and invasion of urothelial cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Brockmeyer, Phillipp; Hemmerlein, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic approaches offer additional therapeutic options, including apoptosis induction, modification of cell cycle regulating proteins and the re-expression of pharmaceutical targets, such as hormone receptors. The present study analyzed the effect of the epigenetic modifiers 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and Trichostatin A on the proliferative, migratory and invasive behavior of four urinary bladder cancer cell lines (RT-4, RT-112, VMCUB-1 and T-24), and the expression of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays revealed that treatment with the two epigenetic modifiers resulted in proliferation inhibition in all cell lines, and migration and invasion inhibition in RT-4, RT-112 and T-24 cell lines. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the mRNA expression of a broad selection of MMPs and their TIMPs was induced in all cell lines, and MMP-14 mRNA expression was suppressed in all cell lines, with the exception of RT-4. In conclusion, epigenetic modifications suppressed the motility and invasiveness of three out of four urothelial cancer cell lines. The inhibitory effect on cell motility appears to be crucial for reduced invasive properties. However, even a broad spectrum of mRNA analysis does not sufficiently explain the loss of invasiveness, as it does not allow for functional conclusions. Further complex urothelial tumour models should be applied to investigate whether epigenetic therapeutic approaches may be an option in urothelial cancer. PMID:27602104

  6. Nuclear deformability constitutes a rate-limiting step during cell migration in 3-D environments

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Patricia M.; Denais, Celine; Bakshi, Maya C.; Lammerding, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Cell motility plays a critical role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from wound healing to cancer metastasis. While cell migration on 2-dimensional (2-D) substrates has been studied for decades, the physical challenges cells face when moving in 3-D environments are only now emerging. In particular, the cell nucleus, which occupies a large fraction of the cell volume and is normally substantially stiffer than the surrounding cytoplasm, may impose a major obstacle when cells encounter narrow constrictions in the interstitial space, the extracellular matrix, or small capillaries. Using novel microfluidic devices that allow observation of cells moving through precisely defined geometries at high spatial and temporal resolution, we determined nuclear deformability as a critical factor in the cells’ ability to pass through constrictions smaller than the size of the nucleus. Furthermore, we found that cells with reduced levels of the nuclear envelope proteins lamins A/C, which are the main determinants of nuclear stiffness, passed significantly faster through narrow constrictions during active migration and passive perfusion. Given recent reports that many human cancers have altered lamin expression, our findings suggest a novel biophysical mechanism by which changes in nuclear structure and composition may promote cancer cell invasion and metastasis. PMID:25436017

  7. Inhibitory Effects and Mechanisms of Luteolin on Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dehua; Li, Dongye; Wu, Wanling

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is a complicated progress, involving many types of cells. Although the exact mechanisms of progression of atherosclerosis are uncertain, the balance of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation and apoptosis appears to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis, and much discussion has been undertaken to elucidate the detailed mechanisms, relevant gene expression and transduction pathways. Drug treatment has focused on ameliorating atherosclerosis. Some researchers have indicated that inhibiting VSMCs proliferation is involved in attenuating atherosclerosis. Luteolin is a kind of flavonoids naturally occurring in many plants and possesses beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Luteolin can reduce VSMCs’ proliferation and migration and this reduction is stimulated by several factors. The aim of this review is to summarize the existing inhibitory effects and mechanisms of luteolin on proliferation and migration of VSMCs, and consider whether luteolin may be a potential candidate for preventing and treating atherosclerosis. PMID:23686014

  8. Dysregulated expression of IDO may cause unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion through suppression of trophoblast cell proliferation and migration.

    PubMed

    Zong, Shanshan; Li, Chunqing; Luo, Chengfeng; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Chunhong; Wang, Kai; Jia, Wenwen; Bai, Mingliang; Yin, Minghong; Bao, Shihua; Guo, Jie; Kang, Jiuhong; Duan, Tao; Zhou, Qian

    2016-01-27

    In pregnancy, trophoblast proliferation, migration and invasion are important for the establishment and maintenance of a successful pregnancy. Impaired trophoblast function has been implicated in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), a major complication of pregnancy, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that catabolizes tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway, is highly expressed in the placenta and serum during pregnancy. Here, we identified a novel function of IDO in regulating trophoblast cell proliferation and migration. We showed that IDO expression and activity were decreased in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) compared to normal pregnancy. Furthermore, blocking IDO in human trophoblast cells led to reduced proliferation and migration, along with decreased STAT3 phosphorylation and MMP9 expression. Increased STAT3 phosphorylation reversed the IDO knockdown-suppressed trophoblast cell proliferation and migration. In addition, the overexpression of IDO promoted cell proliferation and migration, which could be abolished by the STAT3 signaling inhibitor (AG490). Finally, we observed similar reductions of STAT3 phosphorylation and MMP9 expression in URSA patients. These results indicate that the level of IDO expression may be associated with pregnancy-related complications, such as URSA, by affecting trophoblast cell proliferation and migration via the STAT3 signaling pathway.

  9. Senescent stromal cells induce cancer cell migration via inhibition of RhoA/ROCK/myosin-based cell contractility.

    PubMed

    Aifuwa, Ivie; Giri, Anjil; Longe, Nick; Lee, Sang Hyuk; An, Steven S; Wirtz, Denis

    2015-10-13

    Cells induced into senescence exhibit a marked increase in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines termed senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Here we report that SASP from senescent stromal fibroblasts promote spontaneous morphological changes accompanied by an aggressive migratory behavior in originally non-motile human breast cancer cells. This phenotypic switch is coordinated, in space and time, by a dramatic reorganization of the actin and microtubule filament networks, a discrete polarization of EB1 comets, and an unconventional front-to-back inversion of nucleus-MTOC polarity. SASP-induced morphological/migratory changes are critically dependent on microtubule integrity and dynamics, and are coordinated by the inhibition of RhoA and cell contractility. RhoA/ROCK inhibition reduces focal adhesions and traction forces, while promoting a novel gliding mode of migration. PMID:26483365

  10. Migration of Langerhans cells and gammadelta dendritic cells from UV-B-irradiated sheep skin.

    PubMed

    Dandie, G W; Clydesdale, G J; Radcliff, F J; Muller, H K

    2001-02-01

    Depletion of dendritic cells from UV-B-irradiated sheep skin was investigated by monitoring migration of these cells towards regional lymph nodes. By creating and cannulating pseudoafferent lymphatic vessels draining a defined region of skin, migrating cells were collected and enumerated throughout the response to UV-B irradiation. In the present study, the effects of exposing sheep flank skin to UV-B radiation clearly demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in the migration of Langerhans cells (LC) from the UV-B-exposed area to the draining lymph node. The range of UV-B doses assessed in this study included 2.7 kJ/m2, a suberythemal dose; 8 kJ/m2, 1 minimal erythemal dose (MED); 20.1 kJ/m2; 40.2 kJ/m2; and 80.4 kJ/m2, 10 MED. The LC were the cells most sensitive to UV-B treatment, with exposure to 8 kJ/m2 or greater reproducibly causing a significant increase in migration. Migration of gammadelta+ dendritic cells (gammadelta+ DC) from irradiated skin was also triggered by exposure to UV-B radiation, but dose dependency was not evident within the range of UV-B doses examined. This, in conjunction with the lack of any consistent correlation between either the timing or magnitude of migration peaks of these two cell types, suggests that different mechanisms govern the egress of LC and gammadelta+ DC from the skin. It is concluded that the depression of normal immune function in the skin after exposure to erythemal doses of UV-B radiation is associated with changes in the migration patterns of epidermal dendritic cells to local lymph nodes. PMID:11168622

  11. c-Cbl regulates αPix-mediated cell migration and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Seong, Min Woo; Park, Ji Ho; Yoo, Hee Min; Yang, Seung Wook; Oh, Kyu Hee; Ka, Seung Hyeun; Park, Dong Eun; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chung, Chin Ha

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • c-Cbl ubiquitinates αPix for proteasome-mediated degradation. • C6 and A172 glioma cells lack c-Cbl, which leads to stabilization of αPix. • The accumulated αPix promotes migration and invasion of the cancer cells. • The lack of c-Cbl in the cells appears responsible for their malignant behavior. - Abstract: c-Cbl, a RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligase, down-regulates receptor tyrosine kinases, including EGF receptor, and inhibits cell proliferation. Moreover, c-Cbl mutations are frequently found in patients with myeloid neoplasm. Therefore, c-Cbl is known as a tumor suppressor. αPix is expressed only in highly proliferative and mobile cells, including immune cells, and up-regulated in certain invasive tumors, such as glioblastoma multiforme. Here, we showed that c-Cbl serves as an ubiquitin E3 ligase for proteasome-mediated degradation of αPix, but not βPix. Remarkably, the rat C6 and human A172 glioma cells were unable to express c-Cbl, which leads to a dramatic accumulation of αPix. Depletion of αPix by shRNA markedly reduced the ability of the glioma cells to migrate and invade, whereas complementation of shRNA-insensitive αPix promoted it. These results indicate that c-Cbl negatively regulates αPix-mediated cell migration and invasion and the lack of c-Cbl in the C6 and A172 glioma cells is responsible for their malignant behavior.

  12. Pitavastatin attenuates the PDGF-induced LR11/uPA receptor-mediated migration of smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Meizi; Bujo, Hideaki . E-mail: hbujo@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Zhu, Yanjuan; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Hirayama, Satoshi; Kanaki, Tatsuro; Shibasaki, Manabu; Takahashi, Kazuo; Schneider, Wolfgang J.; Saito, Yasushi

    2006-10-06

    Statins, inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, elicit various actions on vascular cells including the modulation of proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Here, we have elucidated the mechanism by which statins, in particular pitavastatin, attenuate the migration activity of SMCs. The expression of LR11, a member of the LDL receptor family and an enhancer of cell surface localization of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), is increased in cultured SMCs by treatment with PDGF-BB. Pitavastatin attenuates the PDGF-BB -induced surface expression of LR11 and uPAR. The increased migration of SMCs observed both upon overexpression of LR11 and via stimulation of secretion of soluble LR11 is not reversed by pitavastatin. In vivo studies showed that the SMCs expressing LR11 in plaques are almost congruent with intimal cells expressing nonmuscle myosin heavy chain (SMemb). Pitavastatin reduced the expression of LR11 and SMemb, and the levels of LR11, uPAR, and SMemb in cultured intimal SMCs were reduced to those seen in medial SMCs. We propose that this statin reduces PDGF-induced migration through the attenuation of the LR11/uPAR system in SMCs. Modulation of the LR11/uPAR system with statins suggests a novel treatment strategy for atherogenesis based on suppression of intimal SMC migration.

  13. Nuclear Lamin A/C Deficiency Induces Defects in Cell Mechanics, Polarization, and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jerry S. H.; Hale, Christopher M.; Panorchan, Porntula; Khatau, Shyam B.; George, Jerry P.; Tseng, Yiider; Stewart, Colin L.; Hodzic, Didier; Wirtz, Denis

    2007-01-01

    Lamin A/C is a major constituent of the nuclear lamina, a thin filamentous protein layer that lies beneath the nuclear envelope. Here we show that lamin A/C deficiency in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (Lmna−/− MEFs) diminishes the ability of these cells to polarize at the edge of a wound and significantly reduces cell migration speed into the wound. Moreover, lamin A/C deficiency induces significant separation of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) from the nuclear envelope. Investigations using ballistic intracellular nanorheology reveal that lamin A/C deficiency also dramatically affects the micromechanical properties of the cytoplasm. Both the elasticity (stretchiness) and the viscosity (propensity of a material to flow) of the cytoplasm in Lmna−/− MEFs are significantly reduced. Disassembly of either the actin filament or microtubule networks in Lmna+/+ MEFs results in decrease of cytoplasmic elasticity and viscosity down to levels found in Lmna−/− MEFs. Together these results show that both the mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton and cytoskeleton-based processes, including cell motility, coupled MTOC and nucleus dynamics, and cell polarization, depend critically on the integrity of the nuclear lamina, which suggest the existence of a functional mechanical connection between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton. These results also suggest that cell polarization during cell migration requires tight mechanical coupling between MTOC and nucleus, which is mediated by lamin A/C. PMID:17631533

  14. Macrophages Modulate Migration and Invasion of Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pirilä, Emma; Väyrynen, Otto; Sundquist, Elias; Päkkilä, Kaisa; Nyberg, Pia; Nurmenniemi, Sini; Pääkkönen, Virve; Pesonen, Paula; Dayan, Dan; Vered, Marilena; Uhlin-Hansen, Lars; Salo, Tuula

    2015-01-01

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) has a high mortality rate and the incidence is rising worldwide. Despite advances in treatment, the disease lacks specific prognostic markers and treatment modality. The spreading of OTSCC is dependent on the tumor microenvironment and involves tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Although the presence of TAMs is associated with poor prognosis in OTSCC, the specific mechanisms underlying this are still unknown. The aim here was to investigate the effect of macrophages (Mfs) on HSC-3 tongue carcinoma cells and NF-kappaB activity. We polarized THP-1 cells to M1 (inflammatory), M2 (TAM-like) and R848 (imidazoquinoline-treated) type Mfs. We then investigated the effect of Mfs on HSC-3 cell migration and NF-kappaB activity, cytokine production and invasion using several different in vitro migration models, a human 3D tissue invasion model, antibody arrays, confocal microscopy, immunohistochemistry and a mouse invasion model. We found that in co-culture studies all types of Mfs fused with HSC-3 cells, a process which was partially due to efferocytosis. HSC-3 cells induced expression of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta in co-cultures with M2 Mfs. Direct cell-cell contact between M2 Mfs and HSC-3 cells induced migration and invasion of HSC-3 cells while M1 Mfs reduced HSC-3 cell invasion. M2 Mfs had an excess of NF-kappaB p50 subunit and a lack of p65 subunits both in the presence and absence of HSC-3 cells, indicating dysregulation and pro-tumorigenic NF-kappaB activation. TAM-like cells were abundantly present in close vicinity to carcinoma cells in OTSCC patient samples. We conclude that M2 Mfs/TAMs have an important role in OTSCC regulating adhesion, migration, invasion and cytokine production of carcinoma cells favouring tumor growth. These results demonstrate that OTSCC patients could benefit from therapies targeting TAMs, polarizing TAM-like M2 Mfs to inflammatory macrophages and modulating NF

  15. Collective epithelial cell sheet adhesion and migration on polyelectrolyte multilayers with uniform and gradients of compliance.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jessica S; Schlenoff, Joseph B; Keller, Thomas C S

    2016-08-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMUs) are tunable thin films that could serve as coatings for biomedical implants. PEMUs built layer by layer with the polyanion poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) modified with a photosensitive 4-(2-hydroxyethoxy) benzophenone (PAABp) group and the polycation poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) are mechanically tunable by UV irradiation, which forms covalent bonds between the layers and increases PEMU stiffness. PAH-terminated PEMUs (PAH-PEMUs) that were uncrosslinked, UV-crosslinked to a uniform stiffness, or UV-crosslinked with an edge mask or through a neutral density optical gradient filter to form continuous compliance gradients were used to investigate how differences in PEMU stiffness affect the adhesion and migration of epithelial cell sheets from scales of the fish Poecilia sphenops (Black Molly) and Carassius auratus (Comet Goldfish). During the progressive collective cell migration, the edge cells (also known as 'leader' cells) in the sheets on softer uncrosslinked PEMUs and less crosslinked regions of the gradient formed more actin filaments and vinculin-containing adherens junctions and focal adhesions than formed in the sheet cells on stiffer PEMUs or glass. During sheet migration, the ratio of edge cell to internal cell (also known as 'follower' cells) motilities were greater on the softer PEMUs than on the stiffer PEMUs or glass, causing tension to develop across the sheet and periods of retraction, during which the edge cells lost adhesion to the substrate and regions of the sheet retracted toward the more adherent internal cell region. These retraction events were inhibited by the myosin II inhibitor Blebbistatin, which reduced the motility velocity ratios to those for sheets on the stiffer PEMUs. Blebbistatin also caused disassembly of actin filaments, reorganization of focal adhesions, increased cell spreading at the leading edge, as well as loss of edge cell-cell connections in epithelial cell sheets on all surfaces

  16. Actin-Based Feedback Circuits in Cell Migration and Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinxin

    In this thesis, we study the switch and pulse functions of actin during two important cellular processes, cell migration and endocytosis. Actin is an abundant protein that can polymerize to form a dendritic network. The actin network can exert force to push or bend the cell membrane. During cell migration, the actin network behaves like a switch, assembling mostly at one end or at the other end. The end with the majority of the actin network is the leading edge, following which the cell can persistently move in the same direction. The other end, with the minority of the actin network, is the trailing edge, which is dragged by the cell as it moves forward. When subjected to large fluctuations or external stimuli, the leading edge and the trailing edge can interchange and change the direction of motion, like a motion switch. Our model of the actin network in a cell reveals that mechanical force is crucial for forming the motion switch. We find a transition from single state symmetric behavior to switch behavior, when tuning parameters such as the force. The model is studied by both stochastic simulations, and a set of rate equations that are consistent with the simulations. Endocytosis is a process by which cells engulf extracellular substances and recycle the cell membrane. In yeast cells, the actin network is transiently needed to overcome the pressure difference across the cell membrane caused by turgor pressure. The actin network behaves like a pulse, which assembles and then disassembles within about 30 seconds. Using a stochastic model, we reproduce the pulse behaviors of the actin network and one of its regulatory proteins, Las17. The model matches green fluorescence protein (GFP) experiments for wild-type cells. The model also predicts some phenotypes that modify or diminish the pulse behavior. The phenotypes are verified with both experiments performed at Washington University and with other groups' experiments. We find that several feedback mechanisms are

  17. HMG-CoA reductase regulates CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration via geranylgeranylation and RhoA activation

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Haidari, Amr A.; Syk, Ingvar; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Simvastatin blocked CCL17-induced and CCR4-dependent RhoA activation in HT29 cells. • CCL17/CCR4-mediated migration of colon cancer cells was antagonised by simvastatin. • Cell migration recovered by adding Mevalonate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. • Targeting HMG-CoA reductase might be useful to inhibit colon cancer metastasis. - Abstract: Background: Simvastatin is widely used to lower cholesterol levels in patients with cardiovascular diseases, although accumulating evidence suggests that statins, such as simvastatin, also exert numerous anti-tumoral effects. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of simvastatin on colon cancer cell migration. Methods: Migration assays were performed to evaluate CCL17-induced colon cancer cell (HT-29) chemotaxis. In vitro tumor growth and apoptosis were assessed using a proliferation assay and annexin V assay, respectively. Active RhoA protein levels in CCL17-stimulated colon cancer cells were quantified using a G-LISA assay. Results: We found that simvastatin dose-dependently decreased CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration. Simvastatin had no effect on colon cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis. Inhibition of beta chemokine receptor 4, CCR4, reduced CCL17-evoked activation of RhoA in colon cancer cells. Moreover, administration of mevalonate reversed the inhibitory effect of simvastatin on CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration. Interestingly, co-incubation with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) antagonized the inhibitory impact of simvastatin on colon cancer cell migration triggered by CCL17. Moreover, we observed that simvastatin decreased CCL17-induced activation of RhoA in colon cancer cells. Administration of mevalonate and GGPP reversed the inhibitory effect of simvastatin on CCL17-provoked RhoA activation in colon cancer cells. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings show for the first time that HMG-CoA reductase regulates CCL17-induced colon cancer cell migration via

  18. Human phosphatase CDC14A is recruited to the cell leading edge to regulate cell migration and adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nan-Peng; Uddin, Borhan; Voit, Renate; Schiebel, Elmar

    2016-01-01

    Cell adhesion and migration are highly dynamic biological processes that play important roles in organ development and cancer metastasis. Their tight regulation by small GTPases and protein phosphorylation make interrogation of these key processes of great importance. We now show that the conserved dual-specificity phosphatase human cell-division cycle 14A (hCDC14A) associates with the actin cytoskeleton of human cells. To understand hCDC14A function at this location, we manipulated native loci to ablate hCDC14A phosphatase activity (hCDC14APD) in untransformed hTERT-RPE1 and colorectal cancer (HCT116) cell lines and expressed the phosphatase in HeLa FRT T-Rex cells. Ectopic expression of hCDC14A induced stress fiber formation, whereas stress fibers were diminished in hCDC14APD cells. hCDC14APD cells displayed faster cell migration and less adhesion than wild-type controls. hCDC14A colocalized with the hCDC14A substrate kidney- and brain-expressed protein (KIBRA) at the cell leading edge and overexpression of KIBRA was able to reverse the phenotypes of hCDC14APD cells. Finally, we show that ablation of hCDC14A activity increased the aggressive nature of cells in an in vitro tumor formation assay. Consistently, hCDC14A is down-regulated in many tumor tissues and reduced hCDC14A expression is correlated with poorer survival of patients with cancer, to suggest that hCDC14A may directly contribute to the metastatic potential of tumors. Thus, we have uncovered an unanticipated role for hCDC14A in cell migration and adhesion that is clearly distinct from the mitotic and cytokinesis functions of Cdc14/Flp1 in budding and fission yeast. PMID:26747605

  19. Selective migration of neuralized embryonic stem cells to stem cell factor and media conditioned by glioma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Serfozo, Peter; Schlarman, Maggie S; Pierret, Chris; Maria, Bernard L; Kirk, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    Background Pluripotent mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can be induced in vitro to become neural progenitors. Upon transplantation, neural progenitors migrate toward areas of damage and inflammation in the CNS. We tested whether undifferentiated and neuralized mouse ES cells migrate toward media conditioned by glioma cell lines (C6, U87 & N1321) or Stem Cell Factor (SCF). Results Cell migration assays revealed selective migration by neuralized ES cells to conditioned media as well as to synthetic SCF. Migration of undifferentiated ES cells was extensive, but not significantly different from that of controls (Unconditioned Medium). RT-PCR analysis revealed that all the three tumor cell lines tested synthesized SCF and that both undifferentiated and neuralized ES cells expressed c-kit, the receptor for SCF. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that undifferentiated ES cells are highly mobile and that neural progenitors derived from ES cells are selectively attracted toward factors produced by gliomas. Given that the glioma cell lines synthesize SCF, SCF may be one of several factors that contribute to the selective migration observed. PMID:16436212

  20. Role of medullary progenitor cells in epithelial cell migration and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong; Chen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yuning; Park, Chanyoung; Al-Omari, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at characterizing medullary interstitial progenitor cells and to examine their capacity to induce tubular epithelial cell migration and proliferation. We have isolated a progenitor cell side population from a primary medullary interstitial cell line. We show that the medullary progenitor cells (MPCs) express CD24, CD44, CXCR7, CXCR4, nestin, and PAX7. MPCs are CD34 negative, which indicates that they are not bone marrow-derived stem cells. MPCs survive >50 passages, and when grown in epithelial differentiation medium develop phenotypic characteristics of epithelial cells. Inner medulla collecting duct (IMCD3) cells treated with conditioned medium from MPCs show significantly accelerated cell proliferation and migration. Conditioned medium from PGE2-treated MPCs induce tubule formation in IMCD3 cells grown in 3D Matrigel. Moreover, most of the MPCs express the pericyte marker PDGFR-b. Our study shows that the medullary interstitium harbors a side population of progenitor cells that can differentiate to epithelial cells and can stimulate tubular epithelial cell migration and proliferation. The findings of this study suggest that medullary pericyte/progenitor cells may play a critical role in collecting duct cell injury repair. PMID:24808539

  1. Extravillous trophoblast cells-derived exosomes promote vascular smooth muscle cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Carlos; Yee, Sarah; Scholz-Romero, Katherin; Kobayashi, Miharu; Vaswani, Kanchan; Kvaskoff, David; Illanes, Sebastian E.; Mitchell, Murray D.; Rice, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) migration is a critical process during human uterine spiral artery (SpA) remodeling and a successful pregnancy. Extravillous trophoblast cells (EVT) interact with VSMC and enhance their migration, however, the mechanisms by which EVT remodel SpA remain to be fully elucidated. We hypothesize that exosomes released from EVT promote VSMC migration. Methods: JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo cell lines were used as models for EVT. Cells were cultured at 37°C and humidified under an atmosphere of 5% CO2-balanced N2 to obtain 8% O2. Cell-conditioned media were collected, and exosomes (exo-JEG-3 and exo- HTR-8/SVneo) isolated by differential and buoyant density centrifugation. The effects of exo-EVT on VSMC migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte™). Exosomal proteins where identified by mass spectrometry and submitted to bioinformatic pathway analysis (Ingenuity software). Results: HTR-8/SVneo cells were significantly more (~30%) invasive than JEG-3 cells. HTR-8/SVneo cells released 2.6-fold more exosomes (6.39 × 108 ± 2.5 × 108 particles/106 cells) compared to JEG-3 (2.86 × 108 ± 0.78 × 108 particles/106 cells). VSMC migration was significantly increased in the presence of exo-JEG-3 and exo-HTR-8/SVneo compared to control (−exosomes) (21.83 ± 0.49 h and 15.57 ± 0.32, respectively, vs. control 25.09 ± 0.58 h, p < 0.05). Sonication completely abolished the effect of exosomes on VSMC migration. Finally, mass spectrometry analysis identified unique exosomal proteins for each EVT cell line-derived exosomes. Conclusion: The data obtained in this study are consistent with the hypothesis that the release, content, and bioactivity of exosomes derived from EVT-like cell lines is cell origin-dependent and differentially regulates VSMC migration. Thus, an EVT exosomal signaling pathway may contribute to SpA remodeling by promoting the migration of VSMC out of the vessel walls. PMID:25157233

  2. Expression of WNT genes in cervical cancer-derived cells: Implication of WNT7A in cell proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Solano, Moisés; Meza-Canales, Ivan D.; Torres-Reyes, Luis A.; Alvarez-Zavala, Monserrat; and others

    2015-07-01

    According to the multifactorial model of cervical cancer (CC) causation, it is now recognized that other modifications, in addition to Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, are necessary for the development of this neoplasia. Among these, it has been proposed that a dysregulation of the WNT pathway might favor malignant progression of HPV-immortalized keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to identify components of the WNT pathway differentially expressed in CC vs. non-tumorigenic, but immortalized human keratinocytes. Interestingly, WNT7A expression was found strongly downregulated in cell lines and biopsies derived from CC. Restoration of WNT7A in CC-derived cell lines using a lentiviral gene delivery system or after adding a recombinant human protein decreases cell proliferation. Likewise, WNT7A silencing in non-tumorigenic cells markedly accelerates proliferation. Decreased WNT7A expression was due to hypermethylation at particular CpG sites. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting reduced WNT7A levels in CC-derived cells and that ectopic WNT7A restoration negatively affects cell proliferation and migration. - Highlights: • WNT7A is expressed in normal keratinocytes or cervical cells without lesion. • WNT7A is significantly reduced in cervical cancer-derived cells. • Restoration of WNT7A expression in HeLa decreases proliferation and cell migration. • Silencing of WNT7A in HaCaT induces an increased proliferation and migration rate. • Decreased WNT7A expression in this model is due to hypermethylation.

  3. Critical Role of Spns2, a Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Transporter, in Lung Cancer Cell Survival and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Eric; Dasgupta, Somsankar; Jiang, Xue; Zhao, Xiaying; Zhu, Gu; He, Qian; Dinkins, Michael; Bieberich, Erhard; Wang, Guanghu

    2014-01-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) transporter Spns2 regulates myocardial precursor migration in zebrafish and lymphocyte trafficking in mice. However, its function in cancer has not been investigated. We show here that ectopic Spns2 expression induced apoptosis and its knockdown enhanced cell migration in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Metabolically, Spns2 expression increased the extracellular S1P level while its knockdown the intracellular. Pharmacological inhibition of S1P synthesis abolished the augmented cell migration mediated by Spns2 knockdown, indicating that intracellular S1P plays a key role in this process. Cell signaling studies indicated that Spns2 expression impaired GSK-3β and Stat3 mediated pro-survival pathways. Conversely, these pathways were activated by Spns2 knockdown, which explains the increased cell migration since they are also crucial for migration. Alterations of Spns2 were found to affect several enzymes involved in S1P metabolism, including sphingosine kinases, S1P phosphatases, and S1P lyase 1. Genetically, Spns2 mRNA level was found to be reduced in advanced lung cancer (LC) patients as quantified by using a small scale qPCR array. These data show for the first time that Spns2 plays key roles in regulating the cellular functions in NSCLC cells, and that its down-regulation is a potential risk factor for LC. PMID:25330231

  4. Expression of pleiotrophin, an important regulator of cell migration, is inhibited in intestinal epithelial cells by treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Silver, Kristopher; Desormaux, Alejandra; Freeman, Lisa C; Lillich, James D

    2012-08-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most widely used drugs for the suppression of inflammation and pain. However, the analgesic properties of NSAIDs are also associated with significant negative side effects, most notably in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Increasingly, evidence indicates that the ulcerogenic properties of some NSAIDs are not exclusively the result of inhibition of cyclooxygenase isoforms in the GI tract, and other mechanisms, including inhibition of cell migration and epithelial restitution, are being explored. Recently, microarray analysis was used to identify potential novel targets of NSAID activity in intestinal epithelial cells. Treated cells exhibited significant reductions in the gene expression of pleiotrophin (PTN), a cytokine and growth factor known to participate in angiogenesis and bone growth. This report aimed to confirm the microarray results reported previously, and to measure protein expression of PTN in intestinal epithelial cells. Furthermore, we also examined the effects of exogenous PTN on cell migration in the presence and absence of either NSAIDs with variable ulcerogenic potential or PTN-specific siRNA. Our results demonstrated that indomethacin and NS-398, two NSAIDs with ulcerogenic potential significantly decrease both gene and protein expressions of PTN in IEC-6 cells and protein expression in IEC-6-Cdx2 cells. Additionally, cell migration experiments with PTN siRNA showed that PTN is an important mediator of IEC-6 cell migration, and addition of exogenous PTN partially restores the deficits in cell migration caused by treatment with indomethacin and NS-398. Finally, measurement of PTN protein expression in the GI tract of horses treated with phenylbutazone showed that PTN expression is reduced by NSAIDs in vivo. Our results show that PTN is an important mediator of cell migration in IEC-6 cells, and PTN is a potential target through which NSAIDs may inhibit cell migration, epithelial

  5. Lipocalin 2 Enhances Migration and Resistance against Cisplatin in Endometrial Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Hiroyasu; Yamada, Yasushi; Kobara, Hisanori; Asaka, Ryoichi; Ando, Hirofumi; Higuchi, Shotaro; Ida, Koichi; Mvunta, David Hamisi; Shiozawa, Tanri

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is a secretory protein that is involved in various physiological processes including iron transport. We previously identified LCN2 as an up-regulated gene in endometrial carcinoma, and found that the overexpression of LCN2 and its receptor, SLC22A17, was associated with a poor prognosis. However, the functions and mechanism of action of LCN2 currently remain unclear. Methods The LCN2-overexpressing endometrial carcinoma cell lines, HHUA and RL95-2, and LCN2-low-expressing one, HEC1B, were used. The effects of LCN2 on cell migration, cell viability, and apoptosis under various stresses, including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and cisplatin treatment, were examined using the scratch wound healing assay, WST-1 assay, and Apostrand assay, respectively. Results LCN2-silencing using shRNA method significantly reduced the migration ability of cells (p<0.05). Cytotoxic stresses significantly decreased the viability of LCN2-silenced cells more than that of control cells. In contrast, LCN2 overexpression was significantly increased cisplatin resistance. These effects were canceled by the addition of the iron chelator, deferoxamine. After UV irradiation, the expression of phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) was decreased in LCN2-silenced cells, and the PI3K inhibitor canceled the difference induced in UV sensitivity by LCN2. The cisplatin-induced expression of pAkt was not affected by LCN2; however, the expression of p53 and p21 was increased by LCN2-silencing. Conclusions These results indicated that LCN2 was involved in the migration and survival of endometrial carcinoma cells under various stresses in an iron-dependent manner. The survival function of LCN2 may be exerted through the PI3K pathway and suppression of the p53-p21 pathway. These functions of LCN2 may increase the malignant potential of endometrial carcinoma cells. PMID:27168162

  6. Surface expression of ASIC2 inhibits the amiloride-sensitive current and migration of glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Vila-Carriles, Wanda H; Kovacs, Gergely Gy; Jovov, Biljana; Zhou, Zhen-Hong; Pahwa, Amit K; Colby, Garrett; Esimai, Ogenna; Gillespie, G Yancey; Mapstone, Timothy B; Markert, James M; Fuller, Catherine M; Bubien, James K; Benos, Dale J

    2006-07-14

    Gliomas are primary brain tumors with a complex biology characterized by antigenic and genomic heterogeneity and a propensity for invasion into normal brain tissue. High grade glioma cells possess a voltage-independent, amiloride-inhibitable, inward Na+ current. This current does not exist in normal astrocytes or low grade tumor cells. Inhibition of this conductance decreases glioma growth and cell migration making it a potential therapeutic target. Our previous results have shown that the acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), members of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC)/degenerin (DEG) family of ion channels are part of this current pathway. We hypothesized that one member of the ENaC/DEG family, ASIC2, is retained intracellularly and that it is the lack of functional expression of ASIC2 at the cell surface that results in hyperactivity of this conductance in high grade gliomas. In this study we show that the chemical chaperone, glycerol, and the transcriptional regulator, sodium 4-phenylbutyrate, inhibit the constitutively activated inward current and reduce cell growth and migration in glioblastoma multiforme. The results suggest that these compounds induce the movement of ASIC2 to the plasma membrane, and once there, the basally active inward current characteristic of glioma cells is abolished by inherent negative regulatory mechanisms. This in turn compromises the ability of the glioma cell to migrate and proliferate. These results support the hypothesis that the conductance pathway in high grade glioma cells is comprised of ENaC/DEG subunits and that abolishing this channel activity promotes a reversion of a high grade glioma cell to a phenotype resembling that of normal astrocytes. PMID:16704974

  7. Cadherin-11 mediates contact inhibition of locomotion during Xenopus neural crest cell migration.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sarah F S; Mayor, Roberto; Kashef, Jubin

    2013-01-01

    Collective cell migration is an essential feature both in embryonic development and cancer progression. The molecular mechanisms of these coordinated directional cell movements still need to be elucidated. The migration of cranial neural crest (CNC) cells during embryogenesis is an excellent model for collective cell migration in vivo. These highly motile and multipotent cells migrate directionally on defined routes throughout the embryo. Interestingly, local cell-cell interactions seem to be the key force for directionality. CNC cells can change their migration direction by a repulsive cell response called contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL). Cell protrusions collapse upon homotypic cell-cell contact and internal repolarization leads to formation of new protrusions toward cell-free regions. Wnt/PCP signaling was shown to mediate activation of small RhoGTPase RhoA and inhibition of cell protrusions at the contact side. However, the mechanism how a cell recognizes the contact is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Xenopus cadherin-11 (Xcad-11) mediated cell-cell adhesion is necessary in CIL for directional and collective migration of CNC cells. Reduction of Xcad-11 adhesive function resulted in higher invasiveness of CNC due to loss of CIL. Additionally, transplantation analyses revealed that CNC migratory behaviour in vivo is non-directional and incomplete when Xcad-11 adhesive function is impaired. Blocking Wnt/PCP signaling led to similar results underlining the importance of Xcad-11 in the mechanism of CIL and directional migration of CNC.

  8. Selective Migration of Subpopulations of Bone Marrow Cells along an SDF-1α and ATP Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Laupheimer, Michael; Skorska, Anna; Große, Jana; Tiedemann, Gudrun; Steinhoff, Gustav; David, Robert; Lux, Cornelia A.

    2014-01-01

    Both stem cell chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) and extracellular nucleotides such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) are increased in ischemic myocardium. Since ATP has been reported to influence cell migration, we analysed the migratory response of bone marrow cells towards a combination of SDF-1 and ATP. Total nucleated cells (BM-TNCs) were isolated from bone marrow of cardiac surgery patients. Migration assays were performed in vitro. Subsequently, migrated cells were subjected to multicolor flow cytometric analysis of CD133, CD34, CD117, CD184, CD309, and CD14 expression. BM-TNCs migrated significantly towards a combination of SDF-1 and ATP. The proportions of CD34+ cells as well as subpopulations coexpressing multiple stem cell markers were selectively enhanced after migration towards SDF-1 or SDF-1 + ATP. After spontaneous migration, significantly fewer stem cells and CD184+ cells were detected. Direct incubation with SDF-1 led to a reduction of CD184+ but not stem cell marker-positive cells, while incubation with ATP significantly increased CD14+ percentage. In summary, we found that while a combination of SDF-1 and ATP elicited strong migration of BM-TNCs in vitro, only SDF-1 was responsible for selective attraction of hematopoietic stem cells. Meanwhile, spontaneous migration of stem cells was lower compared to BM-TNCs or monocytes. PMID:25610653

  9. Thymidine phosphorylase in cancer cells stimulates human endothelial cell migration and invasion by the secretion of angiogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Bijnsdorp, I V; Capriotti, F; Kruyt, F A E; Losekoot, N; Fukushima, M; Griffioen, A W; Thijssen, V L; Peters, G J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is often overexpressed in tumours and has a role in tumour aggressiveness and angiogenesis. Here, we determined whether TP increased tumour invasion and whether TP-expressing cancer cells stimulated angiogenesis. Methods: Angiogenesis was studied by exposing endothelial cells (HUVECs) to conditioned medium (CM) derived from cancer cells with high (Colo320TP1=CT-CM, RT112/TP=RT-CM) and no TP expression after which migration (wound-healing-assay) and invasion (transwell-assay) were determined. The involvement of several angiogenic factors were examined by RT–PCR, ELISA and blocking antibodies. Results: Tumour invasion was not dependent on intrinsic TP expression. The CT-CM and RT-CM stimulated HUVEC-migration and invasion by about 15 and 40%, respectively. Inhibition by 10 μ TPI and 100 μ L-dR, blocked migration and reduced the invasion by 50–70%. Thymidine phosphorylase activity in HUVECs was increased by CT-CM. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed a higher mRNA expression of bFGF (Colo320TP1), IL-8 (RT112/TP) and TNF-α, but not VEGF. Blocking antibodies targeting these factors decreased the migration and invasion that was induced by the CT-CM and RT-CM, except for IL-8 in CT-CM and bFGF in RT-CM. Conclusion: In our cell line panels, TP did not increase the tumour invasion, but stimulated the migration and invasion of HUVECs by two different mechanisms. Hence, TP targeting seems to provide a potential additional strategy in the field of anti-angiogenic therapy. PMID:21386840

  10. MicroRNA-383 expression regulates proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis in human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dawei; Ma, Pengju; Gao, Guojun; Gui, Yongkun; Niu, Xiaolu; Jin, Baozhe

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate microRNA-383 (miR-383) expression level in glioma cells and its influences on proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and cell cycle in glioma cells. miR-383 expression levels were determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Thirty BALB/c-nu mice were randomly assigned into three groups: U87-miR-383 group, vector-control group, and blank group. Tumorigenicity experiment was conducted to confirm the function of miR-383. U251 and U87 glioma cells were divided into three groups: non-transfected control cells (NT group), glioma cells transfected with miR-383 (miR-383 group), and glioma cells transfected with negative sequence (NC group). Transfection efficiency was measured by qRT-PCR. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to detect cell proliferation. Cell migration and invasion were examined by utilizing a Transwell chamber. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The qRT-PCR results revealed that miR-383 expression was down-regulated in human glioma cells, and was negatively related to the pathological grading of glioma. The rates of tumor growth in vector-control group and blank group were significantly faster than that in U87-miR-383 group, and the average tumor volume and weight in vector-control group and blank group were increased as compared with U87-miR-383 group. Additionally, miR-383 levels in miR-383 group were higher than those in NT group and NC group. CCK-8 assay indicated lower cell viability in miR-383 group as compared with NT group and NC group. Flow cytometry implied that the percentages of cells in miR-383 group reduced, while the cell apoptosis rate enhanced compared with NT group and NC group. In conclusion, our findings suggest that miR-383 expression is down-regulated in glioma cells, inhibiting cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, affecting the cell cycle, and inducing cell apoptosis.

  11. MicroRNA-383 expression regulates proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis in human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dawei; Ma, Pengju; Gao, Guojun; Gui, Yongkun; Niu, Xiaolu; Jin, Baozhe

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate microRNA-383 (miR-383) expression level in glioma cells and its influences on proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and cell cycle in glioma cells. miR-383 expression levels were determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Thirty BALB/c-nu mice were randomly assigned into three groups: U87-miR-383 group, vector-control group, and blank group. Tumorigenicity experiment was conducted to confirm the function of miR-383. U251 and U87 glioma cells were divided into three groups: non-transfected control cells (NT group), glioma cells transfected with miR-383 (miR-383 group), and glioma cells transfected with negative sequence (NC group). Transfection efficiency was measured by qRT-PCR. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to detect cell proliferation. Cell migration and invasion were examined by utilizing a Transwell chamber. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. The qRT-PCR results revealed that miR-383 expression was down-regulated in human glioma cells, and was negatively related to the pathological grading of glioma. The rates of tumor growth in vector-control group and blank group were significantly faster than that in U87-miR-383 group, and the average tumor volume and weight in vector-control group and blank group were increased as compared with U87-miR-383 group. Additionally, miR-383 levels in miR-383 group were higher than those in NT group and NC group. CCK-8 assay indicated lower cell viability in miR-383 group as compared with NT group and NC group. Flow cytometry implied that the percentages of cells in miR-383 group reduced, while the cell apoptosis rate enhanced compared with NT group and NC group. In conclusion, our findings suggest that miR-383 expression is down-regulated in glioma cells, inhibiting cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, affecting the cell cycle, and inducing cell apoptosis. PMID:25936342

  12. Wip1 knockout inhibits the proliferation and enhances the migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yiting; Liu, Lan; Sheng, Ming; Xiong, Kai; Huang, Lei; Gao, Qian; Wei, Jingliang; Wu, Tianwen; Yang, Shulin; Liu, Honglin; Mu, Yulian; Li, Kui

    2015-06-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a unique population of multipotent adult progenitor cells originally found in bone marrow (BM), are extremely useful for multifunctional therapeutic approaches. However, the growth arrest and premature senescence of MSCs in vitro prevent the in-depth characterization of these cells. In addition, the regulatory factors involved in MSCs migration remain largely unknown. Given that protein phosphorylation is associated with the processes of MSCs proliferation and migration, we focused on wild-type p53-inducible phosphatase-1 (Wip1), a well-studied modulator of phosphorylation, in this study. Our results showed that Wip1 knockout significantly inhibited MSCs proliferation and induced G2-phase cell-cycle arrest by reducing cyclinB1 expression. Compared with WT-MSCs, Wip1{sup −/−} MSCs displayed premature growth arrest after six passages in culture. Transwell and scratch assays revealed that Wip1{sup −/−} MSCs migrate more effectively than WT-MSCs. Moreover, the enhanced migratory response of Wip1{sup −/−} MSCs may be attributed to increases in the induction of Rac1-GTP activity, the pAKT/AKT ratio, the rearrangement of filamentous-actin (f-actin), and filopodia formation. Based on these results, we then examined the effect of treatment with a PI3K/AKT and Rac1 inhibitor, both of which impaired the migratory activity of MSCs. Therefore, we propose that the PI3K/AKT/Rac1 signaling axis mediates the Wip1 knockout-induced migration of MSCs. Our findings indicate that the principal function of Wip1 in MSCs transformation is the maintenance of proliferative capacity. Nevertheless, knocking out Wip1 increases the migratory capacity of MSCs. This dual effect of Wip1 provides the potential for purposeful routing of MSCs. - Highlights: • Wip1 knockout inhibited MSCs proliferation through reducing cyclinB1 expression. • Wip1{sup −/−} MSCs displayed premature growth arrest in vitro after six passages. • Knocking out Wip1

  13. Iodine Migration and its Effect on Hysteresis in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Tscheuschner, Steffen; Paulus, Fabian; Hopkinson, Paul E; Kießling, Johannes; Köhler, Anna; Vaynzof, Yana; Huettner, Sven

    2016-03-23

    The migration and accumulation of iodide ions create a modulation of the respective interfacial barriers causing the hysteresis in solar cells based on methylammonium lead iodide perovskites. Iodide ions are identified as the migrating species by measuring temperature dependent current-transients and photoelectron spectroscopy. The involved changes in the built-in potential due to ion migration are directly measured by electroabsorption spectroscopy.

  14. Spatial proteomic and phospho-proteomic organization in three prototypical cell migration modes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tight spatio-temporal signaling of cytoskeletal and adhesion dynamics is required for localized membrane protrusion that drives directed cell migration. Different ensembles of proteins are therefore likely to get recruited and phosphorylated in membrane protrusions in response to specific cues. Results Here, we use an assay that allows to biochemically purify extending protrusions of cells migrating in response to three prototypical receptors: integrins, recepor tyrosine kinases and G-coupled protein receptors. Using quantitative proteomics and phospho-proteomics approaches, we provide evidence for the existence of cue-specific, spatially distinct protein networks in the different cell migration modes. Conclusions The integrated analysis of the large-scale experimental data with protein information from databases allows us to understand some emergent properties of spatial regulation of signaling during cell migration. This provides the cell migration community with a large-scale view of the distribution of proteins and phospho-proteins regulating directed cell migration. PMID:24987309

  15. Polydatin induces bone marrow stromal cells migration by activation of ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Chen, ZhenQiu; Wei, QiuShi; Hong, GuoJu; Chen, Da; Liang, Jiang; He, Wei; Chen, Mei Hui

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have proven to be useful for the treatment of numerous human diseases. However, the reparative ability of BMSCs is limited by their poor migration. Polydatin, widely used in traditional Chinese remedies, has proven to exert protective effects to BMSCs. However, little is known about its role in BMSCs migration. In this study, we studied the effects of polydatin on rat BMSCs migration using the scratch wound healing and transwell migration assays. Our results showed polydatin could promote BMSCs migration. Further experiments showed activation of ERK 1/2, but not JNK, was required for polydatin-induced BMSCs migration, suggesting that polydatin may promote BMSCs migration via the ERK 1/2 signaling pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that polydatin might be beneficial for stem cell replacement therapy by improving BMSCs migration.

  16. Tumour-suppressive microRNA-29s directly regulate LOXL2 expression and inhibit cancer cell migration and invasion in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Rika; Chiyomaru, Takeshi; Enokida, Hideki; Inoguchi, Satoru; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Matsushita, Ryosuke; Goto, Yusuke; Fukumoto, Ichiro; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Seki, Naohiko

    2015-07-22

    Here, we found that members of the microRNA-29 family (miR-29a/b/c; "miR-29s") were significantly reduced in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tissues, suggesting that they functioned as tumour suppressors. Restoration of all mature members of the miR-29 family inhibited cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. LOXL2 was a direct target gene of miR-29s, as shown by genome-wide gene expression analysis and luciferase reporter assay. Overexpressed LOXL2 was confirmed in ccRCC clinical specimens, and silencing of LOXL2 inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion in ccRCC cell lines. Our data demonstrated that the miR-29s-LOXL2 axis contributed to cancer cell migration and invasion in ccRCC.

  17. Contact inhibition of locomotion probabilities drive solitary versus collective cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Ravi A.; Gopal, Smitha B.; Chen, Sophia; Chen, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is the process whereby cells collide, cease migrating in the direction of the collision, and repolarize their migration machinery away from the collision. Quantitative analysis of CIL has remained elusive because cell-to-cell collisions are infrequent in traditional cell culture. Moreover, whereas CIL predicts mutual cell repulsion and ‘scattering’ of cells, the same cells in vivo are observed to undergo CIL at some developmental times and collective cell migration at others. It remains unclear whether CIL is simply absent during collective cell migration, or if the two processes coexist and are perhaps even related. Here, we used micropatterned stripes of extracellular matrix to restrict cell migration to linear paths such that cells polarized in one of two directions and collisions between cells occurred frequently and consistently, permitting quantitative and unbiased analysis of CIL. Observing repolarization events in different contexts, including head-to-head collision, head-to-tail collision, collision with an inert barrier, or no collision, and describing polarization as a two-state transition indicated that CIL occurs probabilistically, and most strongly upon head-to-head collisions. In addition to strong CIL, we also observed ‘trains’ of cells moving collectively with high persistence that appeared to emerge from single cells. To reconcile these seemingly conflicting observations of CIL and collective cell migration, we constructed an agent-based model to simulate our experiments. Our model quantitatively predicted the emergence of collective migration, and demonstrated the sensitivity of such emergence to the probability of CIL. Thus CIL and collective migration can coexist, and in fact a shift in CIL probabilities may underlie transitions between solitary cell migration and collective cell migration. Taken together, our data demonstrate the emergence of persistently polarized, collective cell movement

  18. Early Passage Dependence of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Mechanics Influences Cellular Invasion and Migration.

    PubMed

    Spagnol, Stephen T; Lin, Wei-Chun; Booth, Elizabeth A; Ladoux, Benoit; Lazarus, Hillard M; Dahl, Kris Noel

    2016-07-01

    The cellular structures and mechanical properties of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) vary significantly during culture and with differentiation. Previously, studies to measure mechanics have provided divergent results using different quantitative parameters and mechanical models of deformation. Here, we examine hMSCs prepared for clinical use and subject them to mechanical testing conducive to the relevant deformability associated with clinical injection procedures. Micropipette aspiration of hMSCs shows deformation as a viscoelastic fluid, with little variation from cell to cell within a population. After two passages, hMSCs deform as viscoelastic solids. Further, for clinical applicability during stem cell migration in vivo, we investigated the ability of hMSCs to invade into micropillar arrays of increasing confinement from 12 to 8 μm spacing between adjacent micropillars. We find that hMSC samples with reduced deformability and cells that are more solid-like with passage are more easily able to enter the micropillar arrays. Increased cell fluidity is an advantage for injection procedures and optimization of cell selection based on mechanical properties may enhance efficacy of injected hMSC populations. However, the ability to invade and migrate within tight interstitial spaces appears to be increased with a more solidified cytoskeleton, likely from increased force generation and contractility. Thus, there may be a balance between optimal injection survival and in situ tissue invasion.

  19. Effect of adipose-derived stem cell-conditioned medium on the proliferation and migration of B16 melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JU-HEE; PARK, CHUL HONG; CHUN, KWANG-HOON; HONG, SOON-SUN

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are a population of cells derived from adipose tissue. ASCs exhibit multilineage development potential and are able to secrete various factors, which influence adjacent cells. Previous studies have reported the effectiveness of ASC-conditioned medium (ASC-CM) in wound healing, anti-melanogenesis, wrinkle improvement and hair growth. In the present study, the anticancer function of ASC-CM was investigated in vitro and in vivo. An MTT assay revealed that ASC-CM significantly decreased the proliferation of B16 melanoma cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). Cell cycle analysis indicated that ASC-CM significantly increased the number of cells in G1 phase while reducing the number of cells in the S and G2/M phases (P<0.01). Furthermore, a wound migration model demonstrated that ASC-CM treatment significantly decreased the migration ability of B16 melanoma cells (P<0.01). In addition, C57BL/6 mice were administered with a single intratumoral injection of ASC-CM, daily or every other day, and a significant reduction in the volume of the tumor mass was observed compared with that of the control group (P<0.01). Thus, the findings of the present study indicated that ASC-CM has an anti-tumorigenic effect on B16 melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo, and may potentially be used to support the treatment of melanoma in the future. PMID:26622561

  20. Migration of bone marrow progenitor cells in the adult brain of rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dennie, Donnahue; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Strayer, David S

    2016-04-26

    transduced by SV40 vectors migrating to the hippocampus, and these cells were seen at earlier time points in the DG. We show that the cell membrane chemokine receptor, CCR5, and its ligands, enhance CNS inflammation and seizure activity in a model of neuronal excitotoxicity. SV40-based gene delivery of RNAi targeting CCR5 to the BM results in downregulating CCR5 in circulating cells, suggesting that CCR5 plays an important role in regulating traffic of BM-derived cells into the CNS, both in the basal state and in response to injury. Furthermore, reduction in CCR5 expression in circulating cells provides profound neuroprotection from excitotoxic neuronal injury, reduces neuroinflammation, and increases neuronal regeneration following this type of insult. These results suggest that BM-derived, transgene-expressing, cells can migrate to the brain and that they become neurons, at least in part, by differentiating into neuron precursors and subsequently developing into mature neurons. PMID:27114746

  1. Migration of bone marrow progenitor cells in the adult brain of rats and rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Dennie, Donnahue; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Strayer, David S

    2016-01-01

    transduced by SV40 vectors migrating to the hippocampus, and these cells were seen at earlier time points in the DG. We show that the cell membrane chemokine receptor, CCR5, and its ligands, enhance CNS inflammation and seizure activity in a model of neuronal excitotoxicity. SV40-based gene delivery of RNAi targeting CCR5 to the BM results in downregulating CCR5 in circulating cells, suggesting that CCR5 plays an important role in regulating traffic of BM-derived cells into the CNS, both in the basal state and in response to injury. Furthermore, reduction in CCR5 expression in circulating cells provides profound neuroprotection from excitotoxic neuronal injury, reduces neuroinflammation, and increases neuronal regeneration following this type of insult. These results suggest that BM-derived, transgene-expressing, cells can migrate to the brain and that they become neurons, at least in part, by differentiating into neuron precursors and subsequently developing into mature neurons. PMID:27114746

  2. miR-1 Inhibits Cell Growth, Migration, and Invasion by Targeting VEGFA in Osteosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Junjie; Guo, Qiaoge; Niu, Dongju; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs and have been shown to play a crucial role in the osteosarcoma (OS) tumorigenesis and progression. VEGFA is a key regulator of angiogenesis and plays an important role in regulation of tumor metastasis. The objective of this study was to determine whether VEGFA was involved in miR-1-mediated suppression of proliferation, migration, and invasion of OS cells. The expression levels of miR-1 were significantly lower in OS tumor tissues than those in adjacent normal tissues and in SAOS-2 and U2OS cell lines compared to a normal osteoblast (NHOst) cell line. VEGFA was upregulated in OS tumor tissues and SAOS-2 and U2OS cell lines. The results of CCK-8 assay and transwell assay showed that miR-1 acted as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in U2OS cells. Dual luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that VEGFA was a direct and functional target gene of miR-1. miR-1 directly inhibits the protein expression of VEGFA via its 3′-UTR. Knockdown of VEGFA by siRNA inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of U2OS cells. Our study suggested the potential inhibitory function of miR-1 in OS cell proliferation, migration, and invasion via inhibiting VEGFA. PMID:27777493

  3. Cell crawling mediates collective cell migration to close undamaged epithelial gaps

    PubMed Central

    Anon, Ester; Serra-Picamal, Xavier; Hersen, Pascal; Gauthier, Nils C.; Sheetz, Michael P.; Trepat, Xavier; Ladoux, Benoît

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental biological processes such as morphogenesis and wound healing involve the closure of epithelial gaps. Epithelial gap closure is commonly attributed either to the purse-string contraction of an intercellular actomyosin cable or to active cell migration, but the relative contribution of these two mechanisms remains unknown. Here we present a model experiment to systematically study epithelial closure in the absence of cell injury. We developed a pillar stencil approach to create well-defined gaps in terms of size and shape within an epithelial cell monolayer. Upon pillar removal, cells actively respond to the newly accessible free space by extending lamellipodia and migrating into the gap. The decrease of gap area over time is strikingly linear and shows two different regimes depending on the size of the gap. In large gaps, closure is dominated by lamellipodium-mediated cell migration. By contrast, closure of gaps smaller than 20 μm was affected by cell density and progressed independently of Rac, myosin light chain kinase, and Rho kinase, suggesting a passive physical mechanism. By changing the shape of the gap, we observed that low-curvature areas favored the appearance of lamellipodia, promoting faster closure. Altogether, our results reveal that the closure of epithelial gaps in the absence of cell injury is governed by the collective migration of cells through the activation of lamellipodium protrusion. PMID:22711834

  4. Cell crawling mediates collective cell migration to close undamaged epithelial gaps.

    PubMed

    Anon, Ester; Serra-Picamal, Xavier; Hersen, Pascal; Gauthier, Nils C; Sheetz, Michael P; Trepat, Xavier; Ladoux, Benoît

    2012-07-01

    Fundamental biological processes such as morphogenesis and wound healing involve the closure of epithelial gaps. Epithelial gap closure is commonly attributed either to the purse-string contraction of an intercellular actomyosin cable or to active cell migration, but the relative contribution of these two mechanisms remains unknown. Here we present a model experiment to systematically study epithelial closure in the absence of cell injury. We developed a pillar stencil approach to create well-defined gaps in terms of size and shape within an epithelial cell monolayer. Upon pillar removal, cells actively respond to the newly accessible free space by extending lamellipodia and migrating into the gap. The decrease of gap area over time is strikingly linear and shows two different regimes depending on the size of the gap. In large gaps, closure is dominated by lamellipodium-mediated cell migration. By contrast, closure of gaps smaller than 20 μm was affected by cell density and progressed independently of Rac, myosin light chain kinase, and Rho kinase, suggesting a passive physical mechanism. By changing the shape of the gap, we observed that low-curvature areas favored the appearance of lamellipodia, promoting faster closure. Altogether, our results reveal that the closure of epithelial gaps in the absence of cell injury is governed by the collective migration of cells through the activation of lamellipodium protrusion. PMID:22711834

  5. A Macroscopic Mathematical Model for Cell Migration Assays Using a Real-Time Cell Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Claudia; Carfora, Maria Francesca; Carriero, Maria Vincenza; Natalini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Experiments of cell migration and chemotaxis assays have been classically performed in the so-called Boyden Chambers. A recent technology, xCELLigence Real Time Cell Analysis, is now allowing to monitor the cell migration in real time. This technology measures impedance changes caused by the gradual increase of electrode surface occupation by cells during the course of time and provide a Cell Index which is proportional to cellular morphology, spreading, ruffling and adhesion quality as well as cell number. In this paper we propose a macroscopic mathematical model, based on advection-reaction-diffusion partial differential equations, describing the cell migration assay using the real-time technology. We carried out numerical simulations to compare simulated model dynamics with data of observed biological experiments on three different cell lines and in two experimental settings: absence of chemotactic signals (basal migration) and presence of a chemoattractant. Overall we conclude that our minimal mathematical model is able to describe the phenomenon in the real time scale and numerical results show a good agreement with the experimental evidences. PMID:27680883

  6. A synthetic peptide derived from the parasite Toxoplasma gondii triggers human dendritic cells' migration.

    PubMed

    Persat, Florence; Mercier, Corinne; Ficheux, Damien; Colomb, Evelyne; Trouillet, Sophie; Bendridi, Nadia; Musset, Karine; Loeuillet, Corinne; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Vincent, Claude

    2012-12-01

    The migration of DCs is a critical function, enabling information to be carried to where the immunological response occurs. Parasites are known to weaken host immunity by interfering with the functions of DCs and thus, may be a source of molecules with immunomodulatory properties. Here, we demonstrate that the soluble protein, GRA5, specific to Toxoplasma gondii, is able to increase the migration of human CD34-DCs toward CCL19. A synthetic Pep29 derived from the GRA5 hydrophilic NT region (Pep29) was found to be internalized by macropinocytosis and to trigger in vitro migration of CD34-DCs via CCR7 expression without activating DCs. Pep29 also induced a decrease in the number of LCs from human skin epidermis. As local depletion of DCs and migration of immature DCs lead to a disruption of the specific innate response, our results highlight the potential of using pathogen-derived synthetic peptides as novel cell modulators with a therapeutic potential to reduce symptoms in inflammatory disorders.

  7. Ram spermatozoa migrating through artificial mucus in vitro have reduced mitochondrial membrane potential but retain their viability.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Carmen; Alvarez, Mercedes; López-Urueña, Elena; Gomes-Alves, Susana; Anel-López, Luis; Chamorro, Cesar A; Anel, Luis; de Paz, Paulino

    2015-06-01

    Sperm motility in vitro is one of the most common predictors of fertility in male screening. We propose that a mucus-penetration assay can isolate a cellular subpopulation critical to reproductive success. To this end, a device was designed with three modules (sample, test and collection) and its conditions of use evaluated (length of mucus, incubation time, mucus medium, sperm concentration and position in relation to the horizontal). The number of spermatozoa migrating and the viability and acrosomal status of the spermatozoa not migrating were calculated. The second objective was to evaluate the qualitative parameters of the spermatozoa migrating in 1.6% polyacrylamide for 30min. The number of spermatozoa migrating and the sperm motility, viability and the acrosomal and mitochondrial status of three sperm populations (fresh, not migrating and migrating) were determined. A higher number of migrating spermatozoa were observed after 60min of incubation, but this situation adversely affected sperm quality. The methylcellulose-based test showed a significantly lower number of migrating spermatozoa than the polyacrylamide test. The position at an angle of 45° resulted in a higher number of migrating spermatozoa in the polyacrylamide-based test. The sperm counts for three consecutive assays indicated an acceptable repeatability of the method. The viability and acrosomal status of the migrating spermatozoa showed no significant changes with regard to the control when the device was placed at 45°, whereas these parameters showed lower values at 0°. The percentage of high mitochondrial membrane potential spermatozoa was significantly reduced in the population of migrating spermatozoa.

  8. Ram spermatozoa migrating through artificial mucus in vitro have reduced mitochondrial membrane potential but retain their viability.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Carmen; Alvarez, Mercedes; López-Urueña, Elena; Gomes-Alves, Susana; Anel-López, Luis; Chamorro, Cesar A; Anel, Luis; de Paz, Paulino

    2015-06-01

    Sperm motility in vitro is one of the most common predictors of fertility in male screening. We propose that a mucus-penetration assay can isolate a cellular subpopulation critical to reproductive success. To this end, a device was designed with three modules (sample, test and collection) and its conditions of use evaluated (length of mucus, incubation time, mucus medium, sperm concentration and position in relation to the horizontal). The number of spermatozoa migrating and the viability and acrosomal status of the spermatozoa not migrating were calculated. The second objective was to evaluate the qualitative parameters of the spermatozoa migrating in 1.6% polyacrylamide for 30min. The number of spermatozoa migrating and the sperm motility, viability and the acrosomal and mitochondrial status of three sperm populations (fresh, not migrating and migrating) were determined. A higher number of migrating spermatozoa were observed after 60min of incubation, but this situation adversely affected sperm quality. The methylcellulose-based test showed a significantly lower number of migrating spermatozoa than the polyacrylamide test. The position at an angle of 45° resulted in a higher number of migrating spermatozoa in the polyacrylamide-based test. The sperm counts for three consecutive assays indicated an acceptable repeatability of the method. The viability and acrosomal status of the migrating spermatozoa showed no significant changes with regard to the control when the device was placed at 45°, whereas these parameters showed lower values at 0°. The percentage of high mitochondrial membrane potential spermatozoa was significantly reduced in the population of migrating spermatozoa. PMID:25413445

  9. Nobiletin, a Polymethoxylated Flavone, Inhibits Glioma Cell Growth and Migration via Arresting Cell Cycle and Suppressing MAPK and Akt Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lien, Li-Ming; Wang, Meng-Jiy; Chen, Ray-Jade; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Wu, Jia-Lun; Shen, Ming-Yi; Chou, Duen-Suey; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Lu, Wan-Jung

    2016-02-01

    Nobiletin, a bioactive polymethoxylated flavone (5,6,7,8,3(') ,4(') -hexamethoxyflavone), is abundant in citrus fruit peel. Although nobiletin exhibits antitumor activity against various cancer cells, the effect of nobiletin on glioma cells remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of nobiletin on the human U87 and Hs683 glioma cell lines. Treating glioma cells with nobiletin (20-100 µm) reduced cell viability and arrested the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, as detected using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and propidium iodide (PI) staining, respectively; however, nobiletin did not induce cell apoptosis according to PI-annexin V double staining. Data from western blotting showed that nobiletin significantly attenuated the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, and E2 promoter-binding factor 1 (E2F1) and the phosphorylation of Akt/protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinases, including p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Our data also showed that nobiletin inhibited glioma cell migration, as detected by both functional wound healing and transwell migration assays. Altogether, the present results suggest that nobiletin inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt/protein kinase B pathways and downregulates positive regulators of the cell cycle, leading to subsequent suppression of glioma cell proliferation and migration. Our findings evidence that nobiletin may have potential for treating glioblastoma multiforme.

  10. Loss of expression of miR-335 is implicated in hepatic stellate cell migration and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chao; Wu, Chao-Qun; Zhang, Zong-Qi; Yao, Ding-Kang; Zhu, Liang

    2011-07-15

    Activation and migration of resident stellate cells (HSCs) within the hepatic space of Disse play an important role in hepatic fibrosis, which accounts for the increased numbers of activated HSCs in areas of inflammation during hepatic fibrosis. Currently, microRNAs have been found to play essential roles in HSC differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, fat accumulation and collagen production. However, little is known about microRNA mediated HSC activation and migration. In this study, the miRNA expression profiles of quiescent HSCs, partially activated HSCs and fully activated HSCs were compared in pairs. Gene ontology (GO) and GO-Map network analysis indicated that the activation of HSCs was regulated by microRNAs. Among them miR-335 was confirmed to be significantly reduced during HSC activation by qRT-PCR, and restoring expression of miR-335 inhibited HSC migration and reduced {alpha}-SMA and collagen type I. Previous study revealed that tenascin-C (TNC), an extracellular matrix glycoprotein involved in cell migration, might be a target of miR-335. Therefore, we further studied the TNC expression in miR-335 over-expressed HSCs. Our data showed that exogenous TNC could enhance HSC migration in vitro and miR-335 restoration resulted in a significant inhibition of TNC expression. These results demonstrated that miR-335 restoration inhibited HSC migration, at least in part, via downregulating the TNC expression.

  11. Predator swamping reduces predation risk during nocturnal migration of juvenile salmon in a high-mortality landscape.

    PubMed

    Furey, Nathan B; Hinch, Scott G; Bass, Arthur L; Middleton, Collin T; Minke-Martin, Vanessa; Lotto, Andrew G

    2016-07-01

    Animal migrations are costly and are often characterized by high predation risk for individuals. Three of the most oft-assumed mechanisms for reducing risk for migrants are swamping predators with high densities, specific timing of migrations and increased body size. Assessing the relative importance of these mechanisms in reducing predation risk particularly for migrants is generally lacking due to the difficulties in tracking the fate of individuals and population-level characteristics simultaneously. We used acoustic telemetry to track migration behaviour and survival of juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts released over a wide range of conspecific outmigration densities in a river associated with poor survival. The landscape was indeed high risk; smolt survival was poor (˜68%) over 13·5 km of river examined even though migration was rapid (generally <48 h). Our results demonstrate that smolts largely employ swamping of predators to reduce predation risk. Increased densities of co-migrant conspecifics dramatically improved survival of smolts. The strong propensity for nocturnal migration resulted in smolts pausing downstream movements until the next nightfall, greatly increasing relative migration durations for smolts that could not traverse the study area in a single night. Smolt size did not appear to impact predation risk, potentially due to unique characteristics of the system or our inability to tag the entire size range of outmigrants. Movement behaviours were important in traversing this high-risk landscape and provide rare evidence for swamping to effectively reduce individual predation risk.

  12. Predator swamping reduces predation risk during nocturnal migration of juvenile salmon in a high-mortality landscape.

    PubMed

    Furey, Nathan B; Hinch, Scott G; Bass, Arthur L; Middleton, Collin T; Minke-Martin, Vanessa; Lotto, Andrew G

    2016-07-01

    Animal migrations are costly and are often characterized by high predation risk for individuals. Three of the most oft-assumed mechanisms for reducing risk for migrants are swamping predators with high densities, specific timing of migrations and increased body size. Assessing the relative importance of these mechanisms in reducing predation risk particularly for migrants is generally lacking due to the difficulties in tracking the fate of individuals and population-level characteristics simultaneously. We used acoustic telemetry to track migration behaviour and survival of juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) smolts released over a wide range of conspecific outmigration densities in a river associated with poor survival. The landscape was indeed high risk; smolt survival was poor (˜68%) over 13·5 km of river examined even though migration was rapid (generally <48 h). Our results demonstrate that smolts largely employ swamping of predators to reduce predation risk. Increased densities of co-migrant conspecifics dramatically improved survival of smolts. The strong propensity for nocturnal migration resulted in smolts pausing downstream movements until the next nightfall, greatly increasing relative migration durations for smolts that could not traverse the study area in a single night. Smolt size did not appear to impact predation risk, potentially due to unique characteristics of the system or our inability to tag the entire size range of outmigrants. Movement behaviours were important in traversing this high-risk landscape and provide rare evidence for swamping to effectively reduce individual predation risk. PMID:27159553

  13. Erianin inhibits the proliferation of T47D cells by inhibiting cell cycles, inducing apoptosis and suppressing migration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Fu, Xueqi; Wang, Yongsen; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Yu; Hao, Tian; Hu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Erianin is a natural product extracted from Dendrobiumchrysotoxum. To investigate the antitumor activity of Erianin in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer, we treated T47D cells with Erianin and evaluated the effects of Erianin treatment on multiple cancer-associated pathways. Erianin inhibited the proliferation of T47D cells effectively. Erianin induced apoptosis in T47D cells through reducing Bcl-2 expression and activating caspase signaling. Furthermore, it also suppressed the expression of CDKs and caused cell cycle arrest. In addition, Erianin treatment suppressed the migration of T47D cells, most likely through regulating the homeostatic expression of MPP and TIMP. Meanwhile, Erianin did not affect the proliferation of normal breast epithelial cell line MCF10A. Together, these results demonstrated that Erianin might have the potential to be an effective drug to treat the ER positive breast cancer. PMID:27508028

  14. Erianin inhibits the proliferation of T47D cells by inhibiting cell cycles, inducing apoptosis and suppressing migration

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Fu, Xueqi; Wang, Yongsen; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Yu; Hao, Tian; Hu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Erianin is a natural product extracted from Dendrobiumchrysotoxum. To investigate the antitumor activity of Erianin in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer, we treated T47D cells with Erianin and evaluated the effects of Erianin treatment on multiple cancer-associated pathways. Erianin inhibited the proliferation of T47D cells effectively. Erianin induced apoptosis in T47D cells through reducing Bcl-2 expression and activating caspase signaling. Furthermore, it also suppressed the expression of CDKs and caused cell cycle arrest. In addition, Erianin treatment suppressed the migration of T47D cells, most likely through regulating the homeostatic expression of MPP and TIMP. Meanwhile, Erianin did not affect the proliferation of normal breast epithelial cell line MCF10A. Together, these results demonstrated that Erianin might have the potential to be an effective drug to treat the ER positive breast cancer. PMID:27508028

  15. Design of a microfluidic device to quantify dynamic intra-nuclear deformation during cell migration through confining environments

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Patricia M.; Sliz, Josiah; Isermann, Philipp; Denais, Celine; Lammerding, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The ability of cells to migrate through tissues and interstitial space is an essential factor during development and tissue homeostasis, immune cell mobility, and in various human diseases. Deformation of the nucleus and its associated lamina during 3-D migration is gathering increasing interest in the context of cancer metastasis, with the underlying hypothesis that a softer nucleus, resulting from reduced levels of lamin A/C, may aid tumour spreading. However, current methods to study the migration of cells in confining three dimensional (3-D) environments are limited by their imprecise control over the confinement, physiological relevance, and/or compatibility with high resolution imaging techniques. We describe the design of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device composed of channels with precisely-defined constrictions mimicking physiological environments that enable high resolution imaging of live and fixed cells. The device promotes easy cell loading and rapid, yet long-lasting (>24 hours) chemotactic gradient formation without the need for continuous perfusion. Using this device, we obtained detailed, quantitative measurements of dynamic nuclear deformation as cells migrate through tight spaces, revealing distinct phases of nuclear translocation through the constriction, buckling of the nuclear lamina, and severe intranuclear strain. Furthermore, we found that lamin A/C-deficient cells exhibited increased and more plastic nuclear deformations compared to wild-type cells but only minimal changes in nuclear volume, implying that low lamin A/C levels facilitate migration through constrictions by increasing nuclear deformability rather than compressibility. The integration of our migration devices with high resolution time-lapse imaging provides a powerful new approach to study intracellular mechanics and dynamics in a variety of physiologically-relevant applications, ranging from cancer cell invasion to immune cell recruitment. PMID:26549481

  16. Design of a microfluidic device to quantify dynamic intra-nuclear deformation during cell migration through confining environments.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Patricia M; Sliz, Josiah; Isermann, Philipp; Denais, Celine; Lammerding, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The ability of cells to migrate through tissues and interstitial spaces is an essential factor during development and tissue homeostasis, immune cell mobility, and in various human diseases. Deformation of the nucleus and its associated lamina during 3-D migration is gathering increasing interest in the context of cancer metastasis, with the underlying hypothesis that a softer nucleus, resulting from reduced levels of lamin A/C, may aid tumour spreading. However, current methods to study the migration of cells in confining three dimensional (3-D) environments are limited by their imprecise control over the confinement, physiological relevance, and/or compatibility with high resolution imaging techniques. We describe the design of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device composed of channels with precisely-defined constrictions mimicking physiological environments that enable high resolution imaging of live and fixed cells. The device promotes easy cell loading and rapid, yet long-lasting (>24 hours) chemotactic gradient formation without the need for continuous perfusion. Using this device, we obtained detailed, quantitative measurements of dynamic nuclear deformation as cells migrate through tight spaces, revealing distinct phases of nuclear translocation through the constriction, buckling of the nuclear lamina, and severe intranuclear strain. Furthermore, we found that lamin A/C-deficient cells exhibited increased and more plastic nuclear deformations compared to wild-type cells but only minimal changes in nuclear volume, implying that low lamin A/C levels facilitate migration through constrictions by increasing nuclear deformability rather than compressibility. The integration of our migration devices with high resolution time-lapse imaging provides a powerful new approach to study intracellular mechanics and dynamics in a variety of physiologically-relevant applications, ranging from cancer cell invasion to immune cell recruitment. PMID:26549481

  17. Lumican induces human corneal epithelial cell migration and integrin expression via ERK 1/2 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Seomun, Young; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2008-07-18

    Lumican is a major proteoglycans of the human cornea. Lumican knock-out mice have been shown to lose corneal transparency and to display delayed wound healing. The purpose of this study was to define the role of lumican in corneal epithelial cell migration. Over-expression of lumican in human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells increased both cell migration and proliferation, and increased levels of integrins {alpha}2 and {beta}1. ERK 1/2 was also activated in lumican over-expressed cells. When we treated HCE-T cells with the ERK-specific inhibitor U0126, cell migration and the expression of integrin {beta}1 were completely blocked. These data provide evidence that lumican stimulates cell migration in the corneal epithelium by activating ERK 1/2, and point to a novel signaling pathway implicated in corneal epithelial cell migration.

  18. Analysis of Cell Migration within a Three-dimensional Collagen Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Rommerswinkel, Nadine; Niggemann, Bernd; Keil, Silvia; Zänker, Kurt S.; Dittmar, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The ability to migrate is a hallmark of various cell types and plays a crucial role in several physiological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses. However, cell migration is also a key mechanism in cancer enabling these cancer cells to detach from the primary tumor to start metastatic spreading. Within the past years various cell migration assays have been developed to analyze the migratory behavior of different cell types. Because the locomotory behavior of cells markedly differs between a two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) environment it can be assumed that the analysis of the migration of cells that are embedded within a 3D environment would yield in more significant cell migration data. The advantage of the described 3D collagen matrix migration assay is that cells are embedded within a physiological 3D network of collagen fibers representing the major component of the extracellular matrix. Due to time-lapse video microscopy real cell migration is measured allowing the determination of several migration parameters as well as their alterations in response to pro-migratory factors or inhibitors. Various cell types could be analyzed using this technique, including lymphocytes/leukocytes, stem cells, and tumor cells. Likewise, also cell clusters or spheroids could be embedded within the collagen matrix concomitant with analysis of the emigration of single cells from the cell cluster/ spheroid into the collagen lattice. We conclude that the 3D collagen matrix migration assay is a versatile method to analyze the migration of cells within a physiological-like 3D environment. PMID:25350138

  19. Analysis of cell migration within a three-dimensional collagen matrix.

    PubMed

    Rommerswinkel, Nadine; Niggemann, Bernd; Keil, Silvia; Zänker, Kurt S; Dittmar, Thomas

    2014-10-05

    The ability to migrate is a hallmark of various cell types and plays a crucial role in several physiological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses. However, cell migration is also a key mechanism in cancer enabling these cancer cells to detach from the primary tumor to start metastatic spreading. Within the past years various cell migration assays have been developed to analyze the migratory behavior of different cell types. Because the locomotory behavior of cells markedly differs between a two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) environment it can be assumed that the analysis of the migration of cells that are embedded within a 3D environment would yield in more significant cell migration data. The advantage of the described 3D collagen matrix migration assay is that cells are embedded within a physiological 3D network of collagen fibers representing the major component of the extracellular matrix. Due to time-lapse video microscopy real cell migration is measured allowing the determination of several migration parameters as well as their alterations in response to pro-migratory factors or inhibitors. Various cell types could be analyzed using this technique, including lymphocytes/leukocytes, stem cells, and tumor cells. Likewise, also cell clusters or spheroids could be embedded within the collagen matrix concomitant with analysis of the emigration of single cells from the cell cluster/ spheroid into the collagen lattice. We conclude that the 3D collagen matrix migration assay is a versatile method to analyze the migration of cells within a physiological-like 3D environment.

  20. Endothelial Cell Morphology and Migration are Altered by Changes in Gravitational Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melhado, Caroline; Sanford, Gary; Harris-Hooker, Sandra

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cell migration is important to vascular wall regeneration following injury or stress. However, the mechanism(s) governing this response is not well understood. The microgravity environment of space may complicate the response of these cells to injury. To date, there are no reports in this area. We examined how bovine aortic (BAEC) and pulmonary (BPEC) endothelial cells respond to denudation injury under hypergravity (HGrav) and simulated microgravity (MGrav), using image analysis. In 10% FBS, the migration of confluent BAEC and BPEC into the denuded area was not affected by HGrav or MGrav. However, in low FBS (0.5%), signficantly retarded migration under MGrav, and increased migration under HGrav was found. MGrav also decreased the migration of postconfluent BPEC while HGrav showed no difference. Both MGrav and HGrav strongly decreased the migration of postconfluent BAEC. Also, both cell lines showed significant morphological changes by scanning electron microscopy. These studies indicate that endothelial cell function is affected by changes in gravity.

  1. A role for E-cadherin in ensuring cohesive migration of a heterogeneous population of non-epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Kyra; Casanova, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Collective cell migration is a key process underlying the morphogenesis of many organs as well as tumour invasion, which very often involves heterogeneous cell populations. Here we investigated how such populations can migrate cohesively in the Drosophila posterior midgut, comprised of epithelial and mesenchymal cells and show a novel role for the epithelial adhesion molecule E-cadherin (E-Cad) in mesenchymal cells. Despite a lack of junctions at the ultrastructure level, reducing E-Cad levels causes mesenchymal cells to detach from one another and from neighbouring epithelial cells; as a result, coordination between the two populations is lost. Moreover, Bazooka and recycling mechanisms are also required for E-Cad accumulation in mesenchymal cells. These results indicate an active role for E-Cad in mediating cohesive and ordered migration of non-epithelial cells, and discount the notion of E-Cad as just an epithelial feature that has to be switched off to enable migration of mesenchymal cells. PMID:26272476

  2. Manipulation of neutrophil-like HL-60 cells for the study of directed cell migration.

    PubMed

    Millius, Arthur; Weiner, Orion D

    2010-01-01

    Many cells undergo directed cell migration in response to external cues in a process known as chemotaxis. This ability is essential for many single-celled organisms to hunt and mate, the development of multicellular organisms, and the functioning of the immune system. Because of their relative ease of manipulation and their robust chemotactic abilities, the neutrophil-like cell line (HL-60) has been a powerful system to analyze directed cell migration. In this chapter, we describe the maintenance and transient transfection of HL-60 cells and explain how to analyze their behavior with two standard chemotactic assays (micropipette and EZ-TAXIS). Finally, we demonstrate how to fix and stain the actin cytoskeleton of polarized cells for fluorescent microscopy imaging.

  3. The PDZ protein TIP-1 facilitates cell migration and pulmonary metastasis of human invasive breast cancer cells in athymic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Miaojun; Wang, Hailun; Zhang, Hua-Tang; Han, Zhaozhong

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study has revealed novel oncogenic functions of TIP-1 in human invasive breast cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated TIP-1 expression levels in human breast cancers correlate to the disease prognosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TIP-1 knockdown suppressed the cell migration and pulmonary metastasis of human breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TIP-1 knockdown suppressed the expression and functionality of motility-related genes. -- Abstract: Tax-interacting protein 1 (TIP-1, also known as Tax1bp3) inhibited proliferation of colon cancer cells through antagonizing the transcriptional activity of beta-catenin. However, in this study, elevated TIP-1 expression levels were detected in human invasive breast cancers. Studies with two human invasive breast cancer cell lines indicated that RNAi-mediated TIP-1 knockdown suppressed the cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro, and inhibited tumor growth in mammary fat pads and pulmonary metastasis in athymic mice. Biochemical studies showed that TIP-1 knockdown had moderate and differential effects on the beta-catenin-regulated gene expression, but remarkably down regulated the genes for cell adhesion and motility in breast cancer cells. The decreased expression of integrins and paxillin was accompanied with reduced cell adhesion and focal adhesion formation on fibronectin-coated surface. In conclusion, this study revealed a novel oncogenic function of TIP-1 suggesting that TIP-1 holds potential as a prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target in the treatment of human invasive breast cancers.

  4. Cadherin-2 Is Required Cell Autonomously for Collective Migration of Facial Branchiomotor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Rebman, Jane K.; Kirchoff, Kathryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Collective migration depends on cell-cell interactions between neighbors that contribute to their overall directionality, yet the mechanisms that control the coordinated migration of neurons remains to be elucidated. During hindbrain development, facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs) undergo a stereotypic tangential caudal migration from their place of birth in rhombomere (r)4 to their final location in r6/7. FBMNs engage in collective cell migration that depends on neuron-to-neuron interactions to facilitate caudal directionality. Here, we demonstrate that Cadherin-2-mediated neuron-to-neuron adhesion is necessary for directional and collective migration of FBMNs. We generated stable transgenic zebrafish expressing dominant-negative Cadherin-2 (Cdh2ΔEC) driven by the islet1 promoter. Cell-autonomous inactivation of Cadherin-2 function led to non-directional migration of FBMNs and a defect in caudal tangential migration. Additionally, mosaic analysis revealed that Cdh2ΔEC-expressing FBMNs are not influenced to migrate caudally by neighboring wild-type FBMNs due to a defect in collective cell migration. Taken together, our data suggest that Cadherin-2 plays an essential cell-autonomous role in mediating the collective migration of FBMNs. PMID:27716840

  5. Vimentin expression influences flow dependent VASP phosphorylation and regulates cell migration and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Natalie; Henrion, Daniel; Tiede, Petra; Ziche, Marina; Schunkert, Heribert; Ito, Wulf D.

    2010-05-07

    The cytoskeleton plays a central role for the integration of biochemical and biomechanical signals across the cell required for complex cellular functions. Recent studies indicate that the intermediate filament vimentin is necessary for endothelial cell morphogenesis e.g. in the context of leukocyte transmigration. Here, we present evidence, that the scaffold provided by vimentin is essential for VASP localization and PKG mediated VASP phosphorylation and thus controls endothelial cell migration and proliferation. Vimentin suppression using siRNA technique significantly decreased migration velocity by 50% (videomicroscopy), diminished transmigration activity by 42.5% (Boyden chamber) and reduced proliferation by 43% (BrdU-incorporation). In confocal microscopy Vimentin colocalized with VASP and PKG in endothelial cells. Vimentin suppression was accompanied with a translocation of VASP from focal contacts to the perinuclear region. VASP/Vimentin and PKG/Vimentin colocalization appeared to be essential for proper PKG mediated VASP phosphorylation because we detected a diminished expression of PKG and p{sup Ser239}-VASP in vimentin-suppressed cells, Furthermore, the induction of VASP phosphorylation in perfused arteries was markedly decreased in vimentin knockout mice compared to wildtypes. A link is proposed between vimentin, VASP phosphorylation and actin dynamics that delivers an explanation for the important role of vimentin in controlling endothelial cell morphogenesis.

  6. Directional Persistence of EGF-Induced Cell Migration Is Associated with Stabilization of Lamellipodial Protrusions

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Brian D.; Bassi, Gina M.; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    Migrating cells can sustain a relatively constant direction of lamellipodial protrusion and locomotion over timescales ranging from minutes to hours. However, individual waves of lamellipodial extension occur over much shorter characteristic times. Little understanding exists regarding how cells might integrate biophysical processes across these disparate timescales to control the directional persistence of locomotion. We address this issue by examining the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation on long-timescale directional persistence and short-timescale lamellipodial dynamics of EGF receptor-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells migrating on fibronectin-coated substrata. Addition of EGF increased persistence, with the magnitude of increase correlating with fibronectin coating concentration. Kymographic analysis of EGF-stimulated lamellipodial dynamics revealed that the temporal stability of lamellipodial protrusions similarly increased with fibronectin concentration. A soluble RGD peptide competitor reduced both the persistence of long-timescale cell paths and the stability of short-timescale membrane protrusions, indicating that cell-substratum adhesion concomitantly influences lamellipodial dynamics and directional persistence. These results reveal the importance of adhesion strength in regulating the directional motility of cells and suggest that the short-timescale kinetics of adhesion complex formation may play a key role in modulating directional persistence over much longer timescales. PMID:15713602

  7. Effects of 13 developmentally toxic chemicals on the migration of rat cephalic neural crest cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Usami, Makoto; Mitsunaga, Katsuyoshi; Miyajima, Atsuko; Takamatu, Mina; Kazama, Shugo; Irie, Tomohiko; Doi, Osamu; Takizawa, Tatsuya

    2016-03-01

    The inhibition of neural crest cell (NCC) migration has been considered as a possible pathogenic mechanism underlying chemical developmental toxicity. In this study, we examined the effects of 13 developmentally toxic chemicals on the migration of rat cephalic NCCs (cNCCs) by using a simple in vitro assay. cNCCs were cultured for 48 h as emigrants from rhombencephalic neural tubes explanted from rat embryos at day 10.5 of gestation. The chemicals were added to the culture medium at 24 h of culture. Migration of cNCCs was measured as the change in the radius (radius ratio) calculated from the circular spread of cNCCs between 24 and 48 h of culture. Of the chemicals examined, 13-cis-retinoic acid, ethanol, ibuprofen, lead acetate, salicylic acid, and selenate inhibited the migration of cNCCs at their embryotoxic concentrations; no effects were observed for acetaminophen, caffeine, indium, phenytoin, selenite, tributyltin, and valproic acid. In a cNCC proliferation assay, ethanol, ibuprofen, salicylic acid, selenate, and tributyltin inhibited cell proliferation, suggesting the contribution of the reduced cell number to the inhibited migration of cNCCs. It was determined that several developmentally toxic chemicals inhibited the migration of cNCCs, the effects of which were manifested as various craniofacial abnormalities. PMID:26175014

  8. Insulin-producing cells from embryonic stem cells rescues hyperglycemia via intra-spleen migration.

    PubMed

    Ren, Meng; Shang, Changzhen; Zhong, Xiaomei; Guo, Ruomi; Lao, Guojuan; Wang, Xiaoyi; Cheng, Hua; Min, Jun; Yan, Li; Shen, Jun

    2014-12-23

    Implantation of embryonic stem cells (ESC)-derived insulin-producing cells has been extensively investigated for treatment of diabetes in animal models. However, the in vivo behavior and migration of transplanted cells in diabetic models remains unclear. Here we investigated the location and migration of insulin-producing cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) using a dynamic MRI tracking method. SPIO labeled cells showed hypointense signal under the kidney subcapsules of diabetic mice on MRI, and faded gradually over the visiting time. However, new hypointense signal appeared in the spleen 1 week after transplantation, and became obvious with the time prolongation. Further histological examination proved the immigrated cells were insulin and C-peptide positive cells which were evenly distributed throughout the spleen. These intra-spleen insulin-producing cells maintained their protective effects against hyperglycemia in vivo, and these effects were reversed upon spleen removal. Transplantation of insulin-producing cells through spleen acquired an earlier blood glucose control as compared with that through kidney subcapsules. In summary, our data demonstrate that insulin-producing cells transplanted through kidney subcapsules were not located in situ but migrated into spleen, and rescues hyperglycemia in diabetic models. MRI may provide a novel tracking method for preclinical cell transplantation therapy of diabetes continuously and non-invasively.

  9. Insulin-producing cells from embryonic stem cells rescues hyperglycemia via intra-spleen migration

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Meng; Shang, Changzhen; Zhong, Xiaomei; Guo, Ruomi; Lao, Guojuan; Wang, Xiaoyi; Cheng, Hua; Min, Jun; Yan, Li; Shen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Implantation of embryonic stem cells (ESC)-derived insulin-producing cells has been extensively investigated for treatment of diabetes in animal models. However, the in vivo behavior and migration of transplanted cells in diabetic models remains unclear. Here we investigated the location and migration of insulin-producing cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) using a dynamic MRI tracking method. SPIO labeled cells showed hypointense signal under the kidney subcapsules of diabetic mice on MRI, and faded gradually over the visiting time. However, new hypointense signal appeared in the spleen 1 week after transplantation, and became obvious with the time prolongation. Further histological examination proved the immigrated cells were insulin and C-peptide positive cells which were evenly distributed throughout the spleen. These intra-spleen insulin-producing cells maintained their protective effects against hyperglycemia in vivo, and these effects were reversed upon spleen removal. Transplantation of insulin-producing cells through spleen acquired an earlier blood glucose control as compared with that through kidney subcapsules. In summary, our data demonstrate that insulin-producing cells transplanted through kidney subcapsules were not located in situ but migrated into spleen, and rescues hyperglycemia in diabetic models. MRI may provide a novel tracking method for preclinical cell transplantation therapy of diabetes continuously and non-invasively. PMID:25533571

  10. Mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uniporter is critical for store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry-dependent breast cancer cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Shihao; Wang, Xubu; Shen, Qiang; Yang, Xinyi; Yu, Changhui; Cai, Chunqing; Cai, Guoshuai; Meng, Xiaojing; Zou, Fei

    2015-02-27

    Metastasis of cancer cells is a complicated multistep process requiring extensive and continuous cytosolic calcium modulation. Mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uniporter (MCU), a regulator of mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uptake, has been implicated in energy metabolism and various cellular signaling processes. However, whether MCU contributes to cancer cell migration has not been established. Here we examined the expression of MCU mRNA in the Oncomine database and found that MCU is correlated to metastasis and invasive breast cancer. MCU inhibition by ruthenium red (RuR) or MCU silencing by siRNA abolished serum-induced migration in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and reduced serum- or thapsigargin (TG)-induced store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Serum-induced migrations in MDA-MB-231 cells were blocked by SOCE inhibitors. Our results demonstrate that MCU plays a critical role in breast cancer cell migration by regulating SOCE. - Highlights: • MCU is correlated to metastasis and invasive breast cancer. • MCU inhibition abolished serum-induced migration in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and reduced serum- or TG-induced SOCE. • Serum-induced migrations in MDA-MB-231 cells were blocked by SOCE inhibitors. • MCU plays a critical role in MDA-MB-231 cell migration by regulating SOCE.

  11. Quantitative measurement of changes in adhesion force involving focal adhesion kinase during cell attachment, spread, and migration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Ching; Su, Hsiao-Wen; Lee, Chen-Chen; Tang, Ming-Jer; Su, Fong-Chin

    2005-04-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a critical protein for the regulation of integrin-mediated cellular functions and it can enhance cell motility in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induction. We utilized optical trapping and cytodetachment techniques to measure the adhesion force between pico-Newton and nano-Newton (nN) for quantitatively investigating the effects of FAK on adhesion force during initial binding (5 s), beginning of spreading (30 min), spreadout (12 h), and migration (induced by HGF) in MDCK cells with overexpressed FAK (FAK-WT), FAK-related non-kinase (FRNK), as well as normal control cells. Optical tweezers was used to measure the initial binding force between a trapped cell and glass coverslide or between a trapped bead and a seeded cell. In cytodetachment, the commercial atomic force microscope probe with an appropriate spring constant was used as a cyto-detacher to evaluate the change of adhesion force between different FAK expression levels of cells in spreading, spreadout, and migrating status. The results demonstrated that FAK-WT significantly increased the adhesion forces as compared to FRNK cells throughout all the different stages of cell adhesion. For cells in HGF-induced migration, the adhesion force decreased to almost the same level (approximately 600 nN) regardless of FAK levels indicating that FAK facilitates cells to undergo migration by reducing the adhesion force. Our results suggest FAK plays a role of enhancing cell adhesive ability in the binding and spreading, but an appropriate level of adhesion force is required for HGF-induced cell migration.

  12. Lamellipodin promotes invasive 3D cancer cell migration via regulated interactions with Ena/VASP and SCAR/WAVE

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Guillaume; Perera, Upamali; Gillett, Cheryl; Naba, Alexandra; Law, Ah-Lai; Sharma, Ved P.; Wang, Jian; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Balsamo, Michele; Mosis, Fuad; De Piano, Mario; Monypenny, James; Woodman, Natalie; McConnell, Russell E.; Mouneimne, Ghassan; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Cao, Yihai; Condeelis, John; Hynes, Richard O.; Gertler, Frank B.; Krause, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Cancer invasion is a hallmark of metastasis. The mesenchymal mode of cancer cell invasion is mediated by elongated membrane protrusions driven by the assembly of branched F-actin networks. How deregulation of actin regulators promotes cancer cell invasion is still enigmatic. We report that increased expression and membrane localization of the actin regulator Lamellipodin correlates with reduced metastasis-free survival and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. In agreement we find that Lamellipodin depletion reduced lung metastasis in an orthotopic mouse breast cancer model. Invasive 3D cancer cell migration as well as invadopodia formation, and matrix degradation were impaired upon Lamellipodin depletion. Mechanistically, we show that Lamellipodin promotes invasive 3D cancer cell migration via both actin-elongating Ena/VASP proteins and the Scar/WAVE complex, which stimulates actin branching. In contrast, Lamellipodin interaction with Scar/WAVE but not Ena/VASP is required for random 2D cell migration. We identify a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism that regulates selective recruitment of these effectors to Lamellipodin: Abl-mediated Lamellipodin phosphorylation promotes its association with both Scar/WAVE and Ena/VASP, while Src-dependent phosphorylation enhances binding to Scar/WAVE but not Ena/VASP. Through these selective, regulated interactions Lamellipodin mediates directional sensing of EGF gradients and invasive 3D migration of breast cancer cells. Our findings imply that increased Lamellipodin levels enhance Ena/VASP and Scar/WAVE activities at the plasma membrane to promote 3D invasion and metastasis. PMID:26996666

  13. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduce Murine Atherosclerosis Development

    PubMed Central

    Frodermann, Vanessa; van Duijn, Janine; van Pel, Melissa; van Santbrink, Peter J.; Bot, Ilze; Kuiper, Johan; de Jager, Saskia C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have regenerative properties, but recently they were also found to have immunomodulatory capacities. We therefore investigated whether MSCs could reduce atherosclerosis, which is determined by dyslipidaemia and chronic inflammation. We adoptively transferred MSCs into low-density lipoprotein-receptor knockout mice and put these on a Western-type diet to induce atherosclerosis. Initially after treatment, we found higher levels of circulating regulatory T cells. In the long-term, overall numbers of effector T cells were reduced by MSC treatment. Moreover, MSC-treated mice displayed a significant 33% reduction in circulating monocytes and a 77% reduction of serum CCL2 levels. Most strikingly, we found a previously unappreciated effect on lipid metabolism. Serum cholesterol was reduced by 33%, due to reduced very low-density lipoprotein levels, likely a result of reduced de novo hepatic lipogenesis as determined by a reduced expression of Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and lipoprotein lipase. MSCs significantly affected lesion development, which was reduced by 33% in the aortic root. These lesions contained 56% less macrophages and showed a 61% reduction in T cell numbers. We show here for the first time that MSC treatment affects not only inflammatory responses but also significantly reduces dyslipidaemia in mice. This makes MSCs a potent candidate for atherosclerosis therapies. PMID:26490642

  14. Role of ADAM17 in invasion and migration of CD133-expressing liver cancer stem cells after irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung Woo; Hur, Wonhee; Choi, Jung Eun; Kim, Jung-Hee; Hwang, Daehee; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2016-01-01