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Sample records for cells reduces migration

  1. CYR61 downregulation reduces osteosarcoma cell invasion, migration, and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Fromigue, Olivia; Hamidouche, Zahia; Vaudin, Pascal; Lecanda, Fernando; Patino, Ana; Barbry, Pascal; Mari, Bernard; Marie, Pierre J

    2011-07-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary tumor of bone. The rapid development of metastatic lesions and resistance to chemotherapy remain major mechanisms responsible for the failure of treatments and the poor survival rate for patients. We showed previously that the HMGCoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A) reductase inhibitor statin exhibits antitumoral effects on osteosarcoma cells. Here, using microarray analysis, we identify Cyr61 as a new target of statins. Transcriptome and molecular analyses revealed that statins downregulate Cyr61 expression in human and murine osteosarcoma cells. Cyr61 silencing in osteosarcoma cell lines enhanced cell death and reduced cell migration and cell invasion compared with parental cells, whereas Cyr61 overexpression had opposite effects. Cyr61 expression was evaluated in 231 tissue cores from osteosarcoma patients. Tissue microarray analysis revealed that Cyr61 protein expression was higher in human osteosarcoma than in normal bone tissue and was further increased in metastatic tissues. Finally, tumor behavior and metastasis occurrence were analyzed by intramuscular injection of modified osteosarcoma cells into BALB/c mice. Cyr61 overexpression enhanced lung metastasis development, whereas cyr61 silencing strongly reduced lung metastases in mice. The results reveal that cyr61 expression increases with tumor grade in human osteosarcoma and demonstrate that cyr61 silencing inhibits in vitro osteosarcoma cell invasion and migration as well as in vivo lung metastases in mice. These data provide a novel molecular target for therapeutic intervention in metastatic osteosarcoma. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  2. Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Trepat, Xavier; Chen, Zaozao; Jacobson, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to establishing and maintaining the proper organization of multicellular organisms. Morphogenesis can be viewed as a consequence, in part, of cell locomotion, from large-scale migrations of epithelial sheets during gastrulation, to the movement of individual cells during development of the nervous system. In an adult organism, cell migration is essential for proper immune response, wound repair, and tissue homeostasis, while aberrant cell migration is found in various pathologies. Indeed, as our knowledge of migration increases, we can look forward to, for example, abating the spread of highly malignant cancer cells, retarding the invasion of white cells in the inflammatory process, or enhancing the healing of wounds. This article is organized in two main sections. The first section is devoted to the single-cell migrating in isolation such as occurs when leukocytes migrate during the immune response or when fibroblasts squeeze through connective tissue. The second section is devoted to cells collectively migrating as part of multicellular clusters or sheets. This second type of migration is prevalent in development, wound healing, and in some forms of cancer metastasis. PMID:23720251

  3. Myosin IIA deficient cells migrate efficiently despite reduced traction forces at cell periphery.

    PubMed

    Jorrisch, Melissa H; Shih, Wenting; Yamada, Soichiro

    2013-04-15

    Cell motility is a cornerstone of embryogenesis, tissue remodeling and repair, and cancer cell invasion. It is generally thought that migrating cells grab and exert traction force onto the extracellular matrix in order to pull the cell body forward. While previous studies have shown that myosin II deficient cells migrate efficiently, whether these cells exert traction forces during cell migration in the absence of the major contractile machinery is currently unknown. Using an array of micron-sized pillars as a force sensor and shRNA specific to each myosin II isoform (A and B), we analyzed how myosin IIA and IIB individually regulate cell migration and traction force generation. Myosin IIA and IIB localized preferentially to the leading edge where traction force was greatest, and the trailing edge, respectively. When individual myosin II isoforms were depleted by shRNA, myosin IIA deficient cells lost actin stress fibers and focal adhesions, whereas myosin IIB deficient cells maintained similar actin organization and focal adhesions as wild-type cells. Interestingly, myosin IIA deficient cells migrated faster than wild-type or myosin IIB deficient cells on both a rigid surface and a pillar array, yet myosin IIA deficient cells exerted significantly less traction force at the leading edge than wild-type or myosin IIB deficient cells. These results suggest that, in the absence of myosin IIA mediated force-generating machinery, cells move with minimal traction forces at the cell periphery, thus demonstrating the remarkable ability of cells to adapt and migrate.

  4. Atorvastatin Promotes Cytotoxicity and Reduces Migration and Proliferation of Human A172 Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Karen A; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Lopes, Flávia G; Ludka, Fabiana K; Nedel, Cláudia B; Tasca, Carla I

    2017-02-08

    Malignant gliomas have resistance mechanisms to chemotherapy that enable tumor invasiveness and aggressiveness. Alternative therapies in cancer treatment, as statins, have been suggested to decrease proliferation, inhibit cell migration, and induce cell death. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin (ATOR) on cell viability, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy in A172 human glioma cells. Temozolomide (TMZ), a chemotherapic used to glioma treatment, was tested as a comparison to cytotoxic effects on gliomas. Cell viability was also assessed in primary culture of cortical astrocytes. ATOR treatment (0.1 to 20 μM) did not alter astrocytic viability. However, in glioma cells, ATOR showed cytotoxic effect at 10 and 20 μM concentrations. TMZ (500 μM) reduced cell viability similarly to ATOR, and drug association did not show additive effect on cell viability. ATOR, TMZ, and their association decreased cell migration. ATOR also decreased glioma cell proliferation. ATOR increased apoptosis, and TMZ association showed a potentiation effect, enhancing it. ATOR and TMZ treatment increased acidic vesicular organelle (AVO) presence in A172 cells, an indicative of autophagy. ATOR effect of reducing A172 cell viability did not alter glutamate transport and glutamine synthetase activity, but it was partially prevented through antagonism of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Our data shows a cytotoxic effect of ATOR on glioma cells, whereas no toxicity was observed to astrocytes. ATOR showed similar cytotoxic effect as TMZ to glioma cells, and it may be a safer drug, regarding side effect induction, than chemotherapic agents.

  5. Flavonoid Fraction of Citrus reticulata Juice Reduces Proliferation and Migration of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Celano, Marilena; Maggisano, Valentina; De Rose, Roberta Francesca; Bulotta, Stefania; Maiuolo, Jessica; Navarra, Michele; Russo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Effects of flavonoids extracted from Citrus reticulata (mandarin) juice on proliferation and migration of 3 human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cell lines were evaluated. Flavonoid components of Mandarin juice extract (MJe) were analyzed by uHPLC. Proliferation of CAL-62, C-643, and 8505C cells, measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, was significantly reduced by MJe in a concentration- and time-dependent way, with maximal effect elicited at 0.5 mg/ml concentration after 48 h. Cytofluorimetric analysis showed a block in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, accompanied by low cell mortality owed to autophagic death. The extract caused also a reduction of cell migration, associated with decreased activity of the metalloproteinase MMP-2. These findings demonstrate that the flavonoid fraction of mandarin juice exerts in vitro antiproliferative effects on ATC cells, associated with a reduction of migration, suggesting for such a functional food a potential use as adjuvant in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

  6. Cannabinoids synergize with carfilzomib, reducing multiple myeloma cells viability and migration

    PubMed Central

    Offidani, Massimo; Amantini, Consuelo; Gentili, Silvia; Soriani, Alessandra; Cardinali, Claudio; Leoni, Pietro; Santoni, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Several studies showed a potential anti-tumor role for cannabinoids, by modulating cell signaling pathways involved in cancer cell proliferation, chemo-resistance and migration. Cannabidiol (CBD) was previously noted in multiple myeloma (MM), both alone and in synergy with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, to induce cell death. In other type of human cancers, the combination of CBD with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was found to act synergistically with other chemotherapeutic drugs suggesting their use in combination therapy. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of THC alone and in combination with CBD in MM cell lines. We found that CBD and THC, mainly in combination, were able to reduce cell viability by inducing autophagic-dependent necrosis. Moreover, we showed that the CBD-THC combination was able to reduce MM cells migration by down-regulating expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and of the CD147 plasma membrane glycoprotein. Furthermore, since the immuno-proteasome is considered a new target in MM and also since carfilzomib (CFZ) is a new promising immuno-proteasome inhibitor that creates irreversible adducts with the β5i subunit of immuno-proteasome, we evaluated the effect of CBD and THC in regulating the expression of the β5i subunit and their effect in combination with CFZ. Herein, we also found that the CBD and THC combination is able to reduce expression of the β5i subunit as well as to act in synergy with CFZ to increase MM cell death and inhibits cell migration. In summary, these results proved that this combination exerts strong anti-myeloma activities. PMID:27769052

  7. Cannabinoids synergize with carfilzomib, reducing multiple myeloma cells viability and migration.

    PubMed

    Nabissi, Massimo; Morelli, Maria Beatrice; Offidani, Massimo; Amantini, Consuelo; Gentili, Silvia; Soriani, Alessandra; Cardinali, Claudio; Leoni, Pietro; Santoni, Giorgio

    2016-11-22

    Several studies showed a potential anti-tumor role for cannabinoids, by modulating cell signaling pathways involved in cancer cell proliferation, chemo-resistance and migration. Cannabidiol (CBD) was previously noted in multiple myeloma (MM), both alone and in synergy with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, to induce cell death. In other type of human cancers, the combination of CBD with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was found to act synergistically with other chemotherapeutic drugs suggesting their use in combination therapy. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of THC alone and in combination with CBD in MM cell lines. We found that CBD and THC, mainly in combination, were able to reduce cell viability by inducing autophagic-dependent necrosis. Moreover, we showed that the CBD-THC combination was able to reduce MM cells migration by down-regulating expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and of the CD147 plasma membrane glycoprotein. Furthermore, since the immuno-proteasome is considered a new target in MM and also since carfilzomib (CFZ) is a new promising immuno-proteasome inhibitor that creates irreversible adducts with the β5i subunit of immuno-proteasome, we evaluated the effect of CBD and THC in regulating the expression of the β5i subunit and their effect in combination with CFZ. Herein, we also found that the CBD and THC combination is able to reduce expression of the β5i subunit as well as to act in synergy with CFZ to increase MM cell death and inhibits cell migration. In summary, these results proved that this combination exerts strong anti-myeloma activities.

  8. miR-155 inhibitor reduces the proliferation and migration in osteosarcoma MG-63 cells

    PubMed Central

    LV, HUICHENG; GUO, JUN; LI, SIQIN; JIANG, DIANMIN

    2014-01-01

    As the most common malignant primary bone tumor in childhood, osteosarcoma (OS) maintains a high recurrence, despite the significant improvements in the overall survival rate of high-grade OS patients during the recent decades. Therefore, a novel therapy strategy is required for OS treatment. Recently, various microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have been confirmed as deregulated in OS, and the miR-155 dysregulation in OS has been discovered by the microarray analysis. In the present study, the regulation of miR-155 on the OS cell proliferation, migration and invasion on the MG-63 cells was explored in vitro. The miR-155 mimics were found to promote cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion significantly, compared to the control miRNA. An miR-155 inhibitor was also used to evaluate whether miR-155 served as a therapeutic target for OS. The results demonstrated that the miR-155 inhibitor significantly reduced the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of the MG-63 OS cells. Thus, the study confirmed the oncogenic regulation on the OS progression of miR-155, which could serve as a therapeutic target with an miR-155 inhibitor. PMID:25289062

  9. Knockdown of transient receptor potential canonical-1 reduces the proliferation and migration of endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Chun-yan; Yu, Yang; Wang, Kui; Qian, De-hui; Den, Meng-yang; Huang, Lan

    2012-02-10

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in accelerating endothelial repair after vascular injury. The proliferation and migration of EPCs is a critical first step in restoring endothelial. However, mechanisms for modulating EPC proliferation and migration are still being elucidated. Our previous study found that transient receptor potential canonical-1 (TRPC1) is involved in regulating store-operated Ca(2+) entry in EPCs through stromal interaction molecule 1. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to further investigate the regulation of proliferation and migration of EPCs by TRPC1. We found that the silencing of TRPC1 by 2 different RNA interference methods suppressed the proliferation and migration of EPCs. In addition, knockdown of TRPC1 significantly reduced of the amplitude of store-operated Ca(2+) entry and caused arrest of the EPC cell cycle in G1 phase. Analysis of the expression of 84 cell cycle genes by microarray showed that 9 genes were upregulated and 4 were downregulated by >2-fold in EPCs following TRPC1 silencing. The genes with expression changes were Ak1, Brca2, Camk2b, p21, Ddit3, Inha, Slfn1, Mdm2, Prm1, Bcl2, Mki67, Pmp22, and Ppp2r3a. Finally, we found that a Schlafen 1-blocking peptide partially reversed the abnormal cell cycle distribution and proliferation induced by TRPC1 knockdown, suggesting that Schlafen 1 is downstream of TRPC1 silencing in regulating EPC proliferation. In summary, these findings provide a new mechanism for modulating the biological properties of EPCs and suggest that TRPC1 may be a new target for inducing vascular repair by EPCs.

  10. Knockdown of Transient Receptor Potential Canonical-1 Reduces the Proliferation and Migration of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Chun-yan; Yu, Yang; Wang, Kui; Qian, De-hui; Den, Meng-yang

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in accelerating endothelial repair after vascular injury. The proliferation and migration of EPCs is a critical first step in restoring endothelial. However, mechanisms for modulating EPC proliferation and migration are still being elucidated. Our previous study found that transient receptor potential canonical-1 (TRPC1) is involved in regulating store-operated Ca2+ entry in EPCs through stromal interaction molecule 1. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to further investigate the regulation of proliferation and migration of EPCs by TRPC1. We found that the silencing of TRPC1 by 2 different RNA interference methods suppressed the proliferation and migration of EPCs. In addition, knockdown of TRPC1 significantly reduced of the amplitude of store-operated Ca2+ entry and caused arrest of the EPC cell cycle in G1 phase. Analysis of the expression of 84 cell cycle genes by microarray showed that 9 genes were upregulated and 4 were downregulated by >2-fold in EPCs following TRPC1 silencing. The genes with expression changes were Ak1, Brca2, Camk2b, p21, Ddit3, Inha, Slfn1, Mdm2, Prm1, Bcl2, Mki67, Pmp22, and Ppp2r3a. Finally, we found that a Schlafen 1-blocking peptide partially reversed the abnormal cell cycle distribution and proliferation induced by TRPC1 knockdown, suggesting that Schlafen 1 is downstream of TRPC1 silencing in regulating EPC proliferation. In summary, these findings provide a new mechanism for modulating the biological properties of EPCs and suggest that TRPC1 may be a new target for inducing vascular repair by EPCs. PMID:21361857

  11. The MOC31PE immunotoxin reduces cell migration and induces gene expression and cell death in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The standard treatment of ovarian cancer with chemotherapy often leads to drug resistance and relapse of the disease, and the need for development of novel therapy alternatives is obvious. The MOC31PE immunotoxin binds to the cell surface antigen EpCAM, which is expressed by the majority of epithelial cancers including ovarian carcinomas, and we studied the cytotoxic effects of MOC31PE in ovarian cancer cells. Methods Investigation of the effects of MOC31PE treatment on protein synthesis, cell viability, proliferation and gene expression of the ovarian cancer cell lines B76 and HOC7. Results MOC31PE treatment for 24 h caused a dose-dependent reduction of protein synthesis with ID50 values of less than 10 ng/ml, followed by reduced cell viability. In a gene expression array monitoring the expression of 84 key genes in cancer pathways, 13 of the genes were differentially expressed by MOC31PE treatment in comparison to untreated cells. By combining MOC31PE and the immune suppressor cyclosporin A (CsA) the MOC31PE effect on protein synthesis inhibition and cell viability increased tenfold. Cell migration was also reduced, both in the individual MOC31PE and CsA treatment, but even more when combining MOC31PE and CsA. In tumor metastasis PCR arrays, 23 of 84 genes were differentially expressed comparing CsA versus MOC31PE + CsA treatment. Increased expression of the tumor suppressor KISS1 and the nuclear receptor NR4A3 was observed, and the differential candidate gene expression was confirmed in complementary qPCR analyses. For NR4A3 this was not accompanied by increased protein expression. However, a subcellular fractionation assay revealed increased mitochondrial NR4A3 in MOC31PE treated cells, suggesting a role for this protein in MOC31PE-induced apoptotic cell death. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that MOC31PE may become a new targeted therapy for ovarian cancer and that the MOC31PE anti-cancer effect is potentiated by CsA. PMID:24528603

  12. Insulin resistance reduces sensitivity to Cis-platinum and promotes adhesion, migration and invasion in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Jing; Li, Guang-Di; Wei, Hu-Lai; Chen, Jing; Liu, Yu-Mei; Li, Fei; Xie, Bei; Wang, Bei; Li, Cai-Li

    2014-01-01

    The liver is normally the major site of glucose metabolism in intact organisms and the most important target organ for the action of insulin. It has been widely accepted that insulin resistance (IR) is closely associated with postoperative recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the relationship between IR and drug resistance in liver cancer cells is unclear. In the present study, IR was induced in HepG2 cells via incubation with a high concentration of insulin. Once the insulin-resistant cell line was established, the instability of HepG2/ IR cells was further tested via incubation in insulin-free medium for another 72h. Afterwards, the biological effects of insulin resistance on adhesion, migration, invasion and sensitivity to cis-platinum (DDP) of cells were determined. The results indicated that glucose consumption was reduced in insulin-resistant cells. In addition, the expression of the insulin receptor and glucose transportor-2 was downregulated. Furthermore, HepG2/IR cells displayed markedly enhanced adhesion, migration, and invasion. Most importantly, these cells exhibited a lower sensitivity to DDP. By contrast, HepG2/IR cells exhibited decreased adhesion and invasion after treatment with the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone hydrochloride. The results suggest that IR is closely related to drug resistance as well as adhesion, migration, and invasion in HepG2 cells. These findings may help explain the clinical observation of limited efficacy for chemotherapy on a background of IR, which promotes the invasion and migration of cancer cells.

  13. Thymoquinone suppresses migration of LoVo human colon cancer cells by reducing prostaglandin E2 induced COX-2 activation

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Lin, Yueh-Min; Li, Shin-Yi; Tu, Chuan-Chou; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Shih, Hui-Nung; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify potential anti-cancer constituents in natural extracts that inhibit cancer cell growth and migration. METHODS Our experiments used high dose thymoquinone (TQ) as an inhibitor to arrest LoVo (a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line) cancer cell growth, which was detected by cell proliferation assay and immunoblotting assay. Low dose TQ did not significantly reduce LoVo cancer cell growth. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is an enzyme that is involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in humans. PGE2 can promote COX-2 protein expression and tumor cell proliferation and was used as a control. RESULTS Our results showed that 20 μmol/L TQ significantly reduced human LoVo colon cancer cell proliferation. TQ treatment reduced the levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt, p-GSK3β, and β-catenin and thereby inhibited the downstream COX-2 expression. Results also showed that the reduction in COX-2 expression resulted in a reduction in PGE2 levels and the suppression of EP2 and EP4 activation. Further analysis showed that TG treatment inhibited the nuclear translocation of β-catenin in LoVo cancer cells. The levels of the cofactors LEF-1 and TCF-4 were also decreased in the nucleus following TQ treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with low dose TQ inhibited the COX-2 expression at the transcriptional level and the regulation of COX-2 expression efficiently reduced LoVo cell migration. The results were further verified in vivo by confirming the effects of TQ and/or PGE2 using tumor xenografts in nude mice. CONCLUSION TQ inhibits LoVo cancer cell growth and migration, and this result highlights the therapeutic advantage of using TQ in combination therapy against colorectal cancer. PMID:28275297

  14. Targeting of DNA Damage Signaling Pathway Induced Senescence and Reduced Migration of Cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ran; Singh, Rumani; Kaul, Zeenia; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu

    2015-06-01

    The heat shock 70 family protein, mortalin, has pancytoplasmic distribution pattern in normal and perinuclear in cancer human cells. Cancer cells when induced to senesce by either chemicals or stress showed shift in mortalin staining pattern from perinuclear to pancytoplasmic type. Using such shift in mortalin staining as a reporter, we screened human shRNA library and identified nine senescence-inducing siRNA candidates. An independent Comparative Genomic Hybridization analysis of 35 breast cancer cell lines revealed that five (NBS1, BRCA1, TIN2, MRE11A, and KPNA2) of the nine genes located on chromosome regions identified as the gain of locus in more than 80% cell lines. By gene-specific PCR, these five genes were found to be frequently amplified in cancer cell lines. Bioinformatics revealed that the identified targets were connected to MRN (MRE11-RAD50-NBS1) complex, the DNA damage-sensing complex. We demonstrate that the identified shRNAs triggered DNA damage response and induced the expression of tumor suppressor protein p16(INK4A) causing growth arrest of cancer cells. Furthermore, cells showed decreased migration, mediated by decrease in matrix metalloproteases. Taken together, we demonstrate that the MRN complex is a potential target of cancer cell proliferation and migration, and staining pattern of mortalin could serve as an assay to identify senescence-inducing/anticancer reagents. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A3 adenosine receptor agonist reduces brain ischemic injury and inhibits inflammatory cell migration in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, In-Young; Lee, Jae-Chul; Ju, Chung; Hwang, Sunyoung; Cho, Geum-Sil; Lee, Hyuk Woo; Choi, Won Jun; Jeong, Lak Shin; Kim, Won-Ki

    2011-10-01

    A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) is recognized as a novel therapeutic target for ischemic injury; however, the mechanism underlying anti-ischemic protection by the A3AR agonist remains unclear. Here, we report that 2-chloro-N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-5'-N-methylcarbamoyl-4'-thioadenosine (LJ529), a selective A3AR agonist, reduces inflammatory responses that may contribute to ischemic cerebral injury. Postischemic treatment with LJ529 markedly reduced cerebral ischemic injury caused by 1.5-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by 24-hour reperfusion in rats. This effect was abolished by the simultaneous administration of the A3AR antagonist MRS1523, but not the A2AAR antagonist SCH58261. LJ529 prevented the infiltration/migration of microglia and monocytes occurring after middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion, and also after injection of lipopolysaccharides into the corpus callosum. The reduced migration of microglia by LJ529 could be related with direct inhibition of chemotaxis and down-regulation of spatiotemporal expression of Rho GTPases (including Rac, Cdc42, and Rho), rather than by biologically relevant inhibition of inflammatory cytokine/chemokine release (eg, IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP-1) or by direct inhibition of excitotoxicity/oxidative stress (not affected by LJ529). The present findings indicate that postischemic activation of A3AR and the resultant reduction of inflammatory response should provide a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  16. α-Solanine inhibits human melanoma cell migration and invasion by reducing matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 activities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Kun; Shih, Yuan-Wei; Chang Chien, Tzu-Tsung; Fang, Li-Heng; Huang, Hsiang-Ching; Chen, Pin-Shern

    2010-01-01

    α-Solanine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid in potato sprouts, was found to possess anti-carcinogenic properties, such as inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the effect of α-solanine on cancer metastasis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of α-solanine on metastasis in vitro. Data demonstrated that α-solanine inhibited proliferation of human melanoma cell line A2058 in a dose-dependent manner. When treated with non-toxic doses of α-solanine, cell migration and invasion were markedly suppressed. Furthermore, α-solanine reduced the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, which are involved in the migration and invasion of cancer cells. Our biochemical assays indicated that α-solanine potently suppressed the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) and Akt, while it did not affect phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK). In addition, α-solanine significantly decreased the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), suggesting that α-solanine inhibited NF-κB activity. Taken together, the results suggested that α-solanine inhibited migration and invasion of A2058 cells by reducing MMP-2/9 activities. It also inhibited JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways as well as NF-κB activity. These findings reveal new therapeutic potential for α-solanine in anti-metastatic therapy.

  17. Progesterone reduces the migration of mast cells toward the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCL12 with an accompanying decrease in CXCR4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Belot, Marie-Pierre; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa; Gaudin, Françoise; Lieberherr, Michèle; Godot, Véronique; Taïeb, Joelle; Emilie, Dominique; Machelon, Véronique

    2007-05-01

    Mast cell recruitment is implicated in many physiological functions and several diseases. It depends on microenvironmental factors, including hormones. We have investigated the effect of progesterone on the migration of HMC-1(560) mast cells toward CXCL12, a chemokine that controls the migration of mast cells into tissues. HMC-1(560) mast cells were incubated with 1 nM to 1 microM progesterone for 24 h. Controls were run without progesterone. Cell migration toward CXCL12 was monitored with an in vitro assay, and statistical analysis of repeated experiments revealed that progesterone significantly reduced cell migration without increasing the number of apoptotic cells (P = 0.0084, n = 7). Differences between progesterone-treated and untreated cells were significant at 1 microM (P < 0.01, n = 7). Cells incubated with 1 microM progesterone showed no rearrangment of actin filaments in response to CXCL12. Progesterone also reduced the calcium response to CXCL12 and Akt phosphorylation. Cells incubated with progesterone had one-half the control concentrations of CXCR4 (mRNA, total protein, and membrane-bound protein). Progesterone also inhibited the migration of HMC-1(560) cells transfected with hPR-B-pSG5 plasmid, which contained 2.5 times as much PR-B as the control. These transfected cells responded differently (P < 0.05, n = 5) from untreated cells to 1 nM progesterone. We conclude that progesterone reduces mast cell migration toward CXCL12 and that CXCR4 may be a progesterone target in mast cells.

  18. n-Butylidenephthalide Regulated Tumor Stem Cell Genes EZH2/AXL and Reduced Its Migration and Invasion in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Ssu-Yin; Chuang, Hong-Meng; Huang, Mao-Hsuan; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen; Harn, Horng-Jyh

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most common and aggressive types of brain tumor. Due to its highly recurrent rate and poor prognosis, the overall survival time with this type of tumor is only 20–21 months. Recent knowledge suggests that its recurrence is in part due to the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which display radioresistant, chemoresistant, self-renewal and tumorigenic potential. Enhancers of Zeste 2 (EZH2) and AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL) are both highly expressed in GBM. Additionally, they are an essential regulator involved in CSCs maintenance, migration, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), stemness, metastasis and patient survival. In this study, we used a small molecule, n-butylidenephthalide (BP), to assess the anti-GBM stem-like cells potential, and then tried to find out the associated genes involved with regulation in migration and invasion. We demonstrated that BP reduced the expression of AXL and stemness related genes in a dose-dependent manner. The migratory and invasive capabilities of GBM stem-like cells could be reduced by AXL/EZH2. Finally, in the overexpression of AXL, EZH2 and Sox2 by transfection in GBM stem-like cells, we found that AXL/EZH2/TGF-β1, but not Sox2, might be a key regulator in tumor invasion, migration and EMT. These results might help in the development of a new anticancer compound and can be a target for treating GBM. PMID:28208648

  19. A Short Region of Connexin43 Reduces Human Glioma Stem Cell Migration, Invasion, and Survival through Src, PTEN, and FAK.

    PubMed

    Jaraíz-Rodríguez, Myriam; Tabernero, Ma Dolores; González-Tablas, María; Otero, Alvaro; Orfao, Alberto; Medina, Jose M; Tabernero, Arantxa

    2017-08-08

    Connexin43 (CX43), a protein that forms gap junction channels and hemichannels in astrocytes, is downregulated in high-grade gliomas. Its relevance for glioma therapy has been thoroughly explored; however, its positive effects on proliferation are counterbalanced by its effects on migration and invasion. Here, we show that a cell-penetrating peptide based on CX43 (TAT-Cx43266-283) inhibited c-Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and upregulated phosphatase and tensin homolog in glioma stem cells (GSCs) derived from patients. Consequently, TAT-Cx43266-283 reduced GSC motility, as analyzed by time-lapse microscopy, and strongly reduced their invasive ability. Interestingly, we investigated the effects of TAT-Cx43266-283 on freshly removed surgical specimens as undissociated glioblastoma blocks, which revealed a dramatic reduction in the growth, migration, and survival of these cells. In conclusion, a region of CX43 (amino acids 266-283) exerts an important anti-tumor effect in patient-derived glioblastoma models that includes impairment of GSC migration and invasion. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Graft-versus-host disease reduces regulatory T-cell migration into the tumour tissue

    PubMed Central

    Dürr, Christoph; Follo, Marie; Idzko, Marco; Reichardt, Wilfried; Zeiser, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic principle of allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is based on an active donor immune system that eliminates host-derived tumour cells. We hypothesized that in addition to the alloantigen-driven anti-tumour response, disruption of the immunological microenvironment within the tumour is responsible for its elimination after allo-HCT. We observed that induction of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) significantly reduced the abundance of luc+ FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in the tumour tissue, which is indicative of impaired or over-ridden tumour recruitment signals towards Treg cells. Analysis of the intestines and liver revealed chemokines and purine nucleotides as candidates for attracting Treg to these sites of inflammation. Despite its expression on tissue-residing Treg cells, the chemokine receptor CCR3 was not critical for Treg-cell function following allo-HCT. Extracellular ATP can attract immune cells via P2Y2. P2Y2 was found to be expressed on Treg cells, and we found a partial reduction of GvHD prevention when P2Y2−/− rather than P2Y2+/+ Treg cells were given. Exogenous local inflammation reduced Treg-cell accumulation in the tumour, suggesting a potential clinical approach to prevent Treg-cell-mediated tumour escape. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GvHD-related inflammation reduced Treg-cell numbers at the tumour sites, which may in turn help to explain the observation that patients with GvHD have a lower risk of tumour relapse. PMID:22681312

  1. Diosgenin, a Steroidal Saponin, Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Human Prostate Cancer PC-3 Cells by Reducing Matrix Metalloproteinases Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pin-Shern; Shih, Yuan-Wei; Huang, Hsiang-Ching; Cheng, Hsing-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Background Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin obtained from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum), was found to exert anti-carcinogenic properties, such as inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells. However, the effect of diosgenin on cancer metastasis remains unclear. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of diosgenin on migration and invasion in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Methods and Principal Findings Diosgenin inhibited proliferation of PC-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. When treated with non-toxic doses of diosgenin, cell migration and invasion were markedly suppressed by in vitro wound healing assay and Boyden chamber invasion assay, respectively. Furthermore, diosgenin reduced the activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 by gelatin zymography assay. The mRNA level of MMP-2, -9, -7 and extracellular inducer of matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN) were also suppressed while tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) was increased by diosgenin. In addition, diosgenin abolished the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in PC-3 cells and tube formation of endothelial cells. Our immunoblotting assays indicated that diosgenin potently suppressed the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt, extracellular signal regulating kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In addition, diosgenin significantly decreased the nuclear level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), suggesting that diosgenin inhibited NF-κB activity. Conclusion/Significance The results suggested that diosgenin inhibited migration and invasion of PC-3 cells by reducing MMPs expression. It also inhibited ERK, JNK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways as well as NF-κB activity. These findings reveal new therapeutic potential for diosgenin in anti-metastatic therapy. PMID:21629786

  2. Tetraspanins in Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xupin; Zhang, Jiaping; Huang, Yuesheng

    2015-01-01

    Tetraspanins are a superfamily of small transmembrane proteins that are expressed in almost all eukaryotic cells. Through interacting with one another and with other membrane and intracellular proteins, tetraspanins regulate a wide range of proteins such as integrins, cell surface receptors, and signaling molecules, and thereby engage in diverse cellular processes ranging from cell adhesion and migration to proliferation and differentiation. In particular, tetraspanins modulate the function of proteins involved in all determining factors of cell migration including cell–cell adhesion, cell–ECM adhesion, cytoskeletal protrusion/contraction, and proteolytic ECM remodeling. We herein provide a brief overview of collective in vitro and in vivo studies of tetraspanins to illustrate their regulatory functions in the migration and trafficking of cancer cells, vascular endothelial cells, skin cells (keratinocytes and fibroblasts), and leukocytes. We also discuss the involvement of tetraspanins in various pathologic and remedial processes that rely on cell migration and their potential value as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26091149

  3. Cell migration, freshly squeezed.

    PubMed

    Welch, Matthew D

    2015-02-12

    Migrating cells exhibit distinct motility modes and can switch between modes based on chemical or physical cues. Liu et al. and Ruprecht et al. now describe how confinement and contractility influence motility mode plasticity and instigate a mode termed stable bleb migration in embryonic and tumor cells.

  4. Unripe Rubus coreanus Miquel suppresses migration and invasion of human prostate cancer cells by reducing matrix metalloproteinase expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yesl; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM) is used to promote prostate health and has been shown to have anti-oxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. However, the effects and mechanisms of RCM on prostate cancer metastasis remain unclear. PC-3 and DU 145 cells were treated with ethanol or water extract of unripe or ripe RCM and examined for cell invasion, migration, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity and expression. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt activities were examined. Unripe RCM extracts exerted significant inhibitory effects on cell migration, invasion, and MMPs activities. A significant reduction in MMPs activities by unripe RCM ethanol extract treatment (UE) was associated with reduction of MMPs expression and induction of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) expression. Furthermore, PI3K/Akt activity was diminished by UE treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that UE decreased metastatic potential of prostate cancer cells by reducing MMPs expression through the suppression of PI3K/Akt phosphorylation, thereby decreasing MMP activity and enhancing TIMPs expression.

  5. RAGE Expression in Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells Results in Myogenic Differentiation and Reduced Proliferation, Migration, Invasiveness, and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Riuzzi, Francesca; Sorci, Guglielmo; Donato, Rosario

    2007-01-01

    Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) by its ligand, HMGB1, stimulates myogenesis via a Cdc42-Rac1-MKK6-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In addition, functional inactivation of RAGE in myoblasts results in reduced myogenesis, increased proliferation, and tumor formation in vivo. We show here that TE671 rhabdomyosarcoma cells, which do not express RAGE, can be induced to differentiate on transfection with RAGE (TE671/RAGE cells) but not a signaling-deficient RAGE mutant (RAGEΔcyto) (TE671/RAGEΔcyto cells) via activation of a Cdc42-Rac1-MKK6-p38 pathway and that TE671/RAGE cell differentiation depends on RAGE engagement by HMGB1. TE671/RAGE cells also show p38-dependent inactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and c-Jun NH2 terminal protein kinase and reduced proliferation, migration, and invasiveness and increased apoptosis, volume, and adhesiveness in vitro; they also grow smaller tumors and show a lower tumor incidence in vivo compared with wild-type cells. Two other rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines that express RAGE, CCA and RMZ-RC2, show an inverse relationship between the level of RAGE expression and invasiveness in vitro and exhibit reduced myogenic potential and enhanced invasive properties in vitro when transfected with RAGEΔcyto. The rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines used here and C2C12 myoblasts express and release HMGB1, which activates RAGE in an autocrine manner. These data suggest that deregulation of RAGE expression in myoblasts might concur in rhabdomyosarcomagenesis and that increasing RAGE expression in rhabdomyosarcoma cells might reduce their tumor potential. PMID:17640970

  6. The chemokine receptor antagonist, TAK-779, decreased experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by reducing inflammatory cell migration into the central nervous system, without affecting T cell function.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jia; Zhu, Yi-Na; Zhong, Xiang-Gen; Ding, Yu; Hou, Li-Fei; Tong, Xian-Kun; Tang, Wei; Ono, Shiro; Yang, Yi-Fu; Zuo, Jian-Ping

    2009-12-01

    The C-C chemokine receptor CCR5, and the C-X-C chemokine receptor CXCR3 are involved in the regulation of T cell-mediated immune responses, and in the migration and activation of these cells. To determine whether blockade of these chemokine receptors modulated inflammatory responses in the central nervous sytem (CNS), we investigated the effect of a non-peptide chemokine receptor antagonist, TAK-779, in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced by immunization of C57BL/6 mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55. TAK-779 was injected s.c. once a day after immunization. Disease incidence and severity (over 3 weeks) were monitored by histopathological evaluation and FACS assay of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the spinal cord, polymerase chain reaction quantification of mRNA expression, assay of T cell proliferation, by [3H]-thymidine incorporation and cytokine production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with TAK-779 reduced incidence and severity of EAE. It strongly inhibited migration of CXCR3/CCR5 bearing CD4+, CD8+ and CD11b+ leukocytes to the CNS. TAK-779 did not reduce proliferation of anti-MOG T cells, the production of IFN-gamma by T cells or CXCR3 expression on T cells. In addition, TAK-779 did not affect production of IL-12 by antigen-presenting cells, CCR5 induction on T cells and the potential of MOG-specific T cells to transfer EAE. TAK-779 restricted the development of MOG-induced EAE. This effect involved reduced migration of inflammatory cells into the CNS without affecting responses of anti-MOG T cells or the ability of MOG-specific T cells to transfer EAE.

  7. The chemokine receptor antagonist, TAK-779, decreased experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by reducing inflammatory cell migration into the central nervous system, without affecting T cell function

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jia; Zhu, Yi-Na; Zhong, Xiang-Gen; Ding, Yu; Hou, Li-Fei; Tong, Xian-Kun; Tang, Wei; Ono, Shiro; Yang, Yi-Fu; Zuo, Jian-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The C–C chemokine receptor CCR5, and the C–X–C chemokine receptor CXCR3 are involved in the regulation of T cell-mediated immune responses, and in the migration and activation of these cells. To determine whether blockade of these chemokine receptors modulated inflammatory responses in the central nervous sytem (CNS), we investigated the effect of a non-peptide chemokine receptor antagonist, TAK-779, in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Experimental approach: EAE was induced by immunization of C57BL/6 mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35–55. TAK-779 was injected s.c. once a day after immunization. Disease incidence and severity (over 3 weeks) were monitored by histopathological evaluation and FACS assay of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the spinal cord, polymerase chain reaction quantification of mRNA expression, assay of T cell proliferation, by [3H]-thymidine incorporation and cytokine production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Key results: Treatment with TAK-779 reduced incidence and severity of EAE. It strongly inhibited migration of CXCR3/CCR5 bearing CD4+, CD8+ and CD11b+ leukocytes to the CNS. TAK-779 did not reduce proliferation of anti-MOG T cells, the production of IFN-γ by T cells or CXCR3 expression on T cells. In addition, TAK-779 did not affect production of IL-12 by antigen-presenting cells, CCR5 induction on T cells and the potential of MOG-specific T cells to transfer EAE. Conclusions and implications: TAK-779 restricted the development of MOG-induced EAE. This effect involved reduced migration of inflammatory cells into the CNS without affecting responses of anti-MOG T cells or the ability of MOG-specific T cells to transfer EAE. PMID:20050195

  8. 3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), an Inhibitor of the Histone Methyltransferase EZH2, Induces Apoptosis and Reduces Cell Migration in Chondrosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Nicolas; Bazille, Céline; Lhuissier, Eva; Benateau, Hervé; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio; Boumediene, Karim; Bauge, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objective Growing evidences indicate that the histone methyltransferase EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2) may be an appropriate therapeutic target in some tumors. Indeed, a high expression of EZH2 is correlated with poor prognosis and metastasis in many cancers. In addition, 3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), an S-adenosyl-L homocysteine hydrolase inhibitor which induces EZH2 protein depletion, leads to cell death in several cancers and tumors. The aim of this study was to determine whether an epigenetic therapy targeting EZH2 with DZNep may be also efficient to treat chondrosarcomas. Methods EZH2 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and western-blot. Chondrosarcoma cell line CH2879 was cultured in the presence of DZNep, and its growth and survival were evaluated by counting adherent cells periodically. Apoptosis was assayed by cell cycle analysis, Apo2.7 expression using flow cytometry, and by PARP cleavage using western-blot. Cell migration was assessed by wound healing assay. Results Chondrosarcomas (at least with high grade) highly express EZH2, at contrary to enchondromas or chondrocytes. In vitro, DZNep inhibits EZH2 protein expression, and subsequently reduces the trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3). Interestingly, DZNep induces cell death of chondrosarcoma cell lines by apoptosis, while it slightly reduces growth of normal chondrocytes. In addition, DZNep reduces cell migration. Conclusion These results indicate that an epigenetic therapy that pharmacologically targets EZH2 via DZNep may constitute a novel approach to treat chondrosarcomas. PMID:24852755

  9. Analysing immune cell migration.

    PubMed

    Beltman, Joost B; Marée, Athanasius F M; de Boer, Rob J

    2009-11-01

    The visualization of the dynamic behaviour of and interactions between immune cells using time-lapse video microscopy has an important role in modern immunology. To draw robust conclusions, quantification of such cell migration is required. However, imaging experiments are associated with various artefacts that can affect the estimated positions of the immune cells under analysis, which form the basis of any subsequent analysis. Here, we describe potential artefacts that could affect the interpretation of data sets on immune cell migration. We propose how these errors can be recognized and corrected, and suggest ways to prevent the data analysis itself leading to biased results.

  10. Maraviroc decreases CCL8-mediated migration of CCR5(+) regulatory T cells and reduces metastatic tumor growth in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, E C; Hamilton, M J; Young, A; Wadsworth, B J; LePard, N E; Lee, H N; Firmino, N; Collier, J L; Bennewith, K L

    2016-06-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial physiological role in the regulation of immune homeostasis, although recent data suggest Tregs can contribute to primary tumor growth by suppressing antitumor immune responses. Tregs may also influence the development of tumor metastases, although there is a paucity of information regarding the phenotype and function of Tregs in metastatic target organs. Herein, we demonstrate that orthotopically implanted metastatic mammary tumors induce significant Treg accumulation in the lungs, which is a site of mammary tumor metastasis. Tregs in the primary tumor and metastatic lungs express high levels of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) relative to Tregs in the mammary fat pad and lungs of tumor-free mice, and Tregs in the metastatic lungs are enriched for CCR5 expression in comparison to other immune cell populations. We also identify that C-C chemokine ligand 8 (CCL8), an endogenous ligand of CCR5, is produced by F4/80(+) macrophages in the lungs of mice with metastatic primary tumors. Migration of Tregs toward CCL8 ex vivo is reduced in the presence of the CCR5 inhibitor Maraviroc. Importantly, treatment of mice with Maraviroc (MVC) reduces the level of CCR5(+) Tregs and metastatic tumor burden in the lungs. This work provides evidence of a CCL8/CCR5 signaling axis driving Treg recruitment to the lungs of mice bearing metastatic primary tumors, representing a potential therapeutic target to decrease Treg accumulation and metastatic tumor growth.

  11. Maraviroc decreases CCL8-mediated migration of CCR5+ regulatory T cells and reduces metastatic tumor growth in the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Halvorsen, E. C.; Hamilton, M. J.; Young, A.; Wadsworth, B. J.; LePard, N. E.; Lee, H. N.; Firmino, N.; Collier, J. L.; Bennewith, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial physiological role in the regulation of immune homeostasis, although recent data suggest Tregs can contribute to primary tumor growth by suppressing antitumor immune responses. Tregs may also influence the development of tumor metastases, although there is a paucity of information regarding the phenotype and function of Tregs in metastatic target organs. Herein, we demonstrate that orthotopically implanted metastatic mammary tumors induce significant Treg accumulation in the lungs, which is a site of mammary tumor metastasis. Tregs in the primary tumor and metastatic lungs express high levels of C–C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) relative to Tregs in the mammary fat pad and lungs of tumor-free mice, and Tregs in the metastatic lungs are enriched for CCR5 expression in comparison to other immune cell populations. We also identify that C–C chemokine ligand 8 (CCL8), an endogenous ligand of CCR5, is produced by F4/80+ macrophages in the lungs of mice with metastatic primary tumors. Migration of Tregs toward CCL8 ex vivo is reduced in the presence of the CCR5 inhibitor Maraviroc. Importantly, treatment of mice with Maraviroc (MVC) reduces the level of CCR5+ Tregs and metastatic tumor burden in the lungs. This work provides evidence of a CCL8/CCR5 signaling axis driving Treg recruitment to the lungs of mice bearing metastatic primary tumors, representing a potential therapeutic target to decrease Treg accumulation and metastatic tumor growth. PMID:27471618

  12. Doxycycline reduces the migration of tuberous sclerosis complex-2 null cells - effects on RhoA-GTPase and focal adhesion kinase.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ho Yin; Oliver, Brian Gregory George; Burgess, Janette Kay; Krymskaya, Vera P; Black, Judith Lee; Moir, Lyn M

    2015-11-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is associated with dysfunction of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) leading to enhanced cell proliferation and migration. This study aims to examine whether doxycycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, can inhibit the enhanced migration of TSC2-deficient cells, identify signalling pathways through which doxycycline works and to assess the effectiveness of combining doxycycline with rapamycin (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitor) in controlling cell migration, proliferation and wound closure. TSC2-positive and TSC2-negative mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), 323-TSC2-positive and 323-TSC2-null MEF and Eker rat uterine leiomyoma (ELT3) cells were treated with doxycycline or rapamycin alone, or in combination. Migration, wound closure and proliferation were assessed using a transwell migration assay, time-lapse microscopy and manual cell counts respectively. RhoA-GTPase activity, phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in TSC2-negative MEF treated with doxycycline were examined using ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. The enhanced migration of TSC2-null cells was reduced by doxycycline at concentrations as low as 20 pM, while the rate of wound closure was reduced at 2-59 μM. Doxycycline decreased RhoA-GTPase activity and phosphorylation of FAK in these cells but had no effect on the phosphorylation of p70S6K, ERK1/2 or AKT. Combining doxycycline with rapamycin significantly reduced the rate of wound closure at lower concentrations than achieved with either drug alone. This study shows that doxycycline inhibits TSC2-null cell migration. Thus doxycycline has potential as an anti-migratory agent in the treatment of diseases with TSC2 dysfunction.

  13. Reduced expression of the chromatin remodeling gene ARID1A enhances gastric cancer cell migration and invasion via downregulation of E-cadherin transcription.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hai-Bo; Wang, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Qian; Tang, Zhao-Qing; Jiang, Ying-Hua; Fan, Hui-Zhi; Sun, Yi-hong; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Feng

    2014-04-01

    The chromatin remodeling gene AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A (ARID1A) encodes the protein BAF250a, a subunit of human SWI/SNF-related complexes. Recent studies have identified ARID1A as a tumor suppressor. Here, we show that ARID1A expression is reduced in gastric cancer (GC) tissues, which are significantly associated with local lymph node metastasis, tumor infiltration and poor patient prognosis. ARID1A silencing enforces the migration and invasion of GC cells, whereas ectopic expression of ARID1A inhibits migration. The adhesive protein E-cadherin is remarkably downregulated in response to ARID1A silencing, but it is upregulated by ARID1A overexpression. E-cadherin overexpression significantly inhibits GC cell migration and invasion, whereas CDH1 (coded E-cadherin) silencing promotes migration. Restored expression of CDH1 in ARID1A-silenced cell lines restores the inhibition of cell migration. Luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation indicate that the ARID1A-associated SWI/SNF complex binds to the CDH1 promoter and modulates CDH1 transcription. ARID1A knockdown induces evident morphological changes of GC cells with increased expression of mesenchymal markers, indicating an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. ARID1A silencing does not alter the level of β-catenin but induces a subcellular redistribution of β-catenin from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm and nucleus. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that reduced expression of E-cadherin is associated with local lymph node metastasis, tumor infiltration and poor clinical prognosis. ARID1A and E-cadherin expression show a strong correlation in 75.4% of the analyzed GC tissues. They are synergistically downregulated in 23.5% of analyzed GC tissues. In conclusion, ARID1A targets E-cadherin during the modulation of GC cell migration and invasion.

  14. Caffeic acid reduces the viability and migration rate of oral carcinoma cells (SCC-25) exposed to low concentrations of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Arkadiusz; Kubina, Robert; Kabała-Dzik, Agata; Wojtyczka, Robert D; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Bułdak, Rafał J

    2014-10-17

    Alcohol increases the risk of carcinoma originated from oral epithelium, but the biological effects of ultra-low doses of ethanol on existing carcinoma cells in combination with natural substances are still unclear. A role for ethanol (EtOH), taken in small amounts as an ingredient of some beverages or mouthwashes to change the growth behavior of established squamous cell carcinoma, has still not been examined sufficiently. We designed an in vitro study to determine the effect of caffeic acid (CFA) on viability and migration ability of malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes, exposed to ultra-low concentrations (maximum 100 mmol/L) EtOH. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assays were used to assess the cytotoxic effect of EtOH/CFA and the viability of squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells (ATCC CRL-1628, mobile part of the tongue). Tested EtOH concentrations were: 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/L, along with an equal CFA concentration of 50 μmol/L. Carcinoma cells' migration was investigated by monolayer "wound" healing assay. We demonstrated that very low concentrations of EtOH ranging between 2.5 and 10 mmol/L may induce the viability of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, while the results following addition of CFA reveal an antagonistic effect, attenuating pro-proliferative EtOH activity. The migration rate of oral squamous carcinoma cells can be significantly inhibited by the biological activity of caffeic acid.

  15. Caffeic Acid Reduces the Viability and Migration Rate of Oral Carcinoma Cells (SCC-25) Exposed to Low Concentrations of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Arkadiusz; Kubina, Robert; Kabała-Dzik, Agata; Wojtyczka, Robert D.; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Bułdak, Rafał J.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol increases the risk of carcinoma originated from oral epithelium, but the biological effects of ultra-low doses of ethanol on existing carcinoma cells in combination with natural substances are still unclear. A role for ethanol (EtOH), taken in small amounts as an ingredient of some beverages or mouthwashes to change the growth behavior of established squamous cell carcinoma, has still not been examined sufficiently. We designed an in vitro study to determine the effect of caffeic acid (CFA) on viability and migration ability of malignant oral epithelial keratinocytes, exposed to ultra-low concentrations (maximum 100 mmol/L) EtOH. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) assays were used to assess the cytotoxic effect of EtOH/CFA and the viability of squamous carcinoma SCC-25 cells (ATCC CRL-1628, mobile part of the tongue). Tested EtOH concentrations were: 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mmol/L, along with an equal CFA concentration of 50 μmol/L. Carcinoma cells’ migration was investigated by monolayer “wound” healing assay. We demonstrated that very low concentrations of EtOH ranging between 2.5 and 10 mmol/L may induce the viability of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, while the results following addition of CFA reveal an antagonistic effect, attenuating pro-proliferative EtOH activity. The migration rate of oral squamous carcinoma cells can be significantly inhibited by the biological activity of caffeic acid. PMID:25329614

  16. Fluctuation of ROS regulates proliferation and mediates inhibition of migration by reducing the interaction between DLC1 and CAV-1 in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingwu; Zhu, Wenzhen; Zheng, Zhaodi; Chai, Rongfei; Ji, Shuhua; Ren, Guanghui; Liu, Tingting; Liu, Zhaojun; Song, Taiyu; Li, Fenglin; Liu, Shan; Li, Guorong

    2017-01-27

    The aim of our present study was to elucidate the effects of up-regulation and down-regulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level on proliferation, migration, and related molecular mechanism. Breast cancer cells were treated by catalase or H2O2. MTT, colony formation assay, and Hoechst/PI staining were used to evaluate proliferation and apoptosis. The level of intracellular ROS was measured by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate probes. The ability of migration was detected by wound healing. Western blotting and coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) were used to determine the expression of DLC1 and CAV-1 and their interaction. Our data indicated that up-regulation of intracellular ROS induced by H2O2 significantly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis accompanying G1 cell cycle arrest and elevated expression of p53. For cell migration, either up-regulation or down-regulation of ROS induced migration inhibition with reduction of interaction between DLC1 and CAV-1. Our results suggested that up-regulation of intracellular ROS inhibited proliferation by promoting expression of p53 and induced G1 cycle arrest and apoptosis. Fluctuation of ROS inhibited migration through reducing the interaction between DLC1 and CAV-1.

  17. Ivabradine Reduces Chemokine-Induced CD4-Positive Lymphocyte Migration

    PubMed Central

    Walcher, Thomas; Bernhardt, Peter; Vasic, Dusica; Bach, Helga; Durst, Renate; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Walcher, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Aims. Migration of CD4-positive lymphocytes into the vessel wall is a critical step in atherogenesis. Recent data suggest that ivabradine, a selective I(f)-channel blocker, reduces atherosclerotic plaque formation in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, hitherto nothing is known about the mechanism by which ivabradine modulates plaque formation. Therefore, the present study investigated whether ivabradine regulates chemokine-induced migration of lymphocytes. Methods and results. Stimulation of CD4-positive lymphocytes with SDF-1 leads to a 2.0 ± 0.1 fold increase in cell migration (P < .01; n = 7). Pretreatment of cells with ivabradine reduces this effect to a maximal 1.2 ± 0.1 fold induction at 0.1 µmol/L ivabradine (P < .01 compared to SDF-1-treated cells, n = 7). The effect of ivabradine on CD4-positive lymphocyte migration was mediated through an early inhibition of chemokine-induced PI-3 kinase activity as determined by PI-3 kinase activity assays. Downstream, ivabradine inhibits activation of the small GTPase Rac and phosphorylation of the Myosin Light Chain (MLC). Moreover, ivabradine treatment reduces f-actin formation as well as ICAM3 translocation to the uropod of the cell, thus interfering with two important steps in T cell migration. Conclusion. Ivabradine inhibits chemokine-induced migration of CD4-positive lymphocytes. Given the crucial importance of chemokine-induced T-cell migration in early atherogenesis, ivabradine may be a promising tool to modulate this effect. PMID:21188276

  18. BAG-1 enhances cell-cell adhesion, reduces proliferation and induces chaperone-independent suppression of hepatocyte growth factor-induced epidermal keratinocyte migration

    SciTech Connect

    Hinitt, C.A.M.; Wood, J.; Lee, S.S.; Williams, A.C.; Howarth, J.L.; Glover, C.P.; Uney, J.B.; Hague, A.

    2010-08-01

    Cell motility is important in maintaining tissue homeostasis, facilitating epithelial wound repair and in tumour formation and progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether BAG-1 isoforms regulate epidermal cell migration in in vitro models of wound healing. In the human epidermal cell line HaCaT, endogenous BAG-1 is primarily nuclear and increases with confluence. Both transient and stable p36-Bag-1 overexpression resulted in increased cellular cohesion. Stable transfection of either of the three human BAG-1 isoforms p36-Bag-1 (BAG-1S), p46-Bag-1 (BAG-1M) and p50-Bag-1 (BAG-1L) inhibited growth and wound closure in serum-containing medium. However, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in serum-free medium, BAG-1S/M reduced communal motility and colony scattering, but BAG-1L did not. In the presence of HGF, p36-Bag-1 transfectants retained proliferative response to HGF with no change in ERK1/2 activation. However, the cells retained E-cadherin localisation at cell-cell junctions and exhibited pronounced cortical actin. Point mutations in the BAG domain showed that BAG-1 inhibition of motility is independent of its function as a chaperone regulator. These findings are the first to suggest that BAG-1 plays a role in regulating cell-cell adhesion and suggest an important function in epidermal cohesion.

  19. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor PF-3845 reduces viability, migration and invasiveness of human colon adenocarcinoma Colo-205 cell line: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wasilewski, Andrzej; Krajewska, Urszula; Owczarek, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Urszula; Fichna, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Earlier reports suggest that the endocannabinoids may play a role of endogenous tumor growth modulators. In this study, we investigated whether inhibition of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids may reduce colorectal cancer cell invasion and migration. The human colon adenocarcinoma Colo-205 cells were incubated with PF-3845, JZL-184 and RHC-80267 (fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), mono- (MAGL) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) inhibitors, respectively) for 48 h. The MTT colorimetric assay was performed to quantify cell viability. Next, Colo-205 cells were incubated with PF-3845 alone or with PF-3845 together with selected antagonists: AM 251, AM 630, SB 366791, RN 1734 and G-15 (CB1, CB2, TRPV1, TRPV4 and GPR30 antagonists, respectively). Western blot assay was applied to identify the changes in CB1 and CB2 receptor expression. Migration and invasion assays were employed to characterize the effect of PF-3845 on colorectal cancer cell invasion. We found that of all the inhibitors used, the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 reduced the Colo-205 cell line viability the most effectively (IC50=52.55 μM). We also showed that the effect of decreased cell viability was enhanced when Colo-205 cells were incubated with PF-3845 and RN-1734, a TRPV4 antagonist (IC50=30.54 μM). Western blot assay revealed significantly decreased CB1 receptor expression levels, while CB2 expression was increased in response to PF-3845 when compared to control. Furthermore, PF-3845 inhibited migration and invasion of Colo-205 cell line. These results suggest that pharmacological inhibition of FAAH and consequent enhancement of the endocannabinoid levels may reduce the colorectal cancer growth and progression.

  20. Collective cell migration in development

    PubMed Central

    Scarpa, Elena

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development, tissues undergo major rearrangements that lead to germ layer positioning, patterning, and organ morphogenesis. Often these morphogenetic movements are accomplished by the coordinated and cooperative migration of the constituent cells, referred to as collective cell migration. The molecular and biomechanical mechanisms underlying collective migration of developing tissues have been investigated in a variety of models, including border cell migration, tracheal branching, blood vessel sprouting, and the migration of the lateral line primordium, neural crest cells, or head mesendoderm. Here we review recent advances in understanding collective migration in these developmental models, focusing on the interaction between cells and guidance cues presented by the microenvironment and on the role of cell–cell adhesion in mechanical and behavioral coupling of cells within the collective. PMID:26783298

  1. DDR2 inhibition reduces migration and invasion of murine metastatic melanoma cells by suppressing MMP2/9 expression through ERK/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Poudel, Barun; Lee, Young-Mi; Kim, Dae-Ki

    2015-04-01

    Metastatic melanoma is one of the most deadly and evasive cancers. Collagen I in the extracellular matrix promotes the migration and invasion of tumor cells through the production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9. Discoidin domain receptor (DDR) 2 is a collagen receptor that is implicated in several cancer types including breast and prostate cancers. However, the role of DDR2 in the migration and invasion of murine melanoma cells is less studied. In the present study, we investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of DDR2 in migration and invasion of B16BL6 melanoma cells in response to collagen I. Results demonstrated that DDR2 is expressed and is phosphorylated by collagen I in the cells. Upon down-regulation of DDR2 using small-interfering RNA (siRNA) approach, both of the cell migratory and invasive phenotypes were significantly attenuated when compared with the control cells. This effect was mediated via suppression of MMP2/9 upon DDR2 inhibition. Furthermore, inhibition of DDR2 by specific siRNA markedly reduced the activation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 and nuclear factor of kappa B (NF-κB) in the cells when compared with the control cells. Overall, these data demonstrated that DDR2 siRNA-mediated suppression of ERK1/2 and NF-κB could down-regulate the expressions of MMP2/9 in response to collagen I to reduce the migratory and invasive phenotypes of the cells.

  2. Substrate curvature regulates cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiuxiu; Jiang, Yi

    2017-06-01

    Cell migration is essential in many aspects of biology. Many basic migration processes, including adhesion, membrane protrusion and tension, cytoskeletal polymerization, and contraction, have to act in concert to regulate cell migration. At the same time, substrate topography modulates these processes. In this work, we study how substrate curvature at micrometer scale regulates cell motility. We have developed a 3D mechanical model of single cell migration and simulated migration on curved substrates with different curvatures. The simulation results show that cell migration is more persistent on concave surfaces than on convex surfaces. We have further calculated analytically the cell shape and protrusion force for cells on curved substrates. We have shown that while cells spread out more on convex surfaces than on concave ones, the protrusion force magnitude in the direction of migration is larger on concave surfaces than on convex ones. These results offer a novel biomechanical explanation to substrate curvature regulation of cell migration: geometric constrains bias the direction of the protrusion force and facilitates persistent migration on concave surfaces.

  3. Substrate curvature regulates cell migration.

    PubMed

    He, Xiuxiu; Jiang, Yi

    2017-05-23

    Cell migration is essential in many aspects of biology. Many basic migration processes, including adhesion, membrane protrusion and tension, cytoskeletal polymerization, and contraction, have to act in concert to regulate cell migration. At the same time, substrate topography modulates these processes. In this work, we study how substrate curvature at micrometer scale regulates cell motility. We have developed a 3D mechanical model of single cell migration and simulated migration on curved substrates with different curvatures. The simulation results show that cell migration is more persistent on concave surfaces than on convex surfaces. We have further calculated analytically the cell shape and protrusion force for cells on curved substrates. We have shown that while cells spread out more on convex surfaces than on concave ones, the protrusion force magnitude in the direction of migration is larger on concave surfaces than on convex ones. These results offer a novel biomechanical explanation to substrate curvature regulation of cell migration: geometric constrains bias the direction of the protrusion force and facilitates persistent migration on concave surfaces.

  4. GATA1-Deficient Dendritic Cells Display Impaired CCL21-Dependent Migration toward Lymph Nodes Due to Reduced Levels of Polysialic Acid.

    PubMed

    Scheenstra, Maaike R; De Cuyper, Iris M; Branco-Madeira, Filipe; de Bleser, Pieter; Kool, Mirjam; Meinders, Marjolein; Hoogenboezem, Mark; Mul, Erik; Wolkers, Monika C; Salerno, Fiamma; Nota, Benjamin; Saeys, Yvan; Klarenbeek, Sjoerd; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Hammad, Hamida; Philipsen, Sjaak; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W; Lambrecht, Bart N; Gutiérrez, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the regulation of the immune response. DC development and activation is finely orchestrated through transcriptional programs. GATA1 transcription factor is required for murine DC development, and data suggest that it might be involved in the fine-tuning of the life span and function of activated DCs. We generated DC-specific Gata1 knockout mice (Gata1-KO(DC)), which presented a 20% reduction of splenic DCs, partially explained by enhanced apoptosis. RNA sequencing analysis revealed a number of deregulated genes involved in cell survival, migration, and function. DC migration toward peripheral lymph nodes was impaired in Gata1-KO(DC) mice. Migration assays performed in vitro showed that this defect was selective for CCL21, but not CCL19. Interestingly, we show that Gata1-KO(DC) DCs have reduced polysialic acid levels on their surface, which is a known determinant for the proper migration of DCs toward CCL21.

  5. Purinergic A2b Receptor Activation by Extracellular Cues Affects Positioning of the Centrosome and Nucleus and Causes Reduced Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Ou, Young; Chan, Gordon; Zuo, Jeremy; Rattner, Jerome B; van der Hoorn, Frans A

    2016-07-15

    The tight, relative positioning of the nucleus and centrosome in mammalian cells is important for the regulation of cell migration. Under pathophysiological conditions, the purinergic A2b receptor can regulate cell motility, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Expression of A2b, normally low, is increased in tissues experiencing adverse physiological conditions, including hypoxia and inflammation. ATP is released from such cells. We investigated whether extracellular cues can regulate centrosome-nucleus positioning and cell migration. We discovered that hypoxia as well as extracellular ATP cause a reversible increase in the distance between the centrosome and nucleus and reduced cell motility. We uncovered the underlying pathway: both treatments act through the A2b receptor and specifically activate the Epac1/RapGef3 pathway. We show that cells lacking A2b do not respond in this manner to hypoxia or ATP but transfection of A2b restores this response, that Epac1 is critically involved, and that Rap1B is important for the relative positioning of the centrosome and nucleus. Our results represent, to our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that pathophysiological conditions can impact the distance between the centrosome and nucleus. Furthermore, we identify the A2b receptor as a central player in this process. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Purinergic A2b Receptor Activation by Extracellular Cues Affects Positioning of the Centrosome and Nucleus and Causes Reduced Cell Migration*

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Young; Chan, Gordon; Zuo, Jeremy; Rattner, Jerome B.; van der Hoorn, Frans A.

    2016-01-01

    The tight, relative positioning of the nucleus and centrosome in mammalian cells is important for the regulation of cell migration. Under pathophysiological conditions, the purinergic A2b receptor can regulate cell motility, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Expression of A2b, normally low, is increased in tissues experiencing adverse physiological conditions, including hypoxia and inflammation. ATP is released from such cells. We investigated whether extracellular cues can regulate centrosome-nucleus positioning and cell migration. We discovered that hypoxia as well as extracellular ATP cause a reversible increase in the distance between the centrosome and nucleus and reduced cell motility. We uncovered the underlying pathway: both treatments act through the A2b receptor and specifically activate the Epac1/RapGef3 pathway. We show that cells lacking A2b do not respond in this manner to hypoxia or ATP but transfection of A2b restores this response, that Epac1 is critically involved, and that Rap1B is important for the relative positioning of the centrosome and nucleus. Our results represent, to our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that pathophysiological conditions can impact the distance between the centrosome and nucleus. Furthermore, we identify the A2b receptor as a central player in this process. PMID:27226580

  7. Cell migration in the forebrain.

    PubMed

    Marín, Oscar; Rubenstein, John L R

    2003-01-01

    The forebrain comprises an intricate set of structures that are required for some of the most complex and evolved functions of the mammalian brain. As a reflection of its complexity, cell migration in the forebrain is extremely elaborated, with widespread dispersion of cells across multiple functionally distinct areas. Two general modes of migration are distinguished in the forebrain: radial migration, which establishes the general cytoarchitectonical framework of the different forebrain subdivisions; and tangential migration, which increases the cellular complexity of forebrain circuits by allowing the dispersion of multiple neuronal types. Here, we review the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying each of these types of migrations and discuss how emerging concepts in neuronal migration are reshaping our understanding of forebrain development in normal and pathological situations.

  8. High GPX1 expression promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma invasion, migration, proliferation and cisplatin-resistance but can be reduced by vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xiangfeng; Chen, Baishen; Shen, Zhuojian; Liu, Yeqing; Li, Haifeng; Xie, Xuan; Xu, Xia; Li, Haigang; Huang, Zhiquan; Chen, Ju

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Despite recent progress in the development of novel therapies, esophageal carcinoma remains an aggressive cancer associated with a poor prognosis. The glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) gene located on chromosome 3p21.3 is associated with the cancer of several organs. According to available information, GPX1, a gene downstream of NF-κB, is considered to exert adverse effects on tumour progression and enhance malignancy in some cancers but has not been reported in esophageal cancer. It is also reported that vitamin D (Vit. D), a widely used drug in the clinical setting, could suppress GPX1 expression through the NF-κB pathway. Thus, it is speculated that Vit. D could reduce malignancy in esophageal cancer by altering the NF-κB pathway. In this study, we confirmed our speculation by finding that Vit. D, through the inhibition of GPX1, decreased the migratory, invasive and proliferative capabilities, as well as cisplatin resistance, in esophageal cancer cells. Furthermore, when invasion and migration were reduced in the GPX1-inhibited cells, the expression of urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) was also suppressed correspondingly. Therefore, we believe that, in esophageal cancer cells, the expression of GPX1 can promote invasion, migration, proliferation and cisplatin resistance, and Vit. D can reduce the associated malignancy through the NF-κB pathway. The Vit. D- and NF-κB-mediated decrease in GPX1 expression resulted in a decrease in MMP2- and uPA-mediated invasion and migration.

  9. TALEN-induced disruption of Nanog expression results in reduced proliferation, invasiveness and migration, increased chemosensitivity and reversal of EMT in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ai Qing; Ding, Yan; Li, Cheng Lin; Yang, Yi; Yan, Shi Rong; Li, Dong Sheng

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that Nanog plays a central role in modulating the biological behaviors of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we employed transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) to disrupt Nanog expression in HepG2 cells and obtained subcloned cells with diallelic Nanog mutations. Significantly, we found that the expression of pluripotency factors Sox2, Oct4 and Klf4, as well as expression of cancer stem cell (CSC) marker CD133, in the Nanog-targeted HepG2 cells was markedly downregulated. This finding suggests that Nanog may play an important role in maintaining the pluripotency and malignancy of HepG2 cells. We also revealed that Nanog regulated cell proliferation by modulating the expression of cyclin D1/D3/E1 and CDK2, respectively. Additionally, the disruption of Nanog resulted in the downregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulators Snail and Twist, which contributed to the elevated level of epithelial marker E-cadherin, and to the decreased level of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin in the HepG2 cells. In addition, the Nanog-targeted HepG2 cells exhibited reduced ability of invasion, migration and chemoresistance in vitro. In conclusion, the disruption of Nanog expression results in less proliferation, invasiveness, migration, more chemosensitivity and reversal of EMT in HepG2 cells, by which Nanog plays crucial roles in influencing the malignant phenotype of HepG2 cells.

  10. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-G protein-coupled receptor-expressing endothelial cells exhibit reduced migration and stimulated chemotaxis by chemokine inverse agonists.

    PubMed

    Couty, Jean-Pierre; Lupu-Meiri, Monica; Oron, Yoram; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2009-06-01

    A constitutively active G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus-8) (KSHV) is expressed in endothelial (spindle) cells of Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. In this study, we report novel effects of basal signaling by this receptor and of inverse agonist chemokines on migration of KSHV-GPCR-expressing mouse lung endothelial cells. We show that basal signaling by KSHV-GPCR inhibits migration of endothelial cells in two systems, movement through porous filters and in vitro wound closure. Naturally occurring chemokines, interferon gamma-inducible protein-10 and stromal-derived factor-1, which act as inverse agonists at KSHV-GPCR, abrogate the inhibition of migration and stimulate directed migration (or chemotaxis) of these cells. Thus, the expression of KSHV-GPCR may allow infected endothelial cells in situ to remain in a localized environment or to directionally migrate along a gradient of specific chemokines that are inverse agonists at KSHV-GPCR.

  11. Beta-Adrenoceptor Activation Reduces Both Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cell Migration via a cAMP-Dependent Mechanism and Wound Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, Andrew P; Fox, James M; Pullar, Christine E

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process during tissue regeneration; however, the amount of angiogenesis directly correlates with the level of wound scarring. Angiogenesis is lower in scar-free foetal wounds while angiogenesis is raised and abnormal in pathophysiological scarring such as hypertrophic scars and keloids. Delineating the mechanisms that modulate angiogenesis and could reduce scarring would be clinically useful. Beta-adrenoceptors (β-AR) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed on all skin cell-types. They play a role in wound repair but their specific role in angiogenesis is unknown. In this study, a range of in vitro assays (single cell migration, scratch wound healing, ELISAs for angiogenic growth factors and tubule formation) were performed with human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) to investigate and dissect mechanisms underpinning β-AR-mediated modulation of angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) and murine excisional skin wounds. β-AR activation reduced HDMEC migration via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent and protein kinase A (PKA)-independent mechanisms as demonstrated through use of an EPAC agonist that auto-inhibited the cAMP-mediated β-AR transduced reduction in HDMEC motility; a PKA inhibitor was, conversely, ineffective. ELISA studies demonstrated that β-AR activation reduced pro-angiogenic growth factor secretion from HDMECs (fibroblast growth factor 2) and keratinocytes (vascular endothelial growth factor A) revealing possible β-AR-mediated autocrine and paracrine anti-angiogenic mechanisms. In more complex environments, β-AR activation delayed HDMEC tubule formation and decreased angiogenesis both in the CAM assay and in murine excisional skin wounds in vivo. β-AR activation reduced HDMEC function in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo; therefore, β-AR agonists could be promising anti-angiogenic modulators in skin. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 356–365, 2015. © 2014 The Authors. Journal

  12. Inhibition of mTOR down-regulates scavenger receptor, class B, type I (SR-BI) expression, reduces endothelial cell migration and impairs nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Krieger, Sigurd; Winter, Katharina; Rosner, Margit; Mikula, Mario; Weichhart, Thomas; Bittman, Robert; Hengstschläger, Markus; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-07-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibiting drug rapamycin (Sirolimus) has severe side effects in patients including hyperlipidemia, an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. Recently, it was shown that rapamycin decreases hepatic LDL receptor (LDL-R) expression, which likely contributes to hypercholesterolemia. Scavenger receptor, class B, type I (SR-BI) is the major HDL receptor and consequently regulating HDL-cholesterol levels and the athero-protective effects of HDL. By using the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, we show that SR-BI is down-regulated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This reduction of SR-BI protein as well as mRNA levels by about 50% did not alter HDL particle uptake or HDL-derived lipid transfer. However, rapamycin reduced HDL-induced activation of eNOS and stimulation of endothelial cell migration. The effects on cell migration could be counteracted by SR-BI overexpression, indicating that decreased SR-BI expression is in part responsible for the rapamycin-induced effects. We demonstrate that inhibition of mTOR leads to endothelial cell dysfunction and decreased SR-BI expression, which may contribute to atherogenesis during rapamycin treatment.

  13. Can mesenchymal cells undergo collective cell migration?

    PubMed Central

    Theveneau, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Cell migration is critical for proper development of the embryo and is also used by many cell types to perform their physiological function. For instance, cell migration is essential for immune cells to monitor the body and for epithelial cells to heal a wound whereas, in cancer cells, acquisition of migratory capabilities is a critical step toward malignancy. Migratory cells are often categorized into two groups: (1) mesenchymal cells, produced by an epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition, that undergo solitary migration and (2) epithelial-like cells which migrate collectively. However, on some occasions, mesenchymal cells may travel in large, dense groups and exhibit key features of collectively migrating cells such as coordination and cooperation. Here, using data published on neural crest cells, a highly invasive mesenchymal cell population that extensively migrate throughout the embryo, we explore the idea that mesenchymal cells, including cancer cells, might be able to undergo collective cell migration under certain conditions and discuss how they could do so. PMID:22274714

  14. Beta-Adrenoceptor Activation Reduces Both Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cell Migration via a cAMP-Dependent Mechanism and Wound Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Andrew P; Fox, James M; Pullar, Christine E

    2015-02-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process during tissue regeneration; however, the amount of angiogenesis directly correlates with the level of wound scarring. Angiogenesis is lower in scar-free foetal wounds while angiogenesis is raised and abnormal in pathophysiological scarring such as hypertrophic scars and keloids. Delineating the mechanisms that modulate angiogenesis and could reduce scarring would be clinically useful. Beta-adrenoceptors (β-AR) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed on all skin cell-types. They play a role in wound repair but their specific role in angiogenesis is unknown. In this study, a range of in vitro assays (single cell migration, scratch wound healing, ELISAs for angiogenic growth factors and tubule formation) were performed with human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) to investigate and dissect mechanisms underpinning β-AR-mediated modulation of angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) and murine excisional skin wounds. β-AR activation reduced HDMEC migration via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent and protein kinase A (PKA)-independent mechanisms as demonstrated through use of an EPAC agonist that auto-inhibited the cAMP-mediated β-AR transduced reduction in HDMEC motility; a PKA inhibitor was, conversely, ineffective. ELISA studies demonstrated that β-AR activation reduced pro-angiogenic growth factor secretion from HDMECs (fibroblast growth factor 2) and keratinocytes (vascular endothelial growth factor A) revealing possible β-AR-mediated autocrine and paracrine anti-angiogenic mechanisms. In more complex environments, β-AR activation delayed HDMEC tubule formation and decreased angiogenesis both in the CAM assay and in murine excisional skin wounds in vivo. β-AR activation reduced HDMEC function in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo; therefore, β-AR agonists could be promising anti-angiogenic modulators in skin. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by

  15. Down-Regulation of ClC-3 Expression Reduces Epidermal Stem Cell Migration by Inhibiting Volume-Activated Chloride Currents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Pan, Fuqiang; Tian, Yanping; Li, Hongli; Li, Shirong; Cao, Chuan

    2016-06-01

    ClC-3, a member of the ClC chloride (Cl(-)) channel family, has recently been proposed as the primary Cl(-) channel involved in cell volume regulation. Changes in cell volume influence excitability, contraction, migration, pathogen-host interactions, cell proliferation, and cell death processes. In this study, expression and function of ClC-3 channels were investigated during epidermal stem cell (ESC) migration. We observed differential expression of CLC-3 regulates migration of ESCs. Further, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and image analysis demonstrated ClC-3 expression affected volume-activated Cl(-) current (I Cl,Vol) within ESCs. Live cell imaging systems, designed to observe cellular responses to overexpression and suppression of ClC-3 in real time, indicated ClC-3 may regulate ESC migratory dynamics. We employed IMARIS software to analyze the velocity and distance of ESC migration in vitro to demonstrate the function of ClC-3 channel in ESCs. As our data suggest volume-activated Cl(-) channels play a vital role in migration of ESCs, which contribute to skin repair by migrating from neighboring unwounded epidermis infundibulum, hair follicle or sebaceous glands, ClC-3 may represent a new and valuable target for stem cell therapies.

  16. Knockdown of BC200 RNA expression reduces cell migration and invasion by destabilizing mRNA for calcium-binding protein S100A11.

    PubMed

    Shin, Heegwon; Lee, Jungmin; Kim, Youngmi; Jang, Seonghui; Lee, Yunhee; Kim, Semi; Lee, Younghoon

    2017-03-01

    Although BC200 RNA is best known as a neuron-specific non-coding RNA, it is overexpressed in various cancer cells. BC200 RNA was recently shown to contribute to metastasis in several cancer cell lines, but the underlying mechanism was not understood in detail. To examine this mechanism, we knocked down BC200 RNA in cancer cells, which overexpress the RNA, and examined cell motility, profiling of ribosome footprints, and the correlation between cell motility changes and genes exhibiting altered ribosome profiles. We found that BC200 RNA knockdown reduced cell migration and invasion, suggesting that BC200 RNA promotes cell motility. Our ribosome profiling analysis identified 29 genes whose ribosomal occupations were altered more than 2-fold by BC200 RNA knockdown. Many (> 30%) of them were directly or indirectly related to cancer progression. Among them, we focused on S100A11 (which showed a reduced ribosome footprint) because its expression was previously shown to increase cellular motility. S100A11 was decreased at both the mRNA and protein levels following knockdown of BC200 RNA. An actinomycin-chase experiment showed that BC200 RNA knockdown significantly decreased the stability of the S100A11 mRNA without changing its transcription rate, suggesting that the down-regulation of S100A11 was mainly caused by destabilization of its mRNA. Finally, we showed that the BC200 RNA-knockdown-induced decrease in cell motility was mainly mediated by S100A11. Together, our results show that BC200 RNA promotes cell motility by stabilizing S100A11 transcripts.

  17. Plakoglobin Reduces the in vitro Growth, Migration and Invasion of Ovarian Cancer Cells Expressing N-Cadherin and Mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Alaee, Mahsa; Danesh, Ghazal; Pasdar, Manijeh

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of cadherins and catenins plays pivotal roles in ovarian cancer development and progression. Plakoglobin (PG, γ-catenin) is a paralog of β-catenin with dual adhesive and signaling functions. While β-catenin has known oncogenic function, PG generally acts as a tumor/metastasis suppressor. We recently showed that PG interacted with p53 and that its growth/metastasis inhibitory function may be mediated by this interaction. Very little is known about the role of PG in ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated the in vitro tumor/metastasis suppressor effects of PG in ovarian cancer cell lines with mutant p53 expression and different cadherin profiles. We showed that the N-cadherin expressing and E-cadherin and PG deficient ES-2 cells were highly migratory and invasive, whereas OV-90 cells that express E-cadherin, PG and very little/no N-cadherin were not. Exogenous expression of PG or E-cadherin or N-cadherin knockdown in ES-2 cells (ES-2-E-cad, ES-2-PG and ES-2-shN-cad) significantly reduced their migration and invasion. Also, PG expression or N-cadherin knockdown significantly decreased ES-2 cells growth. Furthermore, PG interacted with both cadherins and with wild type and mutant p53 in normal ovarian and ES-2-PG cell lines, respectively. PMID:27144941

  18. Olive oil compounds inhibit the paracrine regulation of TNF-α-induced endothelial cell migration through reduced glioblastoma cell cyclooxygenase-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Sylvie; Ben Saad, Aroua; Zgheib, Alain; Annabi, Borhane

    2016-01-01

    The established causal relationship between the chronic inflammatory microenvironment, tumor development and cancer recurrence has provided leads for developing novel preventive strategies. Accumulating experimental, clinical and epidemiological data has provided support for the chemopreventive properties of olive oil compounds traditionally found within the Mediterranean diet. In this study, we investigated whether tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein and oleic acid (OA), four compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil, can prevent tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (an inflammation biomarker) in a human glioblastoma cell (U-87 MG) model. We found that Tyr and OA significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced COX-2 gene and protein expression, as well as PGE2 secretion. Both compounds also inhibited TNF-α-induced JNK and ERK phosphorylation, whereas only Tyr inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB phosphorylation. Paracrine-regulated migration of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) was assessed using growth factor-enriched conditioned media (CM) isolated from U-87 MG cells. We found that while PGE2 triggered HBMEC migration, the CM isolated from U-87 MG cells, where either COX-2 or NF-κB had been silenced or had been treated with Tyr or OA, exhibited decreased chemotactic properties. These observations demonstrate that olive oil compounds inhibit the effect of the chronic inflammatory microenvironment on glioblastoma progression through TNF-α actions and may be useful in cancer chemoprevention.

  19. Cell migration in confined environments.

    PubMed

    Irimia, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We describe a protocol for measuring the speed of human neutrophils migrating through small channels, in conditions of mechanical confinement comparable to those experienced by neutrophils migrating through tissues. In such conditions, we find that neutrophils move persistently, at constant speed for tens of minutes, enabling precise measurements at single cells resolution, for large number of cells. The protocol relies on microfluidic devices with small channels in which a solution of chemoattractant and a suspension of isolated neutrophils are loaded in sequence. The migration of neutrophils can be observed for several hours, starting within minutes after loading the neutrophils in the devices. The protocol is divided into four main steps: the fabrication of the microfluidic devices, the separation of neutrophils from whole blood, the preparation of the assay and cell loading, and the analysis of data. We discuss the practical steps for the implementation of the migration assays in biology labs, the adaptation of the protocols to various cell types, including cancer cells, and the supplementary device features required for precise measurements of directionality and persistence during migration.

  20. Transfection with liver-type glutaminase cDNA alters gene expression and reduces survival, migration and proliferation of T98G glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Szeliga, Monika; Obara-Michlewska, Marta; Matyja, Ewa; Łazarczyk, Marzena; Lobo, Carolina; Hilgier, Wojciech; Alonso, Francisco J; Márquez, Javier; Albrecht, Jan

    2009-07-01

    Liver-type glutaminase (LGA) is a glutaminase isoform that has been implicated in transcription modulation. LGA mRNA is absent from postoperative samples of primary gliomas and is low in cultured astrocytes. In this study, stable transfection of T98G cells with a vector carrying human LGA sequence increased the expression of LGA mRNA and protein, and the ability of the cells to degrade glutamine (Gln), as manifested by a three-fold reduction of their steady-state Gln content and a 2.5-fold increase of their glutamate (Glu) content. The transfected cells (TLGA cells) showed a 40% decrease of cell survival as assessed by colony formation, well correlated with significant reduction of mitochondrial activity as demonstrated with MTT test. Also, a 45% reduction of cell migration and a 47% decrease of proliferation index (Ki67 immunostaining) were found as compared with sham-transfected cells. Microarray analysis, which included over 47,000 transcripts, revealed a significantly altered expression of 85 genes in TLGA, but not in sham-transfected or control cells (P < 0.005). Microarray data were confirmed with real-time PCR analysis for eight genes potentially relevant to malignancy: S100A16, CAPN2, FNDC3B, DYNC1LI1, TIMP4, MGMT, ADM, and TIMP1. Of these changes, decreased expression of S100A16 and MGMT can be best reconciled with the current views on the role of their protein products in glioma malignancy. Malignancy-reducing effect of newly inserted LGA mRNA in glioblastoma cells can be reconciled with a hypothesis that absence of such a modulatory mechanism in glia-derived tumors deprived of LGA mRNA may facilitate some aspects of their progression.

  1. A Discrete Cell Migration Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J; Kruse, Kara L; Ward, Richard C; O'Quinn, Elizabeth; Woerner, Matthew M; Beckerman, Barbara G

    2007-01-01

    Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells is a fundamental process in the development of intimal hyperplasia, a precursor to development of cardiovascular disease and a potential response to injury of an arterial wall. Boyden chamber experiments are used to quantify the motion of cell populations in response to a chemoattractant gradient (i.e., cell chemotaxis). We are developing a mathematical model of cell migration within the Boyden chamber, while simultaneously conducting experiments to obtain parameter values for the migration process. In the future, the model and parameters will be used as building blocks for a detailed model of the process that causes intimal hyperplasia. The cell migration model presented in this paper is based on the notion of a cell as a moving sensor that responds to an evolving chemoattractant gradient. We compare the results of our three-dimensional hybrid model with results from a one-dimensional continuum model. Some preliminary experimental data that is being used to refine the model is also presented.

  2. A naturally occurring carotenoid, lutein, reduces PDGF and H2O2 signaling and compromised migration in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Abnormalities of PDGF/PDGF receptor (PDGFR) are thought to contribute to vascular diseases and malignancy. We previously showed that a carotenoid, lycopene, can directly bind to PDGF and affect its related functions in VSMCs. In this study we examined the effect of the other naturally occurring carotenoid, lutein, on PDGF signaling and migration in VSMCs. Methods Western blotting was performed to examine PDGF and H2O2 signaling. Flowcytometry was used to determine PDGF binding to VSMCs. Fluorescence microscopy was performed to examine intracellular ROS production. Modified Boyden chamber system (Transwell apparatus) was used for migration assay. Results Lutein reduced PDGF signaling, including phosphorylation of PDGFR-β and its downstream protein kinases/enzymes such as phospholipase C-γ, Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Although lutein possesses a similar structure to lycopene, it was striking that lutein inhibited PDGF signaling through a different way from lycopene in VSMCs. Unlike lycopene, lutein not only interacted with (bound to) PDGF but also interfered with cellular components. This was evidenced that preincubation of PDGF with lutein and treatment of VSMCs with lutein followed by removing of lutein compromised PDGF-induced signaling. Lutein reduced PDGF-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and attenuated ROS- (H2O2-) induced ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK activation. A further analysis indicated lutein could inhibit a higher concentration of H2O2-induced PDGFR signaling, which is known to act through an oxidative inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase. Finally, we showed that lutein functionally inhibited PDGF-induced VSMC migration, whereas its stereo-isomer zeaxanthin did not, revealing a special action of lutein on VSMCs. Conclusions Our study reveals a differential action

  3. Metallic nanoparticles reduce the migration of human fibroblasts in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Larissa Fernanda de Araújo; Lins, Marvin Paulo; Viana, Iana Mayane Mendes Nicácio; dos Santos, Jeniffer Estevão; Smaniotto, Salete; Reis, Maria Danielma dos Santos

    2017-03-01

    Nanoparticles have extremely wide applications in the medical and biological fields. They are being used in biosensors, local drug delivery, diagnostics, and medical therapy. However, the potential effects of nanoparticles on target cell and tissue function, apart from cytotoxicity, are not completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on human fibroblasts with respect to their interaction with the extracellular matrix and in cell migration. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that treatment with AgNPs or AuNPs decreased collagen and laminin production at all the concentrations tested (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/mL). Furthermore, cytofluorometric analysis showed that treatment with AgNPs reduced the percentage of cells expressing the collagen receptor very late antigen 2, α2β1 integrin (VLA-2) and the laminin receptor very late antigen 6, α6β1 integrin (VLA-6). In contrast, AuNP treatment increased and decreased the percentages of VLA-2-positive and VLA-6-positive cells, respectively, as compared to the findings for the controls. Analysis of cytoskeletal reorganization showed that treatment with both types of nanoparticles increased the formation of stress fibres and number of cell protrusions and impaired cell polarity. Fibroblasts exposed to different concentrations of AuNPs and AgNPs showed reduced migration through transwell chambers in the functional chemotaxis assay. These results demonstrated that metal nanoparticles may influence fibroblast function by negatively modulating the deposition of extracellular matrix molecules (ECM) and altering the expression of ECM receptors, cytoskeletal reorganization, and cell migration.

  4. Dasatinib enhances migration of monocyte-derived dendritic cells by reducing phosphorylation of inhibitory immune receptors Siglec-9 and Siglec-3.

    PubMed

    Nerreter, Thomas; Köchel, Christoph; Jesper, Daniel; Eichelbrönner, Irina; Putz, Evelyn; Einsele, Hermann; Seggewiss-Bernhardt, Ruth

    2014-09-01

    The SRC family of kinases (SFKs) is crucial to malignant growth, but also important for signaling in immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs). These specialized antigen-presenting cells are essential for inducing and boosting specific T-cell responses against pathogens and malignancies. Targeted therapy with SFK inhibitors holds great promise as a direct anti-cancer treatment, but potentially also as an indirect treatment via immunomodulation. Here, we investigated whether the BCR-ABL/SRC inhibitor dasatinib would modulate the major effector functions of DCs, especially their migration, a prerequisite to interaction with lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs. We report for the first time that dasatinib more than doubled the number of mature human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) migrating toward a CCL19 gradient despite unchanged CCR7 expression when used for pretreatment. These effects were caused by dephosphorylation of SFKs, as confirmed by the specific SFK inhibitor SRC inhibitor 1, leading to dephosphorylation of the inhibitory immunoreceptors Siglec-9 and Siglec-3. The specific blocking of the latter also enhanced migration and underlined the importance of these SFK-dependent receptor systems for migration of moDCs. Dasatinib hampered the secretion of interleukin-12 by moDCs at clinically relevant concentrations. In contrast, endocytosis or boosting of cytomegalovirus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses remained unaltered when applying dasatinib-pretreated moDCs, in line with minor effects on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules essential for DC-T cell interaction. The induction of enhanced migration of moDCs may potentially be useful in chemo-immunotherapeutic applications. Thus, the use of dasatinib or blocking Siglec antibodies as adjuvants in this setting to induce stronger immune responses is worthy of further study.

  5. IDH1 R132H Mutation Enhances Cell Migration by Activating AKT-mTOR Signaling Pathway, but Sensitizes Cells to 5-FU Treatment as NADPH and GSH Are Reduced

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jiangdong; Huang, Keting; Wu, Mindan; Xia, Chunlin

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) gene were recently discovered in vast majority of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II/III gliomas. This study is to understand the effects of IDH1 R132H mutation in gliomagenesis and to develop new strategies to treat glioma with IDH1 R132H mutation. Materials and methods Over expression of IDH1 R132H in U87MG cells was done by transfecting cells with IDH1 R132H plasmid. MTT assay, scratch repair assay and western blot were performed to study effects of IDH1 R132H mutation on cell proliferation, migration, regulating AKT-mTOR signaling pathway and cell death respectively. NADP+/NADPH and GSH quantification assays were performed to evaluate effects of IDH1 R132H mutation on the production of antioxidant NADPH and GSH. Results We found that over expression of IDH1 R132H mutation decreased cell proliferation consistent with previous reports; however, it increased cell migration and enhanced AKT-mTOR signaling pathway activation. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 also change the function of the enzymes and cause them to produce 2-hydroxyglutarate and not produce NADPH. We tested the level of NADPH and GSH and demonstrated that IDH1 R132H mutant stable cells had significantly low NADPH and GSH level compared to control or IDH1 wild type stable cells. The reduced antioxidants (NADPH and GSH) sensitized U87MG cells with IDH R132H mutant to 5-FU treatment. Conclusion Our study highlights the important role of IHD1 R132H mutant in up- regulating AKT-mTOR signaling pathway and enhancing cell migration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that IDH1 R132H mutation affects cellular redox status and sensitizes gliomas cells with IDH1 R132H mutation to 5FU treatment. PMID:28052098

  6. Cell migration and invasion assays.

    PubMed

    Moutasim, Karwan A; Nystrom, Maria L; Thomas, Gareth J

    2011-01-01

    A number of in vitro assays have been developed to study tumor cell motility. Historically, assays have been mainly monocellular, where carcinoma cells are studied in isolation. Scratch assays can be used to study the collective and directional movement of populations of cells, whereas two chamber assays lend themselves to the analysis of chemotactic/haptotactic migration and cell invasion. However, an inherent disadvantage of these assays is that they grossly oversimplify the complex process of invasion, lacking the tumor structural architecture and stromal components. Organotypic assays, where tumor cells are grown at an air/liquid interface on gels populated with stromal cells, are a more physiologically relevant method for studying 3-dimensional tumor invasion.

  7. Force transmission in migrating cells

    PubMed Central

    Sauser, Roger; Ambrosi, Davide; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Verkhovsky, Alexander B.

    2010-01-01

    During cell migration, forces generated by the actin cytoskeleton are transmitted through adhesion complexes to the substrate. To investigate the mechanism of force generation and transmission, we analyzed the relationship between actin network velocity and traction forces at the substrate in a model system of persistently migrating fish epidermal keratocytes. Front and lateral sides of the cell exhibited much stronger coupling between actin motion and traction forces than the trailing cell body. Further analysis of the traction–velocity relationship suggested that the force transmission mechanisms were different in different cell regions: at the front, traction was generated by a gripping of the actin network to the substrate, whereas at the sides and back, it was produced by the network’s slipping over the substrate. Treatment with inhibitors of the actin–myosin system demonstrated that the cell body translocation could be powered by either of the two different processes, actomyosin contraction or actin assembly, with the former associated with significantly larger traction forces than the latter. PMID:20100912

  8. Characterization of Collective Cell Migration Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Rachel; Yue, Haicen; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Losert, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    During cancer progression, tumor cells invade the surrounding tissue and migrate throughout the body, forming clinically dangerous secondary tumors. This metastatic process begins when cells leave the primary tumor, either as individual cells or collectively migrating groups. Here we present data on the migration dynamics of epithelial sheets composed of many cells. Using quantitative image analysis techniques, we are able to extract motion information from time-lapse images of cell lines with varying malignancy. Adapting metrics originally used to study fluid flows we are able to characterize the migration dynamics of these cell lines. By describing the migration dynamics in great detail, we are able to make a clear comparison of our results to a simulation of collective cell migration. Specifically, we explore whether leader cells are required to describe our expanding sheets of cells and whether the answer depends on individual cell activity.

  9. Epithelium-derived chemokines induce airway smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Takeda, N; Sumi, Y; Préfontaine, D; Al Abri, J; Al Heialy, N; Al-Ramli, W; Michoud, M-C; Martin, J G; Hamid, Q

    2009-07-01

    The remodelling of airway smooth muscle (ASM) associated with asthma severity may involve the migration of ASM cells towards the epithelium. However, little is known about the mechanisms of cell migration and the effect of epithelial-derived mediators on this process. The main objective of the current study is to assess the effects of epithelial-derived chemokines on ASM cell migration. Normal human ASM cells were incubated with supernatants from cells of the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B and normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. To induce chemokine production, epithelial cells were treated with TNF-alpha. Chemokine expression by epithelial cells was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA and membrane antibody array. To identify the role of individual chemokines in ASM cell migration, we performed migration assays with a modified Boyden chamber using specific neutralizing antibodies to block chemokine effects. Supernatants from BEAS-2B cells treated with TNF-alpha increased ASM cell migration; migration was increased 1.6 and 2.5-fold by supernatant from BEAS-2B cells treated with 10 and 100 ng/mL TNF-alpha, respectively. Protein levels in supernatants and mRNA expression by BEAS-2B cells of regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and IL-8 were significantly increased by 100 ng/mL TNF-alpha treatment. The incubation of supernatant with antibodies to RANTES or IL-8 significantly reduced ASM cell migration, and the combined antibodies further inhibited the cell migration. The migratory effects of supernatants and inhibiting effects of RANTES and/or IL-8 were confirmed also using NHBE cells. The results show that chemokines from airway epithelial cells cause ASM cell migration and might potentially play a role in the process of airway remodelling in asthma.

  10. Reducing PICC migrations and improving patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Elen Hughes, Meinir

    Inadvertent migration of central venous catheters can lead to several issues including delayed therapy and clinical morbidities such as thrombosis. Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are particularly at risk of movement. An innovative new device which allows anchorage of the catheter has proved very successful in the minimisation of catheter migration. The SecurAcath device incorporates a small blunt anchor which lies beneath the skin in order to secure the catheter in place and prevent inadvertent movement. An evaluation of 31 patients with a SecurAcath device in situ to secure a PICC found only one case of insignificant catheter migration. Some initial problems with infection and pain were encountered and interventions were put in place to minimise their incidence. SecurAcath removal proved to be the most significant challenge but this can be overcome with suitable guidance and training.

  11. Migration in action: profiling border cells.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Heinrich

    2006-04-01

    Acquiring the ability to migrate is essential for cells taking part in many developmental and disease processes. Two studies in this issue of Developmental Cell use gene expression profiling of purified border cells from the Drosophila ovary to characterize the molecular changes required in cells to initiate migration in vivo. Their results offer interesting new insights into a moving cell's physiology.

  12. Post-ischemic treatment of WIB801C, standardized Cordyceps extract, reduces cerebral ischemic injury via inhibition of inflammatory cell migration.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sunyoung; Cho, Geum-Sil; Ryu, Sangwoo; Kim, Hoon J; Song, Hwa Young; Yune, Tae Y; Ju, Chung; Kim, Won-Ki

    2016-06-20

    Anti-inflammatory therapy has been intensively investigated as a potential strategy for treatment of cerebral stroke. However, despite many positive outcomes reported in animal studies, anti-inflammatory treatments have not proven successful in humans as yet. Although immunomodulatory activity and safety of Cordyceps species (Chinese caterpillar fungi) have been proven in clinical trials and traditional Asian prescriptions for inflammatory diseases, its anti-ischemic effect remains elusive. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the potential therapeutic efficacy of WIB801C, the standardized extract of Cordyceps militaris, for treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke. The anti-chemotactic activity of WIB801C was assayed in cultured rat microglia/macrophages. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ischemic stroke via either transient (1.5-h tMCAO and subsequent 24-h reperfusion) or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO for 24-h without reperfusion). WIB801C was orally administered twice at 3- and 8-h (50mg/kg each) after the onset of MCAO. Infarct volume, edema, blood brain barrier and white matter damages, neurological deficits, and long-term survival rates were investigated. The infiltration of inflammatory cells into ischemic lesions was assayed by immunostaining. WIB801C significantly decreased migration of cultured microglia/macrophages. This anti-chemotactic activity of WIB-801C was not mediated via adenosine A3 receptors, although cordycepin, the major ingredient of WIB801C, is known as an adenosine receptor agonist. Post-ischemic treatment with WIB801C significantly reduced the infiltration of ED-1-and MPO-positive inflammatory cells into ischemic lesions in tMCAO rats. WIB801C-treated rats exhibited significantly decreased infarct volume and cerebral edema, less white matter and blood-brain barrier damages, and improved neurological deficits. WIB801C also improved survival rates over 34 days after ischemia onset. A significant reduction in

  13. Met degradation by SAIT301, a Met monoclonal antibody, reduces the invasion and migration of nasopharyngeal cancer cells via inhibition of EGR-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, B-S; Kang, S; Kim, K-A; Song, Y-J; Cheong, K H; Cha, H-Y; Kim, C-H

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignant tumor with high invasive and metastatic potential. The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-Met signaling pathway has a critical role in mediating the invasive growth of many different types of cancer, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. HGF also stimulates NPC cell growth and invasion in the cell line model. In this study, we determined the inhibitory effect of Met, using a Met-targeting monoclonal antibody (SAIT301), on the invasive and growth potential of NPC cell lines. Met inhibition by SAIT301 resulted in highly significant inhibition of cell migration and invasion in both the HONE1 and HNE1 cell lines. In addition, we also found that co-treatment of SAIT301 and HGF decreased the anchorage-independent growth induced by HGF in HNE1 cell lines. After SAIT301 treatment, Met, together with its downstream signaling proteins, showed downregulation of p-Met and p-ERK, but not p-AKT, in both HONE1 and HNE1 cell lines. Interestingly, we found that HGF treatment of NPC cell lines induced early growth response protein (EGR-1) expression, which is involved in cell migration and invasion. In addition, co-treatment with SAIT301 and HGF inhibited the HGF-induced expression of EGR-1. Next, knockdown of EGR-1 using small-interfering RNA inhibited HGF-induced cell invasion in NPC cell lines, suggesting that the expression level of EGR-1 is important in HGF-induced cell invasion of NPC cells. Therefore, the results support that SAIT301 inhibited Met activation as well as the downstream EGR-1 expression and could have therapeutic potential in NPC. Taken together, we suggest that Met is an anticancer therapeutic target for NPC that warrants further investigation and clinical trials and SAIT301 may be a promising tool for NPC therapy. PMID:24722284

  14. Rho GTPases in collective cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zegers, Mirjam M; Friedl, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The family of Rho GTPases are intracellular signal transducers that link cell surface signals to multiple intracellular responses. They are best known for their role in regulating actin dynamics required for cell migration, but in addition control cell-cell adhesion, polarization, vesicle trafficking, and the cell cycle. The roles of Rho GTPases in single mesenchymal cell migration are well established and rely on Cdc42- and Rac-dependent cell protrusion of a leading edge, coupled to Rho-dependent contractility required to move the cell body forward. In cells migrating collectively, cell-cell junctions are maintained, and migrating leader cells are mechanically coupled to, and coordinate, migration with follower cells. Recent evidence suggests that Rho GTPases provide multifunctional input to collective cell polarization, cell-cell interaction, and migration. Here, we discuss the role of Rho GTPases in initiating and maintaining front-rear, apical-basal cell polarization, mechanotransduction, and cell-cell junction stability between leader and follower cells, and how these roles are integrated in collective migration. Thereby, spatiotemporal fine-tuning of Rho GTPases within the same cell and among cells in the cell group are crucial in controlling potentially conflicting, divergent cell adhesion and cytoskeletal functions to achieve supracellular coordination and mechanocoupling.

  15. Rho GTPases in collective cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Zegers, Mirjam M; Friedl, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The family of Rho GTPases are intracellular signal transducers that link cell surface signals to multiple intracellular responses. They are best known for their role in regulating actin dynamics required for cell migration, but in addition control cell-cell adhesion, polarization, vesicle trafficking, and the cell cycle. The roles of Rho GTPases in single mesenchymal cell migration are well established and rely on Cdc42- and Rac-dependent cell protrusion of a leading edge, coupled to Rho-dependent contractility required to move the cell body forward. In cells migrating collectively, cell-cell junctions are maintained, and migrating leader cells are mechanically coupled to, and coordinate, migration with follower cells. Recent evidence suggests that Rho GTPases provide multifunctional input to collective cell polarization, cell-cell interaction, and migration. Here, we discuss the role of Rho GTPases in initiating and maintaining front-rear, apical-basal cell polarization, mechanotransduction, and cell-cell junction stability between leader and follower cells, and how these roles are integrated in collective migration. Thereby, spatiotemporal fine-tuning of Rho GTPases within the same cell and among cells in the cell group are crucial in controlling potentially conflicting, divergent cell adhesion and cytoskeletal functions to achieve supracellular coordination and mechanocoupling. PMID:25054920

  16. Focal Adhesion-Independent Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Paluch, Ewa K; Aspalter, Irene M; Sixt, Michael

    2016-10-06

    Cell migration is central to a multitude of physiological processes, including embryonic development, immune surveillance, and wound healing, and deregulated migration is key to cancer dissemination. Decades of investigations have uncovered many of the molecular and physical mechanisms underlying cell migration. Together with protrusion extension and cell body retraction, adhesion to the substrate via specific focal adhesion points has long been considered an essential step in cell migration. Although this is true for cells moving on two-dimensional substrates, recent studies have demonstrated that focal adhesions are not required for cells moving in three dimensions, in which confinement is sufficient to maintain a cell in contact with its substrate. Here, we review the investigations that have led to challenging the requirement of specific adhesions for migration, discuss the physical mechanisms proposed for cell body translocation during focal adhesion-independent migration, and highlight the remaining open questions for the future.

  17. Random versus directionally persistent cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Ryan J.; Doyle, Andrew D.; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    Directional migration is an important component of cell motility. Although the basic mechanisms of random cell movement are well characterized, no single model explains the complex regulation of directional migration. Multiple factors operate at each step of cell migration to stabilize lamellipodia and maintain directional migration. Factors such as topography of the extracellular matrix, the cellular polarity machinery, receptor signalling, integrin trafficking and co-receptors, and actin–myosin contraction converge on regulation of the Rho family of GTPases and control of lamellipodial protrusions to promote directional migration. PMID:19603038

  18. Transplantation stimulates interstitial cell migration in hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, T.; David, C.N.; Bosch, T.C. )

    1990-04-01

    Migration of interstitial cells and nerve cell precursors was analyzed in Hydra magnipapillata and Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). Axial grafts were made between ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled donor and unlabeled host tissue. Migration of labeled cells into the unlabeled half was followed for 4 days. The results indicate that the rate of migration was initially high and then slowed on Days 2-4. Regrafting fresh donor tissue on Days 2-4 maintained high levels of migration. Thus, migration appears to be stimulated by the grafting procedure itself.

  19. Regulation of cell migration via the EGFR signaling pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Yuichi; Yasui, Hiroki; Kakudo, Kenji; Nozaki, Masami

    2017-01-01

    Cell migration potency is essential in cancer metastasis and is often regulated by extracellular stimuli. Oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines include those that are sensitive, as well as resistant, to the effects of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor cetuximab on cell migration. In the present study, the molecular differences in the EGFR response to cell migration between the SAS cetuximab-sensitive and HSC4 cetuximab-resistant cell lines was examined. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitors AG1478 and cetuximab reduced the migration potency of SAS cells, but not HSC4 cells. The migration of the two cell lines was inhibited under serum-free culture conditions, and the addition of EGF to the serum-free medium promoted the migration of SAS cells, but not HSC4 cells. In addition, SAS cell migration was reduced by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and protein kinase B (Akt) inhibitors PD98059 and MK2206, whereas HSC4 cell migration was only inhibited by MK2206. EGF induced an increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation levels in HSC4 cells, and stimulated Akt phosphorylation levels in SAS cells. Furthermore, the staining of actin filaments with phalloidin was significantly increased by the inhibition of EGFR in SAS cells, but was not observed as altered in HSC4 cells. Conversely, the addition of EGF to the culture medium decreased the accumulation of actin filaments in SAS cells. The results suggest that the EGF-EGFR signaling pathway has an important role in SAS cell migration via the modulation of actin dynamics, and that HSC4 cell migration is regulated by a serum component other than EGFR.

  20. Collective cell migration of primary zebrafish keratocytes.

    PubMed

    Rapanan, Jose L; Cooper, Kimbal E; Leyva, Kathryn J; Hull, Elizabeth E

    2014-08-01

    Fish keratocytes are an established model in single cell motility but little is known about their collective migration. Initially, sheets migrate from the scale at ~145 μm/h but over the course of 24h the rate of leading edge advance decreases to ~23 μm/h. During this period, leader cells retain their ability to migrate rapidly when released from the sheet and follower cell area increases. After the addition of RGD peptide, leader cell lamellae are lost, altering migratory forces within the sheet, resulting in rapid retraction. Leader and follower cell states interconvert within minutes with changes in cell-cell adhesions. Leader cells migrate as single cells when they detach from the leading edge and single cells appear to become leader cells if they rejoin the sheet. Follower cells rapidly establish leader cell morphology during closing of holes formed during sheet expansion and revert to follower cell morphology after hole-closure. Inhibition of Rho associated kinase releases leader cells and halts advancement of the leading edge suggesting an important role for the intercellular actomyosin cable at the leading edge. In addition, the presence of the stationary scale orients direction of sheet migration which is characterized by a more uniform advance of the leading edge than in some cell line systems. These data establish fish keratocyte explant cultures as a collective cell migration system and suggest that cell-cell interactions determine the role of keratocytes within the migrating sheet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Microdroplet chain array for cell migration assays.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Pan, Jian-Zhang; Zhao, Shi-Ping; Lou, Qi; Zhu, Ying; Fang, Qun

    2016-11-29

    Establishing cell migration assays in multiple different microenvironments is important in the study of tissue repair and regeneration, cancer progression, atherosclerosis, and arthritis. In this work, we developed a miniaturized and massive parallel microfluidic platform for multiple cell migration assays combining the traditional membrane-based cell migration technique and the droplet-based microfluidic technique. Nanoliter-scale droplets are flexibly assembled as building blocks based on a porous membrane to form microdroplet chains with diverse configurations for different assay modes. Multiple operations including in-droplet 2D/3D cell culture, cell co-culture and cell migration induced by a chemoattractant concentration gradient in droplet chains could be flexibly performed with reagent consumption in the nanoliter range for each assay and an assay scale-up to 81 assays in parallel in one microchip. We have applied the present platform to multiple modes of cell migration assays including the accurate cell migration assay, competitive cell migration assay, biomimetic chemotaxis assay, and multifactor cell migration assay based on the organ-on-a-chip concept, for demonstrating its versatility, applicability, and potential in cell migration-related research.

  2. Dynamic contact guidance of migrating cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losert, Wolfgang; Sun, Xiaoyu; Guven, Can; Driscoll, Meghan; Fourkas, John

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the effects of nanotopographical surfaces on the cell migration and cell shape dynamics of the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Amoeboid motion exhibits significant contact guidance along surfaces with nanoscale ridges or grooves. We show quantitatively that nanoridges spaced 1.5 μm apart exhibit the greatest contact guidance efficiency. Using principal component analysis, we characterize the dynamics of the cell shape modulated by the coupling between the cell membrane and ridges. We show that motion parallel to the ridges is enhanced, while the turning, at the largest spatial scales, is suppressed. Since protrusion dynamics are principally governed by actin dynamics, we imaged the actin polymerization of cells on ridges. We found that actin polymerization occurs preferentially along nanoridges in a ``monorail'' like fashion. The ridges then provide us with a tool to study actin dynamics in an effectively reduced dimensional system.

  3. Collective cell migration during inflammatory response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Stroka, Kimberly; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-02-01

    Wound scratch healing assays of endothelial cell monolayers is a simple model to study collective cell migration as a function of biological signals. A signal of particular interest is the immune response, which after initial wounding in vivo causes the release of various inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α). TNF-α is an innate inflammatory cytokine that can induce cell growth, cell necrosis, and change cell morphology. We studied the effects of TNF-α on collective cell migration using the wound healing assays and measured several migration metrics, such as rate of scratch closure, velocities of leading edge and bulk cells, closure index, and velocity correlation functions between migrating cells. We observed that TNF-α alters all migratory metrics as a function of the size of the scratch and TNF-α content. The changes observed in migration correlate with actin reorganization upon TNF-α exposure.

  4. Rho GTPase signalling in cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, Anne J

    2015-01-01

    Cells migrate in multiple different ways depending on their environment, which includes the extracellular matrix composition, interactions with other cells, and chemical stimuli. For all types of cell migration, Rho GTPases play a central role, although the relative contribution of each Rho GTPase depends on the environment and cell type. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of how Rho GTPases contribute to different types of migration, comparing lamellipodium-driven versus bleb-driven migration modes. I also describe how cells migrate across the endothelium. In addition to Rho, Rac and Cdc42, which are well known to regulate migration, I discuss the roles of other less-well characterized members of the Rho family. PMID:26363959

  5. Epithelial MUC1 promotes cell migration, reduces apoptosis and affects levels of mucosal modulators during acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)-induced gastropathy.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debashish; Fernandez, Harvey Robert; Patil, Pradeep Bhatu; Premaratne, Pushpa; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne; Lindén, Sara Katarina

    2015-02-01

    MUC1 is a transmembrane mucin highly expressed in the stomach. Although extensive research has uncovered many of its roles in cancer, knowledge about the functions of MUC1 in normal tissues is limited. In the present study, we showed that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; aspirin) up-regulated MUC1/Muc1 expression in the gastric mucosa of humans and wild-type (WT) mice. ASA induced mucosal injury in all mice to a similar extent; however, WT animals and those chimaeras with Muc1 on the epithelia recovered faster than Muc1-knockout (KO) mice and chimaeras carrying Muc1 on haemopoietic but not epithelial cells. MUC1 enhanced proliferation and migration of the human gastric cell line MKN-7 and increased resistance to apoptosis. The repeated treatment regime used caused a reduction in cyclo-oxygenase-1 (Cox-1) expression, though WT animals returned faster towards pre-treatment levels and had increased Cox-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels during recovery. Thus we found that epithelial Muc1 is more important for the healing process than haemopoietic Muc1 and Muc1/MUC1 facilitates wound healing by enhancing cell migration and proliferation, protecting against apoptosis and mediating expression of mucosal modulators. Thus MUC1 plays essential roles during wound healing and development of treatment modalities targeting enhanced expression of MUC1 may be beneficial to treat mucosal wounds.

  6. Silk Film Topography Directs Collective Epithelial Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    The following study provides new insight into how surface topography dictates directed collective epithelial cell sheet growth through the guidance of individual cell movement. Collective cell behavior of migrating human corneal limbal-epithelial cell sheets were studied on highly biocompatible flat and micro-patterned silk film surfaces. The silk film edge topography guided the migratory direction of individual cells making up the collective epithelial sheet, which resulted in a 75% increase in total culture elongation. This was due to a 3-fold decrease in cell sheet migration rate efficiency for movement perpendicular to the topography edge. Individual cell migration direction is preferred in the parallel approach to the edge topography where localization of cytoskeletal proteins to the topography’s edge region is reduced, which results in the directed growth of the collective epithelial sheet. Findings indicate customized biomaterial surfaces may be created to direct both the migration rate and direction of tissue epithelialization. PMID:23185573

  7. Quantifying Modes of 3D Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Meghan K; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-12-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates.

  8. Quantifying modes of 3D cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Meghan K.; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2015-01-01

    Although it is widely appreciated that cells migrate in a variety of diverse environments in vivo, we are only now beginning to use experimental workflows that yield images with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution to study the molecular processes governing cell migration in 3D environments. Since cell migration is a dynamic process, it is usually studied via microscopy, but 3D movies of 3D processes are difficult to interpret by visual inspection. In this review, we discuss the technologies required to study the diversity of 3D cell migration modes with a focus on the visualization and computational analysis tools needed to study cell migration quantitatively at a level comparable to the analyses performed today on cells crawling on flat substrates. PMID:26603943

  9. Molecular signatures of cell migration in C. elegans Q neuroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Guangshuo

    2009-01-01

    Metazoan cell movement has been studied extensively in vitro, but cell migration in living animals is much less well understood. In this report, we have studied the Caenorhabditis elegans Q neuroblast lineage during larval development, developing live animal imaging methods for following neuroblast migration with single cell resolution. We find that each of the Q descendants migrates at different speeds and for distinct distances. By quantitative green fluorescent protein imaging, we find that Q descendants that migrate faster and longer than their sisters up-regulate protein levels of MIG-2, a Rho family guanosine triphosphatase, and/or down-regulate INA-1, an integrin α subunit, during migration. We also show that Q neuroblasts bearing mutations in either MIG-2 or INA-1 migrate at reduced speeds. The migration defect of the mig-2 mutants, but not ina-1, appears to result from a lack of persistent polarization in the direction of cell migration. Thus, MIG-2 and INA-1 function distinctly to control Q neuroblast migration in living C. elegans. PMID:19349580

  10. Multiscale Cues Drive Collective Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Peter; Wood, David K.; Kwon, Sunghoon; Provenzano, Paolo P.; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-07-01

    To investigate complex biophysical relationships driving directed cell migration, we developed a biomimetic platform that allows perturbation of microscale geometric constraints with concomitant nanoscale contact guidance architectures. This permits us to elucidate the influence, and parse out the relative contribution, of multiscale features, and define how these physical inputs are jointly processed with oncogenic signaling. We demonstrate that collective cell migration is profoundly enhanced by the addition of contract guidance cues when not otherwise constrained. However, while nanoscale cues promoted migration in all cases, microscale directed migration cues are dominant as the geometric constraint narrows, a behavior that is well explained by stochastic diffusion anisotropy modeling. Further, oncogene activation (i.e. mutant PIK3CA) resulted in profoundly increased migration where extracellular multiscale directed migration cues and intrinsic signaling synergistically conspire to greatly outperform normal cells or any extracellular guidance cues in isolation.

  11. Multiscale Cues Drive Collective Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Peter; Wood, David K; Kwon, Sunghoon; Provenzano, Paolo P; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-07-27

    To investigate complex biophysical relationships driving directed cell migration, we developed a biomimetic platform that allows perturbation of microscale geometric constraints with concomitant nanoscale contact guidance architectures. This permits us to elucidate the influence, and parse out the relative contribution, of multiscale features, and define how these physical inputs are jointly processed with oncogenic signaling. We demonstrate that collective cell migration is profoundly enhanced by the addition of contract guidance cues when not otherwise constrained. However, while nanoscale cues promoted migration in all cases, microscale directed migration cues are dominant as the geometric constraint narrows, a behavior that is well explained by stochastic diffusion anisotropy modeling. Further, oncogene activation (i.e. mutant PIK3CA) resulted in profoundly increased migration where extracellular multiscale directed migration cues and intrinsic signaling synergistically conspire to greatly outperform normal cells or any extracellular guidance cues in isolation.

  12. Multiscale Cues Drive Collective Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Peter; Wood, David K.; Kwon, Sunghoon; Provenzano, Paolo P.; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    To investigate complex biophysical relationships driving directed cell migration, we developed a biomimetic platform that allows perturbation of microscale geometric constraints with concomitant nanoscale contact guidance architectures. This permits us to elucidate the influence, and parse out the relative contribution, of multiscale features, and define how these physical inputs are jointly processed with oncogenic signaling. We demonstrate that collective cell migration is profoundly enhanced by the addition of contract guidance cues when not otherwise constrained. However, while nanoscale cues promoted migration in all cases, microscale directed migration cues are dominant as the geometric constraint narrows, a behavior that is well explained by stochastic diffusion anisotropy modeling. Further, oncogene activation (i.e. mutant PIK3CA) resulted in profoundly increased migration where extracellular multiscale directed migration cues and intrinsic signaling synergistically conspire to greatly outperform normal cells or any extracellular guidance cues in isolation. PMID:27460294

  13. Snake Venom Disintegrins and Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa S.; Pontes, Carmen L. S.; Montenegro, Cyntia F.; Martin, Ana Carolina B. M.

    2010-01-01

    Cell migration is a key process for the defense of pluricellular organisms against pathogens, and it involves a set of surface receptors acting in an ordered fashion to contribute directionality to the movement. Among these receptors are the integrins, which connect the cell cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix components, thus playing a central role in cell migration. Integrin clustering at focal adhesions drives actin polymerization along the cell leading edge, resulting in polarity of cell movement. Therefore, small integrin-binding proteins such as the snake venom disintegrins that inhibit integrin-mediated cell adhesion are expected to inhibit cell migration. Here we review the current knowledge on disintegrin and disintegrin-like protein effects on cell migration and their potential use as pharmacological tools in anti-inflammatory therapy as well as in inhibition of metastatic invasion. PMID:22069567

  14. Centrosome Positioning in 1D Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlerz, Katrina; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    During cell migration, the positioning of the centrosome and nucleus define a cell's polarity. For a cell migrating on a two-dimensional substrate the centrosome is positioned in front of the nucleus. Under one-dimensional confinement, however, the centrosome is positioned behind the nucleus in 60% of cells. It is known that the centrosome is positioned by CDC42 and dynein for cells moving on a 2D substrate in a wound-healing assay. It is currently unknown, however, if this is also true for cells moving under 1D confinement, where the centrosome position is often reversed. Therefore, centrosome positioning was studied in cells migrating under 1D confinement, which mimics cells migrating through 3D matrices. 3 to 5 μm fibronectin lines were stamped onto a glass substrate and cells with fluorescently labeled nuclei and centrosomes migrated on the lines. Our results show that when a cell changes directions the centrosome position is maintained. That is, when the centrosome is between the nucleus and the cell's trailing edge and the cell changes direction, the centrosome will be translocated across the nucleus to the back of the cell again. A dynein inhibitor did have an influence on centrosome positioning in 1D migration and change of directions.

  15. Regulator of calcineurin 1 modulates cancer cell migration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Allan V; Shinohara, Motoo; Porchia, Leonardo M; Chung, Yun Jae; McCarty, Samantha; Saji, Motoyasu; Ringel, Matthew D

    2009-01-01

    Metastasis suppressors and other regulators of cell motility play an important role in tumor invasion and metastases. We previously identified that activation of the G protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) by the metastasis suppressor metastin inhibits cell migration in association with overexpression of Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1), an endogenous regulator of calcineurin. Calcineurin inhibitors also blocked cell migration in vitro and RCAN1 protein levels were reduced in nodal metastases in thyroid cancer. The purpose of the current study was to determine directly if RCAN1 functions as a motility suppressor in vitro. Several cancer cell lines derived from different cancer types with different motility rates were evaluated for RCAN1 expression levels. Using these systems we determined that reduction of endogenous RCAN1 using siRNA resulted in an increase in cancer cell motility while expression of exogenous RCAN1 reduced cell motility. In one cell line with a high migratory rate, the stability of exogenously expressed RCAN1 protein was reduced and was rescued by treatment with a proteasome inhibitor. Finally, overexpression of RCAN1 was associated with an increase in cell adhesion to collagen IV and reduced calcineurin activity. In summary, we have demonstrated that the expression of exogenous RCAN1 reduces migration and alters adhesion; and that the loss of endogenous RCAN1 leads to an increase in migration in the examined cancer cell lines. These results are consistent with a regulatory role for RCAN1 in cancer cell motility in vitro.

  16. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Aimee; Maclaren, Oliver J.; Fletcher, Alexander G.; Muraro, Daniele; Kreuzaler, Peter A.; Byrne, Helen M.; Maini, Philip K.; Watson, Alastair J. M.; Pin, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The functional integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier relies on tight coordination of cell proliferation and migration, with failure to regulate these processes resulting in disease. It is not known whether cell proliferation is sufficient to drive epithelial cell migration during homoeostatic turnover of the epithelium. Nor is it known precisely how villus cell migration is affected when proliferation is perturbed. Some reports suggest that proliferation and migration may not be related while other studies support a direct relationship. We used established cell-tracking methods based on thymine analog cell labeling and developed tailored mathematical models to quantify cell proliferation and migration under normal conditions and when proliferation is reduced and when it is temporarily halted. We found that epithelial cell migration velocities along the villi are coupled to cell proliferation rates within the crypts in all conditions. Furthermore, halting and resuming proliferation results in the synchronized response of cell migration on the villi. We conclude that cell proliferation within the crypt is the primary force that drives cell migration along the villus. This methodology can be applied to interrogate intestinal epithelial dynamics and characterize situations in which processes involved in cell turnover become uncoupled, including pharmacological treatments and disease models.—Parker, A., Maclaren, O. J., Fletcher, A. G., Muraro, D., Kreuzaler, P. A., Byrne, H. M., Maini, P. K., Watson, A. J. M., Pin, C. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi. PMID:27811059

  17. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi.

    PubMed

    Parker, Aimee; Maclaren, Oliver J; Fletcher, Alexander G; Muraro, Daniele; Kreuzaler, Peter A; Byrne, Helen M; Maini, Philip K; Watson, Alastair J M; Pin, Carmen

    2017-02-01

    The functional integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier relies on tight coordination of cell proliferation and migration, with failure to regulate these processes resulting in disease. It is not known whether cell proliferation is sufficient to drive epithelial cell migration during homoeostatic turnover of the epithelium. Nor is it known precisely how villus cell migration is affected when proliferation is perturbed. Some reports suggest that proliferation and migration may not be related while other studies support a direct relationship. We used established cell-tracking methods based on thymine analog cell labeling and developed tailored mathematical models to quantify cell proliferation and migration under normal conditions and when proliferation is reduced and when it is temporarily halted. We found that epithelial cell migration velocities along the villi are coupled to cell proliferation rates within the crypts in all conditions. Furthermore, halting and resuming proliferation results in the synchronized response of cell migration on the villi. We conclude that cell proliferation within the crypt is the primary force that drives cell migration along the villus. This methodology can be applied to interrogate intestinal epithelial dynamics and characterize situations in which processes involved in cell turnover become uncoupled, including pharmacological treatments and disease models.-Parker, A., Maclaren, O. J., Fletcher, A. G., Muraro, D., Kreuzaler, P. A., Byrne, H. M., Maini, P. K., Watson, A. J. M., Pin, C. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi.

  18. A Customizable Chamber for Measuring Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Aniqa N; Vo, Huu Tri; Olang, Sharon; Mappus, Elliott; Peterson, Brian; Hlavac, Nora; Harvey, Tyler; Dean, Delphine

    2017-03-12

    Cell migration is a vital part of immune responses, growth, and wound healing. Cell migration is a complex process that involves interactions between cells, the extracellular matrix, and soluble and non-soluble chemical factors (e.g., chemoattractants). Standard methods for measuring the migration of cells, such as the Boyden chamber assay, work by counting cells on either side of a divider. These techniques are easy to use; however, they offer little geometric modification for different applications. In contrast, microfluidic devices can be used to observe cell migration with customizable concentration gradients of soluble factors(1)(,)(2). However, methods for making microfluidics based assays can be difficult to learn. Here, we describe an easy method for creating cell culture chambers to measure cell migration in response to chemical concentration gradients. Our cell migration chamber method can create different linear concentration gradients in order to study cell migration for a variety of applications. This method is relatively easy to use and is typically performed by undergraduate students. The microchannel chamber was created by placing an acrylic insert in the shape of the final microchannel chamber well into a Petri dish. After this, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was poured on top of the insert. The PDMS was allowed to harden and then the insert was removed. This allowed for the creation of wells in any desired shape or size. Cells may be subsequently added to the microchannel chamber, and soluble agents can be added to one of the wells by soaking an agarose block in the desired agent. The agarose block is added to one of the wells, and time-lapse images can be taken of the microchannel chamber in order to quantify cell migration. Variations to this method can be made for a given application, making this method highly customizable.

  19. Glutamate involvement in calcium-dependent migration of astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hamadi, Abdelkader; Giannone, Grégory; Takeda, Kenneth; Rondé, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytoma are known to have altered glutamate machinery that results in the release of large amounts of glutamate into the extracellular space but the precise role of glutamate in favoring cancer processes has not yet been fully established. Several studies suggested that glutamate might provoke active killing of neurons thereby producing space for cancer cells to proliferate and migrate. Previously, we observed that calcium promotes disassembly of integrin-containing focal adhesions in astrocytoma, thus providing a link between calcium signaling and cell migration. The aim of this study was to determine how calcium signaling and glutamate transmission cooperate to promote enhanced astrocytoma migration. The wound-healing model was used to assay migration of human U87MG astrocytoma cells and allowed to monitor calcium signaling during the migration process. The effect of glutamate on calcium signaling was evaluated together with the amount of glutamate released by astrocytoma during cell migration. We observed that glutamate stimulates motility in serum-starved cells, whereas in the presence of serum, inhibitors of glutamate receptors reduce migration. Migration speed was also reduced in presence of an intracellular calcium chelator. During migration, cells displayed spontaneous Ca(2+) transients. L-THA, an inhibitor of glutamate re-uptake increased the frequency of Ca(2+) oscillations in oscillating cells and induced Ca(2+) oscillations in quiescent cells. The frequency of migration-associated Ca(2+) oscillations was reduced by prior incubation with glutamate receptor antagonists or with an anti-β1 integrin antibody. Application of glutamate induced increases in internal free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Finally we found that compounds known to increase [Ca(2+)]i in astrocytomas such as thapsigagin, ionomycin or the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist t-ACPD, are able to induce glutamate release. Our data demonstrate that glutamate increases migration

  20. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell assembly and operation

    DOE PAGES

    Baker, Andrew M.; Torraco, Dennis; Judge, Elizabeth J.; ...

    2015-09-14

    Cerium migration between PEM fuel cell components is influenced by potential-driven mobility, ionic diffusion, and gradients in water content. These factors were investigated in ex situ experiments and in operating fuel cells. Potential-induced migration was measured ex situ in hydrated window cells. Cerium-containing MEAs were also fabricated and tested under ASTs. MEA disassembly and subsequent XRF analysis were used to observe rapid cerium migration during cell assembly and operation. During MEA hot pressing, humidification, and low RH operation at OCV, ionic diffusion causes uniform migration from the membrane into the catalyst layers. During high RH operation at OCV, in-plane ceriummore » gradients arise due to variations in water content. These gradients may diminish the scavenging efficacy of cerium by reducing its proximity to generated radicals.« less

  1. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell assembly and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Andrew M.; Torraco, Dennis; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Spernjak, Dusan; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rod L.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2015-09-14

    Cerium migration between PEM fuel cell components is influenced by potential-driven mobility, ionic diffusion, and gradients in water content. These factors were investigated in ex situ experiments and in operating fuel cells. Potential-induced migration was measured ex situ in hydrated window cells. Cerium-containing MEAs were also fabricated and tested under ASTs. MEA disassembly and subsequent XRF analysis were used to observe rapid cerium migration during cell assembly and operation. During MEA hot pressing, humidification, and low RH operation at OCV, ionic diffusion causes uniform migration from the membrane into the catalyst layers. During high RH operation at OCV, in-plane cerium gradients arise due to variations in water content. These gradients may diminish the scavenging efficacy of cerium by reducing its proximity to generated radicals.

  2. Rho GTPases and cancer cell transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Reymond, Nicolas; Riou, Philippe; Ridley, Anne J

    2012-01-01

    Small Rho GTPases are major regulators of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and influence cell shape and migration. The expression of several Rho GTPases is often up-regulated in tumors and this frequently correlates with a poor prognosis for patients. Migration of cancer cells through endothelial cells that line the blood vessels, called transendothelial migration or extravasation, is a critical step during the metastasis process. The use of siRNA technology to target specifically each Rho family member coupled with imaging techniques allows the roles of individual Rho GTPases to be investigated. In this chapter we describe methods to assess how Rho GTPases affect the different steps of cancer cell transendothelial cell migration in vitro.

  3. Primordial Germ Cell Specification and Migration.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are the progenitor cells that give rise to the gametes. In some animals, the germline is induced by zygotic transcription factors, whereas in others, primordial germ cell specification occurs via inheritance of maternally provided gene products known as germ plasm. Once specified, the primordial germ cells of some animals must acquire motility and migrate to the gonad in order to survive. In all animals examined, perinuclear structures called germ granules form within germ cells. This review focuses on some of the recent studies, conducted by several groups using diverse systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates, which have provided mechanistic insight into the molecular regulation of germ cell specification and migration.

  4. Cell Shape Dynamics: From Waves to Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Meghan; McCann, Colin; Kopace, Rael; Homan, Tess; Fourkas, John; Parent, Carole; Losert, Wolfgang

    2011-03-01

    We analyzed the dynamic shape of migrating Dictyostelium discoideum cells. We found that regions of high boundary curvature propagate from the front to the back of cells in an organized fashion. These waves of high curvature are stabilized by surface contact, and so, at the sides of cells, are stationary relative to the surface. The initiation of curvature waves, though, which usually occurs at the front of cells, is associated with protrusive motion. The protrusion location shifts rapidly in a ballistic manner at speeds nearly double that of cellular migration. To examine curvature waves in the absence of surface contact, we guided cells to extend over the edge of micro-cliffs. The curvature wave speed of cells extended over a cliff was triple the wave speed of cells migrating on a surface, which is consistent with the higher wave speeds observed near the non-adherent leading edge of cells.

  5. Emergence of oligarchy in collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Linus; Maini, Philip; Baker, Ruth

    Identifying the principles of collective cell migration has the potential to help prevent birth defects, improve regenerative therapies and develop model systems for cancer metastasis. In collaboration with experimental biologists, we use computational simulations of a hybrid model, comprising individual-based stochastic cell movement coupled to a reaction-diffusion equation for a chemoattractant, to explore the role of cell specialisation in the guidance of collective cell migration. In the neural crest, an important migratory cell population in vertebrate embryo development, we present evidence that just a few cells are guiding group migration in a cell-induced chemoattractant gradient that determines the switch between ``leader'' and ``follower'' behaviour in individual cells. This leads us to more generally consider under what conditions cell specialisation might become advantageous for collective migration. Alternatively, individual cell responses to locally different microenvironmental conditions could create the (artefactual) appearance of heterogeneity in a population of otherwise identical cellular agents. We explore these questions using a self-propelled particle model as a minimal description for collective cell migration in two and three dimensions.

  6. In vitro cell migration and invasion assays.

    PubMed

    Justus, Calvin R; Leffler, Nancy; Ruiz-Echevarria, Maria; Yang, Li V

    2014-06-01

    Migration is a key property of live cells and critical for normal development, immune response, and disease processes such as cancer metastasis and inflammation. Methods to examine cell migration are very useful and important for a wide range of biomedical research such as cancer biology, immunology, vascular biology, cell biology and developmental biology. Here we use tumor cell migration and invasion as an example and describe two related assays to illustrate the commonly used, easily accessible methods to measure these processes. The first method is the cell culture wound closure assay in which a scratch is generated on a confluent cell monolayer. The speed of wound closure and cell migration can be quantified by taking snapshot pictures with a regular inverted microscope at several time intervals. More detailed cell migratory behavior can be documented using the time-lapse microscopy system. The second method described in this paper is the transwell cell migration and invasion assay that measures the capacity of cell motility and invasiveness toward a chemo-attractant gradient. It is our goal to describe these methods in a highly accessible manner so that the procedures can be successfully performed in research laboratories even just with basic cell biology setup.

  7. Entropy measures of collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, Ariadne; Parrinello, Simona; Faisal, Aldo

    2015-03-01

    Collective cell migration is a critical process during tissue formation and repair. To this end there is a need to develop tools to quantitatively measure the dynamics of collective cell migration obtained from microscopy data. Drawing on statistical physics we use entropy of velocity fields derived from dense optic flow to quantitatively measure collective migration. Using peripheral nerve repair after injury as experimental system, we study how Schwann cells, guided by fibroblasts, migrate in cord-like structures across the cut, paving a highway for neurons. This process of emergence of organised behaviour is key for successful repair, yet the emergence of leader cells and transition from a random to ordered state is not understood. We find fibroblasts induce correlated directionality in migrating Schwann cells as measured by a decrease in the entropy of motion vector. We show our method is robust with respect to image resolution in time and space, giving a principled assessment of how various molecular mechanisms affect macroscopic features of collective cell migration. Finally, the generality of our method allows us to process both simulated cell movement and microscopic data, enabling principled fitting and comparison of in silico to in vitro. ICCS, Imperial College London & MRC Clinical Sciences Centre.

  8. Cell density determines epithelial migration in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, P; Misfeldt, D S

    1980-01-01

    The dog kidney epithelial cell line (MDCK) has been shown to exhibit a density-correlated inhibition of growth at approxmately 6.6 X 10(5) cells per cm2. When a confluent monolayer at its maximal density was wounded by removal of a wide swath of cells, migration of the cell sheet into the denuded area occurred. Precise measurements of the rate of migration for 5 day showed that the cells accelerated at a uniform rate of 0.24 micrometer . hr-2 and, by extrapolation, possessed an apparent initial velocity of 2.8 micrometer . hr-1 at the time of wounding. The apparent initial velocity was considered to be the result of a brief (< 10 hr) and rapid acceleration dependent on cell density. To verify this, wounds were made at different densities below the maximum. In these experiments, the cells did not migrate until a "threshold" density of 2.0 X 10(5) cells per cm2 was reached regardless of the density at the time of wounding. At the threshold density, the cell sheet began to accelerate at the previously measured rate (0.24 micrometer . hr-2). Any increase in density by cell division was balanced by cell migration, so that the same threshold density was maintained by the migrating cells. Each migrating cell sustained the movement of the cell sheet at a constant rate of acceleration. It is proposed that an acceleration is, in general, characteristic of the vectorial movement of an epithelial cell sheet. Images PMID:6933523

  9. Laser-photophoretic migration and fractionation of human blood cells.

    PubMed

    Monjushiro, Hideaki; Tanahashi, Yuko; Watarai, Hitoshi

    2013-05-13

    Laser photophoretic migration behavior of human blood cells in saline solution was investigated under the irradiation of Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) in the absence and the presence of the flow in a fused silica capillary. Red blood cells (RBC) were migrated faster than white blood cells (WBC) and blood pellets to the direction of propagation of laser light. The observed photophoretic velocity of RBC was about 11 times faster than those of others. This was understood from the larger photophoretic efficiency of RBC than that of WBC, which was simulated based on the Mie scattering theory. Furthermore, it was found that, during the photophoretic migration, RBCs spontaneously orientated parallel to the migration direction so as to reduce the drag force. Finally, it was demonstrated that RBC and WBC were separated in a micro-channel flow system by the laser photophoresis.

  10. Chemistry and biology of the compounds that modulate cell migration.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Etsu; Imoto, Masaya

    2016-03-01

    Cell migration is a fundamental step for embryonic development, wound repair, immune responses, and tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Extensive studies have attempted to reveal the molecular mechanisms behind cell migration; however, they remain largely unclear. Bioactive compounds that modulate cell migration show promise as not only extremely powerful tools for studying the mechanisms behind cell migration but also as drug seeds for chemotherapy against tumor metastasis. Therefore, we have screened cell migration inhibitors and analyzed their mechanisms for the inhibition of cell migration. In this mini-review, we introduce our chemical and biological studies of three cell migration inhibitors: moverastin, UTKO1, and BU-4664L.

  11. Cell migration in the postnatal subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Menezes, J R L; Marins, M; Alves, J A J; Froes, M M; Hedin-Pereira, C

    2002-12-01

    New neurons are constantly added to the olfactory bulb of rodents from birth to adulthood. This accretion is not only dependent on sustained neurogenesis, but also on the migration of neuroblasts and immature neurons from the cortical and striatal subventricular zone (SVZ) to the olfactory bulb. Migration along this long tangential pathway, known as the rostral migratory stream (RMS), is in many ways opposite to the classical radial migration of immature neurons: it is faster, spans a longer distance, does not require radial glial guidance, and is not limited to postmitotic neurons. In recent years many molecules have been found to be expressed specifically in this pathway and to directly affect this migration. Soluble factors with inhibitory, attractive and inductive roles in migration have been described, as well as molecules mediating cell-to-cell and cell-substrate interactions. However, it is still unclear how the various molecules and cells interact to account for the special migratory behavior in the RMS. Here we will propose some candidate mechanisms for roles in initiating and stopping SVZ/RMS migration.

  12. Erythropoietin, Stem Cell Factor, and Cancer Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Mellado, Maria J; Monjaras-Embriz, Victor; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia

    2017-01-01

    Cell migration of normal cells is tightly regulated. However, tumor cells are exposed to a modified microenvironment that promotes cell migration. Invasive migration of tumor cells is stimulated by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and is regulated by growth factors. Erythropoietin (Epo) is a glycoprotein hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and is also known to be a potent chemotactic agent that induces cell migration by binding to its receptor (EpoR). Expression of EpoR has been documented in tumor cells, and the potential of Epo to induce cell migration has been explored. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a cytokine that synergizes the effects of Epo during erythropoiesis. SCF is the ligand of c-Kit, a member of the RTKs family. Molecular activity of RTKs is a primary stimulus of cell motility. Thus, expression of the SCF/c-Kit axis is associated with cell migration. In this chapter, we summarize data describing the potential effect of Epo/EpoR and SCF/c-Kit as promoters of cancer cell migration. We also integrate recent findings on molecular mechanisms of Epo/EpoR- and SCF/c-Kit-mediated migration described in various cancer models. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Attraction rules: germ cell migration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Raz, Erez; Reichman-Fried, Michal

    2006-08-01

    The migration of zebrafish primordial germ cell towards the region where the gonad develops is guided by the chemokine SDF-1a. Recent studies show that soon after their specification, the cells undergo a series of morphological alterations before they become motile and are able to respond to attractive cues. As migratory cells, primordial germ cells move towards their target while correcting their path upon exiting a cyclic phase in which morphological cell polarity is lost. In the following stages, the cells gather at specific locations and move as cell clusters towards their final target. In all of these stages, zebrafish germ cells respond as individual cells to alterations in the shape of the sdf-1a expression domain, by directed migration towards their target - the position where the gonad develops.

  14. Dissecting mesenchymal stem cell movement: migration assays for tracing and deducing cell migration.

    PubMed

    Spaeth, Erika L; Marini, Frank C

    2011-01-01

    Targeted migration is a necessary attribute for any gene delivery vehicle. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been used as effective delivery vehicles for treatments against cancer, graft versus host disease, -arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and many other diseases. MSC migrate toward sites of inflammation, however, the true migratory mechanism has yet to be elucidated. There are several receptors and respective chemokines known to be involved in the migration of the MSC. Further insight to MSC migration will be revealed both in vivo and in vitro through the application of migration assays from the most simple, to the more technologically demanding.

  15. Vitamin A facilitates enteric nervous system precursor migration by reducing Pten accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ming; Sato, Yoshiharu; Lyons-Warren, Ariel; Zhang, Bin; Kane, Maureen A.; Napoli, Joseph L.; Heuckeroth, Robert O.

    2010-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease is a serious disorder of enteric nervous system (ENS) development caused by the failure of ENS precursor migration into the distal bowel. We now demonstrate that retinoic acid (RA) is crucial for GDNF-induced ENS precursor migration, cell polarization and lamellipodia formation, and that vitamin A depletion causes distal bowel aganglionosis in serum retinol-binding-protein-deficient (Rbp4–/–) mice. Ret heterozygosity increases the incidence and severity of distal bowel aganglionosis induced by vitamin A deficiency in Rbp4–/– animals. Furthermore, RA reduces phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) accumulation in migrating cells, whereas Pten overexpression slows ENS precursor migration. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that vitamin A deficiency is a non-genetic risk factor that increases Hirschsprung disease penetrance and expressivity, suggesting that some cases of Hirschsprung disease might be preventable by optimizing maternal nutrition. PMID:20110328

  16. A Novel Collagen Dot Assay for Monitoring Cancer Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Alford, Vincent M; Roth, Eric; Zhang, Qian; Cao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration is a critical determinant of cancer invasion and metastasis. Drugs targeting cancer cell migration have been hindered due to the lack of effective assays for monitoring cancer cell migration. Here we describe a novel method to microscopically monitor cell migration in a quantitative fashion. This assay can be used to study genes involved in cancer cell migration, as well as screening anticancer drugs that target this cellular process.

  17. Multiscale wolf predation risk for elk: does migration reduce risk?

    PubMed

    Hebblewhite, Mark; Merrill, Evelyn H

    2007-05-01

    While migration is hypothesized to reduce predation risk for ungulates, there have been few direct empirical tests of this hypothesis. Furthermore, few studies examined multiscale predation risk avoidance by migrant ungulates, yet recent research reveals that predator-prey interactions occur at multiple scales. We test the predation risk reduction hypothesis at two spatial scales in a partially migratory elk (Cervus elaphus) population by comparing exposure of migrant and resident elk to wolf (Canis lupus) predation risk. We used GPS and VHF telemetry data collected from 67 migrant and 44 resident elk over the summers of 2002-2004 in and adjacent to Banff National Park (BNP), Canada. We used wolf GPS and VHF telemetry data to estimate predation risk as a function of the relative probability of wolf occurrence weighted by a spatial density model that adjusted for varying pack sizes. We validated the predation risk model using independent data on wolf-killed elk, and showed that combining wolf presence and spatial density best predicted where an elk was likely to be killed. Predation risk on summer ranges of migrant elk was reduced by 70% compared to within resident elk summer ranges. Because wolves avoided areas near high human activity, however, fine-scale selection by resident elk for areas near high human activity reduced their predation risk exposure to only 15% higher than migrants, a difference significant in only one of three summers. Finally, during actual migration, elk were exposed to 1.7 times more predation risk than residents, even though migration was rapid. Our results support the hypothesis that large-scale migrations can reduce predation. However, we also show that where small-scale spatial variation in predation risk exists, nonmigratory elk may equally reduce predation risk as effectively as migrants under some circumstances.

  18. Study of Cell Migration in Microfabricated Channels

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Pablo; Terriac, Emmanuel; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria; Piel, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    The method described here allows the study of cell migration under confinement in one dimension. It is based on the use of microfabricated channels, which impose a polarized phenotype to cells by physical constraints. Once inside channels, cells have only two possibilities: move forward or backward. This simplified migration in which directionality is restricted facilitates the automatic tracking of cells and the extraction of quantitative parameters to describe cell movement. These parameters include cell velocity, changes in direction, and pauses during motion. Microchannels are also compatible with the use of fluorescent markers and are therefore suitable to study localization of intracellular organelles and structures during cell migration at high resolution. Finally, the surface of the channels can be functionalized with different substrates, allowing the control of the adhesive properties of the channels or the study of haptotaxis. In summary, the system here described is intended to analyze the migration of large cell numbers in conditions in which both the geometry and the biochemical nature of the environment are controlled, facilitating the normalization and reproducibility of independent experiments. PMID:24637569

  19. Study of cell migration in microfabricated channels.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Pablo; Terriac, Emmanuel; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria; Piel, Matthieu

    2014-02-21

    The method described here allows the study of cell migration under confinement in one dimension. It is based on the use of microfabricated channels, which impose a polarized phenotype to cells by physical constraints. Once inside channels, cells have only two possibilities: move forward or backward. This simplified migration in which directionality is restricted facilitates the automatic tracking of cells and the extraction of quantitative parameters to describe cell movement. These parameters include cell velocity, changes in direction, and pauses during motion. Microchannels are also compatible with the use of fluorescent markers and are therefore suitable to study localization of intracellular organelles and structures during cell migration at high resolution. Finally, the surface of the channels can be functionalized with different substrates, allowing the control of the adhesive properties of the channels or the study of haptotaxis. In summary, the system here described is intended to analyze the migration of large cell numbers in conditions in which both the geometry and the biochemical nature of the environment are controlled, facilitating the normalization and reproducibility of independent experiments.

  20. Collective cell migration: guidance principles and hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Haeger, Anna; Wolf, Katarina; Zegers, Mirjam M; Friedl, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Collective cell migration results from the establishment and maintenance of collective polarization, mechanocoupling, and cytoskeletal kinetics. The guidance of collective cell migration depends on a reciprocal process between cell-intrinsic multicellular organization with leader-follower cell behavior and results in mechanosensory integration of extracellular guidance cues. Important guidance mechanisms include chemotaxis, haptotaxis, durotaxis, and strain-induced mechanosensing to move cell groups along interfaces and paths of least resistance. Additional guidance mechanisms steering cell groups during specialized conditions comprise electrotaxis and passive drift. To form higher-order cell and tissue structures during morphogenesis and cancer invasion, these guidance principles act in parallel and are integrated for collective adaptation to and shaping of varying tissue environments. We review mechanochemical and electrical inputs and multiparameter signal integration underlying collective guidance, decision making, and outcome.

  1. In vitro cell migration and invasion assays.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Nina; Walzl, Angelika; Unger, Christine; Rosner, Margit; Krupitza, Georg; Hengstschläger, Markus; Dolznig, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Determining the migratory and invasive capacity of tumor and stromal cells and clarifying the underlying mechanisms is most relevant for novel strategies in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, drug development and treatment. Here we shortly summarize the different modes of cell travelling and review in vitro methods, which can be used to evaluate migration and invasion. We provide a concise summary of established migration/invasion assays described in the literature, list advantages, limitations and drawbacks, give a tabular overview for convenience and depict the basic principles of the assays graphically. In many cases particular research problems and specific cell types do not leave a choice for a broad variety of usable assays. However, for most standard applications using adherent cells, based on our experience we suggest to use exclusion zone assays to evaluate migration/invasion. We substantiate our choice by demonstrating that the advantages outbalance the drawbacks e.g. the simple setup, the easy readout, the kinetic analysis, the evaluation of cell morphology and the feasibility to perform the assay with standard laboratory equipment. Finally, innovative 3D migration and invasion models including heterotypic cell interactions are discussed. These methods recapitulate the in vivo situation most closely. Results obtained with these assays have already shed new light on cancer cell spreading and potentially will uncover unknown mechanisms.

  2. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles for several migrating cell types identifies cell migration regulators.

    PubMed

    Bae, Young-Kyung; Macabenta, Frank; Curtis, Heather Leigh; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2017-04-18

    Cell migration is an instrumental process that ensures cells are properly positioned to support the specification of distinct tissue types during development. To provide insight, we used fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to isolate two migrating cell types from the Drosophila embryo: caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM) cells, precursors of longitudinal muscles of the gut, and hemocytes (HCs), the Drosophila equivalent of blood cells. ~350 genes were identified from each of the sorted samples using RNA-seq, and in situ hybridization was used to confirm expression within each cell type or, alternatively, within other interacting, co-sorted cell types. To start, the two gene expression profiling datasets were compared to identify cell migration regulators that are potentially generally-acting. 73 genes were present in both CVM cell and HC gene expression profiles, including the transcription factor zinc finger homeodomain-1 (zfh1). Comparisons with gene expression profiles of Drosophila border cells that migrate during oogenesis had a more limited overlap, with only the genes neyo (neo) and singed (sn) found to be expressed in border cells as well as CVM cells and HCs, respectively. Neo encodes a protein with Zona pellucida domain linked to cell polarity, while sn encodes an actin binding protein. Tissue specific RNAi expression coupled with live in vivo imaging was used to confirm cell-autonomous roles for zfh1 and neo in supporting CVM cell migration, whereas previous studies had demonstrated a role for Sn in supporting HC migration. In addition, comparisons were made to migrating cells from vertebrates. Seven genes were found expressed by chick neural crest cells, CVM cells, and HCs including extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and proteases. In summary, we show that genes shared in common between CVM cells, HCs, and other migrating cell types can help identify regulators of cell migration. Our analyses show that neo in addition to zfh1 and sn studied

  3. Cell-Substrate Interactions Feedback to Direct Cell Migration along or against Morphological Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Girish; Ho, Chia-Chi; Co, Carlos C.

    2015-01-01

    In response to external stimuli, cells polarize morphologically into teardrop shapes prior to moving in the direction of their blunt leading edge through lamellipodia extension and retraction of the rear tip. This textbook description of cell migration implies that the initial polarization sets the direction of cell migration. Using microfabrication techniques to control cell morphologies and the direction of migration without gradients, we demonstrate that after polarization, lamelipodia extension and attachment can feedback to change and even reverse the initial morphological polarization. Cells do indeed migrate faster in the direction of their morphologically polarization. However, feedback from subsequent lamellipodia extension and attachment can be so powerful as to induce cells to reverse and migrate against their initial polarization, albeit at a slower speed. Constitutively active mutants of RhoA show that RhoA stimulates cell motility when cells are guided either along or against their initial polarization. Cdc42 activation and inhibition, which results in loss of directional motility during chemotaxis, only reduces the speed of migration without altering the directionality of migration on the micropatterns. These results reveal significant differences between substrate directed cell migration and that induced by chemotactic gradients. PMID:26186588

  4. Glial chain migration requires pioneer cells.

    PubMed

    Aigouy, Benoît; Lepelletier, Léa; Giangrande, Angela

    2008-11-05

    The migration of glial chains along the nerve entails directional and coordinated movement. Despite its importance in the formation of the nervous system, this process remains poorly understood, because of the difficulty of manipulating identified cells. Using confocal time-lapse and cell ablation in the whole animal, we provide direct evidence for a discrete number of Drosophila peripheral glial cells acting as pioneers and guiding the rest of the migratory chain. These cells are in direct contact with several follower cells through a very long and stable cytoplasmic extension. The presence of pioneer cells and homotypic interactions at the tip of the chain allows coordinated movement and the formation of a continuous sheath around the nerve. These in vivo data open novel perspectives for understanding the cellular bases of vertebrate glial migration in physiological and pathological conditions.

  5. Chemokine Oligomerization in Cell Signaling and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Sharp, Joshua S.; Handel, Tracy M.; Prestegard, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines are small proteins best known for their role in controlling the migration of diverse cells, particularly leukocytes. Upon binding to their G-protein-coupled receptors on the leukocytes, chemokines stimulate the signaling events that cause cytoskeletal rearrangements involved in cell movement, and migration of the cells along chemokine gradients. Depending on the cell type, chemokines also induce many other types of cellular responses including those related to defense mechanisms, cell proliferation, survival, and development. Historically, most research efforts have focused on the interaction of chemokines with their receptors, where monomeric forms of the ligands are the functionally relevant state. More recently, however, the importance of chemokine interactions with cell surface glycosaminoglycans has come to light, and in most cases appears to involve oligomeric chemokine structures. This review summarizes existing knowledge relating to the structure and function of chemokine oligomers, and emerging methodology for determining structures of complex chemokine assemblies in the future. PMID:23663982

  6. Primordial Germ Cell Specification and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are the progenitor cells that give rise to the gametes. In some animals, the germline is induced by zygotic transcription factors, whereas in others, primordial germ cell specification occurs via inheritance of maternally provided gene products known as germ plasm. Once specified, the primordial germ cells of some animals must acquire motility and migrate to the gonad in order to survive. In all animals examined, perinuclear structures called germ granules form within germ cells. This review focuses on some of the recent studies, conducted by several groups using diverse systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates, which have provided mechanistic insight into the molecular regulation of germ cell specification and migration. PMID:26918157

  7. Engineered Models of Confined Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Colin D.; Hung, Wei-Chien; Wirtz, Denis; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Cells in the body are physically confined by neighboring cells, tissues, and the extracellular matrix. Although physical confinement modulates intracellular signaling and the underlying mechanisms of cell migration, it is difficult to study in vivo. Furthermore, traditional two-dimensional cell migration assays do not recapitulate the complex topographies found in the body. Therefore, a number of experimental in vitro models that confine and impose forces on cells in well-defined microenvironments have been engineered. We describe the design and use of microfluidic microchannel devices, grooved substrates, micropatterned lines, vertical confinement devices, patterned hydrogels, and micropipette aspiration assays for studying cell responses to confinement. Use of these devices has enabled the delineation of changes in cytoskeletal reorganization, cell–substrate adhesions, intracellular signaling, nuclear shape, and gene expression that result from physical confinement. These assays and the physiologically relevant signaling pathways that have been elucidated are beginning to have a translational and clinical impact. PMID:27420571

  8. Sphingolipids inhibit vimentin-dependent cell migration.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Claire L; Kemppainen, Kati; Isoniemi, Kimmo O; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Goto, Hidemasa; Inagaki, Masaki; Fazeli, Elnaz; Eriksson, John E; Törnquist, Kid

    2015-06-01

    The sphingolipids, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC), can induce or inhibit cellular migration. The intermediate filament protein vimentin is an inducer of migration and a marker for epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Given that keratin intermediate filaments are regulated by SPC, with consequences for cell motility, we wanted to determine whether vimentin is also regulated by sphingolipid signalling and whether it is a determinant for sphingolipid-mediated functions. In cancer cells where S1P and SPC inhibited migration, we observed that S1P and SPC induced phosphorylation of vimentin on S71, leading to a corresponding reorganization of vimentin filaments. These effects were sphingolipid-signalling-dependent, because inhibition of either the S1P2 receptor (also known as S1PR2) or its downstream effector Rho-associated kinase (ROCK, for which there are two isoforms ROCK1 and ROCK2) nullified the sphingolipid-induced effects on vimentin organization and S71 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the anti-migratory effect of S1P and SPC could be prevented by expressing S71-phosphorylation-deficient vimentin. In addition, we demonstrated, by using wild-type and vimentin-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, that the sphingolipid-mediated inhibition of migration is dependent on vimentin. These results imply that this newly discovered sphingolipid-vimentin signalling axis exerts brake-and-throttle functions in the regulation of cell migration.

  9. Tumor cell migration is a superstatistical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabry, Ben

    2014-03-01

    Over short time scales, cell migration can be well described as a homogeneous correlated random walk with a fixed average step length and a certain degree of directional persistence. On time scales of up to 24 h, however, the migration process is highly inhomogeneous. Superstatistical fluctuations of step length and directional persistence lead to ``anomalous'' features, such as an exponential step width distribution (SWD) and a superdiffusive mean squared displacement (MSD). These features are quantitatively reproduced by a correlated random walk with temporally varying persistence. By comparing cell migration on planar substrates and in a 3D collagen matrix, we demonstrate that the globally averaged MSD and SWD are not sensitive to the microscopic migration mechanism of the cells and can therefore yield identical results in these different environments. By contrast, the temporal fluctuations of step length and directional persistence, and their mutual correlations, provide a characteristic fingerprint of the migration process in different environments. In collaboration with Julian Steinwachs and Claus Metzner, Department of Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.

  10. Fibrin glue inhibits migration of ocular surface epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yeung, A M; Faraj, L A; McIntosh, O D; Dhillon, V K; Dua, H S

    2016-10-01

    PurposeFibrin glue has been used successfully in numerous ophthalmic surgical procedures. Recently, fibrin glue has been used in limbal stem cell transplantation to reduce both operative time and to negate the need for sutures. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of fibrin glue on epithelial cell migration in vitro.MethodsCorneoscleral rims were split to retain the epithelial layer, Bowman's layer, and anterior stroma. Rims were cut into eight equal-sized pieces and were placed directly on culture plates or affixed with fibrin glue. Rims were maintained in culture for 25 days and epithelial cell growth was monitored. Cells were photographed to measure area or growth and immunofluorescence staining of explants for fibrin was performed.ResultsExplants that were glued demonstrated significantly delayed epithelial cell growth and migration as compared with explants without glue. By day 16, all fibrin glue had dissolved and coincided with onset of cell growth from glued explants. Cell growth commenced between days 3 and 4 for control explants without glue and around days 14-16 for explants with fibrin glue.ConclusionsFibrin glue delays epithelial cell migration by acting as a physical barrier and can potentially interfere with explant-derived limbal epithelial cell migration on to the corneal surface. We propose that glue should be used to attach the conjunctival frill of the limbal explant but care should be taken to ensure that the glue does not wrap around the explant if used to secure the explant as well. Strategic use of glue, to attach the recessed conjunctiva, can be advantageous in delaying conjunctival cell migration and reducing the need for sequential sector conjunctival epitheliectomy.

  11. Cell migration on ridges and cliffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Meghan; McCann, Colin; Kopace, Rael; Watts, John; Homan, Tess; Losert, Wolfgang

    2009-03-01

    The amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is a model system for the study of cellular migration, an important physiological process that occurs in embryonic development, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. We study the motion of D. discoideum on surfaces with various topographies, particularly those that affect the direction of cellular migration. Topographical features, such as ridges and cliffs, were fabricated using multiphoton absorption polymerization. As the cells encountered these topographical features, we tracked their overall motions and shapes, as well as the locations and intensities of certain intracellular signals. We found that when cells undergoing chemokinesis, random migration in response to a chemical signal, encounter a ridge, they tend to move along that ridge, even if the ridge is shorter than the cell. When cells undergoing chemotaxis, directed migration in response to a chemical signal, are directed off of a cliff, they do not fall off the cliff. Instead, they search for new attachment points, eventually change direction, and continue moving along the edge of the cliff. Both ridges and cliffs affect more than just the motion of a cell; they also affect its shape.

  12. Signaling Networks that Regulate Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Devreotes, Peter; Horwitz, Alan Rick

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Stimuli that promote cell migration, such as chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors in metazoans and cyclic AMP in Dictyostelium, activate signaling pathways that control organization of the actin cytoskeleton and adhesion complexes. The Rho-family GTPases are a key convergence point of these pathways. Their effectors include actin regulators such as formins, members of the WASP/WAVE family and the Arp2/3 complex, and the myosin II motor protein. Pathways that link to the Rho GTPases include Ras GTPases, TorC2, and PI3K. Many of the molecules involved form gradients within cells, which define the front and rear of migrating cells, and are also established in related cellular behaviors such as neuronal growth cone extension and cytokinesis. The signaling molecules that regulate migration can be integrated to provide a model of network function. The network displays biochemical excitability seen as spontaneous waves of activation that propagate along the cell cortex. These events coordinate cell movement and can be biased by external cues to bring about directed migration. PMID:26238352

  13. Modeling traction forces in collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Juliane; Basan, Markus; Hayes, Ryan L.; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Levine, Herbert

    2015-03-01

    Collective cell migration is an important process in embryonic development, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. We have developed a particle-based simulation for collective cell migration that describes flow patterns and finger formation at the tissue edge observed in wound healing experiments. We can apply methods for calculating intercellular stress to our simulation model, and have thereby provided evidence for the validity of a stress reconstitution method from traction forces used in experiments. To accurately capture experimentally measured traction forces and stresses in the tissue, which are mostly tensile, we have to include intracellular acto-myosin contraction into our simulation. We can then reproduce the experimentally observed behavior of cells moving around a circular obstacle, and suggest underlying mechanisms for cell-cell alignment and generation of traction force patterns.

  14. Bursts of activity in collective cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Chepizhko, Oleksandr; Giampietro, Costanza; Mastrapasqua, Eleonora; Nourazar, Mehdi; Ascagni, Miriam; Sugni, Michela; Fascio, Umberto; Leggio, Livio; Malinverno, Chiara; Scita, Giorgio; Santucci, Stéphane; Alava, Mikko J.; Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dense monolayers of living cells display intriguing relaxation dynamics, reminiscent of soft and glassy materials close to the jamming transition, and migrate collectively when space is available, as in wound healing or in cancer invasion. Here we show that collective cell migration occurs in bursts that are similar to those recorded in the propagation of cracks, fluid fronts in porous media, and ferromagnetic domain walls. In analogy with these systems, the distribution of activity bursts displays scaling laws that are universal in different cell types and for cells moving on different substrates. The main features of the invasion dynamics are quantitatively captured by a model of interacting active particles moving in a disordered landscape. Our results illustrate that collective motion of living cells is analogous to the corresponding dynamics in driven, but inanimate, systems. PMID:27681632

  15. Metformin Inhibits Migration and Invasion of Cholangiocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed

    Trinh, Son Xuan; Nguyen, Huyen Thi Bich; Saimuang, Kween; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Chan On, Waraporn

    2017-02-01

    Background: Metformin is an oral anti-diabetic agent that has been widely prescribed for treatment of type II diabetes. Anti-cancer properties of metformin have been revealed for numerous human malignancies including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) with anti-proliferative effects in vitro. However, effects on CCA cell migration and invasion have not been fully investigated. The present study aimed to explore the inhibitory effects of metformin on motility, migration and invasion of the CCA cell line HuCCT1, and examine molecular mechanisms underlying metformin effects. Methods: HuCCT1 cells were exposed to increasing doses of metformin. Viability and growth of HuCCT1 cells were assessed by MTS and colony formation assays, respectively. Motility, migration and invasion of metformin-treated HuCCT1 cells were determined in vitro using wound healing, transwell migration and matrigel invasion assays. Expression of signaling molecules and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers was assessed by Western blotting. Results: It was observed that metformin significantly decreased HuCCT1 cell viability and colony formation. The agent also markedly reduced wound closure, migration and invasion of HuCCT1 cells. Furthermore, metformin exposure resulted in decreased STAT3 activation and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 expression. In addition, it upregulated the expression of E-cadherin, while downregulating that of N-cadherin, Snail, and MMP-2. Conclusion: These results demonstrated inhibitory effects of metformin on CCA cell migration and invasion, possibly involving the STAT3 pathway and reversal of EMT markers expression. They further suggest that metformin may be useful for CCA management.

  16. Impact of jamming on collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nnetu, Kenechukwu David; Knorr, Melanie; Pawlizak, Steve; Fuhs, Thomas; Zink, Mareike; KäS, Josef A.

    2012-02-01

    Multi-cellular migration plays an important role in physiological processes such as embryogenesis, cancer metastasis and tissue repair. During migration, single cells undergo cycles of extension, adhesion and retraction resulting in morphological changes. In a confluent monolayer, there are inter-cellular interactions and crowding, however, the impact of these interactions on the dynamics and elasticity of the monolayer at the multi-cellular and single cell level is not well understood. Here we study the dynamics of a confluent epithelial monolayer by simultaneously measuring cell motion at the multi-cellular and single cell level for various cell densities and tensile elasticity. At the multi-cellular level, the system exhibited spatial kinetic transitions from isotropic to anisotropic migration on long times and the velocity of the monolayer decreased with increasing cell density. Moreover, the dynamics was spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Interestingly, the dynamics was also heterogeneous in wound-healing assays and the correlation length was fitted by compressed exponential. On the single cell scale, we observed transient caging effects with increasing cage rearrangement times as the system age due to an increase in density. Also, the density dependent elastic modulus of the monolayer scaled as a weak power law. Together, these findings suggest that caging effects at the single cell level initiates a slow and heterogeneous dynamics at the multi-cellular level which is similar to the glassy dynamics of deformable colloidal systems.

  17. Heparin inhibits human coronary artery smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kohno, M; Yokokawa, K; Yasunari, K; Minami, M; Kano, H; Mandal, A K; Yoshikawa, J

    1998-09-01

    Heparin, an anticoagulant, has been shown to reduce neointimal proliferation and restenosis following vascular injury in experimental studies, but the clinical trials of heparin in coronary balloon angioplasty have been negative. The current study, therefore, examined the effect of heparin on basal or stimulated migration by serum and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB in cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (SMCs) by Boyden's chamber method. In addition, the reversibility of the heparin effect on human coronary artery SMC migration was examined. Fetal calf serum (FCS) and PDGF-BB stimulated SMC migration in a concentration-dependent manner. Heparin in moderate to high concentration (10 to 100 U/mL) exhibited concentration-related inhibition of FCS- and PDGF-BB-stimulated SMC migration; however, a low concentration (1 U/mL) of heparin had no inhibitory effects. Heparin also had weak inhibitory effects on nonstimulated SMC migration. The SMCs that were exposed to a high concentration (100 U/mL) of heparin for 6 hours were capable of migrating after a short lag period of removal of heparin from the culture medium. These SMCs also showed recovery of responses to FCS and PDGF-BB by migrating significantly greater than the nonstimulated level. Furthermore, heparin-containing medium did not contain detached cells. These results indicate that heparin inhibits human coronary artery SMC migration, especially when stimulated by FCS or PDGF-BB, and that this inhibitory effect of heparin is reversible and not simply a function of killing cells.

  18. Signal Relay During Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, Can; Rericha, Erin; Ott, Edward; Losert, Wolfgang

    2012-02-01

    We developed a signal relay model to quantify the effect of intercellular communication in presence of an external signal, during the motion of groups of Dictyostelium discoideum cells. A key parameter is the ratio of amplitude of the cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) a signaling chemical secreted from individual cells versus the external cAMP field, which defines a time scale. Another time scale is set by the degradation rate of the cAMP. In our simulations, the competition between these two time scales results rich dynamics including uniform motion, as well as streaming and clustering instabilities. The simulations are compared to experiments for a wide range of different external signal strengths for both cells that secrete cAMP and a mutant which cannot relay cAMP. Under different strength of external linear cAMP gradient, the wild type cells form streams and exhibit clustering due to the intercellular signaling through individual cAMP secretion. In contrast, cells lacking signal relay move relatively straight. We find that the model captures both independent motion and the formation of aggregates when cells relay the signal.

  19. Cell migration in paediatric glioma; characterisation and potential therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Cockle, J V; Picton, S; Levesley, J; Ilett, E; Carcaboso, A M; Short, S; Steel, L P; Melcher, A; Lawler, S E; Brüning-Richardson, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paediatric high grade glioma (pHGG) and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) are highly aggressive brain tumours. Their invasive phenotype contributes to their limited therapeutic response, and novel treatments that block brain tumour invasion are needed. Methods: Here, we examine the migratory characteristics and treatment effect of small molecule glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors, lithium chloride (LiCl) and the indirubin derivative 6-bromoindirubin-oxime (BIO), previously shown to inhibit the migration of adult glioma cells, on two pHGG cell lines (SF188 and KNS42) and one patient-derived DIPG line (HSJD-DIPG-007) using 2D (transwell membrane, immunofluorescence, live cell imaging) and 3D (migration on nanofibre plates and spheroid invasion in collagen) assays. Results: All lines were migratory, but there were differences in morphology and migration rates. Both LiCl and BIO reduced migration and instigated cytoskeletal rearrangement of stress fibres and focal adhesions when viewed by immunofluorescence. In the presence of drugs, loss of polarity and differences in cellular movement were observed by live cell imaging. Conclusions: Ours is the first study to demonstrate that it is possible to pharmacologically target migration of paediatric glioma in vitro using LiCl and BIO, and we conclude that these agents and their derivatives warrant further preclinical investigation as potential anti-migratory therapeutics for these devastating tumours. PMID:25628092

  20. Contractile forces in tumor cell migration.

    PubMed

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja; Rösel, Daniel; Fabry, Ben; Brábek, Jan

    2008-09-01

    Cancer is a deadly disease primarily because of the ability of tumor cells to spread from the primary tumor, to invade into the connective tissue, and to form metastases at distant sites. In contrast to cell migration on a planar surface where large cell tractions and contractile forces are not essential, tractions and forces are thought to be crucial for overcoming the resistance and steric hindrance of a dense three-dimensional connective tissue matrix. In this review, we describe recently developed biophysical tools, including 2-D and 3-D traction microscopy to measure contractile forces of cells. We discuss evidence indicating that tumor cell invasiveness is associated with increased contractile force generation.

  1. Myosin IIA dependent retrograde flow drives 3D cell migration.

    PubMed

    Shih, Wenting; Yamada, Soichiro

    2010-04-21

    Epithelial cell migration is an essential part of embryogenesis and tissue regeneration, yet their migration is least understood. Using our three-dimensional (3D) motility analysis, migrating epithelial cells formed an atypical polarized cell shape with the nucleus leading the cell front and a contractile cell rear. Migrating epithelial cells exerted traction forces to deform both the anterior and posterior extracellular matrix toward the cell body. The cell leading edge exhibited a myosin II-dependent retrograde flow with the magnitude and direction consistent with surrounding network deformation. Interestingly, on a two-dimensional substrate, myosin IIA-deficient cells migrated faster than wild-type cells, but in a 3D gel, these myosin IIA-deficient cells were unpolarized and immobile. In contrast, the migration rates of myosin IIB-deficient cells were similar to wild-type cells. Therefore, myosin IIA, not myosin IIB, is required for 3D epithelial cell migration.

  2. T cell migration, search strategies and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Krummel, Matthew F; Bartumeus, Frederic; Gérard, Audrey

    2016-03-01

    T cell migration is essential for T cell responses; it allows for the detection of cognate antigen at the surface of antigen-presenting cells and for interactions with other cells involved in the immune response. Although appearing random, growing evidence suggests that T cell motility patterns are strategic and governed by mechanisms that are optimized for both the activation stage of the cell and for environment-specific cues. In this Opinion article, we discuss how the combined effects of T cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic forces influence T cell motility patterns in the context of highly complex tissues that are filled with other cells involved in parallel motility. In particular, we examine how insights from 'search theory' can be used to describe T cell movement across an 'exploitation-exploration trade-off' in the context of activation versus effector function and lymph nodes versus peripheral tissues.

  3. Collisions of deformable cells lead to collective migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranson, Igor; Löber, Jakob; Ziebert, Falko

    2015-03-01

    Collective migration of eukaryotic cells plays a fundamental role in tissue growth, wound healing and immune response. The motion, arising spontaneously or in response to chemical and mechanical stimuli, is also important for understanding life-threatening pathologies, such as cancer and metastasis formation. We present a phase-field model to describe the movement of many self-organized, interacting cells. The model takes into account the main mechanisms of cell motility - actomyosin dynamics, as well as substrate-mediated and cell-cell adhesion. It predicts that collective cell migration emerges spontaneously as a result of inelastic collisions between neighboring cells: collisions lead to a mutual alignment of the cell velocities and to the formation of coherently-moving multi-cellular clusters. Small cell-to-cell adhesion, in turn, reduces the propensity for large-scale collective migration, while higher adhesion leads to the formation of moving bands. Our study provides valuable insight into biological processes associated with collective cell motility. J. L. acknowledges funding from the German Science Foundation (DFG) within the GRK 1558. F. Z. acknowledges funding from the German Science Foundation (DFG) via Project ZI 1232/2-1. I. S. A. was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of.

  4. Collisions of deformable cells lead to collective migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löber, Jakob; Ziebert, Falko; Aranson, Igor S.

    2015-03-01

    Collective migration of eukaryotic cells plays a fundamental role in tissue growth, wound healing and immune response. The motion, arising spontaneously or in response to chemical and mechanical stimuli, is also important for understanding life-threatening pathologies, such as cancer and metastasis formation. We present a phase-field model to describe the movement of many self-organized, interacting cells. The model takes into account the main mechanisms of cell motility - acto-myosin dynamics, as well as substrate-mediated and cell-cell adhesion. It predicts that collective cell migration emerges spontaneously as a result of inelastic collisions between neighboring cells: collisions lead to a mutual alignment of the cell velocities and to the formation of coherently-moving multi-cellular clusters. Small cell-to-cell adhesion, in turn, reduces the propensity for large-scale collective migration, while higher adhesion leads to the formation of moving bands. Our study provides valuable insight into biological processes associated with collective cell motility.

  5. Collisions of deformable cells lead to collective migration

    SciTech Connect

    Löber, Jakob; Ziebert, Falko; Aranson, Igor S.

    2015-03-17

    Collective migration of eukaryotic cells plays a fundamental role in tissue growth, wound healing and immune response. The motion, arising spontaneously or in response to chemical and mechanical stimuli, is also important for understanding life-threatening pathologies, such as cancer and metastasis formation. We present a phase-field model to describe the movement of many self-organized, interacting cells. The model takes into account the main mechanisms of cell motility – acto-myosin dynamics, as well as substrate-mediated and cell-cell adhesion. It predicts that collective cell migration emerges spontaneously as a result of inelastic collisions between neighboring cells: collisions lead to a mutual alignment of the cell velocities and to the formation of coherently-moving multi-cellular clusters. Small cell-to-cell adhesion, in turn, reduces the propensity for large-scale collective migration, while higher adhesion leads to the formation of moving bands. Our study provides valuable insight into biological processes associated with collective cell motility.

  6. Collisions of deformable cells lead to collective migration

    DOE PAGES

    Löber, Jakob; Ziebert, Falko; Aranson, Igor S.

    2015-03-17

    Collective migration of eukaryotic cells plays a fundamental role in tissue growth, wound healing and immune response. The motion, arising spontaneously or in response to chemical and mechanical stimuli, is also important for understanding life-threatening pathologies, such as cancer and metastasis formation. We present a phase-field model to describe the movement of many self-organized, interacting cells. The model takes into account the main mechanisms of cell motility – acto-myosin dynamics, as well as substrate-mediated and cell-cell adhesion. It predicts that collective cell migration emerges spontaneously as a result of inelastic collisions between neighboring cells: collisions lead to a mutual alignmentmore » of the cell velocities and to the formation of coherently-moving multi-cellular clusters. Small cell-to-cell adhesion, in turn, reduces the propensity for large-scale collective migration, while higher adhesion leads to the formation of moving bands. Our study provides valuable insight into biological processes associated with collective cell motility.« less

  7. Modeling collective cell migration in geometric confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarle, Victoria; Gauquelin, Estelle; Vedula, S. R. K.; D'Alessandro, Joseph; Lim, C. T.; Ladoux, Benoit; Gov, Nir S.

    2017-06-01

    Monolayer expansion has generated great interest as a model system to study collective cell migration. During such an expansion the culture front often develops ‘fingers’, which we have recently modeled using a proposed feedback between the curvature of the monolayer’s leading edge and the outward motility of the edge cells. We show that this model is able to explain the puzzling observed increase of collective cellular migration speed of a monolayer expanding into thin stripes, as well as describe the behavior within different confining geometries that were recently observed in experiments. These comparisons give support to the model and emphasize the role played by the edge cells and the edge shape during collective cell motion.

  8. Modeling collective cell migration in geometric confinement.

    PubMed

    Tarle, Victoria; Gauquelin, Estelle; Vedula, S R K; D'Alessandro, Joseph; Lim, C T; Ladoux, Benoit; Gov, Nir S

    2017-05-03

    Monolayer expansion has generated great interest as a model system to study collective cell migration. During such an expansion the culture front often develops 'fingers', which we have recently modeled using a proposed feedback between the curvature of the monolayer's leading edge and the outward motility of the edge cells. We show that this model is able to explain the puzzling observed increase of collective cellular migration speed of a monolayer expanding into thin stripes, as well as describe the behavior within different confining geometries that were recently observed in experiments. These comparisons give support to the model and emphasize the role played by the edge cells and the edge shape during collective cell motion.

  9. Flow and Diffusion in Channel-Guided Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Marel, Anna-Kristina; Zorn, Matthias; Klingner, Christoph; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Frey, Erwin; Rädler, Joachim O.

    2014-01-01

    Collective migration of mechanically coupled cell layers is a notable feature of wound healing, embryonic development, and cancer progression. In confluent epithelial sheets, the dynamics have been found to be highly heterogeneous, exhibiting spontaneous formation of swirls, long-range correlations, and glass-like dynamic arrest as a function of cell density. In contrast, the flow-like properties of one-sided cell-sheet expansion in confining geometries are not well understood. Here, we studied the short- and long-term flow of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells as they moved through microchannels. Using single-cell tracking and particle image velocimetry (PIV), we found that a defined averaged stationary cell current emerged that exhibited a velocity gradient in the direction of migration and a plug-flow-like profile across the advancing sheet. The observed flow velocity can be decomposed into a constant term of directed cell migration and a diffusion-like contribution that increases with density gradient. The diffusive component is consistent with the cell-density profile and front propagation speed predicted by the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation. To connect diffusion-mediated transport to underlying cellular motility, we studied single-cell trajectories and occurrence of vorticity. We discovered that the directed large-scale cell flow altered fluctuations in cellular motion at short length scales: vorticity maps showed a reduced frequency of swirl formation in channel flow compared with resting sheets of equal cell density. Furthermore, under flow, single-cell trajectories showed persistent long-range, random-walk behavior superimposed on drift, whereas cells in resting tissue did not show significant displacements with respect to neighboring cells. Our work thus suggests that active cell migration manifests itself in an underlying, spatially uniform drift as well as in randomized bursts of short-range correlated motion that lead to a diffusion-mediated transport

  10. Cell Chirality Induces Collective Cell Migration in Epithelial Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Hiraiwa, Tetsuya; Shibata, Tatsuo

    2015-10-01

    During early development, epithelial cells form a monolayer sheet and migrate in a uniform direction. Here, we address how this collective migration can occur without breaking the cell-to-cell attachments. Repeated contraction and expansion of the cell-to-cell interfaces enables the cells to rearrange their positions autonomously within the sheet. We show that when the interface tension is strengthened in a direction that is tilted from the body axis, cell rearrangements occur in such a way that unidirectional movement is induced. We use a vertex model to demonstrate that such anisotropic tension can generate the unidirectional motion of cell sheets. Our results suggest that cell chirality facilitates collective cell migration during tissue morphogenesis.

  11. Cadmium migration in aerospace nickel cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P. P.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of temperature, the nature of separator material, charge and discharge, carbonate contamination, and the mode of storage are studied with respect to the migration of active material from the negative toward the positive plate. A theoretical model is proposed which takes into account the solubility of cadmium in various concentrations of hydroxide and carbonate at different temperatures, the generation of the cadmiate ion, Cd(OH)3(-), during discharge, the migration of the cadmiate ion and particulate Cd(OH)2 due to electrophoretic effects and the movement of electrolyte in and out of the negative plate and, finally, the recrystallization of cadmiate ion in the separator as Cd(OH)2. Application of the theoretical model to observations of cadmium migration in cycled cells is also discussed.

  12. Myeloid cells Migrate in Response to IL-24

    PubMed Central

    Buzas, Krisztina; Oppenheim, Joost J.; Zack Howard, O. M.

    2011-01-01

    IL-24 (melanoma differentiation associated gene 7 product) is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family that has been reported to possess anti-tumor activity. IL-24 is produced by immune tissues and its expression can be induced in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by pathogen-associated molecules. While immune cells are known to produce IL-24, the response of immune cells to IL-24 is unclear. Using recombinant human IL-24, we demonstrated that IL-24 induces human monocyte and neutrophil migration, in vitro. An in vivo chemotaxis model showed that IL-24 attracted CD11b positive myeloid cells. To further characterize the chemotactic IL-24 response and type(s) of receptor(s) utilized by IL-24, we treated monocytes with signaling pathway inhibitors. IL-24-induced migration was reduced by pertussis toxin treatment, thus implicating G-protein coupled receptors in this process. Additionally, MEK and JAK inhibitors markedly decreased monocyte migration toward IL-24. These results suggest that IL-24 activates several signaling cascades in immune cells eliciting migration of myeloid cells, which may contribute to the known anti-cancer effects of IL-24. PMID:21703864

  13. Nestin(+) cells direct inflammatory cell migration in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Del Toro, Raquel; Chèvre, Raphael; Rodríguez, Cristina; Ordóñez, Antonio; Martínez-González, José; Andrés, Vicente; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón

    2016-09-02

    Atherosclerosis is a leading death cause. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells participate in atherogenesis, but it is unclear whether other mesenchymal cells contribute to this process. Bone marrow (BM) nestin(+) cells cooperate with endothelial cells in directing monocyte egress to bloodstream in response to infections. However, it remains unknown whether nestin(+) cells regulate inflammatory cells in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Here, we show that nestin(+) cells direct inflammatory cell migration during chronic inflammation. In Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice fed with high-fat diet, BM nestin(+) cells regulate the egress of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils. In the aorta, nestin(+) stromal cells increase ∼30 times and contribute to the atheroma plaque. Mcp1 deletion in nestin(+) cells-but not in endothelial cells only- increases circulating inflammatory cells, but decreases their aortic infiltration, delaying atheroma plaque formation and aortic valve calcification. Therefore, nestin expression marks cells that regulate inflammatory cell migration during atherosclerosis.

  14. Collective cell migration: leadership, invasion and segregation.

    PubMed

    Kabla, Alexandre J

    2012-12-07

    A number of biological processes, such as embryo development, cancer metastasis or wound healing, rely on cells moving in concert. The mechanisms leading to the emergence of coordinated motion remain however largely unexplored. Although biomolecular signalling is known to be involved in most occurrences of collective migration, the role of physical and mechanical interactions has only been recently investigated. In this study, a versatile framework for cell motility is implemented in silico in order to study the minimal requirements for the coordination of a group of epithelial cells. We find that cell motility and cell-cell mechanical interactions are sufficient to generate a broad array of behaviours commonly observed in vitro and in vivo. Cell streaming, sheet migration and susceptibility to leader cells are examples of behaviours spontaneously emerging from these simple assumptions, which might explain why collective effects are so ubiquitous in nature. The size of the population and its confinement appear, in particular, to play an important role in the coordination process. In all cases, the complex response of the population can be predicted from the knowledge of the correlation length of the velocity field measured in the bulk of the epithelial layer. This analysis provides also new insights into cancer metastasis and cell sorting, suggesting, in particular, that collective invasion might result from an emerging coordination in a system where single cells are mechanically unable to invade.

  15. Anti-GD2-ch14.18/CHO coated nanoparticles mediate glioblastoma (GBM)-specific delivery of the aromatase inhibitor, Letrozole, reducing proliferation, migration and chemoresistance in patient-derived GBM tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Tivnan, Amanda; Heilinger, Tatjana; Ramsey, Joanne M; O'Connor, Gemma; Pokorny, Jenny L; Sarkaria, Jann N; Stringer, Brett W; Day, Bryan W; Boyd, Andrew W; Kim, Ella L; Lode, Holger N; Cryan, Sally-Ann; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2017-03-07

    Aromatase is a critical enzyme in the irreversible conversion of androgens to oestrogens, with inhibition used clinically in hormone-dependent malignancies. We tested the hypothesis that targeted aromatase inhibition in an aggressive brain cancer called glioblastoma (GBM) may represent a new treatment strategy. In this study, aromatase inhibition was achieved using third generation inhibitor, Letrozole, encapsulated within the core of biodegradable poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs). PLGA-NPs were conjugated to human/mouse chimeric anti-GD2 antibody ch14.18/CHO, enabling specific targeting of GD2-positive GBM cells. Treatment of primary and recurrent patient-derived GBM cells with free-Letrozole (0.1 μM) led to significant decrease in cell proliferation and migration; in addition to reduced spheroid formation. Anti-GD2-ch14.18/CHO-NPs displayed specific targeting of GBM cells in colorectal-glioblastoma co-culture, with subsequent reduction in GBM cell numbers when treated with anti-GD2-ch14.18-PLGA-Let-NPs in combination with temozolomide. As miR-191 is an estrogen responsive microRNA, its expression, fluctuation and role in Letrozole treated GBM cells was evaluated, where treatment with premiR-191 was capable of rescuing the reduced proliferative phenotype induced by aromatase inhibitor. The repurposing and targeted delivery of Letrozole for the treatment of GBM, with the potential role of miR-191 identified, provides novel avenues for target assessment in this aggressive brain cancer.

  16. Anti-GD2-ch14.18/CHO coated nanoparticles mediate glioblastoma (GBM)-specific delivery of the aromatase inhibitor, Letrozole, reducing proliferation, migration and chemoresistance in patient-derived GBM tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Tivnan, Amanda; Heilinger, Tatjana; Ramsey, Joanne M; O’Connor, Gemma; Pokorny, Jenny L; Sarkaria, Jann N; Stringer, Brett W; Day, Bryan W; Boyd, Andrew W; Kim, Ella L; Lode, Holger N; Cryan, Sally-Ann; Prehn, Jochen H.M

    2017-01-01

    Aromatase is a critical enzyme in the irreversible conversion of androgens to oestrogens, with inhibition used clinically in hormone-dependent malignancies. We tested the hypothesis that targeted aromatase inhibition in an aggressive brain cancer called glioblastoma (GBM) may represent a new treatment strategy. In this study, aromatase inhibition was achieved using third generation inhibitor, Letrozole, encapsulated within the core of biodegradable poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs). PLGA-NPs were conjugated to human/mouse chimeric anti-GD2 antibody ch14.18/CHO, enabling specific targeting of GD2-positive GBM cells. Treatment of primary and recurrent patient-derived GBM cells with free-Letrozole (0.1 μM) led to significant decrease in cell proliferation and migration; in addition to reduced spheroid formation. Anti-GD2-ch14.18/CHO-NPs displayed specific targeting of GBM cells in colorectal-glioblastoma co-culture, with subsequent reduction in GBM cell numbers when treated with anti-GD2-ch14.18-PLGA-Let-NPs in combination with temozolomide. As miR-191 is an estrogen responsive microRNA, its expression, fluctuation and role in Letrozole treated GBM cells was evaluated, where treatment with premiR-191 was capable of rescuing the reduced proliferative phenotype induced by aromatase inhibitor. The repurposing and targeted delivery of Letrozole for the treatment of GBM, with the potential role of miR-191 identified, provides novel avenues for target assessment in this aggressive brain cancer. PMID:28178667

  17. Paxillin: a crossroad in pathological cell migration.

    PubMed

    López-Colomé, Ana María; Lee-Rivera, Irene; Benavides-Hidalgo, Regina; López, Edith

    2017-02-18

    Paxilllin is a multifunctional and multidomain focal adhesion adapter protein which serves an important scaffolding role at focal adhesions by recruiting structural and signaling molecules involved in cell movement and migration, when phosphorylated on specific Tyr and Ser residues. Upon integrin engagement with extracellular matrix, paxillin is phosphorylated at Tyr31, Tyr118, Ser188, and Ser190, activating numerous signaling cascades which promote cell migration, indicating that the regulation of adhesion dynamics is under the control of a complex display of signaling mechanisms. Among them, paxillin disassembly from focal adhesions induced by extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)-mediated phosphorylation of serines 106, 231, and 290 as well as the binding of the phosphatase PEST to paxillin have been shown to play a key role in cell migration. Paxillin also coordinates the spatiotemporal activation of signaling molecules, including Cdc42, Rac1, and RhoA GTPases, by recruiting GEFs, GAPs, and GITs to focal adhesions. As a major participant in the regulation of cell movement, paxillin plays distinct roles in specific tissues and developmental stages and is involved in immune response, epithelial morphogenesis, and embryonic development. Importantly, paxillin is also an essential player in pathological conditions including oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial cell barrier dysfunction, and cancer development and metastasis.

  18. Extrinsic ion migration in perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Zhen; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Yang, Ye; ...

    2017-04-10

    In this study, the migration of intrinsic ions (e.g., MA+, Pb2+, I–) in organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites has received significant attention with respect to the critical roles of these ions in the hysteresis and degradation in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, we demonstrate that extrinsic ions (e.g., Li+, H+, Na+), when used in the contact layers in PSCs, can migrate across the perovskite layer and strongly impact PSC operation. In a TiO2/perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD-based PSC, Li+-ion migration from spiro-OMeTAD to the perovskite and TiO2 layer is illustrated by time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry. The movement of Li+ ions in PSCs plays an importantmore » role in modulating the solar cell performance, tuning TiO2 carrier-extraction properties, and affecting hysteresis in PSCs. The influence of Li+-ion migration was investigated using time-resolved photoluminescence, Kelvin probe force microscopy, and external quantum efficiency spectra. Other extrinsic ions such as H+ and Na+ also show a clear impact on the performance and hysteresis in PSCs. Understanding the impacts of extrinsic ions in perovskite-based devices could lead to new material and device designs to further advance perovskite technology for various applications.« less

  19. Nestin+ cells direct inflammatory cell migration in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    del Toro, Raquel; Chèvre, Raphael; Rodríguez, Cristina; Ordóñez, Antonio; Martínez-González, José; Andrés, Vicente; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading death cause. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells participate in atherogenesis, but it is unclear whether other mesenchymal cells contribute to this process. Bone marrow (BM) nestin+ cells cooperate with endothelial cells in directing monocyte egress to bloodstream in response to infections. However, it remains unknown whether nestin+ cells regulate inflammatory cells in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Here, we show that nestin+ cells direct inflammatory cell migration during chronic inflammation. In Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice fed with high-fat diet, BM nestin+ cells regulate the egress of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils. In the aorta, nestin+ stromal cells increase ∼30 times and contribute to the atheroma plaque. Mcp1 deletion in nestin+ cells—but not in endothelial cells only— increases circulating inflammatory cells, but decreases their aortic infiltration, delaying atheroma plaque formation and aortic valve calcification. Therefore, nestin expression marks cells that regulate inflammatory cell migration during atherosclerosis. PMID:27586429

  20. The core planar cell polarity gene, Vangl2, directs adult corneal epithelial cell alignment and migration.

    PubMed

    Findlay, Amy S; Panzica, D Alessio; Walczysko, Petr; Holt, Amy B; Henderson, Deborah J; West, John D; Rajnicek, Ann M; Collinson, J Martin

    2016-10-01

    This study shows that the core planar cell polarity (PCP) genes direct the aligned cell migration in the adult corneal epithelium, a stratified squamous epithelium on the outer surface of the vertebrate eye. Expression of multiple core PCP genes was demonstrated in the adult corneal epithelium. PCP components were manipulated genetically and pharmacologically in human and mouse corneal epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of VANGL2 reduced the directional component of migration of human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells without affecting speed. It was shown that signalling through PCP mediators, dishevelled, dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis and Rho-associated protein kinase directs the alignment of HCE cells by affecting cytoskeletal reorganization. Cells in which VANGL2 was disrupted tended to misalign on grooved surfaces and migrate across, rather than parallel to the grooves. Adult corneal epithelial cells in which Vangl2 had been conditionally deleted showed a reduced rate of wound-healing migration. Conditional deletion of Vangl2 in the mouse corneal epithelium ablated the normal highly stereotyped patterns of centripetal cell migration in vivo from the periphery (limbus) to the centre of the cornea. Corneal opacity owing to chronic wounding is a major cause of degenerative blindness across the world, and this study shows that Vangl2 activity is required for directional corneal epithelial migration.

  1. The core planar cell polarity gene, Vangl2, directs adult corneal epithelial cell alignment and migration

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Amy S.; Panzica, D. Alessio; Walczysko, Petr; Holt, Amy B.; Henderson, Deborah J.; West, John D.; Rajnicek, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    This study shows that the core planar cell polarity (PCP) genes direct the aligned cell migration in the adult corneal epithelium, a stratified squamous epithelium on the outer surface of the vertebrate eye. Expression of multiple core PCP genes was demonstrated in the adult corneal epithelium. PCP components were manipulated genetically and pharmacologically in human and mouse corneal epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of VANGL2 reduced the directional component of migration of human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells without affecting speed. It was shown that signalling through PCP mediators, dishevelled, dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis and Rho-associated protein kinase directs the alignment of HCE cells by affecting cytoskeletal reorganization. Cells in which VANGL2 was disrupted tended to misalign on grooved surfaces and migrate across, rather than parallel to the grooves. Adult corneal epithelial cells in which Vangl2 had been conditionally deleted showed a reduced rate of wound-healing migration. Conditional deletion of Vangl2 in the mouse corneal epithelium ablated the normal highly stereotyped patterns of centripetal cell migration in vivo from the periphery (limbus) to the centre of the cornea. Corneal opacity owing to chronic wounding is a major cause of degenerative blindness across the world, and this study shows that Vangl2 activity is required for directional corneal epithelial migration. PMID:27853583

  2. Platelets Inhibit Migration of Canine Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Bulla, S C; Badial, P R; Silva, R C; Lunsford, K; Bulla, C

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between platelets and tumour cells is important for tumour growth and metastasis. Thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet treatment negatively impact on cancer metastasis, demonstrating potentially important roles for platelets in tumour progression. To our knowledge, there is no information regarding the role of platelets in cancer progression in dogs. This study was designed to test whether canine platelets affected the migratory behaviour of three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and to give insights of molecular mechanisms. Intact platelets, platelet lysate and platelet releasate inhibited the migration of canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Addition of blood leucocytes to the platelet samples did not alter the inhibitory effect on migration. Platelet treatment also significantly downregulated the transcriptional levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 genes. The interaction between canine platelets or molecules released during platelet activation and these tumour cell lines inhibits their migration, which suggests that canine platelets might antagonize metastasis of canine osteosarcoma. This effect is probably due to, at least in part, downregulation of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. [Functional regulation of endothelial Myosin light chain kinase in extravascular migration of fibrosarcoma cells].

    PubMed

    Xin, Hua; Han, Zhen-guo

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the functional regulation of endothelial Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in extravascular migration of fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. An in vitro model of fibrosarcoma cell transmigration across a monolayer of HUVEC cultured on collagen gel was applied to observe extravascular migration of HT1080 cells,and were the electrical resistance of HUVEC monolayer and endothelial MLC phosphorylation in extravascular migration of HT1080 cells. HT1080 cells migrated through endothelial cells into collagen gel, the electrical resistance of a HUVEC monolayer was reduced and endothelial MLC phosphorylation was enhanced in extravascular migration of fibrosarcoma cells. Endothelial MLCK inhibitor (ML-7) blocked extravascular migration of HT1080 cells and inhibited reduction of electrical resistance of a HUVEC monolayer and enhancement of endothelial MLC phosphorylation in extravascular migration of HT1080 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Endothelial MLCK regulates fibrosarcoma cell transendothelial migration through MLC phosphorylation, leading to cytoskeletal reorganization and endothelial cell constriction, then fibrosarcoma cells migrate into extravascular tissue through the gaps between endothelial cells.

  4. Cathepsin L derived from skeletal muscle cells transfected with bFGF promotes endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ji Hyung; Im, Eun Kyoung; Jin, Tae Won; Lee, Seung-Min; Kim, Soo Hyuk; Choi, Eun Young; Shin, Min-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Hye; Jang, Yangsoo

    2011-04-30

    Gene transfer of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has been shown to induce significant endothelial migration and angiogenesis in ischemic disease models. Here, we investigate what factors are secreted from skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs) transfected with bFGF gene and whether they participate in endothelial cell migration. We constructed replication-defective adenovirus vectors containing the human bFGF gene (Ad/bFGF) or a control LacZ gene (Ad/LacZ) and obtained conditioned media, bFGF-CM and LacZ-CM, from SkMCs infected by Ad/bFGF or Ad/LacZ, respectively. Cell migration significantly increased in HUVECs incubated with bFGF-CM compared to cells incubated with LacZ-CM. Interestingly, HUVEC migration in response to bFGF-CM was only partially blocked by the addition of bFGF-neutralizing antibody, suggesting that bFGF-CM contains other factors that stimulate endothelial cell migration. Several proteins, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and cathepsin L, increased in bFGF-CM compared to LacZ-CM; based on 1-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Their increased mRNA and protein levels were confirmed by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. The recombinant human bFGF protein induced MMP-1, PAI-1, and cathepsin L expression in SkMCs. Endothelial cell migration was reduced in groups treated with bFGF-CM containing neutralizing antibodies against MMP-1 or PAI-1. In particular, HUVECs treated with bFGF-CM containing cell-impermeable cathepsin L inhibitor showed the most significant decrease in cell migration. Cathepsin L protein directly promotes endothelial cell migration through the JNK pathway. These results indicate that cathepsin L released from SkMCs transfected with the bFGF gene can promote endothelial cell migration.

  5. Absence of K-Ras Reduces Proliferation and Migration But Increases Extracellular Matrix Synthesis in Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Félix, José M; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Cuesta, Cristina; Eleno, Nélida; Crespo, Piero; López-Novoa, José M; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The involvement of Ras-GTPases in the development of renal fibrosis has been addressed in the last decade. We have previously shown that H- and N-Ras isoforms participate in the regulation of fibrosis. Herein, we assessed the role of K-Ras in cellular processes involved in the development of fibrosis: proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins synthesis. K-Ras knockout (KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (K-ras(-/-) ) stimulated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) exhibited reduced proliferation and impaired mobility than wild-type fibroblasts. Moreover, an increase on ECM production was observed in K-Ras KO fibroblasts in basal conditions. The absence of K-Ras was accompanied by reduced Ras activation and ERK phosphorylation, and increased AKT phosphorylation, but no differences were observed in TGF-β1-induced Smad signaling. The MEK inhibitor U0126 decreased cell proliferation independently of the presence of K-ras but reduced migration and ECM proteins expression only in wild-type fibroblasts, while the PI3K-AKT inhibitor LY294002 decreased cell proliferation, migration, and ECM synthesis in both types of fibroblasts. Thus, our data unveil that K-Ras and its downstream effector pathways distinctively regulate key biological processes in the development of fibrosis. Moreover, we show that K-Ras may be a crucial mediator in TGF-β1-mediated effects in this cell type. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2224-2235, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Altering FAK-Paxillin Interactions Reduces Adhesion, Migration and Invasion Processes

    PubMed Central

    Deramaudt, Thérèse B.; Dujardin, Denis; Noulet, Fanny; Martin, Sophie; Vauchelles, Romain; Takeda, Ken; Rondé, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays an important role in signal transduction pathways initiated at sites of integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Thus, FAK is involved in many aspects of the metastatic process including adhesion, migration and invasion. Recently, several small molecule inhibitors which target FAK catalytic activity have been developed by pharmaceutical companies. The current study was aimed at addressing whether inhibiting FAK targeting to focal adhesions (FA) represents an efficient alternative strategy to inhibit FAK downstream pathways. Using a mutagenesis approach to alter the targeting domain of FAK, we constructed a FAK mutant that fails to bind paxillin. Inhibiting FAK-paxillin interactions led to a complete loss of FAK localization at FAs together with reduced phosphorylation of FAK and FAK targets such as paxillin and p130Cas. This in turn resulted in altered FA dynamics and inhibition of cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Moreover, the migration properties of cells expressing the FAK mutant were reduced as compared to FAK-/- cells. This was correlated with a decrease in both phospho-Src and phospho-p130Cas levels at FAs. We conclude that targeting FAK-paxillin interactions is an efficient strategy to reduce FAK signalling and thus may represent a target for the development of new FAK inhibitors. PMID:24642576

  7. Altering FAK-paxillin interactions reduces adhesion, migration and invasion processes.

    PubMed

    Deramaudt, Thérèse B; Dujardin, Denis; Noulet, Fanny; Martin, Sophie; Vauchelles, Romain; Takeda, Ken; Rondé, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays an important role in signal transduction pathways initiated at sites of integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Thus, FAK is involved in many aspects of the metastatic process including adhesion, migration and invasion. Recently, several small molecule inhibitors which target FAK catalytic activity have been developed by pharmaceutical companies. The current study was aimed at addressing whether inhibiting FAK targeting to focal adhesions (FA) represents an efficient alternative strategy to inhibit FAK downstream pathways. Using a mutagenesis approach to alter the targeting domain of FAK, we constructed a FAK mutant that fails to bind paxillin. Inhibiting FAK-paxillin interactions led to a complete loss of FAK localization at FAs together with reduced phosphorylation of FAK and FAK targets such as paxillin and p130Cas. This in turn resulted in altered FA dynamics and inhibition of cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Moreover, the migration properties of cells expressing the FAK mutant were reduced as compared to FAK-/- cells. This was correlated with a decrease in both phospho-Src and phospho-p130Cas levels at FAs. We conclude that targeting FAK-paxillin interactions is an efficient strategy to reduce FAK signalling and thus may represent a target for the development of new FAK inhibitors.

  8. Migrastatin Analogues Inhibit Canine Mammary Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Majchrzak, Kinga; Lo Re, Daniele; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Bulkowska, Małgorzata; Homa, Agata; Pawłowski, Karol; Motyl, Tomasz; Murphy, Paul V.; Król, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer spread to other organs is the main cause of death of oncological patients. Migration of cancer cells from a primary tumour is the crucial step in the complex process of metastasis, therefore blocking this process is currently the main treatment strategy. Metastasis inhibitors derived from natural products, such as, migrastatin, are very promising anticancer agents. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of six migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-1 to 6) on migration and invasion of canine mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines isolated from primary tumours and their metastases to the lungs. Canine mammary tumours constitute a valuable tool for studying multiple aspect of human cancer. Results Our results showed that two of six fully synthetic analogues of migrastatin: MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6 were potent inhibitors of canine mammary cancer cells migration and invasion. These data were obtained using the wound healing test, as well as trans-well migration and invasion assays. Furthermore, the treatment of cancer cells with the most effective compound (MGSTA-6) disturbed binding between filamentous F-actin and fascin1. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed that treatment with MGSTA-6 increased the presence of unbound fascin1 and reduced co-localization of F-actin and fascin1 in canine cancer cells. Most likely, actin filaments were not cross-linked by fascin1 and did not generate the typical filopodial architecture of actin filaments in response to the activity of MGSTA-6. Thus, administration of MGSTA-6 results in decreased formation of filopodia protrusions and stress fibres in canine mammary cancer cells, causing inhibition of cancer migration and invasion. Conclusion Two synthetic migrastatin analogues (MGSTA-5 and MGSTA-6) were shown to be promising compounds for inhibition of cancer metastasis. They may have beneficial therapeutic effects in cancer therapy in dogs, especially in combination with other anticancer drugs. However, further in

  9. Migration of cochlear lateral wall cells.

    PubMed

    Dunaway, George; Mhaskar, Yashanad; Armour, Gary; Whitworth, Craig; Rybak, Leonard

    2003-03-01

    The role of apoptosis and proliferation in maintenance of cochlear lateral wall cells was examined. The methods employed for detection of apoptosis were the Hoechst fluorescence stain and TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end-labeling) assay, and proliferations were 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and presence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The incidence of apoptosis in the strial marginal cell was 50% greater (32.9+/-3.7%) than strial intermediate and basal cells but similar to spiral ligament cells. Although division of marginal strial cells was rarely detected, a significant number of proliferating cells in the remaining stria vascularis and spiral ligament were observed. These data implied that replacement of marginal cells arose elsewhere and could be followed by a BrdU-deoxythymidine pulse-chase study. At 2 h post injection, nuclear BrdU in marginal cells was not detected; however, by 24 h post injection, 20-25% of marginal cell nuclei were BrdU-positive. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that marginal cells were replaced by underlying cells. Cell migration appears to be an important mechanism for preserving the function and structure of the stria vascularis.

  10. Migration of cells in a social context.

    PubMed

    Vedel, Søren; Tay, Savaş; Johnston, Darius M; Bruus, Henrik; Quake, Stephen R

    2013-01-02

    In multicellular organisms and complex ecosystems, cells migrate in a social context. Whereas this is essential for the basic processes of life, the influence of neighboring cells on the individual remains poorly understood. Previous work on isolated cells has observed a stereotypical migratory behavior characterized by short-time directional persistence with long-time random movement. We discovered a much richer dynamic in the social context, with significant variations in directionality, displacement, and speed, which are all modulated by local cell density. We developed a mathematical model based on the experimentally identified "cellular traffic rules" and basic physics that revealed that these emergent behaviors are caused by the interplay of single-cell properties and intercellular interactions, the latter being dominated by a pseudopod formation bias mediated by secreted chemicals and pseudopod collapse following collisions. The model demonstrates how aspects of complex biology can be explained by simple rules of physics and constitutes a rapid test bed for future studies of collective migration of individual cells.

  11. Taking Aim at Moving Targets in Computational Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Masuzzo, Paola; Van Troys, Marleen; Ampe, Christophe; Martens, Lennart

    2016-02-01

    Cell migration is central to the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Fundamental understanding of cell migration can, for example, direct novel therapeutic strategies to control invasive tumor cells. However, the study of cell migration yields an overabundance of experimental data that require demanding processing and analysis for results extraction. Computational methods and tools have therefore become essential in the quantification and modeling of cell migration data. We review computational approaches for the key tasks in the quantification of in vitro cell migration: image pre-processing, motion estimation and feature extraction. Moreover, we summarize the current state-of-the-art for in silico modeling of cell migration. Finally, we provide a list of available software tools for cell migration to assist researchers in choosing the most appropriate solution for their needs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Overexpression of Numb suppresses growth, migration, and invasion of human clear cell renal cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sima, Jin; Zhang, Bao; Yu, Yuanzi; Sima, Xinyuan; Mao, Yanxin

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of Numb on cell growth, cell migration, and invasion in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Endogenous expression of Numb was evaluated in the ccRCC cell lines (786-O, Caki-1, and Caki-2) and control reference human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Numb expression was decreased in the ccRCC cells compared with the control cells (P < 0.01). Then, 786-O and Caki-1 cells described as suitable transfection hosts were used in transfection to carry out biological function studies. The three experimental groups were as follows: Numb-ORF (transfected with Numb-ORF plasmid), blank-vector (transfected with pCMV6-entry), and cell-alone group (no DNA). Numb expression in the Numb-ORF groups was significantly higher than that in the controls (P < 0.01). Cell growth was remarkably reduced (P < 0.01), and the number of migrating or invading cells was reduced (P < 0.01) in the Numb-ORF groups compared with controls. Furthermore, the ratio of G0/G1 phase in the Numb-ORF group of 786-O cells was increased, and the S phase fraction and proliferation index was decreased (P < 0.01). Cyclin D1 and MMP-9 expression was reduced in the Numb-ORF groups compared with controls. Here, we have provided data for attenuated Numb expression in the ccRCC cells. Overexpression of Numb could induce G0/G1 phase arrest and inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. The suppressive effects might be due to downregulation of cyclin D1 or MMP-9 expression. Taken together, our data suggest that Numb may possibly function as a tumor suppressor involved in the carcinogenesis of ccRCC.

  13. Collective cell migration has distinct directionality and speed dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Guoqing; Lee, Rachel M; Zhu, Zijie; Wu, Jiandong; Liao, Simon; Zhang, Gong; Sun, Yaohui; Mogilner, Alex; Losert, Wolfgang; Pan, Tingrui; Lin, Francis; Xu, Zhengping; Zhao, Min

    2017-06-13

    When a constraint is removed, confluent cells migrate directionally into the available space. How the migration directionality and speed increase are initiated at the leading edge and propagate into neighboring cells are not well understood. Using a quantitative visualization technique-Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)-we revealed that migration directionality and speed had strikingly different dynamics. Migration directionality increases as a wave propagating from the leading edge into the cell sheet, while the increase in cell migration speed is maintained only at the leading edge. The overall directionality steadily increases with time as cells migrate into the cell-free space, but migration speed remains largely the same. A particle-based compass (PBC) model suggests cellular interplay (which depends on cell-cell distance) and migration speed are sufficient to capture the dynamics of migration directionality revealed experimentally. Extracellular Ca(2+) regulated both migration speed and directionality, but in a significantly different way, suggested by the correlation between directionality and speed only in some dynamic ranges. Our experimental and modeling results reveal distinct directionality and speed dynamics in collective migration, and these factors can be regulated by extracellular Ca(2+) through cellular interplay. Quantitative visualization using PIV and our PBC model thus provide a powerful approach to dissect the mechanisms of collective cell migration.

  14. Contractile forces in tumor cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja; Rösel, Daniel; Fabry, Ben; Brábek, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Cancer is a deadly disease primarily because of the ability of tumor cells to spread from the primary tumor, to invade into the connective tissue, and to form metastases at distant sites. In contrast to cell migration on a planar surface where large cell tractions and contractile forces are not essential, tractions and forces are thought to be crucial for overcoming the resistance and steric hindrance of a dense 3-dimensional connective tissue matrix. In this review, we describe recently developed biophysical tools including 2-D and 3-D traction microscopy to measure contractile forces of cells. We discuss evidence indicating that tumor cell invasiveness is associated with increased contractile force generation. PMID:18295931

  15. Arf proteins in cancer cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Casalou, Cristina; Faustino, Alexandra; Barral, Duarte C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) family of small GTP-binding (G) proteins regulate several aspects of membrane trafficking, such as vesicle budding, tethering and cytoskeleton organization. Arf family members, including Arf-like (Arl) proteins have been implicated in several essential cellular functions, like cell spreading and migration. These functions are used by cancer cells to disseminate and invade the tissues surrounding the primary tumor, leading to the formation of metastases. Indeed, Arf and Arl proteins, as well as their guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) have been found to be abnormally expressed in different cancer cell types and human cancers. Here, we review the current evidence supporting the involvement of Arf family proteins and their GEFs and GAPs in cancer progression, focusing on 3 different mechanisms: cell-cell adhesion, integrin internalization and recycling, and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. PMID:27589148

  16. The front and rear of collective cell migration.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Roberto; Etienne-Manneville, Sandrine

    2016-02-01

    Collective cell migration has a key role during morphogenesis and during wound healing and tissue renewal in the adult, and it is involved in cancer spreading. In addition to displaying a coordinated migratory behaviour, collectively migrating cells move more efficiently than if they migrated separately, which indicates that a cellular interplay occurs during collective cell migration. In recent years, evidence has accumulated confirming the importance of such intercellular communication and exploring the molecular mechanisms involved. These mechanisms are based both on direct physical interactions, which coordinate the cellular responses, and on the collective cell behaviour that generates an optimal environment for efficient directed migration. The recent studies have described how leader cells at the front of cell groups drive migration and have highlighted the importance of follower cells and cell-cell communication, both between followers and between follower and leader cells, to improve the efficiency of collective movement.

  17. Integrin-mediated cell migration is blocked by inhibitors of human neuraminidase.

    PubMed

    Jia, Feng; Howlader, Md Amran; Cairo, Christopher W

    2016-09-01

    Integrins are critical receptors in cell migration and adhesion. A number of mechanisms are known to regulate the function of integrins, including phosphorylation, conformational change, and cytoskeletal anchoring. We investigated whether native neuraminidase (Neu, or sialidase) enzymes which modify glycolipids could play a role in regulating integrin-mediated cell migration. Using a scratch assay, we found that exogenously added Neu3 and Neu4 activity altered rates of cell migration. We observed that Neu4 increased the rate of migration in two cell lines (HeLa, A549); while Neu3 only increased migration in HeLa cells. A bacterial neuraminidase was able to increase the rate of migration in HeLa, but not in A549 cells. Treatment of cells with complex gangliosides (GM1, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b) resulted in decreased cell migration rates, while LacCer was able to increase rates of migration in both lines. Importantly, our results show that treatment of cells with inhibitors of native Neu enzymes had a dramatic effect on the rates of cell migration. The most potent compound tested targeted the human Neu4 isoenzyme, and was able to substantially reduce the rate of cell migration. We found that the lateral mobility of integrins was reduced by treatment of cells with Neu3, suggesting that Neu3 enzyme activity resulted in changes to integrin-co-receptor or integrin-cytoskeleton interactions. Finally, our results support the hypothesis that inhibitors of human Neu can be used to investigate mechanisms of cell migration and for the development of anti-adhesive therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quercetin Inhibits Cell Migration and Invasion in Human Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lan, Haifeng; Hong, Wei; Fan, Pan; Qian, Dongyang; Zhu, Jianwei; Bai, Bo

    2017-09-21

    Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor associated with high mortality; however, no effective therapies for the disease have been developed. Several studies have focused on elucidating the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma and have aimed to develop novel therapies for the disease. Quercetin is a vital dietary flavonoid that has been shown to have a variety of anticancer effects, as it induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and differentiation and is involved in cell adhesion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Herein, we aimed to investigate the effects of quercetin on osteosarcoma migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo and to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects on osteosarcoma migration and invasion. Cell viability, cell cycle activity and cell apoptosis were measured using CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, and cell migration and invasion were evaluated by wound healing and transwell assays, respectively. The mRNA and protein expression levels of several proteins of interest were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. Moreover, a nude mouse model of human osteosarcoma lung metastasis was established to assess the anti-metastatic effects of quercetin in vivo. We noted no significant differences in cell cycle activity and apoptosis between HOS and MG63 cells and control cells. Treatment with quercetin significantly attenuated cell migration and invasion in HOS and MG63 cells compared with treatment with control medium. Moreover HIF-1α, VEGF, MMP2, and MMP9 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly downregulated in HOS cells treated with quercetin compared with HOS cells treated with controls. Additionally, treatment with quercetin attenuated metastatic lung tumor formation and growth in the nude mouse model of osteosarcoma compared with treatment with controls. Our findings regarding the inhibitory effects of quercetin on cell migration and invasion suggest that quercetin may have potential as a therapy for human

  19. Collective cell migration of thyroid carcinoma cells: a beneficial ability to override unfavourable substrates.

    PubMed

    Lobastova, Liudmila; Kraus, Dominik; Glassmann, Alexander; Khan, Dilaware; Steinhäuser, Christian; Wolff, Christina; Veit, Nadine; Winter, Jochen; Probstmeier, Rainer

    2017-02-01

    Tumor cell invasion and metastasis are life threatening events. Invasive tumor cells tend to migrate as collective sheets. In the present in vitro study we aimed to (i) assess whether collective tumor cells gain benefits in their migratory potential compared to single cells and (ii) to identify its putative underlying molecular mechanisms. The migratory potential of single and collective carcinoma cells was assessed using video time lapse microscopy and cell migration assays in the absence and presence of seven potential gap junction inhibitors or the Rac1 inhibitor Z62954982. The perturbation of gap junctions was assessed using a dye diffusion assay. In addition, LDH-based cytotoxicity and RT-PCR-based expression analyses were performed. Whereas single breast, cervix and thyroid carcinoma cells were virtually immobile on unfavourable plastic surfaces, we found that they gained pronounced migratory capacities as collectives under comparable conditions. Thyroid carcinoma cells, that were studied in more detail, were found to express specific subsets of connexins and to form active gap junctions as revealed by dye diffusion analysis. Although all potential gap junction blockers suppressed intercellular dye diffusion in at least one of the cell lines tested, only two of them were found to inhibit collective cell migration and none of them to inhibit single cell migration. In the presence of the Rac1 inhibitor Z62954982 collective migration, but not single cell migration, was found to be reduced up to 20 %. Our data indicate that collective migration enables tumor cells to cross otherwise unfavourable substrate areas. This capacity seems to be independent of intercellular communication via gap junctions, whereas Rac1-dependent intracellular signalling seems to be essential.

  20. Modeling cell migration in 3D: Status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Rangarajan, Rajagopal; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2008-01-01

    Cell migration is a multi-scale process that integrates signaling, mechanics and biochemical reaction kinetics. Various mathematical models accurately predict cell migration on 2D surfaces, but are unable to capture the complexities of 3D migration. Additionally, quantitative 3D cell migration models have been few and far between. In this review we look and characterize various mathematical models available in literature to predict cell migration in 3D matrices and analyze their strengths and possible changes to these models that could improve their predictive capabilities.

  1. Force mapping in epithelial cell migration

    PubMed Central

    du Roure, Olivia; Saez, Alexandre; Buguin, Axel; Austin, Robert H.; Chavrier, Philippe; Siberzan, Pascal; Ladoux, Benoit

    2005-01-01

    We measure dynamic traction forces exerted by epithelial cells on a substrate. The force sensor is a high-density array of elastomeric microfabricated pillars that support the cells. Traction forces induced by cell migration are deduced from the measurement of the bending of these pillars and are correlated with actin localization by fluorescence microscopy. We use a multiple-particle tracking method to estimate the mechanical activity of cells in real time with a high-spatial resolution (down to 2 μm) imposed by the periodicity of the post array. For these experiments, we use differentiated Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. Our data provide definite information on mechanical forces exerted by a cellular assembly. The maximum intensity of the forces is localized on the edge of the epithelia. Hepatocyte growth factor promotes cell motility and induces strong scattering activity of MDCK cells. Thus, we compare forces generated by MDCK cells in subconfluent epithelia versus isolated cells after hepatocyte growth factor treatment. Maximal-traction stresses at the edge of a monolayer correspond to higher values than those measured for a single cell and may be due to a collective behavior. PMID:15695588

  2. Cell Shape Dynamics: From Waves to Migration

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Meghan K.; McCann, Colin; Kopace, Rael; Homan, Tess; Fourkas, John T.; Parent, Carole; Losert, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    We observe and quantify wave-like characteristics of amoeboid migration. Using the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, a model system for the study of chemotaxis, we demonstrate that cell shape changes in a wave-like manner. Cells have regions of high boundary curvature that propagate from the leading edge toward the back, usually along alternating sides of the cell. Curvature waves are easily seen in cells that do not adhere to a surface, such as cells that are electrostatically repelled from surfaces or cells that extend over the edge of micro-fabricated cliffs. Without surface contact, curvature waves travel from the leading edge to the back of a cell at ∼35 µm/min. Non-adherent myosin II null cells do not exhibit these curvature waves. At the leading edge of adherent cells, curvature waves are associated with protrusive activity. Like regions of high curvature, protrusive activity travels along the boundary in a wave-like manner. Upon contact with a surface, the protrusions stop moving relative to the surface, and the boundary shape thus reflects the history of protrusive motion. The wave-like character of protrusions provides a plausible mechanism for the zig-zagging of pseudopods and for the ability of cells both to swim in viscous fluids and to navigate complex three dimensional topography. PMID:22438794

  3. Cell Shape Dynamics: From Waves to Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Meghan; McCann, Colin; Sun, Xiaoyu; Fourkas, John; Parent, Carole; Losert, Wolfgang

    2012-02-01

    We observe and quantify wave-like characteristics of amoeboid migration. Using the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, a model system for the study of chemotaxis, we demonstrate that cell shape changes in a wave-like manner. Cells have regions of high boundary curvature that propagate from the leading edge toward the back, usually along alternating sides of the cell. Curvature waves are easily seen in cells that do not adhere to a surface, such as cells that are electrostatically repelled from surfaces or cells that extend over the edge of micro-fabricated cliffs. Without surface contact, curvature waves travel from the leading edge to the back of a cell at ˜35 μm/min. Non-adherent myosin II null cells do not exhibit these curvature waves. At the leading edge of adherent cells, curvature waves are associated with protrusive activity. Like regions of high curvature, protrusive activity travels along the boundary in a wave-like manner. Upon contact with a surface, the waves stop moving relative to the surface, and the boundary shape thus reflects the history of protrusive motion. The wave-like character of protrusions provides a plausible mechanism for the ability of cells to both swim in viscous fluids and to navigate complex 3-D topography.

  4. T Cell Migration in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Mario; Martínez-Muñoz, Laura; Cascio, Graciela; Lucas, Pilar; Pablos, José L; Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in joints, associated with synovial hyperplasia and with bone and cartilage destruction. Although the primacy of T cell-related events early in the disease continues to be debated, there is strong evidence that autoantigen recognition by specific T cells is crucial to the pathophysiology of rheumatoid synovitis. In addition, T cells are key components of the immune cell infiltrate detected in the joints of RA patients. Initial analysis of the cytokines released into the synovial membrane showed an imbalance, with a predominance of proinflammatory mediators, indicating a deleterious effect of Th1 T cells. There is nonetheless evidence that Th17 cells also play an important role in RA. T cells migrate from the bloodstream to the synovial tissue via their interactions with the endothelial cells that line synovial postcapillary venules. At this stage, selectins, integrins, and chemokines have a central role in blood cell invasion of synovial tissue, and therefore in the intensity of the inflammatory response. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms involved in T cell attraction to the joint, the proteins involved in their extravasation from blood vessels, and the signaling pathways activated. Knowledge of these processes will lead to a better understanding of the mechanism by which the systemic immune response causes local joint disorders and will help to provide a molecular basis for therapeutic strategies.

  5. T Cell Migration in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mellado, Mario; Martínez-Muñoz, Laura; Cascio, Graciela; Lucas, Pilar; Pablos, José L.; Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in joints, associated with synovial hyperplasia and with bone and cartilage destruction. Although the primacy of T cell-related events early in the disease continues to be debated, there is strong evidence that autoantigen recognition by specific T cells is crucial to the pathophysiology of rheumatoid synovitis. In addition, T cells are key components of the immune cell infiltrate detected in the joints of RA patients. Initial analysis of the cytokines released into the synovial membrane showed an imbalance, with a predominance of proinflammatory mediators, indicating a deleterious effect of Th1 T cells. There is nonetheless evidence that Th17 cells also play an important role in RA. T cells migrate from the bloodstream to the synovial tissue via their interactions with the endothelial cells that line synovial postcapillary venules. At this stage, selectins, integrins, and chemokines have a central role in blood cell invasion of synovial tissue, and therefore in the intensity of the inflammatory response. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms involved in T cell attraction to the joint, the proteins involved in their extravasation from blood vessels, and the signaling pathways activated. Knowledge of these processes will lead to a better understanding of the mechanism by which the systemic immune response causes local joint disorders and will help to provide a molecular basis for therapeutic strategies. PMID:26284069

  6. Silencing of VAMP3 inhibits cell migration and integrin-mediated adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Luftman, Kevin; Hasan, Nazarul; Day, Paul; Hardee, Deborah; Hu Chuan

    2009-02-27

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors for cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. In cell migration, integrins are endocytosed from the plasma membrane or the cell surface, transported in vesicles and exocytosed actively at the cell front. In the present study, we examined the roles of VAMP3, a SNARE protein that mediates exocytosis, in cell migration and integrin trafficking. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced silencing of VAMP3 inhibited chemotactic cell migration by more than 60% without affecting cell proliferation. VAMP3 silencing reduced the levels of {beta}1 integrin at the cell surface but had no effect on total cellular {beta}1 integrin, indicating that VAMP3 is required for trafficking of {beta}1 integrin to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, VAMP3 silencing diminished cell adhesion to laminin but not to fibronectin or collagen. Taken together, these data suggest that VAMP3-dependent integrin trafficking is crucial in cell migration and cell adhesion to laminin.

  7. Multiple Proteins Mediate IQGAP1-Stimulated Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Mataraza, Jennifer M.; Zhigang, Li; Jeong, Ha-Won; Brown, Matthew D.; Sacks, David B.

    2007-01-01

    Cell migration, a highly complex physiological phenomenon that requires the co-ordinated and tightly regulated function of several proteins, is mediated by a number of signalling pathways. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of cell migration impacts our comprehension of numerous cell functions, ranging from development and immune surveillance to angiogenesis and metastasis. The scaffold protein IQGAP1, which binds multiple proteins and regulates their functions, promotes cell motility. Many of the IQGAP1 binding proteins have been implicated in cell migration. In this study, we employed a multifaceted strategy to identify proteins that contribute to IQGAP1-stimulated cell migration. Using specific IQGAP1 point mutant constructs, an interaction with actin was shown to be essential for IQGAP1 to increase cell migration. In contrast, eliminating the binding of Ca2+/calmodulin, but not Ca2+-free calmodulin, augmented the ability of IQGAP1 to stimulate cell migration. Consistent with these findings, selective inhibition of calmodulin function at the plasma membrane with a specific peptide inhibitor enhanced cell migration mediated by IQGAP1. Interestingly, immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy suggest that localization of Cdc42 at the leading edge is not necessary for maximal migration of epithelial cells. Coupled with the observations that Cdc42 and Rac1 contribute to IQGAP1-stimulated cell migration, these data suggest that IQGAP1 serves as a junction to integrate multiple signalling molecules to facilitate cell migration. PMID:17544257

  8. Overexpression of Dishevelled-2 contributes to proliferation and migration of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoren; Ye, Jinjun; Sun, Lei; Zhang, Zhi; Feng, Jifeng

    2016-06-01

    Dishevelled-2 (Dvl2) was associated with tumor cell proliferation and migration. We aimed to examine the mechanism of Dvl2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Dvl2 was overexpressed in human ESCC tissues and cell lines ECA109 and TE1 cells. CCK-8 and colony formation assay was performed to evaluate the proliferation in ECA109 cells transfected with Dvl2-shRNA. Wound-healing assay and transwell assay were used to examine the activities of migration and invasion in Dvl2-silenced ESCC cells. Knockdown of Dvl2 significantly reduced ECA109 cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, we demonstrated that the proliferation and migration ability of Dvl2 might through the activation of Wnt pathway by targeting the Cyclin D1 and MMP-9. We came to the conclusion that the proliferation and migration effects of Dvl2 might contribute to malignant development of human ESCC.

  9. Aloe emodin inhibits colon cancer cell migration/angiogenesis by downregulating MMP-2/9, RhoB and VEGF via reduced DNA binding activity of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Suboj, Priya; Babykutty, Suboj; Valiyaparambil Gopi, Deepak Roshan; Nair, Rakesh S; Srinivas, Priya; Gopala, Srinivas

    2012-04-11

    Aloe emodin (AE), a natural anthraquinone, is reported to have antiproliferative activity in various cancer cell lines. In this study we analyzed molecular mechanisms involved in the antimigratory and antiangiogenic activity of this hydroxy anthraquinone in colon cancer cell, WiDr. Our results show that a relatively non toxic concentration of AE suppressed the phorbol-12-myristyl-13-acetate (PMA) induced migration and invasion of tumor cells. On analysis for the molecules involved in the migration/invasion, we found AE downregulated mRNA expression and promoter/gelatinolytic activity of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9, as well as the RhoB expression at gene and protein level. It was also a strong inhibitor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) expression, promoter activity and endothelial cell migration/invasion and in vitro angiogenesis. AE suppressed the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB, which is an important transcription factor for controlling MMP-2/9 and VEGF gene expression. Taken together these data indicate that AE target multiple molecules responsible for cellular invasion, migration and angiogenesis. Inhibitory effect on angiogenic and metastatic regulatory processes make AE a sensible candidate as a specific blocker of tumor associated events.

  10. Alignment of cell division axes in directed epithelial cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marel, Anna-Kristina; Podewitz, Nils; Zorn, Matthias; Oskar Rädler, Joachim; Elgeti, Jens

    2014-11-01

    Cell division is an essential dynamic event in tissue remodeling during wound healing, cancer and embryogenesis. In collective migration, tensile stresses affect cell shape and polarity, hence, the orientation of the cell division axis is expected to depend on cellular flow patterns. Here, we study the degree of orientation of cell division axes in migrating and resting epithelial cell sheets. We use microstructured channels to create a defined scenario of directed cell invasion and compare this situation to resting but proliferating cell monolayers. In experiments, we find a strong alignment of the axis due to directed flow while resting sheets show very weak global order, but local flow gradients still correlate strongly with the cell division axis. We compare experimental results with a previously published mesoscopic particle based simulation model. Most of the observed effects are reproduced by the simulations.

  11. Flow-driven cell migration under external electric fields

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yizeng; Mori, Yoichiro; Sun, Sean X.

    2016-01-01

    Electric fields influence many aspects of cell physiology, including various forms of cell migration. Many cells are sensitive to electric fields, and can migrate toward a cathode or an anode, depending on the cell type. In this paper, we examine an actomyosin-independent mode of cell migration under electrical fields. Our theory considers a one-dimensional cell with water and ionic fluxes at the cell boundary. Water fluxes through the membrane are governed by the osmotic pressure difference across the cell membrane. Fluxes of cations and anions across the cell membrane are determined by the properties of the ion channels as well as the external electric field. Results show that without actin polymerization and myosin contraction, electric fields can also drive cell migration, even when the cell is not polarized. The direction of migration with respect to the electric field direction is influenced by the properties of ion channels, and are cell-type dependent. PMID:26765031

  12. Flow-Driven Cell Migration under External Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yizeng; Mori, Yoichiro; Sun, Sean X.

    2015-12-01

    Electric fields influence many aspects of cell physiology, including various forms of cell migration. Many cells are sensitive to electric fields, and they can migrate toward a cathode or an anode, depending on the cell type. In this Letter, we examine an actomyosin-independent mode of cell migration under electrical fields. Our theory considers a one-dimensional cell with water and ionic fluxes at the cell boundary. Water fluxes through the membrane are governed by the osmotic pressure difference across the cell membrane. Fluxes of cations and anions across the cell membrane are determined by the properties of the ion channels as well as the external electric field. Results show that without actin polymerization and myosin contraction, electric fields can also drive cell migration, even when the cell is not polarized. The direction of migration with respect to the electric field direction is influenced by the properties of ion channels, and are cell-type dependent.

  13. Migrating Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Swell Prior to Soma Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Happel, Patrick; Möller, Kerstin; Schwering, Nina K.; Dietzel, Irmgard D.

    2013-01-01

    The migration of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to the white matter is an indispensable requirement for an intact brain function. The mechanism of cell migration in general is not yet completely understood. Nevertheless, evidence is accumulating that besides the coordinated rearrangement of the cytoskeleton, a finetuned interplay of ion and water fluxes across the cell membrane is essential for cell migration. One part of a general hypothesis is that a local volume increase towards the direction of movement triggers a mechano-activated calcium influx that regulates various procedures at the rear end of a migrating cell. Here, we investigated cell volume changes of migrating OPCs using scanning ion conductance microscopy. We found that during accelerated migration OPCs undergo an increase in the frontal cell body volume. These findings are supplemented with time lapse calcium imaging data that hint an increase in calcium content the frontal part of the cell soma. PMID:23657670

  14. ERP44 inhibits human lung cancer cell migration mainly via IP3R2.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xue; Jin, Meng; Chen, Ying-Xiao; Wang, Jun; Zhai, Kui; Chang, Yan; Yuan, Qi; Yao, Kai-Tai; Ji, Guangju

    2016-06-01

    Cancer cell migration is involved in tumour metastasis. However, the relationship between calcium signalling and cancer migration is not well elucidated. In this study, we used the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line to examine the role of endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERP44), which has been reported to regulate calcium release inside of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in cell migration. We found that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs/ITPRs) inhibitor 2-APB significantly inhibited A549 cell migration by inhibiting cell polarization and pseudopodium protrusion, which suggests that Ca2+ is necessary for A549 cell migration. Similarly, the overexpression of ERP44 reduced intracellular Ca2+ release via IP3Rs, altered cell morphology and significantly inhibited the migration of A549 cells. These phenomena were primarily dependent on IP3R2 because wound healing in A549 cells with IP3R2 rather than IP3R1 or IP3R3 siRNA was markedly inhibited. Moreover, the overexpression of ERP44 did not affect the migration of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, which mainly expresses IP3R1. Based on the above observations, we conclude that ERP44 regulates A549 cell migration mainly via an IP3R2-dependent pathway.

  15. ERP44 inhibits human lung cancer cell migration mainly via IP3R2

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Kui; Chang, Yan; Yuan, Qi; Yao, Kai-Tai; Ji, Guangju

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cell migration is involved in tumour metastasis. However, the relationship between calcium signalling and cancer migration is not well elucidated. In this study, we used the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line to examine the role of endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERP44), which has been reported to regulate calcium release inside of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in cell migration. We found that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs/ITPRs) inhibitor 2-APB significantly inhibited A549 cell migration by inhibiting cell polarization and pseudopodium protrusion, which suggests that Ca2+ is necessary for A549 cell migration. Similarly, the overexpression of ERP44 reduced intracellular Ca2+ release via IP3Rs, altered cell morphology and significantly inhibited the migration of A549 cells. These phenomena were primarily dependent on IP3R2 because wound healing in A549 cells with IP3R2 rather than IP3R1 or IP3R3 siRNA was markedly inhibited. Moreover, the overexpression of ERP44 did not affect the migration of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, which mainly expresses IP3R1. Based on the above observations, we conclude that ERP44 regulates A549 cell migration mainly via an IP3R2-dependent pathway. PMID:27347718

  16. Anandamide inhibits adhesion and migration of breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grimaldi, Claudia; Pisanti, Simona; Laezza, Chiara; Malfitano, Anna Maria; Santoro, Antonietta; Vitale, Mario; Caruso, Maria Gabriella; Notarnicola, Maria; Iacuzzo, Irma; Portella, Giuseppe; Di Marzo, Vincenzo . E-mail: vdimarzo@icmib.na.cnr.it; Bifulco, Maurizio . E-mail: maubiful@unina.it

    2006-02-15

    The endocannabinoid system regulates cell proliferation in human breast cancer cells. We reasoned that stimulation of cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptors could induce a non-invasive phenotype in breast mtastatic cells. In a model of metastatic spreading in vivo, the metabolically stable anandamide analogue, 2-methyl-2'-F-anandamide (Met-F-AEA), significantly reduced the number and dimension of metastatic nodes, this effect being antagonized by the selective CB{sub 1} antagonist SR141716A. In MDA-MB-231 cells, a highly invasive human breast cancer cell line, and in TSA-E1 cells, a murine breast cancer cell line, Met-F-AEA inhibited adhesion and migration on type IV collagen in vitro without modifying integrin expression: both these effects were antagonized by SR141716A. In order to understand the molecular mechanism involved in these processes, we analyzed the phosphorylation of FAK and Src, two tyrosine kinases involved in migration and adhesion. In Met-F-AEA-treated cells, we observed a decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of both FAK and Src, this effect being attenuated by SR141716A. We propose that CB{sub 1} receptor agonists inhibit tumor cell invasion and metastasis by modulating FAK phosphorylation, and that CB{sub 1} receptor activation might represent a novel therapeutic strategy to slow down the growth of breast carcinoma and to inhibit its metastatic diffusion in vivo.

  17. Finding their way: themes in germ cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Lacy J.; LeBlanc, Michelle G.; Lehmann, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic germ cell migration is a vital component of the germline lifecycle. The translocation of germ cells from the place of origin to the developing somatic gonad involves several processes including passive movements with underlying tissues, transepithelial migration, cell adhesion dynamics, the establishment of environmental guidance cues and the ability to sustain directed migration. How germ cells accomplish these feats in established model organisms will be discussed in this review, with a focus on recent discoveries and themes conserved across species. PMID:27484857

  18. Mechanisms guiding primordial germ cell migration: strategies from different organisms

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Brian E.; Lehmann, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Preface The regulated migration of cells is essential for development and tissue homeostasis, and aberrant cell migration can lead to an impaired immune response and the progression of cancer. Primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursors to sperm and eggs, have to migrate across the embryo to reach somatic gonadal precursors (SGPs) and fulfill their function. Studies of model organisms have revealed that, despite important differences, several features of PGC migration are conserved. PGCs require both an intrinsic motility program and external guidance cues to survive and successfully migrate. Proper guidance involves both attractive and repulsive cues mediated by protein and lipid signalling. PMID:20027186

  19. Ion channels in control of pancreatic stellate cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Storck, Hannah; Hild, Benedikt; Schimmelpfennig, Sandra; Sargin, Sarah; Nielsen, Nikolaj; Zaccagnino, Angela; Budde, Thomas; Novak, Ivana; Kalthoff, Holger; Schwab, Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a critical role in the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Once activated, PSCs support proliferation and metastasis of carcinoma cells. PSCs even co-metastasise with carcinoma cells. This requires the ability of PSCs to migrate. In recent years, it has been established that almost all “hallmarks of cancer” such as proliferation or migration/invasion also rely on the expression and function of ion channels. So far, there is only very limited information about the function of ion channels in PSCs. Yet, there is growing evidence that ion channels in stromal cells also contribute to tumor progression. Here we investigated the function of KCa3.1 channels in PSCs. KCa3.1 channels are also found in many tumor cells of different origin. We revealed the functional expression of KCa3.1 channels by means of Western blot, immunofluorescence and patch clamp analysis. The impact of KCa3.1 channel activity on PSC function was determined with live-cell imaging and by measuring the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). KCa3.1 channel blockade or knockout prevents the stimulation of PSC migration and chemotaxis by reducing the [Ca2+]i and calpain activity. KCa3.1 channels functionally cooperate with TRPC3 channels that are upregulated in PDAC stroma. Knockdown of TRPC3 channels largely abolishes the impact of KCa3.1 channels on PSC migration. In summary, our results clearly show that ion channels are crucial players in PSC physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:27903970

  20. Excess centrosomes disrupt endothelial cell migration via centrosome scattering

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Erich J.; Ferro, Luke S.; Liu, Jie-Yu; Durrant, Jessica R.; Rogers, Stephen L.; Dudley, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary centrosomes contribute to spindle defects and aneuploidy at mitosis, but the effects of excess centrosomes during interphase are poorly understood. In this paper, we show that interphase endothelial cells with even one extra centrosome exhibit a cascade of defects, resulting in disrupted cell migration and abnormal blood vessel sprouting. Endothelial cells with supernumerary centrosomes had increased centrosome scattering and reduced microtubule (MT) nucleation capacity that correlated with decreased Golgi integrity and randomized vesicle trafficking, and ablation of excess centrosomes partially rescued these parameters. Mechanistically, tumor endothelial cells with supernumerary centrosomes had less centrosome-localized γ-tubulin, and Plk1 blockade prevented MT growth, whereas overexpression rescued centrosome γ-tubulin levels and centrosome dynamics. These data support a model whereby centrosome–MT interactions during interphase are important for centrosome clustering and cell polarity and further suggest that disruption of interphase cell behavior by supernumerary centrosomes contributes to pathology independent of mitotic effects. PMID:25049273

  1. Excess centrosomes disrupt endothelial cell migration via centrosome scattering.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Erich J; Ferro, Luke S; Liu, Jie-Yu; Durrant, Jessica R; Rogers, Stephen L; Dudley, Andrew C; Bautch, Victoria L

    2014-07-21

    Supernumerary centrosomes contribute to spindle defects and aneuploidy at mitosis, but the effects of excess centrosomes during interphase are poorly understood. In this paper, we show that interphase endothelial cells with even one extra centrosome exhibit a cascade of defects, resulting in disrupted cell migration and abnormal blood vessel sprouting. Endothelial cells with supernumerary centrosomes had increased centrosome scattering and reduced microtubule (MT) nucleation capacity that correlated with decreased Golgi integrity and randomized vesicle trafficking, and ablation of excess centrosomes partially rescued these parameters. Mechanistically, tumor endothelial cells with supernumerary centrosomes had less centrosome-localized γ-tubulin, and Plk1 blockade prevented MT growth, whereas overexpression rescued centrosome γ-tubulin levels and centrosome dynamics. These data support a model whereby centrosome-MT interactions during interphase are important for centrosome clustering and cell polarity and further suggest that disruption of interphase cell behavior by supernumerary centrosomes contributes to pathology independent of mitotic effects. © 2014 Kushner et al.

  2. Atorvastatin suppresses glioma invasion and migration by reducing microglial MT1-MMP expression.

    PubMed

    Yongjun, Yi; Shuyun, Huang; Lei, Chen; Xiangrong, Chen; Zhilin, Yang; Yiquan, Ke

    2013-07-15

    Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, often present in large numbers in gliomas, where they promote tumor growth and invasiveness. This study found that atorvastatin reduced the pro-tumorigenic effects of microglia on glioma migration and invasion by reducing the microglial expression of membrane type 1 metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP). The results suggest that down-regulation of MT1-MMP is controlled by a p38 MAPK pathway in microglia. Taken together, the results support further research on atorvastatin as a candidate for glioma therapy by targeting microglia.

  3. Prespecification and plasticity: shifting mechanisms of cell migration.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Peter

    2004-02-01

    Cell migration is a universal process involving different morphologies and mechanisms in different cell types and tissue environments. Prespecified cell-type-specific patterns of cell migration can be classified into single cell migration (amoeboid, mesenchymal) and collective migration modes (cell sheets, strands, tubes, clusters). These intrinsic molecular programs are associated with a characteristic structure of the actin cytoskeleton, as well as the cell-type-specific use of integrins, matrix-degrading enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases and serine proteases), cell-cell adhesion molecules (cadherins and activated leukocyte adhesion molecule), and signaling towards the cytoskeleton (carried out by RHO GTPases). In response to the gain or loss of these key molecular determinants, significant adaptation reactions can modify the cell's shape, pattern, and migration mechanism; examples of this include the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, mesenchymal-amoeboid transition and collective-amoeboid transition.

  4. Intermediate filament reorganization dynamically influences cancer cell alignment and migration

    PubMed Central

    Holle, Andrew W.; Kalafat, Melih; Ramos, Adria Sales; Seufferlein, Thomas; Kemkemer, Ralf; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2017-01-01

    The interactions between a cancer cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) have been the focus of an increasing amount of investigation. The role of the intermediate filament keratin in cancer has also been coming into focus of late, but more research is needed to understand how this piece fits in the puzzle of cytoskeleton-mediated invasion and metastasis. In Panc-1 invasive pancreatic cancer cells, keratin phosphorylation in conjunction with actin inhibition was found to be sufficient to reduce cell area below either treatment alone. We then analyzed intersecting keratin and actin fibers in the cytoskeleton of cyclically stretched cells and found no directional correlation. The role of keratin organization in Panc-1 cellular morphological adaptation and directed migration was then analyzed by culturing cells on cyclically stretched polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates, nanoscale grates, and rigid pillars. In general, the reorganization of the keratin cytoskeleton allows the cell to become more ‘mobile’- exhibiting faster and more directed migration and orientation in response to external stimuli. By combining keratin network perturbation with a variety of physical ECM signals, we demonstrate the interconnected nature of the architecture inside the cell and the scaffolding outside of it, and highlight the key elements facilitating cancer cell-ECM interactions. PMID:28338091

  5. Impaired migration and cell volume regulation in aquaporin 5-deficient SPC-A1 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Ziqiang; Gu, Yutong; Bai, Chunxue

    2011-05-31

    Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) is widely expressed in various organ and tissues. In light of the novel oncogenic properties of aquaporins (AQPs), here we investigated the effect of AQP5 knockdown by RNAi on transmembrane osmotic water permeability, cell migration potential and cell volume regulation ability. AQP5 expression was inhibited by short hairpin RNA in SPC-A1 cells, a lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Cells loaded with a fluoroprobe (calcein-AM) were immersed in either isosmotic, hyperosmotic or hyposmotic solutions, and fluorescence intensity was recorded using confocal microscopy. These measurements were used to calculate osmotic water permeability coefficients (Pf) and to monitor regulated volume decrease (RVD). Tumor cell migration and invasion assays were performed in a modified Boyden chamber. Wound healing and colony forming ability were also tested. Although self-quenching was not found in SPC-A1 cells, we observed a linear relationship between fluorescence intensity and cell water volume, suggesting that this method is a sensitive and reproducible way to measure single-cell transmembrane water permeability. Cells in which the AQP5 gene was silenced showed a 49.4% decrease in osmotic water permeability, a 55.3% decrease in migration and a 28.4% decrease in invasion potential. In addition, RVD decreased remarkably with reduced osmotic water permeability. Our results suggest that AQP5, which mediates water permeability and thus regulates cell shape and volume, is a potentially important determinant in cell migration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential migration and proliferation of geometrical ensembles of cell clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Girish; Chen, Bo; Co, Carlos C.; Ho, Chia-Chi

    2011-06-10

    Differential cell migration and growth drives the organization of specific tissue forms and plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue morphogenesis, and tumor invasion. Localized gradients of soluble factors and extracellular matrix have been shown to modulate cell migration and proliferation. Here we show that in addition to these factors, initial tissue geometry can feedback to generate differential proliferation, cell polarity, and migration patterns. We apply layer by layer polyelectrolyte assembly to confine multicellular organization and subsequently release cells to demonstrate the spatial patterns of cell migration and growth. The cell shapes, spreading areas, and cell-cell contacts are influenced strongly by the confining geometry. Cells within geometric ensembles are morphologically polarized. Symmetry breaking was observed for cells on the circular pattern and cells migrate toward the corners and in the direction parallel to the longest dimension of the geometric shapes. This migration pattern is disrupted when actomyosin based tension was inhibited. Cells near the edge or corner of geometric shapes proliferate while cells within do not. Regions of higher rate of cell migration corresponded to regions of concentrated growth. These findings demonstrate that multicellular organization can result in spatial patterns of migration and proliferation.

  7. Cell migration within confined sandwich-like nanoenvironments.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Beltrán, José; Lebourg, Myriam; Rico, Patricia; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    We introduced sandwich-like culture as a tool to engineer the cellular nanoenvironment by tuning protein presentation and activation of dorsal and ventral receptors. We aim at studying cell migration under more similar conditions to the 3D physiological one. We have investigated different nanoenvironments by changing the protein coating and using materials that adsorb proteins in different conformation, seeking to show their specific role in cell migration. Cell migration within sandwich cultures greatly differs from 2D cultures, shares some similarities with migration within 3D environments and is highly dependent on the protein nanoenvironment. Beyond differences in cell morphology and migration, dorsal stimulation promotes cell remodeling of the extracellular matrix over simple ventral receptor activation in traditional 2D cultures. Local(nano) stimulation of dorsal and ventral receptors within sandwich cultures alter cell migration in comparison to standard 2D environments.

  8. Fine Tuning Cell Migration by a Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Theodorou, K.

    2017-01-01

    Cell migration is an instrumental process involved in organ development, tissue homeostasis, and various physiological processes and also in numerous pathologies. Both basic cell migration and migration towards chemotactic stimulus consist of changes in cell polarity and cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell detachment from, invasion through, and reattachment to their neighboring cells, and numerous interactions with the extracellular matrix. The different steps of immune cell, tissue cell, or cancer cell migration are tightly coordinated in time and place by growth factors, cytokines/chemokines, adhesion molecules, and receptors for these ligands. This review describes how a disintegrin and metalloproteinases interfere with several steps of cell migration, either by proteolytic cleavage of such molecules or by functions independent of proteolytic activity. PMID:28260841

  9. Fine Tuning Cell Migration by a Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Dreymueller, D; Theodorou, K; Donners, M; Ludwig, A

    2017-01-01

    Cell migration is an instrumental process involved in organ development, tissue homeostasis, and various physiological processes and also in numerous pathologies. Both basic cell migration and migration towards chemotactic stimulus consist of changes in cell polarity and cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell detachment from, invasion through, and reattachment to their neighboring cells, and numerous interactions with the extracellular matrix. The different steps of immune cell, tissue cell, or cancer cell migration are tightly coordinated in time and place by growth factors, cytokines/chemokines, adhesion molecules, and receptors for these ligands. This review describes how a disintegrin and metalloproteinases interfere with several steps of cell migration, either by proteolytic cleavage of such molecules or by functions independent of proteolytic activity.

  10. Water permeation drives tumor cell migration in confined microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Stroka, Kimberly M; Jiang, Hongyuan; Chen, Shih-Hsun; Tong, Ziqiu; Wirtz, Denis; Sun, Sean X; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-04-24

    Cell migration is a critical process for diverse (patho)physiological phenomena. Intriguingly, cell migration through physically confined spaces can persist even when typical hallmarks of 2D planar migration, such as actin polymerization and myosin II-mediated contractility, are inhibited. Here, we present an integrated experimental and theoretical approach ("Osmotic Engine Model") and demonstrate that directed water permeation is a major mechanism of cell migration in confined microenvironments. Using microfluidic and imaging techniques along with mathematical modeling, we show that tumor cells confined in a narrow channel establish a polarized distribution of Na+/H+ pumps and aquaporins in the cell membrane, which creates a net inflow of water and ions at the cell leading edge and a net outflow of water and ions at the trailing edge, leading to net cell displacement. Collectively, this study presents an alternate mechanism of cell migration in confinement that depends on cell-volume regulation via water permeation.

  11. Cell coordination of collective migration by Rab11 and Moesin.

    PubMed

    Emery, Gregory; Ramel, Damien

    2013-07-01

    Cell migration is an important process involved in developmental events and in pathologies such as cancer. Cell migration can be classified into two types: individual and collective cell movements. Compared with individual migration, collective cell migration is less understood and has drawn increasing attention lately because of its emerging role in cancer spreading. We have recently established that Rab11 is absolutely required for spatial control of Rac1 activity through the control of cell-cell communication during collective movements (Ramel, et al. 2013). Moreover, we demonstrated that Rab11 acts through the control of Moesin activity. Here, we discuss how Rab11 and Moesin could cooperate to transfer forces from cell to cell in order to insure coordinated collective cell migration.

  12. The effects of kisspeptin-10 on migration and proliferation of endothelial cell

    PubMed Central

    Golzar, Fatemeh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Migration, expansion and survival of endothelial cells that are an important cellular component of blood vessels plays an important role in the induction of tumor growth. Kisspeptins (kp), peptides that bind to coupled-G protein receptor (GPR54), inhibit each step of metastatic cascade include invasion, migration and homing, angiogenesis, survival and proliferation. In this study we investigated effects of kisspeptin-10, the most potent member of kisspeptin family, on Migration and proliferation of endothelial cells that are necessary for angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. Materials and Methods: We compared migration of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) were treated with 10-100 or 500 nM kp-10 for 24 hours and no treated cells using an in vitro trans membrane migration assay and HUVEC proliferation of treated endothelial cells with 10-100 or 500 nM kp-10 for 48 hours and no treated cells was measured by MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Analysis of data was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Migration and proliferation of endothelial cells were increased at lower concentration of kp-10 specially at 100 nM while higher concentration reduced both migration and proliferation. Conclusion: Our data showed that different concentrations of kp-10 have distinct effects on migration and proliferation of endothelial cells. PMID:25789267

  13. [Methods for studying tumor cell migration and invasiveness].

    PubMed

    Kovaříková, P; Michalova, E; Knopfová, L; Bouchal, P

    2014-01-01

    Migration and invasiveness are phenotypic characteristics of cells that contribute to physiological processes, such as wound healing or embryogenesis and they are involved in serious pathological processes, namely in tumor cell metastasis. Availability of methods for studying migration and invasiveness of the cells is important for understanding molecular basis of these processes. In the case of cancer, migration, invasiveness and metastatic potential of tumor cells are key factors that determine clinical prognosis of the patients. This communication provides an overview of in vitro and in vivo methods which are used to study cell migration, invasion and metastasis. In vitro meth-ods for studying cell migration include simple two dimensional assays (scratch -  wound assay and the assay based on the effect of hepatocyte growth factor) and methods based on chemotaxis (Dunns chamber, videomicroscopy of cells, the use of carriers with chemoattractants). Methods for studying both cell migration and invasiveness in vitro include more complex systems based on the principle of the Boyden chamber (transwell migration/ invasive test, analysis of cell migration and invasion in xCELLigence system, confocal microscopy based approaches) as well as analysis of cell migration in microchannels. Our overview of in vivo methods provides an introduction into model organisms and methods used in this field, with an emphasis on the study of cancer metastasis in mouse models. The methods described in this review are mainly involved in larger research projects aiming at developing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in oncology.

  14. The ciliary GTPase Arl13b regulates cell migration and cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Pruski, Michal; Rajnicek, Ann; Yang, Zhifu; Clancy, Hannah; Ding, Yu-Qiang; McCaig, Colin D.; Lang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The GTPase ARL13B is localized to primary cilia; small cellular protrusions that act as antennae. Its defective ARL13B hennin (HNN) variant is linked causally with Joubert Syndrome, a developmental ciliopathy attributed to poor sensing of extracellular chemical gradients. We tested the hypothesis that impaired detection of extracellular voltage gradients also contributes to the HNN phenotype. In vitro, extracellular electric fields stimulated migration of wild type (WT) and HNN fibroblasts toward the cathode but the field only increased the migration speed of WT cells. Cilia on WT cells did not align to the field vector. HNN cells divided more slowly than WT cells, arresting at the G2/M phase. Mechanistically, HNN cells had reduced phospho-ERK1/2 signaling and elevated levels of Suppressor of Fused protein. These suggest that cells may not be able to read extracellular chemical cues appropriately, resulting in deficits in cell migration and proliferation. Finally, an increase in tubulin stabilization (more detyrosinated tubulin) confirmed the general stagnation of HNN cells, which may further contribute to slower migration and cell cycle progression. We conclude that Arl13b dysfunction resulted in HNN cell stagnation due to poor growth factor signaling and impaired detection of extracellular electrical gradients, and that the role of Arl13b in cell proliferation may be understated. PMID:26963749

  15. Coexpressing shRNA with fluorescence tags for quantification of cell migration studies.

    PubMed

    Koo, Christine Xing'er; Fang, Wanru; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Leong, David Tai

    2012-07-01

    Understanding migration of cells has many implications in human physiology; some examples include developmental biology, healing, immune responses and tissue remodeling. On the other hand, invasive migration by tumor cells is pathological and is a major cause of mortality amongst cancer sufferers. Cell migration assays have been widely used to quantify potentially metastatic genes. In recent years, the use of RNAi has significantly increased the tools available in cell migration research due to its specific gene targeting for knockdown. The inability to ensure 100% transfection/transduction efficiency reduces the sensitivity of cell migration assays because cells not successfully transfected/transduced with the RNAi are also included in the calculations. This study introduces a different experimental setup mathematically expressed in our named normalized relative infected cell count (N-RICC) that analyses cell migration assays by co-expressing retrovirally transduced shRNA with fluorescence tags from a single vector. Vectors transduced into cells are visible under fluorescence, thus alleviating the problems involved with transduction efficiency by individually identifying cells with targeted genes. Designed shRNAs were targeted against a list of potentially metastatic genes in a highly migratory breast cancer cell line model, MDA-MB-231. We have successfully applied N-RICC analysis to show greater sensitivity of integrin alpha5 (ITGA5) and Ras homologue A (RhoA) in cell metastasis over conventional methods in scratch-wound assays and migration chambers assays.

  16. Nonpolarized signaling reveals two distinct modes of 3D cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Gavara, Núria; Chadwick, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    We search in this paper for context-specific modes of three-dimensional (3D) cell migration using imaging for phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) and active Rac1 and Cdc42 in primary fibroblasts migrating within different 3D environments. In 3D collagen, PIP3 and active Rac1 and Cdc42 were targeted to the leading edge, consistent with lamellipodia-based migration. In contrast, elongated cells migrating inside dermal explants and the cell-derived matrix (CDM) formed blunt, cylindrical protrusions, termed lobopodia, and Rac1, Cdc42, and PIP3 signaling was nonpolarized. Reducing RhoA, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), or myosin II activity switched the cells to lamellipodia-based 3D migration. These modes of 3D migration were regulated by matrix physical properties. Specifically, experimentally modifying the elasticity of the CDM or collagen gels established that nonlinear elasticity supported lamellipodia-based migration, whereas linear elasticity switched cells to lobopodia-based migration. Thus, the relative polarization of intracellular signaling identifies two distinct modes of 3D cell migration governed intrinsically by RhoA, ROCK, and myosin II and extrinsically by the elastic behavior of the 3D extracellular matrix. PMID:22547408

  17. Nonpolarized signaling reveals two distinct modes of 3D cell migration.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Ryan J; Gavara, Núria; Chadwick, Richard S; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2012-04-30

    We search in this paper for context-specific modes of three-dimensional (3D) cell migration using imaging for phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) and active Rac1 and Cdc42 in primary fibroblasts migrating within different 3D environments. In 3D collagen, PIP3 and active Rac1 and Cdc42 were targeted to the leading edge, consistent with lamellipodia-based migration. In contrast, elongated cells migrating inside dermal explants and the cell-derived matrix (CDM) formed blunt, cylindrical protrusions, termed lobopodia, and Rac1, Cdc42, and PIP3 signaling was nonpolarized. Reducing RhoA, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), or myosin II activity switched the cells to lamellipodia-based 3D migration. These modes of 3D migration were regulated by matrix physical properties. Specifically, experimentally modifying the elasticity of the CDM or collagen gels established that nonlinear elasticity supported lamellipodia-based migration, whereas linear elasticity switched cells to lobopodia-based migration. Thus, the relative polarization of intracellular signaling identifies two distinct modes of 3D cell migration governed intrinsically by RhoA, ROCK, and myosin II and extrinsically by the elastic behavior of the 3D extracellular matrix.

  18. STRIPAK components determine mode of cancer cell migration and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Chris D.; Hooper, Steven; Tozluoglu, Melda; Bruckbauer, Andreas; Fletcher, Georgina; Erler, Janine T.; Bates, Paul A.; Thompson, Barry; Sahai, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The contractile actomyosin cytoskeleton and its connection to the plasma membrane are critical for control of cell shape and migration. We identify three STRIPAK complex components, FAM40A, FAM40B, and STRN3, as regulators of the actomyosin cortex. We show that FAM40A negatively regulates the MST3 and MST4 kinases, which promote the co-localisation of the contractile actomyosin machinery with the Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin family proteins by phosphorylating the inhibitors of PPP1CB, PPP1R14A-D. Using computational modelling, in vitro cell migration assays and in vivo breast cancer metastasis assays we demonstrate that co-localisation of contractile activity and actin-plasma membrane linkage reduces cell speed on planar surfaces, but favours migration in confined environments similar to those observed in vivo. We further show that FAM40B mutations found in human tumours uncouple it from PP2A and enable it to drive a contractile phenotype, which may underlie its role in human cancer. PMID:25531779

  19. Bulk Migration of Ni/NiO in Ni-YSZ during Reducing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Baer, Donald R.; Lea, Alan S.; Zhu, Zihua; Strohm, James J.; Sitzman, S. D.; King, David L.

    2010-02-09

    Understanding the migration of Ni/NiO in Ni-YSZ can potentially help to design a better solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode. We have observed that extensive hydrogen reduction and methane steam reforming of Ni-YSZ caused bulk migration of Ni/NiO to at least ~ 5 µm deeper from the Ni-YSZ surface. No significant bulk migration effects were detected after simple thermal treatments in non-reducing/non-reforming environment. Surface analysis of a single zirconia grain in the first 10-20 nm region from annealed, hydrogen reduced and methane steam reformed Ni-YSZ shows Ni-enriched surface supporting earlier claims of Ni exsolution. 3D-EBSD analysis of thermally treated sample before exposing it to reducing and reforming environment indicated mixed NiO/YSZ phase with some porosity and random grain orientation. The surface analysis and mapping were carried out using ToF-SIMS and AES whereas EDS maps on FIB sliced areas on Ni-YSZ were utilized for the bulk analysis. The results provide additional information related to complex reactions occurring in SOFC during internal reforming conditions.

  20. Neural crest delamination and migration: from epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition to collective cell migration.

    PubMed

    Theveneau, Eric; Mayor, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    After induction and specification in the ectoderm, at the border of the neural plate, the neural crest (NC) population leaves its original territory through a delamination process. Soon afterwards, the NC cells migrate throughout the embryo and colonize a myriad of tissues and organs where they settle and differentiate. The delamination involves a partial or complete epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) regulated by a complex network of transcription factors including several proto-oncogenes. Studying the relationship between these genes at the time of emigration, and their individual or collective impact on cell behavior, provides valuable information about their role in EMT in other contexts such as cancer metastasis. During migration, NC cells are exposed to large number of positive and negative regulators that control where they go by generating permissive and restricted areas and by modulating their motility and directionality. In addition, as most NC cells migrate collectively, cell-cell interactions play a crucial role in polarizing the cells and interpreting external cues. Cell cooperation eventually generates an overall polarity to the population, leading to directional collective cell migration. This review will summarize our current knowledge on delamination, EMT and migration of NC cells using key examples from chicken, Xenopus, zebrafish and mouse embryos. Given the similarities between neural crest migration and cancer invasion, these cells may represent a useful model for understanding the mechanisms of metastasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Texture sensing of cytoskeletal dynamics in cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Satarupa; Lee, Rachel; Hourwitz, Matthew J.; Sun, Xiaoyu; Parent, Carole; Fourkas, John T.; Losert, Wolfgang

    Migrating cells can be directed towards a target by gradients in properties such as chemical concentration or mechanical properties of the surrounding microenvironment. In previous studies we have shown that micro/nanotopographical features on scales comparable to those of natural collagen fibers can guide fast migrating amoeboid cells by aligning actin polymerization waves to such nanostructures. We find that actin microfilaments and microtubules are aligned along the nanoridge topographies, modulating overall cell polarity and directional migration in epithelial cells. This work shows that topographic features on a biologically relevant length scale can modulate migration outcomes by affecting the texture sensing property of the cytoskeleton.

  2. Systems microscopy approaches to understand cancer cell migration and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Le Dévédec, Sylvia E.; Yan, Kuan; de Bont, Hans; Ghotra, Veerander; Truong, Hoa; Danen, Erik H.; Verbeek, Fons

    2010-01-01

    Cell migration is essential in a number of processes, including wound healing, angiogenesis and cancer metastasis. Especially, invasion of cancer cells in the surrounding tissue is a crucial step that requires increased cell motility. Cell migration is a well-orchestrated process that involves the continuous formation and disassembly of matrix adhesions. Those structural anchor points interact with the extra-cellular matrix and also participate in adhesion-dependent signalling. Although these processes are essential for cancer metastasis, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate adhesion dynamics during tumour cell migration. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advanced imaging strategies together with quantitative image analysis that can be implemented to understand the dynamics of matrix adhesions and its molecular components in relation to tumour cell migration. This dynamic cell imaging together with multiparametric image analysis will help in understanding the molecular mechanisms that define cancer cell migration. PMID:20556632

  3. Directional Cell Migration in Response to Repeated Substratum Stretching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okimura, Chika; Iwadate, Yoshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Crawling migration plays an essential role in a variety of biological phenomena, including development, wound healing, and immune system function. Migration properties such as anterior-posterior polarity, directionality, and velocity are regulated not only by the reception of a chemoattractant but also by sensing mechanical inputs from the external environment. In this review, we describe the mechanical response of migrating cells, particularly under repeated stretching of the elastic substratum, highlighting the fact that there appear to be two independent mechanosensing systems that generate the polarity needed for migration. Cells that have no stress fibers, such as Dictyostelium cells and neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells, migrate perpendicular to the stretching direction via myosin II localization. Cells that do possess stress fibers, however, such as fish keratocytes, migrate parallel to the stretching via a stress-fiber-dependent process.

  4. Lutein Inhibits the Migration of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells via Cytosolic and Mitochondrial Akt Pathways (Lutein Inhibits RPE Cells Migration)

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ching-Chieh; Chan, Chi-Ming; Chen, Han-Min; Wu, Chia-Chun; Hsiao, Chien-Yu; Lee, Pei-Lan; Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang; Hung, Chi-Feng

    2014-01-01

    During the course of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells will de-differentiate, proliferate, and migrate onto the surfaces of the sensory retina. Several studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can induce migration of RPE cells via an Akt-related pathway. In this study, the effect of lutein on PDGF-BB-induced RPE cells migration was examined using transwell migration assays and Western blot analyses. We found that both phosphorylation of Akt and mitochondrial translocation of Akt in RPE cells induced by PDGF-BB stimulation were suppressed by lutein. Furthermore, the increased migration observed in RPE cells with overexpressed mitochondrial Akt could also be suppressed by lutein. Our results demonstrate that lutein can inhibit PDGF-BB induced RPE cells migration through the inhibition of both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Akt activation. PMID:25110866

  5. The Rac activator Tiam1 controls efficient T-cell trafficking and route of transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Audrey; van der Kammen, Rob A; Janssen, Hans; Ellenbroek, Saskia I; Collard, John G

    2009-06-11

    Migration toward chemoattractants is a hallmark of T-cell trafficking and is essential to produce an efficient immune response. Here, we have analyzed the function of the Rac activator Tiam1 in the control of T-cell trafficking and transendothelial migration. We found that Tiam1 is required for chemokine- and S1P-induced Rac activation and subsequent cell migration. As a result, Tiam1-deficient T cells show reduced chemotaxis in vitro, and impaired homing, egress, and contact hypersensitivity in vivo. Analysis of the T-cell transendothelial migration cascade revealed that PKCzeta/Tiam1/Rac signaling is dispensable for T-cell arrest but is essential for the stabilization of polarization and efficient crawling of T cells on endothelial cells. T cells that lack Tiam1 predominantly transmigrate through individual endothelial cells (transcellular migration) rather than at endothelial junctions (paracellular migration), suggesting that T cells are able to change their route of transendothelial migration according to their polarization status and crawling capacity.

  6. The planar cell polarity pathway directs parietal endoderm migration.

    PubMed

    LaMonica, Kristi; Bass, Maya; Grabel, Laura

    2009-06-01

    Parietal endoderm (PE) contributes to the yolk sac and is the first migratory cell type in the mammalian embryo. We can visualize PE migration in vitro using the F9 teratocarcinoma derived embryoid body outgrowth system and, show here that PE migration is directed by the non-canonical Wnt planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway via Rho/ROCK. Based on golgi apparatus localization and microtubule orientation, 68.6% of cells in control outgrowths are oriented in the direction of migration. Perturbation of Wnt signaling via sFRP treatment results in a loss of orientation coupled with an increase in cell migration. Inhibition of the PCP pathway at the level of Daam1 also results in a loss of cell orientation along with an increase in cell migration, as seen with sFRP treatment. Constitutively active Daam can inhibit the loss of orientation that occurs with sFRP treatment. We previously demonstrated that ROCK inhibition leads to an increase in cell migration, and we now show that these cells also lack oriented migration. Canonical Wnt signaling or the Rac arm of the PCP pathway does not appear to play a role in PE oriented migration. These data suggest the PCP pathway via Rho/ROCK modulates migration of PE.

  7. G protein-coupled receptor signaling through Gq and JNK negatively regulates neural progenitor cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Norikazu; Kokubu, Hiroshi; Sato, Maiko; Nishimura, Akiyuki; Yamauchi, Junji; Kurose, Hitoshi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    In the early development of the central nervous system, neural progenitor cells divide in an asymmetric manner and migrate along the radial glia cells. The radial migration is an important process for the proper lamination of the cerebral cortex. Recently, a new mode of the radial migration was found at the intermediate zone where the neural progenitor cells become multipolar and reduce the migration rate. However, the regulatory signals for the radial migration are unknown. Using the migration assay in vitro, we examined how neural progenitor cell migration is regulated. Neural progenitor cells derived from embryonic mouse telencephalon migrated on laminin-coated dishes. Endothelin (ET)-1 inhibited the neural progenitor cell migration. This ET-1 effect was blocked by BQ788, a specific inhibitor of the ETB receptor, and by the expression of a carboxyl-terminal peptide of Gαq but not Gαi. The expression of constitutively active mutant of Gαq, GαqR183C, inhibited the migration of neural progenitor cells. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of ET-1 was suppressed by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 and the expression of the JNK-binding domain of JNK-interacting protein-1, a specific inhibitor of the JNK pathway. Using the slice culture system of embryonic brain, we demonstrated that ET-1 and the constitutively active mutant of Gαq caused the retention of the neural progenitor cells in the intermediate zone and JNK-binding domain of JNK-interacting protein-1 abrogated the effect of ET-1. These results indicated that G protein-coupled receptor signaling negatively regulates neural progenitor cell migration through Gq and JNK. PMID:16116085

  8. A ring barrier-based migration assay to assess cell migration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Das, Asha M; Eggermont, Alexander M M; ten Hagen, Timo L M

    2015-06-01

    Cell migration is a key feature of virtually every biological process, and it can be studied in a variety of ways. Here we outline a protocol for the in vitro study of cell migration using a ring barrier-based assay. A 'barrier' is inserted in the culture chamber, which prevents cells from entering a defined area. Cells of interest are seeded around this barrier, and after the formation of a peripheral monolayer the barrier is removed and migration into the cell-free area is monitored. This assay is highly reproducible and convenient to perform, and it allows the deduction of several parameters of migration, including total and effective migration, velocity and cell polarization. An advantage of this assay over the conventional scratch assay is that the cells move over an unaltered and virgin surface, and thus the effect of matrix components on cell migration can be studied. In addition, the cells are not harmed at the onset of the assay. Through computer automation, four individual barrier assays can be monitored at the same time. The procedure can be used in a 12-well standard plate allowing higher throughput, or it can be modified to perform invasion assays. The basic procedure takes 2-3 d to complete.

  9. Methylene blue modulates transendothelial migration of peripheral blood cells.

    PubMed

    Werner, Isabella; Guo, Fengwei; Bogert, Nicolai V; Stock, Ulrich A; Meybohm, Patrick; Moritz, Anton; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Vasoplegia is a severe complication after cardiac surgery. Within the last years the administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor methylene blue (MB) became a new therapeutic strategy. Our aim was to investigate the role of MB on transendothelial migration of circulating blood cells, the potential role of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS in this process, and the influence of MB on endothelial cell apoptosis. Human vascular endothelial cells (HuMEC-1) were treated for 30 minutes or 2 hours with different concentrations of MB. Inflammation was mimicked by LPS stimulation prior and after MB. Transmigration of PBMCs and T-Lymphocytes through the treated endothelial cells was investigated. The influence of MB upon the different subsets of PBMCs (Granulocytes, T- and B-Lymphocytes, and Monocytes) was assessed after transmigration by means of flow-cytometry. The effect of MB on cell apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin-V and Propidium Iodide stainings. Analyses of the expression of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS were performed by means of RT-PCR and Western Blot. Results were analyzed using unpaired Students T-test. Analysis of endothelial cell apoptosis by MB indicated a dose-dependent increase of apoptotic cells. We observed time- and dose-dependent effects of MB on transendothelial migration of PBMCs. The prophylactic administration of MB led to an increase of transendothelial migration of PBMCs but not Jurkat cells. Furthermore, HuMEC-1 secretion of cGMP correlated with iNOS expression after MB administration but not with eNOS expression. Expression of these molecules was reduced after MB administration at protein level. This study clearly reveals that endothelial response to MB is dose- and especially time-dependent. MB shows different effects on circulating blood cell-subtypes, and modifies the release patterns of eNOS, iNOS, and cGMP. The transendothelial migration is modulated after treatment with MB. Furthermore, MB provokes apoptosis of endothelial cells in a dose

  10. Methylene Blue Modulates Transendothelial Migration of Peripheral Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Isabella; Guo, Fengwei; Bogert, Nicolai V.; Stock, Ulrich A.; Meybohm, Patrick; Moritz, Anton; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Vasoplegia is a severe complication after cardiac surgery. Within the last years the administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor methylene blue (MB) became a new therapeutic strategy. Our aim was to investigate the role of MB on transendothelial migration of circulating blood cells, the potential role of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS in this process, and the influence of MB on endothelial cell apoptosis. Human vascular endothelial cells (HuMEC-1) were treated for 30 minutes or 2 hours with different concentrations of MB. Inflammation was mimicked by LPS stimulation prior and after MB. Transmigration of PBMCs and T-Lymphocytes through the treated endothelial cells was investigated. The influence of MB upon the different subsets of PBMCs (Granulocytes, T- and B-Lymphocytes, and Monocytes) was assessed after transmigration by means of flow-cytometry. The effect of MB on cell apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin-V and Propidium Iodide stainings. Analyses of the expression of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS were performed by means of RT-PCR and Western Blot. Results were analyzed using unpaired Students T-test. Analysis of endothelial cell apoptosis by MB indicated a dose-dependent increase of apoptotic cells. We observed time- and dose-dependent effects of MB on transendothelial migration of PBMCs. The prophylactic administration of MB led to an increase of transendothelial migration of PBMCs but not Jurkat cells. Furthermore, HuMEC-1 secretion of cGMP correlated with iNOS expression after MB administration but not with eNOS expression. Expression of these molecules was reduced after MB administration at protein level. This study clearly reveals that endothelial response to MB is dose- and especially time-dependent. MB shows different effects on circulating blood cell-subtypes, and modifies the release patterns of eNOS, iNOS, and cGMP. The transendothelial migration is modulated after treatment with MB. Furthermore, MB provokes apoptosis of endothelial cells in a dose

  11. Loss of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-3 enhances cell migration in rat lung tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Mai; Okabe, Kyoko; Yamawaki, Yasuna; Teranishi, Miki; Honoki, Kanya; Mori, Toshio; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Loss of the Lpar3 expression due to aberrant DNA methylation occurred in rat lung tumor cells. {yields} The Lpar3 inhibited cell migration of rat lung tumor cells. {yields} The Lpar3 may act as a negative regulator of rat lung tumor cells. -- Abstract: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) indicates several biological effects, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. LPA interacts with G protein-coupled transmembrane LPA receptors. In our previous report, we detected that loss of the LPA receptor-1 (Lpar1) expression is due to its aberrant DNA methylation in rat tumor cell lines. In this study, to assess an involvement of the other LPA receptor, Lpar3, in the pathogenesis of rat lung tumor cells, we measured the expression levels of the Lpar3 gene and its DNA methylation status by reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bisulfite sequencing analyses, respectively. RLCNR lung adenocarcinoma cells showed reduced expression of the Lpar3, compared with normal lung tissues. In the 5' upstream region of the Lpar3, normal lung tissues were unmethylated. By contrast, RLCNR cells were highly methylated, correlating with reduced expressions of the Lpar3. Based on these results, we generated the Lpar3-expressing RLCNR-a3 cells and measured the cell migration ability. Interestingly, the cell migration of RLCNR-a3 cells was significantly lower than that of RLCNR cells. This study suggests that loss of the Lpar3 due to aberrant DNA methylation may be involved in the progression of rat lung tumor cells.

  12. Eosinophil-expressed galectin-3 regulates cell trafficking and migration

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiao Na; Ha, Sung Gil; Liu, Fu-Tong; Rao, Savita P.; Sriramarao, P.

    2013-01-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β galactoside-binding lectin, is implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation and allergen-challenged mice deficient in Gal-3 (Gal-3-/-) exhibit decreased airway recruitment of eosinophils (Eos). Gal-3 is expressed and secreted by several cell types and can thus function extracellularly and intracellularly to regulate a variety of cellular responses. We sought to determine the role of Eos-expressed Gal-3 in promoting Eos trafficking and migration in the context of allergic airway inflammation using bone marrow (BM)-derived Eos from wild-type (WT) and Gal-3-/- mice. Airway recruitment of Eos in acute (4 weeks) and chronic (8–12 weeks) allergen-challenged WT mice correlated with Gal-3 expression in the lungs. BM-derived Eos were found to express Gal-3 on the cell surface and secrete soluble Gal-3 when exposed to eotaxin-1. Compared to WT Eos, Gal-3-/- Eos exhibited significantly reduced rolling on vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and decreased stable adhesion on intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) under conditions of flow in vitro. Evaluation of cytoskeletal rearrangement demonstrated that relatively fewer adherent Gal-3-/- Eos undergo cell spreading and formation of membrane protrusions. In addition, cell surface expression of integrin receptor αM (CD11b) was lower in Gal-3-/- Eos, which is likely to account for their altered adhesive interactions with VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Gal-3-/- Eos also exhibited significantly decreased migration toward eotaxin-1 compared to WT Eos irrespective of similar levels of CCR3 expression. Further, eotaxin-induced migration of WT Eos remained unaffected in the presence of lactose, suggesting a role for intracellular Gal-3 in regulating Eos migration. Overall, our findings indicate that Gal-3 expression in the lungs correlates with Eos mobilization during allergic airway inflammation and signaling involving intracellular Gal-3 and/or secreted Gal-3 bound to the cell surface of

  13. Multi-Cellular Logistics of Collective Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Yamao, Masataka; Naoki, Honda; Ishii, Shin

    2011-01-01

    During development, the formation of biological networks (such as organs and neuronal networks) is controlled by multicellular transportation phenomena based on cell migration. In multi-cellular systems, cellular locomotion is restricted by physical interactions with other cells in a crowded space, similar to passengers pushing others out of their way on a packed train. The motion of individual cells is intrinsically stochastic and may be viewed as a type of random walk. However, this walk takes place in a noisy environment because the cell interacts with its randomly moving neighbors. Despite this randomness and complexity, development is highly orchestrated and precisely regulated, following genetic (and even epigenetic) blueprints. Although individual cell migration has long been studied, the manner in which stochasticity affects multi-cellular transportation within the precisely controlled process of development remains largely unknown. To explore the general principles underlying multicellular migration, we focus on the migration of neural crest cells, which migrate collectively and form streams. We introduce a mechanical model of multi-cellular migration. Simulations based on the model show that the migration mode depends on the relative strengths of the noise from migratory and non-migratory cells. Strong noise from migratory cells and weak noise from surrounding cells causes “collective migration,” whereas strong noise from non-migratory cells causes “dispersive migration.” Moreover, our theoretical analyses reveal that migratory cells attract each other over long distances, even without direct mechanical contacts. This effective interaction depends on the stochasticity of the migratory and non-migratory cells. On the basis of these findings, we propose that stochastic behavior at the single-cell level works effectively and precisely to achieve collective migration in multi-cellular systems. PMID:22205934

  14. 3D cancer cell migration in a confined matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alobaidi, Amani; Sun, Bo

    Cancer cell migration is widely studied in 2D motion, which does not mimic the invasion processes in vivo. More recently, 3D cell migration studies have been performed. The ability of cancer cells to migrate within the extracellular matrix depends on the physical and biochemical features of the extracellular matrix. We present a model of cell motility in confined matrix geometry. The aim of the study is to study cancer migration in collagen matrix, as a soft tissue, to investigate their motility within the confined and surrounding collagen environment. Different collagen concentrations have been used to show the ability of these cancer cells to move through such a complex structure by measuring Cancer cell migration velocity as well as the displacement. Graduate student physics department.

  15. Can mesenchymal cells undergo collective cell migration? The case of the neural crest.

    PubMed

    Theveneau, Eric; Mayor, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Cell migration is critical for proper development of the embryo and is also used by many cell types to perform their physiological function. For instance, cell migration is essential for immune cells to monitor the body and for epithelial cells to heal a wound whereas, in cancer cells, acquisition of migratory capabilities is a critical step towards malignancy. Migratory cells are often categorized into two groups: mesenchymal cells, produced by an epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition, that undergo solitary migration and epithelial-like cells which migrate collectively. However, on some occasions, mesenchymal cells may travel in large, dense groups and exhibit key features of collectively migrating cells such as coordination and cooperation. Here, using data published on Neural Crest cells, a highly invasive mesenchymal cell population that extensively migrate throughout the embryo, we explore the idea that other mesenchymal cells, including cancer cells, might be able to undergo collective cell migration under certain conditions and discuss how they could do so.

  16. Physical role for the nucleus in cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruleux, Antoine; Hawkins, Rhoda J.

    2016-09-01

    Cell migration is important for the function of many eukaryotic cells. Recently the nucleus has been shown to play an important role in cell motility. After giving an overview of cell motility mechanisms we review what is currently known about the mechanical properties of the nucleus and the connections between it and the cytoskeleton. We also discuss connections to the extracellular matrix and mechanotransduction. We identify key physical roles of the nucleus in cell migration.

  17. How does cancer cell metabolism affect tumor migration and invasion?

    PubMed

    Han, Tianyu; Kang, De; Ji, Daokun; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhan, Weihua; Fu, Minggui; Xin, Hong-Bo; Wang, Jian-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer-associated death. Accordingly, identification of the regulatory mechanisms that control whether or not tumor cells become "directed walkers" is a crucial issue of cancer research. The deregulation of cell migration during cancer progression determines the capacity of tumor cells to escape from the primary tumors and invade adjacent tissues to finally form metastases. The ability to switch from a predominantly oxidative metabolism to glycolysis and the production of lactate even when oxygen is plentiful is a key characteristic of cancer cells. This metabolic switch, known as the Warburg effect, was first described in 1920s, and affected not only tumor cell growth but also tumor cell migration. In this review, we will focus on the recent studies on how cancer cell metabolism affects tumor cell migration and invasion. Understanding the new aspects on molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways controlling tumor cell migration is critical for development of therapeutic strategies for cancer patients.

  18. Quantitative analysis of cell migration using optical flow.

    PubMed

    Boric, Katica; Orio, Patricio; Viéville, Thierry; Whitlock, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Neural crest cells exhibit dramatic migration behaviors as they populate their distant targets. Using a line of zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein (sox10:EGFP) in neural crest cells we developed an assay to analyze and quantify cell migration as a population, and use it here to characterize in detail the subtle defects in cell migration caused by ethanol exposure during early development. The challenge was to quantify changes in the in vivo migration of all Sox10:EGFP expressing cells in the visual field of time-lapse movies. To perform this analysis we used an Optical Flow algorithm for motion detection and combined the analysis with a fit to an affine transformation. Through this analysis we detected and quantified significant differences in the cell migrations of Sox10:EGFP positive cranial neural crest populations in ethanol treated versus untreated embryos. Specifically, treatment affected migration by increasing the left-right asymmetry of the migrating cells and by altering the direction of cell movements. Thus, by applying this novel computational analysis, we were able to quantify the movements of populations of cells, allowing us to detect subtle changes in cell behaviors. Because cranial neural crest cells contribute to the formation of the frontal mass these subtle differences may underlie commonly observed facial asymmetries in normal human populations.

  19. Controlled skeletal progenitor cell migration on nanostructured porous silicon/silicon micropatterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Costa, V.; Sánchez-Vaquero, V.; Muñoz-Noval, Á.; González-Méndez, L.; Punzón-Quijorna, E.; Gallach-Pérez, D.; Manso-Silván, M.; Martínez-Muñoz, G.; Climent-Font, A.; García-Ruiz, J. P.; Martín-Palma, R. J.

    2011-10-01

    In this work nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS) was used for the fabrication of surface micropatterns aiming at controlling cell adhesion and migration. In particular, surface patterns of nanoPS and Si were engineered by high-energy ion-beam irradiation and subsequent anodization. It was found that human skeletal progenitor cells are sensitive to oneand two-dimensional patterns and that focal adhesion is inhibited on nanoPS areas. In spite of this anti-fouling characteristics, studies on patterns with reduced Si areas show that cells conform to nanoPS pathways favoring migration through cell protrusion, body translocation and tail retraction from two parallel Si traction rails. Moreover, migration can be blocked and cells tend to arrange when grid patterns with the appropriate dimensions are fabricated. The experimental results confirm that progenitor cells are able to exploit nanoPS anti-fouling designs by adapting to it for migration purposes.

  20. Follow-the-leader cell migration requires biased cell-cell contact and local microenvironmental signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, Michelle L.; Rupp, Paul; Trainor, Paul A.; Schnell, Santiago; Kulesa, Paul M.

    2013-06-01

    Directed cell migration often involves at least two types of cell motility that include multicellular streaming and chain migration. However, what is unclear is how cell contact dynamics and the distinct microenvironments through which cells travel influence the selection of one migratory mode or the other. The embryonic and highly invasive neural crest (NC) are an excellent model system to study this question since NC cells have been observed in vivo to display both of these types of cell motility. Here, we present data from tissue transplantation experiments in chick and in silico modeling that test our hypothesis that cell contact dynamics with each other and the microenvironment promote and sustain either multicellular stream or chain migration. We show that when premigratory cranial NC cells (at the pre-otic level) are transplanted into a more caudal region in the head (at the post-otic level), cells alter their characteristic stream behavior and migrate in chains. Similarly, post-otic NC cells migrate in streams after transplantation into the pre-otic hindbrain, suggesting that local microenvironmental signals dictate the mode of NC cell migration. Simulations of an agent-based model (ABM) that integrates the NC cell behavioral data predict that chain migration critically depends on the interplay of biased cell-cell contact and local microenvironment signals. Together, this integrated modeling and experimental approach suggests new experiments and offers a powerful tool to examine mechanisms that underlie complex cell migration patterns.

  1. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 in the world of cell migration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tong; Rodriguez, Marbelys; Kim, Leung

    2009-12-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is one of the few master switch kinases that regulate many aspects of cell functions. Recent studies on cell polarization and migration have shown that GSK3 is also essential for proper regulation of these processes. GSK3 influences cell migration as one of the regulators of the spatiotemporally controlled dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, microtubules, and cell-to-matrix adhesions. In this mini-review, the effects of GSK3 on these three aspects of cell migration will be discussed.

  2. Dictyostelium cells migrate similarly on surfaces of varying chemical composition.

    PubMed

    McCann, Colin P; Rericha, Erin C; Wang, Chenlu; Losert, Wolfgang; Parent, Carole A

    2014-01-01

    During cell migration, cell-substrate binding is required for pseudopod anchoring to move the cell forward, yet the interactions with the substrate must be sufficiently weak to allow parts of the cell to de-adhere in a controlled manner during typical protrusion/retraction cycles. Mammalian cells actively control cell-substrate binding and respond to extracellular conditions with localized integrin-containing focal adhesions mediating mechanotransduction. We asked whether mechanotransduction also occurs during non-integrin mediated migration by examining the motion of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, which is thought to bind non-specifically to surfaces. We discovered that Dictyostelium cells are able to regulate forces generated by the actomyosin cortex to maintain optimal cell-surface contact area and adhesion on surfaces of various chemical composition and that individual cells migrate with similar speed and contact area on the different surfaces. In contrast, during collective migration, as observed in wound healing and metastasis, the balance between surface forces and protrusive forces is altered. We found that Dictyostelium collective migration dynamics are strongly affected when cells are plated on different surfaces. These results suggest that the presence of cell-cell contacts, which appear as Dictyostelium cells enter development, alter the mechanism cells use to migrate on surfaces of varying composition.

  3. Focal adhesion kinase is involved in the migration of human osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    FENG, SITAN; SHI, XIN; REN, KE; WU, SUJIA; SUN, XIAOLIANG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines with different migration abilities in order to determine the role of FAK in migration. A number of different 143B subclone cell lines (A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5) were obtained by a limiting dilution method, and the expression of FAK was detected using western blot analysis. The role of FAK in the migration of OS cells was investigated using small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the ratio of the number of lamellipodia was compared by immunofluorescence staining. The A2 and A3 OS 143B subclone cell lines demonstrated a stronger migration ability and exhibited higher FAK expression compared with the A1 cell line (P<0.05). Following transfection with FAK-siRNA, the migration ability of the A3 cells was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the ratio of the number of lamellipodia formed was reduced from 35 to 11% (P<0.05). In conclusion, the level of FAK expression was higher in the cell lines with a stronger migration ability. FAK affects the migration ability of OS cells by suppressing the formation of lamellipodia. PMID:26137126

  4. Mitochondrial dynamics regulates migration and invasion of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Zhang, J; Yu, M; Xie, Y; Huang, Y; Wolff, D W; Abel, P W; Tu, Y

    2013-10-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic and undergo constant fusion and fission that are essential for maintaining physiological functions of cells. Although dysfunction of mitochondria has been implicated in tumorigenesis, little is known about the roles of mitochondrial dynamics in metastasis, the major cause of cancer death. In the present study, we found a marked upregulation of mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) expression in human invasive breast carcinoma and metastases to lymph nodes. Compared with non-metastatic breast cancer cells, mitochondria also were more fragmented in metastatic breast cancer cells that express higher levels of total and active Drp1 and less mitochondrial fusion protein 1 (Mfn1). Silencing Drp1 or overexpression of Mfn1 resulted in mitochondria elongation or clusters, respectively, and significantly suppressed metastatic abilities of breast cancer cells. In contrast, silencing Mfn proteins led to mitochondrial fragmentation and enhanced metastatic abilities of breast cancer cells. Interestingly, these manipulations of mitochondrial dynamics altered the subcellular distribution of mitochondria in breast cancer cells. For example, silencing Drp1 or overexpression of Mfn1 inhibited lamellipodia formation, a key step for cancer metastasis, and suppressed chemoattractant-induced recruitment of mitochondria to lamellipodial regions. Conversely, silencing Mfn proteins resulted in more cell spreading and lamellipodia formation, causing accumulation of more mitochondria in lamellipodia regions. More importantly, treatment with a mitochondrial uncoupling agent or adenosine triphosphate synthesis inhibitor reduced lamellipodia formation and decreased breast cancer cell migration and invasion, suggesting a functional importance of mitochondria in breast cancer metastasis. Together, our findings show a new role and mechanism for regulation of cancer cell migration and invasion by mitochondrial dynamics. Thus targeting

  5. Statins reduce human blood-brain barrier permeability and restrict leukocyte migration: relevance to multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ifergan, Igal; Wosik, Karolina; Cayrol, Romain; Kébir, Hania; Auger, Chantale; Bernard, Monique; Bouthillier, Alain; Moumdjian, Robert; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre

    2006-07-01

    Dysregulation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and transendothelial migration of immune cells are among the earliest central nervous system changes partaking in lesion formation in both multiple sclerosis (MS) and its early clinical form, the clinically isolated syndrome. Evidence for the anti-inflammatory effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors within the central nervous system arose from studies demonstrating that statins improve clinical signs in the animal model of MS and reduce the number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions in MS. We sought to describe the impact of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor treatment on the physiology and immunology of human BBB-derived endothelial cells (ECs). We demonstrate that lovastatin and simvastatin induce a 50 to 60% reduction in the diffusion rates of bovine serum albumin and [(14)C]-sucrose across human BBB-ECs in vitro through abrogation of isoprenylation processes, but independent of the expression of the tight junction molecules occludin, VE-cadherin, JAM-1, zonula occluden-1, and zonula occluden-2. Simvastatin and lovastatin were equipotent in reducing BBB permeability in vitro, with median effective concentration (EC(50)) of 9.5 x 10(-8) and 1.0 x 10(-7)M, respectively. We further demonstrate that lovastatin and simvastatin treatment of BBB-ECs significantly restricts the migration of clinically isolated syndrome-derived and MS-derived monocytes and lymphocytes across the human BBB in vitro, through a specific reduction in the secretion of the chemokines monocyte chemotactic protein-1/CCL2 and interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10/CXCL10 by BBB-ECs. Our data parallel the previously reported magnetic resonance imaging-based radiological findings and suggest an effect of statins that could be beneficial in early MS, restricting the diffusion of molecular tracers and the migration of immune cells across the human BBB.

  6. Chemokine-Dependent pH Elevation at the Cell Front Sustains Polarity in Directionally Migrating Zebrafish Germ Cells.

    PubMed

    Tarbashevich, Katsiaryna; Reichman-Fried, Michal; Grimaldi, Cecilia; Raz, Erez

    2015-04-20

    Directional cell migration requires cell polarization with respect to the distribution of the guidance cue. Cell polarization often includes asymmetric distribution of response components as well as elements of the motility machinery. Importantly, the function and regulation of most of these molecules are known to be pH dependent. Intracellular pH gradients were shown to occur in certain cells migrating in vitro, but the functional relevance of such gradients for cell migration and for the response to directional cues, particularly in the intact organism, is currently unknown. In this study, we find that primordial germ cells migrating in the context of the developing embryo respond to the graded distribution of the chemokine Cxcl12 by establishing elevated intracellular pH at the cell front. We provide insight into the mechanisms by which a polar pH distribution contributes to efficient cell migration. Specifically, we show that Carbonic Anhydrase 15b, an enzyme controlling the pH in many cell types, including metastatic cancer cells, is expressed in migrating germ cells and is crucial for establishing and maintaining an asymmetric pH distribution within them. Reducing the level of the protein and thereby erasing the pH elevation at the cell front resulted in abnormal cell migration and impaired arrival at the target. The basis for the disrupted migration is found in the stringent requirement for pH conditions in the cell for regulating contractility, for the polarization of Rac1 activity, and hence for the formation of actin-rich structures at the leading edge of the migrating cells.

  7. ATM regulation of IL-8 links oxidative stress to cancer cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Ebelt, Nancy D; Stracker, Travis H; Xhemalce, Blerta; Van Den Berg, Carla L; Miller, Kyle M

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) and is associated with cancer suppression. Here we report a cancer-promoting role for ATM. ATM depletion in metastatic cancer cells reduced cell migration and invasion. Transcription analyses identified a gene network, including the chemokine IL-8, regulated by ATM. IL-8 expression required ATM and was regulated by oxidative stress. IL-8 was validated as an ATM target by its ability to rescue cell migration and invasion defects in ATM-depleted cells. Finally, ATM-depletion in human breast cancer cells reduced lung tumors in a mouse xenograft model and clinical data validated IL-8 in lung metastasis. These findings provide insights into how ATM activation by oxidative stress regulates IL-8 to sustain cell migration and invasion in cancer cells to promote metastatic potential. Thus, in addition to well-established roles in tumor suppression, these findings identify a role for ATM in tumor progression.

  8. Effect of Static Magnetic Field on Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Yuichiro; Kawasumi, Masashi; Saito, Masao

    The effect of magnetic field on cell has long been investigated, but there are few quantitative investigations of the migration of cells. Cell-migration is important as one of the fundamental activities of the cell. This study proposes a method to evaluate quantitatively the cell-diffusion constant and the effect of static magnetic field on cell migration. The cell-lines are neuroblastoma (NG108-15), fibroblastoma (NIH/3T3) and osteoblastoma (MC3T3-E1). The static magnetic field of 30 mT or 120 mT is impressed by a permanent magnet in vertical or horizontal direction to the dish. It is shown that the cell-diffusion constant can represent the cell migration as the cell activity. It is found that the cell migration is enhanced by exposure to the magnetic field, depending on the kind of cell. It is conjectured that the effect of static magnetic field affects the cell migration, which is at the downstream of the information transmission.

  9. From Cell Differentiation to Cell Collectives: Bacillus subtilis Uses Division of Labor to Migrate

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The organization of cells, emerging from cell–cell interactions, can give rise to collective properties. These properties are adaptive when together cells can face environmental challenges that they separately cannot. One particular challenge that is important for microorganisms is migration. In this study, we show how flagellum-independent migration is driven by the division of labor of two cell types that appear during Bacillus subtilis sliding motility. Cell collectives organize themselves into bundles (called “van Gogh bundles”) of tightly aligned cell chains that form filamentous loops at the colony edge. We show, by time-course microscopy, that these loops migrate by pushing themselves away from the colony. The formation of van Gogh bundles depends critically on the synergistic interaction of surfactin-producing and matrix-producing cells. We propose that surfactin-producing cells reduce the friction between cells and their substrate, thereby facilitating matrix-producing cells to form bundles. The folding properties of these bundles determine the rate of colony expansion. Our study illustrates how the simple organization of cells within a community can yield a strong ecological advantage. This is a key factor underlying the diverse origins of multicellularity. PMID:25894589

  10. Functional transcriptomics of a migrating cell in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Erich M; Kato, Mihoko; Sternberg, Paul W

    2012-10-02

    In both metazoan development and metastatic cancer, migrating cells must carry out a detailed, complex program of sensing cues, binding substrates, and moving their cytoskeletons. The linker cell in Caenorhabditis elegans males undergoes a stereotyped migration that guides gonad organogenesis, occurs with precise timing, and requires the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-67. To better understand how this occurs, we performed RNA-seq of individually staged and dissected linker cells, comparing transcriptomes from linker cells of third-stage (L3) larvae, fourth-stage (L4) larvae, and nhr-67-RNAi-treated L4 larvae. We observed expression of 8,000-10,000 genes in the linker cell, 22-25% of which were up- or down-regulated 20-fold during development by NHR-67. Of genes that we tested by RNAi, 22% (45 of 204) were required for normal shape and migration, suggesting that many NHR-67-dependent, linker cell-enriched genes play roles in this migration. One unexpected class of genes up-regulated by NHR-67 was tandem pore potassium channels, which are required for normal linker-cell migration. We also found phenotypes for genes with human orthologs but no previously described migratory function. Our results provide an extensive catalog of genes that act in a migrating cell, identify unique molecular functions involved in nematode cell migration, and suggest similar functions in humans.

  11. Curcumin attenuates EGF-induced AQP3 up-regulation and cell migration in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chao; Cao, Cong; Lu, Shan; Kivlin, Rebecca; Amaral, Ashley; Kouttab, Nicola; Yang, Hui; Chu, Wenming; Bi, Zhigang; Di, Wen; Wan, Yinsheng

    2008-10-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are expressed in high-grade tumor cells of different tissue origins. Based on the involvement of AQPs in angiogenesis and cell migration as well as our previous studies which show that AQP3 is involved in human skin fibroblasts cell migration, in this study, we investigated whether AQP3 is expressed in cultured human ovarian cancer cell line CaOV3 cells, and whether AQP3 expression in these cells enhances cell migration and metastatic potential. Cultured CaOV3 cells were treated with EGF and/or various reagents and subjected to cell migration assay by phagokinetic track mobility assay or biochemical analysis for expression or activation of proteins by SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis. In this study, we demonstrate that AQP3 is expressed in CaOV3 cells. EGF induces CaOV3 migration and up-regulates AQP3 expression. EGF-induced cell migration is inhibited by specific AQP3 siRNA knockdown or AQP3 water transport inhibitor CuSO4 and NiCl2. We also find that curcumin, a well known anti-ovarian cancer drug, down-regulates AQP3 expression and reduces cell migration in CaOV3, and the effects of curcumin are mediated, at least in part, by its inhibitory effects on EGFR and downstream AKT/ERK activation. Collectively, our results provide evidence for AQP3-facilitated ovarian cancer cell migration, suggesting a novel function for AQP3 expression in high-grade tumors. The results that curcumin inhibits EGF-induced up-regulation of AQP3 and cell migration, provide a new explanation for the anticancer potential of curcumin.

  12. S-Fms signalobody enhances myeloid cell growth and migration.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Masahiro; Hitomi, Azusa; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2014-07-01

    Since receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) control various cell fates in many types of cells, mimicry of RTK functions is promising for artificial control of cell fates. We have previously developed single-chain Fv (scFv)/receptor chimeras named signalobodies that can mimic receptor signaling in response to a specific antigen. While the RTK-based signalobodies enabled us to control cell growth and migration, further extension of applicability in another cell type would underlie the impact of the RTK-based signalobodies. In this study, we applied the scFv-c-Fms (S-Fms) signalobody in a murine myeloid progenitor cell line, FDC-P1. S-Fms transduced a fluorescein-conjugated BSA (BSA-FL)-dependent growth signal and activated downstream signaling molecules including MEK, ERK, Akt, and STAT3, which are major constituents of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and JAK/STAT signaling pathways. In addition, S-Fms transduced a migration signal as demonstrated by the transwell-based migration assay. Direct real-time observation of the cells further confirmed that FDC/S-Fms cells underwent directional cell migration toward a positive gradient of BSA-FL. These results demonstrated the utility of the S-Fms signalobody for controlling growth and migration of myeloid cells. Further extension of our approach includes economical large-scale production of practically relevant blood cells as well as artificial control of cell migration for tissue regeneration and immune response.

  13. Analysis of primary cilia in directional cell migration in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Søren T; Veland, Iben R; Schwab, Albrecht; Cammer, Michael; Satir, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Early studies of migrating fibroblasts showed that primary cilia orient in front of the nucleus and point toward the leading edge. Recent work has shown that primary cilia coordinate a series of signaling pathways critical to fibroblast cell migration during development and in wound healing. In particular, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) is compartmentalized to the primary cilium to activate signaling pathways that regulate reorganization of the cytoskeleton required for lamellipodium formation and directional migration in the presence of a specific ligand gradient. We summarize selected methods in analyzing ciliary function in directional cell migration, including immunofluorescence microscopy, scratch assay, and chemotaxis assay by micropipette addition of PDGFRα ligands to cultures of fibroblasts. These methods should be useful not only in studying cell migration but also more generally in delineating response pathways in cells with primary cilia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Asymmetric division coordinates collective cell migration in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Guilherme; Harrington, Kyle I; Lovegrove, Holly E; Page, Donna J; Chakravartula, Shilpa; Bentley, Katie; Herbert, Shane P

    2016-12-01

    The asymmetric division of stem or progenitor cells generates daughters with distinct fates and regulates cell diversity during tissue morphogenesis. However, roles for asymmetric division in other more dynamic morphogenetic processes, such as cell migration, have not previously been described. Here we combine zebrafish in vivo experimental and computational approaches to reveal that heterogeneity introduced by asymmetric division generates multicellular polarity that drives coordinated collective cell migration in angiogenesis. We find that asymmetric positioning of the mitotic spindle during endothelial tip cell division generates daughters of distinct size with discrete 'tip' or 'stalk' thresholds of pro-migratory Vegfr signalling. Consequently, post-mitotic Vegfr asymmetry drives Dll4/Notch-independent self-organization of daughters into leading tip or trailing stalk cells, and disruption of asymmetry randomizes daughter tip/stalk selection. Thus, asymmetric division seamlessly integrates cell proliferation with collective migration, and, as such, may facilitate growth of other collectively migrating tissues during development, regeneration and cancer invasion.

  15. Germ cell migration across Sertoli cell tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Benjamin E; Braun, Robert E

    2012-11-09

    The blood-testis barrier includes strands of tight junctions between somatic Sertoli cells that restricts solutes from crossing the paracellular space, creating a microenvironment within seminiferous tubules and providing immune privilege to meiotic and postmeiotic cells. Large cysts of germ cells transit the Sertoli cell tight junctions (SCTJs) without compromising their integrity. We used confocal microscopy to visualize SCTJ components during germ cell cyst migration across the SCTJs. Cysts become enclosed within a network of transient compartments fully bounded by old and new tight junctions. Dissolution of the old tight junctions releases the germ cells into the adluminal compartment, thus completing transit across the blood-testis barrier. Claudin 3, a tight junction protein, is transiently incorporated into new tight junctions and then replaced by claudin 11.

  16. Cancer cell motility: lessons from migration in confined spaces

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Colin D.; Mistriotis, Panagiotis; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Time-lapse, deep-tissue imaging made possible by advances in intravital microscopy has demonstrated the importance of tumour cell migration through confining tracks in vivo. These tracks may either be endogenous features of tissues or be created by tumour or tumour-associated cells. Importantly, migration mechanisms through confining microenvironments are not predicted by 2D migration assays. Engineered in vitro models have been used to delineate the mechanisms of cell motility through confining spaces encountered in vivo. Understanding cancer cell locomotion through physiologically relevant confining tracks could be useful in developing therapeutic strategies to combat metastasis. PMID:27909339

  17. Cancer cell motility: lessons from migration in confined spaces.

    PubMed

    Paul, Colin D; Mistriotis, Panagiotis; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-02-01

    Time-lapse, deep-tissue imaging made possible by advances in intravital microscopy has demonstrated the importance of tumour cell migration through confining tracks in vivo. These tracks may either be endogenous features of tissues or be created by tumour or tumour-associated cells. Importantly, migration mechanisms through confining microenvironments are not predicted by 2D migration assays. Engineered in vitro models have been used to delineate the mechanisms of cell motility through confining spaces encountered in vivo. Understanding cancer cell locomotion through physiologically relevant confining tracks could be useful in developing therapeutic strategies to combat metastasis.

  18. Caffeine inhibits migration in glioma cells through the ROCK-FAK pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Chou, Wei-Chung; Ding, You-Ming; Wu, Ya-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    Glioma is the most malignant brain tumor that has the ability to migrate and invade the CNS. In this study, we investigated the signaling mechanism of caffeine on the migration of glioma cells. The effect of caffeine on cell migration was evaluated using Transwell and wound healing assays. The expression of the focal adhesion complex as it related to cell migration was assayed using Western blotting and immunostaining. Caffeine decreased the migration of rat C6 and human U87MG glioma cells and down-regulated the expression of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK) and p-paxillin. Caffeine also decreased p-FAK staining at the edge of glioma cells and disassembled actin stress fibers. Additionally, caffeine elevated expression of phosphorylated myosin light chain (p-MLC), an effect that could be blocked by Y27632, a rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, but not myosin light chain kinase inhibitor, ML-7. Y27632 also inhibited the caffeine-reduced expression of p-FAK and p-paxillin as well as cell migration. Caffeine decreased the migration of glioma cell through the ROCK-focal adhesion complex pathway; this mechanism may be useful as part of clinical therapy in the future. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Microfluidic platform to evaluate migration of cells from patients with DYT1 dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Edward Y.; Hettich, Jasmin; Mempel, Thorsten R.; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Irimia, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background Microfluidic platforms for quantitative evaluation of cell biologic processes allow low cost and time efficient research studies of biological and pathological events, such as monitoring cell migration by real-time imaging. In healthy and disease states, cell migration is crucial in development and wound healing, as well as to maintain the body's homeostasis. New Method The microfluidic chambers allow precise measurements to investigate whether fibroblasts carrying a mutation in the TOR1A gene, underlying the hereditary neurologic disease - DYT1 dystonia, have decreased migration properties when compared to control cells. Results We observed that fibroblasts from DYT1 patients showed abnormalities in basic features of cell migration, such as reduced velocity and persistence of movement. Comparison with Existing Method The microfluidic method enabled us to demonstrate reduced polarization of the nucleus and abnormal orientation of nuclei and Golgi inside the moving DYT1 patient cells compared to control cells, as well as vectorial movement of single cells. Conclusion We report here different assays useful in determining various parameters of cell migration in DYT1 patient cells as a consequence of the TOR1A gene mutation, including a microfluidic platform, which provides a means to evaluate real-time vectorial movement with single cell resolution in a three-dimensional environment. PMID:24880044

  20. Stimulation of cortical myosin phosphorylation by p114RhoGEF drives cell migration and tumor cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Terry, Stephen J; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Zihni, Ceniz; Harris, Andrew R; Bailly, Maryse; Charras, Guillaume T; Balda, Maria S; Matter, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Actinomyosin activity is an important driver of cell locomotion and has been shown to promote collective cell migration of epithelial sheets as well as single cell migration and tumor cell invasion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying activation of cortical myosin to stimulate single cell movement, and the relationship between the mechanisms that drive single cell locomotion and those that mediate collective cell migration of epithelial sheets are incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that p114RhoGEF, an activator of RhoA that associates with non-muscle myosin IIA, regulates collective cell migration of epithelial sheets and tumor cell invasion. Depletion of p114RhoGEF resulted in specific spatial inhibition of myosin activation at cell-cell contacts in migrating epithelial sheets and the cortex of migrating single cells, but only affected double and not single phosphorylation of myosin light chain. In agreement, overall elasticity and contractility of the cells, processes that rely on persistent and more constant forces, were not affected, suggesting that p114RhoGEF mediates process-specific myosin activation. Locomotion was p114RhoGEF-dependent on Matrigel, which favors more roundish cells and amoeboid-like actinomyosin-driven movement, but not on fibronectin, which stimulates flatter cells and lamellipodia-driven, mesenchymal-like migration. Accordingly, depletion of p114RhoGEF led to reduced RhoA, but increased Rac activity. Invasion of 3D matrices was p114RhoGEF-dependent under conditions that do not require metalloproteinase activity, supporting a role of p114RhoGEF in myosin-dependent, amoeboid-like locomotion. Our data demonstrate that p114RhoGEF drives cortical myosin activation by stimulating myosin light chain double phosphorylation and, thereby, collective cell migration of epithelial sheets and amoeboid-like motility of tumor cells.

  1. Stimulation of Cortical Myosin Phosphorylation by p114RhoGEF Drives Cell Migration and Tumor Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Zihni, Ceniz; Harris, Andrew R.; Bailly, Maryse; Charras, Guillaume T.; Balda, Maria S.; Matter, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Actinomyosin activity is an important driver of cell locomotion and has been shown to promote collective cell migration of epithelial sheets as well as single cell migration and tumor cell invasion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying activation of cortical myosin to stimulate single cell movement, and the relationship between the mechanisms that drive single cell locomotion and those that mediate collective cell migration of epithelial sheets are incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that p114RhoGEF, an activator of RhoA that associates with non-muscle myosin IIA, regulates collective cell migration of epithelial sheets and tumor cell invasion. Depletion of p114RhoGEF resulted in specific spatial inhibition of myosin activation at cell-cell contacts in migrating epithelial sheets and the cortex of migrating single cells, but only affected double and not single phosphorylation of myosin light chain. In agreement, overall elasticity and contractility of the cells, processes that rely on persistent and more constant forces, were not affected, suggesting that p114RhoGEF mediates process-specific myosin activation. Locomotion was p114RhoGEF-dependent on Matrigel, which favors more roundish cells and amoeboid-like actinomyosin-driven movement, but not on fibronectin, which stimulates flatter cells and lamellipodia-driven, mesenchymal-like migration. Accordingly, depletion of p114RhoGEF led to reduced RhoA, but increased Rac activity. Invasion of 3D matrices was p114RhoGEF-dependent under conditions that do not require metalloproteinase activity, supporting a role of p114RhoGEF in myosin-dependent, amoeboid-like locomotion. Our data demonstrate that p114RhoGEF drives cortical myosin activation by stimulating myosin light chain double phosphorylation and, thereby, collective cell migration of epithelial sheets and amoeboid-like motility of tumor cells. PMID:23185572

  2. Collective cell migration drives morphogenesis of the kidney nephron.

    PubMed

    Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Liu, Yan; Mudumana, Sudha; Mangos, Steve; Lam, Pui-Ying; Majumdar, Arindam; Zhao, Jinhua; Poon, Kar-Lai; Kondrychyn, Igor; Korzh, Vladimir; Drummond, Iain A

    2009-01-06

    Tissue organization in epithelial organs is achieved during development by the combined processes of cell differentiation and morphogenetic cell movements. In the kidney, the nephron is the functional organ unit. Each nephron is an epithelial tubule that is subdivided into discrete segments with specific transport functions. Little is known about how nephron segments are defined or how segments acquire their distinctive morphology and cell shape. Using live, in vivo cell imaging of the forming zebrafish pronephric nephron, we found that the migration of fully differentiated epithelial cells accounts for both the final position of nephron segment boundaries and the characteristic convolution of the proximal tubule. Pronephric cells maintain adherens junctions and polarized apical brush border membranes while they migrate collectively. Individual tubule cells exhibit basal membrane protrusions in the direction of movement and appear to establish transient, phosphorylated Focal Adhesion Kinase-positive adhesions to the basement membrane. Cell migration continued in the presence of camptothecin, indicating that cell division does not drive migration. Lengthening of the nephron was, however, accompanied by an increase in tubule cell number, specifically in the most distal, ret1-positive nephron segment. The initiation of cell migration coincided with the onset of fluid flow in the pronephros. Complete blockade of pronephric fluid flow prevented cell migration and proximal nephron convolution. Selective blockade of proximal, filtration-driven fluid flow shifted the position of tubule convolution distally and revealed a role for cilia-driven fluid flow in persistent migration of distal nephron cells. We conclude that nephron morphogenesis is driven by fluid flow-dependent, collective epithelial cell migration within the confines of the tubule basement membrane. Our results establish intimate links between nephron function, fluid flow, and morphogenesis.

  3. Epac1 increases migration of endothelial cells and melanoma cells via FGF2-mediated paracrine signaling.

    PubMed

    Baljinnyam, Erdene; Umemura, Masanari; Chuang, Christine; De Lorenzo, Mariana S; Iwatsubo, Mizuka; Chen, Suzie; Goydos, James S; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Whitelock, John M; Iwatsubo, Kousaku

    2014-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) regulates endothelial and melanoma cell migration. The binding of FGF2 to its receptor requires N-sulfated heparan sulfate (HS) glycosamine. We have previously reported that Epac1, an exchange protein activated by cAMP, increases N-sulfation of HS in melanoma. Therefore, we examined whether Epac1 regulates FGF2-mediated cell-cell communication. Conditioned medium (CM) of melanoma cells with abundant expression of Epac1 increased migration of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) and melanoma cells with poor expression of Epac1. CM-induced increase in migration was inhibited by antagonizing FGF2, by the removal of HS and by the knockdown of Epac1. In addition, knockdown of Epac1 suppressed the binding of FGF2 to FGF receptor in HUVEC, and in vivo angiogenesis in melanoma. Furthermore, knockdown of Epac1 reduced N-sulfation of HS chains attached to perlecan, a major secreted type of HS proteoglycan that mediates the binding of FGF2 to FGF receptor. These data suggested that Epac1 in melanoma cells regulates melanoma progression via the HS-FGF2-mediated cell-cell communication. © 2014 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Micropatterned Protective Membranes Inhibit Lens Epithelial Cell Migration in Posterior Capsule Opacification Model.

    PubMed

    Magin, Chelsea M; May, Rhea M; Drinker, Michael C; Cuevas, Kevin H; Brennan, Anthony B; Reddy, Shravanthi T

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the ability of Sharklet (SK) micropatterns to inhibit lens epithelial cell (LEC) migration. Sharklet Technologies, Inc. (STI) and InSight Innovations, LLC have proposed to develop a Sharklet-patterned protective membrane (PM) to be implanted in combination with a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) to inhibit cellular migration across the posterior capsule, and thereby reduce rates of posterior capsular opacification (PCO). A variety of STI micropatterns were evaluated versus smooth (SM) controls in a modified scratch wound assay for the ability to reduce or inhibit LEC migration. The best performing topography was selected, translated to a radial design, and applied to PM prototypes. The PM prototypes were tested in an in vitro PCO model for reduction of cell migration behind an IOL versus unpatterned prototypes and IOLs with no PM. In both assays, cell migration was analyzed with fluorescent microscopy. All SK micropatterns significantly reduced LEC migration compared with SM controls. Micropatterns that protruded from the surface reduced migration more than recessed features. The best performing micropattern reduced LEC coverage by 80%, P = 0.0001 (ANOVA, Tukey Test). Micropatterned PMs reduced LEC migration in a PCO model by 50%, P = 0.0005 (ANOVA, Tukey Test) compared with both IOLs with no PM and IOLs with SM PMs. Collectively, in vitro results indicate the implantation of micropatterned PMs in combination with posterior chamber IOLs could significantly reduce rates of clinically relevant PCO. This innovative technology is a globally accessible solution to high PCO rates. A novel IOL incorporating the SK micropattern in a membrane design surrounding the optic may help increase the success of cataract surgery by reducing secondary cataract, or PCO.

  5. Micropatterned Protective Membranes Inhibit Lens Epithelial Cell Migration in Posterior Capsule Opacification Model

    PubMed Central

    Magin, Chelsea M.; May, Rhea M.; Drinker, Michael C.; Cuevas, Kevin H.; Brennan, Anthony B.; Reddy, Shravanthi T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the ability of Sharklet (SK) micropatterns to inhibit lens epithelial cell (LEC) migration. Sharklet Technologies, Inc. (STI) and InSight Innovations, LLC have proposed to develop a Sharklet-patterned protective membrane (PM) to be implanted in combination with a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) to inhibit cellular migration across the posterior capsule, and thereby reduce rates of posterior capsular opacification (PCO). Methods A variety of STI micropatterns were evaluated versus smooth (SM) controls in a modified scratch wound assay for the ability to reduce or inhibit LEC migration. The best performing topography was selected, translated to a radial design, and applied to PM prototypes. The PM prototypes were tested in an in vitro PCO model for reduction of cell migration behind an IOL versus unpatterned prototypes and IOLs with no PM. In both assays, cell migration was analyzed with fluorescent microscopy. Results All SK micropatterns significantly reduced LEC migration compared with SM controls. Micropatterns that protruded from the surface reduced migration more than recessed features. The best performing micropattern reduced LEC coverage by 80%, P = 0.0001 (ANOVA, Tukey Test). Micropatterned PMs reduced LEC migration in a PCO model by 50%, P = 0.0005 (ANOVA, Tukey Test) compared with both IOLs with no PM and IOLs with SM PMs. Conclusions Collectively, in vitro results indicate the implantation of micropatterned PMs in combination with posterior chamber IOLs could significantly reduce rates of clinically relevant PCO. This innovative technology is a globally accessible solution to high PCO rates. Translational Relevance A novel IOL incorporating the SK micropattern in a membrane design surrounding the optic may help increase the success of cataract surgery by reducing secondary cataract, or PCO. PMID:25883876

  6. Protein kinase Cepsilon is important for migration of neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Stensman, Helena; Larsson, Christer

    2008-01-01

    Background Migration is important for the metastatic capacity and thus for the malignancy of cancer cells. There is limited knowledge on regulatory factors that promote the migration of neuroblastoma cells. This study investigates the hypothesis that protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms regulate neuroblastoma cell motility. Methods PKC isoforms were downregulated with siRNA or modulated with activators and inhibitors. Migration was analyzed with scratch and transwell assays. Protein phosphorylation and expression levels were measured with Western blot. Results Stimulation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced migration of SK-N-BE(2)C neuroblastoma cells. Treatment with the general protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X and the inhibitor of classical isoforms Gö6976 inhibited migration while an inhibitor of PKCβ isoforms did not have an effect. Downregulation of PKCε, but not of PKCα or PKCδ, with siRNA led to a suppression of both basal and TPA-stimulated migration. Experiments using PD98059 and LY294002, inhibitors of the Erk and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways, respectively, showed that PI3K is not necessary for TPA-induced migration. The Erk pathway might be involved in TPA-induced migration but not in migration driven by PKCε. TPA induced phosphorylation of the PKC substrate myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) which was suppressed by the PKC inhibitors. Treatment with siRNA oligonucleotides against different PKC isoforms before stimulation with TPA did not influence the phosphorylation of MARCKS. Conclusion PKCε is important for migration of SK-N-BE(2)C neuroblastoma cells. Neither the Erk pathway nor MARCKS are critical downstream targets of PKCε but they may be involved in TPA-mediated migration. PMID:19077250

  7. Timosaponin AIII inhibits melanoma cell migration by suppressing COX-2 and in vivo tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Mo; Im, A-Rang; Kim, Seung Hyung; Hyun, Jin Won; Chae, Sungwook

    2016-02-01

    Melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin disease, due in large part to its propensity to metastasize. We examined the effects of timosaponin AIII, a compound isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, on melanoma cancer cell migration and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using B16-F10 and WM-115 melanoma cells lines. Overexpression of COX-2, its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and PGE2 receptors (EP2 and EP4) promoted cell migration in vitro. Exposure to timosaponin AIII resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of cell migration, which was associated with reduced levels of COX-2, PGE2, and PGE2 receptors. Transient transfection of COX-2 siRNA also inhibited cell migration. Exposure to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbal-13-acetate enhanced cell migration, whereas timosaponin AIII inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbal-13-acetate-induced cell migration and reduced basal levels of EP2 and EP4. Moreover, timosaponin AIII inhibited activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), an upstream regulator of COX-2 in B16-F10 cells. Consistent with our in vitro findings, in vivo studies showed that timosaponin AIII treatment significantly reduced the total number of metastatic nodules in the mouse lung and improved histological alterations in B16-F10-injected C57BL/6 mice. In addition, C57BL/6 mice treated with timosaponin AIII showed reduced expression of COX-2 and NF-κB in the lung. Together, these results indicate that timosaponin AIII has the capacity to inhibit melanoma cell migration, an essential step in the process of metastasis, by inhibiting expression of COX-2, NF-κB, PGE2, and PGE2 receptors. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  8. Proliferating cells in suborbital tissue drive eye migration in flatfish.

    PubMed

    Bao, Baolong; Ke, Zhonghe; Xing, Jubin; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Zhanjiang; Xie, Caixia; Xu, Bing; Gai, Junwei; Gong, Xiaoling; Yang, Guimei; Jiang, Yan; Tang, Wenqiao; Ren, Daming

    2011-03-01

    The left/right asymmetry of adult flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) is remarkable given the external body symmetry of the larval fish. The best-known change is the migration of their eyes: one eye migrates from one side to the other. Two extinct primitive pleuronectiformes with incomplete orbital migration have again attracted public attention to the mechanism of eye migration, a subject of speculation and research for over a century. Cranial asymmetry is currently believed to be responsible for eye migration. Contrary to that hypothesis, we show here that the initial migration of the eye is caused by cell proliferation in the suborbital tissue of the blind side and that the twist of frontal bone is dependent on eye migration. The inhibition of cell proliferation in the suborbital area of the blind side by microinjected colchicine was able to prevent eye migration and, thereafter, cranial asymmetry in juvenile Solea senegalensis (right sideness, Soleidae), Cynoglossus semilaevis (left sideness, Cynoglossidae), and Paralichthys olivaceus (left sideness, Paralichthyidae) with a bottom-dwelling lifestyle. Our results correct the current misunderstanding that eye migration is driven by the cranial asymmetry and simplify the explanation for broken left/right eye-symmetry. Our findings should help to focus the search on eye migration-related genes associated with cell proliferation. Finally, a novel model is proposed in this research which provides a reasonable explanation for differences in the migrating eye between, and sometimes within, different species of flatfish and which should aid in our overall understanding of eye migration in the ontogenesis and evolution of Pleuronectiformes.

  9. GMF promotes leading-edge dynamics and collective cell migration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Poukkula, Minna; Hakala, Markku; Pentinmikko, Nalle; Sweeney, Meredith O; Jansen, Silvia; Mattila, Jaakko; Hietakangas, Ville; Goode, Bruce L; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2014-11-03

    Lamellipodia are dynamic actin-rich cellular extensions that drive advancement of the leading edge during cell migration. Lamellipodia undergo periodic extension and retraction cycles, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these dynamics and their role in cell migration have remained obscure. We show that glia-maturation factor (GMF), which is an Arp2/3 complex inhibitor and actin filament debranching factor, regulates lamellipodial protrusion dynamics in living cells. In cultured S2R(+) cells, GMF silencing resulted in an increase in the width of lamellipodial actin filament arrays. Importantly, live-cell imaging of mutant Drosophila egg chambers revealed that the dynamics of actin-rich protrusions in migrating border cells is diminished in the absence of GMF. Consequently, velocity of border cell clusters undergoing guided migration was reduced in GMF mutant flies. Furthermore, genetic studies demonstrated that GMF cooperates with the Drosophila homolog of Aip1 (flare) in promoting disassembly of Arp2/3-nucleated actin filament networks and driving border cell migration. These data suggest that GMF functions in vivo to promote the disassembly of Arp2/3-nucleated actin filament arrays, making an important contribution to cell migration within a 3D tissue environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. PIK3R1 targeting by miR-21 suppresses tumor cell migration and invasion by reducing PI3K/AKT signaling and reversing EMT, and predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Xu; Liu, Yan-Hui; Xiang, Jian-Wen; Wu, Qi-Nian; Xu, Lei-Bo; Luo, Xin-Lan; Zhu, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Chao; Xu, Fang-Ping; Luo, Dong-Lan; Mei, Ping; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Ke-Ping; Chen, Jie

    2016-02-01

    We have previously shown that dysregulation of miR-21 functioned as an oncomiR in breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which miR-21 regulate breast tumor migration and invasion. We applied pathway analysis on genome microarray data and target-predicting algorithms for miR-21 target screening, and used luciferase reporting assay to confirm the direct target. Thereafter, we investigated the function of the target gene phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (α) (PIK3R1), and detected PIK3R1 coding protein (p85α) by immunohistochemistry and miR-21 by RT-qPCR on 320 archival paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer to evaluate the correlation of their expression with prognosis. First, we found that PIK3R1 suppressed growth, invasiveness, and metastatic properties of breast cancer cells. Next, we identified the PIK3R1 as a direct target of miR-21 and showed that it was negatively regulated by miR-21. Furthermore, we demonstrated that p85α overexpression phenocopied the suppression effects of antimiR-21 on breast cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, indicating its tumor suppressor role in breast cancer. On the contrary, PIK3R1 knockdown abrogated antimiR‑21-induced effect on breast cancer cells. Notably, antimiR-21 induction increased p85α, accompanied by decreased p-AKT level. Besides, antimiR-21/PIK3R1-induced suppression of invasiveness in breast cancer cells was mediated by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). p85α downregulation was found in 25 (7.8%) of the 320 breast cancer patients, and was associated with inferior 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Taken together, we provide novel evidence that miR-21 knockdown suppresses cell growth, migration and invasion partly by inhibiting PI3K/AKT activation via direct targeting PIK3R1 and reversing EMT in breast cancer. p85α downregulation defined a specific subgroup of breast cancer with shorter 5-year DFS and OS

  11. Bystander cells enhance NK cytotoxic efficiency by reducing search time

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Renping; Schwarz, Karsten; Mangeat, Matthieu; Schwarz, Eva C.; Hamed, Mohamed; Bogeski, Ivan; Helms, Volkhard; Rieger, Heiko; Qu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a central role during innate immune responses by eliminating pathogen-infected or tumorigenic cells. In the microenvironment, NK cells encounter not only target cells but also other cell types including non-target bystander cells. The impact of bystander cells on NK killing efficiency is, however, still elusive. In this study we show that the presence of bystander cells, such as P815, monocytes or HUVEC, enhances NK killing efficiency. With bystander cells present, the velocity and persistence of NK cells were increased, whereas the degranulation of lytic granules remained unchanged. Bystander cell-derived H2O2 was found to mediate the acceleration of NK cell migration. Using mathematical diffusion models, we confirm that local acceleration of NK cells in the vicinity of bystander cells reduces their search time to locate target cells. In addition, we found that integrin β chains (β1, β2 and β7) on NK cells are required for bystander-enhanced NK migration persistence. In conclusion, we show that acceleration of NK cell migration in the vicinity of H2O2-producing bystander cells reduces target cell search time and enhances NK killing efficiency. PMID:28287155

  12. Bystander cells enhance NK cytotoxic efficiency by reducing search time.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Renping; Schwarz, Karsten; Mangeat, Matthieu; Schwarz, Eva C; Hamed, Mohamed; Bogeski, Ivan; Helms, Volkhard; Rieger, Heiko; Qu, Bin

    2017-03-13

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a central role during innate immune responses by eliminating pathogen-infected or tumorigenic cells. In the microenvironment, NK cells encounter not only target cells but also other cell types including non-target bystander cells. The impact of bystander cells on NK killing efficiency is, however, still elusive. In this study we show that the presence of bystander cells, such as P815, monocytes or HUVEC, enhances NK killing efficiency. With bystander cells present, the velocity and persistence of NK cells were increased, whereas the degranulation of lytic granules remained unchanged. Bystander cell-derived H2O2 was found to mediate the acceleration of NK cell migration. Using mathematical diffusion models, we confirm that local acceleration of NK cells in the vicinity of bystander cells reduces their search time to locate target cells. In addition, we found that integrin β chains (β1, β2 and β7) on NK cells are required for bystander-enhanced NK migration persistence. In conclusion, we show that acceleration of NK cell migration in the vicinity of H2O2-producing bystander cells reduces target cell search time and enhances NK killing efficiency.

  13. Migration of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells is controlled by transforming growth factor β family proteins during corticogenesis.

    PubMed

    Choe, Youngshik; Huynh, Trung; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2014-11-05

    During embryonic development oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are generated first in the ventral forebrain and migrate dorsally to occupy the cortex. The molecular cues that guide this migratory route are currently completely unknown. Here, we show that bone morphogenetic protein-4 (Bmp4), Bmp7, and Tgfβ1 produced by the meninges and pericytes repelled ventral OPCs into the cortex at mouse embryonic stages. Ectopic activation of Bmp or Tgfβ1 signaling before the entrance of OPCs into the cortex hindered OPC migration into the cortical areas. OPCs without Smad4 signaling molecules also failed to migrate into the cortex efficiently and formed heterotopia in ventral areas. OPC migration into the cortex was also dramatically reduced by conditional inhibition of Tgfβ1 or Bmp expression from mesenchymal cells. The data suggest that mesenchymal Tgfβ family proteins promote migration of ventral OPCs into the cortex during corticogenesis.

  14. α3β1 integrin promotes radiation-induced migration of meningioma cells.

    PubMed

    Gogineni, Venkateswara Rao; Nalla, Arun Kumar; Gupta, Reshu; Gujrati, Meena; Klopfenstein, Jeffrey D; Mohanam, Sanjeeva; Rao, Jasti S

    2011-06-01

    Cell motility is influenced by the microenvironment, signal transduction and cytoskeleton rearrangement. Cancer cells become resistant to these control mechanisms and gain the ability to move throughout the body and invade healthy tissues, which leads to metastatic disease. Integrins respond to context-dependent cues and promote cell migration and survival in cancer cells. In the present study, we analyzed the role of integrins in radiation-induced migration of meningioma cells. Migration and cell proliferation assays revealed that radiation treatment (7 Gy) significantly increased migration and decreased proliferation in two cell lines, IOMM-Lee and CH-157-MN. α3 and β1 integrins were overexpressed at both the protein and transcript levels after radiation treatment and a function-blocking α3β1 antibody inhibited the radiation-induced migration. Immunofluorescence studies illustrated the localization of α3 integrin and F-actin at the migration front of irradiated cells. Further, an increase in phosphorylation of FAK and ERK was observed, while both FAK phosphorylation inhibitor and FAK shRNA inhibited ERK phosphorylation and downregulated uPA and vinculin. In addition to the co-localization of FAK and ERK at the migration front, these FAK-inhibition results link the downstream effects of ERK to FAK. Correspondingly, U0126 quenched ERK phosphorylation and reduced the expression of molecules involved in migration. Furthermore, brain sections of the animals implanted with tumors followed by radiation treatment showed elevated levels of α3 integrin and active ERK. Taken together, our results show that radiation treatment enhances the migration of meningioma cells with the involvement of α3β1 integrin-mediated signaling via FAK and ERK.

  15. Inhibition of Rho-kinase abrogates migration of human transitional cell carcinoma cells: results of an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    vom Dorp, Frank; Sanders, Harald; Boergermann, Christof; Lümmen, Gerd; Rübben, Herbert; Jakobs, Karl H; Schmidt, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Migration of cells involves a complex signaling network. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the impact of Rho-kinase (ROK) on G protein-coupled receptor-induced migration of human transitional cell carcinoma cells in an in vitro experimental setting. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was measured with the indicator dye Fura-2 in response to lysophosphatidic acid, thrombin and sphingosine-1-phosphate. Phospholipase C activity was determined in myo-[(3)H]inositol- (0.5 μCi/ml) labeled cells. Migration was performed using a Boyden chamber. Transient transfection of a dominant-negative mutant of ROK was done with calcium phosphate. For staining of actin filaments, tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-conjugated phalloidin was used. Lysophosphatidic acid, thrombin and sphingosine-1-phosphate cause increases in [Ca(2+)](i), cellular responses being accompanied by an enhancement of phospholipase C activity and sensitive to the G(i) inhibitor pertussis toxin. Agonists potently stimulated migration of T24 and J82 cells. Inhibition of Rho proteins by Clostridium difficile toxin B abrogated cell migration. Inhibition of ROK using HA1077 and Y-27632 mimicked the properties of toxin B. Expression of a ROK mutant drastically reduced migration. G protein-coupled receptors potently stimulated cell migration in T24 and J82 cells. Rho proteins and ROK play a pivotal role in this signaling cascade. Rho and ROK may be putative targets for new therapy options in bladder cancer. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. TRIM16 inhibits proliferation and migration through regulation of interferon beta 1 in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Selina K.; Koach, Jessica; Tan, Owen; Liu, Bing; Carter, Daniel R.; Wilmott, James S.; Yosufi, Benafsha; Haydu, Lauren E.; Mann, Graham J.; Thompson, John F.; Long, Georgina V.; Liu, Tao; McArthur, Grant; Zhang, Xu Dong; Scolyer, Richard A.; Cheung, Belamy B.; Marshall, Glenn M.

    2014-01-01

    High basal or induced expression of the tripartite motif protein, TRIM16, leads to reduce cell growth and migration of neuroblastoma and skin squamous cell carcinoma cells. However, the role of TRIM16 in melanoma is currently unknown. TRIM16 protein levels were markedly reduced in human melanoma cell lines, compared with normal human epidermal melanocytes due to both DNA methylation and reduced protein stability. TRIM16 knockdown strongly increased cell migration in normal human epidermal melanocytes, while TRIM16 overexpression reduced cell migration and proliferation of melanoma cells in an interferon beta 1 (IFNβ1)-dependent manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed TRIM16 directly bound the IFNβ1 gene promoter. Low level TRIM16 expression in 91 melanoma patient samples, strongly correlated with lymph node metastasis, and, predicted poor patient prognosis in a separate cohort of 170 melanoma patients with lymph node metastasis. The BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, increased TRIM16 protein levels in melanoma cells in vitro, and induced growth arrest in BRAF-mutant melanoma cells in a TRIM16-dependent manner. High levels of TRIM16 in melanoma tissues from patients treated with Vemurafenib correlated with clinical response. Our data, for the first time, demonstrates TRIM16 is a marker of cell migration and metastasis, and a novel treatment target in melanoma. PMID:25333256

  17. EphrinB3 restricts endogenous neural stem cell migration after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Kirsty J; Mier, Jose; Gajavelli, Shyam; Turbic, Alisa; Bullock, Ross; Turnley, Ann M; Liebl, Daniel J

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to a series of pathological events that can have profound influences on motor, sensory and cognitive functions. Conversely, TBI can also stimulate neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation leading to increased numbers of neuroblasts migrating outside their restrictive neurogenic zone to areas of damage in support of tissue integrity. Unfortunately, the factors that regulate migration are poorly understood. Here, we examine whether ephrinB3 functions to restrict neuroblasts from migrating outside the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS). We have previously shown that ephrinB3 is expressed in tissues surrounding these regions, including the overlying corpus callosum (CC), and is reduced after controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. Our current study takes advantage of ephrinB3 knockout mice to examine the influences of ephrinB3 on neuroblast migration into CC and cortex tissues after CCI injury. Both injury and/or ephrinB3 deficiency led to increased neuroblast numbers and enhanced migration outside the SVZ/RMS zones. Application of soluble ephrinB3-Fc molecules reduced neuroblast migration into the CC after injury and limited neuroblast chain migration in cultured SVZ explants. Our findings suggest that ephrinB3 expression in tissues surrounding neurogenic regions functions to restrict neuroblast migration outside the RMS by limiting chain migration.

  18. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors regulate individual cell behaviours underlying the directed migration of prechordal plate progenitor cells during zebrafish gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Kai, Masatake; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp; Tada, Masazumi

    2008-09-01

    During vertebrate gastrulation, cells forming the prechordal plate undergo directed migration as a cohesive cluster. Recent studies revealed that E-cadherin-mediated coherence between these cells plays an important role in effective anterior migration, and that platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgf) appears to act as a guidance cue in this process. However, the mechanisms underlying this process at the individual cell level remain poorly understood. We have identified miles apart (mil) as a suppressor of defective anterior migration of the prospective prechordal plate in silberblick (slb)/wnt11 mutant embryos, in which E-cadherin-mediated coherence of cell movement is reduced. mil encodes Edg5, a sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor belonging to a family of five G-protein-coupled receptors (S1PRs). S1P is a lipid signalling molecule that has been implicated in regulating cytoskeletal rearrangements, cell motility and cell adhesion in a variety of cell types. We examined the roles of Mil in anterior migration of prechordal plate progenitor cells and found that, in slb embryos injected with mil-MO, cells migrate with increased motility but decreased directionality, without restoring the coherence of cell migration. This indicates that prechordal plate progenitor cells can migrate effectively as individuals, as well as in a coherent cluster of cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that Mil regulates cell motility and polarisation through Pdgf and its intracellular effecter PI3K, but modulates cell coherence independently of the Pdgf/PI3K pathway, thus co-ordinating cell motility and coherence. These results suggest that the net migration of prechordal plate progenitors is determined by different parameters, including motility, persistence and coherence.

  19. Regulatory T Cells from Colon Cancer Patients Inhibit Effector T-cell Migration through an Adenosine-Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Patrik; Stenstad, Hanna; Langenes, Veronica; Ahlmanner, Filip; Theander, Lisa; Ndah, Tapuka Gordon; Fredin, Kamilla; Börjesson, Lars; Gustavsson, Bengt; Bastid, Jérémy; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne

    2016-03-01

    T cell-mediated immunity is a major component of antitumor immunity. In order to be efficient, effector T cells must leave the circulation and enter into the tumor tissue. Regulatory T cells (Treg) from gastric cancer patients, but not from healthy volunteers, potently inhibit migration of conventional T cells through activated endothelium. In this study, we compared T cells from colon cancer patients and healthy donors to determine the mechanisms used by Tregs from cancer patients to inhibit conventional T-cell migration. Our results showed that circulating Tregs from cancer patients expressed high levels of CD39, an ectoenzyme mediating hydrolysis of ATP to AMP, as a rate-determining first step in the generation of immunosuppressive adenosine. Tumor-associated Tregs expressed even more CD39, and we therefore examined the importance of adenosine in Treg-mediated inhibition of T-cell transendothelial migration in vitro. Exogenous adenosine significantly reduced migration of conventional T cells from healthy volunteers, and blocking either adenosine receptors or CD39 enzymatic activity during transmigration restored the ability of conventional T cells from cancer patients to migrate. Adenosine did not directly affect T cells or endothelial cells, but reduced the ability of monocytes to activate the endothelium. Taken together, our results indicate that Treg-derived adenosine acts on monocytes and contributes to reduced transendothelial migration of effector T cells into tumors. This effect of Tregs is specific for cancer patients, and our results indicate that Tregs may affect not only T-cell effector functions but also their migration into tumors.

  20. Propagating Waves of Directionality and Coordination Orchestrate Collective Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Zaritsky, Assaf; Kaplan, Doron; Hecht, Inbal; Natan, Sari; Wolf, Lior; Gov, Nir S.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Tsarfaty, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    The ability of cells to coordinately migrate in groups is crucial to enable them to travel long distances during embryonic development, wound healing and tumorigenesis, but the fundamental mechanisms underlying intercellular coordination during collective cell migration remain elusive despite considerable research efforts. A novel analytical framework is introduced here to explicitly detect and quantify cell clusters that move coordinately in a monolayer. The analysis combines and associates vast amount of spatiotemporal data across multiple experiments into transparent quantitative measures to report the emergence of new modes of organized behavior during collective migration of tumor and epithelial cells in wound healing assays. First, we discovered the emergence of a wave of coordinated migration propagating backward from the wound front, which reflects formation of clusters of coordinately migrating cells that are generated further away from the wound edge and disintegrate close to the advancing front. This wave emerges in both normal and tumor cells, and is amplified by Met activation with hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. Second, Met activation was found to induce coinciding waves of cellular acceleration and stretching, which in turn trigger the emergence of a backward propagating wave of directional migration with about an hour phase lag. Assessments of the relations between the waves revealed that amplified coordinated migration is associated with the emergence of directional migration. Taken together, our data and simplified modeling-based assessments suggest that increased velocity leads to enhanced coordination: higher motility arises due to acceleration and stretching that seems to increase directionality by temporarily diminishing the velocity components orthogonal to the direction defined by the monolayer geometry. Spatial and temporal accumulation of directionality thus defines coordination. The findings offer new insight and suggest a basic

  1. Alkylindole-sensitive receptors modulate microglial cell migration and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Susan; Cherry, Allison E.; Xu, Cong; Stella, Nephi

    2015-01-01

    Ligands targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) expressed by microglia have been shown to regulate distinct components of their activation process, including cell proliferation, migration and differentiation into M1 or M2 phenotypes. Cannabinoids, including the active component of the Cannabis plant, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and the synthetic alkylindole (AI) compound, WIN55212-2 (WIN-2), activate two molecularly identified GPCRs: CB1 and CB2. Previous studies reported that WIN-2 activates an additional unknown GPCR that is not activated by plant-derived cannabinoids, and evidence indicates that microglia express these receptors. Detailed studies on the role of AI-sensitive receptors in microglial cell activation were difficult as no selective pharmacological tools were available. Here, three newly-developed AI analogues allowed us to determine if microglia express AI-sensitive receptors and if so, study how they regulate the microglial cell activation process. We found that mouse microglia in primary culture express functional AI-sensitive receptors as measured by radioligand binding and changes in intracellular cAMP levels, and that these receptors control both basal and ATP-stimulated migration. AI analogues inhibit cell proliferation stimulated by macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) without affecting basal cell proliferation. Remarkably, AI analogues do not control the expression of effector proteins characteristic of M1 or M2 phenotypes; yet activating microglia with M1 and M2 cytokines reduces the microglial response to AI analogues. Our results suggest that microglia express functional AI-sensitive receptors that control select components of their activation process. Agonists of these novel targets might represent a novel class of therapeutics to influence the microglial cell activation process. PMID:25914169

  2. A pilgrim's progress: Seeking meaning in primordial germ cell migration.

    PubMed

    Cantú, Andrea V; Laird, Diana J

    2017-07-18

    Comparative studies of primordial germ cell (PGC) development across organisms in many phyla reveal surprising diversity in the route of migration, timing and underlying molecular mechanisms, suggesting that the process of migration itself is conserved. However, beyond the perfunctory transport of cellular precursors to their later arising home of the gonads, does PGC migration serve a function? Here we propose that the process of migration plays an additional role in quality control, by eliminating PGCs incapable of completing migration as well as through mechanisms that favor PGCs capable of responding appropriately to migration cues. Focusing on PGCs in mice, we explore evidence for a selective capacity of migration, considering the tandem regulation of proliferation and migration, cell-intrinsic and extrinsic control, the potential for tumors derived from failed PGC migrants, the potential mechanisms by which migratory PGCs vary in their cellular behaviors, and corresponding effects on development. We discuss the implications of a selective role of PGC migration for in vitro gametogenesis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Emerging role for nuclear rotation and orientation in cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Maninová, Miloslava; Iwanicki, Marcin P; Vomastek, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Nucleus movement, positioning, and orientation is precisely specified and actively regulated within cells, and it plays a critical role in many cellular and developmental processes. Mutation of proteins that regulate the nucleus anchoring and movement lead to diverse pathologies, laminopathies in particular, suggesting that the nucleus correct positioning and movement is essential for proper cellular function. In motile cells that polarize toward the direction of migration, the nucleus undergoes controlled rotation promoting the alignment of the nucleus with the axis of migration. Such spatial organization of the cell appears to be optimal for the cell migration. Nuclear reorientation requires the cytoskeleton to be anchored to the nuclear envelope, which exerts pulling or pushing torque on the nucleus. Here we discuss the possible molecular mechanisms regulating the nuclear rotation and reorientation and the significance of this type of nuclear movement for cell migration. PMID:24589621

  4. Berberine suppresses migration of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through down-regulation of chemokine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadiankia, Naghmeh; Moghaddam, Hamid Kalalian; Mishan, Mohammad Amir; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza; Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Bidkhori, Hamid Reza; Moghaddam, Maryam; Mirfeyzi, Seyed Jamal Aldin

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Berberine is one of the main alkaloids and it has been proven to have different pharmacological effects including inhibition of cell cycle and progression of apoptosis in various cancerous cells; however, its effects on cancer metastasis are not well known. Cancer cells obtain the ability to change their chemokine system and convert into metastatic cells. In this study, we examined the effect of berberine on breast cancer cell migration and its probable interaction with the chemokine system in cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The MCF-7 breast cancer cell line was cultured, and then, treated with berberine (10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/ml) for 24 hr. MTT assay was used in order to determine the cytotoxic effect of berberine on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Wound healing assay was applied to determine the inhibitory effect of berberine on cell migration. Moreover, real-time quantitative PCR analysis of selected chemokine receptors was performed to determine the probable molecular mechanism underlying the effect of berberine on breast cancer cell migration. Results: The results of wound healing assay revealed that berberine decreases cell migration. Moreover, we found that the mRNA levels of some chemokine receptors were reduced after berberine treatment, and this may be the underlying mechanism for decreased cell migration. Conclusion: Our results indicate that berberine might be a potential preventive biofactor for human breast cancer metastasis by targeting chemokine receptor genes. PMID:27081456

  5. Cell growth and migration under octenidine-antiseptic treatment.

    PubMed

    Jenull, S; Hojdar, K; Laggner, H; Velimirov, B; Zemann, N; Huettinger, M

    2015-06-01

    The toxicity of octenidine antiseptics in cultured cells contrasts their good tolerability in tissue. This phenomenon prompted us to examine which cell culture conditions allow survival and proliferation and to investigate a possible modulation of toxicity by the extracellular matrix proteoglycan chondroitin sulfate. We tested fibroblasts and MCF7 cells for growth using the MTT test, and assessed wound healing potency with a laceration assay. Expression levels of the genes involved in controlling wound healing were assessed with RT-PCR. A 24 hour exposure to the octenidine-based solution was found incompatible with cell growth. When octenidine solution (0.5-0.5mg/l) was coated on dishes, growth was profoundly reduced after 24 hours, however there was no cytotoxic effect at 0.012 mg/l. Interestingly, when dishes were first coated with chondroitin sulfate the cytotoxicity of octenidine-based solution was modulated. Cell migration was not inhibited by octenidine-based solution treatment (2 minutes; 15 mg/l). No significant changes in gene expression levels in response to the octenidine-based solution treatment were detected. In cell culture conditions application of the octenidine-based solution without toxicity can be observed, comparable to the minimal application required to give full bactericidal effect. Alteration of toxicity by interaction with chondroitin sulfate in cell culture suggests a similar function for extraceullar matrix in intact tissue.

  6. Psidin, a conserved protein that regulates protrusion dynamics and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Cho, Aeri; Yin, Hongyan; Schafer, Dorothy A.; Mouneimne, Ghassan; Simpson, Kaylene J.; Nguyen, Kim-Vy; Brugge, Joan S.; Montell, Denise J.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic assembly and disassembly of actin filaments is a major driving force for cell movements. Border cells in the Drosophila ovary provide a simple and genetically tractable model to study the mechanisms regulating cell migration. To identify new genes that regulate cell movement in vivo, we screened lethal mutations on chromosome 3R for defects in border cell migration and identified two alleles of the gene psidin (psid). In vitro, purified Psid protein bound F-actin and inhibited the interaction of tropomyosin with F-actin. In vivo, psid mutations exhibited genetic interactions with the genes encoding tropomyosin and cofilin. Border cells overexpressing Psid together with GFP-actin exhibited altered protrusion/retraction dynamics. Psid knockdown in cultured S2 cells reduced, and Psid overexpression enhanced, lamellipodial dynamics. Knockdown of the human homolog of Psid reduced the speed and directionality of migration in wounded MCF10A breast epithelial monolayers, whereas overexpression of the protein increased migration speed and altered protrusion dynamics in EGF-stimulated cells. These results indicate that Psid is an actin regulatory protein that plays a conserved role in protrusion dynamics and cell migration. PMID:21406550

  7. Bimodal Analysis of Mammary Epithelial Cell Migration in Two Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Potdar, Alka A.; Lu, Jenny; Jeon, Junhwan; Weaver, Alissa M.; Cummings, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    Cell migration paths of mammary epithelial cells (expressing different versions of the promigratory tyrosine kinase receptor Her2/Neu) were analyzed within a bimodal framework that is a generalization of the run-and-tumble description applicable to bacterial migration. The mammalian cell trajectories were segregated into two types of alternating modes, namely, the “directional-mode” (mode I, the more persistent mode, analogous to the bacterial run phase) and the “re-orientation-mode” (mode II, the less persistent mode, analogous to the bacterial tumble phase). Higher resolution (more pixel information, relative to cell size) and smaller sampling intervals (time between images) were found to give a better estimate of the deduced single cell dynamics (such as directional-mode time and turn angle distribution) of the various cell types from the bimodal analysis. The bimodal analysis tool permits the deduction of short-time dynamics of cell motion such as the turn angle distributions and turn frequencies during the course of cell migration compared to standard methods of cell migration analysis. We find that the two-hour mammalian cell tracking data do not fall into the diffusive regime implying that the often-used random motility expressions for mammalian cell motion (based on assuming diffusive motion) are invalid over the time steps (fraction of minute) typically used in modeling mammalian cell migration. PMID:18982450

  8. Refrigeration arrangement and methods for reducing charge migration

    DOEpatents

    Litch, Andrew D.; Wu, Guolian

    2017-04-11

    A refrigerator appliance including a refrigerant circuit between a condenser, an evaporator, and a compressor that includes two conduits and pressure reducing devices arranged in parallel between the evaporator and the condenser. The appliance also includes a valve system to direct refrigerant through one, both or none of the conduits and pressure reducing devices, and a heat exchanging member in thermal contact with either one pressure reducing device, or one conduit between the pressure reducing device and the valve system.

  9. Honokiol, a phytochemical from Magnolia spp., inhibits breast cancer cell migration by targeting nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase-2.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tripti; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2011-03-01

    In the present study, we report the effects of honokiol, a phytochemical from Magnolia spp., on cancer cell migration capacity and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using breast cancer cell lines as an in vitro model. Using cell migration assays, we found that the treatment of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and murine mammary cancer cells (4T1) with honokiol resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of migration of these cells, which was associated with a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) levels. The cell migration capacity was decreased in the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase. Honokiol reduced the elevated levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the cells, while the treatment of 4T1 cells with guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor 1-H-[1,2,4]oxadiaxolo[4,3-a]quinolalin-1-one (ODQ) reduced the migration of cells and the levels of cGMP. The presence of 8-bromoguanosine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate, an analogue of cGMP, enhanced the migration of these cells, suggesting a role for GC in the migration of 4T1 cells. Honokiol also inhibited the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 in 4T1 cells. The transfection of 4T1 cells with COX-2 siRNA resulted in a reduction in cell migration. ODQ and L-NAME also decreased the levels of PGE2 in 4T1 cells suggesting a role for COX-2/PGE2 in cell migration. Moreover, honokiol inhibited the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), an upstream regulator of COX-2 and iNOS, in 4T1 cells. These results indicate that NO and COX-2 are the key targets of honokiol in the inhibition of breast cancer cell migration, an essential step in invasion and metastasis.

  10. Cell-cell interactions stabilize emerging collective migration modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Joshua; Guven, Can; Wang, Chenlu; Ott, Ed; Losert, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    We propose a coarse-grained mechanistic model for simulating the dynamics of the biological model organism Dictyostelium discoideum, incorporating gradient sensing, random motility via actin protrusions, persistent random motion and signal relay. We demonstrate that our simple cell model does result in the macroscopic group migration patterns seen in no-flow gradient chambers, namely a transition from individual motion to multi-cell ``streaming'' to aggregation as the external signal is decreased. We also find that cell-cell adhesion further stabilizes the contact network independent of chemical signaling, suggesting no indirect feedback between mechanical forces and gradient sensing. We discuss further modifications to the model and as well as further applications to quantifying dynamics using spatio-temporal contact networks. Co-first author

  11. The histone demethylase UTX regulates stem cell migration and hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Sebastian; Gyárfás, Tobias; Richter, Cornelia; Özhan, Günes; Fu, Jun; Alexopoulou, Dimitra; Muders, Michael H; Michalk, Irene; Jakob, Christiane; Dahl, Andreas; Klink, Barbara; Bandola, Joanna; Bachmann, Michael; Schröck, Evelin; Buchholz, Frank; Stewart, A Francis; Weidinger, Gilbert; Anastassiadis, Konstantinos; Brenner, Sebastian

    2013-03-28

    Regulated migration of hematopoietic stem cells is fundamental for hematopoiesis. The molecular mechanisms underlying stem cell trafficking are poorly defined. Based on a short hairpin RNA library and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) migration screening assay, we identified the histone 3 lysine 27 demethylase UTX (Kdm6a) as a novel regulator for hematopoietic cell migration. Using hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from our conditional UTX knockout (KO) mice, we were able to confirm the regulatory function of UTX on cell migration. Moreover, adult female conditional UTX KO mice displayed myelodysplasia and splenic erythropoiesis, whereas UTX KO males showed no phenotype. During development, all UTX KO female and a portion of UTX KO male embryos developed a cardiac defect, cranioschisis, and died in utero. Therefore, UTY, the male homolog of UTX, can compensate for UTX in adults and partially during development. Additionally, we found that UTX knockdown in zebrafish significantly impairs SDF-1/CXCR4-dependent migration of primordial germ cells. Our data suggest that UTX is a critical regulator for stem cell migration and hematopoiesis.

  12. Quantitative evaluation of the transplanted lin(-) hematopoietic cell migration kinetics.

    PubMed

    Kašėta, Vytautas; Vaitkuvienė, Aida; Liubavičiūtė, Aušra; Maciulevičienė, Rūta; Stirkė, Arūnas; Biziulevičienė, Genė

    2016-02-01

    Stem cells take part in organogenesis, cell maturation and injury repair. The migration is necessary for each of these functions to occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of transplanted hematopoietic lin(-) cell population (which consists mainly of the stem and progenitor cells) in BALB/c mouse contact hypersensitivity model and quantify the migration to the site of inflammation in the affected foot and other healthy organs. Quantitative analysis was carried out with the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Spleen, kidney, bone marrow, lung, liver, damaged and healthy foot tissue samples at different time points were collected for analysis. The quantitative data normalization was performed according to the comparative quantification method. The analysis of foot samples shows the significant migration of transplanted cells to the recipient mice affected foot. The quantity was more than 1000 times higher, as compared with that of the untreated foot. Due to the inflammation, the number of donor origin cells migrating to the lungs, liver, spleen and bone marrow was found to be decreased. Our data shows that transplanted cells selectively migrated into the inflammation areas of the foot edema. Also, the inflammation caused a secondary migration in ectopic spleen of hematopoietic stem cell niches and re-homing from the spleen to the bone marrow took place.

  13. The thioredoxin system in breast cancer cell invasion and migration.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Maneet; McGrath, Kelly L; Di Trapani, Giovanna; Charoentong, Pornpimol; Shah, Fenil; King, Mallory M; Clarke, Frank M; Tonissen, Kathryn F

    2016-08-01

    Metastasis is the most life threatening aspect of breast cancer. It is a multi-step process involving invasion and migration of primary tumor cells with a subsequent colonization of these cells at a secondary location. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of thioredoxin (Trx1) in the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells and to assess the strength of the association between high levels of Trx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1) expression with breast cancer patient survival. Our results indicate that the expression of both Trx1 and TrxR1 are statistically significantly increased in breast cancer patient cells compared with paired normal breast tissue from the same patient. Over-expression of Trx1 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines enhanced cell invasion in in vitro assays while expression of a redox inactive mutant form of Trx1 (designated 1SS) or the antisense mRNA inhibited cell invasion. Addition of exogenous Trx1 also enhanced cell invasion, while addition of a specific monoclonal antibody that inhibits Trx1 redox function decreased cell invasion. Over-expression of intracellular Trx1 did not increase cell migration but expression of intracellular 1SS inhibited migration. Addition of exogenous Trx1 enhanced cell migration while 1SS had no effect. Treatment with auranofin inhibited TrxR activity, cell migration and clonogenic activity of MDA-MB-231 cells, while increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Analysis of 25 independent cohorts with 5910 patients showed that Trx1 and TrxR1 were both associated with a poor patient prognosis in terms of overall survival, distant metastasis free survival and disease free survival. Therefore, targeting the Trx system with auranofin or other specific inhibitors may provide improved breast cancer patient outcomes through inhibition of cancer invasion and migration.

  14. Microscopy assays for evaluation of mast cell migration and chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Bambousková, Monika; Hájková, Zuzana; Dráber, Pavel; Dráber, Petr

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to mast cell migration and chemotaxis is the long-term goal in mast cell research and is essential for comprehension of mast cell function in health and disease. Various techniques have been developed in recent decades for in vitro and in vivo assessment of mast cell motility and chemotaxis. In this chapter three microscopy assays facilitating real-time quantification of mast cell chemotaxis and migration are described, focusing on individual cell tracking and data analysis.

  15. Patterned hybrid nanohole array surfaces for cell adhesion and migration.

    PubMed

    Westcott, Nathan P; Lou, Yi; Muth, John F; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2009-10-06

    We report the fabrication of hybrid nanohole array surfaces to study the role of the surface nanoevironment on cell adhesion and cell migration. We use polystyrene beads and reactive ion etching to control the size and the spacing between nanoholes on a tailored self-assembled monolayer inert gold surface. The arrays were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and brightfield microscopy. For cell adhesion studies, cells were seeded to these substrates to study the effect of ligand spacing on cell spreading, stress fiber formation, and focal adhesion structure and size. Finally, comparative cell migration rates were examined on the various nanohole array surfaces using time-lapse microscopy.

  16. Downregulation of NEDD9 by apigenin suppresses migration, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jin; Van Wie, Peter G; Fai, Leonard Yenwong; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Luo, Jia; Zhang, Zhuo

    2016-11-15

    Apigenin is a natural flavonoid which possesses multiple anti-cancer properties such as anti-proliferation, anti-inflammation, and anti-metastasis in many types of cancers including colorectal cancer. Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) is a multi-domain scaffolding protein of the Cas family which has been shown to correlate with cancer metastasis and progression. The present study investigates the role of NEDD9 in apigenin-inhibited cell migration, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD1 and SW480 cells. The results show that knockdown of NEDD9 inhibited cell migration, invasion, and metastasis and that overexpression of NEDD9 promoted cell migration and invasion of DLD1 cells and SW4890 cells. Apigenin treatment attenuated NEDD9 expression at protein level, resulting in reduced phosphorylations of FAK, Src, and Akt, leading to inhibition on cell migration, invasion, and metastasis of both DLD1 and SW480 cells. The present study has demonstrated that apigenin inhibits cell migration, invasion, and metastasis through NEDD9/Src/Akt cascade in colorectal cancer cells. NEDD9 may function as a biomarker for evaluation of cancer aggressiveness and for selection of therapeutic drugs against cancer progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Brief Report: Robo1 Regulates the Migration of Human Subventricular Zone Neural Progenitor Cells During Development.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Lavell, Emily; Chen, Linda; Schiapparelli, Paula; Lara-Velazquez, Montserrat; Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Clements, Anna Christina; Drummond, Gabrielle; Noiman, Liron; Thaler, Katrina; Burke, Anne; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2017-07-01

    Human neural progenitor cell (NPC) migration within the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ganglionic eminence is an active process throughout early brain development. The migration of human NPCs from the SVZ to the olfactory bulb during fetal stages resembles what occurs in adult rodents. As the human brain develops during infancy, this migratory stream is drastically reduced in cell number and becomes barely evident in adults. The mechanisms regulating human NPC migration are unknown. The Slit-Robo signaling pathway has been defined as a chemorepulsive cue involved in axon guidance and neuroblast migration in rodents. Slit and Robo proteins expressed in the rodent brain help guide neuroblast migration from the SVZ through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. Here, we present the first study on the role that Slit and Robo proteins play in human-derived fetal neural progenitor cell migration (hfNPC). We describe that Robo1 and Robo2 isoforms are expressed in the human fetal SVZ. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Slit2 is able to induce a chemorepellent effect on the migration of hfNPCs derived from the human fetal SVZ. In addition, when Robo1 expression is inhibited, hfNPCs are unable to migrate to the olfactory bulb of mice when injected in the anterior SVZ. Our findings indicate that the migration of human NPCs from the SVZ is partially regulated by the Slit-Robo axis. This pathway could be regulated to direct the migration of NPCs in human endogenous neural cell therapy. Stem Cells 2017;35:1860-1865. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  18. Analysis of Shape Dynamics and Actin Polymerization of Collectively Migrating Streams of Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenlu; Parent, Carole A.; Losert, Wolfgang

    We use Princiapl Component Analysis (PCA) to investigate cell-cell coupling during collective cell migration of Dictyostelium discoideun, and explore the underlying mechanisms that regulate the coupling. From PCA of the cell boundary motion obtained from time-lapse images of multicellular streams, we find that cells in streams exhibit more localized anterior protrusions than individually migrating cells. We also find that traveling protrusion waves along cell boundaries connect from cell to cell with high correlation. Further analysis of actin polymerization indicates that actin polymerization is significantly enhanced at the leading edge of cells at cell-cell contacts. The coupling of waves disappears when reducing F-actin polymerization with Latrunculin A.

  19. Miniature Dielectric Barrier Discharge Nonthermal Plasma Induces Apoptosis in Lung Cancer Cells and Inhibits Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, Kathryn M.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional cancer treatments like radiotherapy and chemotherapy have drawbacks and are not selective for killing only cancer cells. Nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasmas with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can be applied to living cells and tissues and have emerged as novel tools for localized cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the different effects caused by miniature DBD (mDBD) plasma to A549 lung cancer cells. In this study, A549 lung cancer cells cultured in 12 well plates were treated with mDBD plasma for specified treatment times to assess the changes in the size of the area of cell detachment, the viability of attached or detached cells, and cell migration. Furthermore, we investigated an innovative mDBD plasma-based therapy for localized treatment of lung cancer cells through apoptotic induction. Our results indicate that plasma treatment for 120 sec causes apoptotic cell death in 35.8% of cells, while mDBD plasma treatment for 60 sec, 30 sec, or 15 sec causes apoptotic cell death in 20.5%, 14.1%, and 6.3% of the cell population, respectively. Additionally, we observed reduced A549 cell migration in response to mDBD plasma treatment. Thus, mDBD plasma system can be a viable platform for localized lung cancer therapy. PMID:28243603

  20. Miniature Dielectric Barrier Discharge Nonthermal Plasma Induces Apoptosis in Lung Cancer Cells and Inhibits Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Karki, Surya B; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda; Eisenmann, Kathryn M; Ayan, Halim

    2017-01-01

    Traditional cancer treatments like radiotherapy and chemotherapy have drawbacks and are not selective for killing only cancer cells. Nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasmas with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can be applied to living cells and tissues and have emerged as novel tools for localized cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the different effects caused by miniature DBD (mDBD) plasma to A549 lung cancer cells. In this study, A549 lung cancer cells cultured in 12 well plates were treated with mDBD plasma for specified treatment times to assess the changes in the size of the area of cell detachment, the viability of attached or detached cells, and cell migration. Furthermore, we investigated an innovative mDBD plasma-based therapy for localized treatment of lung cancer cells through apoptotic induction. Our results indicate that plasma treatment for 120 sec causes apoptotic cell death in 35.8% of cells, while mDBD plasma treatment for 60 sec, 30 sec, or 15 sec causes apoptotic cell death in 20.5%, 14.1%, and 6.3% of the cell population, respectively. Additionally, we observed reduced A549 cell migration in response to mDBD plasma treatment. Thus, mDBD plasma system can be a viable platform for localized lung cancer therapy.

  1. Hyperglycemia reduces integrin subunits alpha v and alpha 5 on the surface of dermal fibroblasts contributing to deficient migration.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maira Estanislau S; Monteiro, Kelly S; Kato, Ellen E; Sampaio, Sandra C; Braga, Tarcio T; Câmara, Niels O S; Lamers, Marcelo L; Santos, Marinilce F

    2016-10-01

    Deficient wound healing is a common multifactorial complication in diabetic patients, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved are poorly defined. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of hyperglycemia on integrins expression in rat dermal fibroblasts and addressed its role in cell adhesion and migration. Diabetes Mellitus was induced in rats by streptozotocin injection and maintained for 30 days. Primary cultures of dermal fibroblasts from control and diabetic rats were maintained under low glucose (5 mM D-glucose) or high glucose (30 mM D-glucose) for 7 days. Cell adhesion and migration were studied by kymography, transwell, and time-lapse assays, and the expressions of integrin subunits αv and α5 were studied by immunocytochemistry and western blotting. Fibroblasts derived from diabetic rats confirmed a reduced migration speed and delayed spreading compared to fibroblasts derived from control rats. The membrane fraction of diabetic-derived fibroblasts showed a decrease of integrin subunits α5 and αv, which was confirmed by immunocytochemistry assays. A reduction in the pericellular fibronectin matrix was also observed. The exposure of diabetic-derived cells to a higher concentration of exogenous fibronectin improved migration velocity and the expression of αv but did not completely restore their migration capacity. In conclusion, the mechanisms involved in the deleterious effects of Diabetes Mellitus on wound healing include the ability of fibroblasts to secrete and to adhere to fibronectin.

  2. Monocytes and macrophages, implications for breast cancer migration and stem cell-like activity and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Rebecca; Sims, Andrew H.; Lee, Alexander; Lo, Christina; Wynne, Luke; Yusuf, Humza; Gregson, Hannah; Lisanti, Michael P.; Sotgia, Federica; Landberg, Göran; Lamb, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are a major cellular constituent of the tumour stroma and contribute to breast cancer prognosis. The precise role and treatment strategies to target macrophages remain elusive. As macrophage infiltration is associated with poor prognosis and high grade tumours we used the THP-1 cell line to model monocyte-macrophage differentiation in co-culture with four breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, T47D, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468) to model in vivo cellular interactions. Polarisation into M1 and M2 subtypes was confirmed by specific cell marker expression of ROS and HLA-DR, respectively. Co-culture with all types of macrophage increased migration of ER-positive breast cancer cell lines, while M2-macrophages increased mammosphere formation, compared to M1-macrophages, in all breast cancer cells lines. Treatment of cells with Zoledronate in co-culture reduced the “pro-tumourigenic” effects (increased mammospheres/migration) exerted by macrophages. Direct treatment of breast cancer cells in homotypic culture was unable to reduce migration or mammosphere formation. Macrophages promote “pro-tumourigenic” cellular characteristics of breast cancer cell migration and stem cell activity. Zoledronate targets macrophages within the microenvironment which in turn, reduces the “pro-tumourigenic” characteristics of breast cancer cells. Zoledronate offers an exciting new treatment strategy for both primary and metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26008983

  3. Collective dynamics of cell migration and cell rearrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabla, Alexandre

    Understanding multicellular processes such as embryo development or cancer metastasis requires to decipher the contributions of local cell autonomous behaviours and long range interactions with the tissue environment. A key question in this context concerns the emergence of large scale coordination in cell behaviours, a requirement for collective cell migration or convergent extension. I will present a few examples where physical and mechanical aspects play a significant role in driving tissue scale dynamics.

  1. 3D printing of biomimetic microstructures for cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tina Qing; Qu, Xin; Liu, Justin; Chen, Shaochen

    2014-02-01

    To understand the physical behavior and migration of cancer cells, a 3D in vitro micro-chip in hydrogel was created using 3D projection printing. The micro-chip has a honeycomb branched structure, aiming to mimic 3D vascular morphology to test, monitor, and analyze differences in the behavior of cancer cells (i.e. HeLa) vs. non-cancerous cell lines (i.e. 10 T1/2). The 3D Projection Printing system can fabricate complex structures in seconds from user-created designs. The fabricated microstructures have three different channel widths of 25, 45, and 120 microns wide to reflect a range of blood vessel diameters. HeLa and 10 T1/2 cells seeded within the micro-chip were then analyzed for morphology and cell migration speed. 10 T1/2 cells exhibited greater changes in morphology due to channel size width than HeLa cells; however, channel width had a limited effect on 10 T1/2 cell migration while HeLa cancer cell migration increased as channel width decreased. This physiologically relevant 3D cancer tissue model has the potential to be a powerful tool for future drug discoveries and cancer migration studies.

  2. Hedgehog does not guide migrating Drosophila germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Renault, Andrew D.; Ricardo, Sara; Kunwar, Prabhat S.; Santos, Ana; Starz-Gaiano, Michelle; Stein, Jennifer; Lehmann, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    In many species, the germ cells, precursors of sperm and egg, migrate during embryogenesis. The signals that regulate this migration are thus essential for fertility. In flies, lipid signals have been shown to affect germ cell guidance. In particular, the synthesis of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate through the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) pathway is critical for attracting germ cells to their target tissue. In a genetic analysis of signaling pathways known to affect cell migration of other migratory cells, we failed to find a role for the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in germ cell migration. However, previous reports had implicated Hh as a germ cell attractant in flies and suggested that Hh signaling is enhanced through the action of the Hmgcr pathway. We therefore repeated several critical experiments and carried out further experiments to test specifically whether Hh is a germ cell attractant in flies. In contrast to previously reported findings and consistent with findings in zebrafish our data do not support the notion that Hh has a direct role in the guidance of migrating germ cells in flies. PMID:19389345

  3. Membrane nanowaves in single and collective cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zouani, Omar F; Gocheva, Veronika; Durrieu, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    We report the characterization of three-dimensional membrane waves for migrating single and collective cells and describe their propagation using wide-field optical profiling technique with nanometer resolution. We reveal the existence of small and large membrane waves the amplitudes of which are in the range of ∼ 3-7 nm to ∼ 16-25 nm respectively, through the cell. For migrating single-cells, the amplitude of these waves is about 30 nm near the cell edge. Two or more different directions of propagation of the membrane nanowaves inside the same cell can be observed. After increasing the migration velocity by BMP-2 treatment, only one wave direction of propagation exists with an increase in the average amplitude (more than 80 nm near the cell edge). Furthermore for collective-cell migration, these membrane nanowaves are attenuated on the leader cells and poor transmission of these nanowaves to follower cells was observed. After BMP-2 treatment, the membrane nanowaves are transmitted from the leader cell to several rows of follower cells. Surprisingly, the vast majority of the observed membrane nanowaves is shared between the adjacent cells. These results give a new view on how single and collective-cells modulate their motility. This work has significant implications for the therapeutic use of BMPs for the regeneration of skin tissue.

  4. Loss of Myoferlin Redirects Breast Cancer Cell Motility towards Collective Migration

    PubMed Central

    Volakis, Leonithas I.; Li, Ruth; Ackerman, William E.; Mihai, Cosmin; Bechel, Meagan; Summerfield, Taryn L.; Ahn, Christopher S.; Powell, Heather M.; Zielinski, Rachel; Rosol, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration plays a central role in the invasion and metastasis of tumors. As cells leave the primary tumor, they undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migrate as single cells. Epithelial tumor cells may also migrate in a highly directional manner as a collective group in some settings. We previously discovered that myoferlin (MYOF) is overexpressed in breast cancer cells and depletion of MYOF results in a mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) and reduced invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the biomechanical mechanisms governing cell motility during MYOF depletion are poorly understood. We first demonstrated that lentivirus-driven shRNA-induced MYOF loss in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (MDA-231MYOF-KD) leads to an epithelial morphology compared to the mesenchymal morphology observed in control (MDA- 231LTVC) and wild-type cells. Knockdown of MYOF led to significant reductions in cell migration velocity and MDA- 231MYOF-KD cells migrated directionally and collectively, while MDA-231LTVC cells exhibited single cell migration. Decreased migration velocity and collective migration were accompanied by significant changes in cell mechanics. MDA-231MYOF-KD cells exhibited a 2-fold decrease in cell stiffness, a 2-fold increase in cell-substrate adhesion and a 1.5-fold decrease in traction force generation. In vivo studies demonstrated that when immunocompromised mice were implanted with MDA- 231MYOF-KD cells, tumors were smaller and demonstrated lower tumor burden. Moreover, MDA- 231MYOF-KD tumors were highly circularized and did not invade locally into the adventia in contrast to MDA- 231LTVC-injected animals. Thus MYOF loss is associated with a change in tumor formation in xenografts and leads to smaller, less invasive tumors. These data indicate that MYOF, a previously unrecognized protein in cancer, is involved in MDA-MB-231 cell migration and contributes to biomechanical alterations. Our results indicate that changes in

  5. Trans-cellular migration: cell–cell contacts get intimate

    PubMed Central

    Carman, Christopher V; Springer, Timothy A

    2009-01-01

    Trans-cellular migration, the movement of one cell directly through another, seems an unlikely, counterintuitive, and even bizarre process. Trans-cellular migration has been reported for nearly half a century in leukocyte transendothelial migration in vivo, but is not well enough accepted to widely feature in textbook accounts of diapedesis. Recently, the first in vitro and additional in vivo observations of trans-cellular diapedesis have been reported. Mechanisms by which this occurs are just beginning to be elucidated and point to podosome-like protrusive activities in leukocytes and specific fusogenic functions in endothelial cells. Emerging evidence for a quantitatively significant contribution of trans-cellular migration to leukocyte trafficking in increasingly diverse settings suggests that this phenomenon represents an important and physiologic cell biological process. PMID:18595683

  6. Mechanisms for fast cell migration in complex environments.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Pablo; Barbier, Lucie; Sáez, Pablo José; Piel, Matthieu

    2017-10-01

    Cell migration depends on a combination of the cell's intrinsic capacity to move and the proper interpretation of external cues. This multistep process enables leukocytes to travel long distances in organs in just a few hours. This fast migration is partly due to the leukocytes' high level of plasticity, which helps them to adapt to a changing environment. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the mechanisms used by leukocytes to move rapidly and efficiently in intricate anatomical landscapes. We shall focus on specific cytoskeletal rearrangements used by neutrophils and dendritic cells to migrate within confined environments. Lastly, we will describe the properties that facilitate the rapid migration of leukocyte in complex tissue geometries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ion channels and transporters in tumour cell migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Albrecht; Stock, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration is a central component of the metastatic cascade requiring a concerted action of ion channels and transporters (migration-associated transportome), cytoskeletal elements and signalling cascades. Ion transport proteins and aquaporins contribute to tumour cell migration and invasion among other things by inducing local volume changes and/or by modulating Ca2+ and H+ signalling. Targeting cell migration therapeutically bears great clinical potential, because it is a prerequisite for metastasis. Ion transport proteins appear to be attractive candidate target proteins for this purpose because they are easily accessible as membrane proteins and often overexpressed or activated in cancer. Importantly, a number of clinically widely used drugs are available whose anticipated efficacy as anti-tumour drugs, however, has now only begun to be evaluated. PMID:24493750

  8. Role of dynamin in elongated cell migration in a 3D matrix.

    PubMed

    Lees, Justin G; Gorgani, Nick N; Ammit, Alaina J; McCluskey, Adam; Robinson, Phillip J; O'Neill, Geraldine M

    2015-03-01

    The use of 3-dimensional (3D) collagen gels has yielded new insights into the migratory behaviour of cancer cells. While the large GTPase dynamin has emerged as an important regulator of cancer cell migration and invasion under 2D conditions, its role in 3D migration is unclear. We have used a potent dynamin modulator, a bis-tyrphostin derivative, Ryngo® 1-23, to investigate the role of dynamin in 3D migration in 3 different cell lines. The compound specifically inhibits persistent, elongated 3D migration in U87MG and SMA-560 cells. Treated U87MG cells adopt a rounded morphology that is not due to apoptosis, loss of matrix metalloprotease activity or inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Given that Ryngo 1-23 is known to regulate dynamin oligomerisation and actin dynamics at the leading edge, we analysed actin filament distribution. Ryngo 1-23 induced a switch in actin filament organization in 3D cultures resulting in the generation of multiple short actin-rich microspikes. Correlated with the change in actin filament distribution, cells displayed reduced collagen gel contraction. Since acto-myosin force transmission to the extra-cellular matrix underpins persistent, elongated migration, our results suggest that Ryngo 1-23 modulates this process in 3D migration via dynamin-mediated regulation of acto-myosin force transmission to the extra-cellular matrix.

  9. Prostaglandins in Cancer Cell Adhesion, Migration, and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Menter, David G.; DuBois, Raymond N.

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandins exert a profound influence over the adhesive, migratory, and invasive behavior of cells during the development and progression of cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) are upregulated in inflammation and cancer. This results in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which binds to and activates G-protein-coupled prostaglandin E1–4 receptors (EP1–4). Selectively targeting the COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2/EP1–4 axis of the prostaglandin pathway can reduce the adhesion, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. Once stimulated by prostaglandins, cadherin adhesive connections between epithelial or endothelial cells are lost. This enables cells to invade through the underlying basement membrane and extracellular matrix (ECM). Interactions with the ECM are mediated by cell surface integrins by “outside-in signaling” through Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and/or “inside-out signaling” through talins and kindlins. Combining the use of COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2/EP1–4 axis-targeted molecules with those targeting cell surface adhesion receptors or their downstream signaling molecules may enhance cancer therapy. PMID:22505934

  10. Compound K attenuates stromal cell-derived growth factor 1 (SDF-1)-induced migration of C6 glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyuck; Roh, Hyo Sun; Kim, Jai Eun; Park, Sun Dong; Park, Won Hwan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Stromal cell-derived growth factor 1 (SDF-1), also known as chemokine ligand 12, and chemokine receptor type 4 are involved in cancer cell migration. Compound K (CK), a metabolite of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside by gut microbiota, is reported to have therapeutic potential in cancer therapy. However, the inhibitory effect of CK on SDF-1 pathway-induced migration of glioma has not yet been established. MATERIALS/METHODS Cytotoxicity of CK in C6 glioma cells was determined using an EZ-Cytox cell viability assay kit. Cell migration was tested using the wound healing and Boyden chamber assay. Phosphorylation levels of protein kinase C (PKC)α and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were measured by western blot assay, and matrix metallopeptidases (MMP) were measured by gelatin-zymography analysis. RESULTS CK significantly reduced the phosphorylation of PKCα and ERK1/2, expression of MMP9 and MMP2, and inhibited the migration of C6 glioma cells under SDF-1-stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS CK is a cell migration inhibitor that inhibits C6 glioma cell migration by regulating its downstream signaling molecules including PKCα, ERK1/2, and MMPs. PMID:27247721

  11. Energy barriers and cell migration in confluent tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Dapeng; Lopez, J. H.; Schwarz, J. M.; Manning, M. Lisa

    2014-03-01

    Biological processes such as embryogensis, tumorigenesis and wound healing require cells to move within a tissue. While the migration of single cells has been extensively studied, it has remained unclear how single cell properties control migration through a confluent tissue. We develop numerical and theoretical models to calculate energy barriers to cell rearrangements, which govern cell motility. In contrast to sheared foams where energy barriers are power-law distributed, energy barriers in tissues are exponentially distributed and depend systematically on the cell's number of neighbors. Using simple extensions of `trap' and `Soft Glassy Rheology' models, we demonstrate that these energy barrier distributions give rise to glassy behavior and use the models to make testable predictions for two-time correlation functions and caging times. We incorporate these ideas into a continuum model that combines glassy rheology with active polarization to better understand collective migration in epithelial sheets.

  12. [Chemokines and their participation in leukemic cells migration].

    PubMed

    Parfieńczyk, Adam; Kiersnowska-Rogowska, Beata; Rogowski, Franciszek

    2003-11-01

    Impaired migration of leukocytes is characteristic feature of leukaemias. Knowledge of the mechanisms of leukaemia cells migration has expanded greatly in recent years. Leukocytes infiltrates are formed in surrounding tissues due to changes in chemokines and adhesion molecules concentrations. The adhesive interactions of cells with other cells and between cells and with the extracellular matrix are started by activation leukaemic leukocytes by specific chemokines. There are four groups of chemokines receptors: CXC, CC, C and CX3C. Unfortunately pathological processes of cells activation in the curse of leukaemias have not been fully explained yet. The paper presents current opinions about structure and role of some chemokines and their receptors in leukaemic cells migration.

  13. Modelling Rho GTPase biochemistry to predict collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Brian; Feng, James

    The collective migration of cells, due to individual cell polarization and intercellular contact inhibition of locomotion, features prominently in embryogenesis and metastatic cancers. Existing methods for modelling collectively migrating cells tend to rely either on highly abstracted agent-based models, or on continuum approximations of the group. Both of these frameworks represent intercellular interactions such as contact inhibition of locomotion as hard-coded rules defining model cells. In contrast, we present a vertex-dynamics framework which predicts polarization and contact inhibition of locomotion naturally from an underlying model of Rho GTPase biochemistry and cortical mechanics. We simulate the interaction between many such model cells, and study how modulating Rho GTPases affects migratory characteristics of the group, in the context of long-distance collective migration of neural crest cells during embryogenesis.

  14. Phosphoproteomic analysis of interacting tumor and endothelial cells identifies regulatory mechanisms of transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Locard-Paulet, Marie; Lim, Lindsay; Veluscek, Giulia; McMahon, Kelly; Sinclair, John; van Weverwijk, Antoinette; Worboys, Jonathan D; Yuan, Yinyin; Isacke, Clare M; Jørgensen, Claus

    2016-02-09

    The exit of metastasizing tumor cells from the vasculature, extravasation, is regulated by their dynamic interactions with the endothelial cells that line the internal surface of vessels. To elucidate signals controlling tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium and subsequent transendothelial migration, we performed phosphoproteomic analysis to map cell-specific changes in protein phosphorylation that were triggered by contact between metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and endothelial cells. From the 2669 unique phosphorylation sites identified, 77 and 43 were differentially phosphorylated in the tumor cells and endothelial cells, respectively. The receptor tyrosine kinase ephrin type A receptor 2 (EPHA2) exhibited decreased Tyr(772) phosphorylation in the cancer cells upon endothelial contact. Knockdown of EPHA2 increased adhesion of the breast cancer cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and their transendothelial migration in coculture cell assays, as well as early-stage lung colonization in vivo. EPHA2-mediated inhibition of transendothelial migration of breast cancer cells depended on interaction with the ligand ephrinA1 on HUVECs and phosphorylation of EPHA2-Tyr(772). When EPHA2 phosphorylation dynamics were compared between cell lines of different metastatic ability, EPHA2-Tyr(772) was rapidly dephosphorylated after ephrinA1 stimulation specifically in cells targeting the lung. Knockdown of the phosphatase LMW-PTP reduced adhesion and transendothelial migration of the breast cancer cells. Overall, cell-specific phosphoproteomic analysis provides a bidirectional map of contact-initiated signaling between tumor and endothelial cells that can be further investigated to identify mechanisms controlling the transendothelial cell migration of cancer cells.

  15. Inhibition of the proliferation and acceleration of migration of vascular endothelial cells by increased cysteine-rich motor neuron 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Yukiko; Morimoto, Mayuka; Toda, Ken-ichi; Shinya, Tomohiro; Sato, Keizo; Takahashi, Satoru

    2015-07-03

    Cysteine-rich motor neuron 1 (CRIM1) is upregulated only in extracellular matrix gels by angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It then plays a critical role in the tube formation of endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of increased CRIM1 on other endothelial functions such as proliferation and migration. Knock down of CRIM1 had no effect on VEGF-induced proliferation or migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), indicating that basal CRIM1 is not involved in the proliferation or migration of endothelial cells. Stable CRIM1-overexpressing endothelial F-2 cells, termed CR1 and CR2, were constructed, because it was difficult to prepare monolayer HUVECs that expressed high levels of CRIM1. Proliferation was reduced and migration was accelerated in both CR1 and CR2 cells, compared with normal F-2 cells. Furthermore, the transient overexpression of CRIM1 resulted in decreased proliferation and increased migration of bovine aortic endothelial cells. In contrast, neither proliferation nor migration of COS-7 cells were changed by the overexpression of CRIM1. These results demonstrate that increased CRIM1 reduces the proliferation and accelerates the migration of endothelial cells. These CRIM1 effects might contribute to tube formation of endothelial cells. CRIM1 induced by angiogenic factors may serve as a regulator in endothelial cells to switch from proliferating cells to morphological differentiation. - Highlights: • CRIM1 was upregulated only in tubular endothelial cells, but not in monolayers. • Increased CRIM1 reduced the proliferation of endothelial cells. • Increased CRIM1 accelerated the migration of endothelial cells. • Increased CRIM1 had no effect on the proliferation or migration of COS-7 cells.

  16. Nicotine enhances colon cancer cell migration by induction of fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Wei, Po-Li; Kuo, Li-Jen; Huang, Ming-Te; Ting, Wen-Chien; Ho, Yuan-Soon; Wang, Weu; An, Jane; Chang, Yu-Jia

    2011-06-01

    Long-term cigarette smoking increases the risk of colorectal cancer mortality. Tobacco's addictive toxin, nicotine, was reported to increase DNA synthesis of colon cancer cells. Because metastasis is the major cause of cancer death, the influence of nicotine on the migration of colon cancer cells remains to be determined. The influence of nicotine on the migration of colon cancer cells was evaluated using transwell assay. Nicotine receptor-mediated migration was studied by using both inhibitors and small interfering RNA (siRNA). The role of COX-2 signal was studied using pharmacological inhibitors. The expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker and COX-2 signal was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nicotine enhanced DLD-1 and SW480 cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. We used inhibitors and siRNA to demonstrate that α7-nAChR mediates nicotine-enhanced colon cancer cell migration and upregulates fibronectin expression, which is involved in nicotine-enhanced migration. Furthermore, COX-2 signal was induced by nicotine treatment and is involved in nicotine-enhanced fibronectin expression. Nicotine, tobacco's additive toxin, enhances colon cancer metastasis through α7-nAChR and fibronectin--a mesenchymal marker for epithelial mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, COX-2 signal was involved in the induction of fibronectin. Therefore, smoking may play role in the progression of colon cancer.

  17. Deterministic Migration-Based Separation of White Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeongyeon; Choi, Young Joon; Seo, Hyekyung; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Choi, Sungyoung

    2016-10-01

    Functional and phenotypic analyses of peripheral white blood cells provide useful clinical information. However, separation of white blood cells from peripheral blood requires a time-consuming, inconvenient process and thus analyses of separated white blood cells are limited in clinical settings. To overcome this limitation, a microfluidic separation platform is developed to enable deterministic migration of white blood cells, directing the cells into designated positions according to a ridge pattern. The platform uses slant ridge structures on the channel top to induce the deterministic migration, which allows efficient and high-throughput separation of white blood cells from unprocessed whole blood. The extent of the deterministic migration under various rheological conditions is explored, enabling highly efficient migration of white blood cells in whole blood and achieving high-throughput separation of the cells (processing 1 mL of whole blood less than 7 min). In the separated cell population, the composition of lymphocyte subpopulations is well preserved, and T cells secrete cytokines without any functional impairment. On the basis of the results, this microfluidic platform is a promising tool for the rapid enrichment of white blood cells, and it is useful for functional and phenotypic analyses of peripheral white blood cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A Photoactivatable Nanopatterned Substrate for Analyzing Collective Cell Migration with Precisely Tuned Cell-Extracellular Matrix Ligand Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Boehm, Heike; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Spatz, Joachim P.; Nakanishi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Collective cell migration is involved in many biological and pathological processes. Various factors have been shown to regulate the decision to migrate collectively or individually, but the impact of cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions is still debated. Here, we developed a method for analyzing collective cell migration by precisely tuning the interactions between cells and ECM ligands. Gold nanoparticles are arrayed on a glass substrate with a defined nanometer spacing by block copolymer micellar nanolithography (BCML), and photocleavable poly(ethylene glycol) (Mw  =  12 kDa, PEG12K) and a cyclic RGD peptide, as an ECM ligand, are immobilized on this substrate. The remaining glass regions are passivated with PEG2K-silane to make cells interact with the surface via the nanoperiodically presented cyclic RGD ligands upon the photocleavage of PEG12K. On this nanostructured substrate, HeLa cells are first patterned in photo-illuminated regions, and cell migration is induced by a second photocleavage of the surrounding PEG12K. The HeLa cells gradually lose their cell-cell contacts and become disconnected on the nanopatterned substrate with 10-nm particles and 57-nm spacing, in contrast to their behavior on the homogenous substrate. Interestingly, the relationship between the observed migration collectivity and the cell-ECM ligand interactions is the opposite of that expected based on conventional soft matter models. It is likely that the reduced phosphorylation at tyrosine-861 of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on the nanopatterned surface is responsible for this unique migration behavior. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the presented method in understanding the process of determining collective and non-collective migration features in defined micro- and nano-environments and resolving the crosstalk between cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesions. PMID:24632806

  19. Functional regulation of ClC-3 in the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ganapathi, Sindura B; Wei, Shun-Guang; Zaremba, Angelika; Lamb, Fred S; Shears, Stephen B

    2013-01-01

    Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into neointima contributes to atherosclerosis and restenosis. This migration requires coordinated plasmalemmal fluxes of water and ions. Here, we show that aortic VSMC migration depends on the regulation of transmembrane Cl(-) flux by ClC-3, a Cl(-) channel/transporter. The contribution of ClC-3 to plasmalemmal Cl(-) current was studied in VSMCs by electrophysiological recordings. Cl(-) current was negligible in cells perfused with 0 [Ca(2+)]. Raising intracellular [Ca(2+)] to 0.5 μM activated a Cl(-) current (I(Cl.Ca)), approximately half of which was eliminated on inhibition by KN-93 of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. I(Cl.Ca) was also halved by inositol-3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate, a cellular signal with the biological function of specifically preventing calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II from activating I(Cl.Ca). Gene disruption of ClC-3 reduced I(Cl.Ca) by 50%. Moreover, I(Cl.Ca) in the ClC-3 null VSMCs was not affected by either KN-93 or inositol-3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate. We conclude that I(Cl.Ca) is composed of 2 components, one is ClC-3 independent whereas the other is ClC-3 dependent, activated by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and inhibited by inositol-3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate. We also assayed VSMC migration in transwell assays. Migration was halved in ClC-3 null cells versus wild-type cells. In addition, inhibition of ClC-3 by niflumic acid, KN-93, or inositol-3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate each reduced cell migration in wild-type cells but not in ClC-3 null cells. These cell-signaling roles of ClC-3 in VSMC migration suggest new therapeutic approaches to vascular remodeling diseases.

  20. Shift of microRNA profile upon glioma cell migration using patient-derived spheroids and serum-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Munthe, Sune; Halle, Bo; Boldt, Henning B; Christiansen, Helle; Schmidt, Steffen; Kaimal, Vivek; Xu, Jessica; Zabludoff, Sonya; Mollenhauer, Jan; Poulsen, Frantz R; Kristensen, Bjarne W

    2017-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent malignant primary brain tumor. A major reason for the overall median survival being only 14.6 months is migrating tumor cells left behind after surgery. Another major reason is tumor cells having a so-called cancer stem cell phenotype being therefore resistant towards traditional chemo- and radiotherapy. A group of novel molecular targets are microRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs are small non-coding RNAs exerting post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in migrating GBM cells using serum-free stem cell conditions. We used patient-derived GBM spheroid cultures for a novel serum-free migration assay. MiRNA expression of migrating tumor cells isolated at maximum migration speed was compared with corresponding spheroids using an OpenArray Real-Time PCR System. The miRNA profiling revealed 30 miRNAs to be differentially expressed. In total 13 miRNAs were upregulated and 17 downregulated in migrating cells compared to corresponding spheroids. The three most deregulated miRNAs, miR-1227 (up-regulated), miR-32 (down-regulated) and miR-222 (down-regulated), were experimentally overexpressed. A non-significantly increased migration rate was observed after miR-1227 overexpression. A significantly reduced migration rate was observed after miR-32 and miR-222 overexpression. In conclusion a shift in microRNA profile upon glioma cell migration was identified using an assay avoiding serum-induced migration. Both the miRNA profiling and the functional validation suggested that miR-1227 may be associated with increased migration and miR-32 and miR-222 with decreased migration. These miRNAs may represent potential novel targets in migrating glioma cells.

  1. Berberine reduces Toll-like receptor-mediated macrophage migration by suppression of Src enhancement.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei-Erh; Ying Chang, Miao; Wei, Jyun-Yan; Chen, Yen-Jen; Maa, Ming-Chei; Leu, Tzeng-Horng

    2015-06-15

    Berberine is an isoquinoline with anti-inflammatory activity. We previously demonstrated that there was a loop of signal amplification between nuclear factor kappa B and Src for macrophage mobility triggered by the engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). The simultaneous suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase 2, and cell mobility in berberine-treated macrophages suggested Src might be a target of berberine. Indeed, th reduced migration, greatly suppressed Src induction in both protein and RNA transcript by berberine were observed in macrophages exposed to LPS, peptidoglycan, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides. In addition to Src induction, berberine also inhibited LPS-mediated Src activation in Src overexpressing macrophages and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (a nitric oxide donor) could partly restore it. Moreover, berberine suppressed Src activity in fibronectin-stimulated macrophages and in v-Src transformed cells. These results implied that by effectively reducing Src expression and activity, berberine inhibited TLR-mediated cell motility in macrophages.

  2. Annexin A6 and Late Endosomal Cholesterol Modulate Integrin Recycling and Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    García-Melero, Ana; Reverter, Meritxell; Hoque, Monira; Meneses-Salas, Elsa; Koese, Meryem; Conway, James R W; Johnsen, Camilla H; Alvarez-Guaita, Anna; Morales-Paytuvi, Frederic; Elmaghrabi, Yasmin A; Pol, Albert; Tebar, Francesc; Murray, Rachael Z; Timpson, Paul; Enrich, Carlos; Grewal, Thomas; Rentero, Carles

    2016-01-15

    Annexins are a family of proteins that bind to phospholipids in a calcium-dependent manner. Earlier studies implicated annexin A6 (AnxA6) to inhibit secretion and participate in the organization of the extracellular matrix. We recently showed that elevated AnxA6 levels significantly reduced secretion of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN). Because FN is directly linked to the ability of cells to migrate, this prompted us to investigate the role of AnxA6 in cell migration. Up-regulation of AnxA6 in several cell models was associated with reduced cell migration in wound healing, individual cell tracking and three-dimensional migration/invasion assays. The reduced ability of AnxA6-expressing cells to migrate was associated with decreased cell surface expression of αVβ3 and α5β1 integrins, both FN receptors. Mechanistically, we found that elevated AnxA6 levels interfered with syntaxin-6 (Stx6)-dependent recycling of integrins to the cell surface. AnxA6 overexpression caused mislocalization and accumulation of Stx6 and integrins in recycling endosomes, whereas siRNA-mediated AnxA6 knockdown did not modify the trafficking of integrins. Given our recent findings that inhibition of cholesterol export from late endosomes (LEs) inhibits Stx6-dependent integrin recycling and that elevated AnxA6 levels cause LE cholesterol accumulation, we propose that AnxA6 and blockage of LE cholesterol transport are critical for endosomal function required for Stx6-mediated recycling of integrins in cell migration.

  3. Annexin A6 and Late Endosomal Cholesterol Modulate Integrin Recycling and Cell Migration*

    PubMed Central

    García-Melero, Ana; Reverter, Meritxell; Hoque, Monira; Meneses-Salas, Elsa; Koese, Meryem; Conway, James R. W.; Johnsen, Camilla H.; Alvarez-Guaita, Anna; Morales-Paytuvi, Frederic; Elmaghrabi, Yasmin A.; Pol, Albert; Tebar, Francesc; Murray, Rachael Z.; Timpson, Paul; Enrich, Carlos; Grewal, Thomas; Rentero, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Annexins are a family of proteins that bind to phospholipids in a calcium-dependent manner. Earlier studies implicated annexin A6 (AnxA6) to inhibit secretion and participate in the organization of the extracellular matrix. We recently showed that elevated AnxA6 levels significantly reduced secretion of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN). Because FN is directly linked to the ability of cells to migrate, this prompted us to investigate the role of AnxA6 in cell migration. Up-regulation of AnxA6 in several cell models was associated with reduced cell migration in wound healing, individual cell tracking and three-dimensional migration/invasion assays. The reduced ability of AnxA6-expressing cells to migrate was associated with decreased cell surface expression of αVβ3 and α5β1 integrins, both FN receptors. Mechanistically, we found that elevated AnxA6 levels interfered with syntaxin-6 (Stx6)-dependent recycling of integrins to the cell surface. AnxA6 overexpression caused mislocalization and accumulation of Stx6 and integrins in recycling endosomes, whereas siRNA-mediated AnxA6 knockdown did not modify the trafficking of integrins. Given our recent findings that inhibition of cholesterol export from late endosomes (LEs) inhibits Stx6-dependent integrin recycling and that elevated AnxA6 levels cause LE cholesterol accumulation, we propose that AnxA6 and blockage of LE cholesterol transport are critical for endosomal function required for Stx6-mediated recycling of integrins in cell migration. PMID:26578516

  4. NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells in part through regulating AQP5 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Kai; Jin, Faguang

    2015-09-25

    The osmoregulated transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5(NFAT5), has been found to play important roles in the development of many kinds of human cancers, including breast cancer, colon carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. The aim of the present study was to determine whether NFAT5 is involved in the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found that NFAT5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of NFAT5 decreased proliferation and migration of the cells, accompanied by a significant reduction in the expression of AQP5. AQP5 was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cells and knockdown of AQP5 also inhibited proliferation and migration of the cells as knockdown of NFAT5 did. Moreover, overexpression of NFAT5 promoted proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells, accompanied by a significant increase in the expression of AQP5. These results indicate that NFAT5 plays important roles in proliferation and migration of human lung adenocarcinoma cells through regulating AQP5 expression, providing a new therapeutic option for lung adenocarcinoma therapy. - Highlights: • NFAT5 expression is higher in lung adenocarcinoma cells compared with normal cells. • NFAT5 knockdown decreases proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Knockdown of NFAT5 reduces AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 promotes proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. • Overexpression of NFAT5 increases AQP5 expression in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  5. Defective neuronal migration and inhibition of bipolar to multipolar transition of migrating neural cells by Mesoderm-Specific Transcript, Mest, in the developing mouse neocortex.

    PubMed

    Ji, Liting; Bishayee, Kausik; Sadra, Ali; Choi, Seunghyuk; Choi, Wooyul; Moon, Sungho; Jho, Eek-Hoon; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2017-07-04

    Brain developmental disorders such as lissencephaly can result from faulty neuronal migration and differentiation during the formation of the mammalian neocortex. The cerebral cortex is a modular structure, where developmentally, newborn neurons are generated as a neuro-epithelial sheet and subsequently differentiate, migrate and organize into their final positions in the cerebral cortical plate via a process involving both tangential and radial migration. The specific role of Mest, an imprinted gene, in neuronal migration has not been previously studied. In this work, we reduced expression of Mest with in utero electroporation of neuronal progenitors in the developing embryonic mouse neocortex. Reduction of Mest levels by shRNA significantly reduced the number of neurons migrating to the cortical plate. Also, Mest-knockdown disrupted the transition of bipolar neurons into multipolar neurons migrating out of the sub-ventricular zone region. The migrating neurons also adopted a more tangential migration pattern upon knockdown of the Mest message, losing their potential to attach to radial glia cells, required for radial migration. The differentiation and migration properties of neurons via Wnt-Akt signaling were affected by Mest changes. In addition, miR-335, encoded in a Mest gene intron, was identified as being responsible for blocking the default tangential migration of the neurons. Our results suggest that Mest and its intron product, miR-335, play important roles in neuronal migration with Mest regulating the morphological transition of primary neurons required in the formation of the mammalian neocortex. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of TNF-alpha on Endothelial Cell Collective Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Desu; Wu, Di; Helim Aranda-Espinoza, Jose; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) is a small cell-signaling protein usually released by monocytes and macrophages during an inflammatory response. Previous work had shown the effects of TNF-alpha on single cell morphology, migration, and biomechanical properties. However, the effect on collective migrations remains unexplored. In this work, we have created scratches on monolayers of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with 25ng/mL TNF-alpha on glass substrates. The wound healing like processes were imaged with phase contrast microscopy. Quantitative analysis of the collective migration of cells treated with TNF-alpha indicates that these cells maintain their persistent motion and alignment better than untreated cells. In addition, the collective migration was characterized by measuring the amount of non-affine deformations of the wound healing monolayer. We found a lower mean non-affinity and narrower distribution of non-affinities upon TNF-alpha stimulation. These results suggest that TNF-alpha introduces a higher degree of organized cell collective migration.

  7. Alk1 controls arterial endothelial cell migration in lumenized vessels.

    PubMed

    Rochon, Elizabeth R; Menon, Prahlad G; Roman, Beth L

    2016-07-15

    Heterozygous loss of the arterial-specific TGFβ type I receptor, activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1; ACVRL1), causes hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). HHT is characterized by development of fragile, direct connections between arteries and veins, or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, how decreased ALK1 signaling leads to AVMs is unknown. To understand the cellular mis-steps that cause AVMs, we assessed endothelial cell behavior in alk1-deficient zebrafish embryos, which develop cranial AVMs. Our data demonstrate that alk1 loss has no effect on arterial endothelial cell proliferation but alters arterial endothelial cell migration within lumenized vessels. In wild-type embryos, alk1-positive cranial arterial endothelial cells generally migrate towards the heart, against the direction of blood flow, with some cells incorporating into endocardium. In alk1-deficient embryos, migration against flow is dampened and migration in the direction of flow is enhanced. Altered migration results in decreased endothelial cell number in arterial segments proximal to the heart and increased endothelial cell number in arterial segments distal to the heart. We speculate that the consequent increase in distal arterial caliber and hemodynamic load precipitates the flow-dependent development of downstream AVMs.

  8. Rab5 activation as a tumor cell migration switch

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Pablo; Díaz, Jorge; Silva, Patricio; Torres, Vicente A

    2014-01-01

    Increased cell migration is an acquired feature of metastatic cancer cells and relies on derailed signal transduction pathways. Intracellular vesicular trafficking plays a key role in cell migration due to its intricate involvement in cargo transport and membrane composition. In the last decade, endocytosis has been implicated in cell migration and found to be responsible for the internalization of membrane receptors at the plasma membrane, where integrin trafficking and fine-tuning of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by internalization are major mechanisms. Accumulating evidence has suggested a link between endosome dynamics, cell migration, and invasion, in which small GTPases of the Rab family have central roles. We have recently determined that Rab5 activation is a crucial event in promoting focal adhesion disassembly, which is concomitant with the migration and invasion of metastatic cancer cells. The mechanisms underlying this novel role for Rab5 are currently unclear, and their elucidation will provide insight into the role of Rab5 function in cancer cell metastasis. PMID:25763873

  9. Human Growth Hormone Promotes Corneal Epithelial Cell Migration in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Juan; Wirostko, Barbara; Sullivan, David A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Corneal wound healing is a highly regulated process that requires the proliferation and migration of epithelial cells and interactions between epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts. Compounds that can be applied topically to the ocular surface and that have the capability of activating corneal epithelial cells to proliferate and/or migrate would be useful to promote corneal wound healing. We hypothesize that human growth hormone (HGH) will activate Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription-5 (STAT5) signaling and promote corneal wound healing by enhancing corneal epithelial cell and fibroblast proliferation and/or migration in vitro. The purpose of this study is to test these hypotheses. Methods We studied cell signaling, proliferation and migration using an immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line and primary human corneal fibroblasts in vitro. We also examined whether insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a hormone known to mediate many of HGH’s growth promoting actions, may play a role in this effect. Results We show that HGH activates STAT5 signaling and promotes corneal epithelial cell migration in vitro. The migratory effect requires an intact communication between corneal epithelia and fibroblasts, and is not mediated by IGF-1. Conclusion HGH may represent a topical therapeutic to promote corneal epithelial wound healing. This warrants further investigation. PMID:25782399

  10. R-Ras Regulates Migration through an Interaction with Filamin A in Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gawecka, Joanna E.; Griffiths, Genevieve S.; Ek-Rylander, Barbro; Ramos, Joe W.; Matter, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Changes in cell adhesion and migration in the tumor microenvironment are key in the initiation and progression of metastasis. R-Ras is one of several small GTPases that regulate cell adhesion and migration on the extracellular matrix, however the mechanism has not been completely elucidated. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach we sought to identify novel R-Ras binding proteins that might mediate its effects on integrins. Methods and Findings We identified Filamin A (FLNa) as a candidate interacting protein. FLNa is an actin-binding scaffold protein that also binds to integrin β1, β2 and β7 tails and is associated with diverse cell processes including cell migration. Indeed, M2 melanoma cells require FLNa for motility. We further show that R-Ras and FLNa interact in co-immunoprecipitations and pull-down assays. Deletion of FLNa repeat 3 (FLNaΔ3) abrogated this interaction. In M2 melanoma cells active R-Ras co-localized with FLNa but did not co-localize with FLNa lacking repeat 3. Thus, activated R-Ras binds repeat 3 of FLNa. The functional consequence of this interaction was that active R-Ras and FLNa coordinately increased cell migration. In contrast, co-expression of R-Ras and FLNaΔ3 had a significantly reduced effect on migration. While there was enhancement of integrin activation and fibronectin matrix assembly, cell adhesion was not altered. Finally, siRNA knockdown of endogenous R-Ras impaired FLNa-dependent fibronectin matrix assembly. Conclusions These data support a model in which R-Ras functionally associates with FLNa and thereby regulates integrin-dependent migration. Thus in melanoma cells R-Ras and FLNa may cooperatively promote metastasis by enhancing cell migration. PMID:20585650

  11. Multiscale mechanisms of cell migration during development: theory and experiment

    PubMed Central

    McLennan, Rebecca; Dyson, Louise; Prather, Katherine W.; Morrison, Jason A.; Baker, Ruth E.; Maini, Philip K.; Kulesa, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance cell migration is an important feature of embryonic development, adult morphogenesis and cancer, yet the mechanisms that drive subpopulations of cells to distinct targets are poorly understood. Here, we use the embryonic neural crest (NC) in tandem with theoretical studies to evaluate model mechanisms of long-distance cell migration. We find that a simple chemotaxis model is insufficient to explain our experimental data. Instead, model simulations predict that NC cell migration requires leading cells to respond to long-range guidance signals and trailing cells to short-range cues in order to maintain a directed, multicellular stream. Experiments confirm differences in leading versus trailing NC cell subpopulations, manifested in unique cell orientation and gene expression patterns that respond to non-linear tissue growth of the migratory domain. Ablation experiments that delete the trailing NC cell subpopulation reveal that leading NC cells distribute all along the migratory pathway and develop a leading/trailing cellular orientation and gene expression profile that is predicted by model simulations. Transplantation experiments and model predictions that move trailing NC cells to the migratory front, or vice versa, reveal that cells adopt a gene expression profile and cell behaviors corresponding to the new position within the migratory stream. These results offer a mechanistic model in which leading cells create and respond to a cell-induced chemotactic gradient and transmit guidance information to trailing cells that use short-range signals to move in a directional manner. PMID:22764050

  12. Multiscale mechanisms of cell migration during development: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Rebecca; Dyson, Louise; Prather, Katherine W; Morrison, Jason A; Baker, Ruth E; Maini, Philip K; Kulesa, Paul M

    2012-08-01

    Long-distance cell migration is an important feature of embryonic development, adult morphogenesis and cancer, yet the mechanisms that drive subpopulations of cells to distinct targets are poorly understood. Here, we use the embryonic neural crest (NC) in tandem with theoretical studies to evaluate model mechanisms of long-distance cell migration. We find that a simple chemotaxis model is insufficient to explain our experimental data. Instead, model simulations predict that NC cell migration requires leading cells to respond to long-range guidance signals and trailing cells to short-range cues in order to maintain a directed, multicellular stream. Experiments confirm differences in leading versus trailing NC cell subpopulations, manifested in unique cell orientation and gene expression patterns that respond to non-linear tissue growth of the migratory domain. Ablation experiments that delete the trailing NC cell subpopulation reveal that leading NC cells distribute all along the migratory pathway and develop a leading/trailing cellular orientation and gene expression profile that is predicted by model simulations. Transplantation experiments and model predictions that move trailing NC cells to the migratory front, or vice versa, reveal that cells adopt a gene expression profile and cell behaviors corresponding to the new position within the migratory stream. These results offer a mechanistic model in which leading cells create and respond to a cell-induced chemotactic gradient and transmit guidance information to trailing cells that use short-range signals to move in a directional manner.

  13. Mathematical Modeling of Eukaryotic Cell Migration: Insights Beyond Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Danuser, Gaudenz; Allard, Jun; Mogilner, Alex

    2014-01-01

    A migrating cell is a molecular machine made of tens of thousands of short-lived and interacting parts. Understanding migration means understanding the self-organization of these parts into a system of functional units. This task is one of tackling complexity: First, the system integrates numerous chemical and mechanical component processes. Second, these processes are connected in feedback interactions and over a large range of spatial and temporal scales. Third, many processes are stochastic, which leads to heterogeneous migration behaviors. Early on in the research of cell migration it became evident that this complexity exceeds human intuition. Thus, the cell migration community has led the charge to build mathematical models that could integrate the diverse experimental observations and measurements in consistent frameworks, first in conceptual and more recently in molecularly explicit models. The main goal of this review is to sift through a series of important conceptual and explicit mathematical models of cell migration and to evaluate their contribution to the field in their ability to integrate critical experimental data. PMID:23909278

  14. 3D computational modelling of cell migration: a mechano-chemo-thermo-electrotaxis approach.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Jamaleddin; Doweidar, Mohamed Hamdy; Doblaré, Manuel

    2013-07-21

    Single cell migration constitutes a fundamental phenomenon involved in many biological events such as wound healing, cancer development and tissue regeneration. Several experiments have demonstrated that, besides the mechanical driving force (mechanotaxis), cell migration may be also influenced by chemical, thermal and/or electrical cues. In this paper, we present an extension of a previous model of the same authors adding the effects of chemotaxis, thermotaxis and electrotaxis to the initial mechanotaxis model of cell migration, allowing us to predict cell migration behaviour under different conditions and substrate properties. The present model is based on the balance of effective forces during cell motility in the presence of the several guiding cues. This model has been applied to several numerical experiments to demonstrate the effect of the different drivers onto the cell path and final location within a certain three-dimensional substrate with heterogeneous properties. Our findings indicate that the presence of the chemotaxis, thermotaxis and/or electrotaxis reduce, in general, the random component of cell movement, being this reduction more important in the case of electrotaxis that can be considered a dominating signal during cell migration (besides the underlying mechanical effects). These results are qualitatively in agreement with well-known experimental ones.

  15. Nanog regulates primordial germ cell migration through Cxcr4b.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Ana Virginia; Camp, Esther; Leal-Tassias, Aránzazu; Atkinson, Stuart P; Armstrong, Lyle; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; Mullor, José L

    2010-09-01

    Gonadal development in vertebrates depends on the early determination of primordial germ cells (PGCs) and their correct migration to the sites where the gonads develop. Several genes have been implicated in PGC specification and migration in vertebrates. Additionally, some of the genes associated with pluripotency, such as Oct4 and Nanog, are expressed in PGCs and gonads, suggesting a role for these genes in maintaining pluripotency of the germ lineage, which may be considered the only cell type that perpetually maintains stemness properties. Here, we report that medaka Nanog (Ol-Nanog) is expressed in the developing PGCs. Depletion of Ol-Nanog protein causes aberrant migration of PGCs and inhibits expression of Cxcr4b in PGCs, where it normally serves as the receptor of Sdf1a to guide PGC migration. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrates that Ol-Nanog protein binds to the promoter region of Cxcr4b, suggesting a direct regulation of Cxcr4b by Ol-Nanog. Simultaneous overexpression of Cxcr4b mRNA and depletion of Ol-Nanog protein in PGCs rescues the migration defective phenotype induced by a loss of Ol-Nanog, whereas overexpression of Sdf1a, the ligand for Cxcr4b, does not restore proper PGC migration. These results indicate that Ol-Nanog mediates PGC migration by regulating Cxcr4b expression.

  16. A Novel Role of Cab45-G in Mediating Cell Migration in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Judong; Li, Zengpeng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Chenying; Zheng, Weibin; He, Yan; Song, Jianyuan; Wang, Wenjie; Zhou, Xifa; Lu, Xujing; Zhang, Shuyu; Chen, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Ca(2+)-binding protein of 45 kDa (Cab45), a CREC family member, is reported to be associated with Ca(2+)-dependent secretory pathways and involved in multiple diseases including cancers. Cab45-G, a Cab45 isoform protein, plays an important role in protein sorting and secretion at Golgi complex. However, its role in cancer cell migration remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that Cab45-G exhibited an increased expression in cell lines with higher metastatic potential and promoted cell migration in multiple types of cancer cells. Overexpression of Cab45-G resulted in an altered expression of the molecular mediators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a critical step in the tumor metastasis. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that overexpression of Cab45-G increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -7 (MMP-2 and MMP-7). Conversely, knock-down of Cab45-G reduced the expression of the above MMPs. Moreover, forced expression of Cab45-G upregulated the level of phosphorylated ERK and modulated the secretion of extracellular proteins fibronectin and fibulin. Furthermore, in human cervical and esophageal cancer tissues, the expression of Cab45-G was found to be significantly correlated with that of MMP-2, further supporting the importance of Cab45-G on regulating cancer metastasis. Taken together, these results suggest that Cab45-G could regulate cancer cell migration through various molecular mechanisms, which may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancers.

  17. Insulin promotes cell migration by regulating PSA-NCAM.

    PubMed

    Monzo, Hector J; Coppieters, Natacha; Park, Thomas I H; Dieriks, Birger V; Faull, Richard L M; Dragunow, Mike; Curtis, Maurice A

    2017-06-01

    Cellular interactions with the extracellular environment are modulated by cell surface polysialic acid (PSA) carried by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA-NCAM is involved in cellular processes such as differentiation, plasticity, and migration, and is elevated in Alzheimer's disease as well as in metastatic tumour cells. Our previous work demonstrated that insulin enhances the abundance of cell surface PSA by inhibiting PSA-NCAM endocytosis. In the present study we have identified a mechanism for insulin-dependent inhibition of PSA-NCAM turnover affecting cell migration. Insulin enhanced the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase leading to dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters, and promoted cell migration. Our results show that αv-integrin plays a key role in the PSA-NCAM turnover process. αv-integrin knockdown stopped PSA-NCAM from being endocytosed, and αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters co-labelled intracellularly with Rab5, altogether indicating a role for αv-integrin as a carrier for PSA-NCAM during internalisation. Furthermore, inhibition of p-FAK caused dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters and counteracted the insulin-induced accumulation of PSA at the cell surface and cell migration was impaired. Our data reveal a functional association between the insulin/p-FAK-dependent regulation of PSA-NCAM turnover and cell migration through the extracellular matrix. Most importantly, they identify a novel mechanism for insulin-stimulated cell migration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Protrusive waves guide 3D cell migration along nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Guetta-Terrier, Charlotte; Monzo, Pascale; Zhu, Jie; Long, Hongyan; Venkatraman, Lakshmi; Zhou, Yue; Wang, PeiPei; Chew, Sing Yian; Mogilner, Alexander; Ladoux, Benoit; Gauthier, Nils C

    2015-11-09

    In vivo, cells migrate on complex three-dimensional (3D) fibrous matrices, which has made investigation of the key molecular and physical mechanisms that drive cell migration difficult. Using reductionist approaches based on 3D electrospun fibers, we report for various cell types that single-cell migration along fibronectin-coated nanofibers is associated with lateral actin-based waves. These cyclical waves have a fin-like shape and propagate up to several hundred micrometers from the cell body, extending the leading edge and promoting highly persistent directional movement. Cells generate these waves through balanced activation of the Rac1/N-WASP/Arp2/3 and Rho/formins pathways. The waves originate from one major adhesion site at leading end of the cell body, which is linked through actomyosin contractility to another site at the back of the cell, allowing force generation, matrix deformation and cell translocation. By combining experimental and modeling data, we demonstrate that cell migration in a fibrous environment requires the formation and propagation of dynamic, actin based fin-like protrusions.

  19. Protrusive waves guide 3D cell migration along nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Guetta-Terrier, Charlotte; Monzo, Pascale; Zhu, Jie; Long, Hongyan; Venkatraman, Lakshmi; Zhou, Yue; Wang, PeiPei; Chew, Sing Yian; Mogilner, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In vivo, cells migrate on complex three-dimensional (3D) fibrous matrices, which has made investigation of the key molecular and physical mechanisms that drive cell migration difficult. Using reductionist approaches based on 3D electrospun fibers, we report for various cell types that single-cell migration along fibronectin-coated nanofibers is associated with lateral actin-based waves. These cyclical waves have a fin-like shape and propagate up to several hundred micrometers from the cell body, extending the leading edge and promoting highly persistent directional movement. Cells generate these waves through balanced activation of the Rac1/N-WASP/Arp2/3 and Rho/formins pathways. The waves originate from one major adhesion site at leading end of the cell body, which is linked through actomyosin contractility to another site at the back of the cell, allowing force generation, matrix deformation and cell translocation. By combining experimental and modeling data, we demonstrate that cell migration in a fibrous environment requires the formation and propagation of dynamic, actin based fin-like protrusions. PMID:26553933

  20. Cell collectivity regulation within migrating cell cluster during Kupffer's vesicle formation in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Bessho, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    Although cell adhesion is thought to fasten cells tightly, cells that adhere to each other can migrate directionally. This group behavior, called “collective cell migration,” is observed during normal development, wound healing, and cancer invasion. Loss-of-function of cell adhesion molecules in several model systems of collective cell migration results in delay or inhibition of migration of cell groups but does not lead to dissociation of the cell groups, suggesting that mechanisms of cells staying assembled as a single cell cluster, termed as “cell collectivity,” remain largely unknown. During the formation of Kupffer's vesicle (KV, an organ of laterality in zebrafish), KV progenitors form a cluster and migrate together toward the vegetal pole. Importantly, in this model system of collective cell migration, knockdown of cell adhesion molecules or signal components leads to failure of cell collectivity. In this review, we summarize recent findings in cell collectivity regulation during collective migration of KV progenitor cells and describe our current understanding of how cell collectivity is regulated during collective cell migration. PMID:26000276

  1. Cell collectivity regulation within migrating cell cluster during Kupffer's vesicle formation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Bessho, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    Although cell adhesion is thought to fasten cells tightly, cells that adhere to each other can migrate directionally. This group behavior, called "collective cell migration," is observed during normal development, wound healing, and cancer invasion. Loss-of-function of cell adhesion molecules in several model systems of collective cell migration results in delay or inhibition of migration of cell groups but does not lead to dissociation of the cell groups, suggesting that mechanisms of cells staying assembled as a single cell cluster, termed as "cell collectivity," remain largely unknown. During the formation of Kupffer's vesicle (KV, an organ of laterality in zebrafish), KV progenitors form a cluster and migrate together toward the vegetal pole. Importantly, in this model system of collective cell migration, knockdown of cell adhesion molecules or signal components leads to failure of cell collectivity. In this review, we summarize recent findings in cell collectivity regulation during collective migration of KV progenitor cells and describe our current understanding of how cell collectivity is regulated during collective cell migration.

  2. Regulation of rat mesangial cell migration by platelet-derived growth factor, angiotensin II, and adrenomedullin.

    PubMed

    Kohno, M; Yasunari, K; Minami, M; Kano, H; Maeda, K; Mandal, A K; Inoki, K; Haneda, M; Yoshikawa, J

    1999-12-01

    This study sought to determine whether platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and angiotensin II (AngII) stimulate migration of cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells. After finding that this was so, the effects of adrenomedullin (ADM) and cAMP-elevating agents on basal and stimulated mesangial cell migration were examined. Two isoforms of PDGF, AB and BB, stimulated migration in a concentration-dependent manner between 1 and 50 ng/ml, while the AA isoform lacked significant effect. AngII modestly but significantly stimulated migration in a concentration-dependent manner between 10(-7) and 10(-6) mol/L. Rat ADM significantly inhibited the PDGF BB- and AngII-stimulated migration in a concentration-dependent manner between 10(-8) and 10(-7) mol/L. Inhibition by rat ADM was accompanied by an increase in cellular cAMP. cAMP agonists or inducers such as 8-bromo cAMP, forskolin, and prostaglandin I2 also significantly reduced the stimulated migration. H 89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, attenuated the inhibitory effect of ADM, and a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, human CGRP (8-37), abolished the inhibitory effects of rat ADM. These results suggest that PDGF AB and BB as well as AngII stimulate rat mesangial cell migration and that ADM can inhibit PDGF BB- and AngII-stimulated migration, at least in part through cAMP-dependent mechanisms likely to involve specific ADM receptors with which CGRP interacts. The adenylate cyclase/cAMP/PKA system may be involved in the migration-inhibitory effect of ADM in these cells.

  3. RNase L is a negative regulator of cell migration.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Shuvojit; Li, Geqiang; Li, Yize; Gaughan, Christina; Baskar, Danika; Parker, Yvonne; Lindner, Daniel J; Weiss, Susan R; Silverman, Robert H

    2015-12-29

    RNase L is a regulated endoribonuclease that functions in the interferon antiviral response. Activation of RNase L by 2', 5'-oligoadenylates has been linked to apoptosis, autophagy and inflammation. Genetic studies have also suggested the possible involvement of the RNase L gene (RNASEL) on chromosome 1q25.3 in several types of cancer. Here we report that ablation of RNase L in human prostate cancer PC3 cells by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology enhanced cell migration as determined both by transwell assays and scratch wound healing assays. In addition, RNase L knockdown by means of RNAi increased migration of PC3 and DU145 cells in response to either fibronectin or serum stimulation, as did homozygous disruption of the RNase L gene in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Serum or fibronectin stimulation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) autophosphorylation on tyrosine-397 was increased by either knockdown or ablation of RNase L. In contrast, a missense mutant RNase L (R667A) lacking catalytic activity failed to suppress cell migration in PC3 cells. However, a nuclease-inactive mutant mouse RNase L (W630A) was able to partially inhibit migration of mouse fibroblasts. Consistent with a role for the catalytic activity of RNase L, transfection of PC3 cells with the RNase L activator, 2', 5'-oligoadenylate, suppressed cell migration. RNase L knockdown in PC3 cells enhanced tumor growth and metastasis following implantation in the mouse prostate. Our results suggest that naturally occurring mutations in the RNase L gene might promote enhanced cell migration and metastasis.

  4. RNase L is a negative regulator of cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Shuvojit; Li, Geqiang; Li, Yize; Gaughan, Christina; Baskar, Danika; Parker, Yvonne; Lindner, Daniel J.; Weiss, Susan R.; Silverman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    RNase L is a regulated endoribonuclease that functions in the interferon antiviral response. Activation of RNase L by 2′, 5′-oligoadenylates has been linked to apoptosis, autophagy and inflammation. Genetic studies have also suggested the possible involvement of the RNase L gene (RNASEL) on chromosome 1q25.3 in several types of cancer. Here we report that ablation of RNase L in human prostate cancer PC3 cells by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology enhanced cell migration as determined both by transwell assays and scratch wound healing assays. In addition, RNase L knockdown by means of RNAi increased migration of PC3 and DU145 cells in response to either fibronectin or serum stimulation, as did homozygous disruption of the RNase L gene in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Serum or fibronectin stimulation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) autophosphorylation on tyrosine-397 was increased by either knockdown or ablation of RNase L. In contrast, a missense mutant RNase L (R667A) lacking catalytic activity failed to suppress cell migration in PC3 cells. However, a nuclease-inactive mutant mouse RNase L (W630A) was able to partially inhibit migration of mouse fibroblasts. Consistent with a role for the catalytic activity of RNase L, transfection of PC3 cells with the RNase L activator, 2′, 5′-oligoadenylate, suppressed cell migration. RNase L knockdown in PC3 cells enhanced tumor growth and metastasis following implantation in the mouse prostate. Our results suggest that naturally occurring mutations in the RNase L gene might promote enhanced cell migration and metastasis. PMID:26517238

  5. Microtubule release from the centrosome in migrating cells

    PubMed Central

    Abal, Miguel; Piel, Matthieu; Bouckson-Castaing, Veronique; Mogensen, Mette; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Bornens, Michel

    2002-01-01

    In migrating cells, force production relies essentially on a polarized actomyosin system, whereas the spatial regulation of actomyosin contraction and substrate contact turnover involves a complex cooperation between the microtubule (MT) and the actin filament networks (Goode, B.L., D.G. Drubin, and G. Barnes. 2000. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol., 12:63–71). Targeting and capture of MT plus ends at the cell periphery has been described, but whether or not the minus ends of these MTs are anchored at the centrosome is not known. Here, we show that release of short MTs from the centrosome is frequent in migrating cells and that their transport toward the cell periphery is blocked when dynein activity is impaired. We further show that MT release, but not MT nucleation or polymerization dynamics, is abolished by overexpression of the centrosomal MT-anchoring protein ninein. In addition, a dramatic inhibition of cell migration was observed; but, contrary to cells treated by drugs inhibiting MT dynamics, polarized membrane ruffling activity was not affected in ninein overexpressing cells. We thus propose that the balance between MT minus-end capture and release from the centrosome is critical for efficient cell migration. PMID:12473683

  6. Multidisciplinary approaches to understanding collective cell migration in developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Linus J; Kulesa, Paul M; McLennan, Rebecca; Baker, Ruth E; Maini, Philip K

    2016-06-01

    Mathematical models are becoming increasingly integrated with experimental efforts in the study of biological systems. Collective cell migration in developmental biology is a particularly fruitful application area for the development of theoretical models to predict the behaviour of complex multicellular systems with many interacting parts. In this context, mathematical models provide a tool to assess the consistency of experimental observations with testable mechanistic hypotheses. In this review, we showcase examples from recent years of multidisciplinary investigations of neural crest cell migration. The neural crest model system has been used to study how collective migration of cell populations is shaped by cell-cell interactions, cell-environmental interactions and heterogeneity between cells. The wide range of emergent behaviours exhibited by neural crest cells in different embryonal locations and in different organisms helps us chart out the spectrum of collective cell migration. At the same time, this diversity in migratory characteristics highlights the need to reconcile or unify the array of currently hypothesized mechanisms through the next generation of experimental data and generalized theoretical descriptions.

  7. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell accelerated stress testing

    DOE PAGES

    Baker, Andrew M.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Cerium is a radical scavenger which improves polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell durability. During operation, however, cerium rapidly migrates in the PEM and into the catalyst layers (CLs). In this work, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were subjected to accelerated stress tests (ASTs) under different humidity conditions. Cerium migration was characterized in the MEAs after ASTs using X-ray fluorescence. During fully humidified operation, water flux from cell inlet to outlet generated in-plane cerium gradients. Conversely, cerium profiles were flat during low humidity operation, where in-plane water flux was negligible, however, migration from the PEM into the CLs was enhanced. Humiditymore » cycling resulted in both in-plane cerium gradients due to water flux during the hydration component of the cycle, and significant migration into the CLs. Fluoride and cerium emissions into effluent cell waters were measured during ASTs and correlated, which signifies that ionomer degradation products serve as possible counter-ions for cerium emissions. Fluoride emission rates were also correlated to final PEM cerium contents, which indicates that PEM degradation and cerium migration are coupled. Lastly, it is proposed that cerium migrates from the PEM due to humidification conditions and degradation, and is subsequently stabilized in the CLs by carbon catalyst supports.« less

  8. How Tissue Mechanical Properties Affect Enteric Neural Crest Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, N. R.; Gazguez, E.; Bidault, L.; Guilbert, T.; Vias, C.; Vian, E.; Watanabe, Y.; Muller, L.; Germain, S.; Bondurand, N.; Dufour, S.; Fleury, V.

    2016-02-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a population of multipotent cells that migrate extensively during vertebrate development. Alterations to neural crest ontogenesis cause several diseases, including cancers and congenital defects, such as Hirschprung disease, which results from incomplete colonization of the colon by enteric NCCs (ENCCs). We investigated the influence of the stiffness and structure of the environment on ENCC migration in vitro and during colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in chicken and mouse embryos. We showed using tensile stretching and atomic force microscopy (AFM) that the mesenchyme of the gut was initially soft but gradually stiffened during the period of ENCC colonization. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy revealed that this stiffening was associated with a gradual organization and enrichment of collagen fibers in the developing gut. Ex-vivo 2D cell migration assays showed that ENCCs migrated on substrates with very low levels of stiffness. In 3D collagen gels, the speed of the ENCC migratory front decreased with increasing gel stiffness, whereas no correlation was found between porosity and ENCC migration behavior. Metalloprotease inhibition experiments showed that ENCCs actively degraded collagen in order to progress. These results shed light on the role of the mechanical properties of tissues in ENCC migration during development.

  9. How Tissue Mechanical Properties Affect Enteric Neural Crest Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, N.R.; Gazguez, E.; Bidault, L.; Guilbert, T.; Vias, C.; Vian, E.; Watanabe, Y.; Muller, L.; Germain, S.; Bondurand, N.; Dufour, S.; Fleury, V.

    2016-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a population of multipotent cells that migrate extensively during vertebrate development. Alterations to neural crest ontogenesis cause several diseases, including cancers and congenital defects, such as Hirschprung disease, which results from incomplete colonization of the colon by enteric NCCs (ENCCs). We investigated the influence of the stiffness and structure of the environment on ENCC migration in vitro and during colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in chicken and mouse embryos. We showed using tensile stretching and atomic force microscopy (AFM) that the mesenchyme of the gut was initially soft but gradually stiffened during the period of ENCC colonization. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy revealed that this stiffening was associated with a gradual organization and enrichment of collagen fibers in the developing gut. Ex-vivo 2D cell migration assays showed that ENCCs migrated on substrates with very low levels of stiffness. In 3D collagen gels, the speed of the ENCC migratory front decreased with increasing gel stiffness, whereas no correlation was found between porosity and ENCC migration behavior. Metalloprotease inhibition experiments showed that ENCCs actively degraded collagen in order to progress. These results shed light on the role of the mechanical properties of tissues in ENCC migration during development. PMID:26887292

  10. Loss of Gadkin Affects Dendritic Cell Migration In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Stache, Vanessa; Plewa, Natalia; Legler, Daniel F.; Höpken, Uta E.; Maritzen, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Migration is crucial for the function of dendritic cells (DCs), which act as outposts of the immune system. Upon detection of pathogens, skin- and mucosa-resident DCs migrate to secondary lymphoid organs where they activate T cells. DC motility relies critically on the actin cytoskeleton, which is regulated by the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex, a nucleator of branched actin networks. Consequently, loss of ARP2/3 stimulators and upstream Rho family GTPases dramatically impairs DC migration. However, nothing is known yet about the relevance of ARP2/3 inhibitors for DC migration. We previously demonstrated that the AP-1-associated adaptor protein Gadkin inhibits ARP2/3 by sequestering it on intracellular vesicles. Consistent with a role of Gadkin in DC physiology, we here report Gadkin expression in bone marrow-derived DCs and show that its protein level and posttranslational modification are regulated upon LPS-induced DC maturation. DCs derived from Gadkin-deficient mice were normal with regards to differentiation and maturation, but displayed increased actin polymerization. While the actin-dependent processes of macropinocytosis and cell spreading were not affected, loss of Gadkin significantly impaired DC migration in vitro, however, in vivo DC migration was unperturbed suggesting the presence of compensatory mechanisms. PMID:26624014

  11. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell accelerated stress testing

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Andrew M.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L.; Spernjak, Dusan; Judge, Elizabeth J.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    2016-01-01

    Cerium is a radical scavenger which improves polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell durability. During operation, however, cerium rapidly migrates in the PEM and into the catalyst layers (CLs). In this work, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were subjected to accelerated stress tests (ASTs) under different humidity conditions. Cerium migration was characterized in the MEAs after ASTs using X-ray fluorescence. During fully humidified operation, water flux from cell inlet to outlet generated in-plane cerium gradients. Conversely, cerium profiles were flat during low humidity operation, where in-plane water flux was negligible, however, migration from the PEM into the CLs was enhanced. Humidity cycling resulted in both in-plane cerium gradients due to water flux during the hydration component of the cycle, and significant migration into the CLs. Fluoride and cerium emissions into effluent cell waters were measured during ASTs and correlated, which signifies that ionomer degradation products serve as possible counter-ions for cerium emissions. Fluoride emission rates were also correlated to final PEM cerium contents, which indicates that PEM degradation and cerium migration are coupled. Lastly, it is proposed that cerium migrates from the PEM due to humidification conditions and degradation, and is subsequently stabilized in the CLs by carbon catalyst supports.

  12. Migration of breast cancer cell lines in response to pulmonary laminin 332.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Philip M; Sivadas, Priyanka; Hua, Spencer S; Xiao, Cally; Gutierrez, Alyssa B; Ngo, Tuan; Gershon, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    Because tumor cell motility is a requirement for metastasis, we hypothesized that lung tissue harbors substances that induce tumor cell migration. MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells exposed to small airway epithelial cells and conditioned medium exhibited dose-dependent tumor cell migration. Among the extracellular matrix proteins in the conditioned medium identified by mass spectrometry, laminin 332 (LM332) had the greatest contribution to the migration of MCF-7 cells. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry for LM332-specific chains identified LM332 in the lung and in pulmonary epithelial cells. Antibodies to either LM332 or its integrin receptor inhibited MCF-7 motility, and knockdown of LM332 chains also reduced its migration-inducing activity. Taken together, these findings implicate LM332 as a component of lung tissue that can induce motility in breast carcinoma cells that have been transported to lung during metastasis. Earlier studies on LM332 in tumor progression have examined LM332 expression in tumor cells. This investigation, in comparison, provides evidence that the tumor promoting potential of LM332 may originate in the lung microenvironment rather than in tumor cells alone. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that the motility-inducing properties of the microenvironment can reside in epithelial cells. The findings raise the possibility that LM332 plays a role in the pulmonary metastases of breast carcinoma and may provide a target for antimetastasis therapy.

  13. The Autophagy Machinery: A New Player in Chemotactic Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Coly, Pierre-Michaël; Gandolfo, Pierrick; Castel, Hélène; Morin, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved self-degradative process that plays a key role in diverse cellular processes such as stress response or differentiation. A growing body of work highlights the direct involvement of autophagy in cell migration and cancer metastasis. Specifically, autophagy has been shown to be involved in modulating cell adhesion dynamics as well as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. After providing a general overview of the mechanisms controlling autophagosome biogenesis and cell migration, we discuss how chemotactic G protein-coupled receptors, through the repression of autophagy, may orchestrate membrane trafficking and compartmentation of specific proteins at the cell front in order to support the critical steps of directional migration. PMID:28261054

  14. Migration of Myeloid Cells during Inflammation Is Differentially Regulated by the Cell Surface Receptors Slamf1 and Slamf8

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Gongxian; O’Keeffe, Michael S.; Halibozek, Peter J.; Flipse, Jacky; Yigit, Burcu; Azcutia, Veronica; Luscinskas, Francis W.; Wang, Ninghai; Terhorst, Cox

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the cell surface receptor Slamf1 (CD150) is requisite for optimal NADPH-oxidase (Nox2) dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by phagocytes in response to Gram- bacteria. By contrast, Slamf8 (CD353) is a negative regulator of ROS in response to Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. Employing in vivo migration after skin sensitization, induction of peritonitis, and repopulation of the small intestine demonstrates that in vivo migration of Slamf1-/- dendritic cells and macrophages is reduced, as compared to wt mice. By contrast, in vivo migration of Slamf8-/- dendritic cells, macrophages and neutrophils is accelerated. These opposing effects of Slamf1 and Slamf8 are cell-intrinsic as judged by in vitro migration in transwell chambers in response to CCL19, CCL21 or CSF-1. Importantly, inhibiting ROS production of Slamf8-/- macrophages by diphenyleneiodonium chloride blocks this in vitro migration. We conclude that Slamf1 and Slamf8 govern ROS–dependent innate immune responses of myeloid cells, thus modulating migration of these cells during inflammation in an opposing manner. PMID:25799045

  15. Migration of myeloid cells during inflammation is differentially regulated by the cell surface receptors Slamf1 and Slamf8.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoxing; van Driel, Boaz J; Liao, Gongxian; O'Keeffe, Michael S; Halibozek, Peter J; Flipse, Jacky; Yigit, Burcu; Azcutia, Veronica; Luscinskas, Francis W; Wang, Ninghai; Terhorst, Cox

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the cell surface receptor Slamf1 (CD150) is requisite for optimal NADPH-oxidase (Nox2) dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by phagocytes in response to Gram- bacteria. By contrast, Slamf8 (CD353) is a negative regulator of ROS in response to Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. Employing in vivo migration after skin sensitization, induction of peritonitis, and repopulation of the small intestine demonstrates that in vivo migration of Slamf1-/- dendritic cells and macrophages is reduced, as compared to wt mice. By contrast, in vivo migration of Slamf8-/- dendritic cells, macrophages and neutrophils is accelerated. These opposing effects of Slamf1 and Slamf8 are cell-intrinsic as judged by in vitro migration in transwell chambers in response to CCL19, CCL21 or CSF-1. Importantly, inhibiting ROS production of Slamf8-/- macrophages by diphenyleneiodonium chloride blocks this in vitro migration. We conclude that Slamf1 and Slamf8 govern ROS-dependent innate immune responses of myeloid cells, thus modulating migration of these cells during inflammation in an opposing manner.

  16. Capping protein is essential for cell migration in vivo and for filopodial morphology and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sinnar, Shamim A.; Antoku, Susumu; Saffin, Jean-Michel; Cooper, Jon A.; Halpain, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Capping protein (CP) binds to barbed ends of growing actin filaments and inhibits elongation. CP is essential for actin-based motility in cell-free systems and in Dictyostelium. Even though CP is believed to be critical for creating the lamellipodial actin structure necessary for protrusion and migration, CP's role in mammalian cell migration has not been directly tested. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that structures besides lamellipodia, including lamella and filopodia, may have unappreciated roles in cell migration. CP has been postulated to be absent from filopodia, and thus its role in filopodial activity has remained unexplored. We report that silencing CP in both cultured mammalian B16F10 cells and in neurons of developing neocortex impaired cell migration. Moreover, we unexpectedly observed that low levels of CP were detectable in the majority of filopodia. CP depletion decreased filopodial length, altered filopodial shape, and reduced filopodial dynamics. Our results support an expansion of the potential roles that CP plays in cell motility by implicating CP in filopodia as well as in lamellipodia, both of which are important for locomotion in many types of migrating cells. PMID:24829386

  17. Syndecan-4 regulates the bFGF-induced chemotactic migration of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ran; Wu, Han; Xie, Jun; Li, Guannan; Gu, Rong; Kang, Lina; Wang, Lian; Xu, Biao

    2016-10-01

    Chemotactic migration of endothelial cells (ECs) guided by extracellular attractants is essential for blood vessel formation. Synd4 is a ubiquitous heparin sulfate proteoglycan receptor on the cell surface that has been identified to promote angiogenesis during tissue repair. Here, the role synd4 played in chemotactic migration of ECs was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were transfected with Lenti-synd4-RNAi or Lenti-null. Cell migration was observed in a 2D-chemotaxis slide with a stable gradient of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for 18 h using time-lapse microscopy. Synd4 knockdown HUVECs showed reduced mobility compared with the control. In animal studies, Matrigel premixed with bFGF was used to induce the migration of ECs. The cells migrated less distance from the skin in the Matrigel plugs of synd4 null mice compared with the control mice. Then recombinant adenoviruses containing the synd4 gene (Ad-synd4) or null (Ad-null) were constructed to enhance the synd4 expression of migratory cells in Matrigel plugs of wild-type mice. Migratory cells with synd4 overexpression did not invade further in the Matrigel plugs of wild-type mice, but showed a high ability to proliferate.

  18. Elevated Na(+)/H(+) exchanger-1 expression enhances the metastatic collective migration of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kaminota, Teppei; Yano, Hajime; Shiota, Kohei; Nomura, Noriko; Yaguchi, Haruna; Kirino, Yui; Ohara, Kentaro; Tetsumura, Issei; Sanada, Tomoyoshi; Ugumori, Toru; Tanaka, Junya; Hato, Naohito

    2017-04-22

    Cancer cells can migrate as collectives during invasion and/or metastasis; however, the precise molecular mechanisms of this form of migration are less clear compared with single cell migration following epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Elevated Na(+)/H(+) exchanger1 (NHE1) expression has been suggested to have malignant roles in a number of cancer cell lines and in vivo tumor models. Furthermore, a metastatic human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell line (SASL1m) that was isolated based on its increased metastatic potential also exhibited higher NHE1 expression than its parental line SAS. Time-lapse video recordings indicated that both cell lines migrate as collectives, although with different features, e.g., SASL1m was much more active and changed the direction of migration more frequently than SAS cells, whereas locomotive activities were comparable. SASL1m cells also exhibited higher invasive activity than SAS in Matrigel invasion assays. shRNA-mediated NHE1 knockdown in SASL1m led to reduced locomotive and invasive activities, suggesting a critical role for NHE1 in the collective migration of SASL1m cells. SASL1m cells also exhibited a higher metastatic rate than SAS cells in a mouse lymph node metastasis model, while NHE1 knockdown suppressed in vivo SASL1m metastasis. Finally, elevated NHE1 expression was observed in human HNSCC tissue, and Cariporide, a specific NHE1 inhibitor, reduced the invasive activity of SASL1m cells, implying NHE1 could be a target for anti-invasion/metastasis therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Amyloid precursor protein regulates migration and metalloproteinase gene expression in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Toshiaki; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Inoue, Satoshi

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • APP knockdown reduced proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells. • APP knockdown reduced expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes. • APP overexpression promoted LNCaP cell migration. • APP overexpression increased expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes. - Abstract: Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a type I transmembrane protein, and one of its processed forms, β-amyloid, is considered to play a central role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. We previously showed that APP is a primary androgen-responsive gene in prostate cancer and that its increased expression is correlated with poor prognosis for patients with prostate cancer. APP has also been implicated in several human malignancies. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying the pro-proliferative effects of APP on cancers is still not well-understood. In the present study, we explored a pathophysiological role for APP in prostate cancer cells using siRNA targeting APP (siAPP). The proliferation and migration of LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells were significantly suppressed by siAPP. Differentially expressed genes in siAPP-treated cells compared to control siRNA-treated cells were identified by microarray analysis. Notably, several metalloproteinase genes, such as ADAM10 and ADAM17, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes, such as VIM, and SNAI2, were downregulated in siAPP-treated cells as compared to control cells. The expression of these genes was upregulated in LNCaP cells stably expressing APP when compared with control cells. APP-overexpressing LNCaP cells exhibited enhanced migration in comparison to control cells. These results suggest that APP may contribute to the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells by modulating the expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes.

  20. Role of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase in myeloma cell migration and induction of bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Bam, Rakesh; Ling, Wen; Khan, Sharmin; Pennisi, Angela; Venkateshaiah, Sathisha Upparahalli; Li, Xin; van Rhee, Frits; Usmani, Saad; Barlogie, Bart; Shaughnessy, John; Epstein, Joshua; Yaccoby, Shmuel

    2014-01-01

    Myeloma cells typically grow in bone, recruit osteoclast precursors and induce their differentiation and activity in areas adjacent to tumor foci. Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), of the TEC family, is expressed in hematopoietic cells and is particularly involved in B-lymphocyte function and osteoclastogenesis. We demonstrated BTK expression in clinical myeloma plasma cells, interleukin (IL) –6– or stroma–dependent cell lines and osteoclasts. SDF-1 induced BTK activation in myeloma cells and BTK inhibition by small hairpin RNA or the small molecule inhibitor, LFM-A13, reduced their migration toward stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1). Pretreatment with LFM-A13 also reduced in vivo homing of myeloma cells to bone using bioluminescence imaging in the SCID-rab model. Enforced expression of BTK in myeloma cell line enhanced cell migration toward SDF-1 but had no effect on short-term growth. BTK expression was correlated with cell-surface CXCR4 expression in myeloma cells (n = 33, r = 0.81, P < 0.0001), and BTK gene and protein expression was more profound in cell-surface CXCR4-expressing myeloma cells. BTK was not upregulated by IL-6 while its inhibition had no effect on IL-6 signaling in myeloma cells. Human osteoclast precursors also expressed BTK and cell-surface CXCR4 and migrated toward SDF-1. LFM-A13 suppressed migration and differentiation of osteoclast precursors as well as bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. In primary myeloma-bearing SCID-rab mice, LFM-A13 inhibited osteoclast activity, prevented myeloma-induced bone resorption and moderately suppressed myeloma growth. These data demonstrate BTK and cell-surface CXCR4 association in myeloma cells and that BTK plays a role in myeloma cell homing to bone and myeloma-induced bone disease. PMID:23456977

  1. The glycocalyx maintains a cell surface pH nanoenvironment crucial for integrin-mediated migration of human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Krähling, Hermann; Mally, Sabine; Eble, Johannes A; Noël, Josette; Schwab, Albrecht; Stock, Christian

    2009-10-01

    The glycocalyx consists of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, associated plasma proteins, and soluble glycosaminoglycans and covers the surface of all eukaryotic cells. It mediates specific recognition events, modulates biological processes such as ligand-receptor interactions, and has been proposed to affect tumor metastasis. Here, we studied whether the glycocalyx is required for melanoma cell migration. We diminished the glycocalyx of human melanoma cells by inhibiting posttranslational N-glycosylation or by enzymatic digestion of the N-glycosides. This partial destruction of the glycocalyx reduced melanoma cell migration by up to 60%. It was accompanied by the disintegration of a characteristic pH nanoenvironment typically surrounding migrating cells. Restoring this pH profile by stimulating the activity of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 rescued cell migration even in the absence of an intact glycocalyx. The effects of partially removing the glycocalyx compared to those of knocking down beta(1)-integrin expression points to a close functional correlation between glycocalyx, integrins, and cell surface pH nanoenvironment. We conclude that the glycocalyx is required for tumor cell migration. It stabilizes the cell surface pH nanoenvironment allowing a concerted pH-dependent interaction of adhesion receptors and extracellular matrix.

  2. Cellular Polarization and Contractility in Collective Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utuje, Kazage J. Christophe; Notbohm, Jacob; Banerjee, Shiladitya; Gweon, Bomi; Jang, Hwanseok; Park, Yongdoo; Shin, Jennifer; Butler, James P.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    Collective cell migration drives many biological processes such as metastasis, morphogenesis and wound healing. These coordinated motions are driven by active forces. The physical nature of these forces and the mechanisms by which they generate collective cell migration are still not fully understood. We have developed a minimum physical model of a cell monolayer as an elastic continuum whose deformation field is coupled to two internal degrees of freedom: the concentration of a chemical signal, controlling cell Contractility, and the polarization field controlling the direction of local cell motion. By combining theory with experiments, we show that these two internal variables account for the sloshing waves and the systematic deviations of the direction of cell polarization from that of local cell velocity observed in confined cell monolayers. KJCU and MCM were supported by the Simons Foundation.

  3. HMGCR positively regulated the growth and migration of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhihua; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Chenzhi; Liu, Chao; Huang, Yongkai; Han, Deqing; Huang, Qinghui

    2016-01-15

    The metabolic program of cancer cells is significant different from the normal cells, which makes it possible to develop novel strategies targeting cancer cells. Mevalonate pathway and its rate-limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) have shown important roles in the progression of several cancer types. However, their roles in glioblastoma cells remain unknown. In this study, up-regulation of HMGCR in the clinical glioblastoma samples was observed. Forced expression of HMGCR promoted the growth and migration of U251 and U373 cells, while knocking down the expression of HMGCR inhibited the growth, migration and metastasis of glioblastoma cells. Molecular mechanism studies revealed that HMGCR positively regulated the expression of TAZ, an important mediator of Hippo pathway, and the downstream target gene connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), suggesting HMGCR might activate Hippo pathway in glioblastoma cells. Taken together, our study demonstrated the oncogenic roles of HMGCR in glioblastoma cells and HMGCR might be a promising therapeutic target.

  4. Controlled architectural and chemotactic studies of 3D cell migration.

    PubMed

    Tayalia, Prakriti; Mazur, Eric; Mooney, David J

    2011-04-01

    Chemotaxis plays a critical role in tissue development and wound repair, and is widely studied using ex vivo model systems in applications such as immunotherapy. However, typical chemotactic models employ 2D systems that are less physiologically relevant or use end-point assays, that reveal little about the stepwise dynamics of the migration process. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new model system using microfabrication techniques, sustained drug delivery approaches, and theoretical modeling of chemotactic agent diffusion. This model system allows us to study the effects of 3D architecture and chemotactic agent gradient on immune cell migration in real time. We find that dendritic cell migration is characterized by a strong interplay between matrix architecture and chemotactic gradients, and migration is also influenced dramatically by the cell activation state. Our results indicate that Lipopolysaccharide-activated dendritic cells studied in a traditional transwell system actually exhibit anomalous migration behavior. Such a 3D ex vivo system lends itself for analyzing cell migratory behavior in response to single or multiple competitive cues and could prove useful in vaccine development.

  5. Microtopography and flow modulate the direction of endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Uttayarat, P; Chen, M; Li, M; Allen, F D; Composto, R J; Lelkes, P I

    2008-02-01

    The migration of vascular endothelial cells under flow can be modulated by the addition of chemical or mechanical stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate how topographic cues derived from a substrate containing three-dimensional microtopography interact with fluid shear stress in directing endothelial cell migration. Subconfluent bovine aortic endothelial cells were seeded on fibronectin-coated poly(dimethylsiloxane) substrates patterned with a combinatorial array of parallel and orthogonal microgrooves ranging from 2 to 5 microm in width at a constant depth of 1 microm. During a 4-h time-lapse observation in the absence of flow, the majority of the prealigned cells migrated parallel to the grooves with the distribution of their focal adhesions (FAs) depending on the groove width. No change in this migratory pattern was observed after the cells were exposed to moderate shear stress (13.5 dyn/cm(2)), irrespective of groove direction with respect to flow. After 4-h exposure to high shear stress (58 dyn/cm(2)) parallel to the grooves, the cells continued to migrate in the direction of both grooves and flow. By contrast, when microgrooves were oriented perpendicular to flow, most cells migrated orthogonal to the grooves and downstream with flow. Despite the change in the migration direction of the cells under high shear stress, most FAs and actin microfilaments maintained their original alignment parallel to the grooves, suggesting that topographic cues were more effective than those derived from shear stress in guiding the orientation of cytoskeletal and adhesion proteins during the initial exposure to flow.

  6. Quantitative and unbiased analysis of directional persistence in cell migration.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, Roman; Gautreau, Alexis

    2014-08-01

    The mechanism by which cells control directional persistence during migration is a major question. However, the common index measuring directional persistence, namely the ratio of displacement to trajectory length, is biased, particularly by cell speed. An unbiased method is to calculate direction autocorrelation as a function of time. This function depends only on the angles of the vectors tangent to the trajectory. This method has not been widely used, because it is more difficult to compute. Here we discuss biases of the classical index and introduce a custom-made open-source computer program, DiPer, which calculates direction autocorrelation. In addition, DiPer also plots and calculates other essential parameters to analyze cell migration in two dimensions: it displays cell trajectories individually and collectively, and it calculates average speed and mean square displacements (MSDs) to assess the area explored by cells over time. This user-friendly program is executable through Microsoft Excel, and it generates plots of publication-level quality. The protocol takes ∼15 min to complete. We have recently used DiPer to analyze cell migration of three different mammalian cell types in 2D cultures: the mammary carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231, the motile amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and fish-scale keratocytes. DiPer can potentially be used not only for random migration in 2D but also for directed migration and for migration in 3D (direction autocorrelation only). Moreover, it can be used for any types of tracked particles: cellular organelles, bacteria and whole organisms.

  7. Quantitative 3D analysis of complex single border cell behaviors in coordinated collective cell migration.

    PubMed

    Cliffe, Adam; Doupé, David P; Sung, HsinHo; Lim, Isaac Kok Hwee; Ong, Kok Haur; Cheng, Li; Yu, Weimiao

    2017-04-04

    Understanding the mechanisms of collective cell migration is crucial for cancer metastasis, wound healing and many developmental processes. Imaging a migrating cluster in vivo is feasible, but the quantification of individual cell behaviours remains challenging. We have developed an image analysis toolkit, CCMToolKit, to quantify the Drosophila border cell system. In addition to chaotic motion, previous studies reported that the migrating cells are able to migrate in a highly coordinated pattern. We quantify the rotating and running migration modes in 3D while also observing a range of intermediate behaviours. Running mode is driven by cluster external protrusions. Rotating mode is associated with cluster internal cell extensions that could not be easily characterized. Although the cluster moves slower while rotating, individual cells retain their mobility and are in fact slightly more active than in running mode. We also show that individual cells may exchange positions during migration.

  8. Quantitative 3D analysis of complex single border cell behaviors in coordinated collective cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Cliffe, Adam; Doupé, David P.; Sung, HsinHo; Lim, Isaac Kok Hwee; Ong, Kok Haur; Cheng, Li; Yu, Weimiao

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of collective cell migration is crucial for cancer metastasis, wound healing and many developmental processes. Imaging a migrating cluster in vivo is feasible, but the quantification of individual cell behaviours remains challenging. We have developed an image analysis toolkit, CCMToolKit, to quantify the Drosophila border cell system. In addition to chaotic motion, previous studies reported that the migrating cells are able to migrate in a highly coordinated pattern. We quantify the rotating and running migration modes in 3D while also observing a range of intermediate behaviours. Running mode is driven by cluster external protrusions. Rotating mode is associated with cluster internal cell extensions that could not be easily characterized. Although the cluster moves slower while rotating, individual cells retain their mobility and are in fact slightly more active than in running mode. We also show that individual cells may exchange positions during migration. PMID:28374738

  9. Inhibition of glioblastoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by the proteasome antagonist carfilzomib.

    PubMed

    Areeb, Zammam; Stylli, Stanley S; Ware, Thomas M B; Harris, Nicole C; Shukla, Lipi; Shayan, Ramin; Paradiso, Lucia; Li, Bo; Morokoff, Andrew P; Kaye, Andrew H; Luwor, Rodney B

    2016-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive and lethal tumor of the central nervous system with limited treatment strategies on offer, and as such the identification of effective novel therapeutic agents is paramount. To examine the efficacy of proteasome inhibitors, we tested bortezomib, carfilzomib, nafamostat mesylate, gabexate mesylate and acetylsalicylic acid on glioblastoma cell viability, migration and invasion. Both bortezomib and carfilzomib produced significant reduction of cell viability, while nafamostat mesylate, gabexate mesylate and acetylsalicylic acid did not. Subsequent testing showed that carfilzomib significantly reduced cell viability at nM concentrations. Carfilzomib also reduced cell migration, secretion and activation of MMP2 and also cell invasion of all four glioblastoma cells tested. In summary, carfilzomib represents a novel, yet FDA-approved agent for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme.

  10. Cell density and actomyosin contractility control the organization of migrating collectives within an epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Loza, Andrew J.; Koride, Sarita; Schimizzi, Gregory V.; Li, Bo; Sun, Sean X.; Longmore, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying collective migration are important for understanding development, wound healing, and tumor invasion. Here we focus on cell density to determine its role in collective migration. Our findings show that increasing cell density, as might be seen in cancer, transforms groups from broad collectives to small, narrow streams. Conversely, diminishing cell density, as might occur at a wound front, leads to large, broad collectives with a distinct leader–follower structure. Simulations identify force-sensitive contractility as a mediator of how density affects collectives, and guided by this prediction, we find that the baseline state of contractility can enhance or reduce organization. Finally, we test predictions from these data in an in vivo epithelium by using genetic manipulations to drive collective motion between predicted migratory phases. This work demonstrates how commonly altered cellular properties can prime groups of cells to adopt migration patterns that may be harnessed in health or exploited in disease. PMID:27605707

  11. Cell density and actomyosin contractility control the organization of migrating collectives within an epithelium.

    PubMed

    Loza, Andrew J; Koride, Sarita; Schimizzi, Gregory V; Li, Bo; Sun, Sean X; Longmore, Gregory D

    2016-11-07

    The mechanisms underlying collective migration are important for understanding development, wound healing, and tumor invasion. Here we focus on cell density to determine its role in collective migration. Our findings show that increasing cell density, as might be seen in cancer, transforms groups from broad collectives to small, narrow streams. Conversely, diminishing cell density, as might occur at a wound front, leads to large, broad collectives with a distinct leader-follower structure. Simulations identify force-sensitive contractility as a mediator of how density affects collectives, and guided by this prediction, we find that the baseline state of contractility can enhance or reduce organization. Finally, we test predictions from these data in an in vivo epithelium by using genetic manipulations to drive collective motion between predicted migratory phases. This work demonstrates how commonly altered cellular properties can prime groups of cells to adopt migration patterns that may be harnessed in health or exploited in disease.

  12. FNDC3B promotes cell migration and tumor metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chin-Hui; Lin, Yao-Wen; Chen, Ying-Chun; Liao, Chen-Chung; Jou, Yuh-Shan; Hsu, Ming-Ta; Chen, Chian-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Recurrence and metastasis are common in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and correlate with poor prognosis. We investigated the role of fibronectin type III domain containing 3B (FNDC3B) in HCC metastasis. Overexpression of FNDC3B in HCC cell lines enhanced cell migration and invasion. On the other hand, knockdown of FNDC3B using short-hairpin RNA reduced tumor nodule formation in both intra- and extra-hepatic metastasis. High levels of FNDC3B were observed in metastatic HCCs and correlated with poor patient survival and shorter recurrence time. Mutagenesis and LC-MS/MS analyses showed that FNDC3B promotes cell migration by cooperating with annexin A2 (ANXA2). Furthermore, FNDC3B and ANXA2 expression correlated negatively with patient survival. Our results indicate that FNDC3B behaves like an oncogene by promoting cell migration. This suggests FNDC3B could serve as a biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC metastasis. PMID:27385217

  13. PinX1 inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Mei, Peng-Jin; Chen, Yan-Su; Du, Ying; Bai, Jin; Zheng, Jun-Nian

    2015-03-01

    PinX1 induces apoptosis and suppresses cell proliferation in some cancer cells, and the expression of PinX1 is frequently decreased in some cancer and negatively associated with metastasis and prognosis. However, the precise roles of PinX1 in gliomas have not been studied. In this study, we found that PinX1 obviously reduced the gliomas cell proliferation through regulating the expressions of cell cycle-relative molecules to arrest cell at G1 phase and down-regulating the expression of component telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT in human), which is the hardcore of telomerase. Moreover, PinX1 could suppress the abilities of gliomas cell wound healing, migration and invasion via suppressing MMP-2 expression and increasing TIMP-2 expression. In conclusion, our results suggested that PinX1 may be a potential suppressive gene in the progression of gliomas.

  14. HeLa human cervical cancer cell migration is inhibited by treatment with dibutyryl-cAMP.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Wook; Lee, Jiyoung; Moon, Eun-Yi

    2014-07-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) activates both protein kinase A (PKA) and guanine-nucleotide exchange factor exchange protein directly activated by CAMP (EPAC)-mediated Ras-related Protein1 (RAP1) GTPase that regulates various cellular functions including cell migration. Herein, we investigated whether cAMP-mediated PKA and EPAC1/RAP1 pathways differentially control HeLa cervical cancer cell migration. Although HeLa cell migration was reduced by dibutyryl-cAMP, we observed an increase in cAMP/PKA, cAMP/EPAC1/RAP1-GTPase, and RAC1-GTPase. HeLa cell migration and RAC1-GTPase were increased by treatment with 8-(4-chloro-phenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-3',5'-cAMP analogue to activate EPAC-specific signaling pathways. When HeLa cells were treated with H-89, a PKA inhibitor, cell migration was enhanced but RAC1-GTPase was inhibited. In addition, cell migration induced by dibutyryl-cAMP was reversed but the activity of Rac1-GTPase was inhibited by H-89 treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrate that cAMP/PKA and cAMP/EPAC1/RAP1-GTPase might inversely control cervical cancer cell migration, although both signaling pathways may up-regulate RAC1-GTPase. It also suggests that cAMP-mediated cancer cell migration was independent of RAC1-GTPase activation.

  15. Nanotopography guides and directs cell migration in amoeboid and epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Rachel; Das, Satarupa; Hourwitz, Matthew; Sun, Xiaoyu; Parent, Carole; Fourkas, John; Losert, Wolfgang

    Cell migration plays a critical role in development, angiogenesis, immune response, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. In many cases, cells also move in the context of a matrix of collagen fibers, and the alignment of these fibers can both affect the migration phenotype and guide cells. Here we show that both fast and slow migrating cells - amoeboid HL-60 and epithelial MCF10A - are affected in similar ways by micro/nanostructures with dimensions similar to those of collagen fibers. Cell alignment enhances the efficiency of migration by increasing directional persistence.

  16. The planar polarity pathway promotes coordinated cell migration during Drosophila oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bastock, Rebecca; Strutt, David

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Cell migration is fundamental in both animal morphogenesis and disease. The migration of individual cells is relatively well-studied, however in vivo cells often remain joined by cell-cell junctions and migrate in cohesive groups. How such groups of cells coordinate their migration is poorly understood. The planar polarity pathway coordinates the polarity of non-migrating cells in epithelial sheets and is required for cell rearrangements during vertebrate morphogenesis. It is therefore a good candidate to play a role in collective migration of groups of cells. Drosophila border cell migration is a well-characterised and genetically tractable model of collective cell migration, during which a group of about 6-10 epithelial cells detaches from the anterior end of the developing egg chamber and migrates invasively towards the oocyte. We find that the planar polarity pathway promotes this invasive migration, acting both in the migrating cells themselves and in the non-migratory polar follicle cells they carry along. Disruption of planar polarity signalling causes abnormalities in actin rich processes on the cell surface and leads to less efficient migration. This is apparently due in part to loss of regulation of Rho GTPase activity by the planar polarity receptor Frizzled, which itself becomes localised to the migratory edge of the border cells. We conclude that during collective cell migration the planar polarity pathway can mediate communication between motile and non-motile cells, which enhances the efficiency of migration via the modulation of actin dynamics. PMID:17652348

  17. The planar polarity pathway promotes coordinated cell migration during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bastock, Rebecca; Strutt, David

    2007-09-01

    Cell migration is fundamental in both animal morphogenesis and disease. The migration of individual cells is relatively well-studied; however, in vivo, cells often remain joined by cell-cell junctions and migrate in cohesive groups. How such groups of cells coordinate their migration is poorly understood. The planar polarity pathway coordinates the polarity of non-migrating cells in epithelial sheets and is required for cell rearrangements during vertebrate morphogenesis. It is therefore a good candidate to play a role in the collective migration of groups of cells. Drosophila border cell migration is a well-characterised and genetically tractable model of collective cell migration, during which a group of about six to ten epithelial cells detaches from the anterior end of the developing egg chamber and migrates invasively towards the oocyte. We find that the planar polarity pathway promotes this invasive migration, acting both in the migrating cells themselves and in the non-migratory polar follicle cells that they carry along. Disruption of planar polarity signalling causes abnormalities in actin-rich processes on the cell surface and leads to less-efficient migration. This is apparently due, in part, to a loss of regulation of Rho GTPase activity by the planar polarity receptor Frizzled, which itself becomes localised to the migratory edge of the border cells. We conclude that, during collective cell migration, the planar polarity pathway can mediate communication between motile and non-motile cells, which enhances the efficiency of migration via the modulation of actin dynamics.

  18. Analyzing In Vivo Cell Migration using Cell Transplantations and Time-lapse Imaging in Zebrafish Embryos.

    PubMed

    Giger, Florence A; Dumortier, Julien G; David, Nicolas B

    2016-04-29

    Cell migration is key to many physiological and pathological conditions, including cancer metastasis. The cellular and molecular bases of cell migration have been thoroughly analyzed in vitro. However, in vivo cell migration somehow differs from in vitro migration, and has proven more difficult to analyze, being less accessible to direct observation and manipulation. This protocol uses the migration of the prospective prechordal plate in the early zebrafish embryo as a model system to study the function of candidate genes in cell migration. Prechordal plate progenitors form a group of cells which, during gastrulation, undergoes a directed migration from the embryonic organizer to the animal pole of the embryo. The proposed protocol uses cell transplantation to create mosaic embryos. This offers the combined advantages of labeling isolated cells, which is key to good imaging, and of limiting gain/loss of function effects to the observed cells, hence ensuring cell-autonomous effects. We describe here how we assessed the function of the TORC2 component Sin1 in cell migration, but the protocol can be used to analyze the function of any candidate gene in controlling cell migration in vivo.

  19. The effects of acoustic vibration on fibroblast cell migration.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Taybia; Murphy, Mark F; Lilley, Francis; Burton, David R; Bezombes, Frederic

    2016-12-01

    Cells are known to interact and respond to external mechanical cues and recent work has shown that application of mechanical stimulation, delivered via acoustic vibration, can be used to control complex cell behaviours. Fibroblast cells are known to respond to physical cues generated in the extracellular matrix and it is thought that such cues are important regulators of the wound healing process. Many conditions are associated with poor wound healing, so there is need for treatments/interventions, which can help accelerate the wound healing process. The primary aim of this research was to investigate the effects of mechanical stimulation upon the migratory and morphological properties of two different fibroblast cells namely; human lung fibroblast cells (LL24) and subcutaneous areolar/adipose mouse fibroblast cells (L929). Using a speaker-based system, the effects of mechanical stimulation (0-1600Hz for 5min) on the mean cell migration distance (μm) and actin organisation was investigated. The results show that 100Hz acoustic vibration enhanced cell migration for both cell lines whereas acoustic vibration above 100Hz was found to decrease cell migration in a frequency dependent manner. Mechanical stimulation was also found to promote changes to the morphology of both cell lines, particularly the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia. Overall lamellipodia was the most prominent actin structure displayed by the lung cell (LL24), whereas filopodia was the most prominent actin feature displayed by the fibroblast derived from subcutaneous areolar/adipose tissue. Mechanical stimulation at all the frequencies used here was found not to affect cell viability. These results suggest that low-frequency acoustic vibration may be used as a tool to manipulate the mechanosensitivity of cells to promote cell migration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of conditioned medium from LL-37 treated adipose stem cells on human fibroblast migration

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun-Jung; Bang, Sa-Ik

    2017-01-01

    Adipose stem cell-conditioned medium may promote human dermal fibroblast (HDF) proliferation and migration by activating paracrine peptides during the re-epithelization phase of wound healing. Human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is upregulated in the skin epithelium as part of the normal response to injury. The effects of conditioned medium (CM) from LL-37 treated adipose stem cells (ASCs) on cutaneous wound healing, including the mediation of fibroblast migration, remain to be elucidated, therefore the aim of the present study was to determine how ASCs would react to an LL-37-rich microenvironment and if CM from LL-37 treated ASCs may influence the migration of HDFs. The present study conducted migration assays with HDFs treated with CM from LL-37 treated ASCs. Expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), which controls the recruitment of HDFs, was analyzed at the mRNA and protein levels. To further characterize the stimulatory effects of LL-37 on ASCs, the expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), a CXC chemokine, was investigated. CM from LL-37-treated ASCs induced migration of HDFs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with a maximum difference in migration observed 24 h following stimulation with LL-37 at a concentration of 10 µg/ml. The HDF migration and the expression of CXCR4 in fibroblasts was markedly increased upon treatment with CM from LL-37-treated ASCs compared with CM from untreated ASCs. SDF-1α expression was markedly increased in CM from LL-37 treated ASCs. It was additionally observed that SDF-1α blockade significantly reduced HDF migration. These findings suggest the feasibility of CM from LL-37-treated ASCs as a potential therapeutic for human dermal fibroblast migration. PMID:28672990

  1. Effects of conditioned medium from LL-37 treated adipose stem cells on human fibroblast migration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Jung; Bang, Sa-Ik

    2017-07-01

    Adipose stem cell-conditioned medium may promote human dermal fibroblast (HDF) proliferation and migration by activating paracrine peptides during the re-epithelization phase of wound healing. Human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is upregulated in the skin epithelium as part of the normal response to injury. The effects of conditioned medium (CM) from LL-37 treated adipose stem cells (ASCs) on cutaneous wound healing, including the mediation of fibroblast migration, remain to be elucidated, therefore the aim of the present study was to determine how ASCs would react to an LL-37-rich microenvironment and if CM from LL-37 treated ASCs may influence the migration of HDFs. The present study conducted migration assays with HDFs treated with CM from LL-37 treated ASCs. Expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), which controls the recruitment of HDFs, was analyzed at the mRNA and protein levels. To further characterize the stimulatory effects of LL-37 on ASCs, the expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), a CXC chemokine, was investigated. CM from LL-37-treated ASCs induced migration of HDFs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with a maximum difference in migration observed 24 h following stimulation with LL-37 at a concentration of 10 µg/ml. The HDF migration and the expression of CXCR4 in fibroblasts was markedly increased upon treatment with CM from LL-37-treated ASCs compared with CM from untreated ASCs. SDF-1α expression was markedly increased in CM from LL-37 treated ASCs. It was additionally observed that SDF-1α blockade significantly reduced HDF migration. These findings suggest the feasibility of CM from LL-37-treated ASCs as a potential therapeutic for human dermal fibroblast migration.

  2. Decreasing mitochondrial fission diminishes vascular smooth muscle cell migration and ameliorates intimal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Yu, Tianzheng; Lee, Hakjoo; O'Brien, Dawn K.; Sesaki, Hiromi; Yoon, Yisang

    2015-01-01

    Aims Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration in response to arterial wall injury is a critical process in the development of intimal hyperplasia. Cell migration is an energy-demanding process that is predicted to require mitochondrial function. Mitochondria are morphologically dynamic, undergoing continuous shape change through fission and fusion. However, the role of mitochondrial morphology in VSMC migration is not well understood. The aim of the study is to understand how mitochondrial fission contributes to VSMC migration and provides its in vivo relevance in the mouse model of intimal hyperplasia. Methods and results In primary mouse VSMCs, the chemoattractant PDGF induced mitochondrial shortening through the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1)/Drp1. Perturbation of mitochondrial fission by expressing the dominant-negative mutant DLP1-K38A or by DLP1 silencing greatly decreased PDGF-induced lamellipodia formation and VSMC migration, indicating that mitochondrial fission is an important process in VSMC migration. PDGF induced an augmentation of mitochondrial energetics as well as ROS production, both of which were found to be necessary for VSMC migration. Mechanistically, the inhibition of mitochondrial fission induced an increase of mitochondrial inner membrane proton leak in VSMCs, abrogating the PDGF-induced energetic enhancement and an ROS increase. In an in vivo model of intimal hyperplasia, transgenic mice expressing DLP1-K38A displayed markedly reduced ROS levels and neointima formation in response to femoral artery wire injury. Conclusions Mitochondrial fission is an integral process in cell migration, and controlling mitochondrial fission can limit VSMC migration and the pathological intimal hyperplasia by altering mitochondrial energetics and ROS levels. PMID:25587046

  3. Decreasing mitochondrial fission diminishes vascular smooth muscle cell migration and ameliorates intimal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Yu, Tianzheng; Lee, Hakjoo; O'Brien, Dawn K; Sesaki, Hiromi; Yoon, Yisang

    2015-05-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration in response to arterial wall injury is a critical process in the development of intimal hyperplasia. Cell migration is an energy-demanding process that is predicted to require mitochondrial function. Mitochondria are morphologically dynamic, undergoing continuous shape change through fission and fusion. However, the role of mitochondrial morphology in VSMC migration is not well understood. The aim of the study is to understand how mitochondrial fission contributes to VSMC migration and provides its in vivo relevance in the mouse model of intimal hyperplasia. In primary mouse VSMCs, the chemoattractant PDGF induced mitochondrial shortening through the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1)/Drp1. Perturbation of mitochondrial fission by expressing the dominant-negative mutant DLP1-K38A or by DLP1 silencing greatly decreased PDGF-induced lamellipodia formation and VSMC migration, indicating that mitochondrial fission is an important process in VSMC migration. PDGF induced an augmentation of mitochondrial energetics as well as ROS production, both of which were found to be necessary for VSMC migration. Mechanistically, the inhibition of mitochondrial fission induced an increase of mitochondrial inner membrane proton leak in VSMCs, abrogating the PDGF-induced energetic enhancement and an ROS increase. In an in vivo model of intimal hyperplasia, transgenic mice expressing DLP1-K38A displayed markedly reduced ROS levels and neointima formation in response to femoral artery wire injury. Mitochondrial fission is an integral process in cell migration, and controlling mitochondrial fission can limit VSMC migration and the pathological intimal hyperplasia by altering mitochondrial energetics and ROS levels. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Leukotrienes induce the migration of Th17 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonyong; Su Kim, Hyeong; Lee, Gap Ryol

    2015-01-01

    Th17 cell trafficking in response to leukotriene signaling is poorly understood. Here we showed that Th17 cells express high levels of leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (LTB4R1) and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLTR1). Th17 cells migrated under the guidance of leukotriene B4 and D4. The migration of Th17 cells was more efficient than that of Th1 and Th2 cells, and it was blocked by specific inhibitors of LTB4R1 or CysLTR1. Studies in an animal model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis revealed that treatment with montelukast alleviated disease symptoms and inhibited the recruitment of Th17 cells to the central nervous system. Thus, leukotrienes may act as chemoattractants for Th17 cells.

  5. Nuclear envelope rupture and repair during cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Denais, Celine M; Gilbert, Rachel M; Isermann, Philipp; McGregor, Alexandra L; te Lindert, Mariska; Weigelin, Bettina; Davidson, Patricia M; Friedl, Peter; Wolf, Katarina; Lammerding, Jan

    2016-04-15

    During cancer metastasis, tumor cells penetrate tissues through tight interstitial spaces, which requires extensive deformation of the cell and its nucleus. Here, we investigated mammalian tumor cell migration in confining microenvironments in vitro and in vivo. Nuclear deformation caused localized loss of nuclear envelope (NE) integrity, which led to the uncontrolled exchange of nucleo-cytoplasmic content, herniation of chromatin across the NE, and DNA damage. The incidence of NE rupture increased with cell confinement and with depletion of nuclear lamins, NE proteins that structurally support the nucleus. Cells restored NE integrity using components of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport III (ESCRT III) machinery. Our findings indicate that cell migration incurs substantial physical stress on the NE and its content and requires efficient NE and DNA damage repair for cell survival. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. EMT Involved in Migration of Stem/Progenitor Cells for Pituitary Development and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Saishu; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration are important processes in embryonic development of many tissues as well as oncogenesis. The pituitary gland is a master endocrine tissue and recent studies indicate that Sox2-expressing stem/progenitor cells actively migrate and develop this tissue during embryogenesis. Notably, although migration activity of stem/progenitor cells in the postnatal period seems to be reduced compared to that in the embryonic period, it is hypothesized that stem/progenitor cells in the adult pituitary re-migrate from their microenvironment niche to contribute to the regeneration system. Therefore, elucidation of EMT in the pituitary stem/progenitor cells will promote understanding of pituitary development and regeneration, as well as diseases such as pituitary adenoma. In this review, so as to gain more insights into the mechanisms of pituitary development and regeneration, we summarize the EMT in the pituitary by focusing on the migration of pituitary stem/progenitor cells during both embryonic and postnatal organogenesis. PMID:27058562

  7. CD99 expressed on human mobilized peripheral blood CD34+ cells is involved in transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Imbert, Anne-Marie; Belaaloui, Ghania; Bardin, Florence; Tonnelle, Cecile; Lopez, Marc; Chabannon, Christian

    2006-10-15

    Hematopoietic progenitor cell trafficking is an important phenomenon throughout life. It is thought to occur in sequential steps, similar to what has been described for mature leukocytes. Molecular actors have been identified for each step of leukocyte migration; recently, CD99 was shown to play a part during transendothelial migration. We explored the expression and role of CD99 on human hematopoietic progenitors. We demonstrate that (1) CD34+ cells express CD99, albeit with various intensities; (2) subsets of CD34+ cells with high or low levels of CD99 expression produce different numbers of erythroid, natural killer (NK), or dendritic cells in the in vitro differentiation assays; (3) the level of CD99 expression is related to the ability to differentiate toward B cells; (4) CD34+ cells that migrate through an endothelial monolayer in response to SDF-1alpha and SCF display the highest level of CD99 expression; (5) binding of a neutralizing antibody to CD99 partially inhibits transendothelial migration of CD34+ progenitors in an in vitro assay; and (6) binding of a neutralizing antibody to CD99 reduces homing of CD34+ progenitors xenotransplanted in NOD-SCID mice. We conclude that expression of CD99 on human CD34+ progenitors has functional significance and that CD99 may be involved in transendothelial migration of progenitors.

  8. Epac Activation Regulates Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Migration and Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiao-Le; Deng, Ruixia; Chung, Sookja K; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung

    2016-04-01

    How to enhance the homing of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to the target tissues remains a clinical challenge nowadays. To overcome this barrier, the mechanism responsible for the hMSCs migration and engraftment has to be defined. Currently, the exact mechanism involved in migration and adhesion of hMSCs remains unknown. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), a novel protein discovered in cAMP signaling pathway, may have a potential role in regulating cells adhesion and migration by triggering the downstream Rap family signaling cascades. However, the exact role of Epac in cells homing is elusive. Our study evaluated the role of Epac in the homing of hMSCs. We confirmed that hMSCs expressed functional Epac and its activation enhanced the migration and adhesion of hMSCs significantly. The Epac activation was further found to be contributed directly to the chemotactic responses induced by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) which is a known chemokine in regulating hMSCs homing. These findings suggested Epac is connected to the SDF-1 signaling cascades. In conclusion, our study revealed that Epac plays a role in hMSCs homing by promoting adhesion and migration. Appropriate manipulation of Epac may enhance the homing of hMSCs and facilitate their future clinical applications.

  9. Multidisciplinary approaches to understanding collective cell migration in developmental biology

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Linus J.; Kulesa, Paul M.; McLennan, Rebecca; Baker, Ruth E.; Maini, Philip K.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models are becoming increasingly integrated with experimental efforts in the study of biological systems. Collective cell migration in developmental biology is a particularly fruitful application area for the development of theoretical models to predict the behaviour of complex multicellular systems with many interacting parts. In this context, mathematical models provide a tool to assess the consistency of experimental observations with testable mechanistic hypotheses. In this review, we showcase examples from recent years of multidisciplinary investigations of neural crest cell migration. The neural crest model system has been used to study how collective migration of cell populations is shaped by cell–cell interactions, cell–environmental interactions and heterogeneity between cells. The wide range of emergent behaviours exhibited by neural crest cells in different embryonal locations and in different organisms helps us chart out the spectrum of collective cell migration. At the same time, this diversity in migratory characteristics highlights the need to reconcile or unify the array of currently hypothesized mechanisms through the next generation of experimental data and generalized theoretical descriptions. PMID:27278647

  10. Bromoenol Lactone Attenuates Nicotine-Induced Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Lindsay E.; Liu, Shu; Arnold, Nova; Breakall, Bethany; Rollins, Joseph; Ndinguri, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Calcium independent group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β) and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are upregulated in many disease states; their involvement with cancer cell migration has been a recent subject for study. Further, the molecular mechanisms mediating nicotine-induced breast cancer cell progression have not been fully investigated. This study aims to investigate whether iPLA2β mediates nicotine-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and migration through both in-vitro and in-vivo techniques. Subsequently, the ability of Bromoenol Lactone (BEL) to attenuate the severity of nicotine-induced breast cancer was examined. Method and Results We found that BEL significantly attenuated both basal and nicotine-induced 4T1 breast cancer cell proliferation, via an MTT proliferation assay. Breast cancer cell migration was examined by both a scratch and transwell assay, in which, BEL was found to significantly decrease both basal and nicotine-induced migration. Additionally, nicotine-induced MMP-9 expression was found to be mediated in an iPLA2β dependent manner. These results suggest that iPLA2β plays a critical role in mediating both basal and nicotine-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and migration in-vitro. In an in-vivo mouse breast cancer model, BEL treatment was found to significantly reduce both basal (p<0.05) and nicotine-induced tumor growth (p<0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis showed BEL decreased nicotine-induced MMP-9, HIF-1alpha, and CD31 tumor tissue expression. Subsequently, BEL was observed to reduce nicotine-induced lung metastasis. Conclusion The present study indicates that nicotine-induced migration is mediated by MMP-9 production in an iPLA2β dependent manner. Our data suggests that BEL is a possible chemotherapeutic agent as it was found to reduce both nicotine-induced breast cancer tumor growth and lung metastasis. PMID:26588686

  11. Bromoenol Lactone Attenuates Nicotine-Induced Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation and Migration.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Lindsay E; Liu, Shu; Arnold, Nova; Breakall, Bethany; Rollins, Joseph; Ndinguri, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Calcium independent group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β) and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are upregulated in many disease states; their involvement with cancer cell migration has been a recent subject for study. Further, the molecular mechanisms mediating nicotine-induced breast cancer cell progression have not been fully investigated. This study aims to investigate whether iPLA2β mediates nicotine-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and migration through both in-vitro and in-vivo techniques. Subsequently, the ability of Bromoenol Lactone (BEL) to attenuate the severity of nicotine-induced breast cancer was examined. We found that BEL significantly attenuated both basal and nicotine-induced 4T1 breast cancer cell proliferation, via an MTT proliferation assay. Breast cancer cell migration was examined by both a scratch and transwell assay, in which, BEL was found to significantly decrease both basal and nicotine-induced migration. Additionally, nicotine-induced MMP-9 expression was found to be mediated in an iPLA2β dependent manner. These results suggest that iPLA2β plays a critical role in mediating both basal and nicotine-induced breast cancer cell proliferation and migration in-vitro. In an in-vivo mouse breast cancer model, BEL treatment was found to significantly reduce both basal (p<0.05) and nicotine-induced tumor growth (p<0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis showed BEL decreased nicotine-induced MMP-9, HIF-1alpha, and CD31 tumor tissue expression. Subsequently, BEL was observed to reduce nicotine-induced lung metastasis. The present study indicates that nicotine-induced migration is mediated by MMP-9 production in an iPLA2β dependent manner. Our data suggests that BEL is a possible chemotherapeutic agent as it was found to reduce both nicotine-induced breast cancer tumor growth and lung metastasis.

  12. Metformin inhibits thyroid cancer cell growth, migration, and EMT through the mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Han, Baiyu; Cui, Hanzhi; Kang, Lei; Zhang, Xuelin; Jin, Zhitao; Lu, Lanmin; Fan, Zhongyi

    2015-08-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways have been shown to be activated in thyroid cancer. Recent evidences have demonstrated that the antidiabetic agent metformin, an activator of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase, can impair the proliferation and migration of cancer cells via inhibition of mTOR. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we show that metformin can inhibit mTOR pathway to impair growth and migration of the thyroid cancer cell lines. Cyclin D1 and c-Myc are important regulators of cancer cell growth, and we observed that treatment of thyroid cancer cells with metformin reduced c-Myc and cyclin D1 expression through suppression of mTOR and subsequent inhibition of P70S6K1 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. Metformin reduced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in thyroid carcinoma cells. Moreover, metformin regulated expression of the EMT-related markers E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and Snail. Additionally, knockdown of TSC2, the upstream regulatory molecule of mTOR pathway, or treatment of rapamycin, the mTOR inhibitor, could abolish the effects of metformin to regulate thyroid cancer cell proliferation, migration, EMT, and mTOR pathway molecules. These results indicate that metformin can suppress the proliferation, migration, and EMT of thyroid cancer cell lines by inhibiting mTOR signaling. These findings suggest that metformin and its molecular targets may be useful in thyroid carcinoma therapy.

  13. Low Doses of Curcuma longa Modulates Cell Migration and Cell-Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Paloma Santos; Matte, Bibiana Franzen; Diel, Leonardo Francisco; Jesus, Luciano Henrique; Bernardi, Lisiane; Alves, Alessandro Menna; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Lamers, Marcelo Lazzaron

    2017-09-01

    Cell invasion and metastasis are involved in clinical failures in cancer treatment, and both events require the acquisition of a migratory behavior by tumor cells. Curcumin is a promising natural product with anti-proliferative activity, but its effects on cell migration are still unclear. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and cell-cell adhesion of keratinocyte, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and fibroblast cell lines, as well as in a xenograft model of OSCC. Curcumin (2 μM) decreased cell proliferation in cell lines with mesenchymal characteristics, while cell death was detected only at 50 μM. We observed that highly migratory cells showed a decrease on migration speed and directionality when treated with 2 or 5 μM of curcumin (50% and 40%, respectively, p < 0.05). Using spheroids, we observed that curcumin dose dependently decreased cell-cell adhesion, especially on tumor-derived spheroids. Also, in a xenograft model with patient-derived OSCC cells, the administration of curcumin decreased tumor growth and aggressiveness when compared with untreated tumors, indicating the potential antitumor effect in oral cancer. These results suggest that lower doses of curcumin can influence several steps involved in tumorigenesis, including migration properties, suggesting a possible use in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A quantitative in vitro study of fibroblast and endothelial cell migration in response to serum and wound fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Orredson, S.U.; Knighton, D.R.; Scheuenstuhl, H.; Hunt, T.K.

    1983-09-01

    Chemoattractant activity for irradiated and nonirradiated rabbit skin fibroblast and bovine aortic arch endothelial cells was assayed in rabbit wound fluid and sera using a modification of the agarose well method originally described for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Both serum and wound fluid contained chemoattractants for fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Fibroblast migration was decreased by 70 to 80% when the serum or wound fluid was heated to 56 degrees C for 30 min while endothelial cell migration was reduced by 50 to 60%. Platelet-poor plasma-derived serum had no directive effect on the migration of either cell type.

  15. ALG2 regulates glioblastoma cell proliferation, migration and tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dunke; Wang, Feng; Pang, Yi; Zhao, Erhu; Zhu, Sunqin; Chen, Fei; Cui, Hongjuan

    2017-04-29

    Apoptosis-linked gene-2 (ALG-2), also known as programmed cell death 6 (PDCD6), has recently been reported to be aberrantly expressed in various tumors and required for tumor cell viability. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether ALG-2 plays a crucial role in tumor cell proliferation, migration and tumorigenicity. In this study, we examined the expression of PDCD6 in glioblastoma cell lines and found that ALG-2 was generally expressed in glioblastoma cell lines. We also performed an analysis of an online database and found that high expression of ALG-2 was associated with poor prognosis (p = 0.039). We found that over-expression of ALG2 in glioblastoma could inhibit cell proliferation and, conversely, that down-regulation of ALG2 could promote cell proliferation. Further studies showed that over-expression of ALG2 inhibited the migration of tumor cells, whereas down-regulation of ALG2 promoted tumor cell migration. Finally, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that over-expression of ALG2 inhibited the tumorigenic ability of tumor cells, while down-regulation of ALG2 promoted tumor cell tumorigenic ability. In conclusion, ALG2 has a tumor suppressive role in glioblastoma and might be a potential target for the treatment of glioblastoma. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The process of macrophage migration promotes matrix metalloproteinase-independent invasion by tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Guiet, Romain; Van Goethem, Emeline; Cougoule, Céline; Balor, Stéphanie; Valette, Annie; Al Saati, Talal; Lowell, Clifford A; Le Cabec, Véronique; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle

    2011-10-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages are known to amplify the malignant potential of tumors by secreting a variety of cytokines and proteases involved in tumor cell invasion and metastasis, but how these macrophages infiltrate tumors and whether the macrophage migration process facilitates tumor cell invasion remain poorly documented. To address these questions, we used cell spheroids of breast carcinoma SUM159PT cells as an in vitro model of solid tumors. We found that macrophages used both the mesenchymal mode requiring matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the amoeboid migration mode to infiltrate tumor cell spheroids. Whereas individual SUM159PT cells invaded Matrigel using an MMP-dependent mesenchymal mode, when they were grown as spheroids, tumor cells were unable to invade the Matrigel surrounding spheroids. When spheroids were infiltrated or in contact with macrophages, tumor cell invasiveness was restored. It was dependent on the capacity of macrophages to remodel the matrix and migrate in an MMP-independent mesenchymal mode. This effect of macrophages was much reduced when spheroids were infiltrated by Matrigel migration-defective Hck(-/-) macrophages. In the presence of macrophages, SUM159PT migrated into Matrigel in the proximity of macrophages and switched from an MMP-dependent mesenchymal migration to an amoeboid mode resistant to protease inhibitors.Thus, in addition to the well-described paracrine loop between macrophages and tumor cells, macrophages can also contribute to the invasiveness of tumor cells by remodeling the extracellular matrix and by opening the way to exit the tumor and colonize the surrounding tissues in an MMP-dispensable manner.

  17. Single-cell Migration Chip for Chemotaxis-based Microfluidic Selection of Heterogeneous Cell Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Allen, Steven G.; Ingram, Patrick N.; Buckanovich, Ronald; Merajver, Sofia D.; Yoon, Euisik

    2015-05-01

    Tumor cell migration toward and intravasation into capillaries is an early and key event in cancer metastasis, yet not all cancer cells are imbued with the same capability to do so. This heterogeneity within a tumor is a fundamental property of cancer. Tools to help us understand what molecular characteristics allow a certain subpopulation of cells to spread from the primary tumor are thus critical for overcoming metastasis. Conventional in vitro migration platforms treat populations in aggregate, which leads to a masking of intrinsic differences among cells. Some migration assays reported recently have single-cell resolution, but these platforms do not provide for selective retrieval of the distinct migrating and non-migrating cell populations for further analysis. Thus, to study the intrinsic differences in cells responsible for chemotactic heterogeneity, we developed a single-cell migration platform so that individual cells’ migration behavior can be studied and the heterogeneous population sorted based upon chemotactic phenotype. Furthermore, after migration, the highly chemotactic and non-chemotactic cells were retrieved and proved viable for later molecular analysis of their differences. Moreover, we modified the migration channel to resemble lymphatic capillaries to better understand how certain cancer cells are able to move through geometrically confining spaces.

  18. Evidence for ion migration in hybrid perovskite solar cells with minimal hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Calado, Philip; Telford, Andrew M; Bryant, Daniel; Li, Xiaoe; Nelson, Jenny; O'Regan, Brian C; Barnes, Piers R F

    2016-12-22

    Ion migration has been proposed as a possible cause of photovoltaic current-voltage hysteresis in hybrid perovskite solar cells. A major objection to this hypothesis is that hysteresis can be reduced by changing the interfacial contact materials; however, this is unlikely to significantly influence the behaviour of mobile ionic charge within the perovskite phase. Here, we show that the primary effects of ion migration can be observed regardless of whether the contacts were changed to give devices with or without significant hysteresis. Transient optoelectronic measurements combined with device simulations indicate that electric-field screening, consistent with ion migration, is similar in both high and low hysteresis CH3NH3PbI3 cells. Simulation of the photovoltage and photocurrent transients shows that hysteresis requires the combination of both mobile ionic charge and recombination near the perovskite-contact interfaces. Passivating contact recombination results in higher photogenerated charge concentrations at forward bias which screen the ionic charge, reducing hysteresis.

  19. Evidence for ion migration in hybrid perovskite solar cells with minimal hysteresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calado, Philip; Telford, Andrew M.; Bryant, Daniel; Li, Xiaoe; Nelson, Jenny; O'Regan, Brian C.; Barnes, Piers R. F.

    2016-12-01

    Ion migration has been proposed as a possible cause of photovoltaic current-voltage hysteresis in hybrid perovskite solar cells. A major objection to this hypothesis is that hysteresis can be reduced by changing the interfacial contact materials; however, this is unlikely to significantly influence the behaviour of mobile ionic charge within the perovskite phase. Here, we show that the primary effects of ion migration can be observed regardless of whether the contacts were changed to give devices with or without significant hysteresis. Transient optoelectronic measurements combined with device simulations indicate that electric-field screening, consistent with ion migration, is similar in both high and low hysteresis CH3NH3PbI3 cells. Simulation of the photovoltage and photocurrent transients shows that hysteresis requires the combination of both mobile ionic charge and recombination near the perovskite-contact interfaces. Passivating contact recombination results in higher photogenerated charge concentrations at forward bias which screen the ionic charge, reducing hysteresis.

  20. Modeling keratinocyte wound healing dynamics: Cell-cell adhesion promotes sustained collective migrati