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  1. Dynamic Regulation of TCR-Microclusters and the Microsynapse for T Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto-Tane, Akiko; Saito, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell is the initiating event in T cell-mediated adaptive immunity. The Immunological Synapse (IS) is formed at the interface between these two cell types, and is the site where antigen (Ag)-specific recognition and activation are induced through the T cell receptor (TCR). This occurs at the center of the IS, and cell adhesion is supported through integrins in the area surrounding the TCR. Recently, this model has been revised based on data indicating that the initial Ag-specific activation signal is triggered prior to IS formation at TCR-microclusters (MCs), sites where TCR, kinases and adaptors of TCR proximal downstream signaling molecules accumulate as an activation signaling cluster. TCR-MCs then move into the center of the cell-cell interface to generate the cSMAC. This translocation of TCR-MCs is mediated initially by the actin cytoskeleton and then by dynein-induced movement along microtubules. The translocation of TCR-MCs and cSMAC formation is induced upon strong TCR stimulation through the assembly of a TCR-dynein super complex with microtubules. The Ag-specific activation signal is induced at TCR-MCs, but the adhesion signal is now shown to be induced by generating a "microsynapse," which is composed of a core of TCR-MCs and the surrounding adhesion ring of integrin and focal adhesion molecules. Since the microsynapse is critical for activation, particularly under weak TCR stimulation, this structure supports a weak TCR signal through a cell-cell adhesion signal. The microsynapse has a structure similar to the IS but on a micro-scale and regulates Ag-specific activation as well as cell-cell adhesion. We describe here the dynamic regulation of TCR-MCs, responsible for inducing Ag-specific activation signals, and the microsynapse, responsible for adhesion signals critical for cell-cell interactions, and their interrelationship.

  2. Caveolin-1 regulates TCR signal strength and regulatory T-cell differentiation into alloreactive T cells.

    PubMed

    Schönle, Anne; Hartl, Frederike A; Mentzel, Jan; Nöltner, Theresa; Rauch, Katharina S; Prestipino, Alessandro; Wohlfeil, Sebastian A; Apostolova, Petya; Hechinger, Anne-Kathrin; Melchinger, Wolfgang; Fehrenbach, Kerstin; Guadamillas, Marta C; Follo, Marie; Prinz, Gabriele; Ruess, Ann-Katrin; Pfeifer, Dietmar; del Pozo, Miguel Angel; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Duyster, Justus; Hippen, Keli I; Blazar, Bruce R; Schachtrup, Kristina; Minguet, Susana; Zeiser, Robert

    2016-04-14

    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a key organizer of membrane specializations and a scaffold protein that regulates signaling in multiple cell types. We found increased Cav-1 expression in human and murine T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Indeed, Cav-1(-/-)donor T cells caused less severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and yielded higher numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) compared with controls. Depletion of Tregs from the graft abrogated this protective effect. Correspondingly, Treg frequencies increased when Cav-1(-/-)T cells were exposed to transforming growth factor-β/T-cell receptor (TCR)/CD28 activation or alloantigen stimulation in vitro compared with wild-type T cells. Mechanistically, we found that the phosphorylation of Cav-1 is dispensable for the control of T-cell fate by using a nonphosphorylatable Cav-1 (Y14F/Y14F) point-mutation variant. Moreover, the close proximity of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) to the TCR induced by TCR-activation was reduced in Cav-1(-/-)T cells. Therefore, less TCR/Lck clustering results in suboptimal activation of the downstream signaling events, which correlates with the preferential development into a Treg phenotype. Overall, we report a novel role for Cav-1 in TCR/Lck spatial distribution upon TCR triggering, which controls T-cell fate toward a regulatory phenotype. This alteration translated into a significant increase in the frequency of Tregs and reduced GVHD in vivo.

  3. PP6 controls T cell development and homeostasis by negatively regulating distal TCR signaling.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jian; Shi, Hao; Shen, Ye; Peng, Chao; Liu, Yan; Li, Chenyu; Deng, Kejing; Geng, Jianguo; Xu, Tian; Zhuang, Yuan; Zheng, Biao; Tao, Wufan

    2015-02-15

    T cell development and homeostasis are both regulated by TCR signals. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which are catalyzed by protein kinases and phosphatases, respectively, serve as important switches controlling multiple downstream pathways triggered by TCR recognition of Ags. It has been well documented that protein tyrosine phosphatases are involved in negative regulation of proximal TCR signaling. However, how TCR signals are terminated or attenuated in the distal TCR signaling pathways is largely unknown. We investigated the function of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase (PP) 6 in TCR signaling. T cell lineage-specific ablation of PP6 in mice resulted in enhanced thymic positive and negative selection, and preferential expansion of fetal-derived, IL-17-producing Vγ6Vδ1(+) T cells. Both PP6-deficient peripheral CD4(+) helper and CD8(+) cytolytic cells could not maintain a naive state and became fast-proliferating and short-lived effector cells. PP6 deficiency led to profound hyperactivation of multiple distal TCR signaling molecules, including MAPKs, AKT, and NF-κB. Our studies demonstrate that PP6 acts as a critical negative regulator, not only controlling both αβ and γδ lineage development, but also maintaining naive T cell homeostasis by preventing their premature activation before Ag stimulation.

  4. The Allostery Model of TCR Regulation.

    PubMed

    Schamel, Wolfgang W A; Alarcon, Balbino; Höfer, Thomas; Minguet, Susana

    2017-01-01

    The activity of the αβ TCR is controlled by conformational switches. In the resting conformation, the TCR is not phosphorylated and is inactive. Binding of multivalent peptide-MHC to the TCR stabilizes the active conformation, leading to TCR signaling. These two conformations allow the TCRs to be allosterically regulated. We review recent data on heterotropic allostery where peptide-MHC and membrane cholesterol serve opposing functions as positive and negative allosteric regulators, respectively. In resting T cells cholesterol keeps TCRs in the resting conformation that otherwise would become spontaneously active. This regulation is well described by the classical Monod-Wyman-Changeux model of allostery. Moreover, the observation that TCRs assemble into nanoclusters might allow for homotropic allostery, in which individual TCRs could positively cooperate and thus enhance the sensitivity of T cell activation. This new view of TCR regulation will contribute to a better understanding of TCR functioning.

  5. TCR Signaling in T Cell Memory.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Mark A; Teixeiro, Emma

    2015-01-01

    T cell memory plays a critical role in our protection against pathogens and tumors. The antigen and its interaction with the T cell receptor (TCR) is one of the initiating elements that shape T cell memory together with inflammation and costimulation. Over the last decade, several transcription factors and signaling pathways that support memory programing have been identified. However, how TCR signals regulate them is still poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that the biochemical rules that govern T cell memory, strikingly, change depending on the TCR signal strength. Furthermore, TCR signal strength regulates the input of cytokine signaling, including pro-inflammatory cytokines. These highlight how tailoring antigenic signals can improve immune therapeutics. In this review, we focus on how TCR signaling regulates T cell memory and how the quantity and quality of TCR-peptide-MHC interactions impact the multiple fates a T cell can adopt in the memory pool.

  6. TCR-pMHC encounter differentially regulates transcriptomes of(-) tissue-resident CD8 T cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Akihiro; Bi, Kevin; Keskin, Derin B; Zhang, Guanglang; Reinhold, Bruce; Reinherz, Ellis L

    2017-09-05

    To investigate the role of TCR-pMHC interaction in regulating lung CD8 tissue-resident T cell (TR ) differentiation, polyclonal responses were compared against NP366-374 /D(b) and PA224-233 /D(b) , two immunodominant epitopes that arise during influenza A infection in mice. Memory niches distinct from iBALTs develop within the lamina propria, supporting CD103+ and CD103- CD8 TR generation and intraepithelial translocation. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) identify dominant TCR, adherence junction, RIG-I-like and NOD-like pattern recognition receptor as well as TGFβ signaling pathways and memory signatures among PA224-233 /D(b) T cells consistent with T resident memory (TRM ) status. In contrast, NP366-374 /D(b) T cells exhibit enrichment of effector signatures, upregulating pro-inflammatory mediators even among TRM . While NP366-374 /D(b) T cells manifest transcripts linked to canonical exhaustion pathways, PA224-233 /D(b) T cells exploit P2xr7 purinoreceptor attenuation. The NP366-374 /D(b) CD103+ subset expresses the antimicrobial lactotransferrin whereas PA224-233 /D(b) CD103+ utilizes pore-forming mpeg-1, with <22% of genes correspondingly upregulated in CD103+ (or CD103-) subsets of both specificities. Thus, TCR-pMHC interactions among TR and antigen presenting cells in a tissue milieu strongly impact CD8 T cell biology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. TCR Signaling in T Cell Memory

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Mark A.; Teixeiro, Emma

    2015-01-01

    T cell memory plays a critical role in our protection against pathogens and tumors. The antigen and its interaction with the T cell receptor (TCR) is one of the initiating elements that shape T cell memory together with inflammation and costimulation. Over the last decade, several transcription factors and signaling pathways that support memory programing have been identified. However, how TCR signals regulate them is still poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that the biochemical rules that govern T cell memory, strikingly, change depending on the TCR signal strength. Furthermore, TCR signal strength regulates the input of cytokine signaling, including pro-inflammatory cytokines. These highlight how tailoring antigenic signals can improve immune therapeutics. In this review, we focus on how TCR signaling regulates T cell memory and how the quantity and quality of TCR–peptide–MHC interactions impact the multiple fates a T cell can adopt in the memory pool. PMID:26697013

  8. Regulation of immunological disorders by invariant Vα19-Jα33 TCR-bearing cells.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Goji, Hiroshi; Endo, Shin; Migishima, Rika; Yokoyama, Minesuke

    2011-03-01

    We have previously shown that over-expression of the invariant Vα19-Jα33 TCR α transgene (Tg) using a natural TCR α promoter in mice induces the development of NK1.1(+) T cells (Vα19 NKT cells) in lymphoid organs, including the liver and intestine. These cells produce different spectra of immunoregulatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, and IFN-γ depending on the duration and intensity of the invariant TCR stimulation. In this study, we examined the effects of over-expression of invariant Vα19-Jα33 TCR-bearing cells on disease progress in the models of immunological disorders. The introduction of invariant Vα19 TCR Tg into non-obese diabetic mice delayed the onset of the disease. In addition, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to sheep erythrocytes was suppressed in the Vα19 Tg mice. DTH was also suppressed in the wild type mice previously transferred with Vα19 Tg(+) but not non-Tg cells. Thus, invariant Vα19 TCR-bearing cells are suggested to participate in the homeostasis of immunity to suppress disease progression resulting from Th1-immunity excess.

  9. The frequency of double-positive thymocytes expressing an alphabeta TCR clonotype regulates peripheral CD4 T cell compartment homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Reed, Amy J; Zarrabi, Yasaman; Perate, Alison L; Jeganathan, Arjun; Naji, Ali; Noorchashm, Hooman

    2005-11-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether the frequency of double positive (DP) thymocytes expressing alphabeta T-cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes at the time of selection regulates peripheral CD4 T-cell compartment size. Scid recipients were inoculated with various ratios of TCR Calpha(0/0) and wild-type bone marrow (BM) stem cells. Increasing the frequency of TCR Calpha(0/0) thymocytes at steady-state introduced a graded decrease in the maturation probability of the total DP thymocyte pool. At 12-14 weeks following BM inoculation, the frequency of TCR Calpha(0/0) DP thymocytes was inversely correlated with that of CD4 single positive (SP) thymocytes. Notwithstanding, a decreased frequency of wild-type DP thymocytes led to a marked increase in their transit efficiency from the DP to SP compartments. The frequency-dependent increase in thymocyte transit efficiency was associated with a CD4 SP cell surface phenotype indicative of increased antigenic experience. Importantly, the frequency of DP thymocytes capable of expressing TCR clonotypes dictated the steady-state size of the peripheral CD4 T cell compartment and its potential for homeostatic proliferation. Collectively, these results indicate that the efficiency of DP to CD4 SP transit is a frequency dependent process, which determines (1) the steady-state size of the peripheral T cell compartment and (2) the threshold for homeostatic expansion of peripheral CD4 T cells.

  10. TCR-engineered T cells: a model of inducible TCR expression to dissect the interrelationship between two TCRs.

    PubMed

    Reuß, Simone; Sebestyén, Zsolt; Heinz, Niels; Loew, Rainer; Baum, Christopher; Debets, Reno; Uckert, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    TCR gene modified T cells for adoptive therapy simultaneously express the Tg TCR and the endogenous TCR, which might lead to mispaired TCRs with harmful unknown specificity and to a reduced function of TCR-Tg T cells. We generated dual TCR T cells in two settings in which either TCR was constitutively expressed by a retroviral promoter while the second TCR expression was regulable by a Tet-on system. Constitutively expressed TCR molecules were reduced on the cell surface depending on the induced TCR expression leading to strongly hampered function. Besides that, using fluorescence resonance energy transfer we detected mispaired TCR dimers and different pairing behaviors of individual TCR chains with a mutual influence on TCR chain expression. The loss of function and mispairing could not be avoided by changing the TCR expression level or by introduction of an additional cysteine bridge. However, in polyclonal T cells, optimized TCR formats (cysteineization, codon optimization) enhanced correct pairing and function. We conclude from our data that (i) the level of mispairing depends on the individual TCRs and is not reduced by increasing the level of one TCR, and (ii) modifications (cysteineization, codon optimization) improve correct pairing but do not completely exclude mispairing (cysteineization).

  11. Innate signals overcome acquired TCR signaling pathway regulation and govern the fate of human CD161(hi) CD8α⁺ semi-invariant T cells.

    PubMed

    Turtle, Cameron J; Delrow, Jeff; Joslyn, Rochelle C; Swanson, Hillary M; Basom, Ryan; Tabellini, Laura; Delaney, Colleen; Heimfeld, Shelly; Hansen, John A; Riddell, Stanley R

    2011-09-08

    Type 17 programmed CD161(hi)CD8α(+) T cells contribute to mucosal immunity to bacteria and yeast. In early life, microbial colonization induces proliferation of CD161(hi) cells that is dependent on their expression of a semi-invariant Vα7.2(+) TCR. Although prevalent in adults, CD161(hi)CD8α(+) cells exhibit weak proliferative and cytokine responses to TCR ligation. The mechanisms responsible for the dichotomous response of neonatal and adult CD161(hi) cells, and the signals that enable their effector function, have not been established. We describe acquired regulation of TCR signaling in adult memory CD161(hi)CD8α(+) T cells that is absent in cord CD161(hi) cells and adult CD161(lo) cells. Regulated TCR signaling in CD161(hi) cells was due to profound alterations in TCR signaling pathway gene expression and could be overcome by costimulation through CD28 or innate cytokine receptors, which dictated the fate of their progeny. Costimulation with IL-1β during TCR ligation markedly increased proinflammatory IL-17 production, while IL-12-induced Tc1-like function and restored the response to TCR ligation without costimulation. CD161(hi) cells from umbilical cord blood and granulocyte colony stimulating factor-mobilized leukaphereses differed in frequency and function, suggesting future evaluation of the contribution of CD161(hi) cells in hematopoietic stem cell grafts to transplant outcomes is warranted.

  12. Recruitment of calcineurin to the TCR positively regulates T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debjani; Barr, Valarie A; Akpan, Itoro; Mittelstadt, Paul R; Singha, Laishram I; Samelson, Lawrence E; Ashwell, Jonathan D

    2017-02-01

    Calcineurin is a phosphatase whose primary targets in T cells are NFAT transcription factors, and inhibition of calcineurin activity by treatment with cyclosporin A (CsA) or FK506 is a cornerstone of immunosuppressive therapies. Here we found that calcineurin was recruited to the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling complex, where it reversed inhibitory phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase Lck on Ser59 (Lck(S59)). Loss of calcineurin activity impaired phosphorylation of Tyr493 of the tyrosine kinase ZAP-70 (ZAP-70(Y493)), as well as some downstream pathways in a manner consistent with signaling in cells expressing Lck(S59A) (Lck that cannot be phosphorylated) or Lck(S59E) (a phosphomimetic mutant). Notably, CsA inhibited integrin-LFA-1-dependent and NFAT-independent adhesion of T cells to the intercellular adhesion molecule ICAM-1, with little effect on cells expressing mutant Lck. These results provide new understanding of how widely used immunosuppressive drugs interfere with essential processes in the immune response.

  13. In TCR-Stimulated T-cells, N-ras Regulates Specific Genes and Signal Transduction Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Stephen J.; Zavadil, Jiri; Pellicer, Angel

    2013-01-01

    It has been recently shown that N-ras plays a preferential role in immune cell development and function; specifically: N-ras, but not H-ras or K-ras, could be activated at and signal from the Golgi membrane of immune cells following a low level T-cell receptor stimulus. The goal of our studies was to test the hypothesis that N-ras and H-ras played distinct roles in immune cells at the level of the transcriptome. First, we showed via mRNA expression profiling that there were over four hundred genes that were uniquely differentially regulated either by N-ras or H-ras, which provided strong evidence in favor of the hypothesis that N-ras and H-ras have distinct functions in immune cells. We next characterized the genes that were differentially regulated by N-ras in T cells following a low-level T-cell receptor stimulus. Of the large pool of candidate genes that were differentially regulated by N-ras downstream of TCR ligation, four genes were verified in qRT-PCR-based validation experiments (Dntt, Slc9a6, Chst1, and Lars2). Finally, although there was little overlap between individual genes that were regulated by N-ras in unstimulated thymocytes and stimulated CD4+ T-cells, there was a nearly complete correspondence between the signaling pathways that were regulated by N-ras in these two immune cell types. PMID:23755101

  14. Analysis of CD2 and TCR-{beta} gene expression in jurkat cell mutants suggests a cis regulation of gene transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Kamoun, M.; Woods, J.S.; Sano, N.

    1995-10-15

    Thirty CD2{sup -} J32 stable clones, derived by mutagenesis and subsequent immunoselection with anti-CD2 Ab, were used to study the regulation of CD2 and TCR gene expression. Analysis of RNA expression revealed that the loss of surface expression of CD2 was due to a lack of expression of CD2 mRNA and was associated with a lack of expression of VDJ TCR-{beta} transcripts in 12 of these mutants, sparing the expression of DJ TCR-{beta}, TCR-{alpha}, CD3{gamma}, {delta}, {epsilon}, and {zeta} RNA. The expression of other differentiation molecules was unaffected, except for CD1, CD4, and CD5, which were either decreased or absent in most of these mutants. A gain in the expression of TCR-{gamma} transcripts was observed in each of these mutants, while, as expected, no TCR-{gamma} transcripts were detected in wild-type J32 cells. Several mutants were able to use the human CD2 enhancer and the murine TCR-{beta} enhancer and promoter to activate transcription from reporter genes in the context of heterologous promoters, indicating that the mutation(s) does not affect transcription pathways. Consistent with this finding is the adequate expression in these mutants of several lineage-specific transcription factors. The expression of CD2 in several of these mutants was rescued by gene transfer using a genomic 28.5-kb CD2 fragment, suggesting that the enchancer function of this gene may be dependent on the enhancer site. These observations suggest that the coordinate expressions of CD2 and TCR-{beta} genes share common regulatory mechanisms involving factors regulating chromatin structure and accessibility. 51 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Role of TCR-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in the regulation of early IL-4 expression in naive CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, Patricia J; Brogdon, Jennifer L; Bottomly, Kim

    2003-03-01

    Although extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation influences IL-4 production in various experimental systems, its role during Th differentiation is unclear. In this study, we show that Erk plays a critical role in IL-4 expression during TCR-induced Th differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells. Stimulation of CD4(+) T cells with a high affinity peptide resulted in sustained Erk activation and Th1 differentiation. However, reduction of Erk activity led to a dramatic increase in IL-4 production and Th2 generation. Analysis of RNA and nuclear proteins of CD4(+) T cells 48 h after stimulation revealed that this was due to early IL-4 expression. Interestingly, transient Erk activation resulted in altered AP-1 DNA binding activity and the induction of an AP-1 complex that was devoid of Fos protein and consisted of Jun-Jun dimers. These data show that in the presence of a strong TCR signal, IL-4 expression can be induced in naive CD4(+) T cells by altering the strength of Erk activation. In addition, these data suggest that TCR-induced Erk activation is involved in the regulation of IL-4 expression by altering the composition of the AP-1 complex and its subsequent DNA binding activity.

  16. The frequency of double-positive thymocytes expressing an αβ TCR clonotype regulates peripheral CD4 T cell compartment homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Amy J; Zarrabi, Yasaman; Perate, Alison L; Jeganathan, Arjun; Naji, Ali; Noorchashm, Hooman

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether the frequency of double positive (DP) thymocytes expressing αβ T-cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes at the time of selection regulates peripheral CD4 T-cell compartment size. Scid recipients were inoculated with various ratios of TCR Cα0/0 and wild-type bone marrow (BM) stem cells. Increasing the frequency of TCR Cα0/0 thymocytes at steady-state introduced a graded decrease in the maturation probability of the total DP thymocyte pool. At 12–14 weeks following BM inoculation, the frequency of TCR Cα0/0 DP thymocytes was inversely correlated with that of CD4 single positive (SP) thymocytes. Notwithstanding, a decreased frequency of wild-type DP thymocytes led to a marked increase in their transit efficiency from the DP to SP compartments. The frequency-dependent increase in thymocyte transit efficiency was associated with a CD4 SP cell surface phenotype indicative of increased antigenic experience. Importantly, the frequency of DP thymocytes capable of expressing TCR clonotypes dictated the steady-state size of the peripheral CD4 T cell compartment and its potential for homeostatic proliferation. Collectively, these results indicate that the efficiency of DP to CD4 SP transit is a frequency dependent process, which determines (1) the steady-state size of the peripheral T cell compartment and (2) the threshold for homeostatic expansion of peripheral CD4 T cells. PMID:16236130

  17. T cell receptor (TCR) signal strength controls arthritis severity in proteoglycan-specific TCR transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Olasz, K; Boldizsar, F; Kis-Toth, K; Tarjanyi, O; Hegyi, A; van Eden, W; Rauch, T A; Mikecz, K; Glant, T T

    2012-01-01

    T cell receptor transgenic (TCR-Tg) mice specific for the arthritogenic 5/4E8 epitope in the G1 domain of cartilage proteoglycan were generated and back-crossed into arthritis-prone BALB/c background. Although more than 90% of CD4+ T cells of all TCR-Tg lines were 5/4E8-specific, one (TCR-TgA) was highly sensitive to G1-induced or spontaneous arthritis, while another (TCR-TgB) was less susceptible. Here we studied whether fine differences in TCR signalling controlled the onset and severity of arthritis. Mice from the two TCR-Tg lines were immunized side by side with purified recombinant human G1 (rhG1) domain for G1 domain of cartilage proteoglycan (PG)-induced arthritis (GIA). TCR-TgA mice developed severe and early-onset arthritis, whereas TCR-TgB mice developed weaker arthritis with delayed onset, although TCR-TgB CD4+ T cells expressed approximately twice more TCR-Vβ4 chain protein. The more severe arthritis in TCR-TgA mice was associated with higher amounts of anti-G1 domain-specific antibodies, larger numbers of B cells and activated T helper cells. Importantly, TCR-TgB CD4+ T cells were more sensitive to in vitro activation-induced apoptosis, correlating with their higher TCR and CD3 expression and with the increased TCR signal strength. These findings indicate that TCR signal strength determines the clinical outcome of arthritis induction: ‘optimal’ TCR signal strength leads to strong T cell activation and severe arthritis in TCR-TgA mice, whereas ‘supra-optimal’ TCR signal leads to enhanced elimination of self-reactive T cells, resulting in attenuated disease. PMID:22236012

  18. Maintenance of TCR clonality in T cells expressing genes for two TCR heterodimers.

    PubMed

    Sant'Angelo, D B; Cresswell, P; Janeway, C A; Denzin, L K

    2001-06-05

    T cell receptor (TCR) allelic exclusion is believed to be primarily mediated by suppression of further recombination at the TCR locus after the expression of a functional TCR protein. Genetic allelic exclusion has been shown to be leaky for the beta chain and, more commonly, for the alpha chain. Here, we demonstrate an additional mechanism by which T cells can maintain monoclonality. T cells from double TCR transgenic mice express only one or the other of the two available TCRs at the cell surface. This "functional allelic exclusion" is apparently due to control of the TCR assembly process because these T cells express RNA and protein for all four transgenic TCR proteins. Lack of cell surface expression of the second TCR may be controlled by a failure to assemble the TCR heterodimer.

  19. Immunotherapy with TCR-redirected T cells: comparison of TCR-transduced and TCR-engineered hematopoietic stem cell-derived T cells.

    PubMed

    Stärck, Lilian; Popp, Katja; Pircher, Hanspeter; Uckert, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Redirecting Ag specificity by transfer of TCR genes into PBLs is an attractive method to generate large numbers of cytotoxic T cells for immunotherapy of cancer and viral diseases. However, transferred TCR chains can pair with endogenous TCR chains, resulting in the formation of mispaired TCR dimers and decreased or unspecific reactivity. TCR gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is an alternative to create T cells with desired Ag specificity, because in this case expression of endogenous TCR chains is then less likely owing to allelic exclusion. We generated TCR-transduced T cells from peripheral T cells using the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-specific P14 TCR. After transfer of the P14 TCR genes into HSCs and subsequent reconstitution of irradiated mice, TCR-engineered HSC-derived T cells were produced. We then compared the Ag-specific T cell populations with P14 TCR-transgenic T cells for their therapeutic efficiency in three in vivo models. In this study, we demonstrate that TCR-transduced T cells and TCR-engineered HSC-derived T cells are comparable in controlling lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in mice and suppress growth of B16 tumor cells expressing the cognate Ag in a comparable manner.

  20. Regulatory T cells require TCR signaling for their suppressive function.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Amanda M; Lu, Wen; Sindhava, Vishal J; Huang, Yanping; Burkhardt, Janis K; Yang, Enjun; Riese, Matthew J; Maltzman, Jonathan S; Jordan, Martha S; Kambayashi, Taku

    2015-05-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of CD4(+) T cells that maintain immune tolerance in part by their ability to inhibit the proliferation of conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tconvs). The role of the TCR and the downstream signaling pathways required for this suppressive function of Tregs are not fully understood. To yield insight into how TCR-mediated signals influence Treg suppressive function, we assessed the ability of Tregs with altered TCR-mediated signaling capacity to inhibit Tconv proliferation. Mature Tregs deficient in Src homology 2 domain containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP-76), an adaptor protein that nucleates the proximal signaling complex downstream of the TCR, were unable to inhibit Tconv proliferation, suggesting that TCR signaling is required for Treg suppressive function. Moreover, Tregs with defective phospholipase C γ (PLCγ) activation due to a Y145F mutation of SLP-76 were also defective in their suppressive function. Conversely, enhancement of diacylglycerol-mediated signaling downstream of PLCγ by genetic ablation of a negative regulator of diacylglycerol kinase ζ increased the suppressive ability of Tregs. Because SLP-76 is also important for integrin activation and signaling, we tested the role of integrin activation in Treg-mediated suppression. Tregs lacking the adaptor proteins adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein or CT10 regulator of kinase/CT10 regulator of kinase-like, which are required for TCR-mediated integrin activation, inhibited Tconv proliferation to a similar extent as wild-type Tregs. Together, these data suggest that TCR-mediated PLCγ activation, but not integrin activation, is required for Tregs to inhibit Tconv proliferation.

  1. Predominant role of T cell receptor (TCR)-alpha chain in forming preimmune TCR repertoire revealed by clonal TCR reconstitution system.

    PubMed

    Yokosuka, Tadashi; Takase, Kan; Suzuki, Misao; Nakagawa, Yohko; Taki, Shinsuke; Takahashi, Hidemi; Fujisawa, Takehiko; Arase, Hisashi; Saito, Takashi

    2002-04-15

    The CDR3 regions of T cell receptor (TCR)-alpha and -beta chains play central roles in the recognition of antigen (Ag)-MHC complex. TCR repertoire is created on the basis of Ag recognition specificity by CDR3s. To analyze the potential spectrum of TCR-alpha and -beta to exhibit Ag specificity and generate TCR repertoire, we established hundreds of TCR transfectants bearing a single TCR-alpha or -beta chain derived from a cytotoxic T cell (CTL) clone, RT-1, specific for HIVgp160 peptide, and randomly picked up TCR-beta or -alpha chains. Surprisingly, one-third of such TCR-beta containing random CDR3 beta from naive T cells of normal mice could reconstitute the antigen-reactive TCR coupling with RT-1 TCR-alpha. A similar dominant function of TCR-alpha in forming Ag-specific TCR, though low-frequency, was obtained for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-specific TCR. Subsequently, we generated TCR-alpha and/or -beta transgenic (Tg) mice specific for HIVgp160 peptide, and analyzed the TCR repertoire of Ag-specific CTLs. Similar to the results from TCR reconstitution, TCR-alpha Tg generated CTLs with heterogeneous TCR-beta, whereas TCR-beta Tg-induced CTLs bearing a single TCR-alpha. These findings of Ag recognition with minimum involvement of CDR3 beta expand our understanding regarding the flexibility of the spectrum of TCR and suggest a predominant role of TCR-alpha chain in determining the preimmune repertoire of Ag-specific TCR.

  2. TCR-induced Akt serine 473 phosphorylation is regulated by protein kinase C-alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lifen; Qiao, Guilin; Ying, Haiyan; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Fei

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Conventional PKC positively regulates TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt. {yields} PKC-alpha is the PDK-2 responsible for phosphorylating Akt at Ser{sup 473} upon TCR stimulation. {yields} Knockdown of PKC-alpha decreases TCR-induced Akt phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Akt signaling plays a central role in T cell functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and regulatory T cell development. Phosphorylation at Ser{sup 473} in the hydrophobic motif, along with Thr{sup 308} in its activation loop, is considered necessary for Akt function. It is widely accepted that phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK-1) phosphorylates Akt at Thr{sup 308}, but the kinase(s) responsible for phosphorylating Akt at Ser{sup 473} (PDK-2) remains elusive. The existence of PDK-2 is considered to be specific to cell type and stimulus. PDK-2 in T cells in response to TCR stimulation has not been clearly defined. In this study, we found that conventional PKC positively regulated TCR-induced Akt Ser{sup 473} phosphorylation. PKC-alpha purified from T cells can phosphorylate Akt at Ser{sup 473} in vitro upon TCR stimulation. Knockdown of PKC-alpha in T-cell-line Jurkat cells reduced TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt as well as its downstream targets. Thus our results suggest that PKC-alpha is a candidate for PDK-2 in T cells upon TCR stimulation.

  3. Negative regulation of TCR signaling by ubiquitination of Zap-70 Lys-217.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elitza; Carpino, Nick

    2016-05-01

    The tyrosine kinase Zap-70 is a key regulator of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling downstream of antigen presentation, with coordinated regulation of Zap-70 kinase activity critical for proper T cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector function during an immune response. Zap-70 is cytosolic in unstimulated T cells, but is rapidly recruited to the TCR complex following receptor stimulation. Its activity is regulated both by binding to subunits of the TCR and by phosphorylation on multiple tyrosine residues. Zap-70 also has been reported to be ubiquitinated following TCR stimulation. Herein, we confirm the ubiquitination of Zap-70 in T cell lines and in primary human and mouse T cells, and report the identification of nine novel Zap-70 ubiquitination sites. Three sites, including Lys-193, Lys-217, and Lys-376, displayed greater than 20-fold increase in modification levels following TCR stimulation. Abrogation of Lys-217 ubiquitination results in increased kinase activation, enhanced activation of downstream signaling pathways, and elevated IL-2 production following TCR stimulation. These data suggest that Zap-70 ubiquitination contributes to the regulation of Zap-70 signaling following TCR stimulation.

  4. Requirements for effective antitumor responses of TCR transduced T cells.

    PubMed

    de Witte, Moniek A; Jorritsma, Annelies; Kaiser, Andrew; van den Boom, Marly D; Dokter, Maarten; Bendle, Gavin M; Haanen, John B A G; Schumacher, Ton N M

    2008-10-01

    Adoptive transfer of TCR gene-modified T cells has been proposed as an attractive approach to target tumors for which it is difficult or impossible to induce strong tumor-specific T cell responses by vaccination. Whereas the feasibility of generating tumor Ag-specific T cells by gene transfer has been demonstrated, the factors that determine the in vivo effectiveness of TCR-modified T cells are largely unknown. We have analyzed the value of a number of clinically feasible strategies to enhance the antitumor potential of TCR modified T cells. These experiments reveal three factors that contribute greatly to the in vivo potency of TCR-modified T cells. First, irradiation-induced host conditioning is superior to vaccine-induced activation of genetically modified T cells. Second, increasing TCR expression through genetic optimization of TCR sequences has a profound effect on in vivo antitumor activity. Third, a high precursor frequency of TCR modified T cells within the graft is essential. Tumors that ultimately progress in animals treated with this optimized regimen for TCR-based adoptive cell transfer invariably display a reduced expression of the target Ag. This suggests TCR gene therapy can achieve a sufficiently strong selective pressure to warrant the simultaneous targeting of multiple Ags. The strategies outlined in this study should be of value to enhance the antitumor activity of TCR-modified T cells in clinical trials.

  5. TCR repertoires of intratumoral T-cell subsets.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Carsten; Mezzadra, Riccardo; Schumacher, Ton N M

    2014-01-01

    The infiltration of human tumors by T cells is a common phenomenon, and over the past decades, it has become increasingly clear that the nature of such intratumoral T-cell populations can predict disease course. Furthermore, intratumoral T cells have been utilized therapeutically in clinical studies of adoptive T-cell therapy. In this review, we describe how novel methods that are either based on T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing or on cancer exome analysis allow the analysis of the tumor reactivity and antigen-specificity of the intratumoral TCR repertoire with unprecedented detail. Furthermore, we discuss studies that have started to utilize these techniques to probe the link between cancer exomes and the intratumoral TCR pool. Based on the observation that both the cancer epitope repertoire and intratumoral TCR repertoire appear highly individual, we outline strategies, such as 'autologous TCR gene therapy', that exploit the tumor-resident TCR repertoire for the development of personalized immunotherapy.

  6. TRAF3 enhances TCR signaling by regulating the inhibitors Csk and PTPN22.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Alicia M; Wallace, Ellie C; Hostager, Bruce S; Yi, Zuoan; Houtman, Jon C D; Bishop, Gail A

    2017-05-18

    The adaptor protein TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) 3 is required for effective TCR signaling and normal T cell effector functions, and associates with the CD3/CD28 complex upon activation. To determine how TRAF3 promotes proximal TCR signaling, we studied TRAF3-deficient mouse and human T cells, which showed a marked reduction in activating phosphorylation of the TCR-associated kinase Lck. The impact of TRAF3 on this very early signaling event led to the hypothesis that TRAF3 restrains one or both of two known inhibitors of Lck, C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and protein tyrosine phosphatase N22 (PTPN22). TRAF3 associated with Csk, promoting the dissociation of Csk from the plasma membrane. TRAF3 also associated with and regulated the TCR/CD28 induced localization of PTPN22. Loss of TRAF3 resulted in increased amounts of both Csk and PTPN22 in T cell membrane fractions and decreased association of PTPN22 with Csk. These findings identify a new role for T cell TRAF3 in promoting T cell activation, by regulating localization and functions of early TCR signaling inhibitors.

  7. γδTCR immunoglobulin constant region domain exchange in human αβTCRs improves TCR pairing without altering TCR gene-modified T cell function.

    PubMed

    Tao, Changli; Shao, Hongwei; Zhang, Wenfeng; Bo, Huaben; Wu, Fenglin; Shen, Han; Huang, Shulin

    2017-02-15

    The adoptive genetic transfer of T cell receptors (TCRs) has been shown to be overall feasible and offer clinical potential as a treatment for different types of cancer. However, this promising clinical approach is limited by the serious potential consequence that exogenous TCR mispairing with endogenous TCR chains may lead to the risk of self-reactivity. In the present study, domain‑exchange and three‑dimensional modeling strategies were used to create a set of chimeric TCR variants, which were used to exchange the partial or complete constant region of αβTCR with corresponding γδTCR domains. The expression, assembly and function of the chimeric TCR variants were examined in Jurkat T cells and peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs). Genetically‑encoded chimeras were fused with a pair of fluorescent proteins (ECFP/EYFP) to monitor expression and the pairing between chimeric TCRα chains and TCRβ chains. The fluorescence energy transfer based on confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the introduction of γδTCR constant sequences into the αβTCR did not result in a global reduction of mispairing with endogenous TCR. However, the TCR harboring the immunoglobulin‑like domain of the γδTCR constant region (i.e., TCR∆IgC), showed a higher expression and preferential pairing, compared with wild‑type (wt)TCR. The function analysis showed that TCR∆IgC exhibited the same levels of interferon-γ production and cytotoxic activity, compared with wtTCR. Furthermore, these modified TCR-transduced T cells retained the classic human leukocyte antigen restriction of the original TCR. The other two chimeric TCRs, had either exchange of the cp+tm+ic domain or exchange of the whole C domain (Fig. 1). Ultimately, exchange of these domains demonstrated defective function in the transduced T cells. Taken together, these findings may provide further understanding of the γδTCR constant domain with implications for the improvement of TCR gene transfer

  8. Requirement of full TCR repertoire for regulatory T cells to maintain intestinal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Junko; Baba, Minato; Atarashi, Koji; Tanoue, Takeshi; Negishi, Hideo; Yanai, Hideyuki; Habu, Sonoko; Hori, Shohei; Honda, Kenya; Taniguchi, Tadatsugu

    2015-10-13

    The regulation of intestinal homeostasis by the immune system involves the dynamic interplay between gut commensal microbiota and resident immune cells. It is well known that a large and diverse lymphocyte antigen receptor repertoire enables the immune system to recognize and respond to a wide range of invading pathogens. There is also an emerging appreciation for a critical role the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire serves in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance by regulatory T cells (Tregs). Nevertheless, how the diversity of the TCR repertoire in Tregs affects intestinal homeostasis remains unknown. To address this question, we studied mice whose T cells express a restricted TCR repertoire. We observed the development of spontaneous colitis, accompanied by the induction of T-helper type 17 cells in the colon that is driven by gut commensal microbiota. We provide further evidence that a restricted TCR repertoire causes a loss of tolerogenicity to microbiota, accompanied by a paucity of peripherally derived, Helios(-) Tregs and hyperactivation of migratory dendritic cells. These results thus reveal a new facet of the TCR repertoire in which Tregs require a diverse TCR repitoire for intestinal homeostasis, suggesting an additional driving force in the evolutional significance of the TCR repertoire.

  9. Polarized release of TCR-enriched microvesicles at the T cell immunological synapse

    PubMed Central

    Choudhuri, Kaushik; Llodrá, Jaime; Roth, Eric W.; Tsai, Jones; Gordo, Susana; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.; Kam, Lance; Stokes, David L.; Dustin, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The recognition events that mediate adaptive cellular immunity and regulate antibody responses depend on intercellular contacts between T cells and antigen presenting cells (APC)1. T cell signaling is initiated at these contacts when surface-expressed antigen receptors (TCR) recognize peptide fragments (antigens) of pathogens bound to Major Histocompatibility Complex molecules (pMHC) on APCs. This, along with engagement of adhesion receptors, leads to the formation of a specialized junction between T cells and APCs, known as the immunological synapse (IS)3, which mediates efficient delivery of effector molecules and intercellular signals across the synaptic cleft2. T cell recognition of pMHC and the adhesion ligand Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on supported planar bilayers recapitulates the domain organization of the immunological synapse (IS)4–5, which is characterized by central accumulation of TCR5, adjacent to a secretory domain3, both surrounded by an adhesive ring4–5. Although accumulation of TCR at the IS center correlates with T cell function4, this domain is itself largely devoid of TCR signaling activity5–6, and is characterized by an unexplained immobilization of TCR-pMHC complexes relative to the highly dynamic IS periphery4–5. Here we show that centrally accumulated TCR is located on the surface of extracellular microvesicles that bud at the IS center. Tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101)6 sorts TCR for inclusion in microvesicles, while vacuolar protein sorting 4 (VPS4) 7–8 mediates scission of microvesicles from the T cell plasma membrane. The HIV polyprotein GAG co-opts this process for budding of virus-like particles. B cells bearing cognate pMHC receive TCR from T cells and initiate intracellular signals in response to isolated synaptic microvesicles. We conclude that the immunological synapse orchestrates TCR sorting and release in extracellular microvesicles. These microvesicles deliver transcellular signals across

  10. Surface expression of the beta T cell receptor (TCR) chain in the absence of other TCR or CD3 proteins on immature T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, H; Borgulya, P; Scott, B; Karjalainen, K; Traunecker, A; Kaufman, J; von Boehmer, H

    1991-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR) beta genes are rearranged prior to TCR alpha genes. A productively rearranged TCR beta gene suppresses further V beta gene rearrangement. Here we show that in beta TCR transgenic mice the TCR beta-chain can be expressed on the surface of immature CD4-8- thymocytes, but not on mature T cells, in the absence of any other known TCR chain and proteins of the CD3 complex. Analysis by NEPHGE and SDS-PAGE showed that at least some beta TCR exists on the surface as a large disulfide-linked complex with unknown acidic molecules. The introduction of the beta TCR gene into scid mice resulted in the expression of the beta TCR on the cell surface of thymocytes and induced the expression of CD4 and CD8 co-receptors as well as transcription of the alpha TCR locus. Images PMID:1703490

  11. Exposure of Human CD4 T Cells to IL-12 Results in Enhanced TCR-Induced Cytokine Production, Altered TCR Signaling, and Increased Oxidative Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vacaflores, Aldo; Chapman, Nicole M; Harty, John T; Richer, Martin J; Houtman, Jon C D

    2016-01-01

    Human CD4 T cells are constantly exposed to IL-12 during infections and certain autoimmune disorders. The current paradigm is that IL-12 promotes the differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into Th1 cells, but recent studies suggest IL-12 may play a more complex role in T cell biology. We examined if exposure to IL-12 alters human CD4 T cell responses to subsequent TCR stimulation. We found that IL-12 pretreatment increased TCR-induced IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-13, IL-4 and IL-10 production. This suggests that prior exposure to IL-12 potentiates the TCR-induced release of a range of cytokines. We observed that IL-12 mediated its effects through both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. IL-12 pretreatment increased the phosphorylation of AKT, p38 and LCK following TCR stimulation without altering other TCR signaling molecules, potentially mediating the increase in transcription of cytokines. In addition, the IL-12-mediated enhancement of cytokines that are not transcriptionally regulated was partially driven by increased oxidative metabolism. Our data uncover a novel function of IL-12 in human CD4 T cells; specifically, it enhances the release of a range of cytokines potentially by altering TCR signaling pathways and by enhancing oxidative metabolism.

  12. SAP-MEDIATED INHIBITION OF DIACYLGLYCEROL KINASE ALPHA REGULATES TCR-INDUCED DIACYLGLYCEROL SIGNALING

    PubMed Central

    Baldanzi, Gianluca; Pighini, Andrea; Bettio, Valentina; Rainero, Elena; Traini, Sara; Chianale, Federica; Porporato, Paolo; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Mesturini, Riccardo; Song, Shuping; Schweighoffer, Tamas; Patrussi, Laura; Baldari, Cosima Tatiana; Zhong, Xiao-Ping; van Blitterswijk, Wim J.; Sinigaglia, Fabiola; Nichols, Kim E.; Rubio, Ignacio; Parolini, Ornella; Graziani, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) metabolize diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatidic acid (PA). In T lymphocytes, DGKα acts as a negative regulator of TCR signaling by decreasing diacylglycerol levels and inducing anergy. Here, we show that upon co-stimulation of the TCR with CD28 or SLAM, DGKα, but not DGKζ, exit from the nucleus and undergoes rapid negative regulation of its enzymatic activity. Inhibition of DGKα is dependent on the expression of SAP, an adaptor protein mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), which is essential for SLAM-mediated signaling and contributes to TCR/CD28-induced signaling and T cell activation. Accordingly, over-expression of SAP is sufficient to inhibit DGKα, while SAP mutants unable to bind either phospho-tyrosine residues or SH3 domain are ineffective. Moreover phospholipase C activity and calcium, but not Src-family tyrosine kinases, are also required for negative regulation of DGKα. Finally, inhibition of DGKα in SAP-deficient cells partially rescues defective TCR/CD28 signaling, including Ras and ERK-1/2 activation, PKCθ membrane recruitment, induction of NF-AT transcriptional activity and IL-2 production. Thus SAP-mediated inhibition of DGKα sustains diacylglycerol signaling, thereby regulating T cell activation and may represent a novel pharmacological strategy for XLP treatment. PMID:22048771

  13. Distinct TCR signaling pathways drive proliferation and cytokine production in T cells.

    PubMed

    Guy, Clifford S; Vignali, Kate M; Temirov, Jamshid; Bettini, Matthew L; Overacre, Abigail E; Smeltzer, Matthew; Zhang, Hui; Huppa, Johannes B; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Lobry, Camille; Xie, Jianming; Dempsey, Peter J; Crawford, Howard C; Aifantis, Iannis; Davis, Mark M; Vignali, Dario A A

    2013-03-01

    The physiological basis and mechanistic requirements for a large number of functional immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs; high ITAM multiplicity) in the complex of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the invariant signaling protein CD3 remain obscure. Here we found that whereas a low multiplicity of TCR-CD3 ITAMs was sufficient to engage canonical TCR-induced signaling events that led to cytokine secretion, a high multiplicity of TCR-CD3 ITAMs was required for TCR-driven proliferation. This was dependent on the formation of compact immunological synapses, interaction of the adaptor Vav1 with phosphorylated CD3 ITAMs to mediate the recruitment and activation of the oncogenic transcription factor Notch1 and, ultimately, proliferation induced by the cell-cycle regulator c-Myc. Analogous mechanistic events were also needed to drive proliferation in response to weak peptide agonists. Thus, the TCR-driven pathways that initiate cytokine secretion and proliferation are separable and are coordinated by the multiplicity of phosphorylated ITAMs in TCR-CD3.

  14. Strong TCR-mediated signals suppress integrated stress responses induced by KDELR1 deficiency in naive T cells.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Daisuke; Arima, Yasunobu; Tsuruoka, Mineko; Jiang, Jing-Jing; Bando, Hidenori; Meng, Jie; Sabharwal, Lavannya; Stofkova, Andrea; Nishikawa, Naoki; Higuchi, Kotaro; Ogura, Hideki; Atsumi, Toru; Murakami, Masaaki

    2016-03-01

    KDEL receptor 1 (KDELR1) regulates integrated stress responses (ISR) to promote naive T-cell survival in vivo. In a mouse line having nonfunctional KDELR1, T-Red (naive T-cell reduced) mice, polyclonal naive T cells show excessive ISR and eventually undergo apoptosis. However, breeding T-Red mice with TCR-transgenic mice bearing relatively high TCR affinity rescued the T-Red phenotype, implying a link between ISR-induced apoptosis and TCR-mediated signaling. Here, we showed that strong TCR stimulation reduces ISR in naive T cells. In mice lacking functional KDELR1, surviving naive T cells expressed significantly higher levels of CD5, a surrogate marker of TCR self-reactivity. In addition, higher TCR affinity/avidity was confirmed using a tetramer dissociation assay on the surviving naive T cells, suggesting that among the naive T-cell repertoire, those that receive relatively stronger TCR-mediated signals via self-antigens survive enhanced ISR. Consistent with this observation, weak TCR stimulation with altered peptide ligands decreased the survival and proliferation of naive T cells, whereas stimulation with ligands having higher affinity had no such effect. These results suggest a novel role of TCR-mediated signals in the attenuation of ISR in vivo.

  15. Fli-1 regulates the DN2 to DN3 thymocyte transition and promotes γδ T-cell commitment by enhancing TCR signal strength.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Monique F M A; Wiest, David L; Izon, David J

    2014-09-01

    Friend leukemia integration 1 (Fli-1) is a member of the Ets transcription factor family and is expressed during T-cell development; however, the role Fli-1 plays in early T-cell differentiation has not been elucidated. In this report, we demonstrate that in mouse, Fli-1 overexpression retards the CD4(-) CD8(-) double-negative (DN) to CD4(+) CD8(+) double-positive (DP) transition by deregulating normal DN thymocyte development. Specifically, Fli-1 expression moderates the DN2 and DN3 developmental transitions. We further show that Fli-1 overexpression partially mimics strong TCR signals in developing DN thymocytes and thereby enhances γδ T-cell development. Conversely, Fli-1 knockdown by small hairpin RNA reverses the lineage bias from γδ T cells and directs DN cells to the αβ lineage by attenuating TCR signaling. Therefore, Fli-1 plays a critical role in both the DN2 to DN3 transition and αβ/γδ lineage commitment.

  16. Altered production of immunoregulatory cytokines by invariant Valpha19 TCR-bearing cells dependent on the duration and intensity of TCR engagement.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Kobayashi, Masumi; Goji, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    Cells bearing invariant Valpha19-Jalpha33 TCR alpha chains are believed to participate in the regulation of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. In this study, the potential to produce immunoregulatory cytokines by these cells was characterized in order to find the mechanism underlying their immunoregulatory functions. Serum levels of IL-4, IL-10, transforming growth factor-beta, IFN-gamma and IL-17 increased in mice over-expressing an invariant Valpha19-Jalpha33 TCR alpha transgene (Valpha19 Tg) in response to anti-CD3 antibody injection. NK1.1(+) Valpha19 Tg(+), but not NK1.1(-) Valpha19 Tg(+) cells, promptly produced immunoregulatory IL-4, IFN-gamma and IL-17 upon invariant TCR engagement with immobilized anti-CD3 antibody in culture. The activation of Valpha19 Tg(+) cells then triggered the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by bystander cells. Interestingly, the ratio of T(h)2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10, but not pro-inflammatory IL-17, to IFN-gamma was increased when the intensity of the stimulation to invariant TCR was attenuated. Collectively, these findings suggest that invariant Valpha19 TCR(+) cells have the potential to participate in the regulation of inflammatory autoimmunity by producing T(h)2-biased cytokines in certain circumstances.

  17. Viral Escape Mutant Epitope Maintains TCR Affinity for Antigen yet Curtails CD8 T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Shorter, Shayla K; Schnell, Frederick J; McMaster, Sean R; Pinelli, David F; Andargachew, Rakieb; Evavold, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    T cells have the remarkable ability to recognize antigen with great specificity and in turn mount an appropriate and robust immune response. Critical to this process is the initial T cell antigen recognition and subsequent signal transduction events. This antigen recognition can be modulated at the site of TCR interaction with peptide:major histocompatibility (pMHC) or peptide interaction with the MHC molecule. Both events could have a range of effects on T cell fate. Though responses to antigens that bind sub-optimally to TCR, known as altered peptide ligands (APL), have been studied extensively, the impact of disrupting antigen binding to MHC has been highlighted to a lesser extent and is usually considered to result in complete loss of epitope recognition. Here we present a model of viral evasion from CD8 T cell immuno-surveillance by a lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) escape mutant with an epitope for which TCR affinity for pMHC remains high but where the antigenic peptide binds sub optimally to MHC. Despite high TCR affinity for variant epitope, levels of interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4) are not sustained in response to the variant indicating differences in perceived TCR signal strength. The CD8+ T cell response to the variant epitope is characterized by early proliferation and up-regulation of activation markers. Interestingly, this response is not maintained and is characterized by a lack in IL-2 and IFNγ production, increased apoptosis and an abrogated glycolytic response. We show that disrupting the stability of peptide in MHC can effectively disrupt TCR signal strength despite unchanged affinity for TCR and can significantly impact the CD8+ T cell response to a viral escape mutant.

  18. Viral Escape Mutant Epitope Maintains TCR Affinity for Antigen yet Curtails CD8 T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, Shayla K.; Schnell, Frederick J.; McMaster, Sean R.; Pinelli, David F.; Andargachew, Rakieb; Evavold, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    T cells have the remarkable ability to recognize antigen with great specificity and in turn mount an appropriate and robust immune response. Critical to this process is the initial T cell antigen recognition and subsequent signal transduction events. This antigen recognition can be modulated at the site of TCR interaction with peptide:major histocompatibility (pMHC) or peptide interaction with the MHC molecule. Both events could have a range of effects on T cell fate. Though responses to antigens that bind sub-optimally to TCR, known as altered peptide ligands (APL), have been studied extensively, the impact of disrupting antigen binding to MHC has been highlighted to a lesser extent and is usually considered to result in complete loss of epitope recognition. Here we present a model of viral evasion from CD8 T cell immuno-surveillance by a lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) escape mutant with an epitope for which TCR affinity for pMHC remains high but where the antigenic peptide binds sub optimally to MHC. Despite high TCR affinity for variant epitope, levels of interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4) are not sustained in response to the variant indicating differences in perceived TCR signal strength. The CD8+ T cell response to the variant epitope is characterized by early proliferation and up-regulation of activation markers. Interestingly, this response is not maintained and is characterized by a lack in IL-2 and IFNγ production, increased apoptosis and an abrogated glycolytic response. We show that disrupting the stability of peptide in MHC can effectively disrupt TCR signal strength despite unchanged affinity for TCR and can significantly impact the CD8+ T cell response to a viral escape mutant. PMID:26915099

  19. WT1-specific T cell receptor gene therapy: improving TCR function in transduced T cells.

    PubMed

    Stauss, Hans J; Thomas, Sharyn; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela; Hart, Daniel P; Xue, Shao-An; Holler, Angelika; King, Judy; Wright, Graham; Perro, Mario; Pospori, Constantina; Morris, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T lymphocytes is an attractive form of immunotherapy for haematological malignancies and cancer. The difficulty of isolating antigen-specific T lymphocytes for individual patients limits the more widespread use of adoptive T cell therapy. The demonstration that cloned T cell receptor (TCR) genes can be used to produce T lymphocyte populations of desired specificity offers new opportunities for antigen-specific T cell therapy. The first trial in humans demonstrated that TCR gene-modified T cells persisted for an extended time period and reduced tumor burden in some patients. The WT1 protein is an attractive target for immunotherapy of leukemia and solid cancer since elevated expression has been demonstrated in AML, CML, MDS and in breast, colon and ovarian cancer. In the past, we have isolated high avidity CTL specific for a WT1-derived peptide presented by HLA-A2 and cloned the TCR alpha and beta genes of a WT1-specific CTL line. The genes were inserted into retroviral vectors for transduction of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes of leukemia patients and normal donors. The treatment of leukemia-bearing NOD/SCID mice with T cells transduced with the WT1-specific TCR eliminated leukemia cells in the bone marrow of most mice, while treatment with T cells transduced with a TCR of irrelevant specificity did not diminish the leukemia burden. In order to improve the safety and efficacy of TCR gene therapy, we have developed lentiviral TCR gene transfer. In addition, we employed strategies to enhance TCR expression while avoiding TCR mis-pairing. It may be possible to generate dominant TCR constructs that can suppress the expression of the endogenous TCR on the surface of transduced T cells. The development of new TCR gene constructs holds great promise for the safe and effective delivery of TCR gene therapy for the treatment of malignancies.

  20. T-cell Receptor (TCR)-Peptide Specificity Overrides Affinity-enhancing TCR-Major Histocompatibility Complex Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    Cole, David K.; Miles, Kim M.; Madura, Florian; Holland, Christopher J.; Schauenburg, Andrea J. A.; Godkin, Andrew J.; Bulek, Anna M.; Fuller, Anna; Akpovwa, Hephzibah J. E.; Pymm, Phillip G.; Liddy, Nathaniel; Sami, Malkit; Li, Yi; Rizkallah, Pierre J.; Jakobsen, Bent K.; Sewell, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    αβ T-cell receptors (TCRs) engage antigens using complementarity-determining region (CDR) loops that are either germ line-encoded (CDR1 and CDR2) or somatically rearranged (CDR3). TCR ligands compose a presentation platform (major histocompatibility complex (MHC)) and a variable antigenic component consisting of a short “foreign” peptide. The sequence of events when the TCR engages its peptide-MHC (pMHC) ligand remains unclear. Some studies suggest that the germ line elements of the TCR engage the MHC prior to peptide scanning, but this order of binding is difficult to reconcile with some TCR-pMHC structures. Here, we used TCRs that exhibited enhanced pMHC binding as a result of mutations in either CDR2 and/or CDR3 loops, that bound to the MHC or peptide, respectively, to dissect the roles of these loops in stabilizing TCR-pMHC interactions. Our data show that TCR-peptide interactions play a strongly dominant energetic role providing a binding mode that is both temporally and energetically complementary with a system requiring positive selection by self-pMHC in the thymus and rapid recognition of non-self-pMHC in the periphery. PMID:24196962

  1. BAP31 is involved in T cell activation through TCR signal pathways

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Kunwei; Xu, Jialin; Cao, Yuhua; Hou, Yue; Shan, Mu; Wang, Yanqing; Xu, Yang; Sun, Mingyi; Wang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    BAP31 is a ubiquitously expressed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein. The functions of BAP31 in the immune system have not been investigated due to the lack of animal models. Therefore we created a BAP31 conditional knockdown mouse by performing a knockdown of BAP31 in the thymus. In doing so, we demonstrate that the maturation of T cells is normal but the number of T cells is less in the thymus of the knockout mouse. In addition, the spleen and lymph nodes of peripheral immune organs contained a lesser proportion of the mature T cells in the thymus specific BAP31 knockout mice. The BAP31 knockout T cells decreased the proliferation activated by TCR signal pathways. Further studies clarified that BAP31 affects the phosphorylation levels of both Zap70/Lck/Lat of the upstream members and Akt/GSK/Jnk/Erk of the downstream members of TCR signal pathways. Furthermore, BAP31 can regulate the expression of some markers such as CD3/TCRα/TCRβ and some cytokines like IL-2/IFN-γ/IL-6/TNF-α which are important for T cell activation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that BAP31 may play an important role in T cell activation by regulating TCR signaling. PMID:28333124

  2. Accumulation of raft lipids in T-cell plasma membrane domains engaged in TCR signalling

    PubMed Central

    Zech, Tobias; Ejsing, Christer S; Gaus, Katharina; de Wet, Ben; Shevchenko, Andrej; Simons, Kai; Harder, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Activating stimuli for T lymphocytes are transmitted through plasma membrane domains that form at T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signalling foci. Here, we determined the molecular lipid composition of immunoisolated TCR activation domains. We observed that they accumulate cholesterol, sphingomyelin and saturated phosphatidylcholine species as compared with control plasma membrane fragments. This provides, for the first time, direct evidence that TCR activation domains comprise a distinct molecular lipid composition reminiscent of liquid-ordered raft phases in model membranes. Interestingly, TCR activation domains were also enriched in plasmenyl phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine. Modulating the T-cell lipidome with polyunsaturated fatty acids impaired the plasma membrane condensation at TCR signalling foci and resulted in a perturbed molecular lipid composition. These results correlate the accumulation of specific molecular lipid species with the specific plasma membrane condensation at sites of TCR activation and with early TCR activation responses. PMID:19177148

  3. NKT cell-TCR expression activates conventional T cells in vivo, but is largely dispensable for mature NKT cell biology.

    PubMed

    Vahl, J Christoph; Heger, Klaus; Knies, Nathalie; Hein, Marco Y; Boon, Louis; Yagita, Hideo; Polic, Bojan; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cell development depends on recognition of self-glycolipids via their semi-invariant Vα14i-TCR. However, to what extent TCR-mediated signals determine identity and function of mature NKT cells remains incompletely understood. To address this issue, we developed a mouse strain allowing conditional Vα14i-TCR expression from within the endogenous Tcrα locus. We demonstrate that naïve T cells are activated upon replacement of their endogenous TCR repertoire with Vα14i-restricted TCRs, but they do not differentiate into NKT cells. On the other hand, induced TCR ablation on mature NKT cells did not affect their lineage identity, homeostasis, or innate rapid cytokine secretion abilities. We therefore propose that peripheral NKT cells become unresponsive to and thus are independent of their autoreactive TCR.

  4. Domain-swapped T cell receptors improve the safety of TCR gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bethune, Michael T; Gee, Marvin H; Bunse, Mario; Lee, Mark S; Gschweng, Eric H; Pagadala, Meghana S; Zhou, Jing; Cheng, Donghui; Heath, James R; Kohn, Donald B; Kuhns, Michael S; Uckert, Wolfgang; Baltimore, David

    2016-01-01

    T cells engineered to express a tumor-specific αβ T cell receptor (TCR) mediate anti-tumor immunity. However, mispairing of the therapeutic αβ chains with endogenous αβ chains reduces therapeutic TCR surface expression and generates self-reactive TCRs. We report a general strategy to prevent TCR mispairing: swapping constant domains between the α and β chains of a therapeutic TCR. When paired, domain-swapped (ds)TCRs assemble with CD3, express on the cell surface, and mediate antigen-specific T cell responses. By contrast, dsTCR chains mispaired with endogenous chains cannot properly assemble with CD3 or signal, preventing autoimmunity. We validate this approach in cell-based assays and in a mouse model of TCR gene transfer-induced graft-versus-host disease. We also validate a related approach whereby replacement of αβ TCR domains with corresponding γδ TCR domains yields a functional TCR that does not mispair. This work enables the design of safer TCR gene therapies for cancer immunotherapy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19095.001 PMID:27823582

  5. Domain-swapped T cell receptors improve the safety of TCR gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Bethune, Michael T; Gee, Marvin H; Bunse, Mario; Lee, Mark S; Gschweng, Eric H; Pagadala, Meghana S; Zhou, Jing; Cheng, Donghui; Heath, James R; Kohn, Donald B; Kuhns, Michael S; Uckert, Wolfgang; Baltimore, David

    2016-11-08

    T cells engineered to express a tumor-specific αβ T cell receptor (TCR) mediate anti-tumor immunity. However, mispairing of the therapeutic αβ chains with endogenous αβ chains reduces therapeutic TCR surface expression and generates self-reactive TCRs. We report a general strategy to prevent TCR mispairing: swapping constant domains between the α and β chains of a therapeutic TCR. When paired, domain-swapped (ds)TCRs assemble with CD3, express on the cell surface, and mediate antigen-specific T cell responses. By contrast, dsTCR chains mispaired with endogenous chains cannot properly assemble with CD3 or signal, preventing autoimmunity. We validate this approach in cell-based assays and in a mouse model of TCR gene transfer-induced graft-versus-host disease. We also validate a related approach whereby replacement of αβ TCR domains with corresponding γδ TCR domains yields a functional TCR that does not mispair. This work enables the design of safer TCR gene therapies for cancer immunotherapy.

  6. TCR ITAM multiplicity is required for the generation of follicular helper T-cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, SuJin; Palin, Amy C; Li, LiQi; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Jan; Herz, Jasmin; Tubo, Noah; Chu, Hamlet; Pepper, Marion; Lesourne, Renaud; Zvezdova, Ekaterina; Pinkhasov, Julia; Jenkins, Marc K; McGavern, Dorian; Love, Paul E

    2015-05-11

    The T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex contains 10 copies of a di-tyrosine Immunoreceptor-Tyrosine-based-Activation-Motif (ITAM) that initiates TCR signalling by recruiting protein tyrosine kinases. ITAM multiplicity amplifies TCR signals, but the importance of this capability for T-cell responses remains undefined. Most TCR ITAMs (6 of 10) are contributed by the CD3ζ subunits. We generated 'knock-in' mice that express non-signalling CD3ζ chains in lieu of wild-type CD3ζ. Here we demonstrate that ITAM multiplicity is important for the development of innate-like T-cells and follicular helper T-cells, events that are known to require strong/sustained TCR-ligand interactions, but is not essential for 'general' T-cell responses including proliferation and cytokine production or for the generation of a diverse antigen-reactive TCR repertoire.

  7. Tickling the TCR: selective T-cell functions stimulated by altered peptide ligands.

    PubMed

    Evavold, B D; Sloan-Lancaster, J; Allen, P M

    1993-12-01

    Recent observations of T-cell responses following T-cell receptor (TCR) interaction with altered peptide ligands have highlighted the complexity of this signalling system. The indications are that the TCR responds to minor changes in ligand with gradations of T-cell activation and effector functions. Brian Evavold, Joanne Sloan-Lancaster and Paul Allen review these studies and present a model in which partial T-cell activation and TCR antagonism are related events in a continuum of signalling through the TCR.

  8. T cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer with lentiviral vectors allows efficient redirection of tumor specificity in naive and memory T cells without prior stimulation of endogenous TCR.

    PubMed

    Circosta, Paola; Granziero, Luisa; Follenzi, Antonia; Vigna, Elisa; Stella, Stefania; Vallario, Antonella; Elia, Angela Rita; Gammaitoni, Loretta; Vitaggio, Katiuscia; Orso, Francesca; Geuna, Massimo; Sangiolo, Dario; Todorovic, Maja; Giachino, Claudia; Cignetti, Alessandro

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the possibility of introducing exogenous T cell receptor (TCR) genes into T cells by lentiviral transduction, without prior stimulation of endogenous TCR with anti-CD3. TCR transfer is used to impose tumor antigen specificity on recipient T cells, but sustained activation required for retroviral transduction may affect the clinical efficacy of engineered T cells. Cytokine stimulation makes T cells susceptible to lentiviral transduction in the absence of TCR triggering, but this advantage has never been exploited for TCR transfer. Autoimmune diseases are a source of high-affinity TCRs specific for self/tumor antigens. We selected, from a patient with vitiligo, a Mart1-specific TCR based on intrinsic interchain pairing properties and functional avidity. After lentiviral transduction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, preferential pairing of exogenous alpha and beta chains was observed, together with effective recognition of Mart1(+) melanoma cells. We tested transduction efficiency on various T cell subsets prestimulated with interleukin (IL)-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 (alone or in combination). Both naive and unfractionated CD8(+) T cells could be transduced without requiring endogenous TCR triggering. IL-7 plus IL-15 was the most powerful combination, allowing high levels of transgene expression without inducing T cell differentiation (34 +/- 5% Mart1-TCR(+) cells in naive CD8(+) and 16 +/- 6% in unfractionated CD8(+)). Cytokine-prestimulated, Mart1-redirected naive and unfractionated CD8(+) cells expanded better than CD3-CD28-prestimulated counterparts in response to both peptide-pulsed antigen-presenting cells and Mart1(+) melanoma cells. This strategy allows the generation of tumor-specific T cells encompassing truly naive T cells, endowed with an intact proliferative potential and a preserved differentiation stage.

  9. Enforcement of γδ-lineage commitment by the pre–T-cell receptor in precursors with weak γδ-TCR signals

    PubMed Central

    Zarin, Payam; Wong, Gladys W.; Mohtashami, Mahmood; Wiest, David L.; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Developing thymocytes bifurcate from a bipotent precursor into αβ- or γδ-lineage T cells. Considering this common origin and the fact that the T-cell receptor (TCR) β-, γ-, and δ-chains simultaneously rearrange at the double negative (DN) stage of development, the possibility exists that a given DN cell can express and transmit signals through both the pre-TCR and γδ-TCR. Here, we tested this scenario by defining the differentiation outcomes and criteria for lineage choice when both TCR-β and γδ-TCR are simultaneously expressed in Rag2−/− DN cells via retroviral transduction. Our results showed that Rag2−/− DN cells expressing both TCRs developed along the γδ-lineage, down-regulated CD24 expression, and up-regulated CD73 expression, showed a γδ-biased gene-expression profile, and produced IFN-γ in response to stimulation. However, in the absence of Inhibitor of DNA-binding 3 expression and strong γδ-TCR ligand, γδ-expressing cells showed a lower propensity to differentiate along the γδ-lineage. Importantly, differentiation along the γδ-lineage was restored by pre-TCR coexpression, which induced greater down-regulation of CD24, higher levels of CD73, Nr4a2, and Rgs1, and recovery of functional competence to produce IFN-γ. These results confirm a requirement for a strong γδ-TCR ligand engagement to promote maturation along the γδ T-cell lineage, whereas additional signals from the pre-TCR can serve to enforce a γδ-lineage choice in the case of weaker γδ-TCR signals. Taken together, these findings further cement the view that the cumulative signal strength sensed by developing DN cells serves to dictate its lineage choice. PMID:24706811

  10. Enforcement of γδ-lineage commitment by the pre-T-cell receptor in precursors with weak γδ-TCR signals.

    PubMed

    Zarin, Payam; Wong, Gladys W; Mohtashami, Mahmood; Wiest, David L; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan Carlos

    2014-04-15

    Developing thymocytes bifurcate from a bipotent precursor into αβ- or γδ-lineage T cells. Considering this common origin and the fact that the T-cell receptor (TCR) β-, γ-, and δ-chains simultaneously rearrange at the double negative (DN) stage of development, the possibility exists that a given DN cell can express and transmit signals through both the pre-TCR and γδ-TCR. Here, we tested this scenario by defining the differentiation outcomes and criteria for lineage choice when both TCR-β and γδ-TCR are simultaneously expressed in Rag2(-/-) DN cells via retroviral transduction. Our results showed that Rag2(-/-) DN cells expressing both TCRs developed along the γδ-lineage, down-regulated CD24 expression, and up-regulated CD73 expression, showed a γδ-biased gene-expression profile, and produced IFN-γ in response to stimulation. However, in the absence of Inhibitor of DNA-binding 3 expression and strong γδ-TCR ligand, γδ-expressing cells showed a lower propensity to differentiate along the γδ-lineage. Importantly, differentiation along the γδ-lineage was restored by pre-TCR coexpression, which induced greater down-regulation of CD24, higher levels of CD73, Nr4a2, and Rgs1, and recovery of functional competence to produce IFN-γ. These results confirm a requirement for a strong γδ-TCR ligand engagement to promote maturation along the γδ T-cell lineage, whereas additional signals from the pre-TCR can serve to enforce a γδ-lineage choice in the case of weaker γδ-TCR signals. Taken together, these findings further cement the view that the cumulative signal strength sensed by developing DN cells serves to dictate its lineage choice.

  11. Cutting edge: CTLs rapidly capture membrane fragments from target cells in a TCR signaling-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Hudrisier, D; Riond, J; Mazarguil, H; Gairin, J E; Joly, E

    2001-03-15

    Upon encounter of a CTL with a target cell carrying foreign Ags, the TCR internalizes with its ligand, the peptide-MHC class I complex. However, it is unclear how this can happen mechanistically because MHC molecules are anchored to the target cell's surface via a transmembrane domain. By using antigenic peptides and lipids that were fluorescently labeled, we found that CTLs promptly capture target cell membranes together with the antigenic peptide as well as various other surface proteins. This efficient and specific capture process requires sustained TCR signaling. Our observations indicate that this process allows efficient acquisition of the Ag by CTL, which may in turn regulate lymphocyte activation or elimination.

  12. Suppression of lethal autoimmunity by regulatory T cells with a single TCR specificity.

    PubMed

    Levine, Andrew G; Hemmers, Saskia; Baptista, Antonio P; Schizas, Michail; Faire, Mehlika B; Moltedo, Bruno; Konopacki, Catherine; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Germain, Ronald N; Treuting, Piper M; Rudensky, Alexander Y

    2017-03-06

    The regulatory T cell (T reg cell) T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is highly diverse and skewed toward recognition of self-antigens. TCR expression by T reg cells is continuously required for maintenance of immune tolerance and for a major part of their characteristic gene expression signature; however, it remains unknown to what degree diverse TCR-mediated interactions with cognate self-antigens are required for these processes. In this study, by experimentally switching the T reg cell TCR repertoire to a single T reg cell TCR, we demonstrate that T reg cell function and gene expression can be partially uncoupled from TCR diversity. An induced switch of the T reg cell TCR repertoire to a random repertoire also preserved, albeit to a limited degree, the ability to suppress lymphadenopathy and T helper cell type 2 activation. At the same time, these perturbations of the T reg cell TCR repertoire led to marked immune cell activation, tissue inflammation, and an ultimately severe autoimmunity, indicating the importance of diversity and specificity for optimal T reg cell function.

  13. Detection of a T cell receptor delta chain with an anti-TCR alpha chain serum.

    PubMed

    Leca, G; Bories, J C; Davi, F; Bensussan, A

    1990-04-01

    Two types of T cell antigen-specific receptors have been described. Most peripheral blood T lymphocytes express, at their surface, an antigen receptor consisting of alpha and beta subunits, while a small subset of thymocytes and a minority of mature T lymphocytes express a heterodimeric receptor termed gamma delta. Whereas the gene segments localization corresponding to the TCR gamma and beta chains are separate, genes encoding the joining and the constant regions of TCR delta chain are located between the TCR V alpha region and the J alpha-C alpha gene cluster. To determine whether V alpha gene segments are used by delta chains, immunoprecipitations from human TCR gamma delta expressing cell clones were performed with an anti-alpha serum. The results show that a rabbit antiserum raised against the purified REX TCR alpha subunit immunoprecipitates a TCR delta chain from the cell surface of only one human T cell clone termed SO1. However, since no SO1 RNA hybridization is observed with REX TCR V alpha probe and SO1 cloned cells do react with an anti-V delta 2 monoclonal antibody, we conclude that TCR delta and alpha chains expressed a limited structural homology and that REX TCR V alpha gene do not seem to be frequently used in a functional delta chain.

  14. Functional comparison of engineered T cells carrying a native TCR versus TCR-like antibody-based chimeric antigen receptors indicates affinity/avidity thresholds.

    PubMed

    Oren, Ravit; Hod-Marco, Moran; Haus-Cohen, Maya; Thomas, Sharyn; Blat, Dan; Duvshani, Nerri; Denkberg, Galit; Elbaz, Yael; Benchetrit, Fabrice; Eshhar, Zelig; Stauss, Hans; Reiter, Yoram

    2014-12-01

    Adoptive transfer of Ag-specific T lymphocytes is an attractive form of immunotherapy for cancers. However, acquiring sufficient numbers of host-derived tumor-specific T lymphocytes by selection and expansion is challenging, as these cells may be rare or anergic. Using engineered T cells can overcome this difficulty. Such engineered cells can be generated using a chimeric Ag receptor based on common formats composed from Ag-recognition elements such as αβ-TCR genes with the desired specificity, or Ab variable domain fragments fused with T cell-signaling moieties. Combining these recognition elements are Abs that recognize peptide-MHC. Such TCR-like Abs mimic the fine specificity of TCRs and exhibit both the binding properties and kinetics of high-affinity Abs. In this study, we compared the functional properties of engineered T cells expressing a native low affinity αβ-TCR chains or high affinity TCR-like Ab-based CAR targeting the same specificity. We isolated high-affinity TCR-like Abs recognizing HLA-A2-WT1Db126 complexes and constructed CAR that was transduced into T cells. Comparative analysis revealed major differences in function and specificity of such CAR-T cells or native TCR toward the same antigenic complex. Whereas the native low-affinity αβ-TCR maintained potent cytotoxic activity and specificity, the high-affinity TCR-like Ab CAR exhibited reduced activity and loss of specificity. These results suggest an upper affinity threshold for TCR-based recognition to mediate effective functional outcomes of engineered T cells. The rational design of TCRs and TCR-based constructs may need to be optimized up to a given affinity threshold to achieve optimal T cell function.

  15. Higher Sensitivity of Foxp3+ Treg Compared to Foxp3- Conventional T Cells to TCR-Independent Signals for CD69 Induction.

    PubMed

    Bremser, Anna; Brack, Maria; Izcue, Ana

    2015-01-01

    T lymphocytes elicit specific responses after recognizing cognate antigen. However, antigen-experienced T cells can also respond to non-cognate stimuli, such as cytokines. CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) exhibit an antigen-experienced-like phenotype. Treg can regulate T cell responses in an antigen-specific or bystander way, and it is still unclear as to which extent they rely on T cell receptor (TCR) signals. The study of the antigen response of Treg has been hampered by the lack of downstream readouts for TCR stimuli. Here we assess the effects of TCR signals on the expression of a classical marker of early T cell activation, CD69. Although it can be induced following cytokine exposure, CD69 is commonly used as a readout for antigen response on T cells. We established that upon in vitro TCR stimulation CD69 induction on Foxp3+ Treg cells was more dependent on signaling via soluble factors than on TCR activation. By contrast, expression of the activation marker Nur77 was only induced after TCR stimulation. Our data suggest that Treg are more sensitive to TCR-independent signals than Foxp3- cells, which could contribute to their bystander activity.

  16. T follicular helper and T follicular regulatory cells have different TCR specificity

    PubMed Central

    Maceiras, Ana Raquel; Almeida, Silvia Cristina Paiva; Mariotti-Ferrandiz, Encarnita; Chaara, Wahiba; Jebbawi, Fadi; Six, Adrien; Hori, Shohei; Klatzmann, David; Faro, Jose; Graca, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Immunization leads to the formation of germinal centres (GCs) that contain both T follicular helper (Tfh) and T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells. Whether T-cell receptor (TCR) specificity defines the differential functions of Tfh and Tfr cells is unclear. Here we show that antigen-specific T cells after immunization are preferentially recruited to the GC to become Tfh cells, but not Tfr cells. Tfh cells, but not Tfr cells, also proliferate efficiently on restimulation with the same immunizing antigen in vitro. Ex vivo TCR repertoire analysis shows that immunization induces oligoclonal expansion of Tfh cells. By contrast, the Tfr pool has a TCR repertoire that more closely resembles that of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Our data thus indicate that the GC Tfh and Tfr pools are generated from distinct TCR repertoires, with Tfh cells expressing antigen-responsive TCRs to promote antibody responses, and Tfr cells expressing potentially autoreactive TCRs to suppress autoimmunity. PMID:28429709

  17. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin disrupts TCR signaling in CD1d-restricted NKT cells leading to functional anergy.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sunil K; Lang, Gillian A; Larabee, Jason L; Devera, T Scott; Aye, Lindsay M; Shah, Hemangi B; Ballard, Jimmy D; Lang, Mark L

    2009-09-01

    Exogenous CD1d-binding glycolipid (alpha-Galactosylceramide, alpha-GC) stimulates TCR signaling and activation of type-1 natural killer-like T (NKT) cells. Activated NKT cells play a central role in the regulation of adaptive and protective immune responses against pathogens and tumors. In the present study, we tested the effect of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT) on NKT cells both in vivo and in vitro. LT is a binary toxin known to suppress host immune responses during anthrax disease and intoxicates cells by protective antigen (PA)-mediated intracellular delivery of lethal factor (LF), a potent metalloprotease. We observed that NKT cells expressed anthrax toxin receptors (CMG-2 and TEM-8) and bound more PA than other immune cell types. A sub-lethal dose of LT administered in vivo in C57BL/6 mice decreased expression of the activation receptor NKG2D by NKT cells but not by NK cells. The in vivo administration of LT led to decreased TCR-induced cytokine secretion but did not affect TCR expression. Further analysis revealed LT-dependent inhibition of TCR-stimulated MAP kinase signaling in NKT cells attributable to LT cleavage of the MAP kinase kinase MEK-2. We propose that Bacillus anthracis-derived LT causes a novel form of functional anergy in NKT cells and therefore has potential for contributing to immune evasion by the pathogen.

  18. Optimization of T-cell Reactivity by Exploiting TCR Chain Centricity for the Purpose of Safe and Effective Antitumor TCR Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Toshiki; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Chamoto, Kenji; Tanaka, Shinya; Yamashita, Yuki; Guo, Tingxi; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Yasukawa, Masaki; Butler, Marcus O; Hirano, Naoto

    2015-09-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells redirected by a high-affinity antitumor T-cell receptor (TCR) is a promising treatment modality for cancer patients. Safety and efficacy depend on the selection of a TCR that induces minimal toxicity and elicits sufficient antitumor reactivity. Many, if not all, TCRs possess cross-reactivity to unrelated MHC molecules in addition to reactivity to target self-MHC/peptide complexes. Some TCRs display chain centricity, in which recognition of MHC/peptide complexes is dominated by one of the TCR hemi-chains. In this study, we comprehensively studied how TCR chain centricity affects reactivity to target self-MHC/peptide complexes and alloreactivity using the TCR, clone TAK1, which is specific for human leukocyte antigen-A*24:02/Wilms tumor 1(235-243) (A24/WT1(235)) and cross-reactive with B*57:01 (B57). The TAK1β, but not the TAK1α, hemi-chain possessed chain centricity. When paired with multiple clonotypic TCRα counter-chains encoding TRAV12-2, 20, 36, or 38-2, the de novo TAK1β-containing TCRs showed enhanced, weakened, or absent reactivity to A24/WT1(235) and/or to B57. T cells reconstituted with these TCRα genes along with TAK1β possessed a very broad range (>3 log orders) of functional and structural avidities. These results suggest that TCR chain centricity can be exploited to enhance desired antitumor TCR reactivity and eliminate unwanted TCR cross-reactivity. TCR reactivity to target MHC/peptide complexes and cross-reactivity to unrelated MHC molecules are not inextricably linked and are separable at the TCR sequence level. However, it is still mandatory to carefully monitor for possible harmful toxicities caused by adoptive transfer of T cells redirected by thymically unselected TCRs.

  19. Pretreatment of activated human CD8 T cells with IL-12 leads to enhanced TCR-induced signaling and cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Vacaflores, Aldo; Freedman, Samantha N; Chapman, Nicole M; Houtman, Jon C D

    2017-01-01

    During the immune response to pathogens and autoantigens, CD8T cells are exposed to numerous inflammatory agents including the cytokine IL-12. Previous studies have focused on how IL-12 regulates T cell functions when present during or after the activation of the T cell receptor (TCR). However, recent studies suggest that prior exposure to IL-12 also alters the TCR responsiveness of murine T cells. Whether similar phenomena occur in human activated CD8T cells and the mechanisms mediating these effects remain unexplored. In this study, we observed that pretreatment of human activated CD8T cells with IL-12 results in increased cytokine mRNA and protein production following subsequent TCR challenge. The potentiation of TCR-mediated cytokine release was transient and required low doses of IL-12 for at least 24h. Mechanistically, prior exposure to IL-12 increased the TCR induced activation of select MAPKs and AKT without altering the activation of more proximal TCR signaling molecules, suggesting that the IL-12 mediated changes in TCR signaling are responsible for the increased production of cytokines. Our data suggest that prior treatment with IL-12 potentiates human CD8T cell responses at sites of infection and inflammation, expanding our understanding of the function of this clinically important cytokine.

  20. Antigen Specificity of Type I NKT Cells Is Governed by TCR β-Chain Diversity.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Garth; Pellicci, Daniel G; Uldrich, Adam P; Besra, Gurdyal S; Illarionov, Petr; Williams, Spencer J; La Gruta, Nicole L; Rossjohn, Jamie; Godfrey, Dale I

    2015-11-15

    NKT cells recognize lipid-based Ags presented by CD1d. Type I NKT cells are often referred to as invariant owing to their mostly invariant TCR α-chain usage (Vα14-Jα18 in mice, Vα24-Jα18 in humans). However, these cells have diverse TCR β-chains, including Vβ8, Vβ7, and Vβ2 in mice and Vβ11 in humans, joined to a range of TCR Dβ and Jβ genes. In this study, we demonstrate that TCR β-chain composition can dramatically influence lipid Ag recognition in an Ag-dependent manner. Namely, the glycolipids α-glucosylceramide and isoglobotrihexosylceramide were preferentially recognized by Vβ7(+) NKT cells from mice, whereas the α-galactosylceramide analog OCH, with a truncated sphingosine chain, was preferentially recognized by Vβ8(+) NKT cells from mice. We show that the influence of the TCR β-chain is due to a combination of Vβ-, Jβ-, and CDR3β-encoded residues and that these TCRs can recapitulate the selective Ag reactivity in TCR-transduced cell lines. Similar observations were made with human NKT cells where different CDR3β-encoded residues determined Ag preference. These findings indicate that NKT TCR β-chain diversity results in differential and nonhierarchical Ag recognition by these cells, which implies that some Ags can preferentially activate type I NKT cell subsets.

  1. Discrete TCR Binding Kinetics Control Invariant NKT Cell Selection and Central Priming.

    PubMed

    Cruz Tleugabulova, Mayra; Escalante, Nichole K; Deng, Shenglou; Fieve, Stephanie; Ereño-Orbea, June; Savage, Paul B; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Mallevaey, Thierry

    2016-11-15

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells develop and differentiate in the thymus, segregating into iNKT1/2/17 subsets akin to Th1/2/17 classical CD4(+) T cells; however, iNKT TCRs recognize Ags in a fundamentally different way. How the biophysical parameters of iNKT TCRs influence signal strength in vivo and how such signals affect the development and differentiation of these cells are unknown. In this study, we manipulated TCRs in vivo to generate clonotypic iNKT cells using TCR retrogenic chimeras. We report that the biophysical properties of CD1d-lipid-TCR interactions differentially impacted the development and effector differentiation of iNKT cells. Whereas selection efficiency strongly correlated with TCR avidity, TCR signaling, cell-cell conjugate formation, and iNKT effector differentiation correlated with the half-life of CD1d-lipid-TCR interactions. TCR binding properties, however, did not modulate Ag-induced iNKT cytokine production. Our work establishes that discrete TCR interaction kinetics influence iNKT cell development and central priming. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Contribution of TCR signaling strength to CD8+ T cell peripheral tolerance mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Smith, Trevor R F; Verdeil, Gregory; Marquardt, Kristi; Sherman, Linda A

    2014-10-01

    Peripheral tolerance mechanisms are in place to prevent T cells from mediating aberrant immune responses directed against self and environmental Ags. Mechanisms involved in the induction of peripheral tolerance include T cell-intrinsic pathways, such as anergy or deletion, or exogenous tolerance mediated by regulatory T cells. We have previously shown that the density of peptide-MHC class I recognized by the TCR determines whether CD8(+) T cells undergo anergy or deletion. Specifically, using a TCR-transgenic CD8(+) T cell model, we demonstrated that persistent peripheral exposure to low- or high-dose peptides in the absence of inflammatory signals resulted in clonal deletion or anergy of the T cell, respectively. In this study, by altering the affinity of the peptide-MHC tolerogen for TCR, we have confirmed that this mechanism is dependent on the level of TCR signaling that the CD8(+) T cell receives. Using altered peptide ligands (APLs) displaying high TCR affinities, we show that increasing the TCR signaling favors anergy induction. Conversely, using APLs displaying a decreased TCR affinity tilted our system in the direction of deletional tolerance. We demonstrate how differential peripheral CD8(+) T cell tolerance mechanisms are controlled by both the potency and density of MHC class I-peptide tolerogen.

  3. McPAS-TCR: a manually curated catalogue of pathology-associated T cell receptor sequences.

    PubMed

    Tickotsky, Nili; Sagiv, Tal; Prilusky, Jaime; Shifrut, Eric; Friedman, Nir

    2017-09-15

    While growing numbers of T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires are being mapped by high-throughput sequencing, existing methods do not allow for computationally connecting a given TCR sequence to its target antigen, or relating it to a specific pathology. As an alternative, a manually-curated database can relate TCR sequences with their cognate antigens and associated pathologies based on published experimental data. We present McPAS-TCR, a manually curated database of TCR sequences associated with various pathologies and antigens based on published literature. Our database currently contains more than 5000 sequences of TCRs associated with various pathologic conditions (including pathogen infections, cancer and autoimmunity) and their respective antigens in humans and in mice. A web-based tool allows for searching the database based on different criteria, and for finding annotated sequences from the database in users' data. The McPAS-TCR website assembles information from a large number of studies that is very hard to dissect otherwise. Initial analyses of the data provide interesting insights on pathology-associated TCR sequences. Free access at http://friedmanlab.weizmann.ac.il/McPAS-TCR/ . nir.friedman@weizmann.ac.il.

  4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF DIFFERENTIALLY-INDUCED TCR-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION PATHWAYS IN T LYMPHOMA CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Serina; Lee, Wenhui; Smith, David; Forman, Stephen J.; Lee, Terry D.; Liu, Chih-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Activation of T lymphoma cells expressing Syk, but not ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase, has been shown to negatively regulate cell activation and activation induced cell death (AICD), perhaps due to differential induction of tyrosine phosphorylation modified proteins. To better understand the role of these proteins and their associated molecules/pathways, we studied a previously described model of T lymphoma cells expressing either a kinase-activated chimeric Syk or ZAP-70 genetically linked to TCR ζ chain (Z/Syk or Z/ZAP cells, respectively). To help identify molecules and pathways linked to cell activation or AICD, a comparative semi-quantitative proteomics-based approach was utilized to analyze tyrosine phosphorylated protein immunoprecipitates from 2 min short-term activated Z/Syk or Z/ZAP cells. Using the resulting bioinformatics datasets, we identified several differentially immunoprecipitated proteins that could be validated biochemically. More tyrosine-phosphorylated and phosphotyrosine-associated proteins were found in Z/Syk than in Z/ZAP cells. Proteins involved in different unique functional pathways were induced in these cells and showed altered intermolecular interactions in varied pathways. Remarkably, 41% of differentially identified proteins in Z/Syk cells belonged to cell cycle or vesicle/trafficking pathways. In contrast, 21% of such proteins in Z/ZAP cells belonged to metabolism pathways. Therefore, molecular pathways involved in post-translational modifications linked to distinct cellular/physiological functions are differentially activated, which may contribute to varied activation and AICD responses of these cells. In summary, we identified proteins belonging to novel differentially activated pathways involved in TCR-mediated signaling, which may be targets for regulating activation and AICD of T lymphoma cells and for potential cancer therapy. PMID:21127342

  5. IL-2 Modulates the TCR Signaling Threshold for CD8 but Not CD4 T Cell Proliferation on a Single-Cell Level.

    PubMed

    Au-Yeung, Byron B; Smith, Geoffrey Alexander; Mueller, James L; Heyn, Cheryl S; Jaszczak, Rebecca Garrett; Weiss, Arthur; Zikherman, Julie

    2017-03-15

    Lymphocytes integrate Ag and cytokine receptor signals to make cell fate decisions. Using a specific reporter of TCR signaling that is insensitive to cytokine signaling, Nur77-eGFP, we identify a sharp, minimal threshold of cumulative TCR signaling required for proliferation in CD4 and CD8 T cells that is independent of both Ag concentration and affinity. Unexpectedly, IL-2 reduces this threshold in CD8 but not CD4 T cells, suggesting that integration of multiple mitogenic inputs may alter the minimal requirement for TCR signaling in CD8 T cells. Neither naive CD4 nor naive CD8 T cells are responsive to low doses of IL-2. We show that activated CD8 T cells become responsive to low doses of IL-2 more quickly than CD4 T cells, and propose that this relative delay in turn accounts for the differential effects of IL-2 on the minimal TCR signaling threshold for proliferation in these populations. In contrast to Nur77-eGFP, c-Myc protein expression integrates mitogenic signals downstream of both IL-2 and the TCR, yet marks an invariant minimal threshold of cumulative mitogenic stimulation required for cell division. Our work provides a conceptual framework for understanding the regulation of clonal expansion of CD8 T cells by subthreshold TCR signaling in the context of mitogenic IL-2 signals, thereby rendering CD8 T cells exquisitely dependent upon environmental cues. Conversely, CD4 T cell proliferation requires an invariant minimal intensity of TCR signaling that is not modulated by IL-2, thereby restricting responses to low-affinity or low-abundance self-antigens even in the context of an inflammatory milieu.

  6. Therapeutic vaccination with a trivalent T-cell receptor (TCR) peptide vaccine restores deficient FoxP3 expression and TCR recognition in subjects with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vandenbark, Arthur A; Culbertson, Nicole E; Bartholomew, Richard M; Huan, Jianya; Agotsch, Marci; LaTocha, Dorian; Yadav, Vijayshree; Mass, Michele; Whitham, Ruth; Lovera, Jesus; Milano, June; Theofan, Georgia; Chou, Yuan K; Offner, Halina; Bourdette, Dennis N

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccination using T-cell receptor (TCR) peptides from V genes commonly expressed by potentially pathogenic T cells remains an approach of interest for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other autoimmune diseases. We developed a trivalent TCR vaccine containing complementarity determining region (CDR) 2 peptides from BV5S2, BV6S5 and BV13S1 emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant that reliably induced high frequencies of TCR-specific T cells. To evaluate induction of regulatory T-cell subtypes, immunological and clinical parameters were followed in 23 treatment-naïve subjects with relapsing-remitting or progressive MS who received 12 monthly injections of the trivalent peptide vaccine over 1 year in an open-label study design. Prior to vaccination, subjects had reduced expression of forkhead box (Fox) P3 message and protein, and reduced recognition of the expressed TCR repertoire by TCR-reactive cells compared with healthy control donors. After three or four injections, most vaccinated MS subjects developed high frequencies of circulating interleukin (IL)-10-secreting T cells specific for the injected TCR peptides and significantly enhanced expression of FoxP3 by regulatory T cells present in both 'native' CD4+ CD25+ and 'inducible' CD4+ CD25- peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). At the end of the trial, PBMC from vaccinated MS subjects retained or further increased FoxP3 expression levels, exhibited significantly enhanced recognition of the TCR V gene repertoire apparently generated by perturbation of the TCR network, and significantly suppressed neuroantigen but not recall antigen responses. These findings demonstrate that therapeutic vaccination using only three commonly expressed BV gene determinants can induce an expanded immunoregulatory network in vivo that may optimally control complex autoreactive responses that characterize the inflammatory phase of MS.

  7. T-Cell Receptor (TCR) Clonotype-Specific Differences in Inhibitory Activity of HIV-1 Cytotoxic T-Cell Clones Is Not Mediated by TCR Alone.

    PubMed

    Flerin, Nina C; Chen, Huabiao; Glover, Tynisha D; Lamothe, Pedro A; Zheng, Jian Hua; Fang, Justin W; Ndhlovu, Zaza M; Newell, Evan W; Davis, Mark M; Walker, Bruce D; Goldstein, Harris

    2017-03-15

    Functional analysis of T-cell responses in HIV-infected individuals has indicated that virus-specific CD8(+) T cells with superior antiviral efficacy are well represented in HIV-1 controllers but are rare or absent in HIV-1 progressors. To define the role of individual T-cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes in differential antiviral CD8(+) T-cell function, we performed detailed functional and mass cytometric cluster analysis of multiple CD8(+) T-cell clones recognizing the identical HLA-B*2705-restricted HIV-1 epitope KK10 (KRWIILGLNK). Effective and ineffective CD8(+) T-cell clones segregated based on responses to HIV-1-infected and peptide-loaded target cells. Following cognate peptide stimulation, effective HIV-specific clones displayed significantly more rapid TCR signal propagation, more efficient initial lytic granule release, and more sustained nonlytic cytokine and chemokine secretion than ineffective clones. To evaluate the TCR clonotype contribution to CD8(+) T-cell function, we cloned the TCR α and β chain genes from one effective and two ineffective CD8(+) T-cell clones from an elite controller into TCR-expressing lentivectors. We show that Jurkat/MA cells and primary CD8(+) T cells transduced with lentivirus expressing TCR from one of the ineffective clones exhibited a level of activation by cognate peptide and inhibition of in vitro HIV-1 infection, respectively, that were comparable to those of the effective clonotype. Taken together, these data suggest that the potent antiviral capacity of some HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells is a consequence of factors in addition to TCR sequence that modulate functionality and contribute to the increased antiviral capacity of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in elite controllers to inhibit HIV infection.IMPORTANCE The greater ex vivo antiviral inhibitory activity of CD8(+) T cells from elite controllers than from HIV-1 progressors supports the crucial role of effective HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in controlling HIV-1

  8. GADS is Required for TCR-Mediated Calcium Influx and Cytokine Release, but not Cellular Adhesion, in Human T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Mahmood Y.; Zhang, Elizabeth Y.; Dinkel, Brittney; Hardy, Daimon; Yankee, Thomas M.; Houtman, Jon C.D.

    2015-01-01

    GRB2 related adaptor protein downstream of Shc (GADS) is a member of the GRB2 family of adaptors and is critical for TCR-induced signaling. The current model is that GADS recruits SLP-76 to the LAT complex, which facilitates the phosphorylation of SLP-76, the activation of PLC-γ1, T cell adhesion and cytokine production. However, this model is largely based on studies of disruption of the GADS/SLP-76 interaction and murine T cell differentiation in GADS deficient mice. The role of GADS in mediating TCR-induced signals in human CD4+ T cells has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we have suppressed the expression of GADS in human CD4+ HuT78 T cells. GADS deficient HuT78 T cells displayed similar levels of TCR-induced SLP-76 and PLC-γ1 phosphorylation but exhibited substantial decrease in TCR-induced IL-2 and IFN-γ release. The defect in cytokine production occurred because of impaired calcium mobilization due to reduced recruitment of SLP-76 and PLC-γ1 to the LAT complex. Surprisingly, both GADS deficient HuT78 and GADS deficient primary murine CD8+ T cells had similar TCR-induced adhesion when compared to control T cells. Overall, our results show that GADS is required for calcium influx and cytokine production, but not cellular adhesion, in human CD4+ T cells, suggesting that the current model for T cell regulation by GADS is incomplete. PMID:25636200

  9. Allelic Exclusion and Peripheral Reconstitution by TCR Transgenic T Cells Arising From Transduced Human Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Giannoni, Francesca; Hardee, Cinnamon L; Wherley, Jennifer; Gschweng, Eric; Senadheera, Shantha; Kaufman, Michael L; Chan, Rebecca; Bahner, Ingrid; Gersuk, Vivian; Wang, Xiaoyan; Gjertson, David; Baltimore, David; Witte, Owen N; Economou, James S; Ribas, Antoni; Kohn, Donald B

    2013-01-01

    Transduction and transplantation of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) with the genes for a T-cell receptor (TCR) that recognizes a tumor-associated antigen may lead to sustained long-term production of T cells expressing the TCR and confer specific antitumor activity. We evaluated this using a lentiviral vector (CCLc-MND-F5) carrying cDNA for a human TCR specific for an HLA-A*0201-restricted peptide of Melanoma Antigen Recognized by T cells (MART-1). CD34+ HSPC were transduced with the F5 TCR lentiviral vector or mock transduced and transplanted into neonatal NSG mice or NSG mice transgenic for human HLA-A*0201 (NSG-A2). Human CD8+ and CD4+ T cells expressing the human F5 TCR were present in the thymus, spleen, and peripheral blood after 4–5 months. Expression of human HLA-A*0201 in NSG-A2 recipient mice led to significantly increased numbers of human CD8+ and CD4+ T cells expressing the F5 TCR, compared with control NSG recipients. Transduction of the human CD34+ HSPC by the F5 TCR transgene caused a high degree of allelic exclusion, potently suppressing rearrangement of endogenous human TCR-β genes during thymopoiesis. In summary, we demonstrated the feasibility of engineering human HSPC to express a tumor-specific TCR to serve as a long-term source of tumor-targeted mature T cells for immunotherapy of melanoma. PMID:23380815

  10. Generation of V α13/β21+T cell specific target CML cells by TCR gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Zha, Xianfeng; Xu, Ling; Chen, Shaohua; Yang, Lijian; Zhang, Yikai; Lu, Yuhong; Yu, Zhi; Li, Bo; Wu, Xiuli; Zheng, Wenjie; Li, Yangqiu

    2016-12-20

    Adoptive immunotherapy with antigen-specific T cells can be effective for treating melanoma and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, to obtain sufficient antigen-specific T cells for treatment, the T cells have to be cultured for several weeks in vitro, but in vitro T cell expansion is difficult to control. Alternatively, the transfer of T cell receptors (TCRs) with defined antigen specificity into recipient T cells may be a simple solution for generating antigen-specific T cells. The objective of this study was to identify CML-associated, antigen-specific TCR genes and generate CML-associated, antigen-specific T cells with T cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer. Our previous study has screened an oligoclonal Vβ21 with a different oligoclonal Vα partner in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from patients with CML. In this study, oligoclonally expanded TCR α genes, which pair with TCR Vβ21, were cloned into the pIRES eukaryotic expression vector (TCR Vα-IRES-Vβ21). Next, two recombinant plasmids, TCR Vα13-IRES-Vβ21 and TCR Vα18-IRES-Vβ21, were successfully transferred into T cells, and the TCR gene-modified T cells acquired CML-specific cytotoxicity with the best cytotoxic effects for HLA-A11+ K562 cells observed for the TCR Vα13/Vβ21 gene redirected T cells. In summary, our data confirmed TCRVα13/Vβ21 as a CML-associated, antigen-specific TCR. This study provided new evidence that genetically engineered antigen-specific TCR may become a druggable approach for gene therapy of CML.

  11. Inhibition of Gαs/cAMP Signaling Decreases TCR-Stimulated IL-2 transcription in CD4(+) T Helper Cells.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Thomas R; Yost, Evan A; Yost, Stacy M; Hartle, Cassandra M; Ott, Braden J; Berlot, Catherine H

    2015-07-06

    The role of cAMP in regulating T cell activation and function has been controversial. cAMP is generally known as an immunosuppressant, but it is also required for generating optimal immune responses. As the effect of cAMP is likely to depend on its cellular context, the current study investigated whether the mechanism of activation of Gαs and adenylyl cyclase influences their effect on T cell receptor (TCR)-stimulated interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA levels. The effect of blocking Gs-coupled receptor (GsPCR)-mediated Gs activation on TCR-stimulated IL-2 mRNA levels in CD4(+) T cells was compared with that of knocking down Gαs expression or inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity. The effect of knocking down Gαs expression on TCR-stimulated cAMP accumulation was compared with that of blocking GsPCR signaling. ZM-241385, an antagonist to the Gs-coupled A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR), enhanced TCR-stimulated IL-2 mRNA levels in primary human CD4(+) T helper cells and in Jurkat T cells. A dominant negative Gαs construct, GαsDN3, also enhanced TCR-stimulated IL-2 mRNA levels. Similar to GsPCR antagonists, GαsDN3 blocked GsPCR-dependent activation of both Gαs and Gβγ. In contrast, Gαs siRNA and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (ddA), an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, decreased TCR-stimulated IL-2 mRNA levels. Gαs siRNA, but not GαsDN3, decreased TCR-stimulated cAMP synthesis. Potentiation of IL-2 mRNA levels by ZM-241385 required at least two days of TCR stimulation, and addition of ddA after three days of TCR stimulation enhanced IL-2 mRNA levels. GsPCRs play an inhibitory role in the regulation of TCR-stimulated IL-2 mRNA levels whereas Gαs and cAMP can play a stimulatory one. Additionally, TCR-dependent activation of Gαs does not appear to involve GsPCRs. These results suggest that the context of Gαs/cAMP activation and the stage of T cell activation and differentiation determine the effect on TCR-stimulated IL-2 mRNA levels.

  12. Differential Requirements of TCR Signaling in Homeostatic Maintenance and Function of Dendritic Epidermal T Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baojun; Wu, Jianxuan; Jiao, Yiqun; Bock, Cheryl; Dai, Meifang; Chen, Benny; Chao, Nelson; Zhang, Weiguo; Zhuang, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs) are generated exclusively in the fetal thymus and maintained in the skin epithelium throughout postnatal life of the mouse. DETCs have restricted antigenic specificity as a result of their exclusive usage of a canonical TCR. Although the importance of the TCR in DETC development has been well established, the exact role of TCR signaling in DETC homeostasis and function remains incompletely defined. In this study, we investigated TCR signaling in fully matured DETCs by lineage-restricted deletion of the Lat gene, an essential signaling molecule downstream of the TCR. We found that Lat deletion impaired TCR-dependent cytokine gene activation and the ability of DETCs to undergo proliferative expansion. However, linker for activation of T cells-deficient DETCs were able to maintain long-term population homeostasis, although with a reduced proliferation rate. Mice with Lat deletion in DETCs exhibited delayed wound healing accompanied by impaired clonal expansion within the wound area. Our study revealed differential requirements for TCR signaling in homeostatic maintenance of DETCs and in their effector function during wound healing.

  13. T cell receptor (TCR) usage determines disease susceptibility in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: studies with TCR V beta 8.2 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease that can be induced in laboratory animals by immunization with the major myelin proteins, myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP). We analyzed the role of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire in susceptibility to EAE induced by these two autoantigens. Autoreactive T cells induced after immunization with MBP use a limited set of TCR. In contrast, we demonstrate that T cell clones that recognize the encephalitogenic PLP epitope (PLP 139-151) use diverse TCR genes. When the TCR repertoire is limited by introduction of a novel rearranged TCR V beta 8.2 chain in transgenic SJL mice, EAE could be induced in the transgenic mice by immunization with the encephalitogenic epitopes of PLP, but not with the encephalitogenic epitope of MBP. Thus, skewing the TCR repertoire affects the susceptibility to EAE by immunization with MBP but not with PLP. These data demonstrate the biological consequences of the usage of a more diverse T cell repertoire in the development of an autoimmune disease. PMID:8163944

  14. TCR reserve: a novel principle of CD4 T cell activation by weak ligands.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Lisa K; Evavold, Brian D

    2003-02-01

    Some ligand-receptor systems have a receptor reserve where a maximal response can be achieved by occupation of a fraction of available receptors. An implication of a receptor reserve is the expansion of the number of ligands for response. To determine whether T cells follow receptor reserve, we have characterized the effect of reducing TCR levels on CD4 T cell responses elicited by altered peptide ligands that vary in potency. Agonist peptide is unaffected by a 90% reduction in TCR level while proliferation to weak agonists is significantly inhibited when TCR expression is reduced by 40%. Thymocyte-negative selection similarly demonstrates a differential requirement of TCR for response to agonist, weak agonist, and partial agonist. Therefore, our data demonstrate receptor reserve as a novel principle of T cell activation in which excess TCRs expand the antigenic repertoire to include less potent ligands.

  15. Direct single molecule measurement of TCR triggering by agonist pMHC in living primary T cells.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, Geoff P; Pielak, Rafal M; Smoligovets, Alexander A; Lin, Jenny J; Groves, Jay T

    2013-07-03

    T cells discriminate between self and foreign antigenic peptides, displayed on antigen presenting cell surfaces, via the TCR. While the molecular interactions between TCR and its ligands are well characterized in vitro, quantitative measurements of these interactions in living cells are required to accurately resolve the physical mechanisms of TCR signaling. We report direct single molecule measurements of TCR triggering by agonist pMHC in hybrid junctions between live primary T cells and supported lipid membranes. Every pMHC:TCR complex over the entire cell is tracked while simultaneously monitoring the local membrane recruitment of ZAP70, as a readout of TCR triggering. Mean dwell times for pMHC:TCR molecular binding of 5 and 54 s were measured for two different pMHC:TCR systems. Single molecule measurements of the pMHC:TCR:ZAP70 complex indicate that TCR triggering is stoichiometric with agonist pMHC in a 1:1 ratio. Thus any signal amplification must occur downstream of TCR triggering. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00778.001.

  16. High Throughput Sequencing of T Cell Antigen Receptors Reveals a Conserved TCR Repertoire.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xianliang; Lu, Chong; Chen, Sisi; Xie, Qian; Cui, Guangying; Chen, Jianing; Chen, Zhi; Wu, Zhongwen; Ding, Yulong; Ye, Ping; Dai, Yong; Diao, Hongyan

    2016-03-01

    The T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is a mirror of the human immune system that reflects processes caused by infections, cancer, autoimmunity, and aging. Next-generation sequencing has become a powerful tool for deep TCR profiling. Herein, we used this technology to study the repertoire features of TCR beta chain in the blood of healthy individuals.Peripheral blood samples were collected from 10 healthy donors. T cells were isolated with anti-human CD3 magnetic beads according to the manufacturer's protocol. We then combined multiplex-PCR, Illumina sequencing, and IMGT/High V-QUEST to analyze the characteristics and polymorphisms of the TCR.Most of the individual T cell clones were present at very low frequencies, suggesting that they had not undergone clonal expansion. The usage frequencies of the TCR beta variable, beta joining, and beta diversity gene segments were similar among T cells from different individuals. Notably, the usage frequency of individual nucleotides and amino acids within complementarity-determining region (CDR3) intervals was remarkably consistent between individuals. Moreover, our data show that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity was biased toward the insertion of G (31.92%) and C (27.14%) over A (21.82%) and T (19.12%) nucleotides.Some conserved features could be observed in the composition of CDR3, which may inform future studies of human TCR gene recombination.

  17. High Throughput Sequencing of T Cell Antigen Receptors Reveals a Conserved TCR Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xianliang; Lu, Chong; Chen, Sisi; Xie, Qian; Cui, Guangying; Chen, Jianing; Chen, Zhi; Wu, Zhongwen; Ding, Yulong; Ye, Ping; Dai, Yong; Diao, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is a mirror of the human immune system that reflects processes caused by infections, cancer, autoimmunity, and aging. Next-generation sequencing has become a powerful tool for deep TCR profiling. Herein, we used this technology to study the repertoire features of TCR beta chain in the blood of healthy individuals. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 10 healthy donors. T cells were isolated with anti-human CD3 magnetic beads according to the manufacturer's protocol. We then combined multiplex-PCR, Illumina sequencing, and IMGT/High V-QUEST to analyze the characteristics and polymorphisms of the TCR. Most of the individual T cell clones were present at very low frequencies, suggesting that they had not undergone clonal expansion. The usage frequencies of the TCR beta variable, beta joining, and beta diversity gene segments were similar among T cells from different individuals. Notably, the usage frequency of individual nucleotides and amino acids within complementarity-determining region (CDR3) intervals was remarkably consistent between individuals. Moreover, our data show that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity was biased toward the insertion of G (31.92%) and C (27.14%) over A (21.82%) and T (19.12%) nucleotides. Some conserved features could be observed in the composition of CDR3, which may inform future studies of human TCR gene recombination. PMID:26962778

  18. CD45-mediated control of TCR tuning in naïve and memory CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae-Ho; Kim, Hee-Ok; Ju, Young-Jun; Kye, Yoon-Chul; Lee, Gil-Woo; Lee, Sung-Woo; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Bottini, Nunzio; Webster, Kylie; Goodnow, Christopher C.; Surh, Charles D.; King, Cecile; Sprent, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Continuous contact with self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) ligands is essential for survival of naïve T cells but not memory cells. This surprising finding implies that T cell subsets may vary in their relative T-cell receptor (TCR) sensitivity. Here we show that in CD8+T cells TCR sensitivity correlates inversely with levels of CD5, a marker for strong self-MHC reactivity. We also show that TCR sensitivity is lower in memory CD8+ T cells than naïve cells. In both situations, TCR hypo-responsiveness applies only to short-term TCR signalling events and not to proliferation, and correlates directly with increased expression of a phosphatase, CD45 and reciprocal decreased expression of activated LCK. Inhibition by high CD45 on CD8+ T cells may protect against overt TCR auto-MHC reactivity, while enhanced sensitivity to cytokines ensures strong responses to foreign antigens. PMID:27841348

  19. CD45-mediated control of TCR tuning in naïve and memory CD8(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae-Ho; Kim, Hee-Ok; Ju, Young-Jun; Kye, Yoon-Chul; Lee, Gil-Woo; Lee, Sung-Woo; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Bottini, Nunzio; Webster, Kylie; Goodnow, Christopher C; Surh, Charles D; King, Cecile; Sprent, Jonathan

    2016-11-14

    Continuous contact with self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) ligands is essential for survival of naïve T cells but not memory cells. This surprising finding implies that T cell subsets may vary in their relative T-cell receptor (TCR) sensitivity. Here we show that in CD8(+)T cells TCR sensitivity correlates inversely with levels of CD5, a marker for strong self-MHC reactivity. We also show that TCR sensitivity is lower in memory CD8(+) T cells than naïve cells. In both situations, TCR hypo-responsiveness applies only to short-term TCR signalling events and not to proliferation, and correlates directly with increased expression of a phosphatase, CD45 and reciprocal decreased expression of activated LCK. Inhibition by high CD45 on CD8(+) T cells may protect against overt TCR auto-MHC reactivity, while enhanced sensitivity to cytokines ensures strong responses to foreign antigens.

  20. Prior TLR5 induction in human T cells results in a transient potentiation of subsequent TCR-induced cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mikaela M; Bilal, Mahmood Y; Houtman, Jon C D

    2014-02-01

    Activation of TLRs by components required for pathogen viability results in increased inflammation and an enhanced immune response to infection. Unlike their effects on other immune cells, TLR activation in the absence of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) induction has little effect on T cell activity. Instead, the simultaneous induction of TLR and TCR results in increased cytokine release compared to TCR treatment alone. Thus, the current model states that TLRs alter T cell function only if activated at the same time as the TCR. In this study, we tested the novel hypothesis that prior TLR induction can also alter TCR-mediated functions. We found that human T cells responded to ligands for TLR2 and TLR5. However, only prior TLR5 induction potentiated subsequent TCR-mediated cytokine production in human T cells. This response required at least 24h of TLR5 induction and lasted for approximately 24-36h after removal of a TLR5 ligand. Interestingly, prior TLR5 induction enhanced TCR-mediated activation of Akt without increasing Lck, LAT or ERK kinase phosphorylation. Together, our studies show that TLR5 induction leads to a transient increase in the sensitivity of T cells to TCR stimulation by selectively enhancing TCR-mediated Akt function, highlighting that timeframe when TLR5 can potentiate TCR-induced downstream functions are significantly longer that previously appreciated.

  1. Nanoclusters of the resting T cell antigen receptor (TCR) localize to non-raft domains.

    PubMed

    Beck-García, Katharina; Beck-García, Esmeralda; Bohler, Sheila; Zorzin, Carina; Sezgin, Erdinc; Levental, Ilya; Alarcón, Balbino; Schamel, Wolfgang W A

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade an increasing number of plasma membrane (PM) proteins have been shown to be non-randomly distributed but instead forming submicron-sized oligomers called nanoclusters. Nanoclusters exist independently of the ligand-bound state of the receptors and their existence implies a high degree of lateral organisation of the PM and its proteins. The mechanisms that drive receptor nanoclustering are largely unknown. One well-defined example of a transmembrane receptor that forms nanoclusters is the T cell antigen receptor (TCR), a multisubunit protein complex whose nanoclustering influences its activity. Membrane lipids, namely cholesterol and sphingomyelin, have been shown to contribute to TCR nanoclustering. However, the identity of the membrane microdomain in which the TCR resides remains controversial. Using a GFP-labeled TCR we show here that the resting TCR localized in the disordered domain of giant PM vesicles (GPMVs) and PM spheres (PMSs) and that single and nanoclustered TCRs are found in the high-density fractions in sucrose gradients. Both findings are indicative of non-raft localization. We discuss possible mechanisms of TCR nanoclustering in T cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nanoscale membrane organisation and signalling.

  2. Phosphoantigen Presentation to TCR γδ Cells, a Conundrum Getting Less Gray Zones.

    PubMed

    De Libero, Gennaro; Lau, Sze-Yi; Mori, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    The mechanistic requirements of antigen recognition by T cells expressing a γδ TCR has revealed important differences with those of αβ TCR cells and, despite impressive new data generated in the very recent years, they remain poorly understood. Based on the structure of the TCR chains and the tissue distribution, γδ cells are represented in a variety of populations. The major subset of human peripheral blood γδ cells express Vγ9Vδ2 TCR heterodimers and are all stimulated by phosphorylated metabolites (commonly called phosphoantigens). Phosphoantigens are molecules with a very small mass and only stimulate Vγ9Vδ2 cells in the presence of antigen-presenting cells, suggesting a strict requirement for dedicated antigen-presenting molecules. Recent studies have identified butyrophilin (BTN) 3A1 as the molecule necessary to stimulate Vγ9Vδ2 cells. BTN3A1 extracellular, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domains have different functions, including cognate interaction with the Vγ9Vδ2 TCR, binding of the phosphoantigens, and interaction with cytoplasmic proteins. This review mainly discusses the known molecular mechanisms of BTN3A1-mediated antigen presentation to γδ cells and proposes a model of phosphoantigen presentation, which integrates past and recent studies.

  3. TCR bias and affinity define two compartments of the CD1b-glycolipid-specific T Cell repertoire.

    PubMed

    Van Rhijn, Ildiko; Gherardin, Nicholas A; Kasmar, Anne; de Jager, Wilco; Pellicci, Daniel G; Kostenko, Lyudmila; Tan, Li Lynn; Bhati, Mugdha; Gras, Stephanie; Godfrey, Dale I; Rossjohn, Jamie; Moody, D Branch

    2014-05-01

    Current views emphasize TCR diversity as a key feature that differentiates the group 1 (CD1a, CD1b, CD1c) and group 2 (CD1d) CD1 systems. Whereas TCR sequence motifs define CD1d-reactive NKT cells, the available data do not allow a TCR-based organization of the group 1 CD1 repertoire. The observed TCR diversity might result from donor-to-donor differences in TCR repertoire, as seen for MHC-restricted T cells. Alternatively, diversity might result from differing CD1 isoforms, Ags, and methods used to identify TCRs. Using CD1b tetramers to isolate clones recognizing the same glycolipid, we identified a previously unknown pattern of V gene usage (TRAV17, TRBV4-1) among unrelated human subjects. These TCRs are distinct from those present on NKT cells and germline-encoded mycolyl lipid-reactive T cells. Instead, they resemble the TCR of LDN5, one of the first known CD1b-reactive clones that was previously thought to illustrate the diversity of the TCR repertoire. Interdonor TCR conservation was observed in vitro and ex vivo, identifying LDN5-like T cells as a distinct T cell type. These data support TCR-based organization of the CD1b repertoire, which consists of at least two compartments that differ in TCR sequence motifs, affinity, and coreceptor expression.

  4. Regulation of TCR Signaling to NF-kB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-20

    Nov 1;8(11):1690-2)   85   REFERENCES 1. Ballard DW, Bohnlein E, Lowenthal JW, Wano Y, Franza BR, Greene WC. 1988. HTLV -I tax...kappaB activation. Mol Cell Biol 27:5235-45 88. Zhi H, Yang L, Kuo YL, Ho YK, Shih HM, Giam CZ. 2011. NF-kappaB hyper- activation by HTLV -1 tax...HM, Giam CZ. 2011. NF-kappaB hyper- activation by HTLV -1 tax induces cellular senescence, but can be alleviated by the viral anti-sense protein HBZ. PLoS Pathog 7:e1002025

  5. Adoptive transfer of tracer alloreactive CD4+ TCR-transgenic T cells alters the endogenous immune response to an allograft

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michelle L.; Chen, Jianjun; Daniels, Melvin D.; McKeague, Matthew G.; Wang, Ying; Yin, Dengping; Vu, Vinh; Chong, Anita S.; Alegre, Maria-Luisa

    2016-01-01

    T cell receptor transgenic (TCR-Tg) T cells are often used as tracer populations of antigen-specific responses to extrapolate findings to endogenous T cells. The extent to which TCR-Tg T cells behave purely as tracer cells or modify the endogenous immune response is not clear. To test the impact of TCR-Tg T cell transfer on endogenous alloimmunity, recipient mice were seeded with CD4+ or CD8+ TCR-Tg or polyclonal T cells at the time of cardiac allograft transplantation. Only CD4+ TCR-Tg T cells accelerated rejection, and unexpectedly led to a dose-dependent decrease in both transferred and endogenous T cells infiltrating the graft. In contrast, recipients of CD4+ TCR-Tg cell exhibited enhanced endogenous donor-specific CD8+ T-cell activation in the spleen and accelerated alloantibody production. Introduction of CD4+ TCR-Tg T cells also perturbed the intra-graft accumulation of innate cell populations. Thus, transferred CD4+ TCR-Tg T cells alter many aspects of endogenous alloimmunity, suggesting that caution should be used when interpreting experiments utilizing these adoptively-transferred cells, as the overall nature of allograft rejection may be altered. These results may also have implications for adoptive CD4+ T cell immunotherapy in tumor and infectious clinical settings as cell infusion may have additional effects on natural immune responses. PMID:27063351

  6. Adoptive transfer of tracer alloreactive CD4(+) TCR-transgenic T cells alters the endogenous immune response to an allograft.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michelle L; Chen, Jianjun; Daniels, Melvin D; McKeague, Matthew G; Wang, Ying; Yin, Dengping; Vu, Vinh; Chong, Anita S; Alegre, Maria-Luisa

    2016-04-11

    T cell receptor transgenic (TCR-Tg) T cells are often used as tracer populations of antigen-specific responses to extrapolate findings to endogenous T cells. The extent to which TCR-Tg T cells behave purely as tracer cells or modify the endogenous immune response is not clear. To test the impact of TCR-Tg T cell transfer on endogenous alloimmunity, recipient mice were seeded with CD4(+) or CD8(+) TCR-Tg or polyclonal T cells at the time of cardiac allograft transplantation. Only CD4(+) TCR-Tg T cells accelerated rejection, and unexpectedly led to a dose-dependent decrease in both transferred and endogenous T cells infiltrating the graft. In contrast, recipients of CD4(+) TCR-Tg cell exhibited enhanced endogenous donor-specific CD8(+) T-cell activation in the spleen and accelerated alloantibody production. Introduction of CD4(+) TCR-Tg T cells also perturbed the intra-graft accumulation of innate cell populations. Thus, transferred CD4(+) TCR-Tg T cells alter many aspects of endogenous alloimmunity, suggesting that caution should be used when interpreting experiments utilizing these adoptively-transferred cells, as the overall nature of allograft rejection may be altered. These results may also have implications for adoptive CD4(+) T cell immunotherapy in tumor and infectious clinical settings as cell infusion may have additional effects on natural immune responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Fine-tuning of proximal TCR signaling by ZAP-70 tyrosine residues in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed

    Szabo, M; Czompoly, T; Kvell, K; Talaber, G; Bartis, D; Nemeth, P; Berki, T; Boldizsar, F

    2012-02-01

    Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase of 70kDa (ZAP-70) kinase is a key regulator in the early steps of TCR signaling but some aspects of its fine regulation are still unclear. From its 31 tyrosine (Y) residues, 11 phosphorylation sites have been identified, some with activator (Y315 and Y493) or inhibitory (Y292 and Y492) and others with unknown function (Y069, Y126 and Y178). In our present work, we aimed to elucidate the role of different Y residues of ZAP-70, especially those with unknown function, in calcium signaling and the autoregulation of the kinase. ZAP-70-deficient Jurkat cells (P116) were stably reconstituted with point-mutated ZAP-70 constructs where tyrosine residues 069, 126, 178, 238, 292, 315, 492 or 493 were replaced with phenylalanine (F). The anti-CD3-elicited calcium signal increased in F069-, F292- and F492-ZAP-70-expressing cell lines but decreased in the F126-, F315- and F493-ZAP-70-expressing cell lines. ZAP-70 point mutations led to phosphorylation changes predominantly in SH2 domain containing leukocyte protein of 76kDa (SLP-76) but not linker of activated T cells (LAT) during CD3-activation; moreover, we detected basal hyperphosphorylation of SLP-76 Y128 in the F126-, F178- and F492-ZAP-70-expressing cell lines. In summary, Y069, Y178, Y292 and Y492 have inhibitory, while Y126, Y315 and Y493 activator role in anti-CD3-induced T-cell activation. Phosphorylation changes in LAT and SLP-76 suggest that fine regulation of ZAP-70 on calcium signaling is rather transmitted through SLP-76 not LAT. Additionally, negative or positive autoregulatory function of Y292 and Y493 or Y315, respectively, was revealed in ZAP-70. These data indicate that previously not characterized Y069, Y126 and Y178 in ZAP-70 participate in the fine regulation of TCR signaling.

  8. Murine CD8+ T cells that specifically delete autologous CD4+ T cells expressing V beta 8 TCR: a role of the Qa-1 molecule.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Ware, R; Stall, A; Flaherty, L; Chess, L; Pernis, B

    1995-02-01

    Interactions mediated by TCRs expressed on different T cell subsets may play a role in immunoregulation. To investigate this idea, we studied the regulation of superantigen-induced TCR V beta-restricted responses. We asked whether the in vivo regulation of CD4+ V beta 8+ T cells following SEB injection is controlled by CD8+ T cells. We found that in mice deficient in CD8+ T cells, the down-regulation of CD4+ V beta 8+ T cells below baseline is not observed. Moreover, following SEB administration, CD8+ T cells emerge that preferentially kill subpopulations of activated CD4+ V beta 8+ but not CD4+ V beta 8- T cells in vitro. This TCR V beta-specific cytotoxicity is dependent on beta 2-microglobulin and is inhibited by antisera specific for Qa-1 but not by antibody to MHC class Ia. These data suggest the idea that the specificity of immune regulation may involve CD8+ T cell recognition of TCR V beta determinants and Qa-1 molecules expressed on CD4+ T cells.

  9. TCR(+)CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) effector T cells in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Brandt, D; Sergon, M; Abraham, S; Mäbert, K; Hedrich, C M

    2017-08-01

    The autoimmune/inflammatory disorder psoriasis is characterized by keratinocyte proliferation and immune cell infiltration of the skin. TCR(+)CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) "double negative" (DN) T cells can derive from CD8(+) T cells through the down-regulation of CD8. The inhibitory molecule programmed death (PD-)1 is expressed on activated T cells and plays a role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. A subset of DN T cells, characterized by the expression of PD-1, has recently been demonstrated to be self-reactive. We demonstrate that a majority of DN T cells exhibits effector memory phenotypes, express IFN-γ, and fail to proliferate. DN T cells from psoriasis patients are characterized by reduced DNA methylation of the IFNG gene and increased PD-1 expression. Furthermore, PD-1 positive DN T cells infiltrate the epidermis in psoriatic skin lesions. Our observations offer additional insight into the molecular pathophysiology of plaque psoriasis and show promise as potential disease biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets for future interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. TCR clonotypes: molecular determinants of T-cell efficacy against HIV.

    PubMed

    Lissina, Anna; Chakrabarti, Lisa A; Takiguchi, Masafumi; Appay, Victor

    2016-02-01

    Because of the enormous complexity and breadth of the overall HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell response, invaluable information regarding important aspects of T-cell efficacy against HIV can be sourced from studies performed on individual clonotypes. Data gathered from ex vivo and in vitro analyses of T-cell responses and viral evolution bring us one step closer towards deciphering the correlates of protection against HIV. HIV-responsive CD8(+) T-cell populations are characterized by specific clonotypic immunodominance patterns and public TCRs. The TCR endows T-cells with two key features, important for the effective control of HIV: avidity and crossreactivity. While TCR avidity is a major determinant of CD8(+) T-cell functional efficacy against the virus, crossreactivity towards wildtype and mutant viral epitopes is crucial for adaptation to HIV evolution. The properties of CD4(+) T-cell responses in HIV controllers appear also to be shaped by high avidity public TCR clonotypes. The molecular nature of the TCR, together with the clonotypic composition of the HIV-specific T-cell response, emerge as major determinants of anti-viral efficacy.

  11. Obesity increases the production of proinflammatory mediators from adipose tissue T cells and compromises TCR repertoire diversity: implications for systemic inflammation and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyunwon; Youm, Yun-Hee; Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Ravussin, Anthony; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Greenway, Frank; Stephens, Jacqueline M; Mynatt, Randall L; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2010-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that increases in activated T cell populations in adipose tissue may contribute toward obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. The present study investigates three unanswered questions: 1) Do adipose-resident T cells (ARTs) from lean and obese mice have altered cytokine production in response to TCR ligation?; 2) Do the extralymphoid ARTs possess a unique TCR repertoire compared with lymphoid-resident T cells and whether obesity alters the TCR diversity in specific adipose depots?; and 3) Does short-term elimination of T cells in epididymal fat pad without disturbing the systemic T cell homeostasis regulate inflammation and insulin-action during obesity? We found that obesity reduced the frequency of naive ART cells in s.c. fat and increased the effector-memory populations in visceral fat. The ARTs from diet-induced obese (DIO) mice had a higher frequency of IFN-gamma(+), granzyme B(+) cells, and upon TCR ligation, the ARTs from DIO mice produced increased levels of proinflammatory mediators. Importantly, compared with splenic T cells, ARTs exhibited markedly restricted TCR diversity, which was further compromised by obesity. Acute depletion of T cells from epididymal fat pads improved insulin action in young DIO mice but did not reverse obesity-associated feed forward cascade of chronic systemic inflammation and insulin resistance in middle-aged DIO mice. Collectively, these data establish that ARTs have a restricted TCR-Vbeta repertoire, and T cells contribute toward the complex proinflammatory microenvironment of adipose tissue in obesity. Development of future long-term T cell depletion protocols specific to visceral fat may represent an additional strategy to manage obesity-associated comorbidities.

  12. Obesity Increases the Production of Proinflammatory Mediators from Adipose Tissue T Cells and Compromises TCR Repertoire Diversity: Implications for Systemic Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyunwon; Youm, Yun-Hee; Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Ravussin, Anthony; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Greenway, Frank; Stephens, Jacqueline M.; Mynatt, Randall L.; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that increases in activated T cell populations in adipose tissue may contribute toward obesity-associated metabolic syndrome. The present study investigates three unanswered questions: 1) Do adipose-resident T cells (ARTs) from lean and obese mice have altered cytokine production in response to TCR ligation?; 2) Do the extralymphoid ARTs possess a unique TCR repertoire compared with lymphoid-resident T cells and whether obesity alters the TCR diversity in specific adipose depots?; and 3) Does short-term elimination of T cells in epididymal fat pad without disturbing the systemic T cell homeostasis regulate inflammation and insulin-action during obesity? We found that obesity reduced the frequency of naive ART cells in s.c. fat and increased the effector-memory populations in visceral fat. The ARTs from diet-induced obese (DIO) mice had a higher frequency of IFN-γ+, granzyme B+ cells, and upon TCR ligation, the ARTs from DIO mice produced increased levels of proinflammatory mediators. Importantly, compared with splenic T cells, ARTs exhibited markedly restricted TCR diversity, which was further compromised by obesity. Acute depletion of T cells from epididymal fat pads improved insulin action in young DIO mice but did not reverse obesity-associated feed forward cascade of chronic systemic inflammation and insulin resistance in middle-aged DIO mice. Collectively, these data establish that ARTs have a restricted TCR-Vβ repertoire, and T cells contribute toward the complex proinflammatory microenvironment of adipose tissue in obesity. Development of future long-term T cell depletion protocols specific to visceral fat may represent an additional strategy to manage obesity-associated comorbidities. PMID:20581149

  13. RNAi-mediated TCR knockdown prevents autoimmunity in mice caused by mixed TCR dimers following TCR gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Bunse, Mario; Bendle, Gavin M; Linnemann, Carsten; Bies, Laura; Schulz, Stephan; Schumacher, Ton N; Uckert, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    Genetically modified T cells that express a transduced T cell receptor (TCR) α/β heterodimer in addition to their endogenous TCR are used in clinical studies to treat cancer. These cells express two TCR-α and two TCR-β chains that do not only compete for CD3 proteins but also form potentially self-reactive mixed TCR dimers, composed of endogenous and transferred chains. To overcome these deficits, we developed an RNAi-TCR replacement vector that simultaneously silences the endogenous TCR and expresses an RNAi-resistant TCR. Transduction of the virus-specific P14 TCR without RNAi resulted in unequal P14 TCR-α and -β chain surface levels, indicating heterodimerization with endogenous TCR chains. Such unequal expression was also observed following TCR gene optimization. Equal surface levels of the introduced TCR chains were however achieved by silencing the endogenous TCR. Importantly, all mice that received cells transduced with the native or optimized P14 TCR developed lethal TCR gene transfer-induced graft-versus-host-disease (TI-GVHD) due to formation of mixed TCR dimers. In contrast, TI-GVHD was almost completely prevented when using the RNAi-TCR replacement vector. Our data demonstrate that RNAi-assisted TCR replacement reduces the formation of mixed TCR dimers, and thereby significantly reduces the risk of TI-GVHD in TCR gene therapy.

  14. A novel vascular targeting strategy for brain-derived endothelial cells using a TCR mimic antibody

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Raktima; Xu, Yan; Rahman, Md. Ashequr; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A.; Weksler, Babette B.; Weidanz, Jon A.; Bickel, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Organ-specific vascular targeting, for example to the blood-brain barrier, requires the identification of unique molecular addresses on a subset of endothelial cells. The present study describes a crucial step towards tapping the exquisite specificity of the peptide/HLA class I system for this goal. We utilized a novel T-cell receptor (TCR) mimic antibody of high affinity and specificity, which is restricted by HLA-A2 and has been generated to recognize a peptide epitope derived from p68 RNA helicase (YLLPAIVHI). The parent protein is highly expressed by brain endothelial cells. Flow cytometry and confocal imaging showed that the antibody binds to HLA-A2 positive human brain derived endothelial cells, both immortalized hCMEC/D3 cells and primary cells. The TCR mimic antibody undergoes internalization into vesicles, where significant colocalization occurs with the early endosomal marker EEA-1, but barely with caveolin-1. To our knowledge internalization of neither MHC class I protein nor TCR mimics by brain endothelial cells has been previously observed. Knockdown of p68 protein expression by siRNA reduced the presentation of YLLPAIVHI-peptide/HLA-A2 complexes on the cell membrane by half as measured by flow cytometry 48h later. We also found that brain endothelial cells isolated from HLA-A2 transgenic mouse strains express the A2 transgene, and brain endothelial cells of one of these strains also present YLLPAIVHI-peptide/HLA-A2, making these mouse strains suitable models for studying TCR mimic antibodies in vivo. In conclusion, these data strongly support the notion that TCR mimic antibodies could be a new class of therapeutic targeting agents in a wide variety of diseases. PMID:20506235

  15. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma arises in thymocytes and requires transient TCR expression for thymic egress

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Tim I. M.; Villarese, Patrick; Fairbairn, Camilla J.; Lamant, Laurence; Trinquand, Amélie; Hook, C. Elizabeth; Burke, G. A. Amos; Brugières, Laurence; Hughes, Katherine; Payet, Dominique; Merkel, Olaf; Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Ashankyty, Ibraheem; Mian, Shahid; Wasik, Mariusz; Turner, Martin; Kenner, Lukas; Asnafi, Vahid; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Turner, Suzanne D.

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a peripheral T-cell lymphoma presenting mostly in children and young adults. The natural progression of this disease is largely unknown as is the identity of its true cell of origin. Here we present a model of peripheral ALCL pathogenesis where the malignancy is initiated in early thymocytes, before T-cell receptor (TCR) β-rearrangement, which is bypassed in CD4/NPM–ALK transgenic mice following Notch1 expression. However, we find that a TCR is required for thymic egress and development of peripheral murine tumours, yet this TCR must be downregulated for T-cell lymphomagenesis. In keeping with this, clonal TCR rearrangements in human ALCL are predominantly in-frame, but often aberrant, with clonal TCRα but no comparable clonal TCRβ rearrangement, yielding events that would not normally be permissive for survival during thymic development. Children affected by ALCL may thus harbour thymic lymphoma-initiating cells capable of seeding relapse after chemotherapy. PMID:26753883

  16. Differential utilization of T cell receptor TCR alpha/TCR delta locus variable region gene segments is mediated by accessibility.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu Nee; Alt, Frederick W; Reyes, Julia; Gleason, Megan; Zarrin, Ali A; Jung, David

    2009-10-13

    T cell receptor (TCR) variable region exons are assembled from germline V, (D), and J gene segments, each of which is flanked by recombination signal (RS) sequences that are composed of a conserved heptamer, a spacer of 12 or 23 bp, and a characteristic nonamer. V(D)J recombination only occurs between V, D, and J segments flanked by RS sequences that contain, respectively, 12(12-RS)- and 23(23-RS)-bp spacers (12/23 rule). Additional mechanisms can restrict joining of 12/23 RS matched segments beyond the 12/23 rule (B12/23). The TCRdelta locus is contained within the TCRalpha locus; TCRalpha variable region exons are encoded by TRAV and TRAJ segments and those of TCRdelta by TRDV, TRDD, and TRDJ segments. On the basis of the 12/23 rule, both TRAV and TRDV gene segments are compatible to rearrange with TRDD gene segments; however, TRAV-to-TRDD joins are not observed in vivo. Absence of TRAV-to-TRDD rearrangement might be explained either by B12/23 restriction or by differential accessibility of the TRDV versus TRAV gene segments for rearrangement to TRDD. We used in vitro substrate analysis to reveal that both TRAV and TRDV 23-RSs mediate rearrangements to the 5'TRDD1 12-RS, demonstrating that B12/23 restriction does not explain these rearrangement biases. However, targeted replacement of TRDD1 and its 12-RSs with TRAJ38 and its 12-RS showed that TRDV gene segments rearrange with the ectopic TRAJ38, whereas TRAV segments do not. Our results demonstrate that sorting of TRAV and TRDV gene segments is determined by differential locus accessibility during T cell development.

  17. tcR: an R package for T cell receptor repertoire advanced data analysis.

    PubMed

    Nazarov, Vadim I; Pogorelyy, Mikhail V; Komech, Ekaterina A; Zvyagin, Ivan V; Bolotin, Dmitry A; Shugay, Mikhail; Chudakov, Dmitry M; Lebedev, Yury B; Mamedov, Ilgar Z

    2015-05-28

    The Immunoglobulins (IG) and the T cell receptors (TR) play the key role in antigen recognition during the adaptive immune response. Recent progress in next-generation sequencing technologies has provided an opportunity for the deep T cell receptor repertoire profiling. However, a specialised software is required for the rational analysis of massive data generated by next-generation sequencing. Here we introduce tcR, a new R package, representing a platform for the advanced analysis of T cell receptor repertoires, which includes diversity measures, shared T cell receptor sequences identification, gene usage statistics computation and other widely used methods. The tool has proven its utility in recent research studies. tcR is an R package for the advanced analysis of T cell receptor repertoires after primary TR sequences extraction from raw sequencing reads. The stable version can be directly installed from The Comprehensive R Archive Network ( http://cran.r-project.org/mirrors.html ). The source code and development version are available at tcR GitHub ( http://imminfo.github.io/tcr/ ) along with the full documentation and typical usage examples.

  18. A CD22-reactive TCR from the T-cell allorepertoire for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia by TCR gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Lorenz; Hagedoorn, Renate S; van der Steen, Dirk M; Hombrink, Pleun; Kester, Michel G D; Schoonakker, Marjolein P; de Ridder, Daniëlle; van Veelen, Peter A; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Heemskerk, Mirjam H M

    2016-11-01

    CD22 is currently evaluated as a target-antigen for the treatment of B-cell malignancies using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T-cells or monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). CAR- and mAbs-based immunotherapies have been successfully applied targeting other antigens, however, occurrence of refractory disease to these interventions urges the identification of additional strategies. Here, we identified a TCR recognizing the CD22-derived peptide RPFPPHIQL (CD22RPF) presented in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*07:02. To overcome tolerance to self-antigens such as CD22, we exploited the immunogenicity of allogeneic HLA. CD22RPF-specific T-cell clone 9D4 was isolated from a healthy HLA-B*07:02neg individual, efficiently produced cytokines upon stimulation with primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia and healthy B-cells, but did not react towards healthy hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell subsets, including dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages expressing low levels of CD22. Gene transfer of TCR-9D4 installed potent CD22-specificity onto recipient CD8+ T-cells that recognized and lysed primary B-cell leukemia. TCR-transduced T-cells spared healthy CD22neg hematopoietic cell subsets but weakly lysed CD22low-expressing DCs and macrophages. CD22-specific TCR-engineered T-cells could form an additional immunotherapeutic strategy with a complementary role to CAR- and antibody-based interventions in the treatment of B-cell malignancies. However, CD22 expression on non-B-cells may limit the attractiveness of CD22 as target-antigen in cellular immunotherapy.

  19. Essential role of Rap signal in pre-TCR-mediated beta-selection checkpoint in alphabeta T-cell development.

    PubMed

    Kometani, Kohei; Moriyama, Masaki; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Katayama, Yoshinori; Wang, Shu-Fang; Yamasaki, Sho; Saito, Takashi; Hattori, Masakazu; Minato, Nagahiro

    2008-12-01

    We demonstrate that lck promoter-driven conditional expression of transgenic SPA-1, a Rap GTPase-activation protein, causes a profound defect of alphabeta T-cell development at the CD4/CD8 double-negative (DN) stage due to enhanced cell death without affecting gammadelta T-cell development. The effect was specific to the DN stage, because CD4 promoter-driven SPA-1 expression hardly affected T-cell development. Rap1A17, a dominant-negative Rap mutant, interfered with the generation of double-positive (DP) cells from Rag2(-/-) fetal thymocytes in vitro in the presence of anti-CD3epsilon antibody and Notch ligand. Rap GTPases were activated in a DN cell line by the expression of self-oligomerizing CD3 (CD8:CD3epsilon chimera), which substituted autonomous pre-T-cell receptor (TCR) signal, inducing CD69 expression and CD25 down-regulation. Reciprocally, expression of C3G, a Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor, in both normal and Rag2(-/-) DN cells markedly enhanced Notch-dependent generation and expansion of DP cells without additional anti-CD3epsilon antibody, thus bypassing pre-TCR. Defective alphabeta T-cell development in the conditional SPA-1-transgenic mice was restored completely by introducing a p53(-/-) mutation. These results suggest that endogenous Rap GTPases downstream of pre-TCR play an essential role in rescuing pre-T cells from the p53-mediated checkpoint response, thus allowing Notch-mediated expansion and differentiation.

  20. Oligoclonality and innate-like features in the TCR repertoire of type II NKT cells reactive to a β-linked self-glycolipid

    PubMed Central

    Arrenberg, Philomena; Halder, Ramesh; Dai, Yang; Maricic, Igor; Kumar, Vipin

    2010-01-01

    TCR-mediated recognition of β-linked self-glycolipids bound to CD1d is poorly understood. Here, we have characterized the TCR repertoire of a CD1d-restricted type II NKT cell subset reactive to sulfatide involved in the regulation of autoimmunity and antitumor immunity. The sulfatide/CD1d-tetramer+ cells isolated from naïve mice show an oligoclonal TCR repertoire with predominant usage of the Vα3/Vα1-Jα7/Jα9 and Vβ8.1/Vβ3.1-Jβ2.7 gene segments. The CDR3 regions of both the α- and β-chains are encoded by either germline or nongermline gene segments of limited lengths containing several conserved residues. Presence of dominant clonotypes with limited TCR gene usage for both TCR α- and β-chains in type II NKT cells reflects specific antigen recognition not found in the type I NKT cells but similar to the MHC-restricted T cells. Although potential CD1d-binding tyrosine residues in the CDR2β region are conserved between most type I and type II NKT TCRs, CDR 1α and 3α regions differ significantly between the two subsets. Collectively, the TCR repertoire of sulfatide-reactive type II NKT cells exhibits features of both antigen-specific conventional T cells and innate-like cells, and these findings provide important clues to the recognition of β-linked glycolipids by CD1d-restricted T cells in general. PMID:20534460

  1. TCR gamma delta cytotoxic T lymphocytes expressing the killer cell-inhibitory receptor p58.2 (CD158b) selectively lyse acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Dolstra, H; Fredrix, H; van der Meer, A; de Witte, T; Figdor, C; van de Wiel-van Kemenade, E

    2001-05-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are thought to play an important role in the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) response. Unfortunately, GVL reactivity is often associated with life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Characterization of CTL that selectively attack leukemic cells but not normal cells may lead to the development of adjuvant immunotherapy that separates GVL from GVHD. Here, we describe TCR gamma delta (V gamma 9/V delta 1) CTL, isolated from the peripheral blood of an AML patient after stem cell transplantation (SCT), that very efficiently lysed freshly isolated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and AML cell lines. Interestingly, HLA-matched non-malignant hematopoietic cells were not killed. We revealed that the killer cell-inhibitory receptor (KIR) p58.2 (CD158b) specific for group 2 HLA-C molecules negatively regulates the cytotoxic effector function displayed by these TCR gamma delta CTL. First, an antibody against HLA-C enhances lysis of non-malignant cells. Secondly, stable transfection of HLA-Cw*0304 into the class I-negative cell line 721.221 inhibited lysis. Finally, engagement of p58.2 by antibodies immobilized on Fc gamma R-expressing murine P815 cells inhibits CD3- and TCR gamma delta-directed lysis. Compared to non-malignant hematopoietic cells, AML cells express much lower levels of MHC class I molecules making them susceptible to lysis by p58.2(+) TCR gamma delta CTL. Such KIR-regulated CTL reactivity may have a role in the GVL response without affecting normal tissues of the host and leading to GVHD.

  2. Phospholipase Cγ1 is required for pre-TCR signal transduction and pre-T cell development.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guoping; Yu, Mei; Chen, Yuhong; Zheng, Yongwei; Zhu, Wen; Newman, Debra K; Wang, Demin; Wen, Renren

    2017-01-01

    Pre-T cell receptor (TCR) signaling is required for pre-T cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation from the CD4 and CD8 double negative (DN) to the double positive (DP) stage. However, the pre-TCR signal transduction pathway is not fully understood and the signaling molecules involved have not been completely identified. Phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) 1 is an important signaling molecule that generates two second messengers, diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, that are important to mediate PKC activation and intracellular Ca(2+) flux in many signaling pathways. Previously, we have shown that PLCγ1 is important for TCR-mediated signaling, development and T-cell activation, but the role of PLCγ1 in pre-TCR signal transduction and pre-T cell development is not known. In this study, we demonstrated that PLCγ1 expression level in pre-T cells was comparable to that in mature T cells. Deletion of PLCγ1 prior to the pre-TCR signaling stage partially blocked the DN3 to DN4 transition and reduced thymic cellularity. We also demonstrated that deletion of PLCγ1 impaired pre-T cell proliferation without affecting cell survival. Further study showed that deficiency of PLCγ1 impaired pre-TCR mediated Ca(2+) flux and Erk activation. Thus our studies demonstrate that PLCγ1 is important for pre-TCR mediated signal transduction and pre-T cell development.

  3. Human and Murine Clonal CD8+ T Cell Expansions Arise during Tuberculosis Because of TCR Selection

    PubMed Central

    Nunes-Alves, Cláudio; Booty, Matthew G.; Carpenter, Stephen M.; Rothchild, Alissa C.; Martin, Constance J.; Desjardins, Danielle; Steblenko, Katherine; Kløverpris, Henrik N.; Madansein, Rajhmun; Ramsuran, Duran; Leslie, Alasdair; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Behar, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    The immune system can recognize virtually any antigen, yet T cell responses against several pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are restricted to a limited number of immunodominant epitopes. The host factors that affect immunodominance are incompletely understood. Whether immunodominant epitopes elicit protective CD8+ T cell responses or instead act as decoys to subvert immunity and allow pathogens to establish chronic infection is unknown. Here we show that anatomically distinct human granulomas contain clonally expanded CD8+ T cells with overlapping T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires. Similarly, the murine CD8+ T cell response against M. tuberculosis is dominated by TB10.44-11-specific T cells with extreme TCRβ bias. Using a retrogenic model of TB10.44-11-specific CD8+ T cells, we show that TCR dominance can arise because of competition between clonotypes driven by differences in affinity. Finally, we demonstrate that TB10.4-specific CD8+ T cells mediate protection against tuberculosis, which requires interferon-γ production and TAP1-dependent antigen presentation in vivo. Our study of how immunodominance, biased TCR repertoires, and protection are inter-related, provides a new way to measure the quality of T cell immunity, which if applied to vaccine evaluation, could enhance our understanding of how to elicit protective T cell immunity. PMID:25945999

  4. Distinct temporal programming of naive CD4+ T cells for cell division versus TCR-dependent death susceptibility by antigen-presenting macrophages.

    PubMed

    Schrum, Adam G; Palmer, Ed; Turka, Laurence A

    2005-02-01

    Naive T cells become programmed for clonal expansion and contraction during the early hours of antigenic signaling. Recent studies support an 'autopilot' model, wherein the commitment to proliferate and the magnitude of the proliferative response are simultaneously determined during a single, brief period of antigen exposure. Here, we have examined whether the proliferation of naive CD4+ T cells must occur on 'autopilot', or whether extended periods of antigenic signaling can impact primary proliferative responses to antigen-presenting macrophages (macrophage APC). We found that a single exposure to antigen (18 h) simultaneously committed T cells to (1) up-regulate surface TCR above the level expressed on naive T cells, (2) undergo minimal cell division, and (3) acquire susceptibility to TCR-dependent activation-induced cell death. However, continued antigenic signaling between 18 and 72 h was required to amplify the number of daughter cells derived from the already committed T cells. Thus, a discrete commitment time was followed by a 'tuning' period, where extended antigenic signaling determined the volume of the proliferative response. We conclude that T cell commitment to full clonal expansion versus TCR-dependent death susceptibility represent two separate programming events whose timing can be segregated by macrophage APC.

  5. CD28 ligation in the absence of TCR stimulation up-regulates IL-17A and pro-inflammatory cytokines in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Camperio, Cristina; Muscolini, Michela; Volpe, Elisabetta; Di Mitri, Diletta; Mechelli, Rosella; Buscarinu, Maria C; Ruggieri, Serena; Piccolella, Enza; Salvetti, Marco; Gasperini, Claudio; Battistini, Luca; Tuosto, Loretta

    2014-01-01

    CD28 is a crucial costimulatory receptor necessary full T cell activation. The role of CD28 in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been evaluated as the source of costimulatory signals integrating those delivered by TCR. However, CD28 is also able to act as a unique signaling receptor and to deliver TCR-independent autonomous signals, which regulate the expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. By comparing the cytokine/chemokine profiles of CD4(+) T cells from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and healthy donors (HD), we found that CD28 engagement without TCR strongly up-regulates IL-8 and IL-6 expression in RRMS compared to HD. More interestingly, in RRMS but not in HD, CD28 stimulation selectively induces the expression of IL-17A by cooperating with IL-6-mediated signals. By using specific inhibitory drugs, we also identify the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) as the critical regulator of CD28 proinflammatory functions in MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. T cell receptor (TCR) V gene usage in patients with systemic necrotizing vasculitis.

    PubMed Central

    Giscombe, R; Grunewald, J; Nityanand, S; Lefvert, A K

    1995-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) are systemic necrotizing vasculitides of unknown etiology. These disorders run a fatal course if untreated. T lymphocytes are implicated in the pathogenesis of WG, since they have been found to infiltrate affected organs, and sIL-2R correlates with disease activity. To elucidate further the role of T cells in necrotizing vasculitis, we have used a panel of 12 TCR V-specific MoAbs to investigate the number of cells expressing certain V alpha and V beta gene segments in the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets of altogether 11 patients with WG or PAN. In the group of patients, we found abnormal expansions of T cells using particular TCR V alpha or V beta gene products. These T cell expansions were more numerous, of a dramatically higher magnitude, and frequently more often found in the CD4 subset, compared with T cell expansions identified in healthy individuals. In long-term studies of the T cell expansions for up to 18 months, a heterogeneous pattern was revealed, with no obvious correlation to clinical features such as disease activity or treatment. Studies of TCR V gene usage in this group of patients may help in understanding the pathogenesis of necrotizing vasculitis, and in the identification of unknown antigens, and may open the possibility to a highly selective immunotherapy by targeting disease-mediating T cells. PMID:7648706

  7. TCR-based therapy for multiple myeloma and other B-cell malignancies targeting intracellular transcription factor BOB1.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Lorenz; Hombrink, Pleun; Hagedoorn, Renate S; Kester, Michel G D; van der Steen, Dirk M; Rodriguez, Tania; Pentcheva-Hoang, Tsvetelina; de Ru, Arnoud H; Schoonakker, Marjolein P; Meeuwsen, Miranda H; Griffioen, Marieke; van Veelen, Peter A; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Heemskerk, Mirjam H M

    2017-03-09

    Immunotherapy for hematological malignancies or solid tumors by administration of monoclonal antibodies or T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors (TCRs) has demonstrated clinical efficacy. However, antigen-loss tumor escape variants and the absence of currently targeted antigens on several malignancies hamper the widespread application of immunotherapy. We have isolated a TCR targeting a peptide of the intracellular B cell-specific transcription factor BOB1 presented in the context of HLA-B*07:02. TCR gene transfer installed BOB1 specificity and reactivity onto recipient T cells. TCR-transduced T cells efficiently lysed primary B-cell leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, and multiple myeloma in vitro. We also observed recognition and lysis of healthy BOB1-expressing B cells. In addition, strong BOB1-specific proliferation could be demonstrated for TCR-modified T cells upon antigen encounter. Furthermore, clear in vivo antitumor reactivity was observed of BOB1-specific TCR-engineered T cells in a xenograft mouse model of established multiple myeloma. Absence of reactivity toward a broad panel of BOB1(-) but HLA-B*07:02(+) nonhematopoietic and hematopoietic cells indicated no off-target toxicity. Therefore, administration of BOB1-specific TCR-engineered T cells may provide novel cellular treatment options to patients with B-cell malignancies, including multiple myeloma.

  8. TCR signal strength controls thymic differentiation of discrete proinflammatory γδ T cell subsets

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Ruiz, Miguel; Ribot, Julie C.; Grosso, Ana R.; Gonçalves-Sousa, Natacha; Pamplona, Ana; Pennington, Daniel J.; Regueiro, José R.

    2016-01-01

    The murine thymus produces discrete γδ T cell subsets making either interferon-γ (IFN--γ) or interleukin 17 (IL-17), but the role of the TCR in this developmental process remains controversial. Here we show that mice haploinsufficient for both Cd3g and Cd3d (CD3DH, for CD3 double haploinsufficient) have reduced TCR expression and signaling strength selectively on γδ T cells. CD3DH mice had normal numbers and phenotype of αβ thymocyte subsets but impaired differentiation of fetal Vγ6+ (but not Vγ4+) IL-17-producing γδ T cells and a marked depletion of IFN-γ-producing CD122+ NK1.1+ γδ T cells throughout ontogeny. Adult CD3DH mice showed reduced peripheral IFN-γ+ γδ T cells and were resistant to experimental cerebral malaria. Thus, TCR signal strength within specific thymic developmental windows is a major determinant of the generation of proinflammatory γδ T cell subsets and their impact on pathophysiology. PMID:27043412

  9. Affinity and dose of TCR engagement yield proportional enhancer and gene activity in CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Karmel A; Sajti, Eniko; Collier, Jana G; Gosselin, David; Troutman, Ty Dale; Stone, Erica L; Hedrick, Stephen M; Glass, Christopher K

    2016-01-01

    Affinity and dose of T cell receptor (TCR) interaction with antigens govern the magnitude of CD4+ T cell responses, but questions remain regarding the quantitative translation of TCR engagement into downstream signals. We find that while the response of mouse CD4+ T cells to antigenic stimulation is bimodal, activated cells exhibit analog responses proportional to signal strength. Gene expression output reflects TCR signal strength, providing a signature of T cell activation. Expression changes rely on a pre-established enhancer landscape and quantitative acetylation at AP-1 binding sites. Finally, we show that graded expression of activation genes depends on ERK pathway activation, suggesting that an ERK-AP-1 axis plays an important role in translating TCR signal strength into proportional activation of enhancers and genes essential for T cell function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10134.001 PMID:27376549

  10. Altered differentiation, diminished pathogenicity, and regulatory activity of myelin-specific T cells expressing an enhanced affinity TCR

    PubMed Central

    Alli, Rajshekhar; Nguyen, Phuong; Geiger, Terrence L.

    2011-01-01

    Whereas increased affinity enhances T cell competitiveness after immunization, the role of affinity in modulating the pathogenicity of self-reactive T cells is less established. To assess this, we generated two myelin-specific, class II MHC-restricted TCR that differ only in a buried hydroxymethyl that forms a common TRBV variant. The variation, predicted to increase TCR stability, resulted in a ~3log10 difference in TCR sensitivity with preserved fine specificity. The high affinity TCR markedly diminished T cell pathogenicity. T cells were not deleted, did not upregulate Foxp3, and barring disease induction were predominantly naïve. However, high affinity CD4+ T cells showed an altered cytokine profile characterized by the production of protective cytokines prior to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis induction and decreased effector cytokines after. Further, the high affinity TCR promoted the development of CD4−CD8− and CD8+ T cells that possessed low intrinsic pathogenicity, were protective even in small numbers when transferred into wild type mice and in mixed chimeras, and outcompete CD4+ T cells during disease development. Therefore TCR affinities exceeding an upper affinity threshold may impede the development of autoimmunity through altered development and functional maturation of T cells, including diminished intrinsic CD4+ T-cell pathogenicity and the development of CD4− Foxp3− regulatory populations. PMID:22025553

  11. TCRs genetically linked to CD28 and CD3ε do not mispair with endogenous TCR chains and mediate enhanced T cell persistence and anti-melanoma activity.

    PubMed

    Govers, Coen; Sebestyén, Zsolt; Roszik, János; van Brakel, Mandy; Berrevoets, Cor; Szöőr, Árpád; Panoutsopoulou, Konstantina; Broertjes, Marieke; Van, Tan; Vereb, György; Szöllősi, János; Debets, Reno

    2014-11-15

    Adoptive transfer of T cells that are gene engineered to express a defined TCR represents a feasible and promising therapy for patients with tumors. However, TCR gene therapy is hindered by the transient presence and effectiveness of transferred T cells, which are anticipated to be improved by adequate T cell costimulation. In this article, we report the identification and characterization of a novel two-chain TCR linked to CD28 and CD3ε (i.e., TCR:28ε). This modified TCR demonstrates enhanced binding of peptide-MHC and mediates enhanced T cell function following stimulation with peptide compared with wild-type TCR. Surface expression of TCR:28ε depends on the transmembrane domain of CD28, whereas T cell functions depend on the intracellular domains of both CD28 and CD3ε, with IL-2 production showing dependency on CD28:LCK binding. TCR:28ε, but not wild-type TCR, induces detectable immune synapses in primary human T cells, and such immune synapses show significantly enhanced accumulation of TCR transgenes and markers of early TCR signaling, such as phosphorylated LCK and ERK. Importantly, TCR:28ε does not show signs of off-target recognition, as evidenced by lack of TCR mispairing, as well as preserved specificity. Notably, when testing TCR:28ε in immune-competent mice, we observed a drastic increase in T cell survival, which was accompanied by regression of large melanomas with limited recurrence. Our data argue that TCR transgenes that contain CD28, and, thereby, may provide T cell costimulation in an immune-suppressive environment, represent candidate receptors to treat patients with tumors.

  12. Physical mapping of the human T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) {beta}-chain gene complex

    SciTech Connect

    Yashim, Y.; So, A.K.

    1994-09-01

    The genetic variation of the TCR loci and their contribution to autoimmune diseases is poorly defined, in direct contrast to the clear examples of disease association with the Class I and II alleles of the major histocompatibility complex. We have therefore started to determine the gene organization and polymorphism of the TCR {beta} locus. Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) were used to construct a physical map of the germline human TCR {beta}-chain gene complex. Variable gene (V{beta}) sequences for the 25 known V{beta} subfamilies were amplified by PCR and were used as probes to screen a YAC library. Five positive YACs were identified. YACs designated B3, E11 and H11 of sizes 820, 400 and 600 kbp, respectively, were analyzed for their V{beta} content by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). YAC B3 was found to contain all 25 V{beta} subfamilies, E11 for 14 and H11 for 7. B3 was also positive for the constant region genes. Restriction enzyme mapping of B3 located V{beta} and C{beta} gene regions to four Sfi I fragments of 280, 110, 90 and 125 kbp, and was in accordance with published data. The data thus showed that YAC B3 encoded a complete and unrearranged TCR {beta}-gene locus. The map was further resolved by locating restriction sites for Sal I and Bssll II on B3. Fluorescent in situ hybridization to human metaphase chromosomes localized B3 to chromosome 7q35. However, two additional signals were obtained: one attributable to V{beta} orphon cluster on chromosome 9q21; the second to the long arm of chromosome 2. PCR amplification of a chromosome 2 somatic cell hybrid using primers for all 25 V{beta} gene families revealed the signal was not attributable to a second orphon cluster. It is suggested that B3 is a chimeric YAC with an intact TCR {beta} locus flanked by chromosome 2 sequences. The determination of the TCR genomic organization will help extend studies of the role T-cells play in autoimmune diseases.

  13. Hard wiring of T cell receptor specificity for the major histocompatibility complex is underpinned by TCR adaptability

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, Scott R.; Chen, Zhenjun; Archbold, Julia K.; Tynan, Fleur E.; Beddoe, Travis; Kjer-Nielsen, Lars; Miles, John J.; Khanna, Rajiv; Moss, Denis J.; Liu, Yu Chih; Gras, Stephanie; Kostenko, Lyudmila; Brennan, Rebekah M.; Clements, Craig S.; Brooks, Andrew G.; Purcell, Anthony W.; McCluskey, James; Rossjohn, Jamie

    2010-07-07

    {alpha}{beta} T cell receptors (TCRs) are genetically restricted to corecognize peptide antigens bound to self-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules; however, the basis for this MHC specificity remains unclear. Despite the current dogma, evaluation of the TCR-pMHC-I structural database shows that the nongermline-encoded complementarity-determining region (CDR)-3 loops often contact the MHC-I, and the germline-encoded CDR1 and -2 loops frequently participate in peptide-mediated interactions. Nevertheless, different TCRs adopt a roughly conserved docking mode over the pMHC-I, in which three MHC-I residues (65, 69, and 155) are invariably contacted by the TCR in one way or another. Nonetheless, the impact of mutations at these three positions, either individually or together, was not uniformly detrimental to TCR recognition of pHLA-B*0801 or pHLA-B*3508. Moreover, when TCR-pMHC-I recognition was impaired, this could be partially restored by expression of the CD8 coreceptor. The structure of a TCR-pMHC-I complex in which these three (65, 69, and 155) MHC-I positions were all mutated resulted in shifting of the TCR footprint relative to the cognate complex and formation of compensatory interactions. Collectively, our findings reveal the inherent adaptability of the TCR in maintaining peptide recognition while accommodating changes to the central docking site on the pMHC-I.

  14. Single TCR-Vβ2 evaluation discloses the circulating T cell clone in Sezary syndrome: one family fits all!

    PubMed

    Scala, Enrico; Abeni, Damiano; Pomponi, Debora; Russo, Nicoletta; Russo, Giandomenico; Narducci, Maria Grazia

    2015-08-01

    Sézary Syndrome (SS/L-CTCL) is a rare but aggressive variant of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), characterized by erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, and the presence of a circulating memory CD4(+) T cell malignant clone with a skin homing behavior, lacking CD26 and CD49d and over-expressing CD60. The availability of a panel of monoclonal antibodies recognizing distinct TCR-Vβ families, allows to typify the clone by flow cytometry in about 70 % of cases. The TCR-Vβ repertoire of 533 individuals, comprising 308 patients affected by CTCL, 50 healthy donors, and subjects affected by various non-neoplastic dermatological affections was evaluated by flow cytometry. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software package for Microsoft Windows (SPSS, version 21, Chicago, IL). TCR-Vβ2 levels below 5.4 % or above 39.5 %, within total CD4(+) T cells, showed the best balance between sensitivity (98.1 %) and specificity (96 %) to identify the presence of a clone in the peripheral blood of patients affected by SS. Based on this observation, a "two-step" procedure in the detection of the malignant T cell clone in CTCLs is herein suggested. TCR-Vβ2 assessment in all cases (first step). In the case of TCR-Vβ2 levels above 39.5 %, the presence of a clonal expansion of this family is suggested, deserving further confirmation by means of T cell gene rearrangement evaluation. In patients having a TCR-Vβ2 reactivity below 5.4 % (second step), the entire TCR-Vβ repertoire should be evaluated to typify the expanded clone. In conclusion, the single TCR-Vβ2 expression check, instead of the entire repertoire assessment, represents an easy and cost-effective method for the recognition of CTCL aggressive leukemic variant.

  15. TCR sequencing facilitates diagnosis and identifies mature T cells as the cell of origin in CTCL

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, John T.; Williamson, David W.; Scott, Laura-Louise; Elco, Christopher P.; Teague, Jessica E.; Gehad, Ahmed; Lowry, Elizabeth L.; LeBoeuf, Nicole R.; Krueger, James G.; Robins, Harlan S.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Clark, Rachael A.

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of CTCL is difficult and takes on average six years after presentation, in part because the clinical appearance and histopathology of CTCL can resemble that of benign inflammatory skin diseases. Detection of a malignant T cell clone is critical in making the diagnosis of CTCL but the TCRγ PCR analysis in current clinical use detect clones in only a subset of patients. High-throughput TCR sequencing (HTS) detected T cell clones in 46/46 CTCL patients, was more sensitive and specific than TCRγ PCR, and successfully discriminated CTCL from benign inflammatory diseases. HTS also accurately assessed responses to therapy and facilitated diagnosis of disease recurrence. In patients with new skin lesions and no involvement of blood by flow cytometry, HTS demonstrated hematogenous spread of small numbers of malignant T cells. Analysis of CTCL TCRγ genes demonstrated that CTCL is a malignancy derived from mature T cells. There was a maximal T cell density in skin in benign inflammatory diseases that was exceeded in CTCL, suggesting a niche of finite size may exist for benign T cells in skin. Lastly, immunostaining demonstrated that the malignant T cell clones in mycosis fungoides and leukemic CTCL localized to different anatomic compartments in the skin. In summary, HTS accurately diagnosed CTCL in all stages, discriminated CTCL from benign inflammatory skin diseases and provided insights into the cell of origin and location of malignant CTCL cells in skin. PMID:26446955

  16. Tcrδ translocations that delete the Bcl11b haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene promote atm-deficient T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Lori A; Yang-Iott, Katherine; Bassing, Craig H

    2014-01-01

    ATM is the master regulator of the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Deficiency of ATM predisposes humans and mice to αβ T lymphoid cancers with clonal translocations between the T cell receptor (TCR) α/δ locus and a 450 kb region of synteny on human chromosome 14 and mouse chromosome 12. While these translocations target and activate the TCL1 oncogene at 14q32 to cause T cell pro-lymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), the TCRα/δ;14q32 translocations in ATM-deficient T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) have not been characterized and their role in cancer pathogenesis remains unknown. The corresponding lesion in Atm-deficient mouse T-ALLs is a chromosome t(12;14) translocation with Tcrδ genes fused to sequences on chromosome 12; although these translocations do not activate Tcl1, they delete the Bcl11b haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene. To assess whether Tcrδ translocations that inactivate one copy of Bcl11b promote transformation of Atm-deficient cells, we analyzed Atm(-/-) mice with mono-allelic Bcl11b deletion initiating in thymocytes concomitant with Tcrδ recombination. Inactivation of one Bcl11b copy had no effect on the predisposition of Atm(-/-) mice to clonal T-ALLs. Yet, none of these T-ALLs had a clonal chromosome t(12;14) translocation that deleted Bcl11b indicating that Tcrδ translocations that inactivate a copy of Bcl11b promote transformation of Atm-deficient thymocytes. Our data demonstrate that antigen receptor locus translocations can cause cancer by deleting a tumor suppressor gene. We discuss the implications of these findings for the etiology and therapy of T-ALLs associated with ATM deficiency and TCRα/δ translocations targeting the 14q32 cytogenetic region.

  17. Tcrδ translocations that delete the Bcl11b haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene promote atm-deficient T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Lori A; Yang-Iott, Katherine; Bassing, Craig H

    2014-01-01

    ATM is the master regulator of the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Deficiency of ATM predisposes humans and mice to αβ T lymphoid cancers with clonal translocations between the T cell receptor (TCR) α/δ locus and a 450 kb region of synteny on human chromosome 14 and mouse chromosome 12. While these translocations target and activate the TCL1 oncogene at 14q32 to cause T cell pro-lymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), the TCRα/δ;14q32 translocations in ATM-deficient T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) have not been characterized and their role in cancer pathogenesis remains unknown. The corresponding lesion in Atm-deficient mouse T-ALLs is a chromosome t(12;14) translocation with Tcrδ genes fused to sequences on chromosome 12; although these translocations do not activate Tcl1, they delete the Bcl11b haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene. To assess whether Tcrδ translocations that inactivate one copy of Bcl11b promote transformation of Atm-deficient cells, we analyzed Atm−/− mice with mono-allelic Bcl11b deletion initiating in thymocytes concomitant with Tcrδ recombination. Inactivation of one Bcl11b copy had no effect on the predisposition of Atm−/− mice to clonal T-ALLs. Yet, none of these T-ALLs had a clonal chromosome t(12;14) translocation that deleted Bcl11b indicating that Tcrδ translocations that inactivate a copy of Bcl11b promote transformation of Atm-deficient thymocytes. Our data demonstrate that antigen receptor locus translocations can cause cancer by deleting a tumor suppressor gene. We discuss the implications of these findings for the etiology and therapy of T-ALLs associated with ATM deficiency and TCRα/δ translocations targeting the 14q32 cytogenetic region. PMID:25486566

  18. High diversity in the TCR repertoire of GAD65 autoantigen-specific human CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Eugster, Anne; Lindner, Annett; Catani, Mara; Heninger, Anne-Kristin; Dahl, Andreas; Klemroth, Sylvia; Kühn, Denise; Dietz, Sevina; Bickle, Marc; Ziegler, Anette-Gabrielle; Bonifacio, Ezio

    2015-03-15

    Autoreactive CD4(+) T cells are an essential feature of type 1 diabetes mellitus. We applied single-cell TCR α- and β-chain sequencing to peripheral blood GAD65-specific CD4(+) T cells, and TCR α-chain next-generation sequencing to bulk memory CD4(+) T cells to provide insight into TCR diversity in autoimmune diabetes mellitus. TCRs obtained for 1650 GAD65-specific CD4(+) T cells isolated from GAD65 proliferation assays and/or GAD65 557I tetramer staining in 6 patients and 10 islet autoantibody-positive children showed large diversity with 1003 different TCRs identified. TRAV and TRBV gene usage was broad, and the TRBV5.1 gene was most prominent within the GAD65 557I tetramer(+) cells. Limited overlap (<5%) was observed between TCRs of GAD65-proliferating and GAD65 557I tetramer(+) CD4(+) T cells. Few TCRs were repeatedly found in GAD65-specific cells at different time points from individual patients, and none was seen in more than one subject. However, single chains were often shared between patients and used in combination with different second chains. Next-generation sequencing revealed a wide frequency range (<0.00001-1.62%) of TCR α-chains corresponding to GAD65-specific T cells. The findings support minor selection of genes and TCRs for GAD65-specific T cells, but fail to provide strong support for TCR-targeted therapies. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  19. Quantitative TCR:pMHC Dissociation Rate Assessment by NTAmers Reveals Antimelanoma T Cell Repertoires Enriched for High Functional Competence.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Philippe O; Wieckowski, Sébastien; Baumgaertner, Petra; Hebeisen, Michaël; Allard, Mathilde; Speiser, Daniel E; Rufer, Nathalie

    2015-07-01

    Experimental models demonstrated that therapeutic induction of CD8 T cell responses may offer protection against tumors or infectious diseases providing that T cells have sufficiently high TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity for efficient Ag recognition and consequently strong immune functions. However, comprehensive characterization of TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity in clinically relevant situations has remained elusive. In this study, using the novel NTA-His tag-containing multimer technology, we quantified the TCR:pMHC dissociation rates (koff) of tumor-specific vaccine-induced CD8 T cell clones (n = 139) derived from seven melanoma patients vaccinated with IFA, CpG, and the native/EAA or analog/ELA Melan-A(MART-1)(26-35) peptide, binding with low or high affinity to MHC, respectively. We observed substantial correlations between koff and Ca(2+) mobilization (p = 0.016) and target cell recognition (p < 0.0001), with the latter independently of the T cell differentiation state. Our strategy was successful in demonstrating that the type of peptide impacted on TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity, as tumor-reactive T cell clones derived from patients vaccinated with the low-affinity (native) peptide expressed slower koff rates than those derived from patients vaccinated with the high-affinity (analog) peptide (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, we observed that the low-affinity peptide promoted the selective differentiation of tumor-specific T cells bearing TCRs with high TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity (p < 0.0001). Altogether, TCR:pMHC interaction kinetics correlated strongly with T cell functions. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity assessment by NTA-His tag-containing multimers of naturally occurring polyclonal T cell responses, which represents a strong asset for the development of immunotherapy. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Expression of TCR-Vβ peptides by murine bone marrow cells does not identify T-cell progenitors.

    PubMed

    Abbey, Janice L; Karsunky, Holger; Serwold, Thomas; Papathanasiou, Peter; Weissman, Irving L; O'Neill, Helen C

    2015-08-01

    Germline transcription has been described for both immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor (TCR) genes, raising questions of their functional significance during haematopoiesis. Previously, an immature murine T-cell line was shown to bind antibody to TCR-Vβ8.2 in absence of anti-Cβ antibody binding, and an equivalent cell subset was also identified in the mesenteric lymph node. Here, we investigate whether germline transcription and cell surface Vβ8.2 expression could therefore represent a potential marker of T-cell progenitors. Cells with the TCR phenotype of Vβ8.2(+) Cβ(-) are found in several lymphoid sites, and among the lineage-negative (Lin(-)) fraction of hematopoietic progenitors in bone marrow (BM). Cell surface marker analysis of these cells identified subsets reflecting common lymphoid progenitors, common myeloid progenitors and multipotential progenitors. To assess whether the Lin(-) Vβ8.2(+) Cβ(-) BM subset contains hematopoietic progenitors, cells were sorted and adoptively transferred into sub-lethally irradiated recipients. No T-cell or myeloid progeny were detected following introduction of cells via the intrathymic or intravenous routes. However, B-cell development was detected in spleen. This pattern of restricted in vivo reconstitution disputes Lin(-) Vβ8.2(+) Cβ(-) BM cells as committed T-cell progenitors, but raises the possibility of progenitors with potential for B-cell development.

  1. Chimeric Antigen Receptor- and TCR-Modified T Cells Enter Main Street and Wall Street.

    PubMed

    Barrett, David M; Grupp, Stephan A; June, Carl H

    2015-08-01

    The field of adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is currently comprised of chimeric Ag receptor (CAR)- and TCR-engineered T cells and has emerged from principles of basic immunology to paradigm-shifting clinical immunotherapy. ACT of T cells engineered to express artificial receptors that target cells of choice is an exciting new approach for cancer, and it holds equal promise for chronic infection and autoimmunity. Using principles of synthetic biology, advances in immunology, and genetic engineering have made it possible to generate human T cells that display desired specificities and enhanced functionalities. Clinical trials in patients with advanced B cell leukemias and lymphomas treated with CD19-specific CAR T cells have induced durable remissions in adults and children. The prospects for the widespread availability of engineered T cells have changed dramatically given the recent entry of the pharmaceutical industry to this arena. In this overview, we discuss some of the challenges and opportunities that face the field of ACT.

  2. Discovery of invariant T cells by next-generation sequencing of the human TCR α-chain repertoire.

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Barbera; Klarenbeek, Paul; Doorenspleet, Marieke; van Kampen, Antoine; Moody, D Branch; de Vries, Niek; Van Rhijn, Ildiko

    2014-11-15

    During infection and autoimmune disease, activation and expansion of T cells take place. Consequently, the TCR repertoire contains information about ongoing and past diseases. Analysis and interpretation of the human TCR repertoire are hampered by its size and stochastic variation and by the diversity of Ags and Ag-presenting molecules encoded by the MHC, but are highly desirable and would greatly impact fundamental and clinical immunology. A subset of the TCR repertoire is formed by invariant T cells. Invariant T cells express interdonor-conserved TCRs and recognize a limited set of Ags, presented by nonpolymorphic Ag-presenting molecules. Discovery of the three known invariant T cell populations has been a tedious and slow process, identifying them one by one. Because conservation of the TCR α-chain of invariant T cells is much higher than the β-chain, and because the TCR α-chain V gene segment TRAV1-2 is used by two of the three known invariant TCRs, we employed next-generation sequencing of TCR α-chains that contain the TRAV1-2 gene segment to identify 16 invariant TCRs shared among many blood donors. Frequency analysis of individual clones indicates these T cells are expanded in many donors, implying an important role in human immunity. This approach extends the number of known interdonor-conserved TCRs and suggests that many more exist and that these TCR patterns can be used to systematically evaluate human Ag exposure. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Generation of human islet-specific regulatory T cells by TCR gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Hull, Caroline M; Nickolay, Lauren E; Estorninho, Megan; Richardson, Max W; Riley, James L; Peakman, Mark; Maher, John; Tree, Timothy I M

    2017-05-01

    Based on the success in animal models of type 1 diabetes (T1D), clinical trials of adoptive regulatory T cell (Treg) therapy are underway using ex vivo expanded polyclonal Tregs. However, pre-clinical data also demonstrate that islet-specific Tregs are more potent than polyclonal Tregs at reversing T1D. Translation of this approach into man will require methods to generate large populations of islet-specific Tregs which, to date, has proved to be a major hurdle. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of lentiviral-mediated T cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer to confer antigen specificity on polyclonal human Tregs. Targeting has been achieved using TCRs isolated from human islet-specific and viral-specific CD4(+) T cell clones. Engineered T cells demonstrated expression of ectopically-delivered TCRs, resulting in endowment of cognate antigen-specific responses. This enabled antigen-specific suppression at increased potency compared to polyclonal Tregs. However, cells transduced with islet-specific TCRs were less responsive to cognate antigen than viral-specific TCRs, and in some cases, required additional methods to isolate functional antigen-specific Tregs. This study demonstrates the potential of TCR gene transfer to develop islet-specific Treg therapies for effective treatment of T1D, but also highlights that additional optimisation may be required to achieve its full potential. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. TCR sequencing facilitates diagnosis and identifies mature T cells as the cell of origin in CTCL.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Ilan R; Watanabe, Rei; O'Malley, John T; Williamson, David W; Scott, Laura-Louise; Elco, Christopher P; Teague, Jessica E; Gehad, Ahmed; Lowry, Elizabeth L; LeBoeuf, Nicole R; Krueger, James G; Robins, Harlan S; Kupper, Thomas S; Clark, Rachael A

    2015-10-07

    Early diagnosis of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is difficult and takes on average 6 years after presentation, in part because the clinical appearance and histopathology of CTCL can resemble that of benign inflammatory skin diseases. Detection of a malignant T cell clone is critical in making the diagnosis of CTCL, but the T cell receptor γ (TCRγ) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in current clinical use detects clones in only a subset of patients. High-throughput TCR sequencing (HTS) detected T cell clones in 46 of 46 CTCL patients, was more sensitive and specific than TCRγ PCR, and successfully discriminated CTCL from benign inflammatory diseases. HTS also accurately assessed responses to therapy and facilitated diagnosis of disease recurrence. In patients with new skin lesions and no involvement of blood by flow cytometry, HTS demonstrated hematogenous spread of small numbers of malignant T cells. Analysis of CTCL TCRγ genes demonstrated that CTCL is a malignancy derived from mature T cells. There was a maximal T cell density in skin in benign inflammatory diseases that was exceeded in CTCL, suggesting that a niche of finite size may exist for benign T cells in skin. Last, immunostaining demonstrated that the malignant T cell clones in mycosis fungoides and leukemic CTCL localized to different anatomic compartments in the skin. In summary, HTS accurately diagnosed CTCL in all stages, discriminated CTCL from benign inflammatory skin diseases, and provided insights into the cell of origin and location of malignant CTCL cells in skin. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Targeting of HPV-16+ epithelial cancer cells by TCR gene engineered T cells directed against E6

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Lindsey M.; Kwong, Mei Li; Gros, Alena; Stevanović, Sanja; Tran, Eric; Kerkar, Sid; Raffeld, Mark; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Hinrichs, Christian S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The E6 and E7 oncoproteins of HPV-associated epithelial cancers are in principle ideal immunotherapeutic targets, but evidence that T cells specific for these antigens can recognize and kill HPV+ tumor cells is limited. We sought to determine if TCR gene engineered T cells directed against an HPV oncoprotein can successfully target HPV+ tumor cells. Experimental design T cell responses against the HPV-16 oncoproteins were investigated in a patient with an ongoing 22-month disease-free interval after her second resection of distant metastatic anal cancer. T cells genetically engineered to express an oncoprotein-specific TCR from this patient’s tumor-infiltrating T cells were tested for specific reactivity against HPV+ epithelial tumor cells. Results We identified, from an excised metastatic anal cancer tumor, T cells that recognized an HLA-A*02:01-restricted epitope of HPV-16 E6. The frequency of the dominant T cell clonotype from these cells was approximately 400-fold greater in the patient’s tumor than in her peripheral blood. T cells genetically engineered to express the TCR from this clonotype displayed high avidity for an HLA-A*02:01-restricted epitope of HPV-16, and they showed specific recognition and killing of HPV-16+ cervical, and head and neck cancer cell lines. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that HPV-16+ tumors can be targeted by E6-specific TCR gene engineered T cells, and they provide the foundation for a novel cellular therapy directed against HPV-16+ malignancies including cervical, oropharyngeal, anal, vulvar, vaginal, and penile cancers. PMID:26429982

  6. Generation of multi-functional antigen-specific human T-cells by lentiviral TCR gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Perro, M; Tsang, J; Xue, S-A; Escors, D; Cesco-Gaspere, M; Pospori, C; Gao, L; Hart, D; Collins, M; Stauss, H; Morris, E C

    2010-06-01

    T-cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer is an attractive strategy to generate antigen-specific T-cells for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer and chronic viral infection. However, current TCR gene transfer protocols trigger T-cell differentiation into terminally differentiated effector cells, which likely have reduced ability to mediate disease protection in vivo. We have developed a lentiviral gene transfer strategy to generate TCR-transduced human T-cells without promoting T-cell differentiation. We found that a combination of interleukin-15 (IL15) and IL21 facilitated lentiviral TCR gene transfer into non-proliferating T-cells. The transduced T-cells showed redirection of antigen specificity and produced IL2, IFNgamma and TNFalpha in a peptide-dependent manner. A significantly higher proportion of the IL15/IL21-stimulated T-cells were multi-functional and able to simultaneously produce all three cytokines (P<0.01), compared with TCR-transduced T-cells generated by conventional anti-CD3 plus IL2 stimulation, which primarily secreted only one cytokine. Similarly, IL15/IL21 maintained high levels of CD62L and CD28 expression in transduced T-cells, whereas anti-CD3 plus IL2 accelerated the loss of CD62L/CD28 expression. The data demonstrate that the combination of lentiviral TCR gene transfer together with IL15/IL21 stimulation can efficiently redirect the antigen specificity of resting primary human T-cells and generate multi-functional T-cells.

  7. Single-chain VαVβ T-cell receptors function without mispairing with endogenous TCR chains.

    PubMed

    Aggen, D H; Chervin, A S; Schmitt, T M; Engels, B; Stone, J D; Richman, S A; Piepenbrink, K H; Baker, B M; Greenberg, P D; Schreiber, H; Kranz, D M

    2012-04-01

    Transduction of exogenous T-cell receptor (TCR) genes into patients' activated peripheral blood T cells is a potent strategy to generate large numbers of specific T cells for adoptive therapy of cancer and viral diseases. However, the remarkable clinical promise of this powerful approach is still being overshadowed by a serious potential consequence: mispairing of the exogenous TCR chains with endogenous TCR chains. These 'mixed' heterodimers can generate new specificities that result in graft-versus-host reactions. Engineering TCR constant regions of the exogenous chains with a cysteine promotes proper pairing and reduces the mispairing, but, as we show here, does not eliminate the formation of mixed heterodimers. By contrast, deletion of the constant regions, through use of a stabilized Vα/Vβ single-chain TCR (scTv), avoided mispairing completely. By linking a high-affinity scTv to intracellular signaling domains, such as Lck and CD28, the scTv was capable of activating functional T-cell responses in the absence of either the CD3 subunits or the co-receptors, and circumvented mispairing with endogenous TCRs. Such transduced T cells can respond to the targeted antigen independent of CD3 subunits via the introduced scTv, without the transduced T cells acquiring any new undefined and potentially dangerous specificities.

  8. Studies on the T cell receptor (TCR) revision of autoantibody-inducing CD4 T (aiCD4 T) cell.

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, Shunichi; Uto, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Our recent studies into the role of autoantibody-inducing CD4 T cells in autoimmune disease have necessitated studies on the mechanism of TCR revision, a phenomenon that has been difficult to approach experimentally. Here we describe a detailed experimental technique to investigate the molecular events involved in TCR revision.

  9. NY-ESO-1 TCR single edited stem and central memory T cells to treat multiple myeloma without graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Mastaglio, Sara; Genovese, Pietro; Magnani, Zulma; Ruggiero, Eliana; Landoni, Elisa; Camisa, Barbara; Schiroli, Giulia; Provasi, Elena; Lombardo, Angelo; Reik, Andreas; Cieri, Nicoletta; Rocchi, Martina; Oliveira, Giacomo; Escobar, Giulia; Casucci, Monica; Gentner, Bernhard; Spinelli, Antonello; Mondino, Anna; Bondanza, Attilio; Vago, Luca; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ciceri, Fabio; Holmes, Michael C; Naldini, Luigi; Bonini, Chiara

    2017-08-03

    Transfer of T-cell receptors (TCRs) specific for tumor-associated antigens is a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy. We developed the TCR gene editing technology that is based on the knockout of the endogenous TCR α and β genes, followed by the introduction of tumor-specific TCR genes, and that proved safer and more effective than conventional TCR gene transfer. Although successful, complete editing requires extensive cell manipulation and 4 transduction procedures. Here we propose a novel and clinically feasible TCR "single editing" (SE) approach, based on the disruption of the endogenous TCR α chain only, followed by the transfer of genes encoding for a tumor-specific TCR. We validated SE with the clinical grade HLA-A2 restricted NY-ESO-1157-165-specific TCR. SE allowed the rapid production of high numbers of tumor-specific T cells, with optimal TCR expression and preferential stem memory and central memory phenotype. Similarly to unedited T cells redirected by TCR gene transfer (TCR transferred [TR]), SE T cells efficiently killed NY-ESO-1(pos) targets; however, although TR cells proved highly alloreactive, SE cells showed a favorable safety profile. Accordingly, when infused in NSG mice previously engrafted with myeloma, SE cells mediated tumor rejection without inducing xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease, thus resulting in significantly higher survival than that observed in mice treated with TR cells. Overall, single TCR gene editing represents a clinically feasible approach that is able to increase the safety and efficacy of cancer adoptive immunotherapy. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  10. A 3D microfluidic model for preclinical evaluation of TCR-engineered T cells against solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Pavesi, Andrea; Tan, Anthony T; Koh, Sarene; Chia, Adeline; Colombo, Marta; Antonecchia, Emanuele; Miccolis, Carlo; Ceccarello, Erica; Adriani, Giulia; Raimondi, Manuela T; Kamm, Roger D; Bertoletti, Antonio

    2017-06-15

    The tumor microenvironment imposes physical and functional constraints on the antitumor efficacy of adoptive T cell immunotherapy. Preclinical testing of different T cell preparations can help in the selection of efficient immune therapies, but in vivo models are expensive and cumbersome to develop, while classical in vitro 2D models cannot recapitulate the spatiotemporal dynamics experienced by T cells targeting cancer. Here, we describe an easily customizable 3D model, in which the tumor microenvironment conditions are modulated and the functionality of different T cell preparations is tested. We incorporate human cancer hepatocytes as a single cell or as tumor cell aggregates in a 3D collagen gel region of a microfluidic device. Human T cells engineered to express tumor-specific T cell receptors (TCR-T cells) are then added in adjacent channels. The TCR-T cells' ability to migrate and kill the tumor target and the profile of soluble factors were investigated under conditions of varying oxygen levels and in the presence of inflammatory cytokines. We show that only the 3D model detects the effect that oxygen levels and the inflammatory environment impose on engineered TCR-T cell function, and we also used the 3D microdevice to analyze the TCR-T cell efficacy in an immunosuppressive scenario. Hence, we show that our microdevice platform enables us to decipher the factors that can alter T cell function in 3D and can serve as a preclinical assay to tailor the most efficient immunotherapy configuration for a specific therapeutic goal.

  11. Cognate peptide-MHC complexes are expressed as tightly apposed nanoclusters in virus-infected cells to allow TCR crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Ferez, María; Castro, Mario; Alarcon, Balbino; van Santen, Hisse M

    2014-01-01

    Antigenic T cell stimulation requires interaction between the TCR of the T cell and cognate peptide-MHC molecules presented by the APC. Although studies with TCR-specific Abs and soluble peptide-MHC ligands have shown that the TCR needs to be crosslinked by two or more ligands to induce T cell stimulation, it is not understood how several MHC molecules loaded with the cognate antigenic peptide can produce crosslinking under physiological conditions. We show at the molecular level that large clusters of cognate peptide-MHC are formed at the surface of murine professional and nonprofessional APCs upon virus infection and that these clusters impinge on the stimulatory capacity of the APC. These clusters are formed by tight apposition of cognate peptide-MHC complexes in a configuration that is compatible with simultaneous engagement of two or more TCRs. This suggests that physiological expression of Ag allows formation of multivalent ligands for the TCR that permit TCR crosslinking and T cell activation.

  12. T cell-dendritic cell immunological synapses contain TCR dependent CD28-CD80 clusters that recruit protein kinase C-θ

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Su-Yi; Waite, Janelle C.; Liu, Mengling; Vardhana, Santosha; Dustin, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Short-lived TCR microclusters and a longer-lived protein kinase C-θ (PKC-θ) focusing central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC) have been defined in model immunological synapses (IS). In different model systems, CD28 mediated costimulatory interactions have been detected in microclusters, the cSMAC, or segregated from the TCR forming multiple distinct foci. The relationship between TCR and costimulatory molecules in the physiological IS of T cell-dendritic cell (DC) is obscure. To study the dynamic relationship of CD28-CD80 and TCR interactions in the T cell-DC IS during antigen specific T cell activation, we generated CD80-eCFP mice using Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) transgenic (Tg) technology. In splenic DCs, endogenous CD80 and CD80-eCFP localized to plasma membrane and Golgi apparatus, and CD80-eCFP was functional in vivo. In the OT-II T cell-DC IS, multiple segregated TCR, CD80 and LFA-1 clusters were detected. In the T cell-DC synapse CD80 clusters were colocalized with CD28 and PKC-θ, a characteristic of the cSMAC. Acute blockade of TCR signaling with anti-MHC antibody resulted in a rapid reduction in Ca2+ signaling and the number and size of the CD80 clusters, a characteristic of TCR microclusters. Thus, the T cell-DC interface contains dynamic costimulatory foci that share characteristics of microclusters and cSMACs. PMID:18802089

  13. Activating mutations in genes related to TCR signaling in angioimmunoblastic and other follicular helper T-cell-derived lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Vallois, David; Dobay, Maria Pamela D; Morin, Ryan D; Lemonnier, François; Missiaglia, Edoardo; Juilland, Mélanie; Iwaszkiewicz, Justyna; Fataccioli, Virginie; Bisig, Bettina; Roberti, Annalisa; Grewal, Jasleen; Bruneau, Julie; Fabiani, Bettina; Martin, Antoine; Bonnet, Christophe; Michielin, Olivier; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Figeac, Martin; Bernard, Olivier A; Delorenzi, Mauro; Haioun, Corinne; Tournilhac, Olivier; Thome, Margot; Gascoyne, Randy D; Gaulard, Philippe; de Leval, Laurence

    2016-09-15

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) and other lymphomas derived from follicular T-helper cells (TFH) represent a large proportion of peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) with poorly understood pathogenesis and unfavorable treatment results. We investigated a series of 85 patients with AITL (n = 72) or other TFH-derived PTCL (n = 13) by targeted deep sequencing of a gene panel enriched in T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling elements. RHOA mutations were identified in 51 of 85 cases (60%) consisting of the highly recurrent dominant negative G17V variant in most cases and a novel K18N in 3 cases, the latter showing activating properties in in vitro assays. Moreover, half of the patients carried virtually mutually exclusive mutations in other TCR-related genes, most frequently in PLCG1 (14.1%), CD28 (9.4%, exclusively in AITL), PI3K elements (7%), CTNNB1 (6%), and GTF2I (6%). Using in vitro assays in transfected cells, we demonstrated that 9 of 10 PLCG1 and 3 of 3 CARD11 variants induced MALT1 protease activity and increased transcription from NFAT or NF-κB response element reporters, respectively. Collectively, the vast majority of variants in TCR-related genes could be classified as gain-of-function. Accordingly, the samples with mutations in TCR-related genes other than RHOA had transcriptomic profiles enriched in signatures reflecting higher T-cell activation. Although no correlation with presenting clinical features nor significant impact on survival was observed, the presence of TCR-related mutations correlated with early disease progression. Thus, targeting of TCR-related events may hold promise for the treatment of TFH-derived lymphomas.

  14. TCR repertoire analysis by next generation sequencing allows complex differential diagnosis of T cell-related pathology.

    PubMed

    Dziubianau, M; Hecht, J; Kuchenbecker, L; Sattler, A; Stervbo, U; Rödelsperger, C; Nickel, P; Neumann, A U; Robinson, P N; Mundlos, S; Volk, H-D; Thiel, A; Reinke, P; Babel, N

    2013-11-01

    Clonotype analysis is essential for complete characterization of antigen-specific T cells. Moreover, knowledge on clonal identity allows tracking of antigen-specific T cells in whole blood and tissue infiltrates and can provide information on antigenic specificity. Here, we developed a next generation sequencing (NGS)-based platform for the highly quantitative clonotype characterization of T cells and determined requirements for the unbiased characterization of the input material (DNA, RNA, ex vivo derived or cell culture expanded T cells). Thereafter we performed T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire analysis of various specimens in clinical settings including cytomegalovirus (CMV), polyomavirus BK (BKV) reactivation and acute cellular allograft rejection. Our results revealed dynamic nature of virus-specific T cell clonotypes; CMV reactivation was linked to appearance of new highly abundant antigen-specific clonalities. Moreover, analysis of clonotype overlap between BKV-, alloantigen-specific T cell-, kidney allograft- and urine-derived lymphocytes provided hints for the differential diagnosis of allograft dysfunction and enabled appropriate therapy adjustment. We believe that the established approach will provide insights into the regulation of virus-specific/anti-tumor immunity and has high diagnostic potential in the clinical routine. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. Evaluation of TCR Vbeta subfamily T cell expansion in NOD/SCID mice transplanted with human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Chen, Shaohua; Yang, Lijian; Tan, Yubo; Bai, Xue; Li, Yangqiu

    2007-08-01

    Examination of the T cell receptor (TCR) gene repertoire is important in the analysis of the immune status of models, because clonal expansion of T cells permits the identification of specific antigen responses of T cells. Little is known about T-cell immunity in the humanized NOD/SCID mouse model. TCR Vbeta repertoire usage and clonality were analyzed to investigate the distribution and clonal expansion of TCR Vbeta subfamily T cells in NOD/SCID mice transplanted with human cord blood (CB) hematopoietic stem cells. The NOD/SCID mice were sublethally irradiated ((60)Co, 300cGy) to eliminate residual innate immunity in the host. The experimental mice were transplanted intravenously with CB CD34(+) cells sorted by MACS. After 6 weeks, RNA was obtained from peripheral blood, bone marrow and thymus of the study animals. The gene expression and clonality of the TCR Vbeta repertoire were determined by RT-PCR and GeneScan techniques. A restricted range of TCR Vbeta usage was exhibited in the bone marrow of mice, which included TCR Vbeta 1, 2, 9, 13 and 19. Further, oligoclonal expression of some TCR Vbeta subfamilies (Vbeta9, 13, 19) was identified by GeneScan technique. To investigate the reason for oligoclonal expansion of the TCR Vbeta subfamily T cells from CB in mouse models, the T-cell culture with tissue-antigen of NOD/SCID mouse was performed in vitro. The cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and bone marrow, spleen, thymus in NOD/SCID mice were frozen and thawed, and used as tissue-antigen. CB mononuclear cells were separately cultured with the component from those murine cells for 15-20 days. Oligoclonal expression or oligoclonal trend of some TCR Vbeta subfamilies (Vbeta10, 11 and Vbeta2, 15, 16, 19) was detected in T cells after stimulation with tissue-antigen of NOD/SCID mouse. Interestingly, a similar clonal expansion of the TCR Vbeta11 subfamily was found in T cells cultured with peripheral blood, bone marrow and spleen respectively. The TCR Vbeta

  16. USP2a positively regulates TCR-induced NF-κB activation by bridging MALT1-TRAF6.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; He, Xiao; Wang, Shuai; Shu, Hong-Bing; Liu, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The paracaspase MALT1 is essential for the activation of NF-κB in response to T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. It recruits downstream TRAF6 and activates the E3 ligase activity of TRAF6 to polyubiquitinate several targets, which ultimately leads to NF-κB activation. Here we identified ubiquitin-specific protease 2a (USP2a) as a MALT1-associated protein by biochemical affinity purification. Endogenous USP2a constitutively interacted with TRAF6, but dynamically interacted with MALT1 and CARMA1 in a stimulation-dependent manner. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of USP2a attenuated TCR-induced NF-κB activation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2). In addition, the ubiquitination of MALT1 and TRAF6 were both suppressed by USP2a knockdown. By knockdown and reconstitution assays, we found that USP2a mediated the interaction between MALT1 and TRAF6 in a catalytic activity-dependent manner. Furthermore, USP2a deSUMOylated TRAF6. Our findings implicate that USP2a plays an important role in TCR signaling by deSUMOylating TRAF6 and mediating TRAF6-MALT1 interaction.

  17. Regulatory T Cells Expanded from HIV-1-Infected Individuals Maintain Phenotype, TCR Repertoire and Suppressive Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Angin, Mathieu; Klarenbeek, Paul L.; King, Melanie; Sharma, Siddhartha M.; Moodley, Eshia S.; Rezai, Ashley; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Toth, Ildiko; Chan, Andrew T.; Goulder, Philip J.; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Kwon, Douglas S.; Addo, Marylyn M.

    2014-01-01

    While modulation of regulatory T cell (Treg) function and adoptive Treg transfer are being explored as therapeutic modalities in the context of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer, their role in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains less well defined. Controversy persists regarding their beneficial or detrimental effects in HIV-1 disease, which warrants further detailed exploration. Our objectives were to investigate if functional CD4+ Tregs can be isolated and expanded from HIV-1-infected individuals for experimental or potential future therapeutic use and to determine phenotype and suppressive capacity of expanded Tregs from HIV-1 positive blood and tissue. Tregs and conventional T cell controls were isolated from blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue of individuals with HIV-1 infection and healthy donors using flow-based cell-sorting. The phenotype of expanded Tregs was assessed by flow-cytometry and quantitative PCR. T-cell receptor ß-chain (TCR-β) repertoire diversity was investigated by deep sequencing. Flow-based T-cell proliferation and chromium release cytotoxicity assays were used to determine Treg suppressive function. Tregs from HIV-1 positive individuals, including infants, were successfully expanded from PBMC and GALT. Expanded Tregs expressed high levels of FOXP3, CTLA4, CD39 and HELIOS and exhibited a highly demethylated TSDR (Treg-specific demethylated region), characteristic of Treg lineage. The TCRß repertoire was maintained following Treg expansion and expanded Tregs remained highly suppressive in vitro. Our data demonstrate that Tregs can be expanded from blood and tissue compartments of HIV-1+ donors with preservation of Treg phenotype, function and TCR repertoire. These results are highly relevant for the investigation of potential future therapeutic use, as currently investigated for other disease states and hold great promise for detailed studies on the role of Tregs in HIV-1 infection. PMID:24498287

  18. High-throughput sequencing of TCR repertoires in multiple sclerosis reveals intrathecal enrichment of EBV-reactive CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Lossius, Andreas; Johansen, Jorunn N; Vartdal, Frode; Robins, Harlan; Jūratė Šaltytė, Benth; Holmøy, Trygve; Olweus, Johanna

    2014-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has long been suggested as a pathogen in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to determine the diversity, compartmentalization, persistence, and EBV-reactivity of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires in MS. TCR-β genes were sequenced in paired samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood from patients with MS and controls with other inflammatory neurological diseases. The TCR repertoires were highly diverse in both compartments and patient groups. Expanded T-cell clones, represented by TCR-β sequences >0.1%, were of different identity in CSF and blood of MS patients, and persisted for more than a year. Reference TCR-β libraries generated from peripheral blood T cells reactive against autologous EBV-transformed B cells were highly enriched for public EBV-specific sequences and were used to quantify EBV-reactive TCR-β sequences in CSF. TCR-β sequences of EBV-reactive CD8+ T cells, including several public EBV-specific sequences, were intrathecally enriched in MS patients only, whereas those of EBV-reactive CD4+ T cells were also enriched in CSF of controls. These data provide evidence for a clonally diverse, yet compartmentalized and persistent, intrathecal T-cell response in MS. The presented strategy links TCR sequence to intrathecal T-cell specificity, demonstrating enrichment of EBV-reactive CD8+ T cells in MS.

  19. IL-12-mediated STAT4 signaling and TCR signal strength cooperate in the induction of CD40L in human and mouse CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Stark, Regina; Hartung, Anett; Zehn, Dietmar; Frentsch, Marco; Thiel, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    CD40L is one of the key molecules bridging the activation of specific T cells and the maturation of professional and nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells including B cells. CD4(+) T cells have been regarded as the major T-cell subset that expresses CD40L upon cognate activation; however, we demonstrate here that a putative CD8(+) helper T-cell subset expressing CD40L is induced in human and murine CD8(+) T cells in vitro and in mice immunized with antigen-pulsed dendritic cells. IL-12 and STAT4-mediated signaling was the major instructive cytokine signal boosting the ability of CD8(+) T cells to express CD40L both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, TCR signaling strength modulated CD40L expression in CD8(+) T cells after primary differentiation in vitro as well as in vivo. The induction of CD40L in CD8(+) T cells regulated by IL-12 and TCR signaling may enable CD8(+) T cells to respond autonomously of CD4(+) T cells. Thus, we propose that under proinflammatory conditions, a self-sustaining positive feedback loop could facilitate the efficient priming of T cells stimulated by high affinity peptide displaying APCs.

  20. Generating HPV specific T helper cells for the treatment of HPV induced malignancies using TCR gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is associated with cancer of the cervix, vagina, penis, vulva, anus and some cases of head and neck carcinomas. The HPV derived oncoproteins E6 and E7 are constitutively expressed in tumor cells and therefore potential targets for T cell mediated adoptive immunotherapy. Effective immunotherapy is dependent on the presence of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. However, low precursor frequencies of HPV16 specific T cells in patients and healthy donors hampers routine isolation of these cells for adoptive transfer purposes. An alternative to generate HPV specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is TCR gene transfer. Methods HPV specific CD4+ T cells were generated using either a MHC class I or MHC class II restricted TCR (from clones A9 and 24.101 respectively) directed against HPV16 antigens. Functional analysis was performed by interferon-γ secretion, proliferation and cytokine production assays. Results Introduction of HPV16 specific TCRs into blood derived CD4+ recipient T cells resulted in recognition of the relevant HPV16 epitope as determined by IFN-γ secretion. Importantly, we also show recognition of the endogenously processed and HLA-DP1 presented HPV16E6 epitope by 24.101 TCR transgenic CD4+ T cells and recognition of the HLA-A2 presented HPV16E7 epitope by A9 TCR transgenic CD4+ T cells. Conclusion Our data indicate that TCR transfer is feasible as an alternative strategy to generate human HPV16 specific CD4+ T helper cells for the treatment of patients suffering from cervical cancer and other HPV16 induced malignancies. PMID:21892941

  1. A new high-throughput sequencing method for determining diversity and similarity of T cell receptor (TCR) α and β repertoires and identifying potential new invariant TCR α chains.

    PubMed

    Kitaura, Kazutaka; Shini, Tadasu; Matsutani, Takaji; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-10-11

    High-throughput sequencing of T cell receptor (TCR) genes is a powerful tool for analyses of antigen specificity, clonality and diversity of T lymphocytes. Here, we developed a new TCR repertoire analysis method using 454 DNA sequencing technology in combination with an adaptor-ligation mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This method allows the amplification of all TCR genes without PCR bias. To compare gene usage, diversity and similarity of expressed TCR repertoires among individuals, we conducted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of TRA and TRB genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 20 healthy human individuals. From a total of 267,037 sequence reads from 20 individuals, 149,216 unique sequence reads were identified. Preferential usage of several V and J genes were observed while some recombinations of TRAV with TRAJ appeared to be restricted. The extent of TCR diversity was not significantly different between TRA and TRB, while TRA repertoires were more similar between individuals than TRB repertoires were. The interindividual similarity of TRA depended largely on the frequent presence of shared TCRs among two or more individuals. A publicly available TRA had a near-germline TCR with a shorter CDR3. Notably, shared TRA sequences, especially those shared among a large number of individuals', often contained TCRα related with invariant TCRα derived from invariant natural killer T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells. These results suggest that retrieval of shared TCRs by NGS would be useful for the identification of potential new invariant TCRα chains. This NGS method will enable the comprehensive quantitative analysis of TCR repertoires at a clonal level.

  2. Identification of a T cell surface molecule using a monoclonal antibody produced by TCR/CD3 complex immunization.

    PubMed

    Mahasongkram, Kodchakorn; Pata, Supansa; Chruewkamlow, Nuttapol; Kasinrerk, Watchara

    2015-06-01

    Several molecules are known to be involved in T-cell activation via the TCR/CD3 complex and while the mechanisms of late T cell signaling have been well characterized, the very early events are still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to identify yet unknown molecules associated with the TCR/CD3 complex. To identify new molecules associated with the TCR/CD3 complex, a monoclonal antibody termed MT3 was produced by immunoprecipitated beads immunization. Colocalization of the MT3 mAb recognizing molecules with the TCR/CD3 complexes was verified by confocal microscopic analysis. The surface antigen recognized by MT3 antibody was expressed on a subpopulation of CD3+ T cells, and on both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. The antigen was also expressed on na?ve CD4+ T cells and on a subset of memory CD4+ T cells. In contrast, in the CD8 population, the majority of MT3+ cells were found in the na?ve population. The MT3 mAb recognizing molecules were also expressed on red blood cells but only in particular subjects. Similar to peripheral blood leukocytes, MT3 mAb recognizing molecules are exclusively expressed on T cell lines. Based on the cellular distribution patterns and confocal microscopic analysis, the MT3 mAb recognizing molecule that we investigated is proposed to be a TCR/CD3 associated molecule and might be involved in the antigen recognition of T cells.

  3. Activation of the Hedgehog signaling pathway in T-lineage cells inhibits TCR repertoire selection in the thymus and peripheral T-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Rowbotham, Nicola J.; Hager-Theodorides, Ariadne L.; Cebecauer, Marek; Shah, Divya K.; Drakopoulou, Ekati; Dyson, Julian; Outram, Susan V.

    2007-01-01

    TCR signal strength is involved in many cell fate decisions in the T-cell lineage. Here, we show that transcriptional events induced by Hedgehog (Hh) signaling reduced TCR signal strength in mice. Activation of Hh signaling in thymocytes in vivo by expression of a transgenic transcriptional-activator form of Gli2 (Gli2ΔN2) changed the outcome of TCR ligation at many stages of thymocyte development, allowing self-reactive cells to escape clonal deletion; reducing transgenic TCR-mediated positive selection; reducing the ratio of CD4/CD8 single-positive (SP) cells; and reducing cell surface CD5 expression. In contrast, in the Shh−/− thymus the ratio of CD4/CD8 cells and both positive and negative selection of a transgenic TCR were increased, demonstrating that Shh does indeed influence TCR repertoire selection and the transition from double-positive (DP) to SP cell in a physiological situation. In peripheral T cells, Gli2ΔN2 expression attenuated T-cell activation and proliferation, by a mechanism upstream of ERK phosphorylation. PMID:17227833

  4. Reduced TCR-dependent activation through citrullination of a T-cell epitope enhances Th17 development by disruption of the STAT3/5 balance.

    PubMed

    Tibbitt, Christopher; Falconer, Jane; Stoop, Jeroen; van Eden, Willem; Robinson, John H; Hilkens, Catharien M U

    2016-07-01

    Citrullination is a post-translational modification of arginine that commonly occurs in inflammatory tissues. Because T-cell receptor (TCR) signal quantity and quality can regulate T-cell differentiation, citrullination within a T-cell epitope has potential implications for T-cell effector function. Here, we investigated how citrullination of an immunedominant T-cell epitope affected Th17 development. Murine naïve CD4(+) T cells with a transgenic TCR recognising p89-103 of the G1 domain of aggrecan (agg) were co-cultured with syngeneic bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) presenting the native or citrullinated peptides. In the presence of pro-Th17 cytokines, the peptide citrullinated on residue 93 (R93Cit) significantly enhanced Th17 development whilst impairing the Th2 response, compared to the native peptide. T cells responding to R93Cit produced less IL-2, expressed lower levels of the IL-2 receptor subunit CD25, and showed reduced STAT5 phosphorylation, whilst STAT3 activation was unaltered. IL-2 blockade in native p89-103-primed T cells enhanced the phosphorylated STAT3/STAT5 ratio, and concomitantly enhanced Th17 development. Our data illustrate how a post-translational modification of a TCR contact point may promote Th17 development by altering the balance between STAT5 and STAT3 activation in responding T cells, and provide new insight into how protein citrullination may influence effector Th-cell development in inflammatory disorders. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A Functional γδTCR/CD3 Complex Distinct from γδT Cells Is Expressed by Human Eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Woerly, Gaëtane; Loiseau, Sylvie; Hermann, Emmanuel; Fournié, Jean-Jacques; Héliot, Laurent; Mattot, Virginie; Soncin, Fabrice; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Dombrowicz, David; Capron, Monique

    2009-01-01

    Background Eosinophils are effector cells during parasitic infections and allergic responses. However, their contribution to innate immunity has been only recently unravelled. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that human eosinophils express CD3 and γδ T Cell Receptor (TCR) but not αβ TCR. Surface expression of γδTCR/CD3 is heterogeneous between eosinophil donors and inducible by mycobacterial ligands. Surface immunoprecipitation revealed expression of the full γδTCR/CD3 complex. Real-time PCR amplification for CD3, γ and δ TCR constant regions transcripts showed a significantly lower expression in eosinophils than in γδT cells. Limited TCR rearrangements occur in eosinophils as shown by spectratyping analysis of CDR3 length profiles and in situ hybridization. Release by eosinophils of Reactive Oxygen Species, granule proteins, Eosinophil Peroxidase and Eosinophil-Derived Neurotoxin and cytokines (IFN-γ and TNF-α) was observed following activation by γδTCR-specific agonists or by mycobacteria. These effects were inhibited by anti-γδTCR blocking antibodies and antagonists. Moreover, γδTCR/CD3 was involved in eosinophil cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide evidence that human eosinophils express a functional γδTCR/CD3 with similar, but not identical, characteristics to γδTCR from γδT cells. We propose that this receptor contributes to eosinophil innate responses against mycobacteria and tumors and may represent an additional link between lymphoid and myeloid lineages. PMID:19536290

  6. Regulatory and T effector cells have overlapping low to high ranges in TCR affinities for self during demyelinating disease

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Jennifer D.; Zarnitsyna, Veronika I.; Zhu, Cheng; Evavold, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Having regulatory T cells with the same antigen specificity as the responding conventional T cells is thought to be important in maintaining peripheral tolerance. It has been demonstrated that during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) there are MOG-specific Tregs that infiltrate into the central nervous system (CNS). However the affinity of naturally occurring polyclonal Tregs for any self-antigen let alone MOG has not been analyzed in the periphery or at the site of autoimmune disease. Utilizing the highly sensitive micropipette adhesion frequency assay, which allows one to determine on a single cell basis the affinity and frequency of polyclonal antigen-specific T cells directly ex vivo, we demonstrate that at peak disease MOG-specific Tregs were progressively enriched in the draining cervical lymph nodes and CNS as compared to spleen. These frequencies were greater than the frequencies measured by tetramer analysis indicative of the large fraction of lower affinity T cells that comprise the MOG specific Tconv and Treg response. Of interest, the self-reactive CD4+ Tconvs and Tregs displayed overlapping affinities for MOG in the periphery, yet in the CNS, the site of neuroinflammation, Tconvs skew towards higher affinities. The majority of the MOG-specific Tregs in the CNS possessed the methylation signature associated with thymic derived Tregs. These findings indicate that tTreg affinity range matches that of their Tconvs in the periphery and suggest a change in TCR affinity as a potential mechanism for autoimmune progression and escape from immune regulation. PMID:26385521

  7. TCR hypervariable regions expressed by T cells that respond to effective tumor vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Kimberly R; Buhrman, Jonathan D; Sprague, Jonathan; Moore, Brandon L; Gao, Dexiang; Kappler, John W; Slansky, Jill E

    2012-10-01

    A major goal of immunotherapy for cancer is the activation of T cell responses against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). One important strategy for improving antitumor immunity is vaccination with peptide variants of TAAs. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the expansion of T cells that respond to the native tumor antigen is an important step in developing effective peptide-variant vaccines. Using an immunogenic mouse colon cancer model, we compare the binding properties and the TCR genes expressed by T cells elicited by peptide variants that elicit variable antitumor immunity directly ex vivo. The steady-state affinity of the natural tumor antigen for the T cells responding to effective peptide vaccines was higher relative to ineffective peptides, consistent with their improved function. Ex vivo analysis showed that T cells responding to the effective peptides expressed a CDR3β motif, which was also shared by T cells responding to the natural antigen and not those responding to the less effective peptide vaccines. Importantly, these data demonstrate that peptide vaccines can expand T cells that naturally respond to tumor antigens, resulting in more effective antitumor immunity. Future immunotherapies may require similar stringent analysis of the responding T cells to select optimal peptides as vaccine candidates.

  8. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with dual genotype of TCR and IgH genes.

    PubMed

    Aung, Naing Ye; Ohtake, Hiroya; Iwaba, Akiko; Kato, Tomoya; Ohe, Rintaro; Tajima, Katsushi; Nagase, Teruaki; Yamakawa, Mitsunori

    2011-05-15

    A 70-year-old man complained of fever and sore throat accompanied by hoarseness of voice. On physical examination, there was no systemic abnormality but a mild lymphadenopathy of cervical lymph nodes. With laryngoscopy, there was a marked outgrowth of the bilateral palatine tonsils proximal to the vocal cord. The histology of the resected tumor was compatible with angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL), revealing the effacement of normal tonsillar architecture and small to medium-sized neoplastic cell proliferation around marked vascular proliferation and atrophic lymphoid follicles. Tumor cells were positive for conventional T-cell antigens as well as for the follicular helper T-cell marker, PD-1, and CXCL13. Large hodgkinoid cells, but no tumor cells, were positive for latent membrane protein-1 and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA (EBER)-1 (in situ hybridization). Non-neoplastic, double positive cells for EBER-1 and CD20 were also scattered. Southern blot analysis revealed dual TCR-Cβ1 and IGH-JH gene rearrangements. Although the swelling of bilateral inguinal and perigastric lymph nodes developed later, the radical resection of tumor and chemotherapy appeared to be effective for the treatment of AITL with clinical stage IIIa. We here report a rare case of AITL involving palatine tonsil as primary site and give a review of the literature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Numbers of T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta+ but not of TcR gamma delta+ intraepithelial lymphocytes correlate with the grade of villous atrophy in coeliac patients on a long term normal diet.

    PubMed Central

    Kutlu, T; Brousse, N; Rambaud, C; Le Deist, F; Schmitz, J; Cerf-Bensussan, N

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of T cell receptor (TcR) gamma delta+ and alpha beta+ intestinal lymphocytes were studied in 34 coeliac patients in respect of their diet and the grade of villous atrophy. Particular attention was given to a group of 21 patients with coeliac disease according to ESPGAN criteria who were on a well tolerated long term normal diet and in nine of whom the mucosa had returned to normal or nearly normal. A significant increase in TcR gamma delta+ cells was observed in the gut epithelium of coeliac patients compared with age matched controls, and this did not correlate with either the presence of gluten in the diet or with the grade of villous atrophy. Thus, numbers of TcR gamma delta+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were considerably above the normal range in four of seven patients on a gluten free diet and in four of nine patients who had recovered a normal or nearly normal mucosa in spite of a normal diet. In contrast, numbers of intestinal TcR alpha beta+ cells varied with the stage of the disease. Their number was high in the epithelium of patients with active coeliac disease (n = 18) but significantly less in patients whose mucosa had returned to normal or nearly normal either after gluten free diet (n = 7) or in spite of a normal diet (n = 9). Immunohistochemical markers of intestinal mononuclear cell activation detected in active coeliac disease were either weakly expressed or absent in the latter patients. It is suggested that TcR alpha beta+ but not TcR gamma delta+ IEL are sensitised to gliadin in coeliac disease, and that only the former cells play a direct part in the pathogenesis of the villous atrophy. The normal counts of TcR alpha beta+ IEL and the absence of detectable mononuclear activation in the biopsy specimens of a few patients who have recovered clinical and histological tolerance to gluten sustains this hypothesis and also suggests that immunological tolerance to gluten may be acquired in a subgroup of coeliac patients. Hte appreciable

  10. Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction of cytokine secretion from murine T cells and proliferation of NK1.1 {alpha}/{beta} TCR-double positive cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, Hirofumi; Itonori, Saki; Sugita, Mutsumi; Nakamura, Kimihide; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Akemi; Kushi, Yasunori

    2008-08-29

    Interferon (IFN)-{gamma} and interleukin (IL)-4 regulate many types of immune responses. Here we report that acidic glycosphingolipids (AGLs) of Hypsizigus marmoreus and Pleurotus eryngii induced secretion of IFN- {gamma} and IL-4 from T cells in a CD11c-positive cell-dependent manner similar to that of {alpha}-galactosylceramide ({alpha}-GalCer) and isoglobotriaosylceramide (iGb3), although activated T cells by AGLs showed less secretion of cytokine than those activated by {alpha}-GalCer. In addition, stimulation of these mushroom AGLs induced proliferation of NK1.1 {alpha}/{beta} TCR-double positive cells in splenocytes. Administration of a mixture of {alpha}-GalCer and AGLs affected the stimulation of {alpha}-GalCer and generally induced a subtle Th1 bias for splenocytes but induced an extreme Th2 bias for thymocytes. These results suggested that edible mushroom AGLs contribute to immunomodulation.

  11. Analysis of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) expression by human peripheral blood CD4-8- alpha/beta T cells demonstrates preferential use of several V beta genes and an invariant TCR alpha chain

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    CD4-CD8- (double negative [DN]) alpha/beta T cells are a largely uncharacterized subpopulation of unknown function. To investigate whether these cells are selected to recognize particular antigens or antigen-presenting molecules, DN alpha/beta T cells were purified from the peripheral blood of five normal donors and their T cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta chains were examined. Random cloning of TCR alpha chains by single-sided polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification identified an invariant rearrangement between V alpha 24 and J alpha Q, with no N region diversity, which was expressed preferentially by DN alpha/beta T cells from all donors. Random cloning also identified a precise V alpha 7.2-J alpha (IGRJa14) rearrangement, with two variable amino acids encoded in the V-J junction, which was enriched in the DN alpha/beta T cell preparations from some, but not all, donors. Analysis of TCR beta chains by quantitative PCR amplification demonstrated that the expression of four V beta gene families, V beta 2, 8, 11, and 13, was markedly increased in these DN alpha/beta T cell preparations. The expression of particular TCRs by DN alpha/beta T cells from multiple donors indicates that these cells, or at least a subpopulation of cells with this phenotype, recognize a limited spectrum of antigens and suggests that they may use nonpolymorphic antigen-presenting molecules. PMID:8391057

  12. TCR-like antibody drug conjugates mediate killing of tumor cells with low peptide/HLA targets.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Devin B; Bivens, Camille K; Mobley, Alexis S; Herrera, Christian E; McCormick, Amanda L; Wichner, Timea; Sabnani, Manoj K; Wood, Laurence M; Weidanz, Jon A

    The currently marketed antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) destabilize microtubule assembly in cancer cells and initiate apoptosis in patients. However, few tumor antigens (TA) are expressed at high densities on cancer lesions, potentially minimizing the therapeutic index of current ADC regimens. The peptide/human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex can be specifically targeted by therapeutic antibodies (designated T cell receptor [TCR]-like antibodies) and adequately distinguish malignant cells, but has not been the focus of ADC development. We analyzed the killing potential of TCR-like ADCs when cross-linked to the DNA alkylating compound duocarmycin. Our data comprise proof-of-principle results that TCR-like ADCs mediate potent tumor cytotoxicity, particularly under common scenarios of low TA/HLA density, and support their continued development alongside agents that disrupt DNA replication. Additionally, TCR-like antibody ligand binding appears to play an important role in ADC functionality and should be addressed during therapy development to avoid binding patterns that negate ADC killing efficacy.

  13. IRF2BP2 transcriptional repressor restrains naive CD4 T cell activation and clonal expansion induced by TCR triggering.

    PubMed

    Sécca, Cristiane; Faget, Douglas V; Hanschke, Steffi C; Carneiro, Mayra S; Bonamino, Martin H; de-Araujo-Souza, Patricia S; Viola, João P B

    2016-11-01

    CD4 T cell activation and differentiation mechanisms constitute a complex and intricate signaling network involving several regulatory proteins. IRF2BP2 is a transcriptional repressor that is involved in gene-expression regulation in very diverse biologic contexts. Information regarding the IRF2BP2 regulatory function in CD4 T lymphocytes is very limited and suggests a role for this protein in repressing the expression of different cytokine genes. Here, we showed that Irf2bp2 gene expression was decreased in CD4 T cells upon activation. To investigate the possible regulatory roles for IRF2BP2 in CD4 T cell functions, this protein was ectopically expressed in murine primary-activated CD4 T lymphocytes through retroviral transduction. Interestingly, ectopic expression of IRF2BP2 led to a reduction in CD25 expression and STAT5 phosphorylation, along with an impaired proliferative capacity. The CD69 expression was also diminished in IRF2BP2-overexpressing cells, whereas CD44 and CD62L levels were not altered. In vivo, transferred, IRF2BP2-overexpressing, transduced cells displayed an impaired expansion capacity compared with controls. Furthermore, overexpression of IRF2BP2 in differentiated Th cells resulted in slightly reduced IL-4 and pro-TGF-β production in Th2 and iTregs but had no effect on IFN-γ or IL-17 expression in Th1 and Th17 cells, respectively. Taken together, our data suggest a role for IRF2BP2 in regulating CD4 T cell activation by repressing proliferation and the expression of CD25 and CD69 induced by TCR stimuli.

  14. Identification of shared TCR sequences from T cells in human breast cancer using emulsion RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Munson, Daniel J.; Egelston, Colt A.; Chiotti, Kami E.; Parra, Zuly E.; Bruno, Tullia C.; Moore, Brandon L.; Nakano, Taizo A.; Simons, Diana L.; Jimenez, Grecia; Yim, John H.; Rozanov, Dmitri V.; Falta, Michael T.; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Reynolds, Paul R.; Leach, Sonia M.; Borges, Virginia F.; Kappler, John W.; Spellman, Paul T.; Slansky, Jill E.

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration of T cells in breast tumors correlates with improved survival of patients with breast cancer, despite relatively few mutations in these tumors. To determine if T-cell specificity can be harnessed to augment immunotherapies of breast cancer, we sought to identify the alpha–beta paired T-cell receptors (TCRs) of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes shared between multiple patients. Because TCRs function as heterodimeric proteins, we used an emulsion-based RT-PCR assay to link and amplify TCR pairs. Using this assay on engineered T-cell hybridomas, we observed ∼85% accurate pairing fidelity, although TCR recovery frequency varied. When we applied this technique to patient samples, we found that for any given TCR pair, the dominant alpha- or beta-binding partner comprised ∼90% of the total binding partners. Analysis of TCR sequences from primary tumors showed about fourfold more overlap in tumor-involved relative to tumor-free sentinel lymph nodes. Additionally, comparison of sequences from both tumors of a patient with bilateral breast cancer showed 10% overlap. Finally, we identified a panel of unique TCRs shared between patients’ tumors and peripheral blood that were not found in the peripheral blood of controls. These TCRs encoded a range of V, J, and complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) sequences on the alpha-chain, and displayed restricted V-beta use. The nucleotides encoding these shared TCR CDR3s varied, suggesting immune selection of this response. Harnessing these T cells may provide practical strategies to improve the shared antigen-specific response to breast cancer. PMID:27307436

  15. Unique ζ-chain motifs mediate a direct TCR-actin linkage critical for immunological synapse formation and T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Klieger, Yair; Almogi-Hazan, Osnat; Ish-Shalom, Eliran; Pato, Aviad; Pauker, Maor H; Barda-Saad, Mira; Wang, Lynn; Baniyash, Michal

    2014-01-01

    TCR-mediated activation induces receptor microclusters that evolve to a defined immune synapse (IS). Many studies showed that actin polymerization and remodeling, which create a scaffold critical to IS formation and stabilization, are TCR mediated. However, the mechanisms controlling simultaneous TCR and actin dynamic rearrangement in the IS are yet not fully understood. Herein, we identify two novel TCR ζ-chain motifs, mediating the TCR's direct interaction with actin and inducing actin bundling. While T cells expressing the ζ-chain mutated in these motifs lack cytoskeleton (actin) associated (cska)-TCRs, they express normal levels of non-cska and surface TCRs as cells expressing wild-type ζ-chain. However, such mutant cells are unable to display activation-dependent TCR clustering, IS formation, expression of CD25/CD69 activation markers, or produce/secrete cytokine, effects also seen in the corresponding APCs. We are the first to show a direct TCR-actin linkage, providing the missing gap linking between TCR-mediated Ag recognition, specific cytoskeleton orientation toward the T-cell-APC interacting pole and long-lived IS maintenance.

  16. Gene Transfer of Tumor-Reactive TCR Confers Both High Avidity and Tumor Reactivity to Nonreactive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Laura A.; Heemskerk, Bianca; Powell, Daniel J.; Cohen, Cyrille J.; Morgan, Richard A.; Dudley, Mark E.; Robbins, Paul F.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    Cell-based antitumor immunity is driven by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells bearing TCR that recognize specific tumor-associated peptides bound to class I MHC molecules. Of several cellular proteins involved in T cell:target-cell interaction, the TCR determines specificity of binding; however, the relative amount of its contribution to cellular avidity remains unknown. To study the relationship between TCR affinity and cellular avidity, with the intent of identifying optimal TCR for gene therapy, we derived 24 MART-1:27–35 (MART-1) melanoma Ag-reactive tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) clones from the tumors of five patients. These MART-1-reactive clones displayed a wide variety of cellular avidities. α and β TCR genes were isolated from these clones, and TCR RNA was electroporated into the same non-MART-1-reactive allogeneic donor PBMC and TIL. TCR recipient cells gained the ability to recognize both MART-1 peptide and MART-1-expressing tumors in vitro, with avidities that closely corresponded to the original TCR clones (p = 0.018–0.0003). Clone DMF5, from a TIL infusion that mediated tumor regression clinically, showed the highest avidity against MART-1 expressing tumors in vitro, both endogenously in the TIL clone, and after RNA electroporation into donor T cells. Thus, we demonstrated that the TCR appeared to be the core determinant of MART-1 Ag-specific cellular avidity in these activated T cells and that nonreactive PBMC or TIL could be made tumor-reactive with a specific and predetermined avidity. We propose that inducing expression of this highly avid TCR in patient PBMC has the potential to induce tumor regression, as an “off-the-shelf” reagent for allogeneic melanoma patient gene therapy. PMID:17056587

  17. Sensing of cell stress by human γδ TCR-dependent recognition of annexin A2

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Angela; Kaminski, Hannah; Willcox, Carrie R.; Pitard, Vincent; Netzer, Sonia; Khairallah, Camille; Lomenech, Anne-Marie; Harly, Christelle; Bonneville, Marc; Moreau, Jean-François; Scotet, Emmanuel; Willcox, Benjamin E.; Faustin, Benjamin; Déchanet-Merville, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Human γδ T cells comprise a first line of defense through T-cell receptor (TCR) recognition of stressed cells. However, the molecular determinants and stress pathways involved in this recognition are largely unknown. Here we show that exposure of tumor cells to various stress situations led to tumor cell recognition by a Vγ8Vδ3 TCR. Using a strategy that we previously developed to identify antigenic ligands of γδ TCRs, annexin A2 was identified as the direct ligand of Vγ8Vδ3 TCR, and was found to be expressed on tumor cells upon the stress situations tested in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. Moreover, purified annexin A2 was able to stimulate the proliferation of a Vδ2neg γδ T-cell subset within peripheral blood mononuclear cells and other annexin A2-specific Vδ2neg γδ T-cell clones could be derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We thus propose membrane exposure of annexin A2 as an oxidative stress signal for some Vδ2neg γδ T cells that could be involved in an adaptive stress surveillance. PMID:28270598

  18. Viral Infection Triggers Central Nervous System Autoimmunity Via Activation of Dual TCR-Expressing CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Qingyong; Perchellet, Antoine; Goverman, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating, central nervous system disease mediated by myelin-specific T cells. Environmental triggers that cause a breakdown of myelin-specific T cell tolerance are unknown. We found that CD8+ myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific T cell tolerance can be broken and autoimmunity induced by infection with a virus that does not express MBP cross-reactive epitopes and does not depend on bystander activation. Instead, the virus activated dual T cell receptor (TCR)-expressing T cells capable of recognizing both MBP and viral antigens. These results demonstrate the importance of dual TCR T cells in autoimmunity and suggest a mechanism by which a ubiquitous viral infection could trigger autoimmunity in a subset of infected individuals, as hypothesized in the etiology of MS. PMID:20526343

  19. T cell expansion is the limiting factor of virus control in mice with attenuated TCR signaling: implications for human immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Hillen, Kristina M; Gather, Ruth; Enders, Anselm; Pircher, Hanspeter; Aichele, Peter; Fisch, Paul; Blumenthal, Britta; Schamel, Wolfgang W; Straub, Tobias; Goodnow, Christopher C; Ehl, Stephan

    2015-03-15

    Defining the minimal thresholds for effective antiviral T cell immunity is important for clinical decisions in immunodeficient patients. TCR signaling is critical for T cell development, activation, and effector functions. In this article, we analyzed which of these TCR-mediated processes is limiting for antiviral immunity in a mouse strain with reduced expression of SLP-76 (twp mice). Despite severe T cell activation defects in vitro, twp mice generated a normal proportion of antiviral effector T cells postinfection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Twp CD8(+) T cells showed impaired polyfunctional cytokine production, whereas cytotoxicity as the crucial antiviral effector function for LCMV control was normal. The main limiting factor in the antiviral response of twp mice was impaired T cell proliferation and survival, leading to a 5- to 10-fold reduction of antiviral T cells at the peak of the immune response. This was still sufficient to control infection with the LCMV Armstrong strain, but the more rapidly replicating LCMV-WE induced T cell exhaustion and viral persistence. Thus, under conditions of impaired TCR signaling, reduced T cell expansion was the limiting factor in antiviral immunity. These findings have implications for understanding antiviral immunity in patients with T cell deficiencies.

  20. Regulation of TCR signalling by tyrosine phosphatases: from immune homeostasis to autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Stephanie M; Rapini, Novella; Bottini, Nunzio

    2012-01-01

    More than half of the known protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in the human genome are expressed in T cells, and significant progress has been made in elucidating the biology of these enzymes in T-cell development and function. Here we provide a systematic review of the current understanding of the roles of PTPs in T-cell activation, providing insight into their mechanisms of action and regulation in T-cell receptor signalling, the phenotypes of their genetically modified mice, and their possible involvement in T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Our projection is that the interest in PTPs as mediators of T-cell homeostasis will continue to rise with further functional analysis of these proteins, and PTPs will be increasingly considered as targets of immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:22862552

  1. Activation of human naïve Th cells increases surface expression of GD3 and induces neoexpression of GD2 that colocalize with TCR clusters.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Cabello, Tania M; Mollicone, Rosella; Cruz-Muñoz, Mario E; López-Guerrero, Delia V; Martínez-Duncker, Iván

    2015-12-01

    CD4+ T helper lymphocytes (Th) orchestrate the immune response after their activation by antigen-presenting cells. Activation of naïve Th cells is reported to generate the reduction in surface epitopes of sialic acid (Sia) in α2,3 and α2,6 linkages. In this work, we report that in spite of this glycophenotype, anti-CD3/anti-CD28-activated purified human naïve Th cells show a significant increase in surface Sia, as assessed by metabolic labeling, compared with resting naïve Th cells, suggesting an increased flux of Sia toward Siaα2,8 glycoconjugates. To understand this increase as a result of ganglioside up-regulation, we observed that very early after activation, human naïve Th cells show an increased expression in surface GD3 and neoexpression of surface GD2 gangliosides, the latter clustering with the T cell receptor (TCR). Also, we report that in contrast to GM2/GD2 synthase null mice, lentiviral vector-mediated silencing of the GM2/GD2 synthase in activated human naïve Th cells reduced efficient TCR clustering and downstream signaling, as assessed by proliferation assays and IL-2 and IL-2R expression, pointing to an important role of this enzyme in activation of human naive Th cells. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Accumulation of serial forces on TCR and CD8 frequently applied by agonist antigenic peptides embedded in MHC molecules triggers calcium in T cells.

    PubMed

    Pryshchep, Sergey; Zarnitsyna, Veronika I; Hong, Jinsung; Evavold, Brian D; Zhu, Cheng

    2014-07-01

    T cell activation by Ag is one of the key events in adaptive immunity. It is triggered by interactions of the TCR and coreceptor (CD8 or CD4) with antigenic peptides embedded in MHC (pMHC) molecules expressed on APCs. The mechanism of how signal is initiated remains unclear. In this article, we complement our two-dimensional kinetic analysis of TCR-pMHC-CD8 interaction with concurrent calcium imaging to examine how ligand engagement of TCR with and without the coengagement of CD8 initiates signaling. We found that accumulation of frequently applied forces on the TCR via agonist pMHC triggered calcium, which was further enhanced by CD8 cooperative binding. Prolonging the intermission between sequential force applications impaired calcium signals. Our data support a model where rapid accumulation of serial forces on TCR-pMHC-CD8 bonds triggers calcium in T cells.

  3. An optimized single chain TCR scaffold relying on the assembly with the native CD3-complex prevents residual mispairing with endogenous TCRs in human T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Knies, Diana; Klobuch, Sebastian; Xue, Shao-An; Birtel, Matthias; Echchannaoui, Hakim; Yildiz, Oezlem; Omokoko, Tana; Guillaume, Philippe; Romero, Pedro; Stauss, Hans; Sahin, Ugur; Herr, Wolfgang; Theobald, Matthias; Thomas, Simone; Voss, Ralf-Holger

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy of cancer envisions the adoptive transfer of T-cells genetically engineered with tumor-specific heterodimeric α/β T-cell receptors (TCRα/β). However, potential mispairing of introduced TCRα/β-chains with endogenous β/α-ones may evoke unpredictable autoimmune reactivities. A novel single chain (sc)TCR format relies on the fusion of the Vα-Linker-Vβ-fragment to the TCR Cβ-domain and coexpression of the TCR Cα-domain capable of recruiting the natural CD3-complex for full and hence, native T-cell signaling. Here, we tested whether such a gp100(280-288)- or p53(264-272) tumor antigen-specific scTCR is still prone to mispairing with TCRα. In a human Jurkat-76 T-cell line lacking endogenous TCRs, surface expression and function of a scTCR could be reconstituted by any cointroduced TCRα-chain indicating mispairing to take place on a molecular basis. In contrast, transduction into human TCRα/β-positive T-cells revealed that mispairing is largely reduced. Competition experiments in Jurkat-76 confirmed the preference of dcTCR to selfpair and to spare scTCR. This also allowed for the generation of dc/scTCR-modified cytomegalovirus/tumor antigen-bispecific T-cells to augment T-cell activation in CMV-infected tumor patients. Residual mispairing was prevented by strenghtening the Vα-Li-Vβ-fragment through the design of a novel disulfide bond between a Vα- and a linker-resident residue close to Vβ. Multimer-stainings, and cytotoxicity-, IFNγ-secretion-, and CFSE-proliferation-assays, the latter towards dendritic cells endogenously processing RNA-electroporated gp100 antigen proved the absence of hybrid scTCR/TCRα-formation without impairing avidity of scTCR/Cα in T-cells. Moreover, a fragile cytomegalovirus pp65(495-503)-specific scTCR modified this way acquired enhanced cytotoxicity. Thus, optimized scTCR/Cα inhibits residual TCR mispairing to accomplish safe adoptive immunotherapy for bulk endogenous TCRα/β-positive T-cells. PMID:27028870

  4. An optimized single chain TCR scaffold relying on the assembly with the native CD3-complex prevents residual mispairing with endogenous TCRs in human T-cells.

    PubMed

    Knies, Diana; Klobuch, Sebastian; Xue, Shao-An; Birtel, Matthias; Echchannaoui, Hakim; Yildiz, Oezlem; Omokoko, Tana; Guillaume, Philippe; Romero, Pedro; Stauss, Hans; Sahin, Ugur; Herr, Wolfgang; Theobald, Matthias; Thomas, Simone; Voss, Ralf-Holger

    2016-04-19

    Immunotherapy of cancer envisions the adoptive transfer of T-cells genetically engineered with tumor-specific heterodimeric α/β T-cell receptors (TCRα/β). However, potential mispairing of introduced TCRα/β-chains with endogenous β/α-ones may evoke unpredictable autoimmune reactivities. A novel single chain (sc)TCR format relies on the fusion of the Vα-Linker-Vβ-fragment to the TCR Cβ-domain and coexpression of the TCR Cα-domain capable of recruiting the natural CD3-complex for full and hence, native T-cell signaling. Here, we tested whether such a gp100(280-288)- or p53(264-272) tumor antigen-specific scTCR is still prone to mispairing with TCRα. In a human Jurkat-76 T-cell line lacking endogenous TCRs, surface expression and function of a scTCR could be reconstituted by any cointroduced TCRα-chain indicating mispairing to take place on a molecular basis. In contrast, transduction into human TCRα/β-positive T-cells revealed that mispairing is largely reduced. Competition experiments in Jurkat-76 confirmed the preference of dcTCR to selfpair and to spare scTCR. This also allowed for the generation of dc/scTCR-modified cytomegalovirus/tumor antigen-bispecific T-cells to augment T-cell activation in CMV-infected tumor patients. Residual mispairing was prevented by strenghtening the Vα-Li-Vβ-fragment through the design of a novel disulfide bond between a Vα- and a linker-resident residue close to Vβ. Multimer-stainings, and cytotoxicity-, IFNγ-secretion-, and CFSE-proliferation-assays, the latter towards dendritic cells endogenously processing RNA-electroporated gp100 antigen proved the absence of hybrid scTCR/TCRα-formation without impairing avidity of scTCR/Cα in T-cells. Moreover, a fragile cytomegalovirus pp65(495-503)-specific scTCR modified this way acquired enhanced cytotoxicity. Thus, optimized scTCR/Cα inhibits residual TCR mispairing to accomplish safe adoptive immunotherapy for bulk endogenous TCRα/β-positive T-cells.

  5. MHC Multimer-Guided and Cell Culture-Independent Isolation of Functional T Cell Receptors from Single Cells Facilitates TCR Identification for Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Dössinger, Georg; Bunse, Mario; Bet, Jeannette; Albrecht, Julia; Paszkiewicz, Paulina J.; Weißbrich, Bianca; Schiedewitz, Isabell; Henkel, Lynette; Schiemann, Matthias; Neuenhahn, Michael; Uckert, Wolfgang; Busch, Dirk H.

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive therapy using T cells redirected to target tumor- or infection-associated antigens is a promising strategy that has curative potential and broad applicability. In order to accelerate the screening process for suitable antigen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs), we developed a new approach circumventing conventional in vitro expansion-based strategies. Direct isolation of paired full-length TCR sequences from non-expanded antigen-specific T cells was achieved by the establishment of a highly sensitive PCR-based T cell receptor single cell analysis method (TCR-SCAN). Using MHC multimer-labeled and single cell-sorted HCMV-specific T cells we demonstrate a high efficacy (approximately 25%) and target specificity of TCR-SCAN receptor identification. In combination with MHC-multimer based pre-enrichment steps, we were able to isolate TCRs specific for the oncogenes Her2/neu and WT1 even from very small populations (original precursor frequencies of down to 0.00005% of CD3+ T cells) without any cell culture step involved. Genetic re-expression of isolated receptors demonstrates their functionality and target specificity. We believe that this new strategy of TCR identification may provide broad access to specific TCRs for therapeutically relevant T cell epitopes. PMID:23637823

  6. Engagement of the T-cell receptor during positive selection in the thymus down-regulates RAG-1 expression.

    PubMed Central

    Brändle, D; Müller, C; Rülicke, T; Hengartner, H; Pircher, H

    1992-01-01

    We have examined the expression of the recombination activating gene RAG-1 by in situ hybridization to thymi from mice bearing transgenes for the T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain, TCR beta chain, or both TCR alpha and beta chains. RAG-1 transcription was found in the thymic cortex of transgenic mice carrying a single TCR alpha- or TCR beta-chain transgene, comparable to normal mice. However, RAG-1 transcription was strikingly reduced in the thymic cortex from transgenic mice carrying both TCR alpha- and beta-chain genes and expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (H-2b) molecules necessary for positive selection of the transgenic TCR. In contrast, thymi of transgenic mice also carrying both TCR alpha- and beta-chain genes but expressing MHC molecules (H-2d) that did not positively select the transgenic TCR displayed high levels of RAG-1 transcription. The low thymic RAG-1 expression coincided with high transgenic TCR alpha-chain surface expression and with inhibition of endogenous TCR alpha-chain rearrangement. Our findings suggest that binding of the TCR to self MHC molecules during positive selection down-regulates RAG-1 transcription in cortical thymocytes and thereby prevents further TCR alpha-chain rearrangements. Images PMID:1329099

  7. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and T cell receptor (TCR) Modified T cells Enter Main Street and Wall Street

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, David M; Grupp, Stephan A; June, Carl H

    2015-01-01

    The field of adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is currently comprised of CAR and TCR engineered T cells and has emerged from principles of basic immunology to paradigm-shifting clinical immunotherapy. ACT of T cells engineered to express artificial receptors that target cells of choice is an exciting new approach for cancer, and holds equal promise for chronic infection and autoimmunity. Using principles of synthetic biology, advances in immunology and genetic engineering have made it possible to generate human T-cells that display desired specificities and enhanced functionalities. Clinical trials in patients with advanced B cell leukemias and lymphomas treated with CD19-specific CAR T cells have induced durable remissions in adults and children. The prospects for the widespread availability of engineered T cells have changed dramatically given the recent entry of the pharmaceutical industry to this arena. Here, we discuss some of the challenges and opportunities that face the field of ACT. PMID:26188068

  8. The binding activity of Mel-18 at the Il17a promoter is regulated by the integrated signals of the TCR and polarizing cytokines.

    PubMed

    Hod-Dvorai, Reut; Jacob, Eyal; Boyko, Yulia; Avni, Orly

    2011-08-01

    We have previously shown that in differentiated T-helper (Th)1 and Th2 cells, polycomb group (PcG) proteins are associated differentially with the promoters of the signature cytokine genes. The correlation of the binding activity of PcG proteins with gene expression is unusual, since they are well known as epigenetic regulators that maintain transcriptional silencing. Here we show that in Th17 cells, the more phenotypically flexible Th lineage, the PcG proteins Mel-18 and less strikingly Ezh2 are associated differentially with the Il17a promoter. Using the RNAi approach, we found that Mel-18 and Ezh2 positively regulate the expression of Il17a and Il17f. The inducible binding of Mel-18 and Ezh2 at the Il17a promoter was dependent on signaling pathways downstream of the TCR. However, a continuous presence of TGF-β, the cytokine that is necessary to maintain Il17a expression, was required to preserve the binding activity of Mel-18, but not of Ezh2, following restimulation. The binding of Mel-18 at the Il17a promoter was correlated with the recruitment of the lineage-specifying transcription factor RORγt. Altogether, our results suggest that in Th17 cells the TCR and polarizing cytokines synergize to modulate the binding activity of Mel-18 at the Il17a promoter, and consequently to facilitate Il17a expression. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Human TCR-αβ+ CD4− CD8− T Cells Can Derive from CD8+ T Cells and Display an Inflammatory Effector Phenotype1

    PubMed Central

    Crispín, José C.; Tsokos, George C.

    2010-01-01

    The origin and function of human double negative (DN) TCR-αβ+ T cells is unknown. They are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus because they expand and accumulate in inflamed organs. In this study, we provide evidence that human TCR-αβ+ CD4− CD8− DN T cells can derive from activated CD8+ T cells. Freshly isolated TCR-αβ+ DN T cells display a distinct gene expression and cytokine production profile. DN cells isolated from peripheral blood as well as DN cells derived in vitro from CD8+ T cells produce a defined array of proinflammatory mediators that includes IL-1β, IL-17, IFN-γ, CXCL3, and CXCL2. These results indicate that, upon activation, CD8+ T cells have the capacity to acquire a distinct phenotype that grants them inflammatory capacity. PMID:19734235

  10. TCR contact residue hydrophobicity is a hallmark of immunogenic CD8+ T cell epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, Diego; Krishna, Sri; Cocita, Clément; Shu, Jack; Tan, Xuefang; Greenberg, Philip D.; Klavinskis, Linda S.; Blattman, Joseph N.; Anderson, Karen S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the availability of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-binding peptide prediction algorithms, the development of T-cell vaccines against pathogen and tumor antigens remains challenged by inefficient identification of immunogenic epitopes. CD8+ T cells must distinguish immunogenic epitopes from nonimmunogenic self peptides to respond effectively against an antigen without endangering the viability of the host. Because this discrimination is fundamental to our understanding of immune recognition and critical for rational vaccine design, we interrogated the biochemical properties of 9,888 MHC class I peptides. We identified a strong bias toward hydrophobic amino acids at T-cell receptor contact residues within immunogenic epitopes of MHC allomorphs, which permitted us to develop and train a hydrophobicity-based artificial neural network (ANN-Hydro) to predict immunogenic epitopes. The immunogenicity model was validated in a blinded in vivo overlapping epitope discovery study of 364 peptides from three HIV-1 Gag protein variants. Applying the ANN-Hydro model on existing peptide-MHC algorithms consistently reduced the number of candidate peptides across multiple antigens and may provide a correlate with immunodominance. Hydrophobicity of TCR contact residues is a hallmark of immunogenic epitopes and marks a step toward eliminating the need for empirical epitope testing for vaccine development. PMID:25831525

  11. The Vα14 invariant natural killer T cell TCR forces microbial glycolipids and CD1d into a conserved binding mode

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yali; Girardi, Enrico; Wang, Jing; Yu, Esther Dawen; Painter, Gavin F.; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) rapidly produce effector cytokines. In this study, we report the first crystal structures of the iNKT cell T cell receptor (TCR) bound to two natural, microbial glycolipids presented by CD1d. Binding of the TCR induced CDR3-α–dependent structural changes in the F′ roof of CD1d; these changes resemble those occurring in the absence of TCR engagement when the highly potent synthetic antigen α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) binds CD1d. Furthermore, in the Borrelia burgdorferi α–galactosyl diacylglycerol–CD1d complex, TCR binding caused a marked repositioning of the galactose sugar into an orientation that closely resembles α-GalCer. The TCR-dependent reorientation of the sugar, together with the induced CD1d fit, may explain the weaker potency of the microbial antigens compared with α-GalCer. We propose that the TCR of iNKT cells binds with a conserved footprint onto CD1d, regardless of the bound glycolipid antigen, and that for microbial antigens this unique binding mode requires TCR-initiated conformational changes. PMID:20921281

  12. Clonal selection in the human Vδ1 T cell repertoire indicates γδ TCR-dependent adaptive immune surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Martin S.; Willcox, Carrie R.; Joyce, Stephen P.; Ladell, Kristin; Kasatskaya, Sofya A.; McLaren, James E.; Hunter, Stuart; Salim, Mahboob; Mohammed, Fiyaz; Price, David A.; Chudakov, Dmitriy M.; Willcox, Benjamin E.

    2017-01-01

    γδ T cells are considered to be innate-like lymphocytes that respond rapidly to stress without clonal selection and differentiation. Here we use next-generation sequencing to probe how this paradigm relates to human Vδ2neg T cells, implicated in responses to viral infection and cancer. The prevalent Vδ1 T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is private and initially unfocused in cord blood, typically becoming strongly focused on a few high-frequency clonotypes by adulthood. Clonal expansions have differentiated from a naive to effector phenotype associated with CD27 downregulation, retaining proliferative capacity and TCR sensitivity, displaying increased cytotoxic markers and altered homing capabilities, and remaining relatively stable over time. Contrastingly, Vδ2+ T cells express semi-invariant TCRs, which are present at birth and shared between individuals. Human Vδ1+ T cells have therefore evolved a distinct biology from the Vδ2+ subset, involving a central, personalized role for the γδ TCR in directing a highly adaptive yet unconventional form of immune surveillance. PMID:28248310

  13. Clinical-scale lentiviral vector transduction of PBL for TCR gene therapy and potential for expression in less differentiated cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shicheng; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Morgan, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary In human gene therapy applications, lentiviral vectors may have advantages over gamma-retroviral vectors because of their ability to transduce non-dividing cells, their resistance to gene silencing, and a lack of integration site preference. In this study, we utilized VSV-G pseudotype third generation lentiviral vectors harboring specific anti-tumor T-cell receptor (TCR) to establish clinical-scale lentiviral transduction of PBL. Spinoculation (1000 × g, 32°C for 2 h) in the presence of protamine sulfate represents the most efficient and economical approach to transduce a large number of PBLs compared to RetroNectin-based methods. Up to 20 million cells per well of a 6-well plate were efficiently transduced and underwent an average 50-fold expansion in two weeks. TCR transduced PBL mediated specific anti-tumor activities including IFN-γ release and cell lysis. Compared to gamma-retroviral vectors, the TCR transgene could be preferentially expressed on a less-differentiated cell population. PMID:18833004

  14. Lck, Membrane Microdomains, and TCR Triggering Machinery: Defining the New Rules of Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Filipp, Dominik; Ballek, Ondrej; Manning, Jasper

    2012-01-01

    In spite of a comprehensive understanding of the schematics of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling, the mechanisms regulating compartmentalization of signaling molecules, their transient interactions, and rearrangement of membrane structures initiated upon TCR engagement remain an outstanding problem. These gaps in our knowledge are exemplified by recent data demonstrating that TCR triggering is largely dependent on a preactivated pool of Lck concentrated in T cells in a specific type of membrane microdomains. Our current model posits that in resting T cells all critical components of TCR triggering machinery including TCR/CD3, Lck, Fyn, CD45, PAG, and LAT are associated with distinct types of lipid-based microdomains which represent the smallest structural and functional units of membrane confinement able to negatively control enzymatic activities and substrate availability that is required for the initiation of TCR signaling. In addition, the microdomains based segregation spatially limits the interaction of components of TCR triggering machinery prior to the onset of TCR signaling and allows their rapid communication and signal amplification after TCR engagement, via the process of their coalescence. Microdomains mediated compartmentalization thus represents an essential membrane organizing principle in resting T cells. The integration of these structural and functional aspects of signaling into a unified model of TCR triggering will require a deeper understanding of membrane biology, novel interdisciplinary approaches and the generation of specific reagents. We believe that the fully integrated model of TCR signaling must be based on membrane structural network which provides a proper environment for regulatory processes controlling TCR triggering. PMID:22701458

  15. A Molecular Switch Abrogates Glycoprotein 100 (gp100) T-cell Receptor (TCR) Targeting of a Human Melanoma Antigen*

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Valentina; Bulek, Anna; Fuller, Anna; Lloyd, Angharad; Attaf, Meriem; Rizkallah, Pierre J.; Dolton, Garry; Sewell, Andrew K.; Cole, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Human CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes can mediate tumor regression in melanoma through the specific recognition of HLA-restricted peptides. Because of the relatively weak affinity of most anti-cancer T-cell receptors (TCRs), there is growing emphasis on immunizing melanoma patients with altered peptide ligands in order to induce strong anti-tumor immunity capable of breaking tolerance toward these self-antigens. However, previous studies have shown that these immunogenic designer peptides are not always effective. The melanocyte differentiation protein, glycoprotein 100 (gp100), encodes a naturally processed epitope that is an attractive target for melanoma immunotherapies, in particular peptide-based vaccines. Previous studies have shown that substitutions at peptide residue Glu3 have a broad negative impact on polyclonal T-cell responses. Here, we describe the first atomic structure of a natural cognate TCR in complex with this gp100 epitope and highlight the relatively high affinity of the interaction. Alanine scan mutagenesis performed across the gp100280–288 peptide showed that Glu3 was critically important for TCR binding. Unexpectedly, structural analysis demonstrated that the Glu3 → Ala substitution resulted in a molecular switch that was transmitted to adjacent residues, abrogating TCR binding and T-cell recognition. These findings help to clarify the mechanism of T-cell recognition of gp100 during melanoma responses and could direct the development of altered peptides for vaccination. PMID:26917722

  16. Nck Binds to the T Cell Antigen Receptor Using Its SH3.1 and SH2 Domains in a Cooperative Manner, Promoting TCR Functioning.

    PubMed

    Paensuwan, Pussadee; Hartl, Frederike A; Yousefi, O Sascha; Ngoenkam, Jatuporn; Wipa, Piyamaporn; Beck-Garcia, Esmeralda; Dopfer, Elaine P; Khamsri, Boonruang; Sanguansermsri, Donruedee; Minguet, Susana; Schamel, Wolfgang W; Pongcharoen, Sutatip

    2016-01-01

    Ligand binding to the TCR causes a conformational change at the CD3 subunits to expose the CD3ε cytoplasmic proline-rich sequence (PRS). It was suggested that the PRS is important for TCR signaling and T cell activation. It has been shown that the purified, recombinant SH3.1 domain of the adaptor molecule noncatalytic region of tyrosine kinase (Nck) can bind to the exposed PRS of CD3ε, but the molecular mechanism of how full-length Nck binds to the TCR in cells has not been investigated so far. Using the in situ proximity ligation assay and copurifications, we show that the binding of Nck to the TCR requires partial phosphorylation of CD3ε, as it is based on two cooperating interactions. First, the SH3.1(Nck) domain has to bind to the nonphosphorylated and exposed PRS, that is, the first ITAM tyrosine has to be in the unphosphorylated state. Second, the SH2(Nck) domain has to bind to the second ITAM tyrosine in the phosphorylated state. Likewise, mutations of the SH3.1 and SH2 domains in Nck1 resulted in the loss of Nck1 binding to the TCR. Furthermore, expression of an SH3.1-mutated Nck impaired TCR signaling and T cell activation. Our data suggest that the exact pattern of CD3ε phosphorylation is critical for TCR functioning.

  17. Immune selection of tumor cells in TCR β-chain transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Silaeva, Yulia Yu; Grinenko, Tatyana S; Vagida, Murad S; Kalinina, Anastasia A; Khromykh, Ludmila M; Kazansky, Dmitry B

    2014-10-01

    The concept of immunological surveillance implies that immunogenic variants of tumor cells arising in the organism can be recognized by the immune system. Tumor progression is provided by somatic evolution of tumor cells under the pressure of the immune system. The loss of MHC Class I molecules on the surface of tumor cells is one of the most known outcomes of immune selection. This study developed a model of immune selection based on the immune response of TCR 1d1 single β-chain transgenic B10.D2(R101) (K(d)I(d)D(b)) mice to allogeneic EL4 (H-2(b)) thymoma cells. In wild-type B10.D2(R101) mice, immunization with EL4 cells induced a vigorous CTL response targeted to the H-2K(b) molecule and results in full rejection of the tumor cells. In contrast, transgenic mice developed a compromised proliferative response in mixed-lymphocyte response assays and were unable to reject transplanted allogeneic EL4 cells. During the immune response to EL4 cells, CD8(+) T-lymphocytes with endogenous β-chains accumulated predominantly in the spleen of transgenic mice and only a small part of the T-lymphocytes expressing transgenic β-chains became CD8(+)CD44(+)CD62L(-) effectors. Then, instead of a full elimination of tumor cells as in wild-type mice, a reproducible prolonged equilibrium phase and subsequent escape was observed in transgenic mice that resulted in death of 90% of the mice in 40-60 days after grafting. Prolonged exposure of tumor cells to the pressure of the immune system in transgenic mice in vivo resulted in a stable loss of H-2K(b) molecules on the EL4 cell surface. Genetic manipulation of the T-lymphocyte repertoire was sufficient to reproduce the classic pattern of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system, usually observed in reliable syngeneic models of anti-tumor immunity. This newly-developed model could be used in further studies of immunoregulatory circuits common for transplantational and anti-tumor immune responses.

  18. Regulator T cells: specific for antigen and/or antigen receptors?

    PubMed

    Rubin, B; de Durana, Y Diaz; Li, N; Sercarz, E E

    2003-05-01

    Adaptive immune responses are regulated by many different molecular and cellular effectors. Regulator T cells are coming to their rights again, and these T cells seem to have ordinary alpha/beta T-cell receptors (TCRs) and to develop in the thymus. Autoimmune responses are tightly regulated by such regulatory T cells, a phenomenon which is beneficial to the host in autoimmune situations. However, the regulation of autoimmune responses to tumour cells is harmful to the host, as this regulation delays the defence against the outgrowth of neoplastic cells. In the present review, we discuss whether regulatory T cells are specific for antigen and/or for antigen receptors. Our interest in these phenomena comes from the findings that T cells produce many more TCR-alpha and TCR-beta chains than are necessary for surface membrane expression of TCR-alphabeta heterodimers with CD3 complexes. Excess TCR chains are degraded by the proteasomes, and TCR peptides thus become available to the assembly pathway of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Consequently, do T cells express two different identification markers on the cell membrane, the TCR-alphabeta clonotype for recognition by B-cell receptors and clonotypic TCR-alphabeta peptides for recognition by T cells?

  19. TCR Mechanobiology: Torques and Tunable Structures Linked to Early T Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Taek; Shin, Yongdae; Brazin, Kristine; Mallis, Robert J.; Sun, Zhen-Yu J.; Wagner, Gerhard; Lang, Matthew J.; Reinherz, Ellis L.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanotransduction is a basis for receptor signaling in many biological systems. Recent data based upon optical tweezer experiments suggest that the TCR is an anisotropic mechanosensor, converting mechanical energy into biochemical signals upon specific peptide-MHC complex (pMHC) ligation. Tangential force applied along the pseudo-twofold symmetry axis of the TCR complex post-ligation results in the αβ heterodimer exerting torque on the CD3 heterodimers as a consequence of molecular movement at the T cell–APC interface. Accompanying TCR quaternary change likely fosters signaling via the lipid bilayer predicated on the magnitude and direction of the TCR–pMHC force. TCR glycans may modulate quaternary change, thereby altering signaling outcome as might the redox state of the CxxC motifs located proximal to the TM segments in the heterodimeric CD3 subunits. Predicted alterations in TCR TM segments and surrounding lipid will convert ectodomain ligation into the earliest intracellular signaling events. PMID:22566957

  20. Regulatory T cells play a role in T-cell receptor CDR2 peptide regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Buenafe, Abigail C; Andrew, Shayne; Offner, Halina; Vandenbark, Arthur A

    2012-01-01

    Eliciting T-cell receptor (TCR) -specific responsiveness has been known to provide an effective autoregulatory mechanism for limiting inflammation mediated by T effector cells. Our previous use of TCR peptides derived from the CDR3 regions of a pathogenic TCR effectively reversed ongoing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in a humanized TCR transgenic model. In this study, we use the TCR BV8S2 CDR2 peptide in the non-transgenic C57BL/6 EAE model to down-regulate the heterogeneous TCR BV8S2+ MOG-35-55-specific pathogenic T-cell population and demonstrate successful treatment of EAE after disease onset. Suppression of disease was associated with reduced MOG-35-55-specific and non-specific T-cell production of interleukin-17a and interferon-γ in the central nervous system, as well as reduced numbers of CD4+ and Foxp3+ T cells in the central nervous system. With the use of Foxp3-GFP and Foxp3 conditional knockout mice, we demonstrate that the TCR CDR2 peptide treatment effect is dependent on the presence of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and that regulatory T cell numbers are significantly expanded in the periphery of treated mice. Hence, TCR CDR2 peptide therapy is effective in regulating heterogeneous, pathogenic T-cell populations through the activity of the Foxp3+ regulatory T cell population. PMID:22044096

  1. Regulatory T cells play a role in T-cell receptor CDR2 peptide regulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Buenafe, Abigail C; Andrew, Shayne; Offner, Halina; Vandenbark, Arthur A

    2012-02-01

    Eliciting T-cell receptor (TCR) -specific responsiveness has been known to provide an effective autoregulatory mechanism for limiting inflammation mediated by T effector cells. Our previous use of TCR peptides derived from the CDR3 regions of a pathogenic TCR effectively reversed ongoing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in a humanized TCR transgenic model. In this study, we use the TCR BV8S2 CDR2 peptide in the non-transgenic C57BL/6 EAE model to down-regulate the heterogeneous TCR BV8S2(+)  MOG-35-55-specific pathogenic T-cell population and demonstrate successful treatment of EAE after disease onset. Suppression of disease was associated with reduced MOG-35-55-specific and non-specific T-cell production of interleukin-17a and interferon-γ in the central nervous system, as well as reduced numbers of CD4(+) and Foxp3(+) T cells in the central nervous system. With the use of Foxp3-GFP and Foxp3 conditional knockout mice, we demonstrate that the TCR CDR2 peptide treatment effect is dependent on the presence of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and that regulatory T cell numbers are significantly expanded in the periphery of treated mice. Hence, TCR CDR2 peptide therapy is effective in regulating heterogeneous, pathogenic T-cell populations through the activity of the Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell population.

  2. Kinetics of early TCR signaling regulate the pathway of lytic granule delivery to the secretory domain

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Allison M.; Anikeeva, Nadia; Varma, Rajat; Cameron, Thomas O.; Vasiliver-Shamis, Gaia; Norris, Philip J.; Dustin, Michael L.; Sykulev, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Cytolytic granule mediated killing of virus-infected cells is an essential function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Analysis of lytic granule delivery shows that the granules can take long or short paths to the secretory domain where they are released. Both paths utilize the same intracellular molecular events, which have different spatial and temporal arrangements in each path and are regulated by the kinetics of downstream Ca2+ mediated signaling. Rapid and robust signaling causes swift granule concentration near the MTOC and subsequent delivery by the polarized MTOC directly to the secretory domain - the shortest and fastest path. Indolent signaling leads to late recruitment of granules that move along microtubules to the periphery of the synapse and then move tangentially to fuse at the outer edge of the secretory domain - a longer path. The short pathway is associated with faster granule release and more efficient killing than the long pathway. PMID:19833088

  3. TCR-induced, PKC-θ-mediated NF-κB Activation Is Regulated by a Caspase-8-Caspase-9-Caspase-3 Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yixia; Lei, Minxiang; Wang, Zhaoyuan; Qiao, Guilin; Yang, Tianlun; Zhang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    It has been documented that caspase-8, a central player in apoptosis, is also crucial for TCR-mediated NF-κB activation. However, whether other caspases are also involved this process is unknown. In this report, we showed that in addition to caspase-8, caspase-9 is required for TCR-mediated NF-κB activation. Caspase-9 induces activation of PKC-θ, phosphorylation of Bcl10 and NF-κB activation in a caspase-3-dependent manner, but it appears that Bcl10 phosphorylation is uncoupled from NF-κB activation. Furthermore, caspase-8 lies upstream of caspase-9 during T cell activation. Therefore, TCR ligation elicits a caspase cascade involving caspase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-3 which initiates PKC-θ-dependent pathway leading to NF-κB activation and PKC-θ-independent Bcl10 phosphorylation which limits NF-kB activity. PMID:24924627

  4. [Development of Tax-redirected T-cell immunotherapy using TCR gene transduction in patients with ATL].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yukie; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2015-07-01

    ATL is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by HTLV-1 virus infection. Tax, which is the most important regulatory protein of HTLV-1, is associated with aggressive proliferation of host cells and is also a major target antigen for CD8⁺ cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs). Recently, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has proven effective for ATL, and donor-derived Tax-specific CTL might contribute to graft-versus-ATL effects in some recipients who maintained complete remission after allo-HSCT. We, for the first time, analyzed the Tax-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, phenotypes and functions of Tax-specific CTLs at single-cell levels in HLA-A24⁺ ATL patients who underwent allo-HSCT. We found that 1) a particular amino acid sequence motif (PDR) in the CDR3 region of TCR-β was conserved in different patients and also within the same patient before and after allo-HSCT, and 2) the PDR⁺ Tax-specific CTL clone selectively expanded in ATL long-term survivors as less-differentiated effector memory CTLs. Actually, the PDR⁺ CTL showed not only strong binding activity for the Tax-tetramer but also strong killing activity against patients' HTLV-1-infected T-cells without any reaction against normal cells. We are presently evaluating the killing activities of PDR⁺ TCR-transduced T-cells against Tax in immunodeficient mice, with the aim of developing a new immunotherapy for ATL.

  5. TCR/CD3-Induced activation and binding of Emt/Itk to linker of activated T cell complexes: requirement for the Src homology 2 domain.

    PubMed

    Ching, K A; Grasis, J A; Tailor, P; Kawakami, Y; Kawakami, T; Tsoukas, C D

    2000-07-01

    Expressed in mast and T cells/inducible T cell tyrosine kinase (Emt/Itk), a Tec family protein tyrosine kinase, is critical for the development and activation of T lymphocytes. The mechanism through which Emt/Itk mediates its effector functions is poorly understood. In this study, we show that the Emt/Itk Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is critical for the transphosphorylation and activation of Emt/Itk catalytic activity that is mediated by TCR/CD3 engagement. Furthermore, we find that the Emt/Itk SH2 domain is essential for the formation of TCR/CD3-inducible Emt/Itk-LAT complexes, whereas the SH3 domain and catalytic activity are not required. The Emt/Itk-linker of activated T cells (LAT) complexes are biologically important because Jurkat T cells with deficient LAT expression (JCaM2) fail to increase Emt/Itk tyrosine phosphorylation upon TCR/CD3 stimulation. Confocal microscopy reveals that in activated cells, LAT complexes colocalize with TCR/CD3. The present data suggest that upon TCR/CD3 engagement, the Emt/Itk SH2 domain mediates the formation of a molecular complex containing Emt/Itk, LAT, and TCR/CD3; this complex is essential for Emt/Itk activation and function.

  6. Modulation of TCR responsiveness by the Grb2-family adaptor, Gads.

    PubMed

    Lugassy, Jennie; Corso, Jasmin; Beach, Dvora; Petrik, Thomas; Oellerich, Thomas; Urlaub, Henning; Yablonski, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling depends on three interacting adaptor proteins: SLP-76, Gads, and LAT. Their mechanisms of signaling have been extensively explored, with the aid of fortuitously isolated LAT- and SLP-76-deficient T cell lines, but no such tools were available for Gads, a Grb2-family adaptor that bridges the TCR-inducible interaction between SLP-76 and LAT. TALEN-directed genome editing was applied to disrupt the first coding exon of human Gads in the Jurkat T cell line. Gads was dispensable for TCR-induced phosphorylation of SLP-76, but was a dose-dependent amplifier of TCR-induced CD69 expression. Gads conferred responsiveness to weak TCR stimuli, leading to PLC-γ1 phosphorylation and calcium flux. TALEN-derived, Gads-deficient T cell lines provide a uniquely tractable genetic platform for exploring its regulatory features, such as Gads phosphorylation at T262, which we observed by mass spectrometry. Upon mutation of this site, TCR responsiveness and sensitivity to weak TCR stimuli were increased. This study demonstrates the feasibility of TALEN-based reverse genetics in Jurkat T cells, while enriching our understanding of Gads as a regulated modulator of TCR sensitivity.

  7. TCR Affinity Associated with Functional Differences between Dominant and Subdominant SIV Epitope-Specific CD8+ T Cells in Mamu-A*01+ Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Osuna, Christa E.; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Chang, Hsun-Hsien; Hung, Amy Shi; Ehlinger, Elizabeth; Anasti, Kara; Alam, S. Munir; Letvin, Norman L.

    2014-01-01

    Many of the factors that contribute to CD8+ T cell immunodominance hierarchies during viral infection are known. However, the functional differences that exist between dominant and subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells remain poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the phenotypic and functional differences between dominant and subdominant simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) epitope-specific CD8+ T cells restricted by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele Mamu-A*01 during acute and chronic SIV infection. Whole genome expression analyses during acute infection revealed that dominant SIV epitope-specific CD8+ T cells had a gene expression profile consistent with greater maturity and higher cytotoxic potential than subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells. Flow-cytometric measurements of protein expression and anti-viral functionality during chronic infection confirmed these phenotypic and functional differences. Expression analyses of exhaustion-associated genes indicated that LAG-3 and CTLA-4 were more highly expressed in the dominant epitope-specific cells during acute SIV infection. Interestingly, only LAG-3 expression remained high during chronic infection in dominant epitope-specific cells. We also explored the binding interaction between peptide:MHC (pMHC) complexes and their cognate TCRs to determine their role in the establishment of immunodominance hierarchies. We found that epitope dominance was associated with higher TCR:pMHC affinity. These studies demonstrate that significant functional differences exist between dominant and subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells within MHC-restricted immunodominance hierarchies and suggest that TCR:pMHC affinity may play an important role in determining the frequency and functionality of these cell populations. These findings advance our understanding of the regulation of T cell immunodominance and will aid HIV vaccine design. PMID:24743648

  8. TCR affinity associated with functional differences between dominant and subdominant SIV epitope-specific CD8+ T cells in Mamu-A*01+ rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Osuna, Christa E; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Chang, Hsun-Hsien; Hung, Amy Shi; Ehlinger, Elizabeth; Anasti, Kara; Alam, S Munir; Letvin, Norman L

    2014-04-01

    Many of the factors that contribute to CD8+ T cell immunodominance hierarchies during viral infection are known. However, the functional differences that exist between dominant and subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells remain poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the phenotypic and functional differences between dominant and subdominant simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) epitope-specific CD8+ T cells restricted by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele Mamu-A*01 during acute and chronic SIV infection. Whole genome expression analyses during acute infection revealed that dominant SIV epitope-specific CD8+ T cells had a gene expression profile consistent with greater maturity and higher cytotoxic potential than subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells. Flow-cytometric measurements of protein expression and anti-viral functionality during chronic infection confirmed these phenotypic and functional differences. Expression analyses of exhaustion-associated genes indicated that LAG-3 and CTLA-4 were more highly expressed in the dominant epitope-specific cells during acute SIV infection. Interestingly, only LAG-3 expression remained high during chronic infection in dominant epitope-specific cells. We also explored the binding interaction between peptide:MHC (pMHC) complexes and their cognate TCRs to determine their role in the establishment of immunodominance hierarchies. We found that epitope dominance was associated with higher TCR:pMHC affinity. These studies demonstrate that significant functional differences exist between dominant and subdominant epitope-specific CD8+ T cells within MHC-restricted immunodominance hierarchies and suggest that TCR:pMHC affinity may play an important role in determining the frequency and functionality of these cell populations. These findings advance our understanding of the regulation of T cell immunodominance and will aid HIV vaccine design.

  9. NY-ESO-1 specific TCR engineered T-cells mediate sustained antigen-specific antitumor effects in myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Goloubeva, Olga; Vogl, Dan T.; Lacey, Simon F.; Badros, Ashraf Z.; Garfall, Alfred; Weiss, Brendan; Finklestein, Jeffrey; Kulikovskaya, Irina; Sinha, Sanjoy K.; Kronsberg, Shari; Gupta, Minnal; Bond, Sarah; Melchiori, Luca; Brewer, Joanna E.; Bennett, Alan D.; Gerry, Andrew B.; Pumphrey, Nicholas J.; Williams, Daniel; Tayton-Martin, Helen K.; Ribeiro, Lilliam; Holdich, Tom; Yanovich, Saul; Hardy, Nancy; Yared, Jean; Kerr, Naseem; Philip, Sunita; Westphal, Sandra; Siegel, Don L.; Levine, Bruce L.; Jakobsen, Bent K.; Kalos, Michael; June, Carl H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent therapeutic advances, multiple myeloma (MM) remains largely incurable. Herein we report results of a phase I/II trial to evaluate the safety and activity of autologous T-cells engineered to express an affinity-enhanced T-cell receptor (TCR) recognizing a naturally processed peptide shared by the cancer-testis antigens NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1. Twenty patients with antigen-positive MM received an average 2.4×109 engineered T cells two days after autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). Infusions were well-tolerated without clinically apparent cytokine release syndrome, despite high IL-6 levels. Engineered T-cells expanded, persisted, trafficked to marrow and exhibited a cytotoxic phenotype. Persistence of engineered T cells in blood was inversely associated with NY-ESO-1 levels in the marrow. Disease progression was associated with loss of T cell persistence or antigen escape, consistent with the expected mechanism of action of the transferred T cells. Encouraging clinical responses were observed in 16 of 20 patients (80%) with advanced disease, with a median progression free survival of 19.1 months. NY-ESO-1/LAGE-1 TCR-engineered T-cells were safe, trafficked to marrow and showed extended persistence that correlated with clinical activity against antigen-positive myeloma. PMID:26193344

  10. Lck regulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of the T cell receptor subunits and ZAP-70 in murine thymocytes

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The Src-family and Syk/ZAP-70 family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) are required for T cell receptor (TCR) functions. We provide evidence that the Src-family PTK Lck is responsible for regulating the constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of the TCR zeta subunit in murine thymocytes. Moreover, ligation of the TCR expressed on thymocytes from Lck-deficient mice largely failed to induce the phosphorylation of TCR- zeta, CD3 epsilon, or ZAP-70. In contrast, we find that the TCR-zeta subunit is weakly constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated in peripheral T cells isolated from Lck-null mice. These data suggest that Lck has a functional role in regulation of TCR signal transduction in thymocytes. In peripheral T cells, other Src-family PTKs such as Fyn may partially compensate for the absence of Lck. PMID:8642247

  11. The Transmembrane Adaptor Protein SIT Inhibits TCR-Mediated Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Börge; Krieger, Tina; Kalinski, Thomas; Thielitz, Anja; Reinhold, Dirk; Roessner, Albert; Schraven, Burkhart; Simeoni, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Transmembrane adaptor proteins (TRAPs) organize signaling complexes at the plasma membrane, and thus function as critical linkers and integrators of signaling cascades downstream of antigen receptors. We have previously shown that the transmembrane adaptor protein SIT regulates the threshold for thymocyte selection. Moreover, T cells from SIT-deficient mice are hyperresponsive to CD3 stimulation and undergo enhanced lymphopenia-induced homeostatic proliferation, thus indicating that SIT inhibits TCR-mediated signaling. Here, we have further addressed how SIT regulates signaling cascades in T cells. We demonstrate that the loss of SIT enhances TCR-mediated Akt activation and increased phosphorylation/inactivation of Foxo1, a transcription factor of the Forkhead family that inhibits cell cycle progression and regulates T-cell homeostasis. We have also shown that CD4+ T cells from SIT-deficient mice display increased CD69 and CD40L expression indicating an altered activation status. Additional biochemical analyses further revealed that suppression of SIT expression by RNAi in human T cells resulted in an enhanced proximal TCR signaling. In summary, the data identify SIT as an important modulator of TCR-mediated signaling that regulates T-cell activation, homeostasis and tolerance. PMID:21957439

  12. TCR+CD4-CD8- T cells in antigen-specific MHC class I-restricted T-cell responses after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Raija K; Poiret, Thomas; Ambati, Aditya; Rane, Lalit; Remberger, Mats; Omazic, Birgitta; Vudattu, Nalini K; Winiarski, Jacek; Ernberg, Ingemar; Axelsson-Robertson, Rebecca; Magalhaes, Isabelle; Castelli, Chiara; Ringden, Olle; Maeurer, Markus

    2014-10-01

    Human TCRαβ(+) CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative (DN) T cells represent a minor subset in peripheral blood, yet are important in infectious diseases and autoimmune responses. We examined the frequency of DN T cells in 17 patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months post-aHSCT and show that these cells increase early after aHSCT and decrease with time after aHSCT. DN T cells reside in the terminally differentiated effector (CD45RA(+)CCR7(-)) T-cell population and are polyclonal, determined by T-cell receptor Vβ CDR3 analysis. Gene expression analysis of ex vivo sorted DN T cells showed a distinct set of gene expression, including interleukin-8, as compared with CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells. DN T cells contributed to MHC class I-restricted EBV-directed immune responses, defined by antigen-specific cytokine production and by detection of HLA-A*02:01-restricted EBV BMLF-1 (GLCTLVAML), LMP-2A (CLGGLLTMV), and HLA-A*24:02-restricted EBV BRLF-1 (DYCNVLNKEF) and EBNA3 (RYSIFFDY)-specific T cells. We created retroviral-transfected Jurkat cell lines with a Melan-A/MART-1-specific TCR(+) and the CD8α chain to study TCR(+) DN T cells in response to their nominal MHC class I/peptide ligand. We show that DN T cells exhibit increased TCRζ chain phosphorylation as compared with the TCR(+)CD8(+) transgenic T-cell line. DN T cells contribute to antigen-specific T-cell responses and represent an effector T-cell population that may be explored in immunotherapeutic approaches against viral infections or transformed cells.

  13. Preliminary study of the clonal characteristics of the TCR BV subfamilies in T cells in the peripheral blood from patients with uveitis.

    PubMed

    Zou, H-Y; Yu, W-Z; Zhang, Q; Yang, H-C; Huang, H-Y; Jiao, M

    2014-02-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and polymorphisms of the T-cell receptor BV complementarity-determining region 3 (TCR BV CDR3) gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with uveitis to provide an experimental basis for studying the pathogenesis of this disease. RT-PCR amplification of 26 subfamilies of the TCR BV CDR3 gene and immune spectratyping analysis were used to study the pedigree drift of TCR BV CDR3 in PBMCs from the uveitis patients. The following results were obtained: 1) the vast majority of the TCR BV CDR3 spectra in PBMCs in 5 healthy subjects fit the normal (or Gaussian) distribution. The distributions of the TCR BV CDR3 spectra in 4 patients with uveitis were non-normal and showed an abnormal peak including a widowed peak trend, a partial peak, and an irregular abnormal peak. 2) In the 26 TCR BV subfamilies, the abnormal peak frequency was different in the various subfamilies. The BV2 and BV17 (both 3/4) subfamilies had higher frequencies of the non-normally distributed abnormal peak. The BV5.2, BV6, BV15, and BV18 subfamilies showed no abnormal peaks. 3) TCR BV2 and BV17 yielded an abnormal peak in 3 HLA-B27-negative patients; however, no such abnormalities were detected in HLA-B27-positive patients. The abnormal expression of some TCR BV subfamilies in PBMCs from patients with uveitis may be associated with the immune pathogenesis of the disease. Our study provides the basis for further investigations into the pathogenesis of uveitis.

  14. Tripartite motif-containing protein 30 modulates TCR-activated proliferation and effector functions in CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Un Yung; Hur, Ji Yeon; Lee, Myeong Sup; Zhang, Quanri; Choi, Won Young; Kim, Lark Kyun; Lee, Wook-Bin; Oh, Goo Taeg; Kim, Young-Joon

    2014-01-01

    To avoid excessive activation, immune signals are tightly controlled by diverse inhibitory proteins. TRIM30, a tripartite motif (TRIM)-containing protein is one of such inhibitors known to function in macrophages. To define the roles of TRIM30, we generated Trim30 knockout (Trim30-/-) mice. Trim30 deletion caused no major developmental defects in any organs, nor showed any discernable defect in the activation of macrophages. But, Trim30-/- mice showed increased CD4/CD8 ratio when aged and Trim30-/- CD4+ T cells exhibited an abnormal response upon TCR activation, in particular in the absence of a costimulatory signal. Adoptive transfer of wild-type and Trim30-/- CD4+ T cells together into lymphopenic hosts confirmed higher proliferation of the Trim30-/- CD4+ T cells in vivo. Despite the enhanced proliferation, Trim30-/- T cells showed decreased levels of NF-κB activation and IL-2 production compared to wild-type cells. These results indicate a distinct requirement for TRIM30 in modulation of NF-κB activation and cell proliferation induced by TCR stimulation.

  15. Ultraviolet irradiation suppresses T cell activation via blocking TCR-mediated ERK and NF-kappa B signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Li-Weber, Min; Treiber, Monika K; Giaisi, Marco; Palfi, Katalin; Stephan, Nadja; Parg, Simone; Krammer, Peter H

    2005-08-15

    UV irradiation is carcinogenic and immunosuppressive. Previous studies indicate that UV-mediated alteration of APCs and induction of suppressor T cells play a critical role in UV-induced immune suppression. In this study, we show that UV irradiation can directly (independently of APCs and suppressor T cells) inhibit T cell activation by blocking TCR-mediated phosphorylation of ERK and IkappaB via overactivation of the p38 and JNK pathways. These events lead to the down-modulation of c-Jun, c-Fos, Egr-1, and NF-kappaB transcription factors and thereby inhibit production of cytokines, e.g., IL-2, IL-4, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha, upon TCR stimulation. We also show that UV irradiation can suppress preactivated T cells, indicating that UV irradiation does not only impair T cell function in response to T cell activation, but can also have systemic effects that influence ongoing immune responses. Thus, our data provide an additional mechanism by which UV irradiation directly suppresses immune responses.

  16. MHC-I restricted Melanoma Antigen Specific TCR Engineered Human CD4+ T Cells Exhibit Multifunctional Effector and Helper Responses, In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Swagatam; Chhabra, Arvind; Chakraborty, Nitya G.; Hegde, Upendra; Dorsky, David I.; Chodon, Thinle; von Euw, Erika; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Koya, Richard C.; Ribas, Antoni; Economou, James S.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Mukherji, Bijay

    2010-01-01

    MHC class 1-restricted human melanoma epitope MART-127–35 specific TCR engineered CD4+CD25− T cells synthesize Th1 type cytokines and exhibit cytolytic effector function upon cognate stimulation. A detailed characterization of such TCR-engineered CD4+CD25− T cells now reveals that they are multifunctional. For example, they undergo multiple rounds of division, synthesize cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, MIP1ß), lyse target cells, and “help” the expansion of the MART-127–35 specific CD8+ T cells when stimulated by the MART-127–35 peptide pulsed DC. Multiparametric analyses reveal that a single TCR-engineered CD4+ T cell can perform as many as five different functions. Nearly 100% MART-127–35 specific TCR expressing CD4+ T cells can be generated through retroviral vector-based transduction and one round of in vitro stimulation by the peptide pulsed DC. MHC class I-restricted tumor epitope specific TCR-transduced CD4+ T cells, therefore, could be useful in immunotherapeutic strategies for melanoma or other human malignancies. PMID:20547105

  17. TCR-driven transendothelial migration of human effector memory CD4 T cells involves Vav, Rac, and myosin IIA.

    PubMed

    Manes, Thomas D; Pober, Jordan S

    2013-04-01

    Human effector memory (EM) CD4 T cells may be recruited from the blood into a site of inflammation in response either to inflammatory chemokines displayed on or specific Ag presented by venular endothelial cells (ECs), designated as chemokine-driven or TCR-driven transendothelial migration (TEM), respectively. We have previously described differences in the morphological appearance of transmigrating T cells as well as in the molecules that mediate T cell-EC interactions distinguishing these two pathways. In this study, we report that TCR-driven TEM requires ZAP-70-dependent activation of a pathway involving Vav, Rac, and myosin IIA. Chemokine-driven TEM also uses ZAP-70, albeit in a quantitatively and spatially different manner of activation, and is independent of Vav, Rac, and mysosin IIA, depending instead on an as-yet unidentified GTP exchange factor that activates Cdc42. The differential use of small Rho family GTPases to activate the cytoskeleton is consistent with the morphological differences observed in T cells that undergo TEM in response to these distinct recruitment signals.

  18. Evolutionarily Conserved TCR Binding Sites, Identification of T Cells in Primary Lymphoid Tissues, and Surprising Trans-Rearrangements in Nurse Shark

    PubMed Central

    Criscitiello, Michael F.; Ohta, Yuko; Saltis, Mark; McKinney, E. Churchill; Flajnik, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    Cartilaginous fish are the oldest animals that generate RAG-based Ag receptor diversity. We have analyzed the genes and expressed transcripts of the four TCR chains for the first time in a cartilaginous fish, the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum). Northern blotting found TCR mRNA expression predominantly in lymphoid and mucosal tissues. Southern blotting suggested translocon-type loci encoding all four chains. Based on diversity of V and J segments, the expressed combinatorial diversity for γ is similar to that of human, α and β may be slightly lower, and δ diversity is the highest of any organism studied to date. Nurse shark TCRδ have long CDR3 loops compared with the other three chains, creating binding site topologies comparable to those of mammalian TCR in basic paratope structure; additionally, nurse shark TCRδ CDR3 are more similar to IgH CDR3 in length and heterogeneity than to other TCR chains. Most interestingly, several cDNAs were isolated that contained IgM or IgW V segments rearranged to other gene segments of TCRδ and α. Finally, in situ hybridization experiments demonstrate a conservation of both α/β and γ/δ T cell localization in the thymus across 450 million years of vertebrate evolution, with γ/δ TCR expression especially high in the subcapsular region. Collectively, these data make the first cellular identification of TCR-expressing lymphocytes in a cartilaginous fish. PMID:20488795

  19. Evolutionarily conserved TCR binding sites, identification of T cells in primary lymphoid tissues, and surprising trans-rearrangements in nurse shark.

    PubMed

    Criscitiello, Michael F; Ohta, Yuko; Saltis, Mark; McKinney, E Churchill; Flajnik, Martin F

    2010-06-15

    Cartilaginous fish are the oldest animals that generate RAG-based Ag receptor diversity. We have analyzed the genes and expressed transcripts of the four TCR chains for the first time in a cartilaginous fish, the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum). Northern blotting found TCR mRNA expression predominantly in lymphoid and mucosal tissues. Southern blotting suggested translocon-type loci encoding all four chains. Based on diversity of V and J segments, the expressed combinatorial diversity for gamma is similar to that of human, alpha and beta may be slightly lower, and delta diversity is the highest of any organism studied to date. Nurse shark TCRdelta have long CDR3 loops compared with the other three chains, creating binding site topologies comparable to those of mammalian TCR in basic paratope structure; additionally, nurse shark TCRdelta CDR3 are more similar to IgH CDR3 in length and heterogeneity than to other TCR chains. Most interestingly, several cDNAs were isolated that contained IgM or IgW V segments rearranged to other gene segments of TCRdelta and alpha. Finally, in situ hybridization experiments demonstrate a conservation of both alpha/beta and gamma/delta T cell localization in the thymus across 450 million years of vertebrate evolution, with gamma/delta TCR expression especially high in the subcapsular region. Collectively, these data make the first cellular identification of TCR-expressing lymphocytes in a cartilaginous fish.

  20. Revisiting the putative TCR Cα dimerization model through structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Huai; Reinherz, Ellis L

    2013-01-01

    Despite major advances in T cell receptor (TCR) biology and structure, how peptide-MHC complex (pMHC) ligands trigger αβ TCR activation remains unresolved. Two views exist. One model postulates that monomeric TCR-pMHC ligation events are sufficient while a second proposes that TCR-TCR dimerization in cis via Cα domain interaction plus pMHC binding is critical. We scrutinized 22 known TCR/pMHC complex crystal structures, and did not find any predicted molecular Cα-Cα contacts in these crystals that would allow for physiological TCR dimerization. Moreover, the presence of conserved glycan adducts on the outer face of the Cα domain preclude the hypothesized TCR dimerization through the Cα domain. Observed functional consequences of Cα mutations are likely indirect, with TCR microclusters at the immunological synapse driven by TCR transmembrane/cytoplasmic interactions via signaling molecules, scaffold proteins, and/or cytoskeletal elements.

  1. Selective phosphorylation of the Dlg1AB variant is critical for TCR-induced p38 activation and induction of proinflammatory cytokines in CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Jillian; Silva, Oscar; Humphries, Lisa A; Tibbs, Michelle D; Miceli, M Carrie

    2014-09-15

    CD8(+) T cells respond to TCR stimulation by producing proinflammatory cytokines, and destroying infected or malignant cells through the production and release of cytotoxic granules. Scaffold protein Discs large homolog 1 (Dlg1) specifies TCR-dependent functions by channeling proximal signals toward the activation of p38-dependent proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and/or p38-independent cytotoxic granule release. Two Dlg1 variants are expressed in CD8(+) T cells via alternative splicing, Dlg1AB and Dlg1B, which have differing abilities coordinate TCR-dependent functions. Although both variants facilitate p38-independent cytotoxicity, only Dlg1AB coordinates p38-dependent proinflammatory cytokine expression. In this study, we identify TCR-induced Dlg1 tyrosine phosphorylation as a key regulatory step required for Dlg1AB-mediated p38-dependent functions, including proinflammatory cytokine expression. We find that Dlg1AB but not Dlg1B is tyrosine phosphorylated by proximal tyrosine kinase Lck in response to TCR stimulation. Furthermore, we identify Dlg1 tyrosine 222 (Y222) as a major site of Dlg1 phosphorylation required for TCR-triggered p38 activation and NFAT-dependent expression of proinflammatory cytokines, but not for p38-independent cytotoxicity. Taken together, our data support a model where TCR-induced phosphorylation of Dlg1 Y222 is a key point of control that endows Dlg1AB with the ability to coordinate p38 activation and proinflammatory cytokine production. We propose blocking Dlg1AB phosphorylation as a novel therapeutic target to specifically block proinflammatory cytokine production but not cytotoxicity.

  2. Flow cytometry-based TCR-ligand Koff -rate assay for fast avidity screening of even very small antigen-specific T cell populations ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Nauerth, Magdalena; Stemberger, Christian; Mohr, Fabian; Weißbrich, Bianca; Schiemann, Matthias; Germeroth, Lothar; Busch, Dirk H

    2016-09-01

    High epitope-specific sensitivity of CD8(+) T cells is required for optimal immune protection against intracellular pathogens as well as certain malignancies. The quality of antigen recognition of CD8(+) T cells is usually described as "avidity" to its cognate peptide MHCI complex. T cell avidity is mainly dependent on the structural qualities of the T cell receptor (TCR), as convincingly demonstrated by recombinant TCR re-expression experiments. Based on reversible MHCI multimer staining and koff -rate measurements of monomeric peptide MHCI complexes, we recently established a microscopic assay for determining the structural avidity of individual CD8(+) T cells. Here we demonstrate that this assay can be adapted for rapid flow-cytometric avidity screening of epitope-specific T cell populations. Furthermore, we show that-in combination with conventional nonreversible MHCI multimer staining-even very small epitope-specific CD8(+) T cell populations can be analyzed directly ex vivo without the need for previous TCR cloning or T cell sorting. This simplified approach provides highly accurate mean TCR-ligand koff -rate values for poly- or oligoclonal T cell populations and is ideally suited for high-throughput applications in basic research as well as clinical settings. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  3. Regulation of expression of interleukin 2 receptors upon triggering of the TCR-CD3 complex on human T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kabouridis, P S; Tsoukas, C D

    1990-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with CD3 molecular complex can induce antigen-associated early biochemical changes in purified, monocyte-depleted resting T cell populations and synergize with interleukin 2 (IL2) in the induction of T-cell proliferation. Interleukin 2 mediates its effects via two receptor molecules of apparent 70-75 kD (p70/p75) and 50-55 kD (p50/55) molecular weights respectively. Using radioactive IL2 and bi-functional cross-linking chemistry, we are able to determine that incubation of purified, monocyte-depleted, resting T cells with anti-CD3 (OKT3) antibody induces a significant and selective increase in the expression of p70/75 IL2 receptors from their low constitutively expressed levels. This event occurs in the complete absence of cellular proliferation. Although IL2 also causes the upregulation of p70/75 molecules, it is the synergistic action of both antibody and lymphokine which is needed for the induction of significant amounts of the p50/55 IL2 receptors and the concomitant cellular proliferation. The effect of anti-CD3 on p70/75 receptor expression is specific, as determined by the inability of a non-related (anti-CD2) monoclonal antibody of the same subclass (IgG2a) to induce a similar effect. The Ca++ ionophore ionomycin, under conditions that cause significant intracellular Ca++ influx cannot by itself mediate upregulation of IL2 receptor expression in T cells. Since anti-CD3 itself can induce intracellular Ca++ increase in purified T cells, the finding with the ionophore suggests that the intracellular Ca++ accumulation alone cannot account for the IL2 receptor molecular events described here. Addition of PMA induces both p70/75 and p50/55 IL2 receptor upregulation, as well as IL2-dependent proliferation. Although resting T cells constitutively express p70/75 receptors, under our experimental conditions and with the concentration of IL2 used, these molecules cannot transduce the lymphokine signal efficiently. Thus, in a physiologic

  4. Autologous stem cell transplantation aids autoimmune patients by functional renewal and TCR diversification of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Delemarre, Eveline M; van den Broek, Theo; Mijnheer, Gerdien; Meerding, Jenny; Wehrens, Ellen J; Olek, Sven; Boes, Marianne; van Herwijnen, Martijn J C; Broere, Femke; van Royen, Annet; Wulffraat, Nico M; Prakken, Berent J; Spierings, Eric; van Wijk, Femke

    2016-01-07

    Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is increasingly considered for patients with severe autoimmune diseases whose prognosis is poor with standard treatments. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are thought to be important for disease remission after HSCT. However, eliciting the role of donor and host Tregs in autologous HSCT is not possible in humans due to the autologous nature of the intervention. Therefore, we investigated their role during immune reconstitution and re-establishment of immune tolerance and their therapeutic potential following congenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in a proteoglycan-induced arthritis (PGIA) mouse model. In addition, we determined Treg T-cell receptor (TCR) CDR3 diversity before and after HSCT in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and juvenile dermatomyositis. In the PGIA BMT model, after an initial predominance of host Tregs, graft-derived Tregs started dominating and displayed a more stable phenotype with better suppressive capacity. Patient samples revealed a striking lack of diversity of the Treg repertoire before HSCT. This ameliorated after HSCT, confirming reset of the Treg compartment following HSCT. In the mouse model, a therapeutic approach was initiated by infusing extra Foxp3(GFP+) Tregs during BMT. Infusion of Foxp3(GFP+) Tregs did not elicit additional clinical improvement but conversely delayed reconstitution of the graft-derived T-cell compartment. These data indicate that HSCT-mediated amelioration of autoimmune disease involves renewal of the Treg pool. In addition, infusion of extra Tregs during BMT results in a delayed reconstitution of T-cell compartments. Therefore, Treg therapy may hamper development of long-term tolerance and should be approached with caution in the clinical autologous setting. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  5. New Insights into How Trafficking Regulates T Cell Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Jieqiong; Rossy, Jérémie; Deng, Qiji; Pageon, Sophie V.; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that exocytosis plays an important role in regulating T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. The trafficking molecules involved in lytic granule (LG) secretion in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) have been well-studied due to the immune disorder known as familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHLH). However, the knowledge of trafficking machineries regulating the exocytosis of receptors and signaling molecules remains quite limited. In this review, we summarize the reported trafficking molecules involved in the transport of the TCR and downstream signaling molecules to the cell surface. By combining this information with the known knowledge of LG exocytosis and general exocytic trafficking machinery, we attempt to draw a more complete picture of how the TCR signaling network and exocytic trafficking matrix are interconnected to facilitate T cell activation. This also highlights how membrane compartmentalization facilitates the spatiotemporal organization of cellular responses that are essential for immune functions. PMID:27508206

  6. Distinct T cell interactions with HLA class II tetramers characterize a spectrum of TCR affinities in the human antigen-specific T cell response.

    PubMed

    Reichstetter, S; Ettinger, R A; Liu, A W; Gebe, J A; Nepom, G T; Kwok, W W

    2000-12-15

    The polyclonal nature of T cells expanding in an ongoing immune response results in a range of disparate affinities and activation potential. Recently developed human class II tetramers provide a means to analyze this diversity by direct characterization of the trimolecular TCR-peptide-MHC interaction in live cells. Two HSV-2 VP16(369-379)-specific, DQA1*0102/DQB1*0602 (DQ0602)-restricted T cell clones were compared by means of T cell proliferation assay and HLA-DQ0602 tetramer staining. These two clones were obtained from the same subject, but show different TCR gene usage. Clone 48 was 10-fold more sensitive to VP16(369-379) peptide stimulation than clone 5 as assayed by proliferation assays, correlating with differences in MHC tetramer binding. Clone 48 gave positive staining with the DQ0602/VP16(369-379) tetramer at either 23 or 37 degrees C. Weak staining was also observed at 4 degrees C. Clone 5 showed weaker staining compared with clone 48 at 37 degrees C, and no staining was observed at 23 degrees C or on ice. Receptor internalization was not required for positive staining. Competitive binding indicates that the cell surface TCR of clone 48 has higher affinity for the DQ0602/VP16(369-379) complex than clone 5. The higher binding affinity of clone 48 for the peptide-MHC complex also correlates with a slower dissociation rate compared with clone 5.

  7. Long-term Persistence of CD4+ but Rapid Disappearance of CD8+ T Cells Expressing an MHC Class I-restricted TCR of Nanomolar Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Boris; Chervin, Adam S; Sant, Andrea J; Kranz, David M; Schreiber, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Most T cells have T cell receptors (TCR) of micromolar affinity for peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) ligands, but genetic engineering can generate TCRs of nanomolar affinity. The affinity of the TCR used, m33, for its cognate non-self peptide–MHC-I complex (SIYRYYGL-Kb) is 1,000-fold higher than of the wild-type TCR 2C. The affinity of m33 for the self-peptide dEV-8 on Kb is only twofold higher. Mouse CD8+ T cells transduced with an m33-encoding retrovirus showed binding of SIY-Kb and potent function in vitro, but in vivo these T cells disappeared within hours after transfer into syngeneic hosts without causing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Accordingly, in cases where such CD8-dependent self-reactivity might occur in human adoptive T cell therapies, our results show that a peripheral T-cell deletion mechanism could operate to avoid reactions with the host. In contrast to CD8+ T cells, we show that CD4+ T cells expressing m33 survived for months in vivo. Furthermore, the m33-transduced CD4+ T cells were able to mediate antigen-specific rejection of 6-day-old tumors. Together, we show that CD8+ T cell expressing a MHC class I-restricted high-affinity TCR were rapidly deleted whereas CD4+ T cells expressing the same TCR survived and provided function while being directed against a class I-restricted antigen. PMID:22233579

  8. Homology between an alloantigen and a self MHC allele calibrates the avidity of the alloreactive T cell repertoire independent of TCR affinity.

    PubMed

    Hornell, Tara M C; Myers, Nancy; Hansen, Ted H; Connolly, Janet M

    2003-05-01

    The self-restricted T cell repertoire exhibits a high frequency of alloreactivity. Because these alloreactive T cells are derived from the pool of cells selected on several different self MHC alleles, it is unknown how development of the alloantigenic repertoire is influenced by homology between a self MHC allele and an alloantigen. To address this, we used the 2C transgenic TCR that is selected by K(b), is alloreactive for L(d), and cross-reacts with L(q). L(q) is highly homologous to L(d) and binds several of the same peptide ligands, including p2Ca, the peptide recognized by 2C. We find that L(d)/p2Ca is a high avidity agonist ligand, whereas L(q)/p2Ca is a low avidity agonist ligand for 2C T cells. When mice transgenic for the 2C TCR are bred to L(q)-expressing mice, 2C(+) T cells develop; however, they express lower levels of either the 2C TCR or CD8 and require a higher L(d)/p2Ca ligand density to be activated than 2C(+) T cells selected by K(b). Furthermore, the 2C T cells selected in the presence of L(q) fail to detect L(q)/p2Ca complexes even at high ligand density. Thus, despite possessing the identical TCR, there is a functional avidity difference between 2C(+) T cells selected in the presence of L(q) vs K(b). These data provide evidence that homology between the selecting ligand and an alloantigen can influence the avidity of the T cell repertoire for the alloantigen, and suggest that thymic selection can fine tune T cell avidity independent of intrinsic TCR affinity.

  9. TCR sequences and tissue distribution discriminate the subsets of naïve and activated/memory Treg cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Chaara, Wahiba; Ruggiero, Eliana; Mariotti-Ferrandiz, Encarnita; Dulauroy, Sophie; Schmidt, Manfred; von Kalle, Christof; Six, Adrien; Klatzmann, David

    2015-05-01

    Analyses of the regulatory T (Treg) cell TCR repertoire should help elucidate the nature and diversity of their cognate antigens and thus how Treg cells protect us from autoimmune diseases. We earlier identified CD44(hi) CD62L(low) activated/memory (am) Treg cells as a Treg-cell subset with a high turnover and possible self-specificity. We now report that amTreg cells are predominantly distributed in lymph nodes (LNs) draining deep tissues. Multivariate analyses of CDR3 spectratyping first revealed that amTreg TCR repertoire is different from that of naïve Treg cells (nTreg cells) and effector T (Teff) cells. Furthermore, in deep- versus superficial LNs, TCR-β deep sequencing further revealed diversified nTreg-cell and amTreg-cell repertoires, although twofold less diverse than that of Teff cells, and with repertoire richness significantly lower in deep-LN versus superficial-LN Treg cells. Importantly, expanded clonotypes were mostly detected in deep-LN amTreg cells, some accounting for 20% of the repertoire. Strikingly, these clonotypes were absent from nTreg cells, but found at low frequency in Teff cells. Our results, obtained in nonmanipulated mice, indicate different antigenic targets for naïve and amTreg cells and that amTreg cells are self-specific. The data we present are consistent with an instructive component in Treg-cell differentiation.

  10. TCR Microclusters Preexist and Contain Molecules Necessary for TCR Signal Transduction 1

    PubMed Central

    Crites, Travis J; Padhan, Kartika; Muller, James; Krogsgaard, Michelle; Gudla, Prabhakar R.; Lockett, Stephen J.; Varma, Rajat

    2014-01-01

    TCR-dependent signaling events have been observed to occur in TCR microclusters. We found that some TCR microclusters are present in unstimulated murine T cells, indicating that the mechanisms leading to microcluster formation do not require ligand binding. These preexisting microclusters increase in absolute number following engagement by low-potency ligands. This increase is accompanied by an increase in cell spreading, with the result that the density of TCR microclusters on the surface of the T cell is not a strong function of ligand potency. In characterizing their composition, we observed a constant number of TCRs in a microcluster, constitutive exclusion of the phosphatase CD45, and preassociation with the signaling adapters LAT and Grb2. The existence of TCR microclusters prior to ligand binding in a state that is conducive for the initiation of downstream signaling could in part explain the rapid kinetics with which TCR signal transduction occurs. PMID:24860189

  11. Hepatitis C virus-cross-reactive TCR gene-modified T cells: a model for immunotherapy against diseases with genomic instability

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Timothy T.; Riley, Timothy P.; Lyons, Gretchen E.; Callender, Glenda G.; Roszkowski, Jeffrey J.; Wang, Yuan; Simms, Patricia E.; Scurti, Gina M.; Foley, Kendra C.; Murray, David C.; Hellman, Lance M.; McMahan, Rachel H.; Iwashima, Makio; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Rosen, Hugo R.; Baker, Brian M.; Nishimura, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    A major obstacle hindering the development of effective immunity against viral infections, their associated disease, and certain cancers is their inherent genomic instability. Accumulation of mutations can alter processing and presentation of antigens recognized by antibodies and T cells that can lead to immune escape variants. Use of an agent that can intrinsically combat rapidly mutating viral or cancer-associated antigens would be quite advantageous in developing effective immunity against such disease. We propose that T cells harboring cross-reactive TCRs could serve as a therapeutic agent in these instances. With the use of hepatitis C virus, known for its genomic instability as a model for mutated antigen recognition, we demonstrate cross-reactivity against immunogenic and mutagenic nonstructural protein 3:1406-1415 and nonstructural protein 3:1073-1081 epitopes in PBL-derived, TCR-gene-modified T cells. These single TCR-engineered T cells can CD8-independently recognize naturally occurring and epidemiologically relevant mutant variants. TCR-peptide MHC modeling data allow us to rationalize how TCR structural properties accommodate recognition of certain mutated epitopes and how these substitutions impact the requirement of CD8 affinity enhancement for recognition. A better understanding of such TCRs’ promiscuous behavior may allow for exploitation of these properties to develop novel, adoptive T cell-based therapies for viral infections and cancers exhibiting similar genomic instability. PMID:26921345

  12. Characterization of human CD8+TCR- facilitating cells in vitro and in vivo in a NOD/SCID/IL2rγnull mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y.; Elliott, M. J.; Yolcu, E. S.; Miller, T. O.; Ratajczak, J.; Bozulic, L. D.; Wen, Y.; Xu, H.; Ratajczak, M. Z.; Ildstad, S. T.

    2017-01-01

    CD8+/TCR- facilitating cells (FC) in mouse BM significantly enhance engraftment of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC). Human FC phenotype and mechanism of action remain to be defined. We report for the first time the phenotypic characterization of human FC and correlation of phenotype with function. Approximately half of human FC are CD56neg; the remainder CD56bright. The CD56neg FC subpopulation significantly promotes homing of HSPC to BM in NSG mouse recipients and enhances hematopoietic colony formation in vitro. The CD56neg FC subpopulation promotes rapid reconstitution of donor HSPC without GVHD. However, recipients of CD56bright FC plus HSPC exhibit low donor chimerism early after transplantation but the level of chimerism significantly increases with time. Recipients of HSPC plus CD56neg or CD56bright FC showed durable donor chimerism at significantly higher levels in BM. The majority of both FC subpopulations express CXCR4. Co-culture of CD56bright FC with HSPC up-regulates cathelicidin and beta defensin-2, factors that prime responsiveness of HSPC to SDF-1. Both FC subpopulations significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of the HSPC growth factors and Flt3-Ligand. These results indicate that human FC exert a direct effect on HSPC to enhance engraftment. Human FC offer a potential regulatory cell-based therapy for enhancement of engraftment and prevention of GVHD. PMID:26550777

  13. The Sts Proteins Target Tyrosine Phosphorylated, Ubiquitinated Proteins within TCR Signaling Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Carpino, N.; Chen, Y; Nassar, N; Oh, H

    2009-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR) detects the presence of infectious pathogens and activates numerous intracellular signaling pathways. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation and ubiquitination serve as key regulatory mechanisms downstream of the TCR. Negative regulation of TCR signaling pathways is important in controlling the immune response, and the Suppressor of TCR Signaling proteins (Sts-1 and Sts-2) have been shown to function as critical negative regulators of TCR signaling. Although their mechanism of action has yet to be fully uncovered, it is known that the Sts proteins possess intrinsic phosphatase activity. Here, we demonstrate that Sts-1 and Sts-2 are instrumental in down-modulating proteins that are dually modified by both protein tyrosine phosphorylation and ubiquitination. Specifically, both naive and activated T cells derived from genetically engineered mice that lack the Sts proteins display strikingly elevated levels of tyrosine phosphorylated, ubiquitinated proteins following TCR stimulation. The accumulation of the dually modified proteins is transient, and in activated T cells but not naive T cells is significantly enhanced by co-receptor engagement. Our observations hint at a novel regulatory mechanism downstream of the T cell receptor.

  14. Efficient Nef-Mediated Downmodulation of TCR-CD3 and CD28 Is Associated with High CD4+ T Cell Counts in Viremic HIV-2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hangxing; Sauter, Daniel; Usmani, Shariq M.; Schmokel, Jan; Feldman, Jerome; Gruters, Rob A.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; Geyer, Matthias; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Osterhaus, Albert D.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the multifunctional accessory Nef protein in the immunopathogenesis of HIV-2 infection is currently poorly understood. Here, we performed comprehensive functional analyses of 50 nef genes from 21 viremic (plasma viral load, >500 copies/ml) and 16 nonviremic (<500) HIV-2-infected individuals. On average, nef alleles from both groups were equally active in modulating CD4, TCR-CD3, CD28, MHC-I, and Ii cell surface expression and in enhancing virion infectivity. Thus, many HIV-2-infected individuals efficiently control the virus in spite of efficient Nef function. However, the potency of nef alleles in downmodulating TCR-CD3 and CD28 to suppress the activation and apoptosis of T cells correlated with high numbers of CD4+ T cells in viremic patients. No such correlations were observed in HIV-2-infected individuals with undetectable viral load. Further functional analyses showed that the Nef-mediated downmodulation of TCR-CD3 suppressed the induction of Fas, Fas-L, PD-1, and CTLA-4 cell surface expression as well as the secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) by primary CD4+ T cells. Moreover, we identified a single naturally occurring amino acid variation (I132T) in the core domain of HIV-2 Nef that selectively disrupts its ability to downmodulate TCR-CD3 and results in functional properties highly reminiscent of HIV-1 Nef proteins. Taken together, our data suggest that the efficient Nef-mediated downmodulation of TCR-CD3 and CD28 help viremic HIV-2-infected individuals to maintain normal CD4+ T cell homeostasis by preventing T cell activation and by suppressing the induction of death receptors that may affect the functionality and survival of both virally infected and uninfected bystander cells. PMID:22345473

  15. Efficient Nef-mediated downmodulation of TCR-CD3 and CD28 is associated with high CD4+ T cell counts in viremic HIV-2 infection.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Mohammad; Yu, Hangxing; Sauter, Daniel; Usmani, Shariq M; Schmokel, Jan; Feldman, Jerome; Gruters, Rob A; van der Ende, Marchina E; Geyer, Matthias; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Osterhaus, Albert D; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2012-05-01

    The role of the multifunctional accessory Nef protein in the immunopathogenesis of HIV-2 infection is currently poorly understood. Here, we performed comprehensive functional analyses of 50 nef genes from 21 viremic (plasma viral load, >500 copies/ml) and 16 nonviremic (<500) HIV-2-infected individuals. On average, nef alleles from both groups were equally active in modulating CD4, TCR-CD3, CD28, MHC-I, and Ii cell surface expression and in enhancing virion infectivity. Thus, many HIV-2-infected individuals efficiently control the virus in spite of efficient Nef function. However, the potency of nef alleles in downmodulating TCR-CD3 and CD28 to suppress the activation and apoptosis of T cells correlated with high numbers of CD4(+) T cells in viremic patients. No such correlations were observed in HIV-2-infected individuals with undetectable viral load. Further functional analyses showed that the Nef-mediated downmodulation of TCR-CD3 suppressed the induction of Fas, Fas-L, PD-1, and CTLA-4 cell surface expression as well as the secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) by primary CD4(+) T cells. Moreover, we identified a single naturally occurring amino acid variation (I132T) in the core domain of HIV-2 Nef that selectively disrupts its ability to downmodulate TCR-CD3 and results in functional properties highly reminiscent of HIV-1 Nef proteins. Taken together, our data suggest that the efficient Nef-mediated downmodulation of TCR-CD3 and CD28 help viremic HIV-2-infected individuals to maintain normal CD4(+) T cell homeostasis by preventing T cell activation and by suppressing the induction of death receptors that may affect the functionality and survival of both virally infected and uninfected bystander cells.

  16. The CD3-gamma and CD3-delta subunits of the T cell antigen receptor can be expressed within distinct functional TCR/CD3 complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, B; Ley, S C; Sánchez-Madrid, F; Blumberg, R S; Ju, S T; Fresno, M; Terhorst, C

    1991-01-01

    The T cell receptor for antigen (TCR) consists of two glycoproteins containing variable regions (TCR-alpha/beta or TCR-gamma/delta) which are expressed on the cell surface in association with at least four invariant proteins (CD3-gamma, -delta, -epsilon and -zeta). CD3-gamma and CD3-delta chains are highly homologous, especially in the cytoplasmic domain. The similarity observed in their genomic organization and their proximity in the chromosome indicate that both genes arose from duplication of a single gene. Here, we provide several lines of evidence which indicate that in human and murine T cells which expressed both the CD3-gamma and CD3-delta chains on their surface, the TCR/CD3 complex consisted of a mixture of alpha beta gamma epsilon zeta and alpha beta delta epsilon zeta complexes rather than a single alpha beta gamma delta epsilon zeta complex. First, a CD3-gamma specific antibody failed to co-immunoprecipitate CD3-delta and conversely, several CD3-delta specific antibodies did not coprecipitate CD3-gamma. Secondly, analysis of a panel of human and murine T cell lines demonstrated that CD3-gamma and CD3-delta were expressed at highly variable ratios on their surface. This suggested that these chains were not expressed as a single complex. Thirdly, CD3-gamma and CD3-delta competed for binding to CD3-epsilon in transfected COS cells, suggesting that CD3-gamma and CD3-delta formed mutually exclusive complexes. The existence of these two forms of TCR/CD3 complexes could have important implications in the understanding of T cell receptor function and its role in T cell development. Images PMID:1826255

  17. Human effector T cells derived from central memory cells rather than CD8(+)T cells modified by tumor-specific TCR gene transfer possess superior traits for adoptive immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fenglin; Zhang, Wenfeng; Shao, Hongwei; Bo, Huaben; Shen, Han; Li, Jiandong; Liu, Yichen; Wang, Teng; Ma, Wenli; Huang, Shulin

    2013-10-10

    Adoptive cell therapy provides an attractive treatment of cancer, and our expanding capacity to target tumor antigens is driven by genetically engineered human T lymphocytes that express genes encoding tumor-specific T cell receptors (TCRs). The intrinsic properties of cultured T cells used for therapy were reported to have tremendous influences on their persistence and antitumor efficacy in vivo. In this study, we isolated CD8(+) central memory T cells from peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors, and then transferred with the gene encoding TCR specific for tumor antigen using recombinant adenovirus vector Ad5F35-TRAV-TRBV. We found effector T cells derived from central memory T cells improved cell viability, maintained certain level of CD62L expression, and reacquired the CD62L(+)CD44(high) phenotype of central memory T cells after effector T cells differentiation. We then compared the antitumor reactivity of central memory T cells and CD8(+)T cells after TCR gene transferred. The results indicated that tumor-specific TCR gene being transferred to central memory T cells effectively increased the specific killing of antigen positive tumor cells and the expression of cytolytic granule protein. Furthermore, TCR gene transferred central memory T cells were more effective than TCR gene transferred CD8(+)T cells in CTL activity and effector cytokine secretion. These results implicated that isolating central memory T cells rather than CD8(+)T cells for insertion of gene encoding tumor-specific TCR may provide a superior tumor-reactive T cell population for adoptive transfer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phenolic-glycolipid-1 and lipoarabinomannan preferentially modulate TCR- and CD28-triggered proximal biochemical events, leading to T-cell unresponsiveness in mycobacterial diseases.

    PubMed

    Dagur, Pradeep Kumar; Sharma, Bhawna; Upadhyay, Rajni; Dua, Bhavyata; Rizvi, Arshad; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Sengupta, Utpal; Joshi, Beenu

    2012-09-17

    Advanced stages of leprosy show T cell unresponsiveness and lipids of mycobacterial origin are speculated to modulate immune responses in these patients. Present study elucidates the role of phenolicglycolipid (PGL-1) and Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (Man-LAM) on TCR- and TCR/CD28- mediated signalling. We observed that lipid antigens significantly inhibit proximal early signalling events like Zap-70 phosphorylation and calcium mobilization. Interestingly, these antigens preferentially curtailed TCR-triggered early downstream signalling events like p38 phosphorylation whereas potentiated that of Erk1/2. Further, at later stages inhibition of NFAT binding, IL-2 message, CD25 expression and T-cell blastogenesis by PGL-1 and Man-LAM was noted. Altogether, we report that Man-LAM and PGL-1 preferentially interfere with TCR/CD28-triggered upstream cell signalling events, leading to reduced IL-2 secretion and T-cell blastogenesis which potentially could lead to immunosupression and thus, disease exacerbation, as noted in disease spectrum.

  19. Inhibition of programmed cell death by cyclosporin A; preferential blocking of cell death induced by signals via TCR/CD3 complex and its mode of action.

    PubMed Central

    Yasutomi, D; Odaka, C; Saito, S; Niizeki, H; Kizaki, H; Tadakuma, T

    1992-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) is reported to inhibit programmed cell death. We confirmed this by using T-cell hybridomas which are inducible to programmed cell death by activation with immobilized anti-CD3 antibody or with anti-Thy 1.2 antibody. Cell death and DNA fragmentation, characteristic features of programmed cell death, were almost completely blocked by CsA or FK506. To investigate whether CsA inhibits only the cell death through the signals via the TCR/CD3 complex or all of the programmed cell death induced by various reagents, we further established CD4+8+ thymic lymphomas which result in programmed cell death after activation with calcium ionophore, dexamethasone, cyclic AMP or anti-CD3 antibody. It was revealed that CsA could block only the cell death mediated by the TCR/CD3 complex. For the clarification of the site of action of CsA, Ca2+ influx and endocytosis of receptors after stimulation with anti-CD3 antibody were monitored in the presence of CsA, and no significant effects of CsA were observed. Furthermore, prevention of cell death was examined by adding CsA at various periods of time after initiation of culture. CsA was found to exert its effect even when added after 4 h of cultivation, and the kinetic pattern of suppression was similar to that of the suppressive effect on IL-2 production. These observations indicate that in the events of programmed cell death, the major site of action of CsA will not be the inhibition of the immediate membrane events after activation of the TCR/CD3 complex but rather the interference in the function of molecules that transmit signals between membrane events and the activation of genes in the nucleus. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1383138

  20. An {alpha}{beta} T cell receptor structure at 2.5 {angstrom} and its orientation in the TCR-MHC complex

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, K.C.; Degano, M.; Stanfield, R.L.

    1996-10-11

    The central event in the cellular immune response to invading microorganisms is the specific recognition of foreign peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules by the {alpha}{beta} T cell receptor (TCR). The x-ray structure of the complete extracellular fragment of a glycosylated {alpha}{beta} TCR was determined at 2.5 angstrom, and its orientation bound to a class 1 MHC- peptide (pMHC) complex was elucidated from crystals of the TCR-pMHC complex. The TCR resembles an antibody in the variable V{alpha} and V{beta} domains but deviates in the constant C{alpha} domain and in the interdomain pairing of C{alpha} with C{beta}. Four of seven possible asparagine-linked glycosylation sites have ordered carbohydrate moieties, one of which lies in the C{alpha}-C{beta} interface. The TCR combining site is relatively flat except for a deep hydrophobic cavity between the hypervariable CDR3d (complementarity-determining regions) of the {alpha} and {beta} chains. The 2C TCR covers the class l MHC H-2K{sup b} binding groove so that the V{alpha} CDRs 1 and 2 are positioned over the amino-terminal region of the bound dEV8 peptide, the V{beta} chain CDRs 1 and 2 are over the carboxyl-terminal region of the peptide, and the V{alpha} and V{beta} CDR3s straddle the peptide between the helices around the central position of the peptide. 61 refs., 9 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Monoclonal TCR-Vbeta13.1+/CD4+/NKa+/CD8-/+dim T-LGL lymphocytosis: evidence for an antigen-driven chronic T-cell stimulation origin.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Pilar; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Bárcena, Paloma; Sandberg, Yorick; Cantón, Julia; Lima, Margarida; Balanzategui, Ana; González, Marcos; López-Nevot, Miguel Angel; Langerak, Anton W; García-Montero, Andrés C; Almeida, Julia; Orfao, Alberto

    2007-06-01

    Monoclonal TCRalphabeta(+)/CD4+ T-large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) lymphocytosis is a T-cell disorder with a restricted TCR-Vbeta repertoire. In the present study we explored the potential association between the expanded TCR-Vbeta families, the CDR3 sequences of the TCR-Vbeta gene, and the HLA genotype of patients with monoclonal TCRalphabeta(+)/CD4+ T-LGL lymphocytosis. For that purpose, 36 patients with monoclonal TCRalphabeta(+)/CD4+ T-LGL lymphocytosis (15 TCR-Vbeta13.1 versus 21 non-TCR-Vbeta13.1) were selected. For each patient, both the HLA (class I and II) genotype and the DNA sequences of the VDJ-rearranged TCR-Vbeta were analyzed. Our results show a clear association between the TCR-Vbeta repertoire and the HLA genotype, all TCR-Vbeta13.1(+) cases being HLA-DRB1*0701 (P = .004). Interestingly, the HLA-DR7/TCR-Vbeta13.1-restricted T-cell expansions displayed a highly homogeneous and strikingly similar TCR arising from the use of common TCR-Vbeta gene segments, which shared (1) unique CDR3 structural features with a constantly short length, (2) similar combinatorial gene rearrangements with frequent usage of the Jbeta1.1 gene, and (3) a homolog consensus protein sequence at recombination junctions. Overall, these findings strongly support the existence of a common antigen-driven origin for monoclonal CD4+ T-LGL lymphocytosis, with the identification of the exact peptides presented to the expanded T cells deserving further investigations.

  2. Transduction of SIV-Specific TCR Genes into Rhesus Macaque CD8+ T Cells Conveys the Ability to Suppress SIV Replication

    PubMed Central

    Barsov, Eugene V.; Trivett, Matthew T.; Minang, Jacob T.; Sun, Haosi; Ohlen, Claes; Ott, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Background The SIV/rhesus macaque model for HIV/AIDS is a powerful system for examining the contribution of T cells in the control of AIDS viruses. To better our understanding of CD8+ T-cell control of SIV replication in CD4+ T cells, we asked whether TCRs isolated from rhesus macaque CD8+ T-cell clones that exhibited varying abilities to suppress SIV replication could convey their suppressive properties to CD8+ T cells obtained from an uninfected/unvaccinated animal. Principal Findings We transferred SIV-specific TCR genes isolated from rhesus macaque CD8+ T-cell clones with varying abilities to suppress SIV replication in vitro into CD8+ T cells obtained from an uninfected animal by retroviral transduction. After sorting and expansion, transduced CD8+ T-cell lines were obtained that specifically bound their cognate SIV tetramer. These cell lines displayed appropriate effector function and specificity, expressing intracellular IFNγ upon peptide stimulation. Importantly, the SIV suppression properties of the transduced cell lines mirrored those of the original TCR donor clones: cell lines expressing TCRs transferred from highly suppressive clones effectively reduced wild-type SIV replication, while expression of a non-suppressing TCR failed to reduce the spread of virus. However, all TCRs were able to suppress the replication of an SIV mutant that did not downregulate MHC-I, recapitulating the properties of their donor clones. Conclusions Our results show that antigen-specific SIV suppression can be transferred between allogenic T cells simply by TCR gene transfer. This advance provides a platform for examining the contributions of TCRs versus the intrinsic effector characteristics of T-cell clones in virus suppression. Additionally, this approach can be applied to develop non-human primate models to evaluate adoptive T-cell transfer therapy for AIDS and other diseases. PMID:21886812

  3. Naive CD8⁺ T-cell precursors display structured TCR repertoires and composite antigen-driven selection dynamics.

    PubMed

    Neller, Michelle A; Ladell, Kristin; McLaren, James E; Matthews, Katherine K; Gostick, Emma; Pentier, Johanne M; Dolton, Garry; Schauenburg, Andrea J A; Koning, Dan; Fontaine Costa, Ana Isabel C A; Watkins, Thomas S; Venturi, Vanessa; Smith, Corey; Khanna, Rajiv; Miners, Kelly; Clement, Mathew; Wooldridge, Linda; Cole, David K; van Baarle, Debbie; Sewell, Andrew K; Burrows, Scott R; Price, David A; Miles, John J

    2015-08-01

    Basic parameters of the naive antigen (Ag)-specific T-cell repertoire in humans remain poorly defined. Systematic characterization of this 'ground state' immunity in comparison with memory will allow a better understanding of clonal selection during immune challenge. Here, we used high-definition cell isolation from umbilical cord blood samples to establish the baseline frequency, phenotype and T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire of CD8(+) T-cell precursor populations specific for a range of viral and self-derived Ags. Across the board, these precursor populations were phenotypically naive and occurred with hierarchical frequencies clustered by Ag specificity. The corresponding patterns of TCR architecture were highly ordered and displayed partial overlap with adult memory, indicating biased structuring of the T-cell repertoire during Ag-driven selection. Collectively, these results provide new insights into the complex nature and dynamics of the naive T-cell compartment.

  4. TCR variable gene involvement in chromosome inversion between 14q11 and 14q24 in adult T-cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Haider, Shawkat; Hayakawa, Kousuke; Itoyama, Takahiro; Sadamori, Naoki; Kurosawa, Nobuyuki; Isobe, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations in T-cell malignancies frequently involve the T-cell receptor (TCR)alpha/delta locus at chromosome 14q11. Although 14q11 abnormalities are found in about 10% of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cases, until now there has been no direct evidence showing involvement of the TCR locus in ATL-a malignancy closely associated with HTLV-1 infection. The breakpoints of T-cell malignancies most commonly occur within the Jalpha or Jdelta region of the TCR locus. In ATL, however, despite extensive searching no breakpoint has yet been found in that region. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization with a panel of cosmid and bacterial artificial chromosome probes derived from chromosome 14, including the variable region of the TCRalpha locus, comprehensive analysis of an ATL patient carrying inv(14)(q11q32) revealed that the TCR locus was indeed involved in this inversion. Molecular cloning of the breakpoint revealed the juxtaposition of TCR Valpha to the 14q24 region as a result of two consecutive inversions: inv(14)(q11q32) and inv(14)(q11q24). We also found a gene near the breakpoint at the 14q24 region that is downregulated in this ATL patient and is assigned in the database as a pseudogene of ADAM21 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 21). Our expression analysis, however, showed that this pseudogene was actually expressed and was capable of encoding a protein similar to ADAM21; thus we have named this gene ADAM21-like (ADAM21-L).

  5. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells are associated with viral persistence and downregulation of TCR ζ chain expression on CD8(+) T cells in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qing-Lei; Yang, Bin; Sun, Hong-Qi; Feng, Guo-Hua; Jin, Lei; Zou, Zheng-Sheng; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Ji-Yuan; Wang, Fu-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play an important role in impairing the function of T cells. We characterized MDSCs in two chronic hepatitis C (CHC) cohorts: a cross-sectional group that included 61 treatment-naive patients with CHC, 14 rapid virologic response (RVR) cases and 22 early virologic response (EVR) cases; and a longitudinal group of 13 cases of RVR and 10 cases of EVR after pegylated-interferon-α/ribavirin treatment for genotype 1b HCV infection. Liver samples from 32 CHC patients and six healthy controls were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. MDSCs frequency in treatment-naive CHC was significantly higher than in RVR, EVR, or healthy subjects and was positively correlated with HCV RNA. Patients infected with HCV genotype 2a had a significantly higher frequency of MDSCs than those infected with genotype 1b. Decreased T cell receptor (TCR) ζ expression on CD8(+) T cells was significantly associated with an increased frequency of MDSCs in treatment-naive CHC patients and was restored by L-arginine treatment in vitro. Increased numbers of liver arginase-1(+) cells were closely associated with the histological activity index in CHC. The TCR ζ chain was significantly downregulated on hepatic CD8(+) T cells in CHC. During antiviral follow up, MDSCs frequency in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was directly correlated with the HCV RNA load in the plasma and inversely correlated with TCR ζ chain expression in CD8(+) T cells in both RVR and EVR cases. Notably, the RVR group had a higher frequency of MDSCs at baseline than the EVR group. Collectively, this study provides evidence that MDSCs might be associated with HCV persistence and downregulation of CD8 ζ chain expression.

  6. Integration of a CD19 CAR into the TCR Alpha Chain Locus Streamlines Production of Allogeneic Gene-Edited CAR T Cells.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Daniel T; Antony, Jeyaraj; Martin, Aaron J; Moser, Rachel J; Hekele, Armin; Wetzel, Keith J; Brown, Audrey E; Triggiano, Melissa A; Hux, Jo Ann; Pham, Christina D; Bartsevich, Victor V; Turner, Caitlin A; Lape, Janel; Kirkland, Samantha; Beard, Clayton W; Smith, Jeff; Hirsch, Matthew L; Nicholson, Michael G; Jantz, Derek; McCreedy, Bruce

    2017-04-05

    Adoptive cellular therapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies have produced significant objective responses in patients with CD19(+) hematological malignancies, including durable complete responses. Although the majority of clinical trials to date have used autologous patient cells as the starting material to generate CAR T cells, this strategy poses significant manufacturing challenges and, for some patients, may not be feasible because of their advanced disease state or difficulty with manufacturing suitable numbers of CAR T cells. Alternatively, T cells from a healthy donor can be used to produce an allogeneic CAR T therapy, provided the cells are rendered incapable of eliciting graft versus host disease (GvHD). One approach to the production of these cells is gene editing to eliminate expression of the endogenous T cell receptor (TCR). Here we report a streamlined strategy for generating allogeneic CAR T cells by targeting the insertion of a CAR transgene directly into the native TCR locus using an engineered homing endonuclease and an AAV donor template. We demonstrate that anti-CD19 CAR T cells produced in this manner do not express the endogenous TCR, exhibit potent effector functions in vitro, and mediate clearance of CD19(+) tumors in an in vivo mouse model. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extracellular domains of CD8α and CD8ß subunits are sufficient for HLA class I restricted helper functions of TCR-engineered CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    van Loenen, Marleen M; Hagedoorn, Renate S; de Boer, Renate; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Heemskerk, Mirjam H M

    2013-01-01

    By gene transfer of HLA-class I restricted T-cell receptors (TCRs) (HLA-I-TCR) into CD8(+) as well as CD4(+) T-cells, both effector T-cells as well as helper T-cells can be generated. Since most HLA-I-TCRs function best in the presence of the CD8 co-receptor, the CD8αß molecule has to be co-transferred into the CD4(+) T-cells to engineer optimal helper T-cells. In this study, we set out to determine the minimal part of CD8αβ needed for optimal co-receptor function in HLA-I-TCR transduced CD4(+) T-cells. For this purpose, we transduced human peripheral blood derived CD4(+) T-cells with several HLA-class I restricted TCRs either with or without co-transfer of different CD8 subunits. We demonstrate that the co-transduced CD8αβ co-receptor in HLA-I-TCR transduced CD4(+) T-cells behaves as an adhesion molecule, since for optimal antigen-specific HLA class I restricted CD4(+) T-cell reactivity the extracellular domains of the CD8α and ß subunits are sufficient.

  8. A Higher Activation Threshold of Memory CD8+ T Cells Has a Fitness Cost That Is Modified by TCR Affinity during Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Stephen M.; Nunes-Alves, Cláudio; Booty, Matthew G.; Way, Sing Sing; Behar, Samuel M.

    2016-01-01

    T cell vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and other pathogens are based on the principle that memory T cells rapidly generate effector responses upon challenge, leading to pathogen clearance. Despite eliciting a robust memory CD8+ T cell response to the immunodominant Mtb antigen TB10.4 (EsxH), we find the increased frequency of TB10.4-specific CD8+ T cells conferred by vaccination to be short-lived after Mtb challenge. To compare memory and naïve CD8+ T cell function during their response to Mtb, we track their expansions using TB10.4-specific retrogenic CD8+ T cells. We find that the primary (naïve) response outnumbers the secondary (memory) response during Mtb challenge, an effect moderated by increased TCR affinity. To determine whether the expansion of polyclonal memory T cells is restrained following Mtb challenge, we used TCRβ deep sequencing to track TB10.4-specific CD8+ T cells after vaccination and subsequent challenge in intact mice. Successful memory T cells, defined by their clonal expansion after Mtb challenge, express similar CDR3β sequences suggesting TCR selection by antigen. Thus, both TCR-dependent and -independent factors affect the fitness of memory CD8+ responses. The impaired expansion of the majority of memory T cell clonotypes may explain why some TB vaccines have not provided better protection. PMID:26745507

  9. A Higher Activation Threshold of Memory CD8+ T Cells Has a Fitness Cost That Is Modified by TCR Affinity during Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Stephen M; Nunes-Alves, Cláudio; Booty, Matthew G; Way, Sing Sing; Behar, Samuel M

    2016-01-01

    T cell vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and other pathogens are based on the principle that memory T cells rapidly generate effector responses upon challenge, leading to pathogen clearance. Despite eliciting a robust memory CD8+ T cell response to the immunodominant Mtb antigen TB10.4 (EsxH), we find the increased frequency of TB10.4-specific CD8+ T cells conferred by vaccination to be short-lived after Mtb challenge. To compare memory and naïve CD8+ T cell function during their response to Mtb, we track their expansions using TB10.4-specific retrogenic CD8+ T cells. We find that the primary (naïve) response outnumbers the secondary (memory) response during Mtb challenge, an effect moderated by increased TCR affinity. To determine whether the expansion of polyclonal memory T cells is restrained following Mtb challenge, we used TCRβ deep sequencing to track TB10.4-specific CD8+ T cells after vaccination and subsequent challenge in intact mice. Successful memory T cells, defined by their clonal expansion after Mtb challenge, express similar CDR3β sequences suggesting TCR selection by antigen. Thus, both TCR-dependent and -independent factors affect the fitness of memory CD8+ responses. The impaired expansion of the majority of memory T cell clonotypes may explain why some TB vaccines have not provided better protection.

  10. [Homology modeling and eukaryotic expression of a modified αβ TCR harboring the immunoglobulin-like domain of γδ TCR].

    PubMed

    Tao, Changli; Shao, Hongwei; Shen, Han; Huang, Shulin

    2016-08-01

    Objective To design, construct and express a chimeric αβ TCR harboring the immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domain of γδ TCR in Jurkat T cells. Methods The fusion sites of TCR δIg were determined by bioinformatics analysis. Then the protein structures of TCR α δIg and TCR β δIg were predicted by homology modeling. Furthermore, the structures of TCR α δIg and TCR β δIg were compared with the wild type (wt) TCR α and TCR β respectively by combinatorial extension (CE). After that, the TCR α δIg and TCR β δIg were fused to fluorescent protein ECFP and EYFP respectively via the overlap PCR, and then the fusion genes (TCR α δIg-ECFP and TCR β δIg-EYFP) were cloned into pIRES2-EGFP vector and respectively located at the upstream and downstream of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). The recombinant prokaryotic expression vector pIRES-TCR βδIg-EYFP/TCR αδIg-ECFP was transferred into Jurkat T cells. Finally, the expression of TCR δIg in Jurkat T cells was monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results The variable region structure of the TCR δIg did not change and the antigen recognition active regions remained stable compared to the wtTCR. The recombinant expression plasmid was successfully constructed as confirmed by PCR identification and sequencing analysis. CLSM showed that TCR δIg was expressed and located at the plasma membrane of Jurkat T cells. Conclusion The design of TCR δIg was reasonable and the TCR δIg could be expressed on Jurkat T cell surface.

  11. TCR repertoire sequencing identifies synovial Treg cell clonotypes in the bloodstream during active inflammation in human arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Spreafico, Roberto; Consolaro, Alessandro; Leong, Jing Yao; Chua, Camillus; Massa, Margherita; Saidin, Suzan; Magni-Manzoni, Silvia; Arkachaisri, Thaschawee; Wallace, Carol A; Gattorno, Marco; Martini, Alberto; Lovell, Daniel J; Albani, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The imbalance between effector and regulatory T (Treg) cells is crucial in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis. Immune responses are often investigated in the blood because of its accessibility, but circulating lymphocytes are not representative of those found in inflamed tissues. This disconnect hinders our understanding of the mechanisms underlying disease. Our goal was to identify Treg cells implicated in autoimmunity at the inflamed joints, and also readily detectable in the blood upon recirculation. Methods We compared Treg cells of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis responding or not to therapy by using: (i) T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing, to identify clonotypes shared between blood and synovial fluid; (ii) FOXP3 Treg cell-specific demethylated region DNA methylation assays, to investigate their stability and (iii) flow cytometry and suppression assays to probe their tolerogenic functions. Results We found a subset of synovial Treg cells that recirculated into the bloodstream of patients with juvenile idiopathic and adult rheumatoid arthritis. These inflammation-associated (ia)Treg cells, but not other blood Treg cells, expanded during active disease and proliferated in response to their cognate antigens. Despite the typical inflammatory-skewed balance of immune mechanisms in arthritis, iaTreg cells were stably committed to the regulatory lineage and fully suppressive. A fraction of iaTreg clonotypes were in common with pathogenic effector T cells. Conclusions Using an innovative antigen-agnostic approach, we uncovered a population of bona fide synovial Treg cells readily accessible from the blood and selectively expanding during active disease, paving the way to non-invasive diagnostics and better understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. PMID:27311837

  12. Time-Dependent Regulation of IL-2R α-Chain (CD25) Expression by TCR Signal Strength and IL-2-Induced STAT5 Signaling in Activated Human Blood T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shatrova, Alla N.; Mityushova, Elena V.; Vassilieva, Irina O.; Aksenov, Nikolay D.; Zenin, Valery V.; Nikolsky, Nikolay N.; Marakhova, Irina I.

    2016-01-01

    The expression of the IL-2R α-chain (IL-2Rα) is regulated at the transcriptional level via TCR- and IL-2R-signaling. The question is how to precede in time the activation signals to induce the IL-2Rα expression in native primary T cells. By comparing the effects of selective drugs on the dynamics of CD25 expression during the mitogen stimulation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, we identified distinct Src- and JAK-dependent stages of IL-2Rα upregulation. PP2, a selective inhibitor of TCR-associated Src kinase, prevents CD25 expression at initial stages of T cell activation, prior to the cell growth. This early IL-2Rα upregulation underlies the T cell competence and the IL-2 responsiveness. We found that the activated with “weak” mitogen, the population of blood lymphocytes has some pool of competent CD25+ cells bearing a high affinity IL-2R. A distinct pattern of IL-2R signaling in resting and competent T lymphocytes has been shown. Based on the inhibitory effect of WHI-P131, a selective drug of JAK3 kinase activity, we concluded that in quiescent primary T lymphocytes, the constitutive STAT3 and the IL-2-induced prolonged STAT5 activity (assayed by tyrosine phosphorylation) is mostly JAK3-independent. In competent T cells, in the presence of IL-2 JAK3/STAT5 pathway is switched to maintain the higher and sustained IL-2Rα expression as well as cell growth and proliferation. We believe that understanding the temporal coordination of antigen- and cytokine-evoked signals in primary T cells may be useful for improving immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:27936140

  13. Otud7b facilitates T cell activation and inflammatory responses by regulating Zap70 ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongbo; Wang, Hui; Xiao, Yichuan; Jin, Jin; Chang, Jae-Hoon; Zou, Qiang; Xie, Xiaoping; Cheng, Xuhong; Sun, Shao-Cong

    2016-03-07

    Signal transduction from the T cell receptor (TCR) is crucial for T cell-mediated immune responses and, when deregulated, also contributes to the development of autoimmunity. How TCR signaling is regulated is incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate a ubiquitin-dependent mechanism in which the deubiquitinase Otud7b has a crucial role in facilitating TCR signaling. Upon TCR ligation, Otud7b is rapidly recruited to the tyrosine kinase Zap70, a central mediator of TCR-proximal signaling. Otud7b deficiency attenuates the activation of Zap70 and its downstream pathways and impairs T cell activation and differentiation, rendering mice refractory to T cell-mediated autoimmune and inflammatory responses. Otud7b facilitated Zap70 activation by deubiquitinating Zap70, thus preventing the association of Zap70 with the negative-regulatory phosphatases Sts1 and Sts2. These findings establish Otud7b as a positive regulator of TCR-proximal signaling and T cell activation, highlighting the importance of deubiquitination in regulating Zap70 function. © 2016 Sun et al.

  14. Pulmonary TCR γδ T cells induce the early inflammation of granuloma formation by a glycolipid trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) isolated from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Takayoshi; Yano, Ikuya; Kumazawa, Yoshio; Takimoto, Hiroaki

    2012-10-01

    We previously showed that formation of pulmonary granulomas in mice in response to a mycobacterial glycolipid, trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) is due to the action of TNF-α and not of IFN-γ. However, the mechanisms of formation and maintenance of pulmonary granulomas are not yet clear. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the mechanisms of granuloma formation by TDM at the early phase. Histological analysis showed that inflammatory cells infiltrated the murine pulmonary interstitium on day 2 after an intravenous injection with TDM as a w/o/w emulsion. Clear granuloma formation was observed on day 7 after the injection. The mRNA expression of IL-17, IFN-γ and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 was found in lung mononuclear cells at the day after TDM injection. The major IL-17-producing cells were T-cell receptor (TCR) γδ T cells expressing Vγ6. In mice depleted of γδ T cells by treatment with anti-TCR γδ monoclonal antibody, the number of TDM-induced granuloma was decreased, but the size of granuloma was not affected. Our results suggest that the mycobacterial glycolipid TDM causes activation of IL-17-producing TCR γδ T cells and stimulates chemotaxis of inflammatory cells including neutrophils in to lung.

  15. Antigen receptor-redirected T cells derived from hematopoietic precursor cells lack expression of the endogenous TCR/CD3 receptor and exhibit specific antitumor capacities

    PubMed Central

    Van Caeneghem, Yasmine; De Munter, Stijn; Tieppo, Paola; Goetgeluk, Glenn; Weening, Karin; Verstichel, Greet; Bonte, Sarah; Taghon, Tom; Leclercq, Georges; Kerre, Tessa; Debets, Reno; Vermijlen, David; Abken, Hinrich; Vandekerckhove, Bart

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent clinical studies indicate that adoptive T-cell therapy and especially chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is a very potent and potentially curative treatment for B-lineage hematologic malignancies. Currently, autologous peripheral blood T cells are used for adoptive T-cell therapy. Adoptive T cells derived from healthy allogeneic donors may have several advantages; however, the expected occurrence of graft versus host disease (GvHD) as a consequence of the diverse allogeneic T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire expressed by these cells compromises this approach. Here, we generated T cells from cord blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) that were transduced to express an antigen receptor (AR): either a CAR or a TCR with or without built-in CD28 co-stimulatory domains. These AR-transgenic HPCs were culture-expanded on an OP9-DL1 feeder layer and subsequently differentiated to CD5+CD7+ T-lineage precursors, to CD4+ CD8+ double positive cells and finally to mature AR+ T cells. The AR+ T cells were largely naive CD45RA+CD62L+ T cells. These T cells had mostly germline TCRα and TCRβ loci and therefore lacked surface-expressed CD3/TCRαβ complexes. The CD3− AR-transgenic cells were mono-specific, functional T cells as they displayed specific cytotoxic activity. Cytokine production, including IL-2, was prominent in those cells bearing ARs with built-in CD28 domains. Data sustain the concept that cord blood HPC derived, in vitro generated allogeneic CD3− AR+ T cells can be used to more effectively eliminate malignant cells, while at the same time limiting the occurrence of GvHD. PMID:28405508

  16. NSOM/QD-based direct visualization of CD3-induced and CD28-enhanced nanospatial coclustering of TCR and coreceptor in nanodomains in T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Liyun; Zeng, Gucheng; Lu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Richard C; Gong, Guangming; Yan, Lin; Huang, Dan; Chen, Zheng W

    2009-06-17

    Direct molecular imaging of nano-spatial relationship between T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 and CD4 or CD8 co-receptor before and after activation of a primary T cell has not been reported. We have recently innovated application of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) and immune-labeling quantum dots (QD) to image Ag-specific TCR response during in vivo clonal expansion, and now up-graded the NSOM/QD-based nanotechnology through dipole-polarization and dual-color imaging. Using this imaging system scanning cell-membrane molecules at a best-optical lateral resolution, we demonstrated that CD3, CD4 or CD8 molecules were distinctly distributed as single QD-bound molecules or nano-clusters equivalent to 2-4 QD fluorescence-intensity/size on cell-membrane of un-stimulated primary T cells, and approximately 6-10% of CD3 were co-clustering with CD4 or CD8 as 70-110 nm nano-clusters without forming nano-domains. The ligation of TCR/CD3 on CD4 or CD8 T cells led to CD3 nanoscale co-clustering or interaction with CD4 or CD8 co-receptors forming 200-500 nm nano-domains or >500 nm micro-domains. Such nano-spatial co-clustering of CD3 and CD4 or CD3 and CD8 appeared to be an intrinsic event of TCR/CD3 ligation, not purely limited to MHC engagement, and be driven by Lck phosphorylation. Importantly, CD28 co-stimulation remarkably enhanced TCR/CD3 nanoscale co-clustering or interaction with CD4 co-receptor within nano- or micro-domains on the membrane. In contrast, CD28 co-stimulation did not enhance CD8 clustering or CD3-CD8 co-clustering in nano-domains although it increased molecular number and density of CD3 clustering in the enlarged nano-domains. These nanoscale findings provide new insights into TCR/CD3 interaction with CD4 or CD8 co-receptor in T-cell activation.

  17. The ζ Isoform of Diacylglycerol Kinase Plays a Predominant Role in Regulatory T Cell Development and TCR-Mediated Ras Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rohan P.; Schmidt, Amanda M.; Das, Jayajit; Pytel, Dariusz; Riese, Matthew J.; Lester, Melissa; Diehl, J. Alan; Behrens, Edward M.; Kambayashi, Taku; Koretzky, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a critical second messenger that mediates T cell receptor (TCR)–stimulated signaling. The abundance of DAG is reduced by the diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), which catalyze the conversion of DAG to phosphatidic acid (PA) and thus inhibit DAG-mediated signaling. In T cells, the predominant DGK isoforms are DGKα and DGKζ, and deletion of the genes encoding either isoform enhances DAG-mediated signaling. We found that DGKζ, but not DGKα, suppressed the development of natural regulatory T (Treg) cells and predominantly mediated Ras and Akt signaling downstream of the TCR. The differential functions of DGKα and DGKζ were not attributable to differences in protein abundance in T cells or in their localization to the contact sites between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. RasGRP1, a key DAG-mediated activator of Ras signaling, associated to a greater extent with DGKζ than with DGKα; however, in silico modeling of TCR-stimulated Ras activation suggested that a difference in RasGRP1 binding affinity was not sufficient to cause differences in the functions of each DGK isoform. Rather, the model suggested that a greater catalytic rate for DGKζ than for DGKα might lead to DGKζ exhibiting increased suppression of Ras-mediated signals compared to DGKα. Consistent with this notion, experimental studies demonstrated that DGKζ was more effective than DGKα at catalyzing the metabolism of DAG to PA after TCR stimulation. The enhanced effective enzymatic production of PA by DGKζ is therefore one possible mechanism underlying the dominant functions of DGKζ in modulating Treg cell development. PMID:24280043

  18. Glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor expression by T cells is reciprocally regulated by NF-kappaB and NFAT.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yifan; Gerondakis, Steve; Coghill, Elise; Bourges, Dorothee; Xu, Yuekang; Brady, Jamie L; Lew, Andrew M

    2008-10-15

    Although the transcription factor Foxp3 is implicated in regulating glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor (GITR) expression in the T regulatory cell lineage, little is known about how GITR is transcriptionally regulated in conventional T cells. In this study, we provide evidence that TCR-mediated GITR expression depends on the ligand affinity and the maturity of conventional T cells. A genetic dissection of GITR transcriptional control revealed that of the three transcription factors downstream of the classical NF-kappaB pathway (RelA, cRel, and NF-kappaB1), RelA is a critical positive regulator of GITR expression, although cRel and NF-kappaB1 also play a positive regulatory role. Consistent with this finding, inhibiting NF-kappaB using Bay11-7082 reduces GITR up-regulation. In contrast, NFAT acts as a negative regulator of GITR expression. This was evidenced by our findings that agents suppressing NFAT activity (e.g., cyclosporin A and FK506) enhanced TCR-mediated GITR expression, whereas agents enhancing NFAT activity (e.g., lithium chloride) suppressed TCR-mediated GITR up-regulation. Critically, the induction of GITR was found to confer protection to conventional T cells from TCR-mediated apoptosis. We propose therefore that two major transcriptional factors activated downstream of the TCR, namely, NF-kappaB and NFAT, act reciprocally to balance TCR-mediated GITR expression in conventional T cells, an outcome that appears to influence cell survival.

  19. Otud7b facilitates T cell activation and inflammatory responses by regulating Zap70 ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongbo; Wang, Hui; Xiao, Yichuan; Jin, Jin; Chang, Jae-Hoon; Zou, Qiang; Xie, Xiaoping; Cheng, Xuhong

    2016-01-01

    Signal transduction from the T cell receptor (TCR) is crucial for T cell–mediated immune responses and, when deregulated, also contributes to the development of autoimmunity. How TCR signaling is regulated is incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate a ubiquitin-dependent mechanism in which the deubiquitinase Otud7b has a crucial role in facilitating TCR signaling. Upon TCR ligation, Otud7b is rapidly recruited to the tyrosine kinase Zap70, a central mediator of TCR-proximal signaling. Otud7b deficiency attenuates the activation of Zap70 and its downstream pathways and impairs T cell activation and differentiation, rendering mice refractory to T cell–mediated autoimmune and inflammatory responses. Otud7b facilitated Zap70 activation by deubiquitinating Zap70, thus preventing the association of Zap70 with the negative-regulatory phosphatases Sts1 and Sts2. These findings establish Otud7b as a positive regulator of TCR-proximal signaling and T cell activation, highlighting the importance of deubiquitination in regulating Zap70 function. PMID:26903241

  20. TCR stimulation without co-stimulatory signals induces expression of "tolerogenic" genes in memory CD4 T cells but does not compromise cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Aini; Zheng, Xiong; Khattar, Mithun; Schroder, Paul; Stepkowski, Stanislaw; Xia, Jiahong; Chen, Wenhao

    2015-02-01

    Memory T cells resist co-stimulatory blockade and present a unique therapeutic challenge in transplantation and autoimmune diseases. Herein, we determined whether memory T cells express less "tolerogenic" genes than naïve T cells to reinforce a proliferative response under the deprivation of co-stimulatory signals. The expression of ∼40 tolerogenic genes in memory and naïve CD4(+) T cells was thus assessed during an in vitro TCR stimulation without co-stimulation. Briefly, upon TCR stimulation with an anti-CD3 mAb alone, memory CD4(+) T cells exhibited more proliferation than naïve CD4(+) T cells. To our surprise, at 24h upon anti-CD3 mAb stimulation, memory CD4(+) T cells expressed more than a 5-fold higher level of the transcription factor Egr2 and a 20-fold higher level of the transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligase GRAIL than those in naïve T cells. Hence, the high-level expression of tolerogenic genes, Egr2 and GRAIL, in memory CD4(+) T cells does not prevent cell proliferation. Importantly, anti-CD3 mAb-stimulated memory CD4(+) T cells expressed high protein/gene levels of phosphorylated STAT5, Nedd4, Bcl-2, and Bcl-XL. Therefore, co-stimulation-independent proliferation of memory CD4(+) T cells may be due to elevated expression of molecules that support cell proliferation and survival, but not lack of tolerogenic molecules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Generation of functional, antigen-specific CD8+ human T cells from cord blood stem cells using exogenous Notch and tetramer-TCR signaling.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Irina; Ooi, Tracy P; Roy, Krishnendu

    2014-01-01

    In vitro differentiation of mouse and human stem cells into early T cells has been successfully demonstrated using artificial Notch signaling systems. However, generation of mature, antigen-specific, functional T cells, directly from human stem cells has remained elusive, except when using stromal coculture of stem cells retrovirally transfected with antigen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs). Here we show that human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived CD34+CD38-/low hematopoietic stem cells can be successfully differentiated into functional, antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells without direct stromal coculture or retroviral TCR transfection. Surface-immobilized Notch ligands (DLL1) and stromal cell conditioned medium successfully induced the development of CD1a+CD7+ and CD4+CD8+ early T cells. These cells, upon continued culture with cytomegalovirus (CMV) or influenza-A virus M1 (GIL) epitope-loaded human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201 tetramers, resulted in the generation of a polyclonal population of CMV-specific or GIL-specific CD8+ T cells, respectively. Upon further activation with antigen-loaded target cells, these antigen-specific, stem cell-derived T cells exhibited cytolytic functionality, specifically CD107a surface mobilization, interferon gamma (IFNg) production, and Granzyme B secretion. Such scalable, in vitro generation of functional, antigen-specific T cells from human stem cells could eventually provide a readily available cell source for adoptive transfer immunotherapies and also allow better understanding of human T cell development.

  2. Bi-specific TCR-anti CD3 redirected T-cell targeting of NY-ESO-1- and LAGE-1-positive tumors.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Emmet; Adams, Katherine J; Hassan, Namir J; Kotian, Akhil; Lissin, Nikolai M; Sami, Malkit; Mujić, Maja; Osdal, Tereza; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Baker, Deborah; Powlesland, Alex S; Aleksic, Milos; Vuidepot, Annelise; Morteau, Olivier; Sutton, Deborah H; June, Carl H; Kalos, Michael; Ashfield, Rebecca; Jakobsen, Bent K

    2013-04-01

    NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1 are cancer testis antigens with an ideal profile for tumor immunotherapy, combining up-regulation in many cancer types with highly restricted expression in normal tissues and sharing a common HLA-A*0201 epitope, 157-165. Here, we present data to describe the specificity and anti-tumor activity of a bifunctional ImmTAC, comprising a soluble, high-affinity T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for NY-ESO-1157-165 fused to an anti-CD3 scFv. This reagent, ImmTAC-NYE, is shown to kill HLA-A2, antigen-positive tumor cell lines, and freshly isolated HLA-A2- and LAGE-1-positive NSCLC cells. Employing time-domain optical imaging, we demonstrate in vivo targeting of fluorescently labelled high-affinity NYESO-specific TCRs to HLA-A2-, NY-ESO-1157-165-positive tumors in xenografted mice. In vivo ImmTAC-NYE efficacy was tested in a tumor model in which human lymphocytes were stably co-engrafted into NSG mice harboring tumor xenografts; efficacy was observed in both tumor prevention and established tumor models using a GFP fluorescence readout. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of both NY-ESO-1 and LAGE-1 antigens in 15 normal tissues, 5 cancer cell lines, 10 NSCLC, and 10 ovarian cancer samples. Overall, LAGE-1 RNA was expressed at a greater frequency and at higher levels than NY-ESO-1 in the tumor samples. These data support the clinical utility of ImmTAC-NYE as an immunotherapeutic agent for a variety of cancers.

  3. Inducible T cell tyrosine kinase regulates actin-dependent cytoskeletal events induced by the T cell antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    Grasis, Juris A; Browne, Cecille D; Tsoukas, Constantine D

    2003-04-15

    The tec family kinase, inducible T cell tyrosine kinase (Itk), is critical for both development and activation of T lymphocytes. We have found that Itk regulates TCR/CD3-induced actin-dependent cytoskeletal events. Expression of Src homology (SH) 2 domain mutant Itk transgenes into Jurkat T cells inhibits these events. Furthermore, Itk(-/-) murine T cells display significant defects in TCR/CD3-induced actin polymerization. In addition, Jurkat cells deficient in linker for activation of T cells expression, an adaptor critical for Itk activation, display impaired cytoskeletal events and expression of SH3 mutant Itk transgenes reconstitutes this impairment. Interestingly, expression of an Itk kinase-dead mutant transgene into Jurkat cells has no effect on cytoskeletal events. Collectively, these data suggest that Itk regulates TCR/CD3-induced actin-dependent cytoskeletal events, possibly in a kinase-independent fashion.

  4. In-depth Characterization of a TCR-specific Tracer for Sensitive Detection of Tumor-directed Transgenic T Cells by Immuno-PET

    PubMed Central

    Yusufi, Nahid; Mall, Sabine; Bianchi, Henrique de Oliveira; Steiger, Katja; Reder, Sybille; Klar, Richard; Audehm, Stefan; Mustafa, Mona; Nekolla, Stephan; Peschel, Christian; Schwaiger, Markus; Krackhardt, Angela M; D`Alessandria, Calogero

    2017-01-01

    A number of different technologies have been developed to monitor in vivo the distribution of gene-modified T cells used in immunotherapy. Nevertheless, in-depth characterization of novel approaches with respect to sensitivity and clinical applicability are so far missing. We have previously described a novel method to track engineered human T cells in tumors using 89Zr-Df-aTCRmu-F(ab')2 targeting the murinized part of the TCR beta domain (TCRmu) of a transgenic TCR. Here, we performed an in-depth in vitro characterization of the tracer in terms of antigen affinity, immunoreactivity, influence on T-cell functionality and stability in vitro and in vivo. Of particular interest, we have developed diverse experimental settings to quantify TCR-transgenic T cells in vivo. Local application of 89Zr-Df-aTCRmu-F(ab')2-labeled T cells in a spot-assay revealed signal detection down to approximately 1.8x104 cells. In a more clinically relevant model, NSG mice were intravenously injected with different numbers of transgenic T cells, followed by injection of the 89Zr-Df-aTCRmu-F(ab')2 tracer, PET/CT imaging and subsequent ex vivo T-cell quantification in the tumor. Using this setting, we defined a comparable detection limit of 1.0x104 T cells. PET signals correlated well to total numbers of transgenic T cells detected ex vivo independently of the engraftment rates observed in different individual experiments. Thus, these findings confirm the high sensitivity of our novel PET/CT T-cell tracking method and provide critical information about the quantity of transgenic T cells in the tumor environment suggesting our technology being highly suitable for further clinical translation. PMID:28744323

  5. Generation of CD20-specific TCRs for TCR gene therapy of CD20low B-cell malignancies insusceptible to CD20-targeting antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Lorenz; van der Steen, Dirk M.; Hagedoorn, Renate S.; Hombrink, Pleun; Kester, Michel G.D.; Schoonakker, Marjolein P.; de Ridder, Daniëlle; van Veelen, Peter A.; Falkenburg, J.H. Frederik; Heemskerk, Mirjam H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy of B-cell leukemia and lymphoma with CD20-targeting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has demonstrated clinical efficacy. However, the emergence of unresponsive disease due to low or absent cell surface CD20 urges the need to develop additional strategies. In contrast to mAbs, T-cells via their T-cell receptor (TCR) can recognize not only extracellular but also intracellular antigens in the context of HLA molecules. We hypothesized that T-cells equipped with high affinity CD20-targeting TCRs would be able to recognize B-cell malignancies even in the absence of extracellular CD20. We isolated CD8+ T-cell clones binding to peptide-MHC-tetramers composed of HLA-A*02:01 and CD20-derived peptide SLFLGILSV (CD20SLF) from HLA-A*02:01neg healthy individuals to overcome tolerance towards self-antigens such as CD20. High avidity T-cell clones were identified that readily recognized and lysed primary HLA-A2pos B-cell leukemia and lymphoma in the absence of reactivity against CD20-negative but HLA-A2pos healthy hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. The T-cell clone with highest avidity efficiently lysed malignant cell-lines that had insufficient extracellular CD20 to be targeted by CD20 mAbs. Transfer of this TCR installed potent CD20-specificity onto recipient T-cells and led to lysis of CD20low malignant cell-lines. Moreover, our approach facilitates the generation of an off-the-shelf TCR library with broad applicability by targeting various HLA alleles. Using the same methodology, we isolated a T-cell clone that efficiently lysed primary HLA-B*07:02pos B-cell malignancies by targeting another CD20-derived peptide. TCR gene transfer of high affinity CD20-specific TCRs can be a valuable addition to current treatment options for patients suffering from CD20low B-cell malignancies. PMID:27776339

  6. Generation of CD20-specific TCRs for TCR gene therapy of CD20low B-cell malignancies insusceptible to CD20-targeting antibodies.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Lorenz; van der Steen, Dirk M; Hagedoorn, Renate S; Hombrink, Pleun; Kester, Michel G D; Schoonakker, Marjolein P; de Ridder, Daniëlle; van Veelen, Peter A; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Heemskerk, Mirjam H M

    2016-11-22

    Immunotherapy of B-cell leukemia and lymphoma with CD20-targeting monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has demonstrated clinical efficacy. However, the emergence of unresponsive disease due to low or absent cell surface CD20 urges the need to develop additional strategies. In contrast to mAbs, T-cells via their T-cell receptor (TCR) can recognize not only extracellular but also intracellular antigens in the context of HLA molecules. We hypothesized that T-cells equipped with high affinity CD20-targeting TCRs would be able to recognize B-cell malignancies even in the absence of extracellular CD20. We isolated CD8+ T-cell clones binding to peptide-MHC-tetramers composed of HLA-A*02:01 and CD20-derived peptide SLFLGILSV (CD20SLF) from HLA-A*02:01neg healthy individuals to overcome tolerance towards self-antigens such as CD20. High avidity T-cell clones were identified that readily recognized and lysed primary HLA-A2pos B-cell leukemia and lymphoma in the absence of reactivity against CD20-negative but HLA-A2pos healthy hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. The T-cell clone with highest avidity efficiently lysed malignant cell-lines that had insufficient extracellular CD20 to be targeted by CD20 mAbs. Transfer of this TCR installed potent CD20-specificity onto recipient T-cells and led to lysis of CD20low malignant cell-lines. Moreover, our approach facilitates the generation of an off-the-shelf TCR library with broad applicability by targeting various HLA alleles. Using the same methodology, we isolated a T-cell clone that efficiently lysed primary HLA-B*07:02pos B-cell malignancies by targeting another CD20-derived peptide. TCR gene transfer of high affinity CD20-specific TCRs can be a valuable addition to current treatment options for patients suffering from CD20low B-cell malignancies.

  7. A unique unresponsive CD4+ T cell phenotype post TCR antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Lindsay J.; Evavold, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The functional outcomes of the T cell’s interaction with the peptide:MHC complex can be dramatically altered by the introduction of a single amino acid substitution. Previous studies have described the varied effects of these altered peptide ligands (APL) on T cell responses. These outcomes of T cell interaction with an APL include the induction of clonal unresponsiveness (anergy) and inhibition of T cell responses (antagonism). The phenotype of peptide-induced anergy, i.e. low proliferation and low IL-2 production, has been extensively described, and a number of groups have demonstrated antagonism. However, the response of T cells to an agonist ligand after encountering an antagonistic stimulus has not been previously characterized. Here, we show that T cells post-antagonism fail to proliferate but produce large quantities of IL-2 upon stimulation with their wild type ligand. This unique phenotype is not due to differences in IL-2 receptor expression or rates of apoptosis, and cannot be overcome by the addition of recombinant IL-2. The response of CD4 T cells to agonist stimulation after encountering an antagonist is a novel phenotype, and is distinct from previously described forms of anergy. PMID:20031121

  8. Extracellular adenosine regulates naive T cell development and peripheral maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Cekic, Caglar; Sag, Duygu; Day, Yuan-Ji

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine produced as a byproduct of metabolic activity is present in all tissues and produces dose-dependent suppression of TCR signaling. Naive T cell maintenance depends on inhibition of TCR signals by environmental sensors, which are yet to be fully defined. We produced mice with a floxed adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) gene, Adora2a, and show that either global A2AR deletion or cre-mediated T cell deletion elicits a decline in the number of naive but not memory T cells. A2AR signaling maintains naive T cells in a quiescent state by inhibiting TCR-induced activation of the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)–AKT pathway, thereby reducing IL-7Rα down-regulation and naive T cell apoptosis. Patterns of IL-7Rα expression on T cells in chimeric mice reconstituted with Adora2a+/+ and Adora2a−/− bone marrow cells suggest that decreased IL-7Rα in naive T cells is a cell-intrinsic consequence of Adora2a deletion. In addition, A2AR expression increases in early thymic T cell development and contributes to progression of double-negative thymic precursors to single-positive thymocytes with increased IL-7Rα expression. Therefore, A2AR signaling regulates T cell development and maintenance to sustain normal numbers of naive T cells in the periphery. PMID:24145516

  9. Anti-CD8 antibodies can trigger CD8+ T cell effector function in the absence of TCR engagement and improve peptide-MHCI tetramer staining.

    PubMed

    Clement, Mathew; Ladell, Kristin; Ekeruche-Makinde, Julia; Miles, John J; Edwards, Emily S J; Dolton, Garry; Williams, Tamsin; Schauenburg, Andrea J A; Cole, David K; Lauder, Sarah N; Gallimore, Awen M; Godkin, Andrew J; Burrows, Scott R; Price, David A; Sewell, Andrew K; Wooldridge, Linda

    2011-07-15

    CD8(+) T cells recognize immunogenic peptides presented at the cell surface bound to MHCI molecules. Ag recognition involves the binding of both TCR and CD8 coreceptor to the same peptide-MHCI (pMHCI) ligand. Specificity is determined by the TCR, whereas CD8 mediates effects on Ag sensitivity. Anti-CD8 Abs have been used extensively to examine the role of CD8 in CD8(+) T cell activation. However, as previous studies have yielded conflicting results, it is unclear from the literature whether anti-CD8 Abs per se are capable of inducing effector function. In this article, we report on the ability of seven monoclonal anti-human CD8 Abs to activate six human CD8(+) T cell clones with a total of five different specificities. Six of seven anti-human CD8 Abs tested did not activate CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, one anti-human CD8 Ab, OKT8, induced effector function in all CD8(+) T cells examined. Moreover, OKT8 was found to enhance TCR/pMHCI on-rates and, as a consequence, could be used to improve pMHCI tetramer staining and the visualization of Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells. The anti-mouse CD8 Abs, CT-CD8a and CT-CD8b, also activated CD8(+) T cells despite opposing effects on pMHCI tetramer staining. The observed heterogeneity in the ability of anti-CD8 Abs to trigger T cell effector function provides an explanation for the apparent incongruity observed in previous studies and should be taken into consideration when interpreting results generated with these reagents. Furthermore, the ability of Ab-mediated CD8 engagement to deliver an activation signal underscores the importance of CD8 in CD8(+) T cell signaling.

  10. The cellular environment regulates in situ kinetics of T-cell receptor interaction with peptide major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoyu; Chen, Wei; Natarajan, Kannan; Li, Zhenhai; Margulies, David H; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-07-01

    T cells recognize antigens at the two-dimensional (2D) interface with antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which trigger T-cell effector functions. T-cell functional outcomes correlate with 2D kinetics of membrane-embedded T-cell receptors (TCRs) binding to surface-tethered peptide-major histocompatibility complex molecules (pMHCs). However, most studies have measured TCR-pMHC kinetics for recombinant TCRs in 3D by surface plasmon resonance, which differs drastically from 2D measurements. Here, we compared pMHC dissociation from native TCR on the T-cell surface to recombinant TCR immobilized on glass surface or in solution. Force on TCR-pMHC bonds regulated their lifetimes differently for native than recombinant TCRs. Perturbing the cellular environment suppressed 2D on-rates but had no effect on 2D off-rate regardless of whether force was applied. In contrast, for the TCR interacting with its monoclonal antibody, the 2D on-rate was insensitive to cellular perturbations and the force-dependent off-rates were indistinguishable for native and recombinant TCRs. These data present novel features of TCR-pMHC kinetics that are regulated by the cellular environment, underscoring the limitations of 3D kinetics in predicting T-cell functions and calling for further elucidation of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate 2D kinetics in physiological settings.

  11. Structure of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin E in Complex with TCR Defines the Role of TCR Loop Positioning in Superantigen Recognition.

    PubMed

    Rödström, Karin E J; Regenthal, Paulina; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin

    2015-01-01

    T cells are crucial players in cell-mediated immunity. The specificity of their receptor, the T cell receptor (TCR), is central for the immune system to distinguish foreign from host antigens. Superantigens are bacterial toxins capable of inducing a toxic immune response by cross-linking the TCR and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and circumventing the antigen specificity. Here, we present the structure of staphylococcal enterotoxin E (SEE) in complex with a human T cell receptor, as well as the unligated T cell receptor structure. There are clear structural changes in the TCR loops upon superantigen binding. In particular, the HV4 loop moves to circumvent steric clashes upon complex formation. In addition, a predicted ternary model of SEE in complex with both TCR and MHC class II displays intermolecular contacts between the TCR α-chain and the MHC, suggesting that the TCR α-chain is of importance for complex formation.

  12. Inverted repeats in the promoter as an autoregulatory sequence for TcrX in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Monolekha; Das, Amit Kumar

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The regulatory sequences recognized by TcrX have been identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The regulatory region comprises of inverted repeats segregated by 30 bp region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mode of binding of TcrX with regulatory sequence is unique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In silico TcrX-DNA docked model binds one of the inverted repeats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both phosphorylated and unphosphorylated TcrX binds regulatory sequence in vitro. -- Abstract: TcrY, a histidine kinase, and TcrX, a response regulator, constitute a two-component system in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. tcrX, which is expressed during iron scarcity, is instrumental in the survival of iron-dependent M. tuberculosis. However, the regulator of tcrX/Y has not been fully characterized. Crosslinking studies of TcrX reveal that it can form oligomers in vitro. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) show that TcrX recognizes two regions in the promoter that are comprised of inverted repeats separated by {approx}30 bp. The dimeric in silico model of TcrX predicts binding to one of these inverted repeat regions. Site-directed mutagenesis and radioactive phosphorylation indicate that D54 of TcrX is phosphorylated by H256 of TcrY. However, phosphorylated and unphosphorylated TcrX bind the regulatory sequence with equal efficiency, which was shown with an EMSA using the D54A TcrX mutant.

  13. MHC-derived allopeptide activates TCR-biased CD8+ Tregs and suppresses organ rejection

    PubMed Central

    Picarda, Elodie; Bézie, Séverine; Venturi, Vanessa; Echasserieau, Klara; Mérieau, Emmanuel; Delhumeau, Aurélie; Renaudin, Karine; Brouard, Sophie; Bernardeau, Karine; Anegon, Ignacio; Guillonneau, Carole

    2014-01-01

    In a rat heart allograft model, preventing T cell costimulation with CD40Ig leads to indefinite allograft survival, which is mediated by the induction of CD8+CD45RClo regulatory T cells (CD8+CD40Ig Tregs) interacting with plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). The role of TCR-MHC-peptide interaction in regulating Treg activity remains a topic of debate. Here, we identified a donor MHC class II–derived peptide (Du51) that is recognized by TCR-biased CD8+CD40Ig Tregs and activating CD8+CD40Ig Tregs in both its phenotype and suppression of antidonor alloreactive T cell responses. We generated a labeled tetramer (MHC-I RT1.Aa/Du51) to localize and quantify Du51-specific T cells within rat cardiac allografts and spleen. RT1.Aa/Du51-specific CD8+CD40Ig Tregs were the most suppressive subset of the total Treg population, were essential for in vivo tolerance induction, and expressed a biased, restricted Vβ11-TCR repertoire in the spleen and the graft. Finally, we demonstrated that treatment of transplant recipients with the Du51 peptide resulted in indefinite prolongation of allograft survival. These results show that CD8+CD40Ig Tregs recognize a dominant donor antigen, resulting in TCR repertoire alterations in the graft and periphery. Furthermore, this allopeptide has strong therapeutic activity and highlights the importance of TCR-peptide-MHC interaction for Treg generation and function. PMID:24789907

  14. Involvement of IL‐17A‐producing TCR γδ T cells in late protective immunity against pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto‐Yoshida, Yuko; Yahagi, Ayano; Touyama, Seigo; Nakae, Susumu; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Matsuzaki, Goro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Interleukin (IL)‐17A is a cytokine originally reported to induce neutrophil‐mediated inflammation and anti‐microbial activity. The CD4+ T cells, which produce IL‐17A, have been well characterized as Th17 cells. On the other hand, IL‐17A‐producing TCR γδ+ T cells have been reported to participate in the immune response at an early stage of infection with Listeria monocytogenes and Mycobacterium bovis in mice. However, the involvement of IL‐17A in protective immunity was not clearly demonstrated in the chronic stage of M. tuberculosis‐infected mice. Methods We analyzed role of IL‐17A in host defense against chronically infected M. tuberculosis using IL‐17A KO mice. Results We found that TCR γδ+ T cells are a primary source of IL‐17A, but that mycobacterial antigen‐specific Th17 cells were hardly detected even at the chronic stage of M. tuberculosis infection. IL‐17A‐deficient mice showed a decreased survival rate, and increased bacterial burden in the lungs after the infection when compared to the wild‐type mice. Furthermore, a histological analysis showed an impaired granuloma formation in the infected lungs of IL‐17A‐deficient mice, which was considered to be due to a decrease of IFN‐γ and TNF at the chronic stage. Conclusion Our data suggest that the IL‐17A‐producing TCR γδ+ T cells, rather than the Th17 cells, in the infected lungs are an indispensable source of protective immunity against M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:27980775

  15. CD4+CD25− T cells transduced to express MHC class I-restricted epitope specific TCR synthesize Th1 cytokines and exhibit MHC class I-restricted cytolytic effector function in a human melanoma model

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Arvind; Yang, Lili; Wang, Pin; Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Das, Raja; Chakraborty, Nitya G.; Ray, Swagatam; Mehrotra, Shikhar; Yang, Haiguang; Hardee, Cinnamon L.; Hollis, Roger; Dorsky, David I.; Koya, Richard; Kohn, Donald B.; Ribas, Antoni; Economou, James S.; Baltimore, David; Mukherji, Bijay

    2009-01-01

    Cytolytic T cell-centric active specific and adoptive immunotherapeutic approaches might benefit from the simultaneous engagement of CD4+ T cells. Considering the difficulties in simultaneously engaging CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in tumor immunotherapy -- especially in an antigen specific manner -- “redirecting” CD4+ T cells to MHC class I-restricted epitopes through engineered expression of MHC class I-restricted epitope specific T cell receptors (TCR) in CD4+ T cells has emerged as a strategic consideration. Such TCR engineered CD4+ T cells have been shown to be capable of synthesizing cytokines as well as lysing target cells. We have carried out a critical examination of functional characteristics of CD4+ T cells engineered to express the α and β chains of a high functional avidity TCR specific for the melanoma epitope, MART-127–35 (M1), as a prototypic human tumor antigen system. We found that unpolarized CD4+CD25− T cells engineered to express the M1 TCR selectively synthesize Th1 cytokines and exhibit a potent antigen-specific lytic granule exocytosis-mediated cytolytic effector function of comparable efficacy to that of CD8+ CTL. Such TCR engineered CD4+ T cells, therefore, might be useful in clinical immunotherapy. PMID:18606658

  16. Visualization of the human CD4{sup +} T-cell response in humanized HLA-DR4-expressing NOD/Shi-scid/γc{sup null} (NOG) mice by retrogenic expression of the human TCR gene

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Takeshi Katano, Ikumi; Ito, Ryoji; Ito, Mamoru

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • β-Lactoglobulin (BLG) specific TCR genes were introduced to human HSC by retrovirus. • Human HSC with BLG-specific TCR were transplanted into NOG-HLA-DR4 I-A{sup −/−} mice. • BLG-specific TCR induced positive selection of thymocytes. • BLG-specific TCR positive CD4{sup +} T cells mediated immune responses in humanized mice. - Abstract: The development of severe immunodeficient mouse strains containing various human genes, including cytokines or HLA, has enabled the reconstitution of functional human immune systems after transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Accumulating evidence has suggested that HLA-restricted antigen-specific human T-cell responses can be generated in these humanized mice. To directly monitor immune responses of human CD4{sup +} T cells, we introduced β-lactoglobulin (BLG)-specific T cell receptor (TCR) genes derived from CD4{sup +} T-cell clones of cow-milk allergy patients into HSCs, and subsequently transplanted them into NOG-HLA-DR4 transgenic/I-Aβ deficient mice (NOG-DR4/I-A{sup o}). In the thymus, thymocytes with BLG-specific TCR preferentially differentiated into CD4{sup +}CD8{sup −} single-positive cells. Adoptive transfer of mature CD4{sup +} T cells expressing the TCR into recipient NOG-DR4/I-A{sup o} mice demonstrated that human CD4{sup +} T cells proliferated in response to antigenic stimulation and produced IFN-γ in vivo, suggesting that functional T-cell reactions (especially Th1-skewed responses) were induced in humanized mice.

  17. TCR-ligand koff rate correlates with the protective capacity of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells for adoptive transfer.

    PubMed

    Nauerth, Magdalena; Weißbrich, Bianca; Knall, Robert; Franz, Tobias; Dössinger, Georg; Bet, Jeannette; Paszkiewicz, Paulina J; Pfeifer, Lukas; Bunse, Mario; Uckert, Wolfgang; Holtappels, Rafaela; Gillert-Marien, Dorothea; Neuenhahn, Michael; Krackhardt, Angela; Reddehase, Matthias J; Riddell, Stanley R; Busch, Dirk H

    2013-07-03

    Adoptive immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of chronic infections and cancer. T cells within a certain range of high avidity for their cognate ligand are believed to be most effective. T cell receptor (TCR) transfer experiments indicate that a major part of avidity is hardwired within the structure of the TCR. Unfortunately, rapid measurement of structural avidity of TCRs is difficult on living T cells. We developed a technology where dissociation (koff rate) of truly monomeric peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules bound to surface-expressed TCRs can be monitored by real-time microscopy in a highly reliable manner. A first evaluation of this method on distinct human cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cell populations revealed unexpected differences in the koff rates. CMV-specific T cells are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for efficacy in adoptive immunotherapy; therefore, determination of koff rates could guide selection of the most effective donor cells. Indeed, in two different murine infection models, we demonstrate that T cell populations with lower koff rates confer significantly better protection than populations with fast koff rates. These data indicate that koff rate measurements can improve the predictability of adoptive immunotherapy and provide diagnostic information on the in vivo quality of T cells.

  18. Soluble OX40L and JAG1 Induce Selective Proliferation of Functional Regulatory T-Cells Independent of canonical TCR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prabhakaran; Alharshawi, Khaled; Bhattacharya, Palash; Marinelarena, Alejandra; Haddad, Christine; Sun, Zuoming; Chiba, Shigeru; Epstein, Alan L.; Prabhakar, Bellur S.

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) play a pivotal role in maintaining peripheral tolerance. Increasing Treg numbers/functions has been shown to ameliorate autoimmune diseases. However, common Treg expansion approaches use T-Cell Receptor (TCR)-mediated stimulation which also causes proliferation of effector T-cells (Teff). To overcome this limitation, purified patient-specific Tregs are expanded ex vivo and transfused. Although promising, this approach is not suitable for routine clinical use. Therefore, an alternative approach to selectively expand functional Tregs in vivo is highly desired. We report a novel TCR-independent strategy for the selective proliferation of Foxp3+Tregs (without Teff proliferation), by co-culturing CD4+ T-cells with OX40 L+Jagged(JAG)-1+ bone marrow-derived DCs differentiated with GM-CSF or treating them with soluble OX40 L and JAG1 in the presence of exogenous IL-2. Tregs expanded using soluble OX40 L and JAG1 were of suppressive phenotype and delayed the onset of diabetes in NOD mice. Ligation of OX40 L and JAG1 with their cognate-receptors OX40 and Notch3, preferentially expressed on Tregs but not on Teff cells, was required for selective Treg proliferation. Soluble OX40L-JAG1-induced NF-κB activation as well as IL-2-induced STAT5 activation were essential for the proliferation of Tregs with sustained Foxp3 expression. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the utility of soluble OX40 L and JAG1 to induce TCR-independent Treg proliferation. PMID:28045060

  19. Oligoadenylate synthetase/protein kinase R pathways and alphabeta TCR+ T cells are required for adenovirus vector: IFN-gamma inhibition of herpes simplex virus-1 in cornea.

    PubMed

    Austin, Bobbie Ann; Halford, William P; Williams, Bryan R G; Carr, Daniel J J

    2007-04-15

    An adenoviral (Ad) vector containing the murine IFN-gamma transgene (Ad:IFN-gamma) was evaluated for its capacity to inhibit HSV-1. To measure effectiveness, viral titers were analyzed in cornea and trigeminal ganglia (TG) during acute ocular HSV-1 infection. Ad:IFN-gamma potently suppressed HSV-1 replication in a dose-dependent fashion, requiring IFN-gamma receptor. Moreover, Ad:IFN-gamma was effective when delivered -72 and -24 h before infection as well as 24 h postinfection. Associated with antiviral opposition, TG from Ad:IFN-gamma-transduced mice harbored fewer T cells. Also related to T cell involvement, Ad:IFN-gamma was effective but attenuated in TG from alphabeta TCR-deficient mice. In corneas, alphabeta TCR(+) T cells were obligatory for protection against viral multiplication. Type I IFN involvement amid antiviral efficacy of Ad:IFN-gamma was further investigated because types I and II IFN pathways have synergistic anti-HSV-1 activity. Ad:IFN-gamma inhibited viral reproduction in corneas and TG from alphabeta IFNR-deficient (CD118(-/-)) mice, although viral titers were 2- to 3-fold higher in cornea and TG compared with wild-type mice. The absence of IFN-stimulated antiviral proteins, 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase/RNase L, and dsRNA-dependent protein kinase R completely eliminated the antiviral effectiveness of Ad:IFN-gamma. Collectively, the results demonstrate the following: 1) nonexistence of type I IFN receptor does not abolish defense of Ad:IFN-gamma against HSV-1; 2) antiviral pathways oligoadenylate synthetase-RNase L and protein kinase R are mandatory; and 3) alphabeta TCR(+) T cells are compulsory for Ad:IFN-gamma effectiveness against HSV-1 in cornea but not in TG.

  20. OAS/PKR Pathways and α/β TCR+ T Cells are Required for Ad: IFN-γ Inhibition of HSV-1 in Cornea1

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Bobbie Ann; Halford, William P.; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Carr, Daniel J. J.

    2007-01-01

    An adenoviral vector containing the muIFN-γ transgene (Ad:IFN-γ) was evaluated for its capacity to inhibit HSV-1. To measure effectiveness, viral titers were analyzed in cornea and trigeminal ganglia (TG) during acute ocular HSV-1 infection. Ad: IFN-γ potently suppressed HSV-1 replication in a dose-dependent fashion, requiring IFN-γ R. Moreover, Ad:IFN-γ was effective when delivered -72 and -24 h prior to infection as well as 24 h post infection. Associated with anti-viral opposition, TG from Ad: IFN-γ transduced mice harbored fewer T cells. Also related to T cell involvement, Ad:IFN-γ was effective but attenuated in TG from α/β TCR deficient mice. In corneas, α/β TCR+ T cells were obligatory for protection against viral multiplication. Type I IFN involvement amid anti-viral efficacy of Ad: IFN-γ was further investigated because type I and II IFN pathways have synergistic anti-HSV-1 activity. Ad:IFN-γ inhibited viral reproduction in corneas and TG from IFN-α/β R deficient (CD118 −/−) mice, although viral titers were 2–3 fold higher in cornea and TG, compared to wild type. The absence of IFN-stimulated anti-viral proteins, 2’-5’ oligoadenylate synthetase/RNase L and ds RNA dependent protein kinase R, completely eliminated the anti-viral effectiveness of Ad:IFN-γ. Collectively, the results demonstrate: (1) nonexistence of type I IFN R does not abolish defense of Ad:IFN-γ against HSV-1; (2) anti-viral pathways, OAS/RNase L and PKR are mandatory; and (3) α/β TCR+ T cells are compulsory for Ad: IFN-γ effectiveness against HSV-1 in cornea but not in TG. PMID:17404299

  1. Tespa1 regulates T cell receptor-induced calcium signals by recruiting inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jingjing; Lyu, Jun; Zhao, Meng; Li, Dan; Zheng, Mingzhu; Fang, Yan; Zhao, Fangzhu; Lou, Jun; Guo, Chuansheng; Wang, Lie; Wang, Di; Liu, Wanli; Lu, Linrong

    2017-01-01

    Thymocyte-expressed, positive selection-associated 1 (Tespa1) is important in T cell receptor (TCR)-driven thymocyte development. Downstream of the TCR, Tespa1 is a crucial component of the linker for activation of T cells (LAT) signalosome, facilitating calcium signalling and subsequent MAPK activation. However, it is unknown how Tespa1 elicits calcium signalling. Here, we show that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP3R1) is crucial for Tespa1-optimized, TCR-induced Ca2+ flux and thymocyte development. Upon TCR stimulation, Tespa1 directly interacts with IP3R1 and recruits it to the TCR complex, where IP3R1 is phosphorylated at Y353 by Fyn. This Tespa1-IP3R1 interaction is mediated by the F187 and F188 residues of Tespa1 and the amino-terminus of IP3R1. Tespa1-F187A/F188A mutant mice phenocopy Tespa1-deficient mice with impaired late thymocyte development due to reduced IP3R1 translocation to the TCR-proximal region. Our work elucidates the function of Tespa1 in T cell development and the regulation of TCR-induced Ca2+ signalling through IP3R1. PMID:28598420

  2. SDF-1 signaling via the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer requires PLC-β3 and PLC-γ1 for distinct cellular responses 1

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Kimberly N.; Clift, Ian C.; Miamen, Alexander G.; Bamidele, Adebowale O.; Qian, Nan-Xin; Humphreys, Troy D.; Hedin, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    The CXCR4 chemokine receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that signals in T lymphocytes by forming a heterodimer with the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). CXCR4 and TCR functions are consequently highly cross-regulated, affecting T cell immune activation, cytokine secretion, and T cell migration. The CXCR4-TCR heterodimer stimulates T cell migration and activation of the ERK MAP kinase and downstream AP-1-dependent cytokine transcription in response to SDF-1, the sole chemokine ligand of CXCR4. These responses require Gi-type G proteins as well as TCR ITAM domains and the ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase, thus indicating that the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer signals to integrate GPCR-associated and TCR-associated signaling molecules in response to SDF-1. Yet, the phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes responsible for coupling the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer to distinct downstream cellular responses are incompletely characterized. Here, we demonstrate that PLC activity is required for SDF-1 to induce ERK activation, migration, and CXCR4 endocytosis in human T cells. SDF-1 signaling via the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer uses PLC-β3 to activate the Ras-ERK pathway and increase intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, while PLC-γ1 is dispensable for these outcomes. In contrast, PLC-γ1, but not PLC-β3, is required for SDF-1-mediated migration, via a mechanism independent of LAT. These results increase understanding of the signaling mechanisms employed by the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer, characterize new roles for PLC-β3 and PLC-γ1 in T cells, and suggest that multiple PLCs may also be activated downstream of other chemokine receptors in order to distinctly regulate migration versus other signaling functions. PMID:21705626

  3. Cytoskeletal polarization of T cells is regulated by an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lowin-Kropf, B; Shapiro, V S; Weiss, A

    1998-02-23

    Binding of a T cell to an appropriate antigen-presenting cell (APC) induces the rapid reorientation of the T cell cytoskeleton and secretory apparatus towards the cell-cell contact site in a T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and peptide/major histocompatibility complex-dependent process. Such T cell polarization directs the delivery of cytokines and cytotoxic mediators towards the APC and contributes to the highly selective and specific action of effector T cells. To study the signaling pathways that regulate cytoskeletal rearrangements in T lymphocytes, we set up a conjugate formation assay using Jurkat T cells as effectors and cell-sized latex beads coated with various antibodies as artificial APCs. Here, we report that beads coated with antibodies specific for the TCR-CD3 complex were sufficient to induce T cell polarization towards the bead attachment site, as judged by reorientation of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) and localized actin polymerization. Thus, these cytoskeletal changes did not depend on activation of additional coreceptors. Moreover, single subunits of the TCR complex, namely TCR-zeta and CD3epsilon, were equally effective in inducing cytoskeletal polarization. However, mutagenesis of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs), present three times in TCR-zeta and once in CD3epsilon, revealed that the induction of cytoskeletal rearrangements required the presence of at least one intact ITAM. In agreement with this result, lack of functional Lck, the protein tyrosine kinase responsible for ITAM phosphorylation, abolished both MTOC reorientation and polarized actin polymerization. Both inhibitor and transient overexpression studies demonstrated that MTOC reorientation could occur in the absence of Ras activation. Our results suggest that APC-induced T cell polarization is a TCR-mediated event that is coupled to the TCR by the same signaling motif as TCR-induced gene activation, but diverges in its distal signaling

  4. CD43 REGULATES THE THRESHOLD FOR T CELL ACTIVATION BY TARGETING CBL FUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza-Alva, Gustavo; Lilia, B. Mérida; del Rio, Roxana; Nora, A. Fierro; Cruz-Muñoz, Mario E.; Olivares, Norma; Melchy, Erika; Igras, Vivian; Georg, A. Holländer; Steven, J. Burakoff; Rosenstein, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY T cell (TC) activation requires the coordinated signaling of the T cell receptor (TCR) and co-receptor molecules, allowing TCs to respond to lower degrees of TCR occupancy. Co-receptor molecules set the threshold for TC activation by controlling different regulatory signaling loops. The Cbl family members prevent undesired activation of TCs by regulating TCR signals. In this report we show that TC pre-stimulation by the CD43 co-receptor molecule before TCR engagement inhibits TCR-dependent c-Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation, c-Cbl interaction with the adapter molecule Crk-L and promotes Cbl-b degradation in a PKCθ–dependent manner. Consequently, the prolonged tyrosine phosphorylation and delayed degradation of ZAP-70 and of the ζ chain lead to enhanced MAPK activation and robust TC response. These data indicates that CD43-mediated signals lower the threshold for TC activation by restricting the c-Cbl and Cbl-b inhibitory effects on TCR signaling. In addition to the strength and duration of intracellular signals, our data underscore temporality with which certain molecules are engaged as yet another mechanism to fine tune TC signal quality, and ultimately immune function. PMID:21905200

  5. Selective T-cell Ablation with Bismuth-213 Labeled Anti-TCR Alpha Beta as Nonmyeloablative Conditionaing for Allogeneic Canine Marrow Transplantion

    SciTech Connect

    Bethge, W. A.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Storb, R.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Santos, E. B.; Brechbiel, M. W.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Sandmaier, B. M.

    2003-06-15

    Two major immunological barriers, the host versus graft (HVG) and the graft versus host (GVH) reaction, must be overcome for successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. T-cells are involved in these barriers in the major histocompatibility complex-identical settings. We hypothesized that selective ablation of T-cells using radioimmunotherapy, together with postgrafting immunosuppression, would ensure stable allogeneic engraftment. We developed a canine model of nonmyeloablative marrow transplantation in which host immune reactions are impaired by a single dose of 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), and where both GVH and residual HVG reactions are controlled by postgrafting immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and cyclosporine (CSP). We substituted the alpha-emitter bismuth-213 linked to a monoclonal antibody against TCR(alpha,beta)using the metal-binding chelate CHX-A”-DTPA, for 2 Gy TBI. Biodistribution studies using a gamma-emitting indium-111-labeled anti-TCR mAb showed uptake primarily in blood, marrow, lymph nodes, spleen and liver. In a dosimetry study, 4 dogs were treated with 0.13-0.46 mg/kg TCR mAb labeled with 3.7-5.6 mCi/kg (137-207 MBq/kg) Bi-213. The treatment was administered in 6 injections on days -3 and -2 followed by transplantion of dog leukocyte antigen-identical marrow on day 0 and postgrafting immunosuppression with MMF and CSP. Therapy was well tolerated except for elevations of transaminases, which were transient in all but one dog. No other organ toxicities or signs of graft-versus-host-disease were noted. The dogs had prompt allogeneic hematopoietic engraftment and achieved stable mixed donor-host hematopoietic chimerism with donor contributions ranging from 5-55 % with >30 weeks follow up.

  6. Anti-CD8 antibodies can trigger CD8+ T-cell effector function in the absence of TCR engagement and improve pMHCI tetramer staining

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Mathew; Ladell, Kristin; Ekeruche-Makinde, Julia; Miles, John J.; Edwards, Emily S. J.; Dolton, Garry; Williams, Tamsin; Schauenburg, Andrea J. A.; Cole, David K.; Lauder, Sarah N.; Gallimore, Awen M.; Godkin, Andrew J.; Burrows, Scott R.; Price, David A.; Sewell, Andrew K.; Wooldridge, Linda

    2011-01-01

    CD8+ T-cells recognize immunogenic peptides presented at the cell surface bound to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules. Antigen recognition involves the binding of both T-cell receptor (TCR) and CD8 co-receptor to the same peptide-MHCI (pMHCI) ligand. Specificity is determined by the TCR, whereas CD8 mediates effects on antigen sensitivity. Anti-CD8 antibodies have been used extensively to examine the role of CD8 in CD8+ T-cell activation. However, as previous studies have yielded conflicting results, it is unclear from the literature whether anti-CD8 antibodies per se are capable of inducing effector function. Here, we report on the ability of seven monoclonal anti-human CD8 antibodies to activate six human CD8+ T-cell clones with a total of five different specificities. Six out of seven anti-human CD8 antibodies tested did not activate CD8+ T-cells. In contrast, one anti-human CD8 antibody, OKT8, induced effector function in all CD8+ T-cells examined. Moreover, OKT8 was found to enhance TCR/pMHCI on-rates and, as a consequence, could be used to improve pMHCI tetramer staining and the visualization of antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells. The anti-mouse CD8 antibodies, CT-CD8a and CT-CD8b, also activated CD8+ T-cells despite opposing effects on pMHCI tetramer staining. The observed heterogeneity in the ability of anti-CD8 antibodies to trigger T-cell effector function provides an explanation for the apparent incongruity observed in previous studies and should be taken into consideration when interpreting results generated with these reagents. Furthermore, the ability of antibody-mediated CD8-engagement to deliver an activation signal underscores the importance of CD8 in CD8+ T-cell signalling. PMID:21677135

  7. Crossreactivity of a human autoimmune TCR is dominated by a single TCR loop

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Dhruv K.; Gordo, Susana; Schubert, David A.; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.

    2014-01-01

    Self-reactive CD4 T cells are thought to have a central role in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory human diseases. Microbial peptides can activate self-reactive T cells, but the structural basis for such crossreactivity is not well understood. The Hy.1B11 T cell receptor (TCR) originates from a patient with multiple sclerosis and recognizes the self-antigen myelin basic protein. Here we report the structural mechanism of TCR crossreactivity with two distinct peptides from human pathogens. The structures show that a single TCR residue (CDR3α F95) makes the majority of contacts with the self-peptide and both microbial peptides (66.7–80.6%) due to a highly tilted TCR-binding topology on the peptide-MHC surface. Further, a neighbouring residue located on the same TCR loop (CDR3α E98) forms an energetically critical interaction with the MHC molecule. These data show how binding by a self-reactive TCR favors crossreactivity between self and microbial antigens. PMID:24136005

  8. Analyzing the CDR3 Repertoire with respect to TCR-Beta Chain V-D-J and V-J Rearrangements in Peripheral T Cells using HTS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Long; Yang, Liwen; Bin Shi; He, Xiaoyan; Peng, Aihua; Li, Yuehong; Zhang, Teng; Sun, Suhong; Ma, Rui; Yao, Xinsheng

    2016-07-12

    V-D-J rearrangement of the TCR-beta chain follows the 12/23 rule and the beyond 12/23 restriction. Currently, the proportion and characteristics of TCR-beta chain V-J rearrangement is unclear. We used high-throughput sequencing to compare and analyze TCR-beta chain V-J rearrangement and V-D-J rearrangement in the CDR3 repertoires of T cells from the PBMCs of six volunteers and six BALB/c mice. The results showed that the percentage of V-J rearrangement of the volunteers was approximately 0.7%, whereas that of the mice was 2.2%. The clonality of mice V-J rearrangement was significantly reduced compared with the V-D-J rearrangement, whereas the clonality of human V-J rearrangement was slightly reduced compared with the V-D-J rearrangement. V-J rearrangement in CDR3 involved the significant usage of N, S, F and L, whereas V-D-J rearrangement in CDR3 involved the significant usage of R and G. The levels of V deletion and J deletion in V-J rearrangement were significantly reduced compared with V-D-J rearrangement. TRBD and TRBJ usage in V-J rearrangement differed from that of V-D-J rearrangement, including dominant usage of TRBV and TRBJ and their pairing. Taken together, these results provide new ideas and technology for studies of V-D-J rearrangement and V-J rearrangement in the CDR3 repertoire.

  9. A Phosphatase Activity of Sts-1 Contributes to the Suppression of TCR Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailik,A.; Ford, B.; Keller, J.; Chen, Y.; Nassar, N.; Carpino, N.

    2007-01-01

    Precise signaling by the T cell receptor (TCR) is crucial for a proper immune response. To ensure that T cells respond appropriately to antigenic stimuli, TCR signaling pathways are subject to multiple levels of regulation. Sts-1 negatively regulates signaling pathways downstream of the TCR by an unknown mechanism(s). Here, we demonstrate that Sts-1 is a phosphatase that can target the tyrosine kinase Zap-70 among other proteins. The X-ray structure of the Sts-1 C terminus reveals that it has homology to members of the phosphoglycerate mutase/acid phosphatase (PGM/AcP) family of enzymes, with residues known to be important for PGM/AcP catalytic activity conserved in nature and position in Sts-1. Point mutations that impair Sts-1 phosphatase activity in vitro also impair the ability of Sts-1 to regulate TCR signaling in T cells. These observations reveal a PGM/AcP-like enzyme activity involved in the control of antigen receptor signaling.

  10. A phosphatase activity of Sts-1 contributes to the suppression TCR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mikhailik, Anatoly; Ford, Bradley; Keller, James; Chen, Yunting; Nassar, Nicolas; Carpino, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Summary Precise signaling by the T cell receptor (TCR) is crucial for a proper immune response. To ensure that T cells respond appropriately to antigenic stimuli, TCR signaling pathways are subject to multiple levels of regulation. Sts-1 negatively regulates signaling pathways downstream of the TCR by an unknown mechanism(s). Here, we demonstrate that Sts-1 is a phosphatase that can target the tyrosine kinase Zap-70 among other proteins. The x-ray structure of the Sts-1 C-terminus reveals that it has homology to members of the phosphoglycerate mutase/acid phosphatase (PGM/AcP) family of enzymes, with residues known to be important for PGM/AcP catalytic activity conserved in nature and position in Sts-1. Point mutations that impair Sts-1 phosphatase activity in vitro also impair the ability of Sts-1 to regulate TCR signaling in T cells. These observations reveal a PGM/AcP-like enzyme activity involved in the control of antigen receptor signaling. PMID:17679096

  11. Elongated TCR alpha chain CDR3 favors an altered CD4 cytokine profile

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background CD4 T lymphocyte activation requires T cell receptor (TCR) engagement by peptide/MHC (major histocompatibility complex) (pMHC). The TCR complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) contains variable α and β loops critical for pMHC recognition. During any immune response, tuning of TCR usage through progressive clonal selection occurs. Th1 and Th2 cells operate at different avidities for activation and display distinct transcriptional programs, although polarization may be plastic, influenced by pathogens and cytokines. We therefore hypothesized that CDR3αβ sequence features may intrinsically influence CD4 phenotype during progression of a response. Results We show that CD4 polarization involves distinct CDR3α usage: Th1 and Th17 cells favored short TCR CDR3α sequences of 12 and 11 amino acids, respectively, while Th2 cells favored elongated CDR3α loops of 14 amino acids, with lower predicted affinity. The dominant Th2- and Th1-derived TCRα sequences with14 amino acid CDR3 loops and 12 amino acid CDR3 loops, respectively, were expressed in TCR transgenics. The functional impact of these TCRα transgenes was assessed after in vivo priming with a peptide/adjuvant. The short, Th1-derived receptor transgenic T cell lines made IFNγ, but not IL-4, 5 or 13, while the elongated, Th2-derived receptor transgenic T cell lines made little or no IFNγ, but increased IL-4, 5 and 13 with progressive re-stimulations, mirrored by GATA-3 up-regulation. T cells from primed Th2 TCRα transgenics selected dominant TCR Vβ expansions, allowing us to generate TCRαβ transgenics carrying the favored, Th2-derived receptor heterodimer. Primed T cells from TCRαβ transgenics made little or no IL-17 or IFNγ, but favored IL-9 after priming with Complete Freund’s adjuvant and IL-4, 5, 9, 10 and 13 after priming with incomplete Freund’s. In tetramer-binding studies, this transgenic receptor showed low binding avidity for pMHC and polarized T cell lines show TCR avidity

  12. Quantifying Distribution of Flow Cytometric TCR-Vβ Usage with Economic Statistics.

    PubMed

    van der Geest, Kornelis S M; Abdulahad, Wayel H; Horst, Gerda; Lorencetti, Pedro G; Bijzet, Johan; Arends, Suzanne; van der Heiden, Marieke; Buisman, Anne-Marie; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Boots, Annemieke M H

    2015-01-01

    Measuring changes of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is important to many fields of medicine. Flow cytometry is a popular technique to study the TCR repertoire, as it quickly provides insight into the TCR-Vβ usage among well-defined populations of T cells. However, the interpretation of the flow cytometric data remains difficult, and subtle TCR repertoire changes may go undetected. Here, we introduce a novel means for analyzing the flow cytometric data on TCR-Vβ usage. By applying economic statistics, we calculated the Gini-TCR skewing index from the flow cytometric TCR-Vβ analysis. The Gini-TCR skewing index, which is a direct measure of TCR-Vβ distribution among T cells, allowed us to track subtle changes of the TCR repertoire among distinct populations of T cells. Application of the Gini-TCR skewing index to the flow cytometric TCR-Vβ analysis will greatly help to gain better understanding of the TCR repertoire in health and disease.

  13. Quantifying Distribution of Flow Cytometric TCR-Vβ Usage with Economic Statistics

    PubMed Central

    van der Geest, Kornelis S. M.; Abdulahad, Wayel H.; Horst, Gerda; Lorencetti, Pedro G.; Bijzet, Johan; Arends, Suzanne; van der Heiden, Marieke; Buisman, Anne-Marie; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Boots, Annemieke M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring changes of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is important to many fields of medicine. Flow cytometry is a popular technique to study the TCR repertoire, as it quickly provides insight into the TCR-Vβ usage among well-defined populations of T cells. However, the interpretation of the flow cytometric data remains difficult, and subtle TCR repertoire changes may go undetected. Here, we introduce a novel means for analyzing the flow cytometric data on TCR-Vβ usage. By applying economic statistics, we calculated the Gini-TCR skewing index from the flow cytometric TCR-Vβ analysis. The Gini-TCR skewing index, which is a direct measure of TCR-Vβ distribution among T cells, allowed us to track subtle changes of the TCR repertoire among distinct populations of T cells. Application of the Gini-TCR skewing index to the flow cytometric TCR-Vβ analysis will greatly help to gain better understanding of the TCR repertoire in health and disease. PMID:25923356

  14. CD4+CD25- T cells transduced to express MHC class I-restricted epitope-specific TCR synthesize Th1 cytokines and exhibit MHC class I-restricted cytolytic effector function in a human melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Arvind; Yang, Lili; Wang, Pin; Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Das, Raja; Chakraborty, Nitya G; Ray, Swagatam; Mehrotra, Shikhar; Yang, Haiguang; Hardee, Cinnamon L; Hollis, Roger; Dorsky, David I; Koya, Richard; Kohn, Donald B; Ribas, Antoni; Economou, James S; Baltimore, David; Mukherji, Bijay

    2008-07-15

    Cytolytic T cell-centric active specific and adoptive immunotherapeutic approaches might benefit from the simultaneous engagement of CD4(+) T cells. Considering the difficulties in simultaneously engaging CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in tumor immunotherapy, especially in an Ag-specific manner, redirecting CD4(+) T cells to MHC class I-restricted epitopes through engineered expression of MHC class I-restricted epitope-specific TCRs in CD4(+) T cells has emerged as a strategic consideration. Such TCR-engineered CD4(+) T cells have been shown to be capable of synthesizing cytokines as well as lysing target cells. We have conducted a critical examination of functional characteristics of CD4(+) T cells engineered to express the alpha- and beta-chains of a high functional avidity TCR specific for the melanoma epitope, MART-1(27-35), as a prototypic human tumor Ag system. We found that unpolarized CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells engineered to express the MART-1(27-35) TCR selectively synthesize Th1 cytokines and exhibit a potent Ag-specific lytic granule exocytosis-mediated cytolytic effector function of comparable efficacy to that of CD8(+) CTL. Such TCR engineered CD4(+) T cells, therefore, might be useful in clinical immunotherapy.

  15. Regulation of TCR delta and alpha repertoires by local and long-distance control of variable gene segment chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Hawwari, Abbas; Krangel, Michael S

    2005-08-15

    Murine Tcrd and Tcra gene segments reside in a single genetic locus and undergo recombination in CD4- CD8- (double negative [DN]) and CD4+ CD8+ (double positive [DP]) thymocytes, respectively. TcraTcrd locus variable gene segments are subject to complex regulation. Only a small subset of approximately 100 variable gene segments contributes substantially to the adult TCRdelta repertoire. Moreover, although most contribute to the TCRalpha repertoire, variable gene segments that are Jalpha proximal are preferentially used during primary Tcra recombination. We investigate the role of local chromatin accessibility in determining the developmental pattern of TcraTcrd locus variable gene segment recombination. We find variable gene segments to be heterogeneous with respect to acetylation of histones H3 and H4. Those that dominate the adult TCRdelta repertoire are hyperacetylated in DN thymocytes, independent of their position in the locus. Moreover, proximal variable gene segments show dramatic increases in histone acetylation and germline transcription in DP thymocytes, a result of super long-distance regulation by the Tcra enhancer. Our results imply that differences in chromatin accessibility contribute to biases in TcraTcrd locus variable gene segment recombination in DN and DP thymocytes and extend the distance over which the Tcra enhancer can regulate chromatin structure to a remarkable 525 kb.

  16. IL-23 Promotes TCR-mediated Negative Selection of Thymocytes through the Upregulation of IL-23 Receptor and RORγt

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Hsu, Hui-Chen; Wu, Qi; Yang, PingAr; Li, Jun; Luo, Bao; Oukka, Mohamed; Steele, Claude H.; Cua, Daniel J; Grizzle, William E.; Mountz, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Transient thymic involution is frequently found during inflammation, yet the mode of action of inflammatory cytokines is not well defined. Here we report that interleukin-23 (IL-23) production by the thymic dendritic cells (DCs) promotes apoptosis of the CD4hiCD8hi double positive (DP) thymocytes. A deficiency in IL-23 signaling interferes with negative selection in the male Db/H-Y T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice. IL-23 plus TCR signaling results in significant up-regulation of IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) expressed predominantly on CD4hiCD8hiCD3+αβTCR+ DP thymocytes, and leads to RORγt dependent apoptosis. These results extend the action of IL-23 beyond its peripheral effects to a unique role in TCR mediated negative selection including elimination of natural T regulatory cells in the thymus. PMID:25001511

  17. Studying the Dynamics of TCR Internalization at the Immune Synapse.

    PubMed

    Calleja, Enrique; Alarcón, Balbino; Oeste, Clara L

    2017-01-01

    Establishing a stable interaction between a T cell and an antigen presenting cell (APC) involves the formation of an immune synapse (IS). It is through this structure that the T cell can integrate all the signals provided by the APC. The IS also serves as a mechanism for TCR downregulation through internalization. Here, we describe methods for visualizing MHC-engaged T cell receptor (TCR) internalization from the IS in human cell lines and mouse primary T cells by confocal fluorescence microscopy techniques.

  18. CD25 and CD69 induction by α4β1 outside-in signalling requires TCR early signalling complex proteins.

    PubMed

    Cimo, Ann-Marie; Ahmed, Zamal; McIntyre, Bradley W; Lewis, Dorothy E; Ladbury, John E

    2013-08-15

    Distinct signalling pathways producing diverse cellular outcomes can utilize similar subsets of proteins. For example, proteins from the TCR (T-cell receptor) ESC (early signalling complex) are also involved in interferon-α receptor signalling. Defining the mechanism for how these proteins function within a given pathway is important in understanding the integration and communication of signalling networks with one another. We investigated the contributions of the TCR ESC proteins Lck (lymphocyte-specific kinase), ZAP-70 (ζ-chain-associated protein of 70 kDa), Vav1, SLP-76 [SH2 (Src homology 2)-domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa] and LAT (linker for activation of T-cells) to integrin outside-in signalling in human T-cells. Lck, ZAP-70, SLP-76, Vav1 and LAT were activated by α4β1 outside-in signalling, but in a manner different from TCR signalling. TCR stimulation recruits ESC proteins to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase). α4β1 outside-in-mediated ERK activation did not require TCR ESC proteins. However, α4β1 outside-in signalling induced CD25 and co-stimulated CD69 and this was dependent on TCR ESC proteins. TCR and α4β1 outside-in signalling are integrated through the common use of TCR ESC proteins; however, these proteins display functionally distinct roles in these pathways. These novel insights into the cross-talk between integrin outside-in and TCR signalling pathways are highly relevant to the development of therapeutic strategies to overcome disease associated with T-cell deregulation.

  19. T-cell receptor phenotype pattern in atopic children using commercial fluorescently labeled antibodies against 21 human class-specific v segments for the tcrβ chain (vβ) of peripheral blood: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gohal, Gassem; McCusker, Christine; Mazer, Bruce; Alizadehfar, Reza; Lejtenyi, Duncan; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire development is an integral part of the adaptive immune response. T-cell activation requires recognition of appropriately processed antigens by the TCR. Development of a diverse repertoire of TCRs is therefore essential to ensure adequate protection from potential threats. The majority of T-cells in peripheral blood have TCRs composed of an alpha and a beta chain. At the DNA level, the TCR genes are formed through directed recombination from germline sequences-the so-called VDJ recombination [variable (V) joining (J) diversity (D) gene segments] which results in variations in the repertoire. The most variable part of TCRs is the Vβ region (VβTCR), which has multiple V segment families that can be quantitatively measured. However, only sparse data exists on the normal levels of the VβTCR repertoire in healthy children. We aimed to establish normal values for the VβTCR repertoire in atopic children without immunodeficiency. Fifty-three children were recruited from food allergy, drug allergy, chronic urticaria and anaphylaxis registries and were divided into groups based on age: >0-2 years, 3-6 years, and 6-18 years. We used commercially available and fluorescently labeled antibodies against 21 human class-specific V segments of the TCRβ chain (Vβ) to study in peripheral blood the quantitative pattern of Vβ variation by flow cytometry. Children of all ages exhibited a similar pattern of TCR Vβ expression. Vβ 2 was the most commonly expressed family in all three age groups [9.5 % (95 % CI, 8.9, 10 %), 8.8 % (95 % CI, 7.4, 10.2 %) and 7.6 % (7.0, 8.3 %) respectively]. However, the percentage of Vβ 2 decreased in older children and the percentage of Vβ 1 was higher in males. TCR Vβ expression in our sample of atopic children did not differ substantially from previously published levels in non-atopic cohorts. TCR Vβ diversity follows a predictable and comparable pattern in atopic and healthy non-atopic children

  20. CD27 cooperates with the pre-T cell receptor in the regulation of murine T cell development

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    CD27 is a lymphocyte-specific member of the TNF receptor family and has a TNF-related transmembrane ligand, CD70. The CD27/CD70 receptor-ligand pair cooperates with the TCR in the regulation of the peripheral T cell response. The study presented here reveals that CD27 may play a similar role in thymic pre-T cell development. We have previously cloned the cDNA encoding murine CD27, prepared specific mAbs and observed that murine CD27 is expressed on virtually all thymocytes, with the exception of a subpopulation of CD4-8- precursor T cells. It is shown here that induction of murine CD27 expression occurs at the transition from the CD4-8-25+ to the CD4-8-25- precursor T cell stage and is regulated by the pre-TCR. Therefore, we investigated whether CD27 contributes to pre-TCR-mediated thymocyte development. Pre-TCR function was mimicked by the induction of CD3 signaling in thymocytes of recombination activating gene (RAG)-deficient mice. This in vivo anti- CD3 epsilon mAb treatment induces an about fifty fold numerical expansion of CD4-8-25+ thymocytes and their differentiation to the CD4+8+25- stage. Co-injection of anti-CD27 mAb inhibited the CD3- mediated expansion and differentiation of the CD4-8-25+ precursor population. Also, injection of anti-CD27 mAb in TCR alpha-/- mutant mice led to a reduction in the absolute number of CD4+8+25- thymocytes. We present evidence that in these in vivo systems, anti-CD27 mAb inhibits CD27-ligand interaction. Therefore, we conclude that CD27 may contribute to normal murine T cell development by synergizing with the pre-TCR-mediated signal. PMID:8760821

  1. Flanking V and J sequences of complementary determining region 3 of T cell receptor (TCR) δ1 (CDR3δ1) determine the structure and function of TCRγ4δ1.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Guo, Yang; Xi, Xueyan; Cui, Lianxian; He, Wei

    2011-07-22

    The γδ T cell receptor (TCR) differs from immunoglobulin and αβ TCR in its overall binding mode. In human, genes δ1, δ2, and δ3 are used for TCRδ chains. Previously, we have studied antigen binding determinants of TCRδ2 derived from dominant γδ T cells residing in peripheral blood. In this study we have investigated the critical determinants for antigen recognition and TCR function in TCRδ1 originated from gastric tumor-infiltrating γδ T lymphocytes using three independent experimental strategies including complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of TCRδ1 (CDR3δ1)-peptide mediated binding, CDR3δ1-grafted TCR fusion protein-mediated binding, and TCRγ4δ1- and mutant-expressing cell-mediated binding. All three approaches consistently showed that the conserved flanking V and J sequences but not the diverse D segment in CDR3δ1 determine the antigen binding. Most importantly, we found that mutations in the V and J regions of CDR3δ1 also abolish the assembly of TCR and TCR-CD3 complexes in TCRγ4δ1-transduced J.RT3-T3.5 cells. Together with our previous studies on CDR3δ2 binding, our finding suggests that both human TCRδ1 and TCRδ2 recognize antigen predominately via flanking V and J regions. These results indicate that TCRγδ recognizes antigens using conserved parts in their CDR3, which provides an explanation for a diverse repertoire of γδTCRs only recognizing a limited number of antigens.

  2. Identification of CMS as a cytosolic adaptor of the human pTalpha chain involved in pre-TCR function.

    PubMed

    Navarro, María N; Nusspaumer, Gretel; Fuentes, Patricia; González-García, Sara; Alcain, Juan; Toribio, María L

    2007-12-15

    The T-cell receptor beta (TCRbeta)/pre-TCRalpha (pTalpha) pre-TCR complex (pre-TCR) signals the expansion and differentiation of de-veloping thymocytes. Functional pro-perties of the pre-TCR rely on its unique pTalpha chain, which suggests the participation of specific intracellular adaptors. However, pTalpha-interacting molecules remain unknown. Here, we identified a polyproline-arginine sequence in the human pTalpha cytoplasmic tail that interacted in vitro with SH3 domains of the CIN85/CMS family of adaptors, and mediated the recruitment of multiprotein complexes involving all (CMS, CIN85, and CD2BP3) members. Supporting the physiologic relevance of this interaction, we found that 1 such adaptor, CMS, interacted in vivo with human pTalpha, and its expression was selectively up-regulated during human thymopoiesis in pre-TCR-activated thymocytes. Upon activation, pre-TCR clustering was induced, and CMS and polymerized actin were simultaneously recruited to the pre-TCR activation site. CMS also associated via its C-terminal region to the actin cytoskeleton in the endocytic compartment, where it colocalized with internalized pTalpha in traffic to lysosomal degradation. Notably, deletion of the pTalpha CIN85/CMS-binding motif impaired pre-TCR-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization and NFAT transcriptional activity, and precluded activation induced by overexpression of a CMS-SH3 N-terminal mutant. These results provide the first molecular evidence for a pTalpha intracellular adaptor involved in pre-TCR function.

  3. Id1 expression promotes peripheral CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation and survival upon TCR activation without co-stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chen; Jin, Rong; Wang, Hong-Cheng; Tang, Hui; Liu, Yuan-Feng; Qian, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Xiu-Yuan; Ge, Qing; Sun, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Yu

    2013-06-21

    Highlights: •Id1 expression enables naïve T cell proliferation without anti-CD28 co-stimulation. •Id1 expression facilitates T cells survival when stimulated with anti-CD3. •Elevation of IL-2 production by Id1 contributes increased proliferation and survival. •Id1 potentiates NF-κB activation by anti-CD3 stimulation. -- Abstract: Although the role of E proteins in the thymocyte development is well documented, much less is known about their function in peripheral T cells. Here we demonstrated that CD4 promoter-driven transgenic expression of Id1, a naturally occurring dominant-negative inhibitor of E proteins, can substitute for the co-stimulatory signal delivered by CD28 to facilitate the proliferation and survival of naïve CD4{sup +} cells upon anti-CD3 stimulation. We next discovered that IL-2 production and NF-κB activity after anti-CD3 stimulation were significantly elevated in Id1-expressing cells, which may be, at least in part, responsible for the augmentation of their proliferation and survival. Taken together, results from this study suggest an important role of E and Id proteins in peripheral T cell activation. The ability of Id proteins to by-pass co-stimulatory signals to enable T cell activation has significant implications in regulating T cell immunity.

  4. Antigen-specific CD4{sup +} effector T cells: Analysis of factors regulating clonal expansion and cytokine production

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuki, Kazunobu; Watanabe, Yuri; Takahashi, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Sakiko; Watanabe, Shiho; Ogawa, Shuhei; Kotani, Motoko; Kozono, Haruo; Tanabe, Kazunari; Abe, Ryo

    2009-03-20

    In order to fully understand T cell-mediated immunity, the mechanisms that regulate clonal expansion and cytokine production by CD4{sup +} antigen-specific effector T cells in response to a wide range of antigenic stimulation needs clarification. For this purpose, panels of antigen-specific CD4{sup +} T cell clones with different thresholds for antigen-induced proliferation were generated by repeated stimulation with high- or low-dose antigen. Differences in antigen sensitivities did not correlate with expression of TCR, CD4, adhesion or costimulatory molecules. There was no significant difference in antigen-dependent cytokine production by TG40 cells transfected with TCR obtained from either high- or low-dose-responding T cell clones, suggesting that the affinity of TCRs for their ligands is not primary determinant of T cell antigen reactivity. The proliferative responses of all T cell clones to both peptide stimulation and to TCR{beta} crosslinking revealed parallel dose-response curves. These results suggest that the TCR signal strength of effector T cells and threshold of antigen reactivity is determined by an intrinsic property, such as the TCR signalosome and/or intracellular signaling machinery. Finally, the antigen responses of high- and low-peptide-responding T cell clones reveal that clonal expansion and cytokine production of effector T cells occur independently of antigen concentration. Based on these results, the mechanisms underlying selection of high 'avidity' effector and memory T cells in response to pathogen are discussed.

  5. Regulation of T Cell Receptor Signaling by DENND1B in TH2 Cells and Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chiao-Wen; Hojer, Caroline D; Zhou, Meijuan; Wu, Xiumin; Wuster, Arthur; Lee, Wyne P; Yaspan, Brian L; Chan, Andrew C

    2016-01-14

    The DENN domain is an evolutionary conserved protein module found in all eukaryotes and serves as an exchange factor for Rab-GTPases to regulate diverse cellular functions. Variants in DENND1B are associated with development of childhood asthma and other immune disorders. To understand how DENND1B may contribute to human disease, Dennd1b(-/-) mice were generated and exhibit hyper-allergic responses following antigen challenge. Dennd1b(-/-) TH2, but not other TH cells, exhibit delayed receptor-induced T cell receptor (TCR) downmodulation, enhanced TCR signaling, and increased production of effector cytokines. As DENND1B interacts with AP-2 and Rab35, TH2 cells deficient in AP-2 or Rab35 also exhibit enhanced TCR-mediated effector functions. Moreover, human TH2 cells carrying asthma-associated DENND1B variants express less DENND1B and phenocopy Dennd1b(-/-) TH2 cells. These results provide a molecular basis for how DENND1B, a previously unrecognized regulator of TCR downmodulation in TH2 cells, contributes to asthma pathogenesis and how DENN-domain-containing proteins may contribute to other human disorders.

  6. Vav1 regulates T cell activation through a feedback mechanism and crosstalk between the T cell receptor and CD28

    PubMed Central

    Helou, Ynes A.; Petrashen, Anna P.; Salomon, Arthur R.

    2015-01-01

    Vavl, a Rac/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor and a critical component of the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling cascade, is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in response to T cell activation. Vav1 has established roles in proliferation, cytokine secretion, Ca2+ responses, and actin cytoskeleton regulation, however, its function in the regulation of phosphorylation of TCR components, including the ζ chain, the CD3 δ, ε, γ chains, and the associated kinases Lck, and ZAP-70 is not well established. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the role of Vav1 in receptor proximal signaling, we performed a wide-scale characterization of Vav1-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation events using quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of Vav1-deficient T cells across a time course of TCR stimulation. Importantly, this study revealed a new function for Vav1 in the negative feedback regulation of the phosphorylation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs within the ζ chains, CD3 δ, ε, γ chains, as well as activation sites on the critical T cell tyrosine kinases Itk, Lck, and ZAP-70. Our study also uncovered a previously unappreciated role for Vav1 in crosstalk between the CD28 and TCR signaling pathways. PMID:26043137

  7. Crystal Structure of a Complete Ternary Complex of TCR, Superantigen and Peptide-MHC

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,L.; Zhao, Y.; Li, Z.; Guo, Y.; Jones, L.; Kranz, D.; Mourad, W.; Li, H.

    2007-01-01

    'Superantigens' (SAgs) trigger the massive activation of T cells by simultaneous interactions with MHC and TCR receptors, leading to human diseases. Here we present the first crystal structure, at 2.5-{angstrom} resolution, of a complete ternary complex between a SAg and its two receptors, HLA-DR1/HA and TCR. The most striking finding is that the SAg Mycoplasma arthritidis mitogen, unlike others, has direct contacts not only with TCR V{beta} but with TCR V{alpha}.

  8. Immune Tolerance Maintained by Cooperative Interactions between T Cells and Antigen Presenting Cells Shapes a Diverse TCR Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Best, Katharine; Chain, Benny; Watkins, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The T cell population in an individual needs to avoid harmful activation by self peptides while maintaining the ability to respond to an unknown set of foreign peptides. This property is acquired by a combination of thymic and extra-thymic mechanisms. We extend current models for the development of self/non-self discrimination to consider the acquisition of self-tolerance as an emergent system level property of the overall T cell receptor repertoire. We propose that tolerance is established at the level of the antigen presenting cell/T cell cluster, which facilitates and integrates cooperative interactions between T cells of different specificities. The threshold for self-reactivity is therefore imposed at a population level, and not at the level of the individual T cell/antigen encounter. Mathematically, the model can be formulated as a linear programing optimization problem that can be implemented as a multiplicative update algorithm, which shows a rapid convergence to a stable state. The model constrains self-reactivity within a predefined threshold, but maintains repertoire diversity and cross reactivity which are key characteristics of human T cell immunity. We show further that the size of individual clones in the model repertoire becomes heterogeneous, and that new clones can establish themselves even when the repertoire has stabilized. Our study combines the salient features of the “danger” model of self/non-self discrimination with the concepts of quorum sensing, and extends repertoire generation models to encompass the establishment of tolerance. Furthermore, the dynamic and continuous repertoire reshaping, which underlies tolerance in this model, suggests opportunities for therapeutic intervention to achieve long-term tolerance following transplantation. PMID:26300880

  9. Ubiquitylation as a Rheostat for TCR Signaling: From Targeted Approaches Toward Global Profiling

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Claire E.; Lewis, Emma L.; Oliver, Paula M.

    2015-01-01

    primary T cells. These methods provide an exciting opportunity for further defining how TCR signals are regulated and for identifying new targets for therapeutic modulation. PMID:26732666

  10. Ubiquitylation as a Rheostat for TCR Signaling: From Targeted Approaches Toward Global Profiling.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Claire E; Lewis, Emma L; Oliver, Paula M

    2015-01-01

    cells. These methods provide an exciting opportunity for further defining how TCR signals are regulated and for identifying new targets for therapeutic modulation.

  11. Negative regulation of T cell receptor signaling by Siglec-7 (p70/AIRM) and Siglec-9.

    PubMed

    Ikehara, Yuzuru; Ikehara, Sanae Kabata; Paulson, James C

    2004-10-08

    Siglec-7 (p70/AIRM) and Siglec-9 are "CD33"-related siglecs expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and subsets of peripheral T cells. Like other inhibitory NK cell receptors, they contain immunoglobulin receptor family tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs in their cytoplasmic domains, and Siglec-7 has been demonstrated to negatively regulate NK cell activation. Based on reports of the presence of these siglecs on T cells, we sought to determine if they are capable of modulating T cell receptor (TCR) signaling using Jurkat T cells stably and transiently transfected with Siglec-7 or Siglec-9. Following either pervanadate stimulation or TCR engagement, both Siglecs exhibited increased tyrosine phosphorylation and recruitment of SHP-1. Effects of Siglec-7 and -9 were also evident in downstream events in the signaling pathway. Both siglecs reduced phosphorylation of Tyr319 on ZAP-70, known to play a pivotal role in up-regulation of gene transcription following TCR stimulation. There was also a corresponding decreased transcriptional activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) as determined using a luciferase reporter gene. Like all siglecs, Siglec-7 and -9 recognize sialic acid-containing glycans of glycoproteins and glycolipids as ligands. Mutation of the conserved Arg in the ligand binding site of Siglec-7 (Arg124) or Siglec-9 (Arg120) resulted in reduced inhibitory function in the NFAT/luciferase transcription assay, suggesting that ligand binding is required for optimal inhibition of TCR signaling. The combined results demonstrate that both Siglec-7 and Siglec-9 are capable of negative regulation of TCR signaling and that ligand binding is required for optimal activity.

  12. Characterization of human TCR Vbeta gene promoter. Role of the dodecamer motif in promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Deng, X; Sun, G R; Zheng, Q; Li, Y

    1998-09-11

    During T-lymphocyte development, the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) gene expression is controlled by its promoter and enhancer elements and regulated in tissue- and development stage-specific manner. To uncover the promoter function and to define positive and negative regulatory elements in TCR gene promoters, the promoter activities from 13 human TCR Vbeta genes were determined by the transient transfection system and luciferase reporter assay. Although most of the TCR Vbeta gene promoters that we tested are inactive by themselves, some promoters were found to be constitutively strong. Among them, Vbeta6.7 is the strongest. 5'-Deletion and fragmentation experiments have narrowed the full promoter activity of Vbeta6.7 to a fragment of 147 base pairs immediately 5' to the transcription initiation site. A decanucleotide motif with the consensus sequence AGTGAYRTCA has been found to be conserved in most TCR Vbeta gene promoters. There are three such decamer motifs in the promoter region of Vbeta6.7, and the contribution of each such motif to the promoter activity has been examined. Further site-directed mutagenesis analyses showed that: 1) when two Ts in the decamer were mutated, the promoter activity was totally abolished; 2) when two additional nucleotides 3' to the end of decamer were mutated, the promoter activity was decreased to two-thirds of the full level; and 3) when the element with the sequence AGTGATGTCACT was inserted into other promoters, the original weak promoters become very strong. Taken together, our data suggest that the positive regulatory element in Vbeta6.7 should be considered a dodecamer rather than a decamer and that it confers strong basal transcriptional activity on TCR Vbeta genes.

  13. Conservation of Pathogenic TCR Homology Across Class II Restrictions in Anti-RNP Autoimmunity: Extended Efficacy of T Cell Vaccine Therapy1

    PubMed Central

    Zang, YunJuan; Martinez, Laisel; Fernandez, Irina; Pignac-Kobinger, Judith; Greidinger, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    T cells have been shown to mediate aspects of anti-RNP autoimmunity, and are a potential target of therapy in lupus and related diseases. In this study, we assessed the relevance of a conserved class of anti-RNP T cells to autoimmune disease expression and therapy. Our data show that anti-RNP T cell selection induced a limited set of homologous CDR3 motifs at high frequency. Homologous CDR3 motifs have been reported in other autoimmune diseases. Vaccination with irradiated anti-RNP (but not anti-Tetanus Toxoid) CD4+ cells induced remission of anti-RNP-associated nephritis in at least 80% of treated mice, even with donor/recipient MHC Class II mismatch, and in both induced and spontaneous autoimmunity. Vaccine responder sera inhibited anti-70k T cell proliferation and bound hybridomas expressing the conserved CDR3 motifs. Our data indicate that a limited set of TCR CDR3 motifs may be important for the pathogenesis of anti-RNP lupus and other autoimmune diseases. The ability to target a consistent set of pathogenic T cells between individuals and across Class II restrictions may allow for the more practical development of a standardized anti-RNP T cell vaccine preparation useful for multiple patients. PMID:24670800

  14. A20 negatively regulates T cell receptor signaling to NF-kappaB by cleaving Malt1 ubiquitin chains.

    PubMed

    Düwel, Michael; Welteke, Verena; Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Baens, Mathijs; Kloo, Bernhard; Ferch, Uta; Darnay, Bryant G; Ruland, Jürgen; Marynen, Peter; Krappmann, Daniel

    2009-06-15

    The Carma1-Bcl10-Malt1 signaling module bridges TCR signaling to the canonical IkappaB kinase (IKK)/NF-kappaB pathway. Covalent attachment of regulatory ubiquitin chains to Malt1 paracaspase directs TCR signaling to IKK activation. Further, the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 was recently suggested to suppress T cell activation, but molecular targets for A20 remain elusive. In this paper, we show that A20 regulates the strength and duration of the IKK/NF-kappaB response upon TCR/CD28 costimulation. By catalyzing the removal of K63-linked ubiquitin chains from Malt1, A20 prevents sustained interaction between ubiquitinated Malt1 and the IKK complex and thus serves as a negative regulator of inducible IKK activity. Upon T cell stimulation, A20 is rapidly removed and paracaspase activity of Malt1 has been suggested to cleave A20. Using antagonistic peptides or reconstitution of Malt1(-/-) T cells, we show that Malt1 paracaspase activity is required for A20 cleavage and optimal IL-2 production, but dispensable for initial IKK/NF-kappaB signaling in CD4(+) T cells. However, proteasomal inhibition impairs A20 degradation and impedes TCR/CD28-induced IKK activation. Taken together, A20 functions as a Malt1 deubiquitinating enzyme and proteasomal degradation and de novo synthesis of A20 contributes to balance TCR/CD28-induced IKK/NF-kappaB signaling.

  15. Domains of the TCR beta-chain required for early thymocyte development

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The T cell receptor beta (TCR beta) chain controls the developmental transition from CD4-CD8- to CD4+8+thymocytes. We show that the extracellular constant region and the transmembrane region, but not the variable domain or cytoplasmic tail of the TCR beta chain are required for this differentiation step. TCR beta mutant chains lacking the cytoplasmic tail can be found at the cell surface both in functional TCR/CD3 complexes and in a GPI-anchored monomeric form indicating that the cytoplasmic tail of the TCR beta chain functions as an ER retention signal. The concordance between cell surface expression of the mutant chains as TCR/CD3 complexes and their capacity to mediate thymocyte differentiation supports the CD3 mediated feedback model in which preTCR/CD3 complexes control the developmental transition from CD4-CD8- to CD4+CD8+thymocytes. PMID:8920871

  16. Serine residues in the LAT adaptor are essential for TCR-dependent signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Florensa, Mario; García-Blesa, Antonio; Yélamos, José; Muñoz-Suano, Alba; Domínguez-Villar, Margarita; Valdor, Rut; Alonso, Antonio; García-Cózar, Francisco; Aparicio, Pedro; Malissen, Bernard; Aguado, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The adaptor protein LAT has a prominent role in the transduction of intracellular signals elicited by the TCR/CD3 complex. Upon TCR engagement, LAT becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated and thereby, recruits to the membrane several proteins implicated in the activation of downstream signaling pathways. However, little is known about the role of other conserved motifs present in the LAT sequence. Here, we report that the adaptor LAT contains several conserved serine-based motifs, which are essential for proper signal transduction through the TCR. Mutation of these serine motifs in the human T cell line Jurkat prevents proper calcium influx, MAPK activation, and IL-2 production in response to TCR/CD3 stimulation. Moreover, this mutant form of LAT has a reduced ability to bind to PLC-γ1 and SLP-76, although phosphorylation of tyrosine residues 132, 171, and 191 is not decreased, raising a possible role for the serine-based motifs of LAT for the binding of important partners. The functional role of LAT serine-based motifs in signal transduction could be mediated by an effect on tyrosine phosphorylation, as their mutation significantly diminishes the phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 226. In addition, these serine motifs seem to have a regulatory role, given that upon their mutation, ZAP-70 shows enhanced phosphorylation. Therefore, the LAT serine-based motifs likely regulate signaling pathways that are essential for T cell physiology.

  17. Targeted loss of SHP1 in murine thymocytes dampens TCR signaling late in selection.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ryan J; Morris, Anna B; Neeld, Dennis K; Evavold, Brian D

    2016-09-01

    SHP1 is a tyrosine phosphatase critical to proximal regulation of TCR signaling. Here, analysis of CD4-Cre SHP1(fl/fl) conditional knockout thymocytes using CD53, TCRβ, CD69, CD4, and CD8α expression demonstrates the importance of SHP1 in the survival of post selection (CD53(+) ), single-positive thymocytes. Using Ca(2+) flux to assess the intensity of TCR signaling demonstrated that SHP1 dampens the signal strength of these same mature, postselection thymocytes. Consistent with its dampening effect, TCR signal strength was also probed functionally using peptides that can mediate selection of the OT-I TCR, to reveal increased negative selection mediated by lower-affinity ligand in the absence of SHP1. Our data show that SHP1 is required for the survival of mature thymocytes and the generation of the functional T-cell repertoire, as its absence leads to a reduction in the numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) naïve T cells in the peripheral lymphoid compartments.

  18. Chaperone-mediated autophagy regulates T cell responses through targeted degradation of negative regulators of T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Valdor, Rut; Mocholi, Enric; Botbol, Yair; Guerrero-Ros, Ignacio; Chandra, Dinesh; Koga, Hiroshi; Gravekamp, Claudia; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Macian, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) targets soluble proteins for lysosomal degradation. Here we found that CMA was activated in T cells in response to engagement of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR), which induced expression of the CMA-related lysosomal receptor LAMP-2A. In activated T cells, CMA targeted the ubiquitin ligase Itch and the calcineurin inhibitor RCAN1 for degradation to maintain activation-induced responses. Consequently, deletion of the gene encoding LAMP-2A in T cells caused deficient in vivo responses to immunization or infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Impaired CMA activity also occurred in T cells with age, which negatively affected their function. Restoration of LAMP-2A in T cells from old mice resulted in enhancement of activation-induced responses. Our findings define a role for CMA in regulating T cell activation through the targeted degradation of negative regulators of T cell activation.

  19. Visualization of the human CD4⁺ T-cell response in humanized HLA-DR4-expressing NOD/Shi-scid/γc(null) (NOG) mice by retrogenic expression of the human TCR gene.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Takeshi; Katano, Ikumi; Ito, Ryoji; Ito, Mamoru

    2015-01-02

    The development of severe immunodeficient mouse strains containing various human genes, including cytokines or HLA, has enabled the reconstitution of functional human immune systems after transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Accumulating evidence has suggested that HLA-restricted antigen-specific human T-cell responses can be generated in these humanized mice. To directly monitor immune responses of human CD4(+) T cells, we introduced β-lactoglobulin (BLG)-specific T cell receptor (TCR) genes derived from CD4(+) T-cell clones of cow-milk allergy patients into HSCs, and subsequently transplanted them into NOG-HLA-DR4 transgenic/I-Aβ deficient mice (NOG-DR4/I-A(o)). In the thymus, thymocytes with BLG-specific TCR preferentially differentiated into CD4(+)CD8(-) single-positive cells. Adoptive transfer of mature CD4(+) T cells expressing the TCR into recipient NOG-DR4/I-A(o) mice demonstrated that human CD4(+) T cells proliferated in response to antigenic stimulation and produced IFN-γ in vivo, suggesting that functional T-cell reactions (especially Th1-skewed responses) were induced in humanized mice.

  20. TCR Signal Strength Alters T-DC Activation and Interaction Times and Directs the Outcome of Differentiation.

    PubMed

    van Panhuys, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The ability of CD4+ T cells to differentiate into effector subsets underpins their ability to shape the immune response and mediate host protection. During T cell receptor-induced activation of CD4+ T cells, both the quality and quantity of specific activatory peptide/MHC ligands have been shown to control the polarization of naive CD4+ T cells in addition to co-stimulatory and cytokine-based signals. Recently, advances in two--photon microscopy and tetramer-based cell tracking methods have allowed investigators to greatly extend the study of the role of TCR signaling in effector differentiation under in vivo conditions. In this review, we consider data from recent in vivo studies analyzing the role of TCR signal strength in controlling the outcome of CD4+ T cell differentiation and discuss the role of TCR in controlling the critical nature of CD4+ T cell interactions with dendritic cells during activation. We further propose a model whereby TCR signal strength controls the temporal aspects of T-DC interactions and the implications for this in mediating the downstream signaling events, which influence the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of effector differentiation.

  1. TCR Signal Strength Alters T–DC Activation and Interaction Times and Directs the Outcome of Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    van Panhuys, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The ability of CD4+ T cells to differentiate into effector subsets underpins their ability to shape the immune response and mediate host protection. During T cell receptor-induced activation of CD4+ T cells, both the quality and quantity of specific activatory peptide/MHC ligands have been shown to control the polarization of naive CD4+ T cells in addition to co-stimulatory and cytokine-based signals. Recently, advances in two-­photon microscopy and tetramer-based cell tracking methods have allowed investigators to greatly extend the study of the role of TCR signaling in effector differentiation under in vivo conditions. In this review, we consider data from recent in vivo studies analyzing the role of TCR signal strength in controlling the outcome of CD4+ T cell differentiation and discuss the role of TCR in controlling the critical nature of CD4+ T cell interactions with dendritic cells during activation. We further propose a model whereby TCR signal strength controls the temporal aspects of T–DC interactions and the implications for this in mediating the downstream signaling events, which influence the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of effector differentiation. PMID:26834747

  2. Dynamic Regulation of TCR–Microclusters and the Microsynapse for T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto-Tane, Akiko; Saito, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell is the initiating event in T cell-mediated adaptive immunity. The Immunological Synapse (IS) is formed at the interface between these two cell types, and is the site where antigen (Ag)-specific recognition and activation are induced through the T cell receptor (TCR). This occurs at the center of the IS, and cell adhesion is supported through integrins in the area surrounding the TCR. Recently, this model has been revised based on data indicating that the initial Ag-specific activation signal is triggered prior to IS formation at TCR–microclusters (MCs), sites where TCR, kinases and adaptors of TCR proximal downstream signaling molecules accumulate as an activation signaling cluster. TCR–MCs then move into the center of the cell–cell interface to generate the cSMAC. This translocation of TCR–MCs is mediated initially by the actin cytoskeleton and then by dynein-induced movement along microtubules. The translocation of TCR–MCs and cSMAC formation is induced upon strong TCR stimulation through the assembly of a TCR–dynein super complex with microtubules. The Ag-specific activation signal is induced at TCR–MCs, but the adhesion signal is now shown to be induced by generating a “microsynapse,” which is composed of a core of TCR–MCs and the surrounding adhesion ring of integrin and focal adhesion molecules. Since the microsynapse is critical for activation, particularly under weak TCR stimulation, this structure supports a weak TCR signal through a cell–cell adhesion signal. The microsynapse has a structure similar to the IS but on a micro-scale and regulates Ag-specific activation as well as cell–cell adhesion. We describe here the dynamic regulation of TCR–MCs, responsible for inducing Ag-specific activation signals, and the microsynapse, responsible for adhesion signals critical for cell–cell interactions, and their interrelationship. PMID:27446085

  3. Proinsulin Expression Shapes the TCR Repertoire but Fails to Control the Development of Low-Avidity Insulin-Reactive CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, James A.; Thayer, Terri C.; McLaren, James E.; Ladell, Kristin; De Leenheer, Evy; Phillips, Amy; Davies, Joanne; Kakabadse, Dimitri; Miners, Kelly; Morgan, Peter; Wen, Li; Price, David A.

    2016-01-01

    NOD mice, a model strain for human type 1 diabetes, express proinsulin (PI) in the thymus. However, insulin-reactive T cells escape negative selection, and subsequent activation of the CD8+ T-cell clonotype G9C8, which recognizes insulin B15-23 via an αβ T-cell receptor (TCR) incorporating TRAV8-1/TRAJ9 and TRBV19/TRBJ2-3 gene rearrangements, contributes to the development of diabetes. In this study, we used fixed TRAV8-1/TRAJ9 TCRα-chain transgenic mice to assess the impact of PI isoform expression on the insulin-reactive CD8+ T-cell repertoire. The key findings were: 1) PI2 deficiency increases the frequency of insulin B15-23–reactive TRBV19+CD8+ T cells and causes diabetes; 2) insulin B15-23–reactive TRBV19+CD8+ T cells are more abundant in the pancreatic lymph nodes of mice lacking PI1 and/or PI2; 3) overexpression of PI2 decreases TRBV19 usage in the global CD8+ T-cell compartment; 4) a biased repertoire of insulin-reactive CD8+ T cells emerges in the periphery regardless of antigen exposure; and 5) low-avidity insulin-reactive CD8+ T cells are less affected by antigen exposure in the thymus than in the periphery. These findings inform our understanding of the diabetogenic process and reveal new avenues for therapeutic exploitation in type 1 diabetes. PMID:26953160

  4. N-terminally LRMK-linked HER-2 peptides, AE-37 [p776(774-788)] and AE-47 [Ava-F7(776-788)], aid differentiation of E75-TCR+CD8+ cells to perforin-positive cells.

    PubMed

    Matsueda, Satoko; Gao, Hui; Efferson, Clayton L; Tsuda, Naotake; Ishiyama, Satoshi; Li, Yufeng; Ioannides, Maria G; Fisk, Bryan; Peoples, George E; Ioannides, Constantin G

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to discover whether the peptides LRMK and LRMK-Ava linked to the N-terminus of peptides HER-2 (774-788) and HER-2 (776-788), respectively, help differentiation of E75-TCR(+)CD8(+) cells. Activation was quantified in terms of proliferation of E75-TCR(+)CD8(+) cells expressing high, medium and low density amounts of the specific TCR. Differentiation to functional CD8(+) cells was quantified as induction of Perforin (Perf), the lytic-enzyme which mediates the effector function of CD8(+) cells, in E75-TCR(+)CD8(+) cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 3 patients activated with E75(+)AE-37 and E75(+)AE-47 more greatly increased the number of E75-TCR(Hi) CD8(+)Perf(+) cells than PBMCs activated by AE-47 alone or AE-47(+) E75. E75 plus cytokines and cytokines alone activated more E75-TCR(Low) cells than did AE-37 and AE-47. E75(+) AE-37 and AE-37 also induced differentiation of small- and medium-size activated CD8(+) cells from BRC ascites, in allogeneic activation, to Perf(+) cells. Preferential differentiation of E75-TCR(+)CD8(+)Perf(+) cells in distinct patients by AE-37 and AE-47 indicates that cancer vaccines will benefit from such correct individual and disease-associated help. Additional studies using the natural peptides p776 and F7 are needed to understand whether the LRMK-(Ava) tetra-, or pentamer augments or inhibits differentiation of CD8(+) cells, compared with native, natural HER-2 peptides and/or protects CD8(+) cells activated by E75 and by other HLA-I bound peptides from death. Our findings also develop a model for uniform quantification of differentiated CD8(+) effectors.

  5. Attrition of TCR Vα7.2+ CD161++ MAIT Cells in HIV-Tuberculosis Co-Infection Is Associated with Elevated Levels of PD-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Alireza; Tien Tien, Vicky L.; Al-Batran, Rami; Al-Darraji, Haider A.; Tan, Hong Y.; Yong, Yean K.; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Barathan, Muttiah; Rukumani, Devi V.; Ansari, Abdul W.; Velu, Vijayakumar; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Larsson, Marie; Shankar, Esaki M.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial MR1-restricted CD8+ T cells co-expressing the semi-invariant TCR Vα7.2, and are numerous in the blood and mucosal tissues of humans. MAIT cells appear to undergo exhaustion in chronic viral infections. However, their role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mono-infection and HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infection have seldom been elaborately investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the frequencies and phenotypes of CD161++CD8+ T cells among anti-retroviral therapy (ART)/anti-TB therapy (ATT) treatment-naïve HIV/TB co-infected, ART/TB treated HIV/TB co-infected, ART naïve HIV-infected, ART-treated HIV-infected patients, and HIV negative healthy controls (HCs) by flow cytometry. Our data revealed that the frequency of MAIT cells was severely depleted in HIV mono- and HIV/TB co-infections. Further, PD-1 expression on MAIT cells was significantly increased in HIV mono- and HIV-TB co-infected patients. The frequency of MAIT cells did not show any significant increase despite the initiation of ART and/or ATT. Majority of the MAIT cells in HCs showed a significant increase in CCR6 expression as compared to HIV/TB co-infections. No marked difference was seen with expressions of chemokine co-receptor CCR5 and CD103 among the study groups. Decrease of CCR6 expression appears to explain why HIV-infected patients display weakened mucosal immune responses. PMID:25894562

  6. Attrition of TCR Vα7.2+ CD161++ MAIT cells in HIV-tuberculosis co-infection is associated with elevated levels of PD-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Alireza; Tien Tien, Vicky L; Al-Batran, Rami; Al-Darraji, Haider A; Tan, Hong Y; Yong, Yean K; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Barathan, Muttiah; Rukumani, Devi V; Ansari, Abdul W; Velu, Vijayakumar; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Larsson, Marie; Shankar, Esaki M

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial MR1-restricted CD8(+) T cells co-expressing the semi-invariant TCR Vα7.2, and are numerous in the blood and mucosal tissues of humans. MAIT cells appear to undergo exhaustion in chronic viral infections. However, their role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mono-infection and HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infection have seldom been elaborately investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the frequencies and phenotypes of CD161(++)CD8(+) T cells among anti-retroviral therapy (ART)/anti-TB therapy (ATT) treatment-naïve HIV/TB co-infected, ART/TB treated HIV/TB co-infected, ART naïve HIV-infected, ART-treated HIV-infected patients, and HIV negative healthy controls (HCs) by flow cytometry. Our data revealed that the frequency of MAIT cells was severely depleted in HIV mono- and HIV/TB co-infections. Further, PD-1 expression on MAIT cells was significantly increased in HIV mono- and HIV-TB co-infected patients. The frequency of MAIT cells did not show any significant increase despite the initiation of ART and/or ATT. Majority of the MAIT cells in HCs showed a significant increase in CCR6 expression as compared to HIV/TB co-infections. No marked difference was seen with expressions of chemokine co-receptor CCR5 and CD103 among the study groups. Decrease of CCR6 expression appears to explain why HIV-infected patients display weakened mucosal immune responses.

  7. Synovial Regulatory T Cells Occupy a Discrete TCR Niche in Human Arthritis and Require Local Signals To Stabilize FOXP3 Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulou, Eirini; Lom, Hannah; Wedderburn, Lucy R.

    2015-01-01

    Although there is great interest in harnessing the immunosuppressive potential of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) for treating autoimmunity, a sizeable knowledge gap exists regarding Treg fate in human disease. In juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients, we have previously reported that atypical CD25+FOXP3− Treg-like cells uniquely populate the inflamed site. Intriguingly, their proportions relative to CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs associate with arthritis course, suggesting a role in disease. The ontogeny of these FOXP3− Treg-like cells is, however, unknown. In this study, we interrogated clonal relationships between CD4+ T cell subsets in JIA, using high-throughput TCR repertoire analysis. We reveal that FOXP3+ Tregs possess highly exclusive TCRβ usage from conventional T cells, in blood, and also at the inflamed site, where they are clonally expanded. Intriguingly, the repertoires of FOXP3+ Tregs in synovial fluid are highly overlapping with CD25+FOXP3− Treg-like cells, indicating fluctuations in FOXP3 expression in the inflamed joint. Furthermore, cultured synovial Tregs rapidly downregulated FOXP3 protein (but not mRNA), and this process was prevented by addition of synovial fluid from JIA patients, through an IL-6–independent mechanism. Our findings suggest that most Tregs arise from a separate lineage from conventional T cells, and that this repertoire divergence is largely maintained under chronic inflammatory conditions. We propose that subsequent Treg expansions at the inflamed site creates an environment that leads to competition for limited resources within the synovium, resulting in the destabilization of FOXP3 expression in some Tregs. PMID:26561546

  8. Deep sequencing of the TCR-β repertoire of human forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) and FoxP3(-) T cells suggests that they are completely distinct and non-overlapping.

    PubMed

    Golding, A; Darko, S; Wylie, W H; Douek, D C; Shevach, E M

    2017-04-01

    Maintenance of peripheral tolerance requires a balance between autoreactive conventional T cells (Tconv ) and thymically derived forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) regulatory T cells (tTregs ). Considerable controversy exists regarding the similarities/differences in T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires expressed by Tconv and tTregs . We generated highly purified populations of human adult and cord blood Tconv and tTregs based on the differential expression of CD25 and CD127. The purity of the sorted populations was validated by intracellular staining for FoxP3 and Helios. We also purified an overlap group of CD4 T cells from adult donors to ensure that considerable numbers of shared clonotypes could be detected when present. We used deep sequencing of entire TCR-β CDR3 sequences to analyse the TCR repertoire of Tconv and tTregs . Our studies suggest that both neonatal and adult human Tconv and tTreg cells are, in fact, entirely distinct CD4 T cell lineages.

  9. Breakpoint sites disclose the role of the V(D)J recombination machinery in the formation of T-cell receptor (TCR) and non-TCR associated aberrations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Larmonie, Nicole S D; Dik, Willem A; Meijerink, Jules P P; Homminga, Irene; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Langerak, Anton W

    2013-08-01

    Aberrant recombination between T-cell receptor genes and oncogenes gives rise to chromosomal translocations that are genetic hallmarks in several subsets of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias. The V(D)J recombination machinery has been shown to play a role in the formation of these T-cell receptor translocations. Other, non-T-cell receptor chromosomal aberrations, such as SIL-TAL1 deletions, have likewise been recognized as V(D)J recombination associated aberrations. Despite the postulated role of V(D)J recombination, the extent of the V(D)J recombination machinery involvement in the formation of T-cell receptor and non-T-cell receptor aberrations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is still poorly understood. We performed a comprehensive in silico and ex vivo evaluation of 117 breakpoint sites from 22 different T-cell receptor translocation partners as well as 118 breakpoint sites from non-T-cell receptor chromosomal aberrations. Based on this extensive set of breakpoint data, we provide a comprehensive overview of T-cell receptor and oncogene involvement in T-ALL. Moreover, we assessed the role of the V(D)J recombination machinery in the formation of chromosomal aberrations, and propose an up-dated mechanistic classification on how the V(D)J recombination machinery contributes to the formation of T-cell receptor and non-T-cell receptor aberrations in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  10. Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) TCR signaling pathway was involved in response against Cryptocaryon irritans infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Ze-Xiang; Li, Yan-Wei; Xu, Shun; Xu, Yang; Mo, Ze-Quan; Dan, Xue-Ming; Luo, Xiao-Chun

    2017-03-07

    T cell activation is a complicated process accompanying with the activation of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway, which is not well described in teleost fish. The initiation of this pathway depends on the interaction of membrane TCR co-receptors (e.g. CD4/8, CD3 and CD45) and a series of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases (e.g. Lck, Fyn and ZAP70). Cyptocaryon irritans is a ciliate pathogen of marine fish white spot disease causing huge economic lost in marine aquaculture. This parasite can infect fish gill and skin and is considered to be a good pathogen model for fish gill and skin mucosal immunity. Our previous studies showed the locally mucosal antibody response was important for fish defense against this parasite. While how TCR signaling pathway involved in T cell activation to help B cell activation in C. irritans infected fish is still not known. In the present study, we cloned a grouper TCR co-receptor gene EcCD3ε (537 bp) and its three kinase genes, including EcLck (1512 bp), EcFyn (1605 bp) and EcZAP70 (1893 bp). Homology analysis showed that they all shared the highest identity with corresponding genes from Takifugu rubripes (EcCD3ε 41%, EcLck 88%, EcFyn 98% and EcZAP70 93%), and their conserved motifs involved in the signaling transduction were analyzed. The tissue distribution analysis showed these four genes were high expressed in thymus, and it is interesting to find their comparative high expression in skin, gill and midgut mucosal immune tissues. In C. irritans infected grouper, the expression of three TCR co-receptors (EcCD4-1, EcCD3ε and EcCD45) and three kinases (EcLck, EcFyn and EcZAP70) was tested in skin, gill, head kidney and spleen at 0, 12 h, 24 h, 2 d, 3 d, 5 d and 7 d. All six genes were significantly up-regulated in skin at most tested time points, which indicate the possibility of skin local T cell activation to support the local antibody response. Compared to three TCR co-receptors, significantly up-regulation of three

  11. Structure of a Complex of the Human α/β T Cell Receptor (TCR) HA1.7, Influenza Hemagglutinin Peptide, and Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Molecule, HLA-DR4 (DRA*0101 and DRB1*0401)

    PubMed Central

    Hennecke, Jens; Wiley, Don C.

    2002-01-01

    The α/β T cell receptor (TCR) HA1.7 specific for the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen peptide from influenza A virus is HLA-DR1 restricted but cross-reactive for the HA peptide presented by the allo-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule HLA-DR4. We report here the structure of the HA1.7/DR4/HA complex, determined by X-ray crystallography at a resolution of 2.4 Å. The overall structure of this complex is very similar to the previously reported structure of the HA1.7/DR1/HA complex. Amino acid sequence differences between DR1 and DR4, which are located deep in the peptide binding groove and out of reach for direct contact by the TCR, are able to indirectly influence the antigenicity of the pMHC surface by changing the conformation of HA peptide residues at position P5 and P6. Although TCR HA1.7 is cross-reactive for HA presented by DR1 and DR4 and tolerates these conformational differences, other HA-specific TCRs are sensitive to these changes. We also find a dependence of the width of the MHC class II peptide-binding groove on the sequence of the bound peptide by comparing the HA1.7/DR4/HA complex with the structure of DR4 presenting a collagen peptide. This structural study of TCR cross-reactivity emphasizes how MHC sequence differences can affect TCR binding indirectly by moving peptide atoms. PMID:11877480

  12. Posttranslational modification of gluten shapes TCR usage in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Ráki, Melinda; Gunnarsen, Kristin S; Løset, Geir-Åge; Lundin, Knut E A; Sandlie, Inger; Sollid, Ludvig M

    2011-09-15

    Posttranslational modification of Ag is implicated in several autoimmune diseases. In celiac disease, a cereal gluten-induced enteropathy with several autoimmune features, T cell recognition of the gluten Ag is heavily dependent on the posttranslational conversion of Gln to Glu residues. Evidence suggests that the enhanced recognition of deamidated gluten peptides results from improved peptide binding to the MHC and TCR interaction with the peptide-MHC complex. In this study, we report that there is a biased usage of TCR Vβ6.7 chain among TCRs reactive to the immunodominant DQ2-α-II gliadin epitope. We isolated Vβ6.7 and DQ2-αII tetramer-positive CD4(+) T cells from peripheral blood of gluten-challenged celiac patients and sequenced the TCRs of a large number of single T cells. TCR sequence analysis revealed in vivo clonal expansion, convergent recombination, semipublic response, and the notable conservation of a non-germline-encoded Arg residue in the CDR3β loop. Functional testing of a prototype DQ2-α-II-reactive TCR by analysis of TCR transfectants and soluble single-chain TCRs indicate that the deamidated residue in the DQ2-α-II peptide poses constraints on the TCR structure in which the conserved Arg residue is a critical element. The findings have implications for understanding T cell responses to posttranslationally modified Ags.

  13. Disease etiology and diagnosis by TCR repertoire analysis goes viral.

    PubMed

    Attaf, Meriem; Sewell, Andrew K

    2016-11-01

    The importance of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire diversity is highlighted in murine models of immunodeficiency and in many human pathologies. However, the true extent of TCR diversity and how this diversity varies in health and disease is poorly understood. In a previous issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Lossius et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2014. 44: 3439-3452] dissected the composition of the TCR repertoire in the context of multiple sclerosis (MS) using high-throughput sequencing of TCR-β chains in cerebrospinal fluid samples and blood. The authors demonstrated that the TCR repertoire of the CSF was largely distinct from the blood and enriched in EBV-reactive CD8(+) T cells in MS patients. Studies of this kind have long been hindered by technical limitations and remain scarce in the literature. However, TCR sequencing methodologies are progressing apace and will undoubtedly shed light on the genetic basis of T-cell responses and the ontogeny of T-cell-mediated diseases, such as MS.

  14. The adaptor protein SLP-76 regulates HIV-1 release and cell-to-cell transmission in T cells.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Tirumuru; Anand, Appakkudal R; Zhao, Helong; Ganju, Ramesh K

    2012-03-15

    HIV-1 infection in T cells is regulated by TCR activation. However, the cellular proteins of the TCR pathway that regulate HIV-1 infection are poorly characterized. In this study, in HIV-1 infection, we observed a significant reduction of HIV-1 virus production in Src homology 2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP-76)-deficient Jurkat T cells compared with wild-type and SLP-76-reconstituted Jurkat T cells. We further confirmed the role of SLP-76 in HIV-1 infection by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown in MT4 cells and PBMCs. Structural-functional analysis revealed that the N-terminal domain of SLP-76 was important for regulating HIV-1 infection. Further mechanistic studies revealed that lack of SLP-76 impaired virus release, but did not affect viral entry, integration, and transcription. We also showed that SLP-76 plays a critical role in cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. Signaling studies revealed that SLP-76 associated with viral negative regulatory factor protein and multiple signaling molecules during HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, SLP-76 facilitated the association of negative regulatory factor and F-actin, suggesting that SLP-76 mediates the formation of a signaling complex that may regulate viral release via cytoskeletal changes. Taken together, our studies demonstrate a novel role for the adaptor molecule SLP-76 in regulating HIV-1 infection in T cells with the potential to develop innovative strategies against HIV-1.

  15. Downregulation of T cell receptor expression by CD8(+) lymphocytes in kidney allografts.

    PubMed Central

    Mannon, R B; Kotzin, B L; Nataraj, C; Ferri, K; Roper, E; Kurlander, R J; Coffman, T M

    1998-01-01

    Allospecific CD8(+) T lymphocytes are an important component of the cellular response in allograft rejection. These cells recognize and engage MHC class I antigens, leading to allospecific cytolytic responses and graft rejection. In mouse kidney allografts that survive to 3 wk after transplantation, we noted that the majority of CD8(+) cells do not express surface alpha/beta T cell receptor alpha/beta(TCR), gamma/deltaTCR, or CD3. However, these CD8(+)TCR- cells did express surface markers characteristic of T cells, including Thy1.2, CD2, and CD5. In addition, the CD8(+)TCR- cells expressed mRNA for TCR Vbeta gene families, and nearly half stained positive for cytoplasmic Vbeta8 protein, suggesting that they are T cells that have downregulated alpha/betaTCR protein expression from their cell surfaces. When these surface TCR- cells were isolated from kidney allografts by flow cytometry and cultured in the presence of either allogeneic or syngeneic stimulators, nearly 100% of cells reacquired normal levels of alpha/betaTCR expression with disproportionate usage of Vbeta8 chains. After recovery of their surface TCR expression, the CD8(+)TCR- population demonstrated strong alloreactivity in culture. These results suggest that the substantial number of CD8(+)TCR- cells found in long-term surviving mouse kidney allografts are alpha/beta-T cells that have downregulated their cell surface expression of TCR. While in other systems this phenotype may identify cells that have engaged antigen, our results indicate that loss of TCR expression by CD8(+) kidney graft-infiltrating cells may not depend on antigen engagement and that elements in the microenvironment of the kidney graft play a key role in this process. Factors that modulate expression of TCR by graft-infiltrating lymphocytes may have an important role in regulating rejection responses. PMID:9616223

  16. Major highlights of the CAR-TCR Summit, Boston, 2016.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Berahovich, Robert; Xu, Shirley; Harto, Hizkia; Wu, Lijun

    2017-01-10

    Cellular immunotherapies such as CAR-T cell therapy and TCR-T cell therapy are relatively new, highly promising approaches for the treatment of cancer. In CAR-T cell therapy, a patient's T cells are engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors targeting tumor-associated cell surface antigens. In TCR-T cell therapy, the patient's T cells are engineered to express receptors targeting intracellular antigens. This report will summarize presentations from the recent CAR-TCR summit in Boston on September 13-16, 2016. These presentations were given by leaders in the field and many were divided into three streams: Discovery and Genetic T Cell Engineering; Translation and Clinical Development; and Manufacturing, Supply Chain and Commercialization. The report summarizes major pharmaceutical companies developing these novel therapies and provides challenges and perspectives for future therapeutic developments.

  17. Transcription factors and target genes of pre-TCR signaling.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, Cristina; Aramburu, Jose; Berga-Bolaños, Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Almost 30 years ago pioneering work by the laboratories of Harald von Boehmer and Susumo Tonegawa provided the first indications that developing thymocytes could assemble a functional TCRβ chain-containing receptor complex, the pre-TCR, before TCRα expression. The discovery and study of the pre-TCR complex revealed paradigms of signaling pathways in control of cell survival and proliferation, and culminated in the recognition of the multifunctional nature of this receptor. As a receptor integrated in a dynamic developmental process, the pre-TCR must be viewed not only in the light of the biological outcomes it promotes, but also in context with those molecular processes that drive its expression in thymocytes. This review article focuses on transcription factors and target genes activated by the pre-TCR to drive its different outcomes.

  18. Immunophenotypic Analysis of the TCR-Vβ Repertoire in 98 Persistent Expansions of CD3+/TCR-αβ+ Large Granular Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Margarida; Almeida, Julia; Santos, Ana Helena; dos Anjos Teixeira, Maria; del Carmen Alguero, Maria; Queirós, Maria Luís; Balanzategui, Ana; Justiça, Benvindo; Gonzalez, Marcos; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Orfão, Alberto

    2001-01-01

    At present, a major challenge in the initial diagnosis of leukemia of large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) is to establish the clonal nature of the expanded population. In the present study we have analyzed by flow cytometry immunophenotyping the TCR-Vβ repertoire of 98 consecutive cases of persistent expansions of CD4+ or CD8+bright CD3+/TCR-αβ+ LGLs and compared the results with those obtained in molecular studies of TCR-β gene rearrangements. Fifty-eight cases were considered to be monoclonal in molecular studies whereas in the remaining 40 cases there was no evidence for monoclonality (11 cases were considered oligoclonal and 29 polyclonal). The TCR-Vβ repertoire was biased to the preferential use of one or more TCR-Vβ families in 96% of cases, a total of 124 TCR-Vβ expansions being diagnosed: one TCR-Vβ expansion in 71 cases and two or more TCR-Vβ expansions in 23 cases. The highest TCR-Vβ expansion observed in each case was higher among monoclonal (74 ± 19%) as compared to nonmonoclonal cases (24 ± 14%) (P = 0.001), as did the fraction of LGLs that exhibited a TCR-Vβ-restricted pattern (86 ± 16% and 42 ± 23%, respectively; P = 0.0001); by contrast, the proportion of cases displaying more than one TCR-Vβ expansion was higher in the latter group: 7% versus 48%, respectively (P = 0.001). Results obtained in oligoclonal cases were intermediate between those obtained in polyclonal and monoclonal cases and similar results were observed for CD4+ as for CD8+bright T-cell expansions. TCR-Vβ familiesexpressed in CD8+bright T-cell-LGL proliferations showed a pattern of distribution that mimics the frequency at which the individual TCR-Vβ families are represented in normal peripheral blood T cells. Assuming that a given proliferation of LGLs is monoclonal whenever there is an expansion of a given TCR-Vβ family of at least 40% of the total CD4+ or CD8+bright T-cell compartment, we were able to predict clonality with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity

  19. TCR engagement induces proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (Pyk2) translocation to the T cell-APC interface independently of Pyk2 activity and in an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-mediated fashion.

    PubMed

    Sancho, David; Montoya, María C; Monjas, Alicia; Gordón-Alonso, Mónica; Katagiri, Takuya; Gil, Diana; Tejedor, Reyes; Alarcón, Balbino; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2002-07-01

    The relocation of kinases in T lymphocytes during their cognate interaction with APCs is essential for lymphocyte activation. We found that the proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (Pyk2) is rapidly translocated to the T cell-APC contact area upon T cell-specific recognition of superantigen-pulsed APCs. Stimulation with anti-CD3-coated latex microspheres was sufficient for Pyk2 reorientation, and the coengagement of CD28 boosted Pyk2 redistribution. Nevertheless, Pyk2 translocation did not result in its recruitment to lipid rafts. Two results support that Pyk2 translocation was independent of its kinase activity. First, Lck activity was required for TCR-induced Pyk2 translocation, but not for TCR-induced Pyk2 activation. Second, a kinase-dead Pyk2 mutant was equally translocated upon TCR triggering. In addition, Lck activity alone was insufficient to induce Pyk2 reorientation and activation, requiring the presence of at least one intact immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). Despite the dependence on functional Lck and on phosphorylated ITAM for Pyk2 translocation, the ITAM-binding tyrosine kinase zeta-associated protein 70 (ZAP-70) was not essential. All these data suggest that, by translocating to the vicinity of the immune synapse, Pyk2 could play an essential role in T cell activation and polarized secretion of cytokines.

  20. The adaptor protein SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L; Stein, Paul L; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-12-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT-cell TCR transgenic mouse model, we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells, but not thymic epithelial cells, meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Furthermore, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development by controlling early growth response 2 protein and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IFN regulatory factor 4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP.

  1. The Adaptor Protein SAP Regulates Type II NKT Cell Development, Cytokine Production and Cytotoxicity Against Lymphoma1

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L.; Stein, Paul L.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-01-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT cell TCR transgenic mouse model (24αβTg), we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells but not thymic epithelial cells meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Further, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT cell development by controlling Egr2 and PLZF expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IRF4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP. PMID:25236978

  2. A 3D microfluidic model for preclinical evaluation of TCR-engineered T cells against solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Anthony T.; Koh, Sarene; Chia, Adeline; Colombo, Marta; Antonecchia, Emanuele; Miccolis, Carlo; Raimondi, Manuela T.; Kamm, Roger D.

    2017-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment imposes physical and functional constraints on the antitumor efficacy of adoptive T cell immunotherapy. Preclinical testing of different T cell preparations can help in the selection of efficient immune therapies, but in vivo models are expensive and cumbersome to develop, while classical in vitro 2D models cannot recapitulate the spatiotemporal dynamics experienced by T cells targeting cancer. Here, we describe an easily customizable 3D model, in which the tumor microenvironment conditions are modulated and the functionality of different T cell preparations is tested. We incorporate human cancer hepatocytes as a single cell or as tumor cell aggregates in a 3D collagen gel region of a microfluidic device. Human T cells engineered to express tumor-specific T cell receptors (TCR–T cells) are then added in adjacent channels. The TCR–T cells’ ability to migrate and kill the tumor target and the profile of soluble factors were investigated under conditions of varying oxygen levels and in the presence of inflammatory cytokines. We show that only the 3D model detects the effect that oxygen levels and the inflammatory environment impose on engineered TCR–T cell function, and we also used the 3D microdevice to analyze the TCR–T cell efficacy in an immunosuppressive scenario. Hence, we show that our microdevice platform enables us to decipher the factors that can alter T cell function in 3D and can serve as a preclinical assay to tailor the most efficient immunotherapy configuration for a specific therapeutic goal. PMID:28614795

  3. The humoral response in TCR alpha-/- mice. Can gammadelta-T cells support the humoral immune response?

    PubMed

    Lindroth, K; Troye-Blomberg, M; Singh, M; Dieli, F; Ivanyi, J; Fernández, C

    2002-03-01

    An optimal humoral response requires T-cell help; however, it has been questioned if this help comes exclusively from alphabeta-T cells or whether gammadelta-T cells also contribute. We have attempted to answer this question by studying the humoral response in T-cell receptor alpha-chain knockout (alpha-/-) mice, which lack the alphabetaT cell subset. Two model antigens were used to characterize the response: the thymus-independent (TI) antigen native dextran B512 (Dx), and the thymus-dependent (TD) antigen heat shock protein (HSP65) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When challenged with Dx, the alpha-/- mice elicited a strong antibody response and formed rudimentary germinal centres (GCs), a T-cell dependent reaction. In contrast, the humoral response to HSP65 was poor. However, alpha-/- mice became primed when challenged with HSP65, because when supplemented with wild-type thymocytes, the antigen-primed animals were able to mount a stronger response than the nonprimed ones when challenged with HSP65. A crucial step seems to be the collaboration between gammadeltaT cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs), as splenocytes from alpha-/- mice were able to respond to HSP65 in an environment containing primed-APCs. Based on these results, we propose a model for B-cell activation in the alpha-/- mice.

  4. Analysis of TCR/CD3 Recycling at the Immune Synapse.

    PubMed

    Patrussi, Laura; Baldari, Cosima T

    2017-01-01

    Engagement of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) by specific ligand bound to the major histocompatibility complex is the primary event that leads to the assembly of the immune synapse (IS). Central to this process is TCR clustering at the T cell-APC contact, which is achieved with the contribution of an endosomal pool that is delivered to the IS by polarized recycling. As the TCR recycling process has not been fully elucidated, we developed methods suitable to quantitate recycling to the plasma membrane of TCR/CD3 complexes that have been engaged at the cell surface and track their traffic through the intracellular vesicular compartments toward the IS.

  5. Constitutive Endocytosis and Degradation of the Pre-T Cell Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Panigada, Maddalena; Porcellini, Simona; Barbier, Eliane; Hoeflinger, Sonja; Cazenave, Pierre-André; Gu, Hua; Band, Hamid; von Boehmer, Harald; Grassi, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    The pre-T cell receptor (TCR) signals constitutively in the absence of putative ligands on thymic stroma and signal transduction correlates with translocation of the pre-TCR into glycolipid-enriched microdomains (rafts) in the plasma membrane. Here, we show that the pre-TCR is constitutively routed to lysosomes after reaching the cell surface. The cell-autonomous down-regulation of the pre-TCR requires activation of the src-like kinase p56lck, actin polymerization, and dynamin. Constitutive signaling and degradation represents a feature of the pre-TCR because the γδTCR expressed in the same cell line does not exhibit these features. This is also evident by the observation that the protein adaptor/ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl is phosphorylated and selectively translocated into rafts in pre-TCR– but not γδTCR-expressing cells. A role of c-Cbl–mediated ubiquitination in pre-TCR degradation is supported by the reduction of degradation through pharmacological inhibition of the proteasome and through a dominant-negative c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase as well as by increased pre-TCR surface expression on immature thymocytes in c-Cbl–deficient mice. The pre-TCR internalization contributes significantly to the low surface level of the receptor on developing T cells, and may in fact be a requirement for optimal pre-TCR function. PMID:12070286

  6. Expression profiling of TCR-engineered T cells demonstrates overexpression of multiple inhibitory receptors in persisting lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Abate-Daga, Daniel; Hanada, Ken-ichi; Davis, Jeremy L.; Yang, James C.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the development of adoptive cell-transfer therapies (ACTs) using gene-engineered T cells, little is known about the fate of cells following infusion. To address that, we performed a comparative analysis of gene expression between T-cell receptor–engineered lymphocytes persisting in the circulation 1 month after administration and the product that was infused. We observed that 156 genes related to immune function were differentially expressed, including underexpression of stimulators of lymphocyte function and overexpression of inhibitory genes in postinfusion cells. Of genes overexpressed postinfusion, the product of programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1), coinhibitory receptor PD-1, was expressed at a higher percentage in postinfusion lymphocytes than in the infusion product. This was associated with a higher sensitivity to inhibition of cytokine production by interaction with its ligand PD-L1. Coinhibitory receptor CD160 was also overexpressed in persisting cells, and its expression was associated with decreased reactivity, which surprisingly was found to be ligand-independent. These results contribute to a deeper understanding of the properties of transgenic lymphocytes used to treat human malignancies and may provide a rationale for the development of combination therapies as a method to improve ACT. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00509288, #NCT00923195, and #NCT01273181. PMID:23861247

  7. HLA-DQ beta chain can present mouse endogenous provirus MTV-9 product and clonally delete Tcr V beta 5+ and V beta 11+ T cells in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, P; Smart, M K; Cheng, S; Savarirayan, S; Inoko, H; David, C S

    1992-01-01

    The elusive Mls gene(s) are mouse mammary tumor virus genes. The endogenous cotolerogen involved in the clonal deletion of Tcr V beta 5.1, 5.2, and 11 in H-2E+ mouse strains has been narrowed down to MTV-9. We demonstrate that similar to H-2E alpha molecules, human DQw6 beta chain mediated clonal deletion of Tcr V beta 5.1, 5.2, and 11 also requires the MTV-9 gene product. This shows that human class II molecules can present mouse retroviral antigen. Further, backcross analysis involving [B10.M(DQb) x DBA/1] suggest a second cotolerogen in the B10.M background in the clonal deletion of V beta 5-bearing T cells.

  8. In vitro generation of tumor specific T cells that recognize a shared antigen of AML: molecular characterization of TCR genes.

    PubMed

    Coppage, Myra; Belanger, Todd; Zauderer, Maurice; Sahasrabudhe, Deepak

    2007-02-01

    The identification of immunologically relevant tumor antigens is hampered by the difficulty of generating tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL). We present data demonstrating in vitro induction of autologous acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)-specific CTL. The specific T cell receptor has been identified and cloned. The CTL demonstrated specific lysis to autologous tumor blasts, but not to autologous BLCL or the NK-sensitive target K562. The clone secreted GM-CSF, TNFa, and IFNg when stimulated with AML blasts from 3 of 11 patients or cell lines tested, but not with K562 or autologous B-LCL. These three AML samples share a single HLA Class I antigen, HLA-A24. The T cell receptor genes identified by molecular methods are Vbeta7.9-J2.3-Cbeta2 and Valpha17-J49-Calpha.

  9. TCR-Like Biomolecules Target Peptide/MHC Class I Complexes on the Surface of Infected and Cancerous Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weidanz, Jon A.; Hawkins, Oriana; Verma, Bhavna; Hildebrand, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The human leukocyte antigen (HLA; also called major histocompatibility, or MHC) class I system presents peptides that distinguish healthy from diseased cells. Therefore, the discovery of peptide/MHC class I markers can provide highly specific targets for immunotherapy. Over the course of almost two decades, various strategies have been used, with mixed success, to produce antibodies that have recognition specificity for unique peptide/MHC class I complexes that mark infected and cancerous cells. Using these antibody reagents, novel peptide/MHC class I targets have been directly validated on diseased cells and new insight has been gained into the mechanisms of antigen presentation. More recently, these antibodies have shown promise for clinical applications such as therapeutic targeting of cancerous and infected cells and diagnosis and imaging of diseased cells. In this review, we comprehensively describe the methods used to identify disease-specific peptide/MHC class I epitopes and generate antibodies to these markers. Finally, we offer several examples that illustrate the promise of using these antibodies as anti-cancer agents. PMID:22053972

  10. Macroautophagy regulates energy metabolism during effector T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Vanessa M; Valdor, Rut; Patel, Bindi; Singh, Rajat; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Macian, Fernando

    2010-12-15

    Macroautophagy is a highly conserved mechanism of lysosomal-mediated protein degradation that plays a key role in maintaining cellular homeostasis by recycling amino acids, reducing the amount of damaged proteins, and regulating protein levels in response to extracellular signals. We have found that macroautophagy is induced after effector T cell activation. Engagement of the TCR and CD28 results in enhanced microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) processing, increased numbers of LC3-containing vesicles, and increased LC3 flux, indicating active autophagosome formation and clearance. The autophagosomes formed in stimulated T cells actively fuse with lysosomes to degrade their cargo. Using a conditional KO mouse model where Atg7, a critical gene for macroautophagy, is specifically deleted in T cells, we have found that macroautophagy-deficient effector Th cells have defective IL-2 and IFN-γ production and reduced proliferation after stimulation, with no significant increase in apoptosis. We have found that ATP generation is decreased when autophagy is blocked, and defects in activation-induced cytokine production are restored when an exogenous energy source is added to macroautophagy-deficient T cells. Furthermore, we present evidence showing that the nature of the cargo inside autophagic vesicles found in resting T cells differs from the cargo of autophagosomes in activated T cells, where mitochondria and other organelles are selectively excluded. These results suggest that macroautophagy is an actively regulated process in T cells that can be induced in response to TCR engagement to accommodate the bioenergetic requirements of activated T cells.

  11. Functional evidence for TCR-intrinsic specificity for MHCII.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Heather L; Deshpande, Neha R; Vasic, Jelena; Kuhns, Michael S

    2016-03-15

    How T cells become restricted to binding antigenic peptides within class I or class II major histocompatibility complex molecules (pMHCI or pMHCII, respectively) via clonotypic T-cell receptors (TCRs) remains debated. During development, if TCR-pMHC interactions exceed an affinity threshold, a signal is generated that positively selects the thymocyte to become a mature CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cell that can recognize foreign peptides within MHCII or MHCI, respectively. But whether TCRs possess an intrinsic, subthreshold specificity for MHC that facilitates sampling of the peptides within MHC during positive selection or T-cell activation is undefined. Here we asked if increasing the frequency of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck)-associated CD4 molecules in T-cell hybridomas would allow for the detection of subthreshold TCR-MHC interactions. The reactivity of 10 distinct TCRs was assessed in response to selecting and nonselecting MHCII bearing cognate, null, or "shaved" peptides with alanine substitutions at known TCR contact residues: Three of the TCRs were selected on MHCII and have defined peptide specificity, two were selected on MHCI and have a known pMHC specificity, and five were generated in vitro without defined selecting or cognate pMHC. Our central finding is that IL-2 was made when each TCR interacted with selecting or nonselecting MHCII presenting shaved peptides. These responses were abrogated by anti-CD4 antibodies and mutagenesis of CD4. They were also inhibited by anti-MHC antibodies that block TCR-MHCII interactions. We interpret these data as functional evidence for TCR-intrinsic specificity for MHCII.

  12. Impaired functional responses in follicular lymphoma CD8(+)TIM-3(+) T lymphocytes following TCR engagement.

    PubMed

    Gravelle, Pauline; Do, Catherine; Franchet, Camille; Mueller, Sabina; Oberic, Lucie; Ysebaert, Loïc; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Hohaus, Stefan; Calmels, Marie-Noëlle; Frenois, François-Xavier; Kridel, Robert; Gascoyne, Randy D; Laurent, Guy; Brousset, Pierre; Valitutti, Salvatore; Laurent, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Upregulation of T cell immunoglobulin-3 (TIM-3) has been associated with negative regulation of the immune response in chronic infection and cancer, including lymphoma. Here, we investigated the possible correlation between TIM-3 expression by ex vivo cytotoxic T cells (CTL) from follicular lymphoma (FL) biopsies and their functional unresponsiveness that could limit the favorable impact of CTL on disease progression. We report a high percentage of CD8(+)TIM-3(+)T cells in lymph nodes of FL patients. When compared to their CD8(+)TIM-3(-) counterparts, CD8(+)TIM-3(+) T cells exhibited defective cytokine production following TCR engagement. Furthermore, CD8(+)TIM-3(+) T cells display ex vivo markers of lytic granule release and remain unresponsive to further TCR-induced activation of the lytic machinery. Although confocal microscopy showed that TIM-3 expression on CD8(+) T cells correlated with minor alterations of immunological synapse, a selective reduction of ERK signaling in CD8(+)TIM-3(+)T cells was observed by phospho-flow analysis. Finally, short relapse-free survival despite rituximab(R)-chemotherapy was observed in patients with high content of TIM-3(+) cells and a poor infiltrate of granzyme B(+) T cells in FL lymph nodes. Together, our data indicate that, besides selective TCR early signaling defects, TIM-3 expression correlates with unresponsiveness of ex vivo CD8(+) T cells in FL. They show that scores based on the combination of exhaustion and cytolytic markers in FL microenvironment might be instrumental to identify patients at early risk of relapses following R-chemotherapy.

  13. Transcriptional regulation of kinases downstream of the T cell receptor: another immunomodulatory mechanism of glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoids affect peripheral immune responses, including modulation of T-cell activation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The quantity and quality of T-cell receptor (TCR)-triggered intracellular signals modulate T-cell function. Thus, glucocorticoids may affect T cells by interfering with the TCR signaling cascade. The purpose of the study was to search for glucocorticoid-modulated kinases downstream of the TCR. Methods Gene modulation in lymphoid cells either treated with glucocorticoids or from glucocorticoid-treated mice was studied using a RNase protection assay, real-time PCR, and western blotting. The sensitivity of genetically modified thymocytes to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis was studied by performing hypotonic propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. The Student’s t-test was employed for statistical evaluation. Results We found that transcription of Itk, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase of the Tec family, was up-regulated in a mouse T-cell hybridoma by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. In contrast, dexamethasone down-regulated the expression of Txk, a Tec kinase that functions redundantly with Itk, and Lck, the Src kinase immediately downstream of the TCR. We investigated the expression of Itk, Txk, and Lck in thymocytes and mature lymphocytes following in vitro and in vivo dexamethasone treatment at different time points and doses. Kinase expression was differentially modulated and followed distinct kinetics. Itk was up-regulated in all cell types and conditions tested. Txk was strongly up-regulated in mature lymphocytes but only weakly up-regulated or non-modulated in thymocytes in vitro or in vivo, respectively. Conversely, Lck was down-regulated in thymocytes, but not modulated or up-regulated in mature lymphocytes in the different experimental conditions. This complex behaviour correlates with the presence of both positive and negative glucocorticoid responsive elements (GRE and nGRE, respectively) in the Itk, Txk

  14. A sharp T-cell antigen receptor signaling threshold for T-cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Au-Yeung, Byron B.; Zikherman, Julie; Mueller, James L.; Ashouri, Judith F.; Matloubian, Mehrdad; Cheng, Debra A.; Chen, Yiling; Shokat, Kevan M.; Weiss, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling is essential for activation, proliferation, and effector function of T cells. Modulation of both intensity and duration of TCR signaling can regulate these events. However, it remains unclear how individual T cells integrate such signals over time to make critical cell-fate decisions. We have previously developed an engineered mutant allele of the critical T-cell kinase zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 kDa (Zap70) that is catalytically inhibited by a small molecule inhibitor, thereby blocking TCR signaling specifically and efficiently. We have also characterized a fluorescent reporter Nur77–eGFP transgenic mouse line in which T cells up-regulate GFP uniquely in response to TCR stimulation. The combination of these technologies unmasked a sharp TCR signaling threshold for commitment to cell division both in vitro and in vivo. Further, we demonstrate that this threshold is independent of both the magnitude of the TCR stimulus and Interleukin 2. Similarly, we identify a temporal threshold of TCR signaling that is required for commitment to proliferation, after which T cells are able to proliferate in a Zap70 kinase-independent manner. Taken together, our studies reveal a sharp threshold for the magnitude and duration of TCR signaling required for commitment of T cells to proliferation. These results have important implications for understanding T-cell responses to infection and optimizing strategies for immunomodulatory drug delivery. PMID:25136127

  15. Human CD45RA(-) FoxP3(hi) Memory-Type Regulatory T Cells Show Distinct TCR Repertoires With Conventional T Cells and Play an Important Role in Controlling Early Immune Activation.

    PubMed

    Lei, H; Kuchenbecker, L; Streitz, M; Sawitzki, B; Vogt, K; Landwehr-Kenzel, S; Millward, J; Juelke, K; Babel, N; Neumann, A; Reinke, P; Volk, H-D

    2015-10-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy with regulatory T cells (Treg) is a new option to promote immune tolerance following solid organ transplantation (SOT). However, Treg from elderly patients awaiting transplantation are dominated by the CD45RA(-) CD62L(+) central memory type Treg subset (TregCM), and the yield of well-characterized and stable naïve Treg (TregN) is low. It is, therefore, important to determine whether these TregCM are derived from the thymus and express high stability, suppressive capacity and a broad antigen repertoire like TregN. In this study, we showed that TregCM use a different T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire from conventional T cells (Tconv), using next-generation sequencing of all 24 Vβ families, with an average depth of 534 677 sequences. This showed almost no contamination with induced Treg. Furthermore, TregCM showed enhanced suppressive activity on Tconv at early checkpoints of immune activation controlling activation markers expression and cytokine secretion, but comparable inhibition of proliferation. Following in vitro expansion under mTOR inhibition, TregCM expanded equally as well as TregN without losing their function. Despite relatively limited TCR repertoire, TregCM also showed specific alloresponse, although slightly reduced compared to TregN. These results support the therapeutic usefulness of manufacturing Treg products from CD45RA(-) CD62L(+) Treg-enriched starting material to be applied for adoptive Treg therapy. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  16. TCR/pMHC Optimized Protein crystallization Screen

    PubMed Central

    Bulek, Anna M.; Madura, Florian; Fuller, Anna; Holland, Christopher J.; Schauenburg, Andrea J.A.; Sewell, Andrew K.; Rizkallah, Pierre J.; Cole, David K.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between the clonotypic αβ T cell receptor (TCR), expressed on the T cell surface, and peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules, expressed on the target cell surface, governs T cell mediated autoimmunity and immunity against pathogens and cancer. Structural investigations of this interaction have been limited because of the challenges inherent in the production of good quality TCR/pMHC protein crystals. Here, we report the development of an ‘intelligently designed’ crystallization screen that reproducibly generates high quality TCR/pMHC complex crystals suitable for X-ray crystallographic studies, thereby reducing protein consumption. Over the last 2 years, we have implemented this screen to produce 32 T cell related protein structures at high resolution, substantially contributing to the current immune protein database. Protein crystallography, used to study this interaction, has already extended our understanding of the molecular rules that govern T cell immunity. Subsequently, these data may help to guide the intelligent design of T cell based therapies that target human diseases, underlining the importance of developing optimized approaches for crystallizing novel TCR/pMHC complexes. PMID:22705983

  17. D120 and K152 within the PH Domain of T Cell Adapter SKAP55 Regulate Plasma Membrane Targeting of SKAP55 and LFA-1 Affinity Modulation in Human T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Witte, Amelie; Meineke, Bernhard; Sticht, Jana; Philipsen, Lars; Kuropka, Benno; Müller, Andreas J; Freund, Christian; Schraven, Burkhart; Kliche, Stefanie

    2017-04-01

    The β2-integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is needed for the T cell receptor (TCR)-induced activation of LFA-1 to promote T cell adhesion and interaction with antigen-presenting cells (APCs). LFA-1-mediated cell-cell interactions are critical for proper T cell differentiation and proliferation. The Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein of 55 kDa (SKAP55) is a key regulator of TCR-mediated LFA-1 signaling (inside-out/outside-in signaling). To gain an understanding of how SKAP55 controls TCR-mediated LFA-1 activation, we assessed the functional role of its pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. We identified two critical amino acid residues within the PH domain of SKAP55, aspartic acid 120 (D120) and lysine 152 (K152). D120 facilitates the retention of SKAP55 in the cytoplasm of nonstimulated T cells, while K152 promotes SKAP55 membrane recruitment via actin binding upon TCR triggering. Importantly, the K152-dependent interaction of the PH domain with actin promotes the binding of talin to LFA-1, thus facilitating LFA-1 activation. These data suggest that K152 and D120 within the PH domain of SKAP55 regulate plasma membrane targeting and TCR-mediated activation of LFA-1.

  18. Age-related decrease in TCR repertoire diversity measured with deep and normalized sequence profiling.

    PubMed

    Britanova, Olga V; Putintseva, Ekaterina V; Shugay, Mikhail; Merzlyak, Ekaterina M; Turchaninova, Maria A; Staroverov, Dmitriy B; Bolotin, Dmitriy A; Lukyanov, Sergey; Bogdanova, Ekaterina A; Mamedov, Ilgar Z; Lebedev, Yuriy B; Chudakov, Dmitriy M

    2014-03-15

    The decrease of TCR diversity with aging has never been studied by direct methods. In this study, we combined high-throughput Illumina sequencing with unique cDNA molecular identifier technology to achieve deep and precisely normalized profiling of TCR β repertoires in 39 healthy donors aged 6-90 y. We demonstrate that TCR β diversity per 10(6) T cells decreases roughly linearly with age, with significant reduction already apparent by age 40. The percentage of naive T cells showed a strong correlation with measured TCR diversity and decreased linearly up to age 70. Remarkably, the oldest group (average age 82 y) was characterized by a higher percentage of naive CD4(+) T cells, lower abundance of expanded clones, and increased TCR diversity compared with the previous age group (average age 62 y), suggesting the influence of age selection and association of these three related parameters with longevity. Interestingly, cross-analysis of individual TCR β repertoires revealed a set >10,000 of the most representative public TCR β clonotypes, whose abundance among the top 100,000 clones correlated with TCR diversity and decreased with aging.

  19. Role of appendix in the development of inflammatory bowel disease in TCR-alpha mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    T cell receptor-alpha mutant mice (TCR-alpha-/-), created by gene targeting of the TCR-alpha gene in embryonic stem cells, spontaneously develop inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) resembling human ulcerative colitis. Since gut-associated lymphoid tissue is likely to play an important role in the development of chronic intestinal inflammation, we examined the changes in the appendix lymphoid follicle (ALF) and Peyer's patches (PP) in these mice. We found the structure of the ALF to be remarkably similar to that of the PP in the small intestine; in both instances, lymphoid follicles covered by surface epithelium (dome- formation) were found. The amount of proliferation in the lymphoid follicles of the appendix estimated by in vivo incorporation of 5-bromo- 2'deoxyuridine was more than two times that of PP in TCR-alpha-/- mice. ELISPOT assay showed an increase of IgA, IgG1, and IgG2a, but not IgM- secreting B cells in ALF of TCR-alpha-/- mice compared to TCR-alpha+/- control mice. Furthermore, TCR-alpha-/- mice revealed an increase of autoantibody-producing B cells against the cytoskeletal protein tropomyosin in ALF as compared to PP. When TCR-alpha-/- mice underwent appendectomy at a young age (3-5 wk), the number of mesenteric lymph nodes cells at 6-7 mo were markedly less than in the sham-operated TCR- alpha-/- mice. Furthermore, appendectomy at 1 mo of age suppressed the development of IBD, with only 3.3% of these mice developing IBD in the 6-7-mo period of observation. In contrast, approximately 80% of controls, including the sham-operated TCR-alpha-/- mice, developed IBD during this period. These results suggest that ALF, rather than PP, is the priming site of cells involved in the disease process and plays an important role in the development of IBD in TCR-alpha-/- mice. PMID:8760824

  20. Intraepithelial TcR alpha/beta+ lymphocytes express CD45RO more often than the TcR gamma/delta+ counterparts in coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Halstensen, T S; Farstad, I N; Scott, H; Fausa, O; Brandtzaeg, P

    1990-01-01

    Expression of CD45RO on intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) bearing the T-cell receptor (TcR) alpha/beta or gamma/delta was studied in situ by three-colour immunofluorescence on jejunal tissue sections from 21 patients with coeliac disease and eight controls. CD45RA-TcR alpha/beta+ IEL expressed CD45RO significantly more often (75%) than the preferentially expanded TcR gamma/delta+ counterpart (59%). Triple staining for CD3, CD4/8 and CD45RA or CD45RB revealed that all CD3 + 4 - 8 - IEL (taken to be TcR gamma/delta+) expressed CD45RB and none were CD45RA. CD45RO positivity was of the same magnitude (66%) on the predominating monoclonal antibody delta TCS1-reactive fraction of TcR gamma/delta+ cells as on the remainder of the TcR gamma/delta+ subset. These results suggest that gluten exposition in patients with coeliac disease leads to accumulation of CD45RA-, putative antigen-primed memory cells of both TcR phenotypes. The less marked CD45RO expression within the preferentially expanded TcR gamma/delta+ subset of IEL may be of particular biological interest. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5.(a) Figure 5.(b) PMID:2149120

  1. NCAM regulates cell motility.

    PubMed

    Prag, Søren; Lepekhin, Eugene A; Kolkova, Kateryna; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Kawa, Anna; Walmod, Peter S; Belman, Vadym; Gallagher, Helen C; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth; Pedersen, Nina

    2002-01-15

    Cell migration is required during development of the nervous system. The regulatory mechanisms for this process, however, are poorly elucidated. We show here that expression of or exposure to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) strongly affected the motile behaviour of glioma cells independently of homophilic NCAM interactions. Expression of the transmembrane 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (NCAM-140) caused a significant reduction in cellular motility, probably through interference with factors regulating cellular attachment, as NCAM-140-expressing cells exhibited a decreased attachment to a fibronectin substratum compared with NCAM-negative cells. Ectopic expression of the cytoplasmic part of NCAM-140 also inhibited cell motility, presumably via the non-receptor tyrosine kinase p59(fyn) with which NCAM-140 interacts. Furthermore, we showed that the extracellular part of NCAM acted as a paracrine inhibitor of NCAM-negative cell locomotion through a heterophilic interaction with a cell-surface receptor. As we showed that the two N-terminal immunoglobulin modules of NCAM, which are known to bind to heparin, were responsible for this inhibition, we presume that this receptor is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. A model for the inhibitory effect of NCAM is proposed, which involves competition between NCAM and extracellular components for the binding to membrane-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan.

  2. Commitment of Immature CD4+8+ Thymocytes to the CD4 Lineage Requires CD3 Signaling but Does Not Require Expression of Clonotypic T Cell Receptor (TCR) Chains

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Harumi; Shinkai, Yoichi; Granger, Lawrence G.; Alt, Frederick W.; Love, Paul E.; Singer, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    As a consequence of positive selection in the thymus, immature CD4+8+ double-positive, [DP] thymocytes selectively terminate synthesis of one coreceptor molecule and, as a result, differentiate into either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. The decision by individual DP thymocytes to terminate synthesis of one or the other coreceptor molecule is referred to as lineage commitment. Previously, we reported that the intrathymic signals that induced commitment to the CD4 versus CD8 T cell lineages were markedly asymmetric. Notably, CD8 commitment appeared to require lineage-specific signals, whereas CD4 commitment appeared to occur in the absence of lineage-specific signals by default. Consequently, it was unclear whether CD4 commitment, as revealed by selective termination of CD8 coreceptor synthesis, occurred in all DP thymocytes, or whether CD4 commitment occurred only in T cell receptor (TCR)–CD3-signaled DP thymocytes. Here, we report that selective termination of CD8 coreceptor synthesis does not occur in DP thymocytes spontaneously. Rather, CD4 commitment in DP thymocytes requires signals transduced by either CD3 or ζ chains, which can signal CD4 commitment even in the absence of clonotypic TCR chains. PMID:9206993

  3. Pre-T Cell Receptors (Pre-TCRs) Leverage Vβ Complementarity Determining Regions (CDRs) and Hydrophobic Patch in Mechanosensing Thymic Self-ligands.

    PubMed

    Das, Dibyendu Kumar; Mallis, Robert J; Duke-Cohan, Jonathan S; Hussey, Rebecca E; Tetteh, Paul W; Hilton, Mark; Wagner, Gerhard; Lang, Matthew J; Reinherz, Ellis L

    2016-12-02

    The pre-T cell receptor (pre-TCR) is a pTα-β heterodimer functioning in early αβ T cell development. Although once thought to be ligand-autonomous, recent studies show that pre-TCRs participate in thymic repertoire formation through recognition of peptides bound to major histocompatibility molecules (pMHC). Using optical tweezers, we probe pre-TCR bonding with pMHC at the single molecule level. Like the αβTCR, the pre-TCR is a mechanosensor undergoing force-based structural transitions that dynamically enhance bond lifetimes and exploiting allosteric control regulated via the Cβ FG loop region. The pre-TCR structural transitions exhibit greater reversibility than TCRαβ and ordered force-bond lifetime curves. Higher piconewton force requires binding through both complementarity determining region loops and hydrophobic Vβ patch apposition. This patch functions in the pre-TCR as a surrogate Vα domain, fostering ligand promiscuity to favor development of β chains with self-reactivity but is occluded by α subunit replacement of pTα upon αβTCR formation. At the double negative 3 thymocyte stage where the pre-TCR is first expressed, pre-TCR interaction with self-pMHC ligands imparts growth and survival advantages as revealed in thymic stromal cultures, imprinting fundamental self-reactivity in the T cell repertoire. Collectively, our data imply the existence of sequential mechanosensor αβTCR repertoire tuning via the pre-TCR.

  4. Dissecting the two models of TCR structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Melvin

    2016-08-01

    There are only two comprehensive models attempting to account for the TCR structure-function relationships, referred to as the Standard or Centric model (Model I) and the Tritope model (Model II). This essay is written to analyze comparatively the two formulations of restrictive reactivity, stressing in particular the logic of each. Model I is essentially built on an analogy between the TCR and the BCR. Given a TCR with only one combining site (paratope), restrictive recognition requires that its ligand be viewed as a composite structure between the peptide and restricting element. It is this relationship that entrains a set of correlates that makes Model I untenable. Model II is predicated on the postulate that the recognition of the allele-specific determinants expressed by MHC-encoded restricting elements (R) is germline encoded and selected, whereas the recognition of peptide (P) is somatically encoded and selected. These selective pressures must operate on definable structures and this, in turn, necessitates a multiply recognitive T cell antigen receptor (TCR) with independent anti-R and anti-P paratopes that function coherently to signal restrictive reactivity. The consequences of this "two repertoire" postulate give us a concept of TCR structure quite distinct from that at present generally accepted, as well as a surprising relationship between numbers of functional TCR V gene segments and allele-specific determinants in the species. In the end, both models must deal with the relationship between the epitope-paratope interaction(s) and the signals to the T cell necessary for its differentiation and function.

  5. Cell Proliferation, Cell Death, and Size Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    Cell Death , and Size Regulation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nicholas E. Baker, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cell Proliferation, Cell Death , and Size Regulation DAMD17-97-1-7034 6. AUTHOR(S) Nicholas E. Baker, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING...Contains unpublished data 5 CELL PROLIFERATION, CELL DEATH , AND SIZE REGULATION INTRODUCTION Cell proliferation and cell death come to attention through

  6. The Adaptor Molecule SAP Regulates IFNγ and IL-4 Production in Vα14 Transgenic NKT cells via Effects on GATA-3 and T-bet Expression1

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Osman; Ueda, Aki; Guzman, Laura; Jain, Jimmy; Bassiri, Hamid; Nichols, Kim E.; Stein, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    NKT cells comprise a rare regulatory T cell population of limited TCR diversity, with most cells utilizing a Vα14Jα18 TCR. These cells exhibit a critical dependence on the signaling adapter molecule SAP for their ontogeny, an aspect not seen in conventional αβ T cells. Prior studies demonstrate that SAP enhances TCR-induced activation of NF-kB in CD4+ T cells. Since NF-kB is required for NKT cell development, SAP might promote the ontogeny of this lineage by signaling to NF-kB. In this report, we demonstrate that forced expression of the NF-kB target gene, Bcl-xL, or IKKβ, a catalytic subunit of the IkB kinase complex essential for NF-kB activation, fails to restore NKT cell development in sap−/− mice, suggesting that SAP mediates NKT cell development independently of NF-kB. To examine the role of SAP in NKT cell function, we generated NKT cells in sap−/− mice by expressing a transgene encoding the Vα14Jα18 component of the invariant TCR. These cells bound α-GalCer loaded CD1d tetramers, but exhibited a very immature CD24+NK1.1- phenotype. While sap−/− tetramer-reactive cells proliferated in response to TCR activation, they did not produce appreciable levels of IL-4 or IFN-γ. The reduction in cytokine production correlated with the near absence of GATA-3 and T-bet, key transcription factors regulating cytokine expression and maturation of NKT cells. Ectopic expression of GATA-3 partially restored IL-4 production by the NKT cells. Collectively these data suggest that by promoting GATA3 and T-bet expression, SAP exerts control over NKT cell development and mature NKT cell cytokine production. PMID:19155483

  7. T Cell Receptor Signaling in the Control of Regulatory T Cell Differentiation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming O.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (TReg cells), a specialized T cell lineage, have a pivotal function in the control of self-tolerance and inflammatory responses. Recent studies have revealed a discrete mode of TCR signaling that regulates Treg cell differentiation, maintenance and function and that impacts on gene expression, metabolism, cell adhesion and migration of these cells. Here, we discuss the emerging understanding of TCR-guided differentiation of Treg cells in the context of their function in health and disease. PMID:27026074

  8. The small GTPase Rab8 interacts with VAMP-3 to regulate the delivery of recycling T-cell receptors to the immune synapse.

    PubMed

    Finetti, Francesca; Patrussi, Laura; Galgano, Donatella; Cassioli, Chiara; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Pazour, Gregory J; Baldari, Cosima T

    2015-07-15

    IFT20, a component of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system that controls ciliogenesis, regulates immune synapse assembly in the non-ciliated T-cell by promoting T-cell receptor (TCR) recycling. Here, we have addressed the role of Rab8 (for which there are two isoforms Rab8a and Rab8b), a small GTPase implicated in ciliogenesis, in TCR traffic to the immune synapse. We show that Rab8, which colocalizes with IFT20 in Rab11(+) endosomes, is required for TCR recycling. Interestingly, as opposed to in IFT20-deficient T-cells, TCR(+) endosomes polarized normally beneath the immune synapse membrane in the presence of dominant-negative Rab8, but were unable to undergo the final docking or fusion step. This could be accounted for by the inability of the vesicular (v)-SNARE VAMP-3 to cluster at the immune synapse in the absence of functional Rab8, which is responsible for its recruitment. Of note, and similar to in T-cells, VAMP-3 interacts with Rab8 at the base of the cilium in NIH-3T3 cells, where it regulates ciliary growth and targeting of the protein smoothened. The results identify Rab8 as a new player in vesicular traffic to the immune synapse and provide insight into the pathways co-opted by different cell types for immune synapse assembly and ciliogenesis.

  9. The small GTPase Rab8 interacts with VAMP-3 to regulate the delivery of recycling T-cell receptors to the immune synapse

    PubMed Central

    Finetti, Francesca; Patrussi, Laura; Galgano, Donatella; Cassioli, Chiara; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Pazour, Gregory J.; Baldari, Cosima T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT IFT20, a component of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system that controls ciliogenesis, regulates immune synapse assembly in the non-ciliated T-cell by promoting T-cell receptor (TCR) recycling. Here, we have addressed the role of Rab8 (for which there are two isoforms Rab8a and Rab8b), a small GTPase implicated in ciliogenesis, in TCR traffic to the immune synapse. We show that Rab8, which colocalizes with IFT20 in Rab11+ endosomes, is required for TCR recycling. Interestingly, as opposed to in IFT20-deficient T-cells, TCR+ endosomes polarized normally beneath the immune synapse membrane in the presence of dominant-negative Rab8, but were unable to undergo the final docking or fusion step. This could be accounted for by the inability of the vesicular (v)-SNARE VAMP-3 to cluster at the immune synapse in the absence of functional Rab8, which is responsible for its recruitment. Of note, and similar to in T-cells, VAMP-3 interacts with Rab8 at the base of the cilium in NIH-3T3 cells, where it regulates ciliary growth and targeting of the protein smoothened. The results identify Rab8 as a new player in vesicular traffic to the immune synapse and provide insight into the pathways co-opted by different cell types for immune synapse assembly and ciliogenesis. PMID:26034069

  10. Stage and Tissue Specific Expression of Four TCR Subunits in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Mee; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Noh, Jae Koo; Kim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choul-Ji; Park, Jong-Won; Hwang, In Joon; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2013-12-01

    TCR subunits are members of membrane-bound receptors which allow the fast and efficient elimination of the specific fish pathogens have regulated function in adaptive immunity. Sequence structure of TCR subunits have been reported for various teleosts, but the information of each TCR subunit functional characterization through expression analysis in fish was unknown. In this study, we examined the gene expression of TCR subunits in the early developmental stages and observed transcript levels in various tissues from healthy adult olive flounder by RT-PCR. The mRNA expression of alpha subunit was already detected in the previous hatching step. But the transcripts of another TCR subunit were not observed during embryo development and increased after hatching and maintained until metamorphosis at the same level. It was found that all TCR subunits mRNAs are commonly expressed in the immune-related organ such as spleen, kidney and gill, also weak expressed in fin and eye. TCR alpha and beta subunit were expressed in brain, whereas gamma and delta were not expressed same tissue. The sequence alignment analysis shows that there are more than 80% sequence homology between TCR subunits. Because it has a high similarity of amino acid sequence to expect similar in function, but expression analysis show that will have may functional diversity due to different time and place of expression.

  11. Graded levels of IRF4 regulate CD8+ T cell differentiation and expansion, but not attrition, in response to acute virus infection1

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Ribhu; Schutten, Elizabeth; Bautista, Bianca; Daniels, Keith; Prince, Amanda L.; Enos, Megan; Brehm, Michael A.; Swain, Susan L.; Welsh, Raymond M.; Berg, Leslie J.

    2014-01-01

    In response to acute virus infections, CD8+ T cells differentiate to form a large population of short-lived effectors and a stable pool of long-lived memory cells. The characteristics of the CD8+ T cell response are influenced by TCR affinity, antigen dose, and the inflammatory cytokine milieu dictated by the infection. To address the mechanism by which differences in TCR signal strength could regulate CD8+ T cell differentiation, we investigated the transcription factor, IRF4. We show that IRF4 is transiently upregulated to differing levels in murine CD8+ T cells, based on the strength of TCR signaling. In turn, IRF4 controls the magnitude of the CD8+ T cell response to acute virus infection in a dose-dependent manner. Modest differences in IRF4 expression dramatically influence the numbers of short-lived effector cells at the peak of the infection, but have no impact on the kinetics of the infection or on the rate of T cell contraction. Further, the expression of key transcription factors such as TCF1 and Eomes are highly sensitive to graded levels of IRF4. In contrast, T-bet expression is less dependent on IRF4 levels, and is influenced by the nature of the infection. These data indicate that IRF4 is a key component that translates the strength of TCR signaling into a graded response of virus-specific CD8+ T cells. PMID:24835398

  12. Evidence for a functional sidedness to the αβTCR

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Michael S.; Girvin, Andrew T.; Klein, Lawrence O.; Chen, Rebecca; Jensen, Kirk D.C.; Newell, Evan W.; Huppa, Johannes B.; Lillemeier, Björn F.; Huse, Morgan; Chien, Yueh-hsiu; Garcia, K. Christopher; Davis, Mark M.

    2010-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR) and associated CD3γε, δε, and ζζ signaling dimers allow T cells to discriminate between different antigens and respond accordingly, but our knowledge of how these parts fit and work together is incomplete. In this study, we provide additional evidence that the CD3 heterodimers congregate on one side of the TCR in both the αβ and γδTCR-CD3 complexes. We also report that the other side of the αβTCR mediates homotypic αβTCR interactions and signaling. Specifically, an erythropoietin receptor-based dimerization assay was used to show that, upon complex assembly, the CD3ε chains of two CD3 heterodimers are arranged side-by-side in both the αβ and γδTCR-CD3 complexes. This system was also used to show that αβTCRs can dimerize in the cell membrane and that mutating the unusual outer strands of the Cα domain impairs this dimerization. Finally, we present data showing that, for CD4 T cells, the mutations that impair αβTCR dimerization also alter ligand-induced calcium mobilization, TCR accumulation at the site of pMHC contact, and polarization toward the site of antigen contact. These data reveal a “functional-sidedness” to the αβTCR constant region, with dimerization occurring on the side of the TCR opposite from where the CD3 heterodimers are located. PMID:20202921

  13. MERTK as negative regulator of human T cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Cabezón, Raquel; Carrera-Silva, E. Antonio; Flórez-Grau, Georgina; Errasti, Andrea E.; Calderón-Gómez, Elisabeth; Lozano, Juan José; España, Carolina; Ricart, Elena; Panés, Julián; Rothlin, Carla Vanina; Benítez-Ribas, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis whether MERTK, which is up-regulated in human DCs treated with immunosuppressive agents, is directly involved in modulating T cell activation. MERTK is a member of the TAM family and contributes to regulating innate immune response to ACs by inhibiting DC activation in animal models. However, whether MERTK interacts directly with T cells has not been addressed. Here, we show that MERTK is highly expressed on dex-induced human tol-DCs and participates in their tolerogenic effect. Neutralization of MERTK in allogenic MLR, as well as autologous DC–T cell cultures, leads to increased T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production. Additionally, we identify a previously unrecognized noncell-autonomous regulatory function of MERTK expressed on DCs. Mer-Fc protein, used to mimic MERTK on DCs, suppresses naïve and antigen-specific memory T cell activation. This mechanism is mediated by the neutralization of the MERTK ligand PROS1. We find that MERTK and PROS1 are expressed in human T cells upon TCR activation and drive an autocrine proproliferative mechanism. Collectively, these results suggest that MERTK on DCs controls T cell activation and expansion through the competition for PROS1 interaction with MERTK in the T cells. In conclusion, this report identified MERTK as a potent suppressor of T cell response. PMID:25624460

  14. Allosteric changes in the TCR/CD3 structure upon interaction with extra- or intra-cellular ligands.

    PubMed

    Rubin, B; Knibiehler, M; Gairin, J E

    2007-01-01

    T lymphocytes are activated by the interaction between the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) and peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. The avidity of this TCR-pMHC interaction is very low. Therefore, several hypotheses have been put forward to explain how T cells become specifically activated despite this handicap: conformational change model, aggregation model, kinetic segregation model, sequential interaction model and permissive geometry model. In the present paper, we conducted experiments to distinguish between the TCR-aggregation model and the TCR-conformational change model. The results obtained using a TCR capture ELISA with Brij 98-solubilized TCR molecules from normal or activated T cells showed that the ligand-TCR interaction causes structural changes in the CD3 epsilon cytoplasmic tail as well as in the extracellular TCR beta FG loop region. Size-fractionation experiments with Brij 98-solubilized TCR/CD3/co-receptor complexes from naïve or activated CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells demonstrated that such complexes are found as either dimers or tetramers. No monomers or multimers were detected. We propose that: (1) ligand-TCR interaction results in conformational changes in the CD3 epsilon cytoplasmic tail leading to T-cell activation; (2) CD3 epsilon cytoplasmic tail interaction with intracellular proteins may dissociate pMHC and co-receptors (CD4 or CD8) from TCR/CD3 complexes, thus leading to the arrest of T-cell activation; and (3) T-cell activation appears to occur among dimers or tetramers of TCR/CD3/co-receptor complexes interacting with self and non-self (foreign) peptide-MHC complexes.

  15. CD28 costimulatory signals in T lymphocyte activation: Emerging functions beyond a qualitative and quantitative support to TCR signalling.

    PubMed

    Porciello, Nicla; Tuosto, Loretta

    2016-04-01

    CD28 is one of the most important co-stimulatory receptors necessary for full T lymphocyte activation. By binding its cognate ligands, B7.1/CD80 or B7.2/CD86, expressed on the surface of professional antigen presenting cells (APC), CD28 initiates several signalling cascades, which qualitatively and quantitatively support T cell receptor (TCR) signalling. More recent data evidenced that human CD28 can also act as a TCR-independent signalling unit, by delivering specific signals, which regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokines. Despite the enormous progresses made in identifying the mechanisms and molecules involved in CD28 signalling properties, much remains to be elucidated, especially in the light of the functional differences observed between human and mouse CD28. In this review we provide an overview of the current mechanisms and molecules through which CD28 support TCR signalling and highlight recent findings on the specific signalling motifs that regulate the unique pro-inflammatory activity of human CD28. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aurora-A shines on T cell activation through the regulation of Lck.

    PubMed

    Blas-Rus, Noelia; Bustos-Morán, Eugenio; Martín-Cófreces, Noa B; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2017-02-01

    Different protein kinases control signaling emanating from the T cell receptor (TCR) during antigen-specific T cell activation. Mitotic kinases, e.g. Aurora-A, have been widely studied in the context of mitosis due to their role during microtubule (MT) nucleation, becoming critical regulators of cell cycle progression. We have recently described a specific role for Aurora-A kinase in antigenic T cell activation. Blockade of Aurora-A in T cells severely disrupts the dynamics of MTs and CD3ζ-bearing signaling vesicles during T cell activation. Furthermore, Aurora-A deletion impairs the activation of signaling molecules downstream of the TCR. Targeting Aurora-A disturbs the activation of Lck, which is one of the first signals that drive T cell activation in an antigen-dependent manner. This work describes possible models of regulation of Lck by Aurora-A during T cell activation. We also discuss possible roles for Aurora-A in other systems similar to the IS, and its putative functions in cell polarization.

  17. Two common structural motifs for TCR recognition by staphylococcal enterotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Rödström, Karin E. J.; Regenthal, Paulina; Bahl, Christopher; Ford, Alex; Baker, David; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Superantigens are toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus, called staphylococcal enterotoxins (abbreviated SEA to SEU). They can cross-link the T cell receptor (TCR) and major histocompatibility complex class II, triggering a massive T cell activation and hence disease. Due to high stability and toxicity, superantigens are potential agents of bioterrorism. Hence, antagonists may not only be useful in the treatment of disease but also serve as countermeasures to biological warfare. Of particular interest are inhibitors against SEA and SEB. SEA is the main cause of food poisoning, while SEB is a common toxin manufactured as a biological weapon. Here, we present the crystal structures of SEA in complex with TCR and SEE in complex with the same TCR, complemented with computational alanine-scanning mutagenesis of SEA, SEB, SEC3, SEE, and SEH. We have identified two common areas that contribute to the general TCR binding for these superantigens. This paves the way for design of single antagonists directed towards multiple toxins. PMID:27180909

  18. TIM-3 Suppresses Anti-CD3/CD28-Induced TCR Activation and IL-2 Expression through the NFAT Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Tomkowicz, Brian; Walsh, Eileen; Cotty, Adam; Verona, Raluca; Sabins, Nina; Kaplan, Fred; Santulli-Marotto, Sandy; Chin, Chen-Ni; Mooney, Jill; Lingham, Russell B; Naso, Michael; McCabe, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    TIM-3 (T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing protein 3) is a member of the TIM family of proteins that is preferentially expressed on Th1 polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Recent studies indicate that TIM-3 serves as a negative regulator of T cell function (i.e. T cell dependent immune responses, proliferation, tolerance, and exhaustion). Despite having no recognizable inhibitory signaling motifs, the intracellular tail of TIM-3 is apparently indispensable for function. Specifically, the conserved residues Y265/Y272 and surrounding amino acids appear to be critical for function. Mechanistically, several studies suggest that TIM-3 can associate with interleukin inducible T cell kinase (ITK), the Src kinases Fyn and Lck, and the p85 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) adaptor protein to positively or negatively regulate IL-2 production via NF-κB/NFAT signaling pathways. To begin to address this discrepancy, we examined the effect of TIM-3 in two model systems. First, we generated several Jurkat T cell lines stably expressing human TIM-3 or murine CD28-ECD/human TIM-3 intracellular tail chimeras and examined the effects that TIM-3 exerts on T cell Receptor (TCR)-mediated activation, cytokine secretion, promoter activity, and protein kinase association. In this model, our results demonstrate that TIM-3 inhibits several TCR-mediated phenotypes: i) NF-kB/NFAT activation, ii) CD69 expression, and iii) suppression of IL-2 secretion. To confirm our Jurkat cell observations we developed a primary human CD8+ cell system that expresses endogenous levels of TIM-3. Upon TCR ligation, we observed the loss of NFAT reporter activity and IL-2 secretion, and identified the association of Src kinase Lck, and PLC-γ with TIM-3. Taken together, our results support the conclusion that TIM-3 is a negative regulator of TCR-function by attenuating activation signals mediated by CD3/CD28 co-stimulation.

  19. CD103 or LFA-1 engagement at the immune synapse between cytotoxic T cells and tumor cells promotes maturation and regulates T-cell effector functions.

    PubMed

    Franciszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Le Floc'h, Audrey; Boutet, Marie; Vergnon, Isabelle; Schmitt, Alain; Mami-Chouaib, Fathia

    2013-01-15

    T-cell adhesion/costimulatory molecules and their cognate receptors on target cells play a major role in T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated activities. Here, we compared the involvement of CD103 and LFA-1, and their respective ligands, in the maturation of the cytotoxic immune synapse (cIS) and in the activation of CTL effector functions. Our results indicate that cytotoxicity toward cancer cells and, to a lesser extent, cytokine production by specific CTL require, together with TCR engagement, the interaction of either CD103 with E-cadherin or LFA-1 with ICAM-1. Flow-based adhesion assay showed that engagement of CD103 or LFA-1, together with TCR, enhances the strength of the T-cell/target cell interaction. Moreover, electron microscopic analyses showed that integrin-dependent mature cIS (mcIS) displays a cohesive ultrastructure, with tight membrane contacts separated by extensive clefts. In contrast, immature cIS (icIS), which is unable to trigger target cell lysis, is loose, with multiple protrusions in the effector cell membrane. Experiments using confocal microscopy revealed polarized cytokine release and degranulation at the mcIS associated with target cell killing, whereas icIS is characterized by failure of IFN-γ and granzyme B relocalization. Thus, interactive forces between CTL and epithelial tumor cells, mainly regulated by integrin engagement, correlate with maturity and the ultrastructure of the cIS and influence CTL effector functions. These results provide new insights into molecular mechanisms regulating antitumor CTL responses and may lead to the development of more efficient cancer immunotherapy strategies.

  20. Unpredicted phenotypes of two mutants of the TcR DMF5.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Fitsum G; Mensali, Nadia; Fallang, Lars-Egil; Walseng, Even; Yang, Weiwen; Olweus, Johanna; Wälchli, Sébastien

    2015-10-01

    When a T-cell Receptor (TcR) interacts with its cognate peptide-MHC (pMHC), it triggers activation of a signaling cascade that results in the elicitation of a T cell effector function. Different models have been proposed to understand which parameters are needed to obtain an optimal activation of the signaling. It was speculated that improving the binding of a TcR could bring a stronger pMHC recognition, hence a stronger stimulation of the T cell. However, it was recently shown that an increase in affinity does not seem to be sufficient to guarantee improved functionality. A combination of factors is necessary to place the modified TcR in an optimal functional window. We here compared the binding parameters of two mutants of the melanoma antigen peptide MART-127-35 specific TcR DMF5. The first mutant was previously isolated by others in a screen for improved TcR. It was reported to have an increased CD8-independent activity. We confirmed these data and showed that the enhancement was neither due to change in half life (t1/2) nor Kd of the pMHC-TcR complex. The second mutant was designed based on a previous report claiming that a particular polymorphic residue in the TRAV12-2 chain was stabilizing the TcR. We created a DMF5 mutant for this residue and showed that, unexpectedly, this TcR had acquired a reduced overall activity although the TcR-pMHC complex was more stable when compared to the TcR wild type complex (increased t1/2). In addition, the soluble TcR form of this mutant bound target cells less efficiently. From this we concluded that kinetic parameters do not always predict the superior functionality of mutant TcRs.

  1. Cell cycle regulation in hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pietras, Eric M; Warr, Matthew R; Passegué, Emmanuelle

    2011-11-28

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to all lineages of blood cells. Because HSCs must persist for a lifetime, the balance between their proliferation and quiescence is carefully regulated to ensure blood homeostasis while limiting cellular damage. Cell cycle regulation therefore plays a critical role in controlling HSC function during both fetal life and in the adult. The cell cycle activity of HSCs is carefully modulated by a complex interplay between cell-intrinsic mechanisms and cell-extrinsic factors produced by the microenvironment. This fine-tuned regulatory network may become altered with age, leading to aberrant HSC cell cycle regulation, degraded HSC function, and hematological malignancy.

  2. Activated PLC-γ1 is catalytically induced at LAT but activated PLC-γ1 is localized at both LAT- and TCR-containing complexes.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Orcutt, Noemi; Vacaflores, Aldo; Connolly, Sean F; Bunnell, Stephen C; Houtman, Jon C D

    2014-04-01

    Phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) is a key regulator of T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling. Activation of the TCR enhances PLC-γ1 enzymatic function, resulting in calcium influx and the activation of PKC family members and RasGRP. The current model is that phosphorylation of LAT tyrosine 132 facilitates the recruitment of PLC-γ1, leading to its activation and function at the LAT complex. In this study, we examined the phosphorylation kinetics of LAT and PLC-γ1 and the cellular localization of activated PLC-γ1. We observed that commencement of the phosphorylation of LAT tyrosine 132 and PLC-γ1 tyrosine 783 occurred simultaneously, supporting the current model. However, once begun, PLC-γ1 activation occurred more rapidly than LAT tyrosine 132. The association of LAT and PLC-γ1 was more transient than the interaction of LAT and Grb2 and a pool of activated PLC-γ1 translocated away from LAT to cellular structures containing the TCR. These studies demonstrate that LAT and PLC-γ1 form transient interactions that catalyze the activation of PLC-γ1, but that activated PLC-γ1 resides in both LAT and TCR clusters. Together, this work highlights that our current model is incomplete and the activation and function of PLC-γ1 in T cells is highly complex.

  3. Activated PLC-γ1 is Catalytically Induced at LAT but Activated PLC-γ1 is Localized at both LAT- and TCR-Containing Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Orcutt, Noemi; Vacaflores, Aldo; Connolly, Sean F.; Bunnell, Stephen C.; Houtman, Jon C.D.

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) is a key regulator of T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling. Activation of the TCR enhances PLC-γ1 enzymatic function, resulting in calcium influx and the activation of PKC family members and RasGRP. The current model is that phosphorylation of LAT tyrosine 132 facilitates the recruitment of PLC-γ1, leading to its activation and function at the LAT complex. In this study, we examined the phosphorylation kinetics of LAT and PLC-γ1 and the cellular localization of activated PLC-γ1. We observed that commencement of the phosphorylation of LAT tyrosine 132 and PLC-γ1 tyrosine 783 occurred simultaneously, supporting the current model. However, once begun, PLC-γ1 activation occurred more rapidly than LAT tyrosine 132. The association of LAT and PLC-γ1 was more transient than the interaction of LAT and Grb2 and a pool of activated PLC-γ1 translocated away from LAT to cellular structures containing the TCR. These studies demonstrate that LAT and PLC-γ1 form transient interactions that catalyze the activation of PLC-γ1, but that activated PLC-γ1 resides in both LAT and TCR clusters. Together, this work highlights that our current model is incomplete and the activation and function of PLC-γ1 in T cells is highly complex. PMID:24412752

  4. Pak2 is required for actin cytoskeleton remodeling, TCR signaling, and normal thymocyte development and maturation

    PubMed Central

    Phee, Hyewon; Au-Yeung, Byron B; Pryshchep, Olga; O'Hagan, Kyle Leonard; Fairbairn, Stephanie Grace; Radu, Maria; Kosoff, Rachelle; Mollenauer, Marianne; Cheng, Debra; Chernoff, Jonathan; Weiss, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that govern thymocyte development and maturation are incompletely understood. The P21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) is an effector for the Rho family GTPases Rac and Cdc42 that regulate actin cytoskeletal remodeling, but its role in the immune system remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that T-cell specific deletion of Pak2 gene in mice resulted in severe T cell lymphopenia accompanied by marked defects in development, maturation, and egress of thymocytes. Pak2 was required for pre-TCR β-selection and positive selection. Surprisingly, Pak2 deficiency in CD4 single positive thymocytes prevented functional maturation and reduced expression of S1P1 and KLF2. Mechanistically, Pak2 is required for actin cytoskeletal remodeling triggered by TCR. Failure to induce proper actin cytoskeletal remodeling impaired PLCγ1 and Erk1/2 signaling in the absence of Pak2, uncovering the critical function of Pak2 as an essential regulator that governs the actin cytoskeleton-dependent signaling to ensure normal thymocyte development and maturation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02270.001 PMID:24843022

  5. TCR triggering by pMHC ligands tethered on surfaces via poly(ethylene glycol) depends on polymer length.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhengyu; LeBard, David N; Loverde, Sharon M; Sharp, Kim A; Klein, Michael L; Discher, Dennis E; Finkel, Terri H

    2014-01-01

    Antigen recognition by T cells relies on the interaction between T cell receptor (TCR) and peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) at the interface between the T cell and the antigen presenting cell (APC). The pMHC-TCR interaction is two-dimensional (2D), in that both the ligand and receptor are membrane-anchored and their movement is limited to 2D diffusion. The 2D nature of the interaction is critical for the ability of pMHC ligands to trigger TCR. The exact properties of the 2D pMHC-TCR interaction that enable TCR triggering, however, are not fully understood. Here, we altered the 2D pMHC-TCR interaction by tethering pMHC ligands to a rigid plastic surface with flexible poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) polymers of different lengths, thereby gradually increasing the ligands' range of motion in the third dimension. We found that pMHC ligands tethered by PEG linkers with long contour length were capable of activating T cells. Shorter PEG linkers, however, triggered TCR more efficiently. Molecular dynamics simulation suggested that shorter PEGs exhibit faster TCR binding on-rates and off-rates. Our findings indicate that TCR signaling can be triggered by surface-tethered pMHC ligands within a defined 3D range of motion, and that fast binding rates lead to higher TCR triggering efficiency. These observations are consistent with a model of TCR triggering that incorporates the dynamic interaction between T cell and antigen-presenting cell.

  6. Structure of the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B in complex with TCR and peptide-MHC demonstrates absence of TCR-peptide contacts.

    PubMed

    Rödström, Karin E J; Elbing, Karin; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin

    2014-08-15

    Superantigens are immune-stimulatory toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus, which are able to interact with host immune receptors to induce a massive release of cytokines, causing toxic shock syndrome and possibly death. In this article, we present the x-ray structure of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) in complex with its receptors, the TCR and MHC class II, forming a ternary complex. The structure, in combination with functional analyses, clearly shows how SEB adopts a wedge-like position when binding to the β-chain of TCR, allowing for an interaction between the α-chain of TCR and MHC. Furthermore, the binding mode also circumvents contact between TCR and the peptide presented by MHC, which enables SEB to initiate a peptide-independent activation of T cells.

  7. A novel TCR-like CAR with specificity for PR1/HLA-A2 effectively targets myeloid leukemia in vitro when expressed in human adult peripheral blood and cord blood T cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing; Garber, Haven R; Lu, Sijie; He, Hong; Tallis, Eran; Ding, Xiaoling; Sergeeva, Anna; Wood, Michael S; Dotti, Gianpietro; Salvado, Barbara; Ruisaard, Kathryn; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; John, Lisa St; Rezvani, Katayoun; Alatrash, Gheath; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Molldrem, Jeffrey J

    2016-08-01

    The PR1 peptide, derived from the leukemia-associated antigens proteinase 3 and neutrophil elastase, is overexpressed on HLA-A2 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We developed a T-cell receptor (TCR)-like monoclonal antibody (8F4) that binds the PR1/HLA-A2 complex on the surface of AML cells, efficiently killing them in vitro and eliminating them in preclinical models. Humanized 8F4 (h8F4) with high affinity for the PR1/HLA-A2 epitope was used to construct an h8F4- chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that was transduced into T cells to mediate anti-leukemia activity. Human T cells were transduced to express the PR1/HLA-A2-specific CAR (h8F4-CAR-T cells) containing the scFv of h8F4 fused to the intracellular signaling endo-domain of CD3 zeta chain through the transmembrane and intracellular costimulatory domain of CD28. Adult human normal peripheral blood (PB) T cells were efficiently transduced with the h8F4-CAR construct and predominantly displayed an effector memory phenotype with a minor population (12%) of central memory cells in vitro. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) T cells could also be efficiently transduced with the h8F4-CAR. The PB and UCB-derived h8F4-CAR-T cells specifically recognized the PR1/HLA-A2 complex and were capable of killing leukemia cell lines and primary AML blasts in an HLA-A2-dependent manner. Human adult PB and UCB-derived T cells expressing a CAR derived from the TCR-like 8F4 antibody rapidly and efficiently kill AML in vitro. Our data could lead to a new treatment paradigm for AML in which targeting leukemia stem cells could transfer long-term immunity to protect against relapse. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural Model of the Extracellular Assembly of the TCR-CD3 Complex.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Aswin; Nadarajah, Vidushan; Felsovalyi, Klara; Wang, Wenjuan; Jeyachandran, Vivian R; Wasson, Riley A; Cardozo, Timothy; Bracken, Clay; Krogsgaard, Michelle

    2016-03-29

    Antigen recognition of peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs) by T cells, a key step in initiating adaptive immune responses, is performed by the T cell receptor (TCR) bound to CD3 heterodimers. However, the biophysical basis of the transmission of TCR-CD3 extracellular interaction into a productive intracellular signaling sequence remains incomplete. Here we used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy combined with mutational analysis and computational docking to derive a structural model of the extracellular TCR-CD3 assembly. In the inactivated state, CD3γε interacts with the helix 3 and helix 4-F strand regions of the TCR Cβ subunit, whereas CD3δε interacts with the F and C strand regions of the TCR Cα subunit in this model, placing the CD3 subunits on opposing sides of the TCR. This work identifies the molecular contacts between the TCR and CD3 subunits, identifying a physical basis for transmitting an activating signal through the complex.

  9. Th1 and Th17 Cells Regulate Innate Immune Responses and Bacterial Clearance during Central Nervous System Infection†

    PubMed Central

    Holley, Monica M.; Kielian, Tammy

    2013-01-01

    Brain abscesses arise following parenchymal infection with pyogenic bacteria and are typified by inflammation and edema, which frequently results in a multitude of long-term health problems. The impact of adaptive immunity in shaping continued innate responses during late stage brain abscess formation is not known but is important, since robust innate immunity is required for effective bacterial clearance. To address this issue, brain abscesses were induced in TCR αβ knockout (KO) mice, since CD4+ and NKT cells represented the most numerous T cell infiltrates. TCR αβ KO mice exhibited impaired bacterial clearance during later stages of infection, which was associated with alterations in neutrophil and macrophage recruitment as well as perturbations in cytokine/chemokine expression. Adoptive transfer of either Th1 or Th17 cells into TCR αβ KO mice restored bacterial burdens and innate immune cell infiltrates to levels detected in WT animals. Interestingly, adoptively transferred Th17 cells demonstrated plasticity within the CNS compartment and induced distinct cytokine secretion profiles in abscess-associated microglia and macrophages compared to Th1 transfer. Collectively, these studies identify an amplification loop for Th1 and Th17 cells in shaping established innate responses during CNS infection to maximize bacterial clearance and differentially regulate microglial and macrophage secretory profiles. PMID:22190181

  10. Th1 and Th17 cells regulate innate immune responses and bacterial clearance during central nervous system infection.

    PubMed

    Holley, Monica M; Kielian, Tammy

    2012-02-01

    Brain abscesses arise following parenchymal infection with pyogenic bacteria and are typified by inflammation and edema, which frequently results in a multitude of long-term health problems. The impact of adaptive immunity in shaping continued innate responses during late-stage brain abscess formation is not known but is important, because robust innate immunity is required for effective bacterial clearance. To address this issue, brain abscesses were induced in TCR αβ knockout (KO) mice, because CD4(+) and NKT cells represented the most numerous T cell infiltrates. TCR αβ KO mice exhibited impaired bacterial clearance during later stages of infection, which was associated with alterations in neutrophil and macrophage recruitment, as well as perturbations in cytokine/chemokine expression. Adoptive transfer of either Th1 or Th17 cells into TCR αβ KO mice restored bacterial burdens and innate immune cell infiltrates to levels detected in wild-type animals. Interestingly, adoptively transferred Th17 cells demonstrated plasticity within the CNS compartment and induced distinct cytokine secretion profiles in abscess-associated microglia and macrophages compared with Th1 transfer. Collectively, these studies identified an amplification loop for Th1 and Th17 cells in shaping established innate responses during CNS infection to maximize bacterial clearance and differentially regulate microglial and macrophage secretory profiles.

  11. Metalloproteases regulate T-cell proliferation and effector function via LAG-3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nianyu; Wang, Yao; Forbes, Karen; Vignali, Kate M; Heale, Bret S; Saftig, Paul; Hartmann, Dieter; Black, Roy A; Rossi, John J; Blobel, Carl P; Dempsey, Peter J; Workman, Creg J; Vignali, Dario A A

    2007-01-01

    Tight control of T-cell proliferation and effector function is essential to ensure an effective but appropriate immune response. Here, we reveal that this is controlled by the metalloprotease-mediated cleavage of LAG-3, a negative regulatory protein expressed by all activated T cells. We show that LAG-3 cleavage is mediated by two transmembrane metalloproteases, ADAM10 and ADAM17, with the activity of both modulated by two distinct T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling-dependent mechanisms. ADAM10 mediates constitutive LAG-3 cleavage but increases ∼12-fold following T-cell activation, whereas LAG-3 shedding by ADAM17 is induced by TCR signaling in a PKCθ-dependent manner. LAG-3 must be cleaved from the cell surface to allow for normal T-cell activation as noncleavable LAG-3 mutants prevented proliferation and cytokine production. Lastly, ADAM10 knockdown reduced wild-type but not LAG-3−/− T-cell proliferation. These data demonstrate that LAG-3 must be cleaved to allow efficient T-cell proliferation and cytokine production and establish a novel paradigm in which T-cell expansion and function are regulated by metalloprotease cleavage with LAG-3 as its sole molecular target. PMID:17245433

  12. Antigen receptor-regulated exocytosis in cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We demonstrate here that T cell receptor for antigen (TCR)-triggered exocytosis in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) is not constitutive and is regulated through crosslinking of the TCR by antigen or monoclonal anti- TCR antibodies. Morphological and biochemical data using three different biochemical markers of granules and Percoll gradient fractionation analysis are presented, suggesting that TCR-triggered exocytosis is accompanied by the loss of granules from CTL and appearance of intragranular proteins and enzymatic activities in the incubation medium. The strict requirement for crosslinking of the TCR in exocytosis triggering could be bypassed by protein kinase C activators (phorbol esters or bryostatin I and II) acting in synergy with Ca2+ ionophores. It is shown that external Ca2+ is obligatory for both the TCR-triggered and for the PMA/A23187-triggered exocytosis, since Ca2+ chelators and divalent cations that compete with Ca2+ for A23187 can inhibit exocytosis of granules. These data suggest that Ca2+ from intracellular stores is not sufficient to support exocytosis in CTL. Ca2+ channel blockers and calmodulin antagonists significantly inhibited TCR-triggered exocytosis without affecting the basal level of secretion. The described results are consistent with a model in which exocytosis of granules in CTL is triggered by the crosslinking of TCR, transmembrane protein kinase C activation, and external Ca2+ translocation through CTL plasma membrane Ca2+ channels and modulation of activity of Ca2+, calmodulin-dependent enzymes, and cytoskeletal proteins. PMID:2442289

  13. Pre-TCR signaling and CD8 gene bivalent chromatin resolution during thymocyte development.

    PubMed

    Harker, Nicola; Garefalaki, Anna; Menzel, Ursula; Ktistaki, Eleni; Naito, Taku; Georgopoulos, Katia; Kioussis, Dimitris

    2011-06-01

    The CD8 gene is silent in CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative thymocytes, expressed in CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive cells, and silenced in cells committing to the CD4(+) single-positive (SP) lineage, remaining active in the CD8(+) SP lineage. In this study, we show that the chromatin of the CD8 locus is remodeled in C57BL/6 and B6/J Rag1(-/-) MOM double-negative thymocytes as indicated by DNaseI hypersensitivity and widespread bivalent chromatin marks. Pre-TCR signaling coincides with chromatin bivalency resolution into monovalent activating modifications in double-positive and CD8 SP cells. Shortly after commitment to CD4 SP cell lineage, monovalent repressive characteristics and chromatin inaccessibility are established. Differential binding of Ikaros, NuRD, and heterochromatin protein 1α on the locus during these processes may participate in the complex regulation of CD8.

  14. TCR usage, gene expression and function of two distinct FOXP3(+)Treg subsets within CD4(+)CD25(hi) T cells identified by expression of CD39 and CD45RO.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lingying; Goodall, Jane C; Zhang, Libin; Putintseva, Ekaterina V; Lam, Brian; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Wei; Yin, Jian; Lin, Li; Li, Ting; Wu, Xin; Yeo, Giles; Shugay, Mikhail; Chudakov, Dmitriy M; Gaston, Hill; Xu, Huji

    2016-03-01

    FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells are indispensable for immune homeostasis, but their study in humans is complicated by heterogeneity within Treg, the difficulty in purifying Tregs using surface marker expression (e.g. CD25) and the transient expression of FOXP3 by activated effector cells. Here, we report that expression of CD39 and CD45RO distinguishes three sub-populations within human CD4(+)CD25(hi) T cells. Initial phenotypic and functional analysis demonstrated that CD4(+)CD25(hi)CD39(+)CD45RO(+) cells had properties consistent with effector Treg, CD4(+)CD25(hi)CD39(-)CD45RO(-) cells were naïve Treg and CD4(+)CD25(hi)CD39(-)CD45RO(+) cells were predominantly non-Treg with effector T-cell function. Differences in these two newly identified Treg subsets were corroborated by studies of gene expression and TCR analysis. To apply this approach, we studied these two newly identified Treg subsets in ankylosing spondylitis, and showed impairment in both effector and naïve Treg. This work highlights the importance of discriminating Treg subsets to enable proper comparisons of immune regulatory capacity in healthy individuals and those with inflammatory disease.

  15. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin drive ligand-independent T-cell antigen receptor nanoclustering.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Eszter; Swamy, Mahima; Holzer, Martin; Beck-García, Katharina; Worch, Remigiusz; Thiele, Christoph; Guigas, Gernot; Boye, Kristian; Luescher, Immanuel F; Schwille, Petra; Schubert, Rolf; Schamel, Wolfgang W A

    2012-12-14

    The T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) exists in monomeric and nanoclustered forms independently of antigen binding. Although the clustering is involved in the regulation of T-cell sensitivity, it is unknown how the TCR nanoclusters form. We show that cholesterol is required for TCR nanoclustering in T cells and that this clustering enhances the avidity but not the affinity of the TCR-antigen interaction. Investigating the mechanism of the nanoclustering, we found that radioactive photocholesterol specifically binds to the TCRβ chain in vivo. In order to reduce the complexity of cellular membranes, we used a synthetic biology approach and reconstituted the TCR in liposomes of defined lipid composition. Both cholesterol and sphingomyelin were required for the formation of TCR dimers in phosphatidylcholine-containing large unilamellar vesicles. Further, the TCR was localized in the liquid disordered phase in giant unilamellar vesicles. We propose a model in which cholesterol and sphingomyelin binding to the TCRβ chain causes TCR dimerization. The lipid-induced TCR nanoclustering enhances the avidity to antigen and thus might be involved in enhanced sensitivity of memory compared with naive T cells. Our work contributes to the understanding of the function of specific nonannular lipid-membrane protein interactions.

  16. Tpl2 and ERK transduce antiproliferative T cell receptor signals and inhibit transformation of chronically stimulated T cells.

    PubMed

    Tsatsanis, Christos; Vaporidi, Katerina; Zacharioudaki, Vassiliki; Androulidaki, Ariadne; Sykulev, Yuri; Margioris, Andrew N; Tsichlis, Philip N

    2008-02-26

    The protein kinase encoded by the Tpl2 protooncogene plays an obligatory role in the transduction of Toll-like receptor and death receptor signals in macrophages, B cells, mouse embryo fibroblasts, and epithelial cells in culture and promotes inflammatory responses in animals. To address its role in T cell activation, we crossed the T cell receptor (TCR) transgene 2C, which recognizes class I MHC presented peptides, into the Tpl2(-/-) genetic background. Surprisingly, the TCR2C(tg/tg)/Tpl2(-/-) mice developed T cell lymphomas with a latency of 4-6 months. The tumor cells were consistently TCR2C(+)CD8(+)CD4(-), suggesting that they were derived either from chronically stimulated mature T cells or from immature single positive (ISP) cells. Further studies showed that the population of CD8(+) ISP cells was not expanded in the thymus of TCR2C(tg/tg)/Tpl2(-/-) mice, making the latter hypothesis unlikely. Mature peripheral T cells of Tpl2(-/-) mice were defective in ERK activation and exhibited enhanced proliferation after TCR stimulation. The same cells were defective in the induction of CTLA4, a negative regulator of the T cell response, which is induced by TCR signals via ERK. These findings suggest that Tpl2 functions normally in a feedback loop that switches off the T cell response to TCR stimulation. As a result, Tpl2, a potent oncogene, functions as a tumor suppressor gene in chronically stimulated T cells.

  17. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulates N-Ras activation on the Golgi complex of antigen-stimulated T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ibiza, Sales; Pérez-Rodríguez, Andrea; Ortega, Ángel; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Barreiro, Olga; García-Domínguez, Carlota A.; Víctor, Víctor M.; Esplugues, Juan V.; Rojas, José M.; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Serrador, Juan M.

    2008-01-01

    Ras/ERK signaling plays an important role in T cell activation and development. We recently reported that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived NO regulates T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent ERK activation by a cGMP-independent mechanism. Here, we explore the mechanisms through which eNOS exerts this regulation. We have found that eNOS-derived NO positively regulates Ras/ERK activation in T cells stimulated with antigen on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Intracellular activation of N-, H-, and K-Ras was monitored with fluorescent probes in T cells stably transfected with eNOS-GFP or its G2A point mutant, which is defective in activity and cellular localization. Using this system, we demonstrate that eNOS selectively activates N-Ras but not K-Ras on the Golgi complex of T cells engaged with APC, even though Ras isoforms are activated in response to NO from donors. We further show that activation of N-Ras involves eNOS-dependent S-nitrosylation on Cys118, suggesting that upon TCR engagement, eNOS-derived NO directly activates N-Ras on the Golgi. Moreover, wild-type but not C118S N-Ras increased TCR-dependent apoptosis, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of Cys118 contributes to activation-induced T cell death. Our data define a signaling mechanism for the regulation of the Ras/ERK pathway based on the eNOS-dependent differential activation of N-Ras and K-Ras at specific cell compartments. PMID:18641128

  18. The kinases MEKK2 and MEKK3 regulate transforming growth factor-β-mediated helper T cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xing; Liu, Fang; Wang, Xiaofang; Lin, Aiping; Zhao, Hongyu; Su, Bing

    2011-02-25

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are key mediators of the T cell receptor (TCR) signals but their roles in T helper (Th) cell differentiation are unclear. Here we showed that the MAPK kinase kinases MEKK2 (encoded by Map3k2) and MEKK3 (encoded by Map3k3) negatively regulated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-mediated Th cell differentiation. Map3k2(-/-)Map3k3(Lck-Cre/-) mice showed an abnormal accumulation of regulatory T (Treg) and Th17 cells in the periphery, consistent with Map3k2(-/-)Map3k3(Lck-Cre/-) naive CD4(+) T cells' differentiation into Treg and Th17 cells with a higher frequency than wild-type (WT) cells after TGF-β stimulation in vitro. In addition, Map3k2(-/-)Map3k3(Lck-Cre/-) mice developed more severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Map3k2(-/-)Map3k3(Lck-Cre/-) T cells exhibited impaired phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3 proteins at their linker regions, which negatively regulated the TGF-β responses in T cells. Thus, the crosstalk between TCR-induced MAPK and the TGF-β signaling pathways is important in regulating Th cell differentiation.

  19. Cytosolic Branched Chain Aminotransferase (BCATc) Regulates mTORC1 Signaling and Glycolytic Metabolism in CD4+ T Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ananieva, Elitsa A.; Patel, Chirag H.; Drake, Charles H.; Powell, Jonathan D.; Hutson, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Here we show that expression of the cytosolic branched chain aminotransferase (BCATc) is triggered by the T cell receptor (TCR) of CD4+ T cells. Induction of BCATc correlates with increased Leu transamination, whereas T cells from the BCATc−/− mouse exhibit lower Leu transamination and higher intracellular Leu concentrations than the cells from wild type (WT) mice. Induction of BCATc by TCR in WT cells is prevented by the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA), suggesting that NFAT controls BCATc expression. Leu is a known activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). mTOR is emerging as a critical regulator of T cell activation, differentiation, and metabolism. Activated T cells from BCATc−/− mice show increased phosphorylation of mTORC1 downstream targets, S6 and 4EBP-1, indicating higher mTORC1 activation than in T cells from WT mice. Furthermore, T cells from BCATc−/− mice display higher rates of glycolysis, glycolytic capacity, and glycolytic reserve when compared with activated WT cells. These findings reveal BCATc as a novel regulator of T cell activation and metabolism and highlight the important role of Leu metabolism in T cells. PMID:24847056

  20. Regulators of Glucose Metabolism in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T Cells.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Clovis S; Hussain, Tabinda; Duette, Gabriel; Weller, Thomas J; Ostrowski, Matias; Sada-Ovalle, Isabel; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2016-11-01

    Much like cancer cells, activated T cells undergo various metabolic changes that allow them to grow and proliferate rapidly. By adopting aerobic glycolysis upon activation, T cells effectively prioritize efficiency in biosynthesis over energy generation. There are distinct differences in the way CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells process activation signals. CD8(+) effector T cells are less dependent on Glut1 and oxygen levels compared to their CD4(+) counterparts. Similarly the downstream signaling by TCR also differs in both effector T cell types. Recent studies have explored PI3K/Akt, mTORC, HIF1α, p70S6K and Bcl-6 signaling in depth providing definition of the crucial roles of these regulators in glucose metabolism. These new insights may allow improved therapeutic manipulation against inflammatory conditions that are associated with dysfunctional T-cell metabolism such as autoimmune disorders, metabolic syndrome, HIV, and cancers.

  1. Regulation of T cell function by the ubiquitin-specific protease USP9X via modulating the Carma1-Bcl10-Malt1 complex.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon; Jin, Hyung-seung; Liu, Yun-Cai

    2013-06-04

    The ubiquitin conjugation system plays an important role in immune regulation; however, the ubiquitin-specific proteases (USPs) that carry out deubiquitination of cellular substrates are poorly understood. Here we show that in vivo knockdown of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP9X attenuates T-cell proliferation. In addition, naïve CD4(+) T cells from USP9X knockdown chimeric mice display decreased cytokine production and T helper cell differentiation in vitro, which we confirmed in vivo by performing adoptive transfer of transgenic T cells and subsequent immunization. USP9X silencing in both a human T-cell line and mouse primary T cells reduced T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling-induced NF-κB activation. Mechanistically, USP9X interacts with Bcl10 of the Carma1-Bcl10-Malt1 (CBM) complex and removes the TCR-induced ubiquitin chain from Bcl10, which facilitates the association of Carma1 with Bcl0-Malt1. These results demonstrate that USP9X is a crucial positive regulator of the TCR signaling pathway and is required for T-cell function through the modulation of CBM complex formation.

  2. Increased Peptide Contacts Govern High Affinity Binding of a Modified TCR Whilst Maintaining a Native pMHC Docking Mode.

    PubMed

    Cole, David K; Sami, Malkit; Scott, Daniel R; Rizkallah, Pierre J; Borbulevych, Oleg Y; Todorov, Penio T; Moysey, Ruth K; Jakobsen, Bent K; Boulter, Jonathan M; Baker, Brian M; Yi Li

    2013-01-01

    Natural T cell receptors (TCRs) generally bind to their cognate pMHC molecules with weak affinity and fast kinetics, limiting their use as therapeutic agents. Using phage display, we have engineered a high affinity version of the A6 wild-type TCR (A6wt), specific for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A(∗)0201) complexed with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 111-19 peptide (A2-Tax). Mutations in just 4 residues in the CDR3β loop region of the A6wt TCR were selected that improved binding to A2-Tax by nearly 1000-fold. Biophysical measurements of this mutant TCR (A6c134) demonstrated that the enhanced binding was derived through favorable enthalpy and a slower off-rate. The structure of the free A6c134 TCR and the A6c134/A2-Tax complex revealed a native binding mode, similar to the A6wt/A2-Tax complex. However, concordant with the more favorable binding enthalpy, the A6c134 TCR made increased contacts with the Tax peptide compared with the A6wt/A2-Tax complex, demonstrating a peptide-focused mechanism for the enhanced affinity that directly involved the mutated residues in the A6c134 TCR CDR3β loop. This peptide-focused enhanced TCR binding may represent an important approach for developing antigen specific high affinity TCR reagents for use in T cell based therapies.

  3. Optical regulation of cell chain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoshuai; Huang, Jianbin; Zhang, Yao; Li, Baojun

    2015-01-01

    Formation of cell chains is a straightforward and efficient method to study the cell interaction. By regulating the contact sequence and interaction distance, the influence of different extracellular cues on the cell interaction can be investigated. However, it faces great challenges in stable retaining and precise regulation of cell chain, especially in cell culture with relatively low cell concentration. Here we demonstrated an optical method to realize the precise regulation of cell chain, including removing or adding a single cell, adjusting interaction distance, and changing cell contact sequence. After injecting a 980-nm wavelength laser beam into a tapered optical fiber probe (FP), a cell chain of Escherichia colis (E. colis) is formed under the optical gradient force. By manipulating another FP close to the cell chain, a targeted E. coli cell can be trapped by the FP and removed from the chain. Further, the targeted cell can be added back to the chain at different positions to change the cell contact sequence. The experiments were interpreted by numerical simulations and the impact of cell sizes and shapes on this method was analyzed. PMID:26098707

  4. Distinctive properties of identical twins' TCR repertoires revealed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zvyagin, Ivan V; Pogorelyy, Mikhail V; Ivanova, Marina E; Komech, Ekaterina A; Shugay, Mikhail; Bolotin, Dmitry A; Shelenkov, Andrey A; Kurnosov, Alexey A; Staroverov, Dmitriy B; Chudakov, Dmitriy M; Lebedev, Yuri B; Mamedov, Ilgar Z

    2014-04-22

    Adaptive immunity in humans is provided by hypervariable Ig-like molecules on the surface of B and T cells. The final set of these molecules in each organism is formed under the influence of two forces: individual genetic traits and the environment, which includes the diverse spectra of alien and self-antigens. Here we assess the impact of individual genetic factors on the formation of the adaptive immunity by analyzing the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires of three pairs of monozygous twins by next-generation sequencing. Surprisingly, we found that an overlap between the TCR repertoires of monozygous twins is similar to an overlap between the TCR repertoires of nonrelated individuals. However, the number of identical complementary determining region 3 sequences in two individuals is significantly increased for twin pairs in the fraction of highly abundant TCR molecules, which is enriched by the antigen-experienced T cells. We found that the initial recruitment of particular TCR V genes for recombination and subsequent selection in the thymus is strictly determined by individual genetic factors. J genes of TCRs are selected randomly for recombination; however, the subsequent selection in the thymus gives preference to some α but not β J segments. These findings provide a deeper insight into the mechanism of TCR repertoire generation.

  5. Identification of peptide-specific TCR genes by in vitro peptide stimulation and CDR3 length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hongwei; Lin, Yanmei; Wang, Teng; Ou, Yusheng; Shen, Han; Tao, Changli; Wu, Fenglin; Zhang, Wenfeng; Bo, Huaben; Wang, Hui; Huang, Shulin

    2015-07-10

    Identification of TCR genes specific for tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) is necessary for TCR gene modification of T cells, which is applied in anti-tumor adoptive T cell therapy (ACT). The usual identification methods are based on isolating single peptide-responding T cells and cloning the TCR gene by in vitro expansion or by single-cell RT-PCR. However, the long and exacting in vitro culture period and demanding operational requirements restrict the application of these methods. Immunoscope is an effective tool that profiles a repertoire of TCRs and identifies significantly expanded clones through CDR3 length analysis. In this study, a survivin-derived mutant peptide optimized for HLA-A2 binding was selected to load DCs and activate T cells. The monoclonal expansion of TCRA and TCRB genes was separately identified by Immunoscope analysis and following sequence identification, the properly paired TCR genes were transferred into T cells. Peptide recognition and cytotoxicity assays indicated that TCR-modified PBMCs could respond to both the mutant and wild type peptides and lyse target cells. These results show that combining Immunoscope with in vitro peptide stimulation provides an alternative and superior method for identifying specific TCR genes, which represents a significant advance for the application of TCR gene-modified T cells.

  6. Negative regulators of cell proliferation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Cell proliferation is governed by the influence of both mitogens and inhibitors. Although cell contact has long been thought to play a fundamental role in cell cycling regulation, and negative regulators have long been suspected to exist, their isolation and purification has been complicated by a variety of technical difficulties. Nevertheless, over recent years an ever-expanding list of putative negative regulators have emerged. In many cases, their biological inhibitory activities are consistent with density-dependent growth inhibition. Most likely their interactions with mitogenic agents, at an intracellular level, are responsible for either mitotic arrest or continued cell cycling. A review of naturally occurring cell growth inhibitors is presented with an emphasis on those factors shown to be residents of the cell surface membrane. Particular attention is focused on a cell surface sialoglycopeptide, isolated from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells, which has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of an unusually wide range of target cells. The glycopeptide arrest cells obtained from diverse species, both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, and a broad variety of transformed cells. Signal transduction events and a limited spectrum of cells that are refractory to the sialoglycopeptide have provided insight into the molecular events mediated by this cell surface inhibitor.

  7. [The influence of methylprednisolone on the ability of CD4+CD95+HLA-DR+ T-cells to produce proinflammatory medators in cultures of TCR-activated CD3+CD45RO+ T-lymphocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Todosenko, N M; Khaziakhmatova, O G; Yurova, K A; Malinina, I P; Litvinova, L S

    2017-05-01

    The effect of different concentrations of the glucocorticoid (GC) methylprednisolone (MP) on CD4+CD95+HLA-DR+ T-cells and their ability to produce proinflammatory mediators in cultures of TCR-stimulated CD3+CD45RO+ T-lymphocytes in the in vitro system was investigated. T cells were obtained from healthy donors and patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).Under conditions of TCR-activation, MP increased the number of CD4+HLA-DR+CD95+ cells in CD3+CD45RO+ cultures obtained from RA patients and did not change their content in the control group. In general, MP decreased production of proinflammatory factors (IFN-, IL-2, IL-17, IL-21 and TNF-) by TCR-activated CD3+CD45RO+ cells from healthy donors and RA, consistent with the overall immunosuppressive mechanism of GC action. The correlation between CD4+CD45RO+HLA-DR+CD95+ T-cell contents and parameters reflecting production of proinflammatory mediators (IL-17, IL-21 and TNF-) in RA patients indicates maintenance of the pro-inflammatory potential of this T-cell population exposed to GC action. We suggest that relative resistance of CD4+CD45RO+CD95+HLA-DR+ T-cells of RA patients to the suppressor effect of GC leads to maintenance and even enhancement in the functional capacities of autoreactive cells in the pathogenesis of RA.

  8. Isolation of a gene encoding a developmentally regulated T cell-specific protein with a guanine nucleotide triphosphate-binding motif

    SciTech Connect

    Carlow, D.A.; Teh, H.S.; Marth, J.

    1995-02-15

    In this study, we describe a novel full length cDNA clone designated Tgtp that encodes a predicted 415-amino acid a T cell-specific guanine nucleotide triphosphate-binding protein (TGTP) bearing the characteristic motifs of a guanine nucleotide triphosphate (GTP) binding protein. Tgtp is expressed preferentially, if not exclusively, in T cells, and is up-regulated in both unfractionated and in purified CD4{sup +}8{sup +} thymocytes upon TCR cross-linking. In contrast, expression of Tgtp in peripheral T cells is maintained at relatively high levels and is not grossly affected by TCR cross-linking. Antiserum generated against synthetic peptides from the predicted TGTP amino acid sequence recognized a single protein with a molecular mass of {approx}50 kDa, corresponding well with the computed molecular mass of 47 kDa. The only known relative of Tgtp is MUSGTP, which is reportedly expressed in B cells and bears a GTP binding motif. Thus, the discovery of Tgtp resolves a subfamily of molecules with GTP binding motifs and apparent lymphoid lineage-restricted expression. Given the restricted expression pattern in T cells, the up-regulated expression observed in response to TCR signaling in immature thymocytes, and the presence of the motifs characteristic of GTP binding proteins, we suggest that TGTP may have an important function in T cell development and/or T cell activation. 51 refs., 6 figs.

  9. NETs and cell cycle regulation.

    PubMed

    Robson, Michael I; Le Thanh, Phu; Schirmer, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    There are many ways that the nuclear envelope can influence the cell cycle. In addition to roles of lamins in regulating the master cell cycle regulator pRb and nuclear envelope breakdown in mitosis, many other nuclear envelope proteins influence the cell cycle through regulatory or structural functions. Of particular note among these are the nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that appear to influence cell cycle regulation through multiple separate mechanisms. Some NETs and other nuclear envelope proteins accumulate on the mitotic spindle, suggesting functional or structural roles in the cell cycle. In interphase exogenous overexpression of some NETs promotes an increase in G1 populations, while others promote an increase in G2/M populations, sometimes associated with the induction of senescence. Intriguingly, most of the NETs linked to the cell cycle are highly restricted in their tissue expression; thus, their misregulation in cancer could contribute to the many tissue-specific types of cancer.

  10. Superantigen involvement and susceptibility factors in Kawasaki disease: profiles of TCR Vβ2+ T cells and HLA-DRB1, TNF-α and ITPKC genes among Filipino patients.

    PubMed

    Natividad, Magdalena F; Torres-Villanueva, Celia Aurora T; Saloma, Cynthia P

    2013-01-01

    Superantigens and genetic factors may play roles in the etiology and susceptibility to Kawasaki disease (KD). To investigate these roles, percentages of TCR-Vβ2+ T cells were compared by flow cytometry using anti-Vβ2 monoclonal antibodies and genotyping was done on HLA-DRB1 exon 2, the -308 site of the TNF-α promoter region, and ITPKC SNP rs28493229 by polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing. There were higher percentages of Vβ2+ T-cells in KD patients (9.5 ± 2.15%) compared to healthy controls (7.25 ± 1.48%) (P<0.05, Student's t-test, n=6-8/group). However, no polymorphisms were observed in exon 2 of HLA-DRB1 and in the -308 region of the TNF-α promoter. The ITPKC SNP rs28493229 G/C polymorphism was observed in 1 KD patient and 4 healthy controls. This study suggests that KD etiology may be associated with a superantigen and that HLA-DRB1 exon2, TNF-α -308 region and ITPKC SNP rs28493229 may not be associated with KD. This is the first study investigating Vβ2+ T cells and candidate genes involvement among Filipino KD patients.

  11. Superantigen involvement and susceptibility factors in Kawasaki disease: profiles of TCR Vβ2+ T cells and HLA-DRB1, TNF-α and ITPKC genes among Filipino patients

    PubMed Central

    Natividad, Magdalena F; Torres-Villanueva, Celia Aurora T; Saloma, Cynthia P

    2013-01-01

    Superantigens and genetic factors may play roles in the etiology and susceptibility to Kawasaki disease (KD). To investigate these roles, percentages of TCR-Vβ2+ T cells were compared by flow cytometry using anti-Vβ2 monoclonal antibodies and genotyping was done on HLA-DRB1 exon 2, the -308 site of the TNF-α promoter region, and ITPKC SNP rs28493229 by polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing. There were higher percentages of Vβ2+ T-cells in KD patients (9.5 ± 2.15%) compared to healthy controls (7.25 ± 1.48%) (P<0.05, Student’s t-test, n=6-8/group). However, no polymorphisms were observed in exon 2 of HLA-DRB1 and in the -308 region of the TNF-α promoter. The ITPKC SNP rs28493229 G/C polymorphism was observed in 1 KD patient and 4 healthy controls. This study suggests that KD etiology may be associated with a superantigen and that HLA-DRB1 exon2, TNF-α -308 region and ITPKC SNP rs28493229 may not be associated with KD. This is the first study investigating Vβ2+ T cells and candidate genes involvement among Filipino KD patients. PMID:23565324

  12. Self Regulating Fiber Fuel Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-16

    energy numbers are 2.3X and 5.7X the theoretical values for lithium thionyl chloride respectively (1100 Whr/liter and 590 Whr/kg), which has the...REPORT Self Regulating Fiber Fuel Cell 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Advances in lithium primary battery technology, which serves as the...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - 16-Aug-2010 Self Regulating Fiber Fuel Cell Report Title ABSTRACT Advances in lithium primary battery technology

  13. TCR Triggering Induces the Formation of Lck-RACK1-Actinin-1 Multiprotein Network Affecting Lck Redistribution.

    PubMed

    Ballek, Ondřej; Valečka, Jan; Dobešová, Martina; Broučková, Adéla; Manning, Jasper; Řehulka, Pavel; Stulík, Jiří; Filipp, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    The initiation of T-cell signaling is critically dependent on the function of the member of Src family tyrosine kinases, Lck. Upon T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) triggering, Lck kinase activity induces the nucleation of signal-transducing hubs that regulate the formation of complex signaling network and cytoskeletal rearrangement. In addition, the delivery of Lck function requires rapid and targeted membrane redistribution, but the mechanism underpinning this process is largely unknown. To gain insight into this process, we considered previously described proteins that could assist in this process via their capacity to interact with kinases and regulate their intracellular translocations. An adaptor protein, receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), was chosen as a viable option, and its capacity to bind Lck and aid the process of activation-induced redistribution of Lck was assessed. Our microscopic observation showed that T-cell activation induces a rapid, concomitant, and transient co-redistribution of Lck and RACK1 into the forming immunological synapse. Consistent with this observation, the formation of transient RACK1-Lck complexes were detectable in primary CD4(+) T-cells with their maximum levels peaking 10 s after TCR-CD4 co-aggregation. Moreover, RACK1 preferentially binds to a pool of kinase active pY394(Lck), which co-purifies with high molecular weight cellular fractions. The formation of RACK1-Lck complexes depends on functional SH2 and SH3 domains of Lck and includes several other signaling and cytoskeletal elements that transiently bind the complex. Notably, the F-actin-crosslinking protein, α-actinin-1, binds to RACK1 only in the presence of kinase active Lck suggesting that the formation of RACK1-pY394(Lck)-α-actinin-1 complex serves as a signal module coupling actin cytoskeleton bundling with productive TCR/CD4 triggering. In addition, the treatment of CD4(+) T-cells with nocodazole, which disrupts the microtubular network, also blocked the

  14. A T-cell specific transcriptional enhancer element 3 prime of C sub. alpha. in the human T-cell receptor. alpha. locus

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Icheng; Yang, Lihsuan; Morle, G.; Leiden, J.M. )

    1989-09-01

    A transcriptional enhancer element has been identified 4.5 kilobases 3{prime} of C{sub {alpha}} (constant region {alpha} chain) in the human T-cell receptor (TCR) {alpha}-chain locus. This enhancer is active on both a TCR V{sub {alpha}} (variable region {alpha} chain) promoter and the minimal simian virus 40 promoter in TCR {alpha}/{beta} Jurkat and EL4 cells but is inactive on a V{sub {alpha}} promoter TCR {gamma}/{delta} PEER and Molt-13 cells, clone 13 B cells, and HeLa fibroblasts. The enhancer has been localized to a 116-base-pair BstXI/Dra I restriction enzyme fragment, which lacks immunoglobulin octamer and {kappa}B enhancer motifs but does contain a consensus cAMP-response element (CRE). DNase I footprint analyses demonstrated that the minimal enhancer contains two binding sites for Jurkat nuclear proteins. One of these sites corresponds to the CRE, while the other does not correspond to a known transcriptional enhancer motif. These data support a model in which TCR {alpha} gene transcription is regulated by a unique set of cis-acting sequences and trans-acting factors, which are differentially active in cells of the TCR {alpha}/{beta} lineage. In addition, the TCR {alpha} enhancer may play a role in activating oncogene expression in T-lymphoblastoid tumors that have previously been shown to display chromosomal translocations into the human TCR {alpha} locus.

  15. Definition of APC presentation of phosphoantigen (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate to Vgamma2Vdelta 2 TCR.

    PubMed

    Wei, Huiyong; Huang, Dan; Lai, Xiaomin; Chen, Meiling; Zhong, Weihua; Wang, Richard; Chen, Zheng W

    2008-10-01

    Although microbial (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP) can activate primate Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells, molecular mechanisms by which HMBPP interacts with Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells remain poorly characterized. Here, we developed soluble, tetrameric Vgamma2Vdelta2 TCR of rhesus macaques to define HMBPP/APC interaction with Vgamma2Vdelta2 TCR. While exogenous HMBPP was associated with APC membrane in an appreciable affinity, the membrane-associated HMBPP readily bound to the Vgamma2Vdelta2 TCR tetramer. The Vgamma2Vdelta2 TCR tetramer was shown to bind stably to HMBPP presented on membrane by various APC cell lines from humans and nonhuman primates but not those from mouse, rat, or pig. The Vgamma2Vdelta2 TCR tetramer also bound to the membrane-associated HMBPP on primary monocytes, B cells and T cells. Consistently, endogenous phosphoantigen produced in Mycobacterium-infected dendritic cells was transported and presented on membrane, and bound stably to the Vgamma2Vdelta2 TCR tetramer. The capability of APC to present HMBPP for recognition by Vgamma2Vdelta2 TCR was diminished after protease treatment of APC. Thus, our studies elucidated an affinity HMBPP-APC association conferring stable binding to the Vgamma2Vdelta2 TCR tetramer and the protease-sensitive nature of phosphoantigen presentation. The findings defined APC presentation of phosphoantigen HMBPP to Vgamma2Vdelta2 TCR.

  16. Quantitative network signal combinations downstream of TCR activation can predict IL-2 production response.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Melissa L; Wille, Lucia; Lewis, Christina L; Nicholson, Lindsay B; Lauffenburger, Douglas A

    2007-04-15

    Proximal signaling events activated by TCR-peptide/MHC (TCR-pMHC) binding have been the focus of intense ongoing study, but understanding how the consequent downstream signaling networks integrate to govern ultimate avidity-appropriate TCR-pMHC T cell responses remains a crucial next challenge. We hypothesized that a quantitative combination of key downstream network signals across multiple pathways must encode the information generated by TCR activation, providing the basis for a quantitative model capable of interpreting and predicting T cell functional responses. To this end, we measured 11 protein nodes across six downstream pathways, along five time points from 10 min to 4 h, in a 1B6 T cell hybridoma stimulated by a set of three myelin proteolipid protein 139-151 altered peptide ligands. A multivariate regression model generated from this data compendium successfully comprehends the various IL-2 production responses and moreover successfully predicts a priori the response to an additional peptide treatment, demonstrating that TCR binding information is quantitatively encoded in the downstream network. Individual node and/or time point measurements less effectively accounted for the IL-2 responses, indicating that signals must be integrated dynamically across multiple pathways to adequately represent the encoded TCR signaling information. Of further importance, the model also successfully predicted a priori direct experimental tests of the effects of individual and combined inhibitors of the MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways on this T cell response. Together, our findings show how multipathway network signals downstream of TCR activation quantitatively integrate to translate pMHC stimuli into functional cell responses.

  17. αβ T cell receptor germline CDR regions moderate contact with MHC ligands and regulate peptide cross-reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Attaf, Meriem; Holland, Stephan J.; Bartok, Istvan; Dyson, Julian

    2016-01-01

    αβ T cells respond to peptide epitopes presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. The role of T cell receptor (TCR) germline complementarity determining regions (CDR1 and 2) in MHC restriction is not well understood. Here, we examine T cell development, MHC restriction and antigen recognition where germline CDR loop structure has been modified by multiple glycine/alanine substitutions. Surprisingly, loss of germline structure increases TCR engagement with MHC ligands leading to excessive loss of immature thymocytes. MHC restriction is, however, strictly maintained. The peripheral T cell repertoire is affected similarly, exhibiting elevated cross-reactivity to foreign peptides. Our findings are consistent with germline TCR structure optimising T cell cross-reactivity and immunity by moderating engagement with MHC ligands. This strategy may operate alongside co-receptor imposed MHC restriction, freeing germline TCR structure to adopt this novel role in the TCR-MHC interface. PMID:27775030

  18. αβ T cell receptor germline CDR regions moderate contact with MHC ligands and regulate peptide cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Attaf, Meriem; Holland, Stephan J; Bartok, Istvan; Dyson, Julian

    2016-10-24

    αβ T cells respond to peptide epitopes presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. The role of T cell receptor (TCR) germline complementarity determining regions (CDR1 and 2) in MHC restriction is not well understood. Here, we examine T cell development, MHC restriction and antigen recognition where germline CDR loop structure has been modified by multiple glycine/alanine substitutions. Surprisingly, loss of germline structure increases TCR engagement with MHC ligands leading to excessive loss of immature thymocytes. MHC restriction is, however, strictly maintained. The peripheral T cell repertoire is affected similarly, exhibiting elevated cross-reactivity to foreign peptides. Our findings are consistent with germline TCR structure optimising T cell cross-reactivity and immunity by moderating engagement with MHC ligands. This strategy may operate alongside co-receptor imposed MHC restriction, freeing germline TCR structure to adopt this novel role in the TCR-MHC interface.

  19. NKG2D receptor regulates human effector T-cell cytokine production

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Amorette

    2011-01-01

    Although innate immune signals shape the activation of naive T cells, it is unclear how innate signals influence effector T-cell function. This study determined the effects of stimulating the NKG2D receptor in conjunction with the TCR on human effector CD8+ T cells. Stimulation of CD8+ T cells through CD3 and NKG2D simultaneously or through a chimeric NKG2D receptor, which consists of NKG2D fused to the intracellular region of CD3ζ, activated β-catenin and increased expression of β-catenin–induced genes, whereas T cells stimulated through the TCR or a combination of the TCR and CD28 did not. Activation by TCR and NKG2D prevented expression and production of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10, IL-9, IL-13, and VEGF-α in a β-catenin– and PPARγ- dependent manner. NKG2D stimulation also modulated the cytokine secretion of T cells activated simultaneously through CD3 and CD28. These data indicate that activating CD8+ T cells through the NKG2D receptor along with the TCR modulates signal transduction and the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, human effector T cells alter their function depending on which innate receptors are engaged in conjunction with the TCR complex. PMID:21518928

  20. Relating TCR-peptide-MHC affinity to immunogenicity for the design of tumor vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, Rachel H.; McWilliams, Jennifer A.; Jordan, Kimberly R.; Dow, Steven W.; Wilson, Darcy B.; Slansky, Jill E.

    2006-01-01

    One approach to enhancing the T cell response to tumors is vaccination with mimotopes, mimics of tumor epitopes. While mimotopes can stimulate proliferation of T cells that recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), this expansion does not always correlate with control of tumor growth. We hypothesized that vaccination with mimotopes of optimal affinity in this interaction will improve antitumor immunity. Using a combinatorial peptide library and a cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone that recognizes a TAA, we identified a panel of mimotopes that, when complexed with MHC, bound the TAA-specific TCR with a range of affinities. As expected, in vitro assays showed that the affinity of the TCR-peptide-MHC (TCR-pMHC) interaction correlated with activity of the T cell clone. However, only vaccination with mimotopes in the intermediate-affinity range elicited functional T cells and provided protection against tumor growth in vivo. Vaccination with mimotopes with the highest-affinity TCR-pMHC interactions elicited TAA-specific T cells to the tumor, but did not control tumor growth at any of the peptide concentrations tested. Further analysis of these T cells showed functional defects in response to the TAA. Thus, stimulation of an antitumor response by mimotopes may be optimal with peptides that increase but do not maximize the affinity of the TCR-pMHC interaction. PMID:16932807

  1. Engineered cytotoxic T lymphocytes with AFP-specific TCR gene for adoptive immunotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Longhao; Guo, Hao; Jiang, Ruoyu; Lu, Li; Liu, Tong; He, Xianghui

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and could serve as a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and potential target for adoptive immunotherapy. However, low frequency and severe functional impairment of AFP-specific T cells in vivo hamper adoptive infusion. TAA-specific T cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer could be an efficient and reliable alternation to generate AFP-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Autologous dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with AFP158-166 peptides were used to stimulate AFP-specific CTLs. TCR α/β chain genes of AFP-specific CTLs were cloned and linked by 2A peptide to form full-length TCR coding sequence synthesized into a lentiviral vector. Nonspecific activated T cells were engineered by lentivirus infection. Transgenetic CTLs were evaluated for transfection efficiency, expression of AFP158-166-specific TCR, interferon (IFN)-γ secretion, and specific cytotoxicity toward AFP+ HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry revealed the AFP158-166-MHC-Pentamer positive transgenetic CTLs was 9.86 %. The number of IFN-γ secretion T cells and the specific cytotoxicity toward HpeG2 in vitro and in tumor-bearing NOD/SCID mice were significantly raised in transgenetic CTLs than that of AFP158-166-specific CTLs obtained by peptide-pulsed DCs or control group. TCR gene transfer is a promising strategy to generate AFP158-166-specific CTLs for the treatment of HCC.

  2. RUNX1-dependent RAG1 deposition instigates human TCR-δ locus rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Cieslak, Agata; Le Noir, Sandrine; Trinquand, Amélie; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Franchini, Don-Marc; Villarese, Patrick; Gon, Stéphanie; Bond, Jonathan; Simonin, Mathieu; Vanhille, Laurent; Reimann, Christian; Verhoeyen, Els; Larghero, Jerome; Six, Emmanuelle; Spicuglia, Salvatore; André-Schmutz, Isabelle; Langerak, Anton; Nadel, Bertrand; Macintyre, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    V(D)J recombination of TCR loci is regulated by chromatin accessibility to RAG1/2 proteins, rendering RAG1/2 targeting a potentially important regulator of lymphoid differentiation. We show that within the human TCR-α/δ locus, Dδ2-Dδ3 rearrangements occur at a very immature thymic, CD34+/CD1a−/CD7+dim stage, before Dδ2(Dδ3)-Jδ1 rearrangements. These strictly ordered rearrangements are regulated by mechanisms acting beyond chromatin accessibility. Importantly, direct Dδ2-Jδ1 rearrangements are prohibited by a B12/23 restriction and ordered human TCR-δ gene assembly requires RUNX1 protein, which binds to the Dδ2-23RSS, interacts with RAG1, and enhances RAG1 deposition at this site. This RUNX1-mediated V(D)J recombinase targeting imposes the use of two Dδ gene segments in human TCR-δ chains. Absence of this RUNX1 binding site in the homologous mouse Dδ1-23RSS provides a molecular explanation for the lack of ordered TCR-δ gene assembly in mice and may underlie differences in early lymphoid differentiation between these species. PMID:25135298

  3. SNX17 Affects T Cell Activation by Regulating T Cell Receptor and Integrin Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Douglas G.; Piotrowski, Joshua T.; Dick, Christopher J.; Zhang, Jin-San; Billadeau, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    A key component in T cell activation is the endosomal recycling of receptors to the cell surface, thereby allowing continual integration of signaling and antigen recognition. One protein potentially involved in T cell receptor transport is sorting nexin 17 (SNX17). SNX proteins have been found to bind proteins involved in T cell activation, but specifically the role of SNX17 in receptor recycling and T cell activation is unknown. Using immunofluorescence, we find that SNX17 co-localizes with TCR and localizes to the immune synapse in T-APC conjugates. Significantly, knockdown of the SNX17 resulted in fewer T-APC conjugates, lower CD69, TCR, and LFA-1 surface expression, as well as lower overall TCR recycling compared to control T cells. Lastly, we identified the FERM-domain of SNX17 as being responsible in the binding and trafficking of TCR and LFA-1 to the cell surface. These data suggest that SNX17 plays a role in the maintenance of normal surface levels of activating receptors and integrins to permit optimum T cell activation at the immune synapse. PMID:25825439

  4. Nuclear transfer nTreg model reveals fate-determining TCR-β and novel peripheral nTreg precursors.

    PubMed

    Ku, Manching; Chang, Shih-En; Hernandez, Julio; Abadejos, Justin R; Sabouri-Ghomi, Mohsen; Muenchmeier, Niklas J; Schwarz, Anna; Valencia, Anna M; Kirak, Oktay

    2016-04-19

    To study the development and function of "natural-arising" T regulatory (nTreg) cells, we developed a novel nTreg model on pure nonobese diabetic background using epigenetic reprogramming via somatic cell nuclear transfer. On RAG1-deficient background, we found that monoclonal FoxP3(+)CD4(+)Treg cells developed in the thymus in the absence of other T cells. Adoptive transfer experiments revealed that the thymic niche is not a limiting factor in nTreg development. In addition, we showed that the T-cell receptor (TCR) β-chain of our nTreg model was not only sufficient to bias T-cell development toward the CD4 lineage, but we also demonstrated that this TCR β-chain was able to provide stronger TCR signals. This TCR-β-driven mechanism would thus unify former per se contradicting hypotheses of TCR-dependent and -independent nTreg development. Strikingly, peripheral FoxP3(-)CD4(+)T cells expressing the same TCR as this somatic cell nuclear transfer nTreg model had a reduced capability to differentiate into Th1 cells but were poised to differentiate better into induced nTreg cells, both in vitro and in vivo, representing a novel peripheral precursor subset of nTreg cells to which we refer to as pre-nTreg cells.

  5. Epigenetic Regulation of Myeloid Cells

    PubMed Central

    IVASHKIV, LIONEL B.; PARK, SUNG HO

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation in myeloid cells is crucial for cell differentiation and activation in response to developmental and environmental cues. Epigenetic control involves posttranslational modification of DNA or chromatin, and is also coupled to upstream signaling pathways and transcription factors. In this review, we summarize key epigenetic events and how dynamics in the epigenetic landscape of myeloid cells shape the development, immune activation, and innate immune memory. PMID:27337441

  6. Substrate curvature regulates cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiuxiu; Jiang, Yi

    2017-06-01

    Cell migration is essential in many aspects of biology. Many basic migration processes, including adhesion, membrane protrusion and tension, cytoskeletal polymerization, and contraction, have to act in concert to regulate cell migration. At the same time, substrate topography modulates these processes. In this work, we study how substrate curvature at micrometer scale regulates cell motility. We have developed a 3D mechanical model of single cell migration and simulated migration on curved substrates with different curvatures. The simulation results show that cell migration is more persistent on concave surfaces than on convex surfaces. We have further calculated analytically the cell shape and protrusion force for cells on curved substrates. We have shown that while cells spread out more on convex surfaces than on concave ones, the protrusion force magnitude in the direction of migration is larger on concave surfaces than on convex ones. These results offer a novel biomechanical explanation to substrate curvature regulation of cell migration: geometric constrains bias the direction of the protrusion force and facilitates persistent migration on concave surfaces.

  7. Substrate curvature regulates cell migration.

    PubMed

    He, Xiuxiu; Jiang, Yi

    2017-05-23

    Cell migration is essential in many aspects of biology. Many basic migration processes, including adhesion, membrane protrusion and tension, cytoskeletal polymerization, and contraction, have to act in concert to regulate cell migration. At the same time, substrate topography modulates these processes. In this work, we study how substrate curvature at micrometer scale regulates cell motility. We have developed a 3D mechanical model of single cell migration and simulated migration on curved substrates with different curvatures. The simulation results show that cell migration is more persistent on concave surfaces than on convex surfaces. We have further calculated analytically the cell shape and protrusion force for cells on curved substrates. We have shown that while cells spread out more on convex surfaces than on concave ones, the protrusion force magnitude in the direction of migration is larger on concave surfaces than on convex ones. These results offer a novel biomechanical explanation to substrate curvature regulation of cell migration: geometric constrains bias the direction of the protrusion force and facilitates persistent migration on concave surfaces.

  8. Piecing together the family portrait of TCR-CD3 complexes.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Michael S; Badgandi, Hemant B

    2012-11-01

    The pre-T-cell receptor (TCR)-, αβTCR-, and γδTCR-CD3 complexes are members of a family of modular biosensors that are responsible for driving T-cell development, activation, and effector functions. They inform essential checkpoint decisions by relaying key information from their ligand-binding modules (TCRs) to their signaling modules (CD3γε + CD3δε and CD3ζζ) and on to the intracellular signaling apparatus. Their actions shape the T-cell repertoire, as well as T-cell-mediated immunity; yet, the mechanisms that underlie their activity remain an enigma. As with any molecular machine, understanding how they function depends upon understanding how their parts fit and work together. In the 30 years since the initial biochemical and genetic characterizations of the αβTCR, the structure and function of the individual components of these family members have been extensively characterized. Cumulatively, this information has allowed us to piece together a portrait of the αβTCR-CD3 complex and outline the form of the remaining family members. Here we review the known structural and functional characteristics of the components of these TCR-CD3 complex family members. We then discuss how these data have informed our understanding of the architecture of the αβTCR-CD3 complex as well as their implications for the other family members. The intent is to provide a framework for considering: (i) how these thematically similar complexes diverge to execute their specific functions and (ii) how our knowledge of t