Science.gov

Sample records for cells retain antigen

  1. Equine infectious anemia virus-infected dendritic cells retain antigen presentation capability

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, Julie A.; McGuire, Travis C. . E-mail: mcguiret@vetmed.wsu.edu

    2005-05-10

    To determine if equine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) were susceptible to equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection, ex vivo-generated DC were infected with virus in vitro. EIAV antigen was detected by immunofluorescence 3 days post-infection with maximum antigen being detected on day 4, whereas there was no antigen detected in DC incubated with the same amount of heat-inactivated EIAV. No cytolytic activity was observed after EIAV{sub WSU5} infection of DC. These monocyte-derived DC were more effective than macrophages and B cells in stimulating allogenic T lymphocytes. Both infected macrophages and DC stimulated similar levels of memory CTL responses in mixtures of CD8+ and CD4+ cells as detected with {sup 51}Cr-release assays indicating that EIAV infection of DC did not alter antigen presentation. However, EIAV-infected DC were more effective than infected macrophages when used to stimulate memory CTL in isolated CD8+ cells. The maintenance of antigen processing and presenting function by EIAV-infected DC in vitro suggests that this function is maintained during in vivo infection.

  2. Characterization of a double-CRD-mutated Gal-8 recombinant protein that retains co-stimulatory activity on antigen-specific T-cell response.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Matías Nicolás; Tribulatti, María Virginia; Carabelli, Julieta; André-Leroux, Gwenaëlle; Caramelo, Julio Javier; Cattaneo, Valentina; Campetella, Oscar

    2016-04-01

    Galectins (Gals) constitute a family of mammalian lectins with affinity for β-galactosides, characterized by the presence of conserved CRDs (carbohydrate-recognition domains). We have found previously that Gal-8, from the tandem-repeat group with two linked CRDs, exerts two separate actions on CD4(+)T-cells: antigen-independent proliferation and, at lower concentration, antigen-specific co-stimulation. Whereas proliferation can be ascribed to the pro-inflammatory role of Gal-8, the co-stimulatory activity of borderline T-cell-specific responses allows the proposal of Gal-8 as an adjuvant in vaccination. To study the relevance of glycan-lectin interaction to these T-cell activities, we generated a double-mutated protein (Gal-8mut) by replacing canonical arginine residues on each CRD, so as to abolish sugar-binding capacity. As expected, Gal-8mut was unable to bind to lactosyl-Sepharose, confirming that lactose recognition was precluded; however, preservation of lectin activity was still evident since Gal-8mut displayed haemoagglutinatory effects and binding capacity to the T-cell surface. To search for glycan affinity, a glycan microarray analysis was conducted which revealed that Gal-8mut lost most low- and intermediate-, but retained high-, affinity interactions, mainly to polylactosamines and blood group antigens. These findings were supported further by molecular modelling. Regarding biological activity, Gal-8mut was unable to induce T-cell proliferation, but efficiently co-stimulated antigen-specific responses, bothin vitroandin vivo.Therefore Gal-8mut represents a useful tool to dissect the specificities of lectin-glycan interactions underlying distinctive Gal-8 activities on T-cell biology. Moreover, given its distinguishing properties, Gal-8mut could be used to enhance borderline immune responses without the non-specific pro-inflammatory activity or other potential adverse effects.

  3. The Memory Function of the B Cell Antigen Receptor.

    PubMed

    Wienands, Jürgen; Engels, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Activated B lymphocytes preserve their antigen experience by differentiating into long-lived pools of antibody-secreting plasma cells or various types of memory B cells (MBCs). The former population constantly produces serum immunoglobulins with sufficient specificity and affinity to thwart infections with recurrent pathogens. By contrast, memory B cell populations retain their antigen receptors on the cell surface and hence need pathogen-induced differentiation steps before they can actively contribute to host defense. The terminal differentiation of MBCs into antibody-secreting plasma cells is hallmarked by the absence of the lag phase characteristic for primary antibody responses. Moreover, secondary antibody responses are predominantly driven by MBCs that bear an antigen receptor of the IgG class on their surface although IgM-positive memory populations exist as well. These fundamental principles of B cell memory were enigmatic for decades. Only recently, we have begun to understand the underlying mechanisms. This review summarizes our current understanding of how different subpopulations of MBCs are generated during primary immune responses and how their functional heterogeneity on antigen recall is controlled by different signaling capabilities of B cell antigen receptor (BCR) isotypes and by the nature of the antigen.

  4. Intestinal Antigen-Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Flannigan, Kyle L.; Geem, Duke; Harusato, Akihito; Denning, Timothy L.

    2016-01-01

    The microbiota that populate the mammalian intestine are critical for proper host physiology, yet simultaneously pose a potential danger. Intestinal antigen-presenting cells, namely macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are integral components of the mucosal innate immune system that maintain co-existence with the microbiota in face of this constant threat. Intestinal macrophages and DCs integrate signals from the microenvironment to orchestrate innate and adaptive immune responses that ultimately lead to durable tolerance of the microbiota. Tolerance is not a default response, however, because macrophages and DCs remain poised to vigorously respond to pathogens that breach the epithelial barrier. In this review, we summarize the salient features of macrophages and DCs in the healthy and inflamed intestine and discuss how signals from the microbiota can influence their function. PMID:25976247

  5. CCR7 deficient inflammatory Dendritic Cells are retained in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, Benjamin D.; Walker, Alec; Harris, Melissa G.; Rayasam, Aditya; Hsu, Martin; Sandor, Matyas; Fabry, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) accumulate in the CNS during neuroinflammation, yet, how these cells contribute to CNS antigen drainage is still unknown. We have previously shown that after intracerebral injection, antigen-loaded bone marrow DC migrate to deep cervical lymph nodes where they prime antigen-specific T cells and exacerbate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. Here, we report that DC migration from brain parenchyma is dependent upon the chemokine receptor CCR7. During EAE, both wild type and CCR7−/− CD11c-eYFP cells infiltrated into the CNS but cells that lacked CCR7 were retained in brain and spinal cord while wild type DC migrated to cervical lymph nodes. Retention of CCR7-deficient CD11c-eYFP cells in the CNS exacerbated EAE. These data are the first to show that CD11chigh DC use CCR7 for migration out of the CNS, and in the absence of this receptor they remain in the CNS in situ and exacerbate EAE. PMID:28216674

  6. Stem cell programs are retained in human leukemic lymphoblasts.

    PubMed

    Fan, D; Zhou, X; Li, Z; Li, Z-Q; Duan, C; Liu, T; Zhang, F; Huang, Y; Zhang, Y; Gao, F; Guo, Y; Gupta, R; Chen, G; Enver, T; Tang, J; Hong, D

    2015-04-16

    Leukemic lymphoblasts within different immunophenotypic populations possess stem cell properties. However, whether or not the self-renewal program is retained from stem cells or conferred on progenitors by leukemogenic molecules remains unknown. We have addressed the issue in the context of TEL-AML1-associated acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by profiling a refined program edited from genes essential for self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and B-cell development. Bioinformatic analysis shows that ALL populations are loosely clustered and close to the normal population that contains stem and primitive progenitor cells. This finding indicates that immunophenotypes do not reflect maturation stages in ALL and that the self-renewal program may be retained from stem cells. Results of assessing 'first hit' function of TEL-AML1 in different populations of normal cells demonstrate the molecular model. Therefore, the current study shows a leukemogenic scenario of human ALL in which programs of stem cells are sustained in distinct fractions by leukemogenic mutations.

  7. Antigen presentation by Hodgkin's disease cells.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R I; Cossman, J; Diehl, V; Volkman, D J

    1985-11-01

    The L428 tumor cell line is a long-term tissue culture of Reed-Sternberg cells which was derived from the pleural effusion of a patient with Hodgkin's disease. The L428 cells express all known cell surface antigens, cytochemical staining, and cytologic features of freshly explanted Reed-Sternberg cells. In addition to the previously described HLA-DR cell surface antigens, the L428 cells are now demonstrated to express both DS and SB alloantigens. Thus, the L428 cells express all of the known subclasses of the human immune response genes that are located in the major histocompatibility complex. Furthermore, the L428 cells are capable of presenting soluble antigen to T cells in a genetically restricted fashion. T cell lines were established from normal donors previously immunized with tetanus toxoid. The T cells utilized were incapable of tetanus toxoid-induced proliferation unless antigen-presenting cells were added to the cultures. However, T cells from the two normal donors, which like the L428 cells expressed HLA-DR 5, demonstrated significant proliferative responses when cultured with tetanus toxoid and L428 cells. No proliferative response was observed when the L428 cells were used as antigen-presenting cells for a DR (4,-), DR (2,-) or DR (1,7) T cell line. The tetanus toxoid dose-response curve was similar regardless of whether autologous mononuclear leukocytes or L428 cells were used as antigen-presenting cells. The T cell proliferation induced by soluble antigen was also blocked by anti-HLA-DR antibody. Thus, functionally, Hodgkin's disease may be classified as a tumor of antigen-presenting cells.

  8. Optofluidic realization and retaining of cell-cell contact using an abrupt tapered optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Hongbao; Zhang, Yao; Lei, Hongxiang; Li, Yayi; Zhang, Huixian; Li, Baojun

    2013-06-01

    Studies reveal that there exists much interaction and communication between bacterial cells, with parts of these social behaviors depending on cell-cell contacts. The cell-cell contact has proved to be crucial for determining various biochemical processes. However, for cell culture with relatively low cell concentration, it is difficult to precisely control and retain the contact of a small group of cells. Particularly, the retaining of cell-cell contact is difficult when flows occur in the medium. Here, we report an optofluidic method for realization and retaining of Escherichia coli cell-cell contact in a microfluidic channel using an abrupt tapered optical fibre. The contact process is based on launching a 980-nm wavelength laser into the fibre, E. coli cells were trapped onto the fibre tip one after another, retaining cell-cell contact and forming a highly organized cell chain. The formed chains further show the ability as bio-optical waveguides.

  9. Porous electrolyte retainer for molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Raj N.; Dusek, Joseph T.

    1983-06-21

    A porous tile for retaining molten electrolyte within a fuel cell is prepared by sintering particles of lithium aluminate into a stable structure. The tile is assembled between two porous metal plates which serve as electrodes with fuels gases such as H.sub.2 and CO opposite to oxidant gases such as O.sub.2 and CO.sub.2. The tile is prepared with a porosity of 55-65% and a pore size distribution selected to permit release of sufficient molten electrolyte to wet but not to flood the adjacent electrodes.

  10. Porous electrolyte retainer for molten carbonate fuel cell. [lithium aluminate

    DOEpatents

    Singh, R.N.; Dusek, J.T.

    1979-12-27

    A porous tile for retaining molten electrolyte within a fuel cell is prepared by sintering particles of lithium aluminate into a stable structure. The tile is assembled between two porous metal plates which serve as electrodes with fuels gases such as H/sub 2/ and CO opposite to oxidant gases such as O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/. The tile is prepared with a porosity of 55 to 65% and a pore size distribution selected to permit release of sufficient molten electrolyte to wet but not to flood the adjacent electrodes.

  11. Antigenically Modified Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Generate Antigen-Presenting Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jieming; Wu, Chunxiao; Wang, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) provide a promising platform to produce dendritic cell (DC) vaccine. To streamline the production process, we investigated a unique antigen-loading strategy that suits this novel platform. Specifically, we stably modified hPSCs using tumour antigen genes in the form of a full-length tumour antigen gene or an artificial tumour antigen epitope-coding minigene. Such antigenically modified hPSCs were able to differentiate into tumour antigen-presenting DCs. Without conventional antigen-loading, DCs derived from the minigene-modified hPSCs were ready to prime a tumour antigen-specific T cell response and further expand these specific T cells in restimulation processes. These expanded tumour antigen-specific T cells were potent effectors with central memory or effector memory phenotype. Thus, we demonstrated that immunocompetent tumour antigen-loaded DCs can be directly generated from antigenically modified hPSCs. Using such strategy, we can completely eliminate the conventional antigen-loading step and significantly simplify the production of DC vaccine from hPSCs. PMID:26471005

  12. Antigen Export Reduces Antigen Presentation and Limits T Cell Control of M. tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Grace, Patricia S; Ernst, Joel D

    2016-01-13

    Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis results from bacterial strategies that manipulate host adaptive immune responses. Infected dendritic cells (DCs) transport M. tuberculosis to local lymph nodes but activate CD4 T cells poorly, suggesting bacterial manipulation of antigen presentation. However, M. tuberculosis antigens are also exported from infected DCs and taken up and presented by uninfected DCs, possibly overcoming this blockade of antigen presentation by infected cells. Here we show that the first stage of this antigen transfer, antigen export, benefits M. tuberculosis by diverting bacterial proteins from the antigen presentation pathway. Kinesin-2 is required for antigen export and depletion of this microtubule-based motor increases activation of antigen-specific CD4 T cells by infected cells and improves control of intracellular infection. Thus, although antigen transfer enables presentation by bystander cells, it does not compensate for reduced antigen presentation by infected cells and represents a bacterial strategy for CD4 T cell evasion.

  13. Mature IgM-expressing plasma cells sense antigen and develop competence for cytokine production upon antigenic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Pascal; Moro-Sibilot, Ludovic; Barthly, Lucas; Jagot, Ferdinand; This, Sébastien; de Bernard, Simon; Buffat, Laurent; Dussurgey, Sébastien; Colisson, Renaud; Hobeika, Elias; Fest, Thierry; Taillardet, Morgan; Thaunat, Olivier; Sicard, Antoine; Mondière, Paul; Genestier, Laurent; Nutt, Stephen L.; Defrance, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Dogma holds that plasma cells, as opposed to B cells, cannot bind antigen because they have switched from expression of membrane-bound immunoglobulins (Ig) that constitute the B-cell receptor (BCR) to production of the secreted form of immunoglobulins. Here we compare the phenotypical and functional attributes of plasma cells generated by the T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent forms of the hapten NP. We show that the nature of the secreted Ig isotype, rather than the chemical structure of the immunizing antigen, defines two functionally distinct populations of plasma cells. Fully mature IgM-expressing plasma cells resident in the bone marrow retain expression of a functional BCR, whereas their IgG+ counterparts do not. Antigen boost modifies the gene expression profile of IgM+ plasma cells and initiates a cytokine production program, characterized by upregulation of CCL5 and IL-10. Our results demonstrate that IgM-expressing plasma cells can sense antigen and acquire competence for cytokine production upon antigenic challenge. PMID:27924814

  14. Antigen Presentation by MHC-Dressed Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as conventional dendritic cells (DCs) process protein antigens to MHC-bound peptides and then present the peptide–MHC complexes to T cells. In addition to this canonical antigen presentation pathway, recent studies have revealed that DCs and non-APCs can acquire MHC class I (MHCI) and/or MHC class II (MHCII) from neighboring cells through a process of cell–cell contact-dependent membrane transfer called trogocytosis. These MHC-dressed cells subsequently activate or regulate T cells via the preformed antigen peptide–MHC complexes without requiring any further processing. In addition to trogocytosis, intercellular transfer of MHCI and MHCII can be mediated by secretion of membrane vesicles such as exosomes from APCs, generating MHC-dressed cells. This review focuses on the physiological role of antigen presentation by MHCI- or MHCII-dressed cells, and also discusses differences and similarities between trogocytosis and exosome-mediated transfer of MHC. PMID:25601867

  15. Podosomes of dendritic cells facilitate antigen sampling

    PubMed Central

    Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; Cambi, Alessandra; Figdor, Carl G.; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Summary Dendritic cells sample the environment for antigens and play an important role in establishing the link between innate and acquired immunity. Dendritic cells contain mechanosensitive adhesive structures called podosomes that consist of an actin-rich core surrounded by integrins, adaptor proteins and actin network filaments. They facilitate cell migration via localized degradation of extracellular matrix. Here we show that podosomes of human dendritic cells locate to spots of low physical resistance in the substrate (soft spots) where they can evolve into protrusive structures. Pathogen recognition receptors locate to these protrusive structures where they can trigger localized antigen uptake, processing and presentation to activate T-cells. Our data demonstrate a novel role in antigen sampling for podosomes of dendritic cells. PMID:24424029

  16. Podosomes of dendritic cells facilitate antigen sampling.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Maksim V; Ter Beest, Martin; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; Cambi, Alessandra; Figdor, Carl G; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2014-03-01

    Dendritic cells sample the environment for antigens and play an important role in establishing the link between innate and acquired immunity. Dendritic cells contain mechanosensitive adhesive structures called podosomes that consist of an actin-rich core surrounded by integrins, adaptor proteins and actin network filaments. They facilitate cell migration via localized degradation of extracellular matrix. Here, we show that podosomes of human dendritic cells locate to spots of low physical resistance in the substrate (soft spots) where they can evolve into protrusive structures. Pathogen recognition receptors locate to these protrusive structures where they can trigger localized antigen uptake, processing and presentation to activate T-cells. Our data demonstrate a novel role in antigen sampling for the podosomes of dendritic cells.

  17. Th17 cells are refractory to senescence and retain robust antitumor activity after long-term ex vivo expansion

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Jacob S.; Nelson, Michelle H.; Majchrzak, Kinga; Bailey, Stefanie R.; Rohrer, Baerbel; Kaiser, Andrew D.M.; Atkinson, Carl; Paulos, Chrystal M.

    2017-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy for solid tumors relies on infusing large numbers of T cells to mediate successful antitumor responses in patients. While long-term rapid-expansion protocols (REPs) produce sufficient numbers of CD8+ T cells for treatment, they also cause decline in the cell’s therapeutic fitness. In contrast, we discovered that IL-17–producing CD4+ T cells (Th17 cells) do not require REPs to expand 5,000-fold over 3 weeks. Also, unlike Th1 cells, Th17 cells do not exhibit hallmarks of senescence or apoptosis, retaining robust antitumor efficacy in vivo. Three-week-expanded Th17 cells eliminated melanoma as effectively as Th17 cells expanded for 1 week when infused in equal numbers into mice. However, treating mice with large recalcitrant tumors required the infusion of all cells generated after 2 or 3 weeks of expansion, while the cell yield obtained after 1-week expansion was insufficient. Long-term-expanded Th17 cells also protected mice from tumor rechallenge including lung metastasis. Importantly, 2-week-expanded human chimeric antigen receptor–positive (CAR+) Th17 cells also retained their ability to regress human mesothelioma, while CAR+ Th1 cells did not. Our results indicate that tumor-reactive Th17 cells are an effective cell therapy for cancer, remaining uncompromised when expanded for a long duration owing to their resistance to senescence. PMID:28289713

  18. Red cell antigens: Structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Pourazar, Abbasali

    2007-01-01

    Landsteiner and his colleagues demonstrated that human beings could be classified into four groups depending on the presence of one (A) or another (B) or both (AB) or none (O) of the antigens on their red cells. The number of the blood group antigens up to 1984 was 410. In the next 20 years, there were 16 systems with 144 antigens and quite a collection of antigens waiting to be assigned to systems, pending the discovery of new information about their relationship to the established systems. The importance of most blood group antigens had been recognized by immunological complications of blood transfusion or pregnancies; their molecular structure and function however remained undefined for many decades. Recent advances in molecular genetics and cellular biochemistry resulted in an abundance of new information in this field of research. In this review, we try to give some examples of advances made in the field of ‘structure and function of the red cell surface molecules.’ PMID:21938229

  19. Antigen affinity and antigen dose exert distinct influences on CD4 T-cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Keck, Simone; Schmaler, Mathias; Ganter, Stefan; Wyss, Lena; Oberle, Susanne; Huseby, Eric S; Zehn, Dietmar; King, Carolyn G

    2014-10-14

    Cumulative T-cell receptor signal strength and ensuing T-cell responses are affected by both antigen affinity and antigen dose. Here we examined the distinct contributions of these parameters to CD4 T-cell differentiation during infection. We found that high antigen affinity positively correlates with T helper (Th)1 differentiation at both high and low doses of antigen. In contrast, follicular helper T cell (TFH) effectors are generated after priming with high, intermediate, and low affinity ligand. Unexpectedly, memory T cells generated after priming with very low affinity antigen remain impaired in their ability to generate secondary Th1 effectors, despite being recalled with high affinity antigen. These data challenge the view that only strongly stimulated CD4 T cells are capable of differentiating into the TFH and memory T-cell compartments and reveal that differential strength of stimulation during primary T-cell activation imprints unique and long lasting T-cell differentiation programs.

  20. Diverse Endogenous Antigens for Mouse Natural Killer T Cells: Self-Antigens That Are Not Glycosphingolipids

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Bo; Speak, Anneliese O; Shepherd, Dawn; Butters, Terry; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Platt, Frances M; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    Natural killer T cells with an invariant antigen receptor (iNKT cells) represent a highly conserved and unique subset of T lymphocytes having properties of innate and adaptive immune cells. They have been reported to regulate a variety of immune responses, including the response to cancers and the development of autoimmunity. The development and activation of iNKT cells is dependent on self-antigens presented by the CD1d antigen-presenting molecule. It is widely believed that these self-antigens are glycosphingolipids (GSLs), molecules that contain ceramide as the lipid backbone. Here we used a variety of methods to show that mammalian antigens for mouse iNKT cells need not be GSLs, including the use of cell lines deficient in GSL biosynthesis and an inhibitor of GSL biosynthesis. Presentation of these antigens required the expression of CD1d molecules that could traffic to late endosomes, the site where self-antigen is acquired. Extracts of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) contain a self-antigen that could stimulate iNKT cells when added to plates coated with soluble, recombinant CD1d molecules. The antigen(s) in these extracts are resistant to sphingolipid-specific hydrolase digestion, consistent with the results using live APCs. Lyosphosphatidylcholine, a potential self-antigen that activated human iNKT cell lines, did not activate mouse iNKT cell hybridomas. Our data indicate that there may be more than one type of self-antigen for iNKT cells, that the self-antigens comparing mouse and human may not be conserved, and that the search to identify these molecules should not be confined to GSLs. PMID:21191069

  1. Antigen-Presenting Cells and Antigen Presentation in Tertiary Lymphoid Organs

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Catherine E.; Benson, Robert A.; Bedaj, Marija; Maffia, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) form in territorialized niches of peripheral tissues characterized by the presence of antigens; however, little is known about mechanism(s) of antigen handling by ectopic lymphoid structures. In this mini review, we will discuss the role of antigen-presenting cells and mechanisms of antigen presentation in TLOs, summarizing what is currently known about this facet of the formation and function of these tissues as well as identifying questions yet to be addressed. PMID:27872626

  2. Shashkov`s method retaining cell-edge unknowns

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.M.

    1996-01-05

    Shashkov`s method for scalar cell-edge and cell-center variables is derived. Dot products for cell-edge vectors are computed for a corner of the cell. Next, the divergence and gradient are discretized. The diffusion equation is solved with cell-edge continuity and boundary conditions. A symmetric positive definite solution matrix is proven.

  3. Isolation and In vivo Transfer of Antigen Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pooja; Kharkwal, Shalu Sharma; Porcelli, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Transfer of antigen presenting cells in vivo is a method used by immunologists to examine the potency of antigen presentation by a selected population of cells. This method is most commonly used to analyze presentation of protein antigens to MHC class I or II restricted T cells, but it can also be used for studies of nonconventional antigens such as CD1-presented lipids. In a recent study focusing on CD1d-restricted glycolipid antigen presentation to Natural Killer T cells, we compared antigen presenting properties of splenic B cells, CD8αPos dendritc cells (DCs) and CD8αNeg DCs (Arora et al., 2014). This protocol describes the detailed method used for isolation of these cell populations, and their transfer into recipient mice to analyze their antigen presenting properties. PMID:27390759

  4. Activation of Type II Cells into Regenerative Stem Cell Antigen-1+ Cells during Alveolar Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Varsha Suresh; Zhang, Wei; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B.

    2015-01-01

    The alveolar epithelium is composed of two cell types: type I cells comprise 95% of the gas exchange surface area, whereas type II cells secrete surfactant, while retaining the ability to convert into type I cells to induce alveolar repair. Using lineage-tracing analyses in the mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced lung injury, we identified a population of stem cell antigen (Sca)-1–expressing type II cells with progenitor cell properties that mediate alveolar repair. These cells were shown to be distinct from previously reported Sca-1–expressing bronchioalveolar stem cells. Microarray and Wnt reporter studies showed that surfactant protein (Sp)-C+Sca-1+ cells expressed Wnt signaling pathway genes, and inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling prevented the regenerative function of Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells in vitro. Thus, P. aeruginosa–mediated lung injury induces the generation of a Sca-1+ subset of type II cells. The progenitor phenotype of the Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells that mediates alveolar epithelial repair might involve Wnt signaling. PMID:25474582

  5. Immortalization of human myogenic progenitor cell clone retaining multipotentiality

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Naohiro . E-mail: nao@nils.go.jp; Kiyono, Tohru; Wada, Michiko R.; Shimizu, Shirabe; Yasumoto, Shigeru; Inagawa, Masayo

    2006-10-06

    Human myogenic cells have limited ability to proliferate in culture. Although forced expression of telomerase can immortalize some cell types, telomerase alone delays senescence of human primary cultured myogenic cells, but fails to immortalize them. In contrast, constitutive expression of both telomerase and the E7 gene from human papillomavirus type 16 immortalizes primary human myogenic cells. We have established an immortalized primary human myogenic cell line preserving multipotentiality by ectopic expression of telomerase and E7. The immortalized human myogenic cells exhibit the phenotypic characteristics of their primary parent, including an ability to undergo myogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic terminal differentiation under appropriate culture conditions. The immortalized cells will be useful for both basic and applied studies aimed at human muscle disorders. Furthermore, immortalization by transduction of telomerase and E7 represents a useful method by which to expand human myogenic cells in vitro without compromising their ability to differentiate.

  6. TL antigen as a transplantation antigen recognized by TL-restricted cytotoxic T cells

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to broadly expressed classical class I antigens of the major histocompatibility complex, structurally closely related TL antigens are expressed in a highly restricted fashion. Unlike classical class I antigens, TL antigens are not known to be targets of cytotoxic T cells or to mediate graft rejection. Whereas classical class I antigens function as antigen-presenting molecules to T cell receptors (TCR), the role of TL is yet to be defined. To elucidate the function of TL, we have derived transgenic mice expressing TL in most tissues including skin by introducing a TL gene, T3b of C57BL/6 mouse origin, driven by the H-2Kb promoter. By grafting the skin of transgenic mice, we demonstrate that TL can serve as a transplantation antigen and mediate a TCR-alpha/beta+ CD8+ cytotoxic T cell response. This T cell recognition of TL does not require antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. Furthermore, we show that C57BL/6 F1 mice develop CD8+ T cells that are cytotoxic for C57BL/6 TL+ leukemia cells, providing further support for the concept that aberrantly expressed nonmutated proteins such as TL can be recognized as tumor antigens. PMID:8113675

  7. Antigen-Presenting Cells in the Skin.

    PubMed

    Kashem, Sakeen W; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Kaplan, Daniel H

    2017-02-06

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the skin include dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages. They are highly dynamic, with the capacity to enter skin from the peripheral circulation, patrol within tissue, and migrate through lymphatics to draining lymph nodes. Skin APCs are endowed with antigen sensing, processing, and presenting machinery and play key roles in initiating, modulating, and resolving cutaneous inflammation. Skin APCs are a highly heterogeneous population with functionally specialized subsets that are developmentally imprinted and modulated by local tissue microenvironmental and inflammatory cues. This review explores recent advances that have allowed for a more accurate taxonomy of APC subsets found in both mouse and human skin. It also examines the functional specificity of individual APC subsets and their collaboration with other immune cell types that together promote adaptive T cell and regional cutaneous immune responses during homeostasis, inflammation, and disease. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Immunology Volume 35 is April 26, 2017 . Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  8. Satellite cells from dystrophic muscle retain regenerative capacity.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Luisa; Zammit, Peter S; Morgan, Jennifer E

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an inherited disorder that is characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting, with a failure of muscle maintenance/repair mediated by satellite cells (muscle stem cells). The function of skeletal muscle stem cells resident in dystrophic muscle may be perturbed by being in an increasing pathogenic environment, coupled with constant demands for repairing muscle. To investigate the contribution of satellite cell exhaustion to this process, we tested the functionality of satellite cells isolated from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We found that satellite cells derived from young mdx mice contributed efficiently to muscle regeneration within our in vivo mouse model. To then test the effects of long-term residence in a dystrophic environment, satellite cells were isolated from aged mdx muscle. Surprisingly, they were as functional as those derived from young or aged wild type donors. Removing satellite cells from a dystrophic milieu reveals that their regenerative capacity remains both intact and similar to satellite cells derived from healthy muscle, indicating that the host environment is critical for controlling satellite cell function.

  9. LOCALIZATION OF ANTIGEN IN TISSUE CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Coons, Albert H.; Leduc, Elizabeth H.; Kaplan, Melvin H.

    1951-01-01

    The fate of three proteins, crystalline hen's egg albumin, crystalline bovine plasma albumin, and human plasma γ-globulin, was traced after intravenous injection into mice. This was done by preparing frozen sections of quick-frozen tissue, allowing what foreign protein might be present in the section to react with homologous antibody labelled with fluorescein, and examining the section under the fluorescence microscope. By this means, which employs the serological specificity of the protein as a natural "marker," all three of these proteins were found in the cells of the reticulo-endothelial system, the connective tissue, the vascular endothelium, the lymphocytes of spleen and lymph node, and the epithelium of the kidney tubules, the liver, and in very small amounts in the adrenal. The central nervous system was not studied. All three persisted longest in the reticulo-endothelial system and the connective tissue, and in the doses employed egg white (10 mg.) was no longer detectable after 1 day, bovine albumin (10 mg.) after 2 days, and human γ-globulin (4 mg.) after 6 days, although in a somewhat higher dose (10 mg.) human γ-globulin persisted longer than 8 days. Egg albumin differed from the others in not being detectable in the cells of the renal glomerulus. It was found that each of the three proteins was present in the nuclei of each cell type enumerated above, often in higher concentration than in the cytoplasm. Further, some of the nuclei not only contained antigen, soon after injection, but were also surrounded by a bright ring associated with the nuclear membrane. By means of photographic records under the fluorescence microscope of sections stained for antigen, and direct observation under the light microscope of the same field subsequently stained with hematoxylin and eosin, it could be determined that the antigen was not adsorbed to chromatin or nucleoli, but was apparently in solution in the nuclear sap. PMID:14803641

  10. T Helper Cell Tolerance to Ubiquitous Nuclear Antigens

    PubMed Central

    NAKKEN, BRITT; DAVIS, KAREN E.; PAN, ZIJIAN; BACHMANN, MICHAEL; FARRIS, A. DARISE

    2007-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases are characterized by the development of anti-nuclear autoantibodies. In order to understand the immunologic events leading to the development of such antibodies, knowledge of mechanisms of immune tolerance to nuclear antigens is required. By utilizing adoptive T cell transfer strategies with transgenic mouse models expressing nuclear neo-self antigens, T cell tolerance to the lupus-related nuclear antigens human La and nRNP A has been demonstrated. These findings also indicate the existence in normal animals of autoreactive B cells continuously presenting nuclear antigen, suggesting that nuclear antigens are not sequestered from the immune system. Investigations of CD4+ T cell tolerance to non-nuclear antigens have revealed a number of mechanisms that protect the host from autoreactivity, including autoreactive T cell deletion, regulatory T cell development and anergy induction. Recent studies using T cell receptor and neo-self nuclear antigen transgenic mice are revealing the importance of such mechanisms in maintaining tolerance to nuclear antigens. Mechanisms of tolerogenic antigen presentation, identification of tolerogenic antigen source(s), and the pathways leading to loss of tolerance to nuclear antigens in systemic autoimmune disease states are currently being sought. PMID:14629620

  11. T-cell responses to minor histocompatibility antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, P K; Waterfield, J D; Gascoigne, N R; Sharrock, C E; Mitchison, N A

    1982-01-01

    We have investigated the helper and cytotoxic T-cell response to minor histocompatibility antigens and generated long term antigen-specific cell lines to them. Antigen-specific activity was selected for by regular restimulation with irradiated cells bearing the antigens in the presence of interleukin 2, so that alloreactivity to other cell surface antigens was gradually lost. Helper T cells cultured over several months were active in vivo and in vitro, but the culturing method eventually selected for cytotoxic T cells at the expense of helper T cells, with concomitant changes in the proportions of cells expressing the Lyt phenotypes. Individual long term cultures of cytotoxic T cells specific for minor histocompatibility antigens were restricted by either H2K or D but not both. Helper T cells to minor histocompatibility antigens derived directly from primed F1 mice did not show restriction to the priming parental haplotype. This is consistent with antigen reprocessing by the F1 antigen presenting cells such that populations of helper T cells restricted by both parental H-2 haplotypes were primed. F1 cytotoxic T cells were restricted to the parental H-2 haplotype used for in vitro boosting, irrespective of which H-2 was used for in vivo priming. PMID:6214502

  12. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen: a proteomics view.

    PubMed

    Naryzhny, S N

    2008-11-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a cell cycle marker protein, is well known as a DNA sliding clamp for DNA polymerase delta and as an essential component for eukaryotic chromosomal DNA replication and repair. Due to its mobility inside nuclei, PCNA is dynamically presented in a soluble or chromatin-associated form. The heterogeneity and specific modifications of PCNA may reflect its multiple functions and the presence of many binding partners in the cell. The recent proteomics approaches applied to characterizing PCNA interactions revealed multiple PCNA partners with a wide spectrum of activity and unveiled the possible existence of new PCNA functions. Since more than 100 PCNA-interacting proteins and several PCNA modifications have already been reported, a proteomics point of view seems exactly suitable to better understand the role of PCNA in cellular functions.

  13. Antigen presentation for priming T cells in central system.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Shaoni; Dasgupta, Subhajit

    2017-01-01

    Generation of myelin antigen-specific T cells is a major event in neuroimmune responses that causes demyelination. The antigen-priming of T cells and its location is important in chronic and acute inflammation. In autoimmune multiple sclerosis, the effector T cells are considered to generate in periphery. However, the reasons for chronic relapsing-remitting events are obscure. Considering mechanisms, a feasible aim of research is to investigate the role of antigen-primed T cells in lupus cerebritis. Last thirty years of investigations emphasize the relevance of microglia and infiltrated dendritic cells/macrophages as antigen presenting cells in the central nervous system. The recent approach towards circulating B-lymphocytes is an important area in the context. Here, we analyze the existing findings on antigen presentation in the central nervous system. The aim is to visualize signaling events of myelin antigen presentation to T cells and lead to the strategy of future goals on immunotherapy research.

  14. Murine cell-mediated immune response recognizes an enterovirus group-specific antigen(s).

    PubMed Central

    Beck, M A; Tracy, S M

    1989-01-01

    Splenocytes taken from mice inoculated with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) (Nancy) developed an in vitro proliferative response against CVB3 antigen. This response could not be detected earlier than 8 days postinoculation but could be detected up to 28 days after exposure to CB3. CVB3-sensitized splenocytes responded not only to the CVB3 antigen but to other enteroviruses as well. This response was found to be enterovirus specific in that no response was detected to a non-enteroviral picornavirus, encephalomyocarditis virus, or to an unrelated influenza virus. The generation of a splenocyte population capable of responding to an enterovirus group antigen(s) was not limited to inoculation of mice with CVB3, as similar responses were generated when mice were inoculated with CVB2. Cell subset depletions revealed that the major cell type responding to the enterovirus group antigen(s) was the CD4+ T cell. Current evidence suggests that the group antigen(s) resides in the structural proteins of the virus, since spleen cells from mice inoculated with a UV-inactivated, highly purified preparation of CVB3 virions also responded in vitro against enteroviral antigens. PMID:2476566

  15. CD169(+) macrophages present lipid antigens to mediate early activation of iNKT cells in lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Barral, Patricia; Polzella, Paolo; Bruckbauer, Andreas; van Rooijen, Nico; Besra, Gurdyal S; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Batista, Facundo D

    2010-04-01

    Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are involved in the host defense against microbial infection. Although it is known that iNKT cells recognize glycolipids presented by CD1d, how and where they encounter antigen in vivo remains unclear. Here we used multiphoton microscopy to visualize the dynamics and activation of iNKT cells in lymph nodes. After antigen administration, iNKT cells became confined in a CD1d-dependent manner in close proximity to subcapsular sinus CD169(+) macrophages. These macrophages retained, internalized and presented lipid antigen and were required for iNKT cell activation, cytokine production and population expansion. Thus, CD169(+) macrophages can act as true antigen-presenting cells controlling early iNKT cell activation and favoring the fast initiation of immune responses.

  16. A subpopulation of adult skeletal muscle stem cells retains all template DNA strands after cell division.

    PubMed

    Rocheteau, Pierre; Gayraud-Morel, Barbara; Siegl-Cachedenier, Irene; Blasco, Maria A; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2012-01-20

    Satellite cells are adult skeletal muscle stem cells that are quiescent and constitute a poorly defined heterogeneous population. Using transgenic Tg:Pax7-nGFP mice, we show that Pax7-nGFP(Hi) cells are less primed for commitment and have a lower metabolic status and delayed first mitosis compared to Pax7-nGFP(Lo) cells. Pax7-nGFP(Hi) can give rise to Pax7-nGFP(Lo) cells after serial transplantations. Proliferating Pax7-nGFP(Hi) cells exhibit lower metabolic activity, and the majority performs asymmetric DNA segregation during cell division, wherein daughter cells retaining template DNA strands express stem cell markers. Using chromosome orientation-fluorescence in situ hybridization, we demonstrate that all chromatids segregate asymmetrically, whereas Pax7-nGFP(Lo) cells perform random DNA segregation. Therefore, quiescent Pax7-nGFP(Hi) cells represent a reversible dormant stem cell state, and during muscle regeneration, Pax7-nGFP(Hi) cells generate distinct daughter cell fates by asymmetrically segregating template DNA strands to the stem cell. These findings provide major insights into the biology of stem cells that segregate DNA asymmetrically.

  17. Tumor-initiating label-retaining cancer cells in human gastrointestinal cancers undergo asymmetric cell division.

    PubMed

    Xin, Hong-Wu; Hari, Danielle M; Mullinax, John E; Ambe, Chenwi M; Koizumi, Tomotake; Ray, Satyajit; Anderson, Andrew J; Wiegand, Gordon W; Garfield, Susan H; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Avital, Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Label-retaining cells (LRCs) have been proposed to represent adult tissue stem cells. LRCs are hypothesized to result from either slow cycling or asymmetric cell division (ACD). However, the stem cell nature and whether LRC undergo ACD remain controversial. Here, we demonstrate label-retaining cancer cells (LRCCs) in several gastrointestinal (GI) cancers including fresh surgical specimens. Using a novel method for isolation of live LRCC, we demonstrate that a subpopulation of LRCC is actively dividing and exhibits stem cells and pluripotency gene expression profiles. Using real-time confocal microscopic cinematography, we show live LRCC undergoing asymmetric nonrandom chromosomal cosegregation LRC division. Importantly, LRCCs have greater tumor-initiating capacity than non-LRCCs. Based on our data and that cancers develop in tissues that harbor normal-LRC, we propose that LRCC might represent a novel population of GI stem-like cancer cells. LRCC may provide novel mechanistic insights into the biology of cancer and regenerative medicine and present novel targets for cancer treatment.

  18. Two genetically identical antigen-presenting cell clones display heterogeneity in antigen processing.

    PubMed Central

    Michalek, M T; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1989-01-01

    Evidence from various antigen systems suggests that antigen processing can be one factor that determines the repertoire of immunogenic peptides. Thus, processing events may account for some of the disparity between the available and expressed helper T-cell repertoires. In this report, we demonstrate that the immunodominant T-cell determinant in ovalbumin [p323-339; ovalbumin-(323-339) heptadecapeptide] is processed differently by two genetically identical antigen-presenting cell lines, M12 and A20. The ovalbumin-specific T-cell-T-cell hybridomas, DO-11.10 and 3DO-54.8, were used to detect processed antigen. These T-T hybridomas have different fine specificities for the p323-339 determinant. A20 cells presented native ovalbumin well to both T-T hybridomas, whereas M12 cells presented native ovalbumin well to 3DO-54.8 but very inefficiently to DO-11.10. M12 and A20 cells effectively stimulated both T-T hybridomas with the same concentrations of the immunogenic synthetic peptide p323-339. Therefore, M12 cells and DO-11.10 can interact with each other, and both T-T hybridomas have similar sensitivities for the same immunogenic peptide. We conclude that genetically identical antigen-presenting cells can display heterogeneity in the fine processing of an immunodominant T-cell determinant, and synthetic model peptides that represent the minimal stimulatory sequence of a T-cell determinant are not necessarily identical to the structure of in vivo processed antigen. Heterogeneity in antigen processing by individual antigen-presenting cells would serve to increase the repertoire of immunogenic peptides that are presented to T cells. PMID:2470101

  19. CD169+ MACROPHAGES PRESENT LIPID ANTIGENS TO MEDIATE EARLY ACTIVATION OF INVARIANT NKT CELLS IN LYMPH NODES

    PubMed Central

    Barral, Patricia; Polzella, Paolo; Bruckbauer, Andreas; van Rooijen, Nico; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Batista, Facundo D.

    2010-01-01

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are involved in host defence against microbial infections. While it is known that iNKT cells recognize glycolipids presented by CD1d, how and where they encounter antigen in vivo remains unclear. We used multi-photon microscopy to visualize the dynamics and activation of iNKT cells in lymph nodes. Following antigen administration, iNKT cells become confined in a CD1d-dependent manner in close proximity to subcapsular sinus CD169+ macrophages. These macrophages retain, internalize and present lipid antigen, and are required for iNKT cell activation, cytokine production and expansion. Thus, CD169+ macrophages can act as bona fide antigen presenting cells controlling early iNKT cell activation and favouring fast initiation of immune responses. PMID:20228797

  20. Mouse Ovarian Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells Resist Chemotherapy and Retain Ability to Initiate Oocyte-Specific Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sriraman, Kalpana; Anand, Sandhya; Bhutda, Smita

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate stem cells in adult mouse ovary, the effect of chemotherapy on them and their potential to differentiate into germ cells. Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) that were SCA-1+/Lin−/CD45−, positive for nuclear octamer-binding transforming factor 4 (OCT-4), Nanog, and cell surface stage-specific embryonic antigen 1, were identified in adult mouse ovary. Chemotherapy resulted in complete loss of follicular reserve and cytoplasmic OCT-4 positive progenitors (ovarian germ stem cells) but VSELs survived. In ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cell cultures from chemoablated ovary, proliferating germ cell clusters and mouse vasa homolog/growth differentiation factor 9-positive oocyte-like structure were observed by day 6, probably arising as a result of differentiation of the surviving VSELs. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) exerted a direct stimulatory action on the OSE and induced stem cells proliferation and differentiation into premeiotic germ cell clusters during intact chemoablated ovaries culture. The FSH analog pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment to chemoablated mice increased the percentage of surviving VSELs in ovary. The results of this study provide evidence for the presence of potential VSELs in mouse ovaries and show that they survive chemotherapy, are modulated by FSH, and retain the ability to undergo oocyte-specific differentiation. These results show relevance to women who undergo premature ovarian failure because of oncotherapy. PMID:25779995

  1. Detection of Avian Antigen-Specific T Cells Induced by Viral Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Juul-Madsen, Helle Risdahl

    2016-01-01

    Live attenuated viral vaccines are widely used in commercial poultry production, but the development of new effective inactivated/subunit vaccines is needed. Studies of avian antigen-specific T cells are primarily based on analyses ex vivo after activating the cells with recall antigen. There is a particular interest in developing robust high-throughput assays as chicken vaccine trials usually comprise many individuals. In many respects, the avian immune system differs from the mammalian, and T cell assessment protocols must be adjusted accordingly to account for, e.g., differences in leukocyte subsets.The carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) method described in this chapter has been adapted to chicken cells. In this test, cells of interest are stained with CFSE. The succinimidyl ester group covalently binds to cellular amines forming fluorescent conjugates that are retained in the cells even throughout division. This leads to daughter cells containing half the fluorescence of their parents. When lymphocytes are loaded with CFSE prior to ex vivo stimulation with specific antigen, the measurement of serial halving of its fluorescence by flow cytometry identifies the cells responding to the stimulation. This method has been successfully applied to studies of chicken antigen-specific T cells.

  2. Rubber and alumina gaskets retain vacuum seal in high temperature EMF cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesson, J. C.

    1966-01-01

    Silicone rubber gasket and an alumina gasket retain a vacuum inside a high temperature EMF cell in which higher and lower density liquid metal electrodes are separated by an intermediate density fused salt electrolyte. This innovation is in use on a sodium bismuth regenerable EMF cell in which the fused salts and metals are at about 500 deg to 600 deg C.

  3. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Defining Stem Cell Characteristics After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolay, Nils H.; Sommer, Eva; Lopez, Ramon; Wirkner, Ute; Trinh, Thuy; Sisombath, Sonevisay; Debus, Jürgen; Ho, Anthony D.; Saffrich, Rainer; Huber, Peter E.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate to lesion sites and undergo differentiation into functional tissues. Although this function may be important for tissue regeneration after radiation therapy, the influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on cellular survival and the functional aspects of differentiation and stem cell characteristics of MSCs have remained largely unknown. Methods and Materials: Radiation sensitivity of human primary MSCs from healthy volunteers and primary human fibroblast cells was examined, and cellular morphology, cell cycle effects, apoptosis, and differentiation potential after exposure to IR were assessed. Stem cell gene expression patterns after exposure to IR were studied using gene arrays. Results: MSCs were not more radiosensitive than human primary fibroblasts, whereas there were considerable differences regarding radiation sensitivity within individual MSCs. Cellular morphology, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell motility were not markedly altered by IR. Even after high radiation doses up to 10 Gy, MSCs maintained their differentiation potential. Compared to primary fibroblast cells, MSCs did not show an increase in irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gene expression analyses revealed an upregulation of various genes involved in DNA damage response and DNA repair, but expression of established MSC surface markers appeared only marginally influenced by IR. Conclusions: These data suggest that human MSCs are not more radiosensitive than differentiated primary fibroblasts. In addition, upon photon irradiation, MSCs were able to retain their defining stem cell characteristics both on a functional level and regarding stem cell marker expression.

  4. Tumorigenic activity of Merkel cell polyomavirus T antigens expressed in the stratified epithelium of mice

    PubMed Central

    Spurgeon, Megan E.; Cheng, Jingwei; Bronson, Roderick T.; Lambert, Paul F.; DeCaprio, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is frequently associated with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a highly aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. Most MCC tumors contain integrated copies of the viral genome with persistent expression of the MCPyV large T (LT) and small T (ST) antigen. MCPyV isolated from MCC typically contain wild type ST but truncated forms of LT that retain the N-terminus but delete the C-terminus and render LT incapable of supporting virus replication. To determine the oncogenic activity of MCC tumor-derived T antigens in vivo, a conditional, tissue-specific mouse model was developed. Keratin 14-mediated Cre recombinase expression induced expression of MCPyV T antigens in stratified squamous epithelial cells and Merkel cells of the skin epidermis. Mice expressing MCPyV T antigens developed hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and acanthosis of the skin with additional abnormalities in whisker pads, footpads and eyes. Nearly half of the mice also developed cutaneous papillomas. Evidence for neoplastic progression within stratified epithelia included increased cellular proliferation, unscheduled DNA synthesis, increased E2F-responsive genes levels, disrupted differentiation, and presence of a DNA damage response. These results indicate that MCPyV T antigens are tumorigenic in vivo, consistent with their suspected etiological role in human cancer. PMID:25596282

  5. Ceramide Inhibits Antigen Uptake and Presentation by Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sallusto, Federica; Nicolò, Chiara; De Maria, Ruggero; Corinti, Silvia; Testi, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    Ceramides are intramembrane diffusible mediators involved in transducing signals originated from a variety of cell surface receptors. Different adaptive and differentiative cellular responses, including apoptotic cell death, use ceramide-mediated pathways as an essential part of the program. Here, we show that human dendritic cells respond to CD40 ligand, as well as to tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1β, with intracellular ceramide accumulation, as they are induced to differentiate. Dendritic cells down-modulate their capacity to take up soluble antigens in response to exogenously added or endogenously produced ceramides. This is followed by an impairment in presenting soluble antigens to specific T cell clones, while cell viability and the capacity to stimulate allogeneic responses or to present immunogenic peptides is fully preserved. Thus, ceramide-mediated pathways initiated by different cytokines can actively modulate professional antigen-presenting cell function and antigen-specific immune responses. PMID:8976196

  6. Cell-free antigens of Sporothrix brasiliensis: antigenic diversity and application in an immunoblot assay.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Pizzini, Cláudia Vera; Reis, Rosani Santos; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; Peralta, José Mauro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2012-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis diagnosed by isolation of the fungus in culture. Serological tests for help in diagnosis in general do not use purified or recombinant antigens, because there is a paucity of described immunoreactive proteins, especially for the new described Sporothrix species, such as Sporothrix brasiliensis. This study aims to characterise antigens from S. brasiliensis and verify their application in serodiagnosis of sporotrichosis. An immunoblot assay allied with computer-based analysis was used to identify putative antigenic molecules in a cell-free extracts of both morphological phases of this fungus, and to delineate antigenic polymorphism among seven S. brasiliensis isolates and one S. schenckii Brazilian strain. The mycelial and yeast phase of the fungus originated 14 and 23 reactive bands, respectively, which were variable in intensity. An 85 kDa antigen, verified in the yeast phase of the fungus, was observed in all strains used and the immunodominant protein was identified. This protein, however, cross-react with serum samples from patients infected with other pathogens. The results show that the S. brasiliensis cell-free antigen extract is a single and inexpensive source of antigens, and can be applied on the sporotrichosis serodiagnosis.

  7. In vitro long-term treatment with MAPK inhibitors induces melanoma cells with resistance plasticity to inhibitors while retaining sensitivity to CD8 T cells

    PubMed Central

    Rowdo, Florencia Paula Madorsky; Barón, Antonela; Von Euw, Erika María; Mordoh, José

    2017-01-01

    The development of BRAF V600 and MEK inhibitors constitutes a breakthrough in the treatment of patients with BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma. However, although there is an increase in overall survival, these patients generally confront recurrence, and several resistance mechanisms have already been described. In the present study we describe a different resistance mechanism. After several weeks of long-term in vitro treatment of two different V600E BRAF-mutated melanoma cell lines with MARK inhibitors, PLX4032 and/or GDC-0973, the majority of the cells died whereas some remained viable and quiescent (SUR). Markedly, discontinuing treatment of SUR cells with MAPK inhibitors allowed the population to regrow and these cells retained drug sensitivity equal to that of the parental cells. SUR cells had increased expression levels of CD271 and ABCB5 and presented senescence-associated characteristics. Notably, SUR cells were efficiently lysed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognizing MART-1 and gp100 melanoma differentiation antigens. We propose quiescent plasticity as a mechanism of resistance to BRAF and MEK inhibitors while retaining sensitivity to immune effectors. PMID:28098866

  8. Antigen Presenting Properties of a Myeloid Dendritic-Like Cell in Murine Spleen.

    PubMed

    Hey, Ying-Ying; O'Neill, Helen C

    This paper distinguishes a rare subset of myeloid dendritic-like cells found in mouse spleen from conventional (c) dendritic cells (DC) in terms of phenotype, function and gene expression. These cells are tentatively named "L-DC" since they resemble dendritic-like cells produced in longterm cultures of spleen. L-DC can be distinguished on the basis of their unique phenotype as CD11bhiCD11cloMHCII-CD43+Ly6C-Ly6G-Siglec-F- cells. They demonstrate similar ability as cDC to uptake and retain complex antigens like mannan via mannose receptors, but much lower ability to endocytose and retain soluble antigen. While L-DC differ from cDC by their inability to activate CD4+ T cells, they are capable of antigen cross-presentation for activation of CD8+ T cells, although less effectively so than the cDC subsets. In terms of gene expression, CD8- cDC and CD8+ cDC are quite distinct from L-DC. CD8+ cDC are distinguishable from the other two subsets by expression of CD24a, Clec9a, Xcr1 and Tlr11, while CD8- cDC are distinguished by expression of Ccnd1 and H-2Eb2. L-DC are distinct from the two cDC subsets through upregulated expression of Clec4a3, Emr4, Itgam, Csf1r and CD300ld. The L-DC gene profile is quite distinct from that of cDC, confirming a myeloid cell type with distinct antigen presenting properties.

  9. Cancer testis antigen expression in testicular germ cell tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Bode, Peter K; Thielken, Andrea; Brandt, Simone; Barghorn, André; Lohe, Bernd; Knuth, Alexander; Moch, Holger

    2014-06-01

    Cancer testis antigens are encoded by germ line-associated genes that are present in normal germ cells of testis and ovary but not in differentiated tissues. Their expression in various human cancer types has been interpreted as 're-expression' or as intratumoral progenitor cell signature. Cancer testis antigen expression patterns have not yet been studied in germ cell tumorigenesis with specific emphasis on intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified as a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors. Immunohistochemistry was used to study MAGEA3, MAGEA4, MAGEC1, GAGE1 and CTAG1B expression in 325 primary testicular germ cell tumors, including 94 mixed germ cell tumors. Seminomatous and non-seminomatous components were separately arranged and evaluated on tissue microarrays. Spermatogonia in the normal testis were positive, whereas intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified was negative for all five CT antigens. Cancer testis antigen expression was only found in 3% (CTAG1B), 10% (GAGE1, MAGEA4), 33% (MAGEA3) and 40% (MAGEC1) of classic seminoma but not in non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors. In contrast, all spermatocytic seminomas were positive for cancer testis antigens. These data are consistent with a different cell origin in spermatocytic seminoma compared with classic seminoma and support a progression model with loss of cancer testis antigens in early tumorigenesis of testicular germ cell tumors and later re-expression in a subset of seminomas.

  10. A label-retaining but unipotent cell population resides in biliary compartment of mammalian liver

    PubMed Central

    Viil, Janeli; Klaas, Mariliis; Valter, Kadri; Belitškin, Denis; Ilmjärv, Sten; Jaks, Viljar

    2017-01-01

    Cells with slow proliferation kinetics that retain the nuclear label over long time periods–the label-retaining cells (LRCs)–represent multipotent stem cells in a number of adult tissues. Since the identity of liver LRCs (LLRCs) had remained elusive we utilized a genetic approach to reveal LLRCs in normal non-injured livers and characterized their regenerative properties in vivo and in culture. We found that LLRCs were located in biliary vessels and participated in the regeneration of biliary but not hepatocyte injury. In culture experiments the sorted LLRCs displayed an enhanced self-renewal capacity but a unipotent biliary differentiation potential. Transcriptome analysis revealed a unique set of tumorigenesis- and nervous system-related genes upregulated in LLRCs when compared to non-LRC cholangiocytes. We conclude that the LLRCs established during the normal morphogenesis of the liver do not represent a multipotent primitive somatic stem cell population but act as unipotent biliary progenitor cells. PMID:28084309

  11. Antigen specificity of invariant natural killer T-cells.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, Alysia M; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2015-12-01

    Natural killer T-cells, with an invariant T-cell antigen receptor α-chain (iNKT cells), are unique and conserved subset of lymphocytes capable of altering the immune system through their rapid and potent cytokine responses. They are reactive to lipid antigens presented by the CD1d molecule, an antigen-presenting molecule that is not highly polymorphic. iNKT cell responses frequently involve mixtures of cytokines that work against each other, and therefore attempts are underway to develop synthetic antigens that elicit only strong interferon-gamma (IFNγ) or only strong interleukin-4 responses but not both. Strong IFNγ responses may correlate with tighter binding to CD1d and prolonged stimulation of iNKT cells, and this may be useful for vaccine adjuvants and for stimulating anti-tumor responses. iNKT cells are self-reactive although the structure of the endogenous antigen is controversial. By contrast, bacterial and fungal lipids that engage the T-cell receptor and activate IFNγ from iNKT cells have been identified from both pathogenic and commensal organisms and the responses are in some cases highly protective from pathogens in mice. It is possible that the expanding knowledge of iNKT cell antigens and iNKT cell activation will provide the basis for therapies for patients suffering from infectious and immune diseases and cancer.

  12. Cell-mediated immunity to soluble and particulate inhaled antigens

    PubMed Central

    Hill, J. O.; Burrell, R.

    1979-01-01

    In order to determine the influence of an antigen's physical properties on the development of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in the lung following aerosol immunization, human serum albumin (HSA) was prepared in either a soluble or a particulate form, the latter being coupled to respirable, carboxylated latex beads. Antigen was administered via an aerosol to groups of guinea-pigs, twice weekly for up to 4 weeks. Additional groups of animals served as unexposed and unconjugated latex controls. Lymphoid cells for CMI assays were isolated from the lung by bronchopulmonary lavage and from blood for use in mitogen- and antigen-induced lymphocyte transformation assays, as well as indirect macrophage migration inhibition tests. Particulate HSA-exposed animals yielded the highest numbers of free lung cells containing predominantly macrophages, with up to 33% lymphocytes. These were followed by the latex control, soluble HSA and unexposed control groups, respectively. Only the animals exposed to particulate HSA had evidence of antigen reactivation in the lung cell populations as measured by lymphocyte stimulation assays. In contrast, a response to polyclonal mitogens was found only in animals exposed to antigen in a soluble form. Data from macrophage depletion experiments suggest that the antigenicity of inhaled antigens may be due to the types and numbers of cells responding to the stimulus, and the subsequent role the alveolar macrophage may play in the modulation of cellular immunity. PMID:393444

  13. Carbohydrate-Mediated Targeting of Antigen to Dendritic Cells Leads to Enhanced Presentation of Antigen to T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Eddie W.; Ratner, Daniel M.; Seeberger, Peter H.; Hacohen, Nir

    2009-01-01

    The unique therapeutic value of dendritic cells (DCs) for the treatment of allergy, autoimmunity and transplant rejection is predicated upon our ability to selectively deliver antigens, drugs or nucleic acids to DCs in vivo. Here we describe a method for delivering whole protein antigens to DCs based on carbohydrate-mediated targeting of DC-expressed lectins. A series of synthetic carbohydrates was chemically-coupled to a model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), and each conjugate was evaluated for its ability to increase the efficiency of antigen presentation by murine DCs to OVA-specific T cells (CD4+ and CD8+). In vitro data are presented that demonstrate that carbohydrate modification of OVA leads to a 50-fold enhancement of presentation of antigenic peptide to CD4+ T cells. A tenfold enhancement is observed for CD8+ T cells; this indicates that the targeted lectin(s) can mediate cross-presentation of antigens on MHC class I. Our data indicate that the observed enhancements in antigen presentation are unique to OVA that is conjugated to complex oligosaccharides, such as a high-mannose nonasaccharide, but not to monosaccharides. Taken together, our data suggest that a DC targeting strategy that is based upon carbohydrate-lectin interactions is a promising approach for enhancing antigen presentation via class I and class II molecules. PMID:18186095

  14. From the antigen-presenting cell to the antigen-presenting vesicle: the exosomes.

    PubMed

    Schartz, Noël Emile Célestin; Chaput, Nathalie; André, Fabrice; Zitvogel, Laurence

    2002-08-01

    Exosomes are membrane vesicles of 30 to 100 nm in diameter, of endocytic origin, and are produced and secreted in vitro by living cells of diverse origin. In vivo and in vitro experiments suggest, from their particular proteomic composition, that exosomes are involved in the transfer of tumor antigens to antigen presenting cells, and in the stimulation of a specific immune response. In this review, we provide a molecular characterization of exosomes. The hypotheses accounting for exosome biogenesis will be outlined. Finally, we will describe their bioactivities and discuss their potential relevance and clinical implementation for cancer immunotherapy.

  15. Self-Antigen Presentation by Dendritic Cells in Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, Ann-Katrin; Rupp, Anne; Lukacs-Kornek, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    The operation of both central and peripheral tolerance ensures the prevention of autoimmune diseases. The maintenance of peripheral tolerance requires self-antigen presentation by professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered as major APCs involved in this process. The current review discusses the role of DCs in autoimmune diseases, the various factors involved in the induction and maintenance of tolerogenic DC phenotype, and pinpoints their therapeutic capacity as well as potential novel targets for future clinical studies. PMID:24592266

  16. Human embryonic stem cells passaged using enzymatic methods retain a normal karyotype and express CD30.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Alison; Wojtacha, Davina; Hewitt, Zoë; Priddle, Helen; Sottile, Virginie; Di Domenico, Alex; Fletcher, Judy; Waterfall, Martin; Corrales, Néstor López; Ansell, Ray; McWhir, Jim

    2008-03-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are thought to be susceptible to chromosomal rearrangements as a consequence of single cell dissociation. Compared in this study are two methods of dissociation that do not generate single cell suspensions (collagenase and EDTA) with an enzymatic procedure using trypsin combined with the calcium-specific chelator EGTA (TEG), that does generate a single cell suspension, over 10 passages. Cells passaged by single cell dissociation using TEG retained a normal karyotype. However, cells passaged using EDTA, without trypsin, acquired an isochromosome p7 in three replicates of one experiment. In all of the TEG, collagenase and EDTA-treated cultures, cells retained consistent telomere length and potentiality, demonstrating that single cell dissociation can be used to maintain karyotypically and phenotypically normal hESCs. However, competitive genomic hybridization revealed that subkaryotypic deletions and amplifications could accumulate over time, reinforcing that present culture regimes remain suboptimal. In all cultures the cell surface marker CD30, reportedly expressed on embryonal carcinoma but not karyoptically normal ESCs, was expressed on hESCs with both normal and abnormal karyotype, but was upregulated on the latter.

  17. Induction of antigen-specific T suppressor cells by soluble Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Finkel, B E; Murphy, J W

    1988-01-01

    In naturally acquired paracoccidioidomycosis, patients have depressed in vivo and in vitro cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen. In addition, it has been reported that these patients have significant levels of circulating paracoccidioidal antigen in their sera. The primary purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of P. brasiliensis antigen on the CMI responses in a mouse model. On the basis of findings with other fungal agents, we predicted that circulating paracoccidioidal antigen may be inducing suppressor cells which modulate the CMI response. In this study, we show (i) that a soluble P. brasiliensis culture filtrate antigen (Pb.Ag) emulsified in complete Freund adjuvant and injected subcutaneously into mice induces reasonably high levels of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in CBA/J mice; (ii) that Pb.Ag elicits DTH reactions specific for P. brasiliensis when injected into footpads of immunized mice; and (iii) that an intravenous injection of Pb.Ag induces a population of lymph node and spleen cells which, upon adoptive transfer, suppress the afferent limb of the DTH response to paracoccidioidal antigen. The afferent suppressor cells can be detected in spleens as early as 5 days after Pb.Ag treatment, are present in significant numbers by 7 days in both spleens and lymph nodes, and are virtually absent by 14 days. In contrast, at 14 days after antigen injection, efferent suppressor cells were detected in spleens and lymph nodes. The Pb.Ag-induced afferent suppressor cells specifically inhibit the antiparacoccidioidal DTH response. They are nylon wool-nonadherent cells, and their activity is abrogated by anti-Thy-1 and complement treatment, indicating that they are T lymphocytes. The phenotype of these afferent suppressor T cells is L3T4+ Lyt-1+2- I-J+. The Pb.Ag-specific suppressor cells described in this paper are similar to the Ts1 cells in the azobenzenearsonate, 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl, and

  18. Multimolecular associations of the T-cell antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    Beyers, A D; Spruyt, L L; Williams, A F

    1992-09-01

    T cells are activated when the T-cell receptor for antigen (TCR) interacts with an antigenic peptide bound to a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule on the surface of another cell. It is often assumed that T-cell activation is induced by the crosslinking of TCRs. In this article, Albertus Beyers, Louise Spruyt and Alan Williams argue that this mechanism is not generally applicable. They hypothesize that the key event in T-cell activation is the formation of multimolecular complexes consisting of the TCR and several other polypeptides, including CD4 or CD8, CD2, CD5 and the associated tyrosine kinases p59(fyn) and p56(lck).

  19. Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Newick, Kheng; Moon, Edmund; Albelda, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are engineered constructs composed of synthetic receptors that direct T cells to surface antigens for subsequent elimination. Many CAR constructs are also manufactured with elements that augment T-cell persistence and activity. To date, CAR T cells have demonstrated tremendous success in eradicating hematological malignancies (e.g., CD19 CARs in leukemias). This success is not yet extrapolated to solid tumors, and the reasons for this are being actively investigated. Here in this mini-review, we discuss some of the key hurdles encountered by CAR T cells in the solid tumor microenvironment. PMID:27162934

  20. Photoaffinity antigens for human γδ T cells1

    PubMed Central

    Sarikonda, Ghanashyam; Wang, Hong; Puan, Kia-Joo; Liu, Xiao-hui; Lee, Hoi K.; Song, Yongcheng; Distefano, Mark D.; Oldfield, Eric; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Morita, Craig T.

    2009-01-01

    Vγ2Vδ2 T cells comprise the major subset of peripheral blood γ δ T cells in humans and expand during infections by recognizing small, nonpeptide prenyl pyrophosphates. These molecules include (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl-pyrophosphate (HMBPP), a microbial isoprenoid intermediate, and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), an endogenous isoprenoid intermediate. Recognition of these nonpeptide antigens is mediated by the Vγ2Vδ2 T cell antigen receptor (TCR). Several findings suggest that prenyl pyrophosphates are presented by an antigen presenting molecule: contact between T cells and APCs is required; the antigens do not bind the Vγ2Vδ2 TCR directly; and antigen recognition is abrogated by TCR mutations in CDRs distant from the putative antigen recognition site. Identification of the putative antigen presenting molecule, however, has been hindered by the inability to achieve stable association of nonpeptide prenyl pyrophosphate antigens with the presenting molecule. In this study, we show that photoaffinity analogs of HMBPP, meta/para-benzophenone-(methylene)-prenyl pyrophosphates (m/p-BZ-(C)-C5-OPP), can cross-link to the surface of tumor cell lines and be presented as antigens to γ δ T cells. Mutant tumor cell lines lacking MHC class I, MHC class II, β2-microglobulin, and CD1, as well as tumor cell lines from a variety of tissues and individuals, will all crosslink to and present m-BZ-C5-OPP. Finally, pulsing of BZ-(C)-C5-OPP is inhibited by IPP and an inactive analog, suggesting that they bind to the same molecule. Taken together, these results suggest that nonpeptide antigens are presented by a novel antigen presenting molecule that is widely distributed, non-polymorphic, but not classical MHC class I, MHC class II, or CD1. This is an author-produced version of a manuscript accepted for publication in The Journal of Immunology (The JI). The American Association of Immunologists, Inc. (AAI), publisher of The JI, holds the copyright to this manuscript

  1. Autopresentation of hepatitis B virus envelope antigens by T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, C; Pilli, M; Penna, A; Bertoletti, A; Valli, A; Cavalli, A; Pasetti, G; Fiaccadori, F

    1992-01-01

    Processing and presentation by T cells appear to be limited to antigens that can directly interact with the T-cell surface, thereby overcoming the T-cell inefficiency in antigen capture and internalization. Our study provides evidence that the hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope proteins can also be efficiently processed and presented by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to other T cells in a human leukocyte antigen class II-restricted fashion. This phenomenon suggests a receptor-mediated interaction between T cells and the HBV envelope and defines a system that can, we hope, be exploited for the identification of the receptor binding site within the HBV envelope and for the characterization of the putative cellular HBV receptor. PMID:1548778

  2. Coproduction of carcinoembryonic antigen and nonspecific cross-reacting antigen by a continuous cell line from a human pancreatic tumor.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, M; Ichiki, S; Kuroki, M; Matsuoka, Y

    1982-08-01

    A simultaneous production of nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (NCA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) by the same individual cells of an established human pancreatic cell line (QGP-1) was demonstrated by the immunoperoxidase method. Kinetics of cell proliferation and production of CEA and NCA were analyzed, and active synthesis of both antigens was found to be accompanied with the active proliferation of cultured cells. Both antigens in culture medium were purified by immunoadsorption and gel filtration. Immunochemical studies confirmed that CEA and NCA produced by the QGP-1 cells had properties identical to those of authentic CEA derived from metastatic colorectal carcinoma and to those of NCA from normal lungs, respectively.

  3. Semiquantitative measure of immune responses against erythropoietic stem cell antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    A semiquantitative assay was developed and used to measure the effects of immune responses against 16 independent non-H-2 antigenic loci on erythropoietic stem cells. The assay compares repopulation in genetically anemic WBB6F1-W/Wv recipients that have normal immune responses, and in lethally irradiated WBB6F1 +/+ mice whose immune responses are suppressed by the irradiation. The differences in repopulating ability between these two types of recipients measure how immune responses affect erythropoietic stem cells. Stem cell repopulating abilities for the cells with antigens specified by the Thy-1, H-1, H-24, Ly-1, H-37, and H-17 loci were affected slightly, if at all. Repopulating abilities were moderately reduced by responses against antigens specified by H-15, 16, Ea-2, and Ly-2, 3 loci, and against the differences between the B6 and B10 genotypes, although marrow of these types cured W/Wv recipients. A surprising result occurred for the antigen specified by the H-8 locus, in which immune responses strongly reduced repopulating abilities, although this type of marrow cell cured W/Wv recipients. A comparison of these results with skin graft survival times suggests that the antigens specified by the H-17 and H-24 loci are strongly immunogenic on skin but not on marrow stem cells, while those specified by the H-12 and H-8 loci are strongly immunogenic on marrow stem cells but not on skin.

  4. Antibody-induced antigenic modulation is antigen dependent: characterization of 22 proteins on a malignant human B cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Pesando, J.M.; Hoffman, P.; Abed, M.

    1986-12-01

    Expression of several of the surface antigens on normal and malignant hematopoietic cells is reduced or is modulated by incubation with specific antibodies. Although antigenic modulation provides a means by which cells can escape antibody-mediated immune destruction, the physiologic significance and frequency of this phenomenon are both poorly understood. To begin to address these issues, the authors identified and characterized surface antigens on the malignant B cell line Laz 221 established from a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Indirect immunofluorescence analysis with the use of 26 hematopoietic cell populations and immune precipitation studies with the use of iodinated ALL cells indicate the 163 monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) identify 22 different proteins on this cell line, including at least six previously described surface molecules. Seven of these antigens are expressed by all nucleated cells examined, whereas only the ..mu.. chain of immunoglobulin is B cell specific. Studies that made use of multiple MoAb specific for the same antigen suggest that the capacity for antigenic modulation is an intrinsic property of individual antigens. These studies also suggest that the murine immune response to shared human antigens varies from one immunizing cell population to another. Immunogenicity of individual human antigens in the mouse may be a function of their cell surface environment.

  5. The effect of antigen encapsulation in chitosan particles on uptake, activation and presentation by antigen presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Koppolu, Bhanuprasanth; Zaharoff, David A

    2013-03-01

    Particle-based vaccine delivery systems are under exploration to enhance antigen-specific immunity against safe but poorly immunogenic polypeptide antigens. Chitosan is a promising biomaterial for antigen encapsulation and delivery due to its ability to form nano- and microparticles in mild aqueous conditions thus preserving the antigenicity of loaded polypeptides. In this study, the influence of chitosan encapsulation on antigen uptake, activation and presentation by antigen presenting cells (APCs) is explored. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) were used as model protein antigens and encapsulated in chitosan particles via precipitation-coacervation at loading efficiencies >89%. Formulation conditions were manipulated to create antigen-encapsulated chitosan particles (AgCPs) with discrete nominal sizes (300 nm, 1 μm, and 3 μm). Uptake of AgCPs by dendritic cells and macrophages was found to be dependent on particle size, antigen concentration and exposure time. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that uptake of AgCPs enhanced upregulation of surface activation markers on APCs and increased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Lastly, antigen-specific T cells exhibited higher proliferative responses when stimulated with APCs activated with AgCPs versus soluble antigen. These data suggest that encapsulation of antigens in chitosan particles enhances uptake, activation and presentation by APCs.

  6. HLA class II antigen presentation by prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Younger, A R; Amria, S; Jeffrey, W A; Mahdy, A E M; Goldstein, O G; Norris, J S; Haque, A

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. Recent evidence suggests that reduced expression of target protein antigens and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules is the predominant immune escape mechanism of malignant prostate tumor cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prospect of antigen specific immunotherapy against prostate cancer via the HLA class II pathway of immune recognition. Here, we show for the first time that prostate cancer cells express HLA class II proteins that are recognized by CD4+ T cells. Prostate tumor cells transduced with class II molecules efficiently presented tumor-associated antigens/peptides to CD4+ T cells. This data suggests that malignant prostate tumors can be targeted via the HLA class II pathway, and that class II-positive tumors could be employed for direct antigen presentation, and CD4+ T-cell mediated tumor immunotherapy.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases (2008) 11, 334-341; doi:10.1038/sj.pcan.4501021; published online 16 October 2007.

  7. Bovine CD49 positive-cell subpopulation remarkably increases in mammary epithelial cells that retain a stem-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Cravero, Diego; Martignani, Eugenio; Miretti, Silvia; Accornero, Paolo; Baratta, Mario

    2015-10-01

    We previously proved that adult stem cells reside in the bovine mammary gland and possess an intrinsic potential to generate a functional mammary outgrowth. The aim of this study was to investigate on the immunophenotyping features retained by mammary stem-like cells detected in long term culture. Flow cytometry analysis showed different subpopulations of mammary epithelial cells emerging according to the timing of cell culture. CD49f(+)-cells significantly increased during the culture (p<0.01) and a similar trend was observed, even if less regular, for CD29(+) and ALDH1 positive cell populations. No difference during the culture was observed for CD24 positive cells but after 35 days of culture a subset of cells, CD49f positive, still retained regenerative capabilities in in vivo xenotransplants. These cells were able to form organized pseudo-alveoli when transplanted in immunodeficient mice. These results prove the presence of a multipotent cell subpopulation that retain a strong epithelial induction, confirmed in in vivo xenotransplants with a presumable in vitro expansion of the primitive population of adult mammary stem cells.

  8. Regulator T cells: specific for antigen and/or antigen receptors?

    PubMed

    Rubin, B; de Durana, Y Diaz; Li, N; Sercarz, E E

    2003-05-01

    Adaptive immune responses are regulated by many different molecular and cellular effectors. Regulator T cells are coming to their rights again, and these T cells seem to have ordinary alpha/beta T-cell receptors (TCRs) and to develop in the thymus. Autoimmune responses are tightly regulated by such regulatory T cells, a phenomenon which is beneficial to the host in autoimmune situations. However, the regulation of autoimmune responses to tumour cells is harmful to the host, as this regulation delays the defence against the outgrowth of neoplastic cells. In the present review, we discuss whether regulatory T cells are specific for antigen and/or for antigen receptors. Our interest in these phenomena comes from the findings that T cells produce many more TCR-alpha and TCR-beta chains than are necessary for surface membrane expression of TCR-alphabeta heterodimers with CD3 complexes. Excess TCR chains are degraded by the proteasomes, and TCR peptides thus become available to the assembly pathway of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Consequently, do T cells express two different identification markers on the cell membrane, the TCR-alphabeta clonotype for recognition by B-cell receptors and clonotypic TCR-alphabeta peptides for recognition by T cells?

  9. Synovial fluid antigen-presenting cells unmask peripheral blood T cell responses to bacterial antigens in inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Life, P F; Viner, N J; Bacon, P A; Gaston, J S

    1990-01-01

    We and others have previously shown that synovial fluid (SF) mononuclear cells (MC) from patients with both reactive arthritis and other inflammatory arthritides proliferate in vitro in response to bacteria clinically associated with the triggering of reactive arthritis. In all cases, such SFMC responses are greater than the corresponding peripheral blood (PB) MC responses, often markedly so, and the mechanism for this is unclear. We have investigated this phenomenon by comparing the relative abilities of irradiated non-T cells derived from PB and SF to support autologous T cell responses to ReA-associated bacteria. Seven patients whose SFMC had been shown previously to respond to bacteria were studied. We demonstrate antigen-specific responses of PB T cells to bacteria in the presence of SF non-T cells which are in marked contrast to the minimal responses of either unfractionated PBMC or PB T cells reconstituted with PB non-T cells. We also show that PB, but not SF T cells respond strongly to autologous SF non-T cells in the absence of antigen or mitogen. These findings demonstrate that SF antigen-presenting cells (APC) are potent activators of PB T cells. We conclude that the contrasting responses of SFMC and PBMC to bacterial antigens may be accounted for at least in part by an enhanced ability of SF APC to support T cell proliferative responses. PMID:2311298

  10. T Cells as Antigen Carriers for Anti-tumor Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Traversari, Catia; Russo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the physiologic processing and presenting machinery of dendritic cells (DCs) by in vivo loading of tumor-associated antigens may improve the immunogenic potential and clinical efficacy of DC-based cancer vaccines. The approach developed by our group was based on the clinical observation that some patients treated with the infusion of donor lymphocytes transduced to express the HSV-TK suicide gene for relapse of hematologic malignancies, after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, developed a T cell-mediated immune response specifically directed against the HSV-TK gene product.We demonstrated that lymphocytes genetically modified to express HSV-TK as well as self/tumor antigens, acting as antigen carriers, efficiently target DCs in vivo in tumor-bearing mice. The infusion of TRP-2-transduced lymphocytes induced the establishment of protective immunity and long-term memory in tumor-bearing mice by cross-presentation of the antigen mediated by the CD11c(+)CD8a(+) DCs subset. A similar approach was applied in a clinical setting. Ten patients affected by MAGE-3(+) metastatic melanoma were treated with autologous lymphocytes retrovirally transduced to express the MAGE-3 tumor antigen. In three patients, the treatment led to the increase of MAGE-3 specific CD8+ and CD4+ effectors and the development of long-term memory, which ultimately correlated with a favorable clinical outcome. Transduced lymphocytes represent an efficient way for in vivo loading of tumor-associated antigens of DCs.

  11. Cell-to-cell transfer of M. tuberculosis antigens optimizes CD4 T cell priming.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Ernst, Joel D

    2014-06-11

    During Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other respiratory infections, optimal T cell activation requires pathogen transport from the lung to a local draining lymph node (LN). However, the infected inflammatory monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) that transport M. tuberculosis to the local lymph node are relatively inefficient at activating CD4 T cells, possibly due to bacterial inhibition of antigen presentation. We found that infected migratory DCs release M. tuberculosis antigens as soluble, unprocessed proteins for uptake and presentation by uninfected resident lymph node DCs. This transfer of bacterial proteins from migratory to local DCs results in optimal priming of antigen-specific CD4 T cells, which are essential in controlling tuberculosis. Additionally, this mechanism does not involve transfer of the whole bacterium and is distinct from apoptosis or exosome shedding. These findings reveal a mechanism that bypasses pathogen inhibition of antigen presentation by infected cells and generates CD4 T cell responses that control the infection.

  12. Characterization of antigen association with accessory cells: specific removal of processed antigens from the cell surface by phospholipases.

    PubMed Central

    Falo, L D; Haber, S I; Herrmann, S; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1987-01-01

    To characterize the basis for the cell surface association of processed antigen with the antigen-presenting cell (APC) we analyzed its sensitivity to enzymatic digestion. Antigen-exposed APC that are treated with phospholipase and then immediately fixed lose their ability to stimulate antigen-plus-Ia-specific T-T hybridomas. This effect is seen with highly purified phospholipase A2 and phospholipase C. In addition it is observed with three distinct antigens--ovalbumin, bovine insulin, and poly(LGlu56LLys35LPhe9) [(GluLysPhe)n]. The effect of phospholipases is highly specific. Identically treated APC are equivalent to controls in their ability to stimulate alloreactive hybridomas specific for precisely the same Ia molecule that is corecognized by antigen-plus-Ia-specific hybrids. Furthermore, the antigen-presenting function of enzyme-treated, fixed APC can be reconstituted by the addition of exogenous in vitro processed or "processing independent" antigens. In parallel studies 125I-labeled avidin was shown to specifically bind to APC that were previously exposed and allowed to process biotin-insulin. Biotin-insulin-exposed APC that are pretreated with phospholipase bind significantly less 125I-labeled avidin than do untreated, exposed APC. Identical enzyme treatment does not reduce the binding of avidin to a biotinylated antibody already bound to class II major histocompatibility complex molecules of APC. At least some of the biotin-insulin surface sites are immunologically relevant, because the presentation of processed biotin-insulin by fixed APC is blocked by avidin. This effect is specific. Avidin binding to biotin-insulin-exposed APC does not inhibit allospecific stimulation nor the presentation of unconjugated insulin. These studies demonstrate that phospholipase effectively removes processed cell surface antigen. PMID:3467371

  13. T Cells Redirected to a Minor Histocompatibility Antigen Instruct Intratumoral TNFα Expression and Empower Adoptive Cell Therapy for Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Teresa; Sturmheit, Tabea; Basso, Veronica; Petrozziello, Elisabetta; Hess Michelini, Rodrigo; Riba, Michela; Freschi, Massimo; Elia, Angela R; Grioni, Matteo; Curnis, Flavio; Protti, Maria Pia; Schumacher, Ton N; Debets, Reno; Swartz, Melody A; Corti, Angelo; Bellone, Matteo; Mondino, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Donor-derived allogeneic T cells evoke potent graft versus tumor (GVT) effects likely due to the simultaneous recognition of tumor-specific and host-restricted minor histocompatibility (H) antigens. Here we investigated whether such effects could be reproduced in autologous settings by TCR gene-engineered lymphocytes. We report that T cells redirected either to a broadly expressed Y-encoded minor H antigen or to a tumor-associated antigen, although poorly effective if individually transferred, when simultaneously administered enabled acute autochthonous tumor debulking and resulted in durable clinical remission. Y-redirected T cells proved hyporesponsive in peripheral lymphoid organs, whereas they retained effector function at the tumor site, where in synergy with tumor-redirected lymphocytes, they instructed TNFα expression, endothelial cell activation, and intratumoral T-cell infiltration. While neutralizing TNFα hindered GVT effects by the combined T-cell infusion, a single injection of picogram amounts of NGR-TNF, a tumor vessel-targeted TNFα derivative currently in phase III clinical trials, substituted for Y-redirected cells and enabled tumor debulking by tumor-redirected lymphocytes. Together, our results provide new mechanistic insights into allogeneic GVT, validate the importance of targeting the tumor and its associated stroma, and prove the potency of a novel combined approach suitable for immediate clinical implementation. Cancer Res; 77(3); 658-71. ©2016 AACR.

  14. Activated Brain Endothelial Cells Cross-Present Malaria Antigen.

    PubMed

    Howland, Shanshan W; Poh, Chek Meng; Rénia, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    In the murine model of cerebral malaria caused by P. berghei ANKA (PbA), parasite-specific CD8+ T cells directly induce pathology and have long been hypothesized to kill brain endothelial cells that have internalized PbA antigen. We previously reported that brain microvessel fragments from infected mice cross-present PbA epitopes, using reporter cells transduced with epitope-specific T cell receptors. Here, we confirm that endothelial cells are the population responsible for cross-presentation in vivo, not pericytes or microglia. PbA antigen cross-presentation by primary brain endothelial cells in vitro confers susceptibility to killing by CD8+ T cells from infected mice. IFNγ stimulation is required for brain endothelial cross-presentation in vivo and in vitro, which occurs by a proteasome- and TAP-dependent mechanism. Parasite strains that do not induce cerebral malaria were phagocytosed and cross-presented less efficiently than PbA in vitro. The main source of antigen appears to be free merozoites, which were avidly phagocytosed. A human brain endothelial cell line also phagocytosed P. falciparum merozoites. Besides being the first demonstration of cross-presentation by brain endothelial cells, our results suggest that interfering with merozoite phagocytosis or antigen processing may be effective strategies for cerebral malaria intervention.

  15. MAIT cells are depleted early but retain functional cytokine expression in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Caroline S; Amarasena, Thakshila; Kelleher, Anthony D; Rossjohn, Jamie; McCluskey, James; Godfrey, Dale I; Kent, Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells home to mucosal sites and exert antimicrobial activity against bacteria and other microorganisms. HIV infection leads to early depletion of gut T cells and translocation of bacterial products. There are reports that MAIT cells, defined by coexpression of Vα7.2 and CD161, are depleted during HIV infection and residual MAIT cells are functionally impaired. However, one study suggested that MAIT cells might remain after HIV infection but evade detection through CD161 downregulation. Thus, the impact of HIV infection on MAIT cells is unclear. We studied longitudinal blood samples from 31 HIV-infected subjects for MAIT cell numbers, phenotype and function using both standard Vα7.2/CD161 surface markers and an MR1 tetramer. We found that MAIT cells were depleted early during HIV infection, and although there was a concomitant rise in Vα7.2(+)CD161(-) cells, these were MR1 tetramer negative, indicating that these are unlikely to be altered MAIT cells. Antigen-mediated activation of residual MAIT cells showed that they remained functional out to 2 years following HIV infection. Although MAIT cells are depleted in HIV infection, residual and functionally active MAIT cells persist and may still be able to assist in controlling bacterial translocation during HIV infection.

  16. Chinese hamster ovary cell lysosomes retain pinocytized horseradish peroxidase and in situ-radioiodinated proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Storrie, B.; Sachdeva, M.; Viers, V.S.

    1984-02-01

    We used Chinese hamster ovary cells, a cell line of fibroblastic origin, to investigate whether lysosomes are an exocytic compartment. To label lysosomal contents, Chinese hamster ovary cells were incubated with the solute marker horseradish peroxidase. After an 18-h uptake period, horseradish peroxidase was found in lysosomes by cell fractionation in Percoll gradients and by electron microscope cytochemistry. Over a 24-h period, lysosomal horseradish peroxidase was quantitatively retained by Chinese hamster ovary cells and inactivated with a t 1/2 of 6 to 8 h. Lysosomes were radioiodinated in situ by soluble lactoperoxidase internalized over an 18-h uptake period. About 70% of the radioiodine incorporation was pelleted at 100,000 X g under conditions in which greater than 80% of the lysosomal marker enzyme beta-hexosaminidase was released into the supernatant. By one-dimensional electrophoresis, about 18 protein species were present in the lysosomal membrane fraction, with radioiodine incorporation being most pronounced into species of 70,000 to 75,000 daltons. After a 30-min or 2-h chase at 37 degrees C, radioiodine that was incorporated into lysosomal membranes and contents was retained in lysosomes. These observations indicate that lysosomes labeled by fluid-phase pinocytosis are a terminal component of endocytic pathways in fibroblasts.

  17. Epithelial Label-Retaining Cells Are Absent during Tooth Cycling in Salmo salar and Polypterus senegalus

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Sam; Willems, Maxime; Witten, P. Eckhard; Hansen, Tom; Fjelldal, Per Gunnar; Huysseune, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and African bichir (Polypterus senegalus) are both actinopterygian fish species that continuously replace their teeth without the involvement of a successional dental lamina. Instead, they share the presence of a middle dental epithelium: an epithelial tier enclosed by inner and outer dental epithelium. It has been hypothesized that this tier could functionally substitute for a successional dental lamina and might be a potential niche to house epithelial stem cells involved in tooth cycling. Therefore, in this study we performed a BrdU pulse chase experiment on both species to (1) determine the localization and extent of proliferating cells in the dental epithelial layers, (2) describe cell dynamics and (3) investigate if label-retaining cells are present, suggestive for the putative presence of stem cells. Cells proliferate in the middle dental epithelium, outer dental epithelium and cervical loop at the lingual side of the dental organ to form a new tooth germ. Using long chase times, both in S. salar (eight weeks) and P. senegalus (eight weeks and twelve weeks), we could not reveal the presence of label-retaining cells in the dental organ. Immunostaining of P. senegalus dental organs for the transcription factor Sox2, often used as a stem cell marker, labelled cells in the zone of outer dental epithelium which grades into the oral epithelium (ODE transition zone) and the inner dental epithelium of a successor only. The location of Sox2 distribution does not provide evidence for epithelial stem cells in the dental organ and, more specifically, in the middle dental epithelium. Comparison of S. salar and P. senegalus reveals shared traits in tooth cycling and thus advances our understanding of the developmental mechanism that ensures lifelong replacement. PMID:27049953

  18. Long-term label retaining cells localize to distinct regions within the female reproductive epithelium.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Amanda L; Pru, James K

    2013-09-01

    The uterus is an extremely plastic organ that undergoes cyclical remodeling including endometrial regeneration during the menstrual cycle. Endometrial remodeling and regeneration also occur during pregnancy and following parturition, particularly in hemochorial implanting species. The mechanisms of endometrial regeneration are not well understood. Endometrial stem/progenitor cells are proposed to contribute to endometrial regeneration in both humans and mice. BrdU label retention has been used to identify potential stem/progenitor cells in mouse endometrium. However, methods are not available to isolate BrdU label-retaining cells (LRC) for functional analyses. Therefore, we employed a transgenic mouse model to identify H2B-GFP LRCs throughout the female reproductive tract with particular interest on the endometrium. We hypothesized that the female reproductive tract contains a population of long-term LRCs that persist even following pregnancy and endometrial regeneration. Endometrial cells were labeled (pulsed) either transplacentally/translactationally or peripubertally. When mice were pulsed transplacentally/translactationally, the label was not retained in the uterus. However, LRCs were concentrated to the distal oviduct and endocervical transition zone (TZ) following natural (i.e., pregnancy/parturition induced) and mechanically induced endometrial regeneration. LRCs in the distal oviduct and endocervical TZ expressed stem cell markers and did not express ERα or PGR, implying the undifferentiated phenotype of these cells. Oviduct and endocervical TZ LRCs did not proliferate during endometrial re-epithelialization, suggesting that they do not contribute to the endometrium in a stem/progenitor cell capacity. In contrast, when mice were pulsed peripubertally long-term LRCs were identified in the endometrial glandular compartment in mice as far out as 9 months post-pulse. These findings suggest that epithelial tissue of the female reproductive tract contains 3

  19. Expression of a multi-epitope DPT fusion protein in transplastomic tobacco plants retains both antigenicity and immunogenicity of all three components of the functional oligomer.

    PubMed

    Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena; Alpuche-Solís, Angel G; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia; Bendik, Elise M; Martínez-González, Luzmila; Korban, Schuyler S

    2009-05-01

    Expression of genes in plant chloroplasts provides an opportunity for enhanced production of target proteins. We report the introduction and expression of a fusion DPT protein containing immunoprotective exotoxin epitopes of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Bordetella pertussis, and Clostridium tetani in tobacco chloroplasts. Using biolistic-mediated transformation, a plant-optimized synthetic DPT gene was successfully transferred to tobacco plastomes. Putative transplastomic T0 plants were identified by PCR, and Southern blot analysis confirmed homoplasmy in T1 progeny. ELISA assays demonstrated that the DPT protein retained antigenicity of the three components of the fusion protein. The highest level of expression in these transplastomic plants reached 0.8% of total soluble protein. To assess whether the functional recombinant protein expressed in tobacco plants would induce specific antibodies in test animals, a mice feeding experiment was conducted. For mice orally immunized with freeze-dried transplastomic leaves, production of IgG and IgA antibodies specific to each toxin were detected in serum and mucosal tissues.

  20. Induction of the autoantigen proliferating cell nuclear antigen in T lymphocytes by a mycobacterial antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Haftel, H M; Chang, Y; Hinderer, R; Hanash, S M; Holoshitz, J

    1994-01-01

    Mycobacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. To determine the potential effect of mycobacterial antigens on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), we analyzed PBMC incubated with the acetone-precipitable fraction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (APMT) for changes in cellular protein expression. Two-dimensional gel analysis showed induction of a 36-kD polypeptide identified as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a known autoantigen, after incubation with AP-MT. PCNA plays a role in cell proliferation and is expressed as a late growth regulated factor. However, its synthesis in response to AP-MT was induced as an early event. The early induction of PCNA was regulated at a posttranscriptional level and was restricted to T cells. Treatment of PBMC with known T cell mitogens, namely PHA, anti-CD3 antibodies, and staphylococcal superantigens failed to induce an early PCNA increase. The distinct characteristics of the AP-MT effect on PCNA expression suggest a separate mechanism of induction in response to AP-MT, compared with the late increase observed in response to mitogens. The induction of PCNA in response to mycobacterial antigens may represent a pathogenically relevant mechanism in autoimmunity. Images PMID:7929811

  1. Predicted complementarity determining regions of the T cell antigen receptor determine antigen specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, C D; Eidelman, F J; Duncan, A; Hooshmand, F; Hedrick, S M

    1995-01-01

    The antigen receptor on T cells (TCR) has been predicted to have a structure similar to a membrane-anchored form of an immunoglobulin F(ab) fragment. Virtually all of the conserved amino acids that are important for inter- and intramolecular interactions in the VH-VL pair are also conserved in the TCR V alpha and V beta chains. A molecular model of the TCR has been constructed by homology and we have used the information from this, as well as the earlier structural predictions of others, to study the basis for specificity. Specifically, regions of a TCR cloned from an antigen-specific T cell were stitched into the corresponding framework of a second TCR. Results indicate that the substitution of amino acid sequences corresponding to the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of immunoglobulin can convey the specificity for antigen and major histocompatibility complex molecules. These data are consistent with a role, but not an exclusive role, for CDR3 in antigen peptide recognition. Images PMID:7534228

  2. Chimaeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for tumour immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Huan-huan; Wang, Dan-dan; Yan, Da-li; Hu, Yong; Yang, Su-jin; Liu, Si-wen

    2017-01-01

    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies, as one of the cancer immunotherapies, have heralded a new era of treating cancer. The accumulating data, especially about CAR-modified T cells against CD19 support that CAR T-cell therapy is a highly effective immune therapy for B-cell malignancies. Apart from CD19, there have been many trials of CAR T cells directed other tumour specific or associated antigens (TSAs/TAAs) in haematologic malignancies and solid tumours. This review will briefly summarize basic CAR structure, parts of reported TSAs/TAAs, results of the clinical trials of CAR T-cell therapies as well as two life-threatening side effects. Experiments in vivo or in vitro, ongoing clinical trials and the outlook for CAR T-cell therapies also be included. Our future efforts will focus on identification of more viable cancer targets and more strategies to make CAR T-cell therapy safer. PMID:28053197

  3. Chimeric Antigen Receptors Modified T-Cells for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hanren; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xuechun; Han, Weidong

    2016-07-01

    The genetic modification and characterization of T-cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) allow functionally distinct T-cell subsets to recognize specific tumor cells. The incorporation of costimulatory molecules or cytokines can enable engineered T-cells to eliminate tumor cells. CARs are generated by fusing the antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) or other ligand to membrane-spanning and intracellular-signaling domains. They have recently shown clinical benefit in patients treated with CD19-directed autologous T-cells. Recent successes suggest that the modification of T-cells with CARs could be a powerful approach for developing safe and effective cancer therapeutics. Here, we briefly review early studies, consider strategies to improve the therapeutic potential and safety, and discuss the challenges and future prospects for CAR T-cells in cancer therapy.

  4. Chimeric Antigen Receptors Modified T-Cells for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hanren; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xuechun

    2016-01-01

    The genetic modification and characterization of T-cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) allow functionally distinct T-cell subsets to recognize specific tumor cells. The incorporation of costimulatory molecules or cytokines can enable engineered T-cells to eliminate tumor cells. CARs are generated by fusing the antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) or other ligand to membrane-spanning and intracellular-signaling domains. They have recently shown clinical benefit in patients treated with CD19-directed autologous T-cells. Recent successes suggest that the modification of T-cells with CARs could be a powerful approach for developing safe and effective cancer therapeutics. Here, we briefly review early studies, consider strategies to improve the therapeutic potential and safety, and discuss the challenges and future prospects for CAR T-cells in cancer therapy. PMID:26819347

  5. Multinucleated Giant Cancer Cells Produced in Response to Ionizing Radiation Retain Viability and Replicate Their Genome

    PubMed Central

    Mirzayans, Razmik; Andrais, Bonnie; Scott, April; Wang, Ying W.; Kumar, Piyush; Murray, David

    2017-01-01

    Loss of wild-type p53 function is widely accepted to be permissive for the development of multinucleated giant cells. However, whether therapy-induced multinucleation is associated with cancer cell death or survival remains controversial. Herein, we demonstrate that exposure of p53-deficient or p21WAF1 (p21)-deficient solid tumor-derived cell lines to ionizing radiation (between 2 and 8 Gy) results in the development of multinucleated giant cells that remain adherent to the culture dish for long times post-irradiation. Somewhat surprisingly, single-cell observations revealed that virtually all multinucleated giant cells that remain adherent for the duration of the experiments (up to three weeks post-irradiation) retain viability and metabolize 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and the majority (>60%) exhibit DNA synthesis. We further report that treatment of multinucleated giant cells with pharmacological activators of apoptosis (e.g., sodium salicylate) triggers their demise. Our observations reinforce the notion that radiation-induced multinucleation may reflect a survival mechanism for p53/p21-deficient cancer cells. With respect to evaluating radiosensitivity, our observations underscore the importance of single-cell experimental approaches (e.g., single-cell MTT) as the creation of viable multinucleated giant cells complicates the interpretation of the experimental data obtained by commonly-used multi-well plate colorimetric assays. PMID:28208747

  6. Bone marrow long label-retaining cells reside in the sinusoidal hypoxic niche

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Yoshiaki; Takubo, Keiyo; Suda, Toshio

    2008-02-08

    In response to changing signals, quiescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can be induced to an activated cycling state and provide multi-lineage hematopoietic cells to the whole body via blood vessels. However, the precise localization of quiescent HSCs in bone marrow microenvironment is not fully characterized. Here, we performed whole-mount immunostaining of bone marrow and found that BrdU label-retaining cells (LRCs) definitively reside in the sinusoidal hypoxic zone distant from the 'vascular niche'. Although LRCs expressed very low level of a well-known HSC marker, c-kit in normal circumstances, myeloablation by 5-FU treatment caused LRCs to abundantly express c-kit and proliferate actively. These results demonstrate that bone marrow LRCs reside in the sinusoidal hypoxic niche, and function as a regenerative cell pool of HSCs.

  7. Expression of blood group antigens on red cell microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Oreskovic, R T; Dumaswala, U J; Greenwalt, T J

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether epitopes of the A, B, D, Fya, M, N, S, s, and K blood group antigens are present on microvesicle membranes shed by red cells during storage. Vesicles were isolated from outdated units of blood having and lacking the specified antigens. Diluted antisera were absorbed with fixed quantities of vesicles from red cells with the test antigen and red cells lacking that antigen (controls). The adsorbed and unadsorbed antisera were titrated and scored by using panel cells from persons known to be heterozygous for all the non-AB antigens. The mean titration scores following adsorption with the vesicles from A, B, D, M+N-, M-N+, S+s-, S-s+, and Fy(a+b-) units were appreciably lower than the control scores (0, 0, 3, 2, 2, 0, 4, and 4 vs. 19, 23, 34, 13, 12, 16, 18, and 29, respectively), which indicated the presence of these epitopes on the membrane of shed vesicles. The results following adsorption with K:1,2 vesicles were equivocal.

  8. Specificity for the tumor-associated self-antigen WT1 drives the development of fully functional memory T cells in the absence of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Pospori, Constandina; Xue, Shao-An; Holler, Angelika; Voisine, Cecile; Perro, Mario; King, Judith; Fallah-Arani, Farnaz; Flutter, Barry; Chakraverty, Ronjon; Stauss, Hans J; Morris, Emma C

    2011-06-23

    Recently, vaccines against the Wilms Tumor antigen 1 (WT1) have been tested in cancer patients. However, it is currently not known whether physiologic levels of WT1 expression in stem and progenitor cells of normal tissue result in the deletion or tolerance induction of WT1-specific T cells. Here, we used an human leukocyte antigen-transgenic murine model to study the fate of human leukocyte antigen class-I restricted, WT1-specific T cells in the thymus and in the periphery. Thymocytes expressing a WT1-specific T-cell receptor derived from high avidity human CD8 T cells were positively selected into the single-positive CD8 population. In the periphery, T cells specific for the WT1 antigen differentiated into CD44-high memory phenotype cells, whereas T cells specific for a non-self-viral antigen retained a CD44(low) naive phenotype. Only the WT1-specific T cells, but not the virus-specific T cells, displayed rapid antigen-specific effector function without prior vaccination. Despite long-term persistence of WT1-specific memory T cells, the animals did not develop autoimmunity, and the function of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells was unimpaired. This is the first demonstration that specificity for a tumor-associated self-antigen may drive differentiation of functionally competent memory T cells.

  9. SDF-1 activates papillary label-retaining cells during kidney repair from injury.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Juan A; Maarouf, Omar; Cheema, Faisal H; Liu, Charles; Zhang, Qing-Yin; Kraus, Carl; Zeeshan Afzal, M; Firdous, Mamoona; Klinakis, Apostolos; Efstratiadis, Argiris; Al-Awqati, Qais

    2012-06-01

    The adult kidney contains a population of low-cycling cells that resides in the papilla. These cells retain for long periods S-phase markers given as a short pulse early in life; i.e., they are label-retaining cells (LRC). In previous studies in adult rat and mice, we found that shortly after acute kidney injury many of the quiescent papillary LRC started proliferating (Oliver JA, Klinakis A, Cheema FH, Friedlander J, Sampogna RV, Martens TP, Liu C, Efstratiadis A, Al-Awqati Q. J Am Soc Nephrol 20: 2315-2327, 2009; Oliver JA, Maarouf O, Cheema FH, Martens TP, Al-Awqati Q. J Clin Invest 114: 795-804, 2004) and, with cell-tracking experiments, we found upward migration of some papillary cells including LRC (Oliver JA, Klinakis A, Cheema FH, Friedlander J, Sampogna RV, Martens TP, Liu C, Efstratiadis A, Al-Awqati Q. J Am Soc Nephrol 20: 2315-2327, 2009). To identify molecular cues involved in the activation (i.e., proliferation and/or migration) of the papillary LRC that follows injury, we isolated these cells from the H2B-GFP mice and found that they migrated and proliferated in response to the cytokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1). Moreover, in a papillary organ culture assay, the cell growth out of the upper papilla was dependent on the interaction of SDF-1 with its receptor Cxcr4. Interestingly, location of these two proteins in the kidney revealed a complementary location, with SDF-1 being preferentially expressed in the medulla and Cxcr4 more abundant in the papilla. Blockade of Cxcr4 in vivo prevented mobilization of papillary LRC after transient kidney ischemic injury and worsened its functional consequences. The data indicate that the SDF-1/Cxcr4 axis is a critical regulator of papillary LRC activation following transient kidney injury and during organ repair.

  10. Regulatory effect of monocytes on T cell proliferative responses to oral microbial antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Stashenko, P

    1982-01-01

    Mononuclear cell preparations isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation from human peripheral blood were found to vary considerably in the number of monocytes they contained (mean, 20.3%; range, 13 to 33%). The regulatory role of monocytes in T cell proliferative responses to sonic extracts of a panel of oral microorganisms was therefore investigated. T cells were fractionated by anti-immunoglobulin chromatography and depleted of monocytes by treatment with a monoclonal anti-human Ia-like (DR locus antigen) antibody and complement. Purified populations of monocytes were obtained by extensive adherence procedures. The resultant cell populations were greater than 95% pure, as judged by indirect immunofluorescence on a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Monocyte-depleted T cells failed to respond by proliferation to the nonoral antigen tetanus toxoid, as well as to any oral microorganism, but retained responsiveness to phytohemagglutinin. Readdition of monocytes in final concentrations of from 5 to 15% resulted in the restoration of maximal T cell proliferation. Monocytes in greater numbers suppressed T cell responses to all sonic extracts tested. PMID:6984019

  11. Mitochondria are required for antigen-specific T cell activation through reactive oxygen species signaling.

    PubMed

    Sena, Laura A; Li, Sha; Jairaman, Amit; Prakriya, Murali; Ezponda, Teresa; Hildeman, David A; Wang, Chyung-Ru; Schumacker, Paul T; Licht, Jonathan D; Perlman, Harris; Bryce, Paul J; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2013-02-21

    It is widely appreciated that T cells increase glycolytic flux during activation, but the role of mitochondrial flux is unclear. Here, we have shown that mitochondrial metabolism in the absence of glucose metabolism is sufficient to support interleukin-2 (IL-2) induction. Furthermore, we used mice with reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) production in T cells (T-Uqcrfs(-/-) mice) to show that mitochondria are required for T cell activation to produce mROS for activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and subsequent IL-2 induction. These mice could not induce antigen-specific expansion of T cells in vivo, but Uqcrfs1(-/-) T cells retained the ability to proliferate in vivo under lymphopenic conditions. This suggests that Uqcrfs1(-/-) T cells were not lacking bioenergetically but rather lacked specific ROS-dependent signaling events needed for antigen-specific expansion. Thus, mitochondrial metabolism is a critical component of T cell activation through the production of complex III ROS.

  12. In Vitro Generation of Antigen-Specific T Cells from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells of Antigen-Specific T Cell Origin.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from T lymphocyte (T-iPS cells) preserve the T cell receptor (TCR) α and β gene rearrangements identical to the original T cell clone. Re-differentiated CD8 single positive αβ T cells from the T-iPS cells exhibited antigen-specific cytotoxicity, improved proliferative response, and elongation of telomere indicating rejuvenation of antigen specific T cell immunity in vitro. To regenerate antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), first, we have optimized a method for reprogramming-resistant CD8 T cell clones into T-iPS cells by using sendaiviral vectors. Second, we have optimized stepwise differentiation methods for inducing hematopoietic progenitor cells, T cell progenitors, and functionally matured CD8 single positive CTL. These protocols provide useful in vitro tools and models both for research of antigen-specific T cell immunotherapy and for research of normal and pathological thymopoiesis.

  13. Divergent members of a single autoreactive B cell clone retain specificity for apoptotic blebs.

    PubMed

    Neeli, Indira; Richardson, Mekel M; Khan, Salar N; Nicolo, Danielle; Monestier, Marc; Radic, Marko Z

    2007-03-01

    Specificity for double-stranded DNA can arise due to somatic mutations within one of the branches of an autoreactive B cell clone. However, it is not known whether a different autospecificity predates anti-dsDNA and whether separate offshoots of an expanding B cell clone retain or evolve alternative specificities. We compared 3H9, an anti-dsDNA IgG, to 4H8 and 1A11, antibodies produced by hybridomas representing an alternative branch of the 3H9 B cell clone. All three IgG bound chromatin in ELISA and apoptotic cells in confocal microscopy, yet only 3H9 bound dsDNA, as measured by plasmon resonance. Moreover, we demonstrate that despite the unique specificity of 3H9 for dsDNA, all three clone members exhibited indistinguishable binding to chromatin. The binding to chromatin and apoptotic cells was unaffected by N-linked glycosylation in L chain CDR1, a modification that results from a replacement of serine 26 with asparagine in 4H8 and 1A11. These data provide the first evidence that specificity for nucleosome epitopes on apoptotic cells provides the initial positive stimulus for somatic variants that comprise a B cell clone, including those that subsequently acquire specificity for dsDNA. Conversely, selection of autoreactive B cells for binding to apoptotic cells leads to clonal expansion, antibody diversification, and the development of linked sets of anti-nuclear autoantibodies.

  14. Label-Retaining Stromal Cells in Mouse Endometrium Awaken for Expansion and Repair After Parturition

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Mingzhu; Yeung, William S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Human and mouse endometrium undergo dramatic cellular reorganization during pregnancy and postpartum. Somatic stem cells maintain homeostasis of the tissue by providing a cell reservoir for regeneration. We hypothesized that endometrial cells with quiescent properties (stem/progenitor cells) were involved in the regeneration of the endometrial tissue. Given that stem cells divide infrequently, they can retain the DNA synthesis label [bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)] after a prolonged chase period. In this study, prepubertal mice were pulsed with BrdU and after a 6-week chase a small population of label-retaining stromal cells (LRSC) was located primarily beneath the luminal epithelium, adjacent to blood vessels, and near the endometrial–myometrial junction. Marker analyses suggested that they were of mesenchymal origin expressing CD44+, CD90+, CD140b+, CD146+, and Sca-1+. During pregnancy, nonproliferating LRSC predominately resided at the interimplantation/placental loci of the gestational endometrium. Immediately after parturition, a significant portion of the LRSC underwent proliferation (BrdU+/Ki-67+) and expressed total and active β-catenin. The β-catenin expression in the LRSC was transiently elevated at postpartum day (PPD) 1. The proliferation of LRSC resulted in a significant decline in the proportion of LRSC in the postpartum uterus. The LRSC returned to dormancy at PPD7, and the percentage of LRSC remained stable thereafter until 11 weeks. This study demonstrated that LRSC can respond efficiently to physiological stimuli upon initiation of uterine involution and return to its quiescent state after postpartum repair. PMID:25386902

  15. Telomerase-immortalized non-malignant human prostate epithelial cells retain the properties of multipotent stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongzhen; Zhou Jianjun; Miki, Jun; Furusato, Bungo; Gu Yongpeng; Srivastava, Shiv; McLeod, David G.; Vogel, Jonathan C.; Rhim, Johng S.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding prostate stem cells may provide insight into the origin of prostate cancer. Primary cells have been cultured from human prostate tissue but they usually survive only 15-20 population doublings before undergoing senescence. We report here that RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells, a clonal cell line from hTERT-immortalized primary non-malignant tissue-derived human prostate epithelial cell line (RC170N/h), retain multipotent stem cell properties. The RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells expressed a human embryonic stem cell marker, Oct-4, and potential prostate epithelial stem cell markers, CD133, integrin {alpha}2{beta}1{sup hi} and CD44. The RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells proliferated in KGM and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium with 10% fetal bovine serum and 5 {mu}g/ml insulin (DMEM + 10% FBS + Ins.) medium, and differentiated into epithelial stem cells that expressed epithelial cell markers, including CK5/14, CD44, p63 and cytokeratin 18 (CK18); as well as the mesenchymal cell markers, vimentin, desmin; the neuron and neuroendocrine cell marker, chromogranin A. Furthermore the RC170 N/h/clone 7 cells differentiated into multi tissues when transplanted into the sub-renal capsule and subcutaneously of NOD-SCID mice. The results indicate that RC170N/h/clone 7 cells retain the properties of multipotent stem cells and will be useful as a novel cell model for studying the mechanisms of human prostate stem cell differentiation and transformation.

  16. Twist1-positive epithelial cells retain adhesive and proliferative capacity throughout dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Shamir, Eliah R.; Coutinho, Kester; Georgess, Dan; Auer, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dissemination is the process by which cells detach and migrate away from a multicellular tissue. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) conceptualizes dissemination in a stepwise fashion, with downregulation of E-cadherin leading to loss of intercellular junctions, induction of motility, and then escape from the epithelium. This gain of migratory activity is proposed to be mutually exclusive with proliferation. We previously developed a dissemination assay based on inducible expression of the transcription factor Twist1 and here utilize it to characterize the timing and dynamics of intercellular adhesion, proliferation and migration during dissemination. Surprisingly, Twist1+ epithelium displayed extensive intercellular junctions, and Twist1– luminal epithelial cells could still adhere to disseminating Twist1+ cells. Although proteolysis and proliferation were both observed throughout dissemination, neither was absolutely required. Finally, Twist1+ cells exhibited a hybrid migration mode; their morphology and nuclear deformation were characteristic of amoeboid cells, whereas their dynamic protrusive activity, pericellular proteolysis and migration speeds were more typical of mesenchymal cells. Our data reveal that epithelial cells can disseminate while retaining competence to adhere and proliferate. PMID:27402962

  17. Stem cells expanded from the human embryonic hindbrain stably retain regional specification and high neurogenic potency.

    PubMed

    Tailor, Jignesh; Kittappa, Raja; Leto, Ketty; Gates, Monte; Borel, Melodie; Paulsen, Ole; Spitzer, Sonia; Karadottir, Ragnhildur Thora; Rossi, Ferdinando; Falk, Anna; Smith, Austin

    2013-07-24

    Stem cell lines that faithfully maintain the regional identity and developmental potency of progenitors in the human brain would create new opportunities in developmental neurobiology and provide a resource for generating specialized human neurons. However, to date, neural progenitor cultures derived from the human brain have either been short-lived or exhibit restricted, predominantly glial, differentiation capacity. Pluripotent stem cells are an alternative source, but to ascertain definitively the identity and fidelity of cell types generated solely in vitro is problematic. Here, we show that hindbrain neuroepithelial stem (hbNES) cells can be derived and massively expanded from early human embryos (week 5-7, Carnegie stage 15-17). These cell lines are propagated in adherent culture in the presence of EGF and FGF2 and retain progenitor characteristics, including SOX1 expression, formation of rosette-like structures, and high neurogenic capacity. They generate GABAergic, glutamatergic and, at lower frequency, serotonergic neurons. Importantly, hbNES cells stably maintain hindbrain specification and generate upper rhombic lip derivatives on exposure to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). When grafted into neonatal rat brain, they show potential for integration into cerebellar development and produce cerebellar granule-like cells, albeit at low frequency. hbNES cells offer a new system to study human cerebellar specification and development and to model diseases of the hindbrain. They also provide a benchmark for the production of similar long-term neuroepithelial-like stem cells (lt-NES) from pluripotent cell lines. To our knowledge, hbNES cells are the first demonstration of highly expandable neuroepithelial stem cells derived from the human embryo without genetic immortalization.

  18. MLH1-deficient tumor cells are resistant to lipoplatin, but retain sensitivity to lipoxal.

    PubMed

    Fedier, André; Poyet, Cédric; Perucchini, Daniele; Boulikas, Teni; Fink, Daniel

    2006-03-01

    Lipoplatin, currently under phase III evaluation, is a novel liposomal cisplatin formulation highly effective against cancers. Lipoplatin has eliminated or reduced the systemic toxicity frequently seen for cisplatin. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the cytotoxic effect of lipoplatin is dependent on the functional integrity of DNA mismatch repair (MMR), a post-replicative DNA repair machinery implicated in cell cycle control and apoptosis. Clonogenic data revealed a significant (P<0.05) 2-fold resistance to lipoplatin of HCT116 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells lacking MLH1, one of five proteins crucial to MMR function, as compared to MLH1-expressing HCT116 cells. In addition, MLH1-deficient cells were at least 3-fold less susceptible to apoptosis (DNA fragmentation) than MLH1-proficient cells. However, proteolytic processing of caspase-3, caspase-7 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 following lipoplatin treatment was comparable in MLH1-deficient cells and -proficient cells. Furthermore, MLH1-deficient cells retained the ability to attenuate cell cycle progression past the G2/M checkpoint following lipoplatin treatment. In conclusion, our results indicate that the lipoplatin-sensitive phenotype of MLH1-proficient cells correlated with increased apoptosis which may occur via caspase-independent pathways. They also suggest that the integrity of MMR function is a relevant determinant accounting for the cytotoxicity of lipoplatin. However, this does not seem to apply to lipoxal, a novel liposomal formulation of oxaliplatin, because MLH1-deficient cells were as sensitive to lipoxal as MLH1-proficient cells.

  19. Killer Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells (KaAPC) for Efficient In Vitro Depletion of Human Antigen-specific T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Christian; Fleck, Martin; Schneck, Jonathan P.; Oelke, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Current treatment of T cell mediated autoimmune diseases relies mostly on strategies of global immunosuppression, which, in the long term, is accompanied by adverse side effects such as a reduced ability to control infections or malignancies. Therefore, new approaches need to be developed that target only the disease mediating cells and leave the remaining immune system intact. Over the past decade a variety of cell based immunotherapy strategies to modulate T cell mediated immune responses have been developed. Most of these approaches rely on tolerance-inducing antigen presenting cells (APC). However, in addition to being technically difficult and cumbersome, such cell-based approaches are highly sensitive to cytotoxic T cell responses, which limits their therapeutic capacity. Here we present a protocol for the generation of non-cellular killer artificial antigen presenting cells (KaAPC), which allows for the depletion of pathologic T cells while leaving the remaining immune system untouched and functional. KaAPC is an alternative solution to cellular immunotherapy which has potential for treating autoimmune diseases and allograft rejections by regulating undesirable T cell responses in an antigen specific fashion. PMID:25145915

  20. Orthotropic Laminated Open-cell Frameworks Retaining Strong Auxeticity under Large Uniaxial Loading

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiro; Suga, Kaito; Iwata, Naoki; Shibutani, Yoji

    2017-01-01

    Anisotropic materials form inside living tissue and are widely applied in engineered structures, where sophisticated structural and functional design principles are essential to employing these materials. This paper presents a candidate laminated open-cell framework, which is an anisotropic material that shows remarkable mechanical performance. Using additive manufacturing, artificial frameworks are fabricated by lamination of in-plane orthotropic microstructures made of elbowed beam and column members; this fabricated structure features orthogonal anisotropy in three-dimensional space. Uniaxial loading tests reveal strong auxeticity (high negative Poisson’s ratios) in the out-of-plane direction, which is retained reproducibly up to the nonlinear elastic region, and is equal under tensile and compressive loading. Finite element simulations support the observed auxetic behaviors for a unit cell in the periodic framework, which preserve the theoretical elastic properties of an orthogonal solid. These findings open the possibility of conceptual materials design based on geometry. PMID:28051133

  1. Orthotropic Laminated Open-cell Frameworks Retaining Strong Auxeticity under Large Uniaxial Loading.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiro; Suga, Kaito; Iwata, Naoki; Shibutani, Yoji

    2017-01-04

    Anisotropic materials form inside living tissue and are widely applied in engineered structures, where sophisticated structural and functional design principles are essential to employing these materials. This paper presents a candidate laminated open-cell framework, which is an anisotropic material that shows remarkable mechanical performance. Using additive manufacturing, artificial frameworks are fabricated by lamination of in-plane orthotropic microstructures made of elbowed beam and column members; this fabricated structure features orthogonal anisotropy in three-dimensional space. Uniaxial loading tests reveal strong auxeticity (high negative Poisson's ratios) in the out-of-plane direction, which is retained reproducibly up to the nonlinear elastic region, and is equal under tensile and compressive loading. Finite element simulations support the observed auxetic behaviors for a unit cell in the periodic framework, which preserve the theoretical elastic properties of an orthogonal solid. These findings open the possibility of conceptual materials design based on geometry.

  2. Orthotropic Laminated Open-cell Frameworks Retaining Strong Auxeticity under Large Uniaxial Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiro; Suga, Kaito; Iwata, Naoki; Shibutani, Yoji

    2017-01-01

    Anisotropic materials form inside living tissue and are widely applied in engineered structures, where sophisticated structural and functional design principles are essential to employing these materials. This paper presents a candidate laminated open-cell framework, which is an anisotropic material that shows remarkable mechanical performance. Using additive manufacturing, artificial frameworks are fabricated by lamination of in-plane orthotropic microstructures made of elbowed beam and column members; this fabricated structure features orthogonal anisotropy in three-dimensional space. Uniaxial loading tests reveal strong auxeticity (high negative Poisson’s ratios) in the out-of-plane direction, which is retained reproducibly up to the nonlinear elastic region, and is equal under tensile and compressive loading. Finite element simulations support the observed auxetic behaviors for a unit cell in the periodic framework, which preserve the theoretical elastic properties of an orthogonal solid. These findings open the possibility of conceptual materials design based on geometry.

  3. Genomic Typing of Red Cell Antigens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Antigen‐Matched  Red  Cells   for  Sickle   Cell   Anemia  Patients  Using  Molecular Typing to Augment Testing: Meghan Delaney, Prashant Gaur, Askale...H, Constans J, Quilici JC, Lefevre‐Witier P, Sevin J, Stevens M: Study of red blood  cell  and serum enzymes in  five  Pyrenean communities and in a...Antigen‐Matched Red  Cells  for  Sickle   Cell  Anemia Patients  Using Molecular Typing to Augment Testing: AABB (poster) 2009.  Background: Patients with  sickle

  4. Bovine mammary epithelial cells retain stem-like phenotype in long-term cultures.

    PubMed

    Cravero, Diego; Diego, Cravero; Martignani, Eugenio; Eugenio, Martignani; Miretti, Silvia; Silvia, Miretti; Macchi, Elisabetta; Elisabetta, Macchi; Accornero, Paolo; Paolo, Accornero; Baratta, Mario; Mario, Baratta

    2014-10-01

    The detection and characterization of bovine mammary stem cells may give a better understanding of the cyclic characteristic of mammary gland development. In turn, this could potentially offer techniques to manipulate lactation yield and for regenerative medicine. We previously demonstrated that adult stem cells reside in the bovine mammary gland and possess an intrinsic regenerative potential. In vitro maintenance and expansion of this primitive population is a challenging task that could make easier the study of adult mammary stem cells. The aim of this study is to investigate this possibility. Different subpopulations of mammary epithelial cells emerge when they are cultured in two defined culture conditions. Specific cell differentiation markers as cytokeratin 18 (CK18) and cytokeratin 14 (CK14) were expressed with significant differences according to culture conditions. Vimentin, a well-known fibroblast marker was observed to increase significantly (P < 0.5) only after day 20. In both conditions, after prolonged culture (25 days) a subset of cells still retained regenerative capabilities. These cells were able to form organized pseudo-alveoli when transplanted in immunodeficient mice as shown by the expression of cytokeratin 14 (CK14), cytokeratin 18 (CK18), p63 (a mammary basal cell layer marker) and Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM). We also were able to observe the presence of milk proteins signal in these regenerated structures, which is a specific marker of functional mammary alveoli. Progenitor content was also analyzed in vitro through Colony-Forming Cell (CFC) assays with no substantial differences among culture conditions and time points. These results demonstrate that long-term culture of a multipotent cell subpopulation with intrinsic regenerative potential is possible.

  5. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expression in plant cell culture: Kinetics of antigen accumulation in batch culture and its intracellular form.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark L; Mason, Hugh S; Shuler, Michael L

    2002-12-30

    The production of edible vaccines in transgenic plants and plant cell culture may be improved through a better understanding of antigen processing and assembly. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was chosen for study because it undergoes substantial and complex post-translational modifications, which are necessary for its immunogenicity. This antigen was expressed in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Williams 82) and tobacco NT1 (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cell suspension cultures, and HBsAg production in batch culture was characterized. The plant-derived antigen consisted predominantly of disulfide cross-linked HBsAg protein (p24(s)) dimers, which were all membrane associated. Similar to yeast, the plant-expressed HBsAg was retained intracellularly. The maximal HBsAg titers were obtained with soybean suspension cultures (20-22 mg/L) with titers in tobacco cultures being approximately 10-fold lower. For soybean cells, electron microscopy and immunolocalization demonstrated that all the HBsAg was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and provoked dilation and proliferation of the ER network. Sucrose gradient analysis of crude extracts showed that HBsAg had a complex size distribution uncharacteristic of the antigen's normal structure of uniform 22-nm virus-like particles. The extent of authentic epitope formation was assessed by comparing total p24(s) synthesized to that reactive by polyclonal and monoclonal immunoassays. Depending on culture age, between 40% and 100% of total p24(s) was polyclonal antibody reactive whereas between 6% and 37% was recognized by a commercial monoclonal antibody assay. Possible strategies to increase HBsAg production and improve post-translational processing are discussed.

  6. Dry-Coated Live Viral Vector Vaccines Delivered by Nanopatch Microprojections Retain Long-Term Thermostability and Induce Transgene-Specific T Cell Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Frances E.; McNeilly, Celia L.; Crichton, Michael L.; Primiero, Clare A.; Yukiko, Sally R.; Fernando, Germain J. P.; Chen, Xianfeng; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Kendall, Mark A. F.

    2013-01-01

    The disadvantages of needle-based immunisation motivate the development of simple, low cost, needle-free alternatives. Vaccine delivery to cutaneous environments rich in specialised antigen-presenting cells using microprojection patches has practical and immunological advantages over conventional needle delivery. Additionally, stable coating of vaccine onto microprojections removes logistical obstacles presented by the strict requirement for cold-chain storage and distribution of liquid vaccine, or lyophilised vaccine plus diluent. These attributes make these technologies particularly suitable for delivery of vaccines against diseases such as malaria, which exerts its worst effects in countries with poorly-resourced healthcare systems. Live viral vectors including adenoviruses and poxviruses encoding exogenous antigens have shown significant clinical promise as vaccines, due to their ability to generate high numbers of antigen-specific T cells. Here, the simian adenovirus serotype 63 and the poxvirus modified vaccinia Ankara – two vectors under evaluation for the delivery of malaria antigens to humans – were formulated for coating onto Nanopatch microprojections and applied to murine skin. Co-formulation with the stabilising disaccharides trehalose and sucrose protected virions during the dry-coating process. Transgene-specific CD8+ T cell responses following Nanopatch delivery of both vectors were similar to intradermal injection controls after a single immunisation (despite a much lower delivered dose), though MVA boosting of pre-primed responses with Nanopatch was found to be less effective than the ID route. Importantly, disaccharide-stabilised ChAd63 could be stored for 10 weeks at 37°C with less than 1 log10 loss of viability, and retained single-dose immunogenicity after storage. These data support the further development of microprojection patches for the deployment of live vaccines in hot climates. PMID:23874462

  7. Dry-coated live viral vector vaccines delivered by nanopatch microprojections retain long-term thermostability and induce transgene-specific T cell responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Frances E; McNeilly, Celia L; Crichton, Michael L; Primiero, Clare A; Yukiko, Sally R; Fernando, Germain J P; Chen, Xianfeng; Gilbert, Sarah C; Hill, Adrian V S; Kendall, Mark A F

    2013-01-01

    The disadvantages of needle-based immunisation motivate the development of simple, low cost, needle-free alternatives. Vaccine delivery to cutaneous environments rich in specialised antigen-presenting cells using microprojection patches has practical and immunological advantages over conventional needle delivery. Additionally, stable coating of vaccine onto microprojections removes logistical obstacles presented by the strict requirement for cold-chain storage and distribution of liquid vaccine, or lyophilised vaccine plus diluent. These attributes make these technologies particularly suitable for delivery of vaccines against diseases such as malaria, which exerts its worst effects in countries with poorly-resourced healthcare systems. Live viral vectors including adenoviruses and poxviruses encoding exogenous antigens have shown significant clinical promise as vaccines, due to their ability to generate high numbers of antigen-specific T cells. Here, the simian adenovirus serotype 63 and the poxvirus modified vaccinia Ankara--two vectors under evaluation for the delivery of malaria antigens to humans--were formulated for coating onto Nanopatch microprojections and applied to murine skin. Co-formulation with the stabilising disaccharides trehalose and sucrose protected virions during the dry-coating process. Transgene-specific CD8(+) T cell responses following Nanopatch delivery of both vectors were similar to intradermal injection controls after a single immunisation (despite a much lower delivered dose), though MVA boosting of pre-primed responses with Nanopatch was found to be less effective than the ID route. Importantly, disaccharide-stabilised ChAd63 could be stored for 10 weeks at 37°C with less than 1 log10 loss of viability, and retained single-dose immunogenicity after storage. These data support the further development of microprojection patches for the deployment of live vaccines in hot climates.

  8. Expanded Human Blood-Derived γδT Cells Display Potent Antigen-Presentation Functions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohd Wajid A.; Curbishley, Stuart M.; Chen, Hung-Chang; Thomas, Andrew D.; Pircher, Hanspeter; Mavilio, Domenico; Steven, Neil M.; Eberl, Matthias; Moser, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Cell-based immunotherapy strategies target tumors directly (via cytolytic effector cells) or aim at mobilizing endogenous anti-tumor immunity. The latter approach includes dendritic cells (DC) most frequently in the form of in vitro cultured peripheral blood monocytes-derived DC. Human blood γδT cells are selective for a single class of non-peptide agonists (“phosphoantigens”) and develop into potent antigen-presenting cells (APC), termed γδT-APC within 1–3 days of in vitro culture. Availability of large numbers of γδT-APC would be advantageous for use as a novel cellular vaccine. We here report optimal γδT cell expansion (>107 cells/ml blood) when peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy individuals and melanoma patients were stimulated with zoledronate and then cultured for 14 days in the presence of IL-2 and IL-15, yielding γδT cell cultures of variable purity (77 ± 21 and 56 ± 26%, respectively). They resembled effector memory αβT (TEM) cells and retained full functionality as assessed by in vitro tumor cell killing as well as secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα) and cell proliferation in response to stimulation with phosphoantigens. Importantly, day 14 γδT cells expressed numerous APC-related cell surface markers and, in agreement, displayed potent in vitro APC functions. Day 14 γδT cells from PBMC of patients with cancer were equally effective as their counterparts derived from blood of healthy individuals and triggered potent CD8+ αβT cell responses following processing and cross-presentation of simple (influenza M1) and complex (tuberculin purified protein derivative) protein antigens. Of note, and in clear contrast to peripheral blood γδT cells, the ability of day 14 γδT cells to trigger antigen-specific αβT cell responses did not depend on re-stimulation. We conclude that day 14 γδT cell cultures provide a convenient source of autologous APC for use in immunotherapy of patients

  9. Expanded Human Blood-Derived γδT Cells Display Potent Antigen-Presentation Functions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Wajid A; Curbishley, Stuart M; Chen, Hung-Chang; Thomas, Andrew D; Pircher, Hanspeter; Mavilio, Domenico; Steven, Neil M; Eberl, Matthias; Moser, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Cell-based immunotherapy strategies target tumors directly (via cytolytic effector cells) or aim at mobilizing endogenous anti-tumor immunity. The latter approach includes dendritic cells (DC) most frequently in the form of in vitro cultured peripheral blood monocytes-derived DC. Human blood γδT cells are selective for a single class of non-peptide agonists ("phosphoantigens") and develop into potent antigen-presenting cells (APC), termed γδT-APC within 1-3 days of in vitro culture. Availability of large numbers of γδT-APC would be advantageous for use as a novel cellular vaccine. We here report optimal γδT cell expansion (>10(7) cells/ml blood) when peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy individuals and melanoma patients were stimulated with zoledronate and then cultured for 14 days in the presence of IL-2 and IL-15, yielding γδT cell cultures of variable purity (77 ± 21 and 56 ± 26%, respectively). They resembled effector memory αβT (TEM) cells and retained full functionality as assessed by in vitro tumor cell killing as well as secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα) and cell proliferation in response to stimulation with phosphoantigens. Importantly, day 14 γδT cells expressed numerous APC-related cell surface markers and, in agreement, displayed potent in vitro APC functions. Day 14 γδT cells from PBMC of patients with cancer were equally effective as their counterparts derived from blood of healthy individuals and triggered potent CD8(+) αβT cell responses following processing and cross-presentation of simple (influenza M1) and complex (tuberculin purified protein derivative) protein antigens. Of note, and in clear contrast to peripheral blood γδT cells, the ability of day 14 γδT cells to trigger antigen-specific αβT cell responses did not depend on re-stimulation. We conclude that day 14 γδT cell cultures provide a convenient source of autologous APC for use in immunotherapy of patients

  10. Existence of a squamous cell carcinoma antigen-immunoglobulin complex causes a deviation between squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations determined using two different immunoassays: first report of squamous cell carcinoma antigen coupling with immunoglobulin A.

    PubMed

    Mori, Eriko; Kurano, Makoto; Tobita, Akiko; Shimosaka, Hironori; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinoma antigen is used as a tumour marker and is routinely measured in clinical laboratories. We validated two different immunoassays and found three cases in which the squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations deviated greatly between the two immunoassays. Here, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for these deviations. Methods The squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations were determined using the ARCHITECT SCC (CLIA method) and the ST AIA-PACK SCC (FEIA method). We performed polyethylene glycol precipitation and size exclusion chromatography to assess the molecular weight and spike recovery and absorption tests to examine the presence of an autoantibody. Results Both methods exhibited good performances for the measurement of squamous cell carcinoma antigen, although a correlation test showed large differences in the squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations measured using the two methods in three cases. The results of polyethylene glycol treatment and size exclusion chromatography indicated the existence of a large molecular weight squamous cell carcinoma antigen in these three cases. The spike recovery tests suggested the possible presence of an autoantibody against squamous cell carcinoma antigen. Moreover, the absorption test revealed that large squamous cell carcinoma antigen complexes were formed by the association of squamous cell carcinoma antigen with IgG in two cases and with both IgG and IgA in one case. Conclusions This study describes the existence of large molecular weight squamous cell carcinoma antigen that has complexed with immunoglobulin in the serum samples. The reason for the deviations between the two immunoassays might be due to differences of their reactivities against the squamous cell carcinoma antigen immune complexes with their autoantibody. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the coupling of squamous cell carcinoma antigen with IgA.

  11. M. tuberculosis T Cell Epitope Analysis Reveals Paucity of Antigenic Variation and Identifies Rare Variable TB Antigens.

    PubMed

    Coscolla, Mireia; Copin, Richard; Sutherland, Jayne; Gehre, Florian; de Jong, Bouke; Owolabi, Olumuiya; Mbayo, Georgetta; Giardina, Federica; Ernst, Joel D; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2015-11-11

    Pathogens that evade adaptive immunity typically exhibit antigenic variation. By contrast, it appears that although the chronic human tuberculosis (TB)-causing pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis needs to counter host T cell responses, its T cell epitopes are hyperconserved. Here we present an extensive analysis of the T cell epitopes of M. tuberculosis. We combined population genomics with experimental immunology to determine the number and identity of T cell epitope sequence variants in 216 phylogenetically diverse strains of M. tuberculosis. Antigen conservation is indeed a hallmark of M. tuberculosis. However, our analysis revealed a set of seven variable antigens that were immunogenic in subjects with active TB. These findings suggest that M. tuberculosis uses mechanisms other than antigenic variation to evade T cells. T cell epitopes that exhibit sequence variation may not be subject to the same evasion mechanisms, and hence vaccines that include such variable epitopes may be more efficacious.

  12. Two distinct antigen systems in human B lymphocytes: identification of cell surface and intracellular antigens using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Y; Takami, T; Yuasa, H; Takei, T; Kikuchi, K

    1984-01-01

    Two distinct antigen systems (L26 and L27) specifically expressed in human B lymphocytes were identified using TB2-2B3 (2B3) and T3-5B3 (5B3) monoclonal antibodies, respectively. Whereas L26 antigen defined by 2B3 were rarely expressed on the surface of B cells but abundant in the cytoplasm, 127 antigens detected by 5B3 was clearly expressed on the cell surface. These two antigens appeared to be restricted in their expression to B cells, as they were found in most B cells but not other cell types including thymocytes, T cells, monocytes and granulocytes. Functional studies demonstrated that L27 was more easily lost from B cells after activation with pokeweed mitogen than was L26. Likewise, plasma cell myeloma, as well as normal plasma cells, was devoid of both L26 and L27, whereas immunoblastic sarcoma of B cell type expressed L26 but not L27. These two antigens co-existed in the same B cell lines including Epstein-Barr virus transformed B cell lines, B cell type acute lymphatic leukaemia (B-ALL) cell line, Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines and myeloma cell lines, but pre-B and common ALL cell lines were entirely negative for both L26 and L27. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that L26 consisted of at least two polypeptide chains with molecular weights of 30K and 33K daltons, which were clearly distinct from HLA-DR antigens. The antigen L27 is presently under study. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6332692

  13. Immunochemical properties of antigen-specific monkey T-cell suppressor factor induced with a Streptococcus mutans antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, J R; Zanders, E D; Kontiainen, S; Lehner, T

    1980-01-01

    Antigen-specific suppressor factor could be released from monkey suppressor T cells induced in vitro with a protein antigen isolated from the carcinogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. The suppressor activity was due to the factor itself and not to carryover of free antigen. Characterization of the monkey factor revealed it to have a molecular weight of ca. 70,000, and to contain a constant region and determinants encoded by the major histocompatibility complex. The presence of immunoglobulin determinants could not be demonstrated. However, by virtue of its adsorption to specific antigen, an antigen-combining site was shown to be present. The possible regulatory role of streptococcal antigen-specific suppressor factor in protection against dental caries is discussed. PMID:6164645

  14. Microplate cell-retaining methodology for high-content analysis of individual non-adherent unanchored cells in a population.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Assaf; Zurgil, Naomi; Hurevich, Ihar; Shafran, Yana; Afrimzon, Elena; Lebovich, Pnina; Deutsch, Mordechai

    2006-12-01

    A high throughput Microtiter plate Cell Retainer (MCR) has been developed to enable, for the first time, high-content, time-dependent analysis of the same single non-adherent and non-anchored cells in a large cell population, while bio-manipulating the cells. The identity of each cell in the investigated population is secured, even during bio-manipulation, by cell retention in a specially designed concave microlens, acting as a picoliter well (PW). The MCR technique combines micro-optical features and microtiter plate methodology. The array of PWs serves as the bottom of a microtiter plate, fitted with a unique flow damper element. The latter enables rapid fluid exchange without dislodging the cells from their original PWs, thus maintaining the cells' identity. Loading cell suspensions and reagents into the MCR is performed by simple pouring, followed by gravitational sedimentation and settling of cells into the PWs. Cell viability and cell division within the MCR were shown to be similar to those obtained under similar conditions in a standard microtiter plate. The efficiency of single cell occupancy in the MCR exceeded 90%. No cell dislodging was observed when comparing images before and after bio-manipulations (rinsing, staining, etc.). The MCR permits the performance of kinetic measurements on an individual cell basis. Data acquisition is governed by software, controlling microscope performance, stage position and image acquisition and analysis. The PW's unique micro-optical features enable rapid, simultaneous signal analysis of each individual cell, bypassing lengthy image analysis.

  15. Properties of B cells and Thy-1-antigen-expressing cells infiltrating rat renal allografts

    SciTech Connect

    Leszczynski, D.; Halttunen, J.; Tiisala, S.; Ustinov, J.; Renkonen, R.; Haeyry, P. )

    1990-10-01

    We have examined (1) the frequency of B cells secreting antibodies against donor major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and (2) the properties of Thy-1-antigen-expressing leukocytes in rats rejecting renal allografts. Our results show that B cells secreting antibodies are present in the inflammatory cell population at the frequency of 1:850. Among them only 1 out of 2-150 is engaged in production of antibodies directed to the graft MHC antigens, depending on the method of assay. This suggests that despite the observed significant production of nonspecific immunoglobulin in situ, only a minority of the B-cell population is specifically committed to the graft MHC antigens. This finding is concordant with the described previously low frequencies of the T cells specifically directed toward the graft MHC antigen. The role of the immunologically noncommitted cells in graft rejection is unknown. We have found that a substantial part (up to 60%) of inflammatory cells invading a rat kidney allograft express the Thy-1 antigen. This suggests that they might be immature (progenitor ) cells and, therefore, unable to respond to the graft antigens. Progenitor-like properties of these cells have been confirmed by their ability to reconstitute lethally irradiated syngeneic rat. Finally, these immature cells are of lymphoid, not of myeloid, linkage, because they do not proliferate in the presence of GM-CSF.

  16. Serine Proteases Enhance Immunogenic Antigen Presentation on Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Peters, Haley L; Tripathi, Satyendra C; Kerros, Celine; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Garber, Haven R; St John, Lisa S; Federico, Lorenzo; Meraz, Ismail M; Roth, Jack A; Sepesi, Boris; Majidi, Mourad; Ruisaard, Kathryn; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Roszik, Jason; Gibbons, Don L; Heymach, John V; Swisher, Stephen G; Bernatchez, Chantale; Alatrash, Gheath; Hanash, Samir; Molldrem, Jeffrey J

    2017-03-02

    Immunotherapies targeting immune checkpoints have proven efficacious in reducing the burden of lung cancer in patients; however, the antigenic targets of these reinvigorated T cells remain poorly defined. Lung cancer tumors contain tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and neutrophils, which release the serine proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase 3 (P3) into the tumor microenvironment. NE and P3 shape the antitumor adaptive immune response in breast cancer and melanoma. In this report, we demonstrate that lung cancer cells cross-presented the tumor-associated antigen PR1, derived from NE and P3. Additionally, NE and P3 enhanced the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules on lung cancer cells and induced unique, endogenous peptides in the immunopeptidome, as detected with mass spectrometry sequencing. Lung cancer patient tissues with high intratumoral TAMs were enriched for MHC class I genes and T-cell markers, and patients with high TAM and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration had improved overall survival. We confirmed the immunogenicity of unique, endogenous peptides with cytotoxicity assays against lung cancer cell lines, using CTLs from healthy donors that had been expanded against select peptides. Finally, CTLs specific for serine proteases-induced endogenous peptides were detected in lung cancer patients using peptide/HLA-A2 tetramers and were elevated in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Thus, serine proteases in the tumor microenvironment of lung cancers promote the presentation of HLA class I immunogenic peptides that are expressed by lung cancer cells, thereby increasing the antigen repertoire that can be targeted in lung cancer. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(4); 1-11. ©2017 AACR.

  17. BrdU-label-retaining cells in rat eccrine sweat glands over time.

    PubMed

    Li, Haihong; Zhang, Mingjun; Li, Xuexue; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Bingna; Tang, Shijie; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-03-01

    Cell proliferation and turnover are fueled by stem cells. In a previous study, we demonstrated that rat eccrine sweat glands contained abundant bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-label-retaining cells (LRCs). However, morphological observations showed that eccrine sweat glands usually show little or no signs of homeostatic change. In this study, we account for why the homeostatic change is rare in eccrine sweat glands based on cytokinetic changes in BrdU-LRC turnover, and also determine the BrdU-labeled cell type. Thirty-six newborn SD rats, were injected intraperitoneally with 50mg/kg BrdU twice daily at a 2h interval for 4 consecutive days. After a chase period of 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 32 weeks, rats were euthanized, and the hind footpads were removed and processed for BrdU immunostaining, and BrdU/α-SMA and BrdU/K14 double-immunostaining. BrdU-LRCs were observed in the ducts, secretory coils and mesenchymal cells at all survival time points. The percentage of BrdU(+) cells in rat eccrine sweat glands averaged 4.2±1.2% after 4 weeks of chase, increased slightly by the 6th week, averaging 4.4±0.9%, and peaked at 8 weeks, averaging 5.3±1.0%. Subsequently, the average percentage of BrdU(+) cells declined to 3.2±0.8% by the 32nd week. There was no difference in the percentage of BrdU-LRCs among the different survival time points except that a significant difference in the percentage of BrdU-LRCs detected at 24 weeks versus 8 weeks, and 32 weeks versus 8 weeks, was observed. We concluded that the BrdU-LRCs turnover is slow in eccrine sweat glands.

  18. Nuclear localization of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen in Merkel cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Sato, Yuko; Watanabe, Daisuke; Ito, Hideki; Shimonohara, Nozomi; Tsuji, Takahiro; Nakajima, Noriko; Suzuki, Yoshio; Matsuo, Koma; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Katano, Harutaka

    2010-03-15

    To clarify whether mutations in the large T gene encoded by Merkel cell polyomavirus affect the expression and function of large T antigen in Merkel cell carcinoma cases, we investigated the expression of large T antigen in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemistry using a rabbit polyclonal antibody revealed that large T antigen was expressed in the nuclei of Merkel cell carcinoma cells with Merkel cell polyomavirus infection. Deletion mutant analyses identified an Arg-Lys-Arg-Lys sequence (amino acids 277-280) as a nuclear localization signal in large T antigen. Sequence analyses revealed that there were no mutations in the nuclear localization signal in any of the eleven Merkel cell polyomavirus strains examined. Furthermore, stop codons were not observed in the upstream of the nuclear localization signal in any of the Merkel cell carcinoma cases examined. These data suggest that the nuclear localization signal is highly conserved and functional in Merkel cell carcinoma cases.

  19. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy in Hematology.

    PubMed

    Ataca, Pınar; Arslan, Önder

    2015-12-01

    It is well demonstrated that the immune system can control and eliminate cancer cells. Immune-mediated elimination of tumor cells has been discovered and is the basis of both cancer vaccines and cellular therapies including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Adoptive T cell transfer has been improved to be more specific and potent and to cause less off-target toxicity. Currently, there are two forms of engineered T cells being tested in clinical trials: T cell receptor (TCR) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells. On 1 July 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration granted 'breakthrough therapy' designation to anti-CD19 CAR T cell therapy. Many studies were conducted to evaluate the benefits of this exciting and potent new treatment modality. This review summarizes the history of adoptive immunotherapy, adoptive immunotherapy using CARs, the CAR manufacturing process, preclinical and clinical studies, and the effectiveness and drawbacks of this strategy.

  20. CARbodies: Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Camino, Vanesa; Sánchez-Martín, David; Compte, Marta; Nuñez-Prado, Natalia; Diaz, Rosa M; Vile, Richard; Alvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2013-01-01

    A human single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody library was expressed on the surface of human T cells after transduction with lentiviral vectors (LVs). The repertoire was fused to a first-generation T cell receptor ζ (TCRζ)-based chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). We used this library to isolate antibodies termed CARbodies that recognize antigens expressed on the tumor cell surface in a proof-of-principle system. After three rounds of activation-selection there was a clear repertoire restriction, with the emergence dominant clones. The CARbodies were purified from bacterial cultures as soluble and active proteins. Furthermore, to validate its potential application for adoptive cell therapy, human T cells were transduced with a LV encoding a second-generation costimulatory CAR (CARv2) bearing the selected CARbodies. Transduced human primary T cells expressed significant levels of the CARbodies-based CARv2 fusion protein on the cell surface, and importantly could be specifically activated, after stimulation with tumor cells. This approach is a promising tool for the generation of antibodies fully adapted to the display format (CAR) and the selection context (cell synapse), which could extend the scope of current adoptive cell therapy strategies with CAR-redirected T cells. PMID:23695536

  1. Expression of cell surface antigens on mast cells: mast cell phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Hauswirth, Alexander W; Florian, Stefan; Schernthaner, Gerit-Holger; Krauth, Maria-Theresa; Sonneck, Karoline; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter

    2006-01-01

    During the past few decades, a number of functionally important cell surface antigens have been detected on human mast cells (MCs). These antigens include the stem cell factor receptor (SCFR/CD117), the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor, adhesion molecules, and activation-linked membrane determinants. Several of these antigens (CD2, CD25, CD35, CD88, CD203c) appear to be upregulated on MCs in patients with systemic mastocytosis and therefore are used as diagnostic markers. Quantitative measurement of these markers on MCs is thus of diagnostic value and is usually performed by multicolor-based flow cytometry techniques utilizing a PE- or APC-labeled antibody against CD117 for MCs detection. This chapter gives an overview about the methods of staining of MC in various tissues with special reference to novel diagnostic markers applied in patients with suspected systemic mastocytosis.

  2. Microfluidic squeezing for intracellular antigen loading in polyclonal B-cells as cellular vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lee Szeto, Gregory; Van Egeren, Debra; Worku, Hermoon; Sharei, Armon; Alejandro, Brian; Park, Clara; Frew, Kirubel; Brefo, Mavis; Mao, Shirley; Heimann, Megan; Langer, Robert; Jensen, Klavs; Irvine, Darrell J

    2015-01-01

    B-cells are promising candidate autologous antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to prime antigen-specific T-cells both in vitro and in vivo. However to date, a significant barrier to utilizing B-cells as APCs is their low capacity for non-specific antigen uptake compared to “professional” APCs such as dendritic cells. Here we utilize a microfluidic device that employs many parallel channels to pass single cells through narrow constrictions in high throughput. This microscale “cell squeezing” process creates transient pores in the plasma membrane, enabling intracellular delivery of whole proteins from the surrounding medium into B-cells via mechano-poration. We demonstrate that both resting and activated B-cells process and present antigens delivered via mechano-poration exclusively to antigen-specific CD8+T-cells, and not CD4+T-cells. Squeezed B-cells primed and expanded large numbers of effector CD8+T-cells in vitro that produced effector cytokines critical to cytolytic function, including granzyme B and interferon-γ. Finally, antigen-loaded B-cells were also able to prime antigen-specific CD8+T-cells in vivo when adoptively transferred into mice. Altogether, these data demonstrate crucial proof-of-concept for mechano-poration as an enabling technology for B-cell antigen loading, priming of antigen-specific CD8+T-cells, and decoupling of antigen uptake from B-cell activation. PMID:25999171

  3. Microfluidic squeezing for intracellular antigen loading in polyclonal B-cells as cellular vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee Szeto, Gregory; van Egeren, Debra; Worku, Hermoon; Sharei, Armon; Alejandro, Brian; Park, Clara; Frew, Kirubel; Brefo, Mavis; Mao, Shirley; Heimann, Megan; Langer, Robert; Jensen, Klavs; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2015-05-01

    B-cells are promising candidate autologous antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to prime antigen-specific T-cells both in vitro and in vivo. However to date, a significant barrier to utilizing B-cells as APCs is their low capacity for non-specific antigen uptake compared to “professional” APCs such as dendritic cells. Here we utilize a microfluidic device that employs many parallel channels to pass single cells through narrow constrictions in high throughput. This microscale “cell squeezing” process creates transient pores in the plasma membrane, enabling intracellular delivery of whole proteins from the surrounding medium into B-cells via mechano-poration. We demonstrate that both resting and activated B-cells process and present antigens delivered via mechano-poration exclusively to antigen-specific CD8+T-cells, and not CD4+T-cells. Squeezed B-cells primed and expanded large numbers of effector CD8+T-cells in vitro that produced effector cytokines critical to cytolytic function, including granzyme B and interferon-γ. Finally, antigen-loaded B-cells were also able to prime antigen-specific CD8+T-cells in vivo when adoptively transferred into mice. Altogether, these data demonstrate crucial proof-of-concept for mechano-poration as an enabling technology for B-cell antigen loading, priming of antigen-specific CD8+T-cells, and decoupling of antigen uptake from B-cell activation.

  4. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina; Kaufmann, Andreas M.

    2011-04-15

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

  5. T-cell intracellular antigens in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Jiménez, Carmen; Izquierdo, José M

    2015-01-01

    T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1) and TIA1-related/like protein (TIAR/TIAL1) are 2 proteins discovered in 1991 as components of cytotoxic T lymphocyte granules. They act in the nucleus as regulators of transcription and pre-mRNA splicing. In the cytoplasm, TIA1 and TIAR regulate and/or modulate the location, stability and/or translation of mRNAs. As knowledge of the different genes regulated by these proteins and the cellular/biological programs in which they are involved increases, it is evident that these antigens are key players in human physiology and pathology. This review will discuss the latest developments in the field, with physiopathological relevance, that point to novel roles for these regulators in the molecular and cell biology of higher eukaryotes. PMID:26036275

  6. T-cell intracellular antigens in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Jiménez, Carmen; Izquierdo, José M

    2015-01-01

    T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA1) and TIA1-related/like protein (TIAR/TIAL1) are 2 proteins discovered in 1991 as components of cytotoxic T lymphocyte granules. They act in the nucleus as regulators of transcription and pre-mRNA splicing. In the cytoplasm, TIA1 and TIAR regulate and/or modulate the location, stability and/or translation of mRNAs. As knowledge of the different genes regulated by these proteins and the cellular/biological programs in which they are involved increases, it is evident that these antigens are key players in human physiology and pathology. This review will discuss the latest developments in the field, with physiopathological relevance, that point to novel roles for these regulators in the molecular and cell biology of higher eukaryotes.

  7. Regulatory T-cell vaccination independent of auto-antigen.

    PubMed

    Pascual, David W; Yang, Xinghong; Holderness, Kathryn; Jun, SangMu; Maddaloni, Massimo; Kochetkova, Irina

    2014-03-14

    To date, efforts to treat autoimmune diseases have primarily focused on the disease symptoms rather than on the cause of the disease. In large part, this is attributed to not knowing the responsible auto-antigens (auto-Ags) for driving the self-reactivity coupled with the poor success of treating autoimmune diseases using oral tolerance methods. Nonetheless, if tolerogenic approaches or methods that stimulate regulatory T (Treg) cells can be devised, these could subdue autoimmune diseases. To forward such efforts, our approach with colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) fimbriae is to establish bystander immunity to ultimately drive the development of auto-Ag-specific Treg cells. Using an attenuated Salmonella vaccine expressing CFA/I fimbriae, fimbriae-specific Treg cells were induced without compromising the vaccine's capacity to protect against travelers' diarrhea or salmonellosis. By adapting the vaccine's anti-inflammatory properties, it was found that it could also dampen experimental inflammatory diseases resembling multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis. Because of this bystander effect, disease-specific Treg cells are eventually induced to resolve disease. Interestingly, this same vaccine could elicit the required Treg cell subset for each disease. For MS-like disease, conventional CD25(+) Treg cells are stimulated, but for arthritis CD39(+) Treg cells are induced instead. This review article will examine the potential of treating autoimmune diseases without having previous knowledge of the auto-Ag using an innocuous antigen to stimulate Treg cells via the production of transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-10.

  8. Germinal center B cells recognize antigen through a specialized immune synapse architecture

    PubMed Central

    Nowosad, Carla R.; Spillane, Katelyn M.; Tolar, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    B cell activation is regulated by B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling and antigen internalization in immune synapses. Using large-scale imaging across B cell subsets, we show that in contrast to naive and memory B cells, which gathered antigen towards the synapse center before internalization, germinal center (GC) B cells extracted antigen by a distinct pathway using small peripheral clusters. Both naive and GC B cell synapses required proximal BCR signaling, but GC cells signaled less through the protein kinase C-β (PKC-β)–NF-κB pathway and produced stronger tugging forces on the BCR, thereby more stringently regulating antigen binding. Consequently, GC B cells extracted antigen with better affinity discrimination than naive B cells, suggesting that specialized biomechanical patterns in B cell synapses regulate T-cell dependent selection of high-affinity B cells in GCs. PMID:27183103

  9. Multiphoton microscopy of antigen presenting cells in experimental cancer therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Simon C.; Papworth, Glenn D.; Spencer, Lori A.; Larregina, Adriana T.; Hackstein, Holger

    2002-06-01

    The absence of effective conventional therapy for most cancer patients justifies the application of novel, experimental approaches. One alternative to conventional cytotoxic agents is a more defined molecular approach for cancer immune treatment; promotion of the immune system specifically to target and eliminate tumor cells on the basis of expression of tumor-associated antigens (TAA). TAA could be presented to T-cells by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) that generate a more efficient and effective anti-tumor immune response. In fact, it has been well documented that dendritic cells, the most immunologically potent APC, are capable of recognizing, processing and presenting TAA, in turn initiating a specific antitumor immune response. Results from several laboratories and clinical trials suggested significant but still limited efficacy of TAA-pulsed dendritic cells administered to tumor-bearing hosts. Following such delivery, it is fundamentally necessary to dynamically assess cell abundance within the microenvironment of the tumor in the presence of the appropriate therapeutic agent. Multiphoton microscopy was used to assess the trafficking of pulsed dendritic cells and other APC in skin, lymph nodes and brain of several animal tumor models, following different routes of administration.

  10. Phenotypic and functional profiling of mouse intestinal antigen presenting cells

    PubMed Central

    Harusato, Akihito; Flannigan, Kyle L.; Geem, Duke; Denning, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota that populates the mammalian intestine consists of hundreds of trillions of bacteria that are separated from underlying immune cells by a single layer of epithelial cells. The intestinal immune system effectively tolerates components of the microbiota that provide benefit to the host while remaining poised to eliminate those that are harmful. Antigen presenting cells, especially macrophages and dendritic cells, play important roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis via their ability to orchestrate appropriate responses to the microbiota. Paramount to elucidating intestinal macrophage- and dendritic cell-mediated functions is the ability to effectively isolate and identify these cells from a complex cellular environment. In this review, we summarize methodology for the isolation and phenotypic characterization of macrophages and DCs from the mouse intestine and discuss how this may be useful for gaining insight into the mechanisms by which mucosal immune tolerance is maintained. PMID:25891794

  11. The growth of B cell receptor microcluster is a universal response of B cells encountering antigens with different motion features.

    PubMed

    Wan, Zhengpeng; Liu, Wanli

    2012-07-01

    B lymphocyte cell senses and acquires foreign antigens through clonal distributed B cell receptors (BCRs) expressed on the surface of plasma membrane. The presentation formats of antigens are quite diverse. Based on their Brownian diffusion mobility, there are three forms: free mobile soluble antigens, lateral mobile membrane bound antigens, and fixed immobile antigens. Here, using high resolution high speed live cell imaging approaches, we provide evidence that BCR microclusters are formed on the surface of B cells shortly after B cell's encountering of antigens with each format of motion features. Through high speed live cell imaging, we determine that these BCR microclusters show dynamic growth feature and by doing so function as the basic platforms for B cells to acquire the antigens. We propose that the formation and dynamic growth of BCR microcluster is a universal mechanism for B cell to response to antigens with diverse motion features.

  12. Cell Wall Anchoring of the Campylobacter Antigens to Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Kobierecka, Patrycja A.; Olech, Barbara; Książek, Monika; Derlatka, Katarzyna; Adamska, Iwona; Majewski, Paweł M.; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K.; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka K.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most frequent cause of human food-borne gastroenteritis and chicken meat is the main source of infection. Recent studies showed that broiler chicken immunization against Campylobacter should be the most efficient way to lower the number of human infections by this pathogen. Induction of the mucosal immune system after oral antigen administration should provide protective immunity to chickens. In this work we tested the usefulness of Lactococcus lactis, the most extensively studied lactic acid bacterium, as a delivery vector for Campylobacter antigens. First we constructed hybrid protein – CjaA antigen presenting CjaD peptide epitopes on its surface. We showed that specific rabbit anti-rCjaAD serum reacted strongly with both CjaA and CjaD produced by a wild type C. jejuni strain. Next, rCjaAD and CjaA were fused to the C-terminus of the L. lactis YndF containing the LPTXG motif. The genes expressing these proteins were transcribed under control of the L. lactis Usp45 promoter and their products contain the Usp45 signal sequences. This strategy ensures a cell surface location of both analyzed proteins, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. In order to evaluate the impact of antigen location on vaccine prototype efficacy, a L. lactis strain producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD was also generated. Animal experiments showed a decrease of Campylobacter cecal load in vaccinated birds as compared with the control group and showed that the L. lactis harboring the surface-exposed rCjaAD antigen afforded greater protection than the L. lactis producing cytoplasm-located rCjaAD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to employ Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains as a mucosal delivery vehicle for chicken immunization. Although the observed reduction of chicken colonization by Campylobacter resulting from vaccination was rather moderate, the experiments showed that LAB strains can be considered as an alternative vector to

  13. Immunoavtoradiographic demonstration of virus antigens in infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasishin, L.A.; Zhovnovataya, V.L.

    1986-02-01

    This paper describes a simple method of determining virus antigens, which consists essentially of the demonstration of immune complexes, formed by treatment of acetone-fixed infected cells with specific immune serum, by means of labeled protein A of S. aureus. Transplantable human HeLa cells, type 1 human adenovirus (AD 1), normal rabbit serum, and specific immune sera, obtained by immunization of rabbits with purified Ad 1 or with hexone Ad 1, and a commerical preparation of protein A of S. aureus, labeled with I 125 by the chloramine method, were used.

  14. Autografting with CD34+ peripheral blood stem cells: retained engraftment capability and reduced tumour cell content.

    PubMed

    Voso, M T; Hohaus, S; Moos, M; Pförsich, M; Cremer, F W; Schlenk, R F; Martin, S; Hegenbart, U; Goldschmidt, H; Haas, R

    1999-02-01

    The efficacy of an immunomagnetic purging method and the Isolex 300 devices were assessed for selecting CD34+ cells from leukapheresis products of 29 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 39 with multiple myeloma and 34 with breast cancer. The mean purity of the CD34+ cell population was 93.6% and the mean recovery was 67.7%. Following enzymatic cleavage by chymopapain the expression of Thy-1 and Leu-8 was significantly reduced without affecting haematological recovery. The population of selected CD34+ cells of 4/8 patients with follicular lymphoma became PCR-negative. A 2.5 log reduction of tumour cells could be achieved in four patients with multiple myeloma as shown by a quantitative PCR assay. There were no tumour cells detectable in any of the 19 CD34+ cell preparations of patients with breast cancer. In 64 patients who received 94 cycles of high-dose therapy, a mean number of 4.7x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg were autografted. The time needed for platelet reconstitution was different when a comparison was made with 156 patients, who had received unmanipulated leukapheresis products (10 v 12 d, P = 0.006). No significant differences with regard to neutrophil recovery were noted. Five patients had a graft failure. Two of them died (on day 78 and 88 following PBSCT), and three patients were rescued with unmanipulated back-up transplants. In conclusion, the immunomagnetic selection of CD34+ cells provides autografts with reduced tumour cell content and an engraftment ability similar to that of unmanipulated autografts.

  15. HL-1 cells: a cardiac muscle cell line that contracts and retains phenotypic characteristics of the adult cardiomyocyte.

    PubMed

    Claycomb, W C; Lanson, N A; Stallworth, B S; Egeland, D B; Delcarpio, J B; Bahinski, A; Izzo, N J

    1998-03-17

    We have derived a cardiac muscle cell line, designated HL-1, from the AT-1 mouse atrial cardiomyocyte tumor lineage. HL-1 cells can be serially passaged, yet they maintain the ability to contract and retain differentiated cardiac morphological, biochemical, and electrophysiological properties. Ultrastructural characteristics typical of embryonic atrial cardiac muscle cells were found consistently in the cultured HL-1 cells. Reverse transcriptase-PCR-based analyses confirmed a pattern of gene expression similar to that of adult atrial myocytes, including expression of alpha-cardiac myosin heavy chain, alpha-cardiac actin, and connexin43. They also express the gene for atrial natriuretic factor. Immunohistochemical staining of the HL-1 cells indicated that the distribution of the cardiac-specific markers desmin, sarcomeric myosin, and atrial natriuretic factor was similar to that of cultured atrial cardiomyocytes. A delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr) was the most prominent outward current in HL-1 cells. The activating currents displayed inward rectification and deactivating current tails were voltage-dependent, saturated at >+20 mV, and were highly sensitive to dofetilide (IC50 of 46.9 nM). Specific binding of [3H]dofetilide was saturable and fit a one-site binding isotherm with a Kd of 140 +/- 60 nM and a Bmax of 118 fmol per 10(5) cells. HL-1 cells represent a cardiac myocyte cell line that can be repeatedly passaged and yet maintain a cardiac-specific phenotype.

  16. Chimeric antigen receptor engineered stem cells: a novel HIV therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Anjie; Carrillo, Mayra A; Kitchen, Scott G

    2017-03-01

    Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for suppressing HIV and improving patients' quality of life, HIV persists in cART-treated patients and remains an incurable disease. Financial burdens and health consequences of lifelong cART treatment call for novel HIV therapies that result in a permanent cure. Cellular immunity is central in controlling HIV replication. However, HIV adopts numerous strategies to evade immune surveillance. Engineered immunity via genetic manipulation could offer a functional cure by generating cells that have enhanced antiviral activity and are resistant to HIV infection. Recently, encouraging reports from several human clinical trials using an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T-cell therapy for treating B-cell malignancies have provided valuable insights and generated remarkable enthusiasm in engineered T-cell therapy. In this review, we discuss the development of HIV-specific chimeric antigen receptors and the use of stem cell based therapies to generate lifelong anti-HIV immunity.

  17. The Role of Antigen Presenting Cells in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chastain, Emily M. L.; Duncan, D'Anne S.; Rodgers, Jane M.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating T cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Animal models of MS, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-Induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) have given light to cellular mechanisms involved in the initiation and progression of this organ-specific autoimmune disease. Within the CNS, antigen presenting cells (APC) such as microglia and astrocytes participate as first line defenders against infections or inflammation. However, during chronic inflammation they can participate in perpetuating the self-destructive environment by secretion of inflammatory factors and/or presentation of myelin epitopes to autoreactive T cells. Dendritic cells (DC) are also participants in the presentation of antigen to T cells, even within the CNS. While the APCs alone are not solely responsible for mediating the destruction to the myelin sheath, they are critical players in perpetuating the inflammatory milieu. This review will highlight relevant studies which have provided insight to the roles played by microglia, DCs and astrocytes in the context of CNS autoimmunity. PMID:20637861

  18. Nuclear EGFR characterize still controlled proliferation retained in better differentiated clear cell RCC.

    PubMed

    Ahel, J; Dordevic, G; Markic, D; Mozetic, V; Spanjol, J; Grahovac, B; Stifter, S

    2015-08-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common solid kidney tumor representing 2-3% of all cancers, with the highest frequency occurring in Western countries. There was a worldwide and European annual increase in incidence of approximately 2% although incidence has been stabilized in last few years. One third of the patients already have metastases in the time of the diagnosis with poor prognosis because RCC are radio and chemoresistant. The prognostic value of EGFR over-expression in RCC is a controversial issue that could be explained by different histological types of study tumors and non-standardized criteria for evaluation of expression. Recent evidences points to a new mode of EGFR signaling pathway in which activated EGFR undergoes nuclear translocalization and then, as transcription factor, mediates gene expression and other cellular events required for highly proliferating activities. According to our observations, the membranous expression of EGFR associates with high nuclear grade and poor differentiated tumors. On the other hand, nuclear EGFR expression was high in low nuclear graded and well differentiated tumors with good prognosis. We hypothesize that this mode of EGFR signaling characterizes still controlled proliferation retained in well differentiated RCC with Furhman nuclear grade I or II.

  19. Do FY antigens act as minor histocompatibility antigens in the graft-versus-host disease paradigm after human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

    PubMed

    Sellami, Mohamed Hichem; Chaabane, Manel; Kaabi, Houda; Torjemane, Lamia; Ladeb, Saloua; Ben Othmane, Tarek; Hmida, Slama

    2012-03-01

    FY antigens are candidate minor histocompatibility antigens relevant to renal allograft rejection, but no data have been reported about their role in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) incidence after human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of donor/recipient disparity at FY antigens on the incidence of GVHD in Tunisian patients receiving an HLA-identical HSCT. This work enrolled 105 Tunisian pairs of recipients and their HLA-identical sibling donors of HSCs. FY genotyping was performed with the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer method and donor/recipient disparity for these antigens was analyzed at two levels: incompatibility and nonidentity. The case-control analyses showed no significant correlation between FY disparity and the incidence of either acute or chronic GVHD. Sample size calculation showed that 572 cases and 1716 controls would be necessary to be able to detect a significant association with 80% power and two-sided type I error level of 5% (α=0.05). The lack of association in the studied cohort may be explained by the low immunogenicity of FY antigens in HSCT context, compared with other antigens such as HA-1 and CD31.

  20. Antigen exposure shapes the ratio between antigen-specific Tregs and conventional T cells in human peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Su, Laura F.; del Alcazar, Daniel; Stelekati, Erietta; Wherry, E. John; Davis, Mark M.

    2016-01-01

    The T-cell receptor (TCR) is required for maturation and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs), but the ligand specificities of Tregs outside the context of transgenic TCRs are largely unknown. Using peptide–MHC tetramers, we isolated rare specific Foxp3+ cells directly ex vivo from adult peripheral blood and defined their frequency and phenotype. We find that a proportion of circulating Tregs recognize foreign antigens and the frequency of these cells are similar to that of self-reactive Tregs in the absence of cognate infection. In contrast, the frequencies of Tregs that recognize some common microbial antigens are significantly reduced in the blood of most adults. Exposure to peripheral antigens likely has a major influence on the balance between Tregs and conventional T-cell subsets because a larger proportion of flu-specific T cells has a regulatory cell phenotype in the cord blood. Consistent with this finding, we show that lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection can directly modulate the ratio of virus-specific effectors and Tregs in mice. The resulting change in the balance within an antigen-specific T-cell population further correlates with the magnitude of effector response and the chronicity of infection. Taken together, our data highlight the importance of antigen specificity in the functional dynamics of the T-cell repertoire. Each specific population of CD4+ T cells in human peripheral blood contains a subset of Tregs at birth, but the balance between regulatory and effector subsets changes in response to peripheral antigen exposure and this could impact the robustness of antipathogen immunity. PMID:27681619

  1. Induction of B cell immune tolerance by antigen-modified CTL

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong; Geiger, Terrence L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Third party-specific CTL, or veto CTL, are being assessed as a cellular therapeutic for the induction of T cell tolerance during transplantation. Conceptually, veto cell expressed antigens may induce B cell immune responses, and this may have deleterious consequences. Whether veto cells induce immunity, tolerance, or are ignored by B lymphocytes has, however, not been addressed. Methods CTL were retrovirally transduced with a model cell surface antigen to generate veto CTL. The impact of CTL-specific antigen expression on the activation and tolerization of antigen specific B cells was assessed in vitro and, using adoptive transfer models, in vivo. Results In vitro, CTL-expressed antigen induced an abortive proliferative response in specific B lymphocytes, whereby an initial proliferative burst was followed by cell death. In vivo, the administration of veto CTL also induced B cell tolerance. Specific immunoglobulin was not detected after subsequent immunization with a veto cell-expressed antigen. Modeling of this effect with antigen-specific B cell receptor (BCR) transgenic B lymphocytes demonstrated that antigen-specific B cells were eliminated by the veto CTL; cell division was accompanied by the exhaustion and depletion of responding cells. Veto-induced B cell tolerance could be wholly abrogated by treatment with the toll-like receptor ligand LPS, implying that this tolerance resulted from the absence of adequate supplemental signals during antigenic stimulation. Conclusions Veto CTL are effective promoters of B cell tolerance. Further assessment of their therapeutic potential in this regard is warranted. PMID:20065917

  2. Stable isotope labeling of oligosaccharide cell surface antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Unkefer, C.J.; Silks, L.A. III; Martinez, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    The overall goal of this Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project was to develop new methods for synthesis of {sup 13}C-labeled oligosaccharides that are required for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of their solution conformation. Oligosaccharides are components of the cell`s outer surface and are involved in important processes such as cell-cell recognition and adhesion. Recently, Danishefsky and coworkers at Slone-Kettering Cancer Center developed a method for the solid-phase chemical synthesis of oligosaccharides. The specific goal of this LDRD project was to prepare uniform {sup 13}C-labeled aldohexose precursors required for the solid-phase synthesis of the Lewis blood-group antigenic determinants. We report the synthesis of {sup 13}C-labeled D-glucal, D-galactal and Fucosyl precursors. We have been collaborating with the Danishefsky group on the synthesis of the Lewis oligosaccharides and the NMR analysis of their solution conformation.

  3. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells for Sustained Remissions in Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Maude, Shannon L.; Frey, Noelle; Shaw, Pamela A.; Aplenc, Richard; Barrett, David M.; Bunin, Nancy J.; Chew, Anne; Gonzalez, Vanessa E.; Zheng, Zhaohui; Lacey, Simon F.; Mahnke, Yolanda D.; Melenhorst, Jan J.; Rheingold, Susan R.; Shen, Angela; Teachey, David T.; Levine, Bruce L.; June, Carl H.; Porter, David L.; Grupp, Stephan A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is difficult to treat despite the availability of aggressive therapies. Chimeric antigen receptor–modified T cells targeting CD19 may overcome many limitations of conventional therapies and induce remission in patients with refractory disease. METHODS We infused autologous T cells transduced with a CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CTL019) lentiviral vector in patients with relapsed or refractory ALL at doses of 0.76×106 to 20.6×106 CTL019 cells per kilogram of body weight. Patients were monitored for a response, toxic effects, and the expansion and persistence of circulating CTL019 T cells. RESULTS A total of 30 children and adults received CTL019. Complete remission was achieved in 27 patients (90%), including 2 patients with blinatumomab-refractory disease and 15 who had undergone stem-cell transplantation. CTL019 cells proliferated in vivo and were detectable in the blood, bone marrow, and cerebrospinal fluid of patients who had a response. Sustained remission was achieved with a 6-month event-free survival rate of 67% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51 to 88) and an overall survival rate of 78% (95% CI, 65 to 95). At 6 months, the probability that a patient would have persistence of CTL019 was 68% (95% CI, 50 to 92) and the probability that a patient would have relapse-free B-cell aplasia was 73% (95% CI, 57 to 94). All the patients had the cytokine-release syndrome. Severe cytokine-release syndrome, which developed in 27% of the patients, was associated with a higher disease burden before infusion and was effectively treated with the anti–interleukin-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab. CONCLUSIONS Chimeric antigen receptor–modified T-cell therapy against CD19 was effective in treating relapsed and refractory ALL. CTL019 was associated with a high remission rate, even among patients for whom stem-cell transplantation had failed, and durable remissions up to 24 months were observed. (Funded by

  4. Collecting duct-derived cells display mesenchymal stem cell properties and retain selective in vitro and in vivo epithelial capacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Joan; Ariunbold, Usukhbayar; Suhaimi, Norseha; Sunn, Nana; Guo, Jinjin; McMahon, Jill A; McMahon, Andrew P; Little, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    We previously described a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like population within the adult mouse kidney that displays long-term colony-forming efficiency, clonogenicity, immunosuppression, and panmesodermal potential. Although phenotypically similar to bone marrow (BM)-MSCs, kidney MSC-like cells display a distinct expression profile. FACS sorting from Hoxb7/enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice identified the collecting duct as a source of kidney MSC-like cells, with these cells undergoing an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition to form clonogenic, long-term, self-renewing MSC-like cells. Notably, after extensive passage, kidney MSC-like cells selectively integrated into the aquaporin 2-positive medullary collecting duct when microinjected into the kidneys of neonatal mice. No epithelial integration was observed after injection of BM-MSCs. Indeed, kidney MSC-like cells retained a capacity to form epithelial structures in vitro and in vivo, and conditioned media from these cells supported epithelial repair in vitro. To investigate the origin of kidney MSC-like cells, we further examined Hoxb7(+) fractions within the kidney across postnatal development, identifying a neonatal interstitial GFP(lo) (Hoxb7(lo)) population displaying an expression profile intermediate between epithelium and interstitium. Temporal analyses with Wnt4(GCE/+):R26(tdTomato/+) mice revealed evidence for the intercalation of a Wnt4-expressing interstitial population into the neonatal collecting duct, suggesting that such intercalation may represent a normal developmental mechanism giving rise to a distinct collecting duct subpopulation. These results extend previous observations of papillary stem cell activity and collecting duct plasticity and imply a role for such cells in collecting duct formation and, possibly, repair.

  5. CNS Schwann cells display oligodendrocyte precursor-like potassium channel activation and antigenic expression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Kristel; Imbschweiler, Ilka; Ulrich, Reiner; Kovermann, Peter; Fahlke, Christoph; Deschl, Ulrich; Kalkuhl, Arno; Baumgärnter, Wolfgang; Wewetzer, Konstantin

    2014-06-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) injury triggers production of myelinating Schwann cells from endogenous oligodendrocyte precursors (OLPs). These CNS Schwann cells may be attractive candidates for novel therapeutic strategies aiming to promote endogenous CNS repair. However, CNS Schwann cells have been so far mainly characterized in situ regarding morphology and marker expression, and it has remained enigmatic whether they display functional properties distinct from peripheral nervous system (PNS) Schwann cells. Potassium channels (K+) have been implicated in progenitor and glial cell proliferation after injury and may, therefore, represent a suitable pharmacological target. In the present study, we focused on the function and expression of voltage-gated K+ channels Kv(1-12) and accessory β-subunits in purified adult canine CNS and PNS Schwann cell cultures using electrophysiology and microarray analysis and characterized their antigenic phenotype. We show here that K+ channels differed significantly in both cell types. While CNS Schwann cells displayed prominent K D-mediated K+ currents, PNS Schwann cells elicited K(D-) and K(A-type) K+ currents. Inhibition of K+ currents by TEA and Ba2+ was more effective in CNS Schwann cells. These functional differences were not paralleled by differential mRNA expression of Kv(1-12) and accessory β-subunits. However, O4/A2B5 and GFAP expressions were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in CNS than in PNS Schwann cells. Taken together, this is the first evidence that CNS Schwann cells display specific properties not shared by their peripheral counterpart. Both Kv currents and increased O4/A2B5 expression were reminiscent of OLPs suggesting that CNS Schwann cells retain OLP features during maturation.

  6. Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles for the Detection and Quantitative Analysis of Cell Surface Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Abdolahi, Mohammad; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Laurent, Sophie; Sermeus, Corine; Gruettner, Cordula

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface antigens as biomarkers offer tremendous potential for early diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic response in a variety of diseases such as cancers. In this research, a simple, rapid, accurate, inexpensive, and easily available in vitro assay based on magnetic nanoparticles and magnetic cell separation principle was applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the cell surface antigen expression in the case of prostate cancer cells. Comparing the capability of the assay with flow cytometry as a gold standard method showed similar results. The results showed that the antigen-specific magnetic cell separation with antibody-coated magnetic nanoparticles has high potential for quantitative cell surface antigen detection and analysis. PMID:23484112

  7. Inhibitory effects of thymus-independent type 2 antigens on MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation: comparative analysis of carbohydrate structures and the antigen presenting cell.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, M; Carrasco-Marín, E; Alvarez-Domínguez, C; Outschoorn, I M; Leyva-Cobián, F

    1997-02-25

    The role of thymus-independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens (polysaccharides) on the MHC-II-restricted processing of protein antigens was studied in vitro. In general, antigen presentation is inhibited when both peritoneal and splenic macrophages (M phi) as well as Küpffer cells (KC) are preincubated with acidic polysaccharides or branched dextrans. However, the inhibitory effect of neutral polysaccharides was minimal when KC were used as antigen presenting cells (APC). Morphological evaluation of the uptake of fluoresceinated polysaccharides clearly correlates with this selective and differential interference. Polysaccharides do not block MHC-I-restricted antigen presentation. Some chemical characteristics shared by different saccharides seem to be specially related to their potential inhibitory abilities: (i) those where two anomeric carbon atoms of two interlinked sugars and (ii) those containing several sulfate groups per disaccharide repeating unit. No polysaccharide being inhibitory in M phi abrogated antigen processing in other APC: lipopolysaccharide-activated B cells, B lymphoma cells, or dendritic cells (DC). Using radiolabeled polysaccharides it was observed that DC and B cells incorporated less radioactivity as a function of time than M phi. Morphological evaluation of these different APC incubated for extended periods of time with inhibitory concentrations of polysaccharides revealed intense cytoplasmic vacuolization in M phi but not in B cells or DC. The large majority of M phi lysosomes containing polysaccharides fail to fuse with incoming endocytic vesicles and delivery of fluid-phase tracers was reduced, suggesting that indigestible carbohydrates reduced the fusion of these loaded lysosomes with endosomes containing recently internalized tracers. It is suggested that the main causes of this antigen presentation blockade are (i) the chemical characteristics of certain carbohydrates and whether the specific enzymatic machinery for their intracellular

  8. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells in Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Shank, Brandon R; Do, Bryan; Sevin, Adrienne; Chen, Sheree E; Neelapu, Sattva S; Horowitz, Sandra B

    2017-03-01

    Patients with B-cell hematologic malignancies who progress through first- or second-line chemotherapy have a poor prognosis. Early clinical trials with autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have demonstrated promising results for patients who have relapsed or refractory disease. Lymphodepleting conditioning regimens, including cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, pentostatin, bendamustine, interleukin-2, and total body irradiation, are often administered before the infusion of CAR T cells, allowing for greater T-cell expansion. The major toxicity associated with CAR T-cell infusions is cytokine release syndrome (CRS), a potentially life-threatening systemic inflammatory disorder. The quick onset and progression of CRS require rapid detection and intervention to reduce treatment-related mortality. Management with tocilizumab can help ameliorate the symptoms of severe CRS, allowing steroids, which diminish the expansion and persistence of CAR T cells, to be reserved for tocilizumab-refractory patients. Other toxicities of CAR T-cell therapy include neutropenia and/or febrile neutropenia, infection, tumor lysis syndrome, neurotoxicity and nausea/vomiting. A review of patients' medications is imperative to eliminate medications that may contribute to treatment-related toxicities. Studies are ongoing to help optimize patient selection, preparation, safety, and management of individuals receiving CAR T cells. Long-term follow-up will help establish the place of CAR T cells in therapy.

  9. T-cell intracellular antigens function as tumor suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Jiménez, C; Ludeña, M D; Izquierdo, J M

    2015-03-05

    Knockdown of T-cell intracellular antigens TIA1 and TIAR in transformed cells triggers cell proliferation and tumor growth. Using a tetracycline-inducible system, we report here that an increased expression of TIA1 or TIAR in 293 cells results in reduced rates of cell proliferation. Ectopic expression of these proteins abolish endogenous TIA1 and TIAR levels via the regulation of splicing of their pre-mRNAs, and partially represses global translation in a phospho-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha-dependent manner. This is accompanied by cell cycle arrest at G1/S and cell death through caspase-dependent apoptosis and autophagy. Genome-wide profiling illustrates a selective upregulation of p53 signaling pathway-related genes. Nude mice injected with doxycycline-inducible cells expressing TIA1 or TIAR retard, or even inhibit, growth of xenotumors. Remarkably, low expressions of TIA1 and TIAR correlate with poor prognosis in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma. These findings strongly support the concept that TIA proteins act as tumor suppressor genes.

  10. The T cell response to secreted antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, P

    1994-10-01

    Recent information from several laboratories points to proteins secreted from live Mycobacterium tuberculosis as being involved in protective immunity. We have studied protein release from M. tuberculosis during growth and have defined 3 different groups of proteins: excreted proteins, secreted proteins of the outer cell wall and cytoplasmic proteins released at late culture timepoints. These findings have lead to the definition of a short-term culture filtrate (ST-CF) enriched in excreted/secreted proteins and with a minimal content of autolytic products. ST-CF was tested as antigen in experimental vaccines against tuberculosis. A vaccine based on the adjuvant dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride (DDA) was constructed and demonstrated to induce a potent cell mediated immune response of the Th-1 type. The vaccine was tested in parallel with a BCG standard vaccine and both vaccines induced a highly significant protection of the same magnitude. Molecules within the Ag85 complex and a 6-kDA secreted protein were mapped as the major antigenic targets for long-lived T cells involved in protective immunity against M. tuberculosis.

  11. Non-integrating lentiviral vectors based on the minimal S/MAR sequence retain transgene expression in dividing cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Lingling; Lu, Jing; Xu, Peng; Liu, Guang; Xie, Xuemin; Mu, Wenli; Wang, Yajun; Liu, Depei

    2016-10-01

    Safe and efficient gene transfer systems are the basis of gene therapy applications. Non-integrating lentiviral (NIL) vectors are among the most promising candidates for gene transfer tools, because they exhibit high transfer efficiency in both dividing and non-dividing cells and do not present a risk of insertional mutagenesis. However, non-integrating lentiviral vectors cannot introduce stable exogenous gene expression to dividing cells, thereby limiting their application. Here, we report the design of a non-integrating lentiviral vector that contains the minimal scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) sequence (SNIL), and this SNIL vector is able to retain episomal transgene expression in dividing cells. Using SNIL vectors, we detected the expression of the eGFP gene for 61 days in SNIL-transduced stable CHO cells, either with selection or not. In the NIL group without the S/MAR sequence, however, the transduced cells died under selection for the transient expression of NIL vectors. Furthermore, Southern blot assays demonstrated that the SNIL vectors were retained extrachromosomally in the CHO cells. In conclusion, the minimal S/MAR sequence retained the non-integrating lentiviral vectors in dividing cells, which indicates that SNIL vectors have the potential for use as a gene transfer tool.

  12. T-cell recognition of a cross-reactive antigen(s) in erythrocyte stages of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium yoelii: inhibition of parasitemia by this antigen(s).

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, B; Engels, A; Camus, D; Haque, A

    1993-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the presence of a cross-reactive antigen(s) in the erythrocyte stage from Plasmodium yoelii (265 BY strain) and Plasmodium falciparum through recognition by T cells primed in vivo with antigens from each of these parasites. BALB/c mice are naturally resistant to P. falciparum but are susceptible to P. yoelii infection. Mice that had recovered from P. yoelii primary infection became resistant to a second infection. A higher in vitro proliferative response to a soluble blood stage preparation of P. falciparum was observed in splenic cells from immune animals than in those from mice with a patent P. yoelii infection. The antigen-induced proliferative response was enhanced when animals were exposed to a secondary infection. Animals exposed to a challenge infection were treated with anti-CD4 or anti-CD8 monoclonal antibodies to deplete the corresponding subset of T cells. There was a marked diminution in P. falciparum antigen-induced proliferative response in the total splenic cell populations from CD8-depleted but not from CD4-depleted mice. In CD8-depleted and nondepleted animals, the antigen-induced proliferation in the total cell populations was markedly lower than in the T-cell-rich populations, indicating inhibitory activities of B cells and/or macrophages. There was no such difference in the stimulation between total and T-enriched cell populations from CD4-depleted animals. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated the presence of an almost equal percentage of CD8+ (59.6%) and CD4+ (64%) T cells in the spleen preparations following in vivo depletion of CD4- and CD8-bearing T cells, respectively. When cultured with P. yoelii blood stage antigen, splenocytes from animals immunized with P. falciparum antigen displayed a significant proliferative response which was markedly diminished by treatment with anti-Thy-1.2 antibody plus complement. Animals immunized with P. falciparum antigen and then challenged with P. yoelii blood stage

  13. Glycan modification of antigen alters its intracellular routing in dendritic cells, promoting priming of T cells

    PubMed Central

    Streng-Ouwehand, Ingeborg; Ho, Nataschja I; Litjens, Manja; Kalay, Hakan; Boks, Martine Annemarie; Cornelissen, Lenneke AM; Kaur Singh, Satwinder; Saeland, Eirikur; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J; Ossendorp, Ferry A; Unger, Wendy WJ; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    Antigen uptake by dendritic cells and intracellular routing of antigens to specific compartments is regulated by C-type lectin receptors that recognize glycan structures. We show that the modification of Ovalbumin (OVA) with the glycan-structure LewisX (LeX) re-directs OVA to the C-type lectin receptor MGL1. LeX-modification of OVA favored Th1 skewing of CD4+ T cells and enhanced cross-priming of CD8+ T cells. While cross-presentation of native OVA requires high antigen dose and TLR stimuli, LeX modification reduces the required amount 100-fold and obviates its dependence on TLR signaling. The OVA-LeX-induced enhancement of T cell cross-priming is MGL1-dependent as shown by reduced CD8+ effector T cell frequencies in MGL1-deficient mice. Moreover, MGL1-mediated cross-presentation of OVA-LeX neither required TAP-transporters nor Cathepsin-S and was still observed after prolonged intracellular storage of antigen in Rab11+LAMP1+ compartments. We conclude that controlled neo-glycosylation of antigens can crucially influence intracellular routing of antigens, the nature and strength of immune responses and should be considered for optimizing current vaccination strategies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11765.001 PMID:26999763

  14. Aβ and Inflammatory Stimulus Activate Diverse Signaling Pathways in Monocytic Cells: Implications in Retaining Phagocytosis in Aβ-Laden Environment

    PubMed Central

    Savchenko, Ekaterina; Malm, Tarja; Konttinen, Henna; Hämäläinen, Riikka H.; Guerrero-Toro, Cindy; Wojciechowski, Sara; Giniatullin, Rashid; Koistinaho, Jari; Magga, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) is one of the main hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The enhancement of Aβ clearance may provide therapeutic means to restrict AD pathology. The cellular responses to different forms of Aβ in monocytic cells are poorly known. We aimed to study whether different forms of Aβ induce inflammatory responses in monocytic phagocytes and how Aβ may affect monocytic cell survival and function to retain phagocytosis in Aβ-laden environment. Methods: Monocytic cells were differentiated from bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in the presence of macrophage-colony stimulating factor. Monocytic cells were stimulated with synthetic Aβ42 and intracellular calcium responses were recorded with calcium imaging. The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), secretion of cytokines and cell viability were also assessed. Finally, monocytic cells were introduced to native Aβ deposits ex vivo and the cellular responses in terms of cell viability, pro-inflammatory activation and phagocytosis were determined. The ability of monocytic cells to phagocytose Aβ plaques was determined after intrahippocampal transplantation in vivo. Results: Freshly solubilized Aβ induced calcium oscillations, which persisted after removal of the stimulus. After few hours of aggregation, Aβ was not able to induce oscillations in monocytic cells. Instead, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced calcium responses divergent from Aβ-induced response. Furthermore, while LPS induced massive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, neither synthetic Aβ species nor native Aβ deposits were able to induce pro-inflammatory activation of monocytic cells, contrary to primary microglia. Finally, monocytic cells retained their viability in the presence of Aβ and exhibited phagocytic activity towards native fibrillar Aβ deposits and congophilic Aβ plaques. Conclusion: Monocytic cells carry diverse cellular responses to Aβ and inflammatory stimulus LPS. Even

  15. Label retaining cells (LRCs) with myoepithelial characteristic from the proximal acinar region define stem cells in the sweat gland.

    PubMed

    Leung, Yvonne; Kandyba, Eve; Chen, Yi-Bu; Ruffins, Seth; Kobielak, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Slow cycling is a common feature shared among several stem cells (SCs) identified in adult tissues including hair follicle and cornea. Recently, existence of unipotent SCs in basal and lumenal layers of sweat gland (SG) has been described and label retaining cells (LRCs) have also been localized in SGs; however, whether these LRCs possess SCs characteristic has not been investigated further. Here, we used a H2BGFP LRCs system for in vivo detection of infrequently dividing cells. This system allowed us to specifically localize and isolate SCs with label-retention and myoepithelial characteristics restricted to the SG proximal acinar region. Using an alternative genetic approach, we demonstrated that SG LRCs expressed keratin 15 (K15) in the acinar region and lineage tracing determined that K15 labeled cells contributed long term to the SG structure but not to epidermal homeostasis. Surprisingly, wound healing experiments did not activate proximal acinar SG cells to participate in epidermal healing. Instead, predominantly non-LRCs in the SG duct actively divided, whereas the majority of SG LRCs remained quiescent. However, when we further challenged the system under more favorable isolated wound healing conditions, we were able to trigger normally quiescent acinar LRCs to trans-differentiate into the epidermis and adopt its long term fate. In addition, dissociated SG cells were able to regenerate SGs and, surprisingly, hair follicles demonstrating their in vivo plasticity. By determining the gene expression profile of isolated SG LRCs and non-LRCs in vivo, we identified several Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway genes to be up-regulated and confirmed a functional requirement for BMP receptor 1A (BMPR1A)-mediated signaling in SG formation. Our data highlight the existence of SG stem cells (SGSCs) and their primary importance in SG homeostasis. It also emphasizes SGSCs as an alternative source of cells in wound healing and their plasticity for regenerating

  16. Antibody specificity and antigen characterization of rat monoclonal antibodies against Streptococcus mutans cell wall-associated protein antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Ackermans, F; Klein, J P; Cormont, F; Bazin, H; Ogier, J A; Frank, R M; Vreven, J

    1985-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to Streptococcus mutans OMZ175 (serotype f) cell wall-associated antigens (wall-extracted antigens [WEA]) were derived from the fusion of Lou C plasmocytoma rat cells (IR 983 F) and spleen cells from Wistar R inbred rats immunized with WEA. Four cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies directed against a component of S. mutans WEA have been established. All four monoclonal antibodies reacted only with two antigens of WEA from S. mutans OMZ175 by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and competitive ELISA. Western blot analysis of WEA showed that the four monoclonal antibodies recognized two related cell wall-associated proteins with apparent molecular weights of 125,000 and 76,000. Immunoprecipitation of whole cells with the monoclonal antibodies confirmed the surface localization of the two antigens. The ELISA and competitive ELISA were used to analyze the distribution of the epitopes on seven S. mutans serotypes. All S. mutans serotypes were found to express the recognized epitopes; however, different reactivity patterns could be distinguished among the various strains tested, and the four monoclonal antibodies reacted only weakly with S. mutans serotypes d and g. Images PMID:2410364

  17. An Overview of B-1 Cells as Antigen-Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Popi, Ana F.; Longo-Maugéri, Ieda M.; Mariano, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The role of B cells as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) has been extensively studied, mainly in relation to the activation of memory T cells. Considering the B cell subtypes, the role of B-1 cells as APCs is beginning to be explored. Initially, it was described that B-1 cells are activated preferentially by T-independent antigens. However, some reports demonstrated that these cells are also involved in a T-dependent response. The aim of this review is to summarize information about the ability of B-1 cells to play a role as APCs and to briefly discuss the role of the BCR and toll-like receptor signals in this process. Furthermore, some characteristics of B-1 cells, such as natural IgM production and phagocytic ability, could interfere in the participation of these cells in the onset of an adaptive response. PMID:27148259

  18. Lymphocyte imprinting with melanoma antigens acquired by trogocytosis facilitates identification of tumor-reactive T cells

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Galit; Uzana, Ronny; Pato, Aviad; Frankenburg, Shoshana; Merims, Sharon; Yefenof, Eitan; Ferrone, Soldano; Peretz, Tamar; Machlenkin, Arthur; Lotem, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Trogocytosis is a contact-dependent inter-cellular transfer of membrane fragments and associated molecules from antigen presenting cells to effector lymphocytes. We previously demonstrated that trogocytosis also occurs between tumor target and cognate melanoma antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Here we show that, following trogocytosis, immune effector cells acquire molecular components of the tumor, including surface antigens, which are detectable by specific monoclonal antibodies. We demonstrate that CD8+ and CD4+ T cells from melanoma patients’ PBMC and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) capture melanoma antigens, enabling identification of trogocytosing lymphocytes by staining with antigen-specific antibodies. This finding circumvents the necessity of tumor pre-labeling, which in the past was mandatory to detect membrane-capturing T cells. Through the detection of melanoma antigens on TIL, we sorted trogocytosing T cells and verified their preferential reactivity and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, tumor-antigen imprinted T cells were detected at low frequency in fresh TIL cultures shortly after extraction from the tumor. Thus, T cell imprinting by tumor antigens may allow the enrichment of melanoma antigen-specific T cells for research and potentially even for the adoptive immunotherapy of patients with cancer. PMID:23626012

  19. Identification of a potent microbial lipid antigen for diverse Natural Killer T cells1

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Benjamin J.; Tatituri, Raju V. V.; Almeida, Catarina F.; Le Nours, Jérôme; Bhowruth, Veemal; Johnson, Darryl; Uldrich, Adam P.; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Brigl, Manfred; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Godfrey, Dale I.; Brenner, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells are a well-characterized CD1d-restricted T cell subset. The availability of potent antigens and tetramers for iNKT cells has allowed this population to be extensively studied and has revealed their central roles in infection, autoimmunity, and tumor immunity. In contrast, diverse Natural Killer T (dNKT) cells are poorly understood because the lipid antigens they recognize are largely unknown. We sought to identify dNKT cell lipid antigen(s) by interrogating a panel of dNKT mouse cell hybridomas with lipid extracts from the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. We identified Listeria phosphatidylglycerol (PG) as a microbial antigen that was significantly more potent than a previously characterized dNKT cell antigen, mammalian PG. Further, while mammalian PG loaded CD1d tetramers did not stain dNKT cells, the Listeria-derived PG loaded tetramers did. The structure of Listeria PG was distinct from mammalian PG since it contained shorter, fully-saturated anteiso fatty acid lipid tails. CD1d binding lipid displacement studies revealed that the microbial PG antigen binds significantly better to CD1d than counterparts with the same headgroup. These data reveal a highly-potent microbial lipid antigen for a subset of dNKT cells and provide an explanation for its increased antigen potency compared to the mammalian counterpart. PMID:26254340

  20. Modes of Antigen Presentation by Lymph Node Stromal Cells and Their Immunological Implications.

    PubMed

    Hirosue, Sachiko; Dubrot, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Antigen presentation is no longer the exclusive domain of cells of hematopoietic origin. Recent works have demonstrated that lymph node stromal cell (LNSC) populations, such as fibroblastic reticular cells, lymphatic and blood endothelial cells, not only provide a scaffold for lymphocyte interactions but also exhibit active immunomodulatory roles that are critical to mounting and resolving effective immune responses. Importantly, LNSCs possess the ability to present antigens and establish antigen-specific interactions with T cells. One example is the expression of peripheral tissue antigens, which are presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I molecules with tolerogenic consequences on T cells. Additionally, exogenous antigens, including self and tumor antigens, can be processed and presented on MHC-I complexes, which result in dysfunctional activation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. While MHC-I is widely expressed on cells of both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic origins, antigen presentation via MHC-II is more precisely regulated. Nevertheless, LNSCs are capable of endogenously expressing, or alternatively, acquiring MHC-II molecules. Transfer of antigen between LNSC and dendritic cells in both directions has been recently suggested to promote tolerogenic roles of LNSCs on the CD4(+) T cell compartment. Thus, antigen presentation by LNSCs is thought to be a mechanism that promotes the maintenance of peripheral tolerance as well as generates a pool of diverse antigen-experienced T cells for protective immunity. This review aims to integrate the current and emerging literature to highlight the importance of LNSCs in immune responses, and emphasize their role in antigen trafficking, retention, and presentation.

  1. Low dose antigen promotes induction of FOXP3 in human CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Long, S. Alice; Rieck, Mary; Tatum, Megan; Bollyky, Paul L.; Wu, Rebecca P.; Muller, Isabelle; Ho, Jhon-Chun; Shilling, Heather G.; Buckner, Jane H.

    2011-01-01

    Low antigen dose promotes induction and persistence of Treg in mice, yet few studies have addressed the role of antigen dose in the induction of adaptive CD4+FOXP3+ Treg in humans. To this end, we examined the level of FOXP3 expression in human CD4+CD25− T cells upon activation with autologous antigen presenting cells and varying doses of peptide. Antigen specific T cells expressing FOXP3 were identified by flow cytometry using MHC Class II tetramer (Tmr). We found an inverse relationship between antigen dose and the frequency of FOXP3+ cells for both foreign and self antigen specific T cells. Through studies of FOXP3 locus demethylation and helios expression, we determined that variation in the frequency of Tmr+FOXP3+ T cells was not due to expansion of natural Treg, but instead, we found that induction, proliferation and persistence of FOXP3+ cells was similar in high and low dose cultures whereas proliferation of FOXP3− T cells was favored in high antigen dose cultures. The frequency of FOXP3+ cells positively correlated with suppressive function, indicative of adaptive Treg generation. The frequency of FOXP3+ cells were maintained with IL-2, but not upon re-stimulation with antigen. Together, these data suggest that low antigen dose favors the transient generation of human antigen specific adaptive Treg over the proliferation of antigen specific FOXP3- effector T cells. These adaptive Treg could function to reduce ongoing inflammatory responses and promote low dose tolerance in humans, especially when antigen exposure and tolerance is transient. PMID:21865550

  2. Dendritic cell preactivation impairs MHC class II presentation of vaccines and endogenous viral antigens

    PubMed Central

    Young, Louise J.; Wilson, Nicholas S.; Schnorrer, Petra; Mount, Adele; Lundie, Rachel J.; La Gruta, Nicole L.; Crabb, Brendan S.; Belz, Gabrielle T.; Heath, William R.; Villadangos, Jose A.

    2007-01-01

    When dendritic cells (DCs) encounter signals associated with infection or inflammation, they become activated and undergo maturation. Mature DCs are very efficient at presenting antigens captured in association with their activating signal but fail to present subsequently encountered antigens, at least in vitro. Such impairment of MHC class II (MHC II) antigen presentation has generally been thought to be a consequence of down-regulation of endocytosis, so it might be expected that antigens synthesized by the DCs themselves (for instance, viral antigens) would still be presented by mature DCs. Here, we show that DCs matured in vivo could still capture and process soluble antigens, but were unable to present peptides derived from these antigens. Furthermore, presentation of viral antigens synthesized by the DCs themselves was also severely impaired. Indeed, i.v. injection of pathogen mimics, which caused systemic DC activation in vivo, impaired the induction of CD4 T cell responses against subsequently encountered protein antigens. This immunosuppressed state could be reversed by adoptive transfer of DCs loaded exogenously with antigens, demonstrating that impairment of CD4 T cell responses was due to lack of antigen presentation rather than to overt suppression of T cell activation. The biochemical mechanism underlying this phenomenon was the down-regulation of MHC II–peptide complex formation that accompanied DC maturation. These observations have important implications for the design of prophylactic and therapeutic DC vaccines and contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms causing immunosuppression during systemic blood infections. PMID:17978177

  3. Viral Sequestration of Antigen Subverts Cross Presentation to CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tewalt, Eric F.; Grant, Jean M.; Granger, Erica L.; Palmer, Douglas C.; Heuss, Neal D.; Gregerson, Dale S.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Norbury, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    Virus-specific CD8+ T cells (TCD8+) are initially triggered by peptide-MHC Class I complexes on the surface of professional antigen presenting cells (pAPC). Peptide-MHC complexes are produced by two spatially distinct pathways during virus infection. Endogenous antigens synthesized within virus-infected pAPC are presented via the direct-presentation pathway. Many viruses have developed strategies to subvert direct presentation. When direct presentation is blocked, the cross-presentation pathway, in which antigen is transferred from virus-infected cells to uninfected pAPC, is thought to compensate and allow the generation of effector TCD8+. Direct presentation of vaccinia virus (VACV) antigens driven by late promoters does not occur, as an abortive infection of pAPC prevents production of these late antigens. This lack of direct presentation results in a greatly diminished or ablated TCD8+ response to late antigens. We demonstrate that late poxvirus antigens do not enter the cross-presentation pathway, even when identical antigens driven by early promoters access this pathway efficiently. The mechanism mediating this novel means of viral modulation of antigen presentation involves the sequestration of late antigens within virus factories. Early antigens and cellular antigens are cross-presented from virus-infected cells, as are late antigens that are targeted to compartments outside of the virus factories. This virus-mediated blockade specifically targets the cross-presentation pathway, since late antigen that is not cross-presented efficiently enters the MHC Class II presentation pathway. These data are the first to describe an evasion mechanism employed by pathogens to prevent entry into the cross-presentation pathway. In the absence of direct presentation, this evasion mechanism leads to a complete ablation of the TCD8+ response and a potential replicative advantage for the virus. Such mechanisms of viral modulation of antigen presentation must also be taken into

  4. Chemotactic Migration of T Cells towards Dendritic Cells Promotes the Detection of Rare Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Vroomans, Renske M. A.; Marée, Athanasius F. M.; de Boer, Rob J.; Beltman, Joost B.

    2012-01-01

    In many immunological processes chemoattraction is thought to play a role in guiding cells to their sites of action. However, based on in vivo two-photon microscopy experiments in the absence of cognate antigen, T cell migration in lymph nodes (LNs) has been roughly described as a random walk. Although it has been shown that dendritic cells (DCs) carrying cognate antigen in some circumstances attract T cells chemotactically, it is currently still unclear whether chemoattraction of T cells towards DCs helps or hampers scanning. Chemoattraction towards DCs could on the one hand help T cells to rapidly find DCs. On the other hand, it could be deleterious if DCs become shielded by a multitude of attracted yet non-specific T cells. Results from a recent simulation study suggested that the deleterious effect dominates. We re-addressed the question whether T cell chemoattraction towards DCs is expected to promote or hamper the detection of rare antigens using the Cellular Potts Model, a formalism that allows for dynamic, flexible cellular shapes and cell migration. Our simulations show that chemoattraction of T cells enhances the DC scanning efficiency, leading to an increased probability that rare antigen-specific T cells find DCs carrying cognate antigen. Desensitization of T cells after contact with a DC further improves the scanning efficiency, yielding an almost threefold enhancement compared to random migration. Moreover, the chemotaxis-driven migration still roughly appears as a random walk, hence fine-tuned analysis of cell tracks will be required to detect chemotaxis within microscopy data. PMID:23166480

  5. Chemotactic migration of T cells towards dendritic cells promotes the detection of rare antigens.

    PubMed

    Vroomans, Renske M A; Marée, Athanasius F M; de Boer, Rob J; Beltman, Joost B

    2012-01-01

    In many immunological processes chemoattraction is thought to play a role in guiding cells to their sites of action. However, based on in vivo two-photon microscopy experiments in the absence of cognate antigen, T cell migration in lymph nodes (LNs) has been roughly described as a random walk. Although it has been shown that dendritic cells (DCs) carrying cognate antigen in some circumstances attract T cells chemotactically, it is currently still unclear whether chemoattraction of T cells towards DCs helps or hampers scanning. Chemoattraction towards DCs could on the one hand help T cells to rapidly find DCs. On the other hand, it could be deleterious if DCs become shielded by a multitude of attracted yet non-specific T cells. Results from a recent simulation study suggested that the deleterious effect dominates. We re-addressed the question whether T cell chemoattraction towards DCs is expected to promote or hamper the detection of rare antigens using the Cellular Potts Model, a formalism that allows for dynamic, flexible cellular shapes and cell migration. Our simulations show that chemoattraction of T cells enhances the DC scanning efficiency, leading to an increased probability that rare antigen-specific T cells find DCs carrying cognate antigen. Desensitization of T cells after contact with a DC further improves the scanning efficiency, yielding an almost threefold enhancement compared to random migration. Moreover, the chemotaxis-driven migration still roughly appears as a random walk, hence fine-tuned analysis of cell tracks will be required to detect chemotaxis within microscopy data.

  6. The cell proliferation antigen Ki-67 organises heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Sobecki, Michal; Mrouj, Karim; Camasses, Alain; Parisis, Nikolaos; Nicolas, Emilien; Llères, David; Gerbe, François; Prieto, Susana; Krasinska, Liliana; David, Alexandre; Eguren, Manuel; Birling, Marie-Christine; Urbach, Serge; Hem, Sonia; Déjardin, Jérôme; Malumbres, Marcos; Jay, Philippe; Dulic, Vjekoslav; Lafontaine, Denis LJ; Feil, Robert; Fisher, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Antigen Ki-67 is a nuclear protein expressed in proliferating mammalian cells. It is widely used in cancer histopathology but its functions remain unclear. Here, we show that Ki-67 controls heterochromatin organisation. Altering Ki-67 expression levels did not significantly affect cell proliferation in vivo. Ki-67 mutant mice developed normally and cells lacking Ki-67 proliferated efficiently. Conversely, upregulation of Ki-67 expression in differentiated tissues did not prevent cell cycle arrest. Ki-67 interactors included proteins involved in nucleolar processes and chromatin regulators. Ki-67 depletion disrupted nucleologenesis but did not inhibit pre-rRNA processing. In contrast, it altered gene expression. Ki-67 silencing also had wide-ranging effects on chromatin organisation, disrupting heterochromatin compaction and long-range genomic interactions. Trimethylation of histone H3K9 and H4K20 was relocalised within the nucleus. Finally, overexpression of human or Xenopus Ki-67 induced ectopic heterochromatin formation. Altogether, our results suggest that Ki-67 expression in proliferating cells spatially organises heterochromatin, thereby controlling gene expression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13722.001 PMID:26949251

  7. Immunophenotypic and antigen receptor gene rearrangement analysis in T cell neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    The author reviews the immunophenotypic profiles displayed by the major clinicopathologic categories of T cell neoplasia, the immunophenotypic criteria useful in the immunodiagnosis of T cell neoplasia, and the contributions made by antigen receptor gene rearrangement analysis to the understanding of T cell neoplasia. Neoplasms belonging to distinct clinicopathologic categories of T cell neoplasia often exhibit characteristic immunophenotypic profiles. Approximately 80% of lymphoblastic lymphomas and 20% of acute lymphoblastic leukemias express phenotypes consistent with prethymic and intrathymic stages of T cell differentiation, including intranuclear terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Cutaneous T cell lymphomas of mycosis fungoides type usually express pan-T cell antigens CD2, CD5, and CD3, often lack the pan-T cell antigen CD7, and usually express the mature, peripheral helper subset phenotype, CD4+ CD8-. Cutaneous T cell lymphomas of nonmycosis fungoides type and peripheral T cell lymphomas often lack one or more pan-T cell antigens and, in addition, occasionally express the anomalous CD4+ CD8+ or CD4- CD8- phenotypes. T gamma-lymphoproliferative disease is divisable into two broad categories: those cases that are CD3 antigen positive and exhibit clonal T cell receptor beta chain (TCR-beta) gene rearrangements and those cases that are CD3 antigen negative and exhibit the TCR-beta gene germline configuration. Human T cell lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) associated Japanese, Carribean, and sporadic adult T cell leukemia/lymphomas usually express pan-T cell antigens, the CD4+ CD8- phenotype, and various T cell-associated activation antigens, including the interleukin-2 receptor (CD25). Immunophenotypic criteria useful in the immunodiagnosis of T cell neoplasia include, in increasing order of utility, T cell predominance, T cell subset antigen restriction, anomalous T cell subset antigen expression, and deletion of one or more pan-T cell antigens. Only in

  8. The Other Function: Class II-Restricted Antigen Presentation by B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Lital N.; Jiang, Wei; Bhamidipati, Kartik; Millican, Matthew; Macaubas, Claudia; Hung, Shu-chen; Mellins, Elizabeth D.

    2017-01-01

    Mature B lymphocytes (B cells) recognize antigens using their B cell receptor (BCR) and are activated to become antibody-producing cells. In addition, and integral to the development of a high-affinity antibodies, B cells utilize the specialized major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) antigen presentation pathway to process BCR-bound and internalized protein antigens and present selected peptides in complex with MHCII to CD4+ T cells. This interaction influences the fate of both types of lymphocytes and shapes immune outcomes. Specific, effective, and optimally timed antigen presentation by B cells requires well-controlled intracellular machinery, often regulated by the combined effects of several molecular events. Here, we delineate and summarize these events in four steps along the antigen presentation pathway: (1) antigen capture and uptake by B cells; (2) intersection of internalized antigen/BCRs complexes with MHCII in peptide-loading compartments; (3) generation and regulation of MHCII/peptide complexes; and (4) exocytic transport for presentation of MHCII/peptide complexes at the surface of B cells. Finally, we discuss modulation of the MHCII presentation pathway across B cell development and maturation to effector cells, with an emphasis on the shaping of the MHCII/peptide repertoire by two key antigen presentation regulators in B cells: HLA-DM and HLA-DO. PMID:28386257

  9. Regulation of NK-cell function by mucins via antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Laskarin, G; Redzovic, A; Medancic, S Srsen; Rukavina, D

    2010-12-01

    Decidual antigen-presenting cells including dendritic cells (DCs) and CD14(+) macrophages, as mediators of the first encounter with fetal antigens, appear to be critically involved in the initiation of primary immune response by regulating innate- and adaptive immunity. Interleukin-15, produced by them, permits the proliferation and differentiation of CD3(-)CD16(-)CD94(+)NKG2A(+)CD56(+bright) decidual NK cells that identify trophoblast cells. These cells are able to kill them after Th1 cytokine overstimulation and by increasing the release of preformed cytotoxic mediators. Thus, the local microenvironment is a potent modulator of antigen-presenting cell functions. Tumor associated glycoprotein-72 (TAG-72) and mucine 1 (MUC-1) are glycoproteins secreted by uterine epithelial cells. Our hypothesis is that TAG-72 and MUC-1 are the natural ligands for carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) of endocytic mannose receptor (MR or CD206) and DC-specific ICAM non-integrin (DC-SIGN or CD209) expressed on decidual CD14(+) macrophages and CD1a(+) DCs. They might be able to condition antigen-presenting cells to produce distinct profiles of cyto/chemokines with consequential reduction in NK-cell numbers and cytotoxic potential leading to insufficient control over trophoblast growth. This hypothesis could explain the disappearance of MUC-1 beneath the attached embryo during the process of successful implantation when tight regulation of trophoblast invasion is needed. As IL-15 is the earliest and the most important factor in NK-cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation, we expected primarily an increase of IL-15 expression in antigen-presenting cells concomitant with the disappearance of mucins and the enhancement in NK cells numbers and of cytotoxic potential after their close contact with early pregnancy decidual antigen-presenting cells. If our hypothesis is correct, it would contribute to the understanding of the role of mucins in the redirection of immune response

  10. Augmenting antitumor T-cell responses to mimotope vaccination by boosting with native tumor antigens.

    PubMed

    Buhrman, Jonathan D; Jordan, Kimberly R; U'ren, Lance; Sprague, Jonathan; Kemmler, Charles B; Slansky, Jill E

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination with antigens expressed by tumors is one strategy for stimulating enhanced T-cell responses against tumors. However, these peptide vaccines rarely result in efficient expansion of tumor-specific T cells or responses that protect against tumor growth. Mimotopes, or peptide mimics of tumor antigens, elicit increased numbers of T cells that crossreact with the native tumor antigen, resulting in potent antitumor responses. Unfortunately, mimotopes may also elicit cells that do not crossreact or have low affinity for tumor antigen. We previously showed that one such mimotope of the dominant MHC class I tumor antigen of a mouse colon carcinoma cell line stimulates a tumor-specific T-cell clone and elicits antigen-specific cells in vivo, yet protects poorly against tumor growth. We hypothesized that boosting the mimotope vaccine with the native tumor antigen would focus the T-cell response elicited by the mimotope toward high affinity, tumor-specific T cells. We show that priming T cells with the mimotope, followed by a native tumor-antigen boost, improves tumor immunity compared with T cells elicited by the same prime with a mimotope boost. Our data suggest that the improved tumor immunity results from the expansion of mimotope-elicited tumor-specific T cells that have increased avidity for the tumor antigen. The enhanced T cells are phenotypically distinct and enriched for T-cell receptors previously correlated with improved antitumor immunity. These results suggest that incorporation of native antigen into clinical mimotope vaccine regimens may improve the efficacy of antitumor T-cell responses.

  11. Induction of Neonatal Tolerance to Mls^a Antigens by CD8^+ T Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Susan R.; Sprent, Jonathan

    1990-06-01

    Antigen-specific tolerance of T cells to minor lymphocyte stimulatory (Mis) antigens can be induced in mice by neonatal injection of foreign lymphohematopoietic cells. Although immune responses to Mls^a antigens are controlled by B cells, CD8^+ T cells were the most effective cell type for induction of Mls^a tolerance. Tolerance was evident in both thymus and lymph nodes and could be induced by as few as 2 x 10^4 CD8^+ T cells; these cells were 50 to 100 times as potent as CD4^+ cells or B cells in causing functional tolerance and deletion of Vβ6^+ T cells. Thus, intrathymic contact with antigens expressed on CD8^+ T cells may play an important role in controlling the normal development of tolerance.

  12. Expression of basement membrane antigens in spindle cell melanoma.

    PubMed

    Prieto, V G; Woodruff, J M

    1998-07-01

    Spindle cell melanoma (SCM) is an uncommon form of melanoma that may be confused histologically with other tumors, including malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). Tumors with neural differentiation and melanocytic nevi may both show basement membrane immunohistochemically and at the ultrastructural level. However, most ultrastructural studies of melanoma have failed to demonstrate well formed basement membrane around tumor cells. The presence of basement membrane has been used by some authors as evidence favoring MPNST, as opposed to SCM. To evaluate this distinction immunohistochemically, 22 primary and metastatic cutaneous melanomas having a spindle cell component (SCM) were studied using monoclonal antibodies against laminin and Type IV collagen. S100 protein and HMB45 antigen expression were also studied. All but one of the SCM were reactive for S100 protein in at least 25% of the cells. Thirteen of 20 tumors (65%) were focally reactive with HMB45. Laminin was expressed in 42% of the tumors (only membranous pattern in 3; cytoplasmic and membranous in 5). Seventeen tumors (77%) expressed type IV collagen (only membranous pattern in 7; cytoplasmic and membranous pattern in 10). Laminin and type IV collagen, known components of basement membrane, are often found in SCM. Therefore, their detection cannot be used to distinguish SCM from MPNST.

  13. Antigenic modulation of metastatic breast and ovary carcinoma cells by intracavitary injection of IFN-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Giacomini, P.; Mottolese, M.; Fraioli, R.; Benevolo, M.; Venturo, I.; Natali, P. G.

    1992-01-01

    Antigenic modulation of major histocompatibility and tumour associated antigens was observed in neoplastic cells obtained from patients with pleural and abdominal effusions of breast and ovary carcinomas following a single intracavitary dose of 18 x 10(6) U recombinant IFN-alpha. This regimen resulted in antigenic modulation in seven out of 11 tested cases, suggesting a potential, although limited, responsiveness of at least a fraction of breast and ovary carcinoma cells to in situ biomodification with IFN-alpha. PMID:1503908

  14. The effects of Fasciola hepatica tegumental antigens on mast cell function.

    PubMed

    Vukman, Krisztina V; Adams, Paul N; Dowling, David; Metz, Martin; Maurer, Marcus; O'Neill, Sandra M

    2013-06-01

    Fasciola hepatica infection is associated with T helper 2/T regulatory immune responses and increased mast cell numbers. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen and mast cells in vivo and in vitro. Firstly, BALB/C, C57BL/6 or STAT6(-/-) mice were infected with F. hepatica metacercarie or mice were treated with F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen and then mast cells numbers in the peritoneal cavity and/or the liver were quantified. Also, the proliferation, chemotaxis, degranulation and cytokine secretion of mast cells from bone marrow or from peritoneal exudate cells stimulated with F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen were measured. Finally, we tested whether F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen inhibits degranulation of mast cells in vivo in a passive cutaneous and systemic anaphylaxis mouse model. Mast cell numbers increased in the peritoneal cavity and liver of F. hepatica infected mice, and this was mimicked by injection of F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen in a STAT6(-/-) independent manner. The increase in mast cell number was not the result of F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen-induced proliferation; rather F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen indirectly induces mast cell migration by dendritic cell-derived chemokines. Fasciola hepatica tegumental coat antigen interactions with mast cells do not drive T helper 2 or T regulatory immune responses. These studies on mast cell and F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen interaction may help us to understand the function of mast cells in immunity against F. hepatica and the immunomodulatory effect of F. hepatica tegumental coat antigen on these cells.

  15. Isolation and characterization of NIH 3T3 cells expressing polyomavirus small T antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, T.; Satake, M.; Robins, T.; Ito, Y.

    1986-10-01

    The polyomavirus small T-antigen gene, together with the polyomavirus promoter, was inserted into retrovirus vector pGV16 which contains the Moloney sarcoma virus long terminal repeat and neomycin resistance gene driven by the simian virus 40 promoter. This expression vector, pGVST, was packaged into retrovirus particles by transfection of PSI2 cells which harbor packaging-defective murine retrovirus genome. NIH 3T3 cells were infected by this replication-defective retrovirus containing pGVST. Of the 15 G418-resistant cell clones, 8 express small T antigen at various levels as revealed by immunoprecipitation. A cellular protein with an apparent molecular weight of about 32,000 coprecipitates with small T antigen. Immunofluorescent staining shows that small T antigen is mainly present in the nuclei. Morphologically, cells expressing small T antigen are indistinguishable from parental NIH 3T3 cells and have a microfilament pattern similar to that in parental NIH 3T3 cells. Cells expressing small T antigen form a flat monolayer but continue to grow beyond the saturation density observed for parental NIH 3T3 cells and eventually come off the culture plate as a result of overconfluency. There is some correlation between the level of expression of small T antigen and the growth rate of the cells. Small T-antigen-expressing cells form small colonies in soft agar. However, the proportion of cells which form these small colonies is rather small. A clone of these cells tested did not form tumors in nude mice within 3 months after inoculation of 10/sup 6/ cells per animal. Thus, present studies establish that the small T antigen of polyomavirus is a second nucleus-localized transforming gene product of the virus (the first one being large T antigen) and by itself has a function which is to stimulate the growth of NIH 3T3 cells beyond their saturation density in monolayer culture.

  16. Phospholipase treatment of accessory cells that have been exposed to antigen selectively inhibits antigen-specific Ia-restricted, but not allospecific, stimulation of T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Falo, L D; Benacerraf, B; Rock, K L

    1986-01-01

    The corecognition of antigen and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (Ia molecules) by the T-cell receptor is a cell surface event. Before antigen is recognized, it must be taken up, processed, and displayed on the surface of an Ia-bearing accessory cell (antigen-presenting cell, APC). The exact nature of antigen processing and the subsequent associations of antigen with the APC plasma membrane, Ia molecules, and/or the T-cell receptor are not well defined. To further analyze these events, we have characterized the processing and presentation of the soluble polypeptide antigen bovine insulin. We found that this antigen requires APC-dependent processing, as evidenced by the inability of metabolically inactivated APCs to present native antigen to antigen plus Ia-specific T-T hybridomas. The ability of the same APCs to present antigen after uptake and processing showed that this antigen subsequently becomes stably associated with the APC plasma membrane. To characterize the basis for this association, we analyzed its sensitivity to enzymatic digestion. APCs exposed to antigen, treated with phospholipase A2, and then immediately fixed lost the ability to stimulate bovine insulin plus I-Ad-specific hybridomas. In contrast, the ability of these same APCs to stimulate I-Ad allospecific hybridomas was unaffected. This effect of phospholipase is not mimicked by the broadly active protease Pronase, nor is there evidence for contaminating proteases in the phospholipase preparation. These results suggest that one consequence of antigen processing may be an antigen-lipid association that contributes to the anchoring of antigen to the APC membrane. The implications of this model are discussed. PMID:3529095

  17. Microbioassay system for antiallergic drug screening using suspension cells retaining in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Tokuyama, Takahito; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Sato, Kiichi; Abo, Mitsuru; Okubo, Akira

    2005-05-15

    This article describes an antiallergic drug-screening system by the detection of histamine released from mast cells (suspension cells) on a multilayer microchip. In this study, the elastmeric material, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), was employed to fabricate microchannels and microchambers. The microchip consists of two sections: a histamine-releasing one, which has a cell chamber, and a histamine-derivatizing one. Both were laminated to one microchip. Rat peritoneal mast cells were retained in the cell chamber (1.2 microL) with a filtering system using a cellulose nitrate membrane. This filtering system could easily retain suspension cells without cell damage. Mast cells were viable for a sufficient time to conduct the assay on the cell chamber. The cells were stimulated with a chemical release compound 48/80 (C48/80), and then histamine flowed into the lower layer, where it was derivatized to the fluorescent molecules with o-phthalaldehyde and its fluorescence was detected on the microchip. This flow system could detect the time course of the histamine release, and this microchip system required only 20 min for the assay. By this integrated system, 51 pmol of histamine released from 500 cells was detected, and the number of cells required for the assay was reduced to 1% compared with conventional bulk systems. By comparing the released histamine levels with and without drugs, their effect could be evaluated. The inhibition ratio of C48/80 induced-histamine release using an antiallergic drug, disodium cromoglicate (DSCG), was related to the concentration of DSCG. This flow system was applicable for antiallergy drug screening by rapid measurement of the inhibition of histamine release from a very small amount of mast cells.

  18. Cell adhesion markers are expressed by a stable human endothelial cell line transformed by the SV40 large T antigen under vimentin promoter control.

    PubMed

    Vicart, P; Testut, P; Schwartz, B; Llorens-Cortes, C; Perdomo, J J; Paulin, D

    1993-10-01

    Markers of endothelium have been studied in a new endothelial cell line derived from human umbilical cord vein cells by microinjection of a recombinant gene that includes a deletion mutant of the human vimentin gene regulatory region controlling the large T and small t antigen coding region of the SV40 virus. In culture, this immortalized venous endothelial cell line (IVEC) demonstrated morphological characteristics of endothelium; uptake of acetylated low density lipoprotein and presence of the Factor VIII-related antigen. Treatment of IVEC cells with Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) at 10 U.ml-1 activates the expression of cell adhesion molecules such as endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule (ELAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), as observed in primary culture. Prostacyclin secretion was induced in the IVEC cells by 100 nM PMA treatment and thrombin at 0.5 U/ml. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity detected in IVEC cells was present but lower than ACE activity in primary endothelial cells and was completely blocked by enalaprilat (1 microM), a specific ACE inhibitor. The presence of ACE mRNA was also demonstrated in IVEC cells by RT-PCR amplification. Our data demonstrate that endothelial cells immortalized by use of this recombinant gene retain the morphological organization and numerous differentiated properties of endothelium.

  19. Red blood cells as innovative antigen carrier to induce specific immune tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cremel, Magali; Guérin, Nathalie; Horand, Françoise; Banz, Alice; Godfrin, Yann

    2013-02-25

    The route of administration, the dose of antigen as well as the type of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) targeted are important factors to induce immune tolerance. Despite encouraging results obtained in animal models, intravenous injection of soluble antigen is unsuccessful in human clinical trials on autoimmune disease due to inefficient antigen delivery. To improve antigen delivery, we used mouse red blood cells (RBCs) as antigen vehicles to specifically target APCs which are responsible for removal of senescent RBCs after phagocytosis. In this study, we demonstrated that antigen-delivery by RBCs induced a strong decrease in the humoral response compared with the ovalbumin (OVA) free form in mice. In addition, OVA-loaded RBC treated with [bis(sulphosuccinimidyl)] suberate (BS3), a chemical compound known to enhance RBC phagocytosis, induced an inhibition of antigen-specific T cell responses and an increase in the percentage of regulatory T cells. The state of tolerance induced is long lasting, antigen-specific and sufficiently robust to withstand immunization with antigen mixed with cholera toxin adjuvant. This RBC strategy, which does not abolish the immune system, constitutes an attractive approach for induction of tolerance compared to systemic immunosuppressant therapies already in use.

  20. Identification of a Highly Antigenic Linear B Cell Epitope within Plasmodium vivax Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA-1)

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Lobo, Francisco Pereira; Morais, Cristiane Guimarães; Mourão, Luíza Carvalho; de Ávila, Ricardo Andrez Machado; Soares, Irene Silva; Fontes, Cor Jesus; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius; Olórtegui, Carlos Chavez; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Braga, Érika Martins

    2011-01-01

    Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) is considered to be a major candidate antigen for a malaria vaccine. Previous immunoepidemiological studies of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium vivax AMA-1 (PvAMA-1) have shown a higher prevalence of specific antibodies to domain II (DII) of AMA-1. In the present study, we confirmed that specific antibody responses from naturally infected individuals were highly reactive to both full-length AMA-1 and DII. Also, we demonstrated a strong association between AMA-1 and DII IgG and IgG subclass responses. We analyzed the primary sequence of PvAMA-1 for B cell linear epitopes co-occurring with intrinsically unstructured/disordered regions (IURs). The B cell epitope comprising the amino acid sequence 290–307 of PvAMA-1 (SASDQPTQYEEEMTDYQK), with the highest prediction scores, was identified in domain II and further selected for chemical synthesis and immunological testing. The antigenicity of the synthetic peptide was identified by serological analysis using sera from P. vivax-infected individuals who were knowingly reactive to the PvAMA-1 ectodomain only, domain II only, or reactive to both antigens. Although the synthetic peptide was recognized by all serum samples specific to domain II, serum with reactivity only to the full-length protein presented 58.3% positivity. Moreover, IgG reactivity against PvAMA-1 and domain II after depletion of specific synthetic peptide antibodies was reduced by 18% and 33% (P = 0.0001 for both), respectively. These results suggest that the linear epitope SASDQPTQYEEEMTDYQK is highly antigenic during natural human infections and is an important antigenic region of the domain II of PvAMA-1, suggesting its possible future use in pre-clinical studies. PMID:21713006

  1. Neutrophils and monocytes transport tumor cell antigens from the peritoneal cavity to secondary lymphoid tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Terasawa, Masao; Nagata, Kisaburo; Kobayashi, Yoshiro

    2008-12-12

    Antigen-transporting cells take up pathogens, and then migrate from sites of inflammation to secondary lymphoid tissues to induce an immune response. Among antigen-transporting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) are believed to be the most potent and professional antigen-presenting cells that can stimulate naive T cells. However, the cells that transport antigens, tumor cell antigens in particular, have not been clearly identified. In this study we have analyzed what types of cells transport tumor cell antigens to secondary lymphoid tissues. We show that neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages but not DCs engulf X-irradiated P388 leukemic cells after their injection into the peritoneal cavity, and that neutrophils and monocytes but not macrophages migrate to the parathymic lymph nodes (pLN), the blood, and then the spleen. The monocytes in the pLN comprise Gr-1{sup -} and Gr-1{sup +} ones, and some of these cells express CD11c. Overall, this study demonstrates that neutrophils and monocytes transport tumor cell antigens from the peritoneal cavity to secondary lymphoid tissues.

  2. Usage of Murine T-cell Hybridoma Cells as Responder Cells Reveals Interference of Helicobacter Pylori with Human Dendritic Cell-mediated Antigen Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Fehlings, Michael; Drobbe, Lea; Beigier-Bompadre, Macarena; Viveros, Pablo Renner; Moos, Verena; Schneider, Thomas; Meyer, Thomas F.; Aebischer, Toni; Ignatius, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Direct effects of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) on human CD4+ T-cells hamper disentangling a possible bacterial-mediated interference with major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-dependent antigen presentation to these cells. To overcome this limitation, we employed a previously described assay, which enables assessing human antigen-processing cell function by using murine T-cell hybridoma cells restricted by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. HLA-DR1+ monocyte-derived dendritic cells were exposed to H. pylori and pulsed with the antigen 85B from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion by AG85Baa97-112-specific hybridoma cells was then evaluated as an integral reporter of cognate antigen presentation. This methodology enabled revealing of interference of H. pylori with the antigen-presenting capacity of human dendritic cells. PMID:27980859

  3. Unidirectional transfer of microRNA-loaded exosomes from T cells to antigen-presenting cells

    PubMed Central

    Mittelbrunn, María; Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Cristina; Villarroya-Beltri, Carolina; González, Susana; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; González, Manuel Ángel; Bernad, Antonio; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The immune synapse is an exquisitely evolved means of communication between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) during antigen recognition. Recent evidence points to the transfer of RNA via exosomes as a novel mode of intercellular communication. Here we show that exosomes of T, B and dendritic immune cells contain microRNA (miRNA) repertoires that differ from those of their parent cells. We investigate whether miRNAs are exchanged during cognate immune interactions, and demonstrate the existence of antigen-driven unidirectional transfer of miRNAs from the T cell to the APC, mediated by the delivery of CD63+ exosomes on immune synapse formation. Inhibition of exosome production by targeting neutral sphingomyelinase-2 impairs transfer of miRNAs to APCs. Moreover, miRNAs transferred during immune synapsis are able to modulate gene expression in recipient cells. Thus, our results support a mechanism of cellular communication involving antigen-dependent, unidirectional intercellular transfer of miRNAs by exosomes during immune synapsis. PMID:21505438

  4. Killer artificial antigen-presenting cells: a novel strategy to delete specific T cells.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Christian; Fleck, Martin; Mackensen, Andreas; Zoso, Alessia; Halbritter, Dagmar; Schneck, Jonathan P; Oelke, Mathias

    2008-04-01

    Several cell-based immunotherapy strategies have been developed to specifically modulate T cell-mediated immune responses. These methods frequently rely on the utilization of tolerogenic cell-based antigen-presenting cells (APCs). However, APCs are highly sensitive to cytotoxic T-cell responses, thus limiting their therapeutic capacity. Here, we describe a novel bead-based approach to modulate T-cell responses in an antigen-specific fashion. We have generated killer artificial APCs (kappaaAPCs) by coupling an apoptosis-inducing alpha-Fas (CD95) IgM mAb together with HLA-A2 Ig molecules onto beads. These kappaaAPCs deplete targeted antigen-specific T cells in a Fas/Fas ligand (FasL)-dependent fashion. T-cell depletion in cocultures is rapidly initiated (30 minutes), dependent on the amount of kappaaAPCs and independent of activation-induced cell death (AICD). kappaaAPCs represent a novel technology that can control T cell-mediated immune responses, and therefore has potential for use in treatment of autoimmune diseases and allograft rejection.

  5. Ubiquitinated Proteins Isolated From Tumor Cells Are Efficient Substrates for Antigen Cross-Presentation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guangjie; Moudgil, Tarsem; Cui, Zhihua; Mou, Yongbin; Wang, Lixin; Fox, Bernard A; Hu, Hong-Ming

    2017-03-31

    We have previously shown that inhibition of the proteasome causes defective ribosomal products to be shunted into autophagosomes and subsequently released from tumor cells as defective ribosomal products in Blebs (DRibbles). These DRibbles serve as an excellent source of antigens for cross-priming of tumor-specific T cells. Here, we examine the role of ubiquitinated proteins (Ub-proteins) in this pathway. Using purified Ub-proteins from tumor cells that express endogenous tumor-associated antigen or exogenous viral antigen, we tested the ability of these proteins to stimulate antigen-specific T-cell responses, by activation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells generated from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Compared with total cell lysates, we found that purified Ub-proteins from both a gp100-specific melanoma cell line and from a lung cancer cell line expressing cytomegalovirus pp65 antigen produced a significantly higher level of IFN-γ in gp100- or pp65-specific T cells, respectively. In addition, Ub-proteins from an allogeneic tumor cell line could be used to stimulate tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes isolated and expanded from non-small cell lung cancer patients. These results establish that Ub-proteins provide a relevant source of antigens for cross-priming of antitumor immune responses in a variety of settings, including endogenous melanoma and exogenous viral antigen presentation, as well as antigen-specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Thus, ubiquitin can be used as an affinity tag to enrich for unknown tumor-specific antigens from tumor cell lysates to stimulate tumor-specific T cells ex vivo or to be used as vaccines to target short-lived proteins.

  6. A Lipid Based Antigen Delivery System Efficiently Facilitates MHC Class-I Antigen Presentation in Dendritic Cells to Stimulate CD8+ T Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Mithun; Mazumder, Saumyabrata; Bhattacharya, Souparno; Choudhury, Somsubhra Thakur; Sabur, Abdus; Shadab, Md.; Bhattacharya, Pradyot; Ali, Nahid

    2016-06-01

    The most effective strategy for protection against intracellular infections such as Leishmania is vaccination with live parasites. Use of recombinant proteins avoids the risks associated with live vaccines. However, due to low immunogenicity, they fail to trigger T cell responses particularly of CD8+ cells requisite for persistent immunity. Previously we showed the importance of protein entrapment in cationic liposomes and MPL as adjuvant for elicitation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses for long-term protection. In this study we investigated the role of cationic liposomes on maturation and antigen presentation capacity of dendritic cells (DCs). We observed that cationic liposomes were taken up very efficiently by DCs and transported to different cellular sites. DCs activated with liposomal rgp63 led to efficient presentation of antigen to specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, lymphoid CD8+ T cells from liposomal rgp63 immunized mice demonstrated better proliferative ability when co-cultured ex vivo with stimulated DCs. Addition of MPL to vaccine enhanced the antigen presentation by DCs and induced more efficient antigen specific CD8+ T cell responses when compared to free and liposomal antigen. These liposomal formulations presented to CD8+ T cells through TAP-dependent MHC-I pathway offer new possibilities for a safe subunit vaccine.

  7. A Lipid Based Antigen Delivery System Efficiently Facilitates MHC Class-I Antigen Presentation in Dendritic Cells to Stimulate CD8(+) T Cells.

    PubMed

    Maji, Mithun; Mazumder, Saumyabrata; Bhattacharya, Souparno; Choudhury, Somsubhra Thakur; Sabur, Abdus; Shadab, Md; Bhattacharya, Pradyot; Ali, Nahid

    2016-06-02

    The most effective strategy for protection against intracellular infections such as Leishmania is vaccination with live parasites. Use of recombinant proteins avoids the risks associated with live vaccines. However, due to low immunogenicity, they fail to trigger T cell responses particularly of CD8(+) cells requisite for persistent immunity. Previously we showed the importance of protein entrapment in cationic liposomes and MPL as adjuvant for elicitation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses for long-term protection. In this study we investigated the role of cationic liposomes on maturation and antigen presentation capacity of dendritic cells (DCs). We observed that cationic liposomes were taken up very efficiently by DCs and transported to different cellular sites. DCs activated with liposomal rgp63 led to efficient presentation of antigen to specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, lymphoid CD8(+) T cells from liposomal rgp63 immunized mice demonstrated better proliferative ability when co-cultured ex vivo with stimulated DCs. Addition of MPL to vaccine enhanced the antigen presentation by DCs and induced more efficient antigen specific CD8(+) T cell responses when compared to free and liposomal antigen. These liposomal formulations presented to CD8(+) T cells through TAP-dependent MHC-I pathway offer new possibilities for a safe subunit vaccine.

  8. T cell tolerance and activation to a transgene-encoded tumor antigen.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, A; McCormick, D; Scott, D; Yeoman, H; Chandler, P; Mellor, A; Dyson, J

    1996-05-01

    Much has been learned in recent years concerning the nature of tumor antigens recognized by T cells. To apply this knowledge clinically, the nature of the host response to individual and multiple tumor antigens has to be characterized. This will help to define the efficacy of immune surveillance and the immune status of the host following exposure to tumor antigens expressed on pre-neoplastic tissue. To approach these questions, we have developed a transgenic mouse which expresses the tumor-specific antigen P91A. The single amino acid substitution in P91A results in the expression of a new MHC class I (H-2Ld)-binding peptide. In transgenic tissue, the H-2Ld/P91A complex is expressed in isolation from other tumor-associated antigens, allowing definition of the immune response to a single defined tumor antigen, a situation closely analogous to events during tumorigenesis. We show that CD8+ T cell immune surveillance of P91A is ineffective without the introduction of a helper determinant operating through stimulation of CD4+ T cells. Recognition of the isolated P91A tumor antigen on normal tissue by CD8+ T cells is a tolerogenic process. Induction of T cell tolerance suggests tumor antigen-T cell interactions occurring during tumorigenesis may elicit T cell tolerance and hence confound some immunotherapeutic approaches.

  9. Identification of novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis CD4 T-cell antigens via high throughput proteome screening

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Kaustuv; Jing, Lichen; Russell, Ronnie M.; Davies, D. Huw; Hermanson, Gary; Molina, Douglas M.; Liang, Xiaowu; Sherman, David R.; Kwok, William W.; Yang, Junbao; Kenneth, John; Ahamed, Syed F.; Chandele, Anmol; Kaja, Murali-Krishna; Koelle, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Elicitation of CD4 IFN-gamma T cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a rational vaccine strategy to prevent clinical tuberculosis. Diagnosis of MTB infection is based on T-cell immune memory to MTB antigens. The MTB proteome contains over four thousand open reading frames (ORFs). We conducted a pilot antigen identification study using 164 MTB proteins and MTB-specific T-cells expanded in vitro from 12 persons with latent MTB infection. Enrichment of MTB-reactive T-cells from PBMC used cell sorting or an alternate system compatible with limited resources. MTB proteins were used as single antigens or combinatorial matrices in proliferation and cytokine secretion readouts. Overall, our study found that 44 MTB proteins were antigenic, including 27 not previously characterized as CD4 T-cell antigens. Antigen truncation, peptide, NTM homology, and HLA class II tetramer studies confirmed malate synthase G (encoded by gene Rv1837) as a CD4 T-cell antigen. This simple, scalable system has potential utility for the identification of candidate MTB vaccine and biomarker antigens. PMID:25857935

  10. Molecular Characterization of a Fully Human Chimeric T-Cell Antigen Receptor for Tumor-Associated Antigen EpCAM

    PubMed Central

    Shirasu, Naoto; Yamada, Hiromi; Shibaguchi, Hirotomo; Kuroki, Motomu; Kuroki, Masahide

    2012-01-01

    The transduction of T cells to express chimeric T-cell antigen receptor (CAR) is an attractive strategy for adaptive immunotherapy for cancer, because the CAR can redirect the recognition specificity of T cells to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) on the surface of target cells, thereby avoiding the limitations of HLA restriction. However, there are considerable problems with the clinical application of CAR, mostly due to its xenogeneic components, which could be immunogenic in humans. Moreover, while extensive studies on the CARs have been performed, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of CAR-grafted T cells remain unclear. In order to eliminate potential immunogenicity and investigate the molecular basis of the CAR-mediated T-cell activation, we constructed a novel CAR (CAR57-28ζ) specific for one of the most important TAAs, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), using only human-derived genes. We revealed that in Jurkat T cells, lentivirally expressed CAR57-28ζ can transmit the T-cell-activating signals sufficient to induce IL-2 production upon EpCAM stimulation. An immunofluorescent analysis clearly showed that the CAR57-28ζ induces the formation of signaling clusters containing endogenous CD3ζ at the CAR/EpCAM interaction interface. These results suggest that this CAR gene may be safely and effectively applied for adaptive T-cell immunotherapy. PMID:22547929

  11. Censoring of self-reactive B cells by follicular dendritic cell-displayed self-antigen.

    PubMed

    Yau, Irene W; Cato, Matthew H; Jellusova, Julia; Hurtado de Mendoza, Tatiana; Brink, Robert; Rickert, Robert C

    2013-08-01

    In the secondary lymphoid organs, intimate contact with follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) is required for B cell retention and Ag-driven selection during the germinal center response. However, selection of self-reactive B cells by Ag on FDCs has not been addressed. To this end, we generated a mouse model to conditionally express a membrane-bound self-antigen on FDCs and to monitor the fate of developing self-reactive B cells. In this article, we show that self-antigen displayed on FDCs mediates effective elimination of self-reactive B cells at the transitional stage. Notwithstanding, some self-reactive B cells persist beyond this checkpoint, showing evidence of Ag experience and intact proximal BCR signaling, but they are short-lived and unable to elicit T cell help. These results implicate FDCs as an important component of peripheral B cell tolerance that prevents the emergence of naive B cells capable of responding to sequestered self-antigens.

  12. 20-kDa protein associated with the murine T-cell antigen receptor is phosphorylated in response to activation by antigen or concanavalin A

    SciTech Connect

    Samelson, L.E.; Harford, J.; Schwartz, R.H.; Klausner, R.D.

    1985-04-01

    Antigen or concanavalin A activation of a murine T-cell hybrid specific for pigeon cytochrome resulted in phosphorylation of a 20-kDa protein that was specifically coprecipitated by a monoclonal antibody binding the T-cell antigen receptor. There was no evidence for phosphorylation of the antigen receptor itself. The phosphorylation of the 20-kDa polypeptide was dependent on the concentration of antigen or lectin used to activate the T-cell hybrid and reached a maximum 40 min after the addition of antigen. The 20-kDa protein was also radioiodinated with a hydrophobic photoactivatable labeling reagent. The amount of iodinated 20-kDa protein immunoprecipitable with the anti-receptor antibody did not increase with T-cell activation, indicating that the phosphorylation occurred on a molecule that was constitutively associated with the antigen receptor. Concanavalin A also induced phosphorylation of a 20-kDa polypeptide in a second antigen-specific major histocompatibility complex-restricted T-cell hybrid. Again, the phosphorylated polypeptide was precipitated only by a monoclonal antibody specific for the antigen receptor on this hybrid. Thus, the antigen or concanavalin A-induced activation of T-cell hybrids results in the rapid phosphorylation of a 20-kDa protein that is associated with the T-cell receptor.

  13. Gamma delta T cells recognize a microbial encoded B Cell antigen to initiate a rapid antigen-specific Interleukin-17 response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gamma delta T cells contribute uniquely to host immune defense, but the way in which they do so remains an enigma. Here we show that an algae protein, phycoerythrin (PE) is recognized by gamma delta T cells from mice, bovine and humans and binds directly to specific gamma delta T cell antigen recept...

  14. Human T cell activation. III. Induction of an early activation antigen, EA 1 by TPA, mitogens and antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, T.; Jung, L.K.L.; FU, S.M.

    1986-03-01

    With human T cells activated for 12 hours by 12-o-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as immunogen, an IgG/sub 2a/ monoclonal antibody, mAb Ea 1, has been generated to a 60KD phosphorylated protein with 32KD and 28KD subunits. The antigen, Ea 1, is readily detected on 60% of isolated thymocytes by indirect immunofluorescence. A low level of Ea 1 expression is detectable on 2-6% of blood lymphocytes. Isolated T cells have been induced to express Ea 1 by TPA, mitogens and anitgens. TPA activated T cells express Ea 1 as early as 1 hour after activation. By 4 hours, greater than 95% of the T cells stain with mAb Ea 1. About 50% of the PHA or Con A activated T cells express Ea 1 with a similar kinetics. Ea 1 expression proceeds that of IL-2 receptor in these activation processes. T cells activated by soluble antigens (tetanus toxoid and PPD) and alloantigens in MLR also express Ea 1 after a long incubation. About 20% of the T cells stain for Ea 1 at day 6. Ea 1 expression is not limited to activated T cells. B cells activated by TPA or anti-IgM Ab plus B cell growth factor express Ea 1. The kinetics of Ea 1 expression is slower and the staining is less intense. Repeated attempts to detect Ea 1 on resting and activated monocytes and granulocytes have not been successful. Ea 1 expression is due to de novo synthesis for its induction is blocked by cycloheximide and actinomycin D. Ea 1 is the earliest activation antigen detectable to-date.

  15. Expression of T cell antigen receptor during differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, J.P.; Lanier, L.L.; Guyden, J.; Richie, E.R.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have used flow cytometry with monoclonal antibodies, radioimmuneprecipitation with a rabbit antiserum to common epitopes of the TCR, and Northern and Southern blot analysis with cloned TCR genes to study antigen receptor (TCR) expression by normal murine and human thymocytes and by primary murine thymomas. L3T4-,Lyt2- murine thymomas corresponding to the earliest stage of thymic differentiation, were found to have rearranged TCR beta genes, and to express low levels of beta transcript, but lacked alpha gene transcript and failed to express TCR on the cell surface. L3T4+,Lyt2+ thymomas were variable, but the majority were found to contain significant levels of both alpha and beta transcripts and to express TCR at the cell surface. Similarly, alpha and beta transcripts and TCR protein were detected in sorted L3T4+,Lyt2+ murine thymocytes. Using three color fluorescence, the authors determined that app. 70% of human T4+T8+ thymocytes also expressed T3, a component of the TCR complex. These data indicate that in mouse and man expression of TCR occurs in the immature, or cortical, thymic population.

  16. Stem Cell Antigen-1 in Skeletal Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Harold S.; Samad, Tahmina; Cholsiripunlert, Sompob; Khalifian, Saami; Gong, Wenhui; Ritner, Carissa; Aurigui, Julian; Ling, Vivian; Wilschut, Karlijn J.; Bennett, Stephen; Hoffman, Julien; Oishi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) is a member of the Ly-6 multigene family encoding highly homologous, glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins. Sca-1 is expressed on muscle-derived stem cells and myogenic precursors recruited to sites of muscle injury. We previously reported that inhibition of Sca-1 expression stimulated myoblast proliferation in vitro and regulated the tempo of muscle repair in vivo. Despite its function in myoblast expansion during muscle repair, a role for Sca-1 in normal, post-natal muscle has not been thoroughly investigated. We systematically compared Sca-1-/- (KO) and Sca-1+/+ (WT) mice and hindlimb muscles to elucidate the tissue, contractile, and functional effects of Sca-1 in young and aging animals. Comparison of muscle volume, fibrosis, myofiber cross-sectional area, and Pax7+ myoblast number showed little differences between ages or genotypes. Exercise protocols, however, demonstrated decreased stamina in KO versus WT mice, with young KO mice achieving results similar to aging WT animals. In addition, KO mice did not improve with practice, while WT animals demonstrated conditioning over time. Surprisingly, myomechanical analysis of isolated muscles showed that KO young muscle generated more force and experienced less fatigue. However, KO muscle also demonstrated incomplete relaxation with fatigue. These findings suggest that Sca-1 is necessary for muscle conditioning with exercise, and that deficient conditioning in Sca-1 KO animals becomes more pronounced with age. PMID:24042315

  17. Germ tube-specific antigens of Candida albicans cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Sundstrom, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were performed to characterize the surface differences between blastospores and germ tubes of the pathogenic, dimorphic yeast, Candida albicans, and to identify components of yeast cells responsible for these differences. Investigation of surfaces differences of the two growth forms was facilitated by the production of rabbit antiserum prepared against Formalin-treated yeast possessing germ tubes. To prepare antiserum specific for germ tubes, this serum was adsorbed with stationary phase blastospores. Whereas the unadsorbed antiserum reacted with both blastospore and germ tube forms by immunofluorescence and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, the adsorbed antiserum did not react with blastospores but detected germ tube-specific antigens in hyphal forms. The differences between blastospores and germ tubes of Candida albicans, were further studied by comparing enzymatic digests of cell walls of both growth forms in radiolabeled organisms. Organisms were labeled either on the surface with /sup 125/I, or metabolically with (/sup 35/S) methionine or (/sup 3/H) mannose. Three-surface-located components (as shown by antibody adsorption and elution experiments) were precipitated from Zymolase digests. All three components were mannoproteins as shown by their ability to bind Concanavalin A, and to be labeled in protein labeling procedures, and two of these (200,000 and 155,000 molecular weight) were germ tube specific, as shown by their ability to be precipitated by germ tube-specific antiserum. Monoclonal antibodies were prepared to C. albicans, using blastospores bearing germ tubes as immunogen.

  18. Localization of Label-Retaining Cells in Murine Vocal Fold Epithelium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leydon, Ciara; Bartlett, Rebecca S.; Roenneburg, Drew A.; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Epithelial homeostasis is critical for vocal fold health, yet little is known about the cells that support epithelial self-renewal. As a known characteristic of stem cells is that they are slow-cycling in vivo, the purpose of this prospective controlled study was to identify and quantify slow-cycling cells or putative stem cells in murine…

  19. The adult CNS retains the potential to direct region-specific differentiation of a transplanted neuronal precursor cell line.

    PubMed

    Shihabuddin, L S; Hertz, J A; Holets, V R; Whittemore, S R

    1995-10-01

    The chronic survival and differentiation of the conditionally immortalized neuronal cell line, RN33B, was examined following transplantation into the adult and neonatal rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex. In clonal culture, differentiated RN33B cells express p75NTR and trkB mRNA and protein, and respond to brain-derived neurotrophic factor treatment by inducing c-fos mRNA. Transplanted cells, identified using immunohistochemistry to detect beta-galactosidase expression, were seen in most animals up to 24 weeks posttransplantation (the latest time point examined). Stably integrated cells with various morphologies consistent with their transplantation site were observed. In the cerebral cortex, many RN33B cells differentiated with morphologies similar to pyramidal neurons and stellate cells. In the hippocampal formation, many RN33B cells assumed morphologies similar to pyramidal neurons characteristic of CA1 and CA3 regions, granular cell layer neurons of the dentate gyrus, and polymorphic neurons of the hilar region. Identical morphologies were observed in both adult and neonatal hosts, although a greater percentage of beta-galactosidase immunoreactive cells had differentiated in the neonatal brains. These results suggest that RN33B cells have the developmental plasticity to respond to local microenvironmental signals and that the adult brain retains the capacity to direct the differentiation of neuronal precursor cells in a direction that is consistent with that of endogenous neurons.

  20. Definition of target antigens for naturally occurring CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Kato, Takuma; Tawara, Isao; Saito, Kanako; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Kuribayashi, Kagemasa; Allen, Paul M; Schreiber, Robert D; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Old, Lloyd J; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2005-03-07

    The antigenic targets recognized by naturally occurring CD4(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells (T reg cells) have been elusive. We have serologically defined a series of broadly expressed self-antigens derived from chemically induced mouse sarcomas by serological identification of antigens by recombinant expression cloning (SEREX). CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells from mice immunized with SEREX-defined self-antigens had strong suppressive activity on peptide-specific proliferation of CD4(+) CD25(-) T cells and CD8(+) T cells. The suppressive effect was observed without in vitro T cell stimulation. Foxp3 expression in these CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells from immunized mice was 5-10 times greater than CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells derived from naive mice. The suppressive effect required cellular contact and was blocked by anti-glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related gene antibody. In vitro suppressive activity essentially disappeared 8 wk after the last immunization. However, it was regained by in vitro restimulation with cognate self-antigen protein but not with control protein. We propose that SEREX-defined self-antigens such as those used in this study represent self-antigens that elicit naturally occurring CD4(+) CD25(+) T reg cells.

  1. Enhanced antigen-presenting capacity of cultured Langerhans' cells is associated with markedly increased expression of Ia antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, S.; Caughman, S.W.; Sharrow, S.O.; Stephany, D.; Katz, S.I.

    1987-10-15

    Recent studies indicate that when epidermal Langerhans' cells (LC) are cultured for 2 to 3 days they, in comparison to freshly prepared LC, exhibit markedly enhanced ability to stimulate T cell proliferative responses in oxidative mitogenesis and in the mixed epidermal-leukocyte reaction. In this study, we determined whether cultured LC enhance antigen-specific T cell responses, and whether such enhanced stimulatory capacity correlates with the level of Ia antigen expressed on LC. We used C3H/He (Iak) epidermal cells as stimulators and, as responder cells, both the trinitrophenyl-specific clones D8 and SE4, which were assayed for (/sup 3/H)dThd incorporation, and the pigeon cytochrome c specific hybridoma 2C2, which was assayed for interleukin 2 production. Cultured LC induced 10 to 100 times greater proliferation or interleukin 2 production by responder cells than did freshly prepared LC. The intensity of I-Ak and I-Ek, expressed on cultured LC as assessed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, was found to be 10 to 36 times greater on a per cell basis than that on freshly prepared LC. Depletion of LC from fresh epidermal cell suspensions by anti-Iak and complement or treatment with 50 mJ/cm/sup 2/ medium range ultraviolet light or cycloheximide before culture abrogated both the increase in Ia expression and antigen-specific clonal proliferation. The results suggest that when LC are removed from their usual epidermal milieu, they express increased amounts of Ia and become more potent stimulators of T cell responses.

  2. Splenic B cells and antigen-specific B cells process anti-Ig in a similar manner

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.D.; Vitetta, E.S.

    1989-06-01

    B lymphocytes can process and present antigen to T cells. However, the fate of native antigen after its binding to specific B cells, i.e., the intracellular events involved in the processing and recycling of the antigenic fragments to the cell surface for antigen presentation, are not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that murine B cells degrade anti-Ig molecules bound to their surface and release acid soluble fragments into the supernatant. We also demonstrate that the kinetics of this process are identical for anti-mu, anti-delta, and anti-light chain antibodies, indicating that both surface IgM and surface IgD are equally effective in binding antigen and directing its processing. We also describe the effects of azide, chloroquine, and irradiation on this process. To extend these studies to the processing of specifically bound antigen, we demonstrate that highly purified trinitrophenyl antigen-binding cells degrade anti-Ig molecules with the same kinetics as unpurified splenic B cells. Thus, this purified population provides a suitable model system for the analysis of antigen degradation by antigen-specific cells.

  3. Cyclic re-entry of germinal center B cells in dealing with switching antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chaoyang

    1999-08-01

    Germinal center spatial compartmentalization may help immune cells to optimize their mutation schedule so that affinity maturation through somatic hypermutation achieves higher efficiency. Some pathogens can alter their antigen expression (surface glycoprotein) by evolution of antigen or antigen switching or drifting to counteract the immune defense. We examine the switching antigen situation by introducing a prey-predator model in the string space representation of B cells and antigen, using Pontryagin's maximum principle to seek out the optimal mutation schedule, The optimal mutation schedule is still phase like. We conclude that re-entry of germinal center B cells is still crucial to affinity maturation. We further speculate a model of diffusing B cells coupling with pair correlation function may provide the underlying mechanism for the phasic like mutation schedule.

  4. Angiomotin promotes renal epithelial and carcinoma cell proliferation by retaining the nuclear YAP.

    PubMed

    Lv, Meng; Li, Shuting; Luo, Changqin; Zhang, Xiaoman; Shen, Yanwei; Sui, Yan Xia; Wang, Fan; Wang, Xin; Yang, Jiao; Liu, Peijun; Yang, Jin

    2016-03-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the common tumors in the urinary system without effective therapies. Angiomotin (Amot) can interact with Yes-associated protein (YAP) to either stimulate or inhibit YAP activity, playing a potential role in cell proliferation. However, the role of Amot in regulating the proliferation of renal epithelial and RCC cells is unknown. Here, we show that Amot is expressed predominantly in the nucleus of RCC cells and tissues, and in the cytoplasm and nucleus of renal epithelial cells and paracancerous tissues. Furthermore, Amot silencing inhibited proliferation of HK-2 and 786-O cells while Amot upregulation promoted proliferation of ACHN cells. Interestingly, the location of Amot and YAP in RCC clinical samples and cells was similar. Amot interacted with YAP in HK-2 and 786-O cells, particularly in the nucleus. Moreover, Amot silencing mitigated the levels of nuclear YAP in HK-2 and 786-O cells and reduced YAP-related CTGF and Cyr61 expression in 786-O cells. Amot upregulation slightly increased the nuclear YAP and YAP-related gene expression in ACHN cells. Finally, enhanced YAP expression restored proliferation of Amot-silencing 786-O cells. Together, these data indicate that Amot is crucial for the maintenance of nuclear YAP to promote renal epithelial and RCC proliferation.

  5. Immunohistochemical detection of major histocompatibility complex antigens and quantitative analysis of tumour-infiltrating mononuclear cells in renal cell cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Y.; Nishiyama, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Sato, S.

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the anti-tumour immune responsiveness of patients with renal cell cancer (RCC), we examined 30 such patients for the degree of expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II antigens on RCC and the populations of tumour-infiltrating mononuclear cells (TIM). Normal renal tubular cells expressed class I but not class II antigens. Most of the tumour cells expressed class I antigens in 25 (83%) cases, but the proportion of such cells was reduced in five cases, three of which were of granular cell type histologically. Class II antigens were detected in all specimens with class I positivity. Various numbers of TIM were detected in 25 cases, being composed mainly of T cells and a smaller number of macrophages. Examination for the phenotype of T cells showed that CD8-positive cells were the dominant population. B cells were not detected. Quantitative analysis revealed that the numbers of TIM were significantly lower in cases showing class I reduction than in those with normal class I expression. Therefore, it was clear that class I antigens were preserved in RCC cells in most cases. Furthermore, a higher rate of reduction of class I antigens was observed in cases of granular cell type, which has been reported to have a worse prognosis than the clear cell type. The present data suggest that degree of the expression of MHC class I antigen on RCC might influence the host immune responsiveness against it. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2206942

  6. Potent antigen-specific immune response induced by infusion of spleen cells coupled with succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl cyclohexane)-1-carboxylate (SMCC) conjugated antigens.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yixian; Werbel, Tyler; Wan, Suigui; Wu, Haitao; Li, Yaohua; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Xia, Chang-Qing

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we report our recently developed new approach to inducing antigen-specific immune response. We use two nucleophilic substitution "click" chemistry processes to successfully couple protein antigens or peptides to mouse spleen cells or T cells by a heterobifunctional crosslinker, succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl cyclohexane)-1-carboxylate (SMCC) or sulfo-SMCC. SMCC and its water-soluble analog sulfo-SMCC contain N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester and maleimide groups, which allow stable covalent conjugation of amine- and sulfhydryl-containing molecules in trans. Protein coupling to cells relies on the free sulfhydryls (thiols) on cell surfaces and the free amines on protein antigens. Although the amount of protein coupled to cells is limited due to the limited number of cell surface thiols, the injection of spleen cells coupled with antigenic proteins, such as keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or ovalbumin (OVA), induces a potent antigen-specific immune response in vivo, which is even stronger than that induced by the injection of a large dose of protein plus adjuvants. In addition, short peptides coupled to purified splenic T cells also potently elicit peptide-specific T cell proliferation in vivo after injection. Further studies show that antigen-coupled spleen cell treatment leads to augmented IFN-γ-producing T cells. Our study provides a unique antigen delivery method that efficiently distributes antigen to the entire immune system, subsequently eliciting a potent antigen-specific immune response with enhanced IFN-γ production. The findings in the present study suggest that this antigen-cell coupling strategy could be employed in immunotherapy for cancers, infectious diseases as well as immune-mediated disorders.

  7. Detecting Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses: From Bulk Populations to Single Cells.

    PubMed

    Phetsouphanh, Chansavath; Zaunders, John James; Kelleher, Anthony Dominic

    2015-08-12

    A new generation of sensitive T cell-based assays facilitates the direct quantitation and characterization of antigen-specific T cell responses. Single-cell analyses have focused on measuring the quality and breadth of a response. Accumulating data from these studies demonstrate that there is considerable, previously-unrecognized, heterogeneity. Standard assays, such as the ICS, are often insufficient for characterization of rare subsets of cells. Enhanced flow cytometry with imaging capabilities enables the determination of cell morphology, as well as the spatial localization of the protein molecules within a single cell. Advances in both microfluidics and digital PCR have improved the efficiency of single-cell sorting and allowed multiplexed gene detection at the single-cell level. Delving further into the transcriptome of single-cells using RNA-seq is likely to reveal the fine-specificity of cellular events such as alternative splicing (i.e., splice variants) and allele-specific expression, and will also define the roles of new genes. Finally, detailed analysis of clonally related antigen-specific T cells using single-cell TCR RNA-seq will provide information on pathways of differentiation of memory T cells. With these state of the art technologies the transcriptomics and genomics of Ag-specific T cells can be more definitively elucidated.

  8. Detecting Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses: From Bulk Populations to Single Cells

    PubMed Central

    Phetsouphanh, Chansavath; Zaunders, John James; Kelleher, Anthony Dominic

    2015-01-01

    A new generation of sensitive T cell-based assays facilitates the direct quantitation and characterization of antigen-specific T cell responses. Single-cell analyses have focused on measuring the quality and breadth of a response. Accumulating data from these studies demonstrate that there is considerable, previously-unrecognized, heterogeneity. Standard assays, such as the ICS, are often insufficient for characterization of rare subsets of cells. Enhanced flow cytometry with imaging capabilities enables the determination of cell morphology, as well as the spatial localization of the protein molecules within a single cell. Advances in both microfluidics and digital PCR have improved the efficiency of single-cell sorting and allowed multiplexed gene detection at the single-cell level. Delving further into the transcriptome of single-cells using RNA-seq is likely to reveal the fine-specificity of cellular events such as alternative splicing (i.e., splice variants) and allele-specific expression, and will also define the roles of new genes. Finally, detailed analysis of clonally related antigen-specific T cells using single-cell TCR RNA-seq will provide information on pathways of differentiation of memory T cells. With these state of the art technologies the transcriptomics and genomics of Ag-specific T cells can be more definitively elucidated. PMID:26274954

  9. Intestinal label-retaining cells are secretory precursors expressing Lgr5.

    PubMed

    Buczacki, Simon J A; Zecchini, Heather Ireland; Nicholson, Anna M; Russell, Roslin; Vermeulen, Louis; Kemp, Richard; Winton, Douglas J

    2013-03-07

    The rapid cell turnover of the intestinal epithelium is achieved from small numbers of stem cells located in the base of glandular crypts. These stem cells have been variously described as rapidly cycling or quiescent. A functional arrangement of stem cells that reconciles both of these behaviours has so far been difficult to obtain. Alternative explanations for quiescent cells have been that they act as a parallel or reserve population that replace rapidly cycling stem cells periodically or after injury; their exact nature remains unknown. Here we show mouse intestinal quiescent cells to be precursors that are committed to mature into differentiated secretory cells of the Paneth and enteroendocrine lineage. However, crucially we find that after intestinal injury they are capable of extensive proliferation and can give rise to clones comprising the main epithelial cell types. Thus, quiescent cells can be recalled to the stem-cell state. These findings establish quiescent cells as an effective clonogenic reserve and provide a motivation for investigating their role in pathologies such as colorectal cancers and intestinal inflammation.

  10. Tumor escape mechanisms: Potential role of soluble HLA antigens and NK cells activating ligands

    PubMed Central

    Campoli, Michael; Ferrone, Soldano

    2009-01-01

    The crucial role played by HLA antigens and natural killer (NK) cell activating ligands in the interactions of malignant cells with components of the host's immune system has stimulated interest in the characterization of their expression by malignant cells. Convincing evidence generated by the immunohistochemical staining of surgically removed malignant lesions with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing HLA antigens and NK cell activating ligands indicates that the surface expression of these molecules is frequently altered on malignant cells. These changes appear to have clinical significance, since in some types of malignant disease they are associated with the histopathological characteristics of the lesions as well as with disease free interval and survival. These associations have been suggested to reflect the effect of HLA antigen and NK cell activating ligand abnormalities on the interactions of tumor cells with antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and with NK cells. Nevertheless, there are examples in which disease progresses in the face of appropriate HLA antigen and/or NK cell activating ligand as well as tumor antigen expression by malignant cells and of functional antigen-specific CTL in the investigated patient. In such scenarios, it is likely that the tumor microenvironment is unfavorable for CTL and NK cell activity and contributes to tumor immune escape. Many distinct escape mechanisms have been shown to protect malignant cells from immune recognition and destruction in the tumor microenvironment. In this paper, following the description of the structural and functional characteristics of soluble HLA antigens and NK cell activating ligands, we will review changes in their serum level in malignant disease and discuss their potential role in the escape mechanisms utilized by tumor cells to avoid recognition and destruction. PMID:18700879

  11. Prostate Stem Cell Antigen DNA Vaccination Breaks Tolerance to Self-antigen and Inhibits Prostate Cancer Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sarfraz; Casey, Garrett; Sweeney, Paul; Tangney, Mark; O'Sullivan, Gerald C

    2009-01-01

    Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a cell surface antigen expressed in normal human prostate and over expressed in prostate cancer. Elevated levels of PSCA protein in prostate cancer correlate with increased tumor stage/grade, with androgen independence and have higher expression in bone metastases. In this study, the PSCA gene was isolated from the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate cell line (TRAMPC1), and a vaccine plasmid construct was generated. This plasmid PSCA (pmPSCA) was delivered by intramuscular electroporation (EP) and induced effective antitumor immune responses against subcutaneous TRAMPC1 tumors in male C57 BL/6 mice. The pmPSCA vaccination inhibited tumor growth, resulting in cure or prolongation in survival. Similarly, the vaccine inhibited metastases in PSCA expressing B16 F10 tumors. There was activation of Th-1 type immunity against PSCA, indicating the breaking of tolerance to a self-antigen. This immunity was tumor specific and was transferable by adoptive transfer of splenocytes. The mice remained healthy and there was no evidence of collateral autoimmune responses in normal tissues. EP-assisted delivery of the pmPSCA evoked strong specific responses and could, in neoadjuvant or adjuvant settings, provide a safe and effective immune control of prostate cancer, given that there is significant homology between human and mouse PSCA. PMID:19337234

  12. Intestinal antigen-presenting cells in mucosal immune homeostasis: crosstalk between dendritic cells, macrophages and B-cells.

    PubMed

    Mann, Elizabeth R; Li, Xuhang

    2014-08-07

    The intestinal immune system maintains a delicate balance between immunogenicity against invading pathogens and tolerance of the commensal microbiota. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves a breakdown in tolerance towards the microbiota. Dendritic cells (DC), macrophages (MΦ) and B-cells are known as professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) due to their specialization in presenting processed antigen to T-cells, and in turn shaping types of T-cell responses generated. Intestinal DC are migratory cells, unique in their ability to generate primary T-cell responses in mesenteric lymph nodes or Peyer's patches, whilst MΦ and B-cells contribute to polarization and differentiation of secondary T-cell responses in the gut lamina propria. The antigen-sampling function of gut DC and MΦ enables them to sample bacterial antigens from the gut lumen to determine types of T-cell responses generated. The primary function of intestinal B-cells involves their secretion of large amounts of immunoglobulin A, which in turn contributes to epithelial barrier function and limits immune responses towards to microbiota. Here, we review the role of all three types of APC in intestinal immunity, both in the steady state and in inflammation, and how these cells interact with one another, as well as with the intestinal microenvironment, to shape mucosal immune responses. We describe mechanisms of maintaining intestinal immune tolerance in the steady state but also inappropriate responses of APC to components of the gut microbiota that contribute to pathology in IBD.

  13. Rapid desensitization induces internalization of antigen-specific IgE on mouse mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Tatsuya; Rios, Eon J.; Tsai, Mindy; Kalesnikoff, Janet; Galli, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid desensitization transiently prevents severe allergic reactions, allowing administration of life-saving therapies in previously sensitized patients. However, the mechanisms underlying successful rapid desensitization are not fully understood. Objectives We sought to investigate whether the mast cell (MC) is an important target of rapid desensitization in mice sensitized to exhibit IgE-dependent passive systemic anaphylaxis in vivo and to investigate the antigen specificity and underlying mechanisms of rapid desensitization in our mouse model. Methods C57BL/6 mice (in vivo) or primary isolated C57BL/6 mouse peritoneal mast cells (PMCs; in vitro) were passively sensitized with antigen-specific anti–2,4-dinitrophenyl IgE, anti-ovalbumin IgE, or both. MCs were exposed over a short period of time to increasing amounts of antigen (2,4-dinitrophenyl–human serum albumin or ovalbumin) in the presence of extracellular calcium in vitro or by means of intravenous administration to sensitized mice in vivo before challenging the mice with or exposing the PMCs to optimal amounts of specific or irrelevant antigen. Results Rapidly exposing mice or PMCs to progressively increasing amounts of specific antigen inhibited the development of antigen-induced hypothermia in sensitized mice in vivo and inhibited antigen-induced PMC degranulation and prostaglandin D2 synthesis in vitro. Such MC hyporesponsiveness was induced antigen-specifically and was associated with a significant reduction in antigen-specific IgE levels on MC surfaces. Conclusions Rapidly exposing MCs to progressively increasing amounts of antigen can both enhance the internalization of antigen-specific IgE on the MC surface and also desensitize these cells in an antigen-specific manner in vivo and in vitro. PMID:23810240

  14. A small protein inhibits proliferating cell nuclear antigen by breaking the DNA clamp

    PubMed Central

    Altieri, Amanda S.; Ladner, Jane E.; Li, Zhuo; Robinson, Howard; Sallman, Zahur F.; Marino, John P.; Kelman, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) forms a trimeric ring that encircles duplex DNA and acts as an anchor for a number of proteins involved in DNA metabolic processes. PCNA has two structurally similar domains (I and II) linked by a long loop (inter-domain connector loop, IDCL) on the outside of each monomer of the trimeric structure that makes up the DNA clamp. All proteins that bind to PCNA do so via a PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP) motif that binds near the IDCL. A small protein, called TIP, binds to PCNA and inhibits PCNA-dependent activities although it does not contain a canonical PIP motif. The X-ray crystal structure of TIP bound to PCNA reveals that TIP binds to the canonical PIP interaction site, but also extends beyond it through a helix that relocates the IDCL. TIP alters the relationship between domains I and II within the PCNA monomer such that the trimeric ring structure is broken, while the individual domains largely retain their native structure. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) confirms the disruption of the PCNA trimer upon addition of the TIP protein in solution and together with the X-ray crystal data, provides a structural basis for the mechanism of PCNA inhibition by TIP. PMID:27141962

  15. A small protein inhibits proliferating cell nuclear antigen by breaking the DNA clamp

    DOE PAGES

    Altieri, Amanda S.; Ladner, Jane E.; Li, Zhuo; ...

    2016-05-03

    Here, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) forms a trimeric ring that encircles duplex DNA and acts as an anchor for a number of proteins involved in DNA metabolic processes. PCNA has two structurally similar domains (I and II) linked by a long loop (inter-domain connector loop, IDCL) on the outside of each monomer of the trimeric structure that makes up the DNA clamp. All proteins that bind to PCNA do so via a PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP) motif that binds near the IDCL. A small protein, called TIP, binds to PCNA and inhibits PCNA-dependent activities although it does not contain amore » canonical PIP motif. The X-ray crystal structure of TIP bound to PCNA reveals that TIP binds to the canonical PIP interaction site, but also extends beyond it through a helix that relocates the IDCL. TIP alters the relationship between domains I and II within the PCNA monomer such that the trimeric ring structure is broken, while the individual domains largely retain their native structure. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) confirms the disruption of the PCNA trimer upon addition of the TIP protein in solution and together with the X-ray crystal data, provides a structural basis for the mechanism of PCNA inhibition by TIP.« less

  16. A small protein inhibits proliferating cell nuclear antigen by breaking the DNA clamp

    SciTech Connect

    Altieri, Amanda S.; Ladner, Jane E.; Li, Zhuo; Robinson, Howard; Sallman, Zahur F.; Marino, John P.; Kelman, Zvi

    2016-05-03

    Here, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) forms a trimeric ring that encircles duplex DNA and acts as an anchor for a number of proteins involved in DNA metabolic processes. PCNA has two structurally similar domains (I and II) linked by a long loop (inter-domain connector loop, IDCL) on the outside of each monomer of the trimeric structure that makes up the DNA clamp. All proteins that bind to PCNA do so via a PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP) motif that binds near the IDCL. A small protein, called TIP, binds to PCNA and inhibits PCNA-dependent activities although it does not contain a canonical PIP motif. The X-ray crystal structure of TIP bound to PCNA reveals that TIP binds to the canonical PIP interaction site, but also extends beyond it through a helix that relocates the IDCL. TIP alters the relationship between domains I and II within the PCNA monomer such that the trimeric ring structure is broken, while the individual domains largely retain their native structure. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) confirms the disruption of the PCNA trimer upon addition of the TIP protein in solution and together with the X-ray crystal data, provides a structural basis for the mechanism of PCNA inhibition by TIP.

  17. A small protein inhibits proliferating cell nuclear antigen by breaking the DNA clamp

    SciTech Connect

    Altieri, Amanda S.; Ladner, Jane E.; Li, Zhuo; Robinson, Howard; Sallman, Zahur F.; Marino, John P.; Kelman, Zvi

    2016-05-03

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) forms a trimeric ring that encircles duplex DNA and acts as an anchor for a number of proteins involved in DNA metabolic processes. PCNA has two structurally similar domains (I and II) linked by a long loop (inter-domain connector loop, IDCL) on the outside of each monomer of the trimeric structure that makes up the DNA clamp. All proteins that bind to PCNA do so via a PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP) motif that binds near the IDCL. A small protein, called TIP, binds to PCNA and inhibits PCNA-dependent activities although it does not contain a canonical PIP motif. The X-ray crystal structure of TIP bound to PCNA reveals that TIP binds to the canonical PIP interaction site, but also extends beyond it through a helix that relocates the IDCL. TIP alters the relationship between domains I and II within the PCNA monomer such that the trimeric ring structure is broken, while the individual domains largely retain their native structure. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) confirms the disruption of the PCNA trimer upon addition of the TIP protein in solution and together with the X-ray crystal data, provides a structural basis for the mechanism of PCNA inhibition by TIP.

  18. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 specifically induces expression of the B-cell activation antigen CD23

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.; Gregory, C.D.; Rowe, M.; Rickinson, A.B.; Wang, D.; Birkenbach, M.; Kikutani, H.; Kishimoto, T.; Kieff, E.

    1987-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of EBV-negative Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells includes some changes similar to those seen in normal B lymphocytes that have been growth transformed by EBV. The role of individual EBV genes in this process was evaluated by introducing each of the viral genes that are normally expressed in EBV growth-transformed and latently infected lymphoblasts into an EBV-negative BL cell line, using recombinant retrovirus-mediated transfer. Clones of cells were derived that stably express the EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1), EBNA-2, EBNA-3, EBNA-leader protein, or EBV latent membrane protein (LMP). These were compared with control clones infected with the retrovirus vector. All 10 clones converted to EBNA-2 expression differed from control clones or clones expressing other EBV proteins by growth in tight clumps and by markedly increased expression of one particular surface marker of B-cell activation, CD23. Other activation antigens were unaffected by EBNA-2 expression, as were markers already expressed on the parent BL cell line. The results indicate that EBNA-2 is a specific direct or indirect trans-activator of CD23. This establishes a link between an EBV gene and cell gene expression. Since CD23 has been implicated in the transduction of B-cell growth signals, its specific induction by EBNA-2 could be important in EBV induction of B-lymphocyte transformation.

  19. Stabilization of Transfected Cells Expressing Low-Incidence Blood Group Antigens: Novel Methods Facilitating Their Use as Reagent-Cells

    PubMed Central

    González, Cecilia; Esteban, Rosa; Canals, Carme; Muñiz-Díaz, Eduardo; Nogués, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Background The identification of erythrocyte antibodies in the serum of patients rely on panels of human red blood cells (RBCs), which coexpress many antigens and are not easily available for low-incidence blood group phenotypes. These problems have been addressed by generating cell lines expressing unique blood group antigens, which may be used as an alternative to human RBCs. However, the use of cell lines implies several drawbacks, like the requirement of cell culture facilities and the high cost of cryopreservation. The application of cell stabilization methods could facilitate their use as reagent cells in clinical laboratories. Methods We generated stably-transfected cells expressing low-incidence blood group antigens (Dia and Lua). High-expresser clones were used to assess the effect of TransFix® treatment and lyophilization as cell preservation methods. Cells were kept at 4°C and cell morphology, membrane permeability and antigenic properties were evaluated at several time-points after treatment. Results TransFix® addition to cell suspensions allows cell stabilization and proper antigen detection for at least 120 days, despite an increase in membrane permeability and a reduction in antigen expression levels. Lyophilized cells showed minor morphological changes and antigen expression levels were rather conserved at days 1, 15 and 120, indicating a high stability of the freeze-dried product. These stabilized cells have been proved to react specifically with human sera containing alloantibodies. Conclusions Both stabilization methods allow long-term preservation of the transfected cells antigenic properties and may facilitate their distribution and use as reagent-cells expressing low-incidence antigens, overcoming the limited availability of such rare RBCs. PMID:27603310

  20. Characterization of an antigen associated with the Marek's disease lymphoblastoid cell line MSB-1.

    PubMed

    Ross, L J

    1982-06-01

    A Marek's disease lymphoblastoid cell line (MSB-1) has been analysed by immunoprecipitation for expression of tumour-associated antigen, Marek's disease virus (MDV)-specific antigens and antigens specific to avian leukosis-sarcoma viruses. Rabbit antisera raised against two independently derived cell lines after extensive absorption with normal chick cells reacted with a polypeptide of mol. wt. 40 000 (40K) in extracts of MSB-1 cells. The 40K polypeptide was not present in myeloblasts or in chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF) infected with MDV and did not react with antiserum raised against normal chicken thymus antigens. The possibility that the 40K polypeptide is a tumour-associated antigen is discussed. Seven MDV-specific antigens were noted in infected CEF (mol. wt. 110K, 100K, 80K, 70K, 50K, 35K and 32K) but none of these was detected in MSB-1 cells. The avian leukosis-sarcoma group-specific antigen P27gag and its precursor Pr76gag were not found in MSB-1 cells, confirming that expression of mature gag protein is not required for transformation by MDV. However, two polypeptides of unknown origin and function (mol. wt. 180K and 110K) were precipitated from MSB-1 cells with a rabbit anti-Rous sarcoma (Schmidt-Rupin, subgroup D) antiserum.

  1. RNAi screen for kinases and phosphatases that play a role in antigen presentation by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Moita, Catarina F; Chora, Ângelo; Hacohen, Nir; Moita, Luis F

    2012-07-01

    Effective CD8(+) T-cell responses against tumor or microbial antigens that are not directly expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) depend on the cross-presentation of these antigens on MHC class I in APCs. To identify signaling molecules that regulate cross-presentation, we used lentiviral-based RNA interference to test the roles of hundreds of kinases and phosphatases in this process. Our study uncovered eight previously unknown genes, consisting of one positive and seven negative regulators of antigen cross-presentation. Depletion of Acvr1c, a type I receptor for TGF-β family of signaling molecules, led to an increase in CD80 and CD86 co-stimulator surface expression and secreted IL-12 in mouse bone marrow-derived DCs, as well as antigen-specific T-cell proliferation.

  2. A DEPRESSION OF CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY TO MEASLES ANTIGEN IN PATIENTS WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    PubMed Central

    Utermohlen, Virginia; Winfield, John B.; Zabriskie, John B.; Kunkel, Henry G.

    1974-01-01

    Using the direct migration inhibition test, response to measles antigen in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was found to be decreased when compared with that of normal subjects. No alteration was observed in similar experiments using parainfluenza type 1 and rubella antigens. The specific decrease in measles antigen effect showed no obvious correlation with activity of SLE or with the presence of lymphocytotoxic antibodies. Whether the specificity of the decrease in reactivity is due to some particular relationship between the measles virus or antigen and SLE, or to the possibility that measles reactivity is a more sensitive indicator of a generalized defect of cell-mediated immunity, remains unclear. PMID:4361242

  3. Increased sensitivity of antigen-experienced T cells through the enrichment of oligomeric T cell receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rashmi; Ferez, María; Swamy, Mahima; Arechaga, Ignacio; Rejas, María Teresa; Valpuesta, Jose M; Schamel, Wolfgang W A; Alarcon, Balbino; van Santen, Hisse M

    2011-09-23

    Although memory T cells respond more vigorously to stimulation and they are more sensitive to low doses of antigen than naive T cells, the molecular basis of this increased sensitivity remains unclear. We have previously shown that the T cell receptor (TCR) exists as different-sized oligomers on the surface of resting T cells and that large oligomers are preferentially activated in response to low antigen doses. Through biochemistry and electron microscopy, we now showed that previously stimulated and memory T cells have more and larger TCR oligomers at the cell surface than their naive counterparts. Reconstitution of cells and mice with a point mutant of the CD3ζ subunit, which impairs TCR oligomer formation, demonstrated that the increased size of TCR oligomers was directly responsible for the increased sensitivity of antigen-experienced T cells. Thus, we propose that an "avidity maturation" mechanism underlies T cell antigenic memory.

  4. Dendritic Cells in the Periphery Control Antigen-Specific Natural and Induced Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Sayuri; Morita, Akimichi

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells that regulate both immunity and tolerance. DCs in the periphery play a key role in expanding naturally occurring Foxp3+ CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T cells (Natural T-regs) and inducing Foxp3 expression (Induced T-regs) in Foxp3− CD4+ T cells. DCs are phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous, and further classified into several subsets depending on distinct marker expression and their location. Recent findings indicate the presence of specialized DC subsets that act to expand Natural T-regs or induce Foxp3+ T-regs from Foxp3− CD4+ T cells. For example, two major subsets of DCs in lymphoid organs act differentially in inducing Foxp3+ T-regs from Foxp3− cells or expanding Natural T-regs with model-antigen delivery by anti-DC subset monoclonal antibodies in vivo. Furthermore, DCs expressing CD103 in the intestine induce Foxp3+ T-regs from Foxp3− CD4+ T cells with endogenous TGF-β and retinoic acid. In addition, antigen-presenting DCs have a capacity to generate Foxp3+ T-regs in the oral cavity where many antigens and commensals exist, similar to intestine and skin. In skin and skin-draining lymph nodes, at least six DC subsets have been identified, suggesting a complex DC-T-reg network. Here, we will review the specific activity of DCs in expanding Natural T-regs and inducing Foxp3+ T-regs from Foxp3− precursors, and further discuss the critical function of DCs in maintaining tolerance at various locations including skin and oral cavity. PMID:23801989

  5. Inclusion of Strep-Tag II in design of antigen receptors for T cell immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lingfeng; Sommermeyer, Daniel; Cabanov, Alexandra; Kosasih, Paula; Hill, Tyler; Riddell, Stanley R

    2016-01-01

    The tactical introduction of Strep-tag II into synthetic antigen receptors provides engineered T cells with a marker for identification and rapid purification, and a functional element for selective antibody coated microbead-driven large-scale expansion. Such receptor designs can be applied to chimeric antigen receptors of different ligand specificities and costimulatory domains, and to T cell receptors to facilitate cGMP manufacturing of adoptive T cell therapies to treat cancer and other diseases. PMID:26900664

  6. Human epidermal Langerhans cells cointernalize by receptor-mediated endocytosis "nonclassical" major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (T6 antigens) and class II molecules (HLA-DR antigens).

    PubMed Central

    Hanau, D; Fabre, M; Schmitt, D A; Garaud, J C; Pauly, G; Tongio, M M; Mayer, S; Cazenave, J P

    1987-01-01

    HLA-DR and T6 surface antigens are expressed only by Langerhans cells and indeterminate cells in normal human epidermis. We have previously demonstrated that T6 antigens are internalized in Langerhans cells and indeterminate cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. This process is induced by the binding of BL6, a monoclonal antibody directed against T6 antigens. In the present study, using a monoclonal antibody directed against HLA-DR antigens, on human epidermal cells in suspension, we show that the surface HLA-DR antigens are also internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis in Langerhans and indeterminate cells. Moreover, using immunogold double labeling, we demonstrate that T6 and HLA-DR antigens are internalized through common coated regions of the membrane of Langerhans or indeterminate cells. The receptor-mediated endocytosis that is induced involves coated pits and vesicles, receptosomes, lysosomes, and also, in Langerhans cells, the Birbeck granules. Thus, T6 antigens, which are considered to be "unusual" or "nonclassical" major histocompatibility complex class I molecules, and the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, HLA-DR, are internalized in Langerhans and indeterminate cells through common receptor-mediated endocytosis organelles. Images PMID:3106979

  7. Red Blood Cell Antigen Genotyping for Sickle Cell Disease, Thalassemia, and Other Transfusion Complications.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Ross M; Chou, Stella T

    2016-10-01

    Since the discovery of the ABO blood group in the early 20th century, more than 300 blood group antigens have been categorized among 35 blood group systems. The molecular basis for most blood group antigens has been determined and demonstrates tremendous genetic diversity, particularly in the ABO and Rh systems. Several blood group genotyping assays have been developed, and 1 platform has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a "test of record," such that no phenotype confirmation with antisera is required. DNA-based red blood cell (RBC) phenotyping can overcome certain limitations of hemagglutination assays and is beneficial in many transfusion settings. Genotyping can be used to determine RBC antigen phenotypes in patients recently transfused or with interfering allo- or autoantibodies, to resolve discrepant serologic typing, and/or when typing antisera are not readily available. Molecular RBC antigen typing can facilitate complex antibody evaluations and guide RBC selection for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), thalassemia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. High-resolution RH genotyping can identify variant RHD and RHCE in patients with SCD, which have been associated with alloimmunization. In the future, broader access to cost-efficient, high-resolution RBC genotyping technology for both patient and donor populations may be transformative for the field of transfusion medicine.

  8. Chitosan Feasibility to Retain Retinal Stem Cell Phenotype and Slow Proliferation for Retinal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Girish K.; Rodriguez-Crespo, David; Singh, Amar K.; Casado-Coterillo, Clara; Garcia-Gutierrez, Maria T.; Coronas, Joaquin; Pastor, J. Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Retinal stem cells (RSCs) are promising in cell replacement strategies for retinal diseases. RSCs can migrate, differentiate, and integrate into retina. However, RSCs transplantation needs an adequate support; chitosan membrane (ChM) could be one, which can carry RSCs with high feasibility to support their integration into retina. RSCs were isolated, evaluated for phenotype, and subsequently grown on sterilized ChM and polystyrene surface for 8 hours, 1, 4, and 11 days for analysing cell adhesion, proliferation, viability, and phenotype. Isolated RSCs expressed GFAP, PKC, isolectin, recoverin, RPE65, PAX-6, cytokeratin 8/18, and nestin proteins. They adhered (28 ± 16%, 8 hours) and proliferated (40 ± 20 cells/field, day 1 and 244 ± 100 cells/field, day 4) significantly low (P < 0.05) on ChM. However, they maintained similar viability (>95%) and phenotype (cytokeratin 8/18, PAX6, and nestin proteins expression, day 11) on both surfaces (ChM and polystyrene). RSCs did not express alpha-SMA protein on both surfaces. RSCs express proteins belonging to epithelial, glial, and neural cells, confirming that they need further stimulus to reach a final destination of differentiation that could be provided in in vivo condition. ChM does not alternate RSCs behaviour and therefore can be used as a cell carrier so that slow proliferating RSCs can migrate and integrate into retina. PMID:24719852

  9. Selective culling of high avidity antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Ertelt, James M; Johanns, Tanner M; Mysz, Margaret A; Nanton, Minelva R; Rowe, Jared H; Aguilera, Marijo N; Way, Sing Sing

    2011-12-01

    Typhoid fever is a persistent infection caused by host-adapted Salmonella strains adept at circumventing immune-mediated host defences. Given the importance of T cells in protection, the culling of activated CD4+ T cells after primary infection has been proposed as a potential immune evasion strategy used by this pathogen. We demonstrate that the purging of activated antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection requires SPI-2 encoded virulence determinants, and is not restricted only to cells with specificity to Salmonella-expressed antigens, but extends to CD4+ T cells primed to expand by co-infection with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes. Unexpectedly, however, the loss of activated CD4+ T cells during Salmonella infection demonstrated using a monoclonal population of adoptively transferred CD4+ T cells was not reproduced among the endogenous repertoire of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells identified with MHC class II tetramer. Analysis of T-cell receptor variable segment usage revealed the selective loss and reciprocal enrichment of defined CD4+ T-cell subsets after Salmonella co-infection that is associated with the purging of antigen-specific cells with the highest intensity of tetramer staining. Hence, virulent Salmonella triggers the selective culling of high avidity activated CD4+ T-cell subsets, which re-shapes the repertoire of antigen-specific T cells that persist later after infection.

  10. Immunoregulatory adherent cells in human tuberculosis: radiation-sensitive antigen-specific suppression by monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinhenz, M.E.; Ellner, J.J.

    1985-07-01

    In human tuberculosis, adherent mononuclear cells (AMC) selectively depress in vitro responses to the mycobacterial antigen tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD). The phenotype of this antigen-specific adherent suppressor cell was characterized by examining the functional activity of adherent cells after selective depletion of sheep erythrocyte-rosetting T cells or OKM1-reactive monocytes. Adherent cell suppression was studied in the (/sup 3/H)thymidine-incorporation microculture assay by using T cells rigorously depleted of T cells with surface receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (T gamma cells) as antigen-responsive cells. PPD-induced (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation by these non gamma T cells was uniformly reduced (mean, 42% +/- 10% (SD)) when autologous AMC were added to non gamma T cells at a ratio of 1:2. Antigen-specific suppression by AMC was not altered by depletion of sheep erythrocyte-rosetting T cells or treatment with indomethacin. However, AMC treated with OKM1 and complement or gamma irradiation (1,500 rads) no longer suppressed tuberculin responses in vitro. These studies identify the antigen-specific adherent suppressor cell in tuberculosis as an OKM1-reactive, non-erythrocyte-rosetting monocyte. The radiosensitivity of this monocyte immunoregulatory function may facilitate its further definition.

  11. Antigen availability determines CD8+ T cell-dendritic cell interaction kinetics and memory fate decisions

    PubMed Central

    Henrickson, Sarah E.; Stutte, Susanne; Quigley, Michael; Alexe, Gabriela; Iannacone, Matteo; Flynn, Michael P.; Omid, Shaida; Jesneck, Jonathan L.; Imam, Sabrina; Mempel, Thorsten R.; Mazo, Irina B.; Haining, William N.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary T cells are activated by antigen (Ag) bearing dendritic cells (DCs) in lymph nodes in 3 phases. The duration of the initial phase of transient, serial DC-T cell interactions is inversely correlated with Ag dose. The second phase, characterized by stable DC-T cell contacts, is believed to be necessary for full-fledged T cell activation. Here we have shown that this is not the case. CD8+ T cells interacting with DCs presenting low-dose, short-lived Ag did not transition to phase 2, while higher Ag dose yielded phase 2 transition. Both antigenic constellations promoted T cell proliferation and effector differentiation, but yielded different transcriptome signatures at 12h and 24h. T cells that experienced phase 2 developed long-lived memory, whereas conditions without stable contacts yielded immunological amnesia. Thus, T cells make fate decisions within hours after Ag exposure resulting in long-term memory or abortive effector responses, correlating with T cell-DCs interaction kinetics. PMID:24054328

  12. Skin-Resident Antigen-Presenting Cells: Instruction Manual for Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Fehres, Cynthia M.; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J.; Unger, Wendy W. J.; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2013-01-01

    The induction of antigen-specific effector T cells is driven by proper antigen presentation and co-stimulation by dendritic cells (DCs). For this reason strategies have been developed to instruct DCs for the induction of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. Since DCs are localized, amongst other locations, in peripheral tissues such as the skin, new vaccines are aiming at targeting antigens to DCs in situ. Optimal skin-DC targeting in combination with adequate adjuvant delivery facilitates DC maturation and migration to draining lymph nodes and enhances antigen cross-presentation and T cell priming. In this review we describe what DC subsets populate the human skin, as well as current vaccination strategies based on targeting strategies and alternative administration for the induction of robust long-lived anti-cancer effector T cells. PMID:23801994

  13. Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell neuropsychiatric toxicity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Prudent, Vasthie; Breitbart, William S

    2017-01-04

    Chimeric antigen receptor T cells are used in the treatment of B-cell leukemias. Common chimeric antigen receptor T-cell toxicities can range from mild flu-like symptoms, such as fever and myalgia, to a more striking neuropsychiatric toxicity that can present as discrete neurological symptoms and delirium. We report here two cases of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell neuropsychiatric toxicity, one who presented as a mild delirium and aphasia that resolved without intervention, and one who presented with delirium, seizures, and respiratory insufficiency requiring intensive treatment. The current literature on the treatment and proposed mechanisms of this clinically challenging chimeric antigen receptor T-cell complication is also presented.

  14. Cancer/testis antigens can be immunological targets in clonogenic CD133+ melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gedye, Craig; Quirk, Juliet; Browning, Judy; Svobodová, Suzanne; John, Thomas; Sluka, Pavel; Dunbar, P Rod; Corbeil, Denis; Cebon, Jonathan; Davis, Ian D

    2009-10-01

    "Cancer stem cells" that resist conventional treatments may be a cause of therapeutic failure in melanoma. We report a subpopulation of clonogenic melanoma cells that are characterized by high prominin-1/CD133 expression in melanoma and melanoma cell lines. These cells have enhanced clonogenicity and self-renewal in vitro, and serve as a limited in vitro model for melanoma stem cells. In some cases clonogenic CD133(+) melanoma cells show increased expression of some cancer/testis (CT) antigens. The expression of NY-ESO-1 in an HLA-A2 expressing cell line allowed CD133(+) clonogenic melanoma cells to be targeted for killing in vitro by NY-ESO-1-specific CD8(+) T-lymphocytes. Our in vitro findings raise the hypothesis that if melanoma stem cells express CT antigens in vivo that immune targeting of these antigens may be a viable clinical strategy for the adjuvant treatment of melanoma.

  15. CD8+NKT-like cells regulate the immune response by killing antigen-bearing DCs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Xi; Li, Zhengyuan; Chai, Yijie; Jiang, Yunfeng; Wang, Qian; Ji, Yewei; Zhu, Zhongli; Wan, Ying; Yuan, Zhenglong; Chang, Zhijie; Zhang, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    CD1d-dependent NKT cells have been extensively studied; however, the function of CD8+NKT-like cells, which are CD1d-independent T cells with NK markers, remains unknown. Here, we report that CD1d-independent CD8+NKT-like cells, which express both T cell markers (TCRβ and CD3) and NK cell receptors (NK1.1, CD49b and NKG2D), are activated and significantly expanded in mice immunized with GFP-expressing dendritic cells. Distinct from CD1d-dependent NKT cells, CD8+NKT-like cells possess a diverse repertoire of TCRs and secrete high levels of IFN-gamma but not IL-4. CD8+NKT-like cell development is normal in CD1d−/− mice, which suggests that CD8+NKT-like cells undergo a unique development pathway that differs from iNKT cells. Further functional analyses show that CD8+NKT-like cells suppress T-cell responses through elimination of dendritic cells in an antigen-specific manner. Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD8+NKT-like cells into RIP-OVA mice prevented subsequent development of diabetes in the animals induced by activated OT-I CD8 T cells. Our study suggests that CD8+NKT-like cells can function as antigen-specific suppressive cells to regulate the immune response through killing antigen-bearing DCs. Antigen-specific down regulation may provide an active and precise method for constraining an excessive immune response and avoiding bypass suppression of necessary immune responses to other antigens. PMID:26369936

  16. ɣδ T cell receptor ligands and modes of antigen recognition

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Eric

    2011-01-01

    T lymphocytes expressing the γδ-type of T cell receptors for antigens contribute to all aspects of immune responses, including defenses against viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumors, allergy and autoimmunity. Multiple subsets have been individualized in humans as well as in mice and they appear to recognize in a TCR-dependent manner antigens as diverse as small non-peptidic molecules, soluble or membrane-anchored polypeptides and molecules related to MHC antigens on cell surfaces, implying diverse modes of antigen recognition. We review here the γδ TCR ligands which have been identified along the years and their characteristics, with emphasis on a few systems which have been extensively studied such as human γδ T cells responding to phosphoantigens or murine γδ T cells activated by allogeneic MHC antigens. We discuss a speculative model of antigen recognition involving simultaneous TCR recognition of MHC-like and non-MHC ligands which could fit with most available data and shares many similarities with the classical model of MHC-restricted antigen recognition for peptides or lipids by T cells subsets with αβ-type TCRs. PMID:21298486

  17. A human T cell clone that mediates the monocyte procoagulant response to specific sensitizing antigen.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, B S; Reitnauer, P J; Hank, J A; Sondel, P M

    1985-09-01

    A panel of human purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacillus (PPD)-reactive T cell clones was derived by cloning out of soft agar followed by cultivation on inactivated feeder cells in the presence of interleukin-2. 1 of 4 clones tested was able to mediate an increase in monocyte procoagulant activity (PCA) in response to PPD. All four clones had identical surface marker phenotypes (T4+, T8-) and proliferated in response to antigen. The reactive T cell clone possessed no PCA of its own, but upon being presented with PPD was able to instruct monocytes to increase their expression of PCA. Antigen presentation could be performed only by autologous monocytes; allogeneic monocytes from donors unrelated to the donor of the reactive clone could not present antigen to cells of the clone in a way that would initiate the procoagulant response. Cells of the reactive clone did not mediate increased monocyte PCA in response to Candida, even though peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the donor demonstrated increased PCA to both Candida and PPD. Thus, the PCA response to specific antigen can be mediated by a single clone of cells that shows specificity in the recognition of both antigen and antigen presenting cell.

  18. Focused specificity of intestinal TH17 cells towards commensal bacterial antigens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Torchinsky, Miriam B; Gobert, Michael; Xiong, Huizhong; Xu, Mo; Linehan, Jonathan L; Alonzo, Francis; Ng, Charles; Chen, Alessandra; Lin, Xiyao; Sczesnak, Andrew; Liao, Jia-Jun; Torres, Victor J; Jenkins, Marc K; Lafaille, Juan J; Littman, Dan R

    2014-06-05

    T-helper-17 (TH17) cells have critical roles in mucosal defence and in autoimmune disease pathogenesis. They are most abundant in the small intestine lamina propria, where their presence requires colonization of mice with microbiota. Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are sufficient to induce TH17 cells and to promote TH17-dependent autoimmune disease in animal models. However, the specificity of TH17 cells, the mechanism of their induction by distinct bacteria, and the means by which they foster tissue-specific inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire of intestinal TH17 cells in SFB-colonized mice has minimal overlap with that of other intestinal CD4(+) T cells and that most TH17 cells, but not other T cells, recognize antigens encoded by SFB. T cells with antigen receptors specific for SFB-encoded peptides differentiated into RORγt-expressing TH17 cells, even if SFB-colonized mice also harboured a strong TH1 cell inducer, Listeria monocytogenes, in their intestine. The match of T-cell effector function with antigen specificity is thus determined by the type of bacteria that produce the antigen. These findings have significant implications for understanding how commensal microbiota contribute to organ-specific autoimmunity and for developing novel mucosal vaccines.

  19. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    We have studied the cell-surface phenotype of natural killer (NK) cells of NZB and B6 mice which react to an MuLV+ lymphoid tumor. (a) NK cells do not express Thy1, Ly2, or Ig surface markers. (b) NK cells express an antigen recognized by C3H anti-CE antiserum ('anti-Ly1.2 antiserum'). Inasmuch as NK activity of spleen cells from B6 and B6/Ly1.1 congenic strains were both equally sensitive to C3H anti-CE antiserum, the NK antigen is distinct from Ly1.2. This point was confirmed by the observation that alphaNK activity was removed by absorption of C3H anti-CE antiserum with spleen cells from either B6 or B6/Ly1.1 congenic strains. Absorption of C3H alphaCE serum with BALB/c thymocytes and spleen cells (which are Ly1.2+NK-) removed anti-Ly1.2 activity and left anti-NK activity intact. This absorption step could be circumvented by inserting the BALB/c genotype into the recipient immunized to CE cells (i.e., (C3H X BALB/c)F1 alphaCE spleen cells). This antiserum, provisionally termed 'anti-NK', defines a new subclass of lymphocytes which may play a central role in the immunosurveillance against tumors. PMID:187714

  20. The Lewis-Y carbohydrate antigen is expressed by many human tumors and can serve as a target for genetically redirected T cells despite the presence of soluble antigen in serum.

    PubMed

    Westwood, Jennifer A; Murray, William K; Trivett, Melanie; Haynes, Nicole M; Solomon, Benjamin; Mileshkin, Linda; Ball, David; Michael, Michael; Burman, Angela; Mayura-Guru, Preethi; Trapani, Joseph A; Peinert, Stefan; Hönemann, Dirk; Miles Prince, H; Scott, Andrew M; Smyth, Mark J; Darcy, Phillip K; Kershaw, Michael H

    2009-04-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the suitability of the Lewis-Y carbohydrate antigen as a target for immunotherapy using genetically redirected T cells. Using the 3S193 monoclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry, Lewis-Y was found to be expressed on a range of tumors including 42% squamous cell lung carcinoma, 80% lung adenocarcinoma, 25% ovarian carcinoma, and 25% colorectal adenocarcinoma. Expression levels varied from low to intense on between 1% and 90% of tumor cells. Lewis- was also found in soluble form in sera from both normal donors and cancer patients using a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels in patients was often less than 1 ng/mL, similar to normal donors, but approximately 30% of patients had soluble Lewis-Y levels exceeding 1 ng/mL and up to 9 ng/mL. Lewis-Y-specific human T cells were generated by genetic modification with a chimeric receptor encoding a single-chain humanized antibody linked to the T-cell signaling molecules, T-cell receptor-zeta, and CD28. T cells responded against the Lewis-Y antigen by cytokine secretion and cytolysis in response to tumor cells. Importantly, the T-cell response was not inhibited by patient serum containing soluble Lewis-Y. This study demonstrates that Lewis-Y is expressed on a large number of tumors and Lewis-Y-specific T cells can retain antitumor function in the presence of patient serum, indicating that this antigen is a suitable target for this form of therapy.

  1. Stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 identifies human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kawanabe, Noriaki; Murata, Satoko; Fukushima, Hiroaki; Ishihara, Yoshihito; Yanagita, Takeshi; Yanagita, Emmy; Ono, Mitsuaki; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Itoh, Tomoo; Kuboki, Takuo; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2012-03-10

    Embryonic stem cell-associated antigens are expressed in a variety of adult stem cells as well as embryonic stem cells. In the present study, we investigated whether stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-4 can be used to isolate dental pulp (DP) stem cells. DP cells showed plastic adherence, specific surface antigen expression, and multipotent differentiation potential, similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). SSEA-4+ cells were found in cultured DP cells in vitro as well as in DP tissue in vivo. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that 45.5% of the DP cells were SSEA-4+. When the DP cells were cultured in the presence of all-trans-retinoic acid, marked downregulation of SSEA-3 and SSEA-4 and the upregulation of SSEA-1 were observed. SSEA-4+ DP cells showed a greater telomere length and a higher growth rate compared to ungated and SSEA-4- cells. A clonal assay demonstrated that 65.5% of the SSEA-4+ DP cells had osteogenic potential, and the SSEA-4+ clonal DP cells showed multilineage differentiation potential toward osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and neurons in vitro. In addition, the SSEA-4+ DP cells had the capacity to form ectopic bone in vivo. Thus, our results suggest that SSEA-4 is a specific cell surface antigen that can be used to identify DP stem cells.

  2. Adipose-derived stem cells retain their regenerative potential after methotrexate treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, Olivia S.; Fonseca, Vera C.; Darling, Eric M.

    2014-10-01

    In musculoskeletal tissues like bone, chemotherapy can impair progenitor cell differentiation and proliferation, resulting in decreased bone growth and mineralization throughout a patient's lifetime. In the current study, we investigated the effects of chemotherapeutics on adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) function to determine whether this cell source could be a candidate for repairing, or even preventing, chemotherapy-induced tissue damage. Dose-dependent proliferation rates of ASCs and normal human fibroblasts (NHFs) were quantified after treatment with cytarabine (CY), etoposide (ETO), methotrexate (MTX), and vincristine (VIN) using a fluorescence-based assay. The influence of MTX on the multipotency of ASCs and freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells was also evaluated using lineage-specific stains and spectrophotometry. ASC and NHF proliferation were equally inhibited by exposure to CY and ETO; however, when treated with MTX and VIN, ASCs exhibited greater resistance. This was especially apparent for MTX-treated samples, with ASC proliferation showing no inhibition for clinically relevant MTX doses ranging from 0.1 to 50 μM. Additional experiments revealed that the differentiation potential of ASCs was not affected by MTX treatment and that upregulation of dihydrofolate reductase possibly contributed to this response. Moreover, SVF cells, which include ASCs, exhibited similar resistance to MTX impairment, with respect to cellular proliferation, clonogenicity, and differentiation capability. Therefore, we have shown that the regenerative properties of ASCs resist the cytotoxicity of MTX, identifying these cells as a potential key for repairing musculoskeletal damage in patients undergoing chemotherapy. - Highlights: • Long-term effects of chemotherapeutics can include musculoskeletal dysfunction. • A screen of common drugs showed disparate effects on ASCs and fibroblasts. • One drug, methotrexate, did not impair ASC growth characteristics

  3. Sequential induction of MHC antigens on autochthonous cells of ileum affected by Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Koretz, K.; Momburg, F.; Otto, H. F.; Möller, P.

    1987-01-01

    Changes were examined in the expression of Class I and II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens by autochthonous cells of the terminal ileum affected by Crohn's disease. The study was based on the analysis of transmural specimens from terminal ileum segments obtained in the course of ileocolectomy for colon cancer and Crohn's disease. Serial sections were immunostained using monoclonal antibodies directed against monomorphic determinants of HLA-A,B,C, DR, DP, DQ, and the invariant chain (Ii) associated with Class II molecules. Compared with the normal state, the only change in Class I antigen expression occurring in Crohn's disease was the induction of HLA-A,B,C antigens in lymphatic endothelium. Changes in Class II antigen expression were more substantial. Enhancement of HLA-DR expression was found in enterocytes; DR induction was observed in glial cells of the visceral nervous plexus and in venular and venous endothelium. HLA-DP and DQ antigens were induced in enterocytes, glial cells, and capillary and venular endothelium, although this induction was restricted to areas of moderate or high inflammatory activity. The tissue distribution of Ii closely resembled that of HLA-DR, although this association was not strict: on the one hand, arterial endothelium contained low amounts of Ii in the absence of DR antigens; on the other hand, glial cells expressed Class II molecules in the absence of Ii. The extent of local enhancement/induction of MHC antigens was positively correlated with the local density of the cellular infiltrate. These data suggest that altered MHC antigen expression by autochthonous structures might be mediated by factors released from the lymphohistiocytic infiltrate, which is itself attracted by an unknown signal. In conjunction with an unknown antigen, the enhanced expression of Class II antigens might trigger an autoaggressive immune response. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3425689

  4. Investigation of red blood cell antigens with highly fluorescent and stable semiconductor quantum dots.

    PubMed

    de Farias, Patrícia Maria Albuquerque; Santos, Beate Saegesser; de Menezes, Frederico Duarte; de Carvalho Ferreira, Ricardo; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Castro, Vagner; Lima, Paulo Roberto Moura; Fontes, Adriana; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

    2005-01-01

    We report a new methodology for red blood cell antigen expression determination by a simple labeling procedure employing luminescent semiconductor quantum dots. Highly luminescent and stable core shell cadmium sulfide/cadmium hydroxide colloidal particles are obtained, with a predominant size of 9 nm. The core-shell quantum dots are functionalized with glutaraldehyde and conjugated to a monoclonal anti-A antibody to target antigen-A in red blood cell membranes. Erythrocyte samples of blood groups A+, A2+, and O+ are used for this purpose. Confocal microscopy images show that after 30 min of conjugation time, type A+ and A2+ erythrocytes present bright emission, whereas the O+ group cells show no emission. Fluorescence intensity maps show different antigen expressions for the distinct erythrocyte types. The results obtained strongly suggest that this simple labeling procedure may be employed as an efficient tool to investigate quantitatively the distribution and expression of antigens in red blood cell membranes.

  5. Some aspects of oncogenic virus-host cell and virus-tumor cell antigenic relationships.

    PubMed

    Nastac, E

    1982-01-01

    Some viewpoints are presented as regards the virus-host cell relationship within the framework of carcinogenesis. Data are reviewed which point out the possibility of the transfer of cellular antigenic fractions from the tumor cell to the virus that grows in it, as well as of a hybridization between the virus genome and the genome of the tumoral host cell. Such a hybridization may have multiple consequences, among which the appearance of new oncogenic variants of viruses so far known to be nononcogenic ones.

  6. B lymphocytes as direct antigen-presenting cells for anti-tumor DNA vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Colluru, Viswa Teja; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of remarkable preclinical efficacy, DNA vaccination has demonstrated low immunogenicity in humans. While efforts have focused on increasing cross-presentation of DNA-encoded antigens, efforts to increase DNA vaccine immunogenicity by targeting direct presentation have remained mostly unexplored. In these studies, we compared the ability of different APCs to present antigen to T cells after simple co-culture with plasmid DNA. We found that human primary peripheral B lymphocytes, and not monocytes or in vitro derived dendritic cells (DCs), were able to efficiently encode antigen mRNA and expand cognate tumor antigen-specific CD8 T cells ex vivo. Similarly, murine B lymphocytes co-cultured with plasmid DNA, and not DCs, were able to prime antigen-specific T cells in vivo. Moreover, B lymphocyte-mediated presentation of plasmid antigen led to greater Th1-biased immunity and was sufficient to elicit an anti-tumor effect in vivo. Surprisingly, increasing plasmid presentation by B cells, and not cross presentation of peptides by DCs, further augmented traditional plasmid vaccination. Together, these data suggest that targeting plasmid DNA to B lymphocytes, for example through transfer of ex vivo plasmidloaded B cells, may be novel means to achieve greater T cell immunity from DNA vaccines. PMID:27661128

  7. Tandem CAR T cells targeting HER2 and IL13Rα2 mitigate tumor antigen escape.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Meenakshi; Mukherjee, Malini; Grada, Zakaria; Pignata, Antonella; Landi, Daniel; Navai, Shoba A; Wakefield, Amanda; Fousek, Kristen; Bielamowicz, Kevin; Chow, Kevin K H; Brawley, Vita S; Byrd, Tiara T; Krebs, Simone; Gottschalk, Stephen; Wels, Winfried S; Baker, Matthew L; Dotti, Gianpietro; Mamonkin, Maksim; Brenner, Malcolm K; Orange, Jordan S; Ahmed, Nabil

    2016-08-01

    In preclinical models of glioblastoma, antigen escape variants can lead to tumor recurrence after treatment with CAR T cells that are redirected to single tumor antigens. Given the heterogeneous expression of antigens on glioblastomas, we hypothesized that a bispecific CAR molecule would mitigate antigen escape and improve the antitumor activity of T cells. Here, we created a CAR that joins a HER2-binding scFv and an IL13Rα2-binding IL-13 mutein to make a tandem CAR exodomain (TanCAR) and a CD28.ζ endodomain. We determined that patient TanCAR T cells showed distinct binding to HER2 or IL13Rα2 and had the capability to lyse autologous glioblastoma. TanCAR T cells exhibited activation dynamics that were comparable to those of single CAR T cells upon encounter of HER2 or IL13Rα2. We observed that TanCARs engaged HER2 and IL13Rα2 simultaneously by inducing HER2-IL13Rα2 heterodimers, which promoted superadditive T cell activation when both antigens were encountered concurrently. TanCAR T cell activity was more sustained but not more exhaustible than that of T cells that coexpressed a HER2 CAR and an IL13Rα2 CAR, T cells with a unispecific CAR, or a pooled product. In a murine glioblastoma model, TanCAR T cells mitigated antigen escape, displayed enhanced antitumor efficacy, and improved animal survival. Thus, TanCAR T cells show therapeutic potential to improve glioblastoma control by coengaging HER2 and IL13Rα2 in an augmented, bivalent immune synapse that enhances T cell functionality and reduces antigen escape.

  8. Tandem CAR T cells targeting HER2 and IL13Rα2 mitigate tumor antigen escape

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Malini; Grada, Zakaria; Pignata, Antonella; Landi, Daniel; Navai, Shoba A.; Wakefield, Amanda; Bielamowicz, Kevin; Chow, Kevin K.H.; Brawley, Vita S.; Byrd, Tiara T.; Krebs, Simone; Gottschalk, Stephen; Wels, Winfried S.; Baker, Matthew L.; Dotti, Gianpietro; Mamonkin, Maksim; Brenner, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    In preclinical models of glioblastoma, antigen escape variants can lead to tumor recurrence after treatment with CAR T cells that are redirected to single tumor antigens. Given the heterogeneous expression of antigens on glioblastomas, we hypothesized that a bispecific CAR molecule would mitigate antigen escape and improve the antitumor activity of T cells. Here, we created a CAR that joins a HER2-binding scFv and an IL13Rα2-binding IL-13 mutein to make a tandem CAR exodomain (TanCAR) and a CD28.ζ endodomain. We determined that patient TanCAR T cells showed distinct binding to HER2 or IL13Rα2 and had the capability to lyse autologous glioblastoma. TanCAR T cells exhibited activation dynamics that were comparable to those of single CAR T cells upon encounter of HER2 or IL13Rα2. We observed that TanCARs engaged HER2 and IL13Rα2 simultaneously by inducing HER2-IL13Rα2 heterodimers, which promoted superadditive T cell activation when both antigens were encountered concurrently. TanCAR T cell activity was more sustained but not more exhaustible than that of T cells that coexpressed a HER2 CAR and an IL13Rα2 CAR, T cells with a unispecific CAR, or a pooled product. In a murine glioblastoma model, TanCAR T cells mitigated antigen escape, displayed enhanced antitumor efficacy, and improved animal survival. Thus, TanCAR T cells show therapeutic potential to improve glioblastoma control by coengaging HER2 and IL13Rα2 in an augmented, bivalent immune synapse that enhances T cell functionality and reduces antigen escape. PMID:27427982

  9. Antigen-specific CD4{sup +} effector T cells: Analysis of factors regulating clonal expansion and cytokine production

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuki, Kazunobu; Watanabe, Yuri; Takahashi, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Sakiko; Watanabe, Shiho; Ogawa, Shuhei; Kotani, Motoko; Kozono, Haruo; Tanabe, Kazunari; Abe, Ryo

    2009-03-20

    In order to fully understand T cell-mediated immunity, the mechanisms that regulate clonal expansion and cytokine production by CD4{sup +} antigen-specific effector T cells in response to a wide range of antigenic stimulation needs clarification. For this purpose, panels of antigen-specific CD4{sup +} T cell clones with different thresholds for antigen-induced proliferation were generated by repeated stimulation with high- or low-dose antigen. Differences in antigen sensitivities did not correlate with expression of TCR, CD4, adhesion or costimulatory molecules. There was no significant difference in antigen-dependent cytokine production by TG40 cells transfected with TCR obtained from either high- or low-dose-responding T cell clones, suggesting that the affinity of TCRs for their ligands is not primary determinant of T cell antigen reactivity. The proliferative responses of all T cell clones to both peptide stimulation and to TCR{beta} crosslinking revealed parallel dose-response curves. These results suggest that the TCR signal strength of effector T cells and threshold of antigen reactivity is determined by an intrinsic property, such as the TCR signalosome and/or intracellular signaling machinery. Finally, the antigen responses of high- and low-peptide-responding T cell clones reveal that clonal expansion and cytokine production of effector T cells occur independently of antigen concentration. Based on these results, the mechanisms underlying selection of high 'avidity' effector and memory T cells in response to pathogen are discussed.

  10. A Novel Platform for the Potentiation of Therapeutic Antibodies Based on Antigen-Dependent Formation of IgG Hexamers at the Cell Surface.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Rob N; Beurskens, Frank J; Verploegen, Sandra; Strumane, Kristin; van Kampen, Muriel D; Voorhorst, Marleen; Horstman, Wendy; Engelberts, Patrick J; Oostindie, Simone C; Wang, Guanbo; Heck, Albert J R; Schuurman, Janine; Parren, Paul W H I

    2016-01-01

    IgG antibodies can organize into ordered hexamers on cell surfaces after binding their antigen. These hexamers bind the first component of complement C1 inducing complement-dependent target cell killing. Here, we translated this natural concept into a novel technology platform (HexaBody technology) for therapeutic antibody potentiation. We identified mutations that enhanced hexamer formation and complement activation by IgG1 antibodies against a range of targets on cells from hematological and solid tumor indications. IgG1 backbones with preferred mutations E345K or E430G conveyed a strong ability to induce conditional complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) of cell lines and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patient tumor cells, while retaining regular pharmacokinetics and biopharmaceutical developability. Both mutations potently enhanced CDC- and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of a type II CD20 antibody that was ineffective in complement activation, while retaining its ability to induce apoptosis. The identified IgG1 Fc backbones provide a novel platform for the generation of therapeutics with enhanced effector functions that only become activated upon binding to target cell-expressed antigen.

  11. Hodgkin and sternberg-reed cell antigen(s) detected by an antiserum to a cell line (L428) derived from Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Stein, H; Gerdes, J; Kirchner, H; Schaadt, M; Diehl, V

    1981-10-15

    Antisera to the cell line L428, derived from Hodgkin's disease, were raised in rabbits by injecting L428 cells intravenously and subcutaneously. The anti-L428 cell serum that did not react with HLA-DR was absorbed with tonsil cell plus acute myeloid leukemia cells or tonsil cells plus neutrophils, monocytes, and blood lymphocytes. Then it was tested for its ability to discriminate between L428 cells, Hodgkin and Sternberg-Reed cells, and various other cells. It was found that the anti L428 cell serum absorbed with tonsil cells plus acute myeloid leukemia cells stained only L428 cells, Hodgkin and Sternberg-Reed cells, and neutrophils. The anti L428 cell serum absorbed with tonsil cell plus neutrophils, monocytes, and blood lymphocytes reacted with L428 cells and Hodgkin and sternberg-Reed cells from 13 cases of Hodgkin's disease. It did not react with any other cell type present in the blood or in lymphoid tissue or with cells from five cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The absorbed anti-L428 cell serum also failed to stain Daudi and HRIK cell line cells. We conclude that the anti-L428 cell serum defines an antigen that is apparently restricted in expression to L428 cells and Hodgkin and Sternberg-Reed cells. This is a strong indication that the L428 cell line cells are derived from Hodgkin and Sternberg-Reed cells.

  12. Antigens protected functional red blood cells by the membrane grafting of compact hyperbranched polyglycerols.

    PubMed

    Chapanian, Rafi; Constantinescu, Iren; Brooks, Donald E; Scott, Mark D; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran

    2013-01-02

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is vital for the treatment of a number of acute and chronic medical problems such as thalassemia major and sickle cell anemia. Due to the presence of multitude of antigens on the RBC surface (~308 known antigens), patients in the chronic blood transfusion therapy develop alloantibodies due to the miss match of minor antigens on transfused RBCs. Grafting of hydrophilic polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) forms an exclusion layer on RBC membrane that prevents the interaction of antibodies with surface antigens without affecting the passage of small molecules such as oxygen, glucose, and ions. At present no method is available for the generation of universal red blood donor cells in part because of the daunting challenge presented by the presence of large number of antigens (protein and carbohydrate based) on the RBC surface and the development of such methods will significantly improve transfusion safety, and dramatically improve the availability and use of RBCs. In this report, the experiments that are used to develop antigen protected functional RBCs by the membrane grafting of HPG and their characterization are presented. HPGs are highly biocompatible compact polymers, and are expected to be located within the cell glycocalyx that surrounds the lipid membrane and mask RBC surface antigens.

  13. Granuloma cells in chronic inflammation express CD205 (DEC205) antigen and harbor proliferating T lymphocytes: similarity to antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Haruo

    2013-02-01

    Granulomas are classified as immune or foreign body granulomas. Of these, the immune granulomas, a hallmark of granulomatous inflammation, are closely related to cell-mediated immune responses. The aim of the present study is to characterize immune granuloma cells in 33 patients with granulomatous inflammation focusing on the expression of CD205 (DEC205), a cell surface marker of antigen presenting cells, and their spatial relationship to T cells. CD205 was frequently expressed by immune granuloma cells, in contrast to foreign body granuloma cells that lacked CD205 expression. T cells were not only distributed in a lymphocyte collar around the granuloma, but also present among the granuloma cells (termed 'intra-granuloma T cells'). Intra-granuloma T cells stained positive for Ki-67 (median positivity = 9.4%) by double immunostaining for CD3 and Ki-67. This indicated the presence of proliferative stimuli within the granuloma that could activate the intra-granuloma T cells. The labeling index of Ki-67 in intra-granuloma T cells was significantly higher than that of T cells in the lymphocyte collar (P < 0.0001) or T cells in the T cell zone (paracortex) of chronic tonsillitis or reactive lymphadenitis (P = 0.002). These data indicate a close similarity between immune granulomas and antigen presenting cells.

  14. Antigenic differences between AKR lymphoma and thymus cells leading to detection of a tumor antigen associated with immunological enhancement.

    PubMed

    Laguens, R P; Colmerauer, M E; Segal, A; Pasqualini, C D

    1978-06-15

    In an experimental model conditioning for enhancement, an AKR lymphoma was made to grow in BALB/c mice, permitting the simultaneous comparison of tumor-bearing (progressor) and tumor-rejecting (regressor) animals. By immunofluorescence using as target AKR lymphoma and normal thymus cells, both acetone-fixed and unfixed, it was observed that the allogeneic progressor serum contained three antibodies, two of which could be asborbed by thymocytes while the other combined selectively with the acetone-fixed lymphoma target. This tumor-specific antibody could not be detected in regressor serum which, on the other hand, could be completely absorbed by thymocytes. The identification of this acetone-resistant tumor antigen led to the preparation of aceton-treated acellular lymphoma extracts: a precipitate was obtained which upon inoculation in BALB/c mice produced an antiserum that combined selectively with lymphoma targets. In vivo experiments showed that pretreatment with this antigen led to a significant increase in allogeneic tumor incidence, 76% as compared to 37% in the controls. It is concluded that in this allogeneic model, an acetone-resistant tumor-specific antigen and the corresponding antibody are involved in tumor enhancement.

  15. Dendritic Cell Targeting of Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Expressed by Lactobacillus acidophilus Protects Mice from Lethal Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-28

    Dendritic cell targeting of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen expressed by Lactobacillus acidophilus protects mice from lethal challenge M...lethal chal- lenge. A vaccine strategy was established by using Lactobacillus acidophilus to deliver Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) via...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dendritic cell targeting of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen expressed by Lactobacillus acidophilus protects mice

  16. Effect of antigen/antibody ratio on macrophage uptake, processing, and presentation to T cells of antigen complexed with polyclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Activation of a galactosidase-specific murine T hybridoma clone and of a human tetanus toxoid-specific T clone by antigen-presenting cells (APC) was used to evaluate the regulatory function of antibodies complexed with the relevant antigen. Complexed antigen, in fact, is taken up with high efficiency thanks to Fc receptors borne by APC. Antibody/antigen ratio in the complexes proved to be a critical parameter in enhancing antigen presentation. Complexes in moderate antibody excess provided optimal T cell activation independently of the physical state of the complexes (precipitated by a second antibody or solubilized by complement). Complexes in extreme antibody excess, on the contrary, did not yield T cell activation although taken up by APC efficiently. The effect of antibodies at extreme excess was observed with substimulatory dose of antigen (loss of potentiation) and with optimal dose of antigen (loss of stimulation). An excess of specific polyclonal antibodies hampers proteolytic degradation of antigen in vitro, supporting the view that a similar mechanism may operate within the APC that have internalized immune complexes in extreme antibody excess. The possibility that immune complex forming in extreme antibody excess may turn off the T cell response is proposed as a regulatory mechanism. PMID:1985125

  17. How Antigen Quantity and Quality Determine T-Cell Decisions in Lymphoid Tissue▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huan; Jin, Bo; Henrickson, Sarah E.; Perelson, Alan S.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2008-01-01

    T lymphocytes (T cells) express T-cell receptor (TCR) molecules on their surface that can recognize peptides (p) derived from antigenic proteins bound to products of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. The pMHC molecules are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). T cells first encounter antigen on DCs in lymph nodes (LN). Intravital microscopy experiments show that upon entering the LN containing antigen, CD8+ T cells first move rapidly. After a few hours, they stop and make extended contacts with DCs. The factors that determine when and how this transition occurs are not well understood. We report results from computer simulations that suggest that the duration of phase one is related to the low probability of productive interactions between T cells and DCs. This is demonstrated by our finding that the antigen dose and type determine when such a transition occurs. These results are in agreement with experimental observations. TCR-pMHC binding characteristics and the antigen dose determine the time required for a productive T-cell-DC encounter (resulting in sustained contact). We find that the ratio of this time scale and the half-life of the pMHC complex itself provide a consolidated measure of antigen quantity and type. Results obtained upon varying different measures of antigen quantity and type fall on one curve when graphed against this ratio of time scales. Thus, we provide a mechanism for how the effects of varying one set of parameters are influenced by other prevailing conditions. This understanding should help guide future experimentation. PMID:18426917

  18. Extraocular muscle satellite cells are high performance myo-engines retaining efficient regenerative capacity in dystrophin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stuelsatz, Pascal; Shearer, Andrew; Li, Yunfei; Muir, Lindsey A; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Shen, Qingwu W; Kirillova, Irina; Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora

    2015-01-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) are highly specialized skeletal muscles that originate from the head mesoderm and control eye movements. EOMs are uniquely spared in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and animal models of dystrophin deficiency. Specific traits of myogenic progenitors may be determinants of this preferential sparing, but very little is known about the myogenic cells in this muscle group. While satellite cells (SCs) have long been recognized as the main source of myogenic cells in adult muscle, most of the knowledge about these cells comes from the prototypic limb muscles. In this study, we show that EOMs, regardless of their distinctive Pax3-negative lineage origin, harbor SCs that share a common signature (Pax7(+), Ki67(-), Nestin-GFP(+), Myf5(nLacZ+), MyoD-positive lineage origin) with their limb and diaphragm somite-derived counterparts, but are remarkably endowed with a high proliferative potential as revealed in cell culture assays. Specifically, we demonstrate that in adult as well as in aging mice, EOM SCs possess a superior expansion capacity, contributing significantly more proliferating, differentiating and renewal progeny than their limb and diaphragm counterparts. These robust growth and renewal properties are maintained by EOM SCs isolated from dystrophin-null (mdx) mice, while SCs from muscles affected by dystrophin deficiency (i.e., limb and diaphragm) expand poorly in vitro. EOM SCs also retain higher performance in cell transplantation assays in which donor cells were engrafted into host mdx limb muscle. Collectively, our study provides a comprehensive picture of EOM myogenic progenitors, showing that while these cells share common hallmarks with the prototypic SCs in somite-derived muscles, they distinctively feature robust growth and renewal capacities that warrant the title of high performance myo-engines and promote consideration of their properties for developing new approaches in cell-based therapy to combat skeletal muscle wasting.

  19. Msx1-modulated muscle satellite cells retain a primitive state and exhibit an enhanced capacity for osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ke; Liu, Wen-Ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang; Xu, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Zhong

    2017-03-01

    Multipotent muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) have been identified as potential seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, MuSCs exhibit a rapid loss of stemness after in vitro culturing, thereby compromising their therapeutic efficiency. Muscle segment homeobox gene 1 (msx1) has been found to induce the dedifferentiation of committed progenitor cells, as well as terminally differentiated myotubes. In this study, a Tet-off retroviral gene delivery system was used to modulate msx1 expression. After ten passages, MuSCs that did not express msx-1 (e.g., the non-msx1 group) were compared with MuSCs with induced msx-1 expression (e.g., the msx1 group). The latter group exhibited a more juvenile morphology, it contained a significantly lower percentage of senescent cells characterized by positive β-galactosidase staining, and it exhibited increased proliferation and a higher proliferation index. Immunocytochemical stainings further detected a more primitive gene expression profile for the msx1 group, while osteogenic differentiation assays and ectopic bone formation assays demonstrated an improved capacity for the msx1 group to undergo osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that transient expression of msx1 in MuSCs can retain a primitive state, thereby enhancing their capacity for osteogenic differentiation and restoring the potential for MuSCs to serve as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.

  20. Identification and visualization of multidimensional antigen-specific T-cell populations in polychromatic cytometry data.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Frelinger, Jacob; Jiang, Wenxin; Finak, Greg; Seshadri, Chetan; Bart, Pierre-Alexandre; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; McElrath, Julie; DeRosa, Steve; Gottardo, Raphael

    2015-07-01

    An important aspect of immune monitoring for vaccine development, clinical trials, and research is the detection, measurement, and comparison of antigen-specific T-cells from subject samples under different conditions. Antigen-specific T-cells compose a very small fraction of total T-cells. Developments in cytometry technology over the past five years have enabled the measurement of single-cells in a multivariate and high-throughput manner. This growth in both dimensionality and quantity of data continues to pose a challenge for effective identification and visualization of rare cell subsets, such as antigen-specific T-cells. Dimension reduction and feature extraction play pivotal role in both identifying and visualizing cell populations of interest in large, multi-dimensional cytometry datasets. However, the automated identification and visualization of rare, high-dimensional cell subsets remains challenging. Here we demonstrate how a systematic and integrated approach combining targeted feature extraction with dimension reduction can be used to identify and visualize biological differences in rare, antigen-specific cell populations. By using OpenCyto to perform semi-automated gating and features extraction of flow cytometry data, followed by dimensionality reduction with t-SNE we are able to identify polyfunctional subpopulations of antigen-specific T-cells and visualize treatment-specific differences between them.

  1. Aberrant Cosmc genes result in Tn antigen expression in human colorectal carcinoma cell line HT-29

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaofeng; Du, Zhenzhen; Sun, Xuhong; Shi, Chuanqin; Zhang, Huaixiang; Hu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The Tn antigen, which arises from mutation in the Cosmc gene is one of the most common tumor associated carbohydrate antigens. Cosmc resides in X24 encoded by a single gene and functions as a specific molecular chaperone for T-synthase. While the Tn antigen cannot be detected in normal cells, Cosmc mutations inactivate T-synthase and consequently result in Tn antigen expression within certain cancers. In addition to this Cosmc mutation-induced expression, the Tn antigen is also expressed in such cell lines as Jurkat T, LSC and LS174T. Whether the Cosmc mutation is present in the colon cancer cell line HT-29 is still unclear. Here, we isolate HT-29-Tn+ cells from HT-29 cells derived from a female colon cancer patient. These HT-29-Tn+ cells show a loss of the Cosmc gene coding sequence (CDS) leading to an absence of T-synthase activity and Tn antigen expression. Additionally, almost no methylation of Cosmc CpG islands was detected in HT-29-Tn+ as well as in HT-29-Tn- and Tn- tumor cells from male patients. In contrast, the methylation frequency of CpG island of Cosmc in normal female cells was ~50%. Only one active allele of Cosmc existed in HT-29-Tn+ and HT-29-Tn- cells as based upon detection of SNP sites. These results indicate that Tn antigens expression and T-synthase inactivity in HT-29-Tn+ cells can be related to the absence of CDS in Cosmc active alleles, while an inactive allele deletion of Cosmc in HT-29 cells has no influence on Cosmc function. PMID:26045765

  2. Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Valent, Peter; Ghannadan, Minoo; Hauswirth, Alexander W; Schernthaner, Gerit-Holger; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Arock, Michel

    2002-05-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are multifunctional hematopoietic effector cells that produce and release an array of biologically active mediator substances. Growth and functions of MCs are regulated by cytokines, other extracellular factors, surface and cytoplasmic receptors, oncogene products, and a complex network of signal transduction cascades. Key regulators of differentiation of MCs appear to be stem cell factor (SCF) and its tyrosine kinase receptor KIT (c-kit proto-oncogene product=CD117), downstream-acting elements, and the mi transcription factor (MITF). Signaling through KIT is negatively regulated by the signal regulatory protein (SIRP)-alpha (CD172a)-SHP-1-pathway that is disrupted in neoplastic MCs in MC proliferative disorders. Both KIT and FcepsilonRI are involved in MC activation and mediator release. Activation of MCs through FcepsilonRI is associated with increased expression of activation-linked membrane antigens as well as with signaling events involving Lyn and Syk kinases, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-pathway, Ras pathway, and the phospholipase C-protein kinase C pathway. A similar network of signaling is found in SCF-activated MCs. The current article gives an overview on signal transduction-associated and activation-linked antigens expressed in human MCs. Wherever possible the functional implication of signaling pathways and antigen expression are discussed.

  3. Asymmetric cell division of T cells upon antigen presentation uses multiple conserved mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Oliaro, Jane; Van Ham, Vanessa; Sacirbegovic, Faruk; Pasam, Anupama; Bomzon, Ze'ev; Pham, Kim; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J; Waterhouse, Nigel J; Bots, Michael; Hawkins, Edwin D; Watt, Sally V; Cluse, Leonie A; Clarke, Chris J P; Izon, David J; Chang, John T; Thompson, Natalie; Gu, Min; Johnstone, Ricky W; Smyth, Mark J; Humbert, Patrick O; Reiner, Steven L; Russell, Sarah M

    2010-07-01

    Asymmetric cell division is a potential means by which cell fate choices during an immune response are orchestrated. Defining the molecular mechanisms that underlie asymmetric division of T cells is paramount for determining the role of this process in the generation of effector and memory T cell subsets. In other cell types, asymmetric cell division is regulated by conserved polarity protein complexes that control the localization of cell fate determinants and spindle orientation during division. We have developed a tractable, in vitro model of naive CD8(+) T cells undergoing initial division while attached to dendritic cells during Ag presentation to investigate whether similar mechanisms might regulate asymmetric division of T cells. Using this system, we show that direct interactions with APCs provide the cue for polarization of T cells. Interestingly, the immunological synapse disseminates before division even though the T cells retain contact with the APC. The cue from the APC is translated into polarization of cell fate determinants via the polarity network of the Par3 and Scribble complexes, and orientation of the mitotic spindle during division is orchestrated by the partner of inscuteable/G protein complex. These findings suggest that T cells have selectively adapted a number of evolutionarily conserved mechanisms to generate diversity through asymmetric cell division.

  4. Targeted delivery of antigen to hamster nasal lymphoid tissue with M-cell-directed lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Giannasca, P J; Boden, J A; Monath, T P

    1997-01-01

    The nasal cavity of a rodent is lined by an epithelium organized into distinct regional domains responsible for specific physiological functions. Aggregates of nasal lymphoid tissue (NALT) located at the base of the nasal cavity are believed to be sites of induction of mucosal immune responses to airborne antigens. The epithelium overlying NALT contains M cells which are specialized for the transcytosis of immunogens, as demonstrated in other mucosal tissues. We hypothesized that NALT M cells are characterized by distinct glycoconjugate receptors which influence antigen uptake and immune responses to transcytosed antigens. To identify glycoconjugates that may distinguish NALT M cells from other cells of the respiratory epithelium (RE), we performed lectin histochemistry on sections of the hamster nasal cavity with a panel of lectins. Many classes of glycoconjugates were found on epithelial cells in this region. While most lectins bound to sites on both the RE and M cells, probes capable of recognizing alpha-linked galactose were found to label the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) almost exclusively. By morphological criteria, the FAE contains >90% M cells. To determine if apical glycoconjugates on M cells were accessible from the nasal cavity, an M-cell-selective lectin and a control lectin in parallel were administered intranasally to hamsters. The M-cell-selective lectin was found to specifically target the FAE, while the control lectin did not. Lectin bound to M cells in vivo was efficiently endocytosed, consistent with the role of M cells in antigen transport. Intranasal immunization with lectin-test antigen conjugates without adjuvant stimulated induction of specific serum immunoglobulin G, whereas antigen alone or admixed with lectin did not. The selective recognition of NALT M cells by a lectin in vivo provides a model for microbial adhesin-host cell receptor interactions on M cells and the targeted delivery of immunogens to NALT following intranasal

  5. Atypical natural killer T-cell receptor recognition of CD1d–lipid antigens

    PubMed Central

    Le Nours, Jérôme; Praveena, T.; Pellicci, Daniel G.; Gherardin, Nicholas A.; Ross, Fiona J.; Lim, Ricky T.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Keshipeddy, Santosh; Richardson, Stewart K.; Howell, Amy R.; Gras, Stephanie; Godfrey, Dale I.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Uldrich, Adam P.

    2016-01-01

    Crucial to Natural Killer T (NKT) cell function is the interaction between their T-cell receptor (TCR) and CD1d-antigen complex. However, the diversity of the NKT cell repertoire and the ensuing interactions with CD1d-antigen remain unclear. We describe an atypical population of CD1d–α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer)-reactive human NKT cells that differ markedly from the prototypical TRAV10-TRAJ18-TRBV25-1+ type I NKT cell repertoire. These cells express a range of TCR α- and β-chains that show differential recognition of glycolipid antigens. Two atypical NKT TCRs (TRAV21-TRAJ8-TRBV7–8 and TRAV12-3-TRAJ27-TRBV6-5) bind orthogonally over the A′-pocket of CD1d, adopting distinct docking modes that contrast with the docking mode of all type I NKT TCR-CD1d-antigen complexes. Moreover, the interactions with α-GalCer differ between the type I and these atypical NKT TCRs. Accordingly, diverse NKT TCR repertoire usage manifests in varied docking strategies and specificities towards CD1d–α-GalCer and related antigens, thus providing far greater scope for diverse glycolipid antigen recognition. PMID:26875526

  6. Common Ewing sarcoma-associated antigens fail to induce natural T cell responses in both patients and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Altvater, Bianca; Kailayangiri, Sareetha; Theimann, Nadine; Ahlmann, Martina; Farwick, Nicole; Chen, Christiane; Pscherer, Sibylle; Neumann, Ilka; Mrachatz, Gabriele; Hansmeier, Anna; Hardes, Jendrik; Gosheger, Georg; Juergens, Heribert; Rossig, Claudia

    2014-10-01

    Disseminated or relapsed Ewing sarcoma (EwS) has remained fatal in the majority of patients. A promising approach to preventing relapse after conventional therapy is to establish tumor antigen-specific immune control. Efficient and specific T cell memory against the tumor depends on the expansion of rare T cells with native specificity against target antigens overexpressed by the tumor. Candidate antigens in EwS include six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate-1 (STEAP1), and the human cancer/testis antigens X-antigen family member 1 (XAGE1) and preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME). Here, we screened normal donors and EwS patients for the presence of circulating T cells reactive with overlapping peptide libraries of these antigens by IFN-γ Elispot analysis. The majority of 22 healthy donors lacked detectable memory T cell responses against STEAP1, XAGE1 and PRAME. Moreover, ex vivo detection of T cells specific for these antigens in both blood and bone marrow were limited to a minority of EwS patients and required nonspecific T cell prestimulation. Cytotoxic T cells specific for the tumor-associated antigens were efficiently and reliably generated by in vitro priming using professional antigen-presenting cells and optimized cytokine stimulation; however, these T cells failed to interact with native antigen processed by target cells and with EwS cells expressing the antigen. We conclude that EwS-associated antigens fail to induce efficient T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated antitumor immune responses even under optimized conditions. Strategies based on TCR engineering could provide a more effective means to manipulating T cell immunity toward targeted elimination of tumor cells.

  7. Cell-mediated immunity to hepatitis B virus antigens in mice: correlation of in vivo and in vitro assays.

    PubMed Central

    De Moerloose, P A; Frazer, I H; Sewell, W A; Collins, E J; Mackay, I R

    1986-01-01

    Cell mediated immunity (CMI) to hepatitis B viral antigens was studied in BALB/mice after immunization with purified hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), or core antigen (HBcAg), with adjuvants. The two in vitro assays for cell-mediated immunity (CMI), utilizing lymph node cells, were release of interferon after exposure to antigen, and blast transformation of lymphocytes, and the in vivo assay was ear swelling at 24 h after local injection of antigen. Immunization with HBsAg or HBcAg with adjuvants induced antigen-specific cutaneous reactivity; if no adjuvants were given, immunization with HBcAg, but not HBsAg, induced cutaneous reactivity. CMI could be adoptively transferred by lymph node cells, but for only a limited period after immunization with HbsAg or HBcAg. The ability of lymph node cells from mice immunized with HBV antigens to transfer adoptively CMI correlated well with their production of interferon after challenge with antigen in vitro, but less well with blastogenesis after challenge with antigen in vitro, or with cutaneous reactivity to antigen in the donor mouse. Reliable antigen-specific lymphokine release assays, rather than blast transformation of lymphocytes or cutaneous reactivity after antigen challenge, are required to assess CMI to HBV antigens in the mouse and, by inference, in man. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3091300

  8. Tea Catechin Auto-oxidation Dimers are Accumulated and Retained by Caco-2 Human Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Andrew P.; Song, Brian J.; Sapper, Teryn N.; Bomser, Joshua A.; Ferruzzi, Mario G.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the presence of bioactive catechin B-ring auto-oxidation dimers in tea, little is known regarding their absorption in humans. Our hypothesis for this research is that catechin auto-oxidation dimers are present in teas and are absorbable by human intestinal epithelial cells. Dimers [theasinensins (THSNs) and P-2 analogs) were quantified in commercial teas by HPLC-MS. (−)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) homodimers were present at 10–43 and 0–62 µmol/g leaf, respectively. EGC-EGCG heterodimers were present at 0–79 µmol/g. The potential intestinal absorption of these dimers was assessed using Caco-2 intestinal cells. Catechin monomers and dimers were detected in cells exposed to media containing monomers and preformed dimers. Accumulation of dimers was significantly greater than monomers from test media. Three h accumulation of EGC and EGCG was 0.19– 0.55% and 1.24–1.35% respectively. Comparatively, 3h accumulation of the EGC P-2 analog, and THSNs C/E was 0.89 ± 0.28% and 1.53 ± 0.36%. Accumulation of P-2, and THSNs A/D was 6.93 ± 2.1%, and 10.1 ± 3.6%. EGCG-EGC heterodimer P-2 analog, and THSN B 3h accumulation was 4.87 ± 2.2%, and 4.65 ± 2.8% respectively. One h retention of P-2, and THSNs A/D was 171 ± 22%, and 29.6 ± 9.3% of accumulated amount suggesting intracellular oxidative conversion of THSNs to P-2. These data suggest that catechin dimers present in the gut lumen may be readily absorbed by intestinal epithelium. PMID:20579525

  9. Long-term tracing of the BrdU label-retaining cells in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Haihong; Zeng, Shaopeng; Chen, Lu; Fang, Zeman; Huang, Qingjun

    2015-03-30

    Stem cells have been shown to be label-retaining, slow-cycling cells. In the adult mammalian central nervous system, the distribution of the stem cells is inconsistent among previous studies. The purpose of the present study was to determine the distribution of BrdU-LRCs and the cell types of the BrdU-LRCs in rat brain. To label BrdU-LRCs in rat brain, six newborn rats were administered intraperitoneal injections of BrdU 50mg/kg/time twice a day at 2h intervals, over four consecutive days. The BrdU-LRCs were detected by immunohistochemistry, the cell types were examined by double immunofluorescence staining for BrdU/GFAP and BrdU/MAP2, and the percentage of BrdU-LRCs was calculated following a chase period of 24 weeks post-injection. We observed that BrdU-LRCs distributed extensively in rat brain. In the LV, DG, striatum, cerebellum and neocortex, the percentage of BrdU-LRCs was 11.3 ± 2.5%, 10.9 ± 1.3%, 6.4 ± 1.2%, 5.6 ± 0.8%, and 4.9 ± 0.6%, respectively. The highest density of BrdU-LRCs was in LV and DG, the known stem cell sites in adult mammalian brain. Both BrdU/GFAP and BrdU/MAP2 double-staining cells could be detected in the above five brain subregions. Ongoing cell production was widespread in the adult mammalian brain, which would allow us to reevaluate the capacity and potentiality of the brain in homeostasis, wound repair, and regeneration.

  10. Antigen-specific regulation of IgE antibodies by non-antigen-specific γδ T cells1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yafei; Aydintug, M. Kemal; Loomis, Joshua; MacLeod, Megan K.; McKee, Amy S.; Kirchenbaum, Greg; Jakubzick, Claudia V.; Kedl, Ross M.; Sun, Deming; Jacobelli, Jordan; O'Brien, Rebecca L.; Born, Willi K.

    2013-01-01

    We re-examined the observation that γδ T cells, when transferred from mice tolerized to an inhaled conventional antigen (Ag), suppress the allergic IgE response to this Ag specifically. Using ovalbumin and hen egg lysozyme in crisscross fashion, we confirmed the Ag-specific IgE regulatory effect of the γδ T cells. Although only Vγ4+ γδ T cells are regulators, the Ag specificity does not stem from specificity of their γδ TCRs. Instead, the Vγ4+ γδ T cells failed to respond to either Ag, but rapidly acquired Ag-specific regulatory function in vivo following i.v. injection of non-T cells derived from the spleen of Ag-tolerized mice. This correlated with their in vivo Ag acquisition from i.v. injected Ag-loaded splenic non-T cells, and in vivo transfer of membrane label provided evidence for direct contact between the injected splenic non-T cells and the Vγ4+ γδ T cells. Together, our data suggest that Ag itself, when acquired by γδ T cells, directs the specificity of their IgE suppression. PMID:23275606

  11. Discovery of chemotherapy-associated ovarian cancer antigens by interrogating memory T cells.

    PubMed

    Paroli, Marino; Bellati, Filippo; Videtta, Melissa; Focaccetti, Chiara; Mancone, Carmine; Donato, Tiziana; Antonilli, Morena; Perniola, Giorgia; Accapezzato, Daniele; Napoletano, Chiara; Nuti, Marianna; Bartolazzi, Armando; Panici, Pierluigi Benedetti; Tripodi, Marco; Palombo, Fabio; Barnaba, Vincenzo

    2014-04-15

    According to the immunogenic cell death hypothesis, clinical chemotherapy treatments may result in CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell responses against tumor cells. To discover chemotherapy-associated antigens (CAAs), T cells derived from ovarian cancer (OC) patients (who had been treated with appropriate chemotherapy protocols) were interrogated with proteins isolated from primary OC cells. We screened for immunogenicity using two-dimensional electrophoresis gel-eluted OC proteins. Only the selected immunogenic antigens were molecularly characterized by mass-spectrometry-based analysis. Memory T cells that recognized antigens associated with apoptotic (but not live) OC cells were correlated with prolonged survival in response to chemotherapy, supporting the model of chemotherapy-induced apoptosis as an adjuvant of anti-tumor immunity. The strength of both memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells producing either IFN-γ or IL-17 in response to apoptotic OC antigens was also significantly greater in Responders to chemotherapy than in nonresponders. Immunogenicity of some of these antigens was confirmed using recombinant proteins in an independent set of patients. The T-cell interrogation system represents a strategy of reverse tumor immunology that proposes to identify CAAs, which may then be validated as possible prognostic tumor biomarkers or cancer vaccines.

  12. Killer artificial antigen-presenting cells: the synthetic embodiment of a 'guided missile'.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Christian; Oelke, Mathias; Schneck, Jonathan P; Mackensen, Andreas; Fleck, Martin

    2010-07-01

    At present, the treatment of T-cell-dependent autoimmune diseases relies exclusively on strategies leading to nonspecific suppression of the immune systems causing a substantial reduced ability to control concomitant infections or malignancies. Furthermore, long-term treatment with most drugs is accompanied by several serious adverse effects and does not consequently result in cure of the primary immunological malfunction. By contrast, antigen-specific immunotherapy offers the potential to achieve the highest therapeutic efficiency in accordance with minimal adverse effects. Therefore, several studies have been performed utilizing antigen-presenting cells specifically engineered to deplete allo- or antigen-specific T cells ('guided missiles'). Many of these strategies take advantage of the Fas/Fas ligand signaling pathway to efficiently induce antigen-presenting cell-mediated apoptosis in targeted T cells. In this article, we discuss the advantages and shortcomings of a novel non-cell-based 'killer artificial antigen-presenting cell' strategy, developed to overcome obstacles related to current cell-based approaches for the treatment of T-cell-mediated autoimmunity.

  13. Dissecting the Tumor Myeloid Compartment Reveals Rare Activating Antigen Presenting Cells, Critical for T cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Broz, Miranda; Binnewies, Mikhail; Boldajipour, Bijan; Nelson, Amanda; Pollock, Joshua; Erle, David; Barczak, Andrea; Rosenblum, Michael; Daud, Adil; Barber, Diane; Amigorena, Sebastian; van’t Veer, Laura J.; Sperling, Anne; Wolf, Denise; Krummel, Matthew F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY It is well understood that antigen-presenting cells (APC) within tumors typically do not maintain cytotoxic T cell (CTL) function, despite engaging them. Across multiple mouse tumor models and human tumor biopsies, we have delineated the intratumoral dendritic-cell (DC) populations as distinct from macrophage populations. Within these, CD103+ DCs are extremely sparse and yet remarkably capable CTL stimulators. These are uniquely dependent upon IRF8, Zbtb46 and Batf3 transcription factors and generated by GM-CSF and Flt3L cytokines. Regressing tumors have higher proportions of these cells, T-cell dependent immune clearance relies upon them, and abundance of their transcripts in human tumors correlates with clinical outcome. This cell type presents opportunities for prognostic and therapeutic approaches across multiple cancer types. PMID:25446897

  14. Successive Administration of Streptococcus Type 5 Group A Antigens and S. typhimurium Antigenic Complex Corrects Elevation of Serum Cytokine Concentration and Number of Bone Marrow Stromal Pluripotent Cells in CBA Mice Induced by Each Antigen Separately.

    PubMed

    Gorskaya, Yu F; Danilova, T A; Grabko, V I; Nesterenko, V G

    2015-12-01

    Administration of bacterial antigens to CBA mice induced an increase in serum concentration of virtually all cytokines with a peak in 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens and in 7 h after administration of streptococcus antigens. In 20 h, cytokine concentrations returned to the control level or were slightly below it. In 4 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, we observed a significant decrease in serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-10, GM-CSF, IL-12, and TNF-α, in comparison with injection S. typhimurium antigens alone and IL-5, IL-10, GM-CSF, and TNF-α in comparison with injection of streptococcus antigens alone; the concentrations of IL-2 and IFN-γ, in contrast, increased by 1.5 times in this case. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens, the number of multipotential stromal cells (MSC) in the bone marrow and their cloning efficiency (ECF-MSC) increased by 4.8 and 4.4 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, while after administration of streptococcus antigens by 2.6 and 2.4 times, respectively. In 20 h after administration of S. typhimurium antigens preceded 3 h before by administration of streptococcus antigens, these parameters increased by 3.2 and 2.9 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, i.e. the observed increase in the level of MSC count and ECF-MSC is more consistent with the response of the stromal tissue to streptococcus antigens. Thus, successive administration of two bacterial antigens corrected both serum cytokine profiles and MSC response to administration of each antigen separately, which indicates changeability of the stromal tissue in response to changes in the immune response.

  15. Antigen-induced regulatory T cells in HBV chronically infected patients.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Luisa; Salmen, Siham; Goncalves, Loredana; Colmenares, Melisa; Peterson, Darrell; Montes, Henry; Cartagirone, Raimondo; Gutiérrez, Maria del Carmen; Berrueta, Lisbeth

    2007-11-10

    T cell response against HBV is vigorous in patients with acute hepatitis who clear the virus, whereas it is weak and narrowly focused in patients with chronic disease. We report that following incubation with HBcAg, a population of CD4+FoxP3+ cells expressing phenotypic markers of both natural and induced Tregs, can be antigen-induced from peripheral mononuclear cells. Conversely, naive and naturally immune subjects did not increase CD4+FoxP3+ Tregs following stimulation with HBcAg, supporting the idea that natural Tregs are able to respond specifically to HBV antigen. Furthermore, increased frequencies of antigen-induced CD4+FoxP3+IL-10+ Tregs correlated with viral load, suggesting that antigen-induced Tregs could contribute to an inadequate response against the virus, leading to chronic infection and support the view that specific natural Tregs may be implicated in host immune tolerance during HBV infection.

  16. A structural basis for antigen recognition by the T cell-like lymphocytes of sea lamprey

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Lu; Velikovsky, C. Alejandro; Xu, Gang; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Tasumi, Satoshi; Kerzic, Melissa C.; Flajnik, Martin F.; Aravind, L.; Pancer, Zeev; Mariuzza, Roy A.

    2010-10-28

    Adaptive immunity in jawless vertebrates is mediated by leucine-rich repeat proteins called 'variable lymphocyte receptors' (VLRs). Two types of VLR (A and B) are expressed by mutually exclusive lymphocyte populations in lamprey. VLRB lymphocytes resemble the B cells of jawed vertebrates; VLRA lymphocytes are similar to T cells. We determined the structure of a high-affinity VLRA isolated from lamprey immunized with hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) in unbound and antigen-bound forms. The VLRA-HEL complex demonstrates that certain VLRAs, like {gamma}{delta} T-cell receptors (TCRs) but unlike {alpha}{beta} TCRs, can recognize antigens directly, without a requirement for processing or antigen-presenting molecules. Thus, these VLRAs feature the nanomolar affinities of antibodies, the direct recognition of unprocessed antigens of both antibodies and {gamma}{delta} TCRs, and the exclusive expression on the lymphocyte surface that is unique to {alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta} TCRs.

  17. Purification and identification of cell surface antigens using lamprey monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cuiling; Ali, Shabab; St. Germain, Jonathan; Liu, Yanling; Yu, Xuecong; Jaye, David L.; Moran, Michael F.; Cooper, Max D.; Ehrhardt, Götz R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) B antibodies of the evolutionary distant sea lamprey are structurally distinct from conventional mammalian antibodies. The different protein architecture and large evolutionary distance of jawless vertebrates suggest that VLR antibodies may represent promising tools for biomarker discovery. Here we report the generation of panels of monoclonal VLR antibodies from lamprey larvae immunized with human T cells and the use of a recombinant monoclonal VLR antibody for antigen purification and mass spectrometric identification. We demonstrate that despite predicted low affinity of individual VLR antigen binding units to the antigen, the high avidity resulting from decameric assembly of secreted VLR antibodies allows for efficient antigen capture and subsequent identification by mass spectometry. We show that VLR antibodies detect their antigens with high specificity and can be used in various standard laboratory application techniques. The lamprey antibodies are novel reagents that can complement conventional monoclonal antibodies in multiple scientific research disciplines. PMID:22964555

  18. Responses of bovine WC1(+) gammadelta T cells to protein and nonprotein antigens of Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Michael D; Kennedy, Hilary E; Smyth, Allister J; Girvin, R Martyn; Andersen, Peter; Pollock, John M

    2002-11-01

    WC1(+) gammadelta T cells of Mycobacterium bovis-infected cattle are highly responsive to M. bovis sonic extract (MBSE). In mycobacterial infections of other species, gammadelta T cells have been shown to respond to protein and nonprotein antigens, but the bovine WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell antigenic targets within MBSE require further definition in terms of the dominance of protein versus nonprotein components. The present study sought to characterize the WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell antigenic targets, together with the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2), in the context of M. bovis infection. This was achieved by testing crude and defined antigens to assess protein versus nonprotein recognition by WC1(+) gammadelta T cells in comparison with CD4(+) alphabeta T cells. Both cell types proliferated strongly in response to MBSE, with CD4(+) T cells being the major producers of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). However, enzymatic digestion of the protein in MBSE removed its ability to stimulate CD4(+) T-cell responses, whereas some WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell proliferation remained. The most antigenic protein inducing proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion in WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell cultures was found to be ESAT-6, which is a potential novel diagnostic reagent and vaccine candidate. In addition, WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell proliferation was observed in response to stimulation with prenyl pyrophosphate antigens (isopentenyl pyrophosphate and monomethyl phosphate). High levels of cellular activation (CD25 expression) resulted from MBSE stimulation of WC1(+) gammadelta T cells from infected animals. A similar degree of activation was induced by IL-2 alone, but for WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell division IL-2 was found to act only as a costimulatory signal, enhancing antigen-driven responses. Overall, the data indicate that protein antigens are important stimulators of WC1(+) gammadelta T-cell proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion in M. bovis infection, with nonprotein antigens inducing significant

  19. A Novel Platform for the Potentiation of Therapeutic Antibodies Based on Antigen-Dependent Formation of IgG Hexamers at the Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Verploegen, Sandra; Strumane, Kristin; van Kampen, Muriel D.; Voorhorst, Marleen; Horstman, Wendy; Engelberts, Patrick J.; Oostindie, Simone C.; Wang, Guanbo; Heck, Albert J. R.; Schuurman, Janine; Parren, Paul W. H. I.

    2016-01-01

    IgG antibodies can organize into ordered hexamers on cell surfaces after binding their antigen. These hexamers bind the first component of complement C1 inducing complement-dependent target cell killing. Here, we translated this natural concept into a novel technology platform (HexaBody technology) for therapeutic antibody potentiation. We identified mutations that enhanced hexamer formation and complement activation by IgG1 antibodies against a range of targets on cells from hematological and solid tumor indications. IgG1 backbones with preferred mutations E345K or E430G conveyed a strong ability to induce conditional complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) of cell lines and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patient tumor cells, while retaining regular pharmacokinetics and biopharmaceutical developability. Both mutations potently enhanced CDC- and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of a type II CD20 antibody that was ineffective in complement activation, while retaining its ability to induce apoptosis. The identified IgG1 Fc backbones provide a novel platform for the generation of therapeutics with enhanced effector functions that only become activated upon binding to target cell–expressed antigen. PMID:26736041

  20. Comprehensive red blood cell and platelet antigen prediction from whole genome sequencing: proof of principle

    PubMed Central

    Westhoff, Connie M.; Uy, Jon Michael; Aguad, Maria; Smeland‐Wagman, Robin; Kaufman, Richard M.; Rehm, Heidi L.; Green, Robert C.; Silberstein, Leslie E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND There are 346 serologically defined red blood cell (RBC) antigens and 33 serologically defined platelet (PLT) antigens, most of which have known genetic changes in 45 RBC or six PLT genes that correlate with antigen expression. Polymorphic sites associated with antigen expression in the primary literature and reference databases are annotated according to nucleotide positions in cDNA. This makes antigen prediction from next‐generation sequencing data challenging, since it uses genomic coordinates. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The conventional cDNA reference sequences for all known RBC and PLT genes that correlate with antigen expression were aligned to the human reference genome. The alignments allowed conversion of conventional cDNA nucleotide positions to the corresponding genomic coordinates. RBC and PLT antigen prediction was then performed using the human reference genome and whole genome sequencing (WGS) data with serologic confirmation. RESULTS Some major differences and alignment issues were found when attempting to convert the conventional cDNA to human reference genome sequences for the following genes: ABO, A4GALT, RHD, RHCE, FUT3, ACKR1 (previously DARC), ACHE, FUT2, CR1, GCNT2, and RHAG. However, it was possible to create usable alignments, which facilitated the prediction of all RBC and PLT antigens with a known molecular basis from WGS data. Traditional serologic typing for 18 RBC antigens were in agreement with the WGS‐based antigen predictions, providing proof of principle for this approach. CONCLUSION Detailed mapping of conventional cDNA annotated RBC and PLT alleles can enable accurate prediction of RBC and PLT antigens from whole genomic sequencing data. PMID:26634332

  1. The generation and antigen-specificity of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Taams, Leonie S; Curnow, S John; Vukmanovic-Stejic, M; Akbar, Arne N

    2006-09-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells are essential components of the immune system. They help to maintain immune tolerance by exerting suppressive effects on cells of the adaptive and innate immune system. In the last few years there has been an abundance of papers addressing the suppressive effects of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and their putative role in various experimental disease models and human diseases. Despite the enormous amounts of data on these cells a number of controversial issues still exists. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells were originally described as thymus-derived anergic/suppressive T cells. Recent papers however indicate that these cells might also be generated in the periphery. Due to the thymic development of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells it was thought that these cells were specific for self-antigens. Indeed it was shown that CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells could be positively selected upon high affinity interaction with self-antigens. However, evidence is accumulating that these cells might also interact with non-self antigens. Finally, in the literature there is conflicting evidence regarding the role of soluble factors versus cell-contact in the mechanism of suppression. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence supporting these opposing viewpoints and to combine them into a general model for the origin, function and antigen-specificity of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.

  2. Expression of the T-cell surface molecule CD2 and an epitope-loss CD2 mutant to define the role of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3) in T-cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Bierer, B E; Peterson, A; Barbosa, J; Seed, B; Burakoff, S J

    1988-01-01

    To define the role of the CD2-lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3) interaction in T-cell activation, we have expressed a cDNA encoding the human CD2 molecule in a murine antigen-specific T-cell hybridoma. Expression of the CD2 molecule greatly enhances T-cell responsiveness to antigen; this enhancement is inhibited by anti-CD2 and anti-LFA-3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). CD2+ hybridomas produce interleukin 2 in response to combinations of anti-CD2 mAbs 9.6 and 9-1 and, in the presence of mAb 9-1, to sheep erythrocytes or to the LFA-3 antigen. Furthermore, hybridomas expressing a mutant CD2 molecule that has lost mAb 9.6 binding do not exhibit the enhanced response to antigen or the ability to respond to LFA-3 plus mAb 9-1, but these hybridomas retain the ability to respond to combinations of anti-CD2 mAbs. The role of the CD2-LFA-3 interaction in T-cell activation and the potential for other physiologic ligands for CD2 are discussed. PMID:2448792

  3. cap alpha. -chain locus of the T-cell antigen receptor is involved in the t(10; 14) chromosome translocation of T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, J.; Finan, J.; Letofsky, J.; Besa, E.C.; Nowell, P.C.; Croce, C.M.

    1987-07-01

    Human leukemic T cells carrying a t(10;14)(q24;q11) chromosome translocation were fused with mouse leukemic T cells, and the hybrids were examined for genetic markers of human chromosomes 10 and 14. Hybrids containing the human 10q+ chromosome had the human genes for terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase that has been mapped at 10q23-q25 and for C/sub ..cap alpha../ (the constant region of TCRA (the ..cap alpha..-chain locus of the T-cell antigen receptor gene)), but not for V/sub ..cap alpha../ (the variable region of TCRA). Hybrids containing the human 14q- chromosome retained the V/sub ..cap alpha../genes. Thus the 14q11 breakpoint in the t(10;14) chromosome translocation directly involves TCRA, splitting the locus in a region between the V/sub ..cap alpha../ and the C/sub ..cap alpha../ genes. These results suggest that the translocation of the C/sub ..cap alpha../ locus to a putative cellular protooncogene located proximal to the breakpoint at 10q24, for which the authors propose the name TCL3, results in its deregulation, leading to T-cell leukemia. Since hybrids with the 10q+ chromosome also retained the human terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase gene, it is further concluded that the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase locus is proximal to the TCL3 gene, at band 10q23-q24.

  4. Discovery of T cell antigens by high-throughput screening of synthetic minigene libraries.

    PubMed

    Hondowicz, Brian D; Schwedhelm, Katharine V; Kas, Arnold; Tasch, Michael A; Rawlings, Crystal; Ramchurren, Nirasha; McIntosh, Martin; D'Amico, Leonard A; Sanda, Srinath; Standifer, Nathan E; Shendure, Jay; Stone, Brad

    2012-01-01

    The identification of novel T cell antigens is central to basic and translational research in autoimmunity, tumor immunology, transplant immunology, and vaccine design for infectious disease. However, current methods for T cell antigen discovery are low throughput, and fail to explore a wide range of potential antigen-receptor interactions. To overcome these limitations, we developed a method in which programmable microarrays are used to cost-effectively synthesize complex libraries of thousands of minigenes that collectively encode the content of hundreds of candidate protein targets. Minigene-derived mRNA are transfected into autologous antigen presenting cells and used to challenge complex populations of purified peripheral blood CD8+ T cells in multiplex, parallel ELISPOT assays. In this proof-of-concept study, we apply synthetic minigene screening to identify two novel pancreatic islet autoantigens targeted in a patient with Type I Diabetes. To our knowledge, this is the first successful screen of a highly complex, synthetic minigene library for identification of a T cell antigen. In principle, responses against the full protein complement of any tissue or pathogen can be assayed by this approach, suggesting that further optimization of synthetic libraries holds promise for high throughput antigen discovery.

  5. In vitro expansion of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells distorts the T-cell repertoire.

    PubMed

    Koning, Dan; Costa, Ana I; Hasrat, Raiza; Grady, Bart P X; Spijkers, Sanne; Nanlohy, Nening; Keşmir, Can; van Baarle, Debbie

    2014-03-01

    Short-term in vitro expansion of antigen-specific T cells is an appreciated assay for the analysis of small memory T-cell populations. However, how well short-term expanded T cells represent the direct ex vivo situation remains to be elucidated. In this study we compared the clonality of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD8(+) T cells directly ex vivo and after in vitro stimulation with antigen. Our data show that the antigen-specific T cell repertoire significantly alters after in vitro culture. Clear shifts in clonotype hierarchy were observed, with the most dominant ex vivo clonotype decreasing after stimulation at the expense of several previously subdominant clonotypes. Notably, these alterations were more pronounced in polyclonal T-cell populations compared to mono- or oligoclonal repertoires. Furthermore, TCR diversity significantly increased after culture with antigen. These results suggest that the T-cell repertoire is highly subjective to variation after in vitro stimulation with antigen. Hence, although short-term expansion of T cells provides a simple and efficient tool to examine antigen-specific immune responses, caution is required if T-cell populations are expanded prior to detailed, clonotypic analyses or other repertoire-based investigations.

  6. Differential presentation of tumor antigen-derived epitopes by MHC-class I and antigen-positive tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Held, Gerhard; Neumann, Frank; Sturm, Christine; Kaestner, Lars; Dauth, Nina; de Bruijn, Diederik R; Renner, Christoph; Lipp, Peter; Pfreundschuh, Michael

    2008-10-15

    SSX2 is a member of the family of cancer/testis antigens. The SSX2 derived peptide SSX2(103-111) has been shown to be presented to cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) by Major-Histocompatibility (MHC) Class-I complexes after endogenous processing, more precisely by the allele HLA-A*0201. The HLA-A*0201- and SSX2-positive melanoma cell line SK-Mel-37 but not Me275 had been shown to elicit reactivity in SSX2(103-111) specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. To analyze the correlation between SSX2(103-111) presentation and T-cell stimulation, we intended to visualize presentation of SSX2(103-111) in these melanoma cell lines. Fab-antibodies were established from a human phage library with specificity for SSX2(103-111)/HLA-A*0201 complexes (but non-reactive with HLA-A*0201 or SSX2(103-111) alone) and used to visualize the presentation of SSX2(103-111) in the context of HLA-A*0201 by fluorescence microscopy. Presentation of SSX2(103-111) the context of HLA-A*0201 was demonstrated for the majority of SK-Mel-37, but for only a small fraction (<1%) of Me275 as indicated by a clear membrane-staining pattern in fluorescence microscopy. The presentation of SSX2(103-111) on SK-Mel37 and Me275, but not the expression of the SSX2 protein correlated with the capability of these cells to stimulate cells of an SSX2(103-111)-specific T-cell clone. MHC-peptide specific antibodies are a valuable tool for the analysis of antigenic peptides in the context of MHC-I molecules and for the structural definition of immunodominant epitopes.

  7. Variant antigenic peptide promotes cytotoxic T lymphocyte adhesion to target cells without cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Shotton, David M.; Attaran, Amir

    1998-01-01

    Timelapse video microscopy has been used to record the motility and dynamic interactions between an H-2Db-restricted murine cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone (F5) and Db-transfected L929 mouse fibroblasts (LDb) presenting normal or variant antigenic peptides from human influenza nucleoprotein. F5 cells will kill LDb target cells presenting specific antigen (peptide NP68: ASNENMDAM) after “browsing” their surfaces for between 8 min and many hours. Cell death is characterized by abrupt cellular rounding followed by zeiosis (vigorous “boiling” of the cytoplasm and blebbing of the plasma membrane) for 10–20 min, with subsequent cessation of all activity. Departure of cytotoxic T lymphocytes from unkilled target cells is rare, whereas serial killing is sometimes observed. In the absence of antigenic peptide, cytotoxic T lymphocytes browse target cells for much shorter periods, and readily leave to encounter other targets, while never causing target cell death. Two variant antigenic peptides, differing in nonamer position 7 or 8, also act as antigens, albeit with lower efficiency. A third variant peptide NP34 (ASNENMETM), which differs from NP68 in both positions and yet still binds Db, does not stimulate F5 cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, timelapse video analysis shows that NP34 leads to a significant modification of cell behavior, by up-regulating F5–LDb adhesive interactions. These data extend recent studies showing that partial agonists may elicit a subset of the T cell responses associated with full antigen stimulation, by demonstrating that TCR interaction with variant peptide antigens can trigger target cell adhesion and surface exploration without activating the signaling pathway that results in cytotoxicity. PMID:9861010

  8. Predominant role for directly transfected dendritic cells in antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells after gene gun immunization.

    PubMed

    Porgador, A; Irvine, K R; Iwasaki, A; Barber, B H; Restifo, N P; Germain, R N

    1998-09-21

    Cutaneous gene (DNA) bombardment results in substantial expression of the encoded antigen in the epidermal layer as well as detectable expression in dendritic cells (DC) in draining lymph nodes (LNs). Under these conditions, two possible modes of DC antigen presentation to naive CD8+ T cells might exist: (a) presentation directly by gene-transfected DC trafficking to local lymph nodes, and (b) cross-presentation by untransfected DC of antigen released from or associated with transfected epidermal cells. The relative contributions of these distinct modes of antigen presentation to priming for cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses have not been clearly established. Here we show that LN cells directly expressing the DNA-encoded antigen are rare; 24 h after five abdominal skin bombardments, the number of these cells does not exceed 50-100 cells in an individual draining LN. However, over this same time period, the total number of CD11c+ DC increases more than twofold, by an average of 20,000-30,000 DC per major draining node. This augmentation is due to gold bombardment and is independent of the presence of plasmid DNA. Most antigen-bearing cells in the LNs draining the site of DNA delivery appear to be DC and can be depleted by antibodies to an intact surface protein encoded by cotransfected DNA. This finding of predominant antigen presentation by directly transfected cells is also consistent with data from studies on cotransfection with antigen and CD86-encoding DNA, showing that priming of anti-mutant influenza nucleoprotein CTLs with a single immunization is dependent upon coexpression of the DNAs encoding nucleoprotein and B7.2 in the same cells. These observations provide insight into the relative roles of direct gene expression and cross-presentation in CD8+ T cell priming using gene gun immunization, and indicate that augmentation of direct DC gene expression may enhance such priming.

  9. CTLA4 mediates antigen-specific apoptosis of human T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gribben, J G; Freeman, G J; Boussiotis, V A; Rennert, P; Jellis, C L; Greenfield, E; Barber, M; Restivo, V A; Ke, X; Gray, G S

    1995-01-01

    The regulation of T cell-mediated immune responses requires a balance between amplification and generation of effector function and subsequent selective termination by clonal deletion. Although apoptosis of previously activated T cells can be induced by signaling of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, these molecules do not appear to regulate T-cell clonal deletion in an antigen-specific fashion. We demonstrate that cross-linking of the inducible T-cell surface molecule CTLA4 can mediate apoptosis of previously activated human T lymphocytes. This function appears to be antigen-restricted, since a concomitant signal T-cell receptor signal is required. Regulation of this pathway may provide a novel therapeutic strategy to delete antigen-specific activated T cells. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7846057

  10. Unmasking targets of T cell-mediated antitumor immunity through high-throughput antigen profiling

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Sebastiano; Muhitch, Jason B

    2017-01-01

    More than three decades of evidence has established that antitumor immune responses, initially shown with IL-2 treatment, can result in complete, durable eradication of malignant disease in metastatic patients. Recent studies have demonstrated that immune checkpoint blockade as well as cellular therapies, including dendritic cell activation of T cells and adoptive T cell transfer, can induce long-lasting responses. To elicit cytolysis of tumor cells, effector T cells rely on tumor expression of target antigens. However, the antigens targeted during antitumor responses are largely unknown. Technological advancements and availability of sequencing data have paved the way for more efficient screening and validation of tumor-associated antigens and neoantigens derived from non-synonymous mutations targeted by T cells under baseline conditions and in the context of immunotherapy. PMID:27010105

  11. Manipulating Antigenic Ligand Strength to Selectively Target Myelin-Reactive CD4+ T Cells in EAE

    PubMed Central

    Sabatino, Joseph J.; Rosenthal, Kristen M.

    2010-01-01

    The development of antigen-specific therapies for the selective tolerization of autoreactive T cells remains the Holy Grail for the treatment of T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This quest remains elusive, however, as the numerous antigen-specific strategies targeting myelin-specific T cells over the years have failed to result in clinical success. In this review, we revisit the antigen-based therapies used in the treatment of myelin-specific CD4+ T cells in the context of the functional avidity and the strength of signal of the encephalitogenic CD4+ T cell repertoire. In light of differences in activation thresholds, we propose that autoreactive T cells are not all equal, and therefore tolerance induction strategies must incorporate ligand strength in order to be successful in treating EAE and ultimately the human disease MS. PMID:19904613

  12. Estimation of low frequency antigen presenting cells with a novel RELISPOT assay

    PubMed Central

    Dzutsev, Amiran K.; Belyakov, Igor M.; Isakov, Dmitry V.; Gagnon, Susan J.; Margulies, David H.; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2008-01-01

    Adequate presentation of self and foreign antigens is a key factor for efficient T-cell immunosurveillance against pathogens and tumors. Cells presenting foreign antigens usually comprise a rare population and are difficult to detect even at the peak of infection. Here we demonstrate a CD8+ T-cell-based approach that allows detection of specific antigen-presenting cells (APC) at a frequency of less than 0.0005%. When T cells are in excess, they form rosettes with rare APCs, which appear as single spots in an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. Using this RELISPOT (Rosette ELISPOT) method we demonstrate the dynamic interplay between CD8 T cells and professional and non-professional APCs following virus challenge. PMID:18294650

  13. A novel human B-lymphocyte antigen shared with lymphoid dendritic cells: characterization by monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Y; Takami, T; Kokai, Y; Yuasa, H; Fujimoto, J; Takei, T; Kikuchi, K

    1985-01-01

    A novel cell-surface antigen (L25) expressed on human B cells was identified using a B cell-reactive monoclonal antibody (TB1-4D5). This L25 antigen was expressed on most B-lineage cells but not other cell types including thymocytes, T cells, granulocytes and monocytes. Thus, L25 existed on the majority of normal B cells present in the blood and lymphoid tissues, on cultured cell lines derived from normal and malignant B cells, and on neoplastic cells isolated from patients with B cell-derived malignancies. Though L25 was persistently expressed on B cells until 7 days after their activation with pokeweed mitogen (PWM), neither normal nor neoplastic plasma cells expressed L25. Moreover, L25 was present on cultured as well as freshly isolated leukaemic cells with common acute lymphatic leukaemia (CALL) antigen, which have been thought to correspond to the early B-cell ontogeny. Besides pan-B cell reactivity of TB1-4D5 antibody, it apparently cross-reacted with so-called dendritic or interdigitating cells located in the thymic-dependent areas of peripheral lymphoid organs, which have been presumably ascribed to those associated with accessory-cell function. Functional studies showed that anti-L25 (TB1-4D5) antibody had inhibitory effect on induction of immunoglobulin synthesis by PWM-stimulated B cells. Images Fig. 2 PMID:3907905

  14. A new Kupffer cell receptor mediating plasma clearance of carcinoembryonic antigen by the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Toth, C A; Thomas, P; Broitman, S A; Zamcheck, N

    1982-01-01

    Native human carcinoembryonic antigen is rapidly removed from the circulation by the rat liver Kupffer cell after intravenous injection. The molecule is subsequently transferred to the hepatocyte in an immunologically identifiable form. Carcinoembryonic antigen has a circulatory half-life of 3.7 (+/- 0.8) min, and cellular entry is by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Non-specific fluid pinocytosis and phagocytosis can be excluded as possible mechanisms by the kinetics of clearance and failure of colloidal carbon to inhibit uptake. Substances with known affinity for the hepatic receptors for mannose, N-acetylglucosamine, fucose and galactose all fail to inhibit carcinoembryonic antigen clearance. After two cycles of the Smith degradation, carcinoembryonic antigen is still able to inhibit clearance of the native molecule. Receptor specificity is apparently not dependent on those non-reducing terminal sugars of the native molecule. Performic acid-oxidized carcinoembryonic antigen also inhibits clearance of carcinoembryonic antigen in vivo. Receptor binding is not dependent on tertiary protein conformation. Non-specific cross-reacting antigen, a glycoprotein structurally similar to carcinoembryonic antigen, is cleared by the same mechanism. PMID:6896821

  15. A new Kupffer cell receptor mediating plasma clearance of carcinoembryonic antigen by the rat.

    PubMed

    Toth, C A; Thomas, P; Broitman, S A; Zamcheck, N

    1982-05-15

    Native human carcinoembryonic antigen is rapidly removed from the circulation by the rat liver Kupffer cell after intravenous injection. The molecule is subsequently transferred to the hepatocyte in an immunologically identifiable form. Carcinoembryonic antigen has a circulatory half-life of 3.7 (+/- 0.8) min, and cellular entry is by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Non-specific fluid pinocytosis and phagocytosis can be excluded as possible mechanisms by the kinetics of clearance and failure of colloidal carbon to inhibit uptake. Substances with known affinity for the hepatic receptors for mannose, N-acetylglucosamine, fucose and galactose all fail to inhibit carcinoembryonic antigen clearance. After two cycles of the Smith degradation, carcinoembryonic antigen is still able to inhibit clearance of the native molecule. Receptor specificity is apparently not dependent on those non-reducing terminal sugars of the native molecule. Performic acid-oxidized carcinoembryonic antigen also inhibits clearance of carcinoembryonic antigen in vivo. Receptor binding is not dependent on tertiary protein conformation. Non-specific cross-reacting antigen, a glycoprotein structurally similar to carcinoembryonic antigen, is cleared by the same mechanism.

  16. Demonstration of common antigens on cell surface of Clostridium chauvoei and C. septicum by indirect-immunofluorescence assay.

    PubMed

    Hamaoka, T; Terakado, N

    1994-04-01

    The common antigens between Clostridium chauvoei and C. septicum were examined by indirect-immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Antisera to formalized cells of C. chauvoei and C. septicum strains and to EDTA-soluble antigens of these strains were used. The antisera to formalized cells, which have reacted only with homologous antigens in agglutination tests, reacted not only with homologous antigens but also with heterologous antigens in IFA. The antisera to EDTA-soluble antigens, which have shown no reactivities in somatic agglutination tests, reached with both homologous and heterologous antigens in IFA. These results indicate that these species possess common antigens, which are undetected by agglutination tests, on the cell surface and a some of them are solubilized by EDTA-treatment.

  17. Neutrophils acquire the capacity for antigen presentation to memory CD4(+) T cells in vitro and ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Vono, Maria; Lin, Ang; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Koup, Richard A; Liang, Frank; Loré, Karin

    2017-04-06

    Neutrophils are critical cells of the innate immune system and rapidly respond to tissue injury and infection. Increasing evidence also indicates that neutrophils have versatile functions in contributing to adaptive immunity by internalizing and transporting antigen and influencing antigen-specific responses. Here, we demonstrate that freshly isolated human neutrophils can function as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to memory CD4(+) T cells. Neutrophils pulsed with the cognate antigens cytomegalovirus pp65 or influenza hemagglutinin were able to present the antigens to autologous antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells in a major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II; HLA-DR)-dependent manner. Although myeloid dendritic cells and monocytes showed superior presenting ability, neutrophils consistently displayed antigen presentation capability. Upregulation of HLA-DR on neutrophils required the presence of the antigen-specific or activated T cells whereas exposure to innate stimuli such as Toll-like receptor ligands was not sufficient. Neutrophils sorted from vaccine-draining lymph nodes from rhesus macaques also showed expression of HLA-DR and were capable of presenting vaccine antigen to autologous antigen-specific memory CD4(+) T cells ex vivo. Altogether, the data demonstrate that neutrophils can adapt a function as APCs and, in combination with their abundance in the immune system, may have a significant role in regulating antigen-specific T-cell responses.

  18. Classical dendritic cells are required for dietary antigen-mediated peripheral regulatory T cell and tolerance induction

    PubMed Central

    Esterházy, Daria; Loschko, Jakob; London, Mariya; Jove, Veronica; Oliveira, Thiago Y.; Mucida, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Oral tolerance prevents pathological inflammatory responses towards innocuous foreign antigens via peripheral regulatory T cells (pTreg cells). However, whether a particular subset of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is required during dietary antigen exposure to instruct naïve CD4+ T cells to differentiate into pTreg cells has not been defined. Using myeloid lineage-specific APC depletion in mice, we found that monocyte-derived APCs are dispensable, while classical dendritic cells (cDCs) are critical for pTreg cell induction and oral tolerance. CD11b− cDCs from the gut-draining lymph nodes efficiently induced pTreg cells, and conversely, loss of IRF8-dependent CD11b− cDCs impaired their polarization, although oral tolerance remained intact. These data reveal the hierarchy of cDC subsets in pTreg cell induction and their redundancy during oral tolerance development. PMID:27019226

  19. Tubulin and Actin Interplay at the T Cell and Antigen-Presenting Cell Interface

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Cófreces, Noa Beatriz; Alarcón, Balbino; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    T cells reorganize their actin and tubulin-based cytoskeletons to provide a physical basis to the immune synapse. However, growing evidence shows that their roles on T cell activation are more dynamic than merely serving as tracks or scaffold for different molecules. The crosstalk between both skeletons may be important for the formation and movement of the lamella at the immunological synapse by increasing the adhesion of the T cell to the antigen-presenting cells (APC), thus favoring the transport of components toward the plasma membrane and in turn regulating the T-APC intercellular communication. Microtubules and F-actin appear to be essential for the transport of the different signaling microclusters along the membrane, therefore facilitating the propagation of the signal. Finally, they can also be important for regulating the endocytosis, recycling, and degradation of the T cell receptor signaling machinery, thus helping both to sustain the activated state and to switch it off. PMID:22566814

  20. Reduction of T-Helper Cell Responses to Recall Antigen Mediated by Codelivery with Peptidoglycan via the Intestinal Nanomineral–Antigen Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Rachel E.; Robertson, Jack; Haas, Carolin T.; Pele, Laetitia C.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring intestinal nanomineral particles constituently form in the mammalian gut and trap luminal protein and microbial components. These cargo loaded nanominerals are actively scavenged by M cells of intestinal immune follicles, such as Peyer’s patches and are passed to antigen-presenting cells. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations as an in vitro model of nanomineral uptake and antigen presentation, we show that monocytes avidly phagocytose nanomineral particles bearing antigen and peptidoglycan (PGN), and that the presence of PGN within particles downregulates their cell surface MHC class II and upregulates programmed death receptor ligand 1. Nanomineral delivery of antigen suppresses antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses, an effect that is enhanced in the presence of PGN. Blocking the interleukin-10 receptor restores CD4+ T cell responses to antigen codelivered with PGN in nanomineral form. Using human intestinal specimens, we have shown that the in vivo nanomineral pathway operates in an interleukin-10 rich environment. Consequently, the delivery of a dual antigen–PGN cargo by endogenous nanomineral in vivo is likely to be important in the establishment of intestinal tolerance, while their synthetic mimetics present a potential delivery system for therapeutic applications targeting the modulation of Peyer’s patch T cell responses. PMID:28367148

  1. Diverse endogenous antigens for mouse NKT cells: self-antigens that are not glycosphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Pei, Bo; Speak, Anneliese O; Shepherd, Dawn; Butters, Terry; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Platt, Frances M; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    NKT cells with an invariant Ag receptor (iNKT cells) represent a highly conserved and unique subset of T lymphocytes having properties of innate and adaptive immune cells. They have been reported to regulate a variety of immune responses, including the response to cancers and the development of autoimmunity. The development and activation of iNKT cells is dependent on self-Ags presented by the CD1d Ag-presenting molecule. It is widely believed that these self-Ags are glycosphingolipids (GSLs), molecules that contain ceramide as the lipid backbone. In this study, we used a variety of methods to show that mammalian Ags for mouse iNKT cells need not be GSLs, including the use of cell lines deficient in GSL biosynthesis and an inhibitor of GSL biosynthesis. Presentation of these Ags required the expression of CD1d molecules that could traffic to late endosomes, the site where self-Ag is acquired. Extracts of APCs contain a self-Ag that could stimulate iNKT cells when added to plates coated with soluble, rCD1d molecules. The Ag(s) in these extracts are resistant to sphingolipid-specific hydrolase digestion, consistent with the results using live APCs. Lyosphosphatidylcholine, a potential self-Ag that activated human iNKT cell lines, did not activate mouse iNKT cell hybridomas. Our data indicate that there may be more than one type of self-Ag for iNKT cells, that the self-Ags comparing mouse and human may not be conserved, and that the search to identify these molecules should not be confined to GSLs.

  2. Rheumatoid arthritis and its association with HLA-DR antigens. I. Cell mediated immune response against connective tissue antigens.

    PubMed

    Vullo, C M; Pesoa, S A; Onetti, C M; Riera, C M

    1987-04-01

    HLA-DR antigens and cellular sensitivity to native bovine type I and type II collagen and proteoglycans were examined in patients with classic rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and normal individuals. Fifty eight percent of patients with RA (n = 88) and 28% of normals (n = 52) were DR4+ (pc less than 0.01). DR4 phenotype was significantly increased in patients with severe disease stages (III-IV), as defined by the ARA criteria, in contrast to those showing mild disease stages (I-II) (p less than 0.05). Furthermore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 55 patients and 30 controls were evaluated for the in vitro production of leukocyte inhibitory factor in response to native type I and type II collagen and proteoglycans. By using this assay, cells from the arthritic group exhibited a statistically significant response when stimulated with native type I collagen and proteoglycans. The cellular immune response was not associated with any particular HLA-DR antigens, or to the disease stage or severity.

  3. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Small T Antigen Mediates Microtubule Destabilization To Promote Cell Motility and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Laura M.; Stakaityte, Gabriele; Wood, Jennifer, J.; Abdul-Sada, Hussein; Griffiths, David A.; Howell, Gareth J.; Wheat, Rachel; Blair, G. Eric; Steven, Neil M.; Macdonald, Andrew; Blackbourn, David J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer of neuroendocrine origin with a high propensity for recurrence and metastasis. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) causes the majority of MCC cases due to the expression of the MCPyV small and large tumor antigens (ST and LT, respectively). Although a number of molecular mechanisms have been attributed to MCPyV tumor antigen-mediated cellular transformation or replication, to date, no studies have investigated any potential link between MCPyV T antigen expression and the highly metastatic nature of MCC. Here we use a quantitative proteomic approach to show that MCPyV ST promotes differential expression of cellular proteins implicated in microtubule-associated cytoskeletal organization and dynamics. Intriguingly, we demonstrate that MCPyV ST expression promotes microtubule destabilization, leading to a motile and migratory phenotype. We further highlight the essential role of the microtubule-associated protein stathmin in MCPyV ST-mediated microtubule destabilization and cell motility and implicate the cellular phosphatase catalytic subunit protein phosphatase 4C (PP4C) in the regulation of this process. These findings suggest a possible molecular mechanism for the highly metastatic phenotype associated with MCC. IMPORTANCE Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) causes the majority of cases of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), an aggressive skin cancer with a high metastatic potential. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to virally induced cancer development have yet to be fully elucidated. In particular, no studies have investigated any potential link between the virus and the highly metastatic nature of MCC. We demonstrate that the MCPyV small tumor antigen (ST) promotes the destabilization of the host cell microtubule network, which leads to a more motile and migratory cell phenotype. We further show that MCPyV ST induces this process by regulating the phosphorylation status of the cellular microtubule

  4. Preserved Activity of CD20-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Expressing T Cells in the Presence of Rituximab.

    PubMed

    Rufener, Gregory A; Press, Oliver W; Olsen, Philip; Lee, Sang Yun; Jensen, Michael C; Gopal, Ajay K; Pender, Barbara; Budde, Lihua E; Rossow, Jeffrey K; Green, Damian J; Maloney, David G; Riddell, Stanley R; Till, Brian G

    2016-06-01

    CD20 is an attractive immunotherapy target for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and adoptive transfer of T cells genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting CD20 is a promising strategy. A theoretical limitation is that residual serum rituximab might block CAR binding to CD20 and thereby impede T cell-mediated anti-lymphoma responses. The activity of CD20 CAR-modified T cells in the presence of various concentrations of rituximab was tested in vitro and in vivo CAR-binding sites on CD20(+) tumor cells were blocked by rituximab in a dose-dependent fashion, although at 37°C blockade was incomplete at concentrations up to 200 μg/mL. T cells with CD20 CARs also exhibited modest dose-dependent reductions in cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity, but not proliferation, against lymphoma cell lines. At rituximab concentrations of 100 μg/mL, CAR T cells retained ≥50% of baseline activity against targets with high CD20 expression, but were more strongly inhibited when target cells expressed low CD20. In a murine xenograft model using a rituximab-refractory lymphoma cell line, rituximab did not impair CAR T-cell activity, and tumors were eradicated in >85% of mice. Clinical residual rituximab serum concentrations were measured in 103 lymphoma patients after rituximab therapy, with the median level found to be only 38 μg/mL (interquartile range, 19-72 μg/mL). Thus, despite modest functional impairment in vitro, the in vivo activity of CD20-targeted CAR T cells remains intact at clinically relevant levels of rituximab, making use of these T cells clinically feasible. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 509-19. ©2016 AACR

  5. N-alkylated isatins evade P-gp mediated efflux and retain potency in MDR cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Vine, Kara L; Belfiore, Lisa; Jones, Luke; Locke, Julie M; Wade, Samantha; Minaei, Elahe; Ranson, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The search for novel anticancer therapeutics with the ability to overcome multi-drug resistance (MDR) mechanisms is of high priority. A class of molecules that show potential in overcoming MDR are the N-alkylated isatins. In particular 5,7-dibromo-N-alkylisatins are potent microtubule destabilizing agents that act to depolymerize microtubules, induce apoptosis and inhibit primary tumor growth in vivo. In this study we evaluated the ability of four dibrominated N-alkylisatin derivatives and the parent compound, 5,7-dibromoisatin, to circumvent MDR. All of the isatin-based compounds examined retained potency against the MDR cell lines; U937VbR and MES-SA/Dx5 and displayed bioequivalent dose-dependent cytotoxicity to that of the parental control cell lines. We show that one mechanism by which the isatin-based compounds overcome MDR is by circumventing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated drug efflux. Thus, as the isatin-based compounds are not susceptible to extrusion from P-gp overexpressing tumor cells, they represent a promising alternative strategy as a stand-alone or combination therapy for treating MDR cancer.

  6. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells induce tolerance predominantly by cargoing antigen to lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Karan; Janssen, Anika

    2016-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) have been shown to induce tolerance to innocuous antigens. Their migratory properties allow them to take up antigens from the periphery and transport them to the draining lymph nodes or to the thymus. However, pDC‐T‐cell interaction in the primary and secondary lymphoid organs still remains poorly defined. In this study, we show that resting pDCs loaded with exogenous antigen could induce tolerance when transferred intralymphatically into a single lymph node of wild‐type C57BL/6 mice. However, this was a result of antigen transfer from pDCs to endogenous antigen presenting cells and subsequent abortive proliferation of cognate CD4+ T cells. pDCs could not directly induce the proliferation of CD4+ T cells, as observed in mice lacking MHC class II gene. Moreover, pDCs failed to make physical contacts with OT‐II cells as revealed by two‐photon imaging. Thus, the role of resting pDCs in tolerance induction seems to be independent of its direct interaction with cognate CD4+ T cells. PMID:27592607

  7. Chaperokine function of recombinant Hsp72 produced in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system is retained.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongying; Nagaraja, Ganachari M; Kaur, Punit; Asea, Edwina E; Asea, Alexzander

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72; inducible form of the 70-kDa heat shock protein) plays a critical role in innate and adaptive immune responses and has shown promise as an ideal adjuvant for the optimization of antigen-specific anti-tumor vaccines. Recent studies suggest that to correctly elucidate the mechanisms by which Hsp72 exerts its beneficial effects in vitro, great care must be taken to ensure that endotoxin by-products do not invalidate the findings. In this study, we have taken advantage of the baculovirus expression vector system for production of endotoxin-free recombinant Hsp72. The coding sequence of human hsp72 was recombined into the baculovirus immediately downstream of the strong polyhedron gene promoter. Ninety-six h post-infection of Sf9 insect cells with recombinant baculovirus, maximal levels of Hsp72 protein were detected. The recombinant human Hsp72 was purified by affinity chromatography from insect cells, and purity was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. The purified human recombinant Hsp72(bv) (Hsp72 produced using the BEVS) was demonstrated to have no endotoxin contamination and was shown to have stimulated potent calcium flux in the human monocytic cell line. Furthermore, recombinant Hsp72(bv) enhanced the tolerance of neuroblastoma cells to heat stress-induced cell death and displayed classical chaperokine functions including augmentation of inflammatory cytokine productions in mouse splenocytes. The production of functional, endotoxin-free recombinant human Hsp72(bv) in insect cells is inexpensive and convenient and eliminates the need of special procedures for endotoxin depletion. Endotoxin-free recombinant human Hsp72(bv) can now be used to unlock the important role Hsp72 plays in modulating immune function.

  8. Ia antigens are expressed on ATPase-positive dendritic cells in chicken epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Torres, A; Millan Aldaco, D A

    1994-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LC) are antigen-presenting dendritic cells located in mammalian epidermis and in other stratified epithelia. We recently demonstrated the presence of Langerhans-like cells in the epidermis of the chicken using ultrastructural histochemistry for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). The aim of the present study was to test whether ATPase-positive dendritic cells also express class II histocompatibility molecules (Ia antigens) encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), using a double staining technique, in separated chicken epidermal sheets. We concluded that the epidermal dendritic cells observed are the LC of the chicken, based on their morphology and spatial distribution, but mainly on the complete overlap for ATPase reaction and Ia antigen expression, these being reliable markers for the identification of mammalian LC. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs 7,8 Figs 9,10 Figs 11,12 PMID:7928646

  9. Antigen recognition. V. Requirement for histocompatibility between antigen-presenting cell and B cell in the response to a thymus- dependent antigen, and lack of allogeneic restriction between T and B cells

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    The restrictions imposed by the major histocompatibility complex on T-B- antigen-presenting cell (APC) interactions were studied with an in vivo adoptive transfer system, using mutually tolerant T and B cells taken from one-way fetal liver chimeras. It was found that the B cells and adoptive recipient (which provides APC function) have to share determinants encoded by the left-hand end of the H-2 complex for cooperation, whereas there is apparently no such requirement for T-B cell syngeneicity. Suppression arising from allogeneic effects between the host and the transferred T or B cells was excluded by the use of tolerant as well as normal adoptive recipients; both were functionally equivalent. We conclude that under experimental conditions, unrestricted helper T cell function and concurrent APC-B cell genetic restriction can be demonstrated in vivo. PMID:7276826

  10. Linking the T cell receptor to the single cell transcriptome in antigen-specific human T cells.

    PubMed

    Eltahla, Auda A; Rizzetto, Simone; Pirozyan, Mehdi R; Betz-Stablein, Brigid D; Venturi, Vanessa; Kedzierska, Katherine; Lloyd, Andrew R; Bull, Rowena A; Luciani, Fabio

    2016-07-01

    Heterogeneity of T cells is a hallmark of a successful adaptive immune response, harnessing the vast diversity of antigen-specific T cells into a coordinated evolution of effector and memory outcomes. The T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is highly diverse to account for the highly heterogeneous antigenic world. During the response to a virus multiple individual clones of antigen specific CD8+ (Ag-specific) T cells can be identified against a single epitope and multiple epitopes are recognised. Advances in single-cell technologies have provided the potential to study Ag-specific T cell heterogeneity at both surface phenotype and transcriptome levels, thereby allowing investigation of the diversity within the same apparent sub-population. We propose a new method (VDJPuzzle) to reconstruct the native TCRαβ from single cell RNA-seq data of Ag-specific T cells and then to link these with the gene expression profile of individual cells. We applied this method using rare Ag-specific T cells isolated from peripheral blood of a subject who cleared hepatitis C virus infection. We successfully reconstructed productive TCRαβ in 56 of a total of 63 cells (89%), with double α and double β in 18, and 7% respectively, and double TCRαβ in 2 cells. The method was validated via standard single cell PCR sequencing of the TCR. We demonstrate that single-cell transcriptome analysis can successfully distinguish Ag-specific T cell populations sorted directly from resting memory cells in peripheral blood and sorted after ex vivo stimulation. This approach allows a detailed analysis of the TCR diversity and its relationship with the transcriptional profile of different clones.

  11. Spatiotemporally separated antigen uptake by alveolar dendritic cells and airway presentation to T cells in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Emily E.; Looney, Mark R.; Bose, Oishee; Sen, Debasish; Sheppard, Dean; Locksley, Richard; Huang, Xiaozhu

    2012-01-01

    Asthma pathogenesis is focused around conducting airways. The reasons for this focus have been unclear because it has not been possible to track the sites and timing of antigen uptake or subsequent antigen presentation to effector T cells. In this study, we use two-photon microscopy of the lung parenchyma and note accumulation of CD11b+ dendritic cells (DCs) around the airway after allergen challenge but very limited access of these airway-adjacent DCs to the contents of the airspace. In contrast, we observed prevalent transepithelial uptake of particulate antigens by alveolar DCs. These distinct sites are temporally linked, as early antigen uptake in alveoli gives rise to DC and antigen retention in the airway-adjacent region. Antigen-specific T cells also accumulate in the airway-adjacent region after allergen challenge and are activated by the accumulated DCs. Thus, we propose that later airway hyperreactivity results from selective retention of allergen-presenting DCs and antigen-specific T cells in airway-adjacent interaction zones, not from variation in the abilities of individual DCs to survey the lung. PMID:22585735

  12. Murine T-Cell Response to Native and Recombinant Protein Antigens of Rickettsia Tsutsugamushi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    Wright, and J. Sadoff. 1985. 18-kilodalton protein of Mycobacterium leprae recognized by Immunoenzymatic analysis by monoclonal antibodies of bacte- Vo...determinants and closely resembles T-cell antigenic determinants, Rothbard and Taylor, by the GroEL homolog (65 kDa) of Mycobacterium tuberculo- analysis of...not be completely present in protein that is recognized by 20% of the mycobacterium - peptide 91-110. If this were the core of the antigenic deter

  13. Alloantigen-specific regulatory T cells generated with a chimeric antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Katherine G; Hoeppli, Romy E; Huang, Qing; Gillies, Jana; Luciani, Dan S; Orban, Paul C; Broady, Raewyn; Levings, Megan K

    2016-04-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy with regulatory T cells (Tregs) is a promising treatment for allograft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Emerging data indicate that, compared with polyclonal Tregs, disease-relevant antigen-specific Tregs may have numerous advantages, such as a need for fewer cells and reduced risk of nonspecific immune suppression. Current methods to generate alloantigen-specific Tregs rely on expansion with allogeneic antigen-presenting cells, which requires access to donor and recipient cells and multiple MHC mismatches. The successful use of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for the generation of antigen-specific effector T cells suggests that a similar approach could be used to generate alloantigen-specific Tregs. Here, we have described the creation of an HLA-A2-specific CAR (A2-CAR) and its application in the generation of alloantigen-specific human Tregs. In vitro, A2-CAR-expressing Tregs maintained their expected phenotype and suppressive function before, during, and after A2-CAR-mediated stimulation. In mouse models, human A2-CAR-expressing Tregs were superior to Tregs expressing an irrelevant CAR at preventing xenogeneic GVHD caused by HLA-A2+ T cells. Together, our results demonstrate that use of CAR technology to generate potent, functional, and stable alloantigen-specific human Tregs markedly enhances their therapeutic potential in transplantation and sets the stage for using this approach for making antigen-specific Tregs for therapy of multiple diseases.

  14. Production kinetics and immunochemical properties of carcinoembryonic antigen and nonspecific cross-reacting antigen synthesized by various human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ichiki, S; Kuroki, M; Kuroki, M; Koga, Y; Matsuoka, Y

    1986-05-01

    The production kinetics and immunochemical properties of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (NCA) in various human tumor cell lines were studied. By radioimmunoassay (RIA), five CEA-producing tumor cell lines tested--2 derived from colonic (M7609 and CCK-81), one from pancreatic (QGP-1) and 2 from lung (HLC-1 and KNS-62) carcinomas--were found to produce NCA simultaneously. The cellular contents of CEA and NCA and the amounts of both antigens released into the culture medium were highly variable among the cell lines. It was a distinct contrast that one cell line (CCK-81) released very large amounts of CEA and NCA into the medium while having the smallest amounts of both antigens in the cells, whereas the others contained much larger amounts of the antigens in the cells as compared with the amounts released into the medium. For most of the cell lines, the production of both CEA and NCA increased in the stationary phase of growth as compared with the exponential phase. The production kinetics of both CEA and NCA appeared to be parallel with each other in all the cell lines, though the amount ratio of CEA to NCA produced was variable. By means of a double immunodiffusion test with polyclonal antibodies, antigenic uniformity with no unique organ-specificity was confirmed for all the CEA preparations from spent media of the cell lines, though some differences in the sugar moiety of CEA were detected by RIA using monoclonal antibodies. No antigenic differences among NCA preparations were observed. Upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), molecular heterogeneity was observed among CEA or NCA preparations isolated from cell lysates.

  15. Quantitative immunophenotypic analysis of antigen-presenting cells involved in ectromelia virus antigen presentation in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Szulc-Dąbrowska, Lidia; Gieryńska, Małgorzata; Boratyńska-Jasińska, Anna; Martyniszyn, Lech; Winnicka, Anna; Niemiałtowski, Marek G

    2013-08-01

    During mousepox in resistant (C57BL/6) or susceptible (BALB/c) strains of mice, stimulation of Th1 or Th2 cytokine immune response, respectively, is observed. Because mechanisms of different polarization of T cells remain elusive, in this study, we quantitatively assessed the phenotype of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) involved in ectromelia virus (ECTV) antigen presentation and cluster formation with effector cells in secondary lymphoid organs of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We showed that both strains of mice display similar dynamics and kinetics of viral antigen presentation by CD11c(+) , CD11b(+) , and CD19(+) cells. CD11c(+) and CD11b(+) cells highly participated in viral antigen presentation during all stages of mousepox, whereas CD19(+) cells presented viral peptides later in infection. The main population of dendritic cells (DCs) engaged in ECTV antigen presentation and cell junction formation with effector cells was a population of myeloid CD11b(+) DCs (mDCs). We suggest that, on the one hand, ECTV may differentially affect the functions of APCs depending on the strain of mice. On the other hand, we suggest that some types of APCs, such as mDCs or other DCs subsets, have different abilities to direct the shape of immune response depending on the host resistance to mousepox.

  16. The effect of erythrocyte antigen structure on requirement for T cells*

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, W.; Feldmann, Marc; Palmer, J.

    1974-01-01

    The induction in mice of a humoral immune response to intact sheep erythrocytes, both in vivo and in vitro, requires participation of thymus-derived (T) lymphocytes. In an in vitro system, spleen cells from both neonatally thymectomized and adult thymectomized irradiated bone marrow protected mice were successfully immunized, using washed sonicated sheep erythrocyte membrane fragments as antigen. This obviation of the requirement of T lymphocytes in the immune response, coupled with previous work on macrophage independence, indicates that sonicated membrane fragments were capable of directly immunizing bone marrow-derived (B) lymphocytes in vitro. These results further confirm the signal importance of antigenic structure in determining the cellular requirements for an immunological response; whereas antigens of particulate or monomeric form require the presence of both T cells and macrophages, polymeric antigens of intermediate size such as polymerized flagellin and sonicated sheep erythrocyte membranes require neither of these accessory cells. The results caution against the use of erythrocytes as models of thymus-dependent antigens. The data further suggest that reports of late antibody responses of relatively normal magnitude in thymectomized animals given larger doses of heterologous erythrocytes may have been due to direct immunization of B lymphocytes by degraded erythrocyte antigen. PMID:4138234

  17. Development of an algorithm for production of inactivated arbovirus antigens in cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, C.H.; Russell, B.J.; Velez, J.O.; Laven, J.J.; Nicholson, W.L; Bagarozzi, D.A.; Moon, J.L.; Bedi, K.; Johnson, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    Arboviruses are medically important pathogens that cause human disease ranging from a mild fever to encephalitis. Laboratory diagnosis is essential to differentiate arbovirus infections from other pathogens with similar clinical manifestations. The Arboviral Diseases Branch (ADB) reference laboratory at the CDC Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) produces reference antigens used in serological assays such as the virus-specific immunoglobulin M antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). Antigen production in cell culture has largely replaced the use of suckling mice; however, the methods are not directly transferable. The development of a cell culture antigen production algorithm for nine arboviruses from the three main arbovirus families, Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Bunyaviridae, is described here. Virus cell culture growth and harvest conditions were optimized, inactivation methods were evaluated, and concentration procedures were compared for each virus. Antigen performance was evaluated by the MAC-ELISA at each step of the procedure. The antigen production algorithm is a framework for standardization of methodology and quality control; however, a single antigen production protocol was not applicable to all arboviruses and needed to be optimized for each virus. PMID:25102428

  18. Development of an algorithm for production of inactivated arbovirus antigens in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Goodman, C H; Russell, B J; Velez, J O; Laven, J J; Nicholson, W L; Bagarozzi, D A; Moon, J L; Bedi, K; Johnson, B W

    2014-11-01

    Arboviruses are medically important pathogens that cause human disease ranging from a mild fever to encephalitis. Laboratory diagnosis is essential to differentiate arbovirus infections from other pathogens with similar clinical manifestations. The Arboviral Diseases Branch (ADB) reference laboratory at the CDC Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) produces reference antigens used in serological assays such as the virus-specific immunoglobulin M antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). Antigen production in cell culture has largely replaced the use of suckling mice; however, the methods are not directly transferable. The development of a cell culture antigen production algorithm for nine arboviruses from the three main arbovirus families, Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Bunyaviridae, is described here. Virus cell culture growth and harvest conditions were optimized, inactivation methods were evaluated, and concentration procedures were compared for each virus. Antigen performance was evaluated by the MAC-ELISA at each step of the procedure. The antigen production algorithm is a framework for standardization of methodology and quality control; however, a single antigen production protocol was not applicable to all arboviruses and needed to be optimized for each virus.

  19. Observation of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells retained inside the non-woven fiber matrix of the CellTank bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Chotteau, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    This data article shows how the recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are located in the interstices of the matrix fibers of a CellTank bioreactor after completion of a perfusion culture, supporting the article entitled "Very high cell density perfusion of CHO cells anchored in a non-woven matrix-based bioreactor" by Zhang et al. [1]. It provides a visualization of the cell distribution in the non-woven fiber matrix in a deeper view.

  20. Observation of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells retained inside the non-woven fiber matrix of the CellTank bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Chotteau, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    This data article shows how the recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are located in the interstices of the matrix fibers of a CellTank bioreactor after completion of a perfusion culture, supporting the article entitled “Very high cell density perfusion of CHO cells anchored in a non-woven matrix-based bioreactor” by Zhang et al. [1]. It provides a visualization of the cell distribution in the non-woven fiber matrix in a deeper view. PMID:26958613

  1. Improved poliovirus D-antigen yields by application of different Vero cell cultivation methods.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Yvonne E; Rubingh, Olaf; Wijffels, René H; van der Pol, Leo A; Bakker, Wilfried A M

    2014-05-19

    Vero cells were grown adherent to microcarriers (Cytodex 1; 3 g L(-1)) using animal component free media in stirred-tank type bioreactors. Different strategies for media refreshment, daily media replacement (semi-batch), continuous media replacement (perfusion) and recirculation of media, were compared with batch cultivation. Cell densities increased using a feed strategy from 1×10(6) cells mL(-1) during batch cultivation to 1.8, 2.7 and 5.0×10(6) cells mL(-1) during semi-batch, perfusion and recirculation, respectively. The effects of these different cell culture strategies on subsequent poliovirus production were investigated. Increased cell densities allowed up to 3 times higher D-antigen levels when compared with that obtained from batch-wise Vero cell culture. However, the cell specific D-antigen production was lower when cells were infected at higher cell densities. This cell density effect is in good agreement with observations for different cell lines and virus types. From the evaluated alternative culture methods, application of a semi-batch mode of operations allowed the highest cell specific D-antigen production. The increased product yields that can easily be reached using these higher cell density cultivation methods, showed the possibility for better use of bioreactor capacity for the manufacturing of polio vaccines to ultimately reduce vaccine cost per dose. Further, the use of animal-component-free cell- and virus culture media shows opportunities for modernization of human viral vaccine manufacturing.

  2. A sharp T-cell antigen receptor signaling threshold for T-cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Au-Yeung, Byron B.; Zikherman, Julie; Mueller, James L.; Ashouri, Judith F.; Matloubian, Mehrdad; Cheng, Debra A.; Chen, Yiling; Shokat, Kevan M.; Weiss, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling is essential for activation, proliferation, and effector function of T cells. Modulation of both intensity and duration of TCR signaling can regulate these events. However, it remains unclear how individual T cells integrate such signals over time to make critical cell-fate decisions. We have previously developed an engineered mutant allele of the critical T-cell kinase zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 kDa (Zap70) that is catalytically inhibited by a small molecule inhibitor, thereby blocking TCR signaling specifically and efficiently. We have also characterized a fluorescent reporter Nur77–eGFP transgenic mouse line in which T cells up-regulate GFP uniquely in response to TCR stimulation. The combination of these technologies unmasked a sharp TCR signaling threshold for commitment to cell division both in vitro and in vivo. Further, we demonstrate that this threshold is independent of both the magnitude of the TCR stimulus and Interleukin 2. Similarly, we identify a temporal threshold of TCR signaling that is required for commitment to proliferation, after which T cells are able to proliferate in a Zap70 kinase-independent manner. Taken together, our studies reveal a sharp threshold for the magnitude and duration of TCR signaling required for commitment of T cells to proliferation. These results have important implications for understanding T-cell responses to infection and optimizing strategies for immunomodulatory drug delivery. PMID:25136127

  3. Antigen-presenting cells in human cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major.

    PubMed Central

    ElHassan, A M; Gaafar, A; Theander, T G

    1995-01-01

    In this study biopsies from skin lesions and draining lymph nodes of patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major were examined by immunohistochemistry, and by light and electron microscopy to identify the types of antigen-presenting cells (APC) and their location. APC, identified morphologically and by their expression of specific cell markers, included Langerhans cells, macrophages, follicular dendritic cells, and interdigitating reticulum cells of the paracortex of lymph nodes. These cells expressed MHC class II antigens and contained Leishmania antigen. Since some keratinocytes and endothelial cells also showed these characteristics, they may also act as APC. By examining tissue samples from skin lesions and draining lymph nodes it was possible to follow the probable route of trafficking of various inflammatory cells between the skin lesion and lymph nodes. Leishmania antigen containing Langerhans cells were found in the epidermis, dermis and the regional lymph nodes. We believe these cells translocate from the epidermis to the dermis, where they take up antigen and migrate to the paracortex of the regional lymph nodes. There they are intimately associated with cells of the paracortex, and could be involved in the generation of Leishmania-specific T memory cells. LFA-1-positive T cells of the CD45RO phenotype were found in the skin lesion. Venular endothelium in the skin lesions expressed intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which is the ligand for LFA-1. The migration of lymphocytes from the vascular lumen to the site of inflammation is possibly a result of the interaction of these two adhesion molecules. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7882568

  4. TGF-β signaling is often attenuated during hepatotumorigenesis, but is retained for the malignancy of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xiaoxin; Lin, Shu; Yang, Junhua; Chen, Chen; Chen, Yun; Herzig, Maryanne C; Washburn, Kenneth; Halff, Glenn A; Walter, Christi A; Sun, Beicheng; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The role of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling in hepatocarcinogenesis remains controversial. We aimed to reveal TGF-β signaling status in human and murine tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the mechanisms that mediate TGF-β's role in regulating HCC malignancy. Here, TGF-β pathway component expression and activation in human and murine HCC tissues were measured with quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting assays. The role of TGF-β receptor and Smad signaling in the growth and survival of several HCC cell lines was determined with several in vitro and in vivo approaches. We found that TGF-β receptor II (TβRII) expression was downregulated in two different HCC patient cohorts. Consistently, Smad3 phosphorylation was also downregulated in HCC tissues in comparison to that in adjacent normal tissues. Interestingly, many HCC cell lines were sensitive to TGF-β and growth-inhibited by exogenous TGF-β. However, stable knockdown of TβRII inhibited cell growth on plastic and in soft agar, and induced apoptosis resulting in suppressed subcutaneous tumor growth and metastatic potential in vivo. Furthermore, knockdown of Smad4 also led to a significant inhibition of growth on plastic and in soft agar with concomitant increase of apoptosis, PTEN expression, and reduced nuclear accumulation of linker region-phosphorylated Smad3. Taken together, TGF-β signaling pathway plays a dichotomous role in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. It appears to suppress HCC development, but is retained for HCC cell survival and malignancy. Furthermore, Smad4 can mediate both growth inhibitory activity induced by exogenous TGF-β and the survival activity induced by autocrine TGF-β revealing a delicate selection of the two opposing activities of TGF-β during HCC evolution.

  5. Cationic liposomes promote antigen cross-presentation in dendritic cells by alkalizing the lysosomal pH and limiting the degradation of antigens

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Ochyl, Lukasz J; Yang, Ellen; Moon, James J

    2017-01-01

    Cationic liposomes (CLs) have been widely examined as vaccine delivery nanoparticles since they can form complexes with biomacromolecules, promote delivery of antigens and adjuvant molecules to antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and mediate cellular uptake of vaccine components. CLs are also known to trigger antigen cross-presentation – the process by which APCs internalize extracellular protein antigens, degrade them into minimal CD8+ T-cell epitopes, and present them in the context of major histocompatibility complex-I (MHC-I). However, the precise mechanisms behind CL-mediated induction of cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8+ T-cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we have developed two distinct CL systems and examined their impact on the lysosomal pH in dendritic cells (DCs), antigen degradation, and presentation of peptide:MHC-I complexes to antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells. To achieve this, we have used 3β-[N-(N′,N′-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] cholesterol (DC-Chol) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) as the prototypical components of CLs with tertiary amine groups and compared the effect of CLs and anionic liposomes on lysosomal pH, antigen degradation, and cross-presentation by DCs. Our results showed that CLs, but not anionic liposomes, elevated the lysosomal pH in DCs and reduced antigen degradation, thereby promoting cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8+ T-cell responses. These studies shed new light on CL-mediated cross-presentation and suggest that intracellular fate of vaccine components and subsequent immunological responses can be controlled by rational design of nanomaterials. PMID:28243087

  6. Cationic liposomes promote antigen cross-presentation in dendritic cells by alkalizing the lysosomal pH and limiting the degradation of antigens.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Ochyl, Lukasz J; Yang, Ellen; Moon, James J

    2017-01-01

    Cationic liposomes (CLs) have been widely examined as vaccine delivery nanoparticles since they can form complexes with biomacromolecules, promote delivery of antigens and adjuvant molecules to antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and mediate cellular uptake of vaccine components. CLs are also known to trigger antigen cross-presentation - the process by which APCs internalize extracellular protein antigens, degrade them into minimal CD8(+) T-cell epitopes, and present them in the context of major histocompatibility complex-I (MHC-I). However, the precise mechanisms behind CL-mediated induction of cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8(+) T-cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we have developed two distinct CL systems and examined their impact on the lysosomal pH in dendritic cells (DCs), antigen degradation, and presentation of peptide:MHC-I complexes to antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cells. To achieve this, we have used 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] cholesterol (DC-Chol) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) as the prototypical components of CLs with tertiary amine groups and compared the effect of CLs and anionic liposomes on lysosomal pH, antigen degradation, and cross-presentation by DCs. Our results showed that CLs, but not anionic liposomes, elevated the lysosomal pH in DCs and reduced antigen degradation, thereby promoting cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8(+) T-cell responses. These studies shed new light on CL-mediated cross-presentation and suggest that intracellular fate of vaccine components and subsequent immunological responses can be controlled by rational design of nanomaterials.

  7. Evaluation of the Antigen-Experienced B-Cell Receptor Repertoire in Healthy Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    IJspeert, Hanna; van Schouwenburg, Pauline A.; van Zessen, David; Pico-Knijnenburg, Ingrid; Driessen, Gertjan J.; Stubbs, Andrew P.; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Upon antigen recognition via their B cell receptor (BR), B cells migrate to the germinal center where they undergo somatic hypermutation (SHM) to increase their affinity for the antigen, and class switch recombination (CSR) to change the effector function of the secreted antibodies. These steps are essential to create an antigen-experienced BR repertoire that efficiently protects the body against pathogens. At the same time, the BR repertoire should be selected to protect against responses to self-antigen or harmless antigens. Insights into the processes of SHM, selection, and CSR can be obtained by studying the antigen-experienced BR repertoire. Currently, a large reference data set of healthy children and adults, which ranges from neonates to the elderly, is not available. In this study, we analyzed the antigen-experienced repertoire of 38 healthy donors (HD), ranging from cord blood to 74 years old, by sequencing IGA and IGG transcripts using next generation sequencing. This resulted in a large, freely available reference data set containing 412,890 IGA and IGG transcripts. We used this data set to study mutation levels, SHM patterns, antigenic selection, and CSR from birth to elderly HD. Only small differences were observed in SHM patterns, while the mutation levels increase in early childhood and stabilize at 6 years of age at around 7%. Furthermore, comparison of the antigen-experienced repertoire with sequences from the naive immune repertoire showed that features associated with autoimmunity such as long CDR3 length and IGHV4-34 usage are reduced in the antigen-experienced repertoire. Moreover, IGA2 and IGG2 usage was increased in HD in higher age categories, while IGG1 usage was decreased. In addition, we studied clonal relationship in the different samples. Clonally related sequences were found with different subclasses. Interestingly, we found transcripts with the same CDR1–CDR3 sequence, but different subclasses. Together, these data suggest that

  8. Pros and Cons of Antigen-Presenting Cell Targeted Tumor Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Goyvaerts, Cleo; Breckpot, Karine

    2015-01-01

    In therapeutic antitumor vaccination, dendritic cells play the leading role since they decide if, how, when, and where a potent antitumor immune response will take place. Since the disentanglement of the complexity and merit of different antigen-presenting cell subtypes, antitumor immunotherapeutic research started to investigate the potential benefit of targeting these subtypes in situ. This review will discuss which antigen-presenting cell subtypes are at play and how they have been targeted and finally question the true meaning of targeting antitumor-based vaccines.

  9. Pros and Cons of Antigen-Presenting Cell Targeted Tumor Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Goyvaerts, Cleo; Breckpot, Karine

    2015-01-01

    In therapeutic antitumor vaccination, dendritic cells play the leading role since they decide if, how, when, and where a potent antitumor immune response will take place. Since the disentanglement of the complexity and merit of different antigen-presenting cell subtypes, antitumor immunotherapeutic research started to investigate the potential benefit of targeting these subtypes in situ. This review will discuss which antigen-presenting cell subtypes are at play and how they have been targeted and finally question the true meaning of targeting antitumor-based vaccines. PMID:26583156

  10. Inhibition of immune opsonin-independent phagocytosis by antibody to a pulmonary macrophage cell surface antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Parod, R.J.; Godleski, J.J.; Brain J.D.

    1986-03-15

    Unlike other hamster phagoycytes, hamster pulmonary macrophages (PM) avidly ingest albumin-coated latex particles in the absence of serum. They also possess a highly specific cell surface antigen. To evaluate the relationship between these two characteristics, PM were incubated with mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the PM antigen. After unbound antibody was removed, the amount of bound antibody and the phagocytic capability of PM were measured by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Maximum antibody binding produced a 25% inhibition of ingestion. Particle attachment was not affected. This effect was antigen specific, since neither a nonspecific mouse myeloma protein of the same subclass nor a mouse antibody that bound to another hamster surface antigen had any effect on binding or ingestion. If antigen-specific F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments were introduced both before and during the period of phagocytosis, the inhibition of particle ingestion approached 100%. Particle binding increased at low F(ab')/sub 2/ concentrations but declined at higher concentrations. Because calcium may play a role in the ingestion process, the effect of antibody on /sup 45/Ca uptake was evaluated. It was observed that antigen-specific F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments stimulated /sup 45/Ca uptake, whereas control antibodies did not. These results suggest that the antigen reacting with the anti-hamster PM monoclonal antibody is involved in immune opsonin-independent phagocytosis and that calcium participates in this phagocytic process.

  11. Apical membrane antigen 1 mediates apicomplexan parasite attachment but is dispensable for host cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Bargieri, Daniel Y.; Andenmatten, Nicole; Lagal, Vanessa; Thiberge, Sabine; Whitelaw, Jamie A.; Tardieux, Isabelle; Meissner, Markus; Ménard, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites invade host cells by forming a ring-like junction with the cell surface and actively sliding through the junction inside an intracellular vacuole. Apical membrane antigen 1 is conserved in apicomplexans and a long-standing malaria vaccine candidate. It is considered to have multiple important roles during host cell penetration, primarily in structuring the junction by interacting with the rhoptry neck 2 protein and transducing the force generated by the parasite motor during internalization. Here, we generate Plasmodium sporozoites and merozoites and Toxoplasma tachyzoites lacking apical membrane antigen 1, and find that the latter two are impaired in host cell attachment but the three display normal host cell penetration through the junction. Therefore, apical membrane antigen 1, rather than an essential invasin, is a dispensable adhesin of apicomplexan zoites. These genetic data have implications on the use of apical membrane antigen 1 or the apical membrane antigen 1–rhoptry neck 2 interaction as targets of intervention strategies against malaria or other diseases caused by apicomplexans. PMID:24108241

  12. In vivo targeting of antigens to maturing dendritic cells via the DEC-205 receptor improves T cell vaccination.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Laura C; Bonnyay, David P; Charalambous, Anna; Darguste, Dara I; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Soares, Helena; Brimnes, Marie K; Moltedo, Bruno; Moran, Thomas M; Steinman, Ralph M

    2004-03-15

    The prevention and treatment of prevalent infectious diseases and tumors should benefit from improvements in the induction of antigen-specific T cell immunity. To assess the potential of antigen targeting to dendritic cells to improve immunity, we incorporated ovalbumin protein into a monoclonal antibody to the DEC-205 receptor, an endocytic receptor that is abundant on these cells in lymphoid tissues. Simultaneously, we injected agonistic alpha-CD40 antibody to mature the dendritic cells. We found that a single low dose of antibody-conjugated ovalbumin initiated immunity from the naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cell repertoire. Unexpectedly, the alphaDEC-205 antigen conjugates, given s.c., targeted to dendritic cells systemically and for long periods, and ovalbumin peptide was presented on MHC class I for 2 weeks. This was associated with stronger CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity relative to other forms of antigen delivery, even when the latter was given at a thousand times higher doses. In parallel, the mice showed enhanced resistance to an established rapidly growing tumor and to viral infection at a mucosal site. By better harnessing the immunizing functions of maturing dendritic cells, antibody-mediated antigen targeting via the DEC-205 receptor increases the efficiency of vaccination for T cell immunity, including systemic and mucosal resistance in disease models.

  13. A Single Subset of Dendritic Cells Controls the Cytokine Bias of Natural Killer T Cell Responses to Diverse Glycolipid Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Pooja; Baena, Andres; Yu, Karl O.A.; Saini, Neeraj K.; Kharkwal, Shalu S.; Goldberg, Michael F.; Kunnath-Velayudhan, Shajo; Carreño, Leandro J.; Venkataswamy, Manjunatha M.; Kim, John; Lazar-Molnar, Eszter; Lauvau, Gregoire; Chang, Young-tae; Liu, Zheng; Bittman, Robert; Al-Shamkhani, Aymen; Cox, Liam R.; Jervis, Peter J.; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Porcelli, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Many hematopoietic cell types express CD1d and are capable of presenting glycolipid antigens to invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells). However, the question of which cells are the principal presenters of glycolipid antigens in vivo remains controversial, and it has been suggested that this might vary depending on the structure of a particular glycolipid antigen. Here we have shown that a single type of cell, the CD8α+ DEC-205+ dendritic cell, was mainly responsible for capturing and presenting a variety of different glycolipid antigens, including multiple forms of α-galactosylceramide that stimulate widely divergent cytokine responses. After glycolipid presentation, these dendritic cells rapidly altered their expression of various costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules in a manner that was dependent on the structure of the antigen. These findings show flexibility in the outcome of two-way communication between CD8α+ dendritic cells and iNKT cells, providing a mechanism for biasing toward either proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:24412610

  14. A single subset of dendritic cells controls the cytokine bias of natural killer T cell responses to diverse glycolipid antigens.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pooja; Baena, Andres; Yu, Karl O A; Saini, Neeraj K; Kharkwal, Shalu S; Goldberg, Michael F; Kunnath-Velayudhan, Shajo; Carreño, Leandro J; Venkataswamy, Manjunatha M; Kim, John; Lazar-Molnar, Eszter; Lauvau, Gregoire; Chang, Young-tae; Liu, Zheng; Bittman, Robert; Al-Shamkhani, Aymen; Cox, Liam R; Jervis, Peter J; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal S; Porcelli, Steven A

    2014-01-16

    Many hematopoietic cell types express CD1d and are capable of presenting glycolipid antigens to invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells). However, the question of which cells are the principal presenters of glycolipid antigens in vivo remains controversial, and it has been suggested that this might vary depending on the structure of a particular glycolipid antigen. Here we have shown that a single type of cell, the CD8α(+) DEC-205(+) dendritic cell, was mainly responsible for capturing and presenting a variety of different glycolipid antigens, including multiple forms of α-galactosylceramide that stimulate widely divergent cytokine responses. After glycolipid presentation, these dendritic cells rapidly altered their expression of various costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules in a manner that was dependent on the structure of the antigen. These findings show flexibility in the outcome of two-way communication between CD8α(+) dendritic cells and iNKT cells, providing a mechanism for biasing toward either proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses.

  15. Identifying Individual T Cell Receptors of Optimal Avidity for Tumor Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Hebeisen, Michael; Allard, Mathilde; Gannon, Philippe O.; Schmidt, Julien; Speiser, Daniel E.; Rufer, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic T cells recognize, via their T cell receptors (TCRs), small antigenic peptides presented by the major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells and infected or malignant cells. The efficiency of T cell triggering critically depends on TCR binding to cognate pMHC, i.e., the TCR–pMHC structural avidity. The binding and kinetic attributes of this interaction are key parameters for protective T cell-mediated immunity, with stronger TCR–pMHC interactions conferring superior T cell activation and responsiveness than weaker ones. However, high-avidity TCRs are not always available, particularly among self/tumor antigen-specific T cells, most of which are eliminated by central and peripheral deletion mechanisms. Consequently, systematic assessment of T cell avidity can greatly help distinguishing protective from non-protective T cells. Here, we review novel strategies to assess TCR–pMHC interaction kinetics, enabling the identification of the functionally most-relevant T cells. We also discuss the significance of these technologies in determining which cells within a naturally occurring polyclonal tumor-specific T cell response would offer the best clinical benefit for use in adoptive therapies, with or without T cell engineering. PMID:26635796

  16. Germinal center B cells regulate their capability to present antigen by modulation of HLA-DO.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Kim S; Hake, Sandra B; Tobin, Helen M; Chadburn, Amy; Schattner, Elaine J; Denzin, Lisa K

    2002-04-15

    Peptide acquisition by MHC class II molecules is catalyzed by HLA-DM (DM). In B cells, HLA-DO (DO) inhibits or modifies the peptide exchange activity of DM. We show here that DO protein levels are modulated during B cell differentiation. Remarkably, germinal center (GC) B cells, which have low levels of DO relative to naive and memory B cells, are shown to have enhanced antigen presentation capabilities. DM protein levels also were somewhat reduced in GC B cells; however, the ratio of DM to DO in GC B cells was substantially increased, resulting in more free DM in GC B cells. We conclude that modulation of DM and DO in distinct stages of B cell differentiation represents a mechanism by which B cells regulate their capacity to function as antigen-presenting cells. Efficient antigen presentation in GC B cells would promote GC B cell-T cell interactions that are essential for B cells to survive positive selection in the GC.

  17. Targeting proliferating cell nuclear antigen and its protein interactions induces apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Müller, Rebekka; Misund, Kristine; Holien, Toril; Bachke, Siri; Gilljam, Karin M; Våtsveen, Thea K; Rø, Torstein B; Bellacchio, Emanuele; Sundan, Anders; Otterlei, Marit

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a hematological cancer that is considered incurable despite advances in treatment strategy during the last decade. Therapies targeting single pathways are unlikely to succeed due to the heterogeneous nature of the malignancy. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a multifunctional protein essential for DNA replication and repair that is often overexpressed in cancer cells. Many proteins involved in the cellular stress response interact with PCNA through the five amino acid sequence AlkB homologue 2 PCNA-interacting motif (APIM). Thus inhibiting PCNA's protein interactions may be a good strategy to target multiple pathways simultaneously. We initially found that overexpression of peptides containing the APIM sequence increases the sensitivity of cancer cells to contemporary therapeutics. Here we have designed a cell-penetrating APIM-containing peptide, ATX-101, that targets PCNA and show that it has anti-myeloma activity. We found that ATX-101 induced apoptosis in multiple myeloma cell lines and primary cancer cells, while bone marrow stromal cells and primary healthy lymphocytes were much less sensitive. ATX-101-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent and cell cycle phase-independent. ATX-101 also increased multiple myeloma cells' sensitivity against melphalan, a DNA damaging agent commonly used for treatment of multiple myeloma. In a xenograft mouse model, ATX-101 was well tolerated and increased the anti-tumor activity of melphalan. Therefore, targeting PCNA by ATX-101 may be a novel strategy in multiple myeloma treatment.

  18. Human dendritic cells adenovirally-engineered to express three defined tumor antigens promote broad adaptive and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Blalock, Leeann T; Landsberg, Jennifer; Messmer, Michelle; Shi, Jian; Pardee, Angela D; Haskell, Ronald; Vujanovic, Lazar; Kirkwood, John M; Butterfield, Lisa H

    2012-05-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy has shown a promising ability to promote anti-tumor immunity in vitro and in vivo. Many trials have tested single epitopes and single antigens to activate single T cell specificities, and often CD8(+) T cells only. We previously found that determinant spreading and breadth of antitumor immunity correlates with improved clinical response. Therefore, to promote activation and expansion of polyclonal, multiple antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, as well as provide cognate help from antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells, we have created an adenovirus encoding three full length melanoma tumor antigens (tyrosinase, MART-1 and MAGE-A6, "AdVTMM"). We previously showed that adenovirus (AdV)-mediated antigen engineering of human DC is superior to peptide pulsing for T cell activation, and has positive biological effects on the DC, allowing for efficient activation of not only antigen-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells, but also NK cells. Here we describe the cloning and testing of "AdVTMM2," an E1/E3-deleted AdV encoding the three melanoma antigens. This novel three-antigen virus expresses mRNA and protein for all antigens, and AdVTMM-transduced DC activate both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells which recognize melanoma tumor cells more efficiently than single antigen AdV. Addition of physiological levels of interferon-α (IFNα) further amplifies melanoma antigen-specific T cell activation. NK cells are also activated, and show cytotoxic activity. Vaccination with multi-antigen engineered DC may provide for superior adaptive and innate immunity and ultimately, improved antitumor responses.

  19. Human dendritic cells adenovirally-engineered to express three defined tumor antigens promote broad adaptive and innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Blalock, LeeAnn T.; Landsberg, Jennifer; Messmer, Michelle; Shi, Jian; Pardee, Angela D.; Haskell, Ronald; Vujanovic, Lazar; Kirkwood, John M.; Butterfield, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy has shown a promising ability to promote anti-tumor immunity in vitro and in vivo. Many trials have tested single epitopes and single antigens to activate single T cell specificities, and often CD8+ T cells only. We previously found that determinant spreading and breadth of antitumor immunity correlates with improved clinical response. Therefore, to promote activation and expansion of polyclonal, multiple antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, as well as provide cognate help from antigen-specific CD4+ T cells, we have created an adenovirus encoding three full length melanoma tumor antigens (tyrosinase, MART-1 and MAGE-A6, “AdVTMM”). We previously showed that adenovirus (AdV)-mediated antigen engineering of human DC is superior to peptide pulsing for T cell activation, and has positive biological effects on the DC, allowing for efficient activation of not only antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, but also NK cells. Here we describe the cloning and testing of “AdVTMM2,” an E1/E3-deleted AdV encoding the three melanoma antigens. This novel three-antigen virus expresses mRNA and protein for all antigens, and AdVTMM-transduced DC activate both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells which recognize melanoma tumor cells more efficiently than single antigen AdV. Addition of physiological levels of interferon-α (IFNα) further amplifies melanoma antigen-specific T cell activation. NK cells are also activated, and show cytotoxic activity. Vaccination with multi-antigen engineered DC may provide for superior adaptive and innate immunity and ultimately, improved antitumor responses. PMID:22737604

  20. Improving antigenic peptide vaccines for cancer immunotherapy using a dominant tumor-specific T cell receptor.

    PubMed

    Buhrman, Jonathan D; Jordan, Kimberly R; Munson, Daniel J; Moore, Brandon L; Kappler, John W; Slansky, Jill E

    2013-11-15

    Vaccines that incorporate peptide mimics of tumor antigens, or mimotope vaccines, are commonly used in cancer immunotherapy and function by eliciting increased numbers of T cells that cross-react with the native tumor antigen. Unfortunately, they often elicit T cells that do not cross-react with or that have low affinity for the tumor antigen. Using a high affinity tumor-specific T cell clone, we identified a panel of mimotope vaccines for the dominant peptide antigen from a mouse colon tumor that elicits a range of tumor protection following vaccination. The TCR from this high affinity T cell clone was rarely identified in ex vivo evaluation of tumor-specific T cells elicited by mimotope vaccination. Conversely, a low affinity clone found in the tumor and following immunization was frequently identified. Using peptide libraries, we determined if this frequently identified TCR improved the discovery of efficacious mimotopes. We demonstrated that the representative TCR identified more protective mimotopes than the high affinity TCR. These results suggest that targeting a dominant fraction of tumor-specific T cells generates potent immunity and that consideration of the available T cell repertoire is necessary for targeted T cell therapy. These results have important implications when optimizing mimotope vaccines for cancer immunotherapy.

  1. Diversification of the antigen-specific T cell receptor repertoire after varicella zoster vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Qian; Cavanagh, Mary M.; Le Saux, Sabine; NamKoong, Hong; Kim, Chulwoo; Turgano, Emerson; Liu, Yi; Wang, Chen; Mackey, Sally; Swan, Gary E.; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Olshen, Richard A.; Boyd, Scott D.; Weyand, Cornelia M.; Tian, Lu; Goronzy, Jörg J.

    2016-01-01

    Diversity and size of the antigen-specific T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire are two critical determinants for successful control of chronic infection. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) that establishes latency during childhood is able to escape control mechanisms, in particular with increasing age. We examined the TCR diversity of VZV-reactive CD4 T cells in individuals older than 50 years by studying three identical twin pairs and three unrelated individuals before and after vaccination with live attenuated VZV. While all individuals had a small number of dominant T cell clones, the breadth of the VZV-specific repertoire differed markedly. A genetic influence was seen for the sharing of individual TCR sequences from antigen-reactive cells, but not for repertoire richness or the selection of dominant clones. VZV vaccination favored the expansion of infrequent VZV antigen-reactive TCRs including those from naïve T cells with lesser boosting of dominant T cell clones. Thus, vaccination does not reinforce the in vivo selection occurred during chronic infection but leads to a diversification of the VZV-reactive T cell repertoire. However, a single booster immunization seems insufficient to establish new clonal dominance. Our results suggest that repertoire analysis of antigen-specific TCRs can be an important read-out to assess whether a vaccination was able to generate memory cells in clonal sizes that are necessary for immune protection. PMID:27030598

  2. Identification of an endosomal antigen specific to absorptive cells of suckling rat ileum

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    A membrane fraction enriched in apical endosomal tubules was isolated from absorptive cells of suckling rat ileum and used as an immunogen to generate anti-endosome monoclonal antibodies. By immunofluorescence, one of these antibodies bound exclusively to the region of the apical endocytic complex in ileal absorptive cells, but not to other cell types. Immunoblot analysis showed the antigen as a diffuse 55-61-kD band which was highly enriched in the endosome fraction over whole-cell homogenate. The antigen appears to be an intramembrane glycoprotein: it partitioned primarily in the detergent phase after TX-114 extraction, and shifted to 44 kD after chemical deglycosylation. EM immunocytochemistry showed that the antibody bound to the luminal side of endosomal tubule membranes, a portion of endosomal vesicle membranes, and in endocytic pits of apical plasma membranes. However, it did not bind to multivesicular bodies, the giant lysosome, or other organelles. Immunocytochemistry after uptake with adsorbed or soluble tracer proteins showed that the antigen labeled portions of both prelysosomal pathways previously described in these cells (Gonnella, P.A., and M. R. Neutra, 1984, J. Cell Biol., 99:909-917). The function of this glycoprotein is not known, but inasmuch as it has been detected only in absorptive cells of suckling rat ileum, it may serve a function specific to these cells. Nevertheless, this endosomal antigen, designated glycoprotein (gp) 55-61, will serve as a useful marker for exploring membrane dynamics in early stages of the endocytic pathway. PMID:3305521

  3. 77 FR 3482 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of T Cell Receptors and Chimeric Antigen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of T Cell Receptors and Chimeric Antigen Receptors Into.../057272 and foreign equivalents thereof entitled ``Anti-MAGE-A3 T cell receptors and related materials and... Patent Application No. PCT/US2011/051537 and foreign equivalents thereof entitled ``Anti-SSX-2 T...

  4. T Cell Receptors that Recognize the Tyrosinase Tumor Antigen | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute, Surgery Branch, Tumor Immunology Section, is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize T Cells Attacking Cancer: T Cell Receptors that Recognize the Tyrosinase Tumor Antigen

  5. Antigen-Experienced T cells Limit the Priming of Naïve T cells During Infection with Leishmania major1

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Peter M.; Reiner, Steven L.; Smith, Deborah F.; Kaye, Paul M.; Scott, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    One mechanism to control immune responses following infection is to rapidly down regulate antigen presentation, which has been observed in acute viral and bacterial infections. Here we describe experiments designed to address whether antigen presentation is decreased after an initial response to Leishmania major. Naïve α-β-Leishmania-specific (ABLE) T cell receptor transgenic T cells were adoptively transferred into mice at various times after L. major infection to determine the duration of presentation of parasite-derived antigens. ABLE T cells responded vigorously at the initiation of infection, but the ability to prime these cells quickly diminished, independent of IL-10, regulatory T cells or antigen load. However, antigen-experienced clonal and polyclonal T cell populations could respond, indicating that the diminution in naïve ABLE cell responses was not due to lack of antigen presentation. Since naïve T cell priming could be restored by removal of the endogenous T cell population, or adoptive transfer of antigen pulsed dendritic cells, it appears that T cells that have previously encountered antigen during infection compete with naïve antigen-specific T cells. These results suggest that during L. major infection antigen-experienced T cells, rather than naïve T cells, may be primarily responsible for sustaining the immune response. PMID:16818747

  6. Comparison of Patterns of Accumulation of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Antigen and Catalytic Activity and Measurement of Antigen Half-Life during the Cell Cycle of Chlorella sorokiniana1

    PubMed Central

    Toman, P. David; Schmidt, Robert R.

    1985-01-01

    By use of specific immunochemical procedures, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase), antigen and catalytic activity were shown to have coincident step-patterns of accumulation during the cell cycle of Chlorella sorokiniana. Pulse-chase studies, employing radioactive sulfate, were performed during the period of rapid accumulation of enzyme activity and during the period of constant enzyme activity in the cell cycle. No degradation of RuBPCase antigen could be detected during either of these cell cycle periods. Thus, the step-pattern of accumulation of RuBPCase activity resulted from periodic synthesis of an enzyme that was stable under steady-state cell cycle conditions. Although inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide, at different times in the cell cycle in the light, resulted in rapid decay of RuBPCase activity, this loss in activity occurred without detectable loss in enzyme antigen. When synchronous cells were placed into the dark, to slow the rate of protein synthesis in the absence of cycloheximide, the levels of enzyme antigen and activity decreased by 30 and 50%, respectively, during the 10-hour dark period. Thus, in C. sorokiniana changes in RuBPCase activity do not necessarily reflect parallel changes in enzyme antigen, particularly when cell growth is perturbed by changes from steady-state cultural conditions. PMID:16664496

  7. Antigenic properties and diagnostic potential of puumala virus nucleocapsid protein expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, O; Lundkvist, A; Kallio-Kokko, H; Paukku, K; Julkunen, I; Lankinen, H; Vaheri, A

    1996-01-01

    Puumala virus (PUU) is a member of the genus Hantavirus in the family Bunyaviridae and the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, a European form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Sera of nephropathia epidemica patients react specifically with PUU nucleocapsid (N) protein. In order to safely provide large quantities of antigen for diagnostic purposes, PUU Sotkamo strain N protein was expressed by using the baculovirus system in Sf9 insect cells to up to 30 to 50% of the total cellular protein. The recombinant N protein (bac-PUU-N) was solubilized with 6 M urea, dialyzed, and purified by anion-exchange liquid chromatography. In an immunoglobulin M mu-capture assay purified and unpurified bac-PUU-N antigen showed identical results compared with the results of a similar assay based on native PUU antigen grown in Vero E6 cells. An immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibody-capture assay based on unpurified bac-PUU-N also showed results identical to those of an assay with native PUU-N antigen. Moreover, a panel of monoclonal antibodies reactive with eight different epitopes showed identical reactivity patterns with both natural and bac-PUU-N antigen, while two epitopes in PUU-N expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli were not recognized. Puumala hantavirus N protein expressed by the baculovirus system offers a safe and inexpensive source of specific antigen for large-scale diagnostic and seroepidemiological purposes. PMID:8748286

  8. In Vivo Targeting of Antigens to Maturing Dendritic Cells via the DEC-205 Receptor Improves T Cell Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bonifaz, Laura C.; Bonnyay, David P.; Charalambous, Anna; Darguste, Dara I.; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Soares, Helena; Brimnes, Marie K.; Moltedo, Bruno; Moran, Thomas M.; Steinman, Ralph M.

    2004-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of prevalent infectious diseases and tumors should benefit from improvements in the induction of antigen-specific T cell immunity. To assess the potential of antigen targeting to dendritic cells to improve immunity, we incorporated ovalbumin protein into a monoclonal antibody to the DEC-205 receptor, an endocytic receptor that is abundant on these cells in lymphoid tissues. Simultaneously, we injected agonistic α-CD40 antibody to mature the dendritic cells. We found that a single low dose of antibody-conjugated ovalbumin initiated immunity from the naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cell repertoire. Unexpectedly, the αDEC-205 antigen conjugates, given s.c., targeted to dendritic cells systemically and for long periods, and ovalbumin peptide was presented on MHC class I for 2 weeks. This was associated with stronger CD8+ T cell–mediated immunity relative to other forms of antigen delivery, even when the latter was given at a thousand times higher doses. In parallel, the mice showed enhanced resistance to an established rapidly growing tumor and to viral infection at a mucosal site. By better harnessing the immunizing functions of maturing dendritic cells, antibody-mediated antigen targeting via the DEC-205 receptor increases the efficiency of vaccination for T cell immunity, including systemic and mucosal resistance in disease models. PMID:15024047

  9. Cooperation between the polyomavirus Middle-T-antigen gene and the human c-myc oncogene in a rat thyroid epithelial differentiated cell line: Model of in vitro progression

    SciTech Connect

    Berlingieri, M.T.; Portella, G.; Grieco, M.; Santoro, M.; Fusco, A.

    1988-05-01

    Two rat thyroid epithelial differentiated cell lines, PC CI 3 and PC myc, were infected with the polyoma murine leukemia virus (PyMLV) carrying the Middle-T-antigen gene of polyomavirus. After infection, both cell lines acquired the typical markers of neoplastic transformation; however, the PC myc cells showed a greater malignant phenotype. Furthermore, the thyroid differentiated functions were completely suppressed in PC myc cells transformed by PyMLV, whereas they were, at least partially, retained in PC CI 3 cells transformed by PyMLV, and in particular, thyroglobulin synthesis and secretion were not affected at all. Since no differences in the expression of the middle-T-antigen gene were observed in the two PyMLV-transformed cell lines, the different properties shown by these two infected cell lines must be ascribed to the expression of the c-myc oncogene.

  10. Modulation of liver tolerance by conventional and nonconventional antigen-presenting cells and regulatory immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Andrea Kristina; Neumann, Katrin; Diehl, Linda; Tiegs, Gisa

    2016-01-01

    The liver is a tolerogenic organ with exquisite mechanisms of immune regulation that ensure upkeep of local and systemic immune tolerance to self and foreign antigens, but that is also able to mount effective immune responses against pathogens. The immune privilege of liver allografts was recognized first in pigs in spite of major histo-compatibility complex mismatch, and termed the “liver tolerance effect”. Furthermore, liver transplants are spontaneously accepted with only low-dose immunosuppression, and induce tolerance for non-hepatic co-transplanted allografts of the same donor. Although this immunotolerogenic environment is favorable in the setting of organ transplantation, it is detrimental in chronic infectious liver diseases like hepatitis B or C, malaria, schistosomiasis or tumorigenesis, leading to pathogen persistence and weak anti-tumor effects. The liver is a primary site of T-cell activation, but it elicits poor or incomplete activation of T cells, leading to their abortive activation, exhaustion, suppression of their effector function and early death. This is exploited by pathogens and can impair pathogen control and clearance or allow tumor growth. Hepatic priming of T cells is mediated by a number of local conventional and nonconventional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which promote tolerance by immune deviation, induction of T-cell anergy or apoptosis, and generating and expanding regulatory T cells. This review will focus on the communication between classical and nonclassical APCs and lymphocytes in the liver in tolerance induction and will discuss recent insights into the role of innate lymphocytes in this process. PMID:27041638

  11. The human E48 antigen, highly homologous to the murine Ly-6 antigen ThB, is a GPI-anchored molecule apparently involved in keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The E48 antigen, a putative human homologue of the 20-kD protein present in desmosomal preparations of bovine muzzle, and formerly called desmoglein III (dg4), is a promising target antigen for antibody- based therapy of squamous cell carcinoma in man. To anticipate the effect of high antibody dose treatment, and to evaluate the possible biological involvement of the antigen in carcinogenesis, we set out to molecularly characterize the antigen. A cDNA clone encoding the E48 antigen was isolated by expression cloning in COS cells. Sequence analysis revealed that the clone contained an open reading frame of 128 amino acids, encoding a core protein of 13,286 kD. Database searching showed that the E48 antigen has a high level of sequence similarity with the mouse ThB antigen, a member of the Ly-6 antigen family. Phosphatidylinositol-specific (PI-specific) phospholipase-C treatment indicated that the E48 antigen is glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI-anchored) to the plasma membrane. The gene encoding the E48 antigen is a single copy gene, located on human chromosome 8 in the 8q24-qter region. The expression of the gene is confined to keratinocytes and squamous tumor cells. The putative mouse homologue, the ThB antigen, originally identified as an antigen on cells of the lymphocyte lineage, was shown to be highly expressed in squamous mouse epithelia. Moreover, the ThB expression level is in keratinocytes, in contrast to that in lymphocytes, not mouse strain related. Transfection of mouse SV40-polyoma transformed mouse NIH/3T3 cells with the E48 cDNA confirmed that the antigen is likely to be involved in cell-cell adhesion. PMID:7790363

  12. Establishment of a carcinoembryonic antigen-producing cell line from human pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kaku, M; Nishiyama, T; Yagawa, K; Abe, M

    1980-10-01

    A human pancreatic carcinoma cell line of islet cell origin (QGP-1) has been established and maintained for over two years. The parent tumor and the cultured cell line produce carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and there is no evidence of hormone secretion from the tumor cells. The epithelioid cells, which had migrated from rounded, irregular cell aggregates, grow as a confluent monolayer with piling up of cells in some areas, and have a population doubling time of 3.5 days. The modal chromosome number was 50. Exponentially growing cultures produce 76.3 ng of CEA/10(6) cells after 7 days. CEA production was confirmed by immuno-peroxidase staining.

  13. Cross-Presentation of Cell-Associated Antigens by Mouse Splenic Dendritic Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Robert I.; Janssen, Edith M.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-presentation of cell-associated antigens (Ag) plays an important role in the induction of anti-tumor responses, autoimmune diseases, and transplant rejection. While several dendritic cell (DC) populations can induce pro-inflammatory CD8+ T cell responses to cell-associated Ag during infection, in the absence of infection, cross-priming of naïve CD8+ T cells is highly restricted. Comparison of the main splenic DC populations in mice – including the classic, cross-presenting CD8α DC and the recently described merocytic DC (mcDC) – reveals that cross-priming DCs display a distinct phenotype in cell-associated Ag uptake, endosomal/lysosomal trafficking, lysosomal acidification, and Ag persistence compared to non-cross-priming DC populations. Although the CD8α DC and mcDC subsets utilize similar processing pathways to cross-present cell-associated Ag, cross-priming by CD8α DCs is associated with IL-12 production, while the superior priming of the mcDC is critically dependent on type I IFN production. This discussion illustrates how subtle differences in internal processing pathways and their signaling sequelae significantly affect the duration of Ag cross-presentation and cytokine production by DCs, thereby shaping the ensuing CD8+ T cell response. PMID:22566924

  14. SHARPIN controls regulatory T cells by negatively modulating the T cell antigen receptor complex

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon; Jin, Hyung-seung; Lopez, Justine; Lee, Jeeho; Liao, Lujian; Elly, Chris; Liu, Yun-Cai

    2016-01-01

    SHARPIN forms a linear-ubiquitin-chain-assembly complex that promotes signaling via the transcription factor NF-κB. SHARPIN deficiency leads to progressive multi-organ inflammation and immune system malfunction, but how SHARPIN regulates T cell responses is unclear. Here we found that SHARPIN deficiency resulted in a substantial reduction in the number of and defective function of regulatory T cells (Treg cells). Transfer of SHARPIN-sufficient Treg cells into SHARPIN-deficient mice considerably alleviated their systemic inflammation. SHARPIN-deficient T cells displayed enhanced proximal signaling via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) without an effect on the activation of NF-κB. SHARPIN conjugated with Lys63 (K63)-linked ubiquitin chains, which led to inhibition of the association of TCRζ with the signaling kinase Zap70; this affected the generation of Treg cells. Our study therefore identifies a role for SHARPIN in TCR signaling whereby it maintains immunological homeostasis and tolerance by regulating Treg cells. PMID:26829767

  15. Cytoplasmic proliferating cell nuclear antigen connects glycolysis and cell survival in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, Delphine; De Chiara, Alessia; Chapuis, Nicolas; Candalh, Céline; Mocek, Julie; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; Haddaoui, Lamya; Ifrah, Norbert; Hermine, Olivier; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Frachet, Philippe; Bouscary, Didier; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Cytosolic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a scaffolding protein involved in DNA replication, has been described as a key element in survival of mature neutrophil granulocytes, which are non-proliferating cells. Herein, we demonstrated an active export of PCNA involved in cell survival and chemotherapy resistance. Notably, daunorubicin-resistant HL-60 cells (HL-60R) have a prominent cytosolic PCNA localization due to increased nuclear export compared to daunorubicin-sensitive HL-60 cells (HL-60S). By interacting with nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), a protein involved in NAD biosynthesis, PCNA coordinates glycolysis and survival, especially in HL-60R cells. These cells showed a dramatic increase in intracellular NAD+ concentration as well as glycolysis including increased expression and activity of hexokinase 1 and increased lactate production. Furthermore, this functional activity of cytoplasmic PCNA was also demonstrated in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Our data uncover a novel pathway of nuclear export of PCNA that drives cell survival by increasing metabolism flux. PMID:27759041

  16. Dendritic Cell Profile Induced by Schistosoma mansoni Antigen in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Diego Mota; Fernandes, Jamille Souza; Cardoso, Thiago Marconi de Souza; Bafica, Aline Michele Barbosa; Oliveira, Sérgio Costa; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Cardoso, Luciana Santos

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory response in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), although responsible for controlling the infection, is associated with the pathogenesis of disease. Conversely, the immune response induced by S. mansoni antigens is able to prevent immune-mediated diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the S. mansoni Sm29 antigen to change the profile of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) from subjects with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in vitro. Monocytes derived from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of twelve patients were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for differentiation into dendritic cells and then stimulated with soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA) in the presence or absence of Sm29 antigen. The expression of surface molecules associated with maturation and activation (HLA-DR, CD40, CD83, CD80, and CD86), inflammation (IL-12, TNF), and downregulation (IL-10, IL-10R) was evaluated using flow cytometry. We observed that the frequencies of HLA-DR, CD83, CD80, and CD86 as well as of IL-10 and IL-10R on MoDCs were higher in cultures stimulated with Sm29, compared to the unstimulated cell cultures. Our results indicate that the Sm29 antigen is able to activate regulatory MoDCs in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. It might be useful to control the inflammatory process associated with this disease. PMID:25309922

  17. Innate autoreactive B cells as antigen-presenting cells in the induction of tolerance to conserved keratin polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Fu, Meng; Li, Wei; Tian, Rong; Gao, Jixin; Xing, Ying; Li, Chengxin; Wang, Gang; Li, Chunying; Gao, Tianwen; Han, Hua; Liu, Yufeng

    2013-01-01

    Innate B cells account for a substantial proportion of total B lymphocytes and express autoreactive B cell receptors directed against self-constituents. However, whether innate autoreactive B cells present auto-antigens to T cells, and if so, whether they trigger an autoimmune response, are unclear. In this study, we have characterized splenic keratin-reactive B cells from naïve mice and investigated their roles in keratin antigen presentation. We observed that splenic keratin-reactive B cells expressed germline encoded VH and VK genes based on Igs from anti-keratin hybridomas. Moreover, they frequently utilized gene segment of DFL16.2 and JK2 in the CDR3 regions of heavy and light chain, suggesting that these cells are probably selected on the basis of the specificity of their BCRs. In the presence of keratin antigen, splenic keratin-reactive B cells stimulated significant IL-2 productions from keratin-specific T hybridomas, which were augmented by increasing the concentration of keratin and the numbers of keratin-reactive B cells. By contrast, keratin-reactive B cells failed to stimulate the proliferations of freshly isolated keratin-specific T cells from lymph nodes. The phenotypic analysis of splenic keratin-reactive B cells indicated that low expressions of B7-1 and B7-2 might be the underlying mechanisms for this incomplete function of B cell presentation. Our experiments indicate that splenic keratin-reactive B cells are ineffective in activating freshly isolated T cells from lymph nodes, suggesting a role for innate autoreactive B cells as antigen-presenting cells in tolerance to self-antigens.

  18. Cancer Specific Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen as a Novel Diagnostic Marker for the Detection of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    CELLS(BIOLOGY), *ANTIGENS, *MAMMARY GLANDS, *BREAST CANCER, TISSUES(BIOLOGY), DETECTION, PEPTIDES, ENZYMES, PROTEINS , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), PATIENTS, BLOOD SERUM, IMMUNOASSAY, GELS, ELECTROPHORESIS, SENSE ORGANS, ESTROGENS.

  19. Tumor Antigen Cross-Presentation and the Dendritic Cell: Where it All Begins?

    PubMed Central

    McDonnell, Alison M.; Robinson, Bruce W. S.; Currie, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that are critical for the generation of effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses; however, their function and phenotype are often defective or altered in tumor-bearing hosts, which may limit their capacity to mount an effective tumor-specific CTL response. In particular, the manner in which exogenous tumor antigens are acquired, processed, and cross-presented to CD8 T cells by DCs in tumor-bearing hosts is not well understood, but may have a profound effect on antitumor immunity. In this paper, we have examined the role of DCs in the cross-presentation of tumor antigen in terms of their subset, function, migration, and location with the intention of examining the early processes that contribute to the development of an ineffective anti-tumor immune response. PMID:20976125

  20. MYCN is retained in single copy at chromosome 2 band p23-24 during amplification in human neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Corvi, R.; Amler, L.C.; Savelyeva, L.; Gehring, M.; Schwab, M. )

    1994-06-07

    Amplification of the human N-myc protooncogene, MYCN, is frequently seen either in extrachromosomal double minutes or in homogeneously staining regions of aggressively growing neuroblastomas. MYCN maps to chromosome 2 band p23-24, but homogeneously staining regions have never been observed at this band, suggesting transposition of MYCN during amplification. The authors have employed fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine the status of MYCN at 2p23-24 in five human neuroblastoma cell lines. All five lines carried, in addition to amplified MYCN in homogeneously staining regions or double minutes, single-copy MYCN at the normal position. In one line there was coamplification of MYCN together with DNA of the host chromosome 12, to which MYCN had been transposed. The results suggest a model of amplification where MYCN is retained at its original location. They further sustain the view that either the initial events of MYCN amplification or the further evolution of amplified MYCN copies follow mechanisms different from those leading to amplification of drug-resistance genes.

  1. Strategies of antigen-specific T-cell-based immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su-hu; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Wang-Gang

    2005-10-01

    The critical role of antigen-specific T-cells in the eradication of cancer has been demonstrated in numerous animal models, while significant challenges need to be conquered before antigen-specific T-cell immunotherapy can achieve true success in clinical practice. These challenges include: (1) weak or nonimmunogenicity of spontaneous tumors, (2) negative immune regulation mechanisms of the host immune system, (3) immune inhibition exerted by tumor cells, (4) physical barrier in solid tumor, and (5) escape or resistance to immune attack by tumor cells. Nonetheless, significant success has been achieved in several clinical trials recently, highlighting the possibility of successful manipulation of the immune system for control and elimination of tumor. We focused our study on summarizing the current knowledge and corresponding strategies for improving autologous cytotoxic T-cell (CTL)-based cancer immunotherapy, which include the following aspects: (1) the selection of tumor antigens for stimulation of CTL, (2) strategies of enhancing maturation and antigen presentation activity of dendritic cells (DC), (3) strategies of activation and maintenance of CTL response, and (4) recruitment of suitable immune effector cells to tumor sites. The successful manipulation of the immune system, based on the more and more detailed knowledge of tumor immunology, may finally reach the goal of "immune surveillance of malignancy."

  2. On-chip activation and subsequent detection of individual antigen-specific T cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qing; Han, Qing; Bradshaw, Elizabeth M.; Kent, Sally C.; Raddassi, Khadir; Nilsson, Björn; Nepom, Gerald T.; Hafler, David A.; Love, J. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The frequencies of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in samples of human tissue has been difficult to determine accurately ex vivo, particularly for autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis or Type 1 diabetes. Conventional approaches involve the expansion of primary T cells in vitro to increase the numbers of cells, and a subsequent assessment of the frequencies of antigen-specific T cells in the expanded population by limiting dilution or by using fluorescently labeled tetramers of peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complex (MHC) receptors. Here we describe an alternative approach that uses arrays of subnanoliter wells coated with recombinant peptide-loaded MHC Class II monomers to isolate and stimulate individual CD4+ T cells in an antigen-specific manner. In these experiments, activation was monitored using microengraving to capture two cytokines (IFNγ and IL-17) released from single cells. This new method should enable direct enumeration of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells ex vivo from clinical samples. PMID:20000848

  3. Antigen presenting cells in situ: their identification and involvement in immunopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Poulter, L W

    1983-01-01

    Macrophages and other dendritic non-lymphoid cells have been shown to be functionally capable of presenting antigen to induce lymphocyte responses. These cells can now be studied in situ and distinguished, one from another, within normal tissues and sites of cellular infiltration. Analysis of the microenvironment within which these cells are found can be made with immunohistological methods using monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) and cytochemical techniques. In some cases McAbs are specific for particular types of antigen presenting cell. Using such reagents, evidence is accumulating that these cells may be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of immunoregulatory disorders. What is now required is a more definitive correlation between functional capacity and cell phenotype established with cells isolated from blood, and from normal and pathological tissues. If this is possible the immunopathologist may be able, not only to analyse complex microenvironments but also directly determine the interactions and mechanisms at play within the diseased tissues. PMID:6352095

  4. Tracking antigen specific CD4+ T-cells with soluble MHC molecules.

    PubMed

    Gebe, John A; Kwok, William W

    2007-01-01

    The advent of soluble MHC multimer technology has allowed for the flow-cytometric direct identification of specific-MHC restricted antigen-specific T cells in mixed cell populations and also enabled the direct phenotyping and cloning of these cells at the same time. To date, MHC multimers have been used in characterizing the adaptive T cell repertoire under infectious, cancerous, and autoimmune states and has increased our understanding of the dynamics of T-cell immunity. Recombinant MHC multimers have been produced where MHC-binding peptide antigens are either covalently or noncovalently bound to the MHC, with the latter having the advantage of the ability to use a single recombinant MHC to investigate multiple MHC-binding peptides and their interacting T cells. In this method we describe how to generate recombinant non-covalently bound peptide MHC-multimers in insect cells. MHC multimers are generated as tetravalent complexes using a streptavidin scaffold.

  5. Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Engineered T Cells for Immunotherapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cartellieri, Marc; Bachmann, Michael; Feldmann, Anja; Bippes, Claudia; Stamova, Slava; Wehner, Rebekka; Temme, Achim; Schmitz, Marc

    2010-01-01

    CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes are powerful components of adaptive immunity, which essentially contribute to the elimination of tumors. Due to their cytotoxic capacity, T cells emerged as attractive candidates for specific immunotherapy of cancer. A promising approach is the genetic modification of T cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). First generation CARs consist of a binding moiety specifically recognizing a tumor cell surface antigen and a lymphocyte activating signaling chain. The CAR-mediated recognition induces cytokine production and tumor-directed cytotoxicity of T cells. Second and third generation CARs include signal sequences from various costimulatory molecules resulting in enhanced T-cell persistence and sustained antitumor reaction. Clinical trials revealed that the adoptive transfer of T cells engineered with first generation CARs represents a feasible concept for the induction of clinical responses in some tumor patients. However, further improvement is required, which may be achieved by second or third generation CAR-engrafted T cells. PMID:20467460

  6. Viral Escape Mutant Epitope Maintains TCR Affinity for Antigen yet Curtails CD8 T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Shorter, Shayla K; Schnell, Frederick J; McMaster, Sean R; Pinelli, David F; Andargachew, Rakieb; Evavold, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    T cells have the remarkable ability to recognize antigen with great specificity and in turn mount an appropriate and robust immune response. Critical to this process is the initial T cell antigen recognition and subsequent signal transduction events. This antigen recognition can be modulated at the site of TCR interaction with peptide:major histocompatibility (pMHC) or peptide interaction with the MHC molecule. Both events could have a range of effects on T cell fate. Though responses to antigens that bind sub-optimally to TCR, known as altered peptide ligands (APL), have been studied extensively, the impact of disrupting antigen binding to MHC has been highlighted to a lesser extent and is usually considered to result in complete loss of epitope recognition. Here we present a model of viral evasion from CD8 T cell immuno-surveillance by a lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) escape mutant with an epitope for which TCR affinity for pMHC remains high but where the antigenic peptide binds sub optimally to MHC. Despite high TCR affinity for variant epitope, levels of interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4) are not sustained in response to the variant indicating differences in perceived TCR signal strength. The CD8+ T cell response to the variant epitope is characterized by early proliferation and up-regulation of activation markers. Interestingly, this response is not maintained and is characterized by a lack in IL-2 and IFNγ production, increased apoptosis and an abrogated glycolytic response. We show that disrupting the stability of peptide in MHC can effectively disrupt TCR signal strength despite unchanged affinity for TCR and can significantly impact the CD8+ T cell response to a viral escape mutant.

  7. Viral Escape Mutant Epitope Maintains TCR Affinity for Antigen yet Curtails CD8 T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, Shayla K.; Schnell, Frederick J.; McMaster, Sean R.; Pinelli, David F.; Andargachew, Rakieb; Evavold, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    T cells have the remarkable ability to recognize antigen with great specificity and in turn mount an appropriate and robust immune response. Critical to this process is the initial T cell antigen recognition and subsequent signal transduction events. This antigen recognition can be modulated at the site of TCR interaction with peptide:major histocompatibility (pMHC) or peptide interaction with the MHC molecule. Both events could have a range of effects on T cell fate. Though responses to antigens that bind sub-optimally to TCR, known as altered peptide ligands (APL), have been studied extensively, the impact of disrupting antigen binding to MHC has been highlighted to a lesser extent and is usually considered to result in complete loss of epitope recognition. Here we present a model of viral evasion from CD8 T cell immuno-surveillance by a lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) escape mutant with an epitope for which TCR affinity for pMHC remains high but where the antigenic peptide binds sub optimally to MHC. Despite high TCR affinity for variant epitope, levels of interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4) are not sustained in response to the variant indicating differences in perceived TCR signal strength. The CD8+ T cell response to the variant epitope is characterized by early proliferation and up-regulation of activation markers. Interestingly, this response is not maintained and is characterized by a lack in IL-2 and IFNγ production, increased apoptosis and an abrogated glycolytic response. We show that disrupting the stability of peptide in MHC can effectively disrupt TCR signal strength despite unchanged affinity for TCR and can significantly impact the CD8+ T cell response to a viral escape mutant. PMID:26915099

  8. Whole tumor antigen vaccination using dendritic cells: Comparison of RNA electroporation and pulsing with UV-irradiated tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Benencia, Fabian; Courrèges, Maria C; Coukos, George

    2008-01-01

    Because of the lack of full characterization of tumor associated antigens for solid tumors, whole antigen use is a convenient approach to tumor vaccination. Tumor RNA and apoptotic tumor cells have been used as a source of whole tumor antigen to prepare dendritic cell (DC) based tumor vaccines, but their efficacy has not been directly compared. Here we compare directly RNA electroporation and pulsing of DCs with whole tumor cells killed by ultraviolet (UV) B radiation using a convenient tumor model expressing human papilloma virus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes. Although both approaches led to DCs presenting tumor antigen, electroporation with tumor cell total RNA induced a significantly higher frequency of tumor-reactive IFN-gamma secreting T cells, and E7-specific CD8+ lymphocytes compared to pulsing with UV-irradiated tumor cells. DCs electroporated with tumor cell RNA induced a larger tumor infiltration by T cells and produced a significantly stronger delay in tumor growth compared to DCs pulsed with UV-irradiated tumor cells. We conclude that electroporation with whole tumor cell RNA and pulsing with UV-irradiated tumor cells are both effective in eliciting antitumor immune response, but RNA electroporation results in more potent tumor vaccination under the examined experimental conditions. PMID:18445282

  9. Regulation of the polarization of T cells toward antigen-presenting cells by Ras-related GTPase CDC42.

    PubMed Central

    Stowers, L; Yelon, D; Berg, L J; Chant, J

    1995-01-01

    The mechanisms by which cells rapidly polarize in the direction of external signals are not understood. Helper T cells, when contacted by an antigen-presenting cell, polarize their cytoskeletons toward the antigen-presenting cell within minutes. Here we show that, in T cells, the mammalian Ras-related GTPase CDC42 (the homologue of yeast CDC42, a protein involved in budding polarity) can regulate the polarization of both actin and microtubules toward antigen-presenting cells but is not involved in other T-cell signaling processes such as those which culminate in interleukin 2 production. Although T-cell polarization appears dispensable for signaling leading to interleukin 2 production, polarization may direct lymphokine secretion towards the correct antigen-presenting cell in a crowded cellular environment. Inhibitor experiments suggest that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is required for cytoskeletal polarization but that calcineurin activity, known to be important for other aspects of signaling, is not. Apparent conservation of CDC42 function between yeast and T cells suggests that this GTPase is a general regulator of cytoskeletal polarity in many cell types. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7761442

  10. The Transcription Factor NFAT Exhibits Signal Memory during Serial T Cell Interactions with Antigen Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Francesco; Murooka, Thomas T.; Manzo, Teresa; Kim, Edward Y.; Carrizosa, Esteban; Elpek, Natalie M.; Mempel, Thorsten R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Interactions with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) interrupt T cell migration through tissues and trigger signaling pathways that converge on the activation of transcriptional regulators, including NFAT, which control T cell function and differentiation. Both stable and unstable modes of cognate T cell-APC interactions have been observed in vivo, but the functional significance of unstable, serial contacts has remained unclear. Here we used multiphoton intravital microscopy in lymph nodes and tumors to show that while NFAT nuclear import was fast (t1/2 max~1min), nuclear export was slow (t1/2~20min) in T cells. During delayed export, nuclear NFAT constituted a short-term imprint of transient TCR signals and remained transcriptionally active for the T cell tolerance gene Egr2, but not for the effector gene Ifng, which required continuous TCR triggering for expression. This provides a potential mechanistic basis for the observation that a predominance of unstable APC interactions correlates with the induction of T cell tolerance. PMID:23313588

  11. Expansion of CD133+ colon cancer cultures retaining stem cell properties to enable cancer stem cell target discovery

    PubMed Central

    Fang, D D; Kim, Y J; Lee, C N; Aggarwal, S; McKinnon, K; Mesmer, D; Norton, J; Birse, C E; He, T; Ruben, S M; Moore, P A

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite earlier studies demonstrating in vitro propagation of solid tumour cancer stem cells (CSCs) as non-adherent tumour spheres, it remains controversial as to whether CSCs can be maintained in vitro. Additional validation of the CSC properties of tumour spheres would support their use as CSC models and provide an opportunity to discover additional CSC cell surface markers to aid in CSC detection and potential elimination. Methods: Primary tumour cells isolated from 13 surgically resected colon tumour specimens were propagated using serum-free CSC-selective conditions. The CSC properties of long-term cultured tumour spheres were established and mass spectrometry-based proteomics performed. Results: Freshly isolated CD133+ colorectal cancer cells gave rise to long-term tumour sphere (or spheroids) cultures maintaining CD133 expression. These spheroid cells were able to self-renew and differentiate into adherent epithelial lineages and recapitulate the phenotype of the original tumour. Relative to their differentiated progeny, tumour spheroid cells were more resistant to the chemotherapeutic irinotecan. Finally, CD44, CD166, CD29, CEACAM5, cadherin 17, and biglycan were identified by mass spectrometry to be enriched in CD133+ tumour spheroid cells. Conclusion: Our data suggest that ex vivo-expanded colon CSCs isolated from clinical specimens can be maintained in culture enabling the identification of CSC cell surface-associated proteins. PMID:20332776

  12. CTLA-4 suppresses the pathogenicity of self antigen-specific T cells by cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ise, Wataru; Kohyama, Masako; Nutsch, Katherine M; Lee, Hyang Mi; Suri, Anish; Unanue, Emil R; Murphy, Theresa L; Murphy, Kenneth M

    2010-02-01

    The inhibitory immunoregulatory receptor CTLA-4 is critical in maintaining self-tolerance, but the mechanisms of its actions have remained controversial. Here we examined the antigen specificity of tissue-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells in Ctla4(-/-) mice. After adoptive transfer, T cells isolated from tissues of Ctla4(-/-) mice showed T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-dependent accumulation in the tissues from which they were derived, which suggested reactivity to tissue-specific antigens. We identified the pancreas-specific enzyme PDIA2 as an autoantigen in Ctla4(-/-) mice. CTLA-4 expressed either on PDIA2-specific effector cells or on regulatory T cells was sufficient to control tissue destruction mediated by PDIA2-specific T cells. Our results demonstrate that both cell-intrinsic and non-cell-autonomous actions of CTLA-4 operate to maintain T cell tolerance to a self antigen.

  13. Induction of Human Blood Group A Antigen Expression on Mouse Cells, Using Lentiviral Gene Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaohu; Lang, Haili; Zhou, Xianpei; Zhang, Li; Yin, Rong; Maciejko, Jessica; Giannitsos, Vasiliki; Motyka, Bruce; Medin, Jeffrey A.; Platt, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The ABO histo-blood group system is the most important antigen system in transplantation medicine, yet no small animal model of the ABO system exists. To determine the feasibility of developing a murine model, we previously subcloned the human α-1,2-fucosyltransferase (H-transferase, EC 2.4.1.69) cDNA and the human α-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (A-transferase, EC 2.4.1.40) cDNA into lentiviral vectors to study their ability to induce human histo-blood group A antigen expression on mouse cells. Herein we investigated the optimal conditions for human A and H antigen expression in murine cells. We determined that transduction of a bicistronic lentiviral vector (LvEF1-AH-trs) resulted in the expression of A antigen in a mouse endothelial cell line. We also studied the in vivo utility of this vector to induce human A antigen expression in mouse liver. After intrahepatic injection of LvEF1-AH-trs, A antigen expression was observed on hepatocytes as detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. In human group A erythrocyte-sensitized mice, A antigen expression in the liver was associated with tissue damage, and deposition of antibody and complement. These results suggest that this gene transfer strategy can be used to simulate the human ABO blood group system in a murine model. This model will facilitate progress in the development of interventions for ABO-incompatible transplantation and transfusion scenarios, which are difficult to develop in clinical or large animal settings. PMID:20163247

  14. T-antigen-independent replication of polyomavirus DNA in murine embryonal carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dandolo, L.; Aghion, J.; Blangy, D.

    1984-02-01

    Expression of wild-type polyomavirus (Py) is restricted in murine embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. The block appears to be located at the level of early transcription. Since no T antigen is produced, the authors investigated the fate of viral DNA upon infection of these cells; they showed that wild-type Py DNA replicates efficiently in all EC cells, probably via a T-antigen-independent mechanism. Furthermore, they studied, at permissive and restrictive temperatures, the replication of tsa (thermosensitive for T antigen) viral DNA of an in vitro-constructed deletion mutant lacking part of the early region coding sequences and of a double mutant carrying both the tsa mutation and the PyEC F9 mutation (allowing expression of early and late viral functions in EC cells). The results imply that replication of wild-type A2 strain Py DNA can occur in EC cells in the absence of a functional T antigen. However, this protein clearly enhances viral DNA replication and is absolutely required in differentiated cells.

  15. Cell surface phenotype and ultramicroscopic analysis of purified human enterocytes: a possible antigen-presenting cell in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Martín-Villa, J M; Ferre-López, S; López-Suárez, J C; Corell, A; Pérez-Blas, M; Arnaiz-Villena, A

    1997-12-01

    Epithelial cells of the intestine seem to act as antigen-presenting cells to surrounding lymphoid tissue and may be crucial to maintain the pool of peripheral T lymphocytes. The scope of this study was to carry out an immunophenotypic and ultramicroscopic analysis of purified human enterocytes to elucidate their role as antigen-presenting cells, in the immune responses in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. A method has been developed to obtain purified and viable human enterocyte populations, later labeled with relevant monoclonal antibodies directed to leukocyte antigens and subjected to cytofluorometric analysis. Phenotypic analysis revealed the presence of markers common to "classical" antigen-presenting cells (CD14, CD35, CD39, CD43, CD63 and CD64), reinforcing the idea that enterocytes may act as such. Moreover, several integrins (CD11b, CD11c, CD18, CD41a, CD61 and CD29) were also found. CD25 (IL-2 receptor alpha chain) and CD28, characteristic of T cells, were detected on the surface of these cells; this latter finding rises the possibility that enterocytes could be activated by IL-2 and/or via CD28 through binding to its ligands CD80 or CD86. Finally, the presence of CD21, CD32, CD35 and CD64 that may bind immune complexes via Fc or C3, suggests their participation in the metabolism of immune complexes. Furthermore, the finding of a Birbeck's-like granule in the cytoplasm of the cells, shows that enterocytes contain an ultramicroscopic feature previously thought to be characteristic of Langerhans' cells, an antigen-presenting cell. The phenotype detected on the surface of enterocytes, along with their ultramicroscopic characteristics, suggests that they may play an important role in the immune responses elicited in the gut, presenting antigens to surrounding lymphoid cells, and establishing cognate interactions with them.

  16. The peripheral blood fibrocyte is a potent antigen-presenting cell capable of priming naive T cells in situ.

    PubMed

    Chesney, J; Bacher, M; Bender, A; Bucala, R

    1997-06-10

    Recent studies have identified a novel population of blood-borne cells, termed fibrocytes, that have a distinct cell surface phenotype (collagen+/CD13(+)/CD34(+)/CD45(+)), rapidly enter sites of tissue injury, and synthesize connective tissue matrix molecules. We found by flow cytometry that purified human fibrocytes express each of the known surface components that are required for antigen presentation, including class II major histocompatability complex molecules (HLA-DP, -DQ, and -DR), the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, and the adhesion molecules CD11a, CD54, and CD58. Human fibrocytes induced antigen-presenting cell-dependent T cell proliferation when cultured with specific antigen and this proliferative activity was significantly higher than that induced by monocytes and nearly as high as that induced by purified dendritic cells. Mouse fibrocytes also were found to express the surface components required for antigen presentation and to function as potent APCs in vitro. Mouse fibrocytes pulsed in vitro with the HIV-proteins p24 or gp120 and delivered to a site of cutaneous injury were found to migrate to proximal lymph nodes and to specifically prime naive T cells. These data suggest that fibrocytes play an early and important role in the initiation of antigen-specific immunity.

  17. Human melanoma immunotherapy using tumor antigen-specific T cells generated in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Xia, Jinxing; Fan, Wei; Wargo, Jennifer; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2016-01-01

    A major factor hindering the exploration of adoptive immunotherapy in preclinical settings is the limited availability of tumor-reactive human T cells. Here we developed a humanized mouse model that permits large-scale production of human T cells expressing the engineered melanoma antigen MART-1-specific TCR. Humanized mice, made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue and CD34+ cells virally-transduced with HLA class I-restricted melanoma antigen (MART-1)-specific TCR gene, showed efficient development of MART-1-TCR+ human T cells with predominantly CD8+ cells. Importantly, MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells developing in these mice were capable of mounting antigen-specific responses in vivo, as evidenced by their proliferation, phenotypic conversion and IFN-γ production following MART-1 peptide immunization. Moreover, these MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells mediated efficient killing of melanoma cells in an HLA/antigen-dependent manner. Adoptive transfer of in vitro expanded MART-1-TCR+CD8+ T cells induced potent antitumor responses that were further enhanced by IL-15 treatment in melanoma-bearing recipients. Finally, a short incubation of MART-1-specific T cells with rapamycin acted synergistically with IL-15, leading to significantly improved tumor-free survival in recipients with metastatic melanoma. These data demonstrate the practicality of using humanized mice to produce potentially unlimited source of tumor-specific human T cells for experimental and preclinical exploration of cancer immunotherapy. This study also suggests that pretreatment of tumor-reactive T cells with rapamycin in combination with IL-15 administration may be a novel strategy to improve the efficacy of adoptive T cell therapy. PMID:26824989

  18. Continuous flow magnetic cell fractionation based on antigen expression level.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Thomas; Moore, Lee R; Jing, Ying; Haam, Seungjoo; Williams, P Stephen; Fleischman, Aaron J; Roy, Shuvo; Chalmers, Jeffrey J; Zborowski, Maciej

    2006-07-31

    Cell separation is important in medical and biological research and plays an increasingly important role in clinical therapy and diagnostics, such as rare cancer cell detection in blood. The immunomagnetic labeling of cells with antibodies conjugated to magnetic nanospheres gives rise to a proportional relationship between the number of magnetic nanospheres attached to the cell and the cell surface marker number. This enables the potential fractionation of cell populations by magnetophoretic mobility (MM). We exploit this feature with our apparatus, the Dipole Magnet Flow Fractionator (DMFF), which consists of an isodynamic magnetic field, an orthogonally-oriented thin ribbon of cell suspension in continuous sheath flow, and ten outlet flows. From a sample containing a 1:1 mixture of immunomagnetically labeled (label+) and unlabeled (label-) cells, we achieved an increase in enrichment of the label+ cell fraction with increasing outlet numbers in the direction of the magnetic field gradient (up to 10-fold). The total recovery of the ten outlet fractions was 90.0+/-7.7%. The mean MM of label+ cells increased with increasing outlet number by up to a factor of 2.3. The postulated proportionality between the number of attached magnetic beads and the number of cell surface markers was validated by comparison of MM measured by cell tracking velocimetry (CTV) with cell florescence intensity measured by flow cytometry.

  19. Identification of Chlamydia trachomatis antigens by use of murine T-cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, P R; Stephens, R S

    1992-01-01

    Chlamydia-specific short-term T-cell lines were used in conjunction with immunoblot techniques to examine Chlamydia trachomatis proteins for T-cell-stimulatory activity. This study was undertaken because of the known role of T cells in the resolution and pathogenesis of chlamydial infections. Therefore, determination of which chlamydial proteins are T-cell antigens and whether they evoke protective immunity or contribute to immunopathology is crucial. Immune lymph node cells were stimulated with whole chlamydial organism (elementary body) to derive predominantly CD4+ T-cell lines. Proteins from the elementary body and the outer membrane and cloned proteins were examined for antigenicity with these T-cell lines in a proliferation assay. Although a majority of the elementary body protein fractions were positive in this assay, only four of the outer membrane fractions were stimulatory. The cloned major outer membrane protein and outer membrane protein 2 were stimulatory in the assay and may account for the reactivity in three of the four positive outer membrane fractions. The C. trachomatis heat shock protein 60, examined because of its putative role in causing delayed-type hypersensitivity, was found to stimulate the CD4+ T cells. This approach with short-term T-cell lines with polyclonal reactivity was sensitive and specific in identifying chlamydial proteins as T-cell antigens. Images PMID:1398973

  20. Preclinical targeting of aggressive T-cell malignancies using anti-CD5 chimeric antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, K H; Wada, M; Pinz, K G; Liu, H; Lin, K-W; Jares, A; Firor, A E; Shuai, X; Salman, H; Golightly, M; Lan, F; Senzel, L; Leung, E L; Jiang, X; Ma, Y

    2017-02-10

    The outlook for T-cell malignancies remain poor due to the lack of effective therapeutic options. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) immunotherapy has recently shown promise in clinical trials for B-cell malignancies, however, designing CARs for T-cell based disease remain a challenge due to the shared surface antigen pool between normal and malignant T-cells. Normal T-cells express CD5 but NK (natural killer) cells do not, positioning NK cells as attractive cytotoxicity cells for CD5CAR design. Additionally, CD5 is highly expressed in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs). Here, we report a robust anti-CD5 CAR (CD5CAR) transduced into a human NK cell line NK-92 that can undergo stable expansion ex vivo. We found that CD5CAR NK-92 cells possessed consistent, specific, and potent anti-tumor activity against a variety of T-cell leukemia and lymphoma cell lines as well as primary tumor cells. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate significant inhibition and control of disease progression in xenograft mouse models of T-ALL. The data suggest that CAR redirected targeting for T-cell malignancies using NK cells may be a viable method for new and complementary therapeutic approaches that could improve the current outcome for patients.Leukemia advance online publication, 10 February 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2017.8.

  1. Analysis of the antibody repertoire of patients with mantle cell lymphoma directed against mantle cell lymphoma-associated antigens.

    PubMed

    Zwick, Carsten; Preuss, Klaus-Dieter; Kubuschok, Boris; Held, Gerhard; Ahlgrimm, Manfred; Bittenbring, Joerg; Schubert, Joerg; Neumann, Frank; Pfreundschuh, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Treatment results of mantle cell lymphomas (MCL) are not satisfactory and novel therapeutic approaches are warranted. Because "shared" tumor antigens like the group of cancer testis antigens are only rarely expressed in MCL, we applied serological analysis of antigens using recombinant expression cloning (SEREX) to a complementary DNA library derived from five cases of MCL using the sera of eight patients with MCL in order to define MCL-associated antigens that are immunogenic in these patients and might be used as vaccines for patients with MCL. Five antigens were detected by SEREX. Four of the five detected antigens (hypothetical protein FLK10233, recombining binding protein suppressor, a chromosomal sequence, and interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase) are also expressed by a wide spectrum of normal human cells, excluding their use as vaccines. In contrast, the expression of CD52, which was detected by antibodies in the serum of an MCL patient, is restricted to hematopoietic cells. Interestingly, anti-CD52 antibodies were detected in this patient before and >2 years after allogeneic transplantation, indicating that both the autologous as well as the allogeneic immune system recognized CD52. Since the anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab has shown activity in MCL, a vaccine consisting of recombinant CD52 alone or combined with passive immunotherapy using alemtuzumab warrants furthers clinical and immunological evaluation in MCL.

  2. T suppressor cells are required for the maintenance of the antigen-induced B-cell unresponsive state in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Benveniste, E.; Stevens, R.H.

    1983-04-01

    Tetanus toxoid immunization of humans generates circulating B cells which secrete IgG anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies (IgG-Tet) when stimulated in vitro with T cells and pokeweed mitogen (PWM). A unique property of these cells is the inhibition of maturation into antibody-secreting plasma cells following a 1-hr in vitro pulse with tetanus toxoid. Studies were undertaken to determine if different T-cell subsets could modulate the in vitro generated B-cell unresponsive state. The addition of OKT4+/OKT8- cells to antigen-treated B cells resulted in a partial reversal of the antigen-induced inhibition of IgG-Tet synthesis. The addition of OKT4-/OKT8+ cells to the treated B cells caused a suppression of IgG-Tet synthesis comparable to that seen in cultures containing unfractionated T cells. These results indicate that (1) the B-cell unresponsive state generated by antigen treatment is not absolute, (2) the degree of B-cell unresponsiveness results from a balance of suppressor and helper signals, and (3) T-suppressor cells need to be present to induce and maintain the B-cell unresponsive state.

  3. Mapping of B-Cell Epitopes in a Trypanosoma cruzi Immunodominant Antigen Expressed in Natural Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lesénéchal, Mylène; Becquart, Laurence; Lacoux, Xavier; Ladavière, Laurent; Baida, Renata C. P.; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia; da Silveira, José Franco

    2005-01-01

    Tc40 is an immunodominant antigen present in natural Trypanosoma cruzi infections. This immunogen was thoroughly mapped by using overlapping amino acid sequences identified by gene cloning and chemical peptide synthesis. To map continuous epitopes of the Tc40 antigen, an epitope expression library was constructed and screened with sera from human chagasic patients. A major, linear B-cell epitope spanning residues 403 to 426 (PAKAAAPPAA) was identified in the central domain of Tc40. A synthetic peptide spanning this region reacted strongly with 89.8% of the serum samples from T. cruzi-infected individuals. This indicates that the main antigenic site is defined by the linear sequence of the peptide rather than a conformation-dependent structure. The major B-cell epitope of Tc40 shares a high degree of sequence identity with T. cruzi ribosomal and RNA binding proteins, suggesting the existence of cross-reactivity among these molecules. PMID:15699429

  4. Targeted antigen delivery and activation of dendritic cells in vivo: steps towards cost effective vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tacken, Paul J; Figdor, Carl G

    2011-02-01

    During the past decade, the immunotherapeutic potential of ex vivo generated professional antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs) has been explored in the clinic. Albeit safe, clinical results have thus far been limited. A major disadvantage of current cell-based dendritic cell (DC) therapies, preventing universal implementation of this form of immunotherapy, is the requirement that vaccines need to be tailor made for each individual. Targeted delivery of antigens to DC surface receptors in vivo would circumvent this laborious and expensive ex vivo culturing steps involved with these cell-based therapies. In addition, the opportunity to target natural and often rare DC subsets in vivo might have advantages over loading more artificial ex vivo cultured DCs. Preclinical studies show targeting antigens to DCs effectively induces humoral responses, while cellular responses are induced provided a DC maturation or activation stimulus is co-administered. Here, we discuss strategies to target antigens to distinct DC subsets and to simultaneously employ adjuvants to activate these cells to induce immunity.

  5. Phenotype of Antigen Unexperienced TH Cells in the Inflamed Central Nervous System in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Franck, Sophia; Paterka, Magdalena; Birkenstock, Jerome; Zipp, Frauke; Siffrin, Volker; Witsch, Esther

    2016-11-10

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, disseminated inflammation of the central nervous system which is thought to be driven by autoimmune T cells. Genetic association studies in multiple sclerosis and a large number of studies in the animal model of the disease support a role for effector/memory T helper cells. However, the mechanisms underlying relapses, remission and chronic progression in multiple sclerosis or the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, are not clear. In particular, there is only scarce information on the role of central nervous system-invading naive T helper cells in these processes. By applying two-photon laser scanning microscopy we could show in vivo that antigen unexperienced T helper cells migrated into the deep parenchyma of the inflamed central nervous system in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, independent of their antigen specificity. Using flow cytometric analyses of central nervous system-derived lymphocytes we found that only antigen-specific, formerly naive T helper cells became activated during inflammation of the central nervous system encountering their corresponding antigen.

  6. Roles of lymphatic endothelial cells expressing peripheral tissue antigens in CD4 T-cell tolerance induction

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Sherin J.; Eccles, Jacob D.; Riccardi, Priscila; Peske, J. David; Tewalt, Eric F.; Cohen, Jarish N.; Liblau, Roland; Mäkinen, Taija; Engelhard, Victor H.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) directly express peripheral tissue antigens and induce CD8 T-cell deletional tolerance. LECs express MHC-II molecules, suggesting they might also tolerize CD4 T cells. We demonstrate that when β-galactosidase (β-gal) is expressed in LECs, β-gal-specific CD8 T cells undergo deletion via the PD-1/PD-L1 and LAG-3/MHC-II pathways. In contrast, LECs do not present endogenous β-gal in the context of MHC-II molecules to β-gal-specific CD4 T cells. Lack of presentation is independent of antigen localization, as membrane-bound haemagglutinin and I-Eα are also not presented by MHC-II molecules. LECs express invariant chain and cathepsin L, but not H2-M, suggesting that they cannot load endogenous antigenic peptides onto MHC-II molecules. Importantly, LECs transfer β-gal to dendritic cells, which subsequently present it to induce CD4 T-cell anergy. Therefore, LECs serve as an antigen reservoir for CD4 T-cell tolerance, and MHC-II molecules on LECs are used to induce CD8 T-cell tolerance via LAG-3. PMID:25857745

  7. Blood group antigen expression is involved in C. albicans interaction with buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Everest-Dass, Arun V; Kolarich, Daniel; Pascovici, Dana; Packer, Nicolle H

    2017-02-01

    Human blood group polymorphisms are known to be determined by the expression of A, B or H antigens and the Lewis antigens. Protection against microbial infections has been associated with inheritance of polymorphisms in genes encoding and regulating the expression of ABH and Lewis antigens in bodily secretions and epithelial tissue surfaces, subsequently resulting in the presentation of different glycosylated terminal antigens on the cell surface. We investigated the role of blood group antigens in diversifying the glycosylation of buccal epithelial cells (BEC) that line the oral cavity. Specifically, we characterized and statistically evaluated the expression of histo-blood group (A, B, O) antigens on N-and O-linked glycans from BEC membrane proteins of various individuals that represented different blood group type and secretor status using a porous graphitic carbon liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PGC-LC-ESI-MS) based glycomics approach. From these BEC membrane proteins a total of 77 N-glycan and 96 O-glycan structures were structurally characterized from 19 individuals and relatively quantitated. The N-glycans from the secretor individuals did not express any A/B blood group determinants, but contained several terminal H-antigens. Apart from the non-secretors, the N-glycan profiles of BEC from all blood groups displayed similar glycan types, while varying in their relative intensities between individuals. However, multivariate analysis of the O-glycans from individuals displayed segregation patterns clearly associated with their blood group type and secretor status. In adhesion assays the oral pathogen Candida albicans showed a significantly higher interaction to blood group O type BECs relative to other blood groups.

  8. Dasatinib-loaded albumin nanoparticles possess diminished endothelial cell barrier disruption and retain potent anti-leukemia cell activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenyu; Shetty, Sreerama; Fu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Dasatinib (DAS), a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is highly effective in treating chronic myeloid leukemia and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, its clinical use is limited due to serious adverse effects. DAS can disrupt endothelial barrier integrity and increase endothelial permeability which may cause peripheral edema and pleural effusion. Albumin nanoparticles (NPs) as a drug carrier may serve as a useful tool for cell-selective drug delivery to reduce DAS-induced endothelial hyperpermeability and maintain endothelial barrier integrity. In this study, we reported that DAS-loaded NPs exhibited potent anti-leukemia efficacy as DAS alone. Importantly, albumin NPs as a drug carrier markedly reduced DAS-induced endothelial hyperpermeability by restraining the inhibition of Lyn kinase signaling pathway in endothelial cells. Therefore, albumin NPs could be a potential tool to improve anti-leukemia efficacy of DAS through its cell-selective effects. PMID:27391073

  9. Antigen Exposure History Defines CD8 T Cell Dynamics and Protection during Localized Pulmonary Infections

    PubMed Central

    Van Braeckel-Budimir, Natalija; Martin, Matthew D.; Hartwig, Stacey M.; Legge, Kevin L.; Badovinac, Vladimir P.; Harty, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Unlike systemic infections, little is known about the role of repeated localized infections on (re)shaping pathogen-specific memory CD8 T cell responses. Here, we used primary (1°) and secondary (2°) intranasal influenza virus infections of mice as a model to study intrinsic memory CD8 T cell properties. We show that secondary antigen exposure, relative to a single infection, generates memory CD8 T cell responses of superior magnitude in multiple tissue compartments including blood, spleen, draining lymph nodes, and lung. Unexpectedly, regardless of the significantly higher number of 2° memory CD8 T cells, similar degree of protection against pulmonary challenge was observed in both groups of mice containing 1° or 2° memory CD8 T cells. Mechanistically, using pertussis toxin-induced migration block, we showed that superior antigen-driven proliferation and ability to relocate to the site of infection allowed 1° memory CD8 T cells to accumulate in the infected lung during the first few days after challenge, compensating for the initially lower cell numbers. Taken together, the history of antigen exposures to localized pulmonary infections, through altering basic cell biology, dictates dynamic properties of protective memory CD8 T cell responses. This knowledge has important implications for a design of novel and an improvement of existing vaccines and immunization strategies. PMID:28191007

  10. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells: a novel therapy for solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shengnan; Li, Anping; Liu, Qian; Li, Tengfei; Yuan, Xun; Han, Xinwei; Wu, Kongming

    2017-03-29

    The chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy is a newly developed adoptive antitumor treatment. Theoretically, CAR-T cells can specifically localize and eliminate tumor cells by interacting with the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) expressing on tumor cell surface. Current studies demonstrated that various TAAs could act as target antigens for CAR-T cells, for instance, the type III variant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) was considered as an ideal target for its aberrant expression on the cell surface of several tumor types. CAR-T cell therapy has achieved gratifying breakthrough in hematological malignancies and promising outcome in solid tumor as showed in various clinical trials. The third generation of CAR-T demonstrates increased antitumor cytotoxicity and persistence through modification of CAR structure. In this review, we summarized the preclinical and clinical progress of CAR-T cells targeting EGFR, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and mesothelin (MSLN), as well as the challenges for CAR-T cell therapy.

  11. Different Bla-g T cell antigens dominate responses in asthma versus rhinitis subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Myles B.C.; Schulten, Veronique; Oseroff, Carla; Paul, Sinu; Dullanty, Laura M.; Frazier, April; Belles, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Visness, Cynthia; Bacharier, Leonard; Bloomberg, Gordon R.; Busse, Paula; Sidney, John; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The allergenicity of several German cockroach (Bla-g) antigens at the level of IgE responses is well established. However less is known about the specificity of CD4+ TH responses, and whether differences exist in associated magnitude or cytokine profiles as a function of disease severity. Methods Proteomic and transcriptomic techniques have been employed to identify novel antigens recognized by allergen-specific T cells. To characterize different TH functionalities of allergen-specific T cells, ELISPOT assays with sets of overlapping peptides covering the sequences of known allergens and novel antigens were employed to measure release of IL-5, IFNγ, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-21. Results Using these techniques, we characterized TH responses in a cohort of adult Bla-g sensitized subjects, either with (n=55) or without (n=17) asthma, and non-sensitized controls (n=20). T cell responses were detected for ten known Bla-g allergens and an additional ten novel Bla-g antigens; representing in total a 5-fold increase in the number of antigens demonstrated to be targeted by allergen-specific T cells. Responses of sensitized individuals regardless of asthma status were predominantly TH2, but higher in patients with diagnosed asthma. In asthmatic subjects Bla-g 5, 9 and 11 were immunodominant while, in contrast, non-asthmatic sensitized subjects responded mostly to Bla-g 5, 4, and the novel antigen NBGA5. Conclusions Asthmatic and non-asthmatic cockroach sensitized individuals exhibit similar TH2 polarized responses. Compared to non-asthmatics, however, asthmatic individuals have responses of higher magnitude and different allergen specificity. PMID:26414909

  12. Effective expansion of forkhead box P3⁺ regulatory T cells via early secreted antigenic target 6 and antigen 85 complex B from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying-E; Du, Zhong-Ren; Cai, Ying-Mu; Peng, Wen-Guang; Zheng, Gao-Zhe; Zheng, Geng-Long; Wu, Li-Biao; Li, Ke

    2015-04-01

    The expansion of CD4+ CD25+ forkhead box (FOX)P3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells has been observed in patients with Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis; however, the mechanism of expansion remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of the early secreted antigenic target 6(ESAT‑6) and antigen 85 complex B (Ag85B) from M. tuberculosis on Treg cell expansion. To investigate the sensitivity of peripheral blood cultures to the M. tuberculosis ESAT‑6 and Ag85B antigens, the proportion of circulating CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ Treg cells was determined using flow cytometry and the levels of FOXP3 mRNA were determined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA levels of FOXP3 and the proportion of circulating CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ Treg cells were increased in multiplicitous drug‑resistant tuberculosis patients compared with those in healthy controls and patients with latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) (P<0.001). The mycobacterial antigens ESAT‑6 and Ag85B increased the expansion of the CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ Treg cells and the mRNA levels of FOXP3 in healthy controls and LTBI patients compared with the effect of Bacillus Calmette‑Guerin (P<0.05). Additionally, the mRNA levels of FOXP3 were elevated in the LTBI patients following stimulations with the mycobacterial antigens (P=0.012). Therefore, the M. tuberculosis antigens ESAT‑6 and Ag85B induced CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ Treg‑cell expansion, particularly in patients with LTBI. These findings indicated that CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ Treg cells may have a primary role in the failure of the host immune system to eradicate M. tuberculosis.

  13. Antigen-Specific lgA B Memory Cell Responses to Shigella Antigens Elicited in Volunteers Immunized with Live Attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a Oral Vaccine Candidates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    J.B. Harris, Antigen-specific memory B-cell responses to Vibrio cholerae 01 infection in Bangladesh, Infect. lmmun. 77 (2009) 3850-3856. [38] K.L...detectable levels of lgG BM cells and 76% had detectable levels of lgA and lgM BM cells [40]. In natural cholera infection, anti-LPS lgA BM cells

  14. Targeting endogenous nuclear antigens by electrotransfer of monoclonal antibodies in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Freund, Guillaume; Sibler, Annie-Paule; Desplancq, Dominique; Oulad-Abdelghani, Mustapha; Vigneron, Marc; Gannon, Julian; Van Regenmortel, Marc H.; Weiss, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies are valuable tools for functional studies in vitro, but their use in living cells remains challenging because they do not naturally cross the cell membrane. Here, we present a simple and highly efficient method for the intracytoplasmic delivery of any antibody into cultured cells. By following the fate of monoclonal antibodies that bind to nuclear antigens, it was possible to image endogenous targets and to show that inhibitory antibodies are able to induce cell growth suppression or cell death. Our electrotransfer system allowed the cancer cells we studied to be transduced without loss of viability and may have applications for a variety of intracellular immuno-interventions. PMID:23765067

  15. Stage-specific embryonic antigen: determining expression in canine glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiming; Modiano, Jaime F; Ito, Daisuke

    2017-03-30

    The expression of stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEAs) was determined in several types of canine cancer cells. Flow cytometry showed SSEA-1 expression in glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells, although none expressed SSEA-3 or SSEA-4. Expression of SSEA-1 was not detected in lymphoma, osteosarcoma, or hemangiosarcoma cell lines. Relatively stable SSEA-1 expression was observed between 24 and 72 h of culture. After 8 days in culture, sorted SSEA-1(-) and SSEA-1(+) cells re-established SSEA-1 expression to levels comparable to those observed in unsorted cells. Our results document, for the first time, the expression of SSEA-1 in several canine cancer cell lines.

  16. Antigen-induced recruitment of eosinophils: importance of CD4+ T cells, IL5, and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Hom, J T; Estridge, T

    1994-12-01

    Eosinophils of sensitized mice readily recruit to the site of antigen challenge. In the present study, experiments were performed to determine the involvement of different cell types in the antigen-induced recruitment of eosinophils. We demonstrated that a single treatment with anti-L3T4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) on the day of allergen challenge significantly decreased antigen-induced recruitment of eosinophils. Treatments with anti-L3T4 mAb during the sensitization period also caused a substantial reduction in the migration of eosinophils into the site of challenge with antigen. Thus, it appears that both stages of eosinophil recruitment, sensitization and antigen-challenge, are dependent upon the presence of L3T4+ T cells. Moreover, while treatments with anti-IL5 mAb blocked eosinophil migration, anti-IL2 mAb failed to alter the antigen-induced recruitment of eosinophils. In addition, significant numbers of eosinophils from the mast-cell-deficient mice were found to migrate into the peritoneal cavities upon allergen challenge. Eosinophil migration was also observed in several mouse strains of different H-2 haplotypes. The present findings suggest that CD4+ T cells and IL5 but not IL2 may play important roles in modulating the recruitment of eosinophils. Moreover, the involvement of mast cells does not appear to be essential for eosinophil migration. Finally, the development of antigen-induced recruitment of eosinophils is probably not under the immunogenetic regulation by genes within the H-2 complex.

  17. Small-molecule targeting of proliferating cell nuclear antigen chromatin association inhibits tumor cell growth.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zongqing; Wortman, Matthew; Dillehay, Kelsey L; Seibel, William L; Evelyn, Chris R; Smith, Shanna J; Malkas, Linda H; Zheng, Yi; Lu, Shan; Dong, Zhongyun

    2012-06-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a potential anticancer target, forms a homotrimer and is required for DNA replication and numerous other cellular processes. The purpose of this study was to identify novel small molecules that modulate PCNA activity to affect tumor cell proliferation. An in silico screen of a compound library against a crystal structure of PCNA and a subsequent structural similarity search of the ZINC chemical database were carried out to derive relevant docking partners. Nine compounds, termed PCNA inhibitors (PCNA-Is), were selected for further characterization. PCNA-I1 selectively bound to PCNA trimers with a dissociation constant (K(d)) of ~0.2 to 0.4 μM. PCNA-Is promoted the formation of SDS-refractory PCNA trimers. PCNA-I1 dose- and time-dependently reduced the chromatin-associated PCNA in cells. Consistent with its effects on PCNA trimer stabilization, PCNA-I1 inhibited the growth of tumor cells of various tissue types with an IC(50) of ~0.2 μM, whereas it affected the growth of nontransformed cells at significantly higher concentrations (IC(50), ~1.6 μM). Moreover, uptake of BrdU was dose-dependently reduced in cells treated with PCNA-I1. Mechanistically the PCNA-Is mimicked the effect of PCNA knockdown by siRNA, inducing cancer cell arrest at both the S and G(2)/M phases. Thus, we have identified a class of compounds that can directly bind to PCNA, stabilize PCNA trimers, reduce PCNA association with chromatin, and inhibit tumor cell growth by inducing a cell cycle arrest. They are valuable tools in studying PCNA function and may be useful for future PCNA-targeted cancer therapy.

  18. The CD1 family: serving lipid antigens to T cells since the Mesozoic era.

    PubMed

    Zajonc, Dirk M

    2016-08-01

    Class I-like CD1 molecules are in a family of antigen-presenting molecules that bind lipids and lipopeptides, rather than peptides for immune surveillance by T cells. Since CD1 lacks the high degree of polymorphism found in their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, different species express different numbers of CD1 isotypes, likely to be able to present structurally diverse classes of lipid antigens. In this review, we will present a historical overview of the structures of the different human CD1 isotypes and also discuss species-specific adaptations of the lipid-binding groove. We will discuss how single amino acid changes alter the shape and volume of the CD1 binding groove, how these minor changes can give rise to different numbers of binding pockets, and how these pockets affect the lipid repertoire that can be presented by any given CD1 protein. We will compare the structures of various lipid antigens and finally, we will discuss recognition of CD1-presented lipid antigens by antigen receptors on T cells (TCRs).

  19. Dendritic cells and the promise of antigen-specific therapy in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease resulting from an autoimmune response to self-antigens, leading to inflammation of synovial tissue of joints and subsequent cartilage and bone erosion. Current disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and biologic inhibitors of TNF, IL-6, T cells and B cells block inflammation nonspecifically, which may lead to adverse effects, including infection. They do not generally induce long-term drug-free remission or restoration of immune tolerance to self-antigens, and lifelong treatment is usual. The development of antigen-specific strategies in RA has so far been limited by insufficient knowledge of autoantigens, of the autoimmune pathogenesis of RA and of the mechanisms of immune tolerance in man. Effective tolerance-inducing antigen-specific immunotherapeutic strategies hold promise of greater specificity, of lower toxicity and of a longer-term solution for controlling or even preventing RA. This paper reviews current understanding of autoantigens and their relationship to immunopathogenesis of RA, and emerging therapeutics that aim to leverage normal tolerance mechanisms for implementation of antigen-specific therapy in RA. PMID:23374912

  20. Nonadherent culture method downregulates stem cell antigen-1 expression in mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    DENG, BAOPING; DENG, WEIPING; XIAO, PINGNAN; ZENG, KUAN; ZHANG, SHINING; ZHANG, HONGWU; DENG, DAVID YB; YANG, YANQI

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are primarily isolated by their adherence to plastic and their in vitro growth characteristics. Expansion of these cells from an adherent culture is the only method to obtain a sufficient number of cells for use in clinical practice and research. However, little is known with regard to the effect of adherence to plastic on the phenotype of the cells. In the present study, bone marrow CD45−CD31−CD44− stem cell antigen (Sca)-1+ MSCs were sorted by flow cytometry and expanded in adherent cultures. The expression levels of the adhesion molecule, Sca-1, in the adherent cultures were compared with those from nonadherent cultures at different time points. The flow cytometry results indicated that the expression levels of Sca-1 decreased in the MSCs in the nonadherent cultures grown in ultra-low-adherent plates. Furthermore, the result was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction at the same time points. Therefore, the results demonstrated that the loss of plastic adherence downregulated the expression of Sca-1. The observations may provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying plastic adherent culture. PMID:26170908

  1. The B-cell antigen receptor integrates adaptive and innate immune signals

    PubMed Central

    Otipoby, Kevin L.; Waisman, Ari; Derudder, Emmanuel; Srinivasan, Lakshmi; Franklin, Andrew; Rajewsky, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    B cells respond to antigens by engagement of their B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) and of coreceptors through which signals from helper T cells or pathogen-associated molecular patterns are delivered. We show that the proliferative response of B cells to the latter stimuli is controlled by BCR-dependent activation of phosphoinositidyl 3-kinase (PI-3K) signaling. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β and Foxo1 are two PI-3K-regulated targets that play important roles, but to different extents, depending on the specific mitogen. These results suggest a model for integrating signals from the innate and the adaptive immune systems in the control of the B-cell immune response. PMID:26371314

  2. Modulation of Immune Responses by Exosomes Derived from Antigen-Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shenoda, Botros B.; Ajit, Seena K.

    2016-01-01

    Exosome-mediated signaling is important in mediating the inflammatory response. To exert their biological or pathophysiological functions in the recipient cells, exosomes deliver a diverse array of biomacromolecules including long and short coding and non-coding RNAs, proteins, and lipids. Exosomes secreted by antigen-presenting cells can confer therapeutic benefits by attenuating or stimulating the immune response. Exosomes play a crucial role in carrying and presenting functional major histocompatibility peptide complexes to modulate antigen-specific T cell responses. Exosomes from Dendritic Cells (DCs) can activate T and B cells and have been explored for their immunostimulatory properties in cancer therapy. The immunosuppressive properties of exosomes derived from macrophages and DCs can reduce inflammation in animal models for several inflammatory disorders. This review focuses on the protective role of exosomes in attenuating inflammation or augmenting immune response, emphasizing studies on exosomes derived from DCs and macrophages. PMID:27660518

  3. Antigen-Specific Th17 Cells Are Primed by Distinct and Complementary Dendritic Cell Subsets in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Florian R.; Becattini, Simone; Rülicke, Thomas; Sallusto, Federica; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé

    2015-01-01

    Candida spp. can cause severe and chronic mucocutaneous and systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. Protection from mucocutaneous candidiasis depends on T helper cells, in particular those secreting IL-17. The events regulating T cell activation and differentiation toward effector fates in response to fungal invasion in different tissues are poorly understood. Here we generated a Candida-specific TCR transgenic mouse reactive to a novel endogenous antigen that is conserved in multiple distant species of Candida, including the clinically highly relevant C. albicans and C. glabrata. Using TCR transgenic T cells in combination with an experimental model of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) we investigated antigen presentation and Th17 priming by different subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) present in the infected oral mucosa. Candida-derived endogenous antigen accesses the draining lymph nodes and is directly presented by migratory DCs. Tissue-resident Flt3L-dependent DCs and CCR2-dependent monocyte-derived DCs collaborate in antigen presentation and T cell priming during OPC. In contrast, Langerhans cells, which are also present in the oral mucosa and have been shown to prime Th17 cells in the skin, are not required for induction of the Candida-specific T cell response upon oral challenge. This highlights the functional compartmentalization of specific DC subsets in different tissues. These data provide important new insights to our understanding of tissue-specific antifungal immunity. PMID:26431538

  4. Human natural killer cells promote cross-presentation of tumor cell-derived antigens by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Deauvieau, Florence; Ollion, Vincent; Doffin, Anne-Claire; Achard, Carole; Fonteneau, Jean-François; Verronese, Estelle; Durand, Isabelle; Ghittoni, Raffaella; Marvel, Jacqueline; Dezutter-Dambuyant, Colette; Walzer, Thierry; Vie, Henri; Perrot, Ivan; Goutagny, Nadège; Caux, Christophe; Valladeau-Guilemond, Jenny

    2015-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) cross-present antigen (Ag) to initiate T-cell immunity against most infections and tumors. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate cytolytic lymphocytes that have emerged as key modulators of multiple DC functions. Here, we show that human NK cells promote cross-presentation of tumor cell-derived Ag by DC leading to Ag-specific CD8(+) T-cell activation. Surprisingly, cytotoxic function of NK cells was not required. Instead, we highlight a critical and nonredundant role for IFN-γ and TNF-α production by NK cells to enhance cross-presentation by DC using two different Ag models. Importantly, we observed that NK cells promote cell-associated Ag cross-presentation selectively by monocytes-derived DC (Mo-DC) and CD34-derived CD11b(neg) CD141(high) DC subsets but not by myeloid CD11b(+) DC. Moreover, we demonstrate that triggering NK cell activation by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)-coated tumor cells leads to efficient DC cross-presentation, supporting the concept that NK cells can contribute to therapeutic mAbs efficiency by inducing downstream adaptive immunity. Taken together, our findings point toward a novel role of human NK cells bridging innate and adaptive immunity through selective induction of cell-associated Ag cross-presentation by CD141(high) DC, a process that could be exploited to better harness Ag-specific cellular immunity in immunotherapy.

  5. Collective Genetic Interaction Effects and the Role of Antigen-Presenting Cells in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hyung Jun; Yu, Chenggang; Reifman, Jaques

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur when immune cells fail to develop or lose their tolerance toward self and destroy body’s own tissues. Both insufficient negative selection of self-reactive T cells and impaired development of regulatory T cells preventing effector cell activation are believed to contribute to autoimmunity. Genetic predispositions center around the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II loci involved in antigen presentation, the key determinant of CD4+ T cell activation. Recent studies suggested that variants in the MHC region also exhibit significant non-additive interaction effects. However, collective interactions involving large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to such effects are yet to be characterized. In addition, relatively little is known about the cell-type-specificity of such interactions in the context of cellular pathways. Here, we analyzed type 1 diabetes (T1D) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) genome-wide association data sets via large-scale, high-performance computations and inferred collective interaction effects involving MHC SNPs using the discrete discriminant analysis. Despite considerable differences in the details of SNP interactions in T1D and RA data, the enrichment pattern of interacting pairs in reference epigenomes was remarkably similar: statistically significant interactions were epigenetically active in cell-type combinations connecting B cells to T cells and intestinal epithelial cells, with both helper and regulatory T cells showing strong disease-associated interactions with B cells. Our results provide direct genetic evidence pointing to the important roles B cells play as antigen-presenting cells toward CD4+ T cells in the context of central and peripheral tolerance. In addition, they are consistent with recent experimental studies suggesting that the repertoire of B cell-specific self-antigens in the thymus are critical to the effective control of corresponding autoimmune activation

  6. Heterogeneity of natural Foxp3+ T cells: a committed regulatory T-cell lineage and an uncommitted minor population retaining plasticity.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Noriko; Mariotti-Ferrandiz, Maria Encarnita; Wang, Ying; Malissen, Bernard; Waldmann, Herman; Hori, Shohei

    2009-02-10

    Natural regulatory T cells (T(reg)) represent a distinct lineage of T lymphocytes committed to suppressive functions, and expression of the transcription factor Foxp3 is thought to identify this lineage specifically. Here we report that, whereas the majority of natural CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells maintain stable Foxp3 expression after adoptive transfer to lymphopenic or lymphoreplete recipients, a minor fraction enriched within the CD25(-) subset actually lose it. Some of those Foxp3(-) T cells adopt effector helper T cell (T(h)) functions, whereas some retain "memory" of previous Foxp3 expression, reacquiring Foxp3 upon activation. This minority "unstable" population exhibits flexible responses to cytokine signals, relying on transforming growth factor-beta to maintain Foxp3 expression and responding to other cytokines by differentiating into effector T(h) in vitro. In contrast, CD4(+)Foxp3(+)CD25(high) T cells are resistant to such conversion to effector T(h) even after many rounds of cell division. These results demonstrate that natural Foxp3(+) T cells are a heterogeneous population consisting of a committed T(reg) lineage and an uncommitted subpopulation with developmental plasticity.

  7. Generation of Large Numbers of Antigen-Expressing Human Dendritic Cells Using CD14-ML Technology.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Yuya; Haruta, Miwa; Tomita, Yusuke; Matsumura, Keiko; Ikeda, Tokunori; Yuno, Akira; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Hideki; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Senju, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a method to expand human monocytes through lentivirus-mediated introduction of cMYC and BMI1, and we named the monocyte-derived proliferating cells, CD14-ML. CD14-ML differentiated into functional DC (CD14-ML-DC) upon addition of IL-4, resulting in the generation of a large number of DC. One drawback of this method was the extensive donor-dependent variation in proliferation efficiency. In the current study, we found that introduction of BCL2 or LYL1 along with cMYC and BMI1 was beneficial. Using the improved method, we obtained CD14-ML from all samples, regardless of whether the donors were healthy individuals or cancer patients. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood T cells with CD14-ML-DC that were loaded with cancer antigen-derived peptides led to the establishment of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines that recognized the peptides. Since CD14-ML was propagated for more than 1 month, we could readily conduct genetic modification experiments. To generate CD14-ML-DC that expressed antigenic proteins, we introduced lentiviral antigen-expression vectors and subjected the cells to 2 weeks of culture for drug-selection and expansion. The resulting antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC successfully induced CD8+ T cell lines that were reactive to CMVpp65 or MART1/MelanA, suggesting an application in vaccination therapy. Thus, this improved method enables the generation of a sufficient number of DC for vaccination therapy from a small amount of peripheral blood from cancer patients. Information on T cell epitopes is not necessary in vaccination with cancer antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC; therefore, all patients, irrespective of HLA type, will benefit from anti-cancer therapy based on this technology.

  8. Generation of Large Numbers of Antigen-Expressing Human Dendritic Cells Using CD14-ML Technology

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Yuya; Haruta, Miwa; Tomita, Yusuke; Matsumura, Keiko; Ikeda, Tokunori; Yuno, Akira; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Hideki; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Senju, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a method to expand human monocytes through lentivirus-mediated introduction of cMYC and BMI1, and we named the monocyte-derived proliferating cells, CD14-ML. CD14-ML differentiated into functional DC (CD14-ML-DC) upon addition of IL-4, resulting in the generation of a large number of DC. One drawback of this method was the extensive donor-dependent variation in proliferation efficiency. In the current study, we found that introduction of BCL2 or LYL1 along with cMYC and BMI1 was beneficial. Using the improved method, we obtained CD14-ML from all samples, regardless of whether the donors were healthy individuals or cancer patients. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood T cells with CD14-ML-DC that were loaded with cancer antigen-derived peptides led to the establishment of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines that recognized the peptides. Since CD14-ML was propagated for more than 1 month, we could readily conduct genetic modification experiments. To generate CD14-ML-DC that expressed antigenic proteins, we introduced lentiviral antigen-expression vectors and subjected the cells to 2 weeks of culture for drug-selection and expansion. The resulting antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC successfully induced CD8+ T cell lines that were reactive to CMVpp65 or MART1/MelanA, suggesting an application in vaccination therapy. Thus, this improved method enables the generation of a sufficient number of DC for vaccination therapy from a small amount of peripheral blood from cancer patients. Information on T cell epitopes is not necessary in vaccination with cancer antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC; therefore, all patients, irrespective of HLA type, will benefit from anti-cancer therapy based on this technology. PMID:27050553

  9. Proteasomal Processing of Albumin by Renal Dendritic Cells Generates Antigenic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Macconi, Daniela; Chiabrando, Chiara; Schiarea, Silvia; Aiello, Sistiana; Cassis, Linda; Gagliardini, Elena; Noris, Marina; Buelli, Simona; Zoja, Carla; Corna, Daniela; Mele, Caterina; Fanelli, Roberto; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Benigni, Ariela

    2009-01-01

    The role of dendritic cells (DC) that accumulate in the renal parenchyma of non–immune-mediated proteinuric nephropathies is not well understood. Under certain circumstances, DC capture immunologically ignored antigens, including self-antigens, and present them within MHC class I, initiating an autoimmune response. We studied whether DC could generate antigenic peptides from the self-protein albumin. Exposure of rat proximal tubular cells to autologous albumin resulted in its proteolytic cleavage to form an N-terminal 24–amino acid peptide (ALB1-24). This peptide was further processed by the DC proteasome into antigenic peptides that had binding motifs for MHC class I and were capable of activating syngeneic CD8+ T cells. In vivo, the rat five-sixths nephrectomy model allowed the localization and activation of renal DC. Accumulation of DC in the renal parenchyma peaked 1 wk after surgery and decreased at 4 wk, concomitant with their appearance in the renal draining lymph nodes. DC from renal lymph nodes, loaded with ALB1-24, activated syngeneic CD8+ T cells in primary culture. The response of CD8+ T cells of five-sixths nephrectomized rats was amplified with secondary stimulation. In contrast, DC from renal lymph nodes of five-sixths nephrectomized rats treated with the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib lost their capacity to stimulate CD8+ T cells in primary and secondary cultures. These data suggest that albumin can be a source of potentially antigenic peptides upon renal injury and that renal DC play a role in processing self-proteins through a proteasome-dependent pathway. PMID:19092126

  10. Differential Glioma-Associated Tumor Antigen Expression Profiles of Human Glioma Cells Grown in Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Lisheng; Cornforth, Andrew N.; Hoa, Neil T.; Delgado, Christina; Chiou, Shiun Kwei; Zhou, Yi Hong; Jadus, Martin R.

    2012-01-01

    Human U251 and D54 glioma cells were tested for expression of 25 glioma-associated tumor antigen precursor proteins (TAPP) under hypoxic (1% O2) or normoxic (21% O2) conditions. Hypoxic glioma cell lines increased their mRNA expression for nine TAPP (Aim2, Art-4, EphA2, EZH2, Fosl1, PTH-rP, Sox 11, Whsc2 and YKL-40), as assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time/polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Increased differences with three hypoxic-induced TAPP: EZH2, Whsc2 and YKL-40 were shown at the protein levels by fluorescent antibody staining and quantitative electrophoretic analysis. Two TAPP (MRP3 and Trp1) were down-regulated by hypoxia in glioma cell lines. Growing the glioma cells under hypoxia for 13 days, followed by returning them back to normoxic conditions for 7 days, and restored the original normoxic TAPP profile. Thus, hypoxia was an environmental factor that stimulated the transient expression of these antigens. Intracranial xenografts grown in nude mice derived from U251 cells that had been cultured under neurosphere stem cell conditions showed increased expression of Whsc2 or YKL-40, demonstrating that these in vitro properties of glioma also occur in vivo. Whsc2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes killed the hypoxic U251 glioma cells better than normoxic glioma cells. The antigens expressed by hypoxic tumor cells may be a better source of starting tumor material for loading dendritic cells for novel immunotherapy of glioma using tumor-associated antigens. PMID:22957023

  11. Differential glioma-associated tumor antigen expression profiles of human glioma cells grown in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lisheng; Cornforth, Andrew N; Hoa, Neil T; Delgado, Christina; Chiou, Shiun Kwei; Zhou, Yi Hong; Jadus, Martin R

    2012-01-01

    Human U251 and D54 glioma cells were tested for expression of 25 glioma-associated tumor antigen precursor proteins (TAPP) under hypoxic (1% O(2)) or normoxic (21% O(2)) conditions. Hypoxic glioma cell lines increased their mRNA expression for nine TAPP (Aim2, Art-4, EphA2, EZH2, Fosl1, PTH-rP, Sox 11, Whsc2 and YKL-40), as assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time/polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Increased differences with three hypoxic-induced TAPP: EZH2, Whsc2 and YKL-40 were shown at the protein levels by fluorescent antibody staining and quantitative electrophoretic analysis. Two TAPP (MRP3 and Trp1) were down-regulated by hypoxia in glioma cell lines. Growing the glioma cells under hypoxia for 13 days, followed by returning them back to normoxic conditions for 7 days, and restored the original normoxic TAPP profile. Thus, hypoxia was an environmental factor that stimulated the transient expression of these antigens. Intracranial xenografts grown in nude mice derived from U251 cells that had been cultured under neurosphere stem cell conditions showed increased expression of Whsc2 or YKL-40, demonstrating that these in vitro properties of glioma also occur in vivo. Whsc2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes killed the hypoxic U251 glioma cells better than normoxic glioma cells. The antigens expressed by hypoxic tumor cells may be a better source of starting tumor material for loading dendritic cells for novel immunotherapy of glioma using tumor-associated antigens.

  12. A novel T cell receptor single-chain signaling complex mediates antigen-specific T cell activity and tumor control

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Jennifer D.; Harris, Daniel T.; Soto, Carolina M.; Chervin, Adam S.; Aggen, David H.; Roy, Edward J.; Kranz, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of genetically modified T cells to treat cancer has shown promise in several clinical trials. Two main strategies have been applied to redirect T cells against cancer: 1) introduction of a full-length T cell receptor (TCR) specific for a tumor-associated peptide-MHC, or 2) introduction of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), including an antibody fragment specific for a tumor cell surface antigen, linked intracellularly to T cell signaling domains. Each strategy has advantages and disadvantages for clinical applications. Here, we present data on the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of a single-chain signaling receptor incorporating a TCR variable fragment as the targeting element (referred to as TCR-SCS). This receptor contained a single-chain TCR (Vβ-linker-Vα) from a high-affinity TCR called m33, linked to the intracellular signaling domains of CD28 and CD3ζ. This format avoided mispairing with endogenous TCR chains, and mediated specific T cell activity when expressed in either CD4 or CD8 T cells. TCR-SCS-transduced CD8-negative cells showed an intriguing sensitivity, compared to full-length TCRs, to higher densities of less stable pepMHC targets. T cells that expressed this peptide-specific receptor persisted in vivo, and exhibited polyfunctional responses. Growth of metastatic antigen-positive tumors was significantly inhibited by T cells that expressed this receptor, and tumor cells that escaped were antigen loss variants. TCR-SCS receptors represent an alternative targeting receptor strategy that combines the advantages of single-chain expression, avoidance of TCR chain mispairing, and targeting of intracellular antigens presented in complex with MHC proteins. PMID:25082071

  13. Expression of CD3-associated antigen-binding receptors on suppressor T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kuchroo, V K; Steele, J K; Billings, P R; Selvaraj, P; Dorf, M E

    1988-01-01

    Three suppressor T (Ts)-cell hybridomas specific for 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl (NP) hapten were selected for surface expression of cluster determinant 3 (CD3) by using antibody (anti-CD3) or antigen (NP-bovine serum albumin) panning procedures followed by cloning at limiting dilution. The CD3-selected Ts hybridomas showed a 1-2 logarithmic enrichment in suppressor activity when compared to the parent lines; they also specifically bound NP-coupled sheep red blood cells in rosette assays. This antigen-binding ability could be down-modulated by anti-CD3 antibody. Similarly, surface expression of CD3 was specifically down-modulated by preincubation of these hybridomas with antigen. Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody under reducing conditions coprecipitated a broad band of 38-50 kDa associated with two CD3 (25 and 16 kDa) bands. T-cell receptor, anti-alpha-specific monoclonal antibody also immunoprecipitated a broad band in the 41 to 49-kDa region. The combined results suggest that, like helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, Ts cells also bear antigen-specific receptors associated with CD3 molecules. Images PMID:2973609

  14. Unique glycoprotein antigen defined by monoclonal antibody on human neurobiastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mujoo, K.; Spiro, R.C.; Reisfeld, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have characterized a new target antigen on the surface of human neuroblastoma cells and defined it with a monoclonal antibody (Mab) 5G3. This antibody is of IgG2a type and has an association constant of 8 x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/. In ELISA assays, Mab 5G3 reacted with human neuroblastoma as well as melanoma, squamous lung, skin carcinoma, and osteogenic sarcoma. Immunocytochemical analysis of frozen tissue sections revealed strong reactivity with all neuroblastoma tissues and marginal reactivity with melanoma and glioma tissues. There was no reactivity with fetal or normal tissues with the exception of cerebellum. The antigen recognized by Mab 5G3 is a glycoprotein of 200 and 215 kDa expressed on the SK-N-AS neuroblastoma cells. The antigen appears to contain N-linked carbohydrates based on treatment of human neuroblastoma cells with tunicamycin before and after intrinsic radiolabeling followed by indirect immunoprecipitation. The pulse-chase biosynthetic studies followed by indirect immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE indicated the precursor/product relationship between 200 and 215 kDa molecules. The 200 kDa component is endoglycosidase H-sensitive, whereas 215 kDa molecule is Endo-H resistant. The 215 kDa component is also sulfated, sialylated, and phosphorylated at serine residues. Preliminary data suggests that Mab, aside from identifying a unique target antigen on human neuroblastoma cells, may be suited as a targeting device for chemotherapeutic drugs.

  15. Identification of Theileria lestoquardi Antigens Recognized by CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ngugi, Daniel; Lizundia, Regina; Hostettler, Isabel; Woods, Kerry; Ballingall, Keith; MacHugh, Niall D.; Morrison, W. Ivan; Weir, Willie; Shiels, Brian; Werling, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    As part of an international effort to develop vaccines for Theileria lestoquardi, we undertook a limited screen to test T. lestoquardi orthologues of antigens recognised by CD8+ T lymphocyte responses against T. annulata and T. parva in cattle. Five MHC defined sheep were immunized by live T. lestoquardi infection and their CD8+ T lymphocyte responses determined. Thirteen T. lestoquardi orthologues of T. parva and T. annulata genes, previously shown to be targets of CD8+ T lymphocyte responses of immune cattle, were expressed in autologous fibroblasts and screened for T cell recognition using an IFNγ assay. Genes encoding T. lestoquardi antigens Tl8 (putative cysteine proteinase, 349 aa) or Tl9 (hypothetical secreted protein, 293 aa) were recognise by T cells from one animal that displayed a unique MHC class I genotype. Antigenic 9-mer peptide epitopes of Tl8 and Tl9 were identified through peptide scans using CD8+ T cells from the responding animal. These experiments identify the first T. lestoquardi antigens recognised by CD8+ T cell responses linked to specific MHC class I alleles. PMID:27611868

  16. CLIC1 regulates dendritic cell antigen processing and presentation by modulating phagosome acidification and proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Salao, Kanin; Jiang, Lele; Li, Hui; Tsai, Vicky W.-W.; Husaini, Yasmin; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Brown, Louise J.; Brown, David A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intracellular chloride channel protein 1 (CLIC1) participates in inflammatory processes by regulating macrophage phagosomal functions such as pH and proteolysis. Here, we sought to determine if CLIC1 can regulate adaptive immunity by actions on dendritic cells (DCs), the key professional antigen presenting cells. To do this, we first generated bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from germline CLIC1 gene-deleted (CLIC1−/−) and wild-type (CLIC1+/+) mice, then studied them in vitro and in vivo. We found phagocytosis triggered cytoplasmic CLIC1 translocation to the phagosomal membrane where it regulated phagosomal pH and proteolysis. Phagosomes from CLIC1−/− BMDCs displayed impaired acidification and proteolysis, which could be reproduced if CLIC1+/+, but not CLIC1−/− cells, were treated with IAA94, a CLIC family ion channel blocker. CLIC1−/− BMDC displayed reduced in vitro antigen processing and presentation of full-length myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and reduced MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These data suggest that CLIC1 regulates DC phagosomal pH to ensure optimal processing of antigen for presentation to antigen-specific T-cells. Further, they indicate that CLIC1 is a novel therapeutic target to help reduce the adaptive immune response in autoimmune diseases. PMID:27113959

  17. Prostate stem cell antigen gene TT genotype and development of intestinal metaplasia in Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Uotani, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Tanaka, Shingo; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Tomohisa; Graham, David Y.; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Aim Gastric cancer is etiologically related to interactions between Helicobacter pylori infection, environmental, and host factors. Gastric carcinoma is associated with a cascade of increasing atrophic gastric mucosal damage. Prostate stem cell antigen polymorphisms have been associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. Here, we examined the interaction between prostate stem cell antigen polymorphisms and H. pylori in the progression of H. pylori gastritis. Methods Prostate stem cell antigen polymorphisms (TT, TC and CC) among H. pylori infected and uninfected Bhutanese were compared with the severity of H. pylori gastritis (neutrophils, monocytes, atrophy scores, H. pylori density, and the presence and extent of intestinal metaplasia) using the updated Sydney system. Results Biopsies from 339 patients were included. The proportion of biopsies with intestinal metaplasia was also significantly (P<0.05) greater among those with the TT genotype than with either the CT or CC genotype. Despite no significant differences in inflammation or H. pylori density scores, the scores for the premalignant condition, intestinal metaplasia in both the gastric corpus and antrum, among H. pylori infected with the TT genotype was significantly (P <0.05) greater than C allele carriers. Conclusions Prostate stem cell antigen TT genotype was associated with more than a 3-fold increase in the prevalence and extent of gastric mucosal intestinal metaplasia compared to C allele carriers among H. pylori infected Bhutanese. PMID:26706772

  18. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin drive ligand-independent T-cell antigen receptor nanoclustering.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Eszter; Swamy, Mahima; Holzer, Martin; Beck-García, Katharina; Worch, Remigiusz; Thiele, Christoph; Guigas, Gernot; Boye, Kristian; Luescher, Immanuel F; Schwille, Petra; Schubert, Rolf; Schamel, Wolfgang W A

    2012-12-14

    The T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) exists in monomeric and nanoclustered forms independently of antigen binding. Although the clustering is involved in the regulation of T-cell sensitivity, it is unknown how the TCR nanoclusters form. We show that cholesterol is required for TCR nanoclustering in T cells and that this clustering enhances the avidity but not the affinity of the TCR-antigen interaction. Investigating the mechanism of the nanoclustering, we found that radioactive photocholesterol specifically binds to the TCRβ chain in vivo. In order to reduce the complexity of cellular membranes, we used a synthetic biology approach and reconstituted the TCR in liposomes of defined lipid composition. Both cholesterol and sphingomyelin were required for the formation of TCR dimers in phosphatidylcholine-containing large unilamellar vesicles. Further, the TCR was localized in the liquid disordered phase in giant unilamellar vesicles. We propose a model in which cholesterol and sphingomyelin binding to the TCRβ chain causes TCR dimerization. The lipid-induced TCR nanoclustering enhances the avidity to antigen and thus might be involved in enhanced sensitivity of memory compared with naive T cells. Our work contributes to the understanding of the function of specific nonannular lipid-membrane protein interactions.

  19. Antigen independent differentiation and maintenance of effector-like resident memory T cells in tissues

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Kerry A; Fraser, Kathryn A; Schenkel, Jason M; Moran, Amy; Abt, Michael C; Beura, Lalit K; Lucas, Philip J; Artis, David; Wherry, E John; Hogquist, Kristin; Vezys, Vaiva; Masopust, David

    2012-01-01

    Differentiation and maintenance of recirculating effector memory CD8 T cells (TEM) depends on prolonged cognate antigen stimulation. Whether similar pathways of differentiation exist for recently identified tissue-resident effector memory T cells (TRM), which contribute to rapid local protection upon pathogen re-exposure, is unknown. Memory CD8αβ+ T cells within small intestine epithelium are well-characterized examples of TRM and they maintain a long-lived effector-like phenotype that is highly suggestive of persistent antigen stimulation. This study sought to define the sources and requirements for prolonged Ag-stimulation in programming this differentiation state, including local stimulation via cognate or cross-reactive antigens derived from pathogens, microbial flora, or dietary proteins. Contrary to expectations, we found that prolonged cognate Ag-stimulation was dispensable for intestinal TRM ontogeny. In fact, chronic antigenic stimulation skewed differentiation away from the canonical intestinal T cell phenotype. Resident memory signatures, CD69 and CD103, were expressed in many non-lymphoid tissues including intestine, stomach, kidney, reproductive tract, pancreas, brain, heart, and salivary gland, and could be driven by cytokines. Moreover, TGFβ driven CD103 expression was required for TRM maintenance within intestinal epithelium in vivo. Thus, induction and maintenance of long-lived effector-like intestinal TRM differed from classic models of TEM ontogeny, and were programmed through a novel location-dependent pathway that was required for the persistence of local immunological memory. PMID:22504644

  20. Affinity for self antigen selects Treg cells with distinct functional properties.

    PubMed

    Wyss, Lena; Stadinski, Brian D; King, Carolyn G; Schallenberg, Sonja; McCarthy, Nicholas I; Lee, Jun Young; Kretschmer, Karsten; Terracciano, Luigi M; Anderson, Graham; Surh, Charles D; Huseby, Eric S; Palmer, Ed

    2016-09-01

    The manner in which regulatory T cells (Treg cells) control lymphocyte homeostasis is not fully understood. We identified two Treg cell populations with differing degrees of self-reactivity and distinct regulatory functions. We found that GITR(hi)PD-1(hi)CD25(hi) (Triple(hi)) Treg cells were highly self-reactive and controlled lympho-proliferation in peripheral lymph nodes. GITR(lo)PD-1(lo)CD25(lo) (Triple(lo)) Treg cells were less self-reactive and limited the development of colitis by promoting the conversion of CD4(+) Tconv cells into induced Treg cells (iTreg cells). Although Foxp3-deficient (Scurfy) mice lacked Treg cells, they contained Triple(hi)-like and Triple(lo)-like CD4(+) T cells zsuper> T cells infiltrated the skin, whereas Scurfy Triple(lo)CD4(+) T cells induced colitis and wasting disease. These findings indicate that the affinity of the T cell antigen receptor for self antigen drives the differentiation of Treg cells into distinct subsets with non-overlapping regulatory activities.

  1. Dynamic imaging reveals promiscuous crosspresentation of blood-borne antigens to naive CD8+ T cells in the bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Milo, Idan; Sapoznikov, Anita; Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Tal, Orna; Krauthgamer, Rita; van Rooijen, Nico; Dudziak, Diana; Jung, Steffen; Shakhar, Guy

    2013-07-11

    The bone marrow (BM) hosts memory lymphocytes and supports secondary immune responses against blood-borne antigens, but it is unsettled whether primary responses occur there and which cells present the antigen. We used 2-photon microscopy in the BM of live mice to study these questions. Naïve CD8(+) T cells crawled rapidly at steady state but arrested immediately upon sensing antigenic peptides. Following infusion of soluble protein, various cell types were imaged ingesting the antigen, while antigen-specific T cells decelerated, clustered, upregulated CD69, and were observed dividing in situ to yield effector cells. Unlike in the spleen, T-cell responses persisted when BM-resident dendritic cells (DCs) were ablated but failed when all phagocytic cells were depleted. Potential antigen-presenting cells included monocytes and macrophages but not B cells. Collectively, our results suggest that the BM supports crosspresentation of blood-borne antigens similar to the spleen; uniquely, alongside DCs, other myeloid cells participate in crosspresentation.

  2. Cyclin-A1 represents a new immunogenic targetable antigen expressed in acute myeloid leukemia stem cells with characteristics of a cancer-testis antigen

    PubMed Central

    Ochsenreither, Sebastian; Majeti, Ravindra; Schmitt, Thomas; Stirewalt, Derek; Keilholz, Ulrich; Loeb, Keith R.; Wood, Brent; Choi, Yongiae E.; Bleakley, Marie; Warren, Edus H.; Hudecek, Michael; Akatsuka, Yoshiki; Weissman, Irving L.

    2012-01-01

    Targeted T-cell therapy is a potentially less toxic strategy than allogeneic stem cell transplantation for providing a cytotoxic antileukemic response to eliminate leukemic stem cells (LSCs) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, this strategy requires identification of leukemia-associated antigens that are immunogenic and exhibit selective high expression in AML LSCs. Using microarray expression analysis of LSCs, hematopoietic cell subpopulations, and peripheral tissues to screen for candidate antigens, cyclin-A1 was identified as a candidate gene. Cyclin-A1 promotes cell proliferation and survival, has been shown to be leukemogenic in mice, is detected in LSCs of more than 50% of AML patients, and is minimally expressed in normal tissues with exception of testis. Using dendritic cells pulsed with a cyclin-A1 peptide library, we generated T cells against several cyclin-A1 oligopeptides. Two HLA A*0201-restricted epitopes were further characterized, and specific CD8 T-cell clones recognized both peptide-pulsed target cells and the HLA A*0201-positive AML line THP-1, which expresses cyclin-A1. Furthermore, cyclin-A1–specific CD8 T cells lysed primary AML cells. Thus, cyclin-A1 is the first prototypic leukemia-testis-antigen to be expressed in AML LSCs. The pro-oncogenic activity, high expression levels, and multitude of immunogenic epitopes make it a viable target for pursuing T cell–based therapy approaches. PMID:22529286

  3. PD-1 expression conditions T cell avidity within an antigen-specific repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Sylvain; Vignard, Virginie; Florenceau, Laetitia; Dreno, B.; Khammari, A.; Lang, F.; Labarriere, N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite its negative regulatory role on tumor-specific T cells, Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is also a marker of activated tumor-infiltrating T cells. In cancer, PD-1 blockade partially reverses T cell dysfunction allowing the amplification of tumor reactive T cells. Here, we investigated the role of PD-1 signaling on effector/memory human T cells specific for shared melanoma antigens, derived from blood. We documented for the first time the existence of melanoma-specific T cell clones unable to express PD-1. This stable feature was due to the persistent methylation of the PDCD1 promoter. These PD-1neg clones were of lower avidity than their PD-1pos counterparts, suggesting that high-affinity-specific T cell clones unable to express PD-1 are not or rarely present in peripheral blood, as they are probably eliminated by negative selection, due to their high reactivity. We also documented the existence of such PD-1neg T cell clones in melanoma tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), which also exhibited a lower functional avidity than