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Sample records for cellular calcium regulatory

  1. [Chronic kidney disease and cellular calcium homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Lajdová, I; Okša, A; Spustová, A; Dzúrik, R

    2012-01-01

    Free intracellular calcium represents a critical signaling mediator in a number of biological systems. Calcium cations (Ca2+) are an important ubiquitous messenger, controlling a broad range of cellular processes. Free cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is controlled by mechanisms that regulate Ca2+ entry from the extracellular space and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores, and by the activity of ATP-dependent Ca2+ pumps and antiporters that move Ca2+ back into stores or out of cells. Chronic kidney disease is associated with a significant elevation in [Ca2+]i which is toxic to the cells and may be responsible for a multiple organ dysfunction. Disturbances in cellular calcium homeostasis in patients with chronic kidney disease represent a complex process. Our studies elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms of altered cellular calcium homeostasis in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells which represent the model of nonexcitable cells in patients with chronic kidney disease. The results demonstrate that [Ca2+]i is significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells already in early stages of chronic kidney disease. The calcium concentration of intracellular stores and the capacitative calcium entry into the cells of these patients are significantly higher in comparison with healthy volunteers. Also the pore-forming P2X7 receptors participate in increased [Ca2+]i in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic kidney disease. An altered P2X7 receptor function and increased P2X7 receptor expression may contribute to the complex disturbances in intracellular calcium homeostasis in chronic kidney disease. On the other hand, the activity of plasmatic membrane Ca2+-ATPases which is responsible for removing excessive calcium out of the cell, was found to be decreased by 25 % when compared to healthy subjects. It means that not only the mechanisms of entry, but also of the removal are impaired by the disease. All these alterations in

  2. Calcium movements and the cellular basis of gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, S. J.; Biro, R. L.; Hale, C. C., II

    1983-01-01

    Evidence that calcium is a significant factor in gravitropism of plants is examined, together with the regulatory mechanism that controls calcium efflux in plant cells. Calcium has been found to accumulate on the upper surface of a plant placed in a horizontal attitude, which is followed by growth to the vertical within a half-hour. It has also been determined that the upper surface of the plant simultaneously experiences a reduced growth rate, compared to the lower surface. The substance calmodulin has been identified as the calcium-binding regulatory protein most influential in the transduction process leading to gravitropism, while chlorpromazine can inhibit its effects. The calcium is transported by ATPase located in the cell membrane. A possibility that the calcium pump is regulated by a feedback mechanism involving the presence of calmodulin is discussed.

  3. Evidence for a Regulatory Role of Calcium in Gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments conducted to determine the cellular basis of gravitropism, the phenomenon of calcium migration following gravitropic stimulation, and the preferential accumulation of calcium in cells are described. Results of autoradiographic studies of cross sections of oat, and the pryoantimony precipitation of calcium in situ are discussed. It was found that the movement of calcium during gravimetric stimulation is a redistribution of calcium from the vacuolar regions into the cells walls. This movement requires precipitation of a calcium ATPase. The control of calcium ATPase by calmodulin and whether chlorpromazine is binding to calmodulin in plants are considered.

  4. Evaluation of cellular influences caused by calcium carbonate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masanori; Nishio, Keiko; Kato, Haruhisa; Endoh, Shigehisa; Fujita, Katsuhide; Nakamura, Ayako; Kinugasa, Shinichi; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2014-03-01

    The cellular effects of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃) nanoparticles were evaluated. Three kinds of CaCO₃ nanoparticles were employed in our examinations. One of the types of CaCO₃ nanoparticles was highly soluble. And solubility of another type of CaCO₃ nanoparticle was lower. A stable CaCO₃ nanoparticle medium dispersion was prepared and applied to human lung carcinoma A549 cells and human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Then, mitochondrial activity, cell membrane damage, colony formation ability, DNA injury, induction of oxidative stress, and apoptosis were evaluated. Although the influences of CaCO₃ nanoparticles on mitochondrial activity and cell membrane damage were small, "soluble" CaCO₃ nanoparticles exerted some cellular influences. Soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles also induced a cell morphological change. Colony formation was inhibited by CaCO₃ nanoparticle exposure. In particular, soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles completely inhibited colony formation. The influence on intracellular the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was small. Soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles caused an increase in C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) expression and the activation of caspase-3. Moreover, CaCO₃ exposure increased intracellular the Ca²⁺ level and activated calpain. These results suggest that cellular the influences of CaCO₃ nanoparticles are mainly caused by intracellular calcium release and subsequently disrupt the effect of calcium signaling. In conclusion, there is possibility that soluble CaCO₃ nanoparticles induce cellular influences such as a cell morphological change. Cellular influence of CaCO₃ nanoparticles is caused by intracellular calcium release. If inhaled CaCO₃ nanoparticles have the potential to influence cellular events. However, the effect might be not severe because calcium is omnipresent element in cell.

  5. Cellular texture of mixtures of calcium (magnesium) and yttrium oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Strelov, K.K.; Kamenskikh, V.A.; Gilev, Yu.P.; Udilova, E.Yu.

    1987-08-01

    In solid-phase sintering of calcium (magnesium) oxides with yttrium oxide, the sintered material acquires a cellular texture visible on x-ray photographs obtained in the characteristic yttrium radiation as shown in this paper. Formation of a cellular texture in materials obtained in the systems CaO-Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and MgO-Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is studied. The practical importance of formation of cellular texture lies in the shielding effect on the surface phase.

  6. Bone regeneration: molecular and cellular interactions with calcium phosphate ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Barrère, Florence; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Groot, Klaas

    2006-01-01

    Calcium phosphate bioceramics are widely used in orthopedic and dental applications and porous scaffolds made of them are serious candidates in the field of bone tissue engineering. They have superior properties for the stimulation of bone formation and bone bonding, both related to the specific interactions of their surface with the extracellular fluids and cells, ie, ionic exchanges, superficial molecular rearrangement and cellular activity. PMID:17717972

  7. Role of intracellular calcium in cellular volume regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.M.; Chase, H.S. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    We investigated the role of intracellular calcium in epithelial cell volume regulation using cells isolated from the toad urinary bladder. A suspension of cells was prepared by treatment of the bladder with collagenase followed by ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid. The cells retained their ion-transporting capabilities: ouabain (1 mM) and amiloride (10 microM) inhibited cellular uptake of /sup 86/Rb and /sup 22/Na, respectively. Using a Coulter counter to measure cellular volume, we found that we could swell cells either by reducing the extracellular osmolality or by adding the permeant solute urea (45 mM) isosmotically. Under both conditions, cells first swelled and then returned to their base-line volume, in spite of the continued presence of the stimulus to swell. Volume regulation was inhibited when cells were swelled at low extracellular (Ca) (100 nM) and was retarded in cells preloaded with the calcium buffer quin 2. Swelling increased the intracellular free calcium concentration ((Ca)i), as measured by quin 2 fluorescence: (Ca)i increased 35 +/- 9 nM (n = 6) after hypotonic swelling and 42 +/- 3 nM (n = 3) after urea swelling. Reducing extracellular (Ca) to less than 100 nM prevented the swelling-induced increase in (Ca)i, suggesting that the source of the increase in (Ca)i was extracellular. This result was confirmed in measurements of cellular uptake of 45Ca: the rate of uptake was significantly higher in swollen cells compared with control (1.1 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.4 +/- 0.1 fmol . cell-1 X 5 min-1). Our experiments provide the first demonstration that cellular swelling increases (Ca)i. This increase is likely to play a critical role in cellular volume regulation.

  8. Phytoplankton calcification as an effective mechanism to alleviate cellular calcium poisoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, M. N.; Ramos, J. Barcelos e.; Schulz, K. G.; Riebesell, U.; Kaźmierczak, J.; Gallo, F.; Mackinder, L.; Li, Y.; Nesterenko, P. N.; Trull, T. W.; Hallegraeff, G. M.

    2015-11-01

    Marine phytoplankton have developed the remarkable ability to tightly regulate the concentration of free calcium ions in the intracellular cytosol at a level of ~ 0.1 μmol L-1 in the presence of seawater Ca2+ concentrations of 10 mmol L-1. The low cytosolic calcium ion concentration is of utmost importance for proper cell signalling function. While the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the tight control of intracellular Ca2+ concentration are not completely understood, phytoplankton taxonomic groups appear to have evolved different strategies, which may affect their ability to cope with changes in seawater Ca2+ concentrations in their environment on geological timescales. For example, the Cretaceous (145 to 66 Ma), an era known for the high abundance of coccolithophores and the production of enormous calcium carbonate deposits, exhibited seawater calcium concentrations up to 4 times present-day levels. We show that calcifying coccolithophore species (Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Coccolithus braarudii) are able to maintain their relative fitness (in terms of growth rate and photosynthesis) at simulated Cretaceous seawater calcium concentrations, whereas these rates are severely reduced under these conditions in some non-calcareous phytoplankton species (Chaetoceros sp., Ceratoneis closterium and Heterosigma akashiwo). Most notably, this also applies to a non-calcifying strain of E. huxleyi which displays a calcium sensitivity similar to the non-calcareous species. We hypothesize that the process of calcification in coccolithophores provides an efficient mechanism to alleviate cellular calcium poisoning and thereby offered a potential key evolutionary advantage, responsible for the proliferation of coccolithophores during times of high seawater calcium concentrations. The exact function of calcification and the reason behind the highly ornate physical structures of coccoliths remain elusive.

  9. The cellular transport of calcium in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Wallach, S; Reizenstein, D L; Bellavia, J V

    1966-03-01

    The bidirectional transport of calcium in rat liver was studied using slices labeled with Ca(47) in a closed two compartment system. Steady-state conditions were observed with influx and efflux transfer coefficients of 0.070 and 0.018 per minute, respectively. The rapidly exchanging cell fraction of calcium existed at a concentration three times higher than the average cell concentration of calcium and occupied cell loci comprising less than 25% of the cell mass, suggesting that calcium associated with the cell membranes, nuclei, and mitochondria participated in the rapidly exchanging fraction. At pH 7.4 and 377deg;C, the influx transfer coefficient was 25% above the steady-state condition and accumulation of calcium by the slices occurred. Studies of the effects of varied physical and chemical conditions revealed that the influx transfer coefficient was increased by elevated pH, strontium, certain metabolic inhibitors, and 2 mM concentrations of cyclic adenosinemonophosphate and adenosinetriphosphate. The influx transfer coefficient was decreased by reduced temperature, decreased pH, magnesium, and 10 mM adenosinetriphosphate. The efflux transfer coefficient was increased by elevated pH, strontium, iodoacetate, and adenosinetriphosphate, and was decreased by reduced temperature and by N-ethylmaleimide. These data support the thesis that cell transport of calcium is accomplished by the attachment of calcium atoms to the cell surface and transport through the plasma membrane bound to either specific carriers or to membrane constituents. Conditions which change the affinities, capacities, and mobilities of plasma membrane ligands that bind calcium or cause extracellular chelation of calcium are capable of altering the rate of calcium transport.

  10. Cellular Architecture Regulates Collective Calcium Signaling and Cell Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Hoying, James B.; Deymier, Pierre A.; Zhang, Donna D.; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-01-01

    A key feature of multicellular systems is the ability of cells to function collectively in response to external stimuli. However, the mechanisms of intercellular cell signaling and their functional implications in diverse vascular structures are poorly understood. Using a combination of computational modeling and plasma lithography micropatterning, we investigate the roles of structural arrangement of endothelial cells in collective calcium signaling and cell contractility. Under histamine stimulation, endothelial cells in self-assembled and microengineered networks, but not individual cells and monolayers, exhibit calcium oscillations. Micropatterning, pharmacological inhibition, and computational modeling reveal that the calcium oscillation depends on the number of neighboring cells coupled via gap junctional intercellular communication, providing a mechanistic basis of the architecture-dependent calcium signaling. Furthermore, the calcium oscillation attenuates the histamine-induced cytoskeletal reorganization and cell contraction, resulting in differential cell responses in an architecture-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that endothelial cells can sense and respond to chemical stimuli according to the vascular architecture via collective calcium signaling. PMID:27196735

  11. Impaired Cellular Bioenergetics Causes Mitochondrial Calcium Handling Defects in MT-ND5 Mutant Cybrids

    PubMed Central

    Duchen, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can cause mitochondrial disease, a group of metabolic disorders that affect both children and adults. Interestingly, individual mtDNA mutations can cause very different clinical symptoms, however the factors that determine these phenotypes remain obscure. Defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation can disrupt cell signaling pathways, which may shape these disease phenotypes. In particular, mitochondria participate closely in cellular calcium signaling, with profound impact on cell function. Here, we examined the effects of a homoplasmic m.13565C>T mutation in MT-ND5 on cellular calcium handling using transmitochondrial cybrids (ND5 mutant cybrids). We found that the oxidation of NADH and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were significantly reduced in ND5 mutant cybrids. These metabolic defects were associated with a significant decrease in calcium uptake by ND5 mutant mitochondria in response to a calcium transient. Inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxy-D-glucose did not affect cytosolic calcium levels in control cybrids, but caused an increase in cytosolic calcium in ND5 mutant cybrids. This suggests that glycolytically-generated ATP is required not only to maintain Δψm in ND5 mutant mitochondria but is also critical for regulating cellular calcium homeostasis. We conclude that the m.13565C>T mutation in MT-ND5 causes defects in both mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial calcium sequestration. This disruption of mitochondrial calcium handling, which leads to defects in cellular calcium homeostasis, may be an important contributor to mitochondrial disease pathogenesis. PMID:27110715

  12. Changes in gravity rapidly alter the magnitude and direction of a cellular calcium current.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mari L; ul Haque, Aeraj; Bushart, Thomas J; Stout, Stephen C; Roux, Stanley J; Porterfield, D Marshall

    2011-05-01

    In single-celled spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii, gravity directs polarity of development and induces a directional, trans-cellular calcium (Ca(2+)) current. To clarify how gravity polarizes this electrophysiological process, we measured the kinetics of the cellular response to changes in the gravity vector, which we initially estimated using the self-referencing calcium microsensor. In order to generate more precise and detailed data, we developed a silicon microfabricated sensor array which facilitated a lab-on-a-chip approach to simultaneously measure calcium currents from multiple cells in real time. These experiments revealed that the direction of the gravity-dependent polar calcium current is reversed in less than 25 s when the cells are inverted, and that changes in the magnitude of the calcium current parallel rapidly changing g-forces during parabolic flight on the NASA C-9 aircraft. The data also revealed a hysteresis in the response of cells in the transition from 2g to micro-g in comparison to cells in the micro-g to 2-g transition, a result consistent with a role for mechanosensitive ion channels in the gravity response. The calcium current is suppressed by either nifedipine (calcium-channel blocker) or eosin yellow (plasma membrane calcium pump inhibitor). Nifedipine disrupts gravity-directed cell polarity, but not spore germination. These results indicate that gravity perception in single plant cells may be mediated by mechanosensitive calcium channels, an idea consistent with some previously proposed models of plant gravity perception.

  13. Parasitoid wasp venom SERCA regulates Drosophila calcium levels and inhibits cellular immunity

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Nathan T.; Goecks, Jeremy; Kacsoh, Balint Z.; Mobley, James A.; Bowersock, Gregory J.; Taylor, James; Schlenke, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Because parasite virulence factors target host immune responses, identification and functional characterization of these factors can provide insight into poorly understood host immune mechanisms. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a model system for understanding humoral innate immunity, but Drosophila cellular innate immune responses remain incompletely characterized. Fruit flies are regularly infected by parasitoid wasps in nature and, following infection, flies mount a cellular immune response culminating in the cellular encapsulation of the wasp egg. The mechanistic basis of this response is largely unknown, but wasps use a mixture of virulence proteins derived from the venom gland to suppress cellular encapsulation. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying wasp virulence and fly cellular immunity, we used a joint transcriptomic/proteomic approach to identify venom genes from Ganaspis sp.1 (G1), a previously uncharacterized Drosophila parasitoid species, and found that G1 venom contains a highly abundant sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) pump. Accordingly, we found that fly immune cells termed plasmatocytes normally undergo a cytoplasmic calcium burst following infection, and that this calcium burst is required for activation of the cellular immune response. We further found that the plasmatocyte calcium burst is suppressed by G1 venom in a SERCA-dependent manner, leading to the failure of plasmatocytes to become activated and migrate toward G1 eggs. Finally, by genetically manipulating plasmatocyte calcium levels, we were able to alter fly immune success against G1 and other parasitoid species. Our characterization of parasitoid wasp venom proteins led us to identify plasmatocyte cytoplasmic calcium bursts as an important aspect of fly cellular immunity. PMID:23690612

  14. Identification of calcium-transporting ATPases of Entamoeba histolytica and cellular localization of the putative SERCA.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Higuera, Aarón; Salas-Casas, Andrés; Calixto-Gálvez, Mercedes; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Pérez-Ishiwara, D Guillermo; Ximénez, Cecilia; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2013-09-01

    Calcium has an important role on signaling of different cellular processes in the protozoa parasite Entamoeba histolytica, including development and pathogenesis. However, the systems that control calcium responses in this parasite are incompletely understood. Calcium-ATPases (Ca(2+)-ATPases) are proteins that play an important role in calcium homeostasis by catalyzing the active efflux of this ion from cytoplasm and are essential to the correct functioning of the cell machinery. Here, we reported the identification of five E. histolytica genes encoding putative Ca(2+)-ATPases, three related to PMCA, and two related to organellar ATPases. RT-PCR assays showed that all those genes are expressed in trophozoites and specific antibodies against the SERCA-like member located this protein in a continuous cytoplasmic network, supporting the hypothesis that it corresponds to the Ca(2+)-ATPase responsible to sequester calcium in the endoplasmic reticulum of this parasite.

  15. Cellular Mechanisms of Calcium-Mediated Triggered Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhen

    Life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias continue to pose a major health problem. Ventricular fibrillation, which is a complex form of electrical wave turbulence in the lower chambers of the heart, stops the heart from pumping and is the largest cause of natural death in the United States. Atrial fibrillation, a related form of wave turbulence in the upper heart chambers, is in turn the most common arrhythmia diagnosed in clinical practice. Despite extensive research to date, mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias remain poorly understood. It is well established that both spatial disorder of the refractory period of heart cells and triggered activity (TA) jointly contribute to the initiation and maintenance of arrhythmias. TA broadly refers to the abnormal generation of a single or a sequence of abnormal excitation waves from a small submillimeter region of the heart in the interval of time between two normal waves generated by the heart's natural pacemaker (the sinoatrial node). TA has been widely investigated experimentally and occurs in several pathological conditions where the intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ ions in heart cells becomes elevated. Under such conditions, Ca2+ can be spontaneously released from intracellular stores, thereby driving an electrogenic current that exchanges 3Na+ ions for one Ca2+ ion across the cell membrane. This current in turn depolarizes the membrane of heart cells after a normal excitation. If this calcium-mediated "delayed after depolarization'' (DAD) is sufficiently large, it can generate an action potential. While the arrhythmogenic importance of spontaneous Ca2+ release and DADs is well appreciated, the conditions under which they occur in heart pathologies remain poorly understood. Calcium overload is only one factor among several other factors that can promote DADs, including sympathetic nerve stimulation, different expression levels of membrane ion channels and calcium handling proteins, and different mutations of those

  16. Cellular Mechanisms of Calcium-Mediated Triggered Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhen

    Life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias continue to pose a major health problem. Ventricular fibrillation, which is a complex form of electrical wave turbulence in the lower chambers of the heart, stops the heart from pumping and is the largest cause of natural death in the United States. Atrial fibrillation, a related form of wave turbulence in the upper heart chambers, is in turn the most common arrhythmia diagnosed in clinical practice. Despite extensive research to date, mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias remain poorly understood. It is well established that both spatial disorder of the refractory period of heart cells and triggered activity (TA) jointly contribute to the initiation and maintenance of arrhythmias. TA broadly refers to the abnormal generation of a single or a sequence of abnormal excitation waves from a small submillimeter region of the heart in the interval of time between two normal waves generated by the heart's natural pacemaker (the sinoatrial node). TA has been widely investigated experimentally and occurs in several pathological conditions where the intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ ions in heart cells becomes elevated. Under such conditions, Ca2+ can be spontaneously released from intracellular stores, thereby driving an electrogenic current that exchanges 3Na+ ions for one Ca2+ ion across the cell membrane. This current in turn depolarizes the membrane of heart cells after a normal excitation. If this calcium-mediated "delayed after depolarization'' (DAD) is sufficiently large, it can generate an action potential. While the arrhythmogenic importance of spontaneous Ca2+ release and DADs is well appreciated, the conditions under which they occur in heart pathologies remain poorly understood. Calcium overload is only one factor among several other factors that can promote DADs, including sympathetic nerve stimulation, different expression levels of membrane ion channels and calcium handling proteins, and different mutations of those

  17. The Regulatory Functions of Calcium and the Potential Role of Calcium in Mediating Gravitational Responses in Cells and Tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, S. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The hypothesis that calcium plays an important part in regulating cellular response to gravity and to other environmental stimuli is explored. Topics covered include the role of calmodulin and other proteins, gravitropic responses, bone demineralization during space flight, and intracellular communication.

  18. Molecular and cellular aspects of calcium action in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poovaiah, B. W.

    1988-01-01

    Calcium is known to be a second messenger in many developmental processes in animal systems, but it has only recently become evident that Ca is an important intracellular messenger in plants as well. The level of free Ca concentration in the cytoplasm is extremely low, and it is influenced by extracellular signals such as light, gravity, and hormones. Investigations from our laboratory indicated that Ca and its binding protein, calmodulin, play an important role in stimulus-response coupling by regulating enzyme activities, especially through protein phosphorylation. In vivo and in vitro protein phosphorylation studies have revealed Ca-dependent changes in various plant tissues. We have also been able to influence various physiological processes such as cell elongation, abscission, senescence, and tuberization by altering extracellular and intracellular Ca levels. Other examples of Ca-mediated processes in plants are as follows: a) cell division, b) geotropism, c) protoplasmic streaming, d) stomatal control, e) chloroplast movement, f) secretion, g) hormone-dependent changes, h) enzyme activation, and i) protein phosphorylation.

  19. Cellular investigations on electrochemically deposited calcium phosphate composites.

    PubMed

    Becker, Petra; Neumann, Hans-Georg; Nebe, Barbara; Lüthen, Frank; Rychly, Joachim

    2004-04-01

    Electrochemically deposited calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings are fast resorbable and existent only during the first period of osseointegration. In the present study, composite coatings with varying solubility (hydroxyapatite (HA), brushite with less HA and monetite (M) with less HA) were prepared and the influence of the degradation and the reprecipitation of CaP on osteoblastic cells were investigated. On the brushite composite coating a new precipitated, finely structured CaP phase was observed during immersion in cell culture medium with or without osteoblastic cells. The surface morphology of monetite and HA coatings were entirely unmodified under the same conditions. So it could be assumed that electrochemically deposited brushite with less HA acts as a precursor for new precipitated CaP. On this surface osteoblastic cells revealed a well-spread morphology with pronounced actin cytoskeleton and demonstrated good proliferation behaviour. Thus we suggest that brushite seems to be especially suitable for coating of implants as a matrix for nucleation and growth of new bone.

  20. The calcium-sensing receptor as a regulator of cellular fate in normal and pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Diez-Fraile, A; Lammens, T; Benoit, Y; D'Herde, K G M A

    2013-02-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) belongs to the evolutionarily conserved family of plasma membrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Early studies identified an essential role for the CaSR in systemic calcium homeostasis through its ability to sense small changes in circulating calcium concentration and to couple this information to intracellular signaling pathways that influence parathyroid hormone secretion. However, the presence of CaSR protein in tissues is not directly involved in regulating mineral ion homeostasis points to a role for the CaSR in other cellular functions including the control of cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. This position at the crossroads of cellular fate designates the CaSR as an interesting study subject is likely to be involved in a variety of previously unconsidered human pathologies, including cancer, atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Here, we will review the recent discoveries regarding the relevance of CaSR signaling in development and disease. Furthermore, we will discuss the rational for developing and using CaSR-based therapeutics. PMID:23228129

  1. Dynamical modeling and analysis of large cellular regulatory networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérenguier, D.; Chaouiya, C.; Monteiro, P. T.; Naldi, A.; Remy, E.; Thieffry, D.; Tichit, L.

    2013-06-01

    The dynamical analysis of large biological regulatory networks requires the development of scalable methods for mathematical modeling. Following the approach initially introduced by Thomas, we formalize the interactions between the components of a network in terms of discrete variables, functions, and parameters. Model simulations result in directed graphs, called state transition graphs. We are particularly interested in reachability properties and asymptotic behaviors, which correspond to terminal strongly connected components (or "attractors") in the state transition graph. A well-known problem is the exponential increase of the size of state transition graphs with the number of network components, in particular when using the biologically realistic asynchronous updating assumption. To address this problem, we have developed several complementary methods enabling the analysis of the behavior of large and complex logical models: (i) the definition of transition priority classes to simplify the dynamics; (ii) a model reduction method preserving essential dynamical properties, (iii) a novel algorithm to compact state transition graphs and directly generate compressed representations, emphasizing relevant transient and asymptotic dynamical properties. The power of an approach combining these different methods is demonstrated by applying them to a recent multilevel logical model for the network controlling CD4+ T helper cell response to antigen presentation and to a dozen cytokines. This model accounts for the differentiation of canonical Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes, as well as of inflammatory Th17 and regulatory T cells, along with many hybrid subtypes. All these methods have been implemented into the software GINsim, which enables the definition, the analysis, and the simulation of logical regulatory graphs.

  2. Role of calcium channels in cellular antituberculosis effects: Potential of voltage-gated calcium-channel blockers in tuberculosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Song, Lele; Cui, Ruina; Yang, Yourong; Wu, Xueqiong

    2015-10-01

    The immunity of human immune cells and their ability to inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are key factors in the anti-MTB effect. However, MTB modulates the levels and activity of key intracellular second messengers, such as calcium, to evade protective immune responses. Recent studies suggest that inhibiting L-type calcium channel in immune cells using either antibodies or small interfering RNA increases calcium influx, upregulates the expression of proinflammation genes, and reduces MTB burden. First, we will review the key factors in calcium-signaling pathway that may affect the immunity of immune cells to MTB infection. Second, we will focus on the role of calcium channels in regulating cellular immunity to MTB. Finally, we will discuss the possibility of using calcium-channel blockers as anti-MTB chemotherapy drugs to enhance chemotherapy effects, shorten treatment period, and overcome drug resistance.

  3. Calcium Regulation of Calmodulin Binding to and Dissociation from the Myo1c Regulatory Domain†

    PubMed Central

    Manceva, Slobodanka; Lin, Tianming; Pham, Huy; Lewis, John H.; Goldman, Yale E.; Ostap, E. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Myo1c is an unconventional myosin involved in cell signaling and membrane dynamics. Calcium binding to the regulatory-domain-associated calmodulin affects myo1c motor properties, but the kinetic details of this regulation are not fully understood. We performed actin gliding assays, ATPase measurements, fluorescence spectroscopy, and stopped-flow kinetics to determine the biochemical parameters that define the calmodulin-regulatory-domain interaction. We found calcium moderately increases the actin-activated ATPase activity, and completely inhibits actin gliding. Addition of exogenous calmodulin in the presence of calcium fully restores the actin gliding rate. A fluorescently labeled calmodulin mutant (N111C) binds to recombinant peptides containing the myo1c IQ motifs at a diffusion limited rate in the presence and absence of calcium. Measurements of calmodulin dissociation from the IQ motifs in the absence of calcium show that the calmodulin bound to the IQ motif adjacent to the motor domain (IQ1) has the slowest dissociation rate (0.0007 s−1), and the IQ motif adjacent to the tail domain (IQ3) has the fastest dissociation rate (0.5 s−1). When the complex is equilibrated with calcium, calmodulin dissociates most rapidly from IQ1 (60 s−1). However, this increased rate of dissociation is limited by a slow calcium-induced conformational change (3 s−1). Fluorescence anisotropy decay of fluorescently labeled N111C bound to myo1c did not depend appreciably on Ca2+. Our data suggest that the calmodulin bound to the IQ motif adjacent to the motor domain is rapidly exchangeable in the presence of calcium and is responsible for regulation of myo1c ATPase and motile activity. PMID:17910470

  4. Amorphous calcium carbonate precipitation by cellular biomineralization in mantle cell cultures of Pinctada fucata.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Liang; Kong, Wei; Su, Jing-Tan; Su, Jingtan; Liang, Jian; Zhang, Gui-You; Zhang, Guiyou; Xie, Li-Ping; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rong-Qing; Zhang, Rongqing

    2014-01-01

    The growth of molluscan shell crystals is generally thought to be initiated from the extrapallial fluid by matrix proteins, however, the cellular mechanisms of shell formation pathway remain unknown. Here, we first report amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precipitation by cellular biomineralization in primary mantle cell cultures of Pinctada fucata. Through real-time PCR and western blot analyses, we demonstrate that mantle cells retain the ability to synthesize and secrete ACCBP, Pif80 and nacrein in vitro. In addition, the cells also maintained high levels of alkaline phosphatase and carbonic anhydrase activity, enzymes responsible for shell formation. On the basis of polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we observed intracellular crystals production by mantle cells in vitro. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed the crystals to be ACC, and de novo biomineralization was confirmed by following the incorporation of Sr into calcium carbonate. Our results demonstrate the ability of mantle cells to perform fundamental biomineralization processes via amorphous calcium carbonate, and these cells may be directly involved in pearl oyster shell formation.

  5. Whole-brain calcium imaging with cellular resolution in freely behaving Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jeffrey P.; Shipley, Frederick B.; Linder, Ashley N.; Plummer, George S.; Liu, Mochi; Setru, Sagar U.; Shaevitz, Joshua W.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to acquire large-scale recordings of neuronal activity in awake and unrestrained animals is needed to provide new insights into how populations of neurons generate animal behavior. We present an instrument capable of recording intracellular calcium transients from the majority of neurons in the head of a freely behaving Caenorhabditis elegans with cellular resolution while simultaneously recording the animal’s position, posture, and locomotion. This instrument provides whole-brain imaging with cellular resolution in an unrestrained and behaving animal. We use spinning-disk confocal microscopy to capture 3D volumetric fluorescent images of neurons expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP6s at 6 head-volumes/s. A suite of three cameras monitor neuronal fluorescence and the animal’s position and orientation. Custom software tracks the 3D position of the animal’s head in real time and two feedback loops adjust a motorized stage and objective to keep the animal’s head within the field of view as the animal roams freely. We observe calcium transients from up to 77 neurons for over 4 min and correlate this activity with the animal’s behavior. We characterize noise in the system due to animal motion and show that, across worms, multiple neurons show significant correlations with modes of behavior corresponding to forward, backward, and turning locomotion. PMID:26712014

  6. The Calcium-Sensing Receptor and Integrins in Cellular Differentiation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Tharmalingam, Sujeenthar; Hampson, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a widely expressed homodimeric G-protein coupled receptor structurally related to the metabotropic glutamate receptors and GPRC6A. In addition to its well characterized role in maintaining calcium homeostasis and regulating parathyroid hormone release, evidence has accumulated linking the CaSR with cellular differentiation and migration, brain development, stem cell engraftment, wound healing, and tumor growth and metastasis. Elevated expression of the CaSR in aggressive metastatic tumors has been suggested as a potential novel prognostic marker for predicting metastasis, especially to bone tissue where extracellular calcium concentrations may be sufficiently high to activate the receptor. Recent evidence supports a model whereby CaSR-mediated activation of integrins promotes cellular migration. Integrins are single transmembrane spanning heterodimeric adhesion receptors that mediate cell migration by binding to extracellular matrix proteins. The CaSR has been shown to form signaling complexes with the integrins to facilitate both the movement and differentiation of cells, such as neurons during normal brain development and tumor cells under pathological circumstances. Thus, CaSR/integrin complexes may function as a universal cell migration or homing complex. Manipulation of this complex may be of potential interest for treating metastatic cancers, and for developmental disorders pertaining to aberrant neuronal migration. PMID:27303307

  7. Whole-brain calcium imaging with cellular resolution in freely behaving Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jeffrey P; Shipley, Frederick B; Linder, Ashley N; Plummer, George S; Liu, Mochi; Setru, Sagar U; Shaevitz, Joshua W; Leifer, Andrew M

    2016-02-23

    The ability to acquire large-scale recordings of neuronal activity in awake and unrestrained animals is needed to provide new insights into how populations of neurons generate animal behavior. We present an instrument capable of recording intracellular calcium transients from the majority of neurons in the head of a freely behaving Caenorhabditis elegans with cellular resolution while simultaneously recording the animal's position, posture, and locomotion. This instrument provides whole-brain imaging with cellular resolution in an unrestrained and behaving animal. We use spinning-disk confocal microscopy to capture 3D volumetric fluorescent images of neurons expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP6s at 6 head-volumes/s. A suite of three cameras monitor neuronal fluorescence and the animal's position and orientation. Custom software tracks the 3D position of the animal's head in real time and two feedback loops adjust a motorized stage and objective to keep the animal's head within the field of view as the animal roams freely. We observe calcium transients from up to 77 neurons for over 4 min and correlate this activity with the animal's behavior. We characterize noise in the system due to animal motion and show that, across worms, multiple neurons show significant correlations with modes of behavior corresponding to forward, backward, and turning locomotion. PMID:26712014

  8. Amorphous Calcium Carbonate Precipitation by Cellular Biomineralization in Mantle Cell Cultures of Pinctada fucata

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Liang; Kong, Wei; Su, Jingtan; Liang, Jian; Zhang, Guiyou; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2014-01-01

    The growth of molluscan shell crystals is generally thought to be initiated from the extrapallial fluid by matrix proteins, however, the cellular mechanisms of shell formation pathway remain unknown. Here, we first report amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precipitation by cellular biomineralization in primary mantle cell cultures of Pinctada fucata. Through real-time PCR and western blot analyses, we demonstrate that mantle cells retain the ability to synthesize and secrete ACCBP, Pif80 and nacrein in vitro. In addition, the cells also maintained high levels of alkaline phosphatase and carbonic anhydrase activity, enzymes responsible for shell formation. On the basis of polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we observed intracellular crystals production by mantle cells in vitro. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed the crystals to be ACC, and de novo biomineralization was confirmed by following the incorporation of Sr into calcium carbonate. Our results demonstrate the ability of mantle cells to perform fundamental biomineralization processes via amorphous calcium carbonate, and these cells may be directly involved in pearl oyster shell formation. PMID:25405357

  9. An excitable gene regulatory circuit induces transient cellular differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süel, Gürol M.; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Liberman, Louisa M.; Elowitz, Michael B.

    2006-03-01

    Certain types of cellular differentiation are probabilistic and transient. In such systems individual cells can switch to an alternative state and, after some time, switch back again. In Bacillus subtilis, competence is an example of such a transiently differentiated state associated with the capability for DNA uptake from the environment. Individual genes and proteins underlying differentiation into the competent state have been identified, but it has been unclear how these genes interact dynamically in individual cells to control both spontaneous entry into competence and return to vegetative growth. Here we show that this behaviour can be understood in terms of excitability in the underlying genetic circuit. Using quantitative fluorescence time-lapse microscopy, we directly observed the activities of multiple circuit components simultaneously in individual cells, and analysed the resulting data in terms of a mathematical model. We find that an excitable core module containing positive and negative feedback loops can explain both entry into, and exit from, the competent state. We further tested this model by analysing initiation in sister cells, and by re-engineering the gene circuit to specifically block exit. Excitable dynamics driven by noise naturally generate stochastic and transient responses, thereby providing an ideal mechanism for competence regulation.

  10. miR clusters target cellular functional complexes by defining their degree of regulatory freedom.

    PubMed

    Haier, Jörg; Ströse, Anda; Matuszcak, Christiane; Hummel, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Using the two paralog miR-23∼27∼24 clusters as an example and combining experimental and clinical data in a systematical approach to microRNA (miR) function and dysregulation, a complex picture of their roles in cancer is drawn. Various findings appear to be contradictory to a larger extent and cannot be fully explained by the classical regulatory network models and feedback loops that are mainly considered by one-to-one regulatory interactions of the involved molecules. Here, we propose an extended model of the regulatory role of miRs that, at least, supplements the usually considered single/oligo-target regulation of certain miRs. The cellular availability of the participating miR members in this model reflects an upper hierarchy level of intracellular and extracellular environmental influences, such as neighboring cells, soluble factors, hypoxia, chemotherapeutic drugs, and irradiation, among others. The novel model is based on the understanding of cellular functional complexes, such as for apoptosis, migration, and proliferation. These complexes consist of many regulatory components that can be targeted by miR cluster members to a different extent but may affect the functional complex in different ways. We propose that the final miR-related effect is a result of the possible degree of regulatory freedom provided by the miR effects on the whole functional complex structure. This degree of regulatory freedom defines to which extent the cellular functional complex can react in response to regulatory triggers, also understood as sensitization (more regulatory response options) or de-sensitization (less regulatory response options) of the system rather than single molecules.

  11. The Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Immuno-Suppression by Human Type 1 Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gregori, Silvia; Goudy, Kevin S.; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The immuno-regulatory mechanisms of IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells have been widely studied over the years. However, several recent discoveries have shed new light on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that human Tr1 cells use to control immune responses and induce tolerance. In this review we outline the well known and newly discovered regulatory properties of human Tr1 cells and provide an in-depth comparison of the known suppressor mechanisms of Tr1 cells with FOXP3+ Treg. We also highlight the role that Tr1 cells play in promoting and maintaining tolerance in autoimmunity, allergy, and transplantation. PMID:22566914

  12. Whole-brain calcium imaging with cellular resolution in freely behaving Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Jeffrey; Shipley, Frederick; Linder, Ashley; Plummer, George; Liu, Mochi; Setru, Sagar; Shaevitz, Joshua; Leifer, Andrew

    The ability to acquire large-scale recordings of neuronal activity in awake and unrestrained animals is needed to provide new insights into how populations of neurons generate animal behavior. Acquiring this data, however, is challenging because it is difficult to track and image individual neurons as an animal deforms its posture and moves many body lengths. Here, we present an instrument capable of recording intracellular calcium transients from the majority of neurons in the head of a freely behaving Caenorhabditis elegans with cellular resolution while simultaneously recording the animal's position, posture, and locomotion. 3D volumetric fluorescent images of neurons expressing the calcium indicator GCaMP6s are recorded at 6 head-volumes/s using spinning disk confocal microscopy. At the same time, we record low magnification images of the animal to measure the animals behavior and track its head as it moves. We develop a time independent neuronal matching algorithm that uses non-rigid point set registration and machine learning to correctly match neurons across time. Using this method, we are able to observe calcium transients from up to 90 neurons for over 4 min and correlate the neural activity with the animal's behavior.

  13. Calcium and ascorbic acid affect cellular structure and water mobility in apple tissue during osmotic dehydration in sucrose solutions.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Maria A; Dellarosa, Nicolò; Tylewicz, Urszula; Tappi, Silvia; Laghi, Luca; Rocculi, Pietro; Rosa, Marco Dalla

    2016-03-15

    The effects of the addition of calcium lactate and ascorbic acid to sucrose osmotic solutions on cell viability and microstructure of apple tissue were studied. In addition, water distribution and mobility modification of the different cellular compartments were observed. Fluorescence microscopy, light microscopy and time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) were respectively used to evaluate cell viability and microstructural changes during osmotic dehydration. Tissues treated in a sucrose-calcium lactate-ascorbic acid solution did not show viability. Calcium lactate had some effects on cell walls and membranes. Sucrose solution visibly preserved the protoplast viability and slightly influenced the water distribution within the apple tissue, as highlighted by TD-NMR, which showed higher proton intensity in the vacuoles and lower intensity in cytoplasm-free spaces compared to other treatments. The presence of ascorbic acid enhanced calcium impregnation, which was associated with permeability changes of the cellular wall and membranes. PMID:26575708

  14. The Major Cellular Sterol Regulatory Pathway Is Required for Andes Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Riblett, Amber M.; Didigu, Chukwuka A.; Wilen, Craig B.; Malani, Nirav; Male, Frances; Lee, Fang-Hua; Bushman, Frederic D.; Cherry, Sara; Doms, Robert W.; Bates, Paul; Briley, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The Bunyaviridae comprise a large family of RNA viruses with worldwide distribution and includes the pathogenic New World hantavirus, Andes virus (ANDV). Host factors needed for hantavirus entry remain largely enigmatic and therapeutics are unavailable. To identify cellular requirements for ANDV infection, we performed two parallel genetic screens. Analysis of a large library of insertionally mutagenized human haploid cells and a siRNA genomic screen converged on components (SREBP-2, SCAP, S1P and S2P) of the sterol regulatory pathway as critically important for infection by ANDV. The significance of this pathway was confirmed using functionally deficient cells, TALEN-mediated gene disruption, RNA interference and pharmacologic inhibition. Disruption of sterol regulatory complex function impaired ANDV internalization without affecting virus binding. Pharmacologic manipulation of cholesterol levels demonstrated that ANDV entry is sensitive to changes in cellular cholesterol and raises the possibility that clinically approved regulators of sterol synthesis may prove useful for combating ANDV infection. PMID:24516383

  15. Dynamic expression of calcium-regulatory molecules, TRPV6 and S100G, in the uterine endometrium during pregnancy in pigs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yohan; Seo, Heewon; Kim, Mingoo; Ka, Hakhyun

    2009-12-01

    Calcium ions have been implicated in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, but the regulatory mechanisms of calcium ions in the uterine endometrium and conceptus are not well understood in pigs. Recently, we showed that TRPV6, a calcium ion channel protein associated with cellular entry of calcium ions, is highly expressed in the uterine endometrium during the implantation period in pigs. In the present study, we investigated spatial and temporal expression and regulation of TRPV6 and S100G, an intracellular calcium-regulatory molecule, in the uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in pigs. TRPV6 expression was maintained at significantly higher levels in the uterine endometrium during pregnancy compared with levels during the estrous cycle. TRPV6 transcripts and proteins were localized mainly to luminal epithelial cells (LE) and weakly to glandular epithelial cells (GE) and chorionic membrane (CM) during pregnancy. TRPV6 expression was also detected in conceptuses on Day (D) 12 and D15. TRPV6 mRNA levels in the endometrium were increased by estrogen treatment. S100G expression showed a biphasic pattern of increases on D12 of pregnancy and from D60 to term pregnancy, and it localized primarily to LE during early pregnancy and to LE, GE, and CM from D30 to term pregnancy. These results indicate that spatial and temporal expression of TRPV6 and S100G is dynamically regulated in the uterine endometrium during pregnancy and that endometrial regulation of calcium ion concentration by TRPV6 and S100G may be critical for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in pigs.

  16. Continuous cellularization of calcium phosphate hybrid scaffolds induced by plasma polymer activation.

    PubMed

    Bergemann, Claudia; Cornelsen, Matthias; Quade, Antje; Laube, Thorsten; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Rebl, Henrike; Weißmann, Volker; Seitz, Hermann; Nebe, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The generation of hybrid materials based on β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and various biodegradable polymers like poly(l-lactide-co-d,l-lactide) (PLA) represents a common approach to overcoming the disadvantages of pure TCP devices. These disadvantages lie in TCP's mechanical properties, such as brittleness. The positive characteristic of PLA - improvement of compressive strength of calcium phosphate scaffolds - is diametrically opposed to its cell attractiveness. Therefore, the objective of this work was to optimize osteoblast migration and cellularization inside a three-dimensionally (3D) printed, PLA polymer stabilized TCP hybrid scaffold by a plasma polymer process depositing amino groups via allylamine. MG-63 osteoblastic cells inside the 10mm hybrid scaffold were dynamically cultivated for 14days in a 3D model system integrated in a perfusion reactor. The whole TCP/PLA hybrid scaffold was continuously colonized due to plasma polymerized allylamine activation inducing the migration potential of osteoblasts.

  17. Continuous cellularization of calcium phosphate hybrid scaffolds induced by plasma polymer activation.

    PubMed

    Bergemann, Claudia; Cornelsen, Matthias; Quade, Antje; Laube, Thorsten; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Rebl, Henrike; Weißmann, Volker; Seitz, Hermann; Nebe, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The generation of hybrid materials based on β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and various biodegradable polymers like poly(l-lactide-co-d,l-lactide) (PLA) represents a common approach to overcoming the disadvantages of pure TCP devices. These disadvantages lie in TCP's mechanical properties, such as brittleness. The positive characteristic of PLA - improvement of compressive strength of calcium phosphate scaffolds - is diametrically opposed to its cell attractiveness. Therefore, the objective of this work was to optimize osteoblast migration and cellularization inside a three-dimensionally (3D) printed, PLA polymer stabilized TCP hybrid scaffold by a plasma polymer process depositing amino groups via allylamine. MG-63 osteoblastic cells inside the 10mm hybrid scaffold were dynamically cultivated for 14days in a 3D model system integrated in a perfusion reactor. The whole TCP/PLA hybrid scaffold was continuously colonized due to plasma polymerized allylamine activation inducing the migration potential of osteoblasts. PMID:26652403

  18. Local dissipation and coupling properties of cellular oscillators: a case study on calcium oscillations.

    PubMed

    Perc, Matjaz; Marhl, Marko

    2004-04-01

    Synchronised signal transduction between cells is crucial, since it assures fast and immutable information processing, which is vital for flawless functioning of living organisms. The question arises how to recognise the ability of a cell to be easily coupled with other cells. In the present paper, we investigate the system properties that determine best coupling abilities and assure the most efficient signal transduction between cells. A case study is done for intercellular calcium oscillations. For a particular diffusion-like coupled system of cellular oscillators, we determined the minimal gap-junctional permeability that is necessary for synchronisation of initially asynchronous oscillators. Our results show that dissipation is a crucial system property that determines the coupling ability of cellular oscillators. We found that low dissipation assures synchronisation of coupled cells already at very low gap-junctional permeability, whereas highly dissipative oscillators require much higher gap-junctional permeability in order to synchronise. The results are discussed in the sense of their biological importance for systems where the synchronous responses of cells were recognised to be indispensable for appropriate physiological functioning of the tissue.

  19. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and calcium-regulatory hormones.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, A; Brown, J M; Williams, J S

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing evidence of a clinically relevant interplay between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and calcium-regulatory systems. Classically, the former is considered a key regulator of sodium and volume homeostasis, while the latter is most often associated with skeletal health. However, emerging evidence suggests an overlap in regulatory control. Hyperaldosteronism and hyperparathyroidism represent pathophysiologic conditions that may contribute to or perpetuate each other; aldosterone regulates parathyroid hormone and associates with adverse skeletal complications, and parathyroid hormone regulates aldosterone and associates with adverse cardiovascular complications. As dysregulation in both systems is linked to poor cardiovascular and skeletal health, it is increasingly important to fully characterize how they interact to more precisely understand their impact on human health and potential therapies to modulate these interactions. This review describes the known clinical interactions between these two systems including observational and interventional studies. Specifically, we review studies describing the inhibition of renin activity by calcium and vitamin D, and a potentially bidirectional and stimulatory relationship between aldosterone and parathyroid hormone. Deciphering these relationships might clarify variability in outcomes research, inform the design of future intervention studies and provide insight into the results of prior and ongoing intervention studies. However, before these opportunities can be addressed, more effort must be placed on shifting observational data to the proof of concept phase. This will require reallocation of resources to conduct interventional studies and secure the necessary talent.

  20. Array of amorphous calcium phosphate particles improves cellular activity on a hydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Kim, InAe; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun-Man

    2010-04-01

    Poor interaction between cells and surfaces, especially hydrophobic surfaces, results in delayed proliferation and increased apoptosis due to low cell adhesion signaling. To improve cell adhesion, hydrophilic array of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) was fabricated on a surface. A phosphate-buffered solution containing calcium ions was prepared at low temperature to prevent spontaneous precipitation. Then, the ion solution was heated to generate nuclei of ACP nanoparticles. The ACP nanoparticles adhered to the hydrophobic polystyrene surface forming an array composed of ACP particles. Multiple treatments of these nuclei with fresh CaP ion solutions increased the diameter and decreased the solubility of ACP particles enough to mediate cellular adhesion. The particle density in the array was dependent on the ion concentration of the CaP ion solutions. The ACP array improved a wide variety of activities when osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the ACP array fabricated on a hydrophobic bacteriological dish surface, compared to those cultured without the ACP array in vitro. The use of ACP array resulted in a lower apoptosis and also increased the spreading of cells to form stress fibers and focal contacts. Cells cultured on the ACP array proliferated more than cells cultured on a hydrophobic surface without the ACP array. The ACP array increased the expression of markers of differentiation in osteoblast. These results indicate that an array of ACP can be used as a coating material for enhancing biocompatibility in tissue engineering or biomaterials rather than modifying the surface with organic molecules. PMID:20119940

  1. SIRT3 regulates cellular iron metabolism and cancer growth by repressing iron regulatory protein 1.

    PubMed

    Jeong, S M; Lee, J; Finley, L W S; Schmidt, P J; Fleming, M D; Haigis, M C

    2015-04-16

    Iron metabolism is essential for many cellular processes, including oxygen transport, respiration and DNA synthesis, and many cancer cells exhibit dysregulation in iron metabolism. Maintenance of cellular iron homeostasis is regulated by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs), which control the expression of iron-related genes by binding iron-responsive elements (IREs) of target mRNAs. Here, we report that mitochondrial SIRT3 regulates cellular iron metabolism by modulating IRP1 activity. SIRT3 loss increases reactive oxygen species production, leading to elevated IRP1 binding to IREs. As a consequence, IRP1 target genes, such as the transferrin receptor (TfR1), a membrane-associated glycoprotein critical for iron uptake and cell proliferation, are controlled by SIRT3. Importantly, SIRT3 deficiency results in a defect in cellular iron homeostasis. SIRT3 null cells contain high levels of iron and lose iron-dependent TfR1 regulation. Moreover, SIRT3 null mice exhibit higher levels of iron and TfR1 expression in the pancreas. We found that the regulation of iron uptake and TfR1 expression contribute to the tumor-suppressive activity of SIRT3. Indeed, SIRT3 expression is negatively correlated with TfR1 expression in human pancreatic cancers. SIRT3 overexpression decreases TfR1 expression by inhibiting IRP1 and represses proliferation in pancreatic cancer cells. Our data uncover a novel role of SIRT3 in cellular iron metabolism through IRP1 regulation and suggest that SIRT3 functions as a tumor suppressor, in part, by modulating cellular iron metabolism. PMID:24909164

  2. [Regulatory role of mechanical stress response in cellular function: development of new drugs and tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Momose, Kazutaka; Matsuda, Takehisa; Oike, Masahiro; Obara, Kazuo; Laher, Ismail; Sugiura, Seiryo; Ohata, Hisayuki; Nakayama, Koichi

    2003-02-01

    The investigation of mechanotransduction in the cardiovascular system is essentially important for elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in not only the maintenance of hemodynamic homeostasis but also etiology of cardiovascular diseases including arteriosclerosis. The present review summarizes the latest research performed by six academic groups, and presented at the 75th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Pharmacological Society. Technology of cellular biomechanics is also required for research and clinical application of a vascular hybrid tissue responding to pulsatile stress. 1) Vascular tissue engineering: Design of pulsatile stress-responsive scaffold and in vivo vascular wall reconstruction (T. Matsuda); 2) Cellular mechanisms of mechanosensitive calcium transients in vascular endothelium (M. Oike et al.); 3) Cross-talk of stimulation with fluid flow and lysophosphatidic acid in vascular endothelial cells (K. Momose et al.); 4) Mechanotransduction of vascular smooth muscles: Rate-dependent stretch-induced protein phosphorylations and contractile activation (K. Obara et al.); 5) Lipid mediators in vascular myogenic tone (I. Laher et al.); and 6) Caldiomyocyte regulates its mechanical output in response to mechanical load (S. Sugiura et al.).

  3. Cilioplasm is a cellular compartment for calcium signaling in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xingjian; Mohieldin, Ashraf M; Muntean, Brian S; Green, Jill A; Shah, Jagesh V; Mykytyn, Kirk; Nauli, Surya M

    2014-06-01

    Primary cilia with a diameter of ~200 nm have been implicated in development and disease. Calcium signaling within a primary cilium has never been directly visualized and has therefore remained a speculation. Fluid-shear stress and dopamine receptor type-5 (DR5) agonist are among the few stimuli that require cilia for intracellular calcium signal transduction. However, it is not known if these stimuli initiate calcium signaling within the cilium or if the calcium signal originates in the cytoplasm. Using an integrated single-cell imaging technique, we demonstrate for the first time that calcium signaling triggered by fluid-shear stress initiates in the primary cilium and can be distinguished from the subsequent cytosolic calcium response through the ryanodine receptor. Importantly, this flow-induced calcium signaling depends on the ciliary polycystin-2 calcium channel. While DR5-specific agonist induces calcium signaling mainly in the cilioplasm via ciliary CaV1.2, thrombin specifically induces cytosolic calcium signaling through the IP3 receptor. Furthermore, a non-specific calcium ionophore triggers both ciliary and cytosolic calcium responses. We suggest that cilia not only act as sensory organelles but also function as calcium signaling compartments. Cilium-dependent signaling can spread to the cytoplasm or be contained within the cilioplasm. Our study thus provides the first model to understand signaling within the cilioplasm of a living cell.

  4. Calcium-induced conformational changes in the regulatory domain of the human mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi carrier

    PubMed Central

    Harborne, Steven P.D.; Ruprecht, Jonathan J.; Kunji, Edmund R.S.

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi carrier imports adenine nucleotides from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix and exports phosphate. The carrier is regulated by the concentration of cytosolic calcium, altering the size of the adenine nucleotide pool in the mitochondrial matrix in response to energetic demands. The protein consists of three domains; (i) the N-terminal regulatory domain, which is formed of two pairs of fused calcium-binding EF-hands, (ii) the C-terminal mitochondrial carrier domain, which is involved in transport, and (iii) a linker region with an amphipathic α-helix of unknown function. The mechanism by which calcium binding to the regulatory domain modulates substrate transport in the carrier domain has not been resolved. Here, we present two new crystal structures of the regulatory domain of the human isoform 1. Careful analysis by SEC confirmed that although the regulatory domain crystallised as dimers, full-length ATP-Mg/Pi carrier is monomeric. Therefore, the ATP-Mg/Pi carrier must have a different mechanism of calcium regulation than the architecturally related aspartate/glutamate carrier, which is dimeric. The structure showed that an amphipathic α-helix is bound to the regulatory domain in a hydrophobic cleft of EF-hand 3/4. Detailed bioinformatics analyses of different EF-hand states indicate that upon release of calcium, EF-hands close, meaning that the regulatory domain would release the amphipathic α-helix. We propose a mechanism for ATP-Mg/Pi carriers in which the amphipathic α-helix becomes mobile upon release of calcium and could block the transport of substrates across the mitochondrial inner membrane. PMID:26164100

  5. Calcium-induced conformational changes in the regulatory domain of the human mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi carrier.

    PubMed

    Harborne, Steven P D; Ruprecht, Jonathan J; Kunji, Edmund R S

    2015-10-01

    The mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi carrier imports adenine nucleotides from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix and exports phosphate. The carrier is regulated by the concentration of cytosolic calcium, altering the size of the adenine nucleotide pool in the mitochondrial matrix in response to energetic demands. The protein consists of three domains; (i) the N-terminal regulatory domain, which is formed of two pairs of fused calcium-binding EF-hands, (ii) the C-terminal mitochondrial carrier domain, which is involved in transport, and (iii) a linker region with an amphipathic α-helix of unknown function. The mechanism by which calcium binding to the regulatory domain modulates substrate transport in the carrier domain has not been resolved. Here, we present two new crystal structures of the regulatory domain of the human isoform 1. Careful analysis by SEC confirmed that although the regulatory domain crystallised as dimers, full-length ATP-Mg/Pi carrier is monomeric. Therefore, the ATP-Mg/Pi carrier must have a different mechanism of calcium regulation than the architecturally related aspartate/glutamate carrier, which is dimeric. The structure showed that an amphipathic α-helix is bound to the regulatory domain in a hydrophobic cleft of EF-hand 3/4. Detailed bioinformatics analyses of different EF-hand states indicate that upon release of calcium, EF-hands close, meaning that the regulatory domain would release the amphipathic α-helix. We propose a mechanism for ATP-Mg/Pi carriers in which the amphipathic α-helix becomes mobile upon release of calcium and could block the transport of substrates across the mitochondrial inner membrane. PMID:26164100

  6. The cellular metabolism of lead and calcium: A kinetic analysis in cultured osteoclastic bone cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.F.; Pounds, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Characterization of lead metabolism in bone is necessary to understand the role of skeletal lead, an endogenous source of this toxic metal, in the expression of adverse effects of lead intoxication in concert with external sources. Moreover, it has been postulated that an early manifestation of lead toxicity common to diverse cell types may be pertubations in intracellular calcium homeostasis. Furthermore, it has been suggested that calciotropic hormones may express their actions on bone cells by modulating the messenger functions of intracellular Ca. Before these postulates can be more fully tested, the homeostasis of intracellular Pb and Ca must be understood more clearly. We have designed experiments to characterize the steady-state kinetic distribution and behavior of /sup 210/Pb and /sup 45/Ca in osteoclastic bone cells and to identify biological structures or functions associated with the kinetic pools. Cultures were labeled with /sup 210/Pb or /sup 45/Ca and the kinetic parameters were obtained by analysis of isotope washout curves. Cellular metabolism was defined by three kinetic pools of intracellular Pb and Ca. The largest and slowest exchanging pool was characterized as a mitochondrial compartment for both metals. These data indicate that Pb and Ca share similar intracellular pathways in osteoclastic bone cells and that both metals are readily exchangeable in this in vitro system. The results of other experiments have revealed that lead, at relatively low medium concentrations, produces a marked increase in all three intracellular Ca compartments. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Calcium mobilizations in response to changes in the gravity vector in Arabidopsis seedlings: possible cellular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Hitoshi; Toyota, Masatsugu; Furuichi, Takuya; Sokabe, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Gravity influences the growth direction of higher plants. Changes in the gravity vector (gravistimulation) immediately promote the increase in the cytoplasmic free calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. When the seedlings are gravistimulated by reorientation at 180°, a transient two peaked (biphasic) [Ca(2+)]c-increase arises in their hypocotyl and petioles. Parabolic flights (PFs) can generate a variety of gravity-stimuli, and enables us to measure gravity-induced [Ca(2+)]c-increases without specimen rotation, which demonstrate that Arabidopsis seedlings possess a rapid gravity-sensing mechanism linearly transducing a wide range of gravitational changes into Ca(2+) signals on a sub-second timescale. Hypergravity by centrifugation (20 g or 300 g) also induces similar transient [Ca(2+)]c-increases. In this review, we propose models for possible cellular processes of the garavi-stimulus-induced [Ca(2+)]c-increase, and evaluate those by examining whether the model fits well with the kinetic parameters derived from the [Ca(2+)]c-increases obtained by applying gravistimulus with different amplitudes and time sequences.

  8. Cellular lightweight concrete containing high-calcium fly ash and natural zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jitchaiyaphum, Khamphee; Sinsiri, Theerawat; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    2013-05-01

    Cellular lightweight concrete (CLC) with the controlled density of approximately 800 kg/m3 was made from a preformed foam, Type-I Portland cement (OPC), fly ash (FA), or natural zeolite (NZ), and its compressive strength, setting time, water absorption, and microstructure of were tested. High-calcium FA and NZ with the median particle sizes of 14.52 and 7.72 μm, respectively, were used to partially replace OPC at 0, 10wt%, 20wt%, and 30wt% of the binder (OPC and pozzolan admixture). A water-to-binder mass ratio (W/B) of 0.5 was used for all mixes. The testing results indicated that CLC containing 10wt% NZ had the highest compressive strength. The replacement of OPC with NZ decreased the total porosity and air void size but increased the capillary porosity of the CLC. The incorporation of a suitable amount of NZ decreased the setting time, total porosity, and pore size of the paste compared with the findings with the same amount of FA. The total porosity and cumulative pore volume decreased, whereas the gel and capillary pores increased as a result of adding both pozzolans at all replacement levels. The water absorption increased as the capillary porosity increased; this effect depended on the volume of air entrained and the type or amount of pozzolan.

  9. ER-Mitochondria contact sites: A new regulator of cellular calcium flux comes into play.

    PubMed

    Krols, Michiel; Bultynck, Geert; Janssens, Sophie

    2016-08-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria membrane contacts are hotspots for calcium signaling. In this issue, Raturi et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201512077) show that the thioredoxin TMX1 inhibits the calcium pump SERCA2b at ER-mitochondria contact sites, thereby affecting ER-mitochondrial calcium transfer and mitochondrial bioenergetics. PMID:27528654

  10. Self-setting collagen-calcium phosphate bone cement: mechanical and cellular properties.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Jennifer L; Weir, Michael D; Xu, Hockin H K

    2009-11-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) can conform to complex bone cavities and set in-situ to form bioresorbable hydroxyapatite. The aim of this study was to develop a CPC-collagen composite with improved fracture resistance, and to investigate the effects of collagen on mechanical and cellular properties. A type-I bovine-collagen was incorporated into CPC. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were cultured. At CPC powder/liquid mass ratio of 3, the work-of-fracture (mean +/- sd; n = 6) was increased from (22 +/- 4) J/m(2) at 0% collagen, to (381 +/- 119) J/m(2) at 5% collagen (p < or = 0.05). At 2.5-5% of collagen, the flexural strength at powder/liquid ratios of 3 and 3.5 was 8-10 MPa. They matched the previously reported 2-11 MPa of sintered porous hydroxyapatite implants. SEM revealed that the collagen fibers were covered with nano-apatite crystals and bonded to the CPC matrix. Higher collagen content increased the osteoblast cell attachment (p < or = 0.05). The number of live cells per specimen area was (382 +/- 99) cells/mm(2) on CPC containing 5% collagen, higher than (173 +/- 42) cells/mm(2) at 0% collagen (p < or = 0.05). The cytoplasmic extensions of the cells anchored to the nano-apatite crystals of the CPC matrix. In summary, collagen was incorporated into in situ-setting, nano-apatitic CPC, achieving a 10-fold increase in work-of-fracture (toughness) and two-fold increase in osteoblast cell attachment. This moldable/injectable, mechanically strong, nano-apatite-collagen composite may enhance bone regeneration in moderate stress-bearing applications.

  11. Mobilization of cellular calcium-45 and lead-210: effect of physiological stimuli

    SciTech Connect

    Pounds, J.G.; Mittelstaedt, R.A.

    1983-04-15

    Isolated rat hepatocytes in primary culture were used as a model system to evaluate the effects of selected hormones and culture conditions on the efflux of calcium-45 and lead-210 from cells labeled with these isotopes. Alpha-adrenergic stimuli, angiotensin, vasopressin, dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate, and reduced phosphate concentrations in the medium increased the efflux of calcium-45 and lead-210. Glucagon and insulin had no effect, but increased phosphate concentrations decreased the efflux of both isotopes. Experiments with hepatocytes cultured in a medium free of calcium and lead demonstrated that the increased efflux of calcium-45 and lead-210 induced by hormones was the result of mobilization of the ions from intracellular stores. The data indicate that the physiological stimuli that mobilized calcium ions also mobilized lead ions, and that the mobilized lead would be available to interact with calcium-mediated cell functions.

  12. Plasma membrane calcium ATPases: From generic Ca(2+) sump pumps to versatile systems for fine-tuning cellular Ca(2.).

    PubMed

    Strehler, Emanuel E

    2015-04-24

    The plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCAs) are ATP-driven primary ion pumps found in all eukaryotic cells. They are the major high-affinity calcium extrusion system for expulsion of Ca(2+) ions from the cytosol and help restore the low resting levels of intracellular [Ca(2+)] following the temporary elevation of Ca(2+) generated during Ca(2+) signaling. Due to their essential role in the maintenance of cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis they were initially thought to be "sump pumps" for Ca(2+) removal needed by all cells to avoid eventual calcium overload. The discovery of multiple PMCA isoforms and alternatively spliced variants cast doubt on this simplistic assumption, and revealed instead that PMCAs are integral components of highly regulated multi-protein complexes fulfilling specific roles in calcium-dependent signaling originating at the plasma membrane. Biochemical, genetic, and physiological studies in gene-manipulated and mutant animals demonstrate the important role played by specific PMCAs in distinct diseases including those affecting the peripheral and central nervous system, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. Human PMCA gene mutations and allelic variants associated with specific disorders continue to be discovered and underline the crucial role of different PMCAs in particular cells, tissues and organs.

  13. Dual functions of a small regulatory subunit in the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Feng; Phillips, Charles B; Ranaghan, Matthew; Tsai, Chen-Wei; Wu, Yujiao; Willliams, Carole; Miller, Christopher

    2016-04-21

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, a process crucial for bioenergetics and Ca(2+) signaling, is catalyzed by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. The uniporter is a multi-subunit Ca(2+)-activated Ca(2+) channel, with the Ca(2+) pore formed by the MCU protein and Ca(2+)-dependent activation mediated by MICU subunits. Recently, a mitochondrial inner membrane protein EMRE was identified as a uniporter subunit absolutely required for Ca(2+) permeation. However, the molecular mechanism and regulatory purpose of EMRE remain largely unexplored. Here, we determine the transmembrane orientation of EMRE, and show that its known MCU-activating function is mediated by the interaction of transmembrane helices from both proteins. We also reveal a second function of EMRE: to maintain tight MICU regulation of the MCU pore, a role that requires EMRE to bind MICU1 using its conserved C-terminal polyaspartate tail. This dual functionality of EMRE ensures that all transport-competent uniporters are tightly regulated, responding appropriately to a dynamic intracellular Ca(2+) landscape.

  14. Dual functions of a small regulatory subunit in the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Feng; Phillips, Charles B; Ranaghan, Matthew; Tsai, Chen-Wei; Wu, Yujiao; Williams, Carole; Miller, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, a process crucial for bioenergetics and Ca2+ signaling, is catalyzed by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. The uniporter is a multi-subunit Ca2+-activated Ca2+ channel, with the Ca2+ pore formed by the MCU protein and Ca2+-dependent activation mediated by MICU subunits. Recently, a mitochondrial inner membrane protein EMRE was identified as a uniporter subunit absolutely required for Ca2+ permeation. However, the molecular mechanism and regulatory purpose of EMRE remain largely unexplored. Here, we determine the transmembrane orientation of EMRE, and show that its known MCU-activating function is mediated by the interaction of transmembrane helices from both proteins. We also reveal a second function of EMRE: to maintain tight MICU regulation of the MCU pore, a role that requires EMRE to bind MICU1 using its conserved C-terminal polyaspartate tail. This dual functionality of EMRE ensures that all transport-competent uniporters are tightly regulated, responding appropriately to a dynamic intracellular Ca2+ landscape. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15545.001 PMID:27099988

  15. Cleavage of interferon regulatory factor 7 by enterovirus 71 3C suppresses cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaobo; Xiao, Xia; Xue, Qinghua; Jin, Qi; He, Bin; Wang, Jianwei

    2013-02-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a positive-stranded RNA virus which is capable of inhibiting innate immunity. Among virus-encoded proteins, the 3C protein compromises the type I interferon (IFN-I) response mediated by retinoid acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) or Toll-like receptor 3 that activates interferon regulatory 3 (IRF3) and IRF7. In the present study, we report that enterovirus 71 downregulates IRF7 through the 3C protein, which inhibits the function of IRF7. When expressed in mammalian cells, the 3C protein mediates cleavage of IRF7 rather than that of IRF3. This process is insensitive to inhibitors of caspase, proteasome, lysosome, and autophagy. H40D substitution in the 3C active site abolishes its activity, whereas R84Q or V154S substitution in the RNA binding motif has no effect. Furthermore, 3C-mediated cleavage occurs at the Q189-S190 junction within the constitutive activation domain of IRF7, resulting in two cleaved IRF7 fragments that are incapable of activating IFN expression. Ectopic expression of wild-type IRF7 limits EV71 replication. On the other hand, expression of the amino-terminal domain of IRF7 enhances EV71 infection, which correlates with its ability to interact with and inhibit IRF3. These results suggest that control of IRF7 by the 3C protein may represent a viral mechanism to escape cellular responses. PMID:23175366

  16. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... milligrams) of calcium each day. Get it from: Dairy products. Low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, and cottage ... lactase that helps digest the sugar (lactose) in dairy products, and may have gas, bloating, cramps, or ...

  17. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements and fortified foods include gluconate, lactate, and phosphate. Calcium absorption is best when a person consumes ... also interfere with the body's ability to absorb iron and zinc, but this effect is not well ...

  18. Regulatory inhibition of biological tissue mineralization by calcium phosphate through post-nucleation shielding by fetuin-A.

    PubMed

    Chang, Joshua C; Miura, Robert M

    2016-04-21

    In vertebrates, insufficient availability of calcium and inorganic phosphate ions in extracellular fluids leads to loss of bone density and neuronal hyper-excitability. To counteract this problem, calcium ions are usually present at high concentrations throughout bodily fluids-at concentrations exceeding the saturation point. This condition leads to the opposite situation where unwanted mineral sedimentation may occur. Remarkably, ectopic or out-of-place sedimentation into soft tissues is rare, in spite of the thermodynamic driving factors. This fortunate fact is due to the presence of auto-regulatory proteins that are found in abundance in bodily fluids. Yet, many important inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis are associated with this undesired calcification. Hence, it is important to gain an understanding of the regulatory process and the conditions under which it can go awry. In this manuscript, we extend mean-field continuum classical nucleationtheory of the growth of clusters to encompass surface shielding. We use this formulation to study the regulation of sedimentation of calcium phosphate salts in biological tissues through the mechanism of post-nuclear shielding of nascent mineral particles by binding proteins. We develop a mathematical description of this phenomenon using a countable system of hyperbolic partial differential equations. A critical concentration of regulatory protein is identified as a function of the physical parameters that describe the system. PMID:27389239

  19. Regulatory inhibition of biological tissue mineralization by calcium phosphate through post-nucleation shielding by fetuin-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Joshua C.; Miura, Robert M.

    2016-04-01

    In vertebrates, insufficient availability of calcium and inorganic phosphate ions in extracellular fluids leads to loss of bone density and neuronal hyper-excitability. To counteract this problem, calcium ions are usually present at high concentrations throughout bodily fluids—at concentrations exceeding the saturation point. This condition leads to the opposite situation where unwanted mineral sedimentation may occur. Remarkably, ectopic or out-of-place sedimentation into soft tissues is rare, in spite of the thermodynamic driving factors. This fortunate fact is due to the presence of auto-regulatory proteins that are found in abundance in bodily fluids. Yet, many important inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis are associated with this undesired calcification. Hence, it is important to gain an understanding of the regulatory process and the conditions under which it can go awry. In this manuscript, we extend mean-field continuum classical nucleation theory of the growth of clusters to encompass surface shielding. We use this formulation to study the regulation of sedimentation of calcium phosphate salts in biological tissues through the mechanism of post-nuclear shielding of nascent mineral particles by binding proteins. We develop a mathematical description of this phenomenon using a countable system of hyperbolic partial differential equations. A critical concentration of regulatory protein is identified as a function of the physical parameters that describe the system.

  20. Astrocyte glycogenolysis is triggered by store-operated calcium entry and provides metabolic energy for cellular calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Margit S; Fox, Rebecca; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Bak, Lasse K

    2014-04-01

    Astrocytic glycogen, the only storage form of glucose in the brain, has been shown to play a fundamental role in supporting learning and memory, an effect achieved by providing metabolic support for neurons. We have examined the interplay between glycogenolysis and the bioenergetics of astrocytic Ca(2+) homeostasis, by analyzing interdependency of glycogen and store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), a mechanism in cellular signaling that maintains high endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) concentration and thus provides the basis for store-dependent Ca(2+) signaling. We stimulated SOCE in primary cultures of murine cerebellar and cortical astrocytes, and determined glycogen content to investigate the effects of SOCE on glycogen metabolism. By blocking glycogenolysis, we tested energetic dependency of SOCE-related Ca(2+) dynamics on glycogenolytic ATP. Our results show that SOCE triggers astrocytic glycogenolysis. Upon inhibition of adenylate cyclase with 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, glycogen content was no longer significantly different from that in unstimulated control cells, indicating that SOCE triggers astrocytic glycogenolysis in a cAMP-dependent manner. When glycogenolysis was inhibited in cortical astrocytes by 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol, the amount of Ca(2+) loaded into ER via sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2)-ATPase (SERCA) was reduced, which suggests that SERCA pumps preferentially metabolize glycogenolytic ATP. Our study demonstrates SOCE as a novel pathway in stimulating astrocytic glycogenolysis. We also provide first evidence for a new functional role of brain glycogen, in providing local ATP to SERCA, thus establishing the bioenergetic basis for astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling. This mechanism could offer a novel explanation for the impact of glycogen on learning and memory.

  1. Nitric oxide-mediated modulation of iron regulatory proteins: implication for cellular iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangwon; Ponka, Prem

    2002-01-01

    Iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) control the synthesis of transferrin receptors (TfR) and ferritin by binding to iron-responsive elements (IREs) that are located in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and the 5' UTR of their respective mRNAs. Cellular iron levels affect binding of IRPs to IREs and consequently expression of TfR and ferritin. Moreover, NO(.), a redox species of nitric oxide that interacts primarily with iron, can activate IRP1 RNA-binding activity resulting in an increase in TfR mRNA levels and a decrease in ferritin synthesis. We have shown that treatment of RAW 264.7 cells (a murine macrophage cell line) with NO(+) (nitrosonium ion, which causes S-nitrosylation of thiol groups) resulted in a rapid decrease in RNA-binding of IRP2, followed by IRP2 degradation, and these changes were associated with a decrease in TfR mRNA levels and a dramatic increase in ferritin synthesis. Moreover, we demonstrated that stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) increased IRP1 binding activity, whereas RNA-binding of IRP2 decreased and was followed by a degradation of this protein. Furthermore, the decrease of IRP2 binding/protein levels was associated with a decrease in TfR mRNA levels and an increase in ferritin synthesis in LPS/IFN-gamma-treated cells, and these changes were prevented by inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase. These results suggest that NO(+)-mediated degradation of IRP2 plays a major role in iron metabolism during inflammation.

  2. Calcium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert J P

    2002-01-01

    This chapter describes the chemical and biological value of the calcium ion. In calcium chemistry, our main interest is in equilibria within static, nonflowing systems. Hence, we examined the way calcium formed precipitates and complex ions in solution. We observed thereafter its uses by humankind in a vast number of materials such as minerals, e.g., marble, concrete, mortars, which parallel the biological use in shells and bones. In complex formation, we noted that many combinations were of anion interaction with calcium for example in the uses of detergents and medicines. The rates of exchange of calcium from bound states were noted but they had little application. Calcium ions do not act as catalysts of organic reactions. In biological systems, interest is in the above chemistry, but extends to the fact that Ca2+ ions can carry information by flowing in one solution or from one solution to another through membranes. Hence, we became interested in the details of rates of calcium exchange. The fast exchange of this divalent ion from most organic binding sites has allowed it to develop as the dominant second messenger. Now the flow can be examined in vitro as calcium binds particular isolated proteins, which it activates as seen in physical mechanical changes or chemical changes and this piece-by-piece study of cells is common. Here, however, we have chosen to stress the whole circuit of Ca2+ action indicating that the cell is organized both at a basal and an activated state kinetic level by the steady state flow of the ion (see Fig. 11). Different time constants of exchange utilizing very similar binding constants lead to: 1) fast responses as in the muscle of an animal; or 2) slower change as in differentiation of an egg or seed. Many other changes of state may relate to Ca2+ steady-state levels of flow in the circuitry and here we point to two: 1) dormancy in reptiles and animals; and 2) sporulation in both bacteria and lower plants. In the other chapters of

  3. Cellular Performance Comparison of Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coating and Alkaline-Treated Titanium Surface

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Mei

    2013-01-01

    The influence of biomimetic calcium phosphate coating on osteoblasts behavior in vitro is not well established yet. In this study, we investigated the behavior of osteoblastic rat osteosarcoma 17/2.8 cells (ROS17/2.8) on two groups of biomaterial surfaces: alkaline-treated titanium surface (ATT) and biomimetic calcium phosphate coated ATT (CaP). The cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and morphology on these surfaces were extensively evaluated to reveal the impact of substrate surface on osteoblastic cell responses. It was found that the ROS17/2.8 cells cultured on the ATT surface had higher attachment and proliferation rates compared to those on the CaP surface. Our results also showed that the calcium phosphate coatings generated in this work have an inhibiting effect on osteoblast adhesion and further influenced the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast compared to the ATT surface in vitro. Cells on the ATT surface also exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity than on the CaP surface after two weeks of culture. Immunofluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the cells adhered and spread faster on the ATT surface than on the CaP surface. These results collectively suggested that substrate surface properties directly influence cell adhesion on different biomaterials, which would result in further influence on the cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:24455730

  4. Nickel decreases cellular iron level and converts cytosolic aconitase to iron-regulatory protein 1 in A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Haobin; Davidson, Todd; Singleton, Steven; Garrick, Michael D.; Costa, Max . E-mail: costam@env.med.nyu.edu

    2005-08-15

    Nickel (Ni) compounds are well-established carcinogens and are known to initiate a hypoxic response in cells via the stabilization and transactivation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1{alpha}). This change may be the consequence of nickel's interference with the function of several Fe(II)-dependent enzymes. In this study, the effects of soluble nickel exposure on cellular iron homeostasis were investigated. Nickel treatment decreased both mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitase (c-aconitase) activity in A549 cells. Cytosolic aconitase was converted to iron-regulatory protein 1, a form critical for the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. The increased activity of iron-regulatory protein 1 after nickel exposure stabilized and increased transferrin receptor (Tfr) mRNA and antagonized the iron-induced ferritin light chain protein synthesis. The decrease of aconitase activity after nickel treatment reflected neither direct interference with aconitase function nor obstruction of [4Fe-4S] cluster reconstitution by nickel. Exposure of A549 cells to soluble nickel decreased total cellular iron by about 40%, a decrease that likely caused the observed decrease in aconitase activity and the increase of iron-regulatory protein 1 activity. Iron treatment reversed the effect of nickel on cytosolic aconitase and iron-regulatory protein 1. To assess the mechanism for the observed effects, human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells over expressing divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) were compared to A549 cells expressing only endogenous transporters for inhibition of iron uptake by nickel. The inhibition data suggest that nickel can enter via DMT1 and compete with iron for entry into the cell. This disturbance of cellular iron homeostasis by nickel may have a great impact on the ability of the cell to regulate a variety of cell functions, as well as create a state of hypoxia in cells under normal oxygen tension. These effects may be very important in how nickel exerts phenotypic

  5. A novel calcium-independent cellular PLA2 acts in insect immunity and larval growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) catalyzes the position-specific hydrolysis of fatty acids linked to the sn-2 position of phospholipids (PLs). PLA2s make up a very large superfamily, with more than known 15 groups, classified into secretory PLA2 (sPLA2), Ca2+-dependent cellular PLA2 (sPLA2), and Ca2+-indepen...

  6. Fabrication and cellular biocompatibility of porous carbonated biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics with a nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Chen, Xuening; Guo, Bo; Wang, Xinlong; Fan, Hongsong; Zhang, Xingdong

    2009-01-01

    Microwave heating was applied to fabricate interconnective porous structured bodies by foaming as-synthesized calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (Ca-deficient HA) precipitate containing H(2)O(2). The porous bodies were sintered by a microwave process with activated carbon as the embedding material to prepare nano- and submicron-structured ceramics. By comparison, conventional sintering was used to produce microstructured ceramics. The precursor particles and bulk ceramics were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and mechanical testing. TEM micrographs and assessment of the size distribution showed that the needle-like precursor particles are on the nanoscale. SEM observation indicated that the ceramics formed by microwave sintering presented a structure of interconnective pores, with average grain sizes of approximately 86 and approximately 167nm. XRD patterns and FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of carbonated biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and the mechanical tests showed that the ceramics formed by microwave sintering had a compressive strength comparable to that obtained by conventional methods. Rat osteoblasts were cultured on the three kinds of BCP ceramics to evaluate their biocompatibility. Compared with the microscale group formed by conventional sintering, MTT assay and ALP assay showed that nanophase scaffolds promoted cell proliferation and differentiation respectively, and SEM observation showed that the nanoscale group clearly promoted cell adhesion. The results from this study suggest that porous carbonated biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics with a nanostructure promote osteoblast adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, porous carbonated BCP ceramics with a nanostructure are simple and quick to prepare using microwaves and compared with those produced by conventional

  7. Cellular localization and biochemical characterization of a novel calcium-dependent protein kinase from tobacco.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Zhang, Mei; Ke, Ke; Lu, Ying Tang

    2005-08-01

    By screening tobacco cDNA library with MCK1 as a probe, we isolated a cDNA clone NtCPK5 (accession number AY971376), which encodes a typical calcium-dependent protein kinase. Sequence analyses indicated that NtCPK5 is related to both CPKs and CRKs superfamilies and has all of the three conserved domains of CPKs. The biochemical activity of NtCPK5 was calcium-dependent. NtCPK5 had Vmax and Km of 526 nmol/min/mg and 210 microg/ml respectively with calf thymus histone (fraction III, abbreviated to histone IIIs) as substrate. For substrate syntide-2, NtCPK5 showed a higher Vmax of 2008 nmol/min/mg and a lower Km of 30 microM. The K0.5 of calcium activation was 0.04 microM or 0.06 microM for histone IIIs or syntide-2 respectively. The putative myristoylation and palmitoylation consensus sequence of NtCPK5 suggests that it could be a membrane-anchoring protein. Indeed, our transient expression experiments with wild type and mutant forms of NtCPK5/GFP fusion proteins showed that NtCPK5 was localized to the plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells and that the localization required the N-terminal acylation sites of NtCPK5/GFP. Taking together, our data have demonstrated the biochemical characteristics of a novel protein NtCPK5 and its subcellular localization as a membrane-anchoring protein. PMID:16117850

  8. A Novel Cellular Senescence Gene, SENEX, Is Involved in Peripheral Regulatory T Cells Accumulation in Aged Urinary Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianping; Wang, Huiping; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Li, Qing; Yan, Kaili; Tao, Qianshan; Ye, Qianling; Xiong, Shudao; Wang, Yiping; Zhai, Zhimin

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an essential role in sustaining self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. Despite many studies on the correlation between Tregs accumulation and age, or malignancies, the related mechanism hasn’t been well explored. To find out the mechanism of Tregs accumulation in aged urinary bladder cancer, we examined the novel cellular senesence gene SENEX and relevant apoptosis gene mRNA expression in sorted CD4+CD25hi Tregs from aged UBC donors, evaluated serum cytokine profiles related to tumor immunopathology, and further explored the relationship between SENEX expression, apoptosis gene expression and cytokine secretion. After having silenced down SENEX gene expression with RNA interference, we also evaluated the cellular apoptosis of Tregs sorted from aged UBC patients in response to H2O2-mediated stress. Our data indicated that upregulated SENEX mRNA expression in Tregs of aged UBC patients was correlated with pro-apoptotic gene expression and cytokine concentration. Silencing SENEX gene expression increased cellular apoptosis and pro-apoptotic gene expression of Tregs, in response to H2O2-mediated stress. Upregulated SENEX mRNA expression together with decreased pro-apoptotic gene expression and disturbances in cytokines synthesis may contribute to the Tregs proliferation and promote tumorigenesis and metastasis. Overall, upregulation of cellular senescence gene SENEX, was associated to regulatory T cells accumulation in aged urinary bladder cancer. Our study provides a new insight into understanding of peripheral Tregs accumulation in aged malignancies. PMID:24505313

  9. Age-related changes in cellular electrophysiology and calcium handling for atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo-Jun; Gan, Tian-Yi; Tang, Bao-Peng; Chen, Zu-Heng; Jiang, Tao; Song, Jian-Guo; Guo, Xia; Li, Jin-xin

    2013-01-01

    This study was to investigate whether or not the dysfunction of atrial repolarization and abnormality of the intracellular Ca2+ handling protein was augmented with ageing. Four groups of dogs were studied, adult and aged dogs in sinus rhythm (SR) and atrial fibrillation (AF) induced by rapid atrial pacing. We used whole cell patch clamp recording techniques to measure L-type Ca2+ current in cardiomyocytes dispersed from the left atria. Expressions of the Ca2+ handling protein were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot methods. Cardiomyocytes from old atria showed longer action potential (AP) duration to 90% repolarization, lower AP plateau potential and peak L-type Ca2+ current densities at both age groups in SR. AF led to a higher maximum diastolic potential, an increase of amplitude of phase 0, decreases of AP duration to 90% repolarization, plateau potential and peak L-type Ca2+ current densities. Compared to the adult group, mRNA and protein expressions of the L-type calcium channel a1c were decreased, whereas expressions of calcium adenosine triphosphatase were increased in the aged group. Compared to SR group, expressions of Ca2+ handling protein except for phospholamban were significantly decreased in both age groups with AF. We conclude that these ageing-induced electrophysiological and molecular changes showed that general pathophysiological adaptations might provide a substrate conducive to AF. PMID:23837844

  10. Calcium puffs are generic InsP(3)-activated elementary calcium signals and are downregulated by prolonged hormonal stimulation to inhibit cellular calcium responses.

    PubMed

    Tovey, S C; de Smet, P; Lipp, P; Thomas, D; Young, K W; Missiaen, L; De Smedt, H; Parys, J B; Berridge, M J; Thuring, J; Holmes, A; Bootman, M D

    2001-11-01

    Elementary Ca(2+) signals, such as "Ca(2+) puffs", which arise from the activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, are building blocks for local and global Ca(2+) signalling. We characterized Ca(2+) puffs in six cell types that expressed differing ratios of the three inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor isoforms. The amplitudes, spatial spreads and kinetics of the events were similar in each of the cell types. The resemblance of Ca(2+) puffs in these cell types suggests that they are a generic elementary Ca(2+) signal and, furthermore, that the different inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate isoforms are functionally redundant at the level of subcellular Ca(2+) signalling. Hormonal stimulation of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and HeLa cells for several hours downregulated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate expression and concomitantly altered the properties of the Ca(2+) puffs. The amplitude and duration of Ca(2+) puffs were substantially reduced. In addition, the number of Ca(2+) puff sites active during the onset of a Ca(2+) wave declined. The consequence of the changes in Ca(2+) puff properties was that cells displayed a lower propensity to trigger regenerative Ca(2+) waves. Therefore, Ca(2+) puffs underlie inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signalling in diverse cell types and are focal points for regulation of cellular responses.

  11. Cellular calcium dynamics in lactation and breast cancer: from physiology to pathology

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Brandie M.; Breitwieser, Gerda E.; Reinhardt, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in women, estimated at nearly 40,000 deaths and more than 230,000 new cases diagnosed in the U.S. this year alone. One of the defining characteristics of breast cancer is the radiographic presence of microcalcifications. These palpable mineral precipitates are commonly found in the breast after formation of a tumor. Since free Ca2+ plays a crucial role as a second messenger inside cells, we hypothesize that these chelated precipitates may be a result of dysregulated Ca2+ secretion associated with tumorigenesis. Transient and sustained elevations of intracellular Ca2+ regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell migration, and offer numerous therapeutic possibilities in controlling tumor growth and metastasis. During lactation, a developmentally determined program of gene expression controls the massive transcellular mobilization of Ca2+ from the blood into milk by the coordinated action of calcium transporters, including pumps, channels, sensors and buffers, in a functional module that we term CALTRANS. Here we assess the evidence implicating genes that regulate free and buffered Ca2+ in normal breast epithelium and cancer cells and discuss mechanisms that are likely to contribute to the pathological characteristics of breast cancer. PMID:24225884

  12. Computational models of atrial cellular electrophysiology and calcium handling, and their role in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Heijman, Jordi; Erfanian Abdoust, Pegah; Voigt, Niels; Nattel, Stanley; Dobrev, Dobromir

    2016-02-01

    The complexity of the heart makes an intuitive understanding of the relative contribution of ion channels, transporters and signalling pathways to cardiac electrophysiology challenging. Computational modelling of cardiac cellular electrophysiology has proven useful to integrate experimental findings, extrapolate results obtained in expression systems or animal models to other systems, test quantitatively ideas based on experimental data and provide novel hypotheses that are experimentally testable. While the bulk of computational modelling has traditionally been directed towards ventricular bioelectricity, increasing recognition of the clinical importance of atrial arrhythmias, particularly atrial fibrillation, has led to widespread efforts to apply computational approaches to understanding atrial electrical function. The increasing availability of detailed, atrial-specific experimental data has stimulated the development of novel computational models of atrial-cellular electrophysiology and Ca(2+) handling. To date, more than 300 studies have employed mathematical simulations to enhance our understanding of atrial electrophysiology, arrhythmogenesis and therapeutic responses. Future modelling studies are likely to move beyond current whole-cell models by incorporating new data on subcellular architecture, macromolecular protein complexes, and localized ion-channel regulation by signalling pathways. At the same time, more integrative multicellular models that take into account regional electrophysiological and Ca(2+) handling properties, mechano-electrical feedback and/or autonomic regulation will be needed to investigate the mechanisms governing atrial arrhythmias. A combined experimental and computational approach is expected to provide the more comprehensive understanding of atrial arrhythmogenesis that is required to develop improved diagnostic and therapeutic options. Here, we review this rapidly expanding area, with a particular focus on Ca(2+) handling, and

  13. Binding of cellular repressor protein or the IE2 protein to a cis-acting negative regulatory element upstream of a human cytomegalovirus early promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, L; Stinski, M F

    1995-01-01

    We have previously shown that the human cytomegalovirus early UL4 promoter has upstream negative and positive cis-acting regulatory elements. In the absence of the upstream negative regulatory region, the positive element confers strong transcriptional activity. The positive element contains a CCAAT box dyad symmetry and binds the cellular transcription factor NF-Y. The effect of the negative regulatory element is negated by the viral IE2 protein (L. Huang, C.L. Malone, and M.F. Stinski, J. Virol. 68:2108, 1994). We investigated the binding of cellular or viral IE2 protein to the negative regulatory region. The major cis-acting negative regulatory element was located between -168 and -134 bp relative to the transcription start site. This element could be transferred to a heterologous promoter, and it functioned in either orientation. Mutational analysis demonstrated that a core DNA sequence in the cis-acting negative regulatory element, 5'-GTTTGGAATCGTT-3', was required for the binding of either a cellular repressor protein(s) or the viral IE2 protein. The cellular DNA binding activity was present in both nonpermissive HeLa and permissive human fibroblast cells but more abundant in HeLa cells. Binding of the cellular repressor protein to the upstream cis-acting negative regulatory element correlates with repression of transcription from the early UL4 promoter. Binding of the viral IE2 protein correlates with negation of the repressive effect. PMID:7494269

  14. Nickel decreases cellular iron level and converts cytosolic aconitase to iron-regulatory protein 1 in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haobin; Davidson, Todd; Singleton, Steven; Garrick, Michael D; Costa, Max

    2005-08-15

    Nickel (Ni) compounds are well-established carcinogens and are known to initiate a hypoxic response in cells via the stabilization and transactivation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha). This change may be the consequence of nickel's interference with the function of several Fe(II)-dependent enzymes. In this study, the effects of soluble nickel exposure on cellular iron homeostasis were investigated. Nickel treatment decreased both mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitase (c-aconitase) activity in A549 cells. Cytosolic aconitase was converted to iron-regulatory protein 1, a form critical for the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. The increased activity of iron-regulatory protein 1 after nickel exposure stabilized and increased transferrin receptor (Tfr) mRNA and antagonized the iron-induced ferritin light chain protein synthesis. The decrease of aconitase activity after nickel treatment reflected neither direct interference with aconitase function nor obstruction of [4Fe-4S] cluster reconstitution by nickel. Exposure of A549 cells to soluble nickel decreased total cellular iron by about 40%, a decrease that likely caused the observed decrease in aconitase activity and the increase of iron-regulatory protein 1 activity. Iron treatment reversed the effect of nickel on cytosolic aconitase and iron-regulatory protein 1. To assess the mechanism for the observed effects, human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells over expressing divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) were compared to A549 cells expressing only endogenous transporters for inhibition of iron uptake by nickel. The inhibition data suggest that nickel can enter via DMT1 and compete with iron for entry into the cell. This disturbance of cellular iron homeostasis by nickel may have a great impact on the ability of the cell to regulate a variety of cell functions, as well as create a state of hypoxia in cells under normal oxygen tension. These effects may be very important in how nickel exerts phenotypic

  15. Growth factors and cardiovascular structure. Implications for calcium antagonist therapy.

    PubMed

    Re, R N; Chen, L

    1991-07-01

    Abnormalities of cellular growth regulation are integral to the development of cardiovascular disorders such as atherogenesis, ventricular hypertrophy, and diabetic glomerulopathy. Moreover, cellular growth is in large measure controlled by peptide and nonpeptide growth factors that mediate their actions, in part, through the transcriptional regulation of normal cellular genes called protooncogenes. Because angiotensin II is one such growth regulatory factor and because changes in intracellular calcium are intimately involved in the action of angiotensin and other growth factors, it is likely that inhibitors of angiotensin action and calcium-channel-blocking agents will be found to have useful growth regulatory properties. PMID:1910639

  16. Expression of mRNA Encoding Mcu and Other Mitochondrial Calcium Regulatory Genes Depends on Cell Type, Neuronal Subtype, and Ca2+ Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Márkus, Nóra M.; Hasel, Philip; Qiu, Jing; Bell, Karen F. S.; Heron, Samuel; Kind, Peter C.; Dando, Owen; Simpson, T. Ian; Hardingham, Giles E.

    2016-01-01

    Uptake of Ca2+ into the mitochondrial matrix controls cellular metabolism and survival-death pathways. Several genes are implicated in controlling mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake (mitochondrial calcium regulatory genes, MCRGs), however, less is known about the factors which influence their expression level. Here we have compared MCRG mRNA expression, in neural cells of differing type (cortical neurons vs. astrocytes), differing neuronal subtype (CA3 vs. CA1 hippocampus) and in response to Ca2+ influx, using a combination of qPCR and RNA-seq analysis. Of note, we find that the Mcu-regulating Micu gene family profile differs substantially between neurons and astrocytes, while expression of Mcu itself is markedly different between CA3 and CA1 regions in the adult hippocampus. Moreover, dynamic control of MCRG mRNA expression in response to membrane depolarization-induced Ca2+ influx is also apparent, resulting in repression of Letm1, as well as Mcu. Thus, the mRNA expression profile of MCRGs is not fixed, which may cause differences in the coupling between cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca2+, as well as diversity of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake mechanisms. PMID:26828201

  17. Expression of mRNA Encoding Mcu and Other Mitochondrial Calcium Regulatory Genes Depends on Cell Type, Neuronal Subtype, and Ca2+ Signaling.

    PubMed

    Márkus, Nóra M; Hasel, Philip; Qiu, Jing; Bell, Karen F S; Heron, Samuel; Kind, Peter C; Dando, Owen; Simpson, T Ian; Hardingham, Giles E

    2016-01-01

    Uptake of Ca2+ into the mitochondrial matrix controls cellular metabolism and survival-death pathways. Several genes are implicated in controlling mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake (mitochondrial calcium regulatory genes, MCRGs), however, less is known about the factors which influence their expression level. Here we have compared MCRG mRNA expression, in neural cells of differing type (cortical neurons vs. astrocytes), differing neuronal subtype (CA3 vs. CA1 hippocampus) and in response to Ca2+ influx, using a combination of qPCR and RNA-seq analysis. Of note, we find that the Mcu-regulating Micu gene family profile differs substantially between neurons and astrocytes, while expression of Mcu itself is markedly different between CA3 and CA1 regions in the adult hippocampus. Moreover, dynamic control of MCRG mRNA expression in response to membrane depolarization-induced Ca2+ influx is also apparent, resulting in repression of Letm1, as well as Mcu. Thus, the mRNA expression profile of MCRGs is not fixed, which may cause differences in the coupling between cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca2+, as well as diversity of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake mechanisms.

  18. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Two-Component Regulator CarSR Regulates Calcium Homeostasis and Calcium-Induced Virulence Factor Production through Its Regulatory Targets CarO and CarP

    PubMed Central

    Guragain, Manita; King, Michelle M.; Williamson, Kerry S.; Pérez-Osorio, Ailyn C.; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Khanam, Sharmily

    2016-01-01

    modulate Ca2+ homeostasis, surface-associated motility, and the production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. IMPORTANCE During infectious disease, Pseudomonas aeruginosa encounters environments with high calcium (Ca2+) concentrations, yet the cells maintain intracellular Ca2+ at levels that are orders of magnitude less than that of the external environment. In addition, Ca2+ signals P. aeruginosa to induce the production of several virulence factors. Compared to eukaryotes, little is known about how bacteria maintain Ca2+ homeostasis or how Ca2+ acts as a signal. In this study, we identified a two-component regulatory system in P. aeruginosa PAO1, termed CarRS, that is induced at elevated Ca2+ levels. CarRS modulates Ca2+ signaling and Ca2+ homeostasis through its regulatory targets, CarO and CarP. The results demonstrate that P. aeruginosa uses a two-component regulatory system to sense external Ca2+ and relays that information for Ca2+-dependent cellular processes. PMID:26755627

  19. Regulation of Calcium-Independent Phospholipase A2 Expression by Adrenoceptors and Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein-Potential Crosstalk Between Sterol and Glycerophospholipid Mediators.

    PubMed

    Chew, Wee-Siong; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) is an 85-kDa enzyme that releases docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from glycerophospholipids. DHA can be metabolized to resolvins and neuroprotectins that have anti-inflammatory properties and effects on neural plasticity. Recent studies show an important role of prefrontal cortical iPLA2 in hippocampo-prefrontal cortical LTP and antidepressant-like effect of the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) antidepressant, maprotiline. In this study, we elucidated the cellular mechanisms through which stimulation of adrenergic receptors could lead to increased iPLA2 expression. Treatment of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with maprotiline, another tricyclic antidepressant with noradrenaline reuptake inhibiting properties, nortriptyline, and the adrenergic receptor agonist, phenylephrine, resulted in increased iPLA2β mRNA expression. This increase was blocked by inhibitors to alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP). Maprotiline and phenylephrine induced binding of SREBP-2 to sterol regulatory element (SRE) region on the iPLA2 promoter, as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Together, results indicate that stimulation of adrenoreceptors causes increased iPLA2 expression via MAP kinase/ERK 1/2 and SREBP, and suggest a possible mechanism for effect of CNS noradrenaline on neural plasticity and crosstalk between sterol and glycerophospholipid mediators, that may play a role in physiological or pathophysiological processes in the brain and other organs.

  20. Positive and Negative Regulatory Mechanisms for Fine-Tuning Cellularity and Functions of Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Taishin; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Akiyama, Nobuko; Yoshinaga, Riko; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.

    2015-01-01

    Self-tolerant T cells and regulatory T cells develop in the thymus. A wide variety of cell–cell interactions in the thymus is required for the differentiation, proliferation, and repertoire selection of T cells. Various secreted and cell surface molecules expressed in thymic epithelial cells (TECs) mediate these processes. Moreover, cytokines expressed by cells of hematopoietic origin regulate the cellularity of TECs. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family RANK ligand, lymphotoxin, and CD40 ligand, expressed in T cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), promote the differentiation and proliferation of medullary TECs (mTECs) that play critical roles in the induction of immune tolerance. A recent study suggests that interleukin-22 (IL-22) produced by ILCs promotes regeneration of TECs after irradiation. Intriguingly, tumor growth factor-β and osteoprotegerin limit cellularity of mTECs, thereby attenuating regulatory T cell generation. We will review recent insights into the molecular basis for cell–cell interactions regulating differentiation and proliferation of mTECs and also discuss about a perspective on use of mathematical models for understanding this complicated system. PMID:26441966

  1. Cellular uptake and metabolism of curcuminoids in monocytes/macrophages: regulatory effects on lipid accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously showed that curcumin (CUR) may increase lipid accumulation in cultured THP-1 monocytes/macrophages, but tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), an in vivo metabolite of CUR, had no such effect. In the present study, we have hypothesized that different cellular uptake and/or metabolism of CUR and THC...

  2. Involvement of the Iron Regulatory Protein from Eisenia andrei Earthworms in the Regulation of Cellular Iron Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Procházková, Petra; Škanta, František; Roubalová, Radka; Šilerová, Marcela; Dvořák, Jiří; Bilej, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Iron homeostasis in cells is regulated by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that exist in different organisms. IRPs are cytosolic proteins that bind to iron-responsive elements (IREs) of the 5′- or 3′-untranslated regions (UTR) of mRNAs that encode many proteins involved in iron metabolism. In this study, we have cloned and described a new regulatory protein belonging to the family of IRPs from the earthworm Eisenia andrei (EaIRP). The earthworm IRE site in 5′-UTR of ferritin mRNA most likely folds into a secondary structure that differs from the conventional IRE structures of ferritin due to the absence of a typically unpaired cytosine that participates in protein binding. Prepared recombinant EaIRP and proteins from mammalian liver extracts are able to bind both mammalian and Eisenia IRE structures of ferritin mRNA, although the affinity of the rEaIRP/Eisenia IRE structure is rather low. This result suggests the possible contribution of a conventional IRE structure. When IRP is supplemented with a Fe-S cluster, it can function as a cytosolic aconitase. Cellular cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions, as well as recombinant EaIRP, exhibit aconitase activity that can be abolished by the action of oxygen radicals. The highest expression of EaIRP was detected in parts of the digestive tract. We can assume that earthworms may possess an IRE/IRP regulatory network as a potential mechanism for maintaining cellular iron homeostasis, although the aconitase function of EaIRP is most likely more relevant. PMID:25279857

  3. The emergence and popularisation of autologous somatic cellular therapies in Australia: therapeutic innovation or regulatory failure?

    PubMed

    McLean, Alison K; Stewart, Cameron; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-09-01

    Private stem cell clinics throughout Australia are providing autologous stem cell therapies for a range of chronic and debilitating illnesses despite the lack of published literature to support the clinical application of these therapies. The Therapeutic Goods Administration has excluded autologous stem cell therapies from its regulatory domain leaving such therapies to be regulated by the same mechanisms that regulate research, such as the National Health and Medical Research Council Research Ethics Guidelines, and clinical practice, such as the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency. However, the provision of these stem cell therapies does not follow the established pathways for legitimate medical advance--therapeutic innovation or research. The current regulatory framework is failing to achieve its aims of protecting vulnerable patients and ensuring the proper conduct of medical practitioners in the private stem cell industry.

  4. Thermodynamic-based computational profiling of cellular regulatory control in hepatocyte metabolism.

    PubMed

    Beard, Daniel A; Qian, Hong

    2005-03-01

    Thermodynamic-based constraints on biochemical fluxes and concentrations are applied in concert with mass balance of fluxes in glycogenesis and glycogenolysis in a model of hepatic cell metabolism. Constraint-based modeling methods that facilitate predictions of reactant concentrations, reaction potentials, and enzyme activities are introduced to identify putative regulatory and control sites in biological networks by computing the minimal control scheme necessary to switch between metabolic modes. Computational predictions of control sites in glycogenic and glycogenolytic operational modes in the hepatocyte network compare favorably with known regulatory mechanisms. The developed hepatic metabolic model is used to computationally analyze the impairment of glucose production in von Gierke's and Hers' diseases, two metabolic diseases impacting glycogen metabolism. The computational methodology introduced here can be generalized to identify downstream targets of agonists, to systematically probe possible drug targets, and to predict the effects of specific inhibitors (or activators) on integrated network function. PMID:15507536

  5. Decoding genome-wide GadEWX-transcriptional regulatory networks reveals multifaceted cellular responses to acid stress in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang Woo; Kim, Donghyuk; O'Brien, Edward J; Szubin, Richard; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2015-01-01

    The regulators GadE, GadW and GadX (which we refer to as GadEWX) play a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of the glutamate-dependent acid resistance (GDAR) system in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655. However, the genome-wide regulatory role of GadEWX is still unknown. Here we comprehensively reconstruct the genome-wide GadEWX transcriptional regulatory network and RpoS involvement in E. coli K-12 MG1655 under acidic stress. Integrative data analysis reveals that GadEWX regulons consist of 45 genes in 31 transcription units and 28 of these genes were associated with RpoS-binding sites. We demonstrate that GadEWX directly and coherently regulate several proton-generating/consuming enzymes with pairs of negative-feedback loops for pH homeostasis. In addition, GadEWX regulate genes with assorted functions, including molecular chaperones, acid resistance, stress response and other regulatory activities. These results show how GadEWX simultaneously coordinate many cellular processes to produce the overall response of E. coli to acid stress. PMID:26258987

  6. Decoding genome-wide GadEWX-transcriptional regulatory networks reveals multifaceted cellular responses to acid stress in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang Woo; Kim, Donghyuk; O'Brien, Edward J.; Szubin, Richard; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2015-01-01

    The regulators GadE, GadW and GadX (which we refer to as GadEWX) play a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of the glutamate-dependent acid resistance (GDAR) system in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655. However, the genome-wide regulatory role of GadEWX is still unknown. Here we comprehensively reconstruct the genome-wide GadEWX transcriptional regulatory network and RpoS involvement in E. coli K-12 MG1655 under acidic stress. Integrative data analysis reveals that GadEWX regulons consist of 45 genes in 31 transcription units and 28 of these genes were associated with RpoS-binding sites. We demonstrate that GadEWX directly and coherently regulate several proton-generating/consuming enzymes with pairs of negative-feedback loops for pH homeostasis. In addition, GadEWX regulate genes with assorted functions, including molecular chaperones, acid resistance, stress response and other regulatory activities. These results show how GadEWX simultaneously coordinate many cellular processes to produce the overall response of E. coli to acid stress. PMID:26258987

  7. [Translational/regulatory science researches of NIHS for regenerative medicine and cellular therapy products].

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoji

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the Japanese Diet passed the Regenerative Medicine Promotion Act and the revisions to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act, which was also renamed as the Therapeutic Products Act (TPA). One of the aims of the new/revised Acts is to promote the development and translation of and access to regenerative/cellular therapies. In the TPA, a product derived from processing cells is categorized as a subgroup of "regenerative medicine, cellular therapy and gene therapy products" (RCGPs), products distinct from pharmaceuticals and medical devices, allowing RCGPs to obtain a conditional and time- limited marketing authorization much earlier than that under the conventional system. To foster not only RCGPs, but also innovative pharmaceuticals and medical devices, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare recently launched Translational Research Program for Innovative Pharmaceuticals, Medical Devices and RCGPs. This mini-review introduces contributions of the National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) to research projects on RCGPs in the Program. PMID:25707195

  8. Solution structure and backbone dynamics of the N-terminal region of the calcium regulatory domain from soybean calcium-dependent protein kinase alpha.

    PubMed

    Weljie, Aalim M; Gagné, Stéphane M; Vogel, Hans J

    2004-12-01

    Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are vital Ca(2+)-signaling proteins in plants and protists which have both a kinase domain and a self-contained calcium regulatory calmodulin-like domain (CLD). Despite being very similar to CaM (>40% identity) and sharing the same fold, recent biochemical and structural evidence suggests that the behavior of CLD is distinct from its namesake, calmodulin. In this study, NMR spectroscopy is employed to examine the structure and backbone dynamics of a 168 amino acid Ca(2+)-saturated construct of the CLD (NtH-CLD) in which almost the entire C-terminal domain is exchange broadened and not visible in the NMR spectra. Structural characterization of the N-terminal domain indicates that the first Ca(2+)-binding loop is significantly more open than in a recently reported structure of the CLD complexed with a putative intramolecular binding region (JD) in the CDPK. Backbone dynamics suggest that parts of the third helix exhibit unusually high mobility, and significant exchange, consistent with previous findings that this helix interacts with the C-terminal domain. Dynamics data also show that the "tether" region, consisting of the first 11 amino acids of CLD, is highly mobile and these residues exhibit distinctive beta-type secondary structure, which may help to position the JD and CLD. Finally, the unusual global dynamic behavior of the protein is rationalized on the basis of possible interdomain rearrangements and the highly variable environments of the C- and N-terminal domains.

  9. Morphogenesis in sea urchin embryos: linking cellular events to gene regulatory network states

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Deidre; Kaltenbach, Stacy; McClay, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Gastrulation in the sea urchin begins with ingression of the primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) at the vegetal pole of the embryo. After entering the blastocoel the PMCs migrate, form a syncitium, and synthesize the skeleton of the embryo. Several hours after the PMCs ingress the vegetal plate buckles to initiate invagination of the archenteron. That morphogenetic process occurs in several steps. The non-skeletogenic cells produce the initial inbending of the vegetal plate. Endoderm cells then rearrange and extend the length of the gut across the blastocoel to a target near the animal pole. Finally, cells that will form part of the midgut and hindgut are added to complete gastrulation. Later, the stomodeum invaginates from the oral ectoderm and fuses with the foregut to complete the archenteron. In advance of, and during these morphogenetic events an increasingly complex gene regulatory network controls the specification and the cell biological events that conduct the gastrulation movements. PMID:23801438

  10. A cellular and regulatory map of the cholinergic nervous system of C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Laura; Kratsios, Paschalis; Serrano-Saiz, Esther; Sheftel, Hila; Mayo, Avi E; Hall, David H; White, John G; LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Garcia, L Rene; Alon, Uri; Hobert, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Nervous system maps are of critical importance for understanding how nervous systems develop and function. We systematically map here all cholinergic neuron types in the male and hermaphrodite C. elegans nervous system. We find that acetylcholine (ACh) is the most broadly used neurotransmitter and we analyze its usage relative to other neurotransmitters within the context of the entire connectome and within specific network motifs embedded in the connectome. We reveal several dynamic aspects of cholinergic neurotransmitter identity, including a sexually dimorphic glutamatergic to cholinergic neurotransmitter switch in a sex-shared interneuron. An expression pattern analysis of ACh-gated anion channels furthermore suggests that ACh may also operate very broadly as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. As a first application of this comprehensive neurotransmitter map, we identify transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control cholinergic neurotransmitter identity and cholinergic circuit assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12432.001 PMID:26705699

  11. Role of diacylglycerol kinase in cellular regulatory processes: a new regulator for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Takeishi, Yasuchika; Goto, Kaoru; Kubota, Isao

    2007-09-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase (DGK) phosphorylates and converts DAG to phosphatidic acid. DGK regulates cellular DAG levels and attenuates DAG signaling. The 10 mammalian DGK isoforms have been identified to date. In cardiac myocytes, DGKalpha, epsilon, and zeta are expressed, and DGKzeta is the predominant isoform. DGKzeta inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) activation and subsequent hypertrophic programs in response to endothelin-1 (ET-1) in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. DGKzeta blocks cardiac hypertrophy induced by G protein-coupled receptor agonists and pressure overload in vivo. DGKzeta attenuates ventricular remodeling and improves survival after myocardial infarction. These data provide a novel insight for subcellular mechanisms of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and DGKzeta may be a new therapeutic target to prevent cardiac hypertrophy and progression to heart failure. PMID:17659347

  12. Cellular Interrogation: Exploiting Cell-to-Cell Variability to Discriminate Regulatory Mechanisms in Oscillatory Signalling.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Javier; Andrew, Natalie; Gibson, Daniel; Chang, Frederick; Gnad, Florian; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2016-07-01

    The molecular complexity within a cell may be seen as an evolutionary response to the external complexity of the cell's environment. This suggests that the external environment may be harnessed to interrogate the cell's internal molecular architecture. Cells, however, are not only nonlinear and non-stationary, but also exhibit heterogeneous responses within a clonal, isogenic population. In effect, each cell undertakes its own experiment. Here, we develop a method of cellular interrogation using programmable microfluidic devices which exploits the additional information present in cell-to-cell variation, without requiring model parameters to be fitted to data. We focussed on Ca2+ signalling in response to hormone stimulation, which exhibits oscillatory spiking in many cell types and chose eight models of Ca2+ signalling networks which exhibit similar behaviour in simulation. We developed a nonlinear frequency analysis for non-stationary responses, which could classify models into groups under parameter variation, but found that this question alone was unable to distinguish critical feedback loops. We further developed a nonlinear amplitude analysis and found that the combination of both questions ruled out six of the models as inconsistent with the experimentally-observed dynamics and heterogeneity. The two models that survived the double interrogation were mathematically different but schematically identical and yielded the same unexpected predictions that we confirmed experimentally. Further analysis showed that subtle mathematical details can markedly influence non-stationary responses under parameter variation, emphasising the difficulty of finding a "correct" model. By developing questions for the pathway being studied, and designing more versatile microfluidics, cellular interrogation holds promise as a systematic strategy that can complement direct intervention by genetics or pharmacology.

  13. Cellular Interrogation: Exploiting Cell-to-Cell Variability to Discriminate Regulatory Mechanisms in Oscillatory Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Daniel; Chang, Frederick; Gnad, Florian; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The molecular complexity within a cell may be seen as an evolutionary response to the external complexity of the cell’s environment. This suggests that the external environment may be harnessed to interrogate the cell’s internal molecular architecture. Cells, however, are not only nonlinear and non-stationary, but also exhibit heterogeneous responses within a clonal, isogenic population. In effect, each cell undertakes its own experiment. Here, we develop a method of cellular interrogation using programmable microfluidic devices which exploits the additional information present in cell-to-cell variation, without requiring model parameters to be fitted to data. We focussed on Ca2+ signalling in response to hormone stimulation, which exhibits oscillatory spiking in many cell types and chose eight models of Ca2+ signalling networks which exhibit similar behaviour in simulation. We developed a nonlinear frequency analysis for non-stationary responses, which could classify models into groups under parameter variation, but found that this question alone was unable to distinguish critical feedback loops. We further developed a nonlinear amplitude analysis and found that the combination of both questions ruled out six of the models as inconsistent with the experimentally-observed dynamics and heterogeneity. The two models that survived the double interrogation were mathematically different but schematically identical and yielded the same unexpected predictions that we confirmed experimentally. Further analysis showed that subtle mathematical details can markedly influence non-stationary responses under parameter variation, emphasising the difficulty of finding a “correct” model. By developing questions for the pathway being studied, and designing more versatile microfluidics, cellular interrogation holds promise as a systematic strategy that can complement direct intervention by genetics or pharmacology. PMID:27367445

  14. Cellular calcium mobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    In vascular and other smooth muscles, occurrence of intracellular Ca stores which can be mobilized to support contraction may be a general phenomenon. The Ca stores are characterized by the requirement for release by high concentrations of agonists acting on plasma membrane receptors, by the failure of the released Ca2+ to recycle to the store, by the occurrence of rapid refilling of the store from the extracellular space, and by disappearance of the store when the plasma membrane is made leaky by saponin. In contrast to agonist-released Ca stores, those released by caffeine to support contraction in Ca2+-free solutions are more slowly lost and refilled, are not always emptied when the agonist-related store is emptied, and do not disappear after saponin treatment. Stores released by agonists have been suggested to be in the endoplasmic reticulum near the plasma membrane or at the inner aspect of the plasma membrane related to high affinity, pH-dependent Ca-binding sites. Caffeine-released stores are assumed to be in endoplasmic reticulum. Continued exposure of some tissues to Ca2+-free solutions unmasks what is considered to be a recycling Ca store releasable by agonists. Release of Ca2+ and its reaccumulation in this store appear to be slower than at the nonrecycling store. The contractions which persist for many hours in Ca2+-free solution are inhibited temporarily by Ca2+ restoration. Existence of a recycling store of releasable Ca2+ requires occurrence of mechanisms to abolish Ca2+ extrusion or leak-out of the cell and to ensure recycling to the same store.

  15. Arginine vasopressin increases cellular free calcium concentration and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate production in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, S.; Okada, K.; Saito, T.

    1988-09-01

    The role of calcium (Ca) in the cellular action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture. AVP increased both the cellular free Ca concentration ((Ca2+)i) using fura-2, and cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. AVP-induced cellular Ca mobilization was totally blocked by the antagonist to the antidiuretic action of AVP, and somewhat weakened by the antagonist to the vascular action of AVP. 1-Deamino-8-D-AVP (dDAVP). an antidiuretic analog of AVP, also increased (Ca2+) significantly. Cellular Ca mobilization was not obtained with cAMP, forskolin (a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase), or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. The early phase of (Ca2+)i depended on the intracellular Ca pool, since an AVP-induced rise in (Ca2+)i was obtained in cells pretreated with Ca-free medium containing 1 mM EGTA, verapamil, or cobalt, which blocked cellular Ca uptake. Also, AVP increased /sup 45/Ca2+ influx during the initial 10 min, which initiated the sustained phase of cellular Ca mobilization. However, cellular cAMP production induced by AVP during the 10-min observation period was diminished in the cells pretreated with Ca-free medium, verapamil, or cobalt, but was still significantly higher than the basal level. This was also diminished by a high Ca concentration in medium. These results indicate that 1) AVP concomitantly regulates cellular free Ca as well as its second messenger cAMP production; 2) AVP-induced elevation of cellular free Ca is dependent on both the cellular Ca pool and extracellular Ca; and 3) there is an optimal level of extracellular Ca to modulate the AVP action in renal papillary collecting tubule cells.

  16. A cellular and regulatory map of the GABAergic nervous system of C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Gendrel, Marie; Atlas, Emily G; Hobert, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter maps are important complements to anatomical maps and represent an invaluable resource to understand nervous system function and development. We report here a comprehensive map of neurons in the C. elegans nervous system that contain the neurotransmitter GABA, revealing twice as many GABA-positive neuron classes as previously reported. We define previously unknown glia-like cells that take up GABA, as well as 'GABA uptake neurons' which do not synthesize GABA but take it up from the extracellular environment, and we map the expression of previously uncharacterized ionotropic GABA receptors. We use the map of GABA-positive neurons for a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional regulators that define the GABA phenotype. We synthesize our findings of specification of GABAergic neurons with previous reports on the specification of glutamatergic and cholinergic neurons into a nervous system-wide regulatory map which defines neurotransmitter specification mechanisms for more than half of all neuron classes in C. elegans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17686.001 PMID:27740909

  17. Vanadium as a modulator of cellular regulatory cascades and oncogene expression.

    PubMed

    Stern, A; Yin, X; Tsang, S S; Davison, A; Moon, J

    1993-01-01

    Vanadium, a trace metal in the environment and in biological systems, influences the behavior of enzymes, mimics and regulates growth factor activity, is a potential mutagenic and carcinogenic agent, and regulates gene expression. The diverse biological actions of vanadium result from its capacity to function as an oxyanion, oxycation, or prooxidant. Vanadium is found in water, rocks, and soils in low concentration and in relatively high concentrations in coal and oil deposits. Vanadium compounds at much higher concentrations than are typically ingested are being considered in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The actions of insulin and vanadium on the insulin receptor are similar, but the mechanisms are not identical. Vanadium modulates growth-factor-mediated signal transduction pathways. Vanadium promotes cell transformation and diminishes cell adhesion. Consistent with its mitogenic action and its capacity to mimic mitogenic growth factors, vanadium stimulates expression of protooncogenes. In particular, oxygen-derived active species are involved in the expression of the jun protooncogene in the presence of vanadium. The unique cellular activity of vanadium makes it a tool of unparalleled potential for studying mechanisms of cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism.

  18. Regulatory mechanisms and the role of calcium and potassium channels controlling supercontractile crop muscles in adult Phormia regina.

    PubMed

    Solari, Paolo; Stoffolano, John G; Fitzpatrick, Joanna; Gelperin, Alan; Thomson, Alan; Talani, Giuseppe; Sanna, Enrico; Liscia, Anna

    2013-09-01

    Bioassays and electrophysiological recordings were conducted in the adult blowfly Phormia regina to provide new insights into the regulatory mechanisms governing the crop filling and emptying processes of the supercontractile crop muscles. The cibarial pump drives ingestion. Simultaneous multisite extracellular recordings show that crop lobe (P5) distension during ingestion of a 4.7 μl sugar meal does not require muscle activity by any of the other pumps of the system. Conversely, pumping of fluids toward the anterior of the crop system during crop emptying is brought about by active muscle contraction, in the form of a highly coordinated peristaltic wave starting from P5 and progressively propagating to P6, P4 and P3 pumps, with P5 contracting with a frequency about 3.4 times higher than the other pumps. The crop contraction rate is also modulated by hemolymph-borne factors such as sugars, through ligand recognition at a presumptive receptor site rather than by an osmotic effect, as assessed by both behavioural and electrophysiological experiments. In this respect, sugars of equal osmolarity produce different effects, glucose being inhibitory and mannose ineffective for crop muscles, while trehalose enhances crop activity. Finally, voltage and current clamp experiments show that the muscle action potentials (mAPs) at the P4 pump are sustained by a serotonin-sensitive calcium conductance. Serotonin enhances calcium entry into the muscle cells and this could lead, as an indirect modulatory effect, to activation of a Ca(2+)-activated K(+) conductance (IK(Ca)), which sustains the following mAP repolarization phase in such a way that further mAPs can be generated early and the frequency consequently increased. PMID:23834826

  19. Regulatory volume decrease in cardiomyocytes is modulated by calcium influx and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rivera, Diego; Díaz-Elizondo, Jessica; Parra, Valentina; Salas, Daniela; Contreras, Ariel; Toro, Barbra; Chiong, Mario; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Lavandero, Sergio

    2009-11-01

    We investigated the role of Ca(2+) in generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hyposmotic stress (Hypo) and its relationship to regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in cardiomyocytes. Hypo-induced increases in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca(2+). Nifedipine (Nife) inhibited both Hypo-induced Ca(2+) and ROS increases. Overexpression of catalase (CAT) induced RVD and a decrease in Hypo-induced blebs. Nife prevented CAT-dependent RVD activation. These results show a dual role of Hypo-induced Ca(2+) influx in the control of cardiomyocyte viability. Hypo-induced an intracellular Ca(2+) increase which activated RVD and inhibited necrotic blebbing thus favoring cell survival, while simultaneously increasing ROS generation, which in turn inhibited RVD and induced necrosis.

  20. Regulatory volume decrease in cardiomyocytes is modulated by calcium influx and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rivera, Diego; Díaz-Elizondo, Jessica; Parra, Valentina; Salas, Daniela; Contreras, Ariel; Toro, Barbra; Chiong, Mario; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Lavandero, Sergio

    2009-11-01

    We investigated the role of Ca(2+) in generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hyposmotic stress (Hypo) and its relationship to regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in cardiomyocytes. Hypo-induced increases in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Ca(2+). Nifedipine (Nife) inhibited both Hypo-induced Ca(2+) and ROS increases. Overexpression of catalase (CAT) induced RVD and a decrease in Hypo-induced blebs. Nife prevented CAT-dependent RVD activation. These results show a dual role of Hypo-induced Ca(2+) influx in the control of cardiomyocyte viability. Hypo-induced an intracellular Ca(2+) increase which activated RVD and inhibited necrotic blebbing thus favoring cell survival, while simultaneously increasing ROS generation, which in turn inhibited RVD and induced necrosis. PMID:19818777

  1. Evidence for a regulatory role of diatom silicon transporters in cellular silicon responses.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Roshan P; Hildebrand, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of silicon by diatoms has both global and small-scale implications, from oceanic primary productivity to nanotechnological applications of their silica cell walls. The sensing and transport of silicic acid are key aspects of understanding diatom silicon utilization. At low silicic acid concentrations (<30 μM), transport mainly occurs through silicic acid transport proteins (SITs), and at higher concentrations it occurs through diffusion. Previous analyses of the SITs were done either in heterologous systems or without a distinction between individual SITs. In the present study, we examined individual SITs in Thalassiosira pseudonana in terms of transcript and protein abundance in response to different silicic acid regimes and examined knockdown lines to evaluate the role of the SITs in transport, silica incorporation, and lipid accumulation resulting from silicon starvation. SIT1 and SIT2 were localized in the plasma membrane, and protein levels were generally inversely correlated with cellular silicon needs, with a distinct response being found when the two SITs were compared. We developed highly effective approaches for RNA interference and antisense knockdowns, the first such approaches developed for a centric diatom. SIT knockdown differentially affected the uptake of silicon and the incorporation of silicic acid and resulted in the induction of lipid accumulation under silicon starvation conditions far earlier than in the wild-type cells, suggesting that the cells were artificially sensing silicon limitation. The data suggest that the transport role of the SITs is relatively minor under conditions with sufficient silicic acid. Their primary role is to sense silicic acid levels to evaluate whether the cell can proceed with its cell wall formation and division processes.

  2. Interferon-gamma increases cellular calcium ion concentration and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation in human renal carcinoma cells: relation to ICAM-1 antigen expression.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, A. B.; Bouchelouche, P. N.; Lillevang, S. T.; Andersen, C. B.

    1994-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on cellular calcium ion concentration [Ca2+]i and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins 1,4,5-P3) formation in the human renal carcinoma cell line CaKi-1. We also examined the possible role of a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism during IFN-gamma-induced intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) antigen expression. IFN-gamma caused a rapid concentration-dependent rise in [Ca2+]i, which was partly inhibited by diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker, TMB-8, an inhibitor of intracellular calcium redistribution, and in calcium-free medium. IFN-gamma caused a fourfold increase in Ins 1,4,5-P3 formation. The induction of ICAM-1 antigen expression was synergistically enhanced by 4-bromocalcium ionophore A23187. Finally, the calcium antagonists diltiazem. TMB-8 and EGTA, as well as two potent inhibitors of Ca(2+)-dependent kinases, calmidazolium (R24571) and W7, had no or only a minor inhibitory effect on IFN-gamma induction. Our data suggest that IFN-gamma increases [Ca2+]i in CaKi-1 cells by stimulating influx of Ca2+ and release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, probably via Ins 1,4,5-P3 formation. IFN-gamma signal transduction in our model may not be limited to an increase in [Ca2+]i and Ins 1,4,5-P3, since IFN-gamma-induced ICAM-1 antigen expression was abrogated to a minor degree by calcium antagonists and not coupled to Ins 1,4,5-P3 formation. PMID:7905278

  3. Extracellular Calcium Has Multiple Targets to Control Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Capiod, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Calcium channels and the two G-protein coupled receptors sensing extracellular calcium, calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and GPRC6a, are the two main means by which extracellular calcium can signal to cells and regulate many cellular processes including cell proliferation, migration and invasion of tumoral cells. Many intracellular signaling pathways are sensitive to cytosolic calcium rises and conversely intracellular signaling pathways can modulate calcium channel expression and activity. Calcium channels are undoubtedly involved in the former while the CaSR and GPRC6a are most likely to interfere with the latter. As for neurotransmitters, calcium ions use plasma membrane channels and GPCR to trigger cytosolic free calcium concentration rises and intracellular signaling and regulatory pathways activation. Calcium sensing GPCR, CaSR and GPRC6a, allow a supplemental degree of control and as for metabotropic receptors, they not only modulate calcium channel expression but they may also control calcium-dependent K+ channels. The multiplicity of intracellular signaling pathways involved, their sensitivity to local and global intracellular calcium increase and to CaSR and GPRC6a stimulation, the presence of membrane signalplex, all this confers the cells the plasticity they need to convert the effects of extracellular calcium into complex physiological responses and therefore determine their fate.

  4. Extracellular Calcium Has Multiple Targets to Control Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Capiod, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Calcium channels and the two G-protein coupled receptors sensing extracellular calcium, calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and GPRC6a, are the two main means by which extracellular calcium can signal to cells and regulate many cellular processes including cell proliferation, migration and invasion of tumoral cells. Many intracellular signaling pathways are sensitive to cytosolic calcium rises and conversely intracellular signaling pathways can modulate calcium channel expression and activity. Calcium channels are undoubtedly involved in the former while the CaSR and GPRC6a are most likely to interfere with the latter. As for neurotransmitters, calcium ions use plasma membrane channels and GPCR to trigger cytosolic free calcium concentration rises and intracellular signaling and regulatory pathways activation. Calcium sensing GPCR, CaSR and GPRC6a, allow a supplemental degree of control and as for metabotropic receptors, they not only modulate calcium channel expression but they may also control calcium-dependent K+ channels. The multiplicity of intracellular signaling pathways involved, their sensitivity to local and global intracellular calcium increase and to CaSR and GPRC6a stimulation, the presence of membrane signalplex, all this confers the cells the plasticity they need to convert the effects of extracellular calcium into complex physiological responses and therefore determine their fate. PMID:27161228

  5. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of voltage-gated calcium channel beta-anchoring and -regulatory protein knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Akito; Miki, Takafumi; Shoji, Hirotaka; Nishi, Miyuki; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) induces numerous intracellular events such as neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, and gene regulation. It has been shown that genes related to Ca2+ signaling, such as the CACNA1C, CACNB2, and CACNA1I genes that encode VGCC subunits, are associated with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Recently, VGCC beta-anchoring and -regulatory protein (BARP) was identified as a novel regulator of VGCC activity via the interaction of VGCC β subunits. To examine the role of the BARP in higher brain functions, we generated BARP knockout (KO) mice and conducted a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests. BARP KO mice exhibited greatly reduced locomotor activity, as evidenced by decreased vertical activity, stereotypic counts in the open field test, and activity level in the home cage, and longer latency to complete a session in spontaneous T-maze alteration test, which reached “study-wide significance.” Acoustic startle response was also reduced in the mutants. Interestingly, they showed multiple behavioral phenotypes that are seemingly opposite to those seen in the mouse models of schizophrenia and its related disorders, including increased working memory, flexibility, prepulse inhibition, and social interaction, and decreased locomotor activity, though many of these phenotypes are statistically weak and require further replications. These results demonstrate that BARP is involved in the regulation of locomotor activity and, possibly, emotionality. The possibility was also suggested that BARP KO mice may serve as a unique tool for investigating the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and related disorders. Further evaluation of the molecular and physiological phenotypes of the mutant mice would provide new insights into the role of BARP in higher brain functions. PMID:26136667

  6. Binding of Hepatitis A Virus to its Cellular Receptor 1 Inhibits T-Regulatory Cell Functions in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Manangeeswaran, Mohanraj; Jacques, Jérôme; Tami, Cecilia; Konduru, Krishnamurthy; Amharref, Nadia; Perrella, Oreste; Casasnovas, Jose M.; Umetsu, Dale T.; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Perrella, Alessandro; Kaplan, Gerardo G.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cells suppress immune responses and control self-tolerance and immunity to pathogens, cancer, and alloantigens. Most pathogens activate Treg cells to minimize immune-mediated tissue damage and prevent clearance, which promotes chronic infections. However, hepatitis A virus (HAV) temporarily inhibits Treg-cell functions. We investigated whether the interaction of HAV with its cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), a T-cell co-stimulatory molecule, inhibits the function of Treg cells to control HAV infection. Methods We studied the effects of HAV interaction with HAVCR1 on human T cells using binding, signal transduction, apoptosis, activation, suppression, cytokine production, and confocal microscopy analyses. Cytokines were analyzed in sera from 14 patients with HAV infection using bead arrays. Results Human Treg cells constitutively express HAVCR1. Binding of HAV to HAVCR1 blocked phosphorylation of Akt, prevented activation of the T-cell receptor, and inhibited function of Treg cells. At the peak viremia, patients with acute HAV infection had no Treg-cell suppression function, produced low levels of transforming growth factor-β (TGF–β), which limited leukocyte recruitment and survival, and high levels of interleukin-22, which prevented liver damage. Conclusions Interaction between HAV and its receptor HAVCR1 inhibits Treg cell function, resulting in an immune imbalance that allows viral expansion with limited hepatocellular damage during early stages of infection—a characteristic of HAV pathogenesis. The mechanism by which HAV is cleared in the absence of Treg-cell function could be used as a model to develop anti-cancer therapies, modulate autoimmune and allergic responses, and prevent transplant rejection. PMID:22430395

  7. ATP-dependent calcium transport across basal plasma membranes of human placental trophoblast

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, G.J.; Kelley, L.K.; Smith, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    As a first step in understanding the cellular basis of maternal-fetal calcium transfer, the authors examined the characteristics of calcium uptake by a highly purified preparation of the syncytiotrophoblast basal (fetal facing) plasma membrane. In the presence of nanomolar concentrations of free calcium, basal membranes demonstrated substantial ATP-dependent calcium uptake. This uptake required magnesium, was not significantly affected by Na/sup +/ or K/sup +/ (50 mM), or sodium azide (10 mM). Intravesicular calcium was rapidly and completely released by the calcium ionophore rapidly and completely released by the calcium ionophore A23187. Calcium transport was significantly stimulated by the calcium-dependent regulatory protein calmodulin. Placental membrane fractions enriched in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria also demonstrated ATP-dependent calcium uptake. In contrast to basal membrane, mitochondrial calcium uptake was completely inhibited by azide. The rate of calcium uptake was completely inhibited by azide. The rate of calcium uptake by the ER was only 20% of that of basal membranes. They conclude that the placental basal plasma membrane possesses a high-affinity calcium transport system similar to that found in plasma membranes of a variety of cell types. This transporter is situated to permit it to function in vivo in maternal-fetal calcium transfer.

  8. The influence of cellular source on periodontal regeneration using calcium phosphate coated polycaprolactone scaffold supported cell sheets.

    PubMed

    Dan, Hongxia; Vaquette, Cédryck; Fisher, Anthony G; Hamlet, Stephen M; Xiao, Yin; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Ivanovski, Saso

    2014-01-01

    Cell-based therapy is considered a promising approach to achieving predictable periodontal regeneration. In this study, the regenerative potential of cell sheets derived from different parts of the periodontium (gingival connective tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament) were investigated in an athymic rat periodontal defect model. Periodontal ligament (PDLC), alveolar bone (ABC) and gingival margin-derived cells (GMC) were obtained from human donors. The osteogenic potential of the primary cultures was demonstrated in vitro. Cell sheets supported by a calcium phosphate coated melt electrospun polycaprolactone (CaP-PCL) scaffold were transplanted to denuded root surfaces in surgically created periodontal defects, and allowed to heal for 1 and 4 weeks. The CaP-PCL scaffold alone was able to promote alveolar bone formation within the defect after 4 weeks. The addition of ABC and PDLC sheets resulted in significant periodontal attachment formation. The GMC sheets did not promote periodontal regeneration on the root surface and inhibited bone formation within the CaP-PCL scaffold. In conclusion, the combination of either PDLC or ABC sheets with a CaP-PCL scaffold could promote periodontal regeneration, but ABC sheets were not as effective as PDLC sheets in promoting new attachment formation.

  9. Selective targeting of the α5-subunit of GABAA receptors relaxes airway smooth muscle and inhibits cellular calcium handling

    PubMed Central

    Yocum, Gene T.; Siviski, Matthew E.; Yim, Peter D.; Fu, Xiao Wen; Poe, Michael M.; Cook, James M.; Harrison, Neil; Perez-Zoghbi, Jose; Emala, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical need for novel bronchodilators for the treatment of bronchoconstrictive diseases remains a major medical issue. Modulation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) chloride via GABAA receptor activation to achieve relaxation of precontracted ASM represents a potentially beneficial therapeutic option. Since human ASM GABAA receptors express only the α4- and α5-subunits, there is an opportunity to selectively target ASM GABAA receptors to improve drug efficacy and minimize side effects. Recently, a novel compound (R)-ethyl8-ethynyl-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-4-methyl-4H-benzo[f]imidazo[1,5-a][1,4] diazepine-3-carboxylate (SH-053-2′F-R-CH3) with allosteric selectivity for α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors has become available. We questioned whether this novel GABAA α5-selective ligand relaxes ASM and affects intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) regulation. Immunohistochemical staining localized the GABAA α5-subunit to human ASM. The selective GABAA α5 ligand SH-053-2′F-R-CH3 relaxes precontracted intact ASM; increases GABA-activated chloride currents in human ASM cells in voltage-clamp electrophysiology studies; and attenuates bradykinin-induced increases in [Ca2+]i, store-operated Ca2+ entry, and methacholine-induced Ca2+ oscillations in peripheral murine lung slices. In conclusion, selective subunit targeting of endogenous α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors on ASM may represent a novel therapeutic option to treat severe bronchospasm. PMID:25659897

  10. Study of the interactions of cadmium and zinc ions with cellular calcium homoeostasis using 19F-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Benters, J; Flögel, U; Schäfer, T; Leibfritz, D; Hechtenberg, S; Beyersmann, D

    1997-01-01

    The effects of the heavy-metal ions Cd2+ and Zn2+ on the homoeostasis of intracellular free Ca2+ in E367 neuroblastoma cells were examined using 19F-NMR spectroscopy with the fluorinated chelator probe 1,2-bis-(2-amino-5-fluorophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N', N'-tetra-acetic acid (5F-BAPTA). First, the technique was used to quantify the uptake and intracellular free concentrations of the heavy metals after treatment of the cells with 20 microM CdCl2 or 100 microM ZnCl2. Secondly, metal-induced transients in intracellular free Ca2+ were recorded. Addition of 20 microM CdCl2, but not 100 microM ZnCl2, evoked a transient increase in Ca2+ from a resting level of 84 nM to approx. 190 nM within 15 min after addition of the metal. Zn2+ at 20 microM completely prevented the induction of a Ca2+ transient by Cd2+. Ca2+ was mobilized by Cd2+ from intracellular organelles, since depletion of these stores by thapsigargin abolished the effect of the toxic metal. Furthermore, 20 microM Cd2+ evoked a transient rise in cellular Ins(1,4,5)P3, reaching a maximum level within 5 min after addition of the metal. These results demonstrate that perturbation of the Ins(1,4,5)P3/Ca2+ messenger system is an early and discrete cellular effect of Cd2+. PMID:9148751

  11. Enhancement of metallothionein gene expression in male Wistar (WF/NCr) rats by treatment with calmodulin inhibitors: potential role of calcium regulatory pathways in metallothionein induction.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, N; Waalkes, M P

    1994-03-01

    Recent reports indicate that calmodulin inhibitors (CIs) can modify cadmium toxicity in rodents. For instance, pretreatment with CIs prevents cadmium-induced testicular damage in mice and substantially reduces such damage in rats, the latter effect coinciding with significant alterations in cadmium distribution. Although the basis of these effects is unclear, it is frequently observed that metal-binding proteins such as metallothionein (MT) are involved in acquired tolerance to cadmium and this could be true of tolerance induced by CIs. Thus, we examined the effects of various CIs on MT gene expression. Treatment of WF/NCr rats with known CIs, including trifluoperazine (TPZ), N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide (W7), calmidazolium (CMZ), chlorpromazine (CPZ), and the calcium ionophore, A23187, increased hepatic MT gene expression, as assessed by mRNA levels, in all cases. Furthermore, hepatic MT protein levels were 40 to 180 micrograms MT/g wet wt (g ww) in rats treated with CIs or A23187 compared to control levels of 10 micrograms MT/g ww. Treatment with CPZ and CMZ did not increase renal MT protein after exposure, although increases in renal MT mRNA were observed. However, the CIs TPZ and W7 and the calcium ionophore increased both renal MT protein and MT mRNA levels. In contrast, no increases in testicular MT mRNA or the testicular cadmium binding protein (TCBP) levels were seen with any of the treatments. Treatment with CIs or A23187 produced increases in zinc levels in the liver, but not in the kidneys or testes. These results indicate that CIs, such as TPZ, W7, CMZ, and CPZ, as well as the calcium ionophore A23187, have a marked stimulatory effect on hepatic and renal MT gene expression and that calcium regulatory pathways may play an important role in this induction of MT. PMID:8128501

  12. Epstein-Barr virus transcription factor Zta acts through distal regulatory elements to directly control cellular gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ramasubramanyan, Sharada; Osborn, Kay; Al-Mohammad, Rajaei; Naranjo Perez-Fernandez, Ijiel B; Zuo, Jianmin; Balan, Nicolae; Godfrey, Anja; Patel, Harshil; Peters, Gordon; Rowe, Martin; Jenner, Richard G; Sinclair, Alison J

    2015-04-20

    Lytic replication of the human gamma herpes virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an essential prerequisite for the spread of the virus. Differential regulation of a limited number of cellular genes has been reported in B-cells during the viral lytic replication cycle. We asked whether a viral bZIP transcription factor, Zta (BZLF1, ZEBRA, EB1), drives some of these changes. Using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to next-generation DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) we established a map of Zta interactions across the human genome. Using sensitive transcriptome analyses we identified 2263 cellular genes whose expression is significantly changed during the EBV lytic replication cycle. Zta binds 278 of the regulated genes and the distribution of binding sites shows that Zta binds mostly to sites that are distal to transcription start sites. This differs from the prevailing view that Zta activates viral genes by binding exclusively at promoter elements. We show that a synthetic Zta binding element confers Zta regulation at a distance and that distal Zta binding sites from cellular genes can confer Zta-mediated regulation on a heterologous promoter. This leads us to propose that Zta directly reprograms the expression of cellular genes through distal elements. PMID:25779048

  13. Epstein–Barr virus transcription factor Zta acts through distal regulatory elements to directly control cellular gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Ramasubramanyan, Sharada; Osborn, Kay; Al-Mohammad, Rajaei; Naranjo Perez-Fernandez, Ijiel B.; Zuo, Jianmin; Balan, Nicolae; Godfrey, Anja; Patel, Harshil; Peters, Gordon; Rowe, Martin; Jenner, Richard G.; Sinclair, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    Lytic replication of the human gamma herpes virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an essential prerequisite for the spread of the virus. Differential regulation of a limited number of cellular genes has been reported in B-cells during the viral lytic replication cycle. We asked whether a viral bZIP transcription factor, Zta (BZLF1, ZEBRA, EB1), drives some of these changes. Using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to next-generation DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) we established a map of Zta interactions across the human genome. Using sensitive transcriptome analyses we identified 2263 cellular genes whose expression is significantly changed during the EBV lytic replication cycle. Zta binds 278 of the regulated genes and the distribution of binding sites shows that Zta binds mostly to sites that are distal to transcription start sites. This differs from the prevailing view that Zta activates viral genes by binding exclusively at promoter elements. We show that a synthetic Zta binding element confers Zta regulation at a distance and that distal Zta binding sites from cellular genes can confer Zta-mediated regulation on a heterologous promoter. This leads us to propose that Zta directly reprograms the expression of cellular genes through distal elements. PMID:25779048

  14. Modulation of cellular calcium by sigma-2 receptors: release from intracellular stores in human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Vilner, B J; Bowen, W D

    2000-03-01

    Human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells expressed sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors with similar pharmacological profiles to those of rodent-derived tissues, although sigma-2 receptors exhibited some affinity differences that might suggest heterogeneity or species differences. Structurally diverse sigma ligands produced two types of increases in intracellular (cytosolic) Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in these cells. CB-64D, CB-64L, JL-II-147, BD737, LR172, BD1008, haloperidol, reduced haloperidol, and ibogaine all produced an immediate, dose-dependent, and transient rise in [Ca(2+)](i). Sigma-inactive compounds structurally similar to the most active sigma ligands and ligands for several neurotransmitter receptors produced little or no effect. The high activity of CB-64D and ibogaine (sigma-2-selective ligands) compared with the low activity of (+)-pentazocine and other (+)-benzomorphans (sigma-1-selective ligands), in addition to enantioselectivity for CB-64D over CB-64L, strongly indicated mediation by sigma-2 receptors. The effect of CB-64D and BD737 was blocked by the sigma antagonists BD1047 and BD1063, further confirming specificity as a receptor-mediated event. The transient rise in [Ca(2+)](i) occurred in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) and was completely eliminated by pretreatment of cells with thapsigargin. Thus, sigma-2 receptors stimulate a transient release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum. Prolonged exposure of cells to sigma-receptor ligands resulted in a latent and sustained rise in [Ca(2+)](i), with a pharmacological profile identical to that of the transient rise. This sustained rise in [Ca(2+)](i) was affected by neither the removal of extracellular Ca(2+) nor thapsigargin pretreatment, suggesting latent sigma-2 receptor-induced release from thapsigargin-insensitive intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Sigma-2 receptors may use Ca(2+) signals in producing cellular effects.

  15. Cellular Response of Pea Plants to Cadmium Toxicity: Cross Talk between Reactive Oxygen Species, Nitric Oxide, and Calcium1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Pazmiño, Diana M.; Testillano, Pilar S.; Risueño, María C.; del Río, Luis A.; Sandalio, Luisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) toxicity has been widely studied in different plant species; however, the mechanism involved in its toxicity as well as the cell response against the metal have not been well established. In this work, using pea (Pisum sativum) plants, we studied the effect of Cd on antioxidants, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide (NO) metabolism of leaves using different cellular, molecular, and biochemical approaches. The growth of pea plants with 50 μm CdCl2 affected differentially the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isozymes at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels, giving rise to a SOD activity reduction. The copper/zinc-SOD down-regulation was apparently due to the calcium (Ca) deficiency induced by the heavy metal. In these circumstances, the overproduction of the ROS hydrogen peroxide and superoxide could be observed in vivo by confocal laser microscopy, mainly associated with vascular tissue, epidermis, and mesophyll cells, and the production of superoxide radicals was prevented by exogenous Ca. On the other hand, the NO synthase-dependent NO production was strongly depressed by Cd, and treatment with Ca prevented this effect. Under these conditions, the pathogen-related proteins PrP4A and chitinase and the heat shock protein 71.2, were up-regulated, probably to protect cells against damages induced by Cd. The regulation of these proteins could be mediated by jasmonic acid and ethylene, whose contents increased by Cd treatment. A model is proposed for the cellular response to long-term Cd exposure consisting of cross talk between Ca, ROS, and NO. PMID:19279198

  16. Cellular Hypertrophy and Increased Susceptibility to Spontaneous Calcium-Release of Rat Left Atrial Myocytes Due to Elevated Afterload.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifei; Cannell, Mark B; Kim, Shang Jin; Watson, Judy J; Norman, Ruth; Calaghan, Sarah C; Orchard, Clive H; James, Andrew F

    2015-01-01

    Atrial remodeling due to elevated arterial pressure predisposes the heart to atrial fibrillation (AF). Although abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function has been associated with AF, there is little information on the effects of elevated afterload on atrial Ca2+-handling. We investigated the effects of ascending aortic banding (AoB) on Ca2+-handling in rat isolated atrial myocytes in comparison to age-matched sham-operated animals (Sham). Myocytes were either labelled for ryanodine receptor (RyR) or loaded with fluo-3-AM and imaged by confocal microscopy. AoB myocytes were hypertrophied in comparison to Sham controls (P<0.0001). RyR labeling was localized to the z-lines and to the cell edge. There were no differences between AoB and Sham in the intensity or pattern of RyR-staining. In both AoB and Sham, electrical stimulation evoked robust SR Ca2+-release at the cell edge whereas Ca2+ transients at the cell center were much smaller. Western blotting showed a decreased L-type Ca channel expression but no significant changes in RyR or RyR phosphorylation or in expression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, SR Ca2+ ATPase or phospholamban. Mathematical modeling indicated that [Ca2+]i transients at the cell center were accounted for by simple centripetal diffusion of Ca2+ released at the cell edge. In contrast, caffeine (10 mM) induced Ca2+ release was uniform across the cell. The caffeine-induced transient was smaller in AoB than in Sham, suggesting a reduced SR Ca2+-load in hypertrophied cells. There were no significant differences between AoB and Sham cells in the rate of Ca2+ extrusion during recovery of electrically-stimulated or caffeine-induced transients. The incidence and frequency of spontaneous Ca2+-transients following rapid-pacing (4 Hz) was greater in AoB than in Sham myocytes. In conclusion, elevated afterload causes cellular hypertrophy and remodeling of atrial SR Ca2+-release. PMID:26713852

  17. Controlled Measurement and Comparative Analysis of Cellular Components in E. coli Reveals Broad Regulatory Changes in Response to Glucose Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Houser, John R.; Barnhart, Craig; Boutz, Daniel R.; Carroll, Sean M.; Dasgupta, Aurko; Michener, Joshua K.; Needham, Brittany D.; Papoulas, Ophelia; Sridhara, Viswanadham; Sydykova, Dariya K.; Marx, Christopher J.; Trent, M. Stephen; Barrick, Jeffrey E.; Marcotte, Edward M.; Wilke, Claus O.

    2015-01-01

    How do bacteria regulate their cellular physiology in response to starvation? Here, we present a detailed characterization of Escherichia coli growth and starvation over a time-course lasting two weeks. We have measured multiple cellular components, including RNA and proteins at deep genomic coverage, as well as lipid modifications and flux through central metabolism. Our study focuses on the physiological response of E. coli in stationary phase as a result of being starved for glucose, not on the genetic adaptation of E. coli to utilize alternative nutrients. In our analysis, we have taken advantage of the temporal correlations within and among RNA and protein abundances to identify systematic trends in gene regulation. Specifically, we have developed a general computational strategy for classifying expression-profile time courses into distinct categories in an unbiased manner. We have also developed, from dynamic models of gene expression, a framework to characterize protein degradation patterns based on the observed temporal relationships between mRNA and protein abundances. By comparing and contrasting our transcriptomic and proteomic data, we have identified several broad physiological trends in the E. coli starvation response. Strikingly, mRNAs are widely down-regulated in response to glucose starvation, presumably as a strategy for reducing new protein synthesis. By contrast, protein abundances display more varied responses. The abundances of many proteins involved in energy-intensive processes mirror the corresponding mRNA profiles while proteins involved in nutrient metabolism remain abundant even though their corresponding mRNAs are down-regulated. PMID:26275208

  18. Pathophysiology and pathogenesis of stunned myocardium. Depressed Ca2+ activation of contraction as a consequence of reperfusion-induced cellular calcium overload in ferret hearts.

    PubMed Central

    Kusuoka, H; Porterfield, J K; Weisman, H F; Weisfeldt, M L; Marban, E

    1987-01-01

    Contractile dysfunction in stunned myocardium could result from a decrease in the intracellular free [Ca2+] transient during each beat, a decrease in maximal Ca2+-activated force, or a shift in myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. We measured developed pressure (DP) at several [Ca]0 (0.5-7.5 mM) in isovolumic Langendorff-perfused ferret hearts at 37 degrees C after 15 min of global ischemia (stunned group, n = 13) or in a nonischemic control group (n = 6). At all [Ca]0, DP was depressed in the stunned group (P less than 0.001). Maximal Ca2+-activated pressure (MCAP), measured from tetani after exposure to ryanodine, was decreased after stunning (P less than 0.05). Normalization of the DP-[Ca]0 relationship by corresponding MCAP (Ca0 sensitivity) revealed a shift to higher [Ca]0 in stunned hearts. To test whether cellular Ca overload initiates stunning, we reperfused with low-[Ca]0 solution (0.1-0.5 mM; n = 8). DP and MCAP in the low-[Ca]0 group were comparable to control (P greater than 0.05), and higher than in the stunned group (P less than 0.05). Myocardial [ATP] observed by phosphorus NMR failed to correlate with functional recovery. In conclusion, contractile dysfunction in stunned myocardium is due to a decline in maximal force, and a shift in Ca0 sensitivity (which may reflect either decreased myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity or a decrease in the [Ca2+] transient). Our results also indicate that calcium entry upon reperfusion plays a major role in the pathogenesis of myocardial stunning. Images PMID:3818956

  19. Mitochondria: the calcium connection.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Laura; Drago, Ilaria; Zampese, Enrico; Pozzan, Tullio

    2010-01-01

    Calcium handling by mitochondria is a key feature in cell life. It is involved in energy production for cell activity, in buffering and shaping cytosolic calcium rises and also in determining cell fate by triggering or preventing apoptosis. Both mitochondria and the mechanisms involved in the control of calcium homeostasis have been extensively studied, but they still provide researchers with long-standing or even new challenges. Technical improvements in the tools employed for the investigation of calcium dynamics have been-and are still-opening new perspectives in this field, and more prominently for mitochondria. In this review we present a state-of-the-art toolkit for calcium measurements, with major emphasis on the advantages of genetically encoded indicators. These indicators can be efficiently and selectively targeted to specific cellular sub-compartments, allowing previously unavailable high-definition calcium dynamic studies. We also summarize the main features of cellular and, in more detail, mitochondrial calcium handling, especially focusing on the latest breakthroughs in the field, such as the recent direct characterization of the calcium microdomains that occur on the mitochondrial surface upon cellular stimulation. Additionally, we provide a major example of the key role played by calcium in patho-physiology by briefly describing the extensively reported-albeit highly controversial-alterations of calcium homeostasis in Alzheimer's disease, casting lights on the possible alterations in mitochondrial calcium handling in this pathology.

  20. Reversible oxidation of vicinal-thiols motif in sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium regulatory proteins is involved in muscle fatigue mechanism.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Pável; Tirado-Cortés, Aldo; Álvarez, Rocío; Ronjat, Michel; Amaya, Araceli; Ortega, Alicia

    2016-10-01

    The mechanism underlying fatigue in skeletal muscle (SM) related to the redox-potential hypothesis, ranges from a direct effect of oxygen reactive species, to a number of other free radical intermediates targeting specific amino acids in the Ca(2+)-regulatory proteins of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In the present study, we investigate the selective oxidation/reduction of the protein motif Cys-(Xn=2-6)-Cys, known as a vicinal thiol group (VTG), present in the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) and in the Ca(2+)-channel ryanodine receptor (RyR) which are modified during muscle fatigue in SM. Selective oxidation of VTG with phenyl arsine oxide (PAO) increases fatigue in rat isolated SM and fatigue is prevented when muscle is previously incubated with a VTG selective reducing agent, 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (British anti-Lewisite (BAL)). In isolated SR membranes, PAO [<0.1mM] modifies SERCA conformation and inhibits ATPase activity but does not affect Ca(2+)-release. However, PAO at [>0.1mM] inhibits SERCA and RyR activities in a reversible manner by selectively reducing them. Interestingly, as observed by differential scanning calorimetry, the conformation of SERCA from fatigued muscle changed in a similar manner as when SERCA VTG where oxidized. The addition of BAL to fatigued muscle restored the structural conformation and activity of SERCA with full recovery of muscle force production after fatigue. We conclude that VTG reversible oxidation of SR Ca(2+) regulatory proteins are involved in muscle contraction/relaxation and are a molecular mechanism to be considered for muscle fatigue.

  1. Role of cellular caspases, nuclear factor-kappa B and interferon regulatory factors in Bluetongue virus infection and cell fate

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection causes haemorrhagic disease in ruminants and induces cell death. The pathogenesis in animals and in cell culture has been linked to BTV-induced apoptosis. Results In this report, we investigated BTV-induced apoptosis in cell culture in depth and show that both extrinsic (caspase-8 activation) and intrinsic (caspase-9 activation) pathways play roles in BTV apoptosis. Further, by using chemical inhibitors and knock-out cell lines, we show that these pathways act independently of each other in BTV infected cells. In addition to activation of caspase-8, -9 and executioner caspase-3, we also identified that BTV infection causes the activation of caspase-7, which results in the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). BTV-induced cell death appears to be due to apoptosis rather than necrosis, as the HMBG-1 was not translocated from the nucleus. We also examined if NF-κB response is related to BTV-induced apoptosis as in reovirus. Our data suggests that NF-κB response is not linked to the induction of apoptosis. It is controlled by the degradation of only IκBα but not IκBβ, resulting in a rapid transient response during BTV infection. This was supported using an NF-κB dependent luciferase reporter gene assay, which demonstrated early response, that appeared to be suppressed by the late stage of BTV replication. Furthermore, virus titres were higher in the presence of NF-κB inhibitor (SN50), indicating that NF-κB has a role in initiating an antiviral environment. In addition, we show that BTV infection induces the translocation of interferon regulatory factors (IRF-3 and IRF-7) into the nucleus. The induction of IRF responses, when measured by IRF dependent luciferase reporter gene assay, revealed that the IRF responses, like NF-κB response, were also at early stage of infection and mirrored the timing of NF-κB induction. Conclusion BTV triggers a wide range of caspase activities resulting in cell apoptosis

  2. Regulatory Action of Calcium Ion on Cyclic AMP-Enhanced Expression of Implantation-Related Factors in Human Endometrial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kusama, Kazuya; Yoshie, Mikihiro; Tamura, Kazuhiro; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Isaka, Keiichi; Tachikawa, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Decidualization of human endometrial stroma and gland development is mediated through cyclic AMP (cAMP), but the role of intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) on cAMP mediated-signaling in human endometrial stroma and glandular epithelia has not been well-characterized. The present study was designed to investigate the role of intracellular Ca2+ on cAMP mediated-decidualization and gland maturation events, which can be identified by the up-regulation of prolactin and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)1 in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and glandular epithelial EM-1 cells. Increases in decidual prolactin and IGFBP-1 transcript levels, induced by cAMP-elevating agents forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, were inhibited by Ca2+ influx into ESCs with Ca2+ ionophores (alamethicin, ionomycin) in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, inhibitors of Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC), nifedipine and verapamil, enhanced the decidual gene expression. Furthermore, dantrolene, an inhibitor of Ca2+ release from the intracellular Ca2+ store, up-regulated prolactin and IGFBP-1 expression. Ca2+ ionophores decreased intracellular cAMP concentrations, whereas nifedipine, verapamil or dantrolene increased cAMP concentrations in ESCs. In glandular epithelial cells, similar responses in COX2 expression and PGE2 production were found when intracellular cAMP levels were up-regulated by decreases in Ca2+ concentrations. Thus, a marked decrease in cytosolic Ca2+ levels caused the elevation of cAMP concentrations, resulting in enhanced expression of implantation-related factors including decidual markers. These findings suggest that fluctuation in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations alters intracellular cAMP levels, which then regulate differentiation of endometrial stromal and glandular epithelial cells. PMID:26161798

  3. Regulatory Action of Calcium Ion on Cyclic AMP-Enhanced Expression of Implantation-Related Factors in Human Endometrial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kusama, Kazuya; Yoshie, Mikihiro; Tamura, Kazuhiro; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Isaka, Keiichi; Tachikawa, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Decidualization of human endometrial stroma and gland development is mediated through cyclic AMP (cAMP), but the role of intracellular calcium ion (Ca2+) on cAMP mediated-signaling in human endometrial stroma and glandular epithelia has not been well-characterized. The present study was designed to investigate the role of intracellular Ca2+ on cAMP mediated-decidualization and gland maturation events, which can be identified by the up-regulation of prolactin and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)1 in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and glandular epithelial EM-1 cells. Increases in decidual prolactin and IGFBP-1 transcript levels, induced by cAMP-elevating agents forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, were inhibited by Ca2+ influx into ESCs with Ca2+ ionophores (alamethicin, ionomycin) in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, inhibitors of Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC), nifedipine and verapamil, enhanced the decidual gene expression. Furthermore, dantrolene, an inhibitor of Ca2+ release from the intracellular Ca2+ store, up-regulated prolactin and IGFBP-1 expression. Ca2+ ionophores decreased intracellular cAMP concentrations, whereas nifedipine, verapamil or dantrolene increased cAMP concentrations in ESCs. In glandular epithelial cells, similar responses in COX2 expression and PGE2 production were found when intracellular cAMP levels were up-regulated by decreases in Ca2+ concentrations. Thus, a marked decrease in cytosolic Ca2+ levels caused the elevation of cAMP concentrations, resulting in enhanced expression of implantation-related factors including decidual markers. These findings suggest that fluctuation in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations alters intracellular cAMP levels, which then regulate differentiation of endometrial stromal and glandular epithelial cells. PMID:26161798

  4. Do calcium-mediated cellular signalling pathways, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), estrogen or progesterone receptor antagonists, or bacterial endotoxins affect bovine placental function in vitro?

    PubMed

    Weems, Y S; Randel, R D; Carstens, G E; Welsh, T H; Weems, C W

    2004-04-01

    media treated with RU-486 increased (P < or = 0.05) at 4 and 8 h compared to vehicle controls and was not affected by other treatments (P > or = 0.05). Concentrations of PGE2 in media at 4 and 8 h were lower (P < or = 0.05) when compared to controls except treatment with PGE2 at 4 and 8h and RU-486 at 8h (P > or = 0.05). PGF2alpha was increased (P < or = 0.05) by RU-486 at 8h and no other treatment affected PGF2alpha at 4 or 8 h (P < or = 0.05). In conclusion, modulators of cellular calcium signalling pathways given alone do not affect bovine placental progesterone secretion at the days studied and progesterone receptor-mediated events appear to suppress placental progesterone, PGF2alpha, and PGE2 secretion in cattle. In addition, PGE2 does not appear to regulate bovine placental progesterone secretion when the corpus luteum is functional and bacterial endotoxin does not appear to affect bovine placental secretion of PGF2alpha or PGE2. PMID:15287156

  5. Structure and functions of plant calcium-dependent protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Klimecka, Maria; Muszyńska, Grazyna

    2007-01-01

    Calcium ions as second messengers play an essential role in many important cellular processes. In plants, transient changes in calcium content in the cytosol (calcium signatures) have been observed during growth, development and under stress conditions. Such diverse functions require many different calcium sensors. One of the largest and most differentiated group of calcium sensors are protein kinases, among them calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) which were identified only in plants and protists. CDPKs have a regulatory domain which is able to bind calcium ions. For regulation of CDPKs activities not only calcium ions but also specific phospholipids and autophosphorylation are responsible. CDPKs have many different substrates, which reflects the diversity of their functions. Potential protein substrates of CDPK are involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, phospholipid synthesis, defense responses, ion and water transport, cytoskeleton organization, transcription and hormone responses. Presently, participation of CDPKs in stress signal transduction pathways (e.g., cold, drought, high salinity, wounding) is intensively studied in many laboratories. An intriguing, but still not fully clarified problem is the cross-talk via CDPKs among different signaling pathways that enables signal integration at different levels and ensure appropriate downstream responses.

  6. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  7. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  8. The Impact of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Mechanisms of Cell Calcium Signaling in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Lajdova, Ingrid; Spustova, Viera; Oksa, Adrian; Kaderjakova, Zuzana; Chorvat, Dusan; Morvova, Marcela; Sikurova, Libusa; Marcek Chorvatova, Alzbeta

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular calcium concentration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is significantly increased, and the regulatory mechanisms maintaining cellular calcium homeostasis are impaired. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin D3 on predominant regulatory mechanisms of cell calcium homeostasis. The study involved 16 CKD stages 2-3 patients with vitamin D deficiency treated with cholecalciferol 7000-14000 IU/week for 6 months. The regulatory mechanisms of calcium signaling were studied in PBMCs and red blood cells. After vitamin D3 supplementation, serum concentration of 25(OH)D3 increased (P < 0.001) and [Ca(2+)]i decreased (P < 0.001). The differences in [Ca(2+)]i were inversely related to differences in 25(OH)D3 concentration (P < 0.01). Vitamin D3 supplementation decreased the calcium entry through calcium release activated calcium (CRAC) channels and purinergic P2X7 channels. The function of P2X7 receptors was changed in comparison with their baseline status, and the expression of these receptors was reduced. There was no effect of vitamin D3 on P2X7 pores and activity of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPases. Vitamin D3 supplementation had a beneficial effect on [Ca(2+)]i decreasing calcium entry via CRAC and P2X7 channels and reducing P2X7 receptors expression.

  9. Effects of calcium binding and the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy A8V mutation on the dynamic equilibrium between closed and open conformations of the regulatory N-domain of isolated cardiac troponin C.

    PubMed

    Cordina, Nicole M; Liew, Chu K; Gell, David A; Fajer, Piotr G; Mackay, Joel P; Brown, Louise J

    2013-03-19

    Troponin C (TnC) is the calcium-binding subunit of the troponin complex responsible for initiating striated muscle contraction in response to calcium influx. In the skeletal TnC isoform, calcium binding induces a structural change in the regulatory N-domain of TnC that involves a transition from a closed to open structural state and accompanying exposure of a large hydrophobic patch for troponin I (TnI) to subsequently bind. However, little is understood about how calcium primes the N-domain of the cardiac isoform (cTnC) for interaction with the TnI subunit as the open conformation of the regulatory domain of cTnC has been observed only in the presence of bound TnI. Here we use paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) to characterize the closed to open transition of isolated cTnC in solution, a process that cannot be observed by traditional nuclear magnetic resonance methods. Our PRE data from four spin-labeled monocysteine constructs of isolated cTnC reveal that calcium binding triggers movement of the N-domain helices toward an open state. Fitting of the PRE data to a closed to open transition model reveals the presence of a small population of cTnC molecules in the absence of calcium that possess an open conformation, the level of which increases substantially upon Ca(2+) binding. These data support a model in which calcium binding creates a dynamic equilibrium between the closed and open structural states to prime cTnC for interaction with its target peptide. We also used PRE data to assess the structural effects of a familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy point mutation located within the N-domain of cTnC (A8V). The PRE data show that the Ca(2+) switch mechanism is perturbed by the A8V mutation, resulting in a more open N-domain conformation in both the apo and holo states.

  10. Cadmium-induced cell transformation and tumorigenesis are associated with transcriptional activation of c-fos, c-jun, and c-myc proto-oncogenes: role of cellular calcium and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Joseph, P; Muchnok, T K; Klishis, M L; Roberts, J R; Antonini, J M; Whong, W Z; Ong, T

    2001-06-01

    cadmium chloride resulted in inhibition in the expression of the proto-oncogenes. Based on these data, we conclude that the cadmium-induced overexpression of cellular proto-oncogenes is mediated by the elevation of intracellular levels of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and calcium. Further, the cadmium-induced overexpression of the proto-oncogenes is dependent on transcriptional activation as well as on pathways involving protein kinase C and MAP kinase.

  11. Application of low-frequency alternating current electric fields via interdigitated electrodes: effects on cellular viability, cytoplasmic calcium, and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    McCullen, Seth D; McQuilling, John P; Grossfeld, Robert M; Lubischer, Jane L; Clarke, Laura I; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2010-12-01

    Electric stimulation is known to initiate signaling pathways and provides a technique to enhance osteogenic differentiation of stem and/or progenitor cells. There are a variety of in vitro stimulation devices to apply electric fields to such cells. Herein, we describe and highlight the use of interdigitated electrodes to characterize signaling pathways and the effect of electric fields on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). The advantage of the interdigitated electrode configuration is that cells can be easily imaged during short-term (acute) stimulation, and this identical configuration can be utilized for long-term (chronic) studies. Acute exposure of hASCs to alternating current (AC) sinusoidal electric fields of 1 Hz induced a dose-dependent increase in cytoplasmic calcium in response to electric field magnitude, as observed by fluorescence microscopy. hASCs that were chronically exposed to AC electric field treatment of 1 V/cm (4 h/day for 14 days, cultured in the osteogenic differentiation medium containing dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and β-glycerol phosphate) displayed a significant increase in mineral deposition relative to unstimulated controls. This is the first study to evaluate the effects of sinusoidal AC electric fields on hASCs and to demonstrate that acute and chronic electric field exposure can significantly increase intracellular calcium signaling and the deposition of accreted calcium under osteogenic stimulation, respectively.

  12. Two Dimensional Finite Element Model to Study Calcium Distribution in Oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Parvaiz Ahmad; Pardasani, Kamal Raj

    2015-06-01

    Cytosolic free calcium concentration is a key regulatory factor and perhaps the most widely used means of controlling cellular function. Calcium can enter cells through different pathways which are activated by specific stimuli including membrane depolarization, chemical signals and calcium depletion of intracellular stores. One of the important components of oocyte maturation is differentiation of the Ca2+ signaling machinery which is essential for egg activation after fertilization. Eggs acquire the ability to produce the fertilization-specific calcium signal during oocyte maturation. The calcium concentration patterns required during different stages of oocyte maturation are still not completely known. Also the mechanisms involved in calcium dynamics in oocyte cell are still not well understood. In view of above a two dimensional FEM model has been proposed to study calcium distribution in an oocyte cell. The parameters such as buffers, ryanodine receptor, SERCA pump and voltage gated calcium channel are incorporated in the model. Based on the biophysical conditions the initial and boundary conditions have been framed. The model is transformed into variational form and Ritz finite element method has been employed to obtain the solution. A program has been developed in MATLAB 7.10 for the entire problem and executed to obtain numerical results. The numerical results have been used to study the effect of buffers, RyR, SERCA pump and VGCC on calcium distribution in an oocyte cell.

  13. Mechanical properties and in vitro cellular behavior of zinc-containing nano-bioactive glass doped biphasic calcium phosphate bone substitutes.

    PubMed

    Badr-Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Hesaraki, Saeed; Zamanian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, different amounts (0.5-5 wt%) of a sol gel-derived zinc-containing nano-bioactive glass (NBG-Zn) powder were added to biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). The mixtures were sintered at 1,100-1,300 °C and physical characteristics, mechanical properties, phase composition and morphology of them were studied. The samples were also soaked in human blood plasma for 15 days to evaluate variations in their surface morphologies. Rat calvarium-derived osteoblastic cells were seeded on tops of various samples and cell adhesion, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity were evaluated at different culturing periods. The maximum bending strength (62 MPa) was obtained for BCP containing 0.5 wt% NBG-Zn at temperature 1,200 °C. This value was approximately 80% higher than that of pure BCP. The bending strength failed when both sintering temperature and amount of added NBG-Zn increased. At 1,100 °C, NBG-Zn additive did not change the phase composition of BCP. At temperatures 1,200 and 1,300 °C, both alpha-tricalcium calcium phosphate (α-TCP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP and) phases were detected. However, adding higher amount of NBG-Zn to BCP resulted in elevation of β-TCP at 1,200 °C and progression of α-TCP at 1,300 °C. Based on the microscopic observations, adding 0.5 wt% NBG-Zn to BCP led to disappearance of grain boundaries, reduction of micropores and formation of a monolithic microstructure. No calcium phosphate precipitation was observed on sample surfaces after soaking in blood plasma, but some pores were produced by phase dissolution. The size and volume of these pores were directly proportional to NBG-Zn content. Based on the cell studies, both BCP and NBG-Zn-added BCP samples supported attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts, but higher alkaline phosphatase enzyme was synthesized within the cells cultured on NBG-Zn-added BCP. Overall, biphasic calcium phosphate materials with improved mechanical and biological properties

  14. Effects of electromagnetic field stimulation on cellular signal transduction mechanisms: Analyses of the effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields on calcium spiking in ROS 17/2.8 cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sisken, B.F.; Sisken, J.E.

    1997-12-01

    The general goals of this work were to determine whether resting levels of cellular second messengers, especially calcium, are affected by low-level electromagnetic fields and the mechanisms that could lead to such changes. The work performed was directed at (1) verifying the report of McLeod et al (1990) that low frequency sinusoidal EMF can alter basal calcium fluctuations in cultured ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells and (2) reproducing the findings of Luben et al (1982) that pulsed electromagnetic fields can affect PTH-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in osteoblasts. Initially a system was constructed so that cells could be exposed to sinusoidal electric fields using platinum electrodes. In this system, the electrodes were separated from the cells and culture medium by agar barriers. A series of experiments indicated that this system was subject to a significant, though little-known artifact in which a not well understood interaction between the electrodes and sodium ions in the medium or in plain salt solutions led to frequency and amplitude dependent emission of photons that are recorded by the detection system. They therefore designed and constructed an air gap reactor system that utilizes a ferromagnetic core to direct the magnetic flux generated by a sinusoidal coil. Studies on the effects of a 15 Hz pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on cyclic AMP metabolism were performed on ROS 17/2.8 and MC3T3 cells.

  15. [The Analysis for Probable Reasons of Cd4+ T-Cell Activation Non-Linear Dependence on Extra Cellular Calcium Ion Concentration in Human Peripheral Blood in vitro].

    PubMed

    Litvinov, I S

    2015-01-01

    The analysis for probable reasons of CD4+ T-cell activation non-linear dependence on [Ca2+]o in HPB in vitro is the general aim of current work. At the beginning we pursued the analysis of receptor-dependent (the mixture of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to CD3 and CD28 molecules) and receptor-independent (phorbol-myristate-acetate and ionomycin mixture) means to activate T cells in vitro with different [Ca2+]o in HPB. The key role of intracellular T-cell signaling systems in activated T cells in their non-similar sensitivity to calcium ions in the blood was shown. The analysis of differentiation next stages of CD4+ T-cell activation in vitro relatively [Ca2+]o in PHB demonstrates the key role of the earliest induction stages in non-similar sensitivity to calcium ions in CD4+ T-cell activation in vitro. According to the pursued analysis; the non-similar sensitivity of CD4+ T-cell in vitro to activation is in no-way connected with pace differences on the primary stages of activation process. The comparison of CD4+ memory T cells with their naive T-cell precursors in the cell activation process in hypocalcemia conditions was made in the separate experimental series. The 1st maximum consists in average of 85% CD4+CD45R0high CD69+ memory T cells. Naive CD4+CD45RAlowCD69+ T cells constitute the remainder 15%. The 2nd maximum almost completely consists of CD4+CD45R0+CD69+ memory T cells. The ratio between CD4+CD69+ T cell maximums depends on donor ages and represents linear dependence with R = -0.981. The most probable candidate on the role of CD4+ T cell, being capable of activation in hypocalcemia conditions, are memory T lymphocytes, being resistant to ionomycin action (I R) subset. To check this assumption the mononuclear cells and their IR-fraction were prepared from donor PB. Then the mononuclear cells and their IR-fraction were activated by mAbs mixture at different [EGTA] values. For IR-fraction, enriched with CD4+CD45RA-CD45R0+ memory T cells, slightly seen 1st

  16. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  17. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    High levels of urine calcium (above 300 mg/day) may be due to: Chronic kidney disease High vitamin D levels Leaking of calcium from the kidneys into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking ...

  18. Immobilization of electroporated cells for fabrication of cellular biosensors: physiological effects of the shape of calcium alginate matrices and foetal calf serum.

    PubMed

    Katsanakis, Nikos; Katsivelis, Andreas; Kintzios, Spiridon

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effect of transfected cell immobilization in calcium alginate gels, we immobilized electroporated Vero cells in gels shaped either as spherical beads or as thin membrane layers. In addition, we investigated whether serum addition had a positive effect on cell proliferation and viability in either gel configuration. The gels were stored for four weeks in a medium supplemented or not with 20% (v/v) foetal calf serum. Throughout a culture period of four weeks, cell proliferation and cell viability were assayed by optical microscopy after provision of Trypan Blue. Non-elaborate culture conditions (room temperature, non-CO(2) enriched culture atmosphere) were applied throughout the experimental period in order to evaluate cell viability under less than optimal storage conditions. Immobilization of electroporated cells was associated with an initially reduced cell viability, which was gradually increased. Immobilization was associated with maintenance of cell growth for the duration of the experimental period, whereas electroporated cells essentially died after a week in suspension culture. Considerable proliferation of immobilized cells was observed in spherical alginate beads. In both gel configurations, addition of serum was associated with increased cell proliferation. The results of the present study could contribute to an improvement of the storability of biosensors based on electroporated, genetically or membrane-engineered cells.

  19. Investigation of a calcium-responsive contrast agent in cellular model systems: feasibility for use as a smart molecular probe in functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Angelovski, Goran; Gottschalk, Sven; Milošević, Milena; Engelmann, Jörn; Hagberg, Gisela E; Kadjane, Pascal; Andjus, Pavle; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2014-05-21

    Responsive or smart contrast agents (SCAs) represent a promising direction for development of novel functional MRI (fMRI) methods for the eventual noninvasive assessment of brain function. In particular, SCAs that respond to Ca(2+) may allow tracking neuronal activity independent of brain vasculature, thus avoiding the characteristic limitations of current fMRI techniques. Here we report an in vitro proof-of-principle study with a Ca(2+)-sensitive, Gd(3+)-based SCA in an attempt to validate its potential use as a functional in vivo marker. First, we quantified its relaxometric response in a complex 3D cell culture model. Subsequently, we examined potential changes in the functionality of primary glial cells following administration of this SCA. Monitoring intracellular Ca(2+) showed that, despite a reduction in the Ca(2+) level, transport of Ca(2+) through the plasma membrane remained unaffected, while stimulation with ATP induced Ca(2+)-transients suggested normal cellular signaling in the presence of low millimolar SCA concentrations. SCAs merely lowered the intracellular Ca(2+) level. Finally, we estimated the longitudinal relaxation times (T1) for an idealized in vivo fMRI experiment with SCA, for extracellular Ca(2+) concentration level changes expected during intense neuronal activity which takes place upon repetitive stimulation. The values we obtained indicate changes in T1 of around 1-6%, sufficient to be robustly detectable using modern MRI methods in high field scanners. Our results encourage further attempts to develop even more potent SCAs and appropriate fMRI protocols. This would result in novel methods that allow monitoring of essential physiological processes at the cellular and molecular level. PMID:24712900

  20. Investigation of a Calcium-Responsive Contrast Agent in Cellular Model Systems: Feasibility for Use as a Smart Molecular Probe in Functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Responsive or smart contrast agents (SCAs) represent a promising direction for development of novel functional MRI (fMRI) methods for the eventual noninvasive assessment of brain function. In particular, SCAs that respond to Ca2+ may allow tracking neuronal activity independent of brain vasculature, thus avoiding the characteristic limitations of current fMRI techniques. Here we report an in vitro proof-of-principle study with a Ca2+-sensitive, Gd3+-based SCA in an attempt to validate its potential use as a functional in vivo marker. First, we quantified its relaxometric response in a complex 3D cell culture model. Subsequently, we examined potential changes in the functionality of primary glial cells following administration of this SCA. Monitoring intracellular Ca2+ showed that, despite a reduction in the Ca2+ level, transport of Ca2+ through the plasma membrane remained unaffected, while stimulation with ATP induced Ca2+-transients suggested normal cellular signaling in the presence of low millimolar SCA concentrations. SCAs merely lowered the intracellular Ca2+ level. Finally, we estimated the longitudinal relaxation times (T1) for an idealized in vivo fMRI experiment with SCA, for extracellular Ca2+ concentration level changes expected during intense neuronal activity which takes place upon repetitive stimulation. The values we obtained indicate changes in T1 of around 1–6%, sufficient to be robustly detectable using modern MRI methods in high field scanners. Our results encourage further attempts to develop even more potent SCAs and appropriate fMRI protocols. This would result in novel methods that allow monitoring of essential physiological processes at the cellular and molecular level. PMID:24712900

  1. The calcium paradox - what should we have to fear?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio Barboza de; Brandi, Antônio Carlos; Dos Santos, Carlos Alberto; Botelho, Paulo Henrique Husseni; Cortez, José Luís Lasso; Goissis, Gilberto; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    The calcium paradox was first mentioned in 1966 by Zimmerman et al. Thereafter gained great interest from the scientific community due to the fact of the absence of calcium ions in heart muscle cells produce damage similar to ischemia-reperfusion. Although not all known mechanisms involved in cellular injury in the calcium paradox intercellular connection maintained only by nexus seems to have a key role in cellular fragmentation. The addition of small concentrations of calcium, calcium channel blockers, and hyponatraemia hypothermia are important to prevent any cellular damage during reperfusion solutions with physiological concentration of calcium.

  2. The calcium paradox - what should we have to fear?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio Barboza de; Brandi, Antônio Carlos; Dos Santos, Carlos Alberto; Botelho, Paulo Henrique Husseni; Cortez, José Luís Lasso; Goissis, Gilberto; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    The calcium paradox was first mentioned in 1966 by Zimmerman et al. Thereafter gained great interest from the scientific community due to the fact of the absence of calcium ions in heart muscle cells produce damage similar to ischemia-reperfusion. Although not all known mechanisms involved in cellular injury in the calcium paradox intercellular connection maintained only by nexus seems to have a key role in cellular fragmentation. The addition of small concentrations of calcium, calcium channel blockers, and hyponatraemia hypothermia are important to prevent any cellular damage during reperfusion solutions with physiological concentration of calcium. PMID:25140476

  3. The calcium paradox - What should we have to fear?

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcos Aurélio Barboza; Brandi, Antônio Carlos; dos Santos, Carlos Alberto; Botelho, Paulo Henrique Husseni; Cortez, José Luís Lasso; Goissis, Gilberto; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    The calcium paradox was first mentioned in 1966 by Zimmerman et al. Thereafter gained great interest from the scientific community due to the fact of the absence of calcium ions in heart muscle cells produce damage similar to ischemia-reperfusion. Although not all known mechanisms involved in cellular injury in the calcium paradox intercellular connection maintained only by nexus seems to have a key role in cellular fragmentation. The addition of small concentrations of calcium, calcium channel blockers, and hyponatraemia hypothermia are important to prevent any cellular damage during reperfusion solutions with physiological concentration of calcium. PMID:25140476

  4. Regulatory effect of chrysin on expression of lenticular calcium transporters, calpains, and apoptotic-cascade components in selenite-induced cataract

    PubMed Central

    Sundararajan, Mahalingam; Thomas, Philip A.; Teresa, P. Archana; Anbukkarasi, Muniyandi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Selenite-induced cataract is associated with oxidative stress, loss of calcium homeostasis, activation of calpain enzymes, and apoptotic cell death in the lens. An evaluation of naturally occurring antioxidants that also restrict calcium influx into the lens and calpain activation and thus prevent lenticular cell death may lead to the development of safe and effective anticataractogenic drugs. This study focuses on a naturally occurring flavone, chrysin, and its efficacy in preventing cataractogenic changes in in vitro cultured Wistar rat lenses. Methods Lenses from Wistar rats incubated for 24 h at 37 °C in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) were categorized into four main groups: Group I (control, incubated in DMEM alone); Group II (selenite-challenged and untreated, incubated in DMEM that contained 100 µM/ml of sodium selenite only); Group III (selenite-challenged and chrysin-treated, incubated in DMEM that contained sodium selenite [100 µM/ml of DMEM] and chrysin [200 µM/ml of DMEM]); and Group IV (chrysin-treated, incubated in DMEM that contained chrysin [200 µM/ml of DMEM] only). The Group III (selenite-challenged and chrysin-treated) lenses were further categorized into five sub-groups: Group IIIa (incubated for 24 h in DMEM that contained sodium selenite and chrysin added simultaneously), Group IIIb (first incubated for 2 h in DMEM that contained chrysin only and then for up to 24 h in fresh DMEM that contained sodium selenite only), Group IIIc (first incubated for 30 min in DMEM that contained sodium selenite only and subsequently for up to 24 h in DMEM that contained chrysin only), and Groups IIId and IIIe (first incubated for 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in DMEM that contained sodium selenite only and subsequently for up to 24 h in DMEM that contained chrysin only). Results Gross morphological assessment revealed dense opacification (Grade +++) in the selenite-challenged, untreated lenses (Group II); however, seven of the eight

  5. Gene dose influences cellular and calcium channel dysregulation in heterozygous and homozygous T4826I-RYR1 malignant hyperthermia-susceptible muscle.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Genaro C; Feng, Wei; Truong, Kim; Matthaei, Klaus I; Yang, Tianzhong; Allen, Paul D; Lopez, José R; Pessah, Isaac N

    2012-01-20

    Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) is primarily conferred by mutations within ryanodine receptor type 1 (RYR1). Here we address how the MHS mutation T4826I within the S4-S5 linker influences excitation-contraction coupling and resting myoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](rest)) in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and vastus lateralis prepared from heterozygous (Het) and homozygous (Hom) T4826I-RYR1 knock-in mice (Yuen, B. T., Boncompagni, S., Feng, W., Yang, T., Lopez, J. R., Matthaei, K. I., Goth, S. R., Protasi, F., Franzini-Armstrong, C., Allen, P. D., and Pessah, I. N. (2011) FASEB J. doi:22131268). FDB responses to electrical stimuli and acute halothane (0.1%, v/v) exposure showed a rank order of Hom ≫ Het ≫ WT. Release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and Ca(2+) entry contributed to halothane-triggered increases in [Ca(2+)](rest) in Hom FDBs and elicited pronounced Ca(2+) oscillations in ∼30% of FDBs tested. Genotype contributed significantly elevated [Ca(2+)](rest) (Hom > Het > WT) measured in vivo using ion-selective microelectrodes. Het and Hom oxygen consumption rates measured in intact myotubes using the Seahorse Bioscience (Billerica, MA) flux analyzer and mitochondrial content measured with MitoTracker were lower than WT, whereas total cellular calpain activity was higher than WT. Muscle membranes did not differ in RYR1 expression nor in Ser(2844) phosphorylation among the genotypes. Single channel analysis showed highly divergent gating behavior with Hom and WT favoring open and closed states, respectively, whereas Het exhibited heterogeneous gating behaviors. [(3)H]Ryanodine binding analysis revealed a gene dose influence on binding density and regulation by Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and temperature. Pronounced abnormalities inherent in T4826I-RYR1 channels confer MHS and promote basal disturbances of excitation-contraction coupling, [Ca(2+)](rest), and oxygen consumption rates. Considering that both Het and Hom T4826I-RYR1 mice are

  6. Multiple cellular roles of Neurospora crassa plc-1, splA2, and cpe-1 in regulation of cytosolic free calcium, carotenoid accumulation, stress responses, and acquisition of thermotolerance.

    PubMed

    Barman, Ananya; Tamuli, Ranjan

    2015-04-01

    Phospholipase C1 (PLC1), secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) and Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger proteins regulate calcium signaling and homeostasis in eukaryotes. In this study, we investigate functions for phospholipase C1 (plc-1), sPLA2 (splA2) and a Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger (cpe-1) in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. The Δplc-1, ΔsplA2, and Δcpe-1 mutants exhibited a growth defect on medium supplemented with the divalent ionophore A23187, suggesting that these genes might play a role in regulation of cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) in N. crassa. The strains lacking plc-1, splA2, and cpe-1 possessed higher carotenoid content than wild type at 8°C, 22°C, and 30°C, and showed increased ultraviolet (UV)-survival under conditions that induced carotenoid accumulation. Moreover, Δplc-1, ΔsplA2, and Δcpe-1 mutants showed reduced survival rate under hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and induced thermotolerance after exposure to heat shock temperatures. Thus, this study revealed multiple cellular roles for plc-1, splA2, and cpe-1 genes in regulation of [Ca(2+)](c), carotenoid accumulation, survival under stress conditions, and acquisition of thermotolerance induced by heat shock.

  7. The aging human cochlear nucleus: Changes in the glial fibrillary acidic protein, intracellular calcium regulatory proteins, GABA neurotransmitter and cholinergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saroj; Nag, Tapas C; Thakar, Alok; Bhardwaj, Daya N; Roy, Tara Sankar

    2014-03-01

    The human auditory system is highly susceptible to environmental and metabolic insults which further affect the biochemical and physiological milieu of the cells that may contribute to progressive, hearing loss with aging. The cochlear nucleus (CN) is populated by morphologically diverse types of neurons with discrete physiological and neurochemical properties. Between the dorsal and the ventral cochlear nucleus (DCN and VCN), the VCN is further sub-divided into the rostral (rVCN) and caudal (cVCN) sub-divisions. Although, information is available on the age related neurochemical changes in the mammalian CN similar reports on human CN is still sparse. The morphometry and semiquantitative analysis of intensity of expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), calcium binding proteins (calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin), gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and nicotinic acetyl choline receptor (nAchR) beta 2 immunostaining were carried out in all three sub-divisions of the human CN from birth to 90 years. There was increased GFAP immunoreactivity in decades 2 and 3 in comparison to decade 1 in the CN. But no change was observed in rVCN from decade 4 onwards, whereas intense staining was also observed in decades 5 and 6 in cVCN and DCN. All three calcium binding proteins were highly expressed in early to middle ages, whereas a significant reduction was found in later decades in the VCN. GABA and nAchR beta 2 expressions were unchanged throughout in all the decades. The middle age may represent a critical period of onset and progression of aging changes in the CN and these alterations may add to the deterioration of hearing responses in the old age.

  8. The aging human cochlear nucleus: Changes in the glial fibrillary acidic protein, intracellular calcium regulatory proteins, GABA neurotransmitter and cholinergic receptor.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saroj; Nag, Tapas C; Thakar, Alok; Bhardwaj, Daya N; Roy, Tara Sankar

    2014-03-01

    The human auditory system is highly susceptible to environmental and metabolic insults which further affect the biochemical and physiological milieu of the cells that may contribute to progressive, hearing loss with aging. The cochlear nucleus (CN) is populated by morphologically diverse types of neurons with discrete physiological and neurochemical properties. Between the dorsal and the ventral cochlear nucleus (DCN and VCN), the VCN is further sub-divided into the rostral (rVCN) and caudal (cVCN) sub-divisions. Although, information is available on the age related neurochemical changes in the mammalian CN similar reports on human CN is still sparse. The morphometry and semiquantitative analysis of intensity of expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), calcium binding proteins (calbindin, calretinin and parvalbumin), gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and nicotinic acetyl choline receptor (nAchR) beta 2 immunostaining were carried out in all three sub-divisions of the human CN from birth to 90 years. There was increased GFAP immunoreactivity in decades 2 and 3 in comparison to decade 1 in the CN. But no change was observed in rVCN from decade 4 onwards, whereas intense staining was also observed in decades 5 and 6 in cVCN and DCN. All three calcium binding proteins were highly expressed in early to middle ages, whereas a significant reduction was found in later decades in the VCN. GABA and nAchR beta 2 expressions were unchanged throughout in all the decades. The middle age may represent a critical period of onset and progression of aging changes in the CN and these alterations may add to the deterioration of hearing responses in the old age. PMID:24412669

  9. [Biophysical aspects of biological activity structure--strain calcium carbonat in micellar form].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V I; Stekhin, A A; Iakovleva, G V; Savostikova, O N; Alekseeva, A V; P'ianzina, I P

    2013-01-01

    Results of the study of electrochemical and structural state of phase of associated water in the solutions of structurally stressed calcium carbonate in the micellar form are reported. On the base on the comparison of structural--physical changes of activated water with the data on the activity of bioluminiscentic "Ecolyum" microorganisms in their noncontact activation the electronic mechanism of the effect of activated water on cellular metabolism is substantiated The use of "Micellate of calcium" possessing non-contact electron-donor action on cellular structures was shown to permit to compensate the deficit of electrons and thereby to restore the activities of reductases and iron-containing peptides required for the production of regulatory ROS and alteration in redox state of the intracellular environment. PMID:24624817

  10. The role of calcium stores in apoptosis and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Smaili, S S; Pereira, G J S; Costa, M M; Rocha, K K; Rodrigues, L; do Carmo, L G; Hirata, H; Hsu, Y-T

    2013-02-01

    The mechanisms that regulate programmed cell death, such as apoptosis, and the cellular "self-eating" phenomenon of autophagy, share many regulatory systems and common pathways. These mechanisms have been extensively investigated over the last few years. Some intracellular structures may determine and control the autophagic fate of the cell such as the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and lysosomes. The coordination and interrelation of these organelles are crucial in maintaining calcium levels and general cellular homeostasis, as well as in regulating cell life and death under physiological and pathological conditions, including cancer, neurodegeneration, and aging. In this review, we discuss the crosstalk between the aforementioned organelles and their influence in apoptotic and autophagic processes. PMID:23228221

  11. The cellular distribution of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 is determined by the PDZ-I domain and regulates the malignant progression of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Du, Guifang; Gu, Yanan; Hao, Chengcheng; Yuan, Zhu; He, Junqi; Jiang, Wen G.; Cheng, Shan

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic role of ectopic expression of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) was recently suggested. Here, we show that NHERF1 was upregulated in high grades compared with low grades. Increased NHERF1 expression was correlated with poor prognosis and poor survival. NHERF1 expression was higher in the nucleus of cancer cells than in contiguous non- mammary epithelial cells. A novel mutation, namely NHERF1 Y24S, was identified in human breast cancer tissues and shown to correspond to a conserved residue in the PDZ-I domain of NHERF1. Truncation and mutation of the PDZ-I domain of NHERF1 increased the nuclear distribution of the NHERF1 protein, and this redistribution was associated with the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells, including growth, migration, and adhesion. The present results suggest a role for NHERF1 in the progression of breast cancer mediated by the nuclear distribution of the NHERF1 protein, as determined by the truncation or key site mutation of the PDZ-I domain. PMID:27097111

  12. Direct combinatorial interaction between a herpes simplex virus regulatory protein and a cellular octamer-binding factor mediates specific induction of virus immediate-early gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    O'Hare, P; Goding, C R; Haigh, A

    1988-01-01

    We provide evidence for a novel mechanism of transcriptional regulation in which the immediate-early (IE) transactivating protein of herpes simplex virus, Vmw65, is assembled into a specific DNA-binding complex together with a cellular octamer-binding factor (TRF). The assembly of Vmw65/TRF complex requires not only the core TRF recognition site, but also flanking sequences which are dispensable for TRF binding alone. We show from functional analyses that TRF binding by a motif is required but not sufficient to confer induction on a heterologous promoter, and it is the ability of the motif to allow TRF/Vmw65 complex assembly which correlates with functional activity. Thus, for the induction of HSV IE expression, Vmw65 forms a complex with TRF by recognition of the specific subset of appropriately flanked TRF binding sites present in each of the IE genes. This mechanism may provide a paradigm for the selective utilization of the same transcription factor in differential gene expression. Images PMID:2854058

  13. "Velcro" engineering of high affinity CD47 ectodomain as signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) antagonists that enhance antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chia Chi M; Guo, Nan; Sockolosky, Jonathan T; Ring, Aaron M; Weiskopf, Kipp; Özkan, Engin; Mori, Yasuo; Weissman, Irving L; Garcia, K Christopher

    2015-05-15

    CD47 is a cell surface protein that transmits an anti-phagocytic signal, known as the "don't-eat-me" signal, to macrophages upon engaging its receptor signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα). Molecules that antagonize the CD47-SIRPα interaction by binding to CD47, such as anti-CD47 antibodies and the engineered SIRPα variant CV1, have been shown to facilitate macrophage-mediated anti-tumor responses. However, these strategies targeting CD47 are handicapped by large antigen sinks in vivo and indiscriminate cell binding due to ubiquitous expression of CD47. These factors reduce bioavailability and increase the risk of toxicity. Here, we present an alternative strategy to antagonize the CD47-SIRPα pathway by engineering high affinity CD47 variants that target SIRPα, which has restricted tissue expression. CD47 proved to be refractive to conventional affinity maturation techniques targeting its binding interface with SIRPα. Therefore, we developed a novel engineering approach, whereby we augmented the existing contact interface via N-terminal peptide extension, coined "Velcro" engineering. The high affinity variant (Velcro-CD47) bound to the two most prominent human SIRPα alleles with greatly increased affinity relative to wild-type CD47 and potently antagonized CD47 binding to SIRPα on human macrophages. Velcro-CD47 synergizes with tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies to enhance macrophage phagocytosis of tumor cells in vitro, with similar potency as CV1. Finally, Velcro-CD47 interacts specifically with a subset of myeloid-derived cells in human blood, whereas CV1 binds all myeloid, lymphoid, and erythroid populations interrogated. This is consistent with the restricted expression of SIRPα compared with CD47. Herein, we have demonstrated that "Velcro" engineering is a powerful protein-engineering tool with potential applications to other systems and that Velcro-CD47 could be an alternative adjuvant to CD47-targeting agents for cancer immunotherapy.

  14. “Velcro” Engineering of High Affinity CD47 Ectodomain as Signal Regulatory Protein α (SIRPα) Antagonists That Enhance Antibody-dependent Cellular Phagocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chia Chi M.; Guo, Nan; Sockolosky, Jonathan T.; Ring, Aaron M.; Weiskopf, Kipp; Özkan, Engin; Mori, Yasuo; Weissman, Irving L.; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    CD47 is a cell surface protein that transmits an anti-phagocytic signal, known as the “don't-eat-me” signal, to macrophages upon engaging its receptor signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα). Molecules that antagonize the CD47-SIRPα interaction by binding to CD47, such as anti-CD47 antibodies and the engineered SIRPα variant CV1, have been shown to facilitate macrophage-mediated anti-tumor responses. However, these strategies targeting CD47 are handicapped by large antigen sinks in vivo and indiscriminate cell binding due to ubiquitous expression of CD47. These factors reduce bioavailability and increase the risk of toxicity. Here, we present an alternative strategy to antagonize the CD47-SIRPα pathway by engineering high affinity CD47 variants that target SIRPα, which has restricted tissue expression. CD47 proved to be refractive to conventional affinity maturation techniques targeting its binding interface with SIRPα. Therefore, we developed a novel engineering approach, whereby we augmented the existing contact interface via N-terminal peptide extension, coined “Velcro” engineering. The high affinity variant (Velcro-CD47) bound to the two most prominent human SIRPα alleles with greatly increased affinity relative to wild-type CD47 and potently antagonized CD47 binding to SIRPα on human macrophages. Velcro-CD47 synergizes with tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies to enhance macrophage phagocytosis of tumor cells in vitro, with similar potency as CV1. Finally, Velcro-CD47 interacts specifically with a subset of myeloid-derived cells in human blood, whereas CV1 binds all myeloid, lymphoid, and erythroid populations interrogated. This is consistent with the restricted expression of SIRPα compared with CD47. Herein, we have demonstrated that “Velcro” engineering is a powerful protein-engineering tool with potential applications to other systems and that Velcro-CD47 could be an alternative adjuvant to CD47-targeting agents for cancer immunotherapy

  15. The ins and outs of mitochondrial calcium.

    PubMed

    Finkel, Toren; Menazza, Sara; Holmström, Kira M; Parks, Randi J; Liu, Julia; Sun, Junhui; Liu, Jie; Pan, Xin; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2015-05-22

    Calcium is thought to play an important role in regulating mitochondrial function. Evidence suggests that an increase in mitochondrial calcium can augment ATP production by altering the activity of calcium-sensitive mitochondrial matrix enzymes. In contrast, the entry of large amounts of mitochondrial calcium in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion injury is thought to be a critical event in triggering cellular necrosis. For many decades, the details of how calcium entered the mitochondria remained a biological mystery. In the past few years, significant progress has been made in identifying the molecular components of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex. Here, we review how calcium enters and leaves the mitochondria, the growing insight into the topology, stoichiometry and function of the uniporter complex, and the early lessons learned from some initial mouse models that genetically perturb mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.

  16. Stochastic models of intracellular calcium signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüdiger, Sten

    2014-01-01

    Cellular signaling operates in a noisy environment shaped by low molecular concentrations and cellular heterogeneity. For calcium release through intracellular channels-one of the most important cellular signaling mechanisms-feedback by liberated calcium endows fluctuations with critical functions in signal generation and formation. In this review it is first described, under which general conditions the environment makes stochasticity relevant, and which conditions allow approximating or deterministic equations. This analysis provides a framework, in which one can deduce an efficient hybrid description combining stochastic and deterministic evolution laws. Within the hybrid approach, Markov chains model gating of channels, while the concentrations of calcium and calcium binding molecules (buffers) are described by reaction-diffusion equations. The article further focuses on the spatial representation of subcellular calcium domains related to intracellular calcium channels. It presents analysis for single channels and clusters of channels and reviews the effects of buffers on the calcium release. For clustered channels, we discuss the application and validity of coarse-graining as well as approaches based on continuous gating variables (Fokker-Planck and chemical Langevin equations). Comparison with recent experiments substantiates the stochastic and spatial approach, identifies minimal requirements for a realistic modeling, and facilitates an understanding of collective channel behavior. At the end of the review, implications of stochastic and local modeling for the generation and properties of cell-wide release and the integration of calcium dynamics into cellular signaling models are discussed.

  17. Purification and stable isotope labeling of the calcium- and integrin-binding protein 1 for structural and functional NMR studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Vogel, Hans J

    2013-01-01

    The Calcium- and Integrin-Binding protein 1 (CIB1) has been identified as an important regulatory Ca(2+)-binding protein that is involved in various cellular functions. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy provides a powerful approach to study the structure, dynamics, and interactions of CIB1 and related proteins. Multidimensional NMR spectroscopy combined with various selective isotope labeling strategies has proven to be successful in the structure determination of CIB1. Moreover, the same approach allowed the detection of conformational changes when the protein binds different metal ions, and it facilitated the study of the interaction of CIB1 with the cytoplasmic domain of the human integrin αIIb subunit. In this protocol, we describe the purification and isotope labeling strategies for productive NMR studies of CIB1. The same isotope labeling strategies can be implemented to study numerous related regulatory calcium-binding proteins.

  18. Calcium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... of calcium dietary supplements include calcium citrate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate is the more expensive form of ... the body on a full or empty stomach. Calcium carbonate is less expensive. It is absorbed better by ...

  19. Calcium-mediated mechanisms of cystic expansion

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Majeed, Shakila; Nauli, Surya M.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we will discuss several well-accepted signaling pathways toward calcium-mediated mechanisms of cystic expansion. The second messenger calcium ion has contributed to a vast diversity of signal transduction pathways. We will dissect calcium signaling as a possible mechanism that contributes to renal cyst formation. Because cytosolic calcium also regulates an array of signaling pathways, we will first discuss cilia-induced calcium fluxes, followed by Wnt signaling that has attributed to much-discussed planar cell polarity. We will then look at the relationship between cytosolic calcium and cAMP as one of the most important aspects of cyst progression. The signaling of cAMP on MAPK and mTOR will also be discussed. We infer that while cilia-induced calcium fluxes may be the initial signaling messenger for various cellular pathways, no single signaling mediator or pathway is implicated exclusively in the progression of the cystic expansion. PMID:20932898

  20. Store-operated calcium entry: mechanisms and modulation

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Patrick G; Rao, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Store-operated calcium entry is a central mechanism in cellular calcium signalling and in maintaining cellular calcium balance. This review traces the history of research on store-operated calcium entry, the discovery of STIM and ORAI as central players in calcium entry, and the role of STIM and ORAI in biology and human disease. It describes current knowledge of the basic mechanism of STIM-ORAI signalling and of the varied mechanisms by which STIM-ORAI signalling can be modulated. PMID:25998732

  1. Calcium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... as thyroid disease , parathyroid disorder , malabsorption , cancer, or malnutrition An ionized calcium test may be ordered when ... albumin , which can result from liver disease or malnutrition , both of which may result from alcoholism or ...

  2. Calcium Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Sarcopenia Skeletal Rare Disorders Data & Publications Facts and Statistics Vitamin D map Fracture Risk Map Hip Fracture ... Training Courses Working Groups Regional Audits Reports Facts and Statistics Popular content Calcium content of common foods What ...

  3. Calcium binding domains and calcium-induced conformational transition of SPARC/BM-40/osteonectin, an extracellular glycoprotein expressed in mineralized and nonmineralized tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.; Taylor, W.; Paulsson, M.; Sage, H.; Hogan, B.

    1987-11-03

    PSARC, BM-40, and osteonectin are identical or very closely related extracellular proteins of apparent M/sub r/ 43,000 (M/sub r/ 33,000 predicted from sequence). They were originally isolated from parietal endoderm cells, basement membrane producing tumors, and bone, respectively, but are rather widely distributed in various tissues. In view of the calcium binding activity reported for osteonectin, the authors analyzed the SPARC sequence and found two putative calcium binding domains. One is an N-terminal acid region with clusters of glutamic acid residues. This region, although neither ..gamma..-carboxylated nor homologous, resembles the ..gamma..-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain of vitamin K dependent proteins of the blood clotting system in charge density, size of negatively charged clusters, and linkage to the rest of the molecule by a cysteine-rich domain. The other region is an EF-hand calcium binding domain located near the C-terminus. A disulfide bond between the E and F helix is predicted from modeling the EF-hand structure with the known coordinates of intestinal calcium binding protein. The disulfide bridge apparently serves to stabilize the isolated calcium loop in the extracellular protein. As observed for cytoplasmic EF-hand-containing proteins and for Gla domain containing proteins, a major conformational transition is induced in BM-40 upon binding of several Ca/sup 2 +/ ions. This is accompanied by a 35% increase in ..cap alpha..-helicity. A pronounced sigmoidicity of the dependence of the circular dichroism signal at 220 nm on calcium concentration indicates that the process is cooperative. In view of its properties, abundance, and wide distribution, it is proposed that SPARC/BM-40/osteonectin has a rather general regulatory function in calcium-dependent processes of the extra-cellular matrix.

  4. Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, M M H; Rashid, I S; Qinna, N A; Jaber, A M; Badwan, A A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen, and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world (most notably as limestone), and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. CaCO3 exists in different polymorphs, each with specific stability that depends on a diversity of variables.

  5. Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, M M H; Rashid, I S; Qinna, N A; Jaber, A M; Badwan, A A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen, and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world (most notably as limestone), and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. CaCO3 exists in different polymorphs, each with specific stability that depends on a diversity of variables. PMID:26940168

  6. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  7. Redox control of brain calcium in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Cecilia; Carrasco, M Angélica

    2011-04-01

    Calcium ion is a highly versatile cellular messenger. Calcium signals-defined as transient increments in intracellular-free calcium concentration-elicit a multiplicity of responses that depend on cell type and signal properties such as their intensity, duration, cellular localization, and frequency. The vast literature available on the role of calcium signals in brain cells, chiefly centered on neuronal cells, indicates that calcium signals regulate essential neuronal functions, including synaptic transmission, gene expression, synaptic plasticity processes underlying learning and memory, and survival or death. The eight articles comprising this forum issue address different and novel aspects of calcium signaling in normal neuronal function, including how calcium signals interact with the generation of reactive species of oxygen/nitrogen with various functional consequences, and focus also on how abnormal calcium homeostasis and signaling, plus oxidative stress, affect overall brain physiology during aging and in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. PMID:21050143

  8. Calcium in Plants

    PubMed Central

    WHITE, PHILIP J.; BROADLEY, MARTIN R.

    2003-01-01

    Calcium is an essential plant nutrient. It is required for various structural roles in the cell wall and membranes, it is a counter‐cation for inorganic and organic anions in the vacuole, and the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) is an obligate intracellular messenger coordinating responses to numerous developmental cues and environmental challenges. This article provides an overview of the nutritional requirements of different plants for Ca, and how this impacts on natural flora and the Ca content of crops. It also reviews recent work on (a) the mechanisms of Ca2+ transport across cellular membranes, (b) understanding the origins and specificity of [Ca2+]cyt signals and (c) characterizing the cellular [Ca2+]cyt‐sensors (such as calmodulin, calcineurin B‐like proteins and calcium‐dependent protein kinases) that allow plant cells to respond appropriately to [Ca2+]cyt signals. PMID:12933363

  9. Dietary perturbation of calcium metabolism in normal man: compartmental analysis

    PubMed Central

    Phang, James M.; Berman, Mones; Finerman, Gerald A.; Neer, Robert M.; Rosenberg, Leon E.; Hahn, Theodore J.

    1969-01-01

    The effect of dietary calcium intake on calcium metabolism was studied in eight normal volunteers by multicompartmental analysis of radiocalcium and balance data. In paired studies of six normal subjects on normal and high or low calcium intakes, necessary and sufficient criteria were used to determine changes in calcium metabolic parameters produced by alterations in dietary calcium. These changes involved gastrointestinal calcium absorption rate, renal and endogenous fecal rate constants, and bone resorption rate. Bone accretion rate and compartment sizes need not change between the paired studies. The changes of parameters involving kidney, gut, and bone were in a direction to support calcium homeostasis and were compatible with the pattern of changes produced by parathyroid hormone. However, the source of the stimulus for hormone secretion was not apparent since plasma calcium concentrations showed no significant difference between paired studies. The implications of these findings relative to control of hormone secretion, calcium regulatory mechanisms, and metabolic bone disease are discussed. PMID:5765028

  10. Get Enough Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... 2 of 4 sections Take Action! Take Action: Calcium Sources Protect your bones – get plenty of calcium ...

  11. Calcium carbonate overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  12. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  13. Calcium, iron and neuronal function.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Cecilia; Núñez, Marco T

    2007-01-01

    Calcium and iron play dual roles in neuronal function: they are both essential but when present in excess they cause neuronal damage and may even induce neuronal death. Calcium signals are required for synaptic plasticity, a neuronal process that entails gene expression and which is presumably the cellular counterpart of cognitive brain functions such as learning and memory. Neuronal activity generates cytoplasmic and nuclear calcium signals that in turn stimulate pathways that promote the transcription of genes known to participate in synaptic plasticity. In addition, evidence discussed in this article shows that iron deficiency causes learning and memory impairments that persist following iron repletion, indicating that iron is necessary for normal development of cognitive functions. Recent results from our group indicate that iron is required for long-term potentiation in hippocampal CA1 neurons and that iron stimulates ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium release through ROS produced via the Fenton reaction leading to stimulation of the ERK signaling pathway. These combined results support a coordinated action between iron and calcium in synaptic plasticity and raise the possibility that elevated iron levels may contribute to neuronal degeneration through excessive intracellular calcium increase caused by iron-induced oxidative stress. PMID:17505966

  14. Regulation of calcium and phosphoinositides at endoplasmic reticulum-membrane junctions.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Eamonn J; Jensen, Jill B; Hille, Bertil

    2016-04-15

    Effective cellular function requires both compartmentalization of tasks in space and time, and coordination of those efforts. The endoplasmic reticulum's (ER) expansive and ramifying structure makes it ideally suited to serve as a regulatory platform for organelle-organelle communication through membrane contacts. These contact sites consist of two membranes juxtaposed at a distance less than 30 nm that mediate the exchange of lipids and ions without the need for membrane fission or fusion, a process distinct from classical vesicular transport. Membrane contact sites are positioned by organelle-specific membrane-membrane tethering proteins and contain a growing number of additional proteins that organize information transfer to shape membrane identity. Here we briefly review the role of ER-containing membrane junctions in two important cellular functions: calcium signalling and phosphoinositide processing. PMID:27068956

  15. A calcium- and calpain-dependent pathway determines the response to lenalidomide in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jing; Liu, Xiaona; Bolanos, Lyndsey; Barker, Brenden; Rigolino, Carmela; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Oliva, Esther N; Cuzzola, Maria; Grimes, H Leighton; Fontanillo, Celia; Komurov, Kakajan; MacBeth, Kyle; Starczynowski, Daniel T

    2016-07-01

    Despite the high response rates of individuals with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with deletion of chromosome 5q (del(5q)) to treatment with lenalidomide (LEN) and the recent identification of cereblon (CRBN) as the molecular target of LEN, the cellular mechanism by which LEN eliminates MDS clones remains elusive. Here we performed an RNA interference screen to delineate gene regulatory networks that mediate LEN responsiveness in an MDS cell line, MDSL. We identified GPR68, which encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor that has been implicated in calcium metabolism, as the top candidate gene for modulating sensitivity to LEN. LEN induced GPR68 expression via IKAROS family zinc finger 1 (IKZF1), resulting in increased cytosolic calcium levels and activation of a calcium-dependent calpain, CAPN1, which were requisite steps for induction of apoptosis in MDS cells and in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. In contrast, deletion of GPR68 or inhibition of calcium and calpain activation suppressed LEN-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, expression of calpastatin (CAST), an endogenous CAPN1 inhibitor that is encoded by a gene (CAST) deleted in del(5q) MDS, correlated with LEN responsiveness in patients with del(5q) MDS. Depletion of CAST restored responsiveness of LEN-resistant non-del(5q) MDS cells and AML cells, providing an explanation for the superior responses of patients with del(5q) MDS to LEN treatment. Our study describes a cellular mechanism by which LEN, acting through CRBN and IKZF1, has cytotoxic effects in MDS and AML that depend on a calcium- and calpain-dependent pathway. PMID:27294874

  16. A calcium- and calpain-dependent pathway determines the response to lenalidomide in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jing; Liu, Xiaona; Bolanos, Lyndsey; Barker, Brenden; Rigolino, Carmela; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Oliva, Esther N; Cuzzola, Maria; Grimes, H Leighton; Fontanillo, Celia; Komurov, Kakajan; MacBeth, Kyle; Starczynowski, Daniel T

    2016-07-01

    Despite the high response rates of individuals with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with deletion of chromosome 5q (del(5q)) to treatment with lenalidomide (LEN) and the recent identification of cereblon (CRBN) as the molecular target of LEN, the cellular mechanism by which LEN eliminates MDS clones remains elusive. Here we performed an RNA interference screen to delineate gene regulatory networks that mediate LEN responsiveness in an MDS cell line, MDSL. We identified GPR68, which encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor that has been implicated in calcium metabolism, as the top candidate gene for modulating sensitivity to LEN. LEN induced GPR68 expression via IKAROS family zinc finger 1 (IKZF1), resulting in increased cytosolic calcium levels and activation of a calcium-dependent calpain, CAPN1, which were requisite steps for induction of apoptosis in MDS cells and in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. In contrast, deletion of GPR68 or inhibition of calcium and calpain activation suppressed LEN-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, expression of calpastatin (CAST), an endogenous CAPN1 inhibitor that is encoded by a gene (CAST) deleted in del(5q) MDS, correlated with LEN responsiveness in patients with del(5q) MDS. Depletion of CAST restored responsiveness of LEN-resistant non-del(5q) MDS cells and AML cells, providing an explanation for the superior responses of patients with del(5q) MDS to LEN treatment. Our study describes a cellular mechanism by which LEN, acting through CRBN and IKZF1, has cytotoxic effects in MDS and AML that depend on a calcium- and calpain-dependent pathway.

  17. Calcium signals and calcium channels in osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R. L.; Akanbi, K. A.; Farach-Carson, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) channels are present in non-excitable as well as in excitable cells. In bone cells of the osteoblast lineage, Ca2+ channels play fundamental roles in cellular responses to external stimuli including both mechanical forces and hormonal signals. They are also proposed to modulate paracrine signaling between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts at local sites of bone remodeling. Calcium signals are characterized by transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels that are associated with activation of intracellular signaling pathways that control cell behavior and phenotype, including patterns of gene expression. Development of Ca2+ signals is a tightly regulated cellular process that involves the concerted actions of plasma membrane and intracellular Ca2+ channels, along with Ca2+ pumps and exchangers. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning the structure, function, and role of Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ signals in bone cells, focusing on the osteoblast.

  18. Inulin and fructooligosaccharide affect in vitro calcium uptake and absorption from calcium-enriched gluten-free bread.

    PubMed

    Krupa-Kozak, U; Swiątecka, D; Bączek, N; Brzóska, M M

    2016-04-01

    Compromised intestinal calcium absorption affecting a deterioration of bone state is a sign of coeliac disease. Experimental calcium-fortified gluten-free bread (GFB) of improved calcium bioavailability could increase calcium content in the diets of coeliac disease patients, allowing them to obtain the amount of calcium they need for therapeutic use. Prebiotics, including inulin-type fructans (IFs) have a beneficial effect on calcium bioavailability. In the present study, the in vitro model composed of the intestinal-like Caco-2 cells and the human intestinal bacteria (Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae) were used to analyse the effect of inulin and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) of different chain lengths, on calcium uptake and absorption from experimental GFB. Analysed IFs, especially short-chain FOS, significantly (p < 0.05) increased cellular calcium uptake from GFB digest and stimulated the intestinal bacteria applied in the cultures to the intensive synthesis of organic acids. In particular, the concentration of butyric, valeric and lactic acids increased significantly. Similarly, in the calcium absorption experiment, IFs increased the cellular calcium retention but concomitantly reduced its content in basolateral filtrates. The results obtained suggest that the applied IFs affected differentially calcium uptake and absorption from the experimental calcium-enriched GFB, therefore a further study is needed to assess whether these observations made in vitro contribute to IF effects on calcium absorption from experimental GFB in vivo. PMID:26965706

  19. Inulin and fructooligosaccharide affect in vitro calcium uptake and absorption from calcium-enriched gluten-free bread.

    PubMed

    Krupa-Kozak, U; Swiątecka, D; Bączek, N; Brzóska, M M

    2016-04-01

    Compromised intestinal calcium absorption affecting a deterioration of bone state is a sign of coeliac disease. Experimental calcium-fortified gluten-free bread (GFB) of improved calcium bioavailability could increase calcium content in the diets of coeliac disease patients, allowing them to obtain the amount of calcium they need for therapeutic use. Prebiotics, including inulin-type fructans (IFs) have a beneficial effect on calcium bioavailability. In the present study, the in vitro model composed of the intestinal-like Caco-2 cells and the human intestinal bacteria (Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Enterobacteriaceae) were used to analyse the effect of inulin and fructooligosaccharide (FOS) of different chain lengths, on calcium uptake and absorption from experimental GFB. Analysed IFs, especially short-chain FOS, significantly (p < 0.05) increased cellular calcium uptake from GFB digest and stimulated the intestinal bacteria applied in the cultures to the intensive synthesis of organic acids. In particular, the concentration of butyric, valeric and lactic acids increased significantly. Similarly, in the calcium absorption experiment, IFs increased the cellular calcium retention but concomitantly reduced its content in basolateral filtrates. The results obtained suggest that the applied IFs affected differentially calcium uptake and absorption from the experimental calcium-enriched GFB, therefore a further study is needed to assess whether these observations made in vitro contribute to IF effects on calcium absorption from experimental GFB in vivo.

  20. Calcium signaling and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Goulart, Vânia A M; Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Gomes, Katia N; Ulrich, Henning; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2015-11-01

    Cell proliferation is orchestrated through diverse proteins related to calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling inside the cell. Cellular Ca(2+) influx that occurs first by various mechanisms at the plasma membrane, is then followed by absorption of Ca(2+) ions by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and, finally, there is a connection of calcium stores to the nucleus. Experimental evidence indicates that the fluctuation of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum provides a pivotal and physiological role for cell proliferation. Ca(2+) depletion in the endoplasmatic reticulum triggers Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane in an phenomenon called store-operated calcium entries (SOCEs). SOCE is activated through a complex interplay between a Ca(2+) sensor, denominated STIM, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and a Ca(2+) channel at the cell membrane, denominated Orai. The interplay between STIM and Orai proteins with cell membrane receptors and their role in cell proliferation is discussed in this review.

  1. Calcium signaling in pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Apáti, Ágota; Pászty, Katalin; Erdei, Zsuzsa; Szebényi, Kornélia; Homolya, László; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2012-04-28

    Pluripotent stem cells represent a new source of biological material allowing the exploration of signaling phenomena during normal cell development and differentiation. Still, the calcium signaling pathways and intracellular calcium responses to various ligands or stress conditions have not been sufficiently explored as yet in embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells and in their differentiated offspring. This is partly due to the special culturing conditions of these cell types, the rapid morphological and functional changes in heterogeneous cell populations during early differentiation, and methodological problems in cellular calcium measurements. In this paper, we review the currently available data in the literature on calcium signaling in pluripotent stem cells and discuss the potential shortcomings of these studies. Various assay methods are surveyed for obtaining reliable data both in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and in specific, stem cell-derived human tissues. In this paper, we present the modulation of calcium signaling in human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and in their derivates; mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells and cardiac tissues using the fluorescent calcium indicator Fluo-4 and confocal microscopy. LPA, trypsin and angiotensin II were effective in inducing calcium signals both in HUES9 and MSCl cells. Histamine and thrombin induced calcium signal exclusively in the MSCl cells, while ATP was effective only in HUES9 cells. There was no calcium signal evoked by GABA, even at relatively high concentrations. In stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes a rapid increase in the beating rate and an increase of the calcium signal peaks could be observed after the addition of adrenaline, while verapamil led to a strong decrease in cellular calcium and stopped spontaneous contractions in a relaxed state.

  2. US Food and Drug Administration international collaborations for cellular therapy product regulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cellular therapy products are an emerging medical product class undergoing rapid scientific and clinical innovation worldwide. These products pose unique regulatory challenges both for countries with existing regulatory frameworks and for countries where regulatory frameworks for cellular therapy products are under development. The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has a history of productive working relationships with international regulatory authorities, and seeks to extend this to the cellular therapy field. The US FDA and its global regulatory counterparts are engaged in collaborations focused on the convergence of scientific and regulatory approaches, and the education of scientists, clinicians, regulators, and the public at large on the development of cellular therapies. PMID:23021082

  3. Plant organellar calcium signalling: an emerging field

    PubMed Central

    Stael, Simon; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Mair, Andrea; Mehlmer, Norbert; Vothknecht, Ute C.; Teige, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of the established and emerging roles that organelles play in calcium signalling. The function of calcium as a secondary messenger in signal transduction networks is well documented in all eukaryotic organisms, but so far existing reviews have hardly addressed the role of organelles in calcium signalling, except for the nucleus. Therefore, a brief overview on the main calcium stores in plants—the vacuole, the endoplasmic reticulum, and the apoplast—is provided and knowledge on the regulation of calcium concentrations in different cellular compartments is summarized. The main focus of the review will be the calcium handling properties of chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. Recently, it became clear that these organelles not only undergo calcium regulation themselves, but are able to influence the Ca2+ signalling pathways of the cytoplasm and the entire cell. Furthermore, the relevance of recent discoveries in the animal field for the regulation of organellar calcium signals will be discussed and conclusions will be drawn regarding potential homologous mechanisms in plant cells. Finally, a short overview on bacterial calcium signalling is included to provide some ideas on the question where this typically eukaryotic signalling mechanism could have originated from during evolution. PMID:22200666

  4. The spatial pattern of atrial cardiomyocyte calcium signalling modulates contraction.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Lauren; Roderick, H Llewelyn; Berridge, Michael J; Conway, Stuart J; Bootman, Martin D

    2004-12-15

    We examined the regulation of calcium signalling in atrial cardiomyocytes during excitation-contraction coupling, and how changes in the distribution of calcium impacts on contractility. Under control conditions, calcium transients originated in subsarcolemmal locations and showed local regeneration through activation of calcium-induced calcium release from ryanodine receptors. Despite functional ryanodine receptors being expressed at regular (approximately 2 microm) intervals throughout atrial myocytes, the subsarcolemmal calcium signal did not spread in a fully regenerative manner through the interior of a cell. Rather, there was a diminishing centripetal propagation of calcium. The lack of regeneration was due to mitochondria and SERCA pumps preventing the inward movement of calcium. Inhibiting these calcium buffering mechanisms allowed the globalisation of action potential-evoked responses. In addition, physiological positive inotropic agents, such as endothelin-1 and beta-adrenergic agonists, as well as enhanced calcium current, calcium store loading and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate infusion also led to regenerative global responses. The consequence of globalising calcium signals was a significant increase in cellular contraction. These data indicate how calcium signals and their consequences are determined by the interplay of multiple subcellular calcium management systems.

  5. Continuous Modeling of Calcium Transport Through Biological Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasielec, J. J.; Filipek, R.; Szyszkiewicz, K.; Sokalski, T.; Lewenstam, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this work an approach to the modeling of the biological membranes where a membrane is treated as a continuous medium is presented. The Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including Poisson equation for electric potential is used to describe transport of ions in the mitochondrial membrane—the interface which joins mitochondrial matrix with cellular cytosis. The transport of calcium ions is considered. Concentration of calcium inside the mitochondrion is not known accurately because different analytical methods give dramatically different results. We explain mathematically these differences assuming the complexing reaction inside mitochondrion and the existence of the calcium set-point (concentration of calcium in cytosis below which calcium stops entering the mitochondrion).

  6. Continuous Modeling of Calcium Transport Through Biological Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasielec, J. J.; Filipek, R.; Szyszkiewicz, K.; Sokalski, T.; Lewenstam, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work an approach to the modeling of the biological membranes where a membrane is treated as a continuous medium is presented. The Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including Poisson equation for electric potential is used to describe transport of ions in the mitochondrial membrane—the interface which joins mitochondrial matrix with cellular cytosis. The transport of calcium ions is considered. Concentration of calcium inside the mitochondrion is not known accurately because different analytical methods give dramatically different results. We explain mathematically these differences assuming the complexing reaction inside mitochondrion and the existence of the calcium set-point (concentration of calcium in cytosis below which calcium stops entering the mitochondrion).

  7. Plant Calcium Content: Ready to Remodel

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Hirschi, Kendal D.

    2012-01-01

    By identifying the relationship between calcium location in the plant cell and nutrient bioavailability, the plant characteristics leading to maximal calcium absorption by humans can be identified. Knowledge of plant cellular and molecular targets controlling calcium location in plants is emerging. These insights should allow for better strategies for increasing the nutritional content of foods. In particular, the use of preparation-free elemental imaging technologies such as synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microscopy in plant biology may allow researchers to understand the relationship between subcellular location and nutrient bioavailability. These approaches may lead to better strategies for altering the location of calcium within the plant to maximize its absorption from fruits and vegetables. These modified foods could be part of a diet for children and adults identified as at-risk for low calcium intake or absorption with the ultimate goal of decreasing the incidence and severity of inadequate bone mineralization. PMID:23016135

  8. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

  9. Gene regulatory networks and the underlying biology of developmental toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryonic cells are specified by large-scale networks of functionally linked regulatory genes. Knowledge of the relevant gene regulatory networks is essential for understanding phenotypic heterogeneity that emerges from disruption of molecular functions, cellular processes or sig...

  10. Calcium signaling in plant cells in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordyum, E.

    Changes in the intracellular Ca 2 + concentration in altered gravity (microgravity and clinostating) evidence that Ca2 + signaling can play a fundamental role in biological effects of microgravity. Calcium as a second messenger is known to play a crucial role in stimulus - response coupling for many plant cellular signaling pathways. Its messenger functions are realized by transient changes in the cytosolic ion concentration induced by a variety of internal and external stimuli such as light, hormones, temperature, anoxia, salinity, and gravity. Although the first data on the changes in the calcium balance in plant cells under the influence of altered gravity have appeared in eighties, a review highlighting the performed research and the possible significance of such Ca 2 + changes in the structural and metabolic rearrangements of plant cells in altered gravity is still lacking. In this paper, an attempt was made to summarize the available experimental results and to consider some hypotheses in this field of research. It is proposed to distinguish between cell gravisensing and cell graviperception; the former is related to cell structure and metabolism stability in the gravitational field and their changes in microgravity (cells not specialized to gravity perception), the latter is related to active use of a gravitational stimulus by cells presumably specialized to gravity perception for realization of normal space orientation, growth, and vital activity (gravitropism, gravitaxis) in plants. The main experimental data concerning both redistribution of free Ca 2 + ions in plant cell organelles and the cell wall, and an increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration under the influence of altered gravity are presented. Based on the gravitational decompensation hypothesis, the consequence of events occurring in gravis ensing cells not specialized to gravity perception under altered gravity are considered in the following order: changes in the cytoplasmic membrane

  11. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  12. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  13. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  14. Calcium source (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  15. Cellular signalling: the role of the peroxisome.

    PubMed

    Masters, C J

    1996-03-01

    This article reviews the role of the peroxisome in cellular signalling, with particular emphasis on the unique contributions of this organelle to the complex regulatory inter-relationships of cellular processes within the mammalian organism. Among the topics covered are the close alignments between the signalling systems governing peroxisome proliferation and those of the steroid hormone/thyroid hormone/vitamin D nuclear-receptor superfamily; the regulation of the permeability of the peroxisomal membrane; the involvements of lysophosphatidic acid as an intra- and inter-cellular messenger; the special role of the phosphatidylcholine cycle and its derivative messengers in relation to peroxisomal metabolism; peroxisomal contributions to the regulation of oxygen free radical levels in tissues and the significance of these radicals as second messengers; the evidence of peroxisomal influences on inter-cellular signalling from metabolic turnover studies; modifications of the regulatory significance of fatty acids by the peroxisome; the commonalities in metabolic relationships between the peroxisome and other cellular organelles; and regulatory shuttles associated with peroxisomal function. It is concluded that the peroxisome displays several significant interconnections with the cellular-signalling apparatus, that it is capable of imprinting a characteristic influence on the regulatory network in the cell, and that the contributions of this organelle deserve greater consideration in future investigations of cell-signalling phenomena.

  16. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    , localized changes in Ca(o)(2+) within the ECF can originate from several mechanisms, including fluxes of calcium ions into or out of cellular or extracellular stores or across epithelium that absorb or secrete Ca(2+). In any event, the CaR and other receptors/sensors for Ca(o)(2+) and probably for other extracellular ions represent versatile regulators of numerous cellular functions and may serve as important therapeutic targets.

  17. Effect of insulin on renal calcium transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gollaher, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The author has investigated both the indirect effect of insulin parathyroid hormone (PTH) activity, and the direct effect of insulin on renal calcium transport. The indirect study was performed by comparing calcium excretion in sham-operated and parathyroidectomized rats infused with the insulin secretagogue, arginine. Arginine infusion increased urinary calcium excretion in both groups. Therefore, it is concluded that neither PTH activity nor secretion is involved in this response. The direct effects of insulin were investigated by exposing rat kidney slices in vitro to varying concentrations of insulin and performing a kinetic analysis to interpret insulin's effect on calcium transport through cellular compartments. Steady state calcium transport through the plasma membrane, cytosol and mitochondria were compared in the presence and absence of insulin. Insulin had no effect on any calcium pool size or exchange rate. The direct effect of insulin was also studied in an acute experiment, which simulates conditions where insulin levels are raised rapidly as in the case with protein or glucose consumption. Under these conditions insulin treatment caused a rapid, but transient increase in /sup 45/Ca efflux from rat kidney slices. This pattern is usually indicative of a stimulation of calcium efflux across the plasma membrane. Finally, insulin caused a slight decrease in slice chemical calcium concentration.

  18. Crystal structure of calcium dodecin (Rv0379), from Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a unique calcium-binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Arockiasamy, Arulandu; Aggarwal, Anup; Savva, Christos G.; Holzenburg, Andreas; Sacchettini, James C.

    2011-09-28

    In eukaryotes, calcium-binding proteins play a pivotal role in diverse cellular processes, and recent findings suggest similar roles for bacterial proteins at different stages in their life cycle. Here, we report the crystal structure of calcium dodecin, Rv0379, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a dodecameric oligomeric assembly and a unique calcium-binding motif. Structure and sequence analysis were used to identify orthologs of Rv0379 with different ligand-binding specificity

  19. Spatiotemporal intracellular calcium dynamics during cardiac alternans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan G.; Karma, Alain

    2009-09-01

    Cellular calcium transient alternans are beat-to-beat alternations in the peak cytosolic calcium concentration exhibited by cardiac cells during rapid electrical stimulation or under pathological conditions. Calcium transient alternans promote action potential duration alternans, which have been linked to the onset of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Here we use a recently developed physiologically detailed mathematical model of ventricular myocytes to investigate both stochastic and deterministic aspects of intracellular calcium dynamics during alternans. The model combines a spatially distributed description of intracellular calcium cycling, where a large number of calcium release units are spatially distributed throughout the cell, with a full set of ionic membrane currents. The results demonstrate that ion channel stochasticity at the level of single calcium release units can influence the whole-cell alternans dynamics by causing phase reversals over many beats during fixed frequency pacing close to the alternans bifurcation. They also demonstrate the existence of a wide range of dynamical states. Depending on the sign and magnitude of calcium-voltage coupling, calcium alternans can be spatially synchronized or desynchronized, in or out of phase with action potential duration alternans, and the node separating out-of-phase regions of calcium alternans can be expelled from or trapped inside the cell. This range of states is found to be larger than previously anticipated by including a robust global attractor where calcium alternans can be spatially synchronized but out of phase with action potential duration alternans. The results are explained by a combined theoretical analysis of alternans stability and node motion using general iterative maps of the beat-to-beat dynamics and amplitude equations.

  20. Modelling mammalian cellular quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Cellular quiescence is a reversible non-proliferating state. The reactivation of ‘sleep-like’ quiescent cells (e.g. fibroblasts, lymphocytes and stem cells) into proliferation is crucial for tissue repair and regeneration and a key to the growth, development and health of higher multicellular organisms, such as mammals. Quiescence has been a primarily phenotypic description (i.e. non-permanent cell cycle arrest) and poorly studied. However, contrary to the earlier thinking that quiescence is simply a passive and dormant state lacking proliferating activities, recent studies have revealed that cellular quiescence is actively maintained in the cell and that it corresponds to a collection of heterogeneous states. Recent modelling and experimental work have suggested that an Rb-E2F bistable switch plays a pivotal role in controlling the quiescence–proliferation balance and the heterogeneous quiescent states. Other quiescence regulatory activities may crosstalk with and impinge upon the Rb-E2F bistable switch, forming a gene network that controls the cells’ quiescent states and their dynamic transitions to proliferation in response to noisy environmental signals. Elucidating the dynamic control mechanisms underlying quiescence may lead to novel therapeutic strategies that re-establish normal quiescent states, in a variety of hyper- and hypo-proliferative diseases, including cancer and ageing. PMID:24904737

  1. Structure-function of proteins interacting with the α1 pore-forming subunit of high-voltage-activated calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Alan; Hidalgo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Openings of high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channels lead to a transient increase in calcium concentration that in turn activate a plethora of cellular functions, including muscle contraction, secretion and gene transcription. To coordinate all these responses calcium channels form supramolecular assemblies containing effectors and regulatory proteins that couple calcium influx to the downstream signal cascades and to feedback elements. According to the original biochemical characterization of skeletal muscle Dihydropyridine receptors, HVA calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming subunit (α1) associated with four additional polypeptide chains β, α2, δ, and γ, often referred to as accessory subunits. Twenty-five years after the first purification of a high-voltage calcium channel, the concept of a flexible stoichiometry to expand the repertoire of mechanisms that regulate calcium channel influx has emerged. Several other proteins have been identified that associate directly with the α1-subunit, including calmodulin and multiple members of the small and large GTPase family. Some of these proteins only interact with a subset of α1-subunits and during specific stages of biogenesis. More strikingly, most of the α1-subunit interacting proteins, such as the β-subunit and small GTPases, regulate both gating and trafficking through a variety of mechanisms. Modulation of channel activity covers almost all biophysical properties of the channel. Likewise, regulation of the number of channels in the plasma membrane is performed by altering the release of the α1-subunit from the endoplasmic reticulum, by reducing its degradation or enhancing its recycling back to the cell surface. In this review, we discuss the structural basis, interplay and functional role of selected proteins that interact with the central pore-forming subunit of HVA calcium channels. PMID:24917826

  2. Excitability in a stochastic differential equation model for calcium puffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüdiger, S.

    2014-06-01

    Calcium dynamics are essential to a multitude of cellular processes. For many cell types, localized discharges of calcium through small clusters of intracellular channels are building blocks for all spatially extended calcium signals. Because of the large noise amplitude, the validity of noise-approximating model equations for this system has been questioned. Here we revisit the master equations for local calcium release, examine the multiple scales of calcium concentrations in the cluster domain, and derive adapted stochastic differential equations. We show by comparison of discrete and continuous trajectories that the Langevin equations can be made consistent with the master equations even for very small channel numbers. In its deterministic limit, the model reveals that excitability, a dynamical phenomenon observed in many natural systems, is at the core of calcium puffs. The model also predicts a bifurcation from transient to sustained release which may link local and global calcium signals in cells.

  3. Calcium Spikes in Epithelium: study on Drosophila early embryos

    PubMed Central

    Markova, Olga; Sénatore, Sébastien; Chardès, Claire; Lenne, Pierre-François

    2015-01-01

    Calcium ion acts in nearly every aspect of cellular life. The versatility and specificity required for such a ubiquitous role is ensured by the spatio-temporal dynamics of calcium concentration variations. While calcium signal dynamics has been extensively studied in cell cultures and adult tissues, little is known about calcium activity during early tissue morphogenesis. We monitored intracellular calcium concentration in Drosophila gastrula and revealed single cell calcium spikes that were short-lived, rare and showed strong variability among embryos. We quantitatively described the spatio-temporal dynamics of these spikes and analyzed their potential origins and nature by introducing physical and chemical perturbations. Our data highlight the inter- and intra-tissue variability of calcium activity during tissue morphogenesis. PMID:26198871

  4. Calcium Spikes in Epithelium: study on Drosophila early embryos.

    PubMed

    Markova, Olga; Sénatore, Sébastien; Chardès, Claire; Lenne, Pierre-François

    2015-01-01

    Calcium ion acts in nearly every aspect of cellular life. The versatility and specificity required for such a ubiquitous role is ensured by the spatio-temporal dynamics of calcium concentration variations. While calcium signal dynamics has been extensively studied in cell cultures and adult tissues, little is known about calcium activity during early tissue morphogenesis. We monitored intracellular calcium concentration in Drosophila gastrula and revealed single cell calcium spikes that were short-lived, rare and showed strong variability among embryos. We quantitatively described the spatio-temporal dynamics of these spikes and analyzed their potential origins and nature by introducing physical and chemical perturbations. Our data highlight the inter- and intra-tissue variability of calcium activity during tissue morphogenesis. PMID:26198871

  5. Multiscale Modeling of Cardiac Cellular Energetics

    PubMed Central

    BASSINGTHWAIGHTE, JAMES B.; CHIZECK, HOWARD J.; ATLAS, LES E.; QIAN, HONG

    2010-01-01

    Multiscale modeling is essential to integrating knowledge of human physiology starting from genomics, molecular biology, and the environment through the levels of cells, tissues, and organs all the way to integrated systems behavior. The lowest levels concern biophysical and biochemical events. The higher levels of organization in tissues, organs, and organism are complex, representing the dynamically varying behavior of billions of cells interacting together. Models integrating cellular events into tissue and organ behavior are forced to resort to simplifications to minimize computational complexity, thus reducing the model’s ability to respond correctly to dynamic changes in external conditions. Adjustments at protein and gene regulatory levels shortchange the simplified higher-level representations. Our cell primitive is composed of a set of subcellular modules, each defining an intracellular function (action potential, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, calcium cycling, contraction, etc.), composing what we call the “eternal cell,” which assumes that there is neither proteolysis nor protein synthesis. Within the modules are elements describing each particular component (i.e., enzymatic reactions of assorted types, transporters, ionic channels, binding sites, etc.). Cell subregions are stirred tanks, linked by diffusional or transporter-mediated exchange. The modeling uses ordinary differential equations rather than stochastic or partial differential equations. This basic model is regarded as a primitive upon which to build models encompassing gene regulation, signaling, and long-term adaptations in structure and function. During simulation, simpler forms of the model are used, when possible, to reduce computation. However, when this results in error, the more complex and detailed modules and elements need to be employed to improve model realism. The processes of error recognition and of mapping between different levels of

  6. Calreticulin secures calcium-dependent nuclear pore competency required for cardiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Randolph S; Behfar, Atta; Groenendyk, Jody; Wyles, Saranya P; Niederlander, Nicolas; Reyes, Santiago; Puceat, Michel; Michalak, Marek; Terzic, Andre; Perez-Terzic, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Calreticulin deficiency causes myocardial developmental defects that culminate in an embryonic lethal phenotype. Recent studies have linked loss of this calcium binding chaperone to failure in myofibrillogenesis through an as yet undefined mechanism. The purpose of the present study was to identify cellular processes corrupted by calreticulin deficiency that precipitate dysregulation of cardiac myofibrillogenesis related to acquisition of cardiac phenotype. In an embryonic stem cell knockout model, calreticulin deficit (crt(-/-)) compromised nucleocytoplasmic transport of nuclear localization signal-dependent and independent pathways, disrupting nuclear import of the cardiac transcription factor MEF2C. The expression of nucleoporins and associated nuclear transport proteins in derived crt(-/-) cardiomyocytes revealed an abnormal nuclear pore complex (NPC) configuration. Altered protein content in crt(-/-) cells resulted in remodeled NPC architecture that caused decreased pore diameter and diminished probability of central channel occupancy versus wild type counterparts. Ionophore treatment of impaired calcium handling in crt(-/-) cells corrected nuclear pore microarchitecture and rescued nuclear import resulting in normalized myofibrillogenesis. Thus, calreticulin deficiency alters nuclear pore function and structure, impeding myofibrillogenesis in nascent cardiomyocytes through a calcium dependent mechanism. This essential role of calreticulin in nucleocytoplasmic communication competency ties its regulatory action with proficiency of cardiac myofibrillogenesis essential for proper cardiac development.

  7. Potentiation of fractional sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release by total and free intra-sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, T R; Ginsburg, K S; Bers, D M

    2000-01-01

    Our aim was to measure the influence of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium content ([Ca](SRT)) and free SR [Ca] ([Ca](SR)) on the fraction of SR calcium released during voltage clamp steps in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes. [Ca](SRT), as measured by caffeine application, was progressively increased by conditioning pulses. Sodium was absent in both the intracellular and in the extracellular solutions to block sodium/calcium exchange. Total cytosolic calcium flux during the transient was inferred from I(Ca), [Ca](SRT), [Ca](i), and cellular buffering characteristics. Fluxes via the calcium current (I(Ca)), the SR calcium pump, and passive leak from the SR were evaluated to determine SR calcium release flux (J(rel)). Excitation-contraction (EC) coupling was characterized with respect to both gain (integral J(rel)/integral I(Ca)) and fractional SR calcium release. Both parameters were virtually zero for a small, but measurable [Ca](SRT). Gain and fractional SR calcium release increased steeply and nonlinearly with both [Ca](SRT) and [Ca](SR). We conclude that potentiation of EC coupling can be correlated with both [Ca](SRT) and [Ca](SR). While fractional SR calcium release was not linearly dependent upon [Ca](SR), intra-SR calcium may play a crucial role in regulating the SR calcium release process. PMID:10620297

  8. Cellular bioluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Welsh, David K; Noguchi, Takako

    2012-08-01

    Bioluminescence imaging of live cells has recently been recognized as an important alternative to fluorescence imaging. Fluorescent probes are much brighter than bioluminescent probes (luciferase enzymes) and, therefore, provide much better spatial and temporal resolution and much better contrast for delineating cell structure. However, with bioluminescence imaging there is virtually no background or toxicity. As a result, bioluminescence can be superior to fluorescence for detecting and quantifying molecules and their interactions in living cells, particularly in long-term studies. Structurally diverse luciferases from beetle and marine species have been used for a wide variety of applications, including tracking cells in vivo, detecting protein-protein interactions, measuring levels of calcium and other signaling molecules, detecting protease activity, and reporting circadian clock gene expression. Such applications can be optimized by the use of brighter and variously colored luciferases, brighter microscope optics, and ultrasensitive, low-noise cameras. This article presents a review of how bioluminescence differs from fluorescence, its applications to cellular imaging, and available probes, optics, and detectors. It also gives practical suggestions for optimal bioluminescence imaging of single cells.

  9. Osteoinductivity of Calcium Phosphate Mediated by Connexin 43

    PubMed Central

    Syed-Picard, Fatima N.; Jayaraman, Thottala; Lam, Raymond S.K.; Beniash, Elia; Sfeir, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports have alluded to the osteoinductive properties of calcium phosphate, yet the cellular processes behind this are not well understood. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, we have conducted a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments using a scaffoldless three dimensional (3D) dental pulp cell (DPC) construct as a physiologically relevant model. We demonstrate that amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) alters cellular functions and 3D spatial tissue differentiation patterns by increasing local calcium concentration, which modulates connexin 43 (Cx43)-mediated gap junctions. These observations indicate a chemical mechanism for osteoinductivity of calcium phosphates. These results provide new insights for possible roles of mineral phases in bone formation and remodeling. This study also emphasizes the strong effect of scaffold materials on cellular functions and is expected to advance the design of future tissue engineering materials. PMID:23465492

  10. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  11. Poliovirus protein 2BC increases cytosolic free calcium concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Aldabe, R; Irurzun, A; Carrasco, L

    1997-01-01

    Poliovirus-infected cells undergo an increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentrations from the 4th h postinfection. The protein responsible for this effect was identified by the expression of different poliovirus nonstructural proteins in HeLa cells by using a recombinant vaccinia virus system. Synthesis of protein 2BC enhances cytoplasmic calcium concentrations in a manner similar to that observed in poliovirus-infected cells. To identify the regions in 2BC involved in modifying cytoplasmic calcium levels, several 2BC variants were generated. Regions present in both 2B and 2C are necessary to augment cellular free calcium levels. Therefore, in addition to inducing proliferation of membranous vesicles, poliovirus protein 2BC also alters cellular calcium homeostasis. PMID:9223520

  12. Intracellular calcium measurements with arsenazo III during cyclic AMP injections into molluscan neurons.

    PubMed

    Hockberger, P; Connor, J A

    1983-02-18

    Injections of cyclic adenosine monophosphate into molluscan neurons often produce a transient membrane depolarization. By using the calcium indicator dye arsenazo III, it was found that cyclic nucleotide injections into neurons of Archidoris montereyensis resulted in elevation of internal calcium concentrations. However, this was demonstrated to be a secondary consequence of an induced increase in membrane sodium permeability, and not due to any direct effect of cyclic adenosine monophosphate on cellular calcium influx or internal calcium regulating processes.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum calcium pumps and cancer cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Papp, Béla; Brouland, Jean-Philippe; Arbabian, Atousa; Gélébart, Pascal; Kovács, Tünde; Bobe, Régis; Enouf, Jocelyne; Varin-Blank, Nadine; Apáti, Agota

    2012-03-05

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a major intracellular calcium storage pool and a multifunctional organelle that accomplishes several calcium-dependent functions involved in many homeostatic and signaling mechanisms. Calcium is accumulated in the ER by Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase (SERCA)-type calcium pumps. SERCA activity can determine ER calcium content available for intra-ER functions and for calcium release into the cytosol, and can shape the spatiotemporal characteristics of calcium signals. SERCA function therefore constitutes an important nodal point in the regulation of cellular calcium homeostasis and signaling, and can exert important effects on cell growth, differentiation and survival. In several cell types such as cells of hematopoietic origin, mammary, gastric and colonic epithelium, SERCA2 and SERCA3-type calcium pumps are simultaneously expressed, and SERCA3 expression levels undergo significant changes during cell differentiation, activation or immortalization. In addition, SERCA3 expression is decreased or lost in several tumor types when compared to the corresponding normal tissue. These observations indicate that ER calcium homeostasis is remodeled during cell differentiation, and may present defects due to decreased SERCA3 expression in tumors. Modulation of the state of differentiation of the ER reflected by SERCA3 expression constitutes an interesting new aspect of cell differentiation and tumor biology.

  14. Modulation of Voltage- and Ca2+-dependent Gating of CaV1.3 L-type Calcium Channels by Alternative Splicing of a C-terminal Regulatory Domain*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anamika; Gebhart, Mathias; Fritsch, Reinhard; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J.; Poggiani, Chiara; Hoda, Jean-Charles; Engel, Jutta; Romanin, Christoph; Striessnig, Jörg; Koschak, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Low voltage activation of CaV1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels controls excitability in sensory cells and central neurons as well as sinoatrial node pacemaking. CaV1.3-mediated pacemaking determines neuronal vulnerability of dopaminergic striatal neurons affected in Parkinson disease. We have previously found that in CaV1.4 L-type Ca2+ channels, activation, voltage, and calcium-dependent inactivation are controlled by an intrinsic distal C-terminal modulator. Because alternative splicing in the CaV1.3 α1 subunit C terminus gives rise to a long (CaV1.342) and a short form (CaV1.342A), we investigated if a C-terminal modulatory mechanism also controls CaV1.3 gating. The biophysical properties of both splice variants were compared after heterologous expression together with β3 and α2δ1 subunits in HEK-293 cells. Activation of calcium current through CaV1.342A channels was more pronounced at negative voltages, and inactivation was faster because of enhanced calcium-dependent inactivation. By investigating several CaV1.3 channel truncations, we restricted the modulator activity to the last 116 amino acids of the C terminus. The resulting CaV1.3ΔC116 channels showed gating properties similar to CaV1.342A that were reverted by co-expression of the corresponding C-terminal peptide C116. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments confirmed an intramolecular protein interaction in the C terminus of CaV1.3 channels that also modulates calmodulin binding. These experiments revealed a novel mechanism of channel modulation enabling cells to tightly control CaV1.3 channel activity by alternative splicing. The absence of the C-terminal modulator in short splice forms facilitates CaV1.3 channel activation at lower voltages expected to favor CaV1.3 activity at threshold voltages as required for modulation of neuronal firing behavior and sinoatrial node pacemaking. PMID:18482979

  15. Calcium calmodulin and hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Brown, B L; Walker, S W; Tomlinson, S

    1985-08-01

    As long ago as 1970, it was proposed that Ca2+ can act as a 'second messenger' like cAMP (Rasmussen & Nagata, 1979). The recognition that calmodulin is a major Ca2+ binding protein in non-muscle cells has prompted the suggestion that calmodulin may serve an analogous role for Ca2+ to that served by protein kinase for cAMP (Wang & Waisman, 1979), or at least to the regulatory subunit of the cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases. It is becoming clear that calmodulin probably does play a role in stimulus secretion coupling in endocrine cells. Nevertheless, some of the experimental approaches which have led to this rather tentative conclusion do induce some doubts, as we have attempted to indicate. Many of the pharmacological agents used in the studies cited in this review are not specific in their interaction with calmodulin. For example, the phenothiazines also inhibit phospholipid-sensitive protein kinase. The introduction of more specific drugs, such as the naphthalene sulphonamides, may lead to a clearer picture of the role of calmodulin in hormone secretion. Relationships probably exist between cyclic nucleotides, calcium, calmodulin, phosphatidylinositol (PI) turnover and phospholipids in the overall control of the secretory process (see Fig. 1). There is considerable evidence that calcium is the primary internal signal initiating exocytosis of hormone from many glands. However, it appears that cyclic nucleotides can modulate the calcium signal either positively or negatively and it is possible that cAMP and calcium can separately activate secretion. The presence of both calmodulin-activated adenylate cyclase and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase in the same tissue would appear to suggest either spatial or temporal control mechanisms or that (diagram; see text) the calcium requirement for calmodulin activation differs between the two enzymes. The true explanation is probably far more complex and involves perhaps as yet unknown factors that can differentially

  16. Involvement of phospholipase D in store-operated calcium influx in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Walter, M; Tepel, M; Nofer, J R; Neusser, M; Assmann, G; Zidek, W

    2000-08-11

    In non-excitable cells, sustained intracellular Ca2+ increase critically depends on influx of extracellular Ca2+. Such Ca2+ influx is thought to occur by a 'store-operated' mechanism, i.e. the signal for Ca2+ entry is believed to result from the initial release of Ca2+ from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive intracellular stores. Here we show that the depletion of cellular Ca2+ stores by thapsigargin or bradykinin is functionally linked to a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase D (PLD) activity in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and that phosphatidic acid formed via PLD enhances sustained calcium entry in this cell type. These results suggest a regulatory role for PLD in store-operated Ca2+ entry in VSMC.

  17. Intracellular Calcium Dysregulation: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Magi, Simona; Castaldo, Pasqualina; Macrì, Maria Loredana; Maiolino, Marta; Matteucci, Alessandra; Bastioli, Guendalina; Gratteri, Santo; Amoroso, Salvatore; Lariccia, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive neuronal loss. AD is associated with aberrant processing of the amyloid precursor protein, which leads to the deposition of amyloid-β plaques within the brain. Together with plaques deposition, the hyperphosphorylation of the microtubules associated protein tau and the formation of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles are a typical neuropathological feature in AD brains. Cellular dysfunctions involving specific subcellular compartments, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), are emerging as crucial players in the pathogenesis of AD, as well as increased oxidative stress and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis. Specifically, dysregulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis has been suggested as a common proximal cause of neural dysfunction in AD. Aberrant calcium signaling has been considered a phenomenon mainly related to the dysfunction of intracellular calcium stores, which can occur in both neuronal and nonneuronal cells. This review reports the most recent findings on cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of AD, with main focus on the control of calcium homeostasis at both cytosolic and mitochondrial level. PMID:27340665

  18. Intracellular Calcium Dysregulation: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Magi, Simona; Castaldo, Pasqualina; Macrì, Maria Loredana; Maiolino, Marta; Matteucci, Alessandra; Bastioli, Guendalina; Gratteri, Santo; Lariccia, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive neuronal loss. AD is associated with aberrant processing of the amyloid precursor protein, which leads to the deposition of amyloid-β plaques within the brain. Together with plaques deposition, the hyperphosphorylation of the microtubules associated protein tau and the formation of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles are a typical neuropathological feature in AD brains. Cellular dysfunctions involving specific subcellular compartments, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), are emerging as crucial players in the pathogenesis of AD, as well as increased oxidative stress and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis. Specifically, dysregulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis has been suggested as a common proximal cause of neural dysfunction in AD. Aberrant calcium signaling has been considered a phenomenon mainly related to the dysfunction of intracellular calcium stores, which can occur in both neuronal and nonneuronal cells. This review reports the most recent findings on cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of AD, with main focus on the control of calcium homeostasis at both cytosolic and mitochondrial level. PMID:27340665

  19. Calcium signaling and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Kass, G E; Orrenius, S

    1999-01-01

    The divalent calcium cation Ca(2+) is used as a major signaling molecule during cell signal transduction to regulate energy output, cellular metabolism, and phenotype. The basis to the signaling role of Ca(2+) is an intricate network of cellular channels and transporters that allow a low resting concentration of Ca(2+) in the cytosol of the cell ([Ca(2+)]i) but that are also coupled to major dynamic and rapidly exchanging stores. This enables extracellular signals from hormones and growth factors to be transduced as [Ca(2+)]i spikes that are amplitude and frequency encoded. There is considerable evidence that a number of toxic environmental chemicals target these Ca(2+) signaling processes, alter them, and induce cell death by apoptosis. Two major pathways for apoptosis will be considered. The first one involves Ca(2+)-mediated expression of ligands that bind to and activate death receptors such as CD95 (Fas, APO-1). In the second pathway, Ca(2+) has a direct toxic effect and its primary targets include the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Mitochondria may respond to an apoptotic Ca(2+) signal by the selective release of cytochrome c or through enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and opening of an inner mitochondrial membrane pore. Toxic agents such as the environmental pollutant tributyltin or the natural plant product thapsigargin, which deplete the ER Ca(2+) stores, will induce as a direct result of this effect the opening of plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels and an ER stress response. In contrast, under some conditions, Ca(2+) signals may be cytoprotective and antagonize the apoptotic machinery. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10229704

  20. Steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone promotes higher calcium mobilization to induce apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Pei, Xu-Yang; Zhao, Wen-Li; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2016-07-01

    Calcium ions are essential secondary messengers that regulate diverse cellular processes including gene transcription, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) promotes programmed cell death during insect metamorphosis, whereas juvenile hormone (JH) counteracts 20E activity to prevent metamorphosis. Both 20E and JH can induce cellular calcium increase; however, the mechanisms and physiological consequences resulting from calcium increase caused by the two counteracting hormones are unclear. Here, using Helicoverpa armigera epidermal cell line, we show that 20E via a G-protein-coupled receptor induced a major calcium rise in the cells, whereas JH via receptor tyrosine kinase induced a minor calcium increase. The calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1 (Orai1) and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels were necessary for 20E-induced rapid calcium influx. A higher calcium level was maintained in a long time and more genes including Orai1 and TRP channels showed elevated expression after the treatment of 20E than did after JH treatment. Caspase3/7 activation, cell death and pro-apoptotic gene expression were elicited by 20E induction, but not by JH. JH could repress 20E-induced calcium influx, caspase3/7 activation and gene expression. Higher calcium levels induced apoptosis. These results suggest that 20E and JH via different pathways regulate calcium mobilization and homeostasis at different levels, thus inform different gene expression and cellular responses. PMID:27209368

  1. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  2. Nuclear Calcium Buffering Capacity Shapes Neuronal Architecture.

    PubMed

    Mauceri, Daniela; Hagenston, Anna M; Schramm, Kathrin; Weiss, Ursula; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-09-18

    Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) such as parvalbumin are part of the cellular calcium buffering system that determines intracellular calcium diffusion and influences the spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium signals. In neurons, CaBPs are primarily localized to the cytosol and function, for example, in nerve terminals in short-term synaptic plasticity. However, CaBPs are also expressed in the cell nucleus, suggesting that they modulate nuclear calcium signals, which are key regulators of neuronal gene expression. Here we show that the calcium buffering capacity of the cell nucleus in mouse hippocampal neurons regulates neuronal architecture by modulating the expression levels of VEGFD and the complement factor C1q-c, two nuclear calcium-regulated genes that control dendrite geometry and spine density, respectively. Increasing the levels of nuclear calcium buffers by means of expression of a nuclearly targeted form of parvalbumin fused to mCherry (PV.NLS-mC) led to a reduction in VEGFD expression and, as a result, to a decrease in total dendritic length and complexity. In contrast, mRNA levels of the synapse pruning factor C1q-c were increased in neurons expressing PV.NLS-mC, causing a reduction in the density and size of dendritic spines. Our results establish a close link between nuclear calcium buffering capacity and the transcription of genes that determine neuronal structure. They suggest that the development of cognitive deficits observed in neurological conditions associated with CaBP deregulation may reflect the loss of necessary structural features of dendrites and spines.

  3. Oxysterols and calcium signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Mackrill, John J

    2011-09-01

    Ionised calcium (Ca(2+)) is a key second messenger, regulating almost every cellular process from cell death to muscle contraction. Cytosolic levels of this ion can be increased via gating of channel proteins located in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum and other membrane-delimited organelles. Ca(2+) can be removed from cells by extrusion across the plasma membrane, uptake into organelles and buffering by anionic components. Ca(2+) channels and extrusion mechanisms work in concert to generate diverse spatiotemporal patterns of this second messenger, the distinct profiles of which determine different cellular outcomes. Increases in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration are one of the most rapid cellular responses upon exposure to certain oxysterol congeners or to oxidised low-density lipoprotein, occurring within seconds of addition and preceding increases in levels of reactive oxygen species, or changes in gene expression. Furthermore, exposure of cells to oxysterols for periods of hours to days modulates Ca(2+) signal transduction, with these longer-term alterations in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis potentially underlying pathological events within atherosclerotic lesions, such as hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictors observed in vascular smooth muscle, or ER stress-induced cell death in macrophages. Despite their candidate roles in physiology and disease, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that couple changes in oxysterol concentrations to alterations in Ca(2+) signalling. This review examines the ways in which oxysterols could influence Ca(2+) signal transduction and the potential roles of this in health and disease. PMID:21513705

  4. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay.

    PubMed

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca(2+) signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. PMID:26296072

  5. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay

    PubMed Central

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca2+ signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. PMID:26296072

  6. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay.

    PubMed

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca(2+) signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders.

  7. Calcium and Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your weekly shopping list. Produce Serving Size Estimated Calcium* Collard greens, frozen 8 oz 360 mg ... Oranges 1 whole 55 mg Seafood Serving Size Estimated Calcium* Sardines, canned with bones 3 oz 325 ...

  8. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  9. Calcium and bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... only gets the calcium it needs through the food you eat, or from supplements. If you do ... materials it needs to build bones. High-calcium foods include: Milk Cheese Ice cream Leafy green vegetables, ...

  10. Calcium and Mitosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  11. Calmodulin-dependent activation and inactivation of anoctamin calcium-gated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Vocke, Kerstin; Dauner, Kristin; Hahn, Anne; Ulbrich, Anne; Broecker, Jana; Keller, Sandro; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2013-10-01

    Calcium-dependent chloride channels serve critical functions in diverse biological systems. Driven by cellular calcium signals, the channels codetermine excitatory processes and promote solute transport. The anoctamin (ANO) family of membrane proteins encodes three calcium-activated chloride channels, named ANO 1 (also TMEM16A), ANO 2 (also TMEM16B), and ANO 6 (also TMEM16F). Here we examined how ANO 1 and ANO 2 interact with Ca(2+)/calmodulin using nonstationary current analysis during channel activation. We identified a putative calmodulin-binding domain in the N-terminal region of the channel proteins that is involved in channel activation. Binding studies with peptides indicated that this domain, a regulatory calmodulin-binding motif (RCBM), provides two distinct modes of interaction with Ca(2+)/calmodulin, one at submicromolar Ca(2+) concentrations and one in the micromolar Ca(2+) range. Functional, structural, and pharmacological data support the concept that calmodulin serves as a calcium sensor that is stably associated with the RCBM domain and regulates the activation of ANO 1 and ANO 2 channels. Moreover, the predominant splice variant of ANO 2 in the brain exhibits Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent inactivation, a loss of channel activity within 30 s. This property may curtail ANO 2 activity during persistent Ca(2+) signals in neurons. Mutagenesis data indicated that the RCBM domain is also involved in ANO 2 inactivation, and that inactivation is suppressed in the retinal ANO 2 splice variant. These results advance the understanding of Ca(2+) regulation in anoctamin Cl(-) channels and its significance for the physiological function that anoctamin channels subserve in neurons and other cell types.

  12. Cellular: Toward personal communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffernan, Stuart

    1991-09-01

    The cellular industry is one of the fastest growing segment of the telecommunications industry. With an estimated penetration rate of 20 percent in the near future, cellular is becoming an ubiquitous telecommunications service in the U.S. In this paper we will examine the major advancements in the cellular industry: customer equipment, cellular networks, engineering tools, customer support, and nationwide seamless service.

  13. Genetically-encoded probes for measurement of intracellular calcium

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Small, fluorescent, calcium-sensing molecules have been enormously useful in mapping intracellular calcium signals in time and space, as chapters in this volume attest. Despite their widespread adoption and utility, they suffer some disadvantages. Genetically-encoded calcium sensors that can by expressed inside cells by transfection or transgenesis are desirable. The last ten years have been marked by a rapid evolution in the laboratory of genetically encoded calcium sensors two families both figuratively and literally, resulting in11distinct configurations of fluorescent proteins and their attendant calcium sensor modules. Here, I described the design logic and performance of this abundant collection of sensors and describe their use and performance in intro and in vivo. Genetically-encoded calcium sensors have proved valuable in the measurement of calcium concentration in cellular organelles, for the most part in single cells in vitro. Their success as quantitative calcium sensors in tissues in vitro and in vivo is qualified, but they have proved valuable in imaging the pattern of calcium signals within tissues in whole animals. Some branches of the calcium sensor evolutionary tree continue to evolve rapidly and the steady progress in optimising sensor parameters leads to the certain hope that these drawbacks will eventually be overcome by further genetic engineering. PMID:21035686

  14. STaRRRT: a table of short tandem repeats in regulatory regions of the human genome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tandem repeats (TRs) are unstable regions commonly found within genomes that have consequences for evolution and disease. In humans, polymorphic TRs are known to cause neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders as well as being associated with complex diseases such as diabetes and cancer. If present in upstream regulatory regions, TRs can modify chromatin structure and affect transcription; resulting in altered gene expression and protein abundance. The most common TRs are short tandem repeats (STRs), or microsatellites. Promoter located STRs are considerably more polymorphic than coding region STRs. As such, they may be a common driver of phenotypic variation. To study STRs located in regulatory regions, we have performed genome-wide analysis to identify all STRs present in a region that is 2 kilobases upstream and 1 kilobase downstream of the transcription start sites of genes. Results The Short Tandem Repeats in Regulatory Regions Table, STaRRRT, contains the results of the genome-wide analysis, outlining the characteristics of 5,264 STRs present in the upstream regulatory region of 4,441 human genes. Gene set enrichment analysis has revealed significant enrichment for STRs in cellular, transcriptional and neurological system gene promoters and genes important in ion and calcium homeostasis. The set of enriched terms has broad similarity to that seen in coding regions, suggesting that regulatory region STRs are subject to similar evolutionary pressures as STRs in coding regions and may, like coding region STRs, have an important role in controlling gene expression. Conclusions STaRRRT is a readily-searchable resource for investigating potentially polymorphic STRs that could influence the expression of any gene of interest. The processes and genes enriched for regulatory region STRs provide potential novel targets for diagnosing and treating disease, and support a role for these STRs in the evolution of the human genome. PMID:24228761

  15. Simulations of intracellular calcium release dynamics in response to a high-intensity, ultrashort electric pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, R. P.; Nguyen, A.; Sridhara, V.; Hu, Q.; Nuccitelli, R.; Beebe, S. J.; Kolb, J.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    2007-04-01

    Numerical simulations for electrically induced, intracellular calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum are reported. A two-step model is used for self-consistency. Distributed electrical circuit representation coupled with the Smoluchowski equation yields the ER membrane nanoporation for calcium outflow based on a numerical simulation. This is combined with the continuum Li-Rinzel model and drift diffusion for calcium dynamics. Our results are shown to be in agreement with reported calcium release data. A modest increase (rough doubling) of the cellular calcium is predicted in the absence of extra-cellular calcium. In particular, the applied field of 15kV/cm with 60ns pulse duration makes for a strong comparison. No oscillations are predicted and the net recovery period of about 5min are both in agreement with published experimental results. A quantitative explanation for the lack of such oscillatory behavior, based on the density dependent calcium fluxes, is also provided.

  16. Calcium modulation of doxorubicin cytotoxicity in yeast and human cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Thuy Trang; Lim, Ying Jun; Fan, Melanie Hui Min; Jackson, Rebecca A; Lim, Kim Kiat; Ang, Wee Han; Ban, Kenneth Hon Kim; Chen, Ee Sin

    2016-03-01

    Doxorubicin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, but its utility is limited by cellular resistance and off-target effects. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating chemotherapeutic responses to doxorubicin, we previously carried out a genomewide search of doxorubicin-resistance genes in Schizosaccharomyces pombe fission yeast and showed that these genes are organized into networks that counteract doxorubicin cytotoxicity. Here, we describe the identification of a subgroup of doxorubicin-resistance genes that, when disrupted, leads to reduced tolerance to exogenous calcium. Unexpectedly, we observed a suppressive effect of calcium on doxorubicin cytotoxicity, where concurrent calcium and doxorubicin treatment resulted in significantly higher cell survival compared with cells treated with doxorubicin alone. Conversely, inhibitors of voltage-gated calcium channels enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity in the mutants. Consistent with these observations in fission yeast, calcium also suppressed doxorubicin cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells. Further epistasis analyses in yeast showed that this suppression of doxorubicin toxicity by calcium was synergistically dependent on Rav1 and Vph2, two regulators of vacuolar-ATPase assembly; this suggests potential modulation of the calcium-doxorubicin interaction by fluctuating proton concentrations within the cellular environment. Thus, the modulatory effects of drugs or diet on calcium concentrations should be considered in doxorubicin treatment regimes. PMID:26891792

  17. Calcium signaling and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2014-08-01

    Calcium signaling is involved in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized as an important factor in epileptogenesis, and it is becoming obvious that the excess synchronization of neurons that is characteristic for seizures can be linked to various calcium signaling pathways. These include immediate effects on membrane excitability by calcium influx through ion channels as well as delayed mechanisms that act through G-protein coupled pathways. Calcium signaling is able to cause hyperexcitability either by direct modulation of neuronal activity or indirectly through calcium-dependent gliotransmission. Furthermore, feedback mechanisms between mitochondrial calcium signaling and reactive oxygen species are able to cause neuronal cell death and seizures. Unravelling the complexity of calcium signaling in epileptogenesis is a daunting task, but it includes the promise to uncover formerly unknown targets for the development of new antiepileptic drugs.

  18. High proportions of regulatory B and T cells are associated with decreased cellular responses to pH1N1 influenza vaccine in HIV-infected children and youth (IMPAACT P1088).

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Adriana; Muresan, Petronella; Fenton, Terence; Richardson, Kelly; Dominguez, Teresa; Bloom, Anthony; Petzold, Elizabeth; Anthony, Patricia; Cunningham, Coleen K; Spector, Stephen A; Nachman, Sharon; Siberry, George K; Handelsman, Edward; Flynn, Patricia M

    2013-05-01

    HIV-infected individuals have poor responses to inactivated influenza vaccines. To evaluate the potential role of regulatory T (Treg) and B cells (Breg), we analyzed their correlation with humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to pandemic influenza (pH1N1) monovalent vaccine in HIV-infected children and youth. Seventy-four HIV-infected, 4- to 25-y old participants in a 2-dose pH1N1 vaccine study had circulating and pH1N1-stimulated Treg and Breg measured by flow cytometry at baseline, post-dose 1 and post-dose 2. Concomitantly, CMI was measured by ELISPOT and flow cytometry; and antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI). At baseline, most of the participants had pH1N1-specific IFNγ ELISPOT responses, whose magnitude positively correlated with the baseline pH1N1, but not with seasonal H1N1 HAI titers. pH1N1-specific IFNγ ELISPOT responses did not change post-dose 1 and significantly decreased post-dose 2. In contrast, circulating CD4+CD25+% and CD4+FOXP3+% Treg increased after vaccination. The decrease in IFNγ ELISPOT results was marginally associated with higher pH1N1-specific CD19+FOXP3+ and CD4+TGFβ+% Breg and Treg, respectively. In contrast, increases in HAI titers post-dose 1 were associated with significantly higher circulating CD19+CD25+% post-dose 1, whereas increases in IFNγ ELISPOT results post-dose 1 were associated with higher circulating CD4+/C8+CD25+FOXP3+%. In conclusion, in HIV-infected children and youth, influenza-specific Treg and Breg may contribute to poor responses to vaccination. However, robust humoral and CMI responses to vaccination may result in increased circulating Treg and/or Breg, establishing a feed-back mechanism.

  19. High proportions of regulatory B and T cells are associated with decreased cellular responses to pH1N1 influenza vaccine in HIV-infected children and youth (IMPAACT P1088)

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Adriana; Muresan, Petronella; Fenton, Terence; Richardson, Kelly; Dominguez, Teresa; Bloom, Anthony; Petzold, Elizabeth; Anthony, Patricia; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Spector, Stephen A.; Nachman, Sharon; Siberry, George K.; Handelsman, Edward; Flynn, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals have poor responses to inactivated influenza vaccines. To evaluate the potential role of regulatory T (Treg) and B cells (Breg), we analyzed their correlation with humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to pandemic influenza (pH1N1) monovalent vaccine in HIV-infected children and youth. Seventy-four HIV-infected, 4- to 25-y old participants in a 2-dose pH1N1 vaccine study had circulating and pH1N1-stimulated Treg and Breg measured by flow cytometry at baseline, post-dose 1 and post-dose 2. Concomitantly, CMI was measured by ELISPOT and flow cytometry; and antibodies by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI). At baseline, most of the participants had pH1N1-specific IFNγ ELISPOT responses, whose magnitude positively correlated with the baseline pH1N1, but not with seasonal H1N1 HAI titers. pH1N1-specific IFNγ ELISPOT responses did not change post-dose 1 and significantly decreased post-dose 2. In contrast, circulating CD4+CD25+% and CD4+FOXP3+% Treg increased after vaccination. The decrease in IFNγ ELISPOT results was marginally associated with higher pH1N1-specific CD19+FOXP3+ and CD4+TGFβ+% Breg and Treg, respectively. In contrast, increases in HAI titers post-dose 1 were associated with significantly higher circulating CD19+CD25+% post-dose 1, whereas increases in IFNγ ELISPOT results post-dose 1 were associated with higher circulating CD4+/C8+CD25+FOXP3+%. In conclusion, in HIV-infected children and youth, influenza-specific Treg and Breg may contribute to poor responses to vaccination. However, robust humoral and CMI responses to vaccination may result in increased circulating Treg and/or Breg, establishing a feed-back mechanism. PMID:23370281

  20. Caffeine-induced myocardial injury in calcium-free perfused rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Vander Heide, R S; Ganote, C E

    1985-01-01

    Hearts depleted of extracellular calcium become susceptible to injury caused by repletion of extracellular calcium (calcium paradox). It has been suggested that calcium-free perfusion causes weakening of intercalated disks and that the physical stress of contracture may cause sarcolemmal membrane rupture and creatine kinase (CK) release. To further investigate this hypothesis, the effects of caffeine on contracture, cellular morphology, and CK release were studied in control and calcium-free perfused isolated rat hearts. Control hearts perfused with 2.5 mM calcium retained normal ultrastructure for long periods of perfusion. Calcium-free hearts perfused for 12 minutes developed separations of fascia adherens portions of intercalated disks but retained intact nexus junctions. Hearts subjected to 5-minute calcium-free perfusion, followed by calcium repletion, developed a massive CK release and extensive contraction band necrosis (calcium paradox). Ten millimolar caffeine, which causes rapid calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), produced contracture, but not CK release, from control hearts perfused with medium containing 2.5 mM calcium. In calcium-free perfused hearts, caffeine caused sudden CK release accompanied by contracture, development of contraction bands, wide separations of cells at intercalated disks, and sarcolemmal membrane injury. Caffeine-induced injury occurred despite 3 mM amobarbital inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. Hearts perfused with caffeine in the presence of calcium relaxed when made calcium-free and did not release CK. Addition of caffeine following calcium-free perfusion at 22 C, which protects the heart from the calcium paradox, produced a rapid, transient contracture. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that myocardial cell injury in calcium-free hearts is not dependent on repletion of extracellular calcium or mitochondrial function, but can result from contracture following caffeine-induced release of

  1. Smoking, calcium, calcium antagonists, and aging.

    PubMed

    Nicita-Mauro, V

    1990-01-01

    Aging is characterized, besides other changes, by a progressive increase in calcium content in the arterial wall, which is enhanced by diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, arterial hypertension, and tabagism. As to tabagism, experiments in animals have shown that nicotine can increase calcium content of the arterial wall, and clinical studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking induces peripheral vasoconstriction, with consequent increase in blood pressure levels. In order to study the role of calcium ions in the pathogenesis of the vasoconstrictive lesions caused by "acute" smoking, the author has studied the peripheral vascular effects of the calcium-channel antagonist nifedipine, a dihydropyridine derivative, and calcitonin, a hypocalcemizing hormone which possess vasoactive actions on 12 elderly regular smokers (mean age 65.8 years). The results demonstrated that both nifedipine (10 mg sublingually 20 min before smoking) and salmon calcitonin (100 MRC U/daily intramuscularly for three days) are able to prevent peripheral vasoconstriction evaluated by Doppler velocimetry, as well as the increase of blood pressure induced by smoking. On the basis of our results, the author proposes that cigarette smoking-induced vasoconstriction is a calcium-mediated process, which can be hindered by drugs with calcium antagonist action. PMID:2226675

  2. Global Summit on Regulatory Science 2013.

    PubMed

    Howard, Paul C; Tong, Weida; Weichold, Frank; Healy, Marion; Slikker, William

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory science has been defined as the science that is used to develop regulatory decisions by government bodies. Regulatory science encompasses many scientific disciplines that oversee many studies producing a wide array of data. These may include fundamental research into the cellular interaction or response to a particular chemical or substance, hazard-assessment and dose-response studies in animal species, neurophysiological or neurobehavioral studies, best practices for the generation and analysis of genomics data, bioinformatics approaches, and mathematical modeling of risk. The Global Summit on Regulatory Science is an international conference with a mission to explore emerging and innovative technologies, and provide a platform to enhance translation of basic science into regulatory applications. The Third Global Summit on Regulatory Science which focused on nanotechnology is discussed.

  3. Regulatory Snapshots: integrative mining of regulatory modules from expression time series and regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Joana P; Aires, Ricardo S; Francisco, Alexandre P; Madeira, Sara C

    2012-01-01

    Explaining regulatory mechanisms is crucial to understand complex cellular responses leading to system perturbations. Some strategies reverse engineer regulatory interactions from experimental data, while others identify functional regulatory units (modules) under the assumption that biological systems yield a modular organization. Most modular studies focus on network structure and static properties, ignoring that gene regulation is largely driven by stimulus-response behavior. Expression time series are key to gain insight into dynamics, but have been insufficiently explored by current methods, which often (1) apply generic algorithms unsuited for expression analysis over time, due to inability to maintain the chronology of events or incorporate time dependency; (2) ignore local patterns, abundant in most interesting cases of transcriptional activity; (3) neglect physical binding or lack automatic association of regulators, focusing mainly on expression patterns; or (4) limit the discovery to a predefined number of modules. We propose Regulatory Snapshots, an integrative mining approach to identify regulatory modules over time by combining transcriptional control with response, while overcoming the above challenges. Temporal biclustering is first used to reveal transcriptional modules composed of genes showing coherent expression profiles over time. Personalized ranking is then applied to prioritize prominent regulators targeting the modules at each time point using a network of documented regulatory associations and the expression data. Custom graphics are finally depicted to expose the regulatory activity in a module at consecutive time points (snapshots). Regulatory Snapshots successfully unraveled modules underlying yeast response to heat shock and human epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, based on regulations documented in the YEASTRACT and JASPAR databases, respectively, and available expression data. Regulatory players involved in functionally enriched

  4. TMEM203 Is a Novel Regulator of Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis and Is Required for Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shambharkar, Prashant B.; Bittinger, Mark; Latario, Brian; Xiong, ZhaoHui; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Davis, Vanessa; Lin, Victor; Yang, Yi; Valdez, Reginald; Labow, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular calcium signaling is critical for initiating and sustaining diverse cellular functions including transcription, synaptic signaling, muscle contraction, apoptosis and fertilization. Trans-membrane 203 (TMEM203) was identified here in cDNA overexpression screens for proteins capable of modulating intracellular calcium levels using activation of a calcium/calcineurin regulated transcription factor as an indicator. Overexpression of TMEM203 resulted in a reduction of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) calcium stores and elevation in basal cytoplasmic calcium levels. TMEM203 protein was localized to the ER and found associated with a number of ER proteins which regulate ER calcium entry and efflux. Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Tmem203 deficient mice had reduced ER calcium stores and altered calcium homeostasis. Tmem203 deficient mice were viable though male knockout mice were infertile and exhibited a severe block in spermiogenesis and spermiation. Expression profiling studies showed significant alternations in expression of calcium channels and pumps in testes and concurrently Tmem203 deficient spermatocytes demonstrated significantly altered calcium handling. Thus Tmem203 is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of cellular calcium homeostasis, is required for spermatogenesis and provides a causal link between intracellular calcium regulation and spermiogenesis. PMID:25996873

  5. Mitochondrial calcium uptake.

    PubMed

    Williams, George S B; Boyman, Liron; Chikando, Aristide C; Khairallah, Ramzi J; Lederer, W J

    2013-06-25

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) uptake into the mitochondrial matrix is critically important to cellular function. As a regulator of matrix Ca(2+) levels, this flux influences energy production and can initiate cell death. If large, this flux could potentially alter intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) signals. Despite years of study, fundamental disagreements on the extent and speed of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake still exist. Here, we review and quantitatively analyze mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake fluxes from different tissues and interpret the results with respect to the recently proposed mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) candidate. This quantitative analysis yields four clear results: (i) under physiological conditions, Ca(2+) influx into the mitochondria via the MCU is small relative to other cytosolic Ca(2+) extrusion pathways; (ii) single MCU conductance is ∼6-7 pS (105 mM [Ca(2+)]), and MCU flux appears to be modulated by [Ca(2+)]i, suggesting Ca(2+) regulation of MCU open probability (P(O)); (iii) in the heart, two features are clear: the number of MCU channels per mitochondrion can be calculated, and MCU probability is low under normal conditions; and (iv) in skeletal muscle and liver cells, uptake per mitochondrion varies in magnitude but total uptake per cell still appears to be modest. Based on our analysis of available quantitative data, we conclude that although Ca(2+) critically regulates mitochondrial function, the mitochondria do not act as a significant dynamic buffer of cytosolic Ca(2+) under physiological conditions. Nevertheless, with prolonged (superphysiological) elevations of [Ca(2+)]i, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake can increase 10- to 1,000-fold and begin to shape [Ca(2+)]i dynamics.

  6. Predicting cellular growth from gene expression signatures.

    PubMed

    Airoldi, Edoardo M; Huttenhower, Curtis; Gresham, David; Lu, Charles; Caudy, Amy A; Dunham, Maitreya J; Broach, James R; Botstein, David; Troyanskaya, Olga G

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining balanced growth in a changing environment is a fundamental systems-level challenge for cellular physiology, particularly in microorganisms. While the complete set of regulatory and functional pathways supporting growth and cellular proliferation are not yet known, portions of them are well understood. In particular, cellular proliferation is governed by mechanisms that are highly conserved from unicellular to multicellular organisms, and the disruption of these processes in metazoans is a major factor in the development of cancer. In this paper, we develop statistical methodology to identify quantitative aspects of the regulatory mechanisms underlying cellular proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that the expression levels of a small set of genes can be exploited to predict the instantaneous growth rate of any cellular culture with high accuracy. The predictions obtained in this fashion are robust to changing biological conditions, experimental methods, and technological platforms. The proposed model is also effective in predicting growth rates for the related yeast Saccharomyces bayanus and the highly diverged yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, suggesting that the underlying regulatory signature is conserved across a wide range of unicellular evolution. We investigate the biological significance of the gene expression signature that the predictions are based upon from multiple perspectives: by perturbing the regulatory network through the Ras/PKA pathway, observing strong upregulation of growth rate even in the absence of appropriate nutrients, and discovering putative transcription factor binding sites, observing enrichment in growth-correlated genes. More broadly, the proposed methodology enables biological insights about growth at an instantaneous time scale, inaccessible by direct experimental methods. Data and tools enabling others to apply our methods are available at http://function.princeton.edu/growthrate.

  7. Chimeric Plant Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Gene with a Neural Visinin-Like Calcium-Binding Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patil, Shameekumar; Takezawa, D.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1995-01-01

    Calcium, a universal second messenger, regulates diverse cellular processes in eukaryotes. Ca-2(+) and Ca-2(+)/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphorylation play a pivotal role in amplifying and diversifying the action of Ca-2(+)- mediated signals. A chimeric Ca-2(+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) gene with a visinin-like Ca-2(+)- binding domain was cloned and characterized from lily. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame coding for a protein of 520 amino acids. The predicted structure of CCaMK contains a catalytic domain followed by two regulatory domains, a calmodulin-binding domain and a visinin-like Ca-2(+)-binding domain. The amino-terminal region of CCaMK contains all 11 conserved subdomains characteristic of serine/threonine protein kinases. The calmodulin-binding region of CCaMK has high homology (79%) to alpha subunit of mammalian Ca-2(+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. The calmodulin-binding region is fused to a neural visinin-like domain that contains three Ca-2(+)-binding EF-hand motifs and a biotin-binding site. The Escherichia coli-expressed protein (approx. 56 kDa) binds calmodulin in a Ca-2(+)-dependent manner. Furthermore, Ca-45-binding assays revealed that CCaMK directly binds Ca-2(+). The CCaMK gene is preferentially expressed in developing anthers. Southern blot analysis revealed that CCaMK is encoded by a single gene. The structural features of the gene suggest that it has multiple regulatory controls and could play a unique role in Ca-2(+) signaling in plants.

  8. Chimeric plant calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase gene with a neural visinin-like calcium-binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Patil, S; Takezawa, D; Poovaiah, B W

    1995-01-01

    Calcium, a universal second messenger, regulates diverse cellular processes in eukaryotes. Ca2+ and Ca2+/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphorylation play a pivotal role in amplifying and diversifying the action of Ca(2+)-binding domain was cloned and characterized from lily. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame coding for a protein of 520 amino acids. The predicted structure of CCaMK contains a catalytic domain followed by two regulatory domains, a calmodulin-binding domain and a visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The amino-terminal region of CCaMK contains all 11 conserved subdomains characteristic of serine/threonine protein kinases. The calmodulin-binding region of CCaMK has high homology (79%) to alpha subunit of mammalian Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. The calmodulin-binding region is fused to a neural visinin-like domain that contains three Ca(2+)-binding EF-hand motifs and a biotin-binding site. The Escherichia coli-expressed protein (approximately 56 kDa) binds calmodulin in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Furthermore, 45Ca-binding assays revealed that CCaMK directly binds Ca2+. The CCaMK gene is preferentially expressed in developing anthers. Southern blot analysis revealed that CCaMK is encoded by a single gene. The structural features of the gene suggest that it has multiple regulatory controls and could play a unique role in Ca2+ signaling in plants. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7761420

  9. Cellular iron metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ponka, P

    1999-03-01

    Iron is essential for oxidation-reduction catalysis and bioenergetics, but unless appropriately shielded, iron plays a key role in the formation of toxic oxygen radicals that can attack all biological molecules. Hence, specialized molecules for the acquisition, transport (transferrin), and storage (ferritin) of iron in a soluble nontoxic form have evolved. Delivery of iron to most cells, probably including those of the kidney, occurs following the binding of transferrin to transferrin receptors on the cell membrane. The transferrin-receptor complexes are then internalized by endocytosis, and iron is released from transferrin by a process involving endosomal acidification. Cellular iron storage and uptake are coordinately regulated post-transcriptionally by cytoplasmic factors, iron-regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (IRP-1 and IRP-2). Under conditions of limited iron supply, IRP binding to iron-responsive elements (present in 5' untranslated region of ferritin mRNA and 3' untranslated region of transferrin receptor mRNA) blocks ferritin mRNA translation and stabilizes transferrin receptor mRNA. The opposite scenario develops when iron in the transit pool is plentiful. Moreover, IRP activities/levels can be affected by various forms of "oxidative stress" and nitric oxide. The kidney also requires iron for metabolic processes, and it is likely that iron deficiency or excess can cause disturbed function of kidney cells. Transferrin receptors are not evenly distributed throughout the kidney, and there is a cortical-to-medullary gradient in heme biosynthesis, with greatest activity in the cortex and least in the medulla. This suggests that there are unique iron/heme metabolism features in some kidney cells, but the specific aspects of iron and heme metabolism in the kidney are yet to be explained.

  10. Cytosolic Calcium Measurements in Renal Epithelial Cells by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wing-Kee; Dittmar, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A variety of cellular processes, both physiological and pathophysiological, require or are governed by calcium, including exocytosis, mitochondrial function, cell death, cell metabolism and cell migration to name but a few. Cytosolic calcium is normally maintained at low nanomolar concentrations; rather it is found in high micromolar to millimolar concentrations in the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial matrix and the extracellular compartment. Upon stimulation, a transient increase in cytosolic calcium serves to signal downstream events. Detecting changes in cytosolic calcium is normally performed using a live cell imaging set up with calcium binding dyes that exhibit either an increase in fluorescence intensity or a shift in the emission wavelength upon calcium binding. However, a live cell imaging set up is not freely accessible to all researchers. Alternative detection methods have been optimized for immunological cells with flow cytometry and for non-immunological adherent cells with a fluorescence microplate reader. Here, we describe an optimized, simple method for detecting changes in epithelial cells with flow cytometry using a single wavelength calcium binding dye. Adherent renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, which are normally difficult to load with dyes, were loaded with a fluorescent cell permeable calcium binding dye in the presence of probenecid, brought into suspension and calcium signals were monitored before and after addition of thapsigargin, tunicamycin and ionomycin. PMID:25407650

  11. Regulation of cytosolic free calcium concentration by intrasynaptic mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Serrano, A; Satrústegui, J

    1992-01-01

    By the use of digitonin permeabilized presynaptic nerve terminals (synaptosomes), we have found that intrasynaptic mitochondria, when studied "in situ," i.e., surrounded by their cytosolic environment, are able to buffer calcium in a range of calcium concentrations close to those usually present in the cytosol of resting synaptosomes. Adenine nucleotides and polyamines, which are usually lost during isolation of mitochondria, greatly improve the calcium-sequestering activity of mitochondria in permeabilized synaptosomes. The hypothesis that the mitochondria contributes to calcium homeostasis at low resting cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in synaptosomes has been tested; it has been found that in fact this is the case. Intrasynaptic mitochondria actively accumulates calcium at [Ca2+]i around 10(-7) M, and this activity is necessary for the regulation of [Ca2+]i. When compared with other membrane-limited calcium pools, it was found that depending on external concentration the calcium pool mobilized from mitochondria is similar or even greater than the IP3- or caffeine-sensitive calcium pools. In summary, the results presented argue in favor of a more prominent role of mitochondria in regulating [Ca2+]i in presynaptic nerve terminals, a role that should be reconsidered for other cellular types in light of the present evidence. PMID:1550964

  12. Calcium signaling as a mediator of cell energy demand and a trigger to cell death.

    PubMed

    Bhosale, Gauri; Sharpe, Jenny A; Sundier, Stephanie Y; Duchen, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    Calcium signaling is pivotal to a host of physiological pathways. A rise in calcium concentration almost invariably signals an increased cellular energy demand. Consistent with this, calcium signals mediate a number of pathways that together serve to balance energy supply and demand. In pathological states, calcium signals can precipitate mitochondrial injury and cell death, especially when coupled to energy depletion and oxidative or nitrosative stress. This review explores the mechanisms that couple cell signaling pathways to metabolic regulation or to cell death. The significance of these pathways is exemplified by pathological case studies, such as those showing loss of mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 in patients and ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  13. Calcium signaling as a mediator of cell energy demand and a trigger to cell death

    PubMed Central

    Bhosale, Gauri; Sharpe, Jenny A.; Sundier, Stephanie Y.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium signaling is pivotal to a host of physiological pathways. A rise in calcium concentration almost invariably signals an increased cellular energy demand. Consistent with this, calcium signals mediate a number of pathways that together serve to balance energy supply and demand. In pathological states, calcium signals can precipitate mitochondrial injury and cell death, especially when coupled to energy depletion and oxidative or nitrosative stress. This review explores the mechanisms that couple cell signaling pathways to metabolic regulation or to cell death. The significance of these pathways is exemplified by pathological case studies, such as those showing loss of mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 in patients and ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:26375864

  14. Cellular Phone Towers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the call. How are people exposed to the energy from cellular phone towers? As people use cell ... where people can be exposed to them. The energy from a cellular phone tower antenna, like that ...

  15. Analysis of Intracellular Calcium Signaling in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Péntek, Adrienn; Pászty, Katalin; Apáti, Ágota

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of changes in intracellular calcium concentration is one of the most common and useful tools for studying signal transduction pathways or cellular responses in basic research and drug screening purposes as well. Increasing number of such applications using human pluripotent stem cells and their derivatives requires development of calcium signal measurements for this special cell type. Here we describe a modified protocol for analysis of calcium signaling events in human embryonic stem cells, which can be used for other pluripotent cell types (such as iPSC) or their differentiated offspring as well.

  16. Inhibition of gravitropism in oat coleoptiles by calcium chelation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    Some cellular event necessary for gravitropism is inhibited by EGTA without interferring with the overall growth. Calcium relieves this inhibition and demonstrates both that inhibition is reversible and was probably due to a reduction in the ability to free calcium required for one or more at the transduction steps of gravitropism. At the near neutral pH used, EGTA is charged and would not be expected to readily cross the membrane. One of its primary effects, then, is probably the bringing of free calcium in the apoplastic space exterior to the cell membranes.

  17. Structural transition in Bcl-xL and its potential association with mitochondrial calcium ion transport

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Sreekanth; Choi, Minjoo; Nguyen, Quoc Toan; Ye, Hong; Liu, Wei; Toh, Hui Ting; Kang, CongBao; Kamariah, Neelagandan; Li, Chi; Huang, Huiya; White, Carl; Baek, Kwanghee; Grüber, Gerhard; Yoon, Ho Sup

    2015-01-01

    Bcl-2 family proteins are key regulators for cellular homeostasis in response to apoptotic stimuli. Bcl-xL, an antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family member, undergoes conformational transitions, which leads to two conformational states: the cytoplasmic and membrane-bound. Here we present the crystal and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) structures of Bcl-xL treated with the mild detergent n-Octyl β-D-Maltoside (OM). The detergent-treated Bcl-xL forms a dimer through three-dimensional domain swapping (3DDS) by swapping helices α6-α8 between two monomers. Unlike Bax, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, Bcl-xL is not converted to 3DDS homodimer upon binding BH3 peptides and ABT-737, a BH3 mimetic drug. We also designed Bcl-xL mutants which cannot dimerize and show that these mutants reduced mitochondrial calcium uptake in MEF cells. This illustrates the structural plasticity in Bcl-xL providing hints toward the probable molecular mechanism for Bcl-xL to play a regulatory role in mitochondrial calcium ion transport. PMID:26023881

  18. Visualization of Calcium Dynamics in Kidney Proximal Tubules.

    PubMed

    Szebényi, Kornélia; Füredi, András; Kolacsek, Orsolya; Csohány, Rózsa; Prókai, Ágnes; Kis-Petik, Katalin; Szabó, Attila; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Bender, Balázs; Tóvári, József; Enyedi, Ágnes; Orbán, Tamás I; Apáti, Ágota; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2015-11-01

    Intrarenal changes in cytoplasmic calcium levels have a key role in determining pathologic and pharmacologic responses in major kidney diseases. However, cell-specific delivery of calcium-sensitive probes in vivo remains problematic. We generated a transgenic rat stably expressing the green fluorescent protein-calmodulin-based genetically encoded calcium indicator (GCaMP2) predominantly in the kidney proximal tubules. The transposon-based method used allowed the generation of homozygous transgenic rats containing one copy of the transgene per allele with a defined insertion pattern, without genetic or phenotypic alterations. We applied in vitro confocal and in vivo two-photon microscopy to examine basal calcium levels and ligand- and drug-induced alterations in these levels in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Notably, renal ischemia induced a transient increase in cellular calcium, and reperfusion resulted in a secondary calcium load, which was significantly decreased by systemic administration of specific blockers of the angiotensin receptor and the Na-Ca exchanger. The parallel examination of in vivo cellular calcium dynamics and renal circulation by fluorescent probes opens new possibilities for physiologic and pharmacologic investigations.

  19. Hierarchical cellular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, L.J.

    1991-12-31

    In this paper a method for estimating the contributions of both the composite and the cellular microstructures to the overall material properties and the mechanical efficiency of natural cellular solids will be described. The method will be demonstrated by focusing on the Young`s modulus; similar techniques can be used for other material properties. The results suggest efficient microstructures for engineered cellular materials.

  20. Hierarchical cellular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a method for estimating the contributions of both the composite and the cellular microstructures to the overall material properties and the mechanical efficiency of natural cellular solids will be described. The method will be demonstrated by focusing on the Young's modulus; similar techniques can be used for other material properties. The results suggest efficient microstructures for engineered cellular materials.

  1. Calcium binding proteins and calcium signaling in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Delfina C; Guragain, Manita; Patrauchan, Marianna

    2015-03-01

    With the continued increase of genomic information and computational analyses during the recent years, the number of newly discovered calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) in prokaryotic organisms has increased dramatically. These proteins contain sequences that closely resemble a variety of eukaryotic calcium (Ca(2+)) binding motifs including the canonical and pseudo EF-hand motifs, Ca(2+)-binding β-roll, Greek key motif and a novel putative Ca(2+)-binding domain, called the Big domain. Prokaryotic CaBPs have been implicated in diverse cellular activities such as division, development, motility, homeostasis, stress response, secretion, transport, signaling and host-pathogen interactions. However, the majority of these proteins are hypothetical, and only few of them have been studied functionally. The finding of many diverse CaBPs in prokaryotic genomes opens an exciting area of research to explore and define the role of Ca(2+) in organisms other than eukaryotes. This review presents the most recent developments in the field of CaBPs and novel advancements in the role of Ca(2+) in prokaryotes.

  2. Calcium signaling in plant cells in altered gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordyum, E. L.

    2003-10-01

    Changes in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration in altered gravity (microgravity and clinostating) evidence that Ca 2+ signaling can play a fundamental role in biological effects of microgravity. Calcium as a second messenger is known to play a crucial role in stimulus - response coupling for many plant cellular signaling pathways. Its messenger functions are realized by transient changes in the cytosolic ion concentration induced by a variety of internal and external stimuli such as light, hormones, temperature, anoxia, salinity, and gravity. Although the first data on the changes in the calcium balance in plant cells under the influence of altered gravity have appeared in 80 th, a review highlighting the performed research and the possible significance of such Ca 2+ changes in the structural and metabolic rearrangements of plant cells in altered gravity is still lacking. In this paper, an attempt was made to summarize the available experimental results and to consider some hypotheses in this field of research. It is proposed to distinguish between cell gravisensing and cell graviperception; the former is related to cell structure and metabolism stability in the gravitational field and their changes in microgravity (cells not specialized to gravity perception), the latter is related to active use of a gravitational stimulus by cells presumebly specialized to gravity perception for realization of normal space orientation, growth, and vital activity (gravitropism, gravitaxis) in plants. The main experimental data concerning both redistribution of free Ca 2+ ions in plant cell organelles and the cell wall, and an increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration under the influence of altered gravity are presented. Based on the gravitational decompensation hypothesis, the consequence of events occurring in gravisensing cells not specialized to gravity perception under altered gravity are considered in the following order: changes in the cytoplasmic membrane surface

  3. Calcium hydroxyapatite fillers.

    PubMed

    Tansavatdi, Kristina; Mangat, Devinder S

    2011-12-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite fillers have unique advantages over other fillers in regards to duration of action and volume of product required for augmentation, especially in the midface and lower face. In this article, we describe our experience with calcium hydroxyapatite fillers and compare them with other available filler products.

  4. Regulatory Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, legal documents, technological devices, organizational structures, and work practices aimed at minimizing risk. I use this term to reorient the analytical attention with respect to safety regulation. Instead of evaluating whether safety is achieved, the point is to explore the types of “safety” produced through these logics as well as to consider the sometimes unintended consequences of such safety work. In fact, the EU rules have been giving rise to complaints from practitioners finding the directives problematic and inadequate. In this article, I explore the problems practitioners face and why they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape. PMID:26139952

  5. Regulatory RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Anderson, Jorge; Contreras, Lydia M

    2013-01-01

    RNAs have many important functional properties, including that they are independently controllable and highly tunable. As a result of these advantageous properties, their use in a myriad of sophisticated devices has been widely explored. Yet, the exploitation of RNAs for synthetic applications is highly dependent on the ability to characterize the many new molecules that continue to be discovered by large-scale sequencing and high-throughput screening techniques. In this review, we present an exhaustive survey of the most recent synthetic bacterial riboswitches and small RNAs while emphasizing their virtues in gene expression management. We also explore the use of these RNA components as building blocks in the RNA synthetic biology toolbox and discuss examples of synthetic RNA components used to rewire bacterial regulatory circuitry. We anticipate that this field will expand its catalog of smart devices by mimicking and manipulating natural RNA mechanisms and functions. PMID:24356572

  6. Regulatory Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  7. Calcium-permeable ion channels in control of autophagy and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kondratskyi, Artem; Yassine, Maya; Kondratska, Kateryna; Skryma, Roman; Slomianny, Christian; Prevarskaya, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy, or cellular self-eating, is a tightly regulated cellular pathway the main purpose of which is lysosomal degradation and subsequent recycling of cytoplasmic material to maintain normal cellular homeostasis. Defects in autophagy are linked to a variety of pathological states, including cancer. Cancer is the disease associated with abnormal tissue growth following an alteration in such fundamental cellular processes as apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, migration and autophagy. The role of autophagy in cancer is complex, as it can promote both tumor prevention and survival/treatment resistance. It's now clear that modulation of autophagy has a great potential in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Recent findings identified intracellular calcium as an important regulator of both basal and induced autophagy. Calcium is a ubiquitous secondary messenger which regulates plethora of physiological and pathological processes such as aging, neurodegeneration and cancer. The role of calcium and calcium-permeable channels in cancer is well-established, whereas the information about molecular nature of channels regulating autophagy and the mechanisms of this regulation is still limited. Here we review existing mechanisms of autophagy regulation by calcium and calcium-permeable ion channels. Furthermore, we will also discuss some calcium-permeable channels as the potential new candidates for autophagy regulation. Finally we will propose the possible link between calcium permeable channels, autophagy and cancer progression and therapeutic response. PMID:24106480

  8. Calcium binding to cardiac myocytes protected from proteolytic enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Bailey, L E; Fawzi, A B

    1985-04-17

    Excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle is dependent on extracellular calcium and calcium bound to the surface of the myocardial cell. In this study, we examined the physical characteristics of calcium binding to adult guinea pig ventricular myocytes disaggregated mechanically in oxygenated tissue culture medium containing a proteinase inhibitor (aprotinin), and separated from cellular debris by Cytodex beads. Cells prepared in this manner excluded Trypan blue and showed no evidence of spontaneous contraction or contracture. Scatchard plots of calcium binding determined by continuous flow equilibrium dialysis revealed a high-affinity, low-capacity pool, Ka = 65 X 10(3) M-1 and Bt = 1.3 nmol X mg-1 and a low-affinity, high-capacity pool, Ka = 141 M-1 and Bt = 138 nmol X mg-1. The low-affinity pool was not detectable after lanthanum, trypsin or collagenase treatment or in cells prepared without aprotinin in the isolation medium. Both neuraminidase and phospholipase C reduced Bt of the low-affinity pool by one half, but only neuraminidase affected the affinity constant of this pool. Ka was increased to 516.7 M-1, similar to the apparent affinity constant for calcium binding estimated from dP/dtmax measured at several extracellular calcium concentrations (470 M-1). The results suggest that calcium bound to sarcolemmal phospholipids represents the superficial calcium involved in excitation-contraction coupling in the heart.

  9. Mechanically Induced Intercellular Calcium Communication in Confined Endothelial Structures

    PubMed Central

    Junkin, Michael; Lu, Yi; Long, Juexuan; Deymier, Pierre A.; Hoying, James B.; Wong, Pak Kin

    2012-01-01

    Calcium signaling in the diverse vascular structures is regulated by a wide range of mechanical and biochemical factors to maintain essential physiological functions of the vasculature. To properly transmit information, the intercellular calcium communication mechanism must be robust against various conditions in the cellular microenvironment. Using plasma lithography geometric confinement, we investigate mechanically induced calcium wave propagation in networks of human umbilical vein endothelial cells organized. Endothelial cell networks with confined architectures were stimulated at the single cell level, including using capacitive force probes. Calcium wave propagation in the network was observed using fluorescence calcium imaging. We show that mechanically induced calcium signaling in the endothelial networks is dynamically regulated against a wide range of probing forces and repeated stimulations. The calcium wave is able to propagate consistently in various dimensions from monolayers to individual cell chains, and in different topologies from linear patterns to cell junctions. Our results reveal that calcium signaling provides a robust mechanism for cell-cell communication in networks of endothelial cells despite the diversity of the microenvironmental inputs and complexity of vascular structures. PMID:23267827

  10. Calcium and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Nordin, B E

    1997-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is involved in most metabolic processes and the phosphate salts of which provide mechanical rigidity to the bones and teeth, where 99% of the body's calcium resides. The calcium in the skeleton has the additional role of acting as a reserve supply of calcium to meet the body's metabolic needs in states of calcium deficiency. Calcium deficiency is easily induced because of the obligatory losses of calcium via the bowel, kidneys, and skin. In growing animals, it may impair growth, delay consolidation of the skeleton, and in certain circumstances give rise to rickets but the latter is more often due to deficiency of vitamin D. In adult animals, calcium deficiency causes mobilization of bone and leads sooner or later to osteoporosis, i.e., a reduction in the "amount of bone in the bone" or apparent bone density. The effects of calcium deficiency and oophorectomy (ovariectomy) are additive. In humans, osteoporosis is a common feature of aging. Loss of bone starts in women at the time of the menopause and in men at about age 55 and leads to an increase in fracture rates in both sexes. Individual fracture risk is inversely related to bone density, which in turn is determined by the density achieved at maturity (peak bone density) and the subsequent rate of bone loss. At issue is whether either or both of these variables is related to calcium intake. The calcium requirement of adults may be defined as the mean calcium intake needed to preserve calcium balance, i.e., to meet the significant obligatory losses of calcium through the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, and skin. The calcium allowance is the higher intake recommended for a population to allow for individual variation in the requirement. The mean requirement defined in this way, calculated from balance studies, is about 20 mmol (800 mg) a day on Western diets, implying an allowance of 25 mmol (1000 mg) or more. Corresponding requirements and allowances have been calculated for

  11. Regulation of PKC mediated signaling by calcium during visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nivedita; Chakraborty, Supriya; Paul Chowdhury, Bidisha; Banerjee, Sayantan; Halder, Kuntal; Majumder, Saikat; Majumdar, Subrata; Sen, Parimal C

    2014-01-01

    Calcium is an ubiquitous cellular signaling molecule that controls a variety of cellular processes and is strictly maintained in the cellular compartments by the coordination of various Ca2+ pumps and channels. Two such fundamental calcium pumps are plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) which play a pivotal role in maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis. This intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is often disturbed by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, the causative organism of visceral leishmaniasis. In the present study we have dileneated the involvement of PMCA4 and SERCA3 during leishmaniasis. We have observed that during leishmaniasis, intracellular Ca2+ concentration was up-regulated and was further controlled by both PMCA4 and SERCA3. Inhibition of these two Ca2+-ATPases resulted in decreased parasite burden within the host macrophages due to enhanced intracellular Ca2+. Contrastingly, on the other hand, activation of PMCA4 was found to enhance the parasite burden. Our findings also highlighted the importance of Ca2+ in the modulation of cytokine balance during leishmaniasis. These results thus cumulatively suggests that these two Ca2+-ATPases play prominent roles during visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25329062

  12. Redox control of calcium channels: from mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hool, Livia C; Corry, Ben

    2007-04-01

    Calcium plays an integral role in cellular function. It is a well-recognized second messenger necessary for signaling cellular responses, but in excessive amounts can be deleterious to function, causing cell death. The main route by which calcium enters the cytoplasm is either from the extracellular compartment or internal addistores via calcium channels. There is good evidence that calcium channels can respond to pharmacological compounds that reduce or oxidize thiol groups on the channel protein. In addition, reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide that can mediate oxidative pathology also mediate changes in channel function via alterations of thiol groups. This review looks at the structure and function of calcium channels, the evidence that changes in cellular redox state mediate changes in channel function, and the role of redox modification of channels in disease processes. Understanding how redox modification of the channel protein alters channel structure and function is providing leads for the design of therapeutic interventions that target oxidative stress responses.

  13. Collective Calcium Signaling of Defective Multicellular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    2015-03-01

    A communicating multicellular network processes environmental cues into collective cellular dynamics. We have previously demonstrated that, when excited by extracellular ATP, fibroblast monolayers generate correlated calcium dynamics modulated by both the stimuli and gap junction communication between the cells. However, just as a well-connected neural network may be compromised by abnormal neurons, a tissue monolayer can also be defective with cancer cells, which typically have down regulated gap junctions. To understand the collective cellular dynamics in a defective multicellular network we have studied the calcium signaling of co-cultured breast cancer cells and fibroblast cells in various concentrations of ATP delivered through microfluidic devices. Our results demonstrate that cancer cells respond faster, generate singular spikes, and are more synchronous across all stimuli concentrations. Additionally, fibroblast cells exhibit persistent calcium oscillations that increase in regularity with greater stimuli. To interpret these results we quantitatively analyzed the immunostaining of purigenic receptors and gap junction channels. The results confirm our hypothesis that collective dynamics are mainly determined by the availability of gap junction communications.

  14. Overview of cellular CDMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, William C. Y.

    1991-05-01

    A general description of code division multiple access (CDMA) is presented. This overview of CDMA highlights the potential of increasing capacity in future cellular communications. The author describes the mobile radio environment and its impact on narrowband and wideband propagation. The advantage of having CDMA in cellular systems is discussed, and the concept of radio capacity in cellular is introduced. The power control schemes in CDMA are analyzed in detail.

  15. [Calcium and health].

    PubMed

    Ortega Anta, Rosa M; Jiménez Ortega, Ana I; López-Sobaler, Ana M

    2015-04-07

    An adequate intake of calcium is only not limited to avoid the risk of osteoporosis and its benefits in longterm bone health, but also it has been linked to protection against various major diseases, such as hypertension, cancer, kidney stones, insulin resistance, diabetes... and several investigations suggest its importance in preventing and controlling obesity. Studies conducted in Spanish representative samples show that a high percentage of adults and children (> 75%) don't achieve the recommended intake of calcium. Moreover, are growing trends among the population suggesting that calcium intake and dairy consumption (main food source of the mineral) are high, and even excessive, in many individuals. This misconception results in that the calcium intake is increasingly far from the recommended one. The maximum tolerable intake of the mineral is fixed at 2.500 mg/day, but this intake is unusual, and it's more disturbing and frequent, to find intakes below the recommended calcium intakes (1.000 and 1.200 mg/day in adults, men and women, respectively). Data from different studies highlight the risk of an inadequate calcium intake and the damages that may affect the health in a long term. It is not about transmitting indiscriminate guidelines in order to increase the intake of calcium / dairy, but the recommended intakes must be met to achieve both the nutritional and health benefits. Also activities for demystification of misconceptions are need, increasingly frequent, that may impair health population.

  16. T-Type Calcium Channel: A Privileged Gate for Calcium Entry and Control of Adrenal Steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rossier, Michel F

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular calcium plays a crucial role in modulating a variety of functions such as muscle contraction, hormone secretion, gene expression, or cell growth. Calcium signaling has been however shown to be more complex than initially thought. Indeed, it is confined within cell microdomains, and different calcium channels are associated with different functions, as shown by various channelopathies. Sporadic mutations on voltage-operated L-type calcium channels in adrenal glomerulosa cells have been shown recently to be the second most prevalent genetic abnormalities present in human aldosterone-producing adenoma. The observed modification of the threshold of activation of the mutated channels not only provides an explanation for this gain of function but also reminds us on the importance of maintaining adequate electrophysiological characteristics to make channels able to exert specific cellular functions. Indeed, the contribution to steroid production of the various calcium channels expressed in adrenocortical cells is not equal, and the reason has been investigated for a long time. Given the very negative resting potential of these cells, and the small membrane depolarization induced by their physiological agonists, low threshold T-type calcium channels are particularly well suited for responding under these conditions and conveying calcium into the cell, at the right place for controlling steroidogenesis. In contrast, high threshold L-type channels are normally activated by much stronger cell depolarizations. The fact that dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, specific for L-type channels, are poorly efficient for reducing aldosterone secretion either in vivo or in vitro, strongly supports the view that these two types of channels differently affect steroid biosynthesis. Whether a similar analysis is transposable to fasciculata cells and cortisol secretion is one of the questions addressed in the present review. No similar mutations on L-type or T-type channels

  17. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  18. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation process”; or (3) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium chloride in the “Calcium...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation process”; or (3) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium chloride in the “Calcium...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation process”; or (3) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium chloride in the “Calcium...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation process”; or (3) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium chloride in the “Calcium...

  2. Calcium can mobilize and activate myosin-VI

    PubMed Central

    Batters, Christopher; Brack, Dario; Ellrich, Heike; Averbeck, Beate; Veigel, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The ability to coordinate the timing of motor protein activation lies at the center of a wide range of cellular motile processes including endocytosis, cell division, and cancer cell migration. We show that calcium dramatically alters the conformation and activity of the myosin-VI motor implicated in pivotal steps of these processes. We resolved the change in motor conformation and in structural flexibility using single particle analysis of electron microscopic data and identified interacting domains using fluorescence spectroscopy. We discovered that calcium binding to calmodulin increases the binding affinity by a factor of 2,500 for a bipartite binding site on myosin-VI. The ability of calcium-calmodulin to seek out and bridge between binding site components directs a major rearrangement of the motor from a compact dormant state into a cargo binding primed state that is nonmotile. The lack of motility at high calcium is due to calmodulin switching to a higher affinity binding site, which leaves the original IQ-motif exposed, thereby destabilizing the lever arm. The return to low calcium can either restabilize the lever arm, required for translocating the cargo-bound motors toward the center of the cell, or refold the cargo-free motors into an inactive state ready for the next cellular calcium flux. PMID:26811464

  3. In silico cell electrophysiology for measuring transcellular calcium currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ul Haque, A.; Rokkam, M.; De Carlo, A. R.; Wereley, S. T.; Wells, H. W.; McLamb, W. T.; Roux, S. J.; Irazoqui, P. P.; Porterfield, D. M.

    2006-10-01

    Trans-cellular calcium currents play a central role in the establishment of polarity in differentiating cells. Typically these currents are measured and studied experimentally using ion selective glass microelectrodes. We have recently developed an in silico cell electrophysiology lab-on-a-chip device with the specific science objectives of measuring these transcellular calcium currents in an advanced throughput format. The device consists of 16 pyramidal pores on a silicon substrate with four Ag/AgCl electrodes leading into each pore on the four poles. An SU-8 layer is used as the structural and insulating layer and a calcium ion selective membrane is used to impart ion selectivity to the Ag/AgCl electrodes. In this paper we demonstrate the utility of the cell electrophysiology biochip in measuring these transcellular calcium currents from single cells using the model biological system Ceratopteris richardii. We monitored these fern spores during germination and pharmacologically inhibited biophysical calcium transport. These results demonstrate the utility and versatility of the in silico cell electrophysiology biochip. While this version of the biochip was engineered to fulfill the specific science objectives of measuring trans-cellular calcium currents from Ceratopteris fern spores, the chip can easily be modified for a variety of biomedical and pharmacological applications. Future

  4. Coordination of autophagy with other cellular activities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Qin, Zheng-hong

    2013-01-01

    The cell biological phenomenon of autophagy has attracted increasing attention in recent years, partly as a consequence of the discovery of key components of its cellular machinery. Autophagy plays a crucial role in a myriad of cellular functions. Autophagy has its own regulatory mechanisms, but this process is not isolated. Autophagy is coordinated with other cellular activities to maintain cell homeostasis. Autophagy is critical for a range of human physiological processes. The multifunctional roles of autophagy are explained by its ability to interact with several key components of various cell pathways. In this review, we focus on the coordination between autophagy and other physiological processes, including the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), energy homeostasis, aging, programmed cell death, the immune responses, microbial invasion and inflammation. The insights gained from investigating autophagic networks should increase our understanding of their roles in human diseases and their potential as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23474706

  5. Space-flight simulations of calcium metabolism using a mathematical model of calcium regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a series of simulation studies of calcium matabolic changes which have been recorded during human exposure to bed rest and space flight are presented. Space flight and bed rest data demonstrate losses of total body calcium during exposure to hypogravic environments. These losses are evidenced by higher than normal rates of urine calcium excretion and by negative calcium balances. In addition, intestinal absorption rates and bone mineral content are assumed to decrease. The bed rest and space flight simulations were executed on a mathematical model of the calcium metabolic system. The purpose of the simulations is to theoretically test hypotheses and predict system responses which are occurring during given experimental stresses. In this case, hypogravity occurs through the comparison of simulation and experimental data and through the analysis of model structure and system responses. The model reliably simulates the responses of selected bed rest and space flight parameters. When experimental data are available, the simulated skeletal responses and regulatory factors involved in the responses agree with space flight data collected on rodents. In addition, areas within the model that need improvement are identified.

  6. Desalted Duck Egg White Peptides: Promotion of Calcium Uptake and Structure Characterization.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tao; Wang, Chi; Ma, Zhili; Shi, Wen; Weiwei, Lui; He, Hui

    2015-09-23

    The effects of desalted duck egg white peptides (DPs) on calcium absorption were investigated in three models: Caco-2 cell monolayer model, Caco-2 cell population model, and everted intestinal sac model. DPs were found to enhance calcium transport and may do so by acting as calcium carriers and interacting with the cell membrane to open a special Ca(2+) channel, whereas the paracellular pathway may make only a minor contribution. Structure characterization demonstrated the important roles of seven crucial peptides, such as VSEE and LYAEE, in binding calcium and promoting calcium uptake. Three synthetic peptides (VHSS, VSEE, and VHS(p)S(p)) potently induced calcium transport in Caco-2 monolayers, with VHS(p)S(p) being the most effective. This research expands the understanding of the mechanism of cellular calcium uptake by DPs as well as highlights an opportunity for recycling an otherwise discarded processing byproduct.

  7. An organ boundary-enriched gene regulatory network uncovers regulatory hierarchies underlying axillary meristem initiation

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Caihuan; Zhang, Xiaoni; He, Jun; Yu, Haopeng; Wang, Ying; Shi, Bihai; Han, Yingying; Wang, Guoxun; Feng, Xiaoming; Zhang, Cui; Wang, Jin; Qi, Jiyan; Yu, Rong; Jiao, Yuling

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) control development via cell type-specific gene expression and interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and regulatory promoter regions. Plant organ boundaries separate lateral organs from the apical meristem and harbor axillary meristems (AMs). AMs, as stem cell niches, make the shoot a ramifying system. Although AMs have important functions in plant development, our knowledge of organ boundary and AM formation remains rudimentary. Here, we generated a cellular-resolution genomewide gene expression map for low-abundance Arabidopsis thaliana organ boundary cells and constructed a genomewide protein–DNA interaction map focusing on genes affecting boundary and AM formation. The resulting GRN uncovers transcriptional signatures, predicts cellular functions, and identifies promoter hub regions that are bound by many TFs. Importantly, further experimental studies determined the regulatory effects of many TFs on their targets, identifying regulators and regulatory relationships in AM initiation. This systems biology approach thus enhances our understanding of a key developmental process. PMID:25358340

  8. General and regulatory proteolysis in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Molière, Noël; Turgay, Kürşad

    2013-01-01

    The soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus subtilis is widely used as a model organism to study the Gram-positive branch of Bacteria. A variety of different developmental pathways, such as endospore formation, genetic competence, motility, swarming and biofilm formation, have been studied in this organism. These processes are intricately connected and regulated by networks containing e.g. alternative sigma factors, two-component systems and other regulators. Importantly, in some of these regulatory networks the activity of important regulatory factors is controlled by proteases. Furthermore, together with chaperones, the same proteases constitute the cellular protein quality control (PQC) network, which plays a crucial role in protein homeostasis and stress tolerance of this organism. In this review, we will present the current knowledge on regulatory and general proteolysis in B. subtilis and discuss its involvement in developmental pathways and cellular stress management.

  9. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  10. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Goldschlager N. Cardiovascular toxicology. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management ... SD. Calcium channel antagonists. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management ...

  11. Calcium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... failure Low blood level of albumin Liver disease Magnesium deficiency Pancreatitis Vitamin D deficiency ... PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 66. Leone KA. Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine: ...

  12. Hijacking cellular garbage cans.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Sonja; Locker, Jacomine Krijnse

    2010-06-25

    Viruses are perfect opportunists that have evolved to modify numerous cellular processes in order to complete their replication cycle in the host cell. An article by Reggiori and coworkers in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe reveals how coronaviruses can divert a cellular quality control pathway that normally functions in degradation of mis-folded proteins to replicate the viral genome. PMID:20542246

  13. Towards the Physics of Calcium Signalling in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Vaz Martins, Teresa; Evans, Matthew J.; Woolfenden, Hugh C.; Morris, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium is an abundant element with a wide variety of important roles within cells. Calcium ions are inter- and intra-cellular messengers that are involved in numerous signalling pathways. Fluctuating compartment-specific calcium ion concentrations can lead to localised and even plant-wide oscillations that can regulate downstream events. Understanding the mechanisms that give rise to these complex patterns that vary both in space and time can be challenging, even in cases for which individual components have been identified. Taking a systems biology approach, mathematical and computational techniques can be employed to produce models that recapitulate experimental observations and capture our current understanding of the system. Useful models make novel predictions that can be investigated and falsified experimentally. This review brings together recent work on the modelling of calcium signalling in plants, from the scale of ion channels through to plant-wide responses to external stimuli. Some in silico results that have informed later experiments are highlighted. PMID:27137393

  14. Calcium-mediated histone modifications regulate alternative splicing in cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Alok; Nguyen, Hieu; Geng, Cuiyu; Hinman, Melissa N.; Luo, Guangbin; Lou, Hua

    2014-01-01

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium is known to control gene expression at the level of transcription, whereas its role in regulating alternative splicing has not been explored. Here we report that, in mouse primary or embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, increased calcium levels induce robust and reversible skipping of several alternative exons from endogenously expressed genes. Interestingly, we demonstrate a calcium-mediated splicing regulatory mechanism that depends on changes of histone modifications. Specifically, the regulation occurs through changes in calcium-responsive kinase activities that lead to alterations in histone modifications and subsequent changes in the transcriptional elongation rate and exon skipping. We demonstrate that increased intracellular calcium levels lead to histone hyperacetylation along the body of the genes containing calcium-responsive alternative exons by disrupting the histone deacetylase-to-histone acetyltransferase balance in the nucleus. Consequently, the RNA polymerase II elongation rate increases significantly on those genes, resulting in skipping of the alternative exons. These studies reveal a mechanism by which calcium-level changes in cardiomyocytes impact on the output of gene expression through altering alternative pre-mRNA splicing patterns. PMID:25368158

  15. T-Type Calcium Channel: A Privileged Gate for Calcium Entry and Control of Adrenal Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rossier, Michel F.

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular calcium plays a crucial role in modulating a variety of functions such as muscle contraction, hormone secretion, gene expression, or cell growth. Calcium signaling has been however shown to be more complex than initially thought. Indeed, it is confined within cell microdomains, and different calcium channels are associated with different functions, as shown by various channelopathies. Sporadic mutations on voltage-operated L-type calcium channels in adrenal glomerulosa cells have been shown recently to be the second most prevalent genetic abnormalities present in human aldosterone-producing adenoma. The observed modification of the threshold of activation of the mutated channels not only provides an explanation for this gain of function but also reminds us on the importance of maintaining adequate electrophysiological characteristics to make channels able to exert specific cellular functions. Indeed, the contribution to steroid production of the various calcium channels expressed in adrenocortical cells is not equal, and the reason has been investigated for a long time. Given the very negative resting potential of these cells, and the small membrane depolarization induced by their physiological agonists, low threshold T-type calcium channels are particularly well suited for responding under these conditions and conveying calcium into the cell, at the right place for controlling steroidogenesis. In contrast, high threshold L-type channels are normally activated by much stronger cell depolarizations. The fact that dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, specific for L-type channels, are poorly efficient for reducing aldosterone secretion either in vivo or in vitro, strongly supports the view that these two types of channels differently affect steroid biosynthesis. Whether a similar analysis is transposable to fasciculata cells and cortisol secretion is one of the questions addressed in the present review. No similar mutations on L-type or T-type channels

  16. Zinc and calcium modulate mitochondrial redox state and morphofunctional integrity.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Mahmoud S; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Stevens, Don; Kamunde, Collins

    2015-07-01

    Zinc and calcium have highly interwoven functions that are essential for cellular homeostasis. Here we first present a novel real-time flow cytometric technique to measure mitochondrial redox state and show it is modulated by zinc and calcium, individually and combined. We then assess the interactions of zinc and calcium on mitochondrial H2O2 production, membrane potential (ΔΨm), morphological status, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), complex I activity, and structural integrity. Whereas zinc at low doses and both cations at high doses individually and combined promoted H2O2 production, the two cations individually did not alter mitochondrial redox state. However, when combined at low and high doses the two cations synergistically suppressed and promoted, respectively, mitochondrial shift to a more oxidized state. Surprisingly, the antioxidants vitamin E and N-acetylcysteine showed pro-oxidant activity at low doses, whereas at high antioxidant doses NAC inhibited OXPHOS and dyscoupled mitochondria. Individually, zinc was more potent than calcium in inhibiting OXPHOS, whereas calcium more potently dissipated the ΔΨm and altered mitochondrial volume and ultrastructure. The two cations synergistically inhibited OXPHOS but antagonistically dissipated ΔΨm and altered mitochondrial volume and morphology. Overall, our study highlights the importance of zinc and calcium in mitochondrial redox regulation and functional integrity. Importantly, we uncovered previously unrecognized bidirectional interactions of zinc and calcium that reveal distinctive foci for modulating mitochondrial function in normal and disease states because they are potentially protective or damaging depending on conditions.

  17. Calmodulin immunolocalization to cortical microtubules is calcium independent

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.D.; Cyr, R.J.

    1992-12-31

    Calcium affects the stability of cortical microtubules (MTs) in lysed protoplasts. This calmodulin (CaM)-mediated interaction may provide a mechanism that serves to integrate cellular behavior with MT function. To test the hypothesis that CaM associates with these MTs, monoclonal antibodies were produced against CaM, and one (designated mAb1D10), was selected for its suitability as an immunocytochemical reagent. It is shown that CaM associates with the cortical Mats of cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L.) cells. Inasmuch as CaM interacts with calcium and affects the behavior of these Mats, we hypothesized that calcium would alter this association. To test this, protoplasts containing taxol-stabilized Mats were lysed in the presence of various concentrations of calcium and examined for the association of Cam with cortical Mats. At 1 {mu}M calcium, many protoplasts did not have CaM in association with the cortical Mats, while at 3.6 {mu}M calcium, this association was completely abolished. The results are discussed in terms of a model in which CaM associates with Mats via two types of interactions; one calcium dependent and one independent.

  18. Calmodulin immunolocalization to cortical microtubules is calcium independent

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.D.; Cyr, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Calcium affects the stability of cortical microtubules (MTs) in lysed protoplasts. This calmodulin (CaM)-mediated interaction may provide a mechanism that serves to integrate cellular behavior with MT function. To test the hypothesis that CaM associates with these MTs, monoclonal antibodies were produced against CaM, and one (designated mAb1D10), was selected for its suitability as an immunocytochemical reagent. It is shown that CaM associates with the cortical Mats of cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L.) cells. Inasmuch as CaM interacts with calcium and affects the behavior of these Mats, we hypothesized that calcium would alter this association. To test this, protoplasts containing taxol-stabilized Mats were lysed in the presence of various concentrations of calcium and examined for the association of Cam with cortical Mats. At 1 [mu]M calcium, many protoplasts did not have CaM in association with the cortical Mats, while at 3.6 [mu]M calcium, this association was completely abolished. The results are discussed in terms of a model in which CaM associates with Mats via two types of interactions; one calcium dependent and one independent.

  19. Role of intracellular calcium stores in hair-cell ribbon synapse

    PubMed Central

    Castellano-Muñoz, Manuel; Ricci, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular calcium stores control many neuronal functions such as excitability, gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and synaptic release. Although the existence of calcium stores along with calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) has been demonstrated in conventional and ribbon synapses, functional significance and the cellular mechanisms underlying this role remains unclear. This review summarizes recent experimental evidence identifying contribution of CICR to synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in the CNS, retina and inner ear. In addition, the potential role of CICR in the recruitment of vesicles to releasable pools in hair-cell ribbon synapses will be specifically discussed. PMID:24971053

  20. Cellular Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular reflectarray antenna is intended to replace conventional parabolic reflectors that must be physically aligned with a particular satellite in geostationary orbit. These arrays are designed for specified geographical locations, defined by latitude and longitude, each called a "cell." A particular cell occupies nominally 1,500 square miles (3,885 sq. km), but this varies according to latitude and longitude. The cellular reflectarray antenna designed for a particular cell is simply positioned to align with magnetic North, and the antenna surface is level (parallel to the ground). A given cellular reflectarray antenna will not operate in any other cell.

  1. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle].

    PubMed

    Zavarzin, G A

    2002-01-01

    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites.

  2. Yeast Gdt1 is a Golgi-localized calcium transporter required for stress-induced calcium signaling and protein glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Colinet, Anne-Sophie; Sengottaiyan, Palanivelu; Deschamps, Antoine; Colsoul, Marie-Lise; Thines, Louise; Demaegd, Didier; Duchêne, Marie-Clémence; Foulquier, François; Hols, Pascal; Morsomme, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Calcium signaling depends on a tightly regulated set of pumps, exchangers, and channels that are responsible for controlling calcium fluxes between the different subcellular compartments of the eukaryotic cell. We have recently reported that two members of the highly-conserved UPF0016 family, human TMEM165 and budding yeast Gdt1p, are functionally related and might form a new group of Golgi-localized cation/Ca2+ exchangers. Defects in the human protein TMEM165 are known to cause a subtype of Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation. Using an assay based on the heterologous expression of GDT1 in the bacterium Lactococcus lactis, we demonstrated the calcium transport activity of Gdt1p. We observed a Ca2+ uptake activity in cells expressing GDT1, which was dependent on the external pH, indicating that Gdt1p may act as a Ca2+/H+ antiporter. In yeast, we found that Gdt1p controls cellular calcium stores and plays a major role in the calcium response induced by osmotic shock when the Golgi calcium pump, Pmr1p, is absent. Importantly, we also discovered that, in the presence of a high concentration of external calcium, Gdt1p is required for glycosylation of carboxypeptidase Y and the glucanosyltransferase Gas1p. Finally we showed that glycosylation process is restored by providing more Mn2+ to the cells. PMID:27075443

  3. Light-driven calcium signals in mouse cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Schubert, Timm; Paquet-Durand, François; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Chang, Le; Koeppen, Katja; Ott, Thomas; Griesbeck, Oliver; Seeliger, Mathias W; Euler, Thomas; Wissinger, Bernd

    2012-05-16

    Calcium mediates various neuronal functions. The complexity of neuronal Ca²⁺ signaling is well exemplified by retinal cone photoreceptors, which, with their distinct compartmentalization, offer unique possibilities for studying the diversity of Ca²⁺ functions in a single cell. Measuring subcellular Ca²⁺ signals in cones under physiological conditions is not only fundamental for understanding cone function, it also bears important insights into pathophysiological processes governing retinal neurodegeneration. However, due to the proximity of light-sensitive outer segments to other cellular compartments, optical measurements of light-evoked Ca²⁺ responses in cones are challenging. We addressed this problem by generating a transgenic mouse (HR2.1:TN-XL) in which both short- and middle-wavelength-sensitive cones selectively express the genetically encoded ratiometric Ca²⁺ biosensor TN-XL. We show that HR2.1:TN-XL allows recording of light-evoked Ca²⁺ responses using two-photon imaging in individual cone photoreceptor terminals and to probe phototransduction and its diverse regulatory mechanisms with pharmacology at subcellular resolution. To further test this system, we asked whether the classical, nitric oxide (NO)-soluble guanylyl-cyclase (sGC)-cGMP pathway could modulate Ca²⁺ in cone terminals. Surprisingly, NO reduced Ca²⁺ resting levels in mouse cones, without evidence for direct sGC involvement. In conclusion, HR2.1:TN-XL mice offer unprecedented opportunities to elucidate light-driven Ca²⁺ dynamics and their (dys)regulation in cone photoreceptors.

  4. Drak Is Required for Actomyosin Organization During Drosophila Cellularization

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Ashish B.; Hastert, Mary C.; Thomas, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of force by actomyosin contraction is critical for a variety of cellular and developmental processes. Nonmuscle myosin II is the motor that drives actomyosin contraction, and its activity is largely regulated by phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain. During the formation of the Drosophila cellular blastoderm, actomyosin contraction drives constriction of microfilament rings, modified cytokinesis rings. Here, we find that Drak is necessary for most of the phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain during cellularization. We show that Drak is required for organization of myosin II within the microfilament rings. Proper actomyosin contraction of the microfilament rings during cellularization also requires Drak activity. Constitutive activation of myosin regulatory light chain bypasses the requirement for Drak, suggesting that actomyosin organization and contraction are mediated through Drak’s regulation of myosin activity. Drak is also involved in the maintenance of furrow canal structure and lateral plasma membrane integrity during cellularization. Together, our observations suggest that Drak is the primary regulator of actomyosin dynamics during cellularization. PMID:26818071

  5. [Main Cellular Redox Couples].

    PubMed

    Bilan, D S; Shokhina, A G; Lukyanov, S A; Belousov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Most of the living cells maintain the continuous flow of electrons, which provides them by energy. Many of the compounds are presented in a cell at the same time in the oxidized and reduced states, forming the active redox couples. Some of the redox couples, such as NAD+/NADH, NADP+/NADPH, oxidized/reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH), are universal, as they participate in adjusting of many cellular reactions. Ratios of the oxidized and reduced forms of these compounds are important cellular redox parameters. Modern research approaches allow setting the new functions of the main redox couples in the complex organization of cellular processes. The following information is about the main cellular redox couples and their participation in various biological processes.

  6. Nanostructured cellular networks.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, P; Taylor, M D R; Brust, M

    2002-12-01

    Au nanocrystals spin-coated onto silicon from toluene form cellular networks. A quantitative statistical crystallography analysis shows that intercellular correlations drive the networks far from statistical equilibrium. Spin-coating from hexane does not produce cellular structure, yet a strong correlation is retained in the positions of nanocrystal aggregates. Mechanisms based on Marangoni convection alone cannot account for the variety of patterns observed, and we argue that spinodal decomposition plays an important role in foam formation.

  7. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast.

    PubMed

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida; Sanvito, Rossella; Magni, Fulvio; Coccetti, Paola; Rocchetti, Marcella; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Vanoni, Marco

    2016-06-16

    Calcium homeostasis is crucial to eukaryotic cell survival. By acting as an enzyme cofactor and a second messenger in several signal transduction pathways, the calcium ion controls many essential biological processes. Inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentration is carefully regulated to safeguard the correct folding and processing of secretory proteins. By using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that calcium shortage leads to a slowdown of cell growth and metabolism. Accumulation of unfolded proteins within the calcium-depleted lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) and generates a state of oxidative stress that decreases cell viability. These effects are severe during growth on rapidly fermentable carbon sources and can be mitigated by decreasing the protein synthesis rate or by inducing cellular respiration. Calcium homeostasis, protein biosynthesis and the unfolded protein response are tightly intertwined and the consequences of facing calcium starvation are determined by whether cellular energy production is balanced with demands for anabolic functions. Our findings confirm that the connections linking disturbance of ER calcium equilibrium to ER stress and UPR signaling are evolutionary conserved and highlight the crucial role of metabolism in modulating the effects induced by calcium shortage.

  8. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida; Sanvito, Rossella; Magni, Fulvio; Coccetti, Paola; Rocchetti, Marcella; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Vanoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Calcium homeostasis is crucial to eukaryotic cell survival. By acting as an enzyme cofactor and a second messenger in several signal transduction pathways, the calcium ion controls many essential biological processes. Inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentration is carefully regulated to safeguard the correct folding and processing of secretory proteins. By using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that calcium shortage leads to a slowdown of cell growth and metabolism. Accumulation of unfolded proteins within the calcium-depleted lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) and generates a state of oxidative stress that decreases cell viability. These effects are severe during growth on rapidly fermentable carbon sources and can be mitigated by decreasing the protein synthesis rate or by inducing cellular respiration. Calcium homeostasis, protein biosynthesis and the unfolded protein response are tightly intertwined and the consequences of facing calcium starvation are determined by whether cellular energy production is balanced with demands for anabolic functions. Our findings confirm that the connections linking disturbance of ER calcium equilibrium to ER stress and UPR signaling are evolutionary conserved and highlight the crucial role of metabolism in modulating the effects induced by calcium shortage. PMID:27305947

  9. CREB modulates calcium signaling in cAMP-induced bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linxia; Liu, Li; Thompson, Ryan; Chan, Christina

    2014-10-01

    Calcium signaling has a versatile role in many important cellular functions. Despite its importance, regulation of calcium signaling in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) has not been explored extensively. Our previous study revealed that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) enabled BMSCs to generate calcium signal upon stimulation by dopamine, KCl and glutamate. Concurrently, cAMP transiently activated the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in BMSCs. Activity of CREB can be modulated by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase signaling pathway, however, whether the calcium signaling observed in cAMP-induced BMSCs requires CREB has not been investigated. In an effort to uncover the role of CREB in the generation of calcium signaling in response to modulators such as dopamine and KCl, we knocked down CREB activity in BMSCs. Our study indicated that BMSCs, but not its close relative fibroblasts, are responsive to dopamine and KCl after cAMP treatment. Calcium signal elicited by dopamine depends, in part, on calcium influx whereas that elicited by KCl depends completely on calcium influx. Knock-down of CREB activity significantly reduced or abolished the cAMP-induced calcium response, and reintroducing a constitutively active CREB partially restored the calcium response.

  10. Calcium signalling in human neutrophil cell lines is not affected by low-frequency electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Golbach, Lieke A; Philippi, John G M; Cuppen, Jan J M; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy

    2015-09-01

    We are increasingly exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic fields (LF EMFs) by electrical devices and power lines, but if and how these fields interact with living cells remains a matter of debate. This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of LF EMF exposure on calcium signalling in neutrophils. In neutrophilic granulocytes, activation of G-protein coupled receptors leads to efflux of calcium from calcium stores and influx of extracellular calcium via specialised calcium channels. The cytoplasmic rise of calcium induces cytoskeleton rearrangements, modified gene expression patterns, and cell migration. If LF EMF modulates intracellular calcium signalling, this will influence cellular behaviour and may eventually lead to health problems. We found that calcium mobilisation upon chemotactic stimulation was not altered after a short 30 min or long-term LF EMF exposure in human neutrophil-like cell lines HL-60 or PLB-985. Neither of the two investigated wave forms (Immunent and 50 Hz sine wave) at three magnetic flux densities (5 μT, 300 μT, and 500 μT) altered calcium signalling in vitro. Gene-expression patterns of calcium-signalling related genes also did not show any significant changes after exposure. Furthermore, analysis of the phenotypical appearance of microvilli by scanning electron microscopy revealed no alterations induced by LF EMF exposure. The findings above indicate that exposure to 50 Hz sinusoidal or Immunent LF EMF will not affect calcium signalling in neutrophils in vitro.

  11. CREB modulates calcium signaling in cAMP-induced bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linxia; Liu, Li; Thompson, Ryan; Chan, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Calcium signaling has a versatile role in many important cellular functions. Despite its importance, regulation of calcium signaling in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) has not been explored extensively. Our previous study revealed that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) enabled BMSCs to generate calcium signal upon stimulation by dopamine, KCl and glutamate. Concurrently, cAMP transiently activated the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in BMSCs. Activity of CREB can be modulated by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase signaling pathway, however, whether the calcium signaling observed in cAMP-induced BMSCs requires CREB has not been investigated. In an effort to uncover the role of CREB in the generation of calcium signaling in response to modulators such as dopamine and KCl, we knocked down CREB activity in BMSCs. Our study indicated that BMSCs, but not its close relative fibroblasts, are responsive to dopamine and KCl after cAMP treatment. Calcium signal elicited by dopamine depends, in part, on calcium influx whereas that elicited by KCl depends completely on calcium influx. Knock-down of CREB activity significantly reduced or abolished the cAMP-induced calcium response, and reintroducing a constitutively active CREB partially restored the calcium response. PMID:25154887

  12. Cellular aging and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hornsby, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is manifest in a variety of changes over time, including changes at the cellular level. Cellular aging acts primarily as a tumor suppressor mechanism, but also may enhance cancer development under certain circumstances. One important process of cellular aging is oncogene-induced senescence, which acts as an important anti-cancer mechanism. Cellular senescence resulting from damage caused by activated oncogenes prevents the growth or potentially neoplastic cells. Moreover, cells that have entered senescence appear to be targets for elimination by the innnate immune system. In another aspect of cellular aging, the absence of telomerase activity in normal tissues results in such cells lacking a telomere maintenance mechanism. One consequence is that in aging there is an increase in cells with shortened telomeres. In the presence of active oncogenes that cause expansion of a neoplastic clone, shortening of telomeres leading to telomere dysfunction prevents the indefinite expansion of the clone because the cells enter crisis. Crisis results from fusions and other defects caused by dysfunctional telomeres and is a terminal state of the neoplastic clone. In this way the absence of telomerase in human cells, while one cause of cellular aging, also acts as an anti-cancer mechanism. PMID:20705476

  13. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  14. Calcium transport in the microsomal fraction of rat submandibular glands

    SciTech Connect

    Terman, B.I.

    1981-01-01

    From previous studies, it has been concluded that the microsomal fraction from rate submandibular glands contains an ATP dependent calcium transport system. This thesis describes experiments directed at clarifying the function played by the system in salivary secretion. An effort was made to clarify the function of the transport system through characterization of the biochemical mechanism of transport. A series of experiments directed at understanding the role played by ATP in calcium transport is described. Either Mg or Mn was required for calcium accumulation with Mg being the more effective of the two. A series of experiments directed at determining the cellular location of the system is described. It was found that the membrane responsible for calcium transport did not copurify with the membrane vesicles, which contained the standard enzyme markers for endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, lysosomes, plasma membrane, mitochondria, and secretory granules. The significance of these results are discussed in terms of the insight they provide in (1) understanding the location of the calcium transporting membrane within the cell, (2) understanding the composition of the calcium transporting membrane, and (3) understanding the difficulties faced in organelle purification. Previous studies have suggested that the mechanism by which cAMP stimulates exocytosis is mediated through an intracellular calcium transport system, and a series of experiments directed at determining what effect cAMP may have on the microsomal calcium transport system are described. It was found that neither cAMP nor cAMP plus a cAMP dependent protein kinase (Sigma P5511) had any effect on the calcium transport properties of the microsomes. 73 references, 36 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  15. Calcium signaling in trypanosomatid parasites.

    PubMed

    Docampo, Roberto; Huang, Guozhong

    2015-03-01

    Calcium ion (Ca(2+)) is an important second messenger in trypanosomatids and essential for their survival although prolonged high intracellular Ca(2+) levels lead to cell death. As other eukaryotic cells, trypanosomes use two sources of Ca(2+) for generating signals: Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and Ca(2+) entry across the plasma membrane. Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores is controlled by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) that is located in acidocalcisomes, acidic organelles that are the primary Ca(2+) reservoir in these cells. A plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase controls the cytosolic Ca(2+) levels and a number of pumps and exchangers are responsible for Ca(2+) uptake and release from intracellular compartments. The trypanosomatid genomes contain a wide variety of signaling and regulatory proteins that bind Ca(2+) as well as many Ca(2+)-binding proteins that await further characterization. The mitochondrial Ca(2+) transporters of trypanosomatids have an important role in the regulation of cell bioenergetics and flagellar Ca(2+) appears to have roles in sensing the environment. In trypanosomatids in which an intracellular life cycle is present, Ca(2+) signaling is important for host cell invasion. PMID:25468729

  16. Systematic Computation of Nonlinear Cellular and Molecular Dynamics with Low-Power CytoMimetic Circuits: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos I.; Stan, Guy-Bart V.; Drakakis, Emmanuel M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for the systematic implementation of low-power microelectronic circuits aimed at computing nonlinear cellular and molecular dynamics. The method proposed is based on the Nonlinear Bernoulli Cell Formalism (NBCF), an advanced mathematical framework stemming from the Bernoulli Cell Formalism (BCF) originally exploited for the modular synthesis and analysis of linear, time-invariant, high dynamic range, logarithmic filters. Our approach identifies and exploits the striking similarities existing between the NBCF and coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) typically appearing in models of naturally encountered biochemical systems. The resulting continuous-time, continuous-value, low-power CytoMimetic electronic circuits succeed in simulating fast and with good accuracy cellular and molecular dynamics. The application of the method is illustrated by synthesising for the first time microelectronic CytoMimetic topologies which simulate successfully: 1) a nonlinear intracellular calcium oscillations model for several Hill coefficient values and 2) a gene-protein regulatory system model. The dynamic behaviours generated by the proposed CytoMimetic circuits are compared and found to be in very good agreement with their biological counterparts. The circuits exploit the exponential law codifying the low-power subthreshold operation regime and have been simulated with realistic parameters from a commercially available CMOS process. They occupy an area of a fraction of a square-millimetre, while consuming between 1 and 12 microwatts of power. Simulations of fabrication-related variability results are also presented. PMID:23393550

  17. Microtubule-Dependent Mitochondria Alignment Regulates Calcium Release in Response to Nanomechanical Stimulus in Heart Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Miragoli, Michele; Sanchez-Alonso, Jose L; Bhargava, Anamika; Wright, Peter T; Sikkel, Markus; Schobesberger, Sophie; Diakonov, Ivan; Novak, Pavel; Castaldi, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Paola; Lyon, Alexander R; Lab, Max J; Gorelik, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Arrhythmogenesis during heart failure is a major clinical problem. Regional electrical gradients produce arrhythmias, and cellular ionic transmembrane gradients are its originators. We investigated whether the nanoscale mechanosensitive properties of cardiomyocytes from failing hearts have a bearing upon the initiation of abnormal electrical activity. Hydrojets through a nanopipette indent specific locations on the sarcolemma and initiate intracellular calcium release in both healthy and heart failure cardiomyocytes, as well as in human failing cardiomyocytes. In healthy cells, calcium is locally confined, whereas in failing cardiomyocytes, calcium propagates. Heart failure progressively stiffens the membrane and displaces sub-sarcolemmal mitochondria. Colchicine in healthy cells mimics the failing condition by stiffening the cells, disrupting microtubules, shifting mitochondria, and causing calcium release. Uncoupling the mitochondrial proton gradient abolished calcium initiation in both failing and colchicine-treated cells. We propose the disruption of microtubule-dependent mitochondrial mechanosensor microdomains as a mechanism for abnormal calcium release in failing heart. PMID:26725114

  18. Differential Dendritic Integration of Synaptic Potentials and Calcium in Cerebellar Interneurons.

    PubMed

    Tran-Van-Minh, Alexandra; Abrahamsson, Therése; Cathala, Laurence; DiGregorio, David A

    2016-08-17

    Dendritic voltage integration determines the transformation of synaptic inputs into output firing, while synaptic calcium integration drives plasticity mechanisms thought to underlie memory storage. Dendritic calcium integration has been shown to follow the same synaptic input-output relationship as dendritic voltage, but whether similar operations apply to neurons exhibiting sublinear voltage integration is unknown. We examined the properties and cellular mechanisms of these dendritic operations in cerebellar molecular layer interneurons using dendritic voltage and calcium imaging, in combination with synaptic stimulation or glutamate uncaging. We show that, while synaptic potentials summate sublinearly, concomitant dendritic calcium signals summate either linearly or supralinearly depending on the number of synapses activated. The supralinear dendritic calcium triggers a branch-specific, short-term suppression of neurotransmitter release that alters the pattern of synaptic activation. Thus, differential voltage and calcium integration permits dynamic regulation of neuronal input-output transformations without altering intrinsic nonlinear integration mechanisms. PMID:27537486

  19. Microtubule-Dependent Mitochondria Alignment Regulates Calcium Release in Response to Nanomechanical Stimulus in Heart Myocytes.

    PubMed

    Miragoli, Michele; Sanchez-Alonso, Jose L; Bhargava, Anamika; Wright, Peter T; Sikkel, Markus; Schobesberger, Sophie; Diakonov, Ivan; Novak, Pavel; Castaldi, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Paola; Lyon, Alexander R; Lab, Max J; Gorelik, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Arrhythmogenesis during heart failure is a major clinical problem. Regional electrical gradients produce arrhythmias, and cellular ionic transmembrane gradients are its originators. We investigated whether the nanoscale mechanosensitive properties of cardiomyocytes from failing hearts have a bearing upon the initiation of abnormal electrical activity. Hydrojets through a nanopipette indent specific locations on the sarcolemma and initiate intracellular calcium release in both healthy and heart failure cardiomyocytes, as well as in human failing cardiomyocytes. In healthy cells, calcium is locally confined, whereas in failing cardiomyocytes, calcium propagates. Heart failure progressively stiffens the membrane and displaces sub-sarcolemmal mitochondria. Colchicine in healthy cells mimics the failing condition by stiffening the cells, disrupting microtubules, shifting mitochondria, and causing calcium release. Uncoupling the mitochondrial proton gradient abolished calcium initiation in both failing and colchicine-treated cells. We propose the disruption of microtubule-dependent mitochondrial mechanosensor microdomains as a mechanism for abnormal calcium release in failing heart.

  20. Apoplastic calcium executes a shut-down function on plant peroxidases

    PubMed Central

    Plieth, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Recently it was demonstrated that PO activity is switched by calcium within the typical range of apoplastic free calcium concentrations (Plieth and Vollbehr, Plant Signal Behav 2012;7: 650–660). The heat stability of POs is also dependent on calcium. Here, a scenario is put forward which assigns calcium a switch-off function under heat: Peroxidases are switched off by heat stress-triggered apoplastic calcium depletion. It is assumed that this initiates apoplastic accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and eventually triggers a self-amplifying cascade of cellular events involving plasma membrane ion transport. Calcium depletion-initiated ROS accumulation (CaDIRA) may also trigger signal percolation and the formation of systemic responses to many different stress factors in plants. This hypothesis can explain some as yet unexplained observations. PMID:22580701

  1. Differential Dendritic Integration of Synaptic Potentials and Calcium in Cerebellar Interneurons.

    PubMed

    Tran-Van-Minh, Alexandra; Abrahamsson, Therése; Cathala, Laurence; DiGregorio, David A

    2016-08-17

    Dendritic voltage integration determines the transformation of synaptic inputs into output firing, while synaptic calcium integration drives plasticity mechanisms thought to underlie memory storage. Dendritic calcium integration has been shown to follow the same synaptic input-output relationship as dendritic voltage, but whether similar operations apply to neurons exhibiting sublinear voltage integration is unknown. We examined the properties and cellular mechanisms of these dendritic operations in cerebellar molecular layer interneurons using dendritic voltage and calcium imaging, in combination with synaptic stimulation or glutamate uncaging. We show that, while synaptic potentials summate sublinearly, concomitant dendritic calcium signals summate either linearly or supralinearly depending on the number of synapses activated. The supralinear dendritic calcium triggers a branch-specific, short-term suppression of neurotransmitter release that alters the pattern of synaptic activation. Thus, differential voltage and calcium integration permits dynamic regulation of neuronal input-output transformations without altering intrinsic nonlinear integration mechanisms.

  2. CALCIUM-INDUCED SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES IN THE CALCIUM CASEINATE SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The molecular details deciphering the spontaneous calcium-induced protein aggregation process in the calcium caseinate system remain obscure. Understanding this complex process could lead to potential new applications of this important food ingredient. In this work, we studied calcium-induced supra...

  3. Aberrant subcellular neuronal calcium regulation in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P

    2011-05-01

    In this mini-review/opinion article we describe evidence that multiple cellular and molecular alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis involve perturbed cellular calcium regulation, and that alterations in synaptic calcium handling may be early and pivotal events in the disease process. With advancing age neurons encounter increased oxidative stress and impaired energy metabolism, which compromise the function of proteins that control membrane excitability and subcellular calcium dynamics. Altered proteolytic cleavage of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in response to the aging process in combination with genetic and environmental factors results in the production and accumulation of neurotoxic forms of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ). Aβ undergoes a self-aggregation process and concomitantly generates reactive oxygen species that can trigger membrane-associated oxidative stress which, in turn, impairs the functions of ion-motive ATPases and glutamate and glucose transporters thereby rendering neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Mutations in presenilin-1 that cause early-onset AD increase Aβ production, but also result in an abnormal increase in the size of endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores. Some of the events in the neurodegenerative cascade can be counteracted in animal models by manipulations that stabilize neuronal calcium homeostasis including dietary energy restriction, agonists of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors and drugs that activate mitochondrial potassium channels. Emerging knowledge of the actions of calcium upstream and downstream of Aβ provides opportunities to develop novel preventative and therapeutic interventions for AD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 11th European Symposium on Calcium. PMID:20950656

  4. Calcium Content of Common Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... 130 Waffle 80 g 47 Meat, fish and eggs Food Serving Size Calcium (mg) Egg 50 g 27 Red meat 120 g 7 ... foods Food Serving Size Calcium (mg) Quiche (cheese, eggs) 200 g 212 Omelette with cheese 120 g ...

  5. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  6. Intestinal Stem Cells: Got Calcium?

    PubMed

    Nászai, Máté; Cordero, Julia B

    2016-02-01

    Calcium ions are well-known intracellular signalling molecules. A new study identifies local cytoplasmic calcium as a central integrator of metabolic and proliferative signals in Drosophila intestinal stem cells. PMID:26859268

  7. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    The combination of calcium carbonate and magnesium is commonly found in antacids. These medicines provide heartburn relief. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  8. Reconstitution of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kovács-Bogdán, Erika; Sancak, Yasemin; Kamer, Kimberli J.; Plovanich, Molly; Jambhekar, Ashwini; Huber, Robert J.; Myre, Michael A.; Blower, Michael D.; Mootha, Vamsi K.

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter is a highly selective calcium channel distributed broadly across eukaryotes but absent in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The molecular components of the human uniporter holocomplex (uniplex) have been identified recently. The uniplex consists of three membrane-spanning subunits –mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), its paralog MCUb, and essential MCU regulator (EMRE)– and two soluble regulatory components–MICU1 and its paralog MICU2. The minimal components sufficient for in vivo uniporter activity are unknown. Here we consider Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd), a member of the Amoebazoa outgroup of Metazoa and Fungi, and show that it has a highly simplified uniporter machinery. We show that D. discoideum mitochondria exhibit membrane potential-dependent calcium uptake compatible with uniporter activity, and also that expression of DdMCU complements the mitochondrial calcium uptake defect in human cells lacking MCU or EMRE. Moreover, expression of DdMCU in yeast alone is sufficient to reconstitute mitochondrial calcium uniporter activity. Having established yeast as an in vivo reconstitution system, we then reconstituted the human uniporter. We show that coexpression of MCU and EMRE is sufficient for uniporter activity, whereas expression of MCU alone is insufficient. Our work establishes yeast as a powerful in vivo reconstitution system for the uniporter. Using this system, we confirm that MCU is the pore-forming subunit, define the minimal genetic elements sufficient for metazoan and nonmetazoan uniporter activity, and provide valuable insight into the evolution of the uniporter machinery. PMID:24889638

  9. Reconstitution of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kovács-Bogdán, Erika; Sancak, Yasemin; Kamer, Kimberli J; Plovanich, Molly; Jambhekar, Ashwini; Huber, Robert J; Myre, Michael A; Blower, Michael D; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2014-06-17

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter is a highly selective calcium channel distributed broadly across eukaryotes but absent in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The molecular components of the human uniporter holocomplex (uniplex) have been identified recently. The uniplex consists of three membrane-spanning subunits--mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), its paralog MCUb, and essential MCU regulator (EMRE)--and two soluble regulatory components--MICU1 and its paralog MICU2. The minimal components sufficient for in vivo uniporter activity are unknown. Here we consider Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd), a member of the Amoebazoa outgroup of Metazoa and Fungi, and show that it has a highly simplified uniporter machinery. We show that D. discoideum mitochondria exhibit membrane potential-dependent calcium uptake compatible with uniporter activity, and also that expression of DdMCU complements the mitochondrial calcium uptake defect in human cells lacking MCU or EMRE. Moreover, expression of DdMCU in yeast alone is sufficient to reconstitute mitochondrial calcium uniporter activity. Having established yeast as an in vivo reconstitution system, we then reconstituted the human uniporter. We show that coexpression of MCU and EMRE is sufficient for uniporter activity, whereas expression of MCU alone is insufficient. Our work establishes yeast as a powerful in vivo reconstitution system for the uniporter. Using this system, we confirm that MCU is the pore-forming subunit, define the minimal genetic elements sufficient for metazoan and nonmetazoan uniporter activity, and provide valuable insight into the evolution of the uniporter machinery. PMID:24889638

  10. Reconstitution of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kovács-Bogdán, Erika; Sancak, Yasemin; Kamer, Kimberli J; Plovanich, Molly; Jambhekar, Ashwini; Huber, Robert J; Myre, Michael A; Blower, Michael D; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2014-06-17

    The mitochondrial calcium uniporter is a highly selective calcium channel distributed broadly across eukaryotes but absent in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The molecular components of the human uniporter holocomplex (uniplex) have been identified recently. The uniplex consists of three membrane-spanning subunits--mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), its paralog MCUb, and essential MCU regulator (EMRE)--and two soluble regulatory components--MICU1 and its paralog MICU2. The minimal components sufficient for in vivo uniporter activity are unknown. Here we consider Dictyostelium discoideum (Dd), a member of the Amoebazoa outgroup of Metazoa and Fungi, and show that it has a highly simplified uniporter machinery. We show that D. discoideum mitochondria exhibit membrane potential-dependent calcium uptake compatible with uniporter activity, and also that expression of DdMCU complements the mitochondrial calcium uptake defect in human cells lacking MCU or EMRE. Moreover, expression of DdMCU in yeast alone is sufficient to reconstitute mitochondrial calcium uniporter activity. Having established yeast as an in vivo reconstitution system, we then reconstituted the human uniporter. We show that coexpression of MCU and EMRE is sufficient for uniporter activity, whereas expression of MCU alone is insufficient. Our work establishes yeast as a powerful in vivo reconstitution system for the uniporter. Using this system, we confirm that MCU is the pore-forming subunit, define the minimal genetic elements sufficient for metazoan and nonmetazoan uniporter activity, and provide valuable insight into the evolution of the uniporter machinery.

  11. Aggregation of Phosphoinositides at Phisiological Calcium Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazadi Badiambile, Adolphe; Forstner, Martin B.

    2012-02-01

    Phosphoinositides play a crucial role in many cellular functions such as calcium signaling, endocytosis, exocytosis and the targeting of proteins to specific membrane sites. To maintain functional specificity, it has been suggested that phosphoinositides are spatially organized in ``pools'' in the cellular plasma membrane. A possible mechanism that could induce and regulate such organization of phosphoinositides is their interaction with Ca2+ ions. Understanding the physicochemical mechanism that can regulate membrane structure is a crucial step in the development of adaptive biomimetic membrane systems. Using Langmuir monolayers, we investigated the effect of bivalent calcium and magnesium cations on the surface pressure-area/lipid isotherm of monolayers of phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) and dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). It is found that the decrease of area per lipid, i.e. the increase in aggregation, is dependent on both the lipid's head group charge, the bivalent cation and temperature. However, electrostatics are not sufficient to account for all experimental observations. Thus additional interactions between ions and phosphoinositides need to be considered.

  12. Klotho-Dependent Cellular Transport Regulation.

    PubMed

    Sopjani, M; Dërmaku-Sopjani, M

    2016-01-01

    Klotho is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by the hKL gene. This protein is known to have aging suppressor effects and is predominantly expressed in the distal convoluted tubule of the kidney, parathyroid glands, and choroid plexus of the brain. The Klotho protein exists in both full-length membrane form and a soluble secreted form, which exerts numerous distinct functions. The extracellular domain of Klotho can be enzymatically cleaved off and released into the systemic circulation where it functions as β-glucuronidase and a hormone. Soluble Klotho is a multifunction protein present in the biological fluids including blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid of mammals. Klotho deficiency leads to multiple organ failure accompanied by early appearance of multiple age-related disorders and early death, whereas overexpression of Klotho results in the opposite effects. Klotho, an enzyme and hormone, has been reported to participate in the regulation of cellular transport processes across the plasma membrane either indirectly through inhibiting calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) formation or other mechanism, or by directly affecting transporter proteins, including ion channels, cellular carriers, and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Accordingly, Klotho protein serves as a powerful regulator of cellular transport across the plasma membrane. Importantly, Klotho-dependent cellular transport regulation implies stimulatory or inhibitory effects. Klotho has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of multiple calcium and potassium ion channels, and various cellular carriers including the Na(+)-coupled cotransporters such as NaPi-IIa, NaPi-IIb, EAAT3, and EAAT4, CreaT1 as well as Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. These regulations are parts of the antiaging function of Klotho, which will be discussing throughout this chapter. Clearly, further experimental efforts are required to investigate the effect of Klotho on other transport proteins and underlying molecular mechanisms by which Klotho

  13. Calcium and phosphorus fluxes during hemodialysis with low calcium dialysate.

    PubMed

    Hou, S H; Zhao, J; Ellman, C F; Hu, J; Griffin, Z; Spiegel, D M; Bourdeau, J E

    1991-08-01

    We evaluated the acute effects of varying dialysate calcium concentration on plasma concentrations and dialyzer fluxes of calcium and phosphorus in adult hemodialysis patients. Seven individuals with stable end-stage renal failure were dialyzed 4 hours, three times weekly. The effects of dialysates containing 1.75, 1.25, or 0.75 mmol/L (70.1, 50.1, or 30.1 mg/L) of calcium were compared. Each patient was studied once at each bath calcium concentration. Compared with the predialysis mean value of 2.27 mmol/L (9.1 mg/dL), plasma total calcium concentration increased, remained constant, or decreased with the 1.75-, 1.25-, or 0.75-mmol/L calcium dialysates, respectively. The 0.75-mmol/L calcium dialysate did not cause signs or symptoms of hypocalcemia (and the plasma calcium concentration did not fall below 1.80 mmol/L [7.2 mg/dL]). Plasma phosphorus concentrations decreased equally from a predialysis mean value of 2.16 mmol/L (6.7 mg/dL), regardless of the dialysate calcium concentration. After 4 hours of treatment with the three different dialysates, the cumulative calcium fluxes were significantly different. With 1.75 mmol/L calcium, mean bodily calcium accumulation was 21.9 mmol (879 mg). With 1.25 mmol/L, there was no net calcium flux. With 0.75 mmol/L, mean patient calcium loss was 5.8 mmol (231 mg). Mean phosphorus removal after 4 hours was 32.5 mmol (1,006 mg) and was unaffected by dialysate calcium concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1867178

  14. Calcium biofortification of crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than half of the world's population is deficient in calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), or zinc (Zn). The consumption of plants, directly or via livestock, containing inadequate concentrations of particular minerals causes these deficiencies. Agronomic and geneti...

  15. Diet and calcium stones.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J; Norman, R W

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on the dietary modification of urinary risk factors as a means of reducing the likelihood of recurrent stone formation and to develop practical dietary recommendations that might be useful to this end. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published from 1983 to 1990. Additional references were selected from the bibliographies of identified articles. STUDY SELECTION: Nonrandomized trials and retrospective reviews were included because of a paucity of randomized controlled trials. DATA SYNTHESIS: Information on the dietary intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and fibre and on alcohol and fluid intake was used to develop practical guidelines on dietary modification. CONCLUSION: Dietary modification plays an important role in the reduction of urinary risk factors in patients with calcium stone disease of the urinary tract. As an initial form of prevention attention should be directed toward moderating the intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and alcohol and increasing the intake of fibre and water. Future research should include an assessment of the long-term reduction of dietary and urinary risk factors and the rates of recurrence of calcium stones. PMID:1310430

  16. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  17. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... as sarcoidosis • Hormone disorders, such as overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) • A genetic condition called familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia • Kidney ... topics: www.hormone.org (search for PHPT, calcium, hyperthyroidism, or osteoporosis) • MedlinePlus (National Institutes of Health-NIH): ...

  18. Origins of cellular geometry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cells are highly complex and orderly machines, with defined shapes and a startling variety of internal organizations. Complex geometry is a feature of both free-living unicellular organisms and cells inside multicellular animals. Where does the geometry of a cell come from? Many of the same questions that arise in developmental biology can also be asked of cells, but in most cases we do not know the answers. How much of cellular organization is dictated by global cell polarity cues as opposed to local interactions between cellular components? Does cellular structure persist across cell generations? What is the relationship between cell geometry and tissue organization? What ensures that intracellular structures are scaled to the overall size of the cell? Cell biology is only now beginning to come to grips with these questions. PMID:21880160

  19. Architected Cellular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  20. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well. PMID:27695375

  1. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well.

  2. Calcium aluminate in alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altay, Arzu

    The properties of ceramic materials are determined not only by the composition and structure of the phases present, but also by the distribution of impurities, intergranular films and second phases. The phase distribution and microstructure both depend on the fabrication techniques, the raw materials used, the phase-equilibrium relations, grain growth and sintering processes. In this dissertation research, various approaches have been employed to understand fundamental phenomena such as grain growth, impurity segregation, second-phase formation and crystallization. The materials system chosen was alumina intentionally doped with calcium. Atomic-scale structural analyses of grain boundaries in alumina were carried on the processed samples. It was found that above certain calcium concentrations, CA6 precipitated as a second phase at all sintering temperatures. The results also showed that abnormal grain growth can occur after precipitation and it is not only related to the calcium level, but it is also temperature dependent. In order to understand the formation mechanism of CA6 precipitates in calcium doped alumina samples, several studies have been carried out using either bulk materials or thin films The crystallization of CA2 and CA6 powders has been studied. Chemical processing techniques were used to synthesize the powders. It was observed that CA2 powders crystallized directly, however CA6 powders crystallized through gamma-Al 2O3 solid solution. The results of energy-loss near-edge spectrometry confirmed that gamma-Al2O3 can dissolve calcium. Calcium aluminate/alumina reaction couples have also been investigated. All reaction couples were heat treated following deposition. It was found that gamma-Al2O3 was formed at the interface as a result of the interfacial reaction between the film and the substrate. gamma-Al 2O3 at the interface was stable at much higher temperatures compared to the bulk gamma-Al2O3 formed prior to the CA6 crystallization. In order to

  3. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  4. New reference values for calcium.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The nutrition societies of Germany, Austria and Switzerland are the joint editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of calcium and published them in June 2013. The reference values for the calcium intake for infants are derived from the calcium content of breast milk. For infants from 4 to <12 months of age, the calcium intake from solid foods is included in addition to the calcium intake from breast milk. Thus, the reference values for infants are estimated values; they are 220 mg/day for infants to <4 months and 330 mg/day for infants from 4 to <12 months of age. As a parameter for determining the calcium requirement in children and adolescents, calcium retention is taken into account. The average requirement is calculated by the factorial method. A balanced calcium metabolism is calculated based upon calcium balance studies and used as a parameter for the determination of the calcium requirement in adults. On the basis of the average requirement, recommended calcium intake levels for children, adolescents and adults are derived. Depending on age, the recommended calcium intake ranges between 600 mg/day for children aged 1 to <4 years and 1,200 mg/day for adolescents aged 13 to <19 years; for adults, it is 1,000 mg/day. PMID:24356454

  5. Adoptive Cellular Therapy (ACT) for Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Jin, Hao; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qian; Yan, Cihui; Wei, Feng; Ren, Xiubao

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) with various lymphocytes or antigen-presenting cells is one stone in the pillar of cancer immunotherapy, which relies on the tumor-specific T cell. The transfusion of bulk T-cell population into patients is an effective treatment for regression of cancer. In this chapter, we summarize the development of various strategies in ACT for cancer immunotherapy and discuss some of the latest progress and obstacles in technical, safety, and even regulatory aspects to translate these technologies to the clinic. ACT is becoming a potentially powerful approach to cancer treatment. Further experiments and clinical trials are needed to optimize this strategy.

  6. Calcium modulates promoter occupancy by the Entamoeba histolytica Ca2+-binding transcription factor URE3-BP.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Carol A; Leo, Megan; Line, C Genghis; Mann, Barbara J; Petri, William A

    2003-02-14

    The Entamoeba histolytica upstream regulatory element 3-binding protein (URE3-BP) binds to the URE3 sequence of the Gal/GalNAc-inhibitable lectin hgl5 and ferredoxin 1 (fdx) gene promoters. This binding can be inhibited in vitro by addition of calcium. Two EF-hand motifs, which are associated with the ability to bind calcium, are present in the amino acid sequence of URE3-BP. Mutation of the second EF-hand motif in URE3-BP resulted in the loss of calcium inhibition of DNA binding as monitored by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that URE3-BP was physically bound to the hgl5 and fdx promoters in vivo. Parasite intracellular calcium concentrations were altered by changes in extracellular calcium. Promoter occupancy was lost when intracellular calcium levels were increased by coordinate increases in extracellular calcium. Increased intracellular calcium also resulted in decreased levels of URE3-BP mRNA. Together these results demonstrate that changes in extracellular calcium result in changes in URE3-BP mRNA and in the ability of URE3-BP to bind to URE3-containing promoters. Modulation of URE3-BP by calcium may represent an important mechanism of control of gene expression in E. histolytica.

  7. Proteomic analysis of imatinib-resistant CML-T1 cells reveals calcium homeostasis as a potential therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Toman, O.; Kabickova, T.; Vit, O.; Fiser, R.; Polakova, K. Machova; Zach, J.; Linhartova, J.; Vyoral, D.; Petrak, J.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) therapy has markedly improved patient prognosis after introduction of imatinib mesylate for clinical use. However, a subset of patients develops resistance to imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), mainly due to point mutations in the region encoding the kinase domain of the fused BCR-ABL oncogene. To identify potential therapeutic targets in imatinib-resistant CML cells, we derived imatinib-resistant CML-T1 human cell line clone (CML-T1/IR) by prolonged exposure to imatinib in growth media. Mutational analysis revealed that the Y235H mutation in BCR-ABL is probably the main cause of CML-T1/IR resistance to imatinib. To identify alternative therapeutic targets for selective elimination of imatinib-resistant cells, we compared the proteome profiles of CML-T1 and CML-T1/IR cells using 2-DE-MS. We identified eight differentially expressed proteins, with strongly upregulated Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) in the resistant cells, suggesting that this protein may influence cytosolic pH, Ca2+ concentration or signaling pathways such as Wnt in CML-T1/IR cells. We tested several compounds including drugs in clinical use that interfere with the aforementioned processes and tested their relative toxicity to CML-T1 and CML-T1/IR cells. Calcium channel blockers, calcium signaling antagonists and modulators of calcium homeostasis, namely thapsigargin, ionomycin, verapamil, carboxyamidotriazole and immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporine A and tacrolimus (FK-506) were selectively toxic to CML-T1/IR cells. The putative cellular targets of these compounds in CML-T1/IR cells are postulated in this study. We propose that Ca2+ homeostasis can be a potential therapeutic target in CML cells resistant to TKIs. We demonstrate that a proteomic approach may be used to characterize a TKI-resistant population of CML cells enabling future individualized treatment options for patients. PMID:27430982

  8. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    PubMed

    de Jonge, H J M Henk-Marijn; Gans, R O B Rijk; Huls, Gerwin

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate absorption. No convincing scientific evidence supporting the advice to prescribe calcium citrate instead of calcium carbonate to patients who also take antacids is available, and therefore deserves further investigation. On the contrary, the fact that calcium carbonate does not need acid in order to be absorbed, has also not been proven. In clinical practise, it appears important that calcium is taken with meals in order to improve its absorption. PMID:22914054

  9. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    PubMed

    de Jonge, H J M Henk-Marijn; Gans, R O B Rijk; Huls, Gerwin

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate absorption. No convincing scientific evidence supporting the advice to prescribe calcium citrate instead of calcium carbonate to patients who also take antacids is available, and therefore deserves further investigation. On the contrary, the fact that calcium carbonate does not need acid in order to be absorbed, has also not been proven. In clinical practise, it appears important that calcium is taken with meals in order to improve its absorption.

  10. Reference materials for cellular therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bravery, Christopher A; French, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The development of cellular therapeutics (CTP) takes place over many years, and, where successful, the developer will anticipate the product to be in clinical use for decades. Successful demonstration of manufacturing and quality consistency is dependent on the use of complex analytical methods; thus, the risk of process and method drift over time is high. The use of reference materials (RM) is an established scientific principle and as such also a regulatory requirement. The various uses of RM in the context of CTP manufacturing and quality are discussed, along with why they are needed for living cell products and the analytical methods applied to them. Relatively few consensus RM exist that are suitable for even common methods used by CTP developers, such as flow cytometry. Others have also identified this need and made proposals; however, great care will be needed to ensure any consensus RM that result are fit for purpose. Such consensus RM probably will need to be applied to specific standardized methods, and the idea that a single RM can have wide applicability is challenged. Written standards, including standardized methods, together with appropriate measurement RM are probably the most appropriate way to define specific starting cell types. The characteristics of a specific CTP will to some degree deviate from those of the starting cells; consequently, a product RM remains the best solution where feasible. Each CTP developer must consider how and what types of RM should be used to ensure the reliability of their own analytical measurements.

  11. Calcium signaling properties of a thyrotroph cell line, mouse TαT1 cells.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Melanija; Bargi-Souza, Paula; Leiva-Salcedo, Elias; Nunes, Maria Tereza; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-12-01

    TαT1 cells are mouse thyrotroph cell line frequently used for studies on thyroid-stimulating hormone beta subunit gene expression and other cellular functions. Here we have characterized calcium-signaling pathways in TαT1 cells, an issue not previously addressed in these cells and incompletely described in native thyrotrophs. TαT1 cells are excitable and fire action potentials spontaneously and in response to application of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), the native hypothalamic agonist for thyrotrophs. Spontaneous electrical activity is coupled to small amplitude fluctuations in intracellular calcium, whereas TRH stimulates both calcium mobilization from intracellular pools and calcium influx. Non-receptor-mediated depletion of intracellular pool also leads to a prominent facilitation of calcium influx. Both receptor and non-receptor stimulated calcium influx is substantially attenuated but not completely abolished by inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels, suggesting that depletion of intracellular calcium pool in these cells provides a signal for both voltage-independent and -dependent calcium influx, the latter by facilitating the pacemaking activity. These cells also express purinergic P2Y1 receptors and their activation by extracellular ATP mimics TRH action on calcium mobilization and influx. The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine prolongs duration of TRH-induced calcium spikes during 30-min exposure. These data indicate that TαT1 cells are capable of responding to natively feed-forward TRH signaling and intrapituitary ATP signaling with acute calcium mobilization and sustained calcium influx. Amplification of TRH-induced calcium signaling by triiodothyronine further suggests the existence of a pathway for positive feedback effects of thyroid hormones probably in a non-genomic manner.

  12. Calcium-binding proteins: an overview.

    PubMed

    Weinman, S

    1991-03-01

    In order to understand the mechanism of the various responses evoked by calcium in the cell, the identification and characterization of a number of calcium receptors were undertaken within the past two decades. Advances in amino acid sequence and protein three-dimensional structure led to the description of two families of calcium-binding proteins, the EF-hand homolog family and the annexin family. The EF-hand motif consists of two alpha helices, "E" and "F", joined by a Ca(2+)-binding loop. EF-hands have been identified in numerous Ca(2+)-binding proteins by similarity of amino acid sequence and confirmed in some crystal structures. Functional EF-hands seem always to occur in pairs. To date, the EF-hand homolog family contains more than 160 different Ca(2+)-modulated proteins which have a broad range of functions. Among them, are the calmodulin, the troponin C, the myosin regulatory light chain, the parvalbumin, the S-100 proteins and the calbindins 9- and 28 kDa. The most striking feature of the EF-hand family is the ability to modulate the activity of a number of enzymes. Several groups have identified proteins from various tissues that show calcium-dependent binding to membranes. These proteins, termed annexins have a molecular weight of 35- or 67 kDa. The amino acid sequences of the members of the annexin family show that each protein contains conserved internal repeats of about 70 amino acids each. The 35 kDa annexins contain four repeats, which show a high degree of homology with each other and with the repeat sequences of the other proteins. These repeats correspond to structural domains with a similar fold.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1864864

  13. Total cellular Ca2+ measurements in yeast using flame photometry.

    PubMed

    Tisi, Renata; Martegani, Enzo; Brandão, Rogelio L

    2015-02-02

    A photoelectric flame photometer is a device used in inorganic chemical analysis for determining the concentrations of certain metals in solution. It does this by measuring the intensity of the light emitted by the metal when the solution is sprayed under controlled conditions into a nonluminous flame. This protocol describes how to measure total cellular calcium (maximal emission at 622 nm, orange flame) in yeast using this technique.

  14. The role of uncoupling protein 3 regulating calcium ion uptake into mitochondria during sarcopenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikawa, Takeshi; Choi, Inho; Haruna, Marie; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Maita Ohno, Ayako; Kondo Teshima, Shigetada

    Overloaded mitochondrial calcium concentration contributes to progression of mitochondrial dysfunction in aged muscle, leading to sarcopenia. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is primarily expressed in the inner membrane of skeletal muscle mitochondria. Recently, it has been reported that UCP3 is associated with calcium uptake into mitochondria. However, the mechanisms by which UCP3 regulates mitochondrial calcium uptake are not well understood. Here we report that UCP3 interacts with HS-1 associated protein X-1 (Hax-1), an anti-apoptotic protein that is localized in mitochondria, which is involved in cellular responses to calcium ion. The hydrophilic sequences within the loop 2, matrix-localized hydrophilic domain of mouse UCP3 are necessary for binding to Hax-1 of the C-terminal domain in adjacent to mitochondrial innermembrane. Interestingly, these proteins interaction occur the calcium-dependent manner. Indeed, overexpression of UCP3 significantly enhanced calcium uptake into mitochondria on Hax-1 endogenously expressing C2C12 myoblasts. In addition, Hax-1 knock-down enhanced calcium uptake into mitochondria on both UCP3 and Hax-1 endogenously expressing C2C12 myotubes, but not myoblasts. Finally, the dissociation of UCP3 and Hax-1 enhances calcium uptake into mitochondria in aged muscle. These studies identify a novel UCP3-Hax-1 complex regulates the influx of calcium ion into mitochondria in muscle. Thus, the efficacy of UCP3-Hax-1 in mitochondrial calcium regulation may provide a novel therapeutic approach against mitochondrial dysfunction-related disease containing sarcopenia.

  15. Artemisinin Induces Calcium-Dependent Protein Secretion in the Protozoan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Nagamune, Kisaburo; Beatty, Wandy L.; Sibley, L. David

    2007-01-01

    Intracellular calcium controls several crucial cellular events in apicomplexan parasites, including protein secretion, motility, and invasion into and egress from host cells. The plant compound thapsigargin inhibits the sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), resulting in elevated calcium and induction of protein secretion in Toxoplasma gondii. Artemisinins are natural products that show potent and selective activity against parasites, making them useful for the treatment of malaria. While the mechanism of action is uncertain, previous studies have suggested that artemisinin may inhibit SERCA, thus disrupting calcium homeostasis. We cloned the single-copy gene encoding SERCA in T. gondii (TgSERCA) and demonstrate that the protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum in the parasite. In extracellular parasites, TgSERCA partially relocalized to the apical pole, a highly active site for regulated secretion of micronemes. TgSERCA complemented a calcium ATPase-defective yeast mutant, and this activity was inhibited by either thapsigargin or artemisinin. Treatment of T. gondii with artemisinin triggered calcium-dependent secretion of microneme proteins, similar to the SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin. Artemisinin treatment also altered intracellular calcium in parasites by increasing the periodicity of calcium oscillations and inducing recurrent, strong calcium spikes, as imaged using Fluo-4 labeling. Collectively, these results demonstrate that artemisinin perturbs calcium homeostasis in T. gondii, supporting the idea that Ca2+-ATPases are potential drug targets in parasites. PMID:17766463

  16. Calcium sensitivity of residual force enhancement in rabbit skinned fibers.

    PubMed

    Joumaa, V; Herzog, W

    2014-08-15

    Isometric force after active stretch of muscles is higher than the purely isometric force at the corresponding length. This property is termed residual force enhancement. Active force in skeletal muscle depends on calcium attachment characteristics to the regulatory proteins. Passive force has been shown to influence calcium attachment characteristics, specifically the sarcomere length dependence of calcium sensitivity. Since one of the mechanisms proposed to explain residual force enhancement is the increase in passive force that results from engagement of titin upon activation and stretch, our aim was to test if calcium sensitivity of residual force enhancement was different from that of its corresponding purely isometric contraction and if such a difference was related to the molecular spring titin. Force-pCa curves were established in rabbit psoas skinned fibers for reference and residual force-enhanced states at a sarcomere length of 3.0 μm 1) in a titin-intact condition, 2) after treatment with trypsin to partially eliminate titin, and 3) after treatment with trypsin and osmotic compression with dextran T-500 to decrease the lattice spacing in the absence of titin. The force-pCa curves of residual force enhancement were shifted to the left compared with their corresponding controls in titin-intact fibers, indicating increased calcium sensitivity. No difference in calcium sensitivity was observed between reference and residual force-enhanced contractions in trypsin-treated and osmotically compressed trypsin-treated fibers. Furthermore, calcium sensitivity after osmotic compression was lower than that observed for residual force enhancement in titin-intact skinned fibers. These results suggest that titin-based passive force regulates the increase in calcium sensitivity of residual force enhancement by a mechanism other than reduction of the myofilament lattice spacing.

  17. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Huiying; Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-01-24

    Highlights: • Iron accumulation was involved in the acute phase following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could attenuate cellular iron accumulation following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could decrease ROS generation and improve cell energy supply following SAH. • Blockage of MCU could alleviate apoptosis and brain injury following SAH. - Abstract: Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH + RR, and SAH + Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron–sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH.

  18. Genetic Dominance & Cellular Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seager, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that…

  19. The New Cellular Immunology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claman, Henry N.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of the immune response and traces many of the discoveries that have led to the present state of knowledge in immunology. The new cellular immunology is directing its efforts toward improving health by proper manipulation of the immune mechanisms of the body. (JR)

  20. Identification of novel regulatory NFAT and TFII-I binding elements in the calbindin-D28k promoter in response to serum deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hajibeigi, Asghar; Dioum, Elhadji M; Guo, Jianfei; Öz, Orhan K

    2015-09-25

    Calbindin-D28k, a key regulator of calcium homeostasis plays a cytoprotective role in various tissues. We used serum free (SFM) and charcoal stripped serum (csFBS) culture media as models of cellular stress to modulate calbindin D28k expression and identify regulatory cis-elements and trans-acting factors in kidney and beta cells. The murine calbindin-D28k promoter activity was significantly upregulated under SFM or csFBS condition. Promoter analysis revealed evolutionary conserved regulatory cis-elements and deletion of 23 nt from +117/+139 as critical for basal transcription. Bioinformatics analysis of the promoter revealed conserved NFAT and TFII regulators elements. Forced expression of NFAT stimulated promoter activity. Inhibition of NFAT transcriptional activity by FK506 attenuated calbindin-D28k expression. TFII-I was shown to be necessary for basal promoter activity and to act cooperatively with NFAT. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, NFAT was shown to bind to both proximal and distal promoter regions. ChIP assays also revealed recruitment of TFII to the -36/+139 region. Knockdown of TFII-I decreased promoter activity. In summary, calbindin-D28k expression during serum deprivation is partly regulated by NFAT and TF-II. This regulation may be important in vivo during ischemia and growth factor withdrawal to regulate cellular function and maintenance.

  1. Regulatory Circuits Controlling Vascular Cell Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Tamer; Cheng, Henry; Demer, Linda L.; Tintut, Yin

    2013-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a common feature of chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and aging. Such abnormal calcium deposition occurs in medial and/or intimal layers of blood vessels as well as in cardiac valves. Once considered a passive and inconsequential finding, the presence of calcium deposits in the vasculature is widely accepted as a predictor of increased morbidity and mortality. Recognition of the importance of vascular calcification in health is driving research into mechanisms that govern its development, progression, and regression. Diverse, but highly interconnected factors, have been implicated, including disturbances in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and mineral and hormonal balances, which can lead to formation of osteoblast-like cells in the artery wall. A tight balance of procalcific and anticalcific regulators dictates the extent of disease. In this review, we focus on the main regulatory circuits modulating vascular cell calcification. PMID:23269436

  2. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    PubMed

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  3. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D; Burton, Rachel A; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  4. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  5. Monitoring the intracellular calcium response to a dynamic hypertonic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaowen; Yue, Wanqing; Liu, Dandan; Yue, Jianbo; Li, Jiaqian; Sun, Dong; Yang, Mengsu; Wang, Zuankai

    2016-03-01

    The profiling of physiological response of cells to external stimuli at the single cell level is of importance. Traditional approaches to study cell responses are often limited by ensemble measurement, which is challenging to reveal the complex single cell behaviors under a dynamic environment. Here we report the development of a simple microfluidic device to investigate intracellular calcium response to dynamic hypertonic conditions at the single cell level in real-time. Interestingly, a dramatic elevation in the intracellular calcium signaling is found in both suspension cells (human leukemic cell line, HL-60) and adherent cells (lung cancer cell line, A549), which is ascribed to the exposure of cells to the hydrodynamic stress. We also demonstrate that the calcium response exhibits distinct single cell heterogeneity as well as cell-type-dependent responses to the same stimuli. Our study opens up a new tool for tracking cellular activity at the single cell level in real time for high throughput drug screening.

  6. Intracellular Calcium Measurements for Functional Characterization of Neuronal Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Talita; Castillo, Ana Regina G; Oliveira, Ágatha; Ulrich, Henning

    2016-01-01

    The central and peripheral nervous system is built by a network of many different neuronal phenotypes together with glial and other supporting cells. The repertoire of expressed receptors and secreted neurotransmitters and neuromodulators are unique for each single neuron leading to intracellular signaling cascades, many of them involving intracellular calcium signaling. Here we suggest the use of calcium signaling analysis upon specific agonist application to reliably identify neuronal phenotypes, being important not only for basic science, but also providing a reliable tool for functional characterization of cells prior to transplantation. Calcium imaging provides various cellular information including signaling amplitudes, cell localization, duration, and frequency. Microfluorimetry reveals a signal summarizing the entire population, and its use is indicated for high-throughput screening purposes.

  7. Renal Control of Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chonchol, Michel; Levi, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration. Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are handled by the kidneys. PMID:25287933

  8. Stochastic Modeling of Calcium in 3D Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Mazel, Tomáš; Raymond, Rebecca; Raymond-Stintz, Mary; Jett, Stephen; Wilson, Bridget S.

    2009-01-01

    Release of inflammatory mediators by mast cells in type 1 immediate-hypersensitivity allergic reactions relies on antigen-dependent increases in cytosolic calcium. Here, we used a series of electron microscopy images to build a 3D reconstruction representing a slice through a rat tumor mast cell, which then served as a basis for stochastic modeling of inositol-trisphosphate-mediated calcium responses. The stochastic approach was verified by reaction-diffusion modeling within the same geometry. Local proximity of the endoplasmic reticulum to either the plasma membrane or mitochondria is predicted to differentially impact local inositol trisphosphate receptor transport. The explicit consideration of organelle spatial relationships represents an important step toward building a comprehensive, realistic model of cellular calcium dynamics. PMID:19254531

  9. Renal control of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Judith; Chonchol, Michel; Levi, Moshe

    2015-07-01

    Calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are multivalent cations that are important for many biologic and cellular functions. The kidneys play a central role in the homeostasis of these ions. Gastrointestinal absorption is balanced by renal excretion. When body stores of these ions decline significantly, gastrointestinal absorption, bone resorption, and renal tubular reabsorption increase to normalize their levels. Renal regulation of these ions occurs through glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and/or secretion and is therefore an important determinant of plasma ion concentration. Under physiologic conditions, the whole body balance of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium is maintained by fine adjustments of urinary excretion to equal the net intake. This review discusses how calcium, phosphate, and magnesium are handled by the kidneys.

  10. Interplay between gene expression noise and regulatory network architecture

    PubMed Central

    Chalancon, Guilhem; Ravarani, Charles; Balaji, S.; Martinez-Arias, Alfonso; Aravind, L.; Jothi, Raja; Babu, M. Madan

    2012-01-01

    Complex regulatory networks orchestrate most cellular processes in biological systems. Genes in such networks are subject to expression noise, resulting in isogenic cell populations exhibiting cell-to-cell variation in protein levels. Increasing evidence suggests that cells have evolved regulatory strategies to limit, tolerate, or amplify expression noise. In this context, fundamental questions arise: how can the architecture of gene regulatory networks generate, make use of, or be constrained by expression noise? Here, we discuss the interplay between expression noise and gene regulatory network at different levels of organization, ranging from a single regulatory interaction to entire regulatory networks. We then consider how this interplay impacts a variety of phenomena such as pathogenicity, disease, adaptation to changing environments, differential cell-fate outcome and incomplete or partial penetrance effects. Finally, we highlight recent technological developments that permit measurements at the single-cell level, and discuss directions for future research. PMID:22365642

  11. Complexometric Determination of Calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) complexes with numerous mineral ions, including calcium and magnesium. This reaction can be used to determine the amount of these minerals in a sample by a complexometric titration. Endpoints in the titration are detected using indicators that change color when they complex with mineral ions. Calmagite and eriochrome black T (EBT) are such indicators that change from blue to pink when they complex with calcium and magnesium. In the titration of a mineral-containing solution with EDTA, the solution turns from pink to blue at the endpoint with either indicator. The pH affects a complexometric EDTA titration in several ways, and must be carefully controlled. A major application of EDTA titration is testing the hardness of water, for which the method described is an official one (Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Method 2340C; AOAC Method 920.196).

  12. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    DOEpatents

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  13. Synthesis of calcium superoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rewick, R. T.; Blucher, W. G.; Estacio, P. L.

    1972-01-01

    Efforts to prepare Ca(O2) sub 2 from reactions of calcium compounds with 100% O3 and with O(D-1) atoms generated by photolysis of O3 at 2537 A are described. Samples of Ca(OH) sub 2, CaO, CaO2, Ca metal, and mixtures containing suspected impurities to promote reaction have been treated with excess O3 under static and flow conditions in the presence and absence of UV irradiation. Studies with KO2 suggest that the superoxide anion is stable to radiation at 2537 A but reacts with oxygen atoms generated by the photolysis of O3 to form KO3. Calcium superoxide is expected to behave in an analogous.

  14. Molecular mechanism underlying β1 regulation in voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Karen; Contreras, Gustavo F; Pupo, Amaury; Torres, Yolima P; Neely, Alan; González, Carlos; Latorre, Ramon

    2015-04-14

    Being activated by depolarizing voltages and increases in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels and their modulatory β-subunits are able to dampen or stop excitatory stimuli in a wide range of cellular types, including both neuronal and nonneuronal tissues. Minimal alterations in BK channel function may contribute to the pathophysiology of several diseases, including hypertension, asthma, cancer, epilepsy, and diabetes. Several gating processes, allosterically coupled to each other, control BK channel activity and are potential targets for regulation by auxiliary β-subunits that are expressed together with the α (BK)-subunit in almost every tissue type where they are found. By measuring gating currents in BK channels coexpressed with chimeras between β1 and β3 or β2 auxiliary subunits, we were able to identify that the cytoplasmic regions of β1 are responsible for the modulation of the voltage sensors. In addition, we narrowed down the structural determinants to the N terminus of β1, which contains two lysine residues (i.e., K3 and K4), which upon substitution virtually abolished the effects of β1 on charge movement. The mechanism by which K3 and K4 stabilize the voltage sensor is not electrostatic but specific, and the α (BK)-residues involved remain to be identified. This is the first report, to our knowledge, where the regulatory effects of the β1-subunit have been clearly assigned to a particular segment, with two pivotal amino acids being responsible for this modulation.

  15. Calcium hydroxylapatite: Radiesse.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Min S

    2007-02-01

    Among the array of choices for aesthetic soft tissue fillers, Radiesse occupies a unique niche as a safe, easily administered, "semi-permanent" material. Composed of calcium hydroxylapatite in a gel matrix, it has a proven safety profile and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in the nasolabial folds and for HIV lipoatrophy. Radiesse have evolved quickly into a effective filler for moderately deep facial folds with high patient and physician approval.

  16. Extracellular calcium increases bisphosphonate-induced growth inhibition of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Journé, Fabrice; Kheddoumi, Naïma; Chaboteaux, Carole; Duvillier, Hugues; Laurent, Guy; Body, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Bisphosphonates have become standard therapy for the treatment of skeletal complications related to breast cancer. Although their therapeutic effects mainly result from an inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption, in vitro data indicate that they also act directly on breast cancer cells, inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Methods The present study examined the effects of calcium (from 0.6 to 2.0 mmol/l) on the antitumour activity of the bisphosphonate ibandronate (1 to 1,000 nmol/l) on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cell culture densities were determined using crystal violet staining assay. Apoptotic cell death was assessed by annexin V-phycoerythrin and 7-amino-actinomycin double staining. Results At low calcium concentration, 30 μmol/l ibandronate had no effect on MDA-MB-231 cells growth and only slightly inhibited MCF-7 cells growth. Higher calcium levels significantly increased growth inhibition as well as cell apoptosis induced by ibandronate. We observed similar effects with zoledronic acid. Of note, enhancement of ibandronate-induced growth inhibition was also observed in other breast cancer cell lines (T-47D, ZR-75, Hs-578T and BT-549 cells). The growth inhibitory effect of ibandronate in the presence of high concentrations of calcium was partly suppressed by the calcium chelator EGTA (ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid). In addition, in the presence of calcium at high concentrations, cells accumulated more [14C]ibandronate than at low calcium concentrations. We obtained further evidence of enhancement of cellular ibandronate accumulation by calcium by demonstrating that high calcium levels increased the inhibition of protein prenylation induced by the bisphosphonate. Conclusion Altogether, our data suggest that extracellular calcium, probably through its binding to ibandronate, markedly increased its cellular accumulation and its inhibitory activity on breast tumour cells. Thus, calcium released during the process of

  17. Fabrication of cellular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prud'homme, Robert K.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Garg, Rajeev

    1996-02-01

    Nature uses cellular materials in applications requiring strength while, simultaneously, minimizing raw materials requirements. Minimizing raw materials is efficient both in terms of the energy expended by the organism to synthesize the structure and in terms of the strength- to-weight ratio of the structure. Wood is the most obvious example of cellular bio-materials, and it is the focus of other presentations in this symposium. The lightweight bone structure of birds is another excellent example where weight is a key criterion. The anchoring foot of the common muscle [Mytilus edulis] whereby it attaches itself to objects is a further example of a biological system that uses a foam to fill space and yet conserve on raw materials. In the case of the muscle the foam is water filled and the foot structure distributes stress over a larger area so that the strength of the byssal thread from which it is suspended is matched to the strength of interfacial attachment of the foot to a substrate. In these examples the synthesis and fabrication of the cellular material is directed by intercellular, genetically coded, biochemical reactions. The resulting cell sizes are microns in scale. Cellular materials at the next larger scale are created by organisms at the next higher level of integration. For example an African tree frog lays her eggs in a gas/fluid foam sack she builds on a branch overhanging a pond. The outside of the foam sack hardens in the sun and prevents water evaporation. The foam structure minimizes the amount of fluid that needs to be incorporated into the sack and minimizes its weight. However, as far as the developing eggs are concerned, they are in an aqueous medium, i.e. the continuous fluid phase of the foam. After precisely six days the eggs hatch, and the solidified outer wall re-liquefies and dumps the emerging tadpoles into the pond below. The bee honeycomb is an example of a cellular material with exquisite periodicity at millimeter length scales. The

  18. Models of human core transcriptional regulatory circuitries

    PubMed Central

    Saint-André, Violaine; Federation, Alexander J.; Lin, Charles Y.; Abraham, Brian J.; Reddy, Jessica; Lee, Tong Ihn; Bradner, James E.; Young, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    A small set of core transcription factors (TFs) dominates control of the gene expression program in embryonic stem cells and other well-studied cellular models. These core TFs collectively regulate their own gene expression, thus forming an interconnected auto-regulatory loop that can be considered the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry (CRC) for that cell type. There is limited knowledge of core TFs, and thus models of core regulatory circuitry, for most cell types. We recently discovered that genes encoding known core TFs forming CRCs are driven by super-enhancers, which provides an opportunity to systematically predict CRCs in poorly studied cell types through super-enhancer mapping. Here, we use super-enhancer maps to generate CRC models for 75 human cell and tissue types. These core circuitry models should prove valuable for further investigating cell-type–specific transcriptional regulation in healthy and diseased cells. PMID:26843070

  19. Calcium Signaling in Taste Cells

    PubMed Central

    Medler, Kathryn F.

    2014-01-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. PMID:25450977

  20. Biliary calcium and gallstone formation.

    PubMed

    Moore, E W

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a brief overview of the current status of the field of biliary calcium and the role of calcium in the formation and maturation of gallstones. The study of free Ca+(+) ions in bile by electrochemical potentiometric measurements using Ca+(+)-selective ion-exchange electrodes is a relatively new field, but much progress has been made in the past few years. Using this powerful analytical tool, new concepts and findings have arisen in almost every aspect of biliary calcium. Although the current symposium is targeted primarily toward cholesterol gallstones, there are several areas in which understanding of biliary calcium may significantly contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of cholesterol, as well as "pigment" (calcium salt), gallstones. Five broad areas are considered in relation to biliary calcium: (a) physiology (calcium entry into bile), (b) biophysics (the regulation of biliary free [Ca+(+)] as related to Gibbs-Donnan equilibria, (c) physical chemistry (the physicochemical state of calcium in bile, (d) thermodynamics (calcium solubility in bile), and (e) kinetics (pronucleating and antinucleating factors and metastable states). With more specific reference to cholesterol stones, consideration is also made of (a) the calcium salt "seed" hypothesis in cholesterol stone pathogenesis; (b) the interactions of Ca+(+) with phospholipid-cholesterol vesicles, with consideration of possible structural requirements and (c) thermodynamic and kinetic factors as related to peripheral or "eggshell" calcification of existing cholesterol stones. PMID:2210651

  1. Mobile and immobile calcium buffers in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Z; Neher, E

    1993-01-01

    1. The calcium binding capacity (kappa S) of bovine chromaffin cells preloaded with fura-2 was measured during nystatin-perforated-patch recordings. 2. Subsequently, the perforated patch was ruptured to obtain a whole-cell recording situation, and the time course of kappa S was monitored during periods of up to one hour. 3. No rapid change (within 10-20 s) of kappa S was observed upon transition to whole-cell recording, as would be expected, if highly mobile organic anions contributed significantly to calcium buffering. However, approximately half of the cells investigated displayed a drop in kappa S within 2-5 min, indicative of the loss of soluble Ca2+ binding proteins in the range of 7-20 kDa. 4. The average Ca2+ binding capacity (differential ratio of bound calcium over free calcium) was 9 +/- 7 (mean +/- S.E.M.) for the poorly mobile component and 31 +/- 10 for the fixed component. It was concluded that a contribution of 7 from highly mobile buffer would have been detected, if present. Thus, this value can be considered as an upper bound to highly mobile Ca2+ buffer. 5. Both mobile and fixed calcium binding capacity appeared to have relatively low Ca2+ affinity, since kappa S did not change in the range of Ca2+ concentrations between 0.1 and 3 microM. 6. It was found that cellular autofluorescence and contributions to fluorescence of non-hydrolysed or compartmentalized dye contribute a serious error in estimation of kappa S. 'Balanced loading', a degree of fura-2 loading such that the calcium binding capacity of fura-2 equals cellular calcium binding capacity, minimizes these errors. Also, changes in kappa S at the transition from perforated-patch to whole-cell recording can be most faithfully recorded for similar degrees of loading in both situations. 7. Nystatin was found unable to make pores from inside of the plasma membrane of chromaffin cells. With careful preparation and storage the diluted nystatin solution maintained its high activity of membrane

  2. Probabilistic Cellular Automata

    PubMed Central

    Agapie, Alexandru; Giuclea, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cellular automata are binary lattices used for modeling complex dynamical systems. The automaton evolves iteratively from one configuration to another, using some local transition rule based on the number of ones in the neighborhood of each cell. With respect to the number of cells allowed to change per iteration, we speak of either synchronous or asynchronous automata. If randomness is involved to some degree in the transition rule, we speak of probabilistic automata, otherwise they are called deterministic. With either type of cellular automaton we are dealing with, the main theoretical challenge stays the same: starting from an arbitrary initial configuration, predict (with highest accuracy) the end configuration. If the automaton is deterministic, the outcome simplifies to one of two configurations, all zeros or all ones. If the automaton is probabilistic, the whole process is modeled by a finite homogeneous Markov chain, and the outcome is the corresponding stationary distribution. Based on our previous results for the asynchronous case—connecting the probability of a configuration in the stationary distribution to its number of zero-one borders—the article offers both numerical and theoretical insight into the long-term behavior of synchronous cellular automata. PMID:24999557

  3. Cellular therapy in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Parida, Shreemanta K; Madansein, Rajhmun; Singh, Nalini; Padayatchi, Nesri; Master, Iqbal; Naidu, Kantharuben; Zumla, Alimuddin; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Cellular therapy now offer promise of potential adjunct therapeutic options for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). We review here the role of Mesenchymal stromal cells, (MSCs), as well as other immune effector cells in the therapy of infectious diseases with a focus on TB. MSCs represent a population of tissue-resident non-hematopoietic adult progenitor cells which home into injured tissues increase the proliferative potential of broncho-alveolar stem cells and restore lung epithelium. MSCs have been shown to be immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory mediated via cell-cell contacts as well as soluble factors. We discuss the functional profile of MSCs and their potential use for adjunct cellular therapy of multi-drug resistant TB, with the aim of limiting tissue damage, and to convert unproductive inflammatory responses into effective anti-pathogen directed immune responses. Adjunct cellular therapy could potentially offer salvage therapy options for patients with drug-resistant TB, increase clinically relevant anti-M.tuberculosis directed immune responses and possibly shorten the duration of anti-TB therapy. PMID:25809753

  4. Single-cell mechanics and calcium signalling in organotypic slices of human myometrium☆

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, Fiona C.; Richardson, Magnus J.E.; Shmygol, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of cellular mechanisms regulating myometrial contractility is crucial for improvement in management of many obstetric abnormalities, such as premature delivery, uterine dystocia and post-partum haemorrhage. Myometrial contractions are triggered by periodic synchronous rises in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) elicited by spontaneously generated action potentials propagating throughout the entire myometrium. During labour, hormones like oxytocin and prostaglandins potentiate uterine contractions by increasing their duration, strength and frequency. The most informative approach to studying the mechanisms underlying hormonal modulation of uterine contractility is to record [Ca2+]i responses to hormones in intact myometrial samples that have not been subjected to enzymatic treatment for cell isolation or cell culture conditions. However, the spatio-temporal resolution of such recording is limited due to the motion artifacts occurring in contracting tissue. Here we describe the application of our newly developed motion correction algorithm to investigate the [Ca2+]i dynamics in control and oxytocin stimulated slices of human myometrium on a cellular level. We present evidence that oxytocin induces asynchronous [Ca2+]i oscillations in individual myocytes within intact myometrium which are similar to those observed in cultured cells. The oscillations occur between synchronous action potential-driven [Ca2+]i transients but appear to be unrelated to contractions. Furthermore, the oxytocin-triggered [Ca2+]i oscillations wane within 30–50 min of hormone application, while the action potential induced [Ca2+]i transients remain augmented. We conclude that oxytocin-induced [Ca2+]i oscillations are not relevant to the acute regulation of myometrial contractility but may play a role in longer-term regulatory processes, for example, by triggering gene expression. PMID:25702249

  5. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter activity is dispensable for MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cell survival.

    PubMed

    Hall, Duane D; Wu, Yuejin; Domann, Frederick E; Spitz, Douglas R; Anderson, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Calcium uptake through the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) is thought to be essential in regulating cellular signaling events, energy status, and survival. Functional dissection of the uniporter is now possible through the recent identification of the genes encoding for MCU protein complex subunits. Cancer cells exhibit many aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction associated with altered mitochondrial Ca2+ levels including resistance to apoptosis, increased reactive oxygen species production and decreased oxidative metabolism. We used a publically available database to determine that breast cancer patient outcomes negatively correlated with increased MCU Ca2+ conducting pore subunit expression and decreased MICU1 regulatory subunit expression. We hypothesized breast cancer cells may therefore be sensitive to MCU channel manipulation. We used the widely studied MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line to investigate whether disruption or increased activation of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake with specific siRNAs and adenoviral overexpression constructs would sensitize these cells to therapy-related stress. MDA-MB-231 cells were found to contain functional MCU channels that readily respond to cellular stimulation and elicit robust AMPK phosphorylation responses to nutrient withdrawal. Surprisingly, knockdown of MCU or MICU1 did not affect reactive oxygen species production or cause significant effects on clonogenic cell survival of MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to irradiation, chemotherapeutic agents, or nutrient deprivation. Overexpression of wild type or a dominant negative mutant MCU did not affect basal cloning efficiency or ceramide-induced cell killing. In contrast, non-cancerous breast epithelial HMEC cells showed reduced survival after MCU or MICU1 knockdown. These results support the conclusion that MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells do not rely on MCU or MICU1 activity for survival in contrast to previous findings in cells derived from cervical, colon, and prostate cancers and

  6. Calcium and bone health--goodbye, calcium supplements?

    PubMed

    Ströhle, A; Hadji, P; Hahn, A

    2015-10-01

    This review assesses (1) the potential role of calcium supplements in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures, and (2) the safety of calcium supplements with respect to cardiovascular health as well. With regard to (1), a total calcium intake of < 800 mg/day is associated with increased loss of bone mineral density in peri- and postmenopausal women with an increase in fracture risk. Hereby, the effect of calcium supplements on fracture prevention is dependent primary on baseline calcium intake. The strongest protective effect has been reported in individuals with a calcium intake < 700 mg/day and in high-risk groups. A calcium intake of about 1000-1200 mg/day seems to be sufficient for general fracture prevention. With regard to (2), an analysis of the data based on the Hill criteria does not demonstrate convincing evidence that calcium supplements increase cardiovascular risk. In the long term, total calcium intake of 2500 mg/day (from food and supplements) continues to be classified as safe. This value should not be exceeded for an extended period of time. PMID:25689871

  7. Locking regulatory myosin in the off-state with trifluoperazine.

    PubMed

    Patel, H; Margossian, S S; Chantler, P D

    2000-02-18

    Scallop striated adductor muscle myosin is a regulatory myosin, its activity being controlled directly through calcium binding. Here, we show that millimolar concentrations of trifluoperazine were effective at removal of all regulatory light chains from scallop myosin or myofibrils. More important, 200 microM trifluoperazine, a concentration 10-fold less than that required for light-chain removal, resulted in the reversible elimination of actin-activated and intrinsic ATPase activities. Unlike desensitization induced by metal ion chelation, which leads to an elevation of activity in the absence of calcium concurrent with regulatory light-chain removal, trifluoperazine caused a decline in actin-activated MgATPase activity both in the presence and absence of calcium. Procedures were equally effective with respect to scallop myosin, myofibrils, subfragment-1, or desensitized myofibrils. Increased alpha-helicity could be induced in the isolated essential light chain through addition of 100-200 microM trifluoperazine. We propose that micromolar concentrations of trifluoperazine disrupt regulation by binding to a single high-affinity site located in the C-terminal domain of the essential light chain, which locks scallop myosin in a conformation resembling the off-state. At millimolar trifluoperazine concentrations, additional binding sites on both light chains would be filled, leading to regulatory light-chain displacement.

  8. Incorporation of Chromate into Calcium Carbonate Structure during Coprecipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Bin; Deng, Baolin; Thornton, Edward C.; Yang, J.; Amonette, James E.

    2006-09-08

    To assess treatment technologies and establish regulatory framework for chromate-contaminated site remediation, it is imperative to know the exact chromium speciation in soil matrices. In an earlier study, Thornton and Amonette (1999) reported that some chromate in the bulk particles was not accessible to gaseous reductants or solution-phase extractants, based on XANES studies. We hypothesized that part of this non-extractable chromate may reside in the structure of minerals such as calcium carbonate. To test this hypothesis, a number of calcium carbonate precipitates were prepared in the presence of various concentrations of chromate during the precipitation, which could coprecipitate chromate, or by adding chromate after the precipitation was completed. Hydrochloric acid was used to dissolve calcium carbonate and therefore extract the coprecipitated and surface attached chromate. The results showed that the coprecipitated chromate was non-extractable by hot alkaline solution or phosphate buffer, but could be solubilized by HCl in proportional to the amount of calcium carbonate dissolved. The X-ray diffraction experiments revealed that the coprecipitation of chromate with calcium carbonate had an influence on its crystal structure: the higher the chromate concentration, the greater the ratio of vaterite to calcite.

  9. Gene therapy targeted at calcium handling as an approach to the treatment of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Hoshijima, Masahiko

    2005-03-01

    Chronic congestive heart failure primarily of ischemic origin remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and other leading countries. The current main stream of therapy is, however, palliative and uses a complex regimen of drugs, the actions of which are not understood completely. On the other hand, unfavorable remodeling after cardiac injuries of multiple causes has been thought to lead to cardiac contractile dysfunction in heart failure, and a body of scientific evidence points to a central role of intrinsic defects in intracellular calcium handling in cardiomyocytes that arise from the distorted functions of several key regulatory molecules on plasma membrane or sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), a muscle-specific intracellular membrane complex that stores calcium at high concentration. Accordingly, the initial appetite to use gene transfer strategies to modulate calcium regulatory proteins was to validate molecular targets for the development of new pharmaceuticals; however, remarkable therapeutic efficacies found in an initial series of studies using various heart failure animal models immediately promoted us to seek ways to directly apply gene transfer to cure clinical heart failure. The first part of this article reviews our up-to-date knowledge of various functional components to regulate calcium handling in cardiomyocytes, including beta-adrenergic receptor, L-type calcium channel, ryanodine receptor (RyR) and its associated proteins, sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), and phospholamban (PLN), and their abnormalities in failing hearts. A series of new somatic gene transfer attempts targeting calcium handling in cardiomyocytes are discussed thereafter.

  10. Na+ -K+ pump activity in rat peritoneal mast cells: inhibition by extracellular calcium.

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, T.; Johansen, T.

    1989-01-01

    1. Pure populations of rat peritoneal mast cells were used to study cellular potassium uptake. The radioactive potassium analogue, 86rubidium, was used as a tracer for potassium for measurements of the activity of the cellular potassium uptake process. 2. The ouabain-sensitive and the ouabain-resistant potassium (86rubidium) uptake of mast cells incubated in the presence of calcium, 1 mmol l-1, were very low, 52 and 147 pmol per 10(6) cells min-1. 3. Calcium-deprivation of the cells uncovered a large capacity ouabain-sensitive potassium (86rubidium) uptake mechanism. The activity of the uptake mechanism was decreased by reintroduction of calcium into the cell suspension, and it was dependent on cellular energy metabolism, temperature and pH. 4. The potassium (86rubidium) uptake of mast cells incubated in a calcium-free medium occurs through an active and ouabain-sensitive mechanism that has the nature of an enzyme, and it is mediated by the Na+ -K+ pump located in the plasma membrane. It is demonstrated that the activity of the Na+ -K+ pump mechanism is inhibited by low concentrations of extracellular calcium (0.1-1.2 mmol l-1). The possibility is discussed that calcium-deprivation may increase the pump activity by increasing the permeability of the plasma membrane for Na+. PMID:2743077

  11. Crosstalk between calcium and redox signaling: from molecular mechanisms to health implications.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Cecilia; Donoso, Paulina

    2008-07-01

    Studies done many years ago established unequivocally the key role of calcium as a universal second messenger. In contrast, the second messenger roles of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have emerged only recently. Therefore, their contributions to physiological cell signaling pathways have not yet become universally accepted, and many biological researchers still regard them only as cellular noxious agents. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly apparent that there are significant interactions between calcium and redox species, and that these interactions modify a variety of proteins that participate in signaling transduction pathways and in other fundamental cellular functions that determine cell life or death. This review article addresses first the central aspects of calcium and redox signaling pathways in animal cells, and continues with the molecular mechanisms that underlie crosstalk between calcium and redox signals under a number of physiological or pathological conditions. To conclude, the review focuses on conditions that, by promoting cellular oxidative stress, lead to the generation of abnormal calcium signals, and how this calcium imbalance may cause a variety of human diseases including, in particular, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system and cardiac pathologies. PMID:18377233

  12. Taming the sphinx: Mechanisms of cellular sphingolipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Olson, D K; Fröhlich, F; Farese, R V; Walther, T C

    2016-08-01

    Sphingolipids are important structural membrane components of eukaryotic cells, and potent signaling molecules. As such, their levels must be maintained to optimize cellular functions in different cellular membranes. Here, we review the current knowledge of homeostatic sphingolipid regulation. We describe recent studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have provided insights into how cells sense changes in sphingolipid levels in the plasma membrane and acutely regulate sphingolipid biosynthesis by altering signaling pathways. We also discuss how cellular trafficking has emerged as an important determinant of sphingolipid homeostasis. Finally, we highlight areas where work is still needed to elucidate the mechanisms of sphingolipid regulation and the physiological functions of such regulatory networks, especially in mammalian cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon. PMID:26747648

  13. [Renal calcium excretion and urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Aruga, Seiji; Honma, Yukio

    2011-10-01

    Patients with urolithiasis have been increasing in the world, especially morbidity of calcium nephrolithiasis has been increasing in the advanced countries. The changes in the environmental factors including alternation of diet are said to be associated with the increment of morbidity of kidney stone. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is one of the most important risk factor of calcium nephrolithiasis and is classified into absorptive, resorptive, and renal leak. Though the origins of these three types of hypercalciuria are different, increased bone resorption and increased calcium absorption from gut tend to be observed simultaneously. Not only genetic abnormalities in the proteins which are involved in calcium metabolisms but environmental factors such as high sodium intake and chronic acid load caused by increased ingestion of animal protein have been considered to be associated with increased urinary calcium excretion. Renal metabolisms of oxalate and phosphate which are important compositions of calcium containing stone, uric acid as a promoter and citrate as a inhibitor of nephrolithiasis are also described.

  14. [Interaction of Membrane and Calcium Oscillators in Cardiac Pacemaker Cells: Mathematical Modeling].

    PubMed

    Ryvkin, A M; Zorin, N M; Moskvin, A S; Solovyova, O E; Markhasin, V S

    2015-01-01

    An integrative model of the calcium dynamics in cardiac pacemaker cells is developed taking into account a synergetic effect of the interaction between an outer membrane oscillator and an intracellular calcium oscillator ("membrane and Ca(2+)-clock"). The main feature of the model is a description of the stochastic dynamics of Ca2+ release units within the electron-conformational mechanism of the functioning of ryanodine-sensitive calcium channels. It is shown that interaction of two cellular oscillators provides a stable action potential generation in the cardiac pacemaker cells even in the case of the stochastic Ca2+ dynamics. We studied in detail the effect of ryanodine channels sensitivity to an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in sarcoplasmic reticulum and in the dyadic space on the behavior of calcium-release system. A parametric analysis of the integrative model of pacemaker cells is performed. PMID:26841508

  15. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; OBrien, Kimberly O.; Lane, Helen W.

    1999-01-01

    Bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight, threatening to limit the duration of human space missions. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after extended-duration missions. The hypotheses to be tested in this project are that space flight alters calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism, and that calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism will return to baseline within days to weeks of return to Earth. These hypotheses will be evidenced by elevated rates of bone mineral resorption and decreased bone mineral deposition, decreased absorption of dietary calcium, altered calcitropic endocrine profiles, elevated excretion of calcium in urine and feces, and elevated excretion of markers of bone resorption. The second hypothesis will be evidenced by return of indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism to preflight levels within days to weeks of return to Earth. Studies will be conducted on International Space Station astronauts before, during, and after extended-duration flights. Measurements of calcium kinetics, bone mass, and endocrine/biochemical markers of bone and calcium homeostasis will be conducted. Kinetic studies utilizing dual isotope tracer kinetic studies and mathematical modeling techniques will allow for determination of bone calcium deposition, bone calcium resorption, dietary calcium absorption and calcium excretion (both urinary and endogenous fecal excretion). These studies will build upon preliminary work conducted on the Russian Mir space station. The results from this project will be critical for clarifying how microgravity affects bone and calcium homeostasis, and will provide an important control point for assessment of countermeasure efficacy. These results are expected to aid in developing countermeasures for bone loss, both for space crews and for individuals on Earth who have metabolic bone diseases.

  16. Intracellular calcium puffs in osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Radding, W; Jordan, S E; Hester, R B; Blair, H C

    1999-12-15

    We studied intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in acid-secreting bone-attached osteoclasts, which produce a high-calcium acidic extracellular compartment. Acid secretion and [Ca(2+)](i) were followed using H(+)-restricted dyes and fura-2 or fluo-3. Whole cell calcium of acid-secreting osteoclasts was approximately 100 nM, similar to cells on inert substrate that do not secrete acid. However, measurements in restricted areas of the cell showed [Ca(2+)](i) transients to 500-1000 nM consistent with calcium puffs, transient (millisecond) localized calcium elevations reported in other cells. Spot measurements at 50-ms intervals indicated that puffs were typically less than 400 ms. Transients did not propagate in waves across the cell in scanning confocal measurements. Calcium puffs occurred mainly over regions of acid secretion as determined using lysotracker red DND99 and occurred at irregular periods averaging 5-15 s in acid secreting cells, but were rare in lysotracker-negative nonsecretory cells. The calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine, cell-surface calcium transport inhibitors lanthanum or barium, and the endoplasmic reticulum ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin had variable acute effects on the mean [Ca(2+)](i) and puff frequency. However, none of these agents prevented calcium puff activity, suggesting that the mechanism producing the puffs is independent of these processes. We conclude that [Ca(2+)](i) transients in osteoclasts are increased in acid-secreting osteoclasts, and that the puffs occur mainly near the acid-transporting membrane. Cell membrane acid transport requires calcium, suggesting that calcium puffs function to maintain acid secretion. However, membrane H(+)-ATPase activity was insensitive to calcium in the 100 nM-1 microM range. Thus, any effects of calcium puffs on osteoclastic acid transport must be indirect.

  17. Effect of isoproterenol on uptake of calcium-45 by pregnant human and rat myometrium.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, B J

    1976-05-01

    Rat and human myometria contract is response to substitution of external Na+ with Li+. This contraction was accompanied by elevation of 45Ca uptake in rat but not human uterus. The lanthanum technique failed to demonstrate elevation of cellular 45Ca in human myometrium by Li+ substitution. It also failed to demonstrate reduction of Li-elevated 45Ca uptake by isoproterenol or drugs considered to inhibit calcium influx, in rat myometrium although these drugs prevented Li-induced contraction. In human myometrium, isoproterenol increased 45Ca uptake. This probably represents increased extracellular calcium binding. Isoproterenol relaxed depolarized human myometrium provided that the external calcium had been removed for 15 minutes.

  18. Stability analysis on a set of calcium-regulated viscoelastic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainor, L. E. H.; Goodwin, B. C.

    1986-05-01

    In recent years some progress has been made in modelling pattern formation and morphogenesis in biological systems in terms of calcium ion regulation of the viscoelastic properties of the cellular cortex. In this paper, linear stability analysis is used on a set of calcium-regulated viscoelastic equations derived by Goodwin and Trainor [5] for the 3-dimensional medium appropriate to regeneration phenomena in the single celled alga Acetabularia mediterranea. The nature of the instabilities is discussed and it is shown how complex patterns arise naturally from the cross-terms linking viscoelastic strain to calcium concentration and concentration gradients.

  19. Stability analysis on a set of calcium-regulated viscoelastic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainor, L. E. H.; Goodwin, B. C.

    1986-08-01

    In recent years some progress has been made in modelling pattern formation and morphogenesis in biological systems in terms of calcium ion regulation of the viscoelastic properties of the cellular cortex. In this paper, linear stability analysis is used on a set of calcium-regulated viscoelastic equations derived by Goodwin and Trainor [5] for the 3-dimensional medium appropriate to regeneration phenomena in the single celled alga Acetabularia mediterranea. The nature of the instabilities is discussed and it is shown how complex patterns arise naturally from the cross-terms linking viscoelastic strain to calcium concentration and concentration gradients.

  20. Force velocity relations of single cardiac muscle cells: calcium dependency

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Cellular cardiac preparations in which spontaneous activity was suppressed by EGTA buffering were isolated by microdissection. Uniform and reproducible contractions were induced by iontophoretically released calcium ions. No effects of a diffusional barrier to calcium ions between the micropipette and the contractile system were detected since the sensitivity of the mechanical performance for calcium was the same regardless of whether a constant amount of calcium ions was released from a single micropipette or from two micropipettes positioned at different sites along the longitudinal axis of the preparation. Force development, muscle length, and shortening velocity of eitherisometric or isotopic contractions were measured simultaneously. Initial length, and hence preload of the preparation were established by means of an electronic stop and any additional load was sensed as afterload. Mechanical performance was derived from force velocity relations and from the interrelationship between simultaneously measured force, length, and shortening velocity. From phase plane analysis of shortening velocity vs, instantaneous length during shortening and from load clamp experiments, the interrelationship between force, shortening, and velocity was shown to be independent of time during the major portion of shortening. Moreover, peak force, shortening, and velocity of shortening depended on the amount of calcium ions in the medium at low and high ionic strength. PMID:839198

  1. Understanding anomalous delays in a model of intracellular calcium dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Emily; Kirk, Vivien; Osinga, Hinke M.; Sneyd, James; Wechselberger, Martin

    2010-12-01

    In many cell types, oscillations in the concentration of free intracellular calcium ions are used to control a variety of cellular functions. It has been suggested [J. Sneyd et al., "A method for determining the dependence of calcium oscillations on inositol trisphosphate oscillations," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 1675-1680 (2006)] that the mechanisms underlying the generation and control of such oscillations can be determined by means of a simple experiment, whereby a single exogenous pulse of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) is applied to the cell. However, more detailed mathematical investigations [M. Domijan et al., "Dynamical probing of the mechanisms underlying calcium oscillations," J. Nonlinear Sci. 16, 483-506 (2006)] have shown that this is not necessarily always true, and that the experimental data are more difficult to interpret than first thought. Here, we use geometric singular perturbation techniques to study the dynamics of models that make different assumptions about the mechanisms underlying the calcium oscillations. In particular, we show how recently developed canard theory for singularly perturbed systems with three or more slow variables [M. Wechselberger, "A propos de canards (Apropos canards)," Preprint, 2010] applies to these calcium models and how the presence of a curve of folded singularities and corresponding canards can result in anomalous delays in the response of these models to a pulse of IP3.

  2. Cloning and expression of a pivotal calcium metabolism regulator: calmodulin involved in shell formation from pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata).

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Cen; Zhang, Yong; Gu, Mianzhi; Zhang, Rongqing

    2004-07-01

    The shells of bivalves are mainly composed of calcium carbonate, a product of calcium metabolism. In the process of shell formation, the uptake, transport and recruitment of calcium ion are highly regulated and involved in many factors. Among these regulatory factors, calmodulin (CaM), a pivotal multifunction regulator of calcium metabolism in nearly all organisms, is thought to play an important role in the calcium metabolism involved in shell formation. In this study, a full-length CaM cDNA was isolated from the pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata). The oyster calmodulin encodes a 16.8 kDa protein which shares high similarity with vertebrate calmodulin. The oyster CaM mRNA shows the highest level of expression in the gill, a key organ involved in calcium uptake in oyster calcium metabolism. In situ hybridization results revealed that oyster CaM mRNA is expressed at the folds and the outer epithelial cells of the dorsal region of the mantle, suggesting that CaM is involved in regulation of calcium transport and secretion. Oyster CaM also showed a typical Ca2+ dependent electrophoretic shift characterization and calcium binding activity. Taken together, we have identified and characterized a pivotal calcium metabolism regulator of the oyster that may play an important role in regulation of calcium uptake, transport and secretion in the process of shell formation.

  3. Allosteric modulators of the extracellular calcium receptor.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, E F

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular calcium receptor (CaR) is a Family C G protein-coupled receptor that controls systemic Ca2+ homeostasis, largely by regulating the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Ligands that activate the CaR have been termed calcimimetics and are classified as either Type I (agonists) or Type II (allosteric activators) and effectively inhibit the secretion of PTH. CaR antagonists have been termed calcilytics and all act allosterically to stimulate secretion of PTH. The calcimimetic cinacalcet has been approved for treating parathyroid cancer and secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients on renal replacement therapy. Cinacalcet was the first allosteric modulator of a G proteincoupled receptor to achieve regulatory approval. This review will focus on the technologies used to discover and develop allosterically acting calcimimetics and calcilytics as novel therapies for bone and mineral-related disorders. PMID:24050279

  4. Calcium-Sensing Receptor in Breast Physiology and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wonnam; Wysolmerski, John J.

    2016-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in normal breast epithelial cells and in breast cancer cells. During lactation, activation of the CaSR in mammary epithelial cells increases calcium transport into milk and inhibits parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) secretion into milk and into the circulation. The ability to sense changes in extracellular calcium allows the lactating breast to actively participate in the regulation of systemic calcium and bone metabolism, and to coordinate calcium usage with calcium availability during milk production. Interestingly, as compared to normal breast cells, in breast cancer cells, the regulation of PTHrP secretion by the CaSR becomes rewired due to a switch in its G-protein usage such that activation of the CaSR increases instead of decreases PTHrP production. In normal cells the CaSR couples to Gαi to inhibit cAMP and PTHrP production, whereas in breast cancer cells, it couples to Gαs to stimulate cAMP and PTHrP production. Activation of the CaSR on breast cancer cells regulates breast cancer cell proliferation, death and migration, in part, by stimulating PTHrP production. In this article, we discuss the biology of the CaSR in the normal breast and in breast cancer, and review recent findings suggesting that the CaSR activates a nuclear pathway of PTHrP action that stimulates cellular proliferation and inhibits cell death, helping cancer cells adapt to elevated extracellular calcium levels. Understanding the diverse actions mediated by the CaSR may help us better understand lactation physiology, breast cancer progression and osteolytic bone metastases. PMID:27746743

  5. Redox Regulation of Neuronal Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Voltage-gated calcium channels are ubiquitously expressed in neurons and are key regulators of cellular excitability and synaptic transmitter release. There is accumulating evidence that multiple subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channels may be regulated by oxidation and reduction. However, the redox mechanisms involved in the regulation of channel function are not well understood. Recent Advances: Several studies have established that both T-type and high-voltage-activated subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channel can be redox-regulated. This article reviews different mechanisms that can be involved in redox regulation of calcium channel function and their implication in neuronal function, particularly in pain pathways and thalamic oscillation. Critical Issues: A current critical issue in the field is to decipher precise mechanisms of calcium channel modulation via redox reactions. In this review we discuss covalent post-translational modification via oxidation of cysteine molecules and chelation of trace metals, and reactions involving nitric oxide-related molecules and free radicals. Improved understanding of the roles of redox-based reactions in regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels may lead to improved understanding of novel redox mechanisms in physiological and pathological processes. Future Directions: Identification of redox mechanisms and sites on voltage-gated calcium channel may allow development of novel and specific ion channel therapies for unmet medical needs. Thus, it may be possible to regulate the redox state of these channels in treatment of pathological process such as epilepsy and neuropathic pain. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 880–891. PMID:24161125

  6. 21 CFR 184.1187 - Calcium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium alginate. 184.1187 Section 184.1187 Food... GRAS § 184.1187 Calcium alginate. (a) Calcium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-35-0) is the calcium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Calcium alginate is prepared...

  7. Environmental regulatory update table

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.J.; Langston, M.E.; Tucker, C.S.; Reed, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  8. Cellular mechanics and motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénon, Sylvie; Sykes, Cécile

    2015-10-01

    The term motility defines the movement of a living organism. One widely known example is the motility of sperm cells, or the one of flagellar bacteria. The propulsive element of such organisms is a cilium(or flagellum) that beats. Although cells in our tissues do not have a flagellum in general, they are still able to move, as we will discover in this chapter. In fact, in both cases of movement, with or without a flagellum, cell motility is due to a dynamic re-arrangement of polymers inside the cell. Let us first have a closer look at the propulsion mechanism in the case of a flagellum or a cilium, which is the best known, but also the simplest, and which will help us to define the hydrodynamic general conditions of cell movement. A flagellum is sustained by cellular polymers arranged in semi-flexible bundles and flagellar beating generates cell displacement. These polymers or filaments are part of the cellular skeleton, or "cytoskeleton", which is, in this case, external to the cellular main body of the organism. In fact, bacteria move in a hydrodynamic regime in which viscosity dominates over inertia. The system is thus in a hydrodynamic regime of low Reynolds number (Box 5.1), which is nearly exclusively the case in all cell movements. Bacteria and their propulsion mode by flagella beating are our unicellular ancestors 3.5 billion years ago. Since then, we have evolved to form pluricellular organisms. However, to keep the ability of displacement, to heal our wounds for example, our cells lost their flagellum, since it was not optimal in a dense cell environment: cells are too close to each other to leave enough space for the flagella to accomplish propulsion. The cytoskeleton thus developed inside the cell body to ensure cell shape changes and movement, and also mechanical strength within a tissue. The cytoskeleton of our cells, like the polymers or filaments that sustain the flagellum, is also composed of semi-flexible filaments arranged in bundles, and also in

  9. Formin’ cellular structures

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Sven; Schultz, Jörg; Grosshans, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Diaphanous (Dia) protein family are key regulators of fundamental actin driven cellular processes, which are conserved from yeast to humans. Researchers have uncovered diverse physiological roles in cell morphology, cell motility, cell polarity, and cell division, which are involved in shaping cells into tissues and organs. The identification of numerous binding partners led to substantial progress in our understanding of the differential functions of Dia proteins. Genetic approaches and new microscopy techniques allow important new insights into their localization, activity, and molecular principles of regulation. PMID:24719676

  10. Modulation of intracellular calcium levels by calcium lactate affects colon cancer cell motility through calcium-dependent calpain.

    PubMed

    Sundaramoorthy, Pasupathi; Sim, Jae Jun; Jang, Yeong-Su; Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Mander, Poonam; Chul, Oh Byung; Shim, Won-Sik; Oh, Seung Hyun; Nam, Ky-Youb; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+) levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain) in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK) was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer.

  11. Pertussis toxin reduces calcium influx to protect ischemic stroke in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiwei; Li, Shiping; Han, Pengcheng; Yin, Junxiang; Gan, Yan; Liu, Qingwei; Wang, Jinkun; Wang, Chongqian; Li, Yu; Shi, Jiong

    2015-12-01

    Increased calcium influx secondary to glutamate induced excitotoxicity initiates and potentiates devastating pathological changes following ischemic stroke. Pertussis toxin (PTx), a G-protein blocker, is known to suppress intracellular calcium accumulation. We hypothesize that PTx can protect against stroke by blocking calcium influx. In a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model, PTx (1000 ng) was given intraperitoneally 30 min after inducing stroke. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of perfusion and T2-weighted brain scans were obtained to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) and infarct volume. Primary neuronal culture was used to test glutamate induced excitotoxicity and calcium influx. We established a non-linear exponential curve model to minimize variations in animal cerebrovasculature. A reduction of 40-60% in relative CBF was a critical window where infarct volume started to increase as rCBF reduced. PTx showed maximal effects in reducing infarct volume at this window. In vitro studies further demonstrated PTx increased neuronal cell survival by decreasing glutamate-induced calcium influx into neurons and preventing neurons from apoptosis. PTx salvages the ischemic penumbra by blocking calcium influx. This provides us a new mechanism upon which experimental therapies can be explored to treat ischemic stroke. In ischemic stroke, excessive glutamate binds to AMPA receptor that depolarizes calcium channel and/ or NMDA receptor. Both of them allow calcium to enter the cell. The overload of calcium triggers cellular cascade that includes Caspase activation and release, leading to pre-mature cell death. We have demonstrated that PTx, a G-protein inhibitor, blocks calcium entry which in turn prevents further cellular damage.

  12. One Dimensional Finite Element Method Approach to Study Effect of Ryanodine Receptor and Serca Pump on Calcium Distribution in Oocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Parvaiz Ahmad; Pardasani, Kamal Raj

    2013-11-01

    Oocyte is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction. Calcium ions (Ca2+) impact nearly all aspects of cellular life as they play an important role in a variety of cellular functions. Calcium ions contributes to egg activation upon fertilization. Since it is the internal stores which provide most of the calcium signal, much attention has been focused on the intracellular channels. There are mainly two types of calcium channels which release calcium from the internal stores to the cytoplasm in many cell types. These channels are IP3-Receptor and Ryanodine Receptor (RyR). Further it is essential to maintain low cytosolic calcium concentration, the cell engages the Serco/Endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPases (SERCA) present on the ER or SR membrane for the re-uptake of cytosolic calcium at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. In view of above an attempt has been made to study the effect of the Ryanodine receptor (RyR) and the SERCA pump on the calcium distribution in oocytes. The main aim of this paper is to study the calcium concentration in absence and presence of these parameters. The FEM is used to solve the proposed Mathematical model under appreciate initial and boundary conditions. The program has been developed in MATLAB 7.10 for the entire problem to get numerical results.

  13. Generation of a Homozygous Transgenic Rat Strain Stably Expressing a Calcium Sensor Protein for Direct Examination of Calcium Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Szebényi, Kornélia; Füredi, András; Kolacsek, Orsolya; Pergel, Enikő; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Bender, Balázs; Vajdovich, Péter; Tóvári, József; Homolya, László; Szakács, Gergely; Héja, László; Enyedi, Ágnes; Sarkadi, Balázs; Apáti, Ágota; Orbán, Tamás I.

    2015-01-01

    In drug discovery, prediction of selectivity and toxicity require the evaluation of cellular calcium homeostasis. The rat is a preferred laboratory animal for pharmacology and toxicology studies, while currently no calcium indicator protein expressing rat model is available. We established a transgenic rat strain stably expressing the GCaMP2 fluorescent calcium sensor by a transposon-based methodology. Zygotes were co-injected with mRNA of transposase and a CAG-GCaMP2 expressing construct, and animals with one transgene copy were pre-selected by measuring fluorescence in blood cells. A homozygous rat strain was generated with high sensor protein expression in the heart, kidney, liver, and blood cells. No pathological alterations were found in these animals, and fluorescence measurements in cardiac tissue slices and primary cultures demonstrated the applicability of this system for studying calcium signaling. We show here that the GCaMP2 expressing rat cardiomyocytes allow the prediction of cardiotoxic drug side-effects, and provide evidence for the role of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and its beneficial pharmacological modulation in cardiac reperfusion. Our data indicate that drug-induced alterations and pathological processes can be followed by using this rat model, suggesting that transgenic rats expressing a calcium-sensitive protein provide a valuable system for pharmacological and toxicological studies. PMID:26234466

  14. Calcium-sensing receptor 20 years later

    PubMed Central

    Alfadda, Tariq I.; Saleh, Ahmad M. A.; Houillier, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has played an important role as a target in the treatment of a variety of disease states over the past 20 plus years. In this review, we give an overview of the receptor at the cellular level and then provide details as to how this receptor has been targeted to modulate cellular ion transport mechanisms. As a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, it has a high degree of homology with a variety of other members in this class, which could explain why this receptor has been identified in so many different tissues throughout the body. This diversity of locations sets it apart from other members of the family and may explain how the receptor interacts with so many different organ systems in the body to modulate the physiology and pathophysiology. The receptor is unique in that it has two large exofacial lobes that sit in the extracellular environment and sense changes in a wide variety of environmental cues including salinity, pH, amino acid concentration, and polyamines to name just a few. It is for this reason that there has been a great deal of research associated with normal receptor physiology over the past 20 years. With the ongoing research, in more recent years a focus on the pathophysiology has emerged and the effects of receptor mutations on cellular and organ physiology have been identified. We hope that this review will enhance and update the knowledge about the importance of this receptor and stimulate future potential investigations focused around this receptor in cellular, organ, and systemic physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:24871857

  15. Calcium supplementation during sepsis exacerbates organ failure and mortality via calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) signaling

    PubMed Central

    Collage, Richard D.; Howell, Gina M.; Zhang, Xianghong; Stripay, Jennifer L.; Lee, Janet S.; Angus, Derek C.; Rosengart, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Calcium plays an essential role in nearly all cellular processes. As such, cellular and systemic calcium concentrations are tightly regulated. During sepsis derangements in such tight regulation frequently occur, and treating hypocalcemia with parenteral calcium administration remains the current practice guideline. Objective We investigated whether calcium administration worsens mortality and organ dysfunction using an experimental murine model of sepsis and explored the mechanistic role of the family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases in mediating these physiologic effects. To highlight the biological relevance of these observations, we conducted a translational study of the association between calcium administration, organ dysfunction and mortality among a cohort of critically ill septic ICU patients Design Prospective, randomized controlled experimental murine study. Observational clinical cohort analysis. Setting University research laboratory. Eight ICUs at a tertiary care center. Patients 870 septic ICU patients. Subjects C57BL/6 and CaMKK−/− mice. Interventions Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture polymicrobial sepsis and were administered calcium chloride (0.25 or 0.25 mg/kg) or normal saline. Measurements and Main Results Administering calcium chloride to septic C57BL/6 mice heightened systemic inflammation and vascular leak, exacerbated hepatic and renal dysfunction, and increased mortality. These events were significantly attenuated in CaMKK−/− mice. In a risk–adjusted analysis of septic patients, calcium administration was associated with an increased risk of death, OR 1.92 (95% CI 1.00–3.68, p=0.049), a significant increase in the risk of renal dysfunction, OR 4.74 (95% CI 2.48–9.08, p<0.001), and a significant reduction in ventilator free days, mean decrease 3.29 days (0.50–6.08 days, p=0.02). Conclusions Derangements in calcium homeostasis occur during sepsis that are sensitive to calcium administration

  16. Regulation of cellular transport by klotho protein.

    PubMed

    Sopjani, Mentor; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Almilaji, Ahmad; Ahmeti, Salih; Dermaku-Sopjani, Miribane

    2014-01-01

    The antiaging protein of Klotho is a transmembrane protein mainly expressed in the kidney, parathyroid glands and choroid plexus of the brain. The Klotho protein exists in two forms, a full-length membrane form and a soluble secreted form. The extracellular domain of Klotho can be enzymatically cleaved off and released into the systemic circulation where it acts as β-glucuronidase and a hormone. Soluble Klotho can be found in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and the urine of mammals. Klotho deficiency results in early appearance of multiple age-related disorders and premature death, whereas overexpression of Klotho exerts the opposite effect. Klotho may influence cellular transport processes across the cell membrane by inhibiting calcitriol (1,25(OH) (2)D(3)), formation or by directly affecting transporter proteins, including ion channels, carriers and pumps. Accordingly, Klotho protein is a powerful regulator of transport mechanisms across the cell membrane. Klotho regulates diverse calcium and potassium ion channels, as well as several carriers including the Na(+)-coupled excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT3 and EAAT4, the Na(+)-coupled phosphate cotransporters, NaPi-IIa and NaPi-IIb, and a Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. All those cellular transport regulations contribute in the aging suppressor role of Klotho. Future studies will help to determine if the Klotho protein regulates cell-surface expression of other transport proteins and is affecting underlying mechanisms.

  17. Differential Calcium Signaling Mediated by Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells and Their Unmyelinated Axons

    PubMed Central

    Sargoy, Allison; Sun, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant calcium regulation has been implicated as a causative factor in the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in numerous injury models of optic neuropathy. Since calcium has dual roles in maintaining homeostasis and triggering apoptotic pathways in healthy and injured cells, respectively, investigation of voltage-gated Ca channel (VGCC) regulation as a potential strategy to reduce the loss of RGCs is warranted. The accessibility and structure of the retina provide advantages for the investigation of the mechanisms of calcium signalling in both the somata of ganglion cells as well as their unmyelinated axons. The goal of the present study was to determine the distribution of VGCC subtypes in the cell bodies and axons of ganglion cells in the normal retina and to define their contribution to calcium signals in these cellular compartments. We report L-type Ca channel α1C and α1D subunit immunoreactivity in rat RGC somata and axons. The N-type Ca channel α1B subunit was in RGC somata and axons, while the P/Q-type Ca channel α1A subunit was only in the RGC somata. We patch clamped isolated ganglion cells and biophysically identified T-type Ca channels. Calcium imaging studies of RGCs in wholemounted retinas showed that selective Ca channel antagonists reduced depolarization-evoked calcium signals mediated by L-, N-, P/Q- and T-type Ca channels in the cell bodies but only by L-type Ca channels in the axons. This differential contribution of VGCC subtypes to calcium signals in RGC somata and their axons may provide insight into the development of target-specific strategies to spare the loss of RGCs and their axons following injury. PMID:24416240

  18. Measurement of calcium transients and slow calcium current in myotubes

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize excitation-contraction (e- c) coupling in myotubes for comparison with e-c coupling of adult skeletal muscle. The whole cell configuration of the patch clamp technique was used in conjunction with the calcium indicator dye Fluo-3 to study the calcium transients and slow calcium currents elicited by voltage clamp pulses in cultured myotubes obtained from neonatal mice. Cells were held at -80 mV and stimulated with 15-20 ms test depolarizations preceded and followed by voltage steps designed to isolate the slow calcium current. The slow calcium current had a threshold for activation of about 0 mV; the peak amplitude of the current reached a maximum at 30 to 40 mV a and then declined for still stronger depolarizations. The calcium transient had a threshold of about -10 mV, and its amplitude increased as a sigmoidal function of test potential and did not decrease again even for test depolarizations sufficiently strong (> or = 50 mV) that the amplitude of the slow calcium current became very small. Thus, the slow calcium current in myotubes appears to have a negligible role in the process of depolarization-induced release of intracellular calcium and this process in myotubes is essentially like that in adult skeletal muscle. After repolarization, however, the decay of the calcium transient in myotubes was very slow (hundreds of ms) compared to adult muscle, particularly after strong depolarizations that triggered larger calcium transients. Moreover, when cells were repolarized after strong depolarizations, the transient typically continued to increase slowly for up to several tens of ms before the onset of decay. This continued increase after repolarization was abolished by the addition of 5 mM BAPTA to the patch pipette although the rapid depolarization-induced release was not, suggesting that the slow increase might be a regenerative response triggered by the depolarization-induced release of calcium. The addition of

  19. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may... information required by the Act, the following: (1) The name of the additive “calcium chloride double salt...

  20. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely used in foods for...

  1. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may... information required by the Act, the following: (1) The name of the additive “calcium chloride double salt...

  2. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may... information required by the Act, the following: (1) The name of the additive “calcium chloride double salt...

  3. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may... information required by the Act, the following: (1) The name of the additive “calcium chloride double salt...

  4. Mitochondrial effectors of cellular senescence: beyond the free radical theory of aging

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Dorian V; Wiley, Christopher D; Velarde, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a process that results from a variety of stresses, leading to a state of irreversible growth arrest. Senescent cells accumulate during aging and have been implicated in promoting a variety of age-related diseases. Mitochondrial stress is an effective inducer of cellular senescence, but the mechanisms by which mitochondria regulate permanent cell growth arrest are largely unexplored. Here, we review some of the mitochondrial signaling pathways that participate in establishing cellular senescence. We discuss the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dynamics (fission and fusion), the electron transport chain (ETC), bioenergetic balance, redox state, metabolic signature, and calcium homeostasis in controlling cellular growth arrest. We emphasize that multiple mitochondrial signaling pathways, besides mitochondrial ROS, can induce cellular senescence. Together, these pathways provide a broader perspective for studying the contribution of mitochondrial stress to aging, linking mitochondrial dysfunction and aging through the process of cellular senescence. PMID:25399755

  5. Cellular Ultrastructure and Crystal Development in Amorphophallus (Araceae)

    PubMed Central

    Prychid, Christina J.; Jabaily, Rachel Schmidt; Rudall, Paula J.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Species of Araceae accumulate calcium oxalate in the form of characteristically grooved needle-shaped raphide crystals and multi-crystal druses. This study focuses on the distribution and development of raphides and druses during leaf growth in ten species of Amorphophallus (Araceae) in order to determine the crystal macropatterns and the underlying ultrastructural features associated with formation of the unusual raphide groove. Methods Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and both bright-field and polarized-light microscopy were used to study a range of developmental stages. Key Results Raphide crystals are initiated very early in plant development. They are consistently present in most species and have a fairly uniform distribution within mature tissues. Individual raphides may be formed by calcium oxalate deposition within individual crystal chambers in the vacuole of an idioblast. Druse crystals form later in the true leaves, and are absent from some species. Distribution of druses within leaves is more variable. Druses initially develop at leaf tips and then increase basipetally as the leaf ages. Druse development may also be initiated in crystal chambers. Conclusions The unusual grooved raphides in Amorphophallus species probably result from an unusual crystal chamber morphology. There are multiple systems of transport and biomineralization of calcium into the vacuole of the idioblast. Differences between raphide and druse idioblasts indicate different levels of cellular regulation. The relatively early development of raphides provides a defensive function in soft, growing tissues, and restricts build-up of dangerously high levels of calcium in tissues that lack the ability to adequately regulate calcium. The later development of druses could be primarily for calcium sequestration. PMID:18285357

  6. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  7. Drosophila wing imaginal discs respond to mechanical injury via slow InsP3R-mediated intercellular calcium waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Simon; Basler, Konrad

    2016-08-01

    Calcium signalling is a highly versatile cellular communication system that modulates basic functions such as cell contractility, essential steps of animal development such as fertilization and higher-order processes such as memory. We probed the function of calcium signalling in Drosophila wing imaginal discs through a combination of ex vivo and in vivo imaging and genetic analysis. Here we discover that wing discs display slow, long-range intercellular calcium waves (ICWs) when mechanically stressed in vivo or cultured ex vivo. These slow imaginal disc intercellular calcium waves (SIDICs) are mediated by the inositol-3-phosphate receptor, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pump SERCA and the key gap junction component Inx2. The knockdown of genes required for SIDIC formation and propagation negatively affects wing disc recovery after mechanical injury. Our results reveal a role for ICWs in wing disc homoeostasis and highlight the utility of the wing disc as a model for calcium signalling studies.

  8. Drosophila wing imaginal discs respond to mechanical injury via slow InsP3R-mediated intercellular calcium waves.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Simon; Basler, Konrad

    2016-08-09

    Calcium signalling is a highly versatile cellular communication system that modulates basic functions such as cell contractility, essential steps of animal development such as fertilization and higher-order processes such as memory. We probed the function of calcium signalling in Drosophila wing imaginal discs through a combination of ex vivo and in vivo imaging and genetic analysis. Here we discover that wing discs display slow, long-range intercellular calcium waves (ICWs) when mechanically stressed in vivo or cultured ex vivo. These slow imaginal disc intercellular calcium waves (SIDICs) are mediated by the inositol-3-phosphate receptor, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pump SERCA and the key gap junction component Inx2. The knockdown of genes required for SIDIC formation and propagation negatively affects wing disc recovery after mechanical injury. Our results reveal a role for ICWs in wing disc homoeostasis and highlight the utility of the wing disc as a model for calcium signalling studies.

  9. Drosophila wing imaginal discs respond to mechanical injury via slow InsP3R-mediated intercellular calcium waves

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Simon; Basler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Calcium signalling is a highly versatile cellular communication system that modulates basic functions such as cell contractility, essential steps of animal development such as fertilization and higher-order processes such as memory. We probed the function of calcium signalling in Drosophila wing imaginal discs through a combination of ex vivo and in vivo imaging and genetic analysis. Here we discover that wing discs display slow, long-range intercellular calcium waves (ICWs) when mechanically stressed in vivo or cultured ex vivo. These slow imaginal disc intercellular calcium waves (SIDICs) are mediated by the inositol-3-phosphate receptor, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pump SERCA and the key gap junction component Inx2. The knockdown of genes required for SIDIC formation and propagation negatively affects wing disc recovery after mechanical injury. Our results reveal a role for ICWs in wing disc homoeostasis and highlight the utility of the wing disc as a model for calcium signalling studies. PMID:27503836

  10. Electrochemical cell with calcium anode

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Hosmer, Pamela K.; Kelly, Benjamin E.

    1979-01-01

    An electrochemical cell comprising a calcium anode and a suitable cathode in an alkaline electrolyte consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of an hydroxide and a chloride. Specifically disclosed is a mechanically rechargeable calcium/air fuel cell with an aqueous NaOH/NaCl electrolyte.

  11. An Improved Calcium Flame Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Robert S.

    1985-01-01

    Indicates that the true red color of calcium can be obtained (using the procedure described by Sorm and Logowski) if the calcium ion solution is mixed with an equal volume of saturated ammonium bromide solution. Suggestions for flame tests of other elements are also noted. (JN)

  12. Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amschler, Denise H.

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

  13. Major Minerals - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential elements critically important for the function of the musculoskeletal system, including the formation and transduction of energy and the maintenance of healthy bone. The major calcium concern for physically active healthy middle-aged adults is to consu...

  14. Control of leucocyte function-associated antigen-1-dependent cellular conjugation by divalent cations.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, A M; Alexandroff, A B; Lappin, M B; Esuvaranathan, K; James, K; Chisholm, G D

    1994-01-01

    The control of integrin activation is fundamental to an understanding of the integrin-dependent cellular adhesion thought to be important for a plethora of basic cellular functions. Using a cell-cell conjugation assay the role of divalent cations in leucocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1)-dependent cellular adhesion was further investigated. The conjugation of interleukin-2 (IL-2)-activated lymphocytes to tumour cells was found to be energy dependent and required the presence of various divalent cations, removal of which decreased the level of conjugation. Increased concentrations of calcium, magnesium and manganese ions resulted in a corresponding increase in levels of conjugation. This increase in conjugation was LFA-1 dependent. Interestingly, when calcium ions were first removed from LFA-1, treatment of lymphocytes with magnesium and manganese ions gave significantly higher levels of conjugation than in the presence of calcium. Using a simple displacement study, calcium ions were shown to displace magnesium ions resulting in decreased conjugation. However, calcium ions were unable to displace manganese ions for binding to LFA-1. That manganese was exerting its effect via an LFA-1-dependent mechanism was confirmed using monoclonal antibodies to CD11a which negated the increased conjugation frequency due to manganese. PMID:7907574

  15. Cellular Contraction and Polarization Drive Collective Cellular Motion.

    PubMed

    Notbohm, Jacob; Banerjee, Shiladitya; Utuje, Kazage J C; Gweon, Bomi; Jang, Hwanseok; Park, Yongdoo; Shin, Jennifer; Butler, James P; Fredberg, Jeffrey J; Marchetti, M Cristina

    2016-06-21

    Coordinated motions of close-packed multicellular systems typically generate cooperative packs, swirls, and clusters. These cooperative motions are driven by active cellular forces, but the physical nature of these forces and how they generate collective cellular motion remain poorly understood. Here, we study forces and motions in a confined epithelial monolayer and make two experimental observations: 1) the direction of local cellular motion deviates systematically from the direction of the local traction exerted by each cell upon its substrate; and 2) oscillating waves of cellular motion arise spontaneously. Based on these observations, we propose a theory that connects forces and motions using two internal state variables, one of which generates an effective cellular polarization, and the other, through contractile forces, an effective cellular inertia. In agreement with theoretical predictions, drugs that inhibit contractility reduce both the cellular effective elastic modulus and the frequency of oscillations. Together, theory and experiment provide evidence suggesting that collective cellular motion is driven by at least two internal variables that serve to sustain waves and to polarize local cellular traction in a direction that deviates systematically from local cellular velocity. PMID:27332131

  16. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... agenda on April 26, 2010 (75 FR 21960). For this edition of the NRC's regulatory agenda, the most... publication of the last NRC semiannual agenda on April 26, 2010 (75 FR 21960). Within each group, the rules... regulations to improve the control over the distribution of source material to exempt persons and to...

  17. Cellular Morphogenesis In Silico

    PubMed Central

    Shinbrot, Troy; Chun, Young; Caicedo-Carvajal, Carlos; Foty, Ramsey

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We describe a model that simulates spherical cells of different types that can migrate and interact either attractively or repulsively. We find that both expected morphologies and previously unreported patterns spontaneously self-assemble. Among the newly discovered patterns are a segmented state of alternating discs, and a “shish-kebab” state, in which one cell type forms a ring around a second type. We show that these unique states result from cellular attraction that increases with distance (e.g., as membranes stretch viscoelastically), and would not be seen in traditional, e.g., molecular, potentials that diminish with distance. Most of the states found computationally have been observed in vitro, and it remains to be established what role these self-assembled states may play in in vivo morphogenesis. PMID:19686642

  18. Calcium regulation in aortic smooth muscle cells during the initial phase of tunicamycin-induced endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Ziomek, Gabriela; Cheraghi Zanjani, Parisa; Arman, Darian; van Breemen, Cornelis; Esfandiarei, Mitra

    2014-07-15

    Endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response have been implicated as underlying mechanisms of cell death in many pathological conditions. We have confirmed that long-term exposure to 10µM tunicamycin induced the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Since tunicamycin is reported to induce the stress response by inhibiting protein glycosylation, we attempted to investigate a causal link between accumulation of unfolded proteins and dysregulation of cellular calcium transport. However, we found that tunicamycin caused an immediate release of calcium from the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum, which was sensitive to thapsigargin, and an influx of calcium through the plasma membrane, resulting in a significant increase in cytoplasmic calcium and depletion of endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium. Furthermore, we observed that tunicamycin also induced contraction in intact vascular smooth muscle. By applying established procedures and antagonists, we established that tunicamycin did not directly activate physiological calcium channels, such as store-operated channels, voltage gated calcium channels, ryanodine receptors or inositol trisphosphate receptors. Instead, we found that its effects on cellular calcium fluxes closely resembled those of the known calcium ionophore, ionomycin. We have concluded that tunicamycin directly permeabilizes the plasma membrane and endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum to calcium, and is, therefore, inappropriate for studying the relationship between accumulation of unfolded proteins and endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium dysregulation during the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress response. In contrast, we also report that two other well-known endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress inducers, brefeldin A and dithiothreitol, did not exhibit similar increases in calcium permeability.

  19. Phosphoprotein Phosphatase 1 Is Required for Extracellular Calcium-Induced Keratinocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hong; Zeng, Qin; Pennypacker, Sally D.; Xie, Zhongjian

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular calcium is a major regulator of keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and appears to play that role in vivo, but the mechanism is unclear. We have previously demonstrated that, following calcium stimulation, PIP5K1α is recruited by the E-cadherin-β-catenin complex to the plasma membrane where it provides the substrate PIP2 for both PI3K and PLC-γ1. This signaling pathway is critical for calcium-induced generation of second messengers including IP3 and intracellular calcium and keratinocyte differentiation. In this study, we explored the upstream regulatory mechanism by which calcium activates PIP5K1α and the role of this activation in calcium-induced keratinocyte differentiation. We found that treatment of human keratinocytes in culture with calcium resulted in an increase in serine dephosphorylation and PIP5K1α activation. PP1 knockdown blocked extracellular calcium-induced increase in serine dephosphorylation and activity of PIP5K1α and induction of keratinocyte differentiation markers. Knockdown of PLC-γ1, the downstream effector of PIP5K1α, blocked upstream dephosphorylation and PIP5K1α activation induced by calcium. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed calcium induced recruitment of PP1 to the E-cadherin-catenin-PIP5K1α complex in the plasma membrane. These results indicate that PP1 is recruited to the extracellular calcium-dependent E-cadherin-catenin-PIP5K1α complex in the plasma membrane to activate PIP5K1α, which is required for PLC-γ1 activation leading to keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:27340655

  20. A toolset of aequorin expression vectors for in planta studies of subcellular calcium concentrations in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mehlmer, Norbert; Parvin, Nargis; Hurst, Charlotte H; Knight, Marc R; Teige, Markus; Vothknecht, Ute C

    2012-02-01

    Calcium has long been acknowledged as one of the most important signalling components in plants. Many abiotic and biotic stimuli are transduced into a cellular response by temporal and spatial changes in cellular calcium concentration and the calcium-sensitive protein aequorin has been exploited as a genetically encoded calcium indicator for the measurement of calcium in planta. The objective of this work was to generate a compatible set of aequorin expression plasmids for the generation of transgenic plant lines to measure changes in calcium levels in different cellular subcompartments. Aequorin was fused to different targeting peptides or organellar proteins as a means to localize it to the cytosol, the nucleus, the plasma membrane, and the mitochondria. Furthermore, constructs were designed to localize aequorin in the stroma as well as the inner and outer surface of the chloroplast envelope membranes. The modular set-up of the plasmids also allows the easy replacement of targeting sequences to include other compartments. An additional YFP-fusion was included to verify the correct subcellular localization of all constructs by laser scanning confocal microscopy. For each construct, pBin19-based binary expression vectors driven by the 35S or UBI10 promoter were made for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Stable Arabidopsis lines were generated and initial tests of several lines confirmed their feasibility to measure calcium signals in vivo.

  1. Calcium-sensing receptor and calcium kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Terranegra, Annalisa; Rainone, Francesco; Arcidiacono, Teresa; Cozzolino, Mario; Aloia, Andrea; Dogliotti, Elena; Cusi, Daniele; Soldati, Laura

    2011-11-22

    Calcium nephrolithiasis may be considered as a complex disease having multiple pathogenetic mechanisms and characterized by various clinical manifestations. Both genetic and environmental factors may increase susceptibility to calcium stones; therefore, it is crucial to characterize the patient phenotype to distinguish homogeneous groups of stone formers. Family and twin studies have shown that the stone transmission pattern is not mendelian, but complex and polygenic. In these studies, heritability of calcium stones was calculated around 50%Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is mostly expressed in the parathyroid glands and in renal tubules. It regulates the PTH secretion according to the serum calcium concentration. In the kidney, it modulates electrolyte and water excretion regulating the function of different tubular segments. In particular, CaSR reduces passive and active calcium reabsorption in distal tubules, increases phosphate reabsorption in proximal tubules and stimulates proton and water excretion in collecting ducts. Therefore, it is a candidate gene for calcium nephrolithiasis.In a case-control study we found an association between the normocitraturic stone formers and two SNPs of CaSR, located near the promoters region (rs7652589 and rs1501899). This result was replicated in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, comparing patients with or without kidney stones. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that the minor alleles at these polymorphisms were able to modify the binding sites of specific transcription factors and, consequently, CaSR expression.Our studies suggest that CaSR is one of the candidate genes explaining individual predisposition to calcium nephrolithiasis. Stone formation may be favored by an altered CaSR expression in kidney medulla involving the normal balance among calcium, phosphate, protons and water excretion.

  2. The effect of compressive loading magnitude on in situ chondrocyte calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Madden, Ryan M J; Han, Sang-Kuy; Herzog, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Chondrocyte metabolism is stimulated by deformation and is associated with structural changes in the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM), suggesting that these cells are involved in maintaining tissue health and integrity. Calcium signaling is an initial step in chondrocyte mechanotransduction that has been linked to many cellular processes. Previous studies using isolated chondrocytes proposed loading magnitude as an important factor regulating this response. However, calcium signaling in the intact cartilage differs compared to isolated cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of loading magnitude on chondrocyte calcium signaling in intact cartilage. We hypothesized that the percentage of cells exhibiting at least one calcium signal increases with increasing load. Fully intact rabbit femoral condyle and patellar bone/cartilage samples were incubated in calcium-sensitive dyes and imaged continuously under compressive loads of 10-40 % strain. Calcium signaling was primarily associated with the dynamic loading phase and greatly increased beyond a threshold deformation of about 10 % nominal tissue strain. There was a trend toward more cells exhibiting calcium signaling as loading magnitude increased (p = 0.133). These results provide novel information toward identifying mechanisms underlying calcium-dependent signaling pathways related to cartilage homeostasis and possibly the onset and progression of osteoarthritis.

  3. Action of the calcium antagonists cocaine and ethanol on contraction and potassium efflux of smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    HURWITZ, L; BATTLE, F; WEISS, G B

    1962-11-01

    Isolated longitudinal smooth muscle from guinea pig ileum exposed to a high potassium depolarizing medium exhibited a sustained increase in muscle tone and an increase in potassium efflux. When the concentration of calcium ion in the medium was elevated the increase in muscle tone was enhanced, but the change in potassium efflux was reduced slightly. Lowering the calcium concentration diminished the increase in muscle tone. Both cocaine and ethanol completely inhibited the sustained contraction of potassium-depolarized fibers. Addition of excess calcium ion reversed these inhibitions. Cocaine acted primarily like a competitive antagonist; and ethanol, like an indirect antagonist of calcium, ion. Under certain conditions acetylcholine potentiated the reversal by calcium ion of the drug-induced inhibitions. The two inhibitory drugs had dissimilar effects on potassium efflux from smooth muscle fibers immersed in Tyrode solution. Cocaine depressed and ethanol enhanced this membrane process. However, the increase in potassium efflux induced by acetylcholine was inhibited by ethanol. This inhibition also was reversed by increasing the concentration of calcium ion in the medium. The data suggested that calcium activates and cocaine and ethanol inhibit a cellular reaction which occurs beyond the point of membrane depolarization and is essential for smooth muscle contraction. Furthermore, calcium serves to depress membrane excitability, but appears to have a specific stimulatory role in the acetylcholine-induced increase in potassium efflux from longitudinal fibers.

  4. Bone and Calcium Metabolism During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges for maintaining astronaut health on space exploration missions. Flight and ground-based studies have been conducted to better understand the nature and mechanisms of weightlessness-induced bone loss, and to identify a means to counteract the loss. Maintenance of bone health requires a balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research identified bone loss as a critical health issue, but could not provide a distinction between the bone formation and breakdown processes. The recent identification of collagen crosslinks as markers of bone resorption has made possible a clear understanding that a decrease in bone resorption is an important effect of space flight, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium regulatory factors have also been studied, in an attempt to understand their role in bone loss. The lack of ultraviolet light exposure and insufficient dietary sources of vitamin D often lead to reduced vitamin D stores on long-duration flights. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations are decreased during flight compared to before flight, although small subject numbers often make this hard to document statistically. As expected, reduced PTH concentrations are accompanied by reduced 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Calcium kinetic studies during space flight confirm and extend the information gained from biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Calcium kinetic studies demonstrate that bone resorption is increased, bone formation is unchanged or decreased, and dietary calcium absorption is reduced during space flight. Evaluations have also been conducted of countermeasures, including dietary, exercise, and pharmacological treatments. In recent studies, many potential countermeasures show promise at mitigating bone loss in ground-based analogs of weightlessness (e.g., bed rest), but require further ground and flight testing to

  5. Sensitivity to calcium intake in calcium stone forming patients.

    PubMed

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1996-01-01

    The absorptive or renal origin of hypercalciuria can be discriminated using an acute oral calcium load test (ACLT). Of 86 patients with calcium oxalate kidney stones, 28 (23%) were found to be hypercalciuric (HCa) and 58 (67%) normocalciuric (NCa) on their customary free diet, containing 542 +/- 29 mg/day (mean +/- SE) of calcium. Since the apparently normal 24-hour calcium excretion of many calcium stone formers (CSF) may be due to a combination of high calcium absorption with moderately low calcium intake, all patients were investigated by ACLT. Of 28 HCa patients, 13 (46%) were classified as absorptive (AH) and 15 (54%) as renal hypercalciuria (RH). Of the 58 NCa patients, 38 (65%) presented features of intestinal hyperabsorption and were therefore designated as AH-like, and 20 (35%) as RH-like. To further elucidate the role of dietary calcium in these CSF, a chronic calcium load test (CCLT), consisting of 1 g/day of oral Ca for 7 days, was designed. A positive response to the CCLT was considered to occur when urinary calcium (uCa) was > or = 4 mg/ kg/24 h on the 7th day. Among NCa patients, 29% of AH-like subjects responded to the CCLT and 71% did not; 50% of RH-like subjects also responded and 50% did not. In HCa patients, 85% of AH and 67% of RH subjects maintained uCa > or = 4 mg/kg/24 h after the CCLT and 15% of AH and 23% of RH subjects did not. However, a significant additional increase in mean uCa was not observed among HCa patients. All patients were submitted to a second evaluation of fasting calciuria (Ca/Cr). A modification of this parameter was noticed in 89% of RH-like and 78% of RH patients. In conclusion, these data suggest the presence of subpopulations of patients sensitive or not to calcium intake, regardless of whether the acute response to a calcium overload test suggested AH or RH. The CCLT disclosed dietary hypercalciuria in 21/58 (36%) of previously NCa patients. In these NCa patients, the ACLT may be replaced by the CCLT. The distinction

  6. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bizzozero, Julien Scrivener, Karen L.

    2015-10-15

    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate. Increasing the ratio between sulfate and aluminate decreases the extent of limestone reaction.

  7. Protein arginine deiminase 2 binds calcium in an ordered fashion: Implications for inhibitor design

    SciTech Connect

    Slade, Daniel J.; Fang, Pengfei; Dreyton, Christina J.; Zhang, Ying; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Rempel, Don; Bax, Benjamin D.; Coonrod, Scott A.; Lewis, Huw D.; Guo, Min; Gross, Michael L.; Thompson, Paul R.

    2015-01-26

    Protein arginine deiminases (PADs) are calcium-dependent histone-modifying enzymes whose activity is dysregulated in inflammatory diseases and cancer. PAD2 functions as an Estrogen Receptor (ER) coactivator in breast cancer cells via the citrullination of histone tail arginine residues at ER binding sites. Although an attractive therapeutic target, the mechanisms that regulate PAD2 activity are largely unknown, especially the detailed role of how calcium facilitates enzyme activation. To gain insights into these regulatory processes, we determined the first structures of PAD2 (27 in total), and through calcium-titrations by X-ray crystallography, determined the order of binding and affinity for the six calcium ions that bind and activate this enzyme. These structures also identified several PAD2 regulatory elements, including a calcium switch that controls proper positioning of the catalytic cysteine residue, and a novel active site shielding mechanism. Additional biochemical and mass-spectrometry-based hydrogen/deuterium exchange studies support these structural findings. The identification of multiple intermediate calcium-bound structures along the PAD2 activation pathway provides critical insights that will aid the development of allosteric inhibitors targeting the PADs.

  8. Protein arginine deiminase 2 binds calcium in an ordered fashion: Implications for inhibitor design

    DOE PAGES

    Slade, Daniel J.; Fang, Pengfei; Dreyton, Christina J.; Zhang, Ying; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Rempel, Don; Bax, Benjamin D.; Coonrod, Scott A.; Lewis, Huw D.; Guo, Min; et al

    2015-01-26

    Protein arginine deiminases (PADs) are calcium-dependent histone-modifying enzymes whose activity is dysregulated in inflammatory diseases and cancer. PAD2 functions as an Estrogen Receptor (ER) coactivator in breast cancer cells via the citrullination of histone tail arginine residues at ER binding sites. Although an attractive therapeutic target, the mechanisms that regulate PAD2 activity are largely unknown, especially the detailed role of how calcium facilitates enzyme activation. To gain insights into these regulatory processes, we determined the first structures of PAD2 (27 in total), and through calcium-titrations by X-ray crystallography, determined the order of binding and affinity for the six calcium ionsmore » that bind and activate this enzyme. These structures also identified several PAD2 regulatory elements, including a calcium switch that controls proper positioning of the catalytic cysteine residue, and a novel active site shielding mechanism. Additional biochemical and mass-spectrometry-based hydrogen/deuterium exchange studies support these structural findings. The identification of multiple intermediate calcium-bound structures along the PAD2 activation pathway provides critical insights that will aid the development of allosteric inhibitors targeting the PADs.« less

  9. Protein arginine deiminase 2 binds calcium in an ordered fashion: implications for inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Slade, Daniel J; Fang, Pengfei; Dreyton, Christina J; Zhang, Ying; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Rempel, Don; Bax, Benjamin D; Coonrod, Scott A; Lewis, Huw D; Guo, Min; Gross, Michael L; Thompson, Paul R

    2015-04-17

    Protein arginine deiminases (PADs) are calcium-dependent histone-modifying enzymes whose activity is dysregulated in inflammatory diseases and cancer. PAD2 functions as an Estrogen Receptor (ER) coactivator in breast cancer cells via the citrullination of histone tail arginine residues at ER binding sites. Although an attractive therapeutic target, the mechanisms that regulate PAD2 activity are largely unknown, especially the detailed role of how calcium facilitates enzyme activation. To gain insights into these regulatory processes, we determined the first structures of PAD2 (27 in total), and through calcium-titrations by X-ray crystallography, determined the order of binding and affinity for the six calcium ions that bind and activate this enzyme. These structures also identified several PAD2 regulatory elements, including a calcium switch that controls proper positioning of the catalytic cysteine residue, and a novel active site shielding mechanism. Additional biochemical and mass-spectrometry-based hydrogen/deuterium exchange studies support these structural findings. The identification of multiple intermediate calcium-bound structures along the PAD2 activation pathway provides critical insights that will aid the development of allosteric inhibitors targeting the PADs.

  10. Calcium wave propagation by calcium-induced calcium release: an unusual excitable system.

    PubMed

    Sneyd, J; Girard, S; Clapham, D

    1993-03-01

    We discuss in detail the behaviour of a model, proposed by Goldbeter et al. (1990. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. 87, 1461-1465), for intracellular calcium wave propagation by calcium-induced calcium release, focusing our attention on excitability and the propagation of waves in one spatial dimension. The model with no diffusion behaves like a generic excitable system, and threshold behaviour, excitability and oscillations can be understood within this general framework. However, when diffusion is included, the model no longer behaves like a generic excitable system; the fast and slow variables are not distinct and previous results on excitable systems do not necessarily apply. We consider a piecewise linear simplification of the model, and construct travelling pulse and periodic plane wave solutions to the simplified model. The analogous behaviour in the full model is studied numerically. Goldbeter's model for calcium-induced calcium release is an excitable system of a type not previously studied in detail.

  11. Stochasticity in plant cellular growth and patterning

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Heather M.; Roeder, Adrienne H. K.

    2014-01-01

    Plants, along with other multicellular organisms, have evolved specialized regulatory mechanisms to achieve proper tissue growth and morphogenesis. During development, growing tissues generate specialized cell types and complex patterns necessary for establishing the function of the organ. Tissue growth is a tightly regulated process that yields highly reproducible outcomes. Nevertheless, the underlying cellular and molecular behaviors are often stochastic. Thus, how does stochasticity, together with strict genetic regulation, give rise to reproducible tissue development? This review draws examples from plants as well as other systems to explore stochasticity in plant cell division, growth, and patterning. We conclude that stochasticity is often needed to create small differences between identical cells, which are amplified and stabilized by genetic and mechanical feedback loops to begin cell differentiation. These first few differentiating cells initiate traditional patterning mechanisms to ensure regular development. PMID:25250034

  12. Cellular metabolism and macrophage functional polarization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linnan; Zhao, Qingjie; Yang, Tao; Ding, Wenjun; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are a functionally heterogeneous cell population that is mainly shaped by a variety of microenvironmental stimuli. Interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induce a classical activation of macrophages (M1), whereas IL-4 and IL-13 induce an alternative activation program in macrophages (M2). Reprogramming of intracellular metabolisms is required for the proper polarization and functions of activated macrophages. Similar to the Warburg effect observed in tumor cells, M1 macrophages increase glucose consumption and lactate release and decreased oxygen consumption rate. In comparison, M2 macrophages mainly employ oxidative glucose metabolism pathways. In addition, fatty acids, vitamins, and iron metabolisms are also related to macrophage polarization. However, detailed metabolic pathways involved in macrophages have remained elusive. Understanding the bidirectional interactions between cellular metabolism and macrophage functions in physiological and pathological situations and the regulatory pathways involved may offer novel therapies for macrophage-associated diseases.

  13. Regulatory guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

  14. Proteomic analysis of human bladder epithelial cells by 2D blue native SDS-PAGE reveals TCDD-induced alterations of calcium and iron homeostasis possibly mediated by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nisha; Pink, Mario; Petrat, Frank; Rettenmeier, Albert W; Schmitz-Spanke, Simone

    2015-01-01

    A proteomic analysis of the interaction among multiprotein complexes involved in 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-mediated toxicity in urinary bladder epithelial RT4 cells was performed using two-dimensional blue native SDS-PAGE (2D BN/SDS-PAGE). To enrich the protein complexes, unexposed and TCDD-exposed cells were fractionated. BN/SDS-PAGE of the resulting fractions led to an effective separation of proteins and protein complexes of various origins, including cell membrane, mitochondria, and other intracellular compartments. Major differences between the proteome of control and exposed cells involved the alteration of many calcium-regulated proteins (calmodulin, protein S100-A2, annexin A5, annexin A10, gelsolin isoform b) and iron-regulated proteins (ferritin, heme-binding protein 2, transferrin). On the basis of these findings, the intracellular calcium concentration was determined, revealing a significant increase after 24 h of exposure to TCDD. Moreover, the concentration of the labile iron pool (LIP) was also significantly elevated in TCDD-exposed cells. This increase was strongly inhibited by the calmodulin (CaM) antagonist W-7, which pointed toward a possible interaction between iron and calcium signaling. Because nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly enhanced in TCDD-exposed cells and was also inhibited by W-7, we hypothesize that alterations in calcium and iron homeostasis upon exposure to TCDD may be linked through NO generated by CaM-activated nitric oxide synthase. In our model, we propose that NO produced upon TCDD exposure interacts with the iron centers of iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs) that modulate the alteration of ferritin and transferrin, resulting in an augmented cellular LIP and, hence, increased toxicity.

  15. Contribution of potential EF hand motifs to the calcium-dependent gating of a mouse brain large conductance, calcium-sensitive K(+) channel.

    PubMed

    Braun, A P; Sy, L

    2001-06-15

    1. The large conductance, calcium-sensitive K(+) channel (BK(Ca) channel) is a unique member of the K(+)-selective ion channel family in that activation is dependent upon both direct calcium binding and membrane depolarization. Calcium binding acts to dynamically shift voltage-dependent gating in a negative or left-ward direction, thereby adjusting channel opening to changes in cellular membrane potential. 2. We hypothesized that the intrinsic calcium-binding site within the BK(Ca) channel alpha subunit may contain an EF hand motif, the most common, naturally occurring calcium binding structure. Following identification of six potential sites, we introduced a single amino acid substitution (D/E to N/Q or A) at the equivalent of the -z position of a bona fide EF hand that would be predicted to lower calcium binding affinity at each of the six sites. 3. Using macroscopic current recordings of wild-type and mutant BK(Ca) channels in excised inside-out membrane patches from HEK 293 cells, we observed that a single point mutation in the C-terminus (Site 6, FLD(923)QD to N), adjacent to the 'calcium bowl' described by Salkoff and colleagues, shifted calcium-sensitive gating right-ward by 50--65 mV over the range of 2--12 microM free calcium, but had little effect on voltage-dependent gating in the absence of calcium. Combining this mutation at Site 6 with a similar mutation at Site 1 (PVD(81)EK to N) in the N-terminus produced a greater shift (70--90 mV) in calcium-sensitive gating over the same range of calcium. We calculated that these combined mutations decreased the apparent calcium binding affinity approximately 11-fold (129.5 microM vs. 11.3 microm) compared to the wild-type channel. 4. We further observed that a bacterially expressed protein encompassing Site 6 of the BK(Ca) channel C-terminus and bovine brain calmodulin were both able to directly bind (45)Ca(2+) following denaturation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (e.g. SDS-PAGE). 5. Our results suggest

  16. Resveratrol and calcium signaling: molecular mechanisms and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    McCalley, Audrey E; Kaja, Simon; Payne, Andrew J; Koulen, Peter

    2014-06-05

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound contributing to cellular defense mechanisms in plants. Its use as a nutritional component and/or supplement in a number of diseases, disorders, and syndromes such as chronic diseases of the central nervous system, cancer, inflammatory diseases, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has prompted great interest in the underlying molecular mechanisms of action. The present review focuses on resveratrol, specifically its isomer trans-resveratrol, and its effects on intracellular calcium signaling mechanisms. As resveratrol's mechanisms of action are likely pleiotropic, its effects and interactions with key signaling proteins controlling cellular calcium homeostasis are reviewed and discussed. The clinical relevance of resveratrol's actions on excitable cells, transformed or cancer cells, immune cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells are contrasted with a review of the molecular mechanisms affecting calcium signaling proteins on the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. The present review emphasizes the correlation between molecular mechanisms of action that have recently been identified for resveratrol and their clinical implications.

  17. Extreme cellular adaptations and cell differentiation required by a cyanobacterium for carbonate excavation

    PubMed Central

    Guida, Brandon Scott; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Some cyanobacteria, known as euendoliths, excavate and grow into calcium carbonates, with their activity leading to significant marine and terrestrial carbonate erosion and to deleterious effects on coral reef and bivalve ecology. Despite their environmental relevance, the mechanisms by which they can bore have remained elusive and paradoxical, in that, as oxygenic phototrophs, cyanobacteria tend to alkalinize their surroundings, which will encourage carbonate precipitation, not dissolution. Therefore, cyanobacteria must rely on unique adaptations to bore. Studies with the filamentous euendolith, Mastigocoleus testarum, indicated that excavation requires both cellular energy and transcellular calcium transport, mediated by P-type ATPases, but the cellular basis for this phenomenon remains obscure. We present evidence that excavation in M. testarum involves two unique cellular adaptations. Long-range calcium transport is based on active pumping at multiple cells along boring filaments, orchestrated by the preferential localization of calcium ATPases at one cell pole, in a ring pattern, facing the cross-walls, and by repeating this placement and polarity, a pattern that breaks at branching and apical cells. In addition, M. testarum differentiates specialized cells we call calcicytes, that which accumulate calcium at concentrations more than 500-fold those found in other cyanobacteria, concomitantly and drastically lowering photosynthetic pigments and enduring severe cytoplasmatic alkalinization. Calcicytes occur commonly, but not exclusively, in apical parts of the filaments distal to the excavation front. We suggest that calcicytes allow for fast calcium flow at low, nontoxic concentrations through undifferentiated cells by providing buffering storage for excess calcium before final excretion to the outside medium. PMID:27140633

  18. Spontaneous and CRH-Induced Excitability and Calcium Signaling in Mice Corticotrophs Involves Sodium, Calcium, and Cation-Conducting Channels.

    PubMed

    Zemkova, Hana; Tomić, Melanija; Kucka, Marek; Aguilera, Greti; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2016-04-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the tdimer2(12) form of Discosoma red fluorescent protein under control of the proopiomelanocortin gene's regulatory elements are a useful model for studying corticotrophs. Using these mice, we studied the ion channels and mechanisms controlling corticotroph excitability. Corticotrophs were either quiescent or electrically active, with a 22-mV difference in the resting membrane potential (RMP) between the 2 groups. In quiescent cells, CRH depolarized the membrane, leading to initial single spiking and sustained bursting; in active cells, CRH further facilitated or inhibited electrical activity and calcium spiking, depending on the initial activity pattern and CRH concentration. The stimulatory but not inhibitory action of CRH on electrical activity was mimicked by cAMP independently of the presence or absence of arachidonic acid. Removal of bath sodium silenced spiking and hyperpolarized the majority of cells; in contrast, the removal of bath calcium did not affect RMP but reduced CRH-induced depolarization, which abolished bursting electrical activity and decreased the spiking frequency but not the amplitude of single spikes. Corticotrophs with inhibited voltage-gated sodium channels fired calcium-dependent action potentials, whereas cells with inhibited L-type calcium channels fired sodium-dependent spikes; blockade of both channels abolished spiking without affecting the RMP. These results indicate that the background voltage-insensitive sodium conductance influences RMP, the CRH-depolarization current is driven by a cationic conductance, and the interplay between voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels plays a critical role in determining the status and pattern of electrical activity and calcium signaling.

  19. Calcium metabolism in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Munro

    2010-01-01

    This brief review focuses on calcium balance and homeostasis and their relationship to dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation in healthy subjects and patients with chronic kidney disease and mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD). Calcium balance refers to the state of the calcium body stores, primarily in bone, which are largely a function of dietary intake, intestinal absorption, renal excretion, and bone remodeling. Bone calcium balance can be positive, neutral, or negative, depending on a number of factors, including growth, aging, and acquired or inherited disorders. Calcium homeostasis refers to the hormonal regulation of serum ionized calcium by parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and serum ionized calcium itself, which together regulate calcium transport at the gut, kidney, and bone. Hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia indicate serious disruption of calcium homeostasis but do not reflect calcium balance on their own. Calcium balance studies have determined the dietary and supplemental calcium requirements needed to optimize bone mass in healthy subjects. However, similar studies are needed in CKD-MBD, which disrupts both calcium balance and homeostasis, because these data in healthy subjects may not be generalizable to this patient group. Importantly, increasing evidence suggests that calcium supplementation may enhance soft tissue calcification and cardiovascular disease in CKD-MBD. Further research is needed to elucidate the risks and mechanisms of soft tissue calcification with calcium supplementation in both healthy subjects and CKD-MBD patients.

  20. Regulatory sequence analysis tools.

    PubMed

    van Helden, Jacques

    2003-07-01

    The web resource Regulatory Sequence Analysis Tools (RSAT) (http://rsat.ulb.ac.be/rsat) offers a collection of software tools dedicated to the prediction of regulatory sites in non-coding DNA sequences. These tools include sequence retrieval, pattern discovery, pattern matching, genome-scale pattern matching, feature-map drawing, random sequence generation and other utilities. Alternative formats are supported for the representation of regulatory motifs (strings or position-specific scoring matrices) and several algorithms are proposed for pattern discovery. RSAT currently holds >100 fully sequenced genomes and these data are regularly updated from GenBank.

  1. Targeted Deletion of Vesicular GABA Transporter from Retinal Horizontal Cells Eliminates Feedback Modulation of Photoreceptor Calcium Channels123

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue; Boulter, Jim; Grove, James; Pérez de Sevilla Müller, Luis; Barnes, Steven; Brecha, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The cellular mechanisms underlying feedback signaling from horizontal cells to photoreceptors, which are important for the formation of receptive field surrounds of early visual neurons, remain unsettled. Mammalian horizontal cells express a complement of synaptic proteins that are necessary and sufficient for calcium-dependent exocytosis of inhibitory neurotransmitters at their contacts with photoreceptor terminals, suggesting that they are capable of releasing GABA via vesicular release. To test whether horizontal cell vesicular release is involved in feedback signaling, we perturbed inhibitory neurotransmission in these cells by targeted deletion of the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), the protein responsible for the uptake of inhibitory transmitter by synaptic vesicles. To manipulate horizontal cells selectively, an iCre mouse line with Cre recombinase expression controlled by connexin57 (Cx57) regulatory elements was generated. In Cx57-iCre mouse retina, only horizontal cells expressed Cre protein, and its expression occurred in all retinal regions. After crossing with a VGATflox/flox mouse line, VGAT was selectively eliminated from horizontal cells, which was confirmed immunohistochemically. Voltage-gated ion channel currents in horizontal cells of Cx57-VGAT−/− mice were the same as Cx57-VGAT+/+ controls, as were the cell responses to the ionotropic glutamate receptor agonist kainate, but the response to the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol in Cx57-VGAT−/− mice was larger. In contrast, the feedback inhibition of photoreceptor calcium channels, which in control animals is induced by horizontal cell depolarization, was completely absent in Cx57-VGAT−/− mice. The results suggest that vesicular release of GABA from horizontal cells is required for feedback inhibition of photoreceptors. PMID:27022629

  2. Persistence of pro-arrhythmic spatio-temporal calcium patterns in atrial myocytes: a computational study of ping waves.

    PubMed

    Thul, Rüdiger; Coombes, Stephen; Bootman, Martin D

    2012-01-01

    Clusters of ryanodine receptors within atrial myocytes are confined to spatially separated layers. In many species, these layers are not juxtaposed by invaginations of the plasma membrane (transverse tubules; 'T-tubules'), so that calcium-induced-calcium signals rely on centripetal propagation rather than voltage-synchronized channel openings to invade the interior of the cell and trigger contraction. The combination of this specific cellular geometry and dynamics of calcium release can lead to novel autonomous spatio-temporal calcium waves, and in particular ping waves. These are waves of calcium release activity that spread as counter-rotating sectors of elevated calcium within a single layer of ryanodine receptors, and can seed further longitudinal calcium waves. Here we show, using a computational model, that these calcium waves can dominate the response of a cell to electrical pacing and hence are pro-arrhythmic. This highlights the importance of modeling internal cellular structures when investigating mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction such as atrial arrhythmia.

  3. Aberrant Subcellular Neuronal Calcium Regulation in Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    In this mini-review/opinion article we describe evidence that multiple cellular and molecular alterations in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis involve perturbed cellular calcium regulation, and that alterations in synaptic calcium handling may be early and pivotal events in the disease process. With advancing age neurons encounter increased oxidative stress and impaired energy metabolism, which compromise the function of proteins that control membrane excitability and subcellular calcium dynamics. Altered proteolytic cleavage of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in response to the aging process in combination with genetic and environmental factors results in the production and accumulation of neurotoxic forms of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ ). Aβ undergoes a self-aggregation process and concomitantly generates reactive oxygen species that can trigger membrane-associated oxidative stress which, in turn, impairs the functions of ion-motive ATPases and glutamate and glucose transporters thereby rendering neurons vulnerable to excitotoxicity and apoptosis. Mutations in presenilin-1 that cause early-onset AD increase Aβ production, but also result in an abnormal increase in the size of endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores. Some of the events in the neurodegenerative cascade can be counteracted in animal models by manipulations that stabilize neuronal calcium homeostasis including dietary energy restriction, agonists of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptors and drugs that activate mitochondrial potassium channels. Emerging knowledge of the actions of calcium upstream and downstream of Aβ provides opportunities to develop novel preventative and therapeutic interventions for AD. PMID:20950656

  4. Calcium and vitamin D controversies.

    PubMed

    Silver, David S

    2011-08-01

    Controversies regarding appropriate use of vitamin D and calcium are predominately related to the extraskeletal effects. Calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone health. The concerns regarding calcium and cardiovascular complications are inconclusive at best, and do not warrant a change in our approach to supplementation at this time. A growing body of literature exists suggesting that additional vitamin D may have numerous benefits, although more study needs to be done. Further prospective trials would provide insight into the potential advantages that increased vitamin D supplementation could provide. PMID:22023896

  5. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    PubMed

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness. PMID:7488645

  6. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    PubMed

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  7. Molecular and cellular targets.

    PubMed

    Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang

    2006-06-01

    Carcinogenesis is a multistage process consisting of initiation, promotion, and progression stages and each stage may be a possible target for chemopreventive agents. A significant outcome of these investigations on the elucidation of molecular and cellular mechanisms is the explication of signal transduction pathways induced by tumor promoters in cancer development. The current belief today is that cancer may be prevented or treated by targeting specific cancer genes, signaling proteins, and transcription factors. The molecular mechanisms explaining how normal cells undergo neoplastic transformation induced by tumor promoters are rapidly being clarified. Accumulating research evidence suggests that many of dietary factors, including tea compounds, may be used alone or in combination with traditional chemotherapeutic agents to prevent or treat cancer. The potential advantage of many natural or dietary compounds seems to focus on their potent anticancer activity combined with low toxicity and very few adverse side effects. This review summarizes some of our recent work regarding the effects of the various tea components on signal transduction pathways involved in neoplastic cell transformation and carcinogenesis. PMID:16688728

  8. Molecular and Cellular Targets

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2008-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is a multistage process consisting of initiation, promotion and progression stages and each stage may be a possible target for chemopreventive agents. A significant outcome of these investigations on the elucidation of molecular and cellular mechanisms is the explication of signal transduction pathways induced by tumor promoters in cancer development. The current belief today is that cancer may be prevented or treated by targeting specific cancer genes, signaling proteins and transcription factors. The molecular mechanisms explaining how normal cells undergo neoplastic transformation induced by tumor promoters are rapidly being clarified. Accumulating research evidence suggests that many of dietary factors, including tea compounds, may be used alone or in combination with traditional chemotherapeutic agents to prevent or treat cancer. The potential advantage of many natural or dietary compounds seems to focus on their potent anticancer activity combined with low toxicity and very few adverse side effects. This review summarizes some of our recent work regarding the effects of the various tea components on signal transduction pathways involved in neoplastic cell transformation and carcinogenesis. PMID:16688728

  9. Active Cellular Nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclos, Guillaume; Erlenkaemper, Christoph; Garcia, Simon; Yevick, Hannah; Joanny, Jean-François; Silberzan, Pascal; Biology inspired physics at mesoscales Team; Physical approach of biological problems Team

    We study the emergence of a nematic order in a two-dimensional tissue of apolar elongated fibroblast cells. Initially, these cells are very motile and the monolayer is characterized by giant density fluctuations, a signature of far-from-equilibrium systems. As the cell density increases because of proliferation, the cells align with each other forming large perfectly oriented domains while the cellular movements slow down and eventually freeze. Therefore topological defects characteristic of nematic phases remain trapped at long times, preventing the development of infinite domains. By analogy with classical non-active nematics, we have investigated the role of boundaries and we have shown that cells confined in stripes of width smaller than typically 500 µm are perfectly aligned in the stripe direction. Experiments performed in cross-shaped patterns show that both the number of cells and the degree of alignment impact the final orientation. Reference: Duclos G., Garcia S., Yevick H.G. and Silberzan P., ''Perfect nematic order in confined monolayers of spindle-shaped cells'', Soft Matter, 10, 14, 2014

  10. Cellular energy metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, M.

    1991-06-01

    Studies have been carried out on adenylate kinase which is an important enzyme in determining the concentrations of the adenine nucleotides. An efficient method has been developed to clone mutant adenylate kinase genes in E. coli. Site-specific mutagenesis of the wild type gene also has been used to obtain forms of adenylate kinase with altered amino acids. The wild type and mutant forms of adenylate kinase have been overexpressed and large quantities were readily isolated. The kinetic and fluorescence properties of the different forms of adenylate kinase were characterized. This has led to a new model for the location of the AMP and ATP bindings sites on the enzyme and a proposal for the mechanism of substrate inhibition. Crystals of the wild type enzyme were obtained that diffract to at least 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. Experiments were also initiated to determine the function of adenylate kinase in vivo. In one set of experiments, E. coli strains with mutations in adenylate kinase showed large changes in cellular nucleotides after reaching the stationary phase in a low phosphate medium. This was caused by selective proteolytic degradation of the mutant adenylate kinase caused by phosphate starvation.

  11. PKA regulatory subunit expression in tooth development.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Sílvia Ferreira; Kawasaki, Katsushige; Kawasaki, Maiko; Volponi, Ana Angelova; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2014-05-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) plays critical roles in many biological processes including cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cellular metabolism and gene regulation. Mutation in PKA regulatory subunit, PRKAR1A has previously been identified in odontogenic myxomas, but it is unclear whether PKA is involved in tooth development. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of alpha isoforms of PKA regulatory subunit (Prkar1a and Prkar2a) in mouse and human odontogenesis by in situ hybridization. PRKAR1A and PRKAR2A mRNA transcription was further confirmed in a human deciduous germ by qRT-PCR. Mouse Prkar1a and human PRKAR2A exhibited a dynamic spatio-temporal expression in tooth development, whereas neither human PRKAR1A nor mouse Prkar2a showed their expression in odontogenesis. These isoforms thus showed different expression pattern between human and mouse tooth germs. PMID:24755349

  12. Modeling Emergence in Neuroprotective Regulatory Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Haack, Jereme N.; McDermott, Jason E.; Stevens, S.L.; Stenzel-Poore, Mary

    2013-01-05

    The use of predictive modeling in the analysis of gene expression data can greatly accelerate the pace of scientific discovery in biomedical research by enabling in silico experimentation to test disease triggers and potential drug therapies. Techniques that focus on modeling emergence, such as agent-based modeling and multi-agent simulations, are of particular interest as they support the discovery of pathways that may have never been observed in the past. Thus far, these techniques have been primarily applied at the multi-cellular level, or have focused on signaling and metabolic networks. We present an approach where emergence modeling is extended to regulatory networks and demonstrate its application to the discovery of neuroprotective pathways. An initial evaluation of the approach indicates that emergence modeling provides novel insights for the analysis of regulatory networks that can advance the discovery of acute treatments for stroke and other diseases.

  13. PKA regulatory subunit expression in tooth development.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Sílvia Ferreira; Kawasaki, Katsushige; Kawasaki, Maiko; Volponi, Ana Angelova; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2014-05-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) plays critical roles in many biological processes including cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cellular metabolism and gene regulation. Mutation in PKA regulatory subunit, PRKAR1A has previously been identified in odontogenic myxomas, but it is unclear whether PKA is involved in tooth development. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of alpha isoforms of PKA regulatory subunit (Prkar1a and Prkar2a) in mouse and human odontogenesis by in situ hybridization. PRKAR1A and PRKAR2A mRNA transcription was further confirmed in a human deciduous germ by qRT-PCR. Mouse Prkar1a and human PRKAR2A exhibited a dynamic spatio-temporal expression in tooth development, whereas neither human PRKAR1A nor mouse Prkar2a showed their expression in odontogenesis. These isoforms thus showed different expression pattern between human and mouse tooth germs.

  14. Calcium and Vitamin D in Obesity and Related Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Pannu, Poonam K; Calton, Emily K; Soares, Mario J

    2016-01-01

    There is a pandemic of lifestyle-related diseases. In both developed and lesser developed countries of the world, an inadequacy of calcium intake and low vitamin D status is common. In this chapter, we explore a mechanistic framework that links calcium and vitamin D status to chronic conditions including obesity, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We also update the available clinical evidence, mainly from randomized controlled trials, to provide a synthesis of evidence in favor or against these hypotheses. There is consistent data to support calcium increasing whole body fat oxidation and increasing fecal fat excretion, while there is good cellular evidence for vitamin D reducing inflammation. Clinical trials support a marginal reduction in circulating lipids and some meta-analysis support an increase in insulin sensitivity following vitamin D. However, these mechanistic pathways and intermediate biomarkers of disease do not consistently transcribe into measurable health outcomes. Cementing the benefits of calcium and vitamin D for extraskeletal health needs a reexamination of the target 25(OH)D level to be achieved and the minimum duration of future trials.

  15. Nuclear versus perinuclear and cytoplasmic calcium in osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, J; Yu, H

    1996-11-01

    We measured fluorescence from the calcium indicator Fluo-3 in multinucleated osteoclasts. In the initial state, each nucleus is surrounded by a ring of bright fluorescence. Following activation of purinergic receptors by 100 microM ATP there is a pulse of cellular fluorescence increase, and nuclear fluorescence intensity becomes greater than that of the cytoplasm. This is followed by a period during which the fluorescence of the cell decreases below that of the initial state. During the pulsed increase following purinergic receptor activation, the perinuclear fluorescence intensity does not increase as much as that in the nuclear centers and, following this pulse, the perinuclear fluorescence intensity decreases more than that in the nuclear centers, relative to the initial state. Measurements in which Mn2+ was introduced into the cell show that the number of Fluo-3 molecules per unit horizontal area in the nuclear centers is slightly greater than that in the perinuclear regions, and more than twice that in the surrounding cytoplasm. These results show that there is a much higher free calcium concentration in the perinuclear regions than in the nuclear centers in the initial state, with a release of free calcium from the perinuclear regions following activation of the purinergic receptors. These data also provide evidence that the free calcium concentration in the nuclear centers is lower than in the cytoplasm in the initial state.

  16. Calcium and Vitamin D in Obesity and Related Chronic Disease.

    PubMed

    Pannu, Poonam K; Calton, Emily K; Soares, Mario J

    2016-01-01

    There is a pandemic of lifestyle-related diseases. In both developed and lesser developed countries of the world, an inadequacy of calcium intake and low vitamin D status is common. In this chapter, we explore a mechanistic framework that links calcium and vitamin D status to chronic conditions including obesity, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We also update the available clinical evidence, mainly from randomized controlled trials, to provide a synthesis of evidence in favor or against these hypotheses. There is consistent data to support calcium increasing whole body fat oxidation and increasing fecal fat excretion, while there is good cellular evidence for vitamin D reducing inflammation. Clinical trials support a marginal reduction in circulating lipids and some meta-analysis support an increase in insulin sensitivity following vitamin D. However, these mechanistic pathways and intermediate biomarkers of disease do not consistently transcribe into measurable health outcomes. Cementing the benefits of calcium and vitamin D for extraskeletal health needs a reexamination of the target 25(OH)D level to be achieved and the minimum duration of future trials. PMID:26944102

  17. 3 CFR - Regulatory Review

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... been learned since that time. Far more is now known about regulation—not only about when it is... interests of future generations; identify methods of ensuring that regulatory review does not produce...

  18. Emotion: The Self-regulatory Sense

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While emotion is a central component of human health and well-being, traditional approaches to understanding its biological function have been wanting. A dynamic systems model, however, broadly redefines and recasts emotion as a primary sensory system—perhaps the first sensory system to have emerged, serving the ancient autopoietic function of “self-regulation.” Drawing upon molecular biology and revelations from the field of epigenetics, the model suggests that human emotional perceptions provide an ongoing stream of “self-relevant” sensory information concerning optimally adaptive states between the organism and its immediate environment, along with coupled behavioral corrections that honor a universal self-regulatory logic, one still encoded within cellular signaling and immune functions. Exemplified by the fundamental molecular circuitry of sensorimotor control in the E coli bacterium, the model suggests that the hedonic (affective) categories emerge directly from positive and negative feedback processes, their good/bad binary appraisals relating to dual self-regulatory behavioral regimes—evolutionary purposes, through which organisms actively participate in natural selection, and through which humans can interpret optimal or deficit states of balanced being and becoming. The self-regulatory sensory paradigm transcends anthropomorphism, unites divergent theoretical perspectives and isolated bodies of literature, while challenging time-honored assumptions. While suppressive regulatory strategies abound, it suggests that emotions are better understood as regulating us, providing a service crucial to all semantic language, learning systems, evaluative decision-making, and fundamental to optimal physical, mental, and social health. PMID:24808986

  19. Assessing the regulatory picture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This article addresses the safety of the nation's drinking water supply and discusses compliance of the Clean Water Act. Right now, the shape of the regulatory future is uncertain. The results of the D-DBP regulatory negotiation are imminent. Congress is ready to begin debating reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act, and utilities are trying to comply with the regulations while trying not to price water out of the reach of some of their customers.

  20. NRC regulatory initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.C.

    1989-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is addressing several low-level waste disposal issues that will be important to waste generators and to States and Compacts developing new disposal capacity. These issues include Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) waste, mixed waste, below regulatory concern (BRC) waste, and the low-level waste data base. This paper discusses these issues and their current status.

  1. Cellular Bases of Light-regulated Gravity Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the most significant research accomplished in our NAG2-1347 project on the cellular bases of light-regulated gravity responses, It elaborates mainly on our discovery of the role of calcium currents in gravity-directed polar development in single germinating spore cells of the fern Ceratopteris, our development of RNA silencing as a viable method of suppressing the expression of specific genes in Ceratopteris, and on the structure, expression and distribution of members of the annexin family in flowering plants, especially Arabidopsis.

  2. Inositol trisphosphate, a novel second messenger in cellular signal transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berridge, Michael J.; Irvine, Robin F.

    1984-11-01

    There has recently been rapid progress in understanding receptors that generate intracellular signals from inositol lipids. One of these lipids, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, is hydrolysed to diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate as part of a signal transduction mechanism for controlling a variety of cellular processes including secretion, metabolism, phototransduction and cell proliferation. Diacylglycerol operates within the plane of the membrane to activate protein kinase C, whereas inositol trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm to function as a second messenger for mobilizing intracellular calcium.

  3. 47 CFR 22.909 - Cellular markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.909 Cellular markets. Cellular markets are standard geographic areas used by the FCC for administrative convenience in the licensing of cellular systems. Cellular markets... Services Information, Cellular MSA/RSA Markets and Counties”, dated January 24, 1992, DA 92-109, 7 FCC...

  4. 47 CFR 22.909 - Cellular markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.909 Cellular markets. Cellular markets are standard geographic areas used by the FCC for administrative convenience in the licensing of cellular systems. Cellular markets... Services Information, Cellular MSA/RSA Markets and Counties”, dated January 24, 1992, DA 92-109, 7 FCC...

  5. 47 CFR 22.909 - Cellular markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.909 Cellular markets. Cellular markets are standard geographic areas used by the FCC for administrative convenience in the licensing of cellular systems. Cellular markets... Services Information, Cellular MSA/RSA Markets and Counties”, dated January 24, 1992, DA 92-109, 7 FCC...

  6. 47 CFR 22.909 - Cellular markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.909 Cellular markets. Cellular markets are standard geographic areas used by the FCC for administrative convenience in the licensing of cellular systems. Cellular markets... Services Information, Cellular MSA/RSA Markets and Counties”, dated January 24, 1992, DA 92-109, 7 FCC...

  7. 47 CFR 22.909 - Cellular markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.909 Cellular markets. Cellular markets are standard geographic areas used by the FCC for administrative convenience in the licensing of cellular systems. Cellular markets... Services Information, Cellular MSA/RSA Markets and Counties”, dated January 24, 1992, DA 92-109, 7 FCC...

  8. Redox control of iron regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Fillebeen, Carine; Pantopoulos, Kostas

    2002-01-01

    Iron regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2, are cytoplasmic proteins of the iron-sulfur cluster isomerase family and serve as major post-transcriptional regulators of cellular iron metabolism. They bind to 'iron responsive elements' (IREs) of several mRNAs and thereby control their translation or stability. IRP1 and IRP2 respond to alterations in intracellular iron levels, but also to other signals such as nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The redox regulation of IRP1 and IRP2 provides direct links between the control of iron homeostasis and oxidative stress.

  9. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used in food in accordance with...

  10. 21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172.720 Food....720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is the calcium salt of...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1187 - Calcium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium alginate. 184.1187 Section 184.1187 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1187 Calcium alginate. (a) Calcium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-35-0) is the calcium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1199 - Calcium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 184.1199 Section 184.1199 Food... GRAS § 184.1199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Calcium gluconate ( 2Ca, CAS Reg. No. 299-28-5) is the calcium salt of gluconic acid which may be produced by neutralization of gluconic acid with lime or...

  13. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be...

  14. 21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715....715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on food, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Calcium lignosulfonate consists of sulfonated lignin, primarily as...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1199 - Calcium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium gluconate. 184.1199 Section 184.1199 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Calcium gluconate ( 2Ca, CAS Reg. No. 299-28-5) is the calcium salt of gluconic acid which may be produced by neutralization of...

  16. 21 CFR 172.715 - Calcium lignosulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium lignosulfonate. 172.715 Section 172.715... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.715 Calcium lignosulfonate. Calcium lignosulfonate may be safely used in or on food, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Calcium lignosulfonate...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1199 - Calcium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium gluconate. 184.1199 Section 184.1199 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1199 Calcium gluconate. (a) Calcium gluconate ( 2Ca, CAS Reg. No. 299-28-5) is the calcium salt of gluconic acid which may be produced by neutralization of...

  18. 21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172.720 Food... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate... additive is the calcium salt of lactobionic acid (4-(β,D-galactosido)-D-gluconic acid) produced by...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1187 - Calcium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium alginate. 184.1187 Section 184.1187 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1187 Calcium alginate. (a) Calcium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-35-0) is the calcium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  20. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be...