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Sample records for cellular interactions uncouple

  1. Cellular interactions uncouple beta-adrenergic receptors from adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Ciment, G; de Vellis, J

    1978-11-17

    C6 glioma cells and B104 neuroblastoma cells both possess adenylate cyclase activity, but only C6 cells have beta-adrenergic receptors. However, when cocultured with B104 cells, C6 cells show a marked decrease in their ability to accumulate adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate upon stimulation with beta receptor agonists. Since both beta receptors and cholera toxin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities are present in C6/B104 cocultures, we conclude that the beta receptor/adenylate cyclase transduction mechanism in cocultured C6 cells is uncoupled.

  2. Flavivirus Infection Uncouples Translation Suppression from Cellular Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Hanna; Magg, Vera; Uch, Fabian; Mutz, Pascal; Klein, Philipp; Haneke, Katharina; Lohmann, Volker; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Fackler, Oliver T.; Locker, Nicolas; Stoecklin, Georg

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT As obligate parasites, viruses strictly depend on host cell translation for the production of new progeny, yet infected cells also synthesize antiviral proteins to limit virus infection. Modulation of host cell translation therefore represents a frequent strategy by which viruses optimize their replication and spread. Here we sought to define how host cell translation is regulated during infection of human cells with dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), two positive-strand RNA flaviviruses. Polysome profiling and analysis of de novo protein synthesis revealed that flavivirus infection causes potent repression of host cell translation, while synthesis of viral proteins remains efficient. Selective repression of host cell translation was mediated by the DENV polyprotein at the level of translation initiation. In addition, DENV and ZIKV infection suppressed host cell stress responses such as the formation of stress granules and phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α (α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2). Mechanistic analyses revealed that translation repression was uncoupled from the disruption of stress granule formation and eIF2α signaling. Rather, DENV infection induced p38-Mnk1 signaling that resulted in the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E and was essential for the efficient production of virus particles. Together, these results identify the uncoupling of translation suppression from the cellular stress responses as a conserved strategy by which flaviviruses ensure efficient replication in human cells. PMID:28074025

  3. Single Cell Microgel Based Modular Bioinks for Uncoupled Cellular Micro- and Macroenvironments.

    PubMed

    Kamperman, Tom; Henke, Sieger; van den Berg, Albert; Shin, Su Ryon; Tamayol, Ali; Khademhosseini, Ali; Karperien, Marcel; Leijten, Jeroen

    2017-02-01

    Modular bioinks based on single cell microgels within distinct injectable prepolymers enable uncoupling of biomaterials' micro- and macroenvironments. These inks allow biofabrication of 3D constructs that recapitulate the multiscale modular design of native tissues with a single cell resolution. This approach represents a major step forward in endowing engineered constructs with the multifunctionality that underlies the behavior of native tissues.

  4. Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by curcumin: Implication of its cellular mechanism of action

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Han Wern; Lim, Hwee Ying; Wong, Kim Ping

    2009-11-06

    Curcumin is a phytochemical isolated from the rhizome of turmeric. Recent reports have shown curcumin to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties as well as affecting the 5'-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), mTOR and STAT-3 signaling pathways. We provide evidence that curcumin acts as an uncoupler. Well-established biochemical techniques were performed on isolated rat liver mitochondria in measuring oxygen consumption, F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-ATPase activity and ATP biosynthesis. Curcumin displays all the characteristics typical of classical uncouplers like fccP and 2,4-dinitrophenol. In addition, at concentrations higher than 50 {mu}M, curcumin was found to inhibit mitochondrial respiration which is a characteristic feature of inhibitory uncouplers. As a protonophoric uncoupler and as an activator of F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-ATPase, curcumin causes a decrease in ATP biosynthesis in rat liver mitochondria. The resulting change in ATP:AMP could disrupt the phosphorylation status of the cell; this provides a possible mechanism for its activation of AMPK and its downstream mTOR and STAT-3 signaling.

  5. Role of cellular uncoupling in arrhythmogenesis in ischemia phase 1B.

    PubMed

    Jie, Xiao; Rodriguez, Blanca; Trayanova, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Delayed ventricular arrhythmias during acute myocardial ischemia phase 1B are related to a rise in tissue impedance and are most likely sustained in a thin layer of subepicardium. It has been hypothesized that coupling of depressed midmyocardial tissue to the surviving subepicardial layer sets the conditions for reentrant arrhythmias. This hypothesis was verified by means of bidomain simulations on a 3D slab consisting of a normal subepicardial layer coupled to a depressed depolarized midmyocardial layer. The heterogeneity in the coupling was defined by varying the transmural conductivities between the two layers in a circular centrally-located region. The resulting dispersion of effective refractory period in the subepicardium allows for reentry to occur. As uncoupling increases within the circular island, the vulnerability to reentry increases. A higher degree of depolarization in the midmyocardium inhibits the induction of reentry.

  6. Natural and semisynthetic mammea-type isoprenylated dihydroxycoumarins uncouple cellular respiration.

    PubMed

    Du, Lin; Mahdi, Fakhri; Jekabsons, Mika B; Nagle, Dale G; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2011-02-25

    In an effort to identify natural product-based molecular-targeted antitumor agents, mammea-type coumarins from the tropical/subtropical plant Mammea americana were found to inhibit the activation of HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) in human breast and prostate tumor cells. In addition to the recently reported mammea E/BB (15), bioassay-guided fractionation of the active extract yielded 14 mammea-type coumarins including three new compounds, mammea F/BB (1), mammea F/BA (2), and mammea C/AA (3). The absolute configuration of C-1' in 1 was determined by the modified Mosher's method on a methylated derivative. These coumarins were evaluated for their effects on mitochondrial respiration, HIF-1 signaling, and tumor cell proliferation/viability. Acetylation of 1 afforded a triacetoxylated product (A-2) that inhibited HIF-1 activation with increased potency in both T47D (IC(50) 0.83 μM for hypoxia-induced) and PC-3 cells (IC(50) 0.94 μM for hypoxia-induced). Coumarins possessing a 6-prenyl-8-(3-methyloxobutyl) substituent pattern exhibited enhanced HIF-1 inhibitory effects. The O-methylated derivatives were less active at inhibiting HIF-1 and suppressing cell proliferation/viability. Mechanistic studies indicate that these compounds act as anionic protonophores that potently uncouple mitochondrial electron transport and disrupt hypoxic signaling.

  7. Natural and Semisynthetic Mammea-Type Isoprenlated Dihydroxycoumarins Uncouple Cellular Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lin; Mahdi, Fakhri; Jekabsons, Mika B.; Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to identify natural product-based molecular-targeted antitumor agents, mammea-type coumarins from the tropical/subtropical plant Mammea americana were found to inhibit the activation of HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor-1) in human breast and prostate tumor cells. In addition to the recently reported mammea E/BB (15), bioassay-guided fractionation of the active extract yielded fourteen mammea-type coumarins including three new compounds mammea F/BB 1 (1), mammea F/BA (2), and C/AA (3). The absolute configuration of C-1′ in 1 was determined by the modified Mosher’s method on a methylated derivative. These coumarins were evaluated for their effects on mitochondrial respiration, HIF-1 signaling, and tumor cell proliferation/viability. Acetylation of 1 afforded a triacetoxylated product (A-2) that inhibited HIF-1 activation with increased potency in both T47D (IC50 0.83 μM for hypoxia-induced) and PC3 cells (IC50 0.94 μM for hypoxia-induced). Coumarins possessing a 6-prenyl-8-(3-methyl-oxobutyl)-substituent pattern exhibited enhanced HIF-1 inhibitory effects. The O-methylated derivatives were less active at inhibiting HIF-1 and suppressing cell proliferation/viability. Mechanistic studies indicate that these compounds act as anionic protonophores that potently uncouple mitochondrial electron transport and disrupt hypoxic signaling. PMID:21214226

  8. Cellular uncoupling can unmask dispersion of action potential duration in ventricular myocardium. A computer modeling study.

    PubMed

    Lesh, M D; Pring, M; Spear, J F

    1989-11-01

    Although slow conduction is a requirement for the preparation of sustained reentry, it alone is not sufficient for the initiation of reentry. Additionally, unidirectional block and recovery of excitability distal to the site of block must occur. Thus, a comprehensive description of the electrophysiological determinants of reentry must explain both slow conduction and unidirectional block. Although there is a growing body of research exploring the influence of axial resistivity and anisotropy on slow conduction, somewhat less is known about the relation of axial resistivity to spatial dispersion of action potential duration, a condition favorable to the development of unidirectional block. We hypothesized that when cells are well coupled, local differences in intrinsic action potential duration are not evident and that, as axial resistivity increases, local variation in action potential duration becomes manifest. We tested this hypothesis in a numerical model of electrical propagation in a grid of resistively coupled ionic current sources simulating a sheet of ventricular myocardium. Spatial dispersion of intrinsic action potential duration was simulated by varying the magnitude of the fully activated slow inward conductance in Beeler-Reuter membrane ionic kinetics. By then altering coupling resistance, we showed that dispersion of manifest action potential duration is masked in the setting of normal low-resistance cellular coupling and unmasked by increased axial resistance. When nonuniform anisotropy was simulated, dramatic pacing-site-dependent changes in both the pattern of activation and dispersion of action potential duration were noted. These findings may be important in understanding the mechanism of reentrant tachycardia initiation in the border zone of chronic, healed myocardial infarctions where evidence suggests that abnormal cellular coupling is the predominant electrophysiological derangement. In this study, we have shown, using a detailed ionic

  9. Water recycling by Amazonian vegetation: coupled versus uncoupled vegetation-climate interactions.

    PubMed

    Cowling, S A; Shin, Y; Pinto, E; Jones, C D

    2008-05-27

    To demonstrate the relationship between Amazonian vegetation and surface water dynamics, specifically, the recycling of water via evapotranspiration (ET), we compare two general circulation model experiments; one that couples the IS92a scenario of future CO2 emissions to a land-surface scheme with dynamic vegetation (coupled) and the other to fixed vegetation (uncoupled). Because the only difference between simulations involves vegetation coupling, any alterations to surface energy and water balance must be due to vegetation feedbacks. The proportion of water recycled back to the atmosphere is relatively conserved through time for both experiments. Absolute value of recycled water is lower in our coupled relative to our uncoupled simulation as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 that in turn promotes lowering of stomatal conductance and increase in water-use efficiency. Bowen ratio increases with decreasing per cent broadleaf cover, with the greatest rate of change occurring at high vegetation cover (above 70% broadleaf cover). Over the duration of the climate change simulation, precipitation is reduced by an extra 30% in the coupled relative to the uncoupled simulations. Lifting condensation level (proxy for base height of cumulus cloud formation) is 520m higher in our coupled relative to uncoupled simulations.

  10. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin‐converting enzyme expression: crosstalk between cellular and endocrine metabolic regulators suggested by RNA interference and genetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen‐Bjergaard, Ulrik; Brull, David J.; Gohlke, Peter; Payne, John R.; World, Michael; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Humphries, Steve E.; Montgomery, Hugh E.

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin–angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole‐body metabolism and mitochondrial function (partly through altering mitochondrial UCP expression). We show that ACE expression also appears to be regulated by mitochondrial UCPs. In genetic analysis of two unrelated populations (healthy young UK men and Scandinavian diabetic patients) serum ACE (sACE) activity was significantly higher amongst UCP3‐55C (rather than T) and UCP2 I (rather than D) allele carriers. RNA interference against UCP2 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells reduced UCP2 mRNA sixfold (P < 0·01) whilst increasing ACE expression within a physiological range (<1·8‐fold at 48 h; P < 0·01). Our findings suggest novel hypotheses. Firstly, cellular feedback regulation may occur between UCPs and ACE. Secondly, cellular UCP regulation of sACE suggests a novel means of crosstalk between (and mutual regulation of) cellular and endocrine metabolism. This might partly explain the reduced risk of developing diabetes and metabolic syndrome with RAS antagonists and offer insight into the origins of cardiovascular disease in which UCPs and ACE both play a role. PMID:27347560

  11. Interaction of carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) with lipid membrane systems: a biophysical approach with relevance to mitochondrial uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, João P; Martins, André F; Lúcio, Marlene; Reis, Salette; Geraldes, Carlos F G C; Oliveira, Paulo J; Jurado, Amália S

    2011-06-01

    FCCP (carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone), a classical uncoupler of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, is used in this study as a model to clarify how interactions of uncouplers with membrane lipid bilayers may influence membrane biophysics and their protonophoric activity itself. In order to disclose putative effects that may be important when considering using uncouplers for pharmacological purposes, an extensive characterization of FCCP membrane lipid interactions using accurate biophysical approaches and simple model lipid systems was carried out. Differential scanning calorimetry studies showed that FCCP molecules disturb lipid bilayers and favor lateral phase separation in mixed lipid systems. (31)P NMR assays indicated that FCCP alters the curvature elastic properties of membrane models containing non-bilayer lipids, favoring lamellar/H(II) transition, probably by alleviation of hydrocarbon-packing constraints in the inverted hexagonal phase. Taking advantage of FCCP quenching effects on the fluorescent probes DPH (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) and DPH-PA (3-(p-(6-phenyl)-1,3,5-hexatrienyl)phenylpropionic acid), it is demonstrated that FCCP distributes across the bilayer thickness in both a single and a ternary lipid system mimicking the inner mitochondrial membrane. This behavior is consistent with the ability of the compound to migrate through the thickness of the inner mitochondrial membrane, an event required for its protonophoric activity. Finally, the study of the membrane fluidity in different lipid systems, as reported by the rotational correlation time (θ) of DPH or DPH-PA, showed that the extension at which FCCP disturbs membrane properties associated with the dynamics and the order of lipid molecules depends on the lipid composition of the model lipid system assayed.

  12. Cellular Migration and Invasion Uncoupled: Increased Migration Is Not an Inexorable Consequence of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Daneen; Somarelli, Jason A.; Hanna, Gabi; Palmer, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic dissemination requires carcinoma cells to detach from the primary tumor and invade through the basement membrane. To acquire these characteristics, epithelial tumor cells undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT), whereby cells lose polarity and E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Post-EMT cells have also been shown, or assumed, to be more migratory; however, there have been contradictory reports on an immortalized human mammary epithelial cell line (HMLE) that underwent EMT. In the context of carcinoma-associated EMT, it is not yet clear whether the change in migration and invasion must be positively correlated during EMT or whether enhanced migration is a necessary consequence of having undergone EMT. Here, we report that pre-EMT rat prostate cancer (PC) and HMLE cells are more migratory than their post-EMT counterparts. To determine a mechanism for increased epithelial cell migration, gene expression analysis was performed and revealed an increase in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in pre-EMT cells. Indeed, inhibition of EGFR in PC epithelial cells slowed migration. Importantly, while post-EMT PC and HMLE cell lines are less migratory, both remain invasive in vitro and, for PC cells, in vivo. Our study demonstrates that enhanced migration is not a phenotypic requirement of EMT, and migration and invasion can be uncoupled during carcinoma-associated EMT. PMID:25002532

  13. Structures and Mechanisms of Antitumor Agents - Xestoquinones Uncouple Cellular Respiration and Disrupt HIF Signaling in Human Breast Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lin; Mahdi, Fakhri; Datta, Sandipan; Jekabsons, Mika B.; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G.

    2012-01-01

    The organic extract of a marine sponge Petrosia alfiani selectively inhibited iron chelator-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) activation in a human breast tumor T47D cell-based reporter assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation yielded seven xestoquinones (1 – 7) including three new compounds 14-hydroxymethylxestoquinone (1), 15-hydroxymethylxestoquinone (2), and 14,15-dihydroxestoquinone (3). Compounds 1 – 7 were evaluated for their effects on HIF-1 signaling, mitochondrial respiration, and tumor cell proliferation/viability. The known metabolites adociaquinones A (5) and B (6), that possess a 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,4-thiazine-1,1-dioxide moiety, potently and selectively inhibited iron chelator-induced HIF-1 activation in T47D cells, each with an IC50 value of 0.2 μM. Mechanistic studies revealed that adociaquinones promote oxygen consumption without affecting mitochondrial membrane potential. Compound 1 both enhances respiration and decreases mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that it acts as a protonophore that uncouples mitochondrial respiration. PMID:22938093

  14. FoxO1 interacts with transcription factor EB and differentially regulates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins via autophagy in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Longhua; Tao, Zhipeng; Zheng, Louise D; Brooke, Joseph P; Smith, Cayleen M; Liu, Dongmin; Long, Yun Chau; Cheng, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are inducible and play an important role in metabolic and redox homeostasis. Recent studies have suggested that FoxO1 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and morphology, but it remains largely unknown how FoxO1 may regulate mitochondrial UCPs. Here we show that FoxO1 interacted with transcription factor EB (Tfeb), a key regulator of autophagosome and lysosome, and mediated the expression of UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 differentially via autophagy in adipocytes. UCP1 was down-regulated but UCP2 and UCP3 were upregulated during adipocyte differentiation, which was associated with increased Tfeb and autophagy activity. However, inhibition of FoxO1 suppressed Tfeb and autophagy, attenuating UCP2 and UCP3 but increasing UCP1 expression. Pharmacological blockade of autophagy recapitulated the effects of FoxO1 inhibition on UCPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that FoxO1 interacted with Tfeb by directly binding to its promoter, and silencing FoxO1 led to drastic decrease in Tfeb transcript and protein levels. These data provide the first line of evidence that FoxO1 interacts with Tfeb to regulate autophagy and UCP expression in adipocytes. Dysregulation of FoxO1→autophagy→UCP pathway may account for metabolic changes in obesity. PMID:27777789

  15. Cell surface-mediated cellular interactions: effects of B104 neuroblastoma surface determinants on C6 glioma cellular properties.

    PubMed

    Ciment, G; de Vellis, J

    1982-01-01

    To study the influence of cell surface-associated molecules on intercellular communication, C6 glioma cells were cultured both on plastic and on substrata of paraformaldehyde-fixed B104 neuroblastoma cells. By then comparing the phenotypic expression of these "cocultured" C6 cells with cells cultured on tissue culture plastic, the influence of the cellular substratum was determined. The beta-adrenergic-responsive cyclic AMP-generating system of C6 cells was compared on these various substrata. We found that fixed beds of dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP)-treated B104 cells uncoupled beta-receptors from adenylate cyclase, whereas fixed beds of similarly treated C6 cells did not. However, other cellular properties were not affected by growth atop fixed dbcAMP-treated B104 cell beds including the rate of C6 cellular proliferation and their rate of protein synthesis. The cell surface-associated determinant on B104 cells capable of uncoupling the beta-responsive cyclase system of C6 cells is probably a protein, as judged by its susceptibility to protease treatment. Other properties of C6 cells were also affected by the various substrata including basal and hydrocortisone-induced levels of glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH; an oligodendroglial marker) and the rate of RNA synthesis in these cells.

  16. Escherichia coli fusion carrier proteins act as solubilizing agents for recombinant uncoupling protein 1 through interactions with GroEL

    SciTech Connect

    Douette, Pierre; Navet, Rachel; Gerkens, Pascal; Galleni, Moreno; Levy, Daniel; Sluse, Francis E. . E-mail: F.Sluse@ulg.ac.be

    2005-08-05

    Fusing recombinant proteins to highly soluble partners is frequently used to prevent aggregation of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Moreover, co-overexpression of prokaryotic chaperones can increase the amount of properly folded recombinant proteins. To understand the solubility enhancement of fusion proteins, we designed two recombinant proteins composed of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a mitochondrial membrane protein, in fusion with MBP or NusA. We were able to express soluble forms of MBP-UCP1 and NusA-UCP1 despite the high hydrophobicity of UCP1. Furthermore, the yield of soluble fusion proteins depended on co-overexpression of GroEL that catalyzes folding of polypeptides. MBP-UCP1 was expressed in the form of a non-covalent complex with GroEL. MBP-UCP1/GroEL was purified and characterized by dynamic light scattering, gel filtration, and electron microscopy. Our findings suggest that MBP and NusA act as solubilizing agents by forcing the recombinant protein to pass through the bacterial chaperone pathway in the context of fusion protein.

  17. Application System Architecture for Cellular Phones by Dividing Interaction Logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Misayo; Todoroki, Nobutoshi; Akiyoshi, Masanori; Kojima, Taizo

    This paper describes application system architecture using cellular phones as user interface devices, which enables users to interact with the system by graphic symbols on a client screen. Our approach has the following features: (i) divided interaction logics running on a server and a Java phone client; both interaction logics cooperate to accomplish a user's operation using a simplified script, (ii) local interaction which enables users to handle figures on a client screen without connecting to a server, and (iii) device-independent script which hides the differences of API sets among various cellular phones. By using this architecture, complicated figures including lots of graphic symbols can be displayed in spite of program-size limitation on a client device, and application programs including same interaction logics are just described once for various cellular phones. Our experiments show the advantage of the local interaction. A client program can respond immediately when handling complicated figures. The ratio of requests to the server is reduced to 23%. It takes less than 9 seconds to display typical contents, which is good enough for practical use. This method also reduces development costs at the second development or later.

  18. Cellular studies and interaction mechanisms of extremely low frequency fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liburdy, Robert P.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide interest in the biological effects of ELF (extremely low frequency, <1 kHz) electromagnetic fields has grown significantly. Health professionals and government administrators and regulators, scientists and engineers, and, importantly, an increasing number of individuals in the general public are interested in this health issue. The goal of research at the cellular level is to identify cellular responses to ELF fields, to develop a dose threshold for such interactions, and with such information to formulate and test appropriate interaction mechanisms. This review is selective and will discuss the most recent cellular studies directed at these goals which relate to power line, sinusoidal ELF fields. In these studies an interaction site at the cell membrane is by consensus a likely candidate, since changes in ion transport, ligand-receptor events such as antibody binding, and G protein activation have been reported. These changes strongly indicate that signal transduction (ST) can be influenced. Also, ELF fields are reported to influence enzyme activation, gene expression, protein synthesis, and cell proliferation, which are triggered by earlier ST events at the cell membrane. The concept of ELF fields altering early cell membrane events and thereby influencing intracellular cell function via the ST cascade is perhaps the most plausible biological framework currently being investigated for understanding ELF effects on cells. For example, the consequence of an increase due to ELF fields in mitogenesis, the final endpoint of the ST cascade, is an overall increase in the probability of mutagenesis and consequently cancer, according to the Ames epigenetic model of carcinogenesis. Consistent with this epigenetic mechanism and the ST pathway to carcinogenesis is recent evidence that ELF fields can alter breast cancer cell proliferation and can act as a copromoter in vitro. The most important dosimetric question being addressed currently is whether the electric (E

  19. Identification of Protein Interactions Involved in Cellular Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Westermarck, Jukka; Ivaska, Johanna; Corthals, Garry L.

    2013-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions drive biological processes. They are critical for all intra- and extracellular functions, and the technologies to analyze them are widely applied throughout the various fields of biological sciences. This study takes an in-depth view of some common principles of cellular regulation and provides a detailed account of approaches required to comprehensively map signaling protein-protein interactions in any particular cellular system or condition. We provide a critical review of the benefits and disadvantages of the yeast two-hybrid method and affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometric procedures for identification of signaling protein-protein interactions. In particular, we emphasize the quantitative and qualitative differences between tandem affinity and one-step purification (such as FLAG and Strep tag) methods. Although applicable to all types of interaction studies, a special section is devoted in this review to aspects that should be considered when attempting to identify signaling protein interactions that often are transient and weak by nature. Finally, we discuss shotgun and quantitative information that can be gleaned by MS-coupled methods for analysis of multiprotein complexes. PMID:23481661

  20. Cellular interactions with tissue-engineered microenvironments and nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhi

    Tissue-engineered hydrogels composed of intermolecularlly crosslinked hyaluronan (HA-DTPH) and fibronectin functional domains (FNfds) were applied as a physiological relevant ECM mimic with controlled mechanical and biochemical properties. Cellular interactions with this tissue-engineered environment, especially physical interactions (cellular traction forces), were quantitatively measured by using the digital image speckle correlation (DISC) technique and finite element method (FEM). By correlating with other cell functions such as cell morphology and migration, a comprehensive structure-function relationship between cells and their environments was identified. Furthermore, spatiotemporal redistribution of cellular traction stresses was time-lapse measured during cell migration to better understand the dynamics of cell mobility. The results suggest that the reinforcement of the traction stresses around the nucleus, as well as the relaxation of nuclear deformation, are critical steps during cell migration, serving as a speed regulator, which must be considered in any dynamic molecular reconstruction model of tissue cell migration. Besides single cell migration, en masse cell migration was studied by using agarose droplet migration assay. Cell density was demonstrated to be another important parameter to influence cell behaviors besides substrate properties. Findings from these studies will provide fundamental design criteria to develop novel and effective tissue-engineered constructs. Cellular interactions with rutile and anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were also studied. These particles can penetrate easily through the cell membrane and impair cell function, with the latter being more damaging. The exposure to nanoparticles was found to decrease cell area, cell proliferation, motility, and contractility. To prevent this, a dense grafted polymer brush coating was applied onto the nanoparticle surface. These modified nanoparticles failed to adhere to and penetrate

  1. Investigation of cellular responses upon interaction with silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Ramesh; Jeon, Seong Beom; Park, Kwideok; Ahn, Sang Jung; Yun, Kyusik

    2015-01-01

    In order for nanoparticles (NPs) to be applied in the biomedical field, a thorough investigation of their interactions with biological systems is required. Although this is a growing area of research, there is a paucity of comprehensive data in cell-based studies. To address this, we analyzed the physicomechanical responses of human alveolar epithelial cells (A549), mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), and human bone marrow stromal cells (HS-5), following their interaction with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). When compared with kanamycin, AgNPs exhibited moderate antibacterial activity. Cell viability ranged from ≤80% at a high AgNPs dose (40 µg/mL) to >95% at a low dose (10 µg/mL). We also used atomic force microscopy-coupled force spectroscopy to evaluate the biophysical and biomechanical properties of cells. This revealed that AgNPs treatment increased the surface roughness (P<0.001) and stiffness (P<0.001) of cells. Certain cellular changes are likely due to interaction of the AgNPs with the cell surface. The degree to which cellular morphology was altered directly proportional to the level of AgNP-induced cytotoxicity. Together, these data suggest that atomic force microscopy can be used as a potential tool to develop a biomechanics-based biomarker for the evaluation of NP-dependent cytotoxicity and cytopathology. PMID:26346562

  2. Investigation of Cellular Interactions of Nanoparticles by Helium Ion Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Arey, Bruce W.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, Yumei; Tolic, Ana; Williams, Nolann G.; Orr, Galya

    2011-06-01

    The helium ion mircroscope (HIM) probes light elements (e.g. C, N, O, P) with high contrast due to the large variation in secondary electron yield, which minimizes the necessity of specimen staining. A defining characteristic of HIM is its remarkable capability to neutralize charge by the implementation of an electron flood gun, which eliminates the need for coating non-conductive specimens for imaging at high resolution. In addition, the small convergence angle in HeIM offers a large depth of field (~5x FE-SEM), enabling tall structures to be viewed in focus within a single image. Taking advantage of these capabilities, we investigate the interactions of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) at the surface of alveolar type II epithelial cells grown at the air-liquid interface (ALI). The increasing use of nanomaterials in a wide range of commercial applications has the potential to increase human exposure to these materials, but the impact of such exposure on human health is still unclear. One of the main routs of exposure is the respiratory tract, where alveolar epithelial cells present a vulnerable target at the interface with ambient air. Since the cellular interactions of NPs govern the cellular response and ultimately determine the impact on human health, our studies will help delineating relationships between particle properties and cellular interactions and response to better evaluate NP toxicity or biocompatibility. The Rutherford backscattered ion (RBI) is a helium ions imaging mode, which backscatters helium ions from every element except hydrogen, with a backscatter yield that depends on the atomic number of the target. Energy-sensitive backscatter analysis is being developed, which when combined with RBI image information, supports elemental identification at helium ion nanometer resolution. This capability will enable distinguishing NPs from cell surface structures with nanometer resolution.

  3. Investigation of cellular interactions of nanoparticles by helium ion microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arey, B. W.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, Y.; Tolic, A.; Williams, N.; Orr, G.

    2011-06-01

    The helium ion microscope (HIM) probes light elements (e.g. C, N, O, P) with high contrast due to the large variation in secondary electron yield, which minimizes the necessity of specimen staining. A defining characteristic of HIM is its remarkable capability to neutralize charge by the implementation of an electron flood gun, which eliminates the need for coating non-conductive specimens for imaging at high resolution. In addition, the small convergence angle in HeIM offers a large depth of field (~5× FE-SEM), enabling tall structures to be viewed in focus within a single image. Taking advantage of these capabilities, we investigate the interactions of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) at the surface of alveolar type II epithelial cells grown at the airliquid interface (ALI). The increasing use of nanomaterials in a wide range of commercial applications has the potential to increase human exposure to these materials, but the impact of such exposure on human health is still unclear. One of the main routs of exposure is the respiratory tract, where alveolar epithelial cells present a vulnerable target at the interface with ambient air. Since the cellular interactions of NPs govern the cellular response and ultimately determine the impact on human health, our studies will help delineating relationships between particle properties and cellular interactions and response to better evaluate NP toxicity or biocompatibility. The Rutherford backscattered ion (RBI) is a helium ions imaging mode, which backscatters helium ions from every element except hydrogen, with a backscatter yield that depends on the atomic number of the target. Energy-sensitive backscatter analysis is being developed, which when combined with RBI image information, supports elemental identification at helium ion nanometer resolution. This capability will enable distinguishing NPs from cell surface structures with nanometer resolution.

  4. Cellular Organization of Neuroimmune Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Kara Gross; Gershon, Michael David; Bogunovic, Milena

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the largest immune organ; in vertebrates, it is the only organ whose function is controlled by its own intrinsic enteric nervous system (ENS), but it is additionally regulated by extrinsic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) innervation. The GI nervous and immune systems are highly integrated in their common goal, which is to unite digestive functions with protection from ingested environmental threats. This review discusses the physiological relevance of enteric neuroimmune integration by summarizing the current knowledge of evolutionary and developmental pathways, cellular organization, and molecular mechanisms of neuroimmune interactions in health and disease. PMID:27289177

  5. An entropic characterization of protein interaction networks and cellular robustness.

    PubMed

    Manke, Thomas; Demetrius, Lloyd; Vingron, Martin

    2006-12-22

    The structure of molecular networks is believed to determine important aspects of their cellular function, such as the organismal resilience against random perturbations. Ultimately, however, cellular behaviour is determined by the dynamical processes, which are constrained by network topology. The present work is based on a fundamental relation from dynamical systems theory, which states that the macroscopic resilience of a steady state is correlated with the uncertainty in the underlying microscopic processes, a property that can be measured by entropy. Here, we use recent network data from large-scale protein interaction screens to characterize the diversity of possible pathways in terms of network entropy. This measure has its origin in statistical mechanics and amounts to a global characterization of both structural and dynamical resilience in terms of microscopic elements. We demonstrate how this approach can be used to rank network elements according to their contribution to network entropy and also investigate how this suggested ranking reflects on the functional data provided by gene knockouts and RNAi experiments in yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans. Our analysis shows that knockouts of proteins with large contribution to network entropy are preferentially lethal. This observation is robust with respect to several possible errors and biases in the experimental data. It underscores the significance of entropy as a fundamental invariant of the dynamical system, and as a measure of structural and dynamical properties of networks. Our analytical approach goes beyond the phenomenological studies of cellular robustness based on local network observables, such as connectivity. One of its principal achievements is to provide a rationale to study proxies of cellular resilience and rank proteins according to their importance within the global network context.

  6. Antiviral and cellular metabolism interactions between Dexelvucitabine and lamivudine.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Santiago, Brenda I; Mathew, Judy S; Rapp, Kim L; Grier, Jason P; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2007-06-01

    Studies on cellular drug interactions with antiretroviral agents prior to clinical trials are critical to detect possible drug interactions. Herein, we demonstrated that two 2'-deoxycytidine antiretroviral agents, dexelvucitabine (known as beta-d-2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluorocytidine, DFC, d-d4FC, or RVT) and lamivudine (3TC), combined in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear (PBM) cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 strain LAI (HIV-1(LAI)), resulted in additive-to-synergistic effects. The cellular metabolism of DFC and 3TC was studied in human T-cell lymphoma (CEM) and in primary human PBM cells to determine whether this combination caused any reduction in active nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) levels, which could decrease with their antiviral potency. Competition studies were conducted by coincubation of either radiolabeled DFC with different concentrations of 3TC or radiolabeled 3TC with different concentrations of DFC. Coincubation of radiolabeled 3TC with DFC at concentrations up to 33.3 microM did not cause any marked reduction in 3TC-triphosphate (TP) or any 3TC metabolites. However, a reduction in the level of DFC metabolites was noted at high concentrations of 3TC with radiolabeled DFC. DFC-TP levels in CEM and primary human PBM cells decreased by 88% and 94%, respectively, when high concentrations of 3TC (33.3 and 100 microM) were added, which may influence the effectiveness of DFC-5'-TP on the HIV-1 polymerase. The NTP levels remained well above the median (50%) inhibitory concentration for HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. These results suggest that both beta-d- and beta-l-2'-deoxycytidine analogs, DFC and 3TC, respectively, substrates of 2'-deoxycytidine kinase, could be used in a combined therapeutic modality. However, it may be necessary to decrease the dose of 3TC for this combination to prove effective.

  7. Heart development and regeneration via cellular interaction and reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Ieda, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    The heart consists of many types of cells, including cardiomyocytes, vascular cells, neural cells, and cardiac fibroblasts. Adult cardiomyocytes are terminally differentiated cells, and loss of cardiomyocytes as a result of heart damage is irreversible. To regenerate damaged hearts and restore cardiac function, understanding the cellular and molecular basis of heart development is of considerable importance. Although it is well known that heart function is tightly regulated by cell-cell interactions, their roles in heart development are not clear. Recent studies, including ours, identified important roles of cell-cell interactions in heart development and function. The balance between neural chemoattractants and chemorepellents secreted from cardiomyocytes determines cardiac nervous development. Nerve growth factor is a potent chemoattractant synthesized by cardiomyocytes, whereas Sema3a is a neural chemorepellent expressed specifically in the subendocardium. Disruption of this molecular balance induces disorganized cardiac innervation and may lead to sudden cardiac death due to lethal arrhythmias. Cardiac fibroblasts, of which there are large populations in the heart, secrete high levels of specific extracellular matrix and growth factors. Embryonic cardiac fibroblast-specific secreted factors collaboratively promote mitotic activity of embryonic cardiomyocytes and expansion of ventricular chambers during cardiogenesis. More recently, utilizing knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of heart development, we found that cardiac fibroblasts can be directly reprogrammed into cardiomyocyte-like cells in vitro and in vivo by gene transfer of cardiac-specific transcription factors. Understanding the mechanisms of heart development and cardiac reprogramming technology may provide new therapeutic approaches for heart disease in the future.

  8. Modeling of Fluid-Membrane Interaction in Cellular Microinjection Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karzar-Jeddi, Mehdi; Diaz, Jhon; Olgac, Nejat; Fan, Tai-Hsi

    2009-11-01

    Cellular microinjection is a well-accepted method to deliver matters such as sperm, nucleus, or macromolecules into biological cells. To improve the success rate of in vitro fertilization and to establish the ideal operating conditions for a novel computer controlled rotationally oscillating intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technology, we investigate the fluid-membrane interactions in the ICSI procedure. The procedure consists of anchoring the oocyte (a developing egg) using a holding pipette, penetrating oocyte's zona pellucida (the outer membrane) and the oolemma (the plasma or inner membrane) using an injection micropipette, and finally to deliver sperm into the oocyte for fertilization. To predict the large deformation of the oocyte membranes up to the piercing of the oolemma and the motion of fluids across both membranes, the dynamic fluid-pipette-membrane interactions are formulated by the coupled Stokes' equations and the continuum membrane model based on Helfrich's energy theory. A boundary integral model is developed to simulate the transient membrane deformation and the local membrane stress induced by the longitudinal motion of the injection pipette. The model captures the essential features of the membranes shown on optical images of ICSI experiments, and is capable of suggesting the optimal deformation level of the oolemma to start the rotational oscillations for piercing into the oolemma.

  9. Biophysical responses upon the interaction of nanomaterials with cellular interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun-Long; Putcha, Nirupama; Ng, Kee Woei; Leong, David Tai; Lim, Chwee Teck; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Chen, Xiaodong

    2013-03-19

    The explosion of study of nanomaterials in biological applications (the nano-bio interface) can be ascribed to nanomaterials' growing importance in diagnostics, therapeutics, theranostics (therapeutic diagnostics), and targeted modulation of cellular processes. However, a growing number of critics have raised concerns over the potential risks of nanomaterials to human health and safety. It is essential to understand nanomaterials' potential toxicity before they are tested in humans. These risks are complicated to unravel, however, because of the complexity of cells and their nanoscale macromolecular components, which enable cells to sense and respond to environmental cues, including nanomaterials. In this Account, we explore these risks from the perspective of the biophysical interactions between nanomaterials and cells. Biophysical responses to the uptake of nanomaterials can include conformational changes in biomolecules like DNA and proteins, and changes to the cellular membrane and the cytoskeleton. Changes to the latter two, in particular, can induce changes in cell elasticity, morphology, motility, adhesion, and invasion. This Account reviews what is known about cells' biophysical responses to the uptake of the most widely studied and used nanoparticles, such as carbon-based, metal, metal-oxide, and semiconductor nanomaterials. We postulate that the biophysical structure impairment induced by nanomaterials is one of the key causes of nanotoxicity. The disruption of cellular structures is affected by the size, shape, and chemical composition of nanomaterials, which are also determining factors of nanotoxicity. Currently, popular nanotoxicity characterizations, such as the MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, only provide end-point results through chemical reactions. Focusing on biophysical structural changes induced by nanomaterials, possibly in real-time, could deepen our understanding of the normal and altered states of subcellular structures and

  10. Charged group surface accessibility determines micelleplexes formation and cellular interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yang; Sen, Soumyo; Král, Petr; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2015-04-01

    Micelleplexes are a class of nucleic acid carriers that have gained acceptance due to their size, stability, and ability to synergistically carry small molecules. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA gene regulator that is consists of 19-22 nucleotides. Altered expression of miRNAs plays an important role in many human diseases. Using a model 22-nucleotide miRNA sequence, we investigated the interaction between charged groups on the micelle surface and miRNA. The model micelle system was formed from methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide) (mPEG-PLA) mixed with methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide)-b-oligoarginine (mPEG-PLA-Rx, x = 8 or 15). Surface properties of the micelles were varied by controlling the oligoarginine block length and conjugation density. Micelles were observed to have a core-shell conformation in the aqueous environment where the PLA block constituted the hydrophobic core, mPEG and oligoarginine formed a hydrophilic corona. Significantly different thermodynamic behaviors were observed during the interaction of single stranded miRNA with micelles of different surface properties, and the resulting micelleplexes mediated substantial cellular association. Depending upon the oligoarginine length and density, micelles exhibited miRNA loading capacity directly related to the presentation of charged groups on the surface. The effect of charged group accessibility of cationic micelle on micelleplex properties provides guidance on future miRNA delivery system design.Micelleplexes are a class of nucleic acid carriers that have gained acceptance due to their size, stability, and ability to synergistically carry small molecules. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA gene regulator that is consists of 19-22 nucleotides. Altered expression of miRNAs plays an important role in many human diseases. Using a model 22-nucleotide miRNA sequence, we investigated the interaction between charged groups on the micelle surface and miRNA. The

  11. Predict drug-protein interaction in cellular networking.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xuan; Min, Jian-Liang; Wang, Pu; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Involved with many diseases such as cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative, inflammatory and respiratory disorders, GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) are the most frequent targets for drug development: over 50% of all prescription drugs currently on the market are actually acting by targeting GPCRs directly or indirectly. Found in every living thing and nearly all cells, ion channels play crucial roles for many vital functions in life, such as heartbeat, sensory transduction, and central nervous system response. Their dysfunction may have significant impact to human health, and hence ion channels are deemed as "the next GPCRs". To develop GPCR-targeting or ion-channel-targeting drugs, the first important step is to identify the interactions between potential drug compounds with the two kinds of protein receptors in the cellular networking. In this minireview, we are to introduce two predictors. One is called iGPCR-Drug accessible at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iGPCR-Drug/; the other called iCDI-PseFpt at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iCDI-PseFpt. The former is for identifying the interactions of drug compounds with GPCRs; while the latter for that with ion channels. In both predictors, the drug compound was formulated by the two-dimensional molecular fingerprint, and the protein receptor by the pseudo amino acid composition generated with the grey model theory, while the operation engine was the fuzzy K-nearest neighbor algorithm. For the convenience of most experimental pharmaceutical and medical scientists, a step-bystep guide is provided on how to use each of the two web-servers to get the desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematics involved originally for their establishment.

  12. Cellular and molecular interactions of phosphoinositides and peripheral proteins.

    PubMed

    Stahelin, Robert V; Scott, Jordan L; Frick, Cary T

    2014-09-01

    Anionic lipids act as signals for the recruitment of proteins containing cationic clusters to biological membranes. A family of anionic lipids known as the phosphoinositides (PIPs) are low in abundance, yet play a critical role in recruitment of peripheral proteins to the membrane interface. PIPs are mono-, bis-, or trisphosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PI) yielding seven species with different structure and anionic charge. The differential spatial distribution and temporal appearance of PIPs is key to their role in communicating information to target proteins. Selective recognition of PIPs came into play with the discovery that the substrate of protein kinase C termed pleckstrin possessed the first PIP binding region termed the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. Since the discovery of the PH domain, more than ten PIP binding domains have been identified including PH, ENTH, FYVE, PX, and C2 domains. Representative examples of each of these domains have been thoroughly characterized to understand how they coordinate PIP headgroups in membranes, translocate to specific membrane docking sites in the cell, and function to regulate the activity of their full-length proteins. In addition, a number of novel mechanisms of PIP-mediated membrane association have emerged, such as coincidence detection-specificity for two distinct lipid headgroups. Other PIP-binding domains may also harbor selectivity for a membrane physical property such as charge or membrane curvature. This review summarizes the current understanding of the cellular distribution of PIPs and their molecular interaction with peripheral proteins.

  13. Cellular behavior in micropatterned hydrogels by bioprinting system depended on the cell types and cellular interaction.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soyoung; Song, Seung-Joon; Lee, Jae Yeon; Jang, Hwanseok; Choi, Jaesoon; Sun, Kyung; Park, Yongdoo

    2013-08-01

    The fabrication of patterned microstructures within three-dimensional (3D) matrices is a challenging subject in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A 3D, free-moving bioprinting system was developed and hydrogels were patterned by varying the process parameters of z-axis moving velocity and ejection velocity. The patterning of hydrogel based microfibers in a 3D matrigel was achieved with dimensions of 4.5 mm length and widths from 79 to 200 μm. Hyaluronan-based hydrogels mixed with fibroblasts (L929), mouse endothelial cells (MS1), or human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were patterned using a 3D moving axis bioprinter and cell behavior was monitored in culture for up to 16 days. L929 and MS1 cells and hMSCs in patterned hydrogel revealed cell-cell interactions and a morphological dependency on cell types. HMSCs formed spheres through cell aggregation, while L929 cells increased in cellular mass without cell aggregation and MS1 dispersed into the matrix instead of aggregating. The aggregation of hMSCs was attenuated by treatment with Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor and cadherin antibody. This reflected the close relationship between cell aggregation and migration with RhoA and cell-cell adhesion molecules. Angiogenic-specific gene expression profiles showed that expression of CD105 decreased to 22% in the ROCK inhibitor group compared to control group. These results showed that cell-based patterns in a 3D matrix are highly dependent on both cell aggregation and migration over time.

  14. Energy conservation and uncoupling in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Hatefi, Y

    1975-01-01

    Energy conservation and uncoupling in mitochondria are examined in the light of three important new findings: (a) Studies with the photoaffinity-labeling uncoupler 2-azido-4-nitrophenol have shown that mitochondria contain a specific uncoupler binding site (apparently a polypeptide of Mr = 30,000 +/- 10%). (b) This site fractionates into an enzyme complex (complex V), which is capable of oligomycin- and uncoupler-sensitive ATP-Pi exchange. It is absent from electron transfer complexes I, III, and IV, which represent segments of the respiratory chain containing coupling sites 1, 2, and 3, respectively. (c) Trinitrophenol is a membrane-impermeable uncoupler (uncouples submitochondrial particles, but not mitochondria) and a poor protonophore. There is an excellent correlation between the uncoupling potencies and the affinities of uncouplers for the mitochondrial uncoupler-binding site. There is no correlation between uncoupling potency and protonophoric activity of uncouplers when a membrane-permeable uncoupler is compared with a membrane-impermeable one.

  15. A model to explain specific cellular communications and cellular harmony:- a hypothesis of coupled cells and interactive coupling molecules

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The various cell types and their relative numbers in multicellular organisms are controlled by growth factors and related extracellular molecules which affect genetic expression pathways. However, these substances may have both/either inhibitory and/or stimulatory effects on cell division and cell differentiation depending on the cellular environment. It is not known how cells respond to these substances in such an ambiguous way. Many cellular effects have been investigated and reported using cell culture from cancer cell lines in an effort to define normal cellular behaviour using these abnormal cells. A model is offered to explain the harmony of cellular life in multicellular organisms involving interacting extracellular substances. Methods A basic model was proposed based on asymmetric cell division and evidence to support the hypothetical model was accumulated from the literature. In particular, relevant evidence was selected for the Insulin-Like Growth Factor system from the published data, especially from certain cell lines, to support the model. The evidence has been selective in an attempt to provide a picture of normal cellular responses, derived from the cell lines. Results The formation of a pair of coupled cells by asymmetric cell division is an integral part of the model as is the interaction of couplet molecules derived from these cells. Each couplet cell will have a receptor to measure the amount of the couplet molecule produced by the other cell; each cell will be receptor-positive or receptor-negative for the respective receptors. The couplet molecules will form a binary complex whose level is also measured by the cell. The hypothesis is heavily supported by selective collection of circumstantial evidence and by some direct evidence. The basic model can be expanded to other cellular interactions. Conclusions These couplet cells and interacting couplet molecules can be viewed as a mechanism that provides a controlled and balanced division

  16. Non-Chemical Distant Cellular Interactions as a potential confounder of cell biology experiments

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Ashkan

    2014-01-01

    Distant cells can communicate with each other through a variety of methods. Two such methods involve electrical and/or chemical mechanisms. Non-chemical, distant cellular interactions may be another method of communication that cells can use to modify the behavior of other cells that are mechanically separated. Moreover, non-chemical, distant cellular interactions may explain some cases of confounding effects in Cell Biology experiments. In this article, we review non-chemical, distant cellular interactions studies to try to shed light on the mechanisms in this highly unconventional field of cell biology. Despite the existence of several theories that try to explain the mechanism of non-chemical, distant cellular interactions, this phenomenon is still speculative. Among candidate mechanisms, electromagnetic waves appear to have the most experimental support. In this brief article, we try to answer a few key questions that may further clarify this mechanism. PMID:25368582

  17. Contributions of host cellular trafficking and organization to the outcomes of plant-pathogen interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years it has become increasingly apparent that dynamic changes in protein localization, membrane trafficking pathways, and cellular organization play a major role in determining the outcome of interactions between plants and pathogenic microorganisms. Plants have evolved sophisticated perc...

  18. Interaction of tea tree oil with model and cellular membranes.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Cristiano; Molinari, Agnese; Toccacieli, Laura; Calcabrini, Annarica; Stringaro, Annarita; Chistolini, Pietro; Arancia, Giuseppe; Diociaiuti, Marco

    2006-07-27

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is the essential oil steam-distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia, a species of northern New South Wales, Australia. It exhibits a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and an antifungal activity. Only recently has TTO been shown to inhibit the in vitro growth of multidrug resistant (MDR) human melanoma cells. It has been suggested that the effect of TTO on tumor cells could be mediated by its interaction with the plasma membrane, most likely by inducing a reorganization of lipid architecture. In this paper we report biophysical and structural results obtained using simplified planar model membranes (Langmuir films) mimicking lipid "rafts". We also used flow cytometry analysis (FCA) and freeze-fracturing transmission electron microscopy to investigate the effects of TTO on actual MDR melanoma cell membranes. Thermodynamic (compression isotherms and adsorption kinetics) and structural (Brewster angle microscopy) investigation of the lipid monolayers clearly indicates that TTO interacts preferentially with the less ordered DPPC "sea" and that it does not alter the more ordered lipid "rafts". Structural observations, performed by freeze fracturing, confirm that TTO interacts with the MDR melanoma cell plasma membrane. Moreover, experiments performed by FCA demonstrate that TTO does not interfere with the function of the MDR drug transporter P-gp. We therefore propose that the effect exerted on MDR melanoma cells is mediated by the interaction with the fluid DPPC phase, rather than with the more organized "rafts" and that this interaction preferentially influences the ATP-independent antiapoptotic activity of P-gp likely localized outside "rafts".

  19. Molecular and cellular basis of cannabinoid and opioid interactions.

    PubMed

    Viganò, Daniela; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela

    2005-06-01

    Cannabinoids and opioids have been shown to possess several similar pharmacological effects, including analgesia and stimulation of brain circuitry that are believed to underlie drug addiction and reward. In recent years, these phenomena have supported the possible existence of functional links in the mechanisms of action of both types of drugs. The present review addresses the recent advances in the study of biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying opioid and cannabinoid interaction. Several hypothesis have been formulated to explain this cross-modulation including the release of opioid peptides by cannabinoids or endocannabinoids by opioids and interaction at the level of receptor and/or their signal transduction mechanisms. Moreover it is important to consider that the nature of cannabinoid and opioid interaction might differ in the brain circuits mediating reward and in those mediating other pharmacological properties, such as antinociception. While in vitro studies point to the presence of interaction at various steps along the signal transduction pathway, studies in intact animals are frequently contradictory pending on the used species and the adopted protocol. The presence of reciprocal alteration in receptor density and efficiency as well as the modification in opioid/cannabinoid endogenous systems often do not reflect the behavioral results. Further studies are needed since a better knowledge of the opioid-cannabinoid interaction may lead to exciting therapeutic possibilities.

  20. Interactions between cyclodextrins and cellular components: Towards greener medical applications?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In the field of host–guest chemistry, some of the most widely used hosts are probably cyclodextrins (CDs). As CDs are able to increase the water solubility of numerous drugs by inclusion into their hydrophobic cavity, they have been widespread used to develop numerous pharmaceutical formulations. Nevertheless, CDs are also able to interact with endogenous substances that originate from an organism, tissue or cell. These interactions can be useful for a vast array of topics including cholesterol manipulation, treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, control of pathogens, etc. In addition, the use of natural CDs offers the great advantage of avoiding or reducing the use of common petroleum-sourced drugs. In this paper, the general features and applications of CDs have been reviewed as well as their interactions with isolated biomolecules leading to the formation of inclusion or exclusion complexes. Finally, some potential medical applications are highlighted throughout several examples. PMID:28144335

  1. Uncoupler-reversible inhibition of mitochondrial ATPase by metal chelates of bathophenanthroline. I. General features.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, C; Ernster, L

    1981-12-14

    (1) Certain metal chelates of 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline, BPh) are potent inhibitors of soluble mitochondrial F1-ATPase. (2) The BPh-metal chelate inhibition of soluble mitochondrial F1-ATPase is relieved by uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. (3) The uncouplers appear to interact directly with the inhibitory chelates, forming stoichiometric adducts. (4) A complex between F1 and bPh3Fe2+, containing 3 mol BPh3Fe2+/mol F1, has been isolated. The enzymically inactive F1-BPh3Fe2+ complex binds uncouplers, yielding an enzymically active F1-BPh3Fe2+-uncoupler complex.

  2. Uncoupling of the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction uncovers new mechanisms of viral interferon antagonism at the single-cell level.

    PubMed

    Rand, Ulfert; Hillebrand, Upneet; Sievers, Stephanie; Willenberg, Steffi; Köster, Mario; Hauser, Hansjörg; Wirth, Dagmar

    2014-07-01

    Antiviral defence in mammals is mediated through type-I interferons (IFNs). Viruses antagonise this process through expression of IFN antagonist proteins (IAPs). Understanding and modelling of viral escape mechanisms and the dynamics of IAP action has the potential to facilitate the development of specific and safe drugs. Here, we describe the dynamics of interference by selected viral IAPs, NS1 from Influenza A virus and NS3/4A from Hepatitis C virus. We used Tet-inducible IAP gene expression to uncouple this process from virus-driven dynamics. Stochastic activation of the IFN-β gene required the use of single-cell live imaging to define the efficacy of the inhibitors during the virus-induced signalling processes. We found significant correlation between the onset of IAP expression and halted IFN-β expression in cells where IFN-β induction had already occurred. These data indicate that IAPs not only prevent antiviral signalling prior to IFN-β induction, but can also stop the antiviral response even after it has been activated. We found reduced NF-κB activation to be the underlying mechanism by which activated IFN expression can be blocked. This work demonstrates a new mechanism by which viruses can antagonise the IFN response.

  3. Cellular interactions of surface modified nanoporous silicon particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bimbo, Luis M.; Sarparanta, Mirkka; Mäkilä, Ermei; Laaksonen, Timo; Laaksonen, Päivi; Salonen, Jarno; Linder, Markus B.; Hirvonen, Jouni; Airaksinen, Anu J.; Santos, Hélder A.

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the self-assembly of hydrophobin class II (HFBII) on the surface of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles was investigated. The HFBII-coating converted the hydrophobic particles into more hydrophilic ones, improved the particles' cell viability in both HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines compared to uncoated particles, and enhanced the particles' cellular association. The amount of HFBII adsorbed onto the particles was also successfully quantified by both the BCA assay and a HPLC method. Importantly, the permeation of a poorly water-soluble drug, indomethacin, loaded into THCPSi particles across Caco-2 monolayers was not affected by the protein coating. In addition, 125I-radiolabelled HFBII did not extensively permeate the Caco-2 monolayer and was found to be stably adsorbed onto the THCPSi nanoparticles incubated in pH 7.4, which renders the particles the possibility for further track-imaging applications. The results highlight the potential of HFBII coating for improving wettability, increasing biocompatibility and possible intestinal association of PSi nanoparticulates for drug delivery applications.In this study, the self-assembly of hydrophobin class II (HFBII) on the surface of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles was investigated. The HFBII-coating converted the hydrophobic particles into more hydrophilic ones, improved the particles' cell viability in both HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines compared to uncoated particles, and enhanced the particles' cellular association. The amount of HFBII adsorbed onto the particles was also successfully quantified by both the BCA assay and a HPLC method. Importantly, the permeation of a poorly water-soluble drug, indomethacin, loaded into THCPSi particles across Caco-2 monolayers was not affected by the protein coating. In addition, 125I-radiolabelled HFBII did not extensively permeate the Caco-2 monolayer and was found to be stably adsorbed onto the THCPSi

  4. Coupled and uncoupled dipole models of nonlinear scattering.

    PubMed

    Balla, Naveen K; Yew, Elijah Y S; Sheppard, Colin J R; So, Peter T C

    2012-11-05

    Dipole models are one of the simplest numerical models to understand nonlinear scattering. Existing dipole model for second harmonic generation, third harmonic generation and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering assume that the dipoles which make up a scatterer do not interact with one another. Thus, this dipole model can be called the uncoupled dipole model. This dipole model is not sufficient to describe the effects of refractive index of a scatterer or to describe scattering at the edges of a scatterer. Taking into account the interaction between dipoles overcomes these short comings of the uncoupled dipole model. Coupled dipole model has been primarily used for linear scattering studies but it can be extended to predict nonlinear scattering. The coupled and uncoupled dipole models have been compared to highlight their differences. Results of nonlinear scattering predicted by coupled dipole model agree well with previously reported experimental results.

  5. Cellular microbiology and molecular ecology of Legionella-amoeba interaction.

    PubMed

    Richards, Ashley M; Von Dwingelo, Juanita E; Price, Christopher T; Abu Kwaik, Yousef

    2013-05-15

    Legionella pneumophila is an aquatic organism that interacts with amoebae and ciliated protozoa as the natural hosts, and this interaction plays a central role in bacterial ecology and infectivity. Upon transmission to humans, L. pneumophila infect and replicate within alveolar macrophages causing pneumonia. Intracellular proliferation of L. pneumophila within the two evolutionarily distant hosts is facilitated by bacterial exploitation of evolutionarily conserved host processes that are targeted by bacterial protein effectors injected into the host cell by the Dot/Icm type VIB translocation system. Although cysteine is semi-essential for humans and essential for amoeba, it is a metabolically favorable source of carbon and energy generation by L. pneumophila. To counteract host limitation of cysteine, L. pneumophila utilizes the AnkB Dot/Icm-translocated F-box effector to promote host proteasomal degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins within amoebae and human cells. Evidence indicates ankB and other Dot/Icm-translocated effector genes have been acquired through inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer.

  6. Metabolic Flux Analysis of Mitochondrial Uncoupling in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Si, Yaguang; Shi, Hai; Lee, Kyongbum

    2009-01-01

    Background Increasing energy expenditure at the cellular level offers an attractive option to limit adiposity and improve whole body energy balance. In vivo and in vitro observations have correlated mitochondrial uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) expression with reduced white adipose tissue triglyceride (TG) content. The metabolic basis for this correlation remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings This study tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial uncoupling requires the cell to compensate for the decreased oxidation phosphorylation efficiency by up-regulating lactate production, thus redirecting carbon flux away from TG synthesis. Metabolic flux analysis was used to characterize the effects of non-lethal, long-term mitochondrial uncoupling (up to 18 days) on the pathways of intermediary metabolism in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Uncoupling was induced by forced expression of UCP1 and chemical (FCCP) treatment. Chemical uncoupling significantly decreased TG content by ca. 35%. A reduction in the ATP level suggested diminished oxidative phosphorylation efficiency in the uncoupled adipocytes. Flux analysis estimated significant up-regulation of glycolysis and down-regulation of fatty acid synthesis, with chemical uncoupling exerting quantitatively larger effects. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study support our hypothesis regarding uncoupling-induced redirection of carbon flux into glycolysis and lactate production, and suggest mitochondrial proton translocation as a potential target for controlling adipocyte lipid metabolism. PMID:19746157

  7. Dynamic interactions between 14-3-3 proteins and phosphoproteins regulate diverse cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins exert an extraordinarily widespread influence on cellular processes in all eukaryotes. They operate by binding to specific phosphorylated sites on diverse target proteins, thereby forcing conformational changes or influencing interactions between their targets and other molecules. In these ways, 14-3-3s ‘finish the job’ when phosphorylation alone lacks the power to drive changes in the activities of intracellular proteins. By interacting dynamically with phosphorylated proteins, 14-3-3s often trigger events that promote cell survival – in situations from preventing metabolic imbalances caused by sudden darkness in leaves to mammalian cell-survival responses to growth factors. Recent work linking specific 14-3-3 isoforms to genetic disorders and cancers, and the cellular effects of 14-3-3 agonists and antagonists, indicate that the cellular complement of 14-3-3 proteins may integrate the specificity and strength of signalling through to different cellular responses. PMID:15167810

  8. Cellular regulation and molecular interactions of the ferritins.

    PubMed

    Hintze, K J; Theil, E C

    2006-03-01

    Controlling iron/oxygen chemistry in biology depends on multiple genes, regulatory messenger RNA (mRNA) structures, signaling pathways and protein catalysts. Ferritin, a protein nanocage around an iron/oxy mineral, centralizes the control. Complementary DNA (antioxidant responsive element/Maf recognition element) and mRNA (iron responsive element) responses regulate ferritin synthesis rates. Multiple iron-protein interactions control iron and oxygen substrate movement through the protein cage, from dynamic gated pores to catalytic sites related to di-iron oxygenase cofactor sites. Maxi-ferritins concentrate iron for the bio-synthesis of iron/heme proteins, trapping oxygen; bacterial mini-ferritins, DNA protection during starvation proteins, reverse the substrate roles, destroying oxidants, trapping iron and protecting DNA. Ferritin is nature's unique and conserved approach to controlled, safe use of iron and oxygen, with protein synthesis in animals adjusted by dual, genetic DNA and mRNA sequences that selectively respond to iron or oxidant signals and link ferritin to proteins of iron, oxygen and antioxidant metabolism.

  9. Interactions of the interferon system with cellular metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1986-01-01

    The results of studies concerning the interaction of the interferon (Inf) system with the activities of carcinogens, tumor promoters, and cytochrome P-450 are presented. The results show that the addition of a tumor promoter (TPA or 4-O-methyl-TPA) to a tissue culture enhances virus-induced Inf-gamma production, suggesting a potential value of tumor promoters in the biosynthesis of commercial Inf. On the other hand, the carcinogens were reported to inhibit the induction of Inf-alpha/beta in cultured cells and in intact animals (with no effect on the administered or preformed Inf). The demonstration of a correlation between the carcinogenic potential of a compound and its inhibitive effect on Inf production suggests a possible use of the Inf production assay in the evaluation of the carcinogenicity of chemicals. In addition, it was shown that the induction of Inf-alpha/beta as well as the administration of this Inf depresses the levels of rat liver cytochrome P-450 which is responsible for binding lipophilic drugs, steroids, and carcinogens, thus increasing the toxicity of the respective chemical.

  10. Multiple cellular proteins interact with LEDGF/p75 through a conserved unstructured consensus motif.

    PubMed

    Tesina, Petr; Čermáková, Kateřina; Hořejší, Magdalena; Procházková, Kateřina; Fábry, Milan; Sharma, Subhalakshmi; Christ, Frauke; Demeulemeester, Jonas; Debyser, Zeger; De Rijck, Jan; Veverka, Václav; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2015-08-06

    Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is an epigenetic reader and attractive therapeutic target involved in HIV integration and the development of mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL1) fusion-driven leukaemia. Besides HIV integrase and the MLL1-menin complex, LEDGF/p75 interacts with various cellular proteins via its integrase binding domain (IBD). Here we present structural characterization of IBD interactions with transcriptional repressor JPO2 and domesticated transposase PogZ, and show that the PogZ interaction is nearly identical to the interaction of LEDGF/p75 with MLL1. The interaction with the IBD is maintained by an intrinsically disordered IBD-binding motif (IBM) common to all known cellular partners of LEDGF/p75. In addition, based on IBM conservation, we identify and validate IWS1 as a novel LEDGF/p75 interaction partner. Our results also reveal how HIV integrase efficiently displaces cellular binding partners from LEDGF/p75. Finally, the similar binding modes of LEDGF/p75 interaction partners represent a new challenge for the development of selective interaction inhibitors.

  11. Achromatic and uncoupled medical gantry

    DOEpatents

    Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Kayran, Dmitry; Litvinenko, Vladimir; MacKay, William W.

    2011-11-22

    A medical gantry that focus the beam from the beginning of the gantry to the exit of the gantry independent of the rotation angle of the gantry by keeping the beam achromatic and uncoupled, thus, avoiding the use of collimators or rotators, or additional equipment to control the beam divergence, which may cause beam intensity loss or additional time in irradiation of the patient, or disadvantageously increase the overall gantry size inapplicable for the use in the medical treatment facility.

  12. KDM5 Interacts with Foxo to Modulate Cellular Levels of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xingyin; Greer, Christina; Secombe, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Increased cellular levels of oxidative stress are implicated in a large number of human diseases. Here we describe the transcription co-factor KDM5 (also known as Lid) as a new critical regulator of cellular redox state. Moreover, this occurs through a novel KDM5 activity whereby it alters the ability of the transcription factor Foxo to bind to DNA. Our microarray analyses of kdm5 mutants revealed a striking enrichment for genes required to regulate cellular levels of oxidative stress. Consistent with this, loss of kdm5 results in increased sensitivity to treatment with oxidizers, elevated levels of oxidized proteins, and increased mutation load. KDM5 activates oxidative stress resistance genes by interacting with Foxo to facilitate its recruitment to KDM5-Foxo co-regulated genes. Significantly, this occurs independently of KDM5's well-characterized demethylase activity. Instead, KDM5 interacts with the lysine deacetylase HDAC4 to promote Foxo deacetylation, which affects Foxo DNA binding. PMID:25329053

  13. Ship interaction in narrow water channels: A two-lane cellular automata approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhuo; Chen, Zhonglong; Hu, Hongtao; Zheng, Jianfeng

    2015-08-01

    In narrow waterways, closed ships might interact due to hydrodynamic forces. To avoid clashes, different lane-changing rules are required. In this paper, a two-lane cellular automata model is proposed to investigate the traffic flow patterns in narrow water channels. Numerical experiments show that ship interaction can form "lumps" in traffic flow which will significantly depress the flux. We suggest that the lane-changing frequency of fast ships should be limited.

  14. Supramolecular host-guest interaction for labeling and detection of cellular biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Agasti, Sarit S; Liong, Monty; Tassa, Carlos; Chung, Hyun Jung; Shaw, Stanley Y; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph

    2012-01-09

    Be my guest: A supramolecular host-guest interaction is utilized for highly efficient bioorthogonal labeling of cellular targets. Antibodies labeled with a cyclodextrin host molecule bind to adamantane-labeled magnetofluorescent nanoparticles (see picture) and provide an amplifiable strategy for biomarker detection that can be adapted to different diagnostic techniques such as molecular profiling or magnetic cell sorting.

  15. Mitochondrial ATP-Pi exchange complex and the site of uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hatefi, Y; Hanstein, W G; Galante, Y; Stiggall, D L

    1975-07-01

    Five enzyme complexes, which are concerned with electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, have been isolated from beef heart mitochondria. Enzyme complexes I, II, III and IV are the electron transfer complexes discovered in 1961. Complex V is an energy-conserving complex. It catalyzes ATP-Pi exchange and ATP hydrolysis. The exchange reaction is sensitive to uncouplers, rutamycin, valinomycin plus K-+, dicyclorexylcarboditmide, arsenate, azide, and adenylyl imidodiphosphate. It is also specific for ATP; ITP, GTP and UTP are essentially ineffective. Studies with the photoaffinity labeling uncoupler, 2-azido-4-nitrophenol (NPA), have shown that the mitochondrial uncoupler-binding sites are located exclusively in complex V. Complexes I, III and IV, which carry the three coupling sites of the respiratory chain, had negligible capacity for the binding of NPA, whereas the uncoupler-binding capacity of complex V appeared to be increased two- to threefold as compared to mitochondria. Complexes I, II, III, IV and V are obtained from the same batch of mitochondria by a simple fractionation procedure, which employs cholate, deoxycholate, ammonium acetate and ammonium sulfate. Studies with NPA have shown that mitochondria contain per milligram protein about 0.6 nmole of uniformly reacting uncoupler binding site. All of the uncouplers tested appeared to interact competitively with this site. Photoaffinity labeling with tritiated NPA has shown that a major portion of NPA binds to a polypeptide of molecular weight between 26,000 and 30,000. Other studies on the mechanism of uncoupling have shown that picrate is a membrane-impermeable uncoupler. It cannot uncouple mitochondria. However, it is an effective uncoupler of ATP synthesis and ATP-induced transhydrogenation or reverse electron transfer when used in conjunction with sonicated submitochondrial particles, which have an inside-out orientation of the inner membrane with respect to the medium. In these particles, picrate

  16. A global genetic interaction network maps a wiring diagram of cellular function.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Michael; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Koch, Elizabeth N; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Pons, Carles; Tan, Guihong; Wang, Wen; Usaj, Matej; Hanchard, Julia; Lee, Susan D; Pelechano, Vicent; Styles, Erin B; Billmann, Maximilian; van Leeuwen, Jolanda; van Dyk, Nydia; Lin, Zhen-Yuan; Kuzmin, Elena; Nelson, Justin; Piotrowski, Jeff S; Srikumar, Tharan; Bahr, Sondra; Chen, Yiqun; Deshpande, Raamesh; Kurat, Christoph F; Li, Sheena C; Li, Zhijian; Usaj, Mojca Mattiazzi; Okada, Hiroki; Pascoe, Natasha; San Luis, Bryan-Joseph; Sharifpoor, Sara; Shuteriqi, Emira; Simpkins, Scott W; Snider, Jamie; Suresh, Harsha Garadi; Tan, Yizhao; Zhu, Hongwei; Malod-Dognin, Noel; Janjic, Vuk; Przulj, Natasa; Troyanskaya, Olga G; Stagljar, Igor; Xia, Tian; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Raught, Brian; Boutros, Michael; Steinmetz, Lars M; Moore, Claire L; Rosebrock, Adam P; Caudy, Amy A; Myers, Chad L; Andrews, Brenda; Boone, Charles

    2016-09-23

    We generated a global genetic interaction network for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, constructing more than 23 million double mutants, identifying about 550,000 negative and about 350,000 positive genetic interactions. This comprehensive network maps genetic interactions for essential gene pairs, highlighting essential genes as densely connected hubs. Genetic interaction profiles enabled assembly of a hierarchical model of cell function, including modules corresponding to protein complexes and pathways, biological processes, and cellular compartments. Negative interactions connected functionally related genes, mapped core bioprocesses, and identified pleiotropic genes, whereas positive interactions often mapped general regulatory connections among gene pairs, rather than shared functionality. The global network illustrates how coherent sets of genetic interactions connect protein complex and pathway modules to map a functional wiring diagram of the cell.

  17. ComPPI: a cellular compartment-specific database for protein-protein interaction network analysis.

    PubMed

    Veres, Daniel V; Gyurkó, Dávid M; Thaler, Benedek; Szalay, Kristóf Z; Fazekas, Dávid; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Csermely, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Here we present ComPPI, a cellular compartment-specific database of proteins and their interactions enabling an extensive, compartmentalized protein-protein interaction network analysis (URL: http://ComPPI.LinkGroup.hu). ComPPI enables the user to filter biologically unlikely interactions, where the two interacting proteins have no common subcellular localizations and to predict novel properties, such as compartment-specific biological functions. ComPPI is an integrated database covering four species (S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, D. melanogaster and H. sapiens). The compilation of nine protein-protein interaction and eight subcellular localization data sets had four curation steps including a manually built, comprehensive hierarchical structure of >1600 subcellular localizations. ComPPI provides confidence scores for protein subcellular localizations and protein-protein interactions. ComPPI has user-friendly search options for individual proteins giving their subcellular localization, their interactions and the likelihood of their interactions considering the subcellular localization of their interacting partners. Download options of search results, whole-proteomes, organelle-specific interactomes and subcellular localization data are available on its website. Due to its novel features, ComPPI is useful for the analysis of experimental results in biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as for proteome-wide studies in bioinformatics and network science helping cellular biology, medicine and drug design.

  18. ComPPI: a cellular compartment-specific database for protein–protein interaction network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Veres, Daniel V.; Gyurkó, Dávid M.; Thaler, Benedek; Szalay, Kristóf Z.; Fazekas, Dávid; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Csermely, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Here we present ComPPI, a cellular compartment-specific database of proteins and their interactions enabling an extensive, compartmentalized protein–protein interaction network analysis (URL: http://ComPPI.LinkGroup.hu). ComPPI enables the user to filter biologically unlikely interactions, where the two interacting proteins have no common subcellular localizations and to predict novel properties, such as compartment-specific biological functions. ComPPI is an integrated database covering four species (S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, D. melanogaster and H. sapiens). The compilation of nine protein–protein interaction and eight subcellular localization data sets had four curation steps including a manually built, comprehensive hierarchical structure of >1600 subcellular localizations. ComPPI provides confidence scores for protein subcellular localizations and protein–protein interactions. ComPPI has user-friendly search options for individual proteins giving their subcellular localization, their interactions and the likelihood of their interactions considering the subcellular localization of their interacting partners. Download options of search results, whole-proteomes, organelle-specific interactomes and subcellular localization data are available on its website. Due to its novel features, ComPPI is useful for the analysis of experimental results in biochemistry and molecular biology, as well as for proteome-wide studies in bioinformatics and network science helping cellular biology, medicine and drug design. PMID:25348397

  19. A coarse-grained model for the simulations of biomolecular interactions in cellular environments

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhong-Ru; Chen, Jiawen; Wu, Yinghao

    2014-02-07

    The interactions of bio-molecules constitute the key steps of cellular functions. However, in vivo binding properties differ significantly from their in vitro measurements due to the heterogeneity of cellular environments. Here we introduce a coarse-grained model based on rigid-body representation to study how factors such as cellular crowding and membrane confinement affect molecular binding. The macroscopic parameters such as the equilibrium constant and the kinetic rate constant are calibrated by adjusting the microscopic coefficients used in the numerical simulations. By changing these model parameters that are experimentally approachable, we are able to study the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of molecular binding, as well as the effects caused by specific cellular environments. We investigate the volumetric effects of crowded intracellular space on bio-molecular diffusion and diffusion-limited reactions. Furthermore, the binding constants of membrane proteins are currently difficult to measure. We provide quantitative estimations about how the binding of membrane proteins deviates from soluble proteins under different degrees of membrane confinements. The simulation results provide biological insights to the functions of membrane receptors on cell surfaces. Overall, our studies establish a connection between the details of molecular interactions and the heterogeneity of cellular environments.

  20. Uncouple my heart: the benefits of inefficiency.

    PubMed

    Modrianský, Martin; Gabrielová, Eva

    2009-04-01

    Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury leads to structural changes in the heart muscle later followed by functional decline due to progressive fibrous replacement. Hence approaches to minimize IR injury are devised, including ischemic pre-and postconditioning. Mild uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation is one of the mechanisms suggested to be cardioprotective as chemical uncoupling mimics ischemic preconditioning. Uncoupling protein 2 is proposed to be the physiological counterpart of chemical uncouplers and is thought to be a part of the protective machinery of cardiomyocytes. Morphological changes in the mitochondrial network likely accompany the uncoupling with mitochondrial fission dampening the signals leading to cardiomyocyte death. Here we review recent data on the role of uncoupling in cardioprotection and propose that low concentrations of dietary polyphenols may elicit the same cardioprotective effect as dinitrophenol and FCCP, perhaps accounting for the famed "French paradox".

  1. Protein-protein interactions within the ensemble, eukaryotic V-ATPase, and its concerted interactions with cellular machineries.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, Asha Manikkoth; Manimekalai, Malathy Sony Subramanian; Grüber, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    The V1VO-ATPase (V-ATPase) is the important proton-pump in eukaryotic cells, responsible for pH-homeostasis, pH-sensing and amino acid sensing, and therefore essential for cell growths and metabolism. ATP-cleavage in the catalytic A3B3-hexamer of V1 has to be communicated via several so-called central and peripheral stalk units to the proton-pumping VO-part, which is membrane-embedded. A unique feature of V1VO-ATPase regulation is its reversible disassembly of the V1 and VO domain. Actin provides a network to hold the V1 in proximity to the VO, enabling effective V1VO-assembly to occur. Besides binding to actin, the 14-subunit V-ATPase interacts with multi-subunit machineries to form cellular sensors, which regulate the pH in cellular compartments or amino acid signaling in lysosomes. Here we describe a variety of subunit-subunit interactions within the V-ATPase enzyme during catalysis and its protein-protein assembling with key cellular machineries, essential for cellular function.

  2. SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein interacts with cellular pyruvate kinase protein and inhibits its activity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei-Yen; Li, Hui-Chun; Chen, Chiung-Yao; Yang, Chee-Hing; Lee, Shen-Kao; Wang, Chia-Wen; Ma, Hsin-Chieh; Juang, Yue-Li; Lo, Shih-Yen

    2012-04-01

    The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV remains largely unknown. To study the function of the SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein, we have conducted a yeast two-hybrid screening experiment to identify cellular proteins that may interact with the SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein. Pyruvate kinase (liver) was found to interact with SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein in this experiment. The binding domains of these two proteins were also determined using the yeast two-hybrid system. The physical interaction between the SARS-CoV nucleocapsid and cellular pyruvate kinase (liver) proteins was further confirmed by GST pull-down assay, co-immunoprecipitation assay and confocal microscopy. Cellular pyruvate kinase activity in hepatoma cells was repressed by SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein in either transiently transfected or stably transfected cells. PK deficiency in red blood cells is known to result in human hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia. It is reasonable to assume that an inhibition of PKL activity due to interaction with SARS-CoV N protein is likely to cause the death of the hepatocytes, which results in the elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase and liver dysfunction noted in most SARS patients. Thus, our results suggest that SARS-CoV could reduce pyruvate kinase activity via its nucleocapsid protein, and this may in turn cause disease.

  3. Cellular versus viral microRNAs in host–virus interaction

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Zhumur; Mallick, Bibekanand; Chakrabarti, Jayprokas

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mark a new paradigm of RNA-directed gene expression regulation in a wide spectrum of biological systems. These small non-coding RNAs can contribute to the repertoire of host-pathogen interactions during viral infection. This interplay has important consequences, both for the virus and the host. There have been reported evidences of host-cellular miRNAs modulating the expression of various viral genes, thereby playing a pivotal role in the host–pathogen interaction network. In the hide-and-seek game between the pathogens and the infected host, viruses have evolved highly sophisticated gene-silencing mechanisms to evade host-immune response. Recent reports indicate that virus too encode miRNAs that protect them against cellular antiviral response. Furthermore, they may exploit the cellular miRNA pathway to their own advantage. Nevertheless, our increasing knowledge of the host–virus interaction at the molecular level should lead us toward possible explanations to viral tropism, latency and oncogenesis along with the development of an effective, durable and nontoxic antiviral therapy. Here, we summarize the recent updates on miRNA-induced gene-silencing mechanism, modulating host–virus interactions with a glimpse of the miRNA-based antiviral therapy for near future. PMID:19095692

  4. Applying Attractor Dynamics to Infer Gene Regulatory Interactions Involved in Cellular Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ghaffarizadeh, Ahmadreza; Podgorski, Gregory J; Flann, Nicholas S

    2017-02-27

    The dynamics of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) guide cellular differentiation. Determining the ways regulatory genes control expression of their targets is essential to understand and control cellular differentiation. The way a regulatory gene controls its target can be expressed as a gene regulatory function. Manual derivation of these regulatory functions is slow, error-prone and difficult to update as new information arises. Automating this process is a significant challenge and the subject of intensive effort. This work presents a novel approach to discovering biologically plausible gene regulatory interactions that control cellular differentiation. This method integrates known cell type expression data, genetic interactions, and knowledge of the effects of gene knockouts to determine likely GRN regulatory functions. We employ a genetic algorithm to search for candidate GRNs that use a set of transcription factors that control differentiation within a lineage. Nested canalyzing functions are used to constrain the search space to biologically plausible networks. The method identifies an ensemble of GRNs whose dynamics reproduce the gene expression pattern for each cell type within a particular lineage. The method's effectiveness was tested by inferring consensus GRNs for myeloid and pancreatic cell differentiation and comparing the predicted gene regulatory interactions to manually derived interactions. We identified many regulatory interactions reported in the literature and also found differences from published reports. These discrepancies suggest areas for biological studies of myeloid and pancreatic differentiation. We also performed a study that used defined synthetic networks to evaluate the accuracy of the automated search method and found that the search algorithm was able to discover the regulatory interactions in these defined networks with high accuracy. We suggest that the GRN functions derived from the methods described here can be used to fill

  5. ELF (extremely-low-frequency) field interactions at the animal, tissue and cellular levels

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1990-10-01

    A description is given of the fundamental physical properties of extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, and the mechanisms through which these fields interact with the human body at a macroscopic level. Biological responses to ELF fields at the tissue, cellular and molecular levels are summarized, including new evidence that ELF field exposure produces alterations in gene expression and the cytoplasmic concentrations of specific proteins.

  6. Rearrangements of DNA-protein interactions in animal cells coupled with cellular growth-quiescence transitions.

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, A V; Sjakste, N I; Zaboykin, M M; Shapot, V S

    1982-01-01

    Overall DNA-protein interactions in animal cells undergo drastic changes coupled with cellular transitions from quiescence to growth and reversely as revealed by nucleoprotein-Celite chromatography. DNA of chromatin was found to exist in one of the two sharply distinct alternative forms, namely, either tightly or weakly bound to protein moiety. These forms are specific for cycling and quiescent cells, respectively. The tight DNA-protein interactions characterize all cycling cells independent of the cell cycle phase. Transition of DNA of cycling cells from one form to another was observed as a result of treatment of isolated nuclei with DNase I. PMID:7063419

  7. The evolution of early cellular systems viewed through the lens of biological interactions

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Anthony M.; Lundin, Daniel; Rytkönen, Kalle T.

    2015-01-01

    The minimal cell concept represents a pragmatic approach to the question of how few genes are required to run a cell. This is a helpful way to build a parts-list, and has been more successful than attempts to deduce a minimal gene set for life by inferring the gene repertoire of the last universal common ancestor, as few genes trace back to this hypothetical ancestral state. However, the study of minimal cellular systems is the study of biological outliers where, by practical necessity, coevolutionary interactions are minimized or ignored. In this paper, we consider the biological context from which minimal genomes have been removed. For instance, some of the most reduced genomes are from endosymbionts and are the result of coevolutionary interactions with a host; few such organisms are “free-living.” As few, if any, biological systems exist in complete isolation, we expect that, as with modern life, early biological systems were part of an ecosystem, replete with organismal interactions. We favor refocusing discussions of the evolution of cellular systems on processes rather than gene counts. We therefore draw a distinction between a pragmatic minimal cell (an interesting engineering problem), a distributed genome (a system resulting from an evolutionary transition involving more than one cell) and the looser coevolutionary interactions that are ubiquitous in ecosystems. Finally, we consider the distributed genome and coevolutionary interactions between genomic entities in the context of early evolution. PMID:26539175

  8. Interactions between tobamovirus replication proteins and cellular factors: their impacts on virus multiplication.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Nishikiori, Masaki; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2010-11-01

    Most viral gene products function inside cells in the presence of various host proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. Thus, viral gene products come into direct contact with these molecules. The replication proteins of tobamovirus participate not only in viral genome replication but also in counterdefense mechanisms against RNA silencing and other plant defense systems. Accumulating evidence indicates that these functions are carried out through interactions with specific host components. Interactions with some cellular factors, however, are inhibitory to virus multiplication and contribute to host range restriction of tobamovirus. The interactions that have positive and negative impacts on virus multiplication should have been maintained and lost, respectively, during adaptation of the viruses to their respective natural hosts. This review lists the host factors that interact with the replication proteins of tobamovirus and discusses how they influence multiplication of the virus.

  9. Delineating the Tes Interaction Site in Zyxin and Studying Cellular Effects of Its Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Hadzic, Ermin; Catillon, Marie; Halavatyi, Aliaksandr; Medves, Sandrine; Van Troys, Marleen; Moes, Michèle; Baird, Michelle A.; Davidson, Michael W.; Schaffner-Reckinger, Elisabeth; Ampe, Christophe; Friederich, Evelyne

    2015-01-01

    Focal adhesions are integrin-based structures that link the actin cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix. They play an important role in various cellular functions such as cell signaling, cell motility and cell shape. To ensure and fine tune these different cellular functions, adhesions are regulated by a large number of proteins. The LIM domain protein zyxin localizes to focal adhesions where it participates in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Because of its interactions with a variety of binding partners, zyxin has been proposed to act as a molecular scaffold. Here, we studied the interaction of zyxin with such a partner: Tes. Similar to zyxin, Tes harbors three highly conserved LIM domains of which the LIM1 domain directly interacts with zyxin. Using different zyxin variants in pull-down assays and ectopic recruitment experiments, we identified the Tes binding site in zyxin and showed that four highly conserved amino acids are crucial for its interaction with Tes. Based upon these findings, we used a zyxin mutant defective in Tes-binding to assess the functional consequences of abrogating the zyxin-Tes interaction in focal adhesions. Performing fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we showed that zyxin recruits Tes to focal adhesions and modulates its turnover in these structures. However, we also provide evidence for zyxin-independent localization of Tes to focal adhesions. Zyxin increases focal adhesion numbers and reduces focal adhesion lifetimes, but does so independent of Tes. Quantitative analysis showed that the loss of interaction between zyxin and Tes affects the process of cell spreading. We conclude that zyxin influences focal adhesion dynamics, that it recruits Tes and that this interaction is functional in regulating cell spreading. PMID:26509500

  10. HIV-1 p6-Another viral interaction partner to the host cellular protein cyclophilin A.

    PubMed

    Solbak, Sara M Ø; Reksten, Tove R; Röder, Rene; Wray, Victor; Horvli, Ole; Raae, Arnt J; Henklein, Petra; Henklein, Peter; Fossen, Torgils

    2012-04-01

    The 52-amino acid human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p6 protein has previously been recognized as a docking site for several cellular and viral binding factors and is important for the formation of infectious viruses. A particular structural feature of p6 is the notably high relative content of proline residues, located at positions 5, 7, 10, 11, 24, 30, 37 and 49 in the sequence. Proline cis/trans isomerism was detected for all these proline residues to such an extent that more than 40% of all p6 molecules contain at least one proline in a cis conformation. 2D (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of full-length HIV-1 p6 and p6 peptides established that cyclophilin A (CypA) interacts as a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase with all proline residues of p6. Only catalytic amounts of CypA were necessary for the interaction with p6 to occur, strongly suggesting that the observed interaction is highly relevant in vivo. In addition, surface plasmon resonance studies revealed binding of full-length p6 to CypA, and that this binding was significantly stronger than any of its N- or C-terminal peptides. This study demonstrates the first identification of an interaction between HIV-1 p6 and the host cellular protein CypA. The mode of interaction involves both transient enzyme-substrate interactions and a more stable binding. The binding motifs of p6 to Tsg-101, ALIX and Vpr coincide with binding regions and catalytic sites of p6 to CypA, suggesting a potential role of CypA in modulating functional interactions of HIV-1.

  11. Exploring Cellular Interactions of Liposomes Using Protein Corona Fingerprints and Physicochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Bigdeli, Arafeh; Palchetti, Sara; Pozzi, Daniela; Hormozi-Nezhad, Mohammad Reza; Baldelli Bombelli, Francesca; Caracciolo, Giulio; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-03-22

    To control liposomes fate and transport upon contact with biofluids, it is essential to consider several parameters affecting the synthetic and biological identity of liposomes, as well as liposome-protein corona (PC) aspects. As a powerful tool in this data mining adventure, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach is used to correlate physicochemical properties of liposomes and their PC fingerprints to multiple quantified biological responses. In the present study, the relationship between cellular interactions of a set of structurally diverse liposomal formulations and their physicochemical and PC properties has been investigated via linear and nonlinear QSAR models. Significant parameters affecting cellular uptake and cell viability of liposomes in two important cancer cell lines (PC3 and HeLa) have been identified. The developed QSARs have the capacity to be implemented in advanced targeted delivery of liposomal drugs.

  12. Memo interacts with c-Src to control Estrogen Receptor alpha sub-cellular localization.

    PubMed

    Frei, Anna; MacDonald, Gwen; Lund, Ingrid; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Hynes, Nancy E; Nalvarte, Ivan

    2016-08-30

    Understanding the complex interaction between growth factor and steroid hormone signaling pathways in breast cancer is key to identifying suitable therapeutic strategies to avoid progression and therapy resistance. The interaction between these two pathways is of paramount importance for the development of endocrine resistance. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms behind their crosstalk are still largely obscure. We previously reported that Memo is a small redox-active protein that controls heregulin-mediated migration of breast cancer cells. Here we report that Memo sits at the intersection between heregulin and estrogen signaling, and that Memo controls Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) sub-cellular localization, phosphorylation, and function downstream of heregulin and estrogen in breast cancer cells. Memo facilitates ERα and c-Src interaction, ERα Y537 phosphorylation, and has the ability to control ERα extra-nuclear localization. Thus, we identify Memo as an important key mediator between the heregulin and estrogen signaling pathways, which affects both breast cancer cell migration and proliferation.

  13. Dinitrophenol-induced mitochondrial uncoupling in vivo triggers respiratory adaptation in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Desquiret, Valérie; Loiseau, Dominique; Jacques, Caroline; Douay, Olivier; Malthièry, Yves; Ritz, Patrick; Roussel, Damien

    2006-01-01

    Here, we show that 3 days of mitochondrial uncoupling, induced by low concentrations of dinitrophenol (10 and 50 microM) in cultured human HepG2 cells, triggers cellular metabolic adaptation towards oxidative metabolism. Chronic respiratory uncoupling of HepG2 cells induced an increase in cellular oxygen consumption, oxidative capacity and cytochrome c oxidase activity. This was associated with an upregulation of COXIV and ANT3 gene expression, two nuclear genes that encode mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Glucose consumption, lactate and pyruvate production and growth rate were unaffected, indicating that metabolic adaptation of HepG2 cells undergoing chronic respiratory uncoupling allows continuous and efficient mitochondrial ATP production without the need to increase glycolytic activity. In contrast, 3 days of dinitrophenol treatment did not change the oxidative capacity of human 143B.TK(-) cells, but it increased glucose consumption, lactate and pyruvate production. Despite a large increase in glycolytic metabolism, the growth rate of 143B.TK(-) cells was significantly reduced by dinitrophenol-induced mitochondrial uncoupling. We propose that chronic respiratory uncoupling may constitute an internal bioenergetic signal, which would initiate a coordinated increase in nuclear respiratory gene expression, which ultimately drives mitochondrial metabolic adaptation within cells.

  14. Conjugation of spermine enhances cellular uptake of the stapled peptide-based inhibitors of p53-Mdm2 interaction.

    PubMed

    Muppidi, Avinash; Li, Xiaolong; Chen, Jiandong; Lin, Qing

    2011-12-15

    We report the first synthesis of the C-terminally spermine-conjugated stapled peptide-based inhibitors of the p53-Mdm2 interaction. Subsequent biological, biophysical and cellular uptake assays with the spermine-conjugated stapled peptides revealed that spermine conjugation minimally affects biological activity while significantly increases peptide helicity and cellular uptake without apparent cytotoxicity.

  15. Network motifs in integrated cellular networks of transcription-regulation and protein-protein interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeger-Lotem, Esti; Sattath, Shmuel; Kashtan, Nadav; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Milo, Ron; Pinter, Ron Y.; Alon, Uri; Margalit, Hanah

    2004-04-01

    Genes and proteins generate molecular circuitry that enables the cell to process information and respond to stimuli. A major challenge is to identify characteristic patterns in this network of interactions that may shed light on basic cellular mechanisms. Previous studies have analyzed aspects of this network, concentrating on either transcription-regulation or protein-protein interactions. Here we search for composite network motifs: characteristic network patterns consisting of both transcription-regulation and protein-protein interactions that recur significantly more often than in random networks. To this end we developed algorithms for detecting motifs in networks with two or more types of interactions and applied them to an integrated data set of protein-protein interactions and transcription regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found a two-protein mixed-feedback loop motif, five types of three-protein motifs exhibiting coregulation and complex formation, and many motifs involving four proteins. Virtually all four-protein motifs consisted of combinations of smaller motifs. This study presents a basic framework for detecting the building blocks of networks with multiple types of interactions.

  16. The influence of silkworm species on cellular interactions with novel PVA/silk sericin hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Lim, Khoon S; Kundu, Joydip; Reeves, April; Poole-Warren, Laura A; Kundu, Subhas C; Martens, Penny J

    2012-03-01

    Sericin peptides and PVA are chemically modified with methacrylate groups to produce a covalent PVA/sericin hydrogel. Preservation of the sericin bioactivity following methacrylation is confirmed, and PVA/sericin hydrogels are fabricated for both B. mori and A. mylitta sericin. Cell adhesion studies confirm the preservation of sericin bioactivity post incorporation in PVA gels. PVA/A. mylitta gels are observed to facilitate cell adhesion to a significantly greater degree than PVA/B. mori gels. Overall, the incorporation of sericin does not alter the physical properties of the PVA hydrogels but does result in significantly improved cellular interaction, particularly from A. mylitta gels.

  17. Interaction of E2 Glycoprotein with Heparan Sulfate Is Crucial for Cellular Infection of Sindbis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yiliang; Jia, Juan; Fu, Shihong; Feng, Yun; He, Ying; Li, Jin-Ping; Liang, Guodong

    2010-01-01

    Cell culture-adapted strains of Sindbis virus (SINV) initially attach to cells by the ability to interact with heparan sulfate (HS) through selective mutation for positively charged amino acid (aa) scattered in E2 glycoprotein (W. B. Klimstra, K. D. Ryman, and R. E. Johnston, J. Virol. 72: 7357–7366, 1998). Here we have further confirmed that interaction of E2 protein with HS is crucial for cellular infection of SINV based on the reverse genetic system of XJ-160 virus, a Sindbis-like virus (SINLV). Both SINV YN87448 and SINLV XJ-160 displayed similar infectivity on BHK-21, Vero, or C6/36 cells, but XJ-160 failed to infect mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying the selective infectivity of XJ-160 were approached by substituting the E1, E2, or both genes of XJ-160 with that of YN87448, and the chimeric virus was denominated as XJ-160/E1, XJ-160/E2, or XJ-160/E1E2, respectively. In contrast to the parental XJ-160, all chimeric viruses became infectious to wild-type MEF cells (MEF-wt). While MEF-Ext−/− cells, producing shortened HS chains, were resistant not only to XJ-160, but also to YN87448 as well as the chimeric viruses, indicating that the inability of XJ-160 to infect MEF-wt cells likely due to its incompetent discrimination of cellular HS. Treatment with heparin or HS-degrading enzyme resulted in a substantial decrease in plaque formation by YN87448, XJ-160/E2, and XJ-160/E1E2, but had marginal effect on XJ-160 and XJ-160/E1, suggesting that E2 glycoprotein from YN87448 plays a more important role than does E1 in mediating cellular HS-related cell infection. In addition, the peptide containing 145–150 aa from E2 gene of YN87448 specifically bound to heparin, while the corresponding peptide from the E2 gene of XJ-160 essentially showed no binding to heparin. As a new dataset, these results clearly confirm an essential role of E2 glycoprotein, especially the domain of 145–150 aa, in SINV cellular infection through

  18. Diacetyl and related flavorant α-Diketones: Biotransformation, cellular interactions, and respiratory-tract toxicity.

    PubMed

    Anders, M W

    2017-02-05

    Exposure to diacetyl and related α-diketones causes respiratory-tract damage in humans and experimental animals. Chemical toxicity is often associated with covalent modification of cellular nucleophiles by electrophilic chemicals. Electrophilic α-diketones may covalently modify nucleophilic arginine residues in critical proteins and, thereby, produce the observed respiratory-tract pathology. The major pathway for the biotransformation of α-diketones is reduction to α-hydroxyketones (acyloins), which is catalyzed by NAD(P)H-dependent enzymes of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) and the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamilies. Reduction of α-diketones to the less electrophilic acyloins is a detoxication pathway for α-diketones. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex may play a significant role in the biotransformation of diacetyl to CO2. The interaction of toxic electrophilic chemicals with cellular nucleophiles can be predicted by the hard and soft, acids and bases (HSAB) principle. Application of the HSAB principle to the interactions of electrophilic α-diketones with cellular nucleophiles shows that α-diketones react preferentially with arginine residues. Furthermore, the respiratory-tract toxicity and the quantum-chemical reactivity parameters of diacetyl and replacement flavorant α-diketones are similar. Hence, the identified replacement flavorant α-diketones may pose a risk of flavorant-induced respiratory-tract toxicity. The calculated indices for the reaction of α-diketones with arginine support the hypothesis that modification of protein-bound arginine residues is a critical event in α-diketone-induced respiratory-tract toxicity.

  19. Cellular microRNAs up-regulate transcription via interaction with promoter TATA-box motifs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yijun; Fan, Miaomiao; Zhang, Xue; Huang, Feng; Wu, Kang; Zhang, Junsong; Liu, Jun; Huang, Zhuoqiong; Luo, Haihua; Tao, Liang; Zhang, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The TATA box represents one of the most prevalent core promoters where the pre-initiation complexes (PICs) for gene transcription are assembled. This assembly is crucial for transcription initiation and well regulated. Here we show that some cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and TATA box-binding protein (TBP) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Among them, let-7i sequence specifically binds to the TATA-box motif of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene and elevates IL-2 mRNA and protein production in CD4(+) T-lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. Through direct interaction with the TATA-box motif, let-7i facilitates the PIC assembly and transcription initiation of IL-2 promoter. Several other cellular miRNAs, such as mir-138, mir-92a or mir-181d, also enhance the promoter activities via binding to the TATA-box motifs of insulin, calcitonin or c-myc, respectively. In agreement with the finding that an HIV-1-encoded miRNA could enhance viral replication through targeting the viral promoter TATA-box motif, our data demonstrate that the interaction with core transcription machinery is a novel mechanism for miRNAs to regulate gene expression.

  20. Reduced native state stability in crowded cellular environment due to protein-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Ryuhei; Tochio, Naoya; Kigawa, Takanori; Sugita, Yuji; Feig, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The effect of cellular crowding environments on protein structure and stability is a key issue in molecular and cellular biology. The classical view of crowding emphasizes the volume exclusion effect that generally favors compact, native states. Here, results from molecular dynamics simulations and NMR experiments show that protein crowders may destabilize native states via protein-protein interactions. In the model system considered here, mixtures of villin head piece and protein G at high concentrations, villin structures become increasingly destabilized upon increasing crowder concentrations. The denatured states observed in the simulation involve partial unfolding as well as more subtle conformational shifts. The unfolded states remain overall compact and only partially overlap with unfolded ensembles at high temperature and in the presence of urea. NMR measurements on the same systems confirm structural changes upon crowding based on changes of chemical shifts relative to dilute conditions. An analysis of protein-protein interactions and energetic aspects suggests the importance of enthalpic and solvation contributions to the crowding free energies that challenge an entropic-centered view of crowding effects. PMID:23402619

  1. Chimera states in uncoupled neurons induced by a multilayer structure

    PubMed Central

    Majhi, Soumen; Perc, Matjaž; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2016-01-01

    Spatial coexistence of coherent and incoherent dynamics in network of coupled oscillators is called a chimera state. We study such chimera states in a network of neurons without any direct interactions but connected through another medium of neurons, forming a multilayer structure. The upper layer is thus made up of uncoupled neurons and the lower layer plays the role of a medium through which the neurons in the upper layer share information among each other. Hindmarsh-Rose neurons with square wave bursting dynamics are considered as nodes in both layers. In addition, we also discuss the existence of chimera states in presence of inter layer heterogeneity. The neurons in the bottom layer are globally connected through electrical synapses, while across the two layers chemical synapses are formed. According to our research, the competing effects of these two types of synapses can lead to chimera states in the upper layer of uncoupled neurons. Remarkably, we find a density-dependent threshold for the emergence of chimera states in uncoupled neurons, similar to the quorum sensing transition to a synchronized state. Finally, we examine the impact of both homogeneous and heterogeneous inter-layer information transmission delays on the observed chimera states over a wide parameter space. PMID:27958355

  2. Chimera states in uncoupled neurons induced by a multilayer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majhi, Soumen; Perc, Matjaž; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2016-12-01

    Spatial coexistence of coherent and incoherent dynamics in network of coupled oscillators is called a chimera state. We study such chimera states in a network of neurons without any direct interactions but connected through another medium of neurons, forming a multilayer structure. The upper layer is thus made up of uncoupled neurons and the lower layer plays the role of a medium through which the neurons in the upper layer share information among each other. Hindmarsh-Rose neurons with square wave bursting dynamics are considered as nodes in both layers. In addition, we also discuss the existence of chimera states in presence of inter layer heterogeneity. The neurons in the bottom layer are globally connected through electrical synapses, while across the two layers chemical synapses are formed. According to our research, the competing effects of these two types of synapses can lead to chimera states in the upper layer of uncoupled neurons. Remarkably, we find a density-dependent threshold for the emergence of chimera states in uncoupled neurons, similar to the quorum sensing transition to a synchronized state. Finally, we examine the impact of both homogeneous and heterogeneous inter-layer information transmission delays on the observed chimera states over a wide parameter space.

  3. Chimera states in uncoupled neurons induced by a multilayer structure.

    PubMed

    Majhi, Soumen; Perc, Matjaž; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2016-12-13

    Spatial coexistence of coherent and incoherent dynamics in network of coupled oscillators is called a chimera state. We study such chimera states in a network of neurons without any direct interactions but connected through another medium of neurons, forming a multilayer structure. The upper layer is thus made up of uncoupled neurons and the lower layer plays the role of a medium through which the neurons in the upper layer share information among each other. Hindmarsh-Rose neurons with square wave bursting dynamics are considered as nodes in both layers. In addition, we also discuss the existence of chimera states in presence of inter layer heterogeneity. The neurons in the bottom layer are globally connected through electrical synapses, while across the two layers chemical synapses are formed. According to our research, the competing effects of these two types of synapses can lead to chimera states in the upper layer of uncoupled neurons. Remarkably, we find a density-dependent threshold for the emergence of chimera states in uncoupled neurons, similar to the quorum sensing transition to a synchronized state. Finally, we examine the impact of both homogeneous and heterogeneous inter-layer information transmission delays on the observed chimera states over a wide parameter space.

  4. Cadmium and cellular signaling cascades: interactions between cell death and survival pathways.

    PubMed

    Thévenod, Frank; Lee, Wing-Kee

    2013-10-01

    Cellular stress elicited by the toxic metal Cd(2+) does not coerce the cell into committing to die from the onset. Rather, detoxification and adaptive processes are triggered concurrently, allowing survival until normal function is restored. With high Cd(2+), death pathways predominate. However, if sublethal stress levels affect cells for prolonged periods, as in chronic low Cd(2+) exposure, adaptive and survival mechanisms may deregulate, such that tumorigenesis ensues. Hence, death and malignancy are the two ends of a continuum of cellular responses to Cd(2+), determined by magnitude and duration of Cd(2+) stress. Signaling cascades are the key factors affecting cellular reactions to Cd(2+). This review critically surveys recent literature to outline major features of death and survival signaling pathways as well as their activation, interactions and cross talk in cells exposed to Cd(2+). Under physiological conditions, receptor activation generates 2nd messengers, which are short-lived and act specifically on effectors through their spatial and temporal dynamics to transiently alter effector activity. Cd(2+) recruits physiological 2nd messenger systems, in particular Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which control key Ca(2+)- and redox-sensitive molecular switches dictating cell function and fate. Severe ROS/Ca(2+) signals activate cell death effectors (ceramides, ASK1-JNK/p38, calpains, caspases) and/or cause irreversible damage to vital organelles, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas low localized ROS/Ca(2+) levels act as 2nd messengers promoting cellular adaptation and survival through signal transduction (ERK1/2, PI3K/Akt-PKB) and transcriptional regulators (Ref1-Nrf2, NF-κB, Wnt, AP-1, bestrophin-3). Other cellular proteins and processes targeted by ROS/Ca(2+) (metallothioneins, Bcl-2 proteins, ubiquitin-proteasome system, ER stress-associated unfolded protein response, autophagy, cell cycle) can evoke death or survival

  5. Ras transformation uncouples the kinesin-coordinated cellular nutrient response

    PubMed Central

    Zaganjor, Elma; Weil, Lauren M.; Gonzales, Joshua X.; Minna, John D.; Cobb, Melanie H.

    2014-01-01

    The kinesin family members (KIFs) KIF2A and KIF2C depolymerize microtubules, unlike the majority of other kinesins, which transport cargo along microtubules. KIF2A regulates the localization of lysosomes in the cytoplasm, which assists in activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) on the lysosomal surface. We find that the closely related kinesin KIF2C also influences lysosomal organization in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). Expression of KIF2C and, to a lesser extent, KIF2A in untransformed and mutant K-Ras–transformed cells is regulated by ERK1/2. Prolonged inhibition of ERK1/2 activation with PD0325901 mimics nutrient deprivation by disrupting lysosome organization and decreasing mTORC1 activity in HBEC, suggesting a long-term mechanism for optimization of mTORC1 activity by ERK1/2. We tested the hypothesis that up-regulation of KIF2C and KIF2A by ERK1/2 caused aberrant lysosomal positioning and mTORC1 activity in a mutant K-Ras–dependent cancer and cancer model. In Ras-transformed cells, however, mTORC1 activity and lysosome organization appear independent of ERK1/2 and these kinesins although ERK1/2 activity and the kinesins are required for Ras-dependent proliferation and migration. We conclude that mutant K-Ras repurposes these signaling and regulatory proteins to support the transformed phenotype. PMID:25002494

  6. Cellular interaction of different forms of aluminum nanoparticles in rat alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Andrew J; Bleckmann, Charles A; Murdock, Richard C; Schrand, Amanda M; Schlager, John J; Hussain, Saber M

    2007-06-28

    Nanomaterials, with dimensions in the 1-100 nm range, possess numerous potential benefits to society. However, there is little characterization of their effects on biological systems, either within the environment or on human health. The present study examines cellular interaction of aluminum oxide and aluminum nanomaterials, including their effect on cell viability and cell phagocytosis, with reference to particle size and the particle's chemical composition. Experiments were performed to characterize initial in vitro cellular effects of rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383) after exposure to aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3-NP at 30 and 40 nm) and aluminum metal nanoparticles containing a 2-3 nm oxide coat (Al-NP at 50, 80, and 120 nm). Characterization of the nanomaterials, both as received and in situ, was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), and/or CytoViva150 Ultra Resolution Imaging (URI)). Particles showed significant agglomeration in cell exposure media using DLS and the URI as compared to primary particle size in TEM. Cell viability assay results indicate a marginal effect on macrophage viability after exposure to Al2O3-NP at doses of 100 microg/mL for 24 h continuous exposure. Al-NP produced significantly reduced viability after 24 h of continuous exposure with doses from 100 to 250 microg/mL. Cell phagocytotic ability was significantly hindered by exposure to 50, 80, or 120 nm Al-NP at 25 microg/mL for 24 h, but the same concentration (25 microg/mL) had no significant effect on the cellular viability. However, no significant effect on phagocytosis was observed with Al2O3-NP. In summary, these results show that Al-NP exhibit greater toxicity and more significantly diminish the phagocytotic ability of macrophages after 24 h of exposure when compared to Al2O3-NP.

  7. Global Profiling of the Cellular Alternative RNA Splicing Landscape during Virus-Host Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Boudreault, Simon; Martenon-Brodeur, Camille; Caron, Marie; Garant, Jean-Michel; Tremblay, Marie-Pier; Armero, Victoria E. S.; Durand, Mathieu; Lapointe, Elvy; Thibault, Philippe; Tremblay-Létourneau, Maude; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Scott, Michelle S.; Lemay, Guy; Bisaillon, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a central mechanism of genetic regulation which modifies the sequence of RNA transcripts in higher eukaryotes. AS has been shown to increase both the variability and diversity of the cellular proteome by changing the composition of resulting proteins through differential choice of exons to be included in mature mRNAs. In the present study, alterations to the global RNA splicing landscape of cellular genes upon viral infection were investigated using mammalian reovirus as a model. Our study provides the first comprehensive portrait of global changes in the RNA splicing signatures that occur in eukaryotic cells following infection with a human virus. We identify 240 modified alternative splicing events upon infection which belong to transcripts frequently involved in the regulation of gene expression and RNA metabolism. Using mass spectrometry, we also confirm modifications to transcript-specific peptides resulting from AS in virus-infected cells. These findings provide additional insights into the complexity of virus-host interactions as these splice variants expand proteome diversity and function during viral infection. PMID:27598998

  8. Interacting factors and cellular localization of SR protein-specific kinase Dsk1

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Zhaohua; Luca, Maria; Taggart-Murphy, Laura; Portillio, Jessica; Chang, Cathey; Guven, Ayse; Lin, Ren-Jang; Murray, Johanne; Carr, Antony

    2012-10-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dsk1 is an SR protein-specific kinase (SRPK), whose homologs have been identified in every eukaryotic organism examined. Although discovered as a mitotic regulator with protein kinase activity toward SR splicing factors, it remains largely unknown about what and how Dsk1 contributes to cell cycle and pre-mRNA splicing. In this study, we investigated the Dsk1 function by determining interacting factors and cellular localization of the kinase. Consistent with its reported functions, we found that pre-mRNA processing and cell cycle factors are prominent among the proteins co-purified with Dsk1. The identification of these factors led us to find Rsd1 as a novel Dsk1 substrate, as well as the involvement of Dsk1 in cellular distribution of poly(A){sup +} RNA. In agreement with its role in nuclear events, we also found that Dsk1 is mainly localized in the nucleus during G{sub 2} phase and at mitosis. Furthermore, we revealed the oscillation of Dsk1 protein in a cell cycle-dependent manner. This paper marks the first comprehensive analysis of in vivo Dsk1-associated proteins in fission yeast. Our results reflect the conserved role of SRPK family in eukaryotic organisms, and provide information about how Dsk1 functions in pre-mRNA processing and cell-division cycle.

  9. Global Profiling of the Cellular Alternative RNA Splicing Landscape during Virus-Host Interactions.

    PubMed

    Boudreault, Simon; Martenon-Brodeur, Camille; Caron, Marie; Garant, Jean-Michel; Tremblay, Marie-Pier; Armero, Victoria E S; Durand, Mathieu; Lapointe, Elvy; Thibault, Philippe; Tremblay-Létourneau, Maude; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Scott, Michelle S; Lemay, Guy; Bisaillon, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a central mechanism of genetic regulation which modifies the sequence of RNA transcripts in higher eukaryotes. AS has been shown to increase both the variability and diversity of the cellular proteome by changing the composition of resulting proteins through differential choice of exons to be included in mature mRNAs. In the present study, alterations to the global RNA splicing landscape of cellular genes upon viral infection were investigated using mammalian reovirus as a model. Our study provides the first comprehensive portrait of global changes in the RNA splicing signatures that occur in eukaryotic cells following infection with a human virus. We identify 240 modified alternative splicing events upon infection which belong to transcripts frequently involved in the regulation of gene expression and RNA metabolism. Using mass spectrometry, we also confirm modifications to transcript-specific peptides resulting from AS in virus-infected cells. These findings provide additional insights into the complexity of virus-host interactions as these splice variants expand proteome diversity and function during viral infection.

  10. Virus and host genomic, molecular, and cellular interactions during Marek's disease pathogenesis and oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, M. C.; Delany, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) is a chicken alphaherpesvirus that causes paralysis, chronic wasting, blindness, and fatal lymphoma development in infected, susceptible host birds. This disease and its protective vaccines are highly relevant research targets, given their enormous impact within the poultry industry. Further, Marek's disease (MD) serves as a valuable model for the investigation of oncogenic viruses and herpesvirus patterns of viral latency and persistence—as pertinent to human health as to poultry health. The objectives of this article are to review MDV interactions with its host from a variety of genomic, molecular, and cellular perspectives. In particular, we focus on cytogenetic studies, which precisely assess the physical status of the MDV genome in the context of the chicken host genome. Combined, the cytogenetic and genomic research indicates that MDV-host genome interactions, specifically integration of the virus into the host telomeres, is a key feature of the virus life cycle, contributing to the viral achievement of latency, transformation, and reactivation of lytic replication. We present a model that outlines the variety of virus-host interactions, at the multiple levels, and with regard to the disease states. PMID:26755654

  11. An antiviral disulfide compound blocks interaction between arenavirus Z protein and cellular promyelocytic leukemia protein

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, C.C.; Topisirovic, I.; Djavani, M.; Borden, K.L.B.; Damonte, E.B.; Salvato, M.S.

    2010-03-19

    The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) forms nuclear bodies (NB) that can be redistributed by virus infection. In particular, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) influences disruption of PML NB through the interaction of PML with the arenaviral Z protein. In a previous report, we have shown that the disulfide compound NSC20625 has antiviral and virucidal properties against arenaviruses, inducing unfolding and oligomerization of Z without affecting cellular RING-containing proteins such as the PML. Here, we further studied the effect of the zinc-finger-reactive disulfide NSC20625 on PML-Z interaction. In HepG2 cells infected with LCMV or transiently transfected with Z protein constructs, treatment with NSC20625 restored PML distribution from a diffuse-cytoplasmic pattern to punctate, discrete NB which appeared identical to NB found in control, uninfected cells. Similar results were obtained in cells transfected with a construct expressing a Z mutant in zinc-binding site 2 of the RING domain, confirming that this Z-PML interaction requires the integrity of only one zinc-binding site. Altogether, these results show that the compound NSC20625 suppressed Z-mediated PML NB disruption and may be used as a tool for designing novel antiviral strategies against arenavirus infection.

  12. Glycan-dependent and -independent Interactions Contribute to Cellular Substrate Recruitment by Calreticulin*

    PubMed Central

    Wijeyesakere, Sanjeeva J.; Rizvi, Syed M.; Raghavan, Malini

    2013-01-01

    Calreticulin is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone with specificity for monoglucosylated glycoproteins. Calreticulin also inhibits precipitation of nonglycosylated proteins and thus contains generic protein-binding sites, but their location and contributions to substrate folding are unknown. We show that calreticulin binds glycosylated and nonglycosylated proteins with similar affinities but distinct interaction kinetics. Although both interactions involve the glycan-binding site or its vicinity, the arm-like proline-rich (P-) domain of calreticulin contributes to binding non/deglycosylated proteins. Correspondingly, ensemble FRET spectroscopy measurements indicate that glycosylated and nonglycosylated proteins induce “open” and “closed” P-domain conformations, respectively. The co-chaperone ERp57 influences substrate-binding kinetics and induces a closed P-domain conformation. Together with analysis of the interactions of calreticulin with cellular proteins, these findings indicate that the recruitment of monoglucosylated proteins to calreticulin is kinetically driven, whereas the P-domain and co-chaperone contribute to stable substrate binding. Substrate sequestration in the cleft between the glycan-binding site and P-domain is a likely mechanism for calreticulin-assisted protein folding. PMID:24100026

  13. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Sperm-Oocyte Interactions Opinions Relative to in Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

    PubMed Central

    Anifandis, George; Messini, Christina; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos; Sotiriou, Sotiris; Messinis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    One of the biggest prerequisites for pregnancy is the fertilization step, where a human haploid spermatozoon interacts and penetrates one haploid oocyte in order to produce the diploid zygote. Although fertilization is defined by the presence of two pronuclei and the extraction of the second polar body the process itself requires preparation of both gametes for fertilization to take place at a specific time. These preparations include a number of consecutive biochemical and molecular events with the help of specific molecules and with the consequential interaction between the two gametes. These events take place at three different levels and in a precise order, where the moving spermatozoon penetrates (a) the outer vestments of the oocyte, known as the cumulus cell layer; (b) the zona pellucida (ZP); where exocytosis of the acrosome contents take place and (c) direct interaction of the spermatozoon with the plasma membrane of the oocyte, which involves a firm adhesion of the head of the spermatozoon with the oocyte plasma membrane that culminates with the fusion of both sperm and oocyte membranes (Part I). After the above interactions, a cascade of molecular signal transductions is initiated which results in oocyte activation. Soon after the entry of the first spermatozoon into the oocyte and oocyte activation, the oocyte’s coat (the ZP) and the oocyte’s plasma membrane seem to change quickly in order to initiate a fast block to a second spermatozoon (Part II). Sometimes, two spermatozoa fuse with one oocyte, an incidence of 1%–2%, resulting in polyploid fetuses that account for up to 10%–20% of spontaneously aborted human conceptuses. The present review aims to focus on the first part of the human sperm and oocyte interactions, emphasizing the latest molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling this process. PMID:25054321

  14. Cellular and molecular pathways of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field interactions with living systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1992-06-01

    There is growing evidence that environmental electric and magnetic fields in the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) band below 300 Hz can influence biological functions by mechanisms that are only poorly understood at the present time. The primary objectives of this paper are to review the physical properties of ELF fields, their interactions with living systems at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels, and the key role of cell membranes ;in the transduction of signals from imposed ELF fields. Topics of discussion include signal-to-noise ratios for single cells and cell aggregates, resonance phenomena involving a combination of static and ELF magnetic fields, and the possible influence of ELF fields on molecular signaling pathways that involve membrane receptors and cytoplasmic second messengers.

  15. Evolution of altruism in spatial prisoner's dilemma: Intra- and inter-cellular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Hiroki; Uehara, Takashi; Sakata, Tomoyuki; Naito, Hiromi; Morita, Satoru; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Iterated prisoner's dilemma game is carried out on lattice with “colony” structure. Each cell is regarded as a colony which contains plural players with an identical strategy. Both intra- and inter-cellular interactions are assumed. In the former a player plays with all other players in the same colony, while in the latter he plays with one player each from adjacent colonies. Spatial patterns among four typical strategies exhibit various dynamics and winners. Both theory and simulation reveal that All Cooperation (AC) wins, when the members of colony or the intensity of noise increases. This result explains the evolution of altruism in animal societies, even though errors easily occur in animal communications.

  16. Targeting the Molecular and Cellular Interactions of the Bone Marrow Niche in Immunologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brozowski, Jaime M.; Billard, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations have expanded our knowledge of the regulatory bone marrow (BM) niche, which is critical in maintaining and directing hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation. Osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and CXCL12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells are niche components in close association with HSCs and have been more clearly defined in immune cell function and homeostasis. Importantly, cellular inhabitants of the BM niche signal through G protein-coupled surface receptors (GPCRs) for various appropriate immune functions. In this article, recent literature on BM niche inhabitants (HSCs, osteoblasts, MSCs, CAR cells) and their GPCR mechanistic interactions are reviewed for better understanding of the BM cells involved in immune development, immunologic disease, and current immune reconstitution therapies. PMID:24408534

  17. Special issue: redox active natural products and their interaction with cellular signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Claus

    2014-11-26

    During the last decade, research into natural products has experienced a certain renaissance. The urgent need for more and more effective antibiotics in medicine, the demand for ecologically friendly plant protectants in agriculture, "natural" cosmetics and the issue of a sustainable and healthy nutrition in an ageing society have fuelled research into Nature's treasure chest of "green gold". Here, redox active secondary metabolites from plants, fungi, bacteria and other (micro-)organisms often have been at the forefront of the most interesting developments. These agents provide powerful means to interfere with many, probably most cellular signaling pathways in humans, animals and lower organisms, and therefore can be used to protect, i.e., in form of antioxidants, and to frighten off or even kill, i.e., in form of repellants, antibiotics, fungicides and selective, often catalytic "sensor/effector" anticancer agents. Interestingly, whilst natural product research dates back many decades, in some cases even centuries, and compounds such as allicin and various flavonoids have been investigated thoroughly in the past, it has only recently become possible to investigate their precise interactions and mode(s) of action inside living cells. Here, fluorescent staining and labelling on the one side, and appropriate detection, either qualitatively under the microscope or quantitatively in flow cytometers and plate readers, on the other, enable researchers to obtain the various pieces of information necessary to construct a fairly complete puzzle of how such compounds act and interact in living cells. Complemented by the more traditional activity assays and Western Blots, and increasingly joined by techniques such as proteomics, chemogenetic screening and mRNA profiling, these cell based bioanalytical techniques form a powerful platform for "intracellular diagnostics". In the case of redox active compounds, especially of Reactive Sulfur Species (RSS), such techniques have

  18. Biomaterial design for specific cellular interactions: Role of surface functionalization and geometric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolhar, Poornima

    The areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering have experienced extraordinary growth in recent years with the application of engineering principles and their potential to support and improve the field of medicine. The tremendous progress in nanotechnology and biotechnology has lead to this explosion of research and development in biomedical applications. Biomaterials can now be engineered at a nanoscale and their specific interactions with the biological tissues can be modulated. Various design parameters are being established and researched for design of drug-delivery carriers and scaffolds to be implanted into humans. Nanoparticles made from versatile biomaterial can deliver both small-molecule drugs and various classes of bio-macromolecules, such as proteins and oligonucleotides. Similarly in the field of tissue engineering, current approaches emphasize nanoscale control of cell behavior by mimicking the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) unlike, traditional scaffolds. Drug delivery and tissue engineering are closely connected fields and both of these applications require materials with exceptional physical, chemical, biological, and biomechanical properties to provide superior therapy. In the current study the surface functionalization and the geometric features of the biomaterials has been explored. In particular, a synthetic surface for culture of human embryonic stem cells has been developed, demonstrating the importance of surface functionalization in maintaining the pluripotency of hESCs. In the second study, the geometric features of the drug delivery carriers are investigated and the polymeric nanoneedles mediated cellular permeabilization and direct cytoplasmic delivery is reported. In the third study, the combined effect of surface functionalization and geometric modification of carriers for vascular targeting is enunciated. These studies illustrate how the biomaterials can be designed to achieve various cellular behaviors and control the

  19. Cellular DDX3 regulates Japanese encephalitis virus replication by interacting with viral un-translated regions.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Ge, Ling-ling; Li, Peng-peng; Wang, Yue; Dai, Juan-juan; Sun, Ming-xia; Huang, Li; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Hu, Xiao-chun; Ishag, Hassan; Mao, Xiang

    2014-01-20

    Japanese encephalitis virus is one of the most common causes for epidemic viral encephalitis in humans and animals. Herein we demonstrated that cellular helicase DDX3 is involved in JEV replication. DDX3 knockdown inhibits JEV replication. The helicase activity of DDX3 is crucial for JEV replication. GST-pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that DDX3 could interact with JEV non-structural proteins 3 and 5. Co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy analysis confirmed that DDX3 interacts and colocalizes with these viral proteins and viral RNA during the infection. We determined that DDX3 binds to JEV 5' and 3' un-translated regions. We used a JEV-replicon system to demonstrate that DDX3 positively regulates viral RNA translation, which might affect viral RNA replication at the late stage of virus infection. Collectively, we identified that DDX3 is necessary for JEV infection, suggesting that DDX3 might be a novel target to design new antiviral agents against JEV or other flavivirus infections.

  20. A quantitative chaperone interaction network reveals the architecture of cellular protein homeostasis pathways

    PubMed Central

    Taipale, Mikko; Tucker, George; Peng, Jian; Krykbaeva, Irina; Lin, Zhen-Yuan; Larsen, Brett; Choi, Hyungwon; Berger, Bonnie; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Lindquist, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Chaperones are abundant cellular proteins that promote the folding and function of their substrate proteins (clients). In vivo, chaperones also associate with a large and diverse set of co-factors (co-chaperones) that regulate their specificity and function. However, how these co-chaperones regulate protein folding and whether they have chaperone-independent biological functions is largely unknown. We have combined mass spectrometry and quantitative high-throughput LUMIER assays to systematically characterize the chaperone/co-chaperone/client interaction network in human cells. We uncover hundreds of novel chaperone clients, delineate their participation in specific co-chaperone complexes, and establish a surprisingly distinct network of protein/protein interactions for co-chaperones. As a salient example of the power of such analysis, we establish that NUDC family co-chaperones specifically associate with structurally related but evolutionarily distinct β-propeller folds. We provide a framework for deciphering the proteostasis network, its regulation in development and disease, and expand the use of chaperones as sensors for drug/target engagement. PMID:25036637

  1. GP96 Interacts with HHV-6 during Viral Entry and Directs It for Cellular Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Prusty, Bhupesh K.; Siegl, Christine; Gulve, Nitish; Mori, Yasuko; Rudel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    CD46 and CD134 mediate attachment of Human Herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and HHV-6B to host cell, respectively. But many cell types interfere with viral infection through rapid degradation of viral DNA. Hence, not all cells expressing these receptors are permissive to HHV-6 DNA replication and production of infective virions suggesting the involvement of additional factors that influence HHV-6 propagation. Here, we used a proteomics approach to identify other host cell proteins necessary for HHV-6 binding and entry. We found host cell chaperone protein GP96 to interact with HHV-6A and HHV-6B and to interfere with virus propagation within the host cell. In human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), GP96 is transported to the cell surface upon infection with HHV-6 and interacts with HHV-6A and -6B through its C-terminal end. Suppression of GP96 expression decreased initial viral binding but increased viral DNA replication. Transient expression of human GP96 allowed HHV-6 entry into CHO-K1 cells even in the absence of CD46. Thus, our results suggest an important role for GP96 during HHV-6 infection, which possibly supports the cellular degradation of the virus. PMID:25470779

  2. Characterizing Protein Interactions Employing a Genome-Wide siRNA Cellular Phenotyping Screen

    PubMed Central

    Suratanee, Apichat; Schaefer, Martin H.; Betts, Matthew J.; Soons, Zita; Mannsperger, Heiko; Harder, Nathalie; Oswald, Marcus; Gipp, Markus; Ramminger, Ellen; Marcus, Guillermo; Männer, Reinhard; Rohr, Karl; Wanker, Erich; Russell, Robert B.; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Eils, Roland; König, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the activating and inhibiting effect of protein-protein interactions (PPI) is fundamental to gain insight into the complex signaling system of a human cell. A plethora of methods has been suggested to infer PPI from data on a large scale, but none of them is able to characterize the effect of this interaction. Here, we present a novel computational development that employs mitotic phenotypes of a genome-wide RNAi knockdown screen and enables identifying the activating and inhibiting effects of PPIs. Exemplarily, we applied our technique to a knockdown screen of HeLa cells cultivated at standard conditions. Using a machine learning approach, we obtained high accuracy (82% AUC of the receiver operating characteristics) by cross-validation using 6,870 known activating and inhibiting PPIs as gold standard. We predicted de novo unknown activating and inhibiting effects for 1,954 PPIs in HeLa cells covering the ten major signaling pathways of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and made these predictions publicly available in a database. We finally demonstrate that the predicted effects can be used to cluster knockdown genes of similar biological processes in coherent subgroups. The characterization of the activating or inhibiting effect of individual PPIs opens up new perspectives for the interpretation of large datasets of PPIs and thus considerably increases the value of PPIs as an integrated resource for studying the detailed function of signaling pathways of the cellular system of interest. PMID:25255318

  3. Low-energy-electron interactions with DNA: approaching cellular conditions with atmospheric experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Elahe; Sanche, Léon

    2014-04-01

    A novel technique has been developed to investigate low energy electron (LEE)-DNA interactions in the presence of small biomolecules (e.g., N2, O2, H2O) found near DNA in the cell nucleus, in order to simulate cellular conditions. In this technique, LEEs are emitted from a metallic surface exposed by soft X-rays and interact with DNA thin films at standard ambient temperature and pressure (SATP). Whereas atmospheric N2 had little effect on the yields of LEE-induced single and double strand breaks, both O2 and H2O considerably modified and increased such damage. The highest yields were obtained when DNA is embedded in a combined O2 and H2O atmosphere. In this case, the amount of additional double strand breaks was supper-additive. The effect of modifying the chemical and physical stability of DNA by platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents (Pt-drugs) including cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin was also investigated with this technique. The results obtained provide information on the role played by subexcitation-energy electrons and dissociative electron attachment in the radiosensitization of DNA by Pt-drugs, which is an important step to unravel the mechanisms of radiosensitisation of these agents in chemoradiation cancer therapy.

  4. On the Interaction between Marine Boundary Layer Cellular Cloudiness and Surface Heat Fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Wang, Hailong; Yamaguchi, T.

    2014-01-02

    The interaction between marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness and surface uxes of sensible and latent heat is investigated. The investigation focuses on the non-precipitating closed-cell state and the precipitating open-cell state at low geostrophic wind speed. The Advanced Research WRF model is used to conduct cloud-system-resolving simulations with interactive surface fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol, and with a detailed representation of the interaction between aerosol particles and clouds. The mechanisms responsible for the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the surface heat fluxes in the closed- and open-cell state are investigated and explained. It is found that the horizontal spatial structure of the closed-cell state determines, by entrainment of dry free tropospheric air, the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and water vapor, and, to a lesser degree, of the surface sensible and latent heat flux. The synchronized dynamics of the the open-cell state drives oscillations in surface air temperature, water vapor, and in the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol. Open-cell cloud formation, cloud optical depth and liquid water path, and cloud and rain water path are identified as good predictors of the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and sensible heat flux, but not of surface water vapor and latent heat flux. It is shown that by enhancing the surface sensible heat flux, the open-cell state creates conditions by which it is maintained. While the open-cell state under consideration is not depleted in aerosol, and is insensitive to variations in sea-salt fluxes, it also enhances the sea-salt flux relative to the closed-cell state. In aerosol-depleted conditions, this enhancement may replenish the aerosol needed for cloud formation, and hence contribute to the perpetuation of the open-cell state as well. Spatial homogenization of the surface fluxes is found to have

  5. Cellular prion protein directly interacts with and enhances lactate dehydrogenase expression under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ramljak, Sanja; Schmitz, Matthias; Zafar, Saima; Wrede, Arne; Schenkel, Sara; Asif, Abdul R; Carimalo, Julie; Doeppner, Thorsten R; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Weise, Jens; Zerr, Inga

    2015-09-01

    Although a physiological function of the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) is still not fully clarified, a PrP(c)-mediated neuroprotection against hypoxic/ischemic insult is intriguing. After ischemic stroke prion protein knockout mice (Prnp(0/0)) display significantly greater lesions as compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Earlier reports suggested an interaction between the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and PrP(c). Since hypoxic environment enhances LDH expression levels and compels neurons to rely on lactate as an additional oxidative substrate for energy metabolism, we examined possible differences in LDH protein expression in WT and Prnp(0/0) knockout models under normoxic/hypoxic conditions in vitro and in vivo, as well as in a HEK293 cell line. While no differences are observed under normoxic conditions, LDH expression is markedly increased after 60-min and 90-min of hypoxia in WT vs. Prnp(0/0) primary cortical neurons with concurrent less hypoxia-induced damage in the former group. Likewise, cerebral ischemia significantly increases LDH levels in WT vs. Prnp(0/0) mice with accompanying smaller lesions in the WT group. HEK293 cells overexpressing PrP(c) show significantly higher LDH expression/activity following 90-min of hypoxia as compared to control cells. Moreover, a cytoplasmic co-localization of LDH and PrP(c) was recorded under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Interestingly, an expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1, responsible for cellular lactate uptake, increases with PrP(c)-overexpression under normoxic conditions. Our data suggest LDH as a direct PrP(c) interactor with possible physiological relevance under low oxygen conditions.

  6. The role of uncoupling protein 3 regulating calcium ion uptake into mitochondria during sarcopenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikawa, Takeshi; Choi, Inho; Haruna, Marie; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Maita Ohno, Ayako; Kondo Teshima, Shigetada

    Overloaded mitochondrial calcium concentration contributes to progression of mitochondrial dysfunction in aged muscle, leading to sarcopenia. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is primarily expressed in the inner membrane of skeletal muscle mitochondria. Recently, it has been reported that UCP3 is associated with calcium uptake into mitochondria. However, the mechanisms by which UCP3 regulates mitochondrial calcium uptake are not well understood. Here we report that UCP3 interacts with HS-1 associated protein X-1 (Hax-1), an anti-apoptotic protein that is localized in mitochondria, which is involved in cellular responses to calcium ion. The hydrophilic sequences within the loop 2, matrix-localized hydrophilic domain of mouse UCP3 are necessary for binding to Hax-1 of the C-terminal domain in adjacent to mitochondrial innermembrane. Interestingly, these proteins interaction occur the calcium-dependent manner. Indeed, overexpression of UCP3 significantly enhanced calcium uptake into mitochondria on Hax-1 endogenously expressing C2C12 myoblasts. In addition, Hax-1 knock-down enhanced calcium uptake into mitochondria on both UCP3 and Hax-1 endogenously expressing C2C12 myotubes, but not myoblasts. Finally, the dissociation of UCP3 and Hax-1 enhances calcium uptake into mitochondria in aged muscle. These studies identify a novel UCP3-Hax-1 complex regulates the influx of calcium ion into mitochondria in muscle. Thus, the efficacy of UCP3-Hax-1 in mitochondrial calcium regulation may provide a novel therapeutic approach against mitochondrial dysfunction-related disease containing sarcopenia.

  7. Interaction between the cellular prion (PrPC) and the 2P domain K+ channel TREK-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Azzalin, Alberto; Ferrara, Valentina; Arias, Agustina; Cerri, Silvia; Avella, Debora; Pisu, Maria Bonaria; Nano, Rosanna; Bernocchi, Graziella; Ferretti, Luca; Comincini, Sergio

    2006-07-21

    The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a highly conserved protein throughout the evolution of mammals and therefore is thought to play important cellular functions. Despite decades of intensive researches, the physiological function of PrP(C) remains enigmatic. Differently, in particular pathological contexts, generally referred as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, a conformational isoform of PrP(C), i.e., PrP(Sc), is considered the causative agent of these diseases. In this study, we investigated putative PrP(C) cellular functions through the identification of PrP(C) protein interactants. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we identified a novel interaction between PrP(C) and a two-pore potassium channel protein, TREK-1. This interaction was further verified in transfected eukaryotic cells using co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopic analysis of the fluorescent transfected proteins. Importantly, in the cerebellar cortex, the endogenous PrP(C) and TREK-1 proteins exhibited co-localization signals in correspondence of the Purkinje cells. Furthermore, a deletion mapping study defined the carboxyl-terminal regions of the two proteins as the possible determinants of the PrP(C)-TREK-1 interaction. Our results indicated a novel PrP(C) interacting protein and suggested that this complex might be relevant in modulating a variety of electrophysiological-dependent cellular responses.

  8. 30 CFR 57.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 57.14215 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 56.14215 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then moved at...

  10. 30 CFR 56.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 56.14215 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then moved at...

  11. 30 CFR 57.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 57.14215 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 56.14215 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then moved at...

  13. 30 CFR 56.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 56.14215 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then moved at...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 56.14215 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then moved at...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 57.14215 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 57.14215 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 57.14215 Section... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and...

  18. Potassium channel openers are uncoupling protonophores: implication in cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L; Jahangir, Arshad; Oberlin, Andrew; Komarov, Alexander; Colombini, Marco; Terzic, Andre

    2004-06-18

    Excessive build-up of mitochondrial protonic potential is harmful to cellular homeostasis, and modulation of inner membrane permeability a proposed countermeasure. Here, we demonstrate that structurally distinct potassium channel openers, diazoxide and pinacidil, facilitated transmembrane proton translocation generating H(+)-selective current through planar phospholipid membrane. Both openers depolarized mitochondria, activated state 4 respiration and reduced oxidative phosphorylation, recapitulating the signature of mitochondrial uncoupling. This effect was maintained in K(+)-free conditions and shared with the prototypic protonophore 2,4-dinitrophenol. Diazoxide, pinacidil and 2,4-dinitrophenol, but not 2,4-dinitrotoluene lacking protonophoric properties, preserved functional recovery of ischemic heart. The identified protonophoric property of potassium channel openers, thus, implicates a previously unrecognized component in their mechanism of cardioprotection.

  19. EphB4 cellular kinase activity assayed using an enzymatic protein interaction system.

    PubMed

    Wehrman, Tom; Nguyen, Mimi; Feng, Wei; Bader, Benjamin

    2013-05-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are important players in various cellular processes, including proliferation, migration, metabolism, and neuronal development. EphB4 RTK is essential for the development of a functional arterial-venous network in embryonic and adult neoangiogenesis. To develop novel inhibitors of EphB4 that might have applications in severe diseases like cancer and retinopathies, assays need to be in place that resemble, in a most physiological fashion, the activation and downstream function of the kinase. In addition, such assays need to be amenable to high-throughput screening to serve efficiently the modern drug discovery processes in the pharmaceutical industry. The authors have developed an enzyme fragment complementation assay that measures the interaction of a downstream docking protein to the activated and phosphorylated full-length EphB4 kinase in cells. The assay is specific, robust, and amenable to miniaturization and high-throughput screening. It covers most steps in the activation process of EphB4, including ligand binding, autophosphorylation, and docking of a downstream interactor. This assay format can be transferred to other RTKs and adds an important cell-based kinase assay option to researchers in the field.

  20. The PDZ3 domain of the cellular scaffolding protein MAGI-1 interacts with the Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR).

    PubMed

    Yan, Ran; Sharma, Priyanka; Kolawole, Abimbola O; Martin, Sterling C T; Readler, James M; Kotha, Poornima L N; Hostetler, Heather A; Excoffon, Katherine J D A

    2015-04-01

    The Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is an essential cellular protein that is involved in cell-cell adhesion, protein trafficking, and viral infection. The major isoform of CAR is selectively sorted to the basolateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells where it co-localizes with the cellular scaffolding protein membrane-associated guanylate kinase with inverted domain structure-1 (MAGI-1). Previously, we demonstrated CAR interacts with MAGI-1 through a PDZ-domain dependent interaction. Here, we show that the PDZ3 domain of MAGI-1 is exclusively responsible for the high affinity interaction between the seven exon isoform of CAR and MAGI-1 using yeast-two-hybrid analysis and confirming this interaction biochemically and in cellular lysates by in vitro pull down assay and co-immunoprecipitation. The high affinity interaction between the PDZ3 domain and CAR C-terminus was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Further, we investigated the biological relevance of this high affinity interaction between CAR and the PDZ3 domain of MAGI-1 and found that it does not alter CAR-mediated adenovirus infection. By contrast, interruption of this high affinity interaction altered the localization of MAGI-1 indicating that CAR is able to traffic MAGI-1 to cell junctions. These data deepen the molecular understanding of the interaction between CAR and MAGI-1 and indicate that although CAR plays a role in trafficking PDZ-based scaffolding proteins to cellular junctions, association with a high affinity intracellular binding partner does not significantly alter adenovirus binding and entry via CAR.

  1. Interaction between core protein of classical swine fever virus with cellular IQGAP1 proetin appears essential for virulence in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we show that IQGAP1, a cellular protein that plays a pivotal role as a regulator of the cytoskeleton affecting cell adhesion, polarization and migration, interacts with Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) Core protein. Sequence analyses identified a defined set of residues within CSFV Core prote...

  2. Mitochondrial uncouplers inhibit clathrin-mediated endocytosis largely through cytoplasmic acidification.

    PubMed

    Dejonghe, Wim; Kuenen, Sabine; Mylle, Evelien; Vasileva, Mina; Keech, Olivier; Viotti, Corrado; Swerts, Jef; Fendrych, Matyáš; Ortiz-Morea, Fausto Andres; Mishev, Kiril; Delang, Simon; Scholl, Stefan; Zarza, Xavier; Heilmann, Mareike; Kourelis, Jiorgos; Kasprowicz, Jaroslaw; Nguyen, Le Son Long; Drozdzecki, Andrzej; Van Houtte, Isabelle; Szatmári, Anna-Mária; Majda, Mateusz; Baisa, Gary; Bednarek, Sebastian York; Robert, Stéphanie; Audenaert, Dominique; Testerink, Christa; Munnik, Teun; Van Damme, Daniël; Heilmann, Ingo; Schumacher, Karin; Winne, Johan; Friml, Jiří; Verstreken, Patrik; Russinova, Eugenia

    2016-06-08

    ATP production requires the establishment of an electrochemical proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial uncouplers dissipate this proton gradient and disrupt numerous cellular processes, including vesicular trafficking, mainly through energy depletion. Here we show that Endosidin9 (ES9), a novel mitochondrial uncoupler, is a potent inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in different systems and that ES9 induces inhibition of CME not because of its effect on cellular ATP, but rather due to its protonophore activity that leads to cytoplasm acidification. We show that the known tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostinA23, which is routinely used to block CME, displays similar properties, thus questioning its use as a specific inhibitor of cargo recognition by the AP-2 adaptor complex via tyrosine motif-based endocytosis signals. Furthermore, we show that cytoplasm acidification dramatically affects the dynamics and recruitment of clathrin and associated adaptors, and leads to reduction of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate from the plasma membrane.

  3. Effects of temperature and cellular interactions on the mechanics and morphology of human cancer cells investigated by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Mi; Liu, LianQing; Xi, Ning; Wang, YueChao; Xiao, XiuBin; Zhang, WeiJing

    2015-09-01

    Cell mechanics plays an important role in cellular physiological activities. Recent studies have shown that cellular mechanical properties are novel biomarkers for indicating the cell states. In this article, temperature-controllable atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to quantitatively investigate the effects of temperature and cellular interactions on the mechanics and morphology of human cancer cells. First, AFM indenting experiments were performed on six types of human cells to investigate the changes of cellular Young's modulus at different temperatures and the results showed that the mechanical responses to the changes of temperature were variable for different types of cancer cells. Second, AFM imaging experiments were performed to observe the morphological changes in living cells at different temperatures and the results showed the significant changes of cell morphology caused by the alterations of temperature. Finally, by co-culturing human cancer cells with human immune cells, the mechanical and morphological changes in cancer cells were investigated. The results showed that the co-culture of cancer cells and immune cells could cause the distinct mechanical changes in cancer cells, but no significant morphological differences were observed. The experimental results improved our understanding of the effects of temperature and cellular interactions on the mechanics and morphology of cancer cells.

  4. Adoptive transfer of experimental autoimmune hepatitis in mice: cellular interaction between donor and recipient mice

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, M.; Mori, Y.; Mori, T.; Ueda, S.; Yoshida, H.; Kato, I.; Iesato, K.; Wakashin, Y.; Azemoto, R.; Wakashin, M.; Okuda, K.; Ohto, M.

    1988-01-01

    This report extends our previous study on experimental autoimmune hepatitis in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Cellular immunity involved in the induction of liver injury in this model was studied by transfer of primed spleen cells from hepatitis donor mice to syngeneic normal recipient mice. The most prominent liver damage in recipient B6 mice was induced by transfer of nylon wool adherent spleen cells from hepatitis donor mice, and T cells in this fraction were the essential requirement for the liver damage in the recipient mice. Nylon wool adherent spleen cells from hepatitis donor mice after depletion of the suppressor T-cell function by low-dose (300 rad) irradiation induced more severe liver injury compared to the same cells without irradiation. When the recipient mice were depleted of lymphocytes by low or high dose (700 rad) whole body irradiation, transfer of primed spleen cells from hepatitis donor mice did not induce liver lesion in the lymphocyte-depleted mice. This low susceptibility of lymphocyte-depleted recipient mice to primed spleen cells of hepatitis mice was no longer demonstrated after reconstitution with normal spleen cells. In a cell-migration study using 51Cr-labelled spleen cells, it was shown that a considerable number of infiltrating cells in the liver of recipient mice were derived from recipient mice themselves. These results seem to indicate that cell-to-cell interaction between radiosensitive precursor cells of recipient mice and liver-antigen-primed T cells from hepatitis donor mice play an essential role in the induction of liver injury in the recipient mice. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:3052945

  5. Hydrogels with Spatially and Temporally Controlled Properties to Control Cellular Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdick, Jason

    2011-03-01

    Stem cells (e.g., mesenchymal stem cells, MSCs) respond to many cues from their microenvironment, which may include chemical signals, mechanics, and topography. Importantly, these cues may be incorporated into scaffolding to control stem cell differentiation and optimize their ability to produce tissues in regenerative medicine. Despite the significant amount of work in this area, the materials have been primarily static and uniform. To this end, we have developed a sequential crosslinking process that relies on our ability to crosslinked functional biopolymers (e.g., methacrylated hyaluronic acid, HA) in two steps, namely a Michael-type addition reaction to partially consume reactive groups and then a light-initiated free-radical polymerization to further crosslink the material. With light exposure during the second step comes control over the material in space (via masks and lasers) and time (via intermittent light exposure). We are applying this technique for numerous applications. For example, when the HA hydrogels are crosslinked with MMP degradable peptides with thiol termini during the first step, a material that can be degraded by cells is obtained. However, cell-mediated degradation is obstructed with the introduction of kinetic chains during the second step, leading to spatially controlled cell degradability. Due to the influence of cellular spreading on MSC differentiation, we have controlled cell fates by controlling their spread ability, for instance towards osteoblasts in spread areas and adipocytes when cell remained rounded. We are also using the process of stiffening with time to investigate mechanically induced differentiation, particularly in materials with evolving mechanics. Overall, these advanced HA hydrogels provide us the opportunity to investigate diverse and controlled material properties on MSC interactions.

  6. A cellular automaton to model magma/crust interactions and volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, L.; Shcherbakov, R.

    2012-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are the outcomes of complex dynamical interactions between magma and the Earth's crust and are characterized by non-trivial temporal correlations. It is of major importance to study the processes involved in magma ascent within the crust which can lead to a better under-standing of the failure mechanism that leads to an eruption. In a previous study, we showed that the interevent time distributions of volcanic eruptions were characterized by a universal behavior, independent of the type of volcanism and geographical location. The distribution for interevent times between successive eruptions were shown to deviate from the simple Poisson statistics. Instead, occurrence of volcanic eruptions can be modeled by a log-normal distribution. In the present work, we investigate the interactions between the magma and the host rock at the microscopic level using a cellular automaton approach. We consider a two-dimensional system on a rectangular lattice consisting of the magma chamber and the overlying crust. The magma particles coming from the chamber rise through the crust by damaging it to its failure point, and eventually reach the surface resulting in an eruption. While not damaged by magma, the crust can heal with time and fractures will close. The amount of damage that a particle can afflict on a crustal site and the healing capability of the crust are two model parameters and mimic various crustal settings. We consider two different definitions of the eruption sizes: i) only the magma in the vertical fractures directly under the eruption point is considered to define the eruption; ii) the entire fracture network (vertical and horizontal) filled with magma and connected to the eruption point is considered to define the eruption. In order to investigate further what controls the explosivity of eruptions, we introduce a binary system to model the magma and dissolved gases: magma and dissolved gases which are characterized by dierent damage capacities

  7. Cellular Interactions and Immune Response of Spherical Nucleic Acid (SNA) Nanoconjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massich, Matthew David

    Spherical nucleic acid (SNA) nanoconjugates consist of a densely packed monolayer shell of highly-oriented oligonucleotides covalently bound to a gold nanoparticle core. The nanoconjugates exhibit several important qualities, which make them useful for various biological applications, such as antisense gene regulation strategies and the intracellular detection of biomolecules. The focus of this thesis was to characterize the nanoconjugates interaction with cultured cells and specifically the immune response to their intracellular presence. The immune response of macrophage cells to internalized nanoconjugates was studied, and due to the dense functionalization of oligonucleotides on the surface of the nanoparticle and the resulting high localized salt concentration the innate immune response to the nanoconjugates is ˜25-fold less when compared to a lipoplex carrying the same sequence. Additionally, genome-wide expression profiling was used to study the biological response of cultured cells to the nanoconjugates. The biological response of HeLa cells to gold nanoparticles stabilized by weakly bound ligands was significant, yet when these same nanoparticles were stably functionalized with covalently attached oligonucleotides the cells showed no measurable response. In human keratinocytes, the oligonucleotide sequences caused 427 genes to be differentially expressed when complexed with Dharmafect, but when the oligonucleotides were conjugated to nanoparticles only 7 genes were differentially expressed. Beyond characterizing the cellular interactions and immune response of the nanoconjugates, the optimal length of siRNA (from 19--34 base pairs) that induces the most gene knockdown while maintaining limited immune activation was determined to be 24 base pairs. Further, the SNAs were shown to be useful as a potential antiviral gene therapy by demonstrating approximately 50% knockdown of the Ebola VP35 gene. Lastly, a scanning probe-enabled method was used to rapidly

  8. Impact of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticle surface charge on protein, cellular and haematological interactions.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Gopikrishna J; Greeshma, M M; Menon, Deepthy

    2015-12-01

    The initial interactions of nanoparticles with biomolecules have a great influence on its toxicity, efficacy, biodistribution and clearance. The present work is an attempt to understand the impact of surface charge of polymeric nanoparticles on its plasma protein and cellular interactions. Negative, near-neutral and positively charged poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) [PLGA] nanoparticles were prepared using casein, poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(ethylene imine) respectively, as surface stabilizers. A significant temporal variation in the hydrodynamic diameter of PLGA nanoparticles was observed in the presence of plasma proteins, which correlated with the amount of proteins adsorbed to each surface. Positively charged particles displayed the maximum size variation and protein adsorption. Cellular uptake of differentially charged nanoparticles was also concurrent with the quantity of adsorbed proteins, though there was no significant difference in their cytotoxicity. Haematological interactions (haemolysis and plasma coagulation times) of positively charged nanoparticles were considerably different from near-neutral and negative nanoparticles. Collectively, the results point to the interplay between plasma protein adsorption and cellular interactions of PLGA nanoparticles, which is governed by its surface charge, thereby necessitating a rational design of nanoparticles.

  9. Effect of treatment media on the agglomeration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: impact on genotoxicity, cellular interaction, and cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Raju Y; Wallace, Kathleen; Daniel, Kaitlin M; Tennant, Alan H; Zucker, Robert M; Strickland, Jenna; Dreher, Kevin; Kligerman, Andrew D; Blackman, Carl F; Demarini, David M

    2013-03-26

    The widespread use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in consumer products increases the probability of exposure to humans and the environment. Although TiO2 nanoparticles have been shown to induce DNA damage (comet assay) and chromosome damage (micronucleus assay, MN) in vitro, no study has systematically assessed the influence of medium composition on the physicochemical characteristics and genotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles. We assessed TiO2 nanoparticle agglomeration, cellular interaction, induction of genotoxicity, and influence on cell cycle in human lung epithelial cells using three different nanoparticle-treatment media: keratinocyte growth medium (KGM) plus 0.1% bovine serum albumin (KB); a synthetic broncheoalveolar lavage fluid containing PBS, 0.6% bovine serum albumin and 0.001% surfactant (DM); or KGM with 10% fetal bovine serum (KF). The comet assay showed that TiO2 nanoparticles induced similar amounts of DNA damage in all three media, independent of the amount of agglomeration, cellular interaction, or cell-cycle changes measured by flow cytometry. In contrast, TiO2 nanoparticles induced MN only in KF, which is the medium that facilitated the lowest amount of agglomeration, the greatest amount of nanoparticle cellular interaction, and the highest population of cells accumulating in S phase. These results with TiO2 nanoparticles in KF demonstrate an association between medium composition, particle uptake, and nanoparticle interaction with cells, leading to chromosomal damage as measured by the MN assay.

  10. Adaptive Cellular Interactions in the Immune System: The Tunable Activation Threshold and the Significance of Subthreshold Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Zvi; Paul, William E.

    1992-11-01

    A major challenge for immunologists is to explain how the immune system adjusts its responses to the microenvironmental context in which antigens are recognized. We propose that lymphocytes achieve this by tuning and updating their responsiveness to recurrent signals. In particular, cellular anergy in vivo is a dynamic state in which the threshold for a stereotypic mode of activation has been elevated. Anergy is associated with other forms of cellular activity, not paralysis. Cells engaged in such subthreshold interactions mediate functions such as maintenance of immunological memory and control of infections. In such interactions, patterns of signals are recognized and classified and evoke selective responses. The robust mechanism proposed for segregation of suprathreshold and subthreshold immune responses allows lymphocytes to use recognition of self-antigens in executing physiological functions. Autoreactivity is allowed where it is dissociated from uncontrolled aggression.

  11. Cellular prion protein localizes to the nucleus of endocrine and neuronal cells and interacts with structural chromatin components.

    PubMed

    Strom, Alexander; Wang, Gen-Sheng; Picketts, David J; Reimer, Rudolph; Stuke, Andreas W; Scott, Fraser W

    2011-05-01

    Several physiological processes have been purported for cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). However, the physiological function of PrP(C) is still unclear and the cellular localization of PrP(C) remains a subject of debate. PrP(C) is expressed in a wide range of tissues including islets of Langerhans. We previously demonstrated that the function of PrP(C) is associated with blood glucose regulation. Little is known of the function of PrP(C) in islet cells and specifically in β-cells. To get first insight into the putative role of PrP(C) in β-cells, we used far-Western immunoblotting and MS to identify candidate PrP(C)-interacting proteins. We also used Western blot, immunofluorescence (IF) and protein overlay IF to characterize the sub-cellular localization of PrP(C). Here we demonstrate in vivo that PrP(C) is abundant in the nuclear lamina of endocrine and neuronal cells and interacts with histone H1(0), histone H3 and lamin B1. The interaction of PrP(C) with histone H3 suggests that it is involved in transcriptional regulation in the nucleus. This study reveals new avenues for the elucidation of the physiological function of PrP(C) in endocrine and neuronal cells as well as the molecular mechanisms leading to prion diseases.

  12. Protein-protein interaction networks identify targets which rescue the MPP+ cellular model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Harriet; Ryan, Brent J.; Jackson, Brendan; Whitmore, Alan; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are complex multifactorial disorders characterised by the interplay of many dysregulated physiological processes. As an exemplar, Parkinson’s disease (PD) involves multiple perturbed cellular functions, including mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation in preferentially-sensitive dopamine neurons, a selective pathophysiology recapitulated in vitro using the neurotoxin MPP+. Here we explore a network science approach for the selection of therapeutic protein targets in the cellular MPP+ model. We hypothesised that analysis of protein-protein interaction networks modelling MPP+ toxicity could identify proteins critical for mediating MPP+ toxicity. Analysis of protein-protein interaction networks constructed to model the interplay of mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation (key aspects of MPP+ toxicity) enabled us to identify four proteins predicted to be key for MPP+ toxicity (P62, GABARAP, GBRL1 and GBRL2). Combined, but not individual, knockdown of these proteins increased cellular susceptibility to MPP+ toxicity. Conversely, combined, but not individual, over-expression of the network targets provided rescue of MPP+ toxicity associated with the formation of autophagosome-like structures. We also found that modulation of two distinct proteins in the protein-protein interaction network was necessary and sufficient to mitigate neurotoxicity. Together, these findings validate our network science approach to multi-target identification in complex neurological diseases. PMID:26608097

  13. Protein-protein interaction networks identify targets which rescue the MPP+ cellular model of Parkinson’s disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, Harriet; Ryan, Brent J.; Jackson, Brendan; Whitmore, Alan; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are complex multifactorial disorders characterised by the interplay of many dysregulated physiological processes. As an exemplar, Parkinson’s disease (PD) involves multiple perturbed cellular functions, including mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation in preferentially-sensitive dopamine neurons, a selective pathophysiology recapitulated in vitro using the neurotoxin MPP+. Here we explore a network science approach for the selection of therapeutic protein targets in the cellular MPP+ model. We hypothesised that analysis of protein-protein interaction networks modelling MPP+ toxicity could identify proteins critical for mediating MPP+ toxicity. Analysis of protein-protein interaction networks constructed to model the interplay of mitochondrial dysfunction and autophagic dysregulation (key aspects of MPP+ toxicity) enabled us to identify four proteins predicted to be key for MPP+ toxicity (P62, GABARAP, GBRL1 and GBRL2). Combined, but not individual, knockdown of these proteins increased cellular susceptibility to MPP+ toxicity. Conversely, combined, but not individual, over-expression of the network targets provided rescue of MPP+ toxicity associated with the formation of autophagosome-like structures. We also found that modulation of two distinct proteins in the protein-protein interaction network was necessary and sufficient to mitigate neurotoxicity. Together, these findings validate our network science approach to multi-target identification in complex neurological diseases.

  14. Interactions between growth-dependent changes in cell size, nutrient supply and cellular elemental stoichiometry of marine Synechococcus.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Nathan S; Bonachela, Juan A; Martiny, Adam C

    2016-11-01

    The factors that control elemental ratios within phytoplankton, like carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus (C:N:P), are key to biogeochemical cycles. Previous studies have identified relationships between nutrient-limited growth and elemental ratios in large eukaryotes, but little is known about these interactions in small marine phytoplankton like the globally important Cyanobacteria. To improve our understanding of these interactions in picophytoplankton, we asked how cellular elemental stoichiometry varies as a function of steady-state, N- and P-limited growth in laboratory chemostat cultures of Synechococcus WH8102. By combining empirical data and theoretical modeling, we identified a previously unrecognized factor (growth-dependent variability in cell size) that controls the relationship between nutrient-limited growth and cellular elemental stoichiometry. To predict the cellular elemental stoichiometry of phytoplankton, previous theoretical models rely on the traditional Droop model, which purports that the acquisition of a single limiting nutrient suffices to explain the relationship between a cellular nutrient quota and growth rate. Our study, however, indicates that growth-dependent changes in cell size have an important role in regulating cell nutrient quotas. This key ingredient, along with nutrient-uptake protein regulation, enables our model to predict the cellular elemental stoichiometry of Synechococcus across a range of nutrient-limited conditions. Our analysis also adds to the growth rate hypothesis, suggesting that P-rich biomolecules other than nucleic acids are important drivers of stoichiometric variability in Synechococcus. Lastly, by comparing our data with field observations, our study has important ecological relevance as it provides a framework for understanding and predicting elemental ratios in ocean regions where small phytoplankton like Synechococcus dominates.

  15. A general formalism for tissue morphogenesis based on cellular dynamics and control system interactions.

    PubMed

    Forest, Loïc; Demongeot, Jacques

    2008-06-01

    Morphogenesis is a key process in developmental biology. An important issue is the understanding of the generation of shape and cellular organisation in tissues. Despite of their great diversity, morphogenetic processes share common features. This work is an attempt to describe this diversity using the same formalism based on a cellular description. Tissue is seen as a multi-cellular system whose behaviour is the result of all constitutive cells dynamics. Morphogenesis is then considered as a spatiotemporal organization of cells activities. We show how this formalism relies on Reaction-Diffusion/Positional Information approach and how it permits to generalize its modelling possibilities. Three quite different applications for concrete morphogenetic processes are presented. The first one is a model for epithelial invagination, the second is a model of cellular differentiation by local cell-cell signalling. The last example is the secondary radial growth of conifer trees. From the mathematical point of view, different modelling tools are used according to the specificity of each process.

  16. Mystery of the Toxic Flea Dip: An Interactive Approach to Teaching Aerobic Cellular Respiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, A. T.; McVey, M.; Rybarczyk, B.; Thompson, J. T.; Wilkins, H. R.

    2004-01-01

    We designed an interrupted case study to teach aerobic cellular respiration to major and nonmajor biology students. The case is based loosely on a real-life incident of rotenone poisoning. It places students in the role of a coroner who must determine the cause of death of the victim. The case is presented to the students in four parts. Each part…

  17. Covalent small-molecule-RNA complex formation enables cellular profiling of small-molecule-RNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lirui; Disney, Matthew D

    2013-09-16

    Won't let you go! A strategy is described to design small molecules that react with their cellular RNA targets. This approach not only improves the activity of compounds targeting RNA in cell culture by a factor of about 2500 but also enables cell-wide profiling of its RNA targets.

  18. Fipronil is a powerful uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation that triggers apoptosis in human neuronal cell line SHSY5Y.

    PubMed

    Vidau, Cyril; González-Polo, Rosa A; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Blasco, Rafael; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Belzunces, Luc P; Fuentes, José M

    2011-12-01

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide known to elicit neurotoxicity via an interaction with ionotropic receptors, namely GABA and glutamate receptors. Recently, we showed that fipronil and other phenylpyrazole compounds trigger cell death in Caco-2 cells. In this study, we investigated the mode of action and the type of cell death induced by fipronil in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Flow cytometric and western blot analyses demonstrated that fipronil induces cellular events belonging to the apoptosis process, such as mitochondrial potential collapse, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, nuclear condensation and phosphatidylserine externalization. In addition, fipronil induces a rapid ATP depletion with concomitant activation of anaerobic glycolysis. This cellular response is characteristic of mitochondrial injury associated with a defect of the respiration process. Therefore, we also investigated the effect of fipronil on the oxygen consumption in isolated mitochondria. Interestingly, we show for the first time that fipronil is a strong uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation at relative low concentrations. Thus in this study, we report a new mode of action by which the insecticide fipronil could triggers apoptosis.

  19. The cellular environment regulates in situ kinetics of T-cell receptor interaction with peptide major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoyu; Chen, Wei; Natarajan, Kannan; Li, Zhenhai; Margulies, David H; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-07-01

    T cells recognize antigens at the two-dimensional (2D) interface with antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which trigger T-cell effector functions. T-cell functional outcomes correlate with 2D kinetics of membrane-embedded T-cell receptors (TCRs) binding to surface-tethered peptide-major histocompatibility complex molecules (pMHCs). However, most studies have measured TCR-pMHC kinetics for recombinant TCRs in 3D by surface plasmon resonance, which differs drastically from 2D measurements. Here, we compared pMHC dissociation from native TCR on the T-cell surface to recombinant TCR immobilized on glass surface or in solution. Force on TCR-pMHC bonds regulated their lifetimes differently for native than recombinant TCRs. Perturbing the cellular environment suppressed 2D on-rates but had no effect on 2D off-rate regardless of whether force was applied. In contrast, for the TCR interacting with its monoclonal antibody, the 2D on-rate was insensitive to cellular perturbations and the force-dependent off-rates were indistinguishable for native and recombinant TCRs. These data present novel features of TCR-pMHC kinetics that are regulated by the cellular environment, underscoring the limitations of 3D kinetics in predicting T-cell functions and calling for further elucidation of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate 2D kinetics in physiological settings.

  20. The Interaction of the Gammaherpesvirus 68 orf73 Protein with Cellular BET Proteins Affects the Activation of Cell Cycle Promoters▿

    PubMed Central

    Ottinger, Matthias; Pliquet, Daniel; Christalla, Thomas; Frank, Ronald; Stewart, James P.; Schulz, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Infection of mice with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) provides a valuable animal model for gamma-2 herpesvirus (rhadinovirus) infection and pathogenesis. The MHV-68 orf73 protein has been shown to be required for the establishment of viral latency in vivo. This study describes a novel transcriptional activation function of the MHV-68 orf73 protein and identifies the cellular bromodomain containing BET proteins Brd2/RING3, Brd3/ORFX, and BRD4 as interaction partners for the MHV-68 orf73 protein. BET protein members are known to interact with acetylated histones, and Brd2 and Brd4 have been implicated in fundamental cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation and transcriptional regulation. Using MHV-68 orf73 peptide array assays, we identified Brd2 and Brd4 interaction sites in the orf73 protein. Mutation of one binding site led to a loss of the interaction with Brd2/4 but not the retinoblastoma protein Rb, to impaired chromatin association, and to a decreased ability to activate the BET-responsive cyclin D1, D2, and E promoters. The results therefore pinpoint the binding site for Brd2/4 in a rhadinoviral orf73 protein and suggest that the recruitment of a member of the BET protein family allows the MHV-68 orf73 protein to activate the promoters of G1/S cyclins. These findings point to parallels between the transcriptional activator functions of rhadinoviral orf73 proteins and papillomavirus E2 proteins. PMID:19244327

  1. MYC interaction with the tumor suppressive SWI/SNF complex member INI1 regulates transcription and cellular transformation

    PubMed Central

    Stojanova, Angelina; Tu, William B.; Ponzielli, Romina; Kotlyar, Max; Chan, Pak-Kei; Boutros, Paul C.; Khosravi, Fereshteh; Jurisica, Igor; Raught, Brian; Penn, Linda Z.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT MYC is a key driver of cellular transformation and is deregulated in most human cancers. Studies of MYC and its interactors have provided mechanistic insight into its role as a regulator of gene transcription. MYC has been previously linked to chromatin regulation through its interaction with INI1 (SMARCB1/hSNF5/BAF47), a core member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. INI1 is a potent tumor suppressor that is inactivated in several types of cancers, most prominently as the hallmark alteration in pediatric malignant rhabdoid tumors. However, the molecular and functional interaction of MYC and INI1 remains unclear. Here, we characterize the MYC-INI1 interaction in mammalian cells, mapping their minimal binding domains to functionally significant regions of MYC (leucine zipper) and INI1 (repeat motifs), and demonstrating that the interaction does not interfere with MYC-MAX interaction. Protein-protein interaction network analysis expands the MYC-INI1 interaction to the SWI/SNF complex and a larger network of chromatin regulatory complexes. Genome-wide analysis reveals that the DNA-binding regions and target genes of INI1 significantly overlap with those of MYC. In an INI1-deficient rhabdoid tumor system, we observe that with re-expression of INI1, MYC and INI1 bind to common target genes and have opposing effects on gene expression. Functionally, INI1 re-expression suppresses cell proliferation and MYC-potentiated transformation. Our findings thus establish the antagonistic roles of the INI1 and MYC transcriptional regulators in mediating cellular and oncogenic functions. PMID:27267444

  2. Differential protein-protein interactions of LRRK1 and LRRK2 indicate roles in distinct cellular signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Reyniers, Lauran; Del Giudice, Maria Grazia; Civiero, Laura; Belluzzi, Elisa; Lobbestael, Evy; Beilina, Alexandra; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Derua, Rita; Waelkens, Etienne; Li, Yan; Crosio, Claudia; Iaccarino, Ciro; Cookson, Mark R.; Baekelandt, Veerle; Greggio, Elisa; Taymans, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies show that LRRK2, and not its closest paralogue LRRK1, is linked to Parkinson’s disease. To gain insight into the molecular and cellular basis of this discrepancy, we searched for LRRK1- and LRRK2-specific cellular processes by identifying their distinct interacting proteins. A protein microarray-based interaction screen was performed with recombinant 3xFlag-LRRK1 and 3xFlag-LRRK2 and, in parallel, co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry was performed from SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines stably expressing 3xFlag-LRRK1 or 3xFlag-LRRK2. We identified a set of LRRK1- and LRRK2-specific as well as common interactors. One of our most prominent findings was that both screens pointed to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) as a LRRK1-specific interactor, while 14-3-3 proteins were LRRK2-specific. This is consistent with phosphosite mapping of LRRK1, revealing phosphosites outside of 14-3-3 consensus binding motifs. To assess the functional relevance of these interactions, SH-SY5Y-LRRK1 and -LRRK2 cell lines were treated with LRRK2 kinase inhibitors that disrupt 14-3-3 binding, or with EGF, an EGF-R agonist. Redistribution of LRRK2, not LRRK1, from diffuse cytoplasmic to filamentous aggregates was observed after inhibitor treatment. Similarly, EGF induced translocation of LRRK1, but not of LRRK2, to endosomes. Our study confirms that LRRK1 and LRRK2 can carry out distinct functions by interacting with different cellular proteins. PMID:24947832

  3. mTOR direct interactions with Rheb-GTPase and raptor: sub-cellular localization using fluorescence lifetime imaging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway has a key role in cellular regulation and several diseases. While it is thought that Rheb GTPase regulates mTOR, acting immediately upstream, while raptor is immediately downstream of mTOR, direct interactions have yet to be verified in living cells, furthermore the localisation of Rheb has been reported to have only a cytoplasmic cellular localization. Results In this study a cytoplasmic as well as a significant sub-cellular nuclear mTOR localization was shown , utilizing green and red fluorescent protein (GFP and DsRed) fusion and highly sensitive single photon counting fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of live cells. The interaction of the mTORC1 components Rheb, mTOR and raptor, tagged with EGFP/DsRed was determined using fluorescence energy transfer-FLIM. The excited-state lifetime of EGFP-mTOR of ~2400 ps was reduced by energy transfer to ~2200 ps in the cytoplasm and to 2000 ps in the nucleus when co-expressed with DsRed-Rheb, similar results being obtained for co-expressed EGFP-mTOR and DsRed-raptor. The localization and distribution of mTOR was modified by amino acid withdrawal and re-addition but not by rapamycin. Conclusions The results illustrate the power of GFP-technology combined with FRET-FLIM imaging in the study of the interaction of signalling components in living cells, here providing evidence for a direct physical interaction between mTOR and Rheb and between mTOR and raptor in living cells for the first time. PMID:23311891

  4. Cellular interactions of doxorubicin-loaded DNA-modified halloysite nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeonju; Jung, Goo-Eun; Cho, Sang Joon; Geckeler, Kurt E.; Fuchs, Harald

    2013-08-01

    Halloysite nanotube (HNT)-based supramolecular complexes are synthesized and evaluated with respect to their cytotoxicity and effects on cellular structures. As HNTs are water-insoluble, DNA is applied for wrapping the surface of HNTs to enhance their water-dispersibility. To investigate the potential of DNA-wrapped HNTs (HD) as a promising drug delivery carrier, doxorubicin (DOX) is introduced as a model anticancer agent and loaded onto HD. The DOX-loaded, DNA-wrapped HNTs (HDD) show sustained DOX release over two weeks without initial burst of DOX indicating delayed DOX release inside cells. In addition, effects of DNA-wrapped HNTs (HD) or HDD on the cytoskeleton organization of A549 cells are studied by visualizing the distribution of F-actin filaments using confocal laser scanning microscopy, and cellular morphological changes are observed by scanning electron microscopy and scanning ion conductance microscopy.Halloysite nanotube (HNT)-based supramolecular complexes are synthesized and evaluated with respect to their cytotoxicity and effects on cellular structures. As HNTs are water-insoluble, DNA is applied for wrapping the surface of HNTs to enhance their water-dispersibility. To investigate the potential of DNA-wrapped HNTs (HD) as a promising drug delivery carrier, doxorubicin (DOX) is introduced as a model anticancer agent and loaded onto HD. The DOX-loaded, DNA-wrapped HNTs (HDD) show sustained DOX release over two weeks without initial burst of DOX indicating delayed DOX release inside cells. In addition, effects of DNA-wrapped HNTs (HD) or HDD on the cytoskeleton organization of A549 cells are studied by visualizing the distribution of F-actin filaments using confocal laser scanning microscopy, and cellular morphological changes are observed by scanning electron microscopy and scanning ion conductance microscopy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02665e

  5. Cellular interaction influenced by surface modification strategies of gelatin-based nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tse, Wai Hei; Gyenis, Laszlo; Litchfield, David W; Zhang, Jin

    2017-02-01

    Theranostic applications of gelatin nanospheres require two major components, a method of detection and good biocompatibility. We characterized the response of UTA-6 human osteosarcoma cells to the introduction of functionalized 90 bloom-based gelatin nanospheres (158 ± 49 nm) modified with three elements in different order: (a) hybridization with cadmium-based quantum dots for optical detection, (b) bioconjugation with anti-human IgG FAB (anti-IgG) for cell targeting, with/without (c) capping with polyethylene glycol on the surface for enhanced biocompatibility. A one-pot process is developed for incorporating quantum dots and antibody with gelatin nanospheres. Path A of modifying gelatin nanospheres with quantum dots first followed by anti-IgG resulted in a significantly greater cellular viability than Path B with anti-IgG first followed by quantum dots. Capping with polyethylene glycol as the final step in modification yielded significantly opposing results with decreases in Path A and increases in Path B. Three-dimensional z-stacking fluorescent images of hybrid gelatin nanospheres with anti-IgG is observed to have an increase in cellular association. The observed results suggest the modification order for building hybrid nanospheres may have an impact on cellular response.

  6. Towards Inter- and Intra- Cellular Protein Interaction Analysis: Applying the Betweenness Centrality Graph Measure for Node Importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Alan J.; Haqqani, Arsalan S.

    2011-11-01

    Three public biological network data sets (KEGG, GeneRIF and Reactome) are collected and described. Two problems are investigated (inter- and intra- cellular interactions) via augmentation of the collected networks to the problem specific data. Results include an estimate of the importance of proteins for the interaction of inflammatory cells with the blood-brain barrier via the computation of Betweenness Centrality. Subsequently, the interactions may be validated from a number of differing perspectives; including comparison with (i) existing biological results, (ii) the literature, and (iii) new hypothesis driven biological experiments. Novel therapeutic and diagnostic targets for inhibiting inflammation at the blood-brain barrier in a number of brain diseases including Alzheimer's disease, stroke and multiple sclerosis are possible. In addition, this methodology may also be applicable towards investigating the breast cancer tumour microenvironment.

  7. Recent advances in interactions of designed nanoparticles and cells with respect to cellular uptake, intracellular fate, degradation and cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jun; Gao, Changyou

    2016-10-01

    The unique features of nanomaterials have led to their rapid development in the biomedical field. In particular, functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) are extensively used in the delivery of drugs and genes, bio-imaging and diagnosis. Hence, the interaction between NPs and cells is one of the most important issues towards understanding the true nature of the NP-mediated biological effects. Moreover, the intracellular safety concern of the NPs as a result of intracellular NP degradation remains to be clarified in detail. This review presents recent advances in the interactions of designed NPs and cells. The focus includes the governing factors on cellular uptake and the intracellular fate of NPs, and the degradation of NPs and its influence on nanotoxicity. Some basic consideration is proposed for optimizing the NP-cell interaction and designing NPs of better biocompatiblity for biomedical application.

  8. HIC1 controls cellular- and HIV-1- gene transcription via interactions with CTIP2 and HMGA1

    PubMed Central

    Le Douce, Valentin; Forouzanfar, Faezeh; Eilebrecht, Sebastian; Van Driessche, Benoit; Ait-Ammar, Amina; Verdikt, Roxane; Kurashige, Yoshihito; Marban, Céline; Gautier, Virginie; Candolfi, Ermanno; Benecke, Arndt G.; Van Lint, Carine; Rohr, Olivier; Schwartz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Among many cellular transcriptional regulators, Bcl11b/CTIP2 and HGMA1 have been described to control the establishment and the persistence of HIV-1 latency in microglial cells, the main viral reservoir in the brain. In this present work, we identify and characterize a transcription factor i.e. HIC1, which physically interacts with both Bcl11b/CTIP2 and HMGA1 to co-regulate specific subsets of cellular genes and the viral HIV-1 gene. Our results suggest that HIC1 represses Tat dependent HIV-1 transcription. Interestingly, this repression of Tat function is linked to HIC1 K314 acetylation status and to SIRT1 deacetylase activity. Finally, we show that HIC1 interacts and cooperates with HGMA1 to regulate Tat dependent HIV-1 transcription. Our results also suggest that HIC1 repression of Tat function happens in a TAR dependent manner and that this TAR element may serve as HIC1 reservoir at the viral promoter to facilitate HIC1/TAT interaction. PMID:27725726

  9. Plant-Herbivore Interaction: Dissection of the Cellular Pattern of Tetranychus urticae Feeding on the Host Plant.

    PubMed

    Bensoussan, Nicolas; Santamaria, M Estrella; Zhurov, Vladimir; Diaz, Isabel; Grbić, Miodrag; Grbić, Vojislava

    2016-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most polyphagous herbivores feeding on cell contents of over 1100 plant species including more than 150 crops. It is being established as a model for chelicerate herbivores with tools that enable tracking of reciprocal responses in plant-spider mite interactions. However, despite their important pest status and a growing understanding of the molecular basis of interactions with plant hosts, knowledge of the way mites interface with the plant while feeding and the plant damage directly inflicted by mites is lacking. Here, utilizing histology and microscopy methods, we uncovered several key features of T. urticae feeding. By following the stylet path within the plant tissue, we determined that the stylet penetrates the leaf either in between epidermal pavement cells or through a stomatal opening, without damaging the epidermal cellular layer. Our recordings of mite feeding established that duration of the feeding event ranges from several minutes to more than half an hour, during which time mites consume a single mesophyll cell in a pattern that is common to both bean and Arabidopsis plant hosts. In addition, this study determined that leaf chlorotic spots, a common symptom of mite herbivory, do not form as an immediate consequence of mite feeding. Our results establish a cellular context for the plant-spider mite interaction that will support our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cell signaling associated with spider mite feeding.

  10. Plant-Herbivore Interaction: Dissection of the Cellular Pattern of Tetranychus urticae Feeding on the Host Plant

    PubMed Central

    Bensoussan, Nicolas; Santamaria, M. Estrella; Zhurov, Vladimir; Diaz, Isabel; Grbić, Miodrag; Grbić, Vojislava

    2016-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most polyphagous herbivores feeding on cell contents of over 1100 plant species including more than 150 crops. It is being established as a model for chelicerate herbivores with tools that enable tracking of reciprocal responses in plant-spider mite interactions. However, despite their important pest status and a growing understanding of the molecular basis of interactions with plant hosts, knowledge of the way mites interface with the plant while feeding and the plant damage directly inflicted by mites is lacking. Here, utilizing histology and microscopy methods, we uncovered several key features of T. urticae feeding. By following the stylet path within the plant tissue, we determined that the stylet penetrates the leaf either in between epidermal pavement cells or through a stomatal opening, without damaging the epidermal cellular layer. Our recordings of mite feeding established that duration of the feeding event ranges from several minutes to more than half an hour, during which time mites consume a single mesophyll cell in a pattern that is common to both bean and Arabidopsis plant hosts. In addition, this study determined that leaf chlorotic spots, a common symptom of mite herbivory, do not form as an immediate consequence of mite feeding. Our results establish a cellular context for the plant-spider mite interaction that will support our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and cell signaling associated with spider mite feeding. PMID:27512397

  11. A genetic modifier screen identifies multiple genes that interact with Drosophila Rap/Fzr and suggests novel cellular roles.

    PubMed

    Kaplow, Margarita E; Mannava, Laura J; Pimentel, Angel C; Fermin, Hector A; Hyatt, Vanetta J; Lee, John J; Venkatesh, Tadmiri R

    2007-01-01

    In the developing Drosophila eye, Rap/Fzr plays a critical role in neural patterning by regulating the timely exit of precursor cells. Rap/Fzr (Retina aberrant in pattern/Fizzy related) is an activator of the E3 Ubiquitin ligase, the APC (Anaphase Promoting Complex-cyclosome) that facilitates the stage specific proteolytic destruction of mitotic regulators, such as cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. To identify novel functional roles of Rap/Fzr, we conducted an F(1) genetic modifier screen to identify genes which interact with the partial-loss-function mutations in rap/fzr. We screened 2741 single P-element, lethal insertion lines and piggyBac lines on the second and third chromosome for dominant enhancers and suppressors of the rough eye phenotype of rap/fzr. From this screen, we have identified 40 genes that exhibit dosage-sensitive interactions with rap/fzr; of these, 31 have previously characterized cellular functions. Seven of the modifiers identified in this study are regulators of cell cycle progression with previously known interactions with rap/fzr. Among the remaining modifiers, 27 encode proteins involved in other cellular functions not directly related to cell-cycle progression. The newly identified variants fall into at least three groups based on their previously known cellular functions: transcriptional regulation, regulated proteolysis, and signal transduction. These results suggest that, in addition to cell cycle regulation, rap/fzr regulates ubiquitin-ligase-mediated protein degradation in the developing nervous system as well as in other tissues.

  12. Identification of Cellular Proteins that Interact with Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early Protein 1 by Protein Array Assay

    PubMed Central

    Puerta Martínez, Francisco; Tang, Qiyi

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene expression during infection is characterized as a sequential process including immediate-early (IE), early (E), and late (L)-stage gene expression. The most abundantly expressed gene at the IE stage of infection is the major IE (MIE) gene that produces IE1 and IE2. IE1 has been the focus of study because it is an important protein, not only for viral gene expression but also for viral replication. It is believed that IE1 plays important roles in viral gene regulation by interacting with cellular proteins. In the current study, we performed protein array assays and identified 83 cellular proteins that interact with IE1. Among them, seven are RNA-binding proteins that are important in RNA processing; more than half are nuclear proteins that are involved in gene regulations. Tumorigenesis-related proteins are also found to interact with IE1, implying that the role of IE1 in tumorigenesis might need to be reevaluated. Unexpectedly, cytoplasmic proteins, such as Golgi autoantigen and GGA1 (both related to the Golgi trafficking protein), are also found to be associated with IE1. We also employed a coimmunoprecipitation assay to test the interactions of IE1 and some of the proteins identified in the protein array assays and confirmed that the results from the protein array assays are reliable. Many of the proteins identified by the protein array assay have not been previously reported. Therefore, the functions of the IE1-protein interactions need to be further explored in the future. PMID:24385082

  13. Interaction of SDF-1alpha and CXCR4 plays an important role in pulmonary cellular infiltration in differentiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Hu, Longhu; Cui, Zhe; Jiang, Xian; Wang, Guifang; Krissansen, Geoffrey W; Sun, Xueying

    2010-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha) and its receptor CXCR4 in cellular infiltration of the lung in differentiation syndrome (DS). The acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) NB4 cells and freshly prepared APL cells from the patients were differentiated by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). The expression of SDF-1alpha in human lung tissues was examined by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The cells were subjected to adhesion, migration or invasion assays, and co-cultured with human lung tissues in a microgravity rotary cell culture system to examine cellular infiltration in situ. ATRA-differentiated cells expressed high levels of CXCR4, and adhered more strongly to matrigel. Their ability to migrate and invade was enhanced by SDF-1alpha and lung homogenate, and diminished by pre-treatment with an anti-CXCR4 blocking antibody. SDF-1alpha was expressed in the lung tissues of all seven human donors. ATRA-differentiated NB4 cells infiltrated into lung tissues, and this was reduced by pre-treatment with an anti-CXCR4 blocking antibody. The interaction of SDF-1alpha and CXCR4 plays an important role in pulmonary cellular infiltration during DS, suggesting that targeting SDF-1alpha and CXCR4 may provide the basis for potential treatments in the management of DS.

  14. Uncoupling of longevity and telomere length in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Raices, Marcela; Maruyama, Hugo; Dillin, Andrew; Karlseder, Jan

    2005-09-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, after completing its developmental stages and a brief reproductive period, spends the remainder of its adult life as an organism consisting exclusively of post-mitotic cells. Here we show that telomere length varies considerably in clonal populations of wild-type worms, and that these length differences are conserved over at least ten generations, suggesting a length regulation mechanism in cis. This observation is strengthened by the finding that the bulk telomere length in different worm strains varies considerably. Despite the close correlation of telomere length and clonal cellular senescence in mammalian cells, nematodes with long telomeres were neither long lived, nor did worm populations with comparably short telomeres exhibit a shorter life span. Conversely, long-lived daf-2 and short-lived daf-16 mutant animals can have either long or short telomeres. Telomere length of post-mitotic cells did not change during the aging process, and the response of animals to stress was found independent of telomere length. Collectively, our data indicate that telomere length and life span can be uncoupled in a post-mitotic setting, suggesting separate pathways for replication-dependent and -independent aging.

  15. Influence of surface passivation of 2-Methoxyestradiol loaded PLGA nanoparticles on cellular interactions, pharmacokinetics and tumour accumulation.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Gopikrishna J; Paul-Prasanth, Bindhu; Nair, Shantikumar V; Menon, Deepthy

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, 2-Methoxyestradiol [2ME2] loaded PLGA nanoparticles [NPs] were stabilized with Casein or poly(ethylene glycol) [PEG] and evaluated for its cellular interactions, pharmacokinetics and tumour accumulation. Surface stabilized PLGA nanoparticles prepared through a modified emulsion route possessed similar size, surface charge, drug loading and release characteristics. Particle-cell interactions as well as the anti-angiogenesis activity were similar for both nanoformulations in vitro. However, in vivo pharmacokinetics and tumour accumulation of the drug were substantially improved for the PEGylated nanoformulation. Reduced protein binding was observed for PEG stabilized PLGA NPs. Thus, it was demonstrated that nanoencapsulation of 2-ME2 within PEGylated PLGA nanocarrier could improve its half-life and plasma concentration and thereby increase the tumour accumulation.

  16. The telomeric protein AKTIP interacts with A- and B-type lamins and is involved in regulation of cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    Burla, Romina; Carcuro, Mariateresa; Torre, Mattia La; Fratini, Federica; Crescenzi, Marco; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Spitalieri, Paola; Raffa, Grazia Daniela; Astrologo, Letizia; Lattanzi, Giovanna; Cundari, Enrico; Raimondo, Domenico; Biroccio, Annamaria; Gatti, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    AKTIP is a shelterin-interacting protein required for replication of telomeric DNA. Here, we show that AKTIP biochemically interacts with A- and B-type lamins and affects lamin A, but not lamin C or B, expression. In interphase cells, AKTIP localizes at the nuclear rim and in discrete regions of the nucleoplasm just like lamins. Double immunostaining revealed that AKTIP partially co-localizes with lamin B1 and lamin A/C in interphase cells, and that proper AKTIP localization requires functional lamin A. In mitotic cells, AKTIP is enriched at the spindle poles and at the midbody of late telophase cells similar to lamin B1. AKTIP-depleted cells show senescence-associated markers and recapitulate several aspects of the progeroid phenotype. Collectively, our results indicate that AKTIP is a new player in lamin-related processes, including those that govern nuclear architecture, telomere homeostasis and cellular senescence. PMID:27512140

  17. The telomeric protein AKTIP interacts with A- and B-type lamins and is involved in regulation of cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Burla, Romina; Carcuro, Mariateresa; Torre, Mattia La; Fratini, Federica; Crescenzi, Marco; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Spitalieri, Paola; Raffa, Grazia Daniela; Astrologo, Letizia; Lattanzi, Giovanna; Cundari, Enrico; Raimondo, Domenico; Biroccio, Annamaria; Gatti, Maurizio; Saggio, Isabella

    2016-08-01

    AKTIP is a shelterin-interacting protein required for replication of telomeric DNA. Here, we show that AKTIP biochemically interacts with A- and B-type lamins and affects lamin A, but not lamin C or B, expression. In interphase cells, AKTIP localizes at the nuclear rim and in discrete regions of the nucleoplasm just like lamins. Double immunostaining revealed that AKTIP partially co-localizes with lamin B1 and lamin A/C in interphase cells, and that proper AKTIP localization requires functional lamin A. In mitotic cells, AKTIP is enriched at the spindle poles and at the midbody of late telophase cells similar to lamin B1. AKTIP-depleted cells show senescence-associated markers and recapitulate several aspects of the progeroid phenotype. Collectively, our results indicate that AKTIP is a new player in lamin-related processes, including those that govern nuclear architecture, telomere homeostasis and cellular senescence.

  18. Lactose-Functionalized Dendrimers Arbitrate the Interaction of Galectin-3/MUC1 Mediated Cancer Cellular Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Anna K.; Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Raz, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    By using lactose-functionalized poly(amidoamine) dendrimers as a tunable multivalent platform, we studied cancer cell aggregation in three different cell lines (A549, DU-145, and HT-1080) with galectin-3. We found that small lactose-functionalized G(2)-dendrimer 1 inhibited galectin-3-induced aggregation of the cancer cells. In contrast, dendrimer 4 (a larger, generation 6 dendrimer with 100 carbohydrate end groups) caused cancer cells to aggregate through a galectin-3 pathway. This study indicates that inhibition of cellular aggregation occurred because 1 provided competitive binding sites for galectin-3 (compared to its putative cancer cell ligand, TF-antigen on MUC1). Dendrimer 4, in contrast, provided an excess of ligands for galectin-3 binding; this caused crosslinking and aggregation of cells to be increased. PMID:25138772

  19. Endothelin uncouples gap junctions in sustentacular cells and olfactory ensheathing cells of the olfactory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Le Bourhis, Mikaël; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Grebert, Denise; Congar, Patrice; Meunier, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Several factors modulate the first step of odour detection in the rat olfactory mucosa (OM). Among others, vasoactive peptides such as endothelin might play multifaceted roles in the different OM cells. Like their counterparts in the central nervous system, the olfactory sensory neurons are encompassed by different glial-like non-neuronal OM cells; sustentacular cells (SCs) surround their cell bodies, whereas olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) wrap their axons. Whereas SCs maintain both the structural and ionic integrity of the OM, OECs assure protection, local blood flow control and guiding of olfactory sensory neuron axons toward the olfactory bulb. We previously showed that these non-neuronal OM cells are particularly responsive to endothelin in vitro. Here, we confirmed that the endothelin system is strongly expressed in the OM using in situ hybridization. We then further explored the effects of endothelin on SCs and OECs using electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging approaches on both in vitro and ex vivo OM preparations. Endothelin induced both robust calcium signals and gap junction uncoupling in both types of cells. This latter effect was mimicked by carbenoxolone, a known gap junction uncoupling agent. However, although endothelin is known for its antiapoptotic effect in the OM, the uncoupling of gap junctions by carbenoxolone was not sufficient to limit the cellular death induced by serum deprivation in OM primary culture. The functional consequence of the endothelin 1-induced reduction of the gap junctional communication between OM non-neuronal cells thus remains to be elucidated.

  20. An intramolecular interaction within the lipid kinase Fab1 regulates cellular phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michael J; Strunk, Bethany S; Azad, Nadia; Petersen, Jason L; Weisman, Lois S

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorylated phosphoinositide lipids (PPIs) are low-abundance signaling molecules that control signal transduction pathways and are necessary for cellular homeostasis. The PPI phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) is essential in multiple organ systems. PI(3,5)P2 is generated from PI3P by the conserved lipid kinase Fab1/PIKfyve. Defects in the dynamic regulation of PI(3,5)P2 are linked to human diseases. However, few mechanisms that regulate PI(3,5)P2 have been identified. Here we report an intramolecular interaction between the yeast Fab1 kinase region and an upstream conserved cysteine-rich (CCR) domain. We identify mutations in the kinase domain that lead to elevated levels of PI(3,5)P2 and impair the interaction between the kinase and CCR domain. We also identify mutations in the CCR domain that lead to elevated levels of PI(3,5)P2 Together these findings reveal a regulatory mechanism that involves the CCR domain of Fab1 and contributes to dynamic control of cellular PI(3,5)P2 synthesis.

  1. Cellular interactions via conditioned media induce in vivo nephron generation from tubular epithelial cells or mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Machiguchi, Toshihiko Nakamura, Tatsuo

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •We have attempted in vivo nephron generation using conditioned media. •Vascular and tubular cells do cross-talks on cell proliferation and tubular changes. •Tubular cells suppress these changes in mesenchymal stem cells. •Tubular cells differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into tubular cells. •Nephrons can be created from implanted tubular cells or mesenchymal stem cells. -- Abstract: There are some successful reports of kidney generation by utilizing the natural course of kidney development, namely, the use of an artificially treated metanephros, blastocyst or ureteric bud. Under a novel concept of cellular interactions via conditioned media (CMs), we have attempted in vivo nephron generation from tubular epithelial cells (TECs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here we used 10× CMs of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and TECs, which is the first to introduce a CM into the field of organ regeneration. We first present stimulative cross-talks induced by these CMs between VECs and TECs on cell proliferation and morphological changes. In MSCs, TEC-CM suppressed these changes, however, induced cytokeratin expression, indicating the differentiation of MSCs into TECs. As a result, glomerular and tubular structures were created following the implantation of TECs or MSCs with both CMs. Our findings suggest that the cellular interactions via CMs might induce in vivo nephron generation from TECs or MSCs. As a promoting factor, CMs could also be applied to the regeneration of other organs and tissues.

  2. Cellular interactions via conditioned media induce in vivo nephron generation from tubular epithelial cells or mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Machiguchi, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Tatsuo

    2013-06-07

    There are some successful reports of kidney generation by utilizing the natural course of kidney development, namely, the use of an artificially treated metanephros, blastocyst or ureteric bud. Under a novel concept of cellular interactions via conditioned media (CMs), we have attempted in vivo nephron generation from tubular epithelial cells (TECs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here we used 10× CMs of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and TECs, which is the first to introduce a CM into the field of organ regeneration. We first present stimulative cross-talks induced by these CMs between VECs and TECs on cell proliferation and morphological changes. In MSCs, TEC-CM suppressed these changes, however, induced cytokeratin expression, indicating the differentiation of MSCs into TECs. As a result, glomerular and tubular structures were created following the implantation of TECs or MSCs with both CMs. Our findings suggest that the cellular interactions via CMs might induce in vivo nephron generation from TECs or MSCs. As a promoting factor, CMs could also be applied to the regeneration of other organs and tissues.

  3. Seismic coupling and uncoupling at subduction zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, L.; Kanamori, H.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the correlations concerning the properties of subduction zones are reviewed. A quantitative global comparison of many subduction zones reveals that the largest earthquakes occur in zones with young lithosphere and fast convergence rates. Maximum earthquake size is directly related to the asperity distribution on the fault plane. This observation can be translated into a simple model of seismic coupling where the horizontal compressive stress between two plates is proportional to the ratio of the summed asperity area to the total area of the contact surface. Plate age and rate can control asperity distribution directly through the horizontal compressive stress associated with the vertical and horizontal velocities of subducting slabs. The basalt to eclogite phase change in the down-going oceanic crust may be largely responsible for the uncoupling of subduction zones below a depth of about 40 km.

  4. Ageing, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Harper, M-E; Bevilacqua, L; Hagopian, K; Weindruch, R; Ramsey, J J

    2004-12-01

    Mitochondria are a cell's single greatest source of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species are important for many life sustaining processes of cells and tissues, but they can also induce cell damage and death. If their production and levels within cells is not effectively controlled, then the detrimental effects of oxidative stress can accumulate. Oxidative stress is widely thought to underpin many ageing processes, and the oxidative stress theory of ageing is one of the most widely acknowledged theories of ageing. As well as being the major source of reactive oxygen species, mitochondria are also a major site of oxidative damage. The purpose of this review is a concise and current review of the effects of oxidative stress and ageing on mitochondrial function. Emphasis is placed upon the roles of mitochondrial proton leak, the uncoupling proteins, and the anti-ageing effects of caloric restriction.

  5. Protein corona fingerprinting predicts the cellular interaction of gold and silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Walkey, Carl D; Olsen, Jonathan B; Song, Fayi; Liu, Rong; Guo, Hongbo; Olsen, D Wesley H; Cohen, Yoram; Emili, Andrew; Chan, Warren C W

    2014-03-25

    Using quantitative models to predict the biological interactions of nanoparticles will accelerate the translation of nanotechnology. Here, we characterized the serum protein corona 'fingerprint' formed around a library of 105 surface-modified gold nanoparticles. Applying a bioinformatics-inspired approach, we developed a multivariate model that uses the protein corona fingerprint to predict cell association 50% more accurately than a model that uses parameters describing nanoparticle size, aggregation state, and surface charge. Our model implicates a set of hyaluronan-binding proteins as mediators of nanoparticle-cell interactions. This study establishes a framework for developing a comprehensive database of protein corona fingerprints and biological responses for multiple nanoparticle types. Such a database can be used to develop quantitative relationships that predict the biological responses to nanoparticles and will aid in uncovering the fundamental mechanisms of nano-bio interactions.

  6. Examination of the requirement for ucp-4, a putative homolog of mammalian uncoupling proteins, for stress tolerance and longevity in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Iser, Wendy B; Kim, Daemyung; Bachman, Eric; Wolkow, Catherine

    2005-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by mitochondrial respiration and can react with and damage cellular components. According to the free radical theory of aging, oxidative damage from mitochondrial ROS is a major cause of cellular decline during aging. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) uncouple ATP production from electron transport and can be stimulated by free radicals, suggesting UCPs may perform a cytoprotective function. The nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, contains one UCP-like protein, encoded by the ucp-4 gene. We have investigated the genetic requirement for ucp-4 in normal aging and stress resistance. Consistent with the hypothesis that ucp-4 encodes a putative uncoupling protein, animals lacking ucp-4 function contained elevated ATP levels. However, the absence of ucp-4 function did not affect adult lifespan or survival in the presence of thermal or oxidative stress. Together, these results demonstrate that ucp-4 is a negative regulator of ATP production in C. elegans, but is not required for normal lifespan.

  7. The Rift Valley Fever virus protein NSm and putative cellular protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Engdahl, Cecilia; Näslund, Jonas; Lindgren, Lena; Ahlm, Clas; Bucht, Göran

    2012-07-28

    Rift Valley Fever is an infectious viral disease and an emerging problem in many countries of Africa and on the Arabian Peninsula. The causative virus is predominantly transmitted by mosquitoes and high mortality and abortion rates characterize outbreaks in animals while symptoms ranging from mild to life-threatening encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever are noticed among infected humans. For a better prevention and treatment of the infection, an increased knowledge of the infectious process of the virus is required. The focus of this work was to identify protein-protein interactions between the non-structural protein (NSm), encoded by the M-segment of the virus, and host cell proteins. This study was initiated by screening approximately 26 million cDNA clones of a mouse embryonic cDNA library for interactions with the NSm protein using a yeast two-hybrid system. We have identified nine murine proteins that interact with NSm protein of Rift Valley Fever virus, and the putative protein-protein interactions were confirmed by growth selection procedures and β-gal activity measurements. Our results suggest that the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 2 (Cpsf2), the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin)-like 2 protein (Ppil2), and the synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) are the most promising targets for the NSm protein of the virus during an infection.

  8. Augmented cellular uptake of nanoparticles using tea catechins: effect of surface modification on nanoparticle-cell interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi-Ching; Luo, Pei-Chun; Huang, Chun-Wan; Leu, Yann-Lii; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Ma, Yunn-Hwa

    2014-08-01

    Nanoparticles may serve as carriers in targeted therapeutics; interaction of the nanoparticles with a biological system may determine their targeting effects and therapeutic efficacy. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of tea catechins, has been conjugated with nanoparticles and tested as an anticancer agent. We investigated whether EGCG may enhance nanoparticle uptake by tumor cells. Cellular uptake of a dextran-coated magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) was determined by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry or a potassium thiocyanate colorimetric method. We demonstrated that EGCG greatly enhanced interaction and/or internalization of MNPs (with or without polyethylene glycol) by glioma cells, but not vascular endothelial cells. The enhancing effects are both time- and concentration-dependent. Such effects may be induced by a simple mix of MNPs with EGCG at a concentration as low as 1-3 μM, which increased MNP uptake 2- to 7-fold. In addition, application of magnetic force further potentiated MNP uptake, suggesting a synergetic effect of EGCG and magnetic force. Because the effects of EGCG were preserved at 4 °C, but not when EGCG was removed from the culture medium prior to addition of MNPs, a direct interaction of EGCG and MNPs was implicated. Use of an MNP-EGCG composite produced by adsorption of EGCG and magnetic separation also led to an enhanced uptake. The results reveal a novel interaction of a food component and nanocarrier system, which may be potentially amenable to magnetofection, cell labeling/tracing, and targeted therapeutics.

  9. Augmented cellular uptake of nanoparticles using tea catechins: effect of surface modification on nanoparticle-cell interaction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Ching; Luo, Pei-Chun; Huang, Chun-Wan; Leu, Yann-Lii; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Ma, Yunn-Hwa

    2014-09-07

    Nanoparticles may serve as carriers in targeted therapeutics; interaction of the nanoparticles with a biological system may determine their targeting effects and therapeutic efficacy. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of tea catechins, has been conjugated with nanoparticles and tested as an anticancer agent. We investigated whether EGCG may enhance nanoparticle uptake by tumor cells. Cellular uptake of a dextran-coated magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) was determined by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry or a potassium thiocyanate colorimetric method. We demonstrated that EGCG greatly enhanced interaction and/or internalization of MNPs (with or without polyethylene glycol) by glioma cells, but not vascular endothelial cells. The enhancing effects are both time- and concentration-dependent. Such effects may be induced by a simple mix of MNPs with EGCG at a concentration as low as 1-3 μM, which increased MNP uptake 2- to 7-fold. In addition, application of magnetic force further potentiated MNP uptake, suggesting a synergetic effect of EGCG and magnetic force. Because the effects of EGCG were preserved at 4 °C, but not when EGCG was removed from the culture medium prior to addition of MNPs, a direct interaction of EGCG and MNPs was implicated. Use of an MNP-EGCG composite produced by adsorption of EGCG and magnetic separation also led to an enhanced uptake. The results reveal a novel interaction of a food component and nanocarrier system, which may be potentially amenable to magnetofection, cell labeling/tracing, and targeted therapeutics.

  10. Nutrient-Gene Interaction in Colon Cancer, from the Membrane to Cellular Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Tim Y.; Davidson, Laurie A.; Kim, Eunjoo; Fan, Yang-Yi; Fuentes, Natividad R.; Triff, Karen; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently released an assessment classifying red and processed meat as “carcinogenic to humans” on the basis of the positive association between increased consumption and risk for colorectal cancer. Diet, however, can also decrease the risk for colorectal cancer and be used as a chemopreventive strategy. Bioactive dietary molecules, such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, curcumin, and fermentable fiber, have been proposed to exert chemoprotective effects, and their molecular mechanisms have been the focus of research in the dietary/chemoprevention field. Using these bioactives as examples, this review surveys the proposed mechanisms by which they exert their effects, from the nucleus to the cellular membrane. In addition, we discuss emerging technologies involving the culturing of colonic organoids to study the physiological effects of dietary bioactives. Finally, we address future challenges to the field regarding the identification of additional molecular mechanisms and other bioactive dietary molecules that can be utilized in our fight to reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer. PMID:27431370

  11. Effects of surface chemistry on the optical properties and cellular interaction of lanthanide-based nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedraza, Francisco J.; Avalos, Julio C.; Mimun, Lawrence C.; Yust, Brian G.; Tsin, Andrew; Sardar, Dhiraj K.

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) such as KYb2F7:Tm3+ potential in biomedical applications due to their ability to absorb and emit within the biological window, where near infrared light is less attenuated by soft tissue. This results in less tissue damage and deeper tissue penetration making it a viable candidate in biological imaging. Another big factor in determining their ability to perform in a biological setting is the surface chemistry. Biocompatible coatings, including polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), pluronic and folic acid are commonly used because they pose several advantages such as ease of functionalization, better dispersion, and higher cellular uptake. To study the effects of the NP surface chemistry, KYb2F7:Tm3+ a solvothermal method using PEG, PVP, pluronic acid, and folic acid as a capping agent, followed by thorough optical characterizations. Optical changes were thoroughly studied and compared using absorption, emission, and quantum yield data. Cell viability was obtained by treating Rhesus Monkey Retinal Endothelial cells (RhREC) with KYb2F7:Tm3+ and counting viable cells following a 24 hour uptake period. The work presented will compare the optical properties and toxicity dependency on the surface chemistry on KYb2F7:Tm3+. The results will also indicate that KYb2F7:Tm3+ nanoparticles are viable candidates for various biomedical applications.

  12. Interaction of cellular and network mechanisms for efficient pheromone coding in moths

    PubMed Central

    Belmabrouk, Hana; Nowotny, Thomas; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Martinez, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Sensory systems, both in the living and in machines, have to be optimized with respect to their environmental conditions. The pheromone subsystem of the olfactory system of moths is a particularly well-defined example in which rapid variations of odor content in turbulent plumes require fast, concentration-invariant neural representations. It is not clear how cellular and network mechanisms in the moth antennal lobe contribute to coding efficiency. Using computational modeling, we show that intrinsic potassium currents (IA and ISK) in projection neurons may combine with extrinsic inhibition from local interneurons to implement a dual latency code for both pheromone identity and intensity. The mean latency reflects stimulus intensity, whereas latency differences carry concentration-invariant information about stimulus identity. In accordance with physiological results, the projection neurons exhibit a multiphasic response of inhibition–excitation–inhibition. Together with synaptic inhibition, intrinsic currents IA and ISK account for the first and second inhibitory phases and contribute to a rapid encoding of pheromone information. The first inhibition plays the role of a reset to limit variability in the time to first spike. The second inhibition prevents responses of excessive duration to allow tracking of intermittent stimuli. PMID:22109556

  13. Metal oxide nanoparticles interact with immune cells and activate different cellular responses

    PubMed Central

    Simón-Vázquez, Rosana; Lozano-Fernández, Tamara; Dávila-Grana, Angela; González-Fernández, Africa

    2016-01-01

    Besides cell death, nanoparticles (Nps) can induce other cellular responses such as inflammation. The potential immune response mediated by the exposure of human lymphoid cells to metal oxide Nps (moNps) was characterized using four different moNps (CeO2, TiO2, Al2O3, and ZnO) to study the three most relevant mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamilies and the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of the activated B-cell inhibitor, IκBα, as well as the expression of several genes by immune cells incubated with these Nps. The moNps activated different signaling pathways and altered the gene expression in human lymphocyte cells. The ZnO Nps were the most active and the release of Zn2+ ions was the main mechanism of toxicity. CeO2 Nps induced the smallest changes in gene expression and in the IκBα protein. The effects of the particles were strongly dependent on the type and concentration of the Nps and on the cell activation status prior to Np exposure. PMID:27695324

  14. Photoaffinity labeling of uncoupler binding sites on mitochondrial membrane.

    PubMed

    Kurup, C K; Sanadi, D R

    1977-02-01

    3H 2-azido-4-nitrophenol, a photoactive uncoupler, has been synthesized, and its uncoupling action on oxidative phosphorylation and its binding to the mitochondrial membrane have been studied. The uncoupler bound covalently to the mitochondrial membrane on photoirradiation was 3-4 times that bound reversibly in the absence of light. When irradiation was carried out in the presence of serum albumin, covalent binding was significantly depressed. The pattern of loss of ATP-Pi exchange activity with increasing amounts of the uncoupler suggests that serum albumin prevents the binding of the uncoupler to the functional sites as well. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of photoaffinity labeled submitochondrial particles in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed that a 9000 dalton peptide bound high levels of uncoupler. Other proteins in the molecular weight range of 20,000-40,000 and 55,000 were also labeled. Photolysis in the presence of serum albumin or ATP decreased the covalent binding of the uncoupler to all the proteins, but particularly to the 20,000 dalton component. Soluble ATPase and the mitochondrial proteolipid purified from labeled mitochondria showed the presence of label.

  15. Cooperative interactions of LPPR family members in membrane localization and alteration of cellular morphology

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Panpan; Agbaegbu, Chinyere; Malide, Daniela A.; Wu, Xufeng; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; Hammer, John A.; Geller, Herbert M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The lipid phosphate phosphatase-related proteins (LPPRs), also known as plasticity-related genes (PRGs), are classified as a new brain-enriched subclass of the lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) superfamily. They induce membrane protrusions, neurite outgrowth or dendritic spine formation in cell lines and primary neurons. However, the exact roles of LPPRs and the mechanisms underlying their effects are not certain. Here, we present the results of a large-scale proteome analysis to determine LPPR1-interacting proteins using co-immunoprecipitation coupled to mass spectrometry. We identified putative LPPR1-binding proteins involved in various biological processes. Most interestingly, we identified the interaction of LPPR1 with its family member LPPR3, LPPR4 and LPPR5. Their interactions were characterized by co-immunoprecipitation and colocalization analysis using confocal and super-resolution microscopy. Moreover, co-expressing two LPPR members mutually elevated their protein levels, facilitated their plasma membrane localization and resulted in an increased induction of membrane protrusions as well as the phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein. Taken together, we revealed a new functional cooperation between LPPR family members and discovered for the first time that LPPRs likely exert their function through forming complex with its family members. PMID:26183180

  16. Biophysical characterization of quaternary pyridinium functionalized polynorbornenes for DNA complexation and their cellular interactions.

    PubMed

    Guler Gokce, Zeliha; Zuhal Birol, Semra; Eren, Tarık; Ercelen Ceylan, Sebnem

    2017-04-01

    Cationic polymers with hydrophobic side chains have gained great interest as DNA carriers since they form a compact complex with negatively charged DNA phosphate groups and interact with the cell membrane. Amphiphilic polyoxanorbornenes with different quaternary alkyl pyridinium side chains with ethyl-p(OPy2) and hexyl units-p(OPy6) bearing 10 kDa MWT were synthesized by living Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization method. The physicochemical characteristics: critical micellar concentration, size distribution, surface charge, and condensation of polymer/DNA complex were investigated. Morphology of complexes was monitored by Atomic force microscopy. Cytotoxicity and interaction of these complexes with model lipid vesicles mimicking the cell membrane were examined. These polymers were enabled to form small sized complexes of DNA, which interact with model membrane vesicles. It was found that the nature of hydrophobicity of the homopolymers significantly impacts rates of DNA complexation and the surface charge of the resulting complexes. These results highlight the prospect of the further examinations of these polymers as gene carriers.

  17. Modeling physicochemical interactions affecting in vitro cellular dosimetry of engineered nanomaterials: application to nanosilver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Leo, Bey Fen; Royce, Steven G.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary P.; Schwander, Stephan; Chung, Kian Fan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-10-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) possess unique characteristics affecting their interactions in biological media and biological tissues. Systematic investigation of the effects of particle properties on biological toxicity requires a comprehensive modeling framework which can be used to predict ENM particokinetics in a variety of media. The Agglomeration-diffusion-sedimentation-reaction model (ADSRM) described here is stochastic, using a direct simulation Monte Carlo method to study the evolution of nanoparticles in biological media, as they interact with each other and with the media over time. Nanoparticle diffusion, gravitational settling, agglomeration, and dissolution are treated in a mechanistic manner with focus on silver ENMs (AgNPs). The ADSRM model utilizes particle properties such as size, density, zeta potential, and coating material, along with medium properties like density, viscosity, ionic strength, and pH, to model evolving patterns in a population of ENMs along with their interaction with associated ions and molecules. The model predictions for agglomeration and dissolution are compared with in vitro measurements for various types of ENMs, coating materials, and incubation media, and are found to be overall consistent with measurements. The model has been implemented for an in vitro case in cell culture systems to inform in vitro dosimetry for toxicology studies, and can be directly extended to other biological systems, including in vivo tissue sub-systems by suitably modifying system geometry.

  18. Experimental and computational analysis of cellular interactions with nylon-3-bearing substrates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Runhui; Vang, Kang Z; Kreeger, Pamela K; Gellman, Samuel H; Masters, Kristyn S

    2012-10-01

    The ability to design biomaterials that interact with biological environments in a predictable manner necessitates an improved understanding of how surface chemistry influences events such as protein adsorption and cell adhesion. In this work, we examined mechanisms governing the interactions between 3T3 fibroblasts and nylon-3 polymers, which have a protein-like polyamide backbone and are highly amenable to tuning of chemical and physical properties. Protein adsorption and cell adhesion to a library of nylon-3 polymers were characterized and analyzed by partial least squares regression. This analysis revealed that specific chemical features of the nylon-3 polymers correlated with the extent of protein adsorption, which, in turn, correlated with cell adhesion in a serum-containing environment. In contrast, in a serum-free environment, cell adhesion could be predicted solely from chemical properties. Enzymatic treatments of 3T3 cells before plating indicated that proteins bound to the cell surface mediated cell-nylon-3 polymer interactions under serum-free conditions, with additional analysis suggesting that cell-associated fibronectin played a dominant role in adhesion in the absence of serum. The mechanistic insight gained from these studies can be used to inform the design of new polymer structures in addition to providing a basis for continued development of nylon-3 copolymers for tissue engineering applications.

  19. The Bioavailability of Soluble Cigarette Smoke Extract Is Reduced through Interactions with Cells and Affects the Cellular Response to CSE Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Jeffrey S.; Jacob, Jeeva; Garewal, Aram; Ndahayo, Renata; Paxson, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Cellular exposure to cigarette smoke leads to an array of complex responses including apoptosis, cellular senescence, telomere dysfunction, cellular aging, and neoplastic transformation. To study the cellular response to cigarette smoke, a common in vitro model exposes cultured cells to a nominal concentration (i.e. initial concentration) of soluble cigarette smoke extract (CSE). However, we report that use of the nominal concentration of CSE as the only measure of cellular exposure is inadequate. Instead, we demonstrate that cellular response to CSE exposure is dependent not only on the nominal concentration of CSE, but also on specific experimental variables, including the total cell number, and the volume of CSE solution used. As found in other similar xenobiotic assays, our work suggests that the effective dose of CSE is more accurately related to the amount of bioavailable chemicals per cell. In particular, interactions of CSE components both with cells and other physical factors limit CSE bioavailability, as demonstrated by a quantifiably reduced cellular response to CSE that is first modified by such interactions. This has broad implications for the nature of cellular response to CSE exposure, and for the design of in vitro assays using CSE. PMID:27649082

  20. Transcriptional regulation of the uncoupling protein-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Villarroya, Francesc; Peyrou, Marion; Giralt, Marta

    2017-03-01

    Regulated transcription of the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) gene, and subsequent UCP1 protein synthesis, is a hallmark of the acquisition of the differentiated, thermogenically competent status of brown and beige/brite adipocytes, as well as of the responsiveness of brown and beige/brite adipocytes to adaptive regulation of thermogenic activity. The 5' non-coding region of the UCP1 gene contains regulatory elements that confer tissue specificity, differentiation dependence, and neuro-hormonal regulation to UCP1 gene transcription. Two main regions-a distal enhancer and a proximal promoter region-mediate transcriptional regulation through interactions with a plethora of transcription factors, including nuclear hormone receptors and cAMP-responsive transcription factors. Co-regulators, such as PGC-1α, play a pivotal role in the concerted regulation of UCP1 gene transcription. Multiple interactions of transcription factors and co-regulators at the promoter region of the UCP1 gene result in local chromatin remodeling, leading to activation and increased accessibility of RNA polymerase II and subsequent gene transcription. Moreover, a commonly occurring A-to-G polymorphism in close proximity to the UCP1 gene enhancer influences the extent of UCP1 gene transcription. Notably, it has been reported that specific aspects of obesity and associated metabolic diseases are associated with human population variability at this site. On another front, the unique properties of the UCP1 promoter region have been exploited to develop brown adipose tissue-specific gene delivery tools for experimental purposes.

  1. Molecular and Cellular Interactions between Mother and Fetus. Pregnancy as a Rejuvenating Factor.

    PubMed

    Popkov, V A; Silachev, D N; Jankauskas, S S; Zorova, L D; Pevzner, I B; Babenko, V A; Plotnikov, E Y; Zorov, D B

    2016-12-01

    Aging is associated with a decline of various body functions, including ability to regenerate. Over recent decades, it has been demonstrated that some of these changes could be reversed in response to factors originating from a young organism, for example, fetal stem cells or "young blood" in models of heterochronic parabiosis. Pregnancy might be considered as parabiotic model of the interaction between two organisms of different age. In this work, we analyzed and summarized data on the effects of pregnancy on the maternal organism that confirm the hypothesis that pregnancy rejuvenates the mother's organism or slows its aging.

  2. A set of descriptors for identifying the protein-drug interaction in cellular networking.

    PubMed

    Nanni, Loris; Lumini, Alessandra; Brahnam, Sheryl

    2014-10-21

    The study of protein-drug interactions is a significant issue for drug development. Unfortunately, it is both expensive and time-consuming to perform physical experiments to determine whether a drug and a protein are interacting with each other. Some previous attempts to design an automated system to perform this task were based on the knowledge of the 3D structure of a protein, which is not always available in practice. With the availability of protein sequences generated in the post-genomic age, however, a sequence-based solution to deal with this problem is necessary. Following other works in this area, we propose a new machine learning system based on several protein descriptors extracted from several protein representations, such as, variants of the position specific scoring matrix (PSSM) of proteins, the amino-acid sequence, and a matrix representation of a protein. The prediction engine is operated by an ensemble of support vector machines (SVMs), with each SVM trained on a specific descriptor and the results of each SVM combined by sum rule. The overall success rate achieved by our final ensemble is notably higher than previous results obtained on the same datasets using the same testing protocols reported in the literature. MATLAB code and the datasets used in our experiments are freely available for future comparison at http://www.dei.unipd.it/node/2357.

  3. New cellular tools reveal complex epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in hepatocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sagmeister, S; Eisenbauer, M; Pirker, C; Mohr, T; Holzmann, K; Zwickl, H; Bichler, C; Kandioler, D; Wrba, F; Mikulits, W; Gerner, C; Shehata, M; Majdic, O; Streubel, B; Berger, W; Micksche, M; Zatloukal, K; Schulte-Hermann, R; Grasl-Kraupp, B

    2008-01-01

    To enable detailed analyses of cell interactions in tumour development, new epithelial and mesenchymal cell lines were established from human hepatocellular carcinoma by spontaneous outgrowth in culture. We obtained several hepatocarcinoma (HCC)-, B-lymphoblastoid (BLC)-, and myofibroblastoid (MF)-lines from seven cases. In-depth characterisation included cell kinetics, genotype, tumourigenicity, expression of cell-type specific markers, and proteome patterns. Many functions of the cells of origin were found to be preserved. We studied the impact of the mesenchymal lines on hepatocarcinogenesis by in vitro assays. BLC- and MF-supernatants strongly increased the DNA replication of premalignant hepatocytes. The stimulation by MF-lines was mainly attributed to HGF secretion. In HCC-cells, MF-supernatant had only minor effects on cell growth but enhanced migration. MF-lines also stimulated neoangiogenesis through vEGF release. BLC-supernatant dramatically induced death of HCC-cells, which could be largely abrogated by preincubating the supernatant with TNFβ-antiserum. Thus, the new cell lines reveal stage-specific stimulatory and inhibitory interactions between mesenchymal and epithelial tumour cells. In conclusion, the new cell lines provide unique tools to analyse essential components of the complex interplay between the microenvironment and the developing liver cancer, and to identify factors affecting proliferation, migration and death of tumour cells, neoangiogenesis, and outgrowth of additional malignancy. PMID:18594539

  4. Interactions between ingested kaolinite and the intestinal mucosa in rat: proteomic and cellular evidences.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, François; Habold, Caroline; Chaumande, Bertrand; Ackermann, Alain; Ehret-Sabatier, Laurence; Le Maho, Yvon; Angel, Fabielle; Liewig, Nicole; Lignot, Jean-Hervé

    2009-02-01

    Although some of the effects of clay ingestion by humans and animals, such as gastrointestinal wellness and the increase in food efficiency are well known, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Therefore, the interactions between the intestinal mucosa and kaolinite particles and their effects on mucosal morphology were observed using light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), conventional (CSEM) and environmental (ESEM) scanning electron microscopy combined with an EDX micro-analysis system. Kaolinite consumption, given with free access to rats, varied considerably from one animal to the other but was regular through time for each individual. Some kaolinite particles appeared chemically dissociated in the lumen and within the mucus barrier. Aluminium (Al) originating from ingested clay and present in the mucus layer could directly cross the intestinal mucosa. A significant increase in the thickness of the villi with large vacuoles at the base of the mucosal cells and a decrease in the length of enterocyte microvilli characterized complemented animals. The proteomic analyses of the intestinal mucosa of complemented rats also revealed several modifications in the expression level of cytoskeleton proteins. In summary, kaolinite particles ingested as food complement interact with the intestinal mucosa and modify nutrient absorption. However, these data, together with the potential neurotoxicity of Al, need further investigation.

  5. Analyses of Dynein Heavy Chain Mutations Reveal Complex Interactions Between Dynein Motor Domains and Cellular Dynein Functions

    PubMed Central

    Sivagurunathan, Senthilkumar; Schnittker, Robert R.; Razafsky, David S.; Nandini, Swaran; Plamann, Michael D.; King, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein transports cargoes for a variety of crucial cellular functions. However, since dynein is essential in most eukaryotic organisms, the in-depth study of the cellular function of dynein via genetic analysis of dynein mutations has not been practical. Here, we identify and characterize 34 different dynein heavy chain mutations using a genetic screen of the ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa, in which dynein is nonessential. Interestingly, our studies show that these mutations segregate into five different classes based on the in vivo localization of the mutated dynein motors. Furthermore, we have determined that the different classes of dynein mutations alter vesicle trafficking, microtubule organization, and nuclear distribution in distinct ways and require dynactin to different extents. In addition, biochemical analyses of dynein from one mutant strain show a strong correlation between its in vitro biochemical properties and the aberrant intracellular function of that altered dynein. When the mutations were mapped to the published dynein crystal structure, we found that the three-dimensional structural locations of the heavy chain mutations were linked to particular classes of altered dynein functions observed in cells. Together, our data indicate that the five classes of dynein mutations represent the entrapment of dynein at five separate points in the dynein mechanochemical and transport cycles. We have developed N. crassa as a model system where we can dissect the complexities of dynein structure, function, and interaction with other proteins with genetic, biochemical, and cell biological studies. PMID:22649085

  6. Cellular automata (CA) simulation of the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on urban low-grade uncontrolled roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qun; Wang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on uncontrolled low-grade roads or branch roads without separating barriers in cities where pedestrians may cross randomly from any location on both sides of the road. The rules governing pedestrian street crossings are analyzed, and a cellular automata (CA) model to simulate the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings is proposed. The influence of the interaction of vehicle flows and pedestrian crossings on the volume and travel time of the vehicle flow and the average wait time for pedestrians to cross is investigated through simulations. The main results of the simulation are as follows: (1) The vehicle flow volume decreases because of interruption from pedestrian crossings, but a small number of pedestrian crossings do not cause a significant delay to vehicles. (2) If there are many pedestrian crossings, slow vehicles will have little chance to accelerate, causing travel time to increase and the vehicle flow volume to decrease. (3) The average wait time for pedestrians to cross generally decreases with a decrease in vehicle flow volume and also decreases with an increase in the number of pedestrian crossings. (4) Temporal and spatial characteristics of vehicle flows and pedestrian flows and some interesting phenomena such as "crossing belt" and "vehicle belt" are found through the simulations.

  7. KIR/HLA interactions negatively affect rituximab- but not GA101 (obinutuzumab)-induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Terszowski, Grzegorz; Klein, Christian; Stern, Martin

    2014-06-15

    Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by NK cells is regulated by inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs), which interact with target cell HLA class I. We analyzed how KIR/HLA interactions influence ADCC induced by rituximab and by GA101, a novel type II CD20 Ab glycoengineered for increased FcgRIII binding and ADCC capacity. We found that KIR/HLA interactions strongly and selectively inhibit rituximab-induced in vitro ADCC toward target cells expressing cognate HLA KIR ligands. NK cells of donors carrying all three ligands to inhibitory KIR showed weak activation and target cell depletion capacity when incubated with rituximab and KIR-ligand matched target B cells. In contrast, NK cells from individuals missing one or more KIR ligands activated more strongly and depleted KIR ligand-matched target B cells more efficiently in the presence of rituximab. NK cells expressing a KIR for which the ligand was absent were the main effectors of ADCC in these donors. Notably, the influence of KIR/HLA interactions on NK cell activation was synergistic with the effect of the V158F FCGR3A single nucleotide polymorphism. In contrast, GA101 induced activation of NK cells irrespective of inhibitory KIR expression, and efficiency of target cell depletion was not negatively affected by KIR/HLA interactions. These data show that modification of the Fc fragment to enhance ADCC can be an effective strategy to augment the efficacy of therapeutic mAbs by recruiting NK cells irrespective of their inhibitory KIR expression.

  8. Cellular Barriers after Extravasation: Leukocyte Interactions with Polarized Epithelia in the Inflamed Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Reglero-Real, Natalia; García-Weber, Diego; Millán, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    During the inflammatory response, immune cells egress from the circulation and follow a chemotactic and haptotactic gradient within the tissue, interacting with matrix components in the stroma and with parenchymal cells, which guide them towards the sites of inflammation. Polarized epithelial cells compartmentalize tissue cavities and are often exposed to inflammatory challenges such as toxics or infections in non-lymphoid tissues. Apicobasal polarity is critical to the specialized functions of these epithelia. Indeed, a common feature of epithelial dysfunction is the loss of polarity. Here we review evidence showing that apicobasal polarity regulates the inflammatory response: various polarized epithelia asymmetrically secrete chemotactic mediators and polarize adhesion receptors that dictate the route of leukocyte migration within the parenchyma. We also discuss recent findings showing that the loss of apicobasal polarity increases leukocyte adhesion to epithelial cells and the consequences that this could have for the inflammatory response towards damaged, infected or transformed epithelial cells. PMID:26941485

  9. Resolution of the cellular proteome of the nucleocapsid protein from a highly pathogenic isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus identifies PARP-1 as a cellular target whose interaction is critical for virus biology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Lear, Zoe; Hughes, David J; Wu, Weining; Zhou, En-min; Whitehouse, Adrian; Chen, Hongying; Hiscox, Julian A

    2015-03-23

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major threat to the swine industry and food security worldwide. The nucleocapsid (N) protein is a major structural protein of PRRSV. The primary function of this protein is to encapsidate the viral RNA genome, and it is also thought to participate in the modulation of host cell biology and recruitment of cellular factors to facilitate virus infection. In order to the better understand these latter roles the cellular interactome of PRRSV N protein was defined using label free quantitative proteomics. This identified several cellular factors that could interact with the N protein including poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1), a cellular protein, which can add adenosine diphosphate ribose to a protein. Use of the PARP-1 small molecule inhibitor, 3-AB, in PRRSV infected cells demonstrated that PARP-1 was required and acted as an enhancer factor for virus biology. Serial growth of PRRSV in different concentrations of 3-AB did not yield viruses that were able to grow with wild type kinetics, suggesting that by targeting a cellular protein crucial for virus biology, resistant phenotypes did not emerge. This study provides further evidence that cellular proteins, which are critical for virus biology, can also be targeted to ablate virus growth and provide a high barrier for the emergence of drug resistance.

  10. Multi-cellular interactions sustain long-term contractility of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Burridge, Paul W; Metzler, Scott A; Nakayama, Karina H; Abilez, Oscar J; Simmons, Chelsey S; Bruce, Marc A; Matsuura, Yuka; Kim, Paul; Wu, Joseph C; Butte, Manish; Huang, Ngan F; Yang, Phillip C

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic delivery of cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-CMs) represents a novel clinical approach to regenerate the injured myocardium. However, poor survival and contractility of these cells are a significant bottleneck to their clinical use. To better understand the role of cell-cell communication in enhancing the phenotype and contractile properties of hPSC-CMs, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel composed of hPSC-CMs, human pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (hPSC-ECs), and/or human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). The objective of this study was to examine the role of multi-cellular interactions among hPSC-ECs and hAMSCs on the survival and long-term contractile phenotype of hPSC-CMs in a 3D hydrogel. Quantification of spontaneous contractility of hPSC-CMs in tri-culture demonstrated a 6-fold increase in the area of contractile motion after 6 weeks with characteristic rhythmic contraction frequency, when compared to hPSC-CMs alone (P < 0.05). This finding was supported by a statistically significant increase in cardiac troponin T protein expression in the tri-culture hydrogel construct at 6 weeks, when compared to hPSC-CMs alone (P < 0.001). The sustained hPSC-CM survival and contractility in tri-culture was associated with a significant upregulation in the gene expression of L-type Ca2+ ion channel, Cav1.2, and the inward-rectifier potassium channel, Kir2.1 (P < 0.05), suggesting a role of ion channels in mediating these processes. These findings demonstrate that multi-cellular interactions modulate hPSC-CM phenotype, function, and survival, and they will have important implications in engineering cardiac tissues for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25628783

  11. Airway-parenchyma uncoupling in nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed

    Irvin, C G; Pak, J; Martin, R J

    2000-01-01

    Airway flow resistance is well known to be dependent upon lung volume. The rise in lung volume that occurs in asthma is therefore thought to be an important mechanism that defends airway patency. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the interdependence or mechanical coupling between airways and lung parenchyma during the inflammatory processes that occur in the patient with nocturnal asthma. Five patients with documented nocturnal asthma were studied in both a vertical and a horizontal body plethysmograph. Lung volume was altered with continuous negative pressure as applied to the chest wall with a poncho cuirass in different postures and during sleep. We found during the awake phase that an increase in lung volume decreased lower pulmonary resistance (Rlp); however, within 30 min of sleep onset, functional residual capacity (FRC) fell and Rlp rose more than would be expected for the fall in FRC. Restoring FRC to presleep values either at an early (half-hour) or a late (3-h) time point did not cause Rlp to significantly fall. A second phase of the study showed that the loss of Rlp dependence on lung volume was not due to the assumption of the supine posture. Indirect measurements of lung compliance were consistent with a stiffening of the lung. We conclude that with sleep there is an immediate uncoupling of the parenchyma to the airway, resulting in a loss of interdependence that persists throughout sleep and may contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with nocturnal asthma.

  12. Molecular studies of the uncoupling protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ricquier, D.; Casteilla, L.; Bouillaud, F. )

    1991-06-01

    The uncoupling protein (UCP) is a proton/anion transporter found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of brown adipocyte. Although UCP has nor been detected in mitochondria from any other tissue, it shares structural and catalytic properties with several other mitochondrial carrier proteins. Although UCP was discovered only recently it is one of the most extensively studied mitochondrial carrier proteins.More recently, the mouse, rat, and human genes encoding for UCP have been isolated and sequenced. The availability of these various tools has led to several significant observations. UCP gene expression is strongly controlled at the level of transcription by signals that are activated after the stimulation of brown adipocytes by norepinephrine. The comparison of UCP gene with the genes encoding the adenine nucleotide translocator revealed the existence of structural and evolutionary homologies. Moreover, in humans the UCP gene and one form of adenine nucleotide translocator gene are located on the same chromosome. Recently, the expression of functional UCp in various heterologous systems was achieved (Xenopus oocytes, CHO cells, yeasts). These data will facilitate studies of the structure/function relationship in UCP (identification of residues involved in H{sup +} transport, Cl{sup {minus}} transport, nucleotide binding, mitochondrial targeting). Another aspect of the present research on UCP is the understanding of mechanisms that control UCP gene and the differentiated commitment of adipose precursor cells to thermogenic brown adipocytes.

  13. Delineating cellular interactions between ciliates and fish by co-culturing Tetrahymena thermophila with fish cells.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Marcel D O; Bols, Niels C

    2014-10-01

    Although several species of Tetrahymena are often described as histophagous and opportunistic pathogens of fish, little is known about ciliate/fish cell interactions, but one approach for studying these is in vitro with cell lines. In this study, T. thermophila, B1975 (wild type) and NP1 (temperature sensitive mutant for phagocytosis) were cultured on monolayers of 3 fish epithelial cell lines, CHSE-214, RTgill-W1, and ZEB2J, and the rabbit kidney epithelial cell line, RK-13. Generally the ciliates flourished, whereas the monolayers died, being completely consumed over several days. The destruction of monolayers required that the ciliates could make contact with the animal cells through swimming, which appeared to dislodge or loosen cells so that they could be phagocytosed. The ciliates internalized into food vacuoles ZEB2J from cell monolayers as well as from cell suspensions. Phagocytosis was essential for monolayer destruction as monolayers remained intact under conditions where phagocytosis was impeded, such as 37°C for NP1 and 4°C for B1975. Monolayers of fish cells supported the proliferation of ciliates. Thus T. thermophila can 'eat' animal cells or be histophagous in vitro, with the potential to be histophagous in vivo.

  14. Cellular Interactions and Formation of an Epithelial “Nanocoating-Like Barrier” with Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Pang, Ka Yan; Ng, Tsz Wing; Leung, Ping Chung; Zhang, Cheng Fei; Leung, Ken Cham-Fai; Jin, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Oral mucosa as the front-line barrier in the mouth is constantly exposed to a complex microenvironment with multitudinous microbes. In this study, the interactions of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with primary human gingival epithelial cells were analyzed for up to 72 h, and their diffusion capacity in the reconstructed human gingival epithelia (RHGE) and porcine ear skin models was further assessed at 24 h. It was found that the synthesized fluorescent mesoporous silica nanoparticles (RITC-NPs) with low cytotoxicity could be uptaken, degraded, and/or excreted by the human gingival epithelial cells. Moreover, the RITC-NPs penetrated into the stratum corneum of RHGE in a time-dependent manner, while they were unable to get across the barrier of stratum corneum in the porcine ear skins. Consequently, the penetration and accumulation of RITC-NPs at the corneum layers of epithelia could form a “nanocoating-like barrier”. This preliminary proof-of-concept study suggests the feasibility of developing nanoparticle-based antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents through topical application for oral healthcare. PMID:28335320

  15. Cellular interactions of the cytolethal distending toxins from Escherichia coli and Haemophilus ducreyi.

    PubMed

    Gargi, Amandeep; Tamilselvam, Batcha; Powers, Brendan; Prouty, Michael G; Lincecum, Tommie; Eshraghi, Aria; Maldonado-Arocho, Francisco J; Wilson, Brenda A; Bradley, Kenneth A; Blanke, Steven R

    2013-03-15

    The cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) compose a subclass of intracellularly acting genotoxins produced by many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria that disrupt the normal progression of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Here, the intoxication mechanisms of CDTs from Escherichia coli (Ec-CDT) and Haemophilus ducreyi (Hd-CDT), which share limited amino acid sequence homology, were directly compared. Ec-CDT and Hd-CDT shared comparable in vitro DNase activities of the CdtB subunits, saturable cell surface binding with comparable affinities, and the requirement for an intact Golgi complex to induce cell cycle arrest. In contrast, disruption of endosome acidification blocked Hd-CDT-mediated cell cycle arrest and toxin transport to the endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus, while having no effects on Ec-CDT. Phosphorylation of the histone protein H2AX, as well as nuclear localization, was inhibited for Hd-CdtB, but not Ec-CdtB, in cells expressing dominant negative Rab7 (T22N), suggesting that Hd-CDT, but not Ec-CDT, is trafficked through late endosomal vesicles. In support of this idea, significantly more Hd-CdtB than Ec-CdtB co-localized with Rab9, which is enriched in late endosomal compartments. Competitive binding studies suggested that Ec-CDT and Hd-CDT bind to discrete cell surface determinants. These results suggest that Ec-CDT and Hd-CDT are transported within cells by distinct pathways, possibly mediated by their interaction with different receptors at the cell surface.

  16. Uncoupling protein homologs may provide a link between mitochondria, metabolism and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Wolkow, Catherine A; Iser, Wendy B

    2006-05-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs), which dissipate the mitochondrial proton gradient, have the ability to decouple mitochodrial respiration from ATP production. Since mitochondrial electron transport is a major source of free radical production, it is possible that UCP activity might impact free radical production. Free radicals can react with and damage cellular proteins, DNA and lipids. Accumulated damage from oxidative stress is believed to be a major contributor to cellular decline during aging. If UCP function were to impact mitochondrial free radical production, then one would expect to find a link between UCP activity and aging. This theory has recently been tested in a handful of organisms whose genomes contain UCP1 homologs. Interestingly, these experiments indicate that UCP homologs can affect lifespan, although they do not support a simple relationship between UCP activity and aging. Instead, UCP-like proteins appear to have a variety of effects on lifespan, and on pathways implicated in lifespan regulation. One possible explanation for this complex picture is that UCP homologs may have tissue-specific effects that complicate their effects on aging. Furthermore, the functional analysis of UCP1 homologs is incomplete. Thus, these proteins may perform functions in addition to, or instead of, mitochondrial uncoupling. Although these studies have not revealed a clear picture of UCP effects on aging, they have contributed to the growing knowledge base for these interesting proteins. Future biochemical and genetic investigation of UCP-like proteins will do much to clarify their functions and to identify the regulatory networks in which they are involved.

  17. Mitochondrial Hormesis in Pancreatic β Cells: Does Uncoupling Protein 2 Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Stojanovski, Suzana; Maechler, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In pancreatic β cells, mitochondrial metabolism translates glucose sensing into signals regulating insulin secretion. Chronic exposure of β cells to excessive nutrients, namely, glucolipotoxicity, impairs β-cell function. This is associated with elevated ROS production from overstimulated mitochondria. Mitochondria are not only the major source of cellular ROS, they are also the primary target of ROS attacks. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP2, even though its uncoupling properties are debated, has been associated with protective functions against ROS toxicity. Hormesis, an adaptive response to cellular stresses, might contribute to the protection against β-cell death, possibly limiting the development of type 2 diabetes. Mitochondrial hormesis, or mitohormesis, is a defense mechanism observed in ROS-induced stress-responses by mitochondria. In β cells, mitochondrial damages induced by sublethal exogenous H2O2 can induce secondary repair and defense mechanisms. In this context, UCP2 is a marker of mitohormesis, being upregulated following stress conditions. When overexpressed in nonstressed naïve cells, UCP2 confers resistance to oxidative stress. Whether treatment with mitohormetic inducers is sufficient to restore or ameliorate secretory function of β cells remains to be determined. PMID:23029600

  18. Mitochondrial uncouplers inhibit clathrin-mediated endocytosis largely through cytoplasmic acidification

    PubMed Central

    Dejonghe, Wim; Kuenen, Sabine; Mylle, Evelien; Vasileva, Mina; Keech, Olivier; Viotti, Corrado; Swerts, Jef; Fendrych, Matyáš; Ortiz-Morea, Fausto Andres; Mishev, Kiril; Delang, Simon; Scholl, Stefan; Zarza, Xavier; Heilmann, Mareike; Kourelis, Jiorgos; Kasprowicz, Jaroslaw; Nguyen, Le Son Long; Drozdzecki, Andrzej; Van Houtte, Isabelle; Szatmári, Anna-Mária; Majda, Mateusz; Baisa, Gary; Bednarek, Sebastian York; Robert, Stéphanie; Audenaert, Dominique; Testerink, Christa; Munnik, Teun; Van Damme, Daniël; Heilmann, Ingo; Schumacher, Karin; Winne, Johan; Friml, Jiří; Verstreken, Patrik; Russinova, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    ATP production requires the establishment of an electrochemical proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial uncouplers dissipate this proton gradient and disrupt numerous cellular processes, including vesicular trafficking, mainly through energy depletion. Here we show that Endosidin9 (ES9), a novel mitochondrial uncoupler, is a potent inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in different systems and that ES9 induces inhibition of CME not because of its effect on cellular ATP, but rather due to its protonophore activity that leads to cytoplasm acidification. We show that the known tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostinA23, which is routinely used to block CME, displays similar properties, thus questioning its use as a specific inhibitor of cargo recognition by the AP-2 adaptor complex via tyrosine motif-based endocytosis signals. Furthermore, we show that cytoplasm acidification dramatically affects the dynamics and recruitment of clathrin and associated adaptors, and leads to reduction of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate from the plasma membrane. PMID:27271794

  19. Cellular and molecular interactions of thymus with endocrine organs and nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Y; Hato, F

    2001-02-01

    T-cell ontogenesis has been disclosed to depend on the interactions of thymus with endocrine glands and nervous system as follows: i/ Thymic deprivation not only impaired the immunological development but also brought about the dysgenesis of pituitary anterior lobe. Conversely, hypophysectomy resulted in thymus atrophy with the disturbed immune responses. ii/ Binding of pituitary acidophilic cell hormones to their receptors on thymus epithelial cells (TECs) augmented the release of thymic hormonal peptides (THPs) in vitro. iii/ Elevation of blood glucocorticoid level after stress caused atrophy of thymus cortex through double positive thymocyte apoptosis. Morpho-molecular alterations of cytoplasm preceded nuclear damage in the apoptotic thymocytes. iv/ Administration of thymosin to the streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice repressed mononuclear cell infiltration to the pancreatic islets. v/ Autonomic nerve fibers innervate thymic parenchyma. Binding of acetylcholines (Achs) to Ach receptors on TECs enhanced protein synthetic activity which seemed to connect with THP production. vi/ Thymectomy not only depressed the immune responses but also accelerated the reduction of leaming and memory ability with aging. The operation appears to disturb the brain adrenoceptor functions and to suppress the regulatory roles of hypothalamus to other nervous tissues. vii/ Several kinds of THPs, separated from the culture supernatant of TEC line by high performance liquid chromatography, showed a favorable effect on the thymocytes at different stage of differentiation and maturation. viii/ Thymosin, thymulin and THPs were capable of proliferating and differentiating thymocytes in vitro. However, the administration of each thymic product to the thymus-deprived animals could not restore from their "wasting disease". Since TECs are composed of a heterogeneous population, it would be one of essential ways for isolating "true thymus hormone" (TTH) to use the material which consists of

  20. The HTLV-1 HBZ protein inhibits cyclin D1 expression through interacting with the cellular transcription factor CREB.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunyun; Zheng, Shangen; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zang, Wenqiao; Li, Min; Wang, Na; Li, Ping; Jin, Jing; Dong, Ziming; Zhao, Guoqiang

    2013-10-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an oncogenic retrovirus that can cause adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and other diseases. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ), which is encoded by an mRNA of the opposite polarity of the viral genomic RNA, interacts with several transcription factors and is involved in T cell proliferation, viral gene transcription and cellular transformation. Cyclin D1 is a pivotal regulatory protein involved in cell cycle progression, and its depressed expression correlates with cell cycle prolongation or arrested at the G1/S transition. In our present study, we observed that HBZ expression suppressed cyclin D1 level. To investigate the role of HBZ on cyclin D1 depression, we transduced HBZ with lentivirus vector into 293T cells, CEM cells and Jurkat cells. The results of Western blot, RT-PCR and luciferase assays showed that transcriptional activity of the cyclin D1 promoter was suppressed by the bZIP domain of HBZ (HBZ-bZIP) through cyclic AMP response element (CRE) site. Immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays showed the binding of HBZ-bZIP to CRE-binding protein (CREB), which confirmed that the cyclin D1 promoter activity inhibition via the CRE-site was mediated by HBZ-bZIP. The results suggested that HBZ suppressed cyclin D1 transcription through interactions with CREB and along with other viral protein, HBZ may play a causal role for leukemogenesis.

  1. Probing the Dynamic Interaction between Damaged DNA and a Cellular Responsive Protein Using a Piezoelectric Mass Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yulong; Xie, Yunfeng; Wu, Kui; Huang, Yanyan; Wang, Fuyi; Zhao, Rui

    2017-03-15

    The binding events between damaged DNA and recognition biomolecules are of great interest for understanding the activity of DNA-damaging drugs and the related DNA repair networks. Herein, a simple and sensitive sensor system was tailored for real-time probing of the dynamic molecular recognition between cisplatin-damaged-DNA (cisPt-DNA) and a cellular responsive protein, high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1). By integration of flow injection analysis (FIA) with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), the interaction time-course of cisPt-DNA and HMGB1 domain A (HMGB1a) was investigated. The highly specific sensing interface was carefully designed and fabricated using cisPt-DNA as recognition element. A hybrid self-assembled monolayer consisting of cysteamine and mercaptohexanol was introduced to resist nonspecific adsorption. The calculated kinetic parameters (kass and kdiss) and the dissociation constant (KD) demonstrated the rapid recognition and tight binding of HMGB1a toward cisPt-DNA. Molecular docking was employed to simulate the complex formed by cisPt-DNA and HMGB1a. The tight binding of such a DNA-damage responsive complex is appealing for the downstream molecular recognition event related to the resistance to DNA repair. This continuous-flow QCM biosensor is an ideal tool for studying specific interactions between drug-damaged-DNAs and their recognition proteins in a physiological-relevant environment, and will provide a potential sensor platform for rapid screening and evaluating metal anticancer drugs.

  2. Interaction of cellular proteins with BCL-xL targeted to cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in adenovirus infected cells.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, T; Vijayalingam, S; Kuppuswamy, M; Chinnadurai, G

    2015-09-01

    Adenovirus-mediated apoptosis was suppressed when cellular anti-apoptosis proteins (BCL-2 and BCL-xL) were substituted for the viral E1B-19K. For unbiased proteomic analysis of proteins targeted by BCL-xL in adenovirus-infected cells and to visualize the interactions with target proteins, BCL-xL was targeted to cytosolic inclusion bodies utilizing the orthoreovirus µNS protein sequences. The chimeric protein was localized in non-canonical cytosolic factory-like sites and promoted survival of virus-infected cells. The BCL-xL-associated proteins were isolated from the cytosolic inclusion bodies in adenovirus-infected cells and analyzed by LC-MS. These proteins included BAX, BAK, BID, BIK and BIM as well as mitochondrial proteins such as prohibitin 2, ATP synthase and DNA-PKcs. Our studies suggested that in addition to the interaction with various pro-apoptotic proteins, the association with certain mitochondrial proteins such as DNA-PKcs and prohibitins might augment the survival function of BCL-xL in virus infected cells.

  3. The Protein Corona of Plant Virus Nanoparticles Influences their Dispersion Properties, Cellular Interactions, and In Vivo Fates.

    PubMed

    Pitek, Andrzej S; Wen, Amy M; Shukla, Sourabh; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2016-04-06

    Biomolecules in bodily fluids such as plasma can adsorb to the surface of nanoparticles and influence their biological properties. This phenomenon, known as the protein corona, is well established in the field of synthetic nanotechnology but has not been described in the context of plant virus nanoparticles (VNPs). The interaction between VNPs derived from Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and plasma proteins is investigated, and it is found that the VNP protein corona is significantly less abundant compared to the corona of synthetic particles. The formed corona is dominated by complement proteins and immunoglobulins, the binding of which can be reduced by PEGylating the VNP surface. The impact of the VNP protein corona on molecular recognition and cell targeting in the context of cancer and thrombosis is investigated. A library of functionalized TMV rods with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and peptide ligands targeting integrins or fibrin(ogen) show different dispersion properties, cellular interactions, and in vivo fates depending on the properties of the protein corona, influencing target specificity, and non-specific scavenging by macrophages. Our results provide insight into the in vivo properties of VNPs and suggest that the protein corona effect should be considered during the development of efficacious, targeted VNP formulations.

  4. Isolation and co-culture of rat parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells to evaluate cellular interactions and response

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Shyam Sundhar; Geerts, Sharon; Jindal, Rohit; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    The liver is a central organ in the human body, and first line of defense between host and external environment. Liver response to any external perturbation is a collective reaction of resident liver cells. Most of the current in vitro liver models focus on hepatocytes, the primary metabolic component, omitting interactions and cues from surrounding environment and non-parenchymal cells (NPCs). Recent studies suggest that contributions of NPCs are vital, particularly in disease conditions, and outcomes of drugs and their metabolites. Along with hepatocytes, NPCs–Kupffer (KC), sinusoidal endothelial (LSEC) and stellate cells (SC) are major cellular components of the liver. Incorporation of primary cells in in vitro liver platforms is essential to emulate the functions of the liver, and its overall response. Herein, we isolate individual NPC cell fractions from rat livers and co-culture them in a transwell format incorporating primary rat hepatocytes with LSECs, SCs, and KCs. Our results indicate that the presence and contributions of multiple cells within the co-culture capture the interactions between hepatocytes and NPC, and modulates the responses to inflammatory stimulus such as LPS. The isolation and co-culture methods could provide a stable platform for creating in vitro liver models that provide defined functionality beyond hepatocytes alone. PMID:27142224

  5. The insensitivity to uncouplers of testis mitochondrial ATPase.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Memije, M E; Izquierdo-Reyes, V; Delhumeau-Ongay, G

    1988-01-01

    Albumin-free testis mitochondrial ATPase activity failed to be stimulated by either 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) or carbonyl cyanide rho-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP). DNP scarcely enhanced the state 4 respiration and mitochondria proved to be poorly coupled. When 1% bovine serum albumin was added to the isolation medium, DNP or FCCP stimulated ATPase nearly twofold and the dose-response curves for the uncouplers on the QO2 reached a plateau at five- to sixfold. The DNP coupling index (q) also showed a 30-40% improvement. A dose-response curve for oligomycin on the rate of [gamma-32P]ATP synthesis showed a stimulation of ATP synthase activity by 10-100 ng inhibitor/mg protein, suggesting a possible blockade of "open" F0 channels. In the albumin preparation oligomycin inhibited ATP synthesis in the range 10-100 ng/mg protein. Since testis ATPase is known to be loosely bound to the membrane, an effect of albumin, improving tightness in the interaction of the F1 and the F0 sectors of the ATPase, is suggested.

  6. Specific Human and Candida Cellular Interactions Lead to Controlled or Persistent Infection Outcomes during Granuloma-Like Formation

    PubMed Central

    Misme-Aucouturier, Barbara; Albassier, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A delayed type of multicellular process could be crucial during chronic candidiasis in determining the course of infection. This reaction, consisting of organized immune cells surrounding the pathogen, initiates an inflammatory response to avoid fungal dissemination. The goal of the present study was to examine, at an in vitro cellular scale, Candida and human immune cell interaction dynamics during a long-term period. By challenging human peripheral blood immune cells from 10 healthy donors with 32 Candida albicans and non-albicans (C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. dubliniensis, C. lusitaniae, C. krusei, and C. kefyr) clinical isolates, we showed that Candida spp. induced the formation of granuloma-like structures within 6 days after challenge, but their sizes and the respective fungal burdens differed according to the Candida species. These two parameters are positively correlated. Phenotypic characteristics, such as hypha formation and higher axenic growth rate, seem to contribute to yeast persistence within granuloma-like structures. We showed an interindividual variability of the human response against Candida spp. Higher proportions of neutrophils and elevated CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratios during the first days after challenge were correlated with early production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and associated with controlled infection. In contrast, the persistence of Candida could result from upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and a poor anti-inflammatory negative feedback (IL-10). Importantly, regulatory subsets of NK cells and CD4lo CD8hi doubly positive (DP) lymphocytes at late stage infiltrate granuloma-like structures and could correlate with the IL-10 and TNF-α production. These data offer a base frame to explain cellular events that guide infection control or fungal persistence. PMID:27799331

  7. NMDA and PACAP Receptor Signaling Interact to Mediate Retinal-Induced SCN Cellular Rhythmicity in the Absence of Light

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Ian C.; Coolen, Lique M.; Lehman, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    The “core” region of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a central clock responsible for coordinating circadian rhythms, shows a daily rhythm in phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase (pERK). This cellular rhythm persists under constant darkness and, despite the absence of light, is dependent upon inputs from the eye. The neural signals driving this rhythmicity remain unknown and here the roles of glutamate and PACAP are examined. First, rhythmic phosphorylation of the NR1 NMDA receptor subunit (pNR1, a marker for receptor activation) was shown to coincide with SCN core pERK, with a peak at circadian time (CT) 16. Enucleation and intraocular TTX administration attenuated the peak in the pERK and pNR1 rhythms, demonstrating that activation of the NMDA receptor and ERK in the SCN core at CT16 are dependent on retinal inputs. In contrast, ERK and NR1 phosphorylation in the SCN shell region were unaffected by these treatments. Intraventricular administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 also attenuated the peak in SCN core pERK, indicating that ERK phosphorylation in this region requires NMDA receptor activation. As PACAP is implicated in photic entrainment and is known to modulate glutamate signaling, the effects of a PAC1 receptor antagonist (PACAP 6-38) on SCN core pERK and pNR1 also were examined. PACAP 6-38 administration attenuated SCN core pERK and pNR1, suggesting that PACAP induces pERK directly, and indirectly via a modulation of NMDA receptor signaling. Together, these data indicate that, in the absence of light, retinal-mediated NMDA and PAC1 receptor activation interact to induce cellular rhythms in the SCN core. These results highlight a novel function for glutamate and PACAP release in the hamster SCN apart from their well-known roles in the induction of photic circadian clock resetting. PMID:24098484

  8. Micropatterned co-culture of hepatocyte spheroids layered on non-parenchymal cells to understand heterotypic cellular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Hidenori; Sasaki, Kohei; Okimura, Saya; Nagamura, Masako; Nakasone, Yuichi

    2013-12-01

    Microfabrication and micropatterning techniques in tissue engineering offer great potential for creating and controlling cellular microenvironments including cell-matrix interactions, soluble stimuli and cell-cell interactions. Here, we present a novel approach to generate layered patterning of hepatocyte spheroids on micropatterned non-parenchymal feeder cells using microfabricated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. Micropatterned PEG-hydrogel-treated substrates with two-dimensional arrays of gelatin circular domains (ϕ = 100 μm) were prepared by photolithographic method. Only on the critical structure of PEG hydrogel with perfect protein rejection, hepatocytes were co-cultured with non-parenchymal cells to be led to enhanced hepatocyte functions. Then, we investigated the mechanism of the functional enhancement in co-culture with respect to the contributions of soluble factors and direct cell-cell interactions. In particular, to elucidate the influence of soluble factors on hepatocyte function, hepatocyte spheroids underlaid with fibroblasts (NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts) or endothelial cells (BAECs: bovine aortic endothelial cells) were compared with physically separated co-culture of hepatocyte monospheroids with NIH3T3 or BAEC using trans-well culture systems. Our results suggested that direct heterotypic cell-to-cell contact and soluble factors, both of these between hepatocytes and fibroblasts, significantly enhanced hepatocyte functions. In contrast, direct heterotypic cell-to-cell contact between hepatocytes and endothelial cells only contributed to enhance hepatocyte functions. This patterning technique can be a useful experimental tool for applications in basic science, drug screening and tissue engineering, as well as in the design of artificial liver devices.

  9. Well-defined biomimetic surfaces to characterize glycosaminoglycan-mediated interactions on the molecular, supramolecular and cellular levels.

    PubMed

    Migliorini, Elisa; Thakar, Dhruv; Sadir, Rabia; Pleiner, Tino; Baleux, Françoise; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Coche-Guerente, Liliane; Richter, Ralf P

    2014-10-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are ubiquitously present at the cell surface and in extracellular matrix, and crucial for matrix assembly, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The supramolecular presentation of GAG chains, along with other matrix components, is likely to be functionally important but remains challenging to control and to characterize, both in vivo and in vitro. We present a method to create well-defined biomimetic surfaces that display GAGs, either alone or together with other cell ligands, in a background that suppresses non-specific binding. Through the design of the immobilization platform - a streptavidin monolayer serves as a molecular breadboard for the attachment of various biotinylated ligands - and a set of surface-sensitive in situ analysis techniques (including quartz crystal microbalance and spectroscopic ellipsometry), the biomimetic surfaces are tailor made with tight control on biomolecular orientation, surface density and lateral mobility. Analysing the interactions between a selected GAG (heparan sulphate, HS) and the HS-binding chemokine CXCL12α (also called SDF-1α), we demonstrate that these surfaces are versatile for biomolecular and cellular interaction studies. T-lymphocytes are found to adhere specifically to surfaces presenting CXCL12α, both when reversibly bound through HS and when irreversibly immobilized on the inert surface, even in the absence of any bona fide cell adhesion ligand. Moreover, surfaces which present both HS-bound CXCL12α and the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) synergistically promote cell adhesion. Our surface biofunctionalization strategy should be broadly applicable for functional studies that require a well-defined supramolecular presentation of GAGs along with other matrix or cell-surface components.

  10. Uncoupled thermoelasticity solutions applied on beam dumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzia, A.; Antonakakis, T.

    2016-06-01

    In particle accelerators the process of beam absorption is vital. At CERN particle beams are accelerated at energies of the order of TeV. In the event of a system failure or following collisions, the beam needs to be safely absorbed by dedicated protecting blocks. The thermal shock caused by the rapid energy deposition within the absorbing block causes thermal stresses that may rise above critical levels. The present paper provides a convenient expression of such stresses under hypotheses described hereafter. The temperature field caused by the beam energy deposition is assumed to be Gaussian. Such a field models a non-diffusive heat deposition. These effects are described as thermoelastic as long as the stresses remain below the proportional limit and can be analytically modeled by the coupled equations of thermoelasticity. The analytical solution to the uncoupled thermoelastic problem in an infinite domain is presented herein and matched with a finite unit radius sphere. The assumption of zero diffusion as well as the validity of the match with a finite geometry is quantified such that the obtained solutions can be rigorously applied to real problems. Furthermore, truncated series solutions, which are not novel, are used for comparison purposes. All quantities are nondimensional and the problem reduces to a dependence of five dimensionless parameters. The equations of elasticity are presented in the potential formulation where the shear potential is assumed to be nil due to the source being a gradient and the absence of boundaries. Nevertheless equivalent three-dimensional stresses are computed using the compressive potential and optimized using standard analytical optimization methods. An alternative algorithm for finding the critical points of the three-dimensional stress function is presented. Finally, a case study concerning the proton synchrotron booster dump is presented where the aforementioned analytical solutions are used and the preceding assumptions

  11. Uncoupling protein-1 is not leaky.

    PubMed

    Shabalina, Irina G; Ost, Mario; Petrovic, Natasa; Vrbacky, Marek; Nedergaard, Jan; Cannon, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The activity of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) is rate-limiting for nonshivering thermogenesis and diet-induced thermogenesis. Characteristically, this activity is inhibited by GDP experimentally and presumably mainly by cytosolic ATP within brown-fat cells. The issue as to whether UCP1 has a residual proton conductance even when fully saturated with GDP/ATP (as has recently been suggested) has not only scientific but also applied interest, since a residual proton conductance would make overexpressed UCP1 weight-reducing even without physiological/pharmacological activation. To examine this question, we have here established optimal conditions for studying the bioenergetics of wild-type and UCP1-/- brown-fat mitochondria, analysing UCP1-mediated differences in parallel preparations of brown-fat mitochondria from both genotypes. Comparing different substrates, we find that pyruvate (or palmitoyl-L-carnitine) shows the largest relative coupling by GDP. Comparing albumin concentrations, we find the range 0.1-0.6% optimal; higher concentrations are inhibitory. Comparing basic medium composition, we find 125 mM sucrose optimal; an ionic medium (50-100 mM KCl) functions for wild-type but is detrimental for UCP1-/- mitochondria. Using optimal conditions, we find no evidence for a residual proton conductance (not a higher post-GDP respiration, a lower membrane potential or an altered proton leak at highest common potential) with either pyruvate or glycerol-3-phosphate as substrates, nor by a 3-4-fold alteration of the amount of UCP1. We could demonstrate that certain experimental conditions, due to respiratoty inhibition, could lead to the suggestion that UCP1 possesses a residual proton conductance but find that under optimal conditions our experiments concur with implications from physiological observations that in the presence of inhibitory nucleotides, UCP1 is not leaky.

  12. Human microvascular endothelial cellular interaction with atomic N-doped DLC compared with Si-doped DLC thin films.

    PubMed

    Okpalugo, T I T; Murphy, H; Ogwu, A A; Abbas, G; Ray, S C; Maguire, P D; McLaughlin, J; McCullough, R W

    2006-08-01

    This article reports results of endothelial cell interaction with atom beam source N-doped a-C:H (diamond-like carbon, DLC) as it compares with that of Si-doped DLC thin films. The RF plasma source exhibits up to 40% N-dissociation and N-atomic fluxes of approximately 0.85 x 10(18) atoms/s, which ensures better atomic nitrogen incorporation. Two different types of nitrogen species (with and without the use of sweep plates to remove charged ions) were employed for nitrogen doping. The number of attached endothelial cells is highest on Si-DLC, followed by the N-DLC (where the sweep plates were used to remove ions), the N-DLC (without the use of sweep plates), undoped DLC, and finally the uncoated sample. The contact angle values for these films suggest that water contact angle is higher in the atomic nitrogen neutral films and Si-DLC films compared to the ionized-nitrogen specie doped films and undoped DLC thin films, suggesting that the more hydrophobic films, semiconducting films, and film with relieved stress have better interaction with human microvascular endothelial cells. It seems evident that N-doping increases the Raman I(D)/I(G) ratios, whereas N-neutral doping decreases it slightly and Si-doping decreases it even further. In this study, lower Raman I(D)/I(G) ratios are associated with increased sp(3)/sp(2) ratio, an increased H concentration, photoluminescence intensity, and a higher endothelial cellular adhesion. These investigations could be relevant to biocompatibility assessment of nanostructured biomaterials and tissue engineering.

  13. Cellular Human CLE/C14orf166 Protein Interacts with Influenza Virus Polymerase and Is Required for Viral Replication ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Ariel; Pérez-González, Alicia; Nieto, Amelia

    2011-01-01

    The influenza A virus polymerase associates with a number of cellular transcription-related factors, including RNA polymerase II. We previously described the interaction of influenza virus polymerase subunit PA with human CLE/C14orf166 protein (hCLE), a positive modulator of this cellular RNA polymerase. Here, we show that hCLE also interacts with the influenza virus polymerase complex and colocalizes with viral ribonucleoproteins. Silencing of hCLE causes reduction of viral polymerase activity, viral RNA transcription and replication, virus titer, and viral particle production. Altogether, these findings indicate that the cellular transcription factor hCLE is an important protein for influenza virus replication. PMID:21900157

  14. Stress modulation of cellular metabolic sensors: interaction of stress from temperature and rainfall on the intertidal limpet Cellana toreuma.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yun-Wei; Han, Guo-Dong; Huang, Xiong-Wei

    2014-09-01

    In the natural environment, organisms are exposed to large variations in physical conditions. Quantifying such physiological responses is, however, often performed in laboratory acclimation studies, in which usually only a single factor is varied. In contrast, field acclimatization may expose organisms to concurrent changes in several environmental variables. The interactions of these factors may have strong effects on organismal function. In particular, rare events that occur stochastically and have relatively short duration may have strong effects. The present experiments studied levels of expression of several genes associated with cellular stress and metabolic regulation in a field population of limpet Cellana toreuma that encountered a wide range of temperatures plus periodic rain events. Physiological responses to these variable conditions were quantified by measuring levels of mRNA of genes encoding heat-shock proteins (Hsps) and metabolic sensors (AMPKs and Sirtuin 1). Our results reveal high ratios of individuals in upregulation group of stress-related gene expression at high temperature and rainy days, indicating the occurrence of stress from both prevailing high summer temperatures and occasional rainfall during periods of emersion. At high temperature, stress due to exposure to rainfall may be more challenging than heat stress alone. The highly variable physiological performances of limpets in their natural habitats indicate the possible differences in capability for physiological regulation among individuals. Our results emphasize the importance of studies of field acclimatization in unravelling the effects of environmental change on organisms, notably in the context of multiple changes in abiotic factors that are accompanying global change.

  15. Bivalent Compound 17MN Exerts Neuroprotection through Interaction at Multiple Sites in a Cellular Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Chojnacki, Jeremy E; Wade, Emily E; Saathoff, John M; Lesnefsky, Edward J; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Shijun

    2015-01-01

    Multiple pathogenic factors have been suggested to play a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The multifactorial nature of AD also suggests the potential use of compounds with polypharmacology as effective disease-modifying agents. Recently, we have developed a bivalent strategy to include cell membrane anchorage into the molecular design. Our results demonstrated that the bivalent compounds exhibited multifunctional properties and potent neuroprotection in a cellular AD model. Herein, we report the mechanistic exploration of one of the representative bivalent compounds, 17MN, in MC65 cells. Our results established that MC65 cells die through a necroptotic mechanism upon the removal of tetracycline (TC). Furthermore, we have shown that mitochondrial membrane potential and cytosolic Ca2+ levels are increased upon removal of TC. Our bivalent compound 17MN can reverse such changes and protect MC65 cells from TC removal induced cytotoxicity. The results also suggest that 17MN may function between the Aβ species and RIPK1 in producing its neuroprotection. Colocalization studies employing a fluorescent analog of 17MN and confocal microscopy demonstrated the interactions of 17MN with both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, thus suggesting that 17MN exerts its neuroprotection via a multiple-site mechanism in MC65 cells. Collectively, these results strongly support our original design rationale of bivalent compounds and encourage further optimization of this bivalent strategy to develop more potent analogs as novel disease-modifying agents for AD.

  16. In vitro biocompatibility and cellular interactions of a chitosan/dextran-based hydrogel for postsurgical adhesion prevention.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Manal A; Cabral, Jaydee D; Brooks, Heather J L; McConnell, Michelle A; Fitzpatrick, Clare; Hanton, Lyall R; Moratti, Stephen C

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we report the in vitro biocompatibility and cellular interactions of a chitosan/dextran-based (CD) hydrogel and its components as determined by mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, cytokine/chemokine response, and wound healing assays. The CD hydrogel, developed for postsurgical adhesion prevention in ear, nose, and throat surgeries, was shown by previously published experiments in animal and human trials to be effective. The hydrogel was synthesized from the reaction between succinyl chitosan (SC) and oxidized dextran (DA). Cytotoxicity was assessed in an xCELLigence system and cytokine/chemokine responses were measured by ELISA in human macrophage, nasopharyngeal epithelial, and dermal fibroblast cells. A wound healing model utilized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. CD hydrogel and DA were nonmutagenic in the Ames test. CD hydrogel showed moderate cytotoxicity for the cell lines, DA being the cytotoxic component. Some inhibition of wound healing occurred due to the cytotoxic nature of DA. Cells cultured with CD hydrogel showed no increase in TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-8 levels. It is hypothesized that the cytotoxicity of DA is moderated when reacted with SC and that CD hydrogel inhibits unwanted fibroblastic invasion preventing scarring and adhesions. Together with the previously published human and animal trial data, the results indicate CD hydrogel is biocompatible in the setting of endoscopic sinus surgery. This work represents the first study of CD hydrogel with human cell lines and provides essential information for its future application in biomedicine.

  17. Triclosan is a mitochondrial uncoupler in live zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Shim, Juyoung; Weatherly, Lisa M; Luc, Richard H; Dorman, Maxwell T; Neilson, Andy; Ng, Ryan; Kim, Carol H; Millard, Paul J; Gosse, Julie A

    2016-12-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a synthetic antimicrobial agent used in many consumer goods at millimolar concentrations. As a result of exposure, TCS has been detected widely in humans. We have recently discovered that TCS is a proton ionophore mitochondrial uncoupler in multiple types of living cells. Here, we present novel data indicating that TCS is also a mitochondrial uncoupler in a living organism: 24-hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos. These experiments were conducted using a Seahorse Bioscience XF(e) 96 Extracellular Flux Analyzer modified for bidirectional temperature control, using the XF96 spheroid plate to position and measure one zebrafish embryo per well. Using this method, after acute exposure to TCS, the basal oxygen consumption rate (OCR) increases, without a decrease in survival or heartbeat rate. TCS also decreases ATP-linked respiration and spare respiratory capacity and increases proton leak: all indicators of mitochondrial uncoupling. Our data indicate, that TCS is a mitochondrial uncoupler in vivo, which should be taken into consideration when assessing the toxicity and/or pharmaceutical uses of TCS. This is the first example of usage of a Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer to measure bioenergetic flux of a single zebrafish embryo per well in a 96-well assay format. The method developed in this study provides a high-throughput tool to identify previously unknown mitochondrial uncouplers in a living organism. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Uncoupled Cardiac Nitric Oxide Synthase Mediates Diastolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Silberman, Gad A.; Fan, Tai-Hwang M.; Liu, Hong; Jiao, Zhe; Xiao, Hong D.; Lovelock, Joshua D.; Boulden, Beth M.; Widder, Julian; Fredd, Scott; Bernstein, Kenneth E.; Wolska, Beata M.; Dikalov, Sergey; Harrison, David G.; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is one consequence of hypertension and caused by impaired cardiac diastolic relaxation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a known modulator of cardiac relaxation. Hypertension can lead to a reduction in vascular NO, in part because nitric oxide synthase (NOS) becomes uncoupled when oxidative depletion of its co-factor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) occurs.Similar events may occur in the heart leading to uncoupled NOS and diastolic dysfunction. Methods and Results In a hypertensive mouse model, diastolic dysfunction was accompanied by cardiac oxidation, a reduction in cardiac BH4, and uncoupled NOS. Compared to sham-operated animals, male mice with unilateral nephrectomy, with subcutaneous implantation of a controlled release deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) pellet, and given 1% saline to drink were mildly hypertensive and had diastolic dysfunction in the absence of systolic dysfunction or cardiac hypertrophy. The hypertensive mouse hearts showed increased oxidized biopterins, NOS-dependent superoxide production, reduced NO production, and phosphorylated phospholamban. Feeding hypertensive mice BH4 (5 mg/day), but not treating with hydralazine or tetrahydroneopterin, improved cardiac BH4 stores, phosphorylated phospholamban levels, and diastolic dysfunction. Isolated cardiomyocyte experiments revealed impaired relaxation that was normalized with acute BH4 treatment. Targeted cardiac overexpression of angiotensin converting enzyme also resulted in cardiac oxidation, NOS uncoupling, and diastolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension. Conclusions Cardiac oxidation, independent of vascular changes, can lead to uncoupled cardiac NOS and diastolic dysfunction. BH4 may represent a possible treatment for diastolic dysfunction. PMID:20083682

  19. Sludge reduction by uncoupling metabolism: SBR tests with para-nitrophenol and a commercial uncoupler.

    PubMed

    Zuriaga-Agustí, E; Mendoza-Roca, J A; Bes-Piá, A; Alonso-Molina, J L; Amorós-Muñoz, I

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays cost reduction is a very important issue in wastewater treatment plants. One way, is to minimize the sludge production. Microorganisms break down the organic matter into inorganic compounds through catabolism. Uncoupling metabolism is a method which promote catabolism reactions instead of anabolism ones, where adenosine triphosphate synthesis is inhibited. In this work, the influence of the addition of para-nitrophenol and a commercial reagent to a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) on sludge production and process performance has been analyzed. Three laboratory SBRs were operated in parallel to compare the effect of the addition of both reagents with a control reactor. SBRs were fed with synthetic wastewater and were operated with the same conditions. Results showed that sludge production was slightly reduced for the tested para-nitrophenol concentrations (20 and 25 mg/L) and for a LODOred dose of 1 mL/day. Biological process performance was not influenced and high COD removals were achieved.

  20. Cellular Interactions and Biological Responses to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in HepG2 and BEAS-2B Cells: Role of Cell Culture Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT We have shown previously that the composition of the biological medium used in vitro can affect the cellular interaction and biological response of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) in human lung epithelial cells. However, it is unclear if these effects are co...

  1. Membrane Surface-Associated Helices Promote Lipid Interactions and Cellular Uptake of Human Calcitonin-Derived Cell Penetrating Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Herbig, Michael E.; Weller, Kathrin; Krauss, Ulrike; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G.; Merkle, Hans P.; Zerbe, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    hCT(9-32) is a human calcitonin (hCT)-derived cell-penetrating peptide that has been shown to translocate the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. It has been suggested as a cellular carrier for drugs, green fluorescent protein, and plasmid DNA. Because of its temperature-dependent cellular translocation resulting in punctuated cytoplasmatic distribution, its uptake is likely to follow an endocytic pathway. To gain insight into the molecular orientation of hCT(9-32) when interacting with lipid models, and to learn more about its mode of action, various biophysical techniques from liposome partitioning to high-resolution NMR spectroscopy were utilized. Moreover, to establish the role of individual residues for the topology of its association with the lipid membrane, two mutants of hCT(9-32), i.e., W30-hCT(9-32) and A23-hCT(9-32), were also investigated. Although unstructured in aqueous solution, hCT(9-32) adopted two short helical stretches when bound to dodecylphosphocholine micelles, extending from Thr10 to Asn17 and from Gln24 to Val29. A23-hCT(9-32), in which the helix-breaking Pro23 was replaced by Ala, displayed a continuous α-helix extending from residue 12 to 26. Probing with the spin label 5-doxylstearate revealed that association with dodecylphosphocholine micelles was such that the helix engaged in parallel orientation to the micelle surface. Moreover, the Gly to Trp exchange in W30-hCT(9-32) resulted in a more stable anchoring of the C-terminal segment close to the interface, as reflected by a twofold increase in the partition coefficient in liposomes. Interestingly, tighter binding to model membranes was associated with an increase in the in vitro uptake in human cervix epithelial andenocarcinoma cell line cells. Liposome leakage studies excluded pore formation, and the punctuated fluorescence pattern of internalized peptide indicated vesicular localization and, in conclusion, strongly suggested an endocytic pathway of translocation. PMID:16183886

  2. Molecular cloning of amphioxus uncoupling protein and assessment of its uncoupling activity using a yeast heterologous expression system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kun; Sun, Guoxun; Lv, Zhiyuan; Wang, Chen; Jiang, Xueyuan; Li, Donghai; Zhang, Chenyu

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Invertebrates, for example amphioxus, do express uncoupling proteins. {yields} Both the sequence and the uncoupling activity of amphioxus UCP resemble UCP2. {yields} UCP1 is the only UCP that can form dimer on yeast mitochondria. -- Abstract: The present study describes the molecular cloning of a novel cDNA fragment from amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri) encoding a 343-amino acid protein that is highly homologous to human uncoupling proteins (UCP), this protein is therefore named amphioxus UCP. This amphioxus UCP shares more homology with and is phylogenetically more related to mammalian UCP2 as compared with UCP1. To further assess the functional similarity of amphioxus UCP to mammalian UCP1 and -2, the amphioxus UCP, rat UCP1, and human UCP2 were separately expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the recombinant yeast mitochondria were isolated and assayed for the state 4 respiration rate and proton leak, using pYES2 empty vector as the control. UCP1 increased the state 4 respiration rate by 2.8-fold, and the uncoupling activity was strongly inhibited by GDP, while UCP2 and amphioxus UCP only increased the state 4 respiration rate by 1.5-fold and 1.7-fold in a GDP-insensitive manner, moreover, the proton leak kinetics of amphioxus UCP was very similar to UCP2, but much different from UCP1. In conclusion, the amphioxus UCP has a mild, unregulated uncoupling activity in the yeast system, which resembles mammalian UCP2, but not UCP1.

  3. Human papillomavirus 16E6 and NFX1-123 potentiate notch signaling and differentiation without activating cellular arrest

    SciTech Connect

    Vliet-Gregg, Portia A.; Hamilton, Jennifer R.; Katzenellenbogen, Rachel A.

    2015-04-15

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) oncoproteins bind host cell proteins to dysregulate and uncouple apoptosis, senescence, differentiation, and growth. These pathways are important for both the viral life cycle and cancer development. HR HPV16 E6 (16E6) interacts with the cellular protein NFX1-123, and they collaboratively increase the growth and differentiation master regulator, Notch1. In 16E6 expressing keratinocytes (16E6 HFKs), the Notch canonical pathway genes Hes1 and Hes5 were increased with overexpression of NFX1-123, and their expression was directly linked to the activation or blockade of the Notch1 receptor. Keratinocyte differentiation genes Keratin 1 and Keratin 10 were also increased, but in contrast their upregulation was only indirectly associated with Notch1 receptor stimulation and was fully unlinked to growth arrest, increased p21{sup Waf1/CIP1}, or decreased proliferative factor Ki67. This leads to a model of 16E6, NFX1-123, and Notch1 differently regulating canonical and differentiation pathways and entirely uncoupling cellular arrest from increased differentiation. - Highlights: • 16E6 and NFX1-123 increased the Notch canonical pathway through Notch1. • 16E6 and NFX1-123 increased the differentiation pathway indirectly through Notch1. • 16E6 and NFX1-123 increased differentiation gene expression without growth arrest. • Increased NFX1-123 with 16E6 may create an ideal cellular phenotype for HPV.

  4. Direct interaction of cellular hnRNP-F and NS1 of influenza A virus accelerates viral replication by modulation of viral transcriptional activity and host gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jun Han; Kim, Sung-Hak; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q.; Song, Min-Suk; Baek, Yun Hee; Jin, Xun; Choi, Joong-Kook; Kim, Chul-Joong; Kim, Hyunggee; Choi, Young Ki

    2010-02-05

    To investigate novel NS1-interacting proteins, we conducted a yeast two-hybrid analysis, followed by co-immunoprecipitation assays. We identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP-F) as a cellular protein interacting with NS1 during influenza A virus infection. Co-precipitation assays suggest that interaction between hnRNP-F and NS1 is a common and direct event among human or avian influenza viruses. NS1 and hnRNP-F co-localize in the nucleus of host cells, and the RNA-binding domain of NS1 directly interacts with the GY-rich region of hnRNP-F determined by GST pull-down assays with truncated proteins. Importantly, hnRNP-F expression levels in host cells indicate regulatory role on virus replication. hnRNP-F depletion by small interfering RNA (siRNA) shows 10- to 100-fold increases in virus titers corresponding to enhanced viral RNA polymerase activity. Our results delineate novel mechanism of action by which NS1 accelerates influenza virus replication by modulating normal cellular mRNA processes through direct interaction with cellular hnRNP-F protein.

  5. The interaction of the cellular export adaptor protein Aly/REF with ICP27 contributes to the efficiency of herpes simplex virus 1 mRNA export.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaochen; Devi-Rao, Gayathri; Golovanov, Alexander P; Sandri-Goldin, Rozanne M

    2013-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) protein ICP27 enables viral mRNA export by accessing the cellular mRNA export receptor TAP/NXF, which guides mRNA through the nuclear pore complex. ICP27 binds viral mRNAs and interacts with TAP/NXF, providing a link to the cellular mRNA export pathway. ICP27 also interacts with the mRNA export adaptor protein Aly/REF, which binds cellular mRNAs and also interacts with TAP/NXF. Studies using small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown indicated that Aly/REF is not required for cellular mRNA export, and similar knockdown studies during HSV-1 infection led us to conclude that Aly/REF may be dispensable for viral RNA export. Recently, the structural basis of the interaction of ICP27 with Aly/REF was elucidated at atomic resolution, and it was shown that three ICP27 residues, W105, R107, and L108, interface with the RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain of Aly/REF. Here, to determine the role the interaction of ICP27 and Aly/REF plays during infection, these residues were mutated to alanine, and a recombinant virus, WRL-A, was constructed. Virus production was reduced about 10-fold during WRL-A infection, and export of ICP27 protein and most viral mRNAs was less efficient. We conclude that interaction of ICP27 with Aly/REF contributes to efficient viral mRNA export.

  6. The uncoupling protein homologues: UCP1, UCP2, UCP3, StUCP and AtUCP.

    PubMed Central

    Ricquier, D; Bouillaud, F

    2000-01-01

    Animal and plant uncoupling protein (UCP) homologues form a subfamily of mitochondrial carriers that are evolutionarily related and possibly derived from a proton/anion transporter ancestor. The brown adipose tissue (BAT) UCP1 has a marked and strongly regulated uncoupling activity, essential to the maintenance of body temperature in small mammals. UCP homologues identified in plants are induced in a cold environment and may be involved in resistance to chilling. The biochemical activities and biological functions of the recently identified mammalian UCP2 and UCP3 are not well known. However, recent data support a role for these UCPs in State 4 respiration, respiration uncoupling and proton leaks in mitochondria. Moreover, genetic studies suggest that UCP2 and UCP3 play a part in energy expenditure in humans. The UCPs may also be involved in adaptation of cellular metabolism to an excessive supply of substrates in order to regulate the ATP level, the NAD(+)/NADH ratio and various metabolic pathways, and to contain superoxide production. A major goal will be the analysis of mice that either lack the UCP2 or UCP3 gene or overexpress these genes. Other aims will be to investigate the possible roles of UCP2 and UCP3 in response to oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, inflammatory processes, fever and regulation of temperature in certain specific parts of the body. PMID:10620491

  7. 49 CFR 215.125 - Defective uncoupling device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defective uncoupling device. 215.125 Section 215.125 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components...

  8. 49 CFR 215.125 - Defective uncoupling device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defective uncoupling device. 215.125 Section 215.125 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components...

  9. 49 CFR 215.125 - Defective uncoupling device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective uncoupling device. 215.125 Section 215.125 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components...

  10. 49 CFR 215.125 - Defective uncoupling device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defective uncoupling device. 215.125 Section 215.125 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components...

  11. 49 CFR 215.125 - Defective uncoupling device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective uncoupling device. 215.125 Section 215.125 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components...

  12. Uncoupling apical constriction from tissue invagination.

    PubMed

    Chung, SeYeon; Kim, Sangjoon; Andrew, Deborah J

    2017-03-06

    Apical constriction is a widely utilized cell shape change linked to folding, bending and invagination of polarized epithelia. It remains unclear how apical constriction is regulated spatiotemporally during tissue invagination and how this cellular process contributes to tube formation in different developmental contexts. Using Drosophila salivary gland (SG) invagination as a model, we show that regulation of folded gastrulation expression by the Fork head transcription factor is required for apicomedial accumulation of Rho kinase and non-muscle myosin II, which coordinate apical constriction. We demonstrate that neither loss of spatially coordinated apical constriction nor its complete blockage prevent internalization and tube formation, although such manipulations affect the geometry of invagination. When apical constriction is disrupted, compressing force generated by a tissue-level myosin cable contributes to SG invagination. We demonstrate that fully elongated polarized SGs can form outside the embryo, suggesting that tube formation and elongation are intrinsic properties of the SG.

  13. Low resistance junctions in crayfish. Structural changes with functional uncoupling

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Electrical uncoupling of crayfish septate lateral giant axons is paralleled by structural changes in the gap junctions. The changes are characterized by a tighter aggregation of the intramembrane particles and a decrease in the overall width of the junction and the thickness of the gap. Preliminary measurements indicate also a decrease in particle diameter. The uncoupling is produced by in vitro treatment of crayfish abdominal cords either with a Ca++, Mg++-free solution containing EDTA, followed by return to normal saline (Van Harreveld's solution), or with VAn Harreveld's solution containing dinitrophenol (DNP). The uncoupling is monitored by the intracellular recording of the electrical resistance at a septum between lateral giant axons. The junctions of the same septum are examined in thin sections; those of other ganglia of the same chain used for the electrical measurements are studied by freeze-fracture. In controls, most junctions contain a more or less regular array of particles repeating at a center to center distance of approximately 200 A. The overall width of the junctions is approximately 200 A and the gap thickness is 40-50 A. Vesicles (400-700 A in diameter) are closely apposed to the junctional membranes. In uncoupled axons, most junctions contain a hexagonal array of particles repeating at a center to center distance of 150-155 A. The overall width of the junctions is approximately 180 A and the gap thickness is 20-30 A. These junctions are usually curved and are rarely associated with vesicles. Isolated, PTA-stained junctions, also believed to be uncoupled, display similar structural features. There are reasons to believe that the changes in structure and permeability are triggered by an increase in the intracellular free Ca++ concentration. Most likely, the changes in permeability are caused by conformational changes in some components of the intramembrane particles at the gap junctions. PMID:820701

  14. Vaccinia virus K1L protein mediates host-range function in RK-13 cells via ankyrin repeat and may interact with a cellular GTPase-activating protein.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Ritu R; Terajima, Masanori

    2005-12-01

    The K1L protein of vaccinia virus is required for its growth in certain cell lines (RK-13 and human). The cowpox host-range protein CP77 has been shown to complement K1L function in RK-13 cells, despite a lack of homology between the two proteins except for ankyrin repeats. We investigated the role of ankyrin repeats of K1L protein in RK-13 cells. The growth of a recombinant vaccinia virus, with K1L gene mutated in the most conserved ankyrin repeat, was severely impaired. Infection with the mutant virus caused shutdown of cellular and viral protein synthesis early in infection. We also investigated the interaction of K1L protein with cellular proteins and found that K1L interacts with the rabbit homologue of human ACAP2, a GTPase-activating protein with ankyrin repeats. Our result suggests the importance of ankyrin repeat for host-range function of K1L in RK-13 cells and identifies ACAP2 as a cellular protein, which may be interacting with K1L.

  15. A cellular stress response (CSR) that interacts with NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) is a new regulator of hypoxic response.

    PubMed

    Oguro, Ami; Koyama, Chika; Xu, Jing; Imaoka, Susumu

    2014-02-28

    NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) was previously found to contribute to the hypoxic response of cells, but the mechanism was not clarified. In this study, we identified a cellular stress response (CSR) as a new factor interacting with NPR by a yeast two-hybrid system. Overexpression of CSR enhanced the induction of erythropoietin and hypoxia response element (HRE) activity under hypoxia in human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (Hep3B), while knockdown of CSR suppressed them. This new finding regarding the interaction of NPR with CSR provides insight into the function of NPR in hypoxic response.

  16. Uncoupling apical constriction from tissue invagination

    PubMed Central

    Chung, SeYeon; Kim, Sangjoon; Andrew, Deborah J

    2017-01-01

    Apical constriction is a widely utilized cell shape change linked to folding, bending and invagination of polarized epithelia. It remains unclear how apical constriction is regulated spatiotemporally during tissue invagination and how this cellular process contributes to tube formation in different developmental contexts. Using Drosophila salivary gland (SG) invagination as a model, we show that regulation of folded gastrulation expression by the Fork head transcription factor is required for apicomedial accumulation of Rho kinase and non-muscle myosin II, which coordinate apical constriction. We demonstrate that neither loss of spatially coordinated apical constriction nor its complete blockage prevent internalization and tube formation, although such manipulations affect the geometry of invagination. When apical constriction is disrupted, compressing force generated by a tissue-level myosin cable contributes to SG invagination. We demonstrate that fully elongated polarized SGs can form outside the embryo, suggesting that tube formation and elongation are intrinsic properties of the SG. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22235.001 PMID:28263180

  17. The influence of surface charge on serum protein interaction and cellular uptake: studies with dendritic polyglycerols and dendritic polyglycerol-coated gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bewersdorff, Tony; Vonnemann, Jonathan; Kanik, Asiye; Haag, Rainer; Haase, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have gained huge interest in the medical field, in particular for drug delivery purposes. However, binding of proteins often leads to fast NP uptake and rapid clearance, thereby hampering medical applications. Thus, it is essential to determine and control the bio-nano interface. This study investigated the serum protein interactions of dendritic polyglycerols (dPGs), which are promising drug delivery candidates by means of two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) in combination with mass spectrometry. In order to investigate the influence of surface charge, sulfated (sulfated dendritic polyglycerol [dPGS]) and non-sulfated (dPGOH) surfaces were applied, which were synthesized on a gold core allowing for easier separation from unbound biomolecules through centrifugation. Furthermore, two different sizes for dPGS were included. Although size had only a minor influence, considerable differences were detected in protein affinity for dPGS versus dPGOH surfaces, with dPGOH binding much less proteins. Cellular uptake into human CD14(+) monocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry, and dPGOH was taken up to a much lower extent compared to dPGS. By using a pull-down approach, possible cellular interaction partners of serum pre-incubated dPGS-Au20 NPs from the membrane fraction of THP-1 cells could be identified such as for instance the transferrin receptor or an integrin. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis was further investigated using chlorpromazine as an inhibitor, which resulted in a 50% decrease of the cellular uptake of dPGS. This study could confirm the influence of surface charge on protein interactions and cellular uptake of dPGS. Furthermore, the approach allowed for the identification of possible uptake receptors and insights into the uptake mechanism.

  18. The influence of surface charge on serum protein interaction and cellular uptake: studies with dendritic polyglycerols and dendritic polyglycerol-coated gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bewersdorff, Tony; Vonnemann, Jonathan; Kanik, Asiye; Haag, Rainer; Haase, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have gained huge interest in the medical field, in particular for drug delivery purposes. However, binding of proteins often leads to fast NP uptake and rapid clearance, thereby hampering medical applications. Thus, it is essential to determine and control the bio–nano interface. This study investigated the serum protein interactions of dendritic polyglycerols (dPGs), which are promising drug delivery candidates by means of two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) in combination with mass spectrometry. In order to investigate the influence of surface charge, sulfated (sulfated dendritic polyglycerol [dPGS]) and non-sulfated (dPGOH) surfaces were applied, which were synthesized on a gold core allowing for easier separation from unbound biomolecules through centrifugation. Furthermore, two different sizes for dPGS were included. Although size had only a minor influence, considerable differences were detected in protein affinity for dPGS versus dPGOH surfaces, with dPGOH binding much less proteins. Cellular uptake into human CD14+ monocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry, and dPGOH was taken up to a much lower extent compared to dPGS. By using a pull-down approach, possible cellular interaction partners of serum pre-incubated dPGS-Au20 NPs from the membrane fraction of THP-1 cells could be identified such as for instance the transferrin receptor or an integrin. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis was further investigated using chlorpromazine as an inhibitor, which resulted in a 50% decrease of the cellular uptake of dPGS. This study could confirm the influence of surface charge on protein interactions and cellular uptake of dPGS. Furthermore, the approach allowed for the identification of possible uptake receptors and insights into the uptake mechanism. PMID:28352171

  19. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) interacts with the histone chaperone HIRA complex and regulates nucleosome assembly and cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    The histone chaperone HIRA complex, consisting of histone cell cycle regulator (HIRA), Ubinuclein1 (UBN1), and calcineurin binding protein 1 (CABIN1), deposits histone variant H3.3 to genic regions and regulates gene expression in various cellular processes, including cellular senescence. How HIRA-mediated nucleosome assembly of H3.3–H4 is regulated remains not well understood. Here, we show that O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) transferase (OGT), an enzyme that catalyzes O-GlcNAcylation of serine or threonine residues, interacts with UBN1, modifies HIRA, and promotes nucleosome assembly of H3.3. Depletion of OGT or expression of the HIRA S231A O-GlcNAcylation–deficient mutant compromises formation of the HIRA–H3.3 complex and H3.3 nucleosome assembly. Importantly, OGT depletion or expression of the HIRA S231A mutant delays premature cellular senescence in primary human fibroblasts, whereas overexpression of OGT accelerates senescence. Taken together, these results support a model in which OGT modifies HIRA to regulate HIRA–H3.3 complex formation and H3.3 nucleosome assembly and reveal the mechanism by which OGT functions in cellular senescence. PMID:27217568

  20. Coordinated Rhythmic Motion by Uncoupled Neuronal Oscillators with Sensory Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Tetsuya

    This paper explores the potential of biological oscillators as a basic unit for feedback control to achieve rhythmic motion of locomotory systems. Among those properties of biological control systems that are useful for engineering applications, we focus on decentralized coordination, that is, the ability of uncoupled neuronal oscillators to coordinate rhythmic body movements to achieve locomotion with the aid of local sensory feedback. We will consider the reciprocal inhibition oscillator (RIO) as a candidate for the basic control unit, and show that uncoupled RIOs can achieve decentralized coordination of a prototype mechanical rectifier (PMR) that captures essential dynamics underlying animal locomotion by a simple arm-disk configuration. Optimality of the induced locomotion is studied in comparison with analytical results we derive for statically optimal PMR locomotion.

  1. Modularity analysis based on predicted protein-protein interactions provides new insights into pathogenicity and cellular process of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With the development of experimental techniques and bioinformatics, the quantity of data available from protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is increasing exponentially. Functional modules can be identified from protein interaction networks. It follows that the investigation of functional modules will generate a better understanding of cellular organization, processes, and functions. However, experimental PPI data are still limited, and no modularity analysis of PPIs in pathogens has been published to date. Results In this study, we predict and analyze the functional modules of E. coli O157:H7 systemically by integrating several bioinformatics methods. After evaluation, most of the predicted modules are found to be biologically significant and functionally homogeneous. Six pathogenicity-related modules were discovered and analyzed, including novel modules. These modules provided new information on the pathogenicity of O157:H7. The modularity of cellular function and cooperativity between modules are also discussed. Moreover, modularity analysis of O157:H7 can provide possible candidates for biological pathway extension and clues for discovering new pathways of cross-talk. Conclusions This article provides the first modularity analysis of a pathogen and sheds new light on the study of pathogens and cellular processes. Our study also provides a strategy for applying modularity analysis to any sequenced organism. PMID:22188601

  2. Early Steps of Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus-Mediated Cell Transformation Involve the Interaction between Env and the RALBP1 Cellular Protein

    PubMed Central

    Monot, Margaux; Erny, Alexandra; Gineys, Barbara; Desloire, Sophie; Dolmazon, Christine; Aublin-Gex, Anne; Lotteau, Vincent; Archer, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma is a naturally occurring lung cancer in sheep induced by the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). Its envelope glycoprotein (Env) carries oncogenic properties, and its expression is sufficient to induce in vitro cell transformation and in vivo lung adenocarcinoma. The identification of cellular partners of the JSRV envelope remains crucial for deciphering mechanisms leading to cell transformation. We initially identified RALBP1 (RalA binding protein 1; also known as RLIP76 or RIP), a cellular protein implicated in the ras pathway, as a partner of JSRV Env by yeast two-hybrid screening and confirmed formation of RALBP1/Env complexes in mammalian cells. Expression of the RALBP1 protein was repressed in tumoral lungs and in tumor-derived alveolar type II cells. Through its inhibition using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA), we showed that RALBP1 was involved in envelope-induced cell transformation and in modulation of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)/p70S6K pathway by the retroviral envelope. IMPORTANCE JSRV-induced lung adenocarcinoma is of importance for the sheep industry. While the envelope has been reported as the oncogenic determinant of the virus, the cellular proteins directly interacting with Env are still not known. Our report on the formation of RALBP/Env complexes and the role of this interaction in cell transformation opens up a new hypothesis for the dysregulation observed upon virus infection in sheep. PMID:26041289

  3. Spectroscopic elucidation of uncoupled transition energies in the major photosynthetic light-harvesting complex, LHCII

    PubMed Central

    Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S.; Calhoun, Tessa R.; Ginsberg, Naomi S.; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic couplings between chromophores in photosynthetic pigment–protein complexes, and interactions of pigments with the surrounding protein environment, produce a complicated energy landscape of delocalized excited states. The resultant electronic structure absorbs light and gives rise to energy transfer steps that direct the excitation toward a site of charge separation with near unity quantum efficiency. Knowledge of the transition energies of the uncoupled chromophores is required to describe how the wave functions of the individual pigments combine to form this manifold of delocalized excited states that effectively harvests light energy. In an investigation of the major light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCII), we develop a method based on polarized 2D electronic spectroscopy to experimentally access the energies of the S0–S1 transitions in the chromophore site basis. Rotating the linear polarization of the incident laser pulses reveals previously hidden off-diagonal features. We exploit the polarization dependence of energy transfer peaks to find the angles between the excited state transition dipole moments. We show that these angles provide a spectroscopic method to directly inform on the relationship between the delocalized excitons and the individual chlorophylls through the site energies of the uncoupled chromophores. PMID:20622154

  4. Robots Would Couple And Uncouple Fluid And Electrical Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Castillo, Eduardo Lopez; Davis, Virgil; Ferguson, Bob; Reichle, Garland

    1992-01-01

    Robots make and break connections between umbilical plates and mating connectors on rockets about to be launched. Sensing and control systems include vision, force, and torque subsystems. Enhances safety by making it possible to couple and uncouple umbilical plates quickly, without exposing human technicians to hazards of leaking fuels and oxidizers. Significantly reduces time spent to manually connect umbilicals. Robots based on similar principles used in refueling of National AeroSpace Plane (NASP) and satellites and orbital transfer vehicles in space.

  5. The evolution and cellular structure of a detonation subsequent to a head-on interaction with a shock wave

    SciTech Connect

    Botros, Barbara B.; Zhu, YuJian; Lee, John H.S.; Ng, Hoi Dick; Ju, Yiguang

    2007-12-15

    This paper analyzes the results of a head-on collision between a detonation and a planar shock wave. The evolution of the detonation cellular structure subsequent to the frontal collision was examined through smoked foil experiments. It is shown that a large reduction in cell size is observed following the frontal collision, and that the detonation cell widths are correlated well with the chemical kinetic calculations from the ZND model. From chemical kinetic calculations, the density increase caused by shock compression appears to be the main factor leading to the significant reduction in cell size. It was found that depending on the initial conditions, the transition to the final cellular pattern can be either smooth or spotty. This phenomenon appears to be equivalent to Oppenheim's strong and mild reflected shock ignition experiments. The difference between these two transitions is, however, more related to the stability of the incident detonation and the strength of the perturbation generated by the incident shock. (author)

  6. Uncoupling of Vascular Nitric Oxide Synthase Caused by Intermittent Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ayas, Najib

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is often present in diabetic (DB) patients. Both conditions are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that diabetic endothelial dysfunction is further compromised by CIH. Methods. Adult male diabetic (BKS.Cg-Dock7m +/+ Leprdb/J) (db/db) mice (10 weeks old) and their heterozygote littermates were subjected to CIH or intermittent air (IA) for 8 weeks. Mice were separated into 4 groups: IA (intermittent air nondiabetic), IH (intermittent hypoxia nondiabetic), IADB (intermittent air diabetic), and IHDB (intermittent hypoxia diabetic) groups. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation and modulation by basal nitric oxide (NO) were analyzed using wire myograph. Plasma 8-isoprostane, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were measured using ELISA. Uncoupling of eNOS was measured using dihydroethidium (DHE) staining. Results. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation and basal NO production were significantly impaired in the IH and IADB group compared to IA group but was more pronounced in IHDB group. Levels of 8-isoprostane, IL-6, ADMA, and eNOS uncoupling were ≈2-fold higher in IH and IADB groups and were further increased in the IHDB group. Conclusion. Endothelial dysfunction is more pronounced in diabetic mice subjected to CIH compared to diabetic or CIH mice alone. Oxidative stress, ADMA, and eNOS uncoupling were exacerbated by CIH in diabetic mice. PMID:27840666

  7. Lipid-modified oligonucleotide conjugates: Insights into gene silencing, interaction with model membranes and cellular uptake mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ugarte-Uribe, Begoña; Grijalvo, Santiago; Pertíñez, Samuel Núñez; Busto, Jon V; Martín, César; Alagia, Adele; Goñi, Félix M; Eritja, Ramón; Alkorta, Itziar

    2017-01-01

    The ability of oligonucleotides to silence specific genes or inhibit the biological activity of specific proteins has generated great interest in their use as research tools and therapeutic agents. Unfortunately, their biological applications meet the limitation of their poor cellular accessibility. Developing an appropriate delivery system for oligonucleotides is essential to achieve their efficient cellular uptake. In the present work a series of phosphorothioate lipid-oligonucleotide hybrids were synthesized introducing covalently single or double lipid tails at both 3'- and 5'-termini of an antisense oligonucleotide. Gene transfections in cultured cells showed antisense luciferase inhibition without the use of a transfecting agent for conjugates modified with the double-lipid tail at 5'-termini. The effect of the double lipid-tailed modification was further studied in detail in several model membrane systems as well as in cellular uptake experiments. During these studies the spontaneous formation of self-assembled microstructures is clearly observed. Lipidation allowed the efficient incorporation of the oligonucleotide in HeLa cells by a macropinocytosis mechanism without causing cytotoxicity in cells or altering the binding properties of the oligonucleotide conjugates. In addition, both single- and double-tailed compounds showed a similar behavior in lipid model membranes, making them useful in nucleotide-based technologies.

  8. Relevance of biophysical interactions of nanoparticles with a model membrane in predicting cellular uptake: study with TAT peptide-conjugated nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Peetla, Chiranjeevi; Rao, Kavitha S.; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the biophysical interactions of the trans-activating transcriptor (TAT) peptide-conjugated nanoparticles (NPs) with a model cell membrane could predict the cellular uptake of the encapsulated therapeutic agent. To test the above hypothesis, the biophysical interactions of ritonavir-loaded poly (L-lactide) nanoparticles (RNPs), either conjugated to a TAT peptide (TAT-RNPs) or scrambled TAT peptide (sc-TAT-RNPs), were studied with an endothelial cell model membrane (EMM) using a Langmuir film balance, and the corresponding human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to study the uptake of the encapsulated therapeutic. Biophysical interactions were determined from the changes in surface pressure (SP) of the EMM as a function of time following interaction with NPs, and the compression isotherm (π–A) of the EMM lipid mixture in the presence of NPs. In addition, the EMMs were transferred onto a silicon substrate following interactions with NPs using the Langmuir–Schaeffer (LS) technique. The transferred LS films were imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine the changes in lipid morphology and to characterize the NP–membrane interactions. TAT-RNPs showed an increase in SP of the EMM, which was dependent upon the amount of the peptide bound to NPs and the concentration of NPs, whereas sc-TAT-RNPs and RNPs did not show any significant change in SP. The isotherm experiment showed a shift towards higher mean molecular area (mmA) in the presence of TAT-RNPs, indicating their interactions with the lipids of the EMM, whereas sc-TAT-RNPs and RNPs did not show any significant change. The AFM images showed condensation of the lipids following interaction with TAT-RNPs, indicating their penetration into the EMM, whereas RNPs did not cause any change. Surface analysis and 3-D AFM images of the EMM further confirmed penetration of TAT-RNPs into the EMM whereas RNPs were seen anchored loosely to the

  9. Protein fragment bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses for the in vivo study of protein-protein interactions and cellular protein complex localizations

    PubMed Central

    Waadt, Rainer; Schlücking, Kathrin; Schroeder, Julian I.; Kudla, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Summary The analyses of protein-protein interactions is crucial for understanding cellular processes including signal transduction, protein trafficking and movement. Protein fragment complementation assays are based on the reconstitution of protein function when non-active protein fragments are brought together by interacting proteins that were genetically fused to these protein fragments. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) relies on the reconstitution of fluorescent proteins and enables both the analysis of protein-protein interactions and the visualization of protein complex formations in vivo. Transient expression of proteins is a convenient approach to study protein functions in planta or in other organisms, and minimizes the need for time-consuming generation of stably expressing transgenic organisms. Here we describe protocols for BiFC analyses in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana leaves transiently transformed by Agrobacterium infiltration. Further we discuss different BiFC applications and provide examples for proper BiFC analyses in planta. PMID:24057390

  10. Marked over expression of uncoupling protein-2 in beta cells exerts minor effects on mitochondrial metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Hals, Ingrid K.; Ogata, Hirotaka; Pettersen, Elin; Ma, Zuheng; Bjoerklund, Anneli; Skorpen, Frank; Egeberg, Kjartan Wollo; Grill, Valdemar

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The impact of UCP-2 over expression on mitochondrial function is controversial. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested mitochondrial functions at defined levels of overexpression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find minor increases of fatty acid oxidation and uncoupling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects were seen only at high level (fourfold) of over expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hence it is doubtful whether these effects are of importance in diabetes. -- Abstract: Evidence is conflicting as to the impact of elevated levels of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) on insulin-producing beta cells. Here we investigated effects of a fourfold induction of UCP-2 protein primarily on mitochondrial parameters and tested for replication of positive findings at a lower level of induction. We transfected INS-1 cells to obtain a tet-on inducible cell line. A 48 h exposure to 1 {mu}g/ml of doxycycline (dox) induced UCP-2 fourfold (424 {+-} 113%, mean {+-} SEM) and 0.1 {mu}g/ml twofold (178 {+-} 29%, n = 3). Fourfold induced cells displayed normal viability (MTT, apoptosis), normal cellular insulin contents and, glucose-induced insulin secretion (+27 {+-} 11%) as well as D-[U-{sup 14}C]-glucose oxidation (+5 {+-} 9% at 11 mM glucose). Oxidation of [1-{sup 14}C]-oleate was increased from 4088 to 5797 fmol/{mu}g prot/2 h at 3.3 mM glucose, p < 0.03. Oxidation of L-[{sup 14}C(U)]-glutamine was unaffected. Induction of UCP-2 did not significantly affect measures of mitochondrial membrane potential (Rhodamine 123) or mitochondrial mass (Mitotracker Green) and did not affect ATP levels. Oligomycin-inhibited oxygen consumption (a measure of mitochondrial uncoupling) was marginally increased, the effect being significant in comparison with dox-only treated cells, p < 0.05. Oxygen radicals, assessed by dichlorofluorescin diacetate, were decreased by 30%, p < 0.025. Testing for the lower level of UCP-2 induction did not reproduce any of the

  11. Accumulated SET protein up-regulates and interacts with hnRNPK, increasing its binding to nucleic acids, the Bcl-xS repression, and cellular proliferation.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luciana O; Garcia, Cristiana B; Matos-Silva, Flavia A; Curti, Carlos; Leopoldino, Andréia M

    2014-02-28

    SET and hnRNPK are proteins involved in gene expression and regulation of cellular signaling. We previously demonstrated that SET accumulates in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); hnRNPK is a prognostic marker in cancer. Here, we postulate that SET and hnRNPK proteins interact to promote tumorigenesis. We performed studies in HEK293 and HNSCC (HN6, HN12, and HN13) cell lines with SET/hnRNPK overexpression and knockdown, respectively. We found that SET and/or hnRNPK protein accumulation increased cellular proliferation. SET accumulation up-regulated hnRNPK mRNA and total/phosphorylated protein, promoted hnRNPK nuclear location, and reduced Bcl-x mRNA levels. SET protein directly interacted with hnRNPK, increasing both its binding to nucleic acids and Bcl-xS repression. We propose that hnRNPK should be a new target of SET and that SET-hnRNPK interaction, in turn, has potential implications in cell survival and malignant transformation.

  12. Interaction of HSP20 with a viral RdRp changes its sub-cellular localization and distribution pattern in plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Xiang, Cong-Ying; Yang, Jian; Chen, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Heng-Mu

    2015-01-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) perform a fundamental role in protecting cells against a wide array of stresses but their biological function during viral infection remains unknown. Rice stripe virus (RSV) causes a severe disease of rice in Eastern Asia. OsHSP20 and its homologue (NbHSP20) were used as baits in yeast two-hybrid (YTH) assays to screen an RSV cDNA library and were found to interact with the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of RSV. Interactions were confirmed by pull-down and BiFC assays. Further analysis showed that the N-terminus (residues 1–296) of the RdRp was crucial for the interaction between the HSP20s and viral RdRp and responsible for the alteration of the sub-cellular localization and distribution pattern of HSP20s in protoplasts of rice and epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana. This is the first report that a plant virus or a viral protein alters the expression pattern or sub-cellular distribution of sHSPs. PMID:26359114

  13. Accumulated SET protein up-regulates and interacts with hnRNPK, increasing its binding to nucleic acids, the Bcl-xS repression, and cellular proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, Luciana O.; Garcia, Cristiana B.; Matos-Silva, Flavia A.; Curti, Carlos; Leopoldino, Andréia M.

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • hnRNPK is a new target of SET. • SET regulates hnRNPK. • SET and hnRNPK accumulation promotes tumorigenesis. • SET accumulation is a potential model to study genes regulated by SET-hnRNPK. - Abstract: SET and hnRNPK are proteins involved in gene expression and regulation of cellular signaling. We previously demonstrated that SET accumulates in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); hnRNPK is a prognostic marker in cancer. Here, we postulate that SET and hnRNPK proteins interact to promote tumorigenesis. We performed studies in HEK293 and HNSCC (HN6, HN12, and HN13) cell lines with SET/hnRNPK overexpression and knockdown, respectively. We found that SET and/or hnRNPK protein accumulation increased cellular proliferation. SET accumulation up-regulated hnRNPK mRNA and total/phosphorylated protein, promoted hnRNPK nuclear location, and reduced Bcl-x mRNA levels. SET protein directly interacted with hnRNPK, increasing both its binding to nucleic acids and Bcl-xS repression. We propose that hnRNPK should be a new target of SET and that SET–hnRNPK interaction, in turn, has potential implications in cell survival and malignant transformation.

  14. Application of a personal computer for the uncoupled vibration analysis of wind turbine blade and counterweight assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. R.; Little, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    A research effort was undertaken to develop personal computer based software for vibrational analysis. The software was developed to analytically determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes for the uncoupled lateral vibrations of the blade and counterweight assemblies used in a single bladed wind turbine. The uncoupled vibration analysis was performed in both the flapwise and chordwise directions for static rotor conditions. The effects of rotation on the uncoupled flapwise vibration of the blade and counterweight assemblies were evaluated for various rotor speeds up to 90 rpm. The theory, used in the vibration analysis codes, is based on a lumped mass formulation for the blade and counterweight assemblies. The codes are general so that other designs can be readily analyzed. The input for the codes is generally interactive to facilitate usage. The output of the codes is both tabular and graphical. Listings of the codes are provided. Predicted natural frequencies of the first several modes show reasonable agreement with experimental results. The analysis codes were originally developed on a DEC PDP 11/34 minicomputer and then downloaded and modified to run on an ITT XTRA personal computer. Studies conducted to evaluate the efficiency of running the programs on a personal computer as compared with the minicomputer indicated that, with the proper combination of hardware and software options, the efficiency of using a personal computer exceeds that of a minicomputer.

  15. Identification of novel putative-binding proteins for cellular prion protein and a specific interaction with the STIP1 homology and U-Box-containing protein 1.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Ana Paula Lappas; Richter, Larissa Morato Luciani; Atherino, Mariana Campos; Beirão, Breno Castello Branco; Fávaro, Celso; Costa, Michele Dietrich Moura; Zanata, Silvio Marques; Malnic, Bettina; Mercadante, Adriana Frohlich

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases involve the conversion of the endogenous cellular prion protein, PrP(C), into a misfolded infectious isoform, PrP(Sc). Several functions have been attributed to PrP(C), and its role has also been investigated in the olfactory system. PrP(C) is expressed in both the olfactory bulb (OB) and olfactory epithelium (OE) and the nasal cavity is an important route of transmission of diseases caused by prions. Moreover, Prnp(-/-) mice showed impaired behavior in olfactory tests. Given the high PrP(C) expression in OE and its putative role in olfaction, we screened a mouse OE cDNA library to identify novel PrP(C)-binding partners. Ten different putative PrP(C) ligands were identified, which were involved in functions such as cellular proliferation and apoptosis, cytoskeleton and vesicle transport, ubiquitination of proteins, stress response, and other physiological processes. In vitro binding assays confirmed the interaction of PrP(C) with STIP1 homology and U-Box containing protein 1 (Stub1) and are reported here for the first time. Stub1 is a co-chaperone with ubiquitin E3-ligase activity, which is associated with neurodegenerative diseases characterized by protein misfolding and aggregation. Physiological and pathological implications of PrP(C)-Stub1 interaction are under investigation. The PrP(C)-binding proteins identified here are not exclusive to the OE, suggesting that these interactions may occur in other tissues and play general biological roles. These data corroborate the proposal that PrP(C) is part of a multiprotein complex that modulates several cellular functions and provide a platform for further studies on the physiological and pathological roles of prion protein.

  16. Interaction of Iron II Complexes with B-DNA. Insights from Molecular Modeling, Spectroscopy and Cellular Biology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattuso, Hugo; Duchanois, Thibaut; Besancenot, Vanessa; Barbieux, Claire; Assfeld, Xavier; Becuwe, Philippe; Gros, Philippe; Grandemange, Stephanie; Monari, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    We report the characterization of the interaction between B-DNA and three terpyridin iron II complexes. Relatively long time-scale molecular dynamics is used in order to characterize the stable interaction modes. By means of molecular modeling and UV-vis spectroscopy, we prove that they may lead to stable interactions with the DNA duplex. Furthermore, the presence of larger π-conjugated moieties also leads to the appearance of intercalation binding mode. Non-covalent stabilizing interactions between the iron complexes and the DNA are also characterized and evidenced by the analysis of the gradient of the electronic density. Finally, the structural deformations induced on the DNA in the different binding modes are also evidenced. The synthesis and chemical characterization of the three complexes is reported, as well as their absorption spectra in presence of DNA duplexes to prove the interaction with DNA. Finally, their effects on human cell cultures have also been evidenced to further enlighten their biological effects.

  17. Hypoxia and Reoxygenation Induce Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Uncoupling in Endothelial Cells through Tetrahydrobiopterin Depletion and S-Glutathionylation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is accompanied by endothelial hypoxia and reoxygenation that trigger oxidative stress with enhanced superoxide generation and diminished nitric oxide (NO) production leading to endothelial dysfunction. Oxidative depletion of the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin can trigger eNOS uncoupling, in which the enzyme generates superoxide rather than NO. Recently, it has also been shown that oxidative stress can induce eNOS S-glutathionylation at critical cysteine residues of the reductase site that serves as a redox switch to control eNOS coupling. While superoxide can deplete tetrahydrobiopterin and induce eNOS S-glutathionylation, the extent of and interaction between these processes in the pathogenesis of eNOS dysfunction in endothelial cells following hypoxia and reoxygenation remain unknown. Therefore, studies were performed on endothelial cells subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation to determine the severity of eNOS uncoupling and the role of cofactor depletion and S-glutathionylation in this process. Hypoxia and reoxygenation of aortic endothelial cells triggered xanthine oxidase-mediated superoxide generation, causing both tetrahydrobiopterin depletion and S-glutathionylation with resultant eNOS uncoupling. Replenishing cells with tetrahydrobiopterin along with increasing intracellular levels of glutathione greatly preserved eNOS activity after hypoxia and reoxygenation, while targeting either mechanism alone only partially ameliorated the decrease in NO. Endothelial oxidative stress, secondary to hypoxia and reoxygenation, uncoupled eNOS with an altered ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione inducing eNOS S-glutathionylation. These mechanisms triggered by oxidative stress combine to cause eNOS dysfunction with shift of the enzyme from NO to superoxide production. Thus, in endothelial reoxygenation injury, normalization of both tetrahydrobiopterin levels and the glutathione pool are needed for maximal

  18. Nox2-dependent glutathionylation of endothelial NOS leads to uncoupled superoxide production and endothelial barrier dysfunction in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Szczepaniak, William S; Shiva, Sruti; Liu, Huanbo; Wang, Yinna; Wang, Ling; Wang, Ying; Kelley, Eric E; Chen, Alex F; Gladwin, Mark T; McVerry, Bryan J

    2014-12-15

    Microvascular barrier integrity is dependent on bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) produced locally by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Under conditions of limited substrate or cofactor availability or by enzymatic modification, eNOS may become uncoupled, producing superoxide in lieu of NO. This study was designed to investigate how eNOS-dependent superoxide production contributes to endothelial barrier dysfunction in inflammatory lung injury and its regulation. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with intratracheal LPS. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for protein accumulation, and lung tissue homogenate was assayed for endothelial NOS content and function. Human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HLMVEC) monolayers were exposed to LPS in vitro, and barrier integrity and superoxide production were measured. Biopterin species were quantified, and coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays were performed to identify protein interactions with eNOS that putatively drive uncoupling. Mice exposed to LPS demonstrated eNOS-dependent increased alveolar permeability without evidence for altered canonical NO signaling. LPS-induced superoxide production and permeability in HLMVEC were inhibited by the NOS inhibitor nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, eNOS-targeted siRNA, the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin, and superoxide dismutase. Co-IP indicated that LPS stimulated the association of eNOS with NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2), which correlated with augmented eNOS S-glutathionylation both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, Nox2-specific inhibition prevented LPS-induced eNOS modification and increases in both superoxide production and permeability. These data indicate that eNOS uncoupling contributes to superoxide production and barrier dysfunction in the lung microvasculature after exposure to LPS. Furthermore, the results implicate Nox2-mediated eNOS-S-glutathionylation as a mechanism underlying LPS-induced eNOS uncoupling in the lung microvasculature.

  19. Optical forced oscillation for the study of lectin-glycoprotein interaction at the cellular membrane of a Chinese hamster ovary cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shang-Ling; Karmenyan, Artashes; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Huang, Chun-Chieh; Lin, Chi-Hung; Chiou, Arthur

    2007-03-01

    We report the application of a set of twin optical tweezers to trap and oscillate a ConA (lectin)- coated polystyrene particle and to measure its interaction with glycoprotein receptors at the cellular plasma membrane of a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell. The particle was trapped between two quadratic potential wells defined by a set of twin optical tweezers and was forced to oscillate by chopping on and off one of the trapping beams. We tracked the oscillatory motion of the particle via a quadrant photodiode and measured with a lock-in amplifier the amplitude of the oscillation as a function of frequency at the fundamental component of the driving frequency over a frequency range from 10Hz to 600Hz. By analyzing the amplitude as a function of frequency for a free particle suspended in buffer solution without the presence of the CHO cell and compared with the corresponding data when the particle was interacting with the CHO cell, we deduced the transverse force constant associated with the optical trap and that associated with the interaction by treating both the optical trap and the interaction as linear springs. The force constants were determined to be approximately 2.15pN/μm for the trap and 2.53pN/μm for the lectin-glycoprotein interaction. When the CHO cell was treated with lantrunculin A, a drug that is known to destroy the cytoskeleton of the cell, the oscillation amplitude increased with time, indicating the softening of the cellular membrane, until a steady state with a smaller force constant was reached. The steady state value of the force constant depended on the drug concentration.

  20. Effects of crab halophytic plant interactions on creek growth in a S.W. Atlantic salt marsh: A Cellular Automata model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkoff, Darío R.; Escapa, Mauricio; Ferramola, Félix E.; Maraschín, Silvio D.; Pierini, Jorge O.; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Delrieux, Claudio

    2006-09-01

    The Bahía Blanca Estuary (38° 50' S, and 62° 30' W) presents salt marshes where interactions between the local flora ( Sarcocornia perennis) and fauna ( Chasmagnathus granulatus) generate some kind of salt pans that alter the normal water circulation and condition its flow and course towards tidal creeks. The crab-vegetation dynamics in the salt marsh presents variations that cannot be quantified in a reasonable period of time. The interaction between S. perennis plant and C. granulatus crab is based on simple laws, but its result is a complex biological mechanism that causes an erosive process on the salt marsh and favors the formation of tidal creeks. To study it, a Cellular Automata model is proposed, based on the laws deduced from the observation of these phenomena in the field, and then verified with measurable data within macroscale time units. Therefore, the objective of this article is to model how the interaction between C. granulatus and S. perennis modifies the landscape of the salt marsh and influences the path of tidal creeks. The model copies the basic laws that rule the problem based on purely biological factors. The Cellular Automata model proved capable of reproducing the effects of the interaction between plants and crabs in the salt marsh. A study of the water drainage of the basins showed that this interaction does indeed modify the development of tidal creeks. Model dynamics would likewise follow different laws, which would provide a different formula for the probability of patch dilation. The patch shape can be obtained changing the pattern that dilates.

  1. Stress-induced protein CSP 310: a third uncoupling system in plants.

    PubMed

    Kolesnichenko, A V; Pobezhimova, T P; Grabelnych, O I; Voinikov, V K

    2002-06-01

    Addition of the cold-stress-related protein CSP 310 to mitochondria isolated from winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. Zalarinka), winter rye ( Secale cereale L. cv. Dymka), maize ( Zea mays L. cv. VIR 36) and pea ( Pisum sativum L. cv. Marat) caused an increase in non-phosphorylative respiration. This increase was inhibited by KCN, indicating that the protein is not a CN-resistant alternative oxidase. Unlike plant mitochondrial uncoupling proteins such as PUMP, the uncoupling action of CSP 310 did not depend on the presence of free fatty acids in the incubation medium. We propose that the mechanism of the uncoupling action of CSP 310 differs from that of other known plant uncoupling systems and that the CSP 310 uncoupling system is a third uncoupling system in cereals.

  2. iDrug-Target: predicting the interactions between drug compounds and target proteins in cellular networking via benchmark dataset optimization approach.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xuan; Min, Jian-Liang; Lin, Wei-Zhong; Liu, Zi; Cheng, Xiang; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Information about the interactions of drug compounds with proteins in cellular networking is very important for drug development. Unfortunately, all the existing predictors for identifying drug-protein interactions were trained by a skewed benchmark data-set where the number of non-interactive drug-protein pairs is overwhelmingly larger than that of the interactive ones. Using this kind of highly unbalanced benchmark data-set to train predictors would lead to the outcome that many interactive drug-protein pairs might be mispredicted as non-interactive. Since the minority interactive pairs often contain the most important information for drug design, it is necessary to minimize this kind of misprediction. In this study, we adopted the neighborhood cleaning rule and synthetic minority over-sampling technique to treat the skewed benchmark datasets and balance the positive and negative subsets. The new benchmark datasets thus obtained are called the optimized benchmark datasets, based on which a new predictor called iDrug-Target was developed that contains four sub-predictors: iDrug-GPCR, iDrug-Chl, iDrug-Ezy, and iDrug-NR, specialized for identifying the interactions of drug compounds with GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors), ion channels, enzymes, and NR (nuclear receptors), respectively. Rigorous cross-validations on a set of experiment-confirmed datasets have indicated that these new predictors remarkably outperformed the existing ones for the same purpose. To maximize users' convenience, a public accessible Web server for iDrug-Target has been established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iDrug-Target/ , by which users can easily get their desired results. It has not escaped our notice that the aforementioned strategy can be widely used in many other areas as well.

  3. Docking studies and network analyses reveal capacity of compounds from Kandelia rheedii to strengthen cellular immunity by interacting with host proteins during tuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Aubhishek

    2012-01-01

    Kandelia rheedii (locally known as Guria or Rasunia), widely found and used in Indian subcontinent, is a well-known herbal cure to tuberculosis. However, neither the mechanism nor the active components of the plant extract responsible for mediating this action has yet been confirmed. Here in this study, molecular interactions of three compounds (emodin, fusaric acid and skyrin) from the plant extract with the host protein targets (casein kinase (CSNK), estrogen receptor (ERBB), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) and glucagon receptor (Gcgr)) has been found. These protein targets are known to be responsible for strengthening cellular immunity against Mycobacteria tuberculosis. The specific interactions of these three compounds with the respective protein targets have been discussed here. The insights from study should further help us designing molecular medicines against tuberculosis. PMID:23275699

  4. Microbial Protein-Protein Interactions (MiPPI) Data from the Genomics: GTL Center for Molecular and Cellular Systems (CMCS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Genomic Science Center for Molecular and Cellular Systems (CMCS), established in 2002, seeks to identify and characterize the complete set of protein complexes within a cell to provide a mechanistic basis for the understanding of biochemical functions. The CMCS is anchored at ORNL and PNNL. CMCS initially focused on the identification and characterization of protein complexes in two microbial systems,Rhodopseudomonas palustris (R. palustris) and Shewanella oneidensis (S. oneidensis). These two organisms have also been the focus of major DOE Genomic Science/Microbial Cell Program (MCP) projects. To develop an approach for identifying the diverse types of complexes present in microbial organisms, CMCS incorporates a number of molecular biology, microbiology, analytical and computational tools in an integrated pipeline.

  5. Interactions between HIF-1α and AMPK in the regulation of cellular hypoxia adaptation in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Satriano, Joseph; Thomas, Joanna L; Miyamoto, Satoshi; Sharma, Kumar; Pastor-Soler, Núria M; Hallows, Kenneth R; Singh, Prabhleen

    2015-09-01

    Renal hypoxia contributes to chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, as validated in experimental and human CKD. In the early stages, increased oxygen consumption causes oxygen demand/supply mismatch, leading to hypoxia. Hence, early targeting of the determinants and regulators of oxygen consumption in CKD may alter the disease course before permanent damage ensues. Here, we focus on hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and on the mechanisms by which they may facilitate cellular hypoxia adaptation. We found that HIF-1α activation in the subtotal nephrectomy (STN) model of CKD limits protein synthesis, inhibits apoptosis, and activates autophagy, presumably for improved cell survival. AMPK activation was diminished in the STN kidney and was remarkably restored by HIF-1α activation, demonstrating a novel role for HIF-1α in the regulation of AMPK activity. We also investigated the independent and combined effects of HIF-1α and AMPK on cell survival and death pathways by utilizing pharmacological and knockdown approaches in cell culture models. We found that the effect of HIF-1α activation on autophagy is independent of AMPK, but on apoptosis it is partially AMPK dependent. The effects of HIF-1α and AMPK activation on inhibiting protein synthesis via the mTOR pathway appear to be additive. These various effects were also observed under hypoxic conditions. In conclusion, HIF-1α and AMPK appear to be linked at a molecular level and may act as components of a concerted cellular response to hypoxic stress in the pathophysiology of CKD.

  6. Interaction of Iron II Complexes with B-DNA. Insights from Molecular Modeling, Spectroscopy, and Cellular Biology

    PubMed Central

    Gattuso, Hugo; Duchanois, Thibaut; Besancenot, Vanessa; Barbieux, Claire; Assfeld, Xavier; Becuwe, Philippe; Gros, Philippe C.; Grandemange, Stephanie; Monari, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We report the characterization of the interaction between B-DNA and three terpyridin iron II complexes. Relatively long time-scale molecular dynamics (MD) is used in order to characterize the stable interaction modes. By means of molecular modeling and UV-vis spectroscopy, we prove that they may lead to stable interactions with the DNA duplex. Furthermore, the presence of larger π-conjugated moieties also leads to the appearance of intercalation binding mode. Non-covalent stabilizing interactions between the iron complexes and the DNA are also characterized and evidenced by the analysis of the gradient of the electronic density. Finally, the structural deformations induced on the DNA in the different binding modes are also evidenced. The synthesis and chemical characterization of the three complexes is reported, as well as their absorption spectra in presence of DNA duplexes to prove the interaction with DNA. Finally, their effects on human cell cultures have also been evidenced to further enlighten their biological effects. PMID:26734600

  7. Epstein–Barr virus glycoprotein gM can interact with the cellular protein p32 and knockdown of p32 impairs virus

    SciTech Connect

    Changotra, Harish; Turk, Susan M.; Artigues, Antonio; Thakur, Nagendra; Gore, Mindy; Muggeridge, Martin I.; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M.

    2016-02-15

    The Epstein–Barr virus glycoprotein complex gMgN has been implicated in assembly and release of fully enveloped virus, although the precise role that it plays has not been elucidated. We report here that the long predicted cytoplasmic tail of gM is not required for complex formation and that it interacts with the cellular protein p32, which has been reported to be involved in nuclear egress of human cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus. Although redistribution of p32 and colocalization with gM was not observed in virus infected cells, knockdown of p32 expression by siRNA or lentivirus-delivered shRNA recapitulated the phenotype of a virus lacking expression of gNgM. A proportion of virus released from cells sedimented with characteristics of virus lacking an intact envelope and there was an increase in virus trapped in nuclear condensed chromatin. The observations suggest the possibility that p32 may also be involved in nuclear egress of Epstein–Barr virus. - Highlights: • The predicted cytoplasmic tail of gM is not required to complex with gN. • Cellular p32 can interact with the predicted cytoplasmic tail of EBV gM. • Knockdown of p32 recapitulates the phenotype of virus lacking the gNgM complex.

  8. S100A6 binding protein and Siah-1 interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP): spotlight on properties and cellular function.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gabriela; Filipek, Anna

    2011-10-01

    The CacyBP/SIP protein (S100A6 binding protein and Siah-1 interacting protein) was originally discovered in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells as a S100A6 (calcyclin) target (Filipek and Wojda in Biochem J 320:585-587, 1996; Filipek and Kuźnicki in J Neurochem 70(5):1793-1798, 1998) and later on as a Siah-1 interacting protein (Matsuzawa and Reed in Mol Cell 7(5):915-926, 2001). CacyBP/SIP binds several target proteins such as some calcium binding proteins of the S100 family (Filipek et al. in J Biol Chem 277(32):28848-28852, 2002), Skp1 (Matsuzawa and Reed in Mol Cell 7(5):915-926, 2001), tubulin (Schneider et al. in Biochim Biophys Acta 1773(11):1628-1636, 2007) and ERK1/2 (Kilanczyk et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 380:54-59, 2009). Studies concerning distribution of CacyBP/SIP show that it is present in various tissues and that a particularly high level of CacyBP/SIP is observed in brain (Jastrzebska et al. in J Histochem Cytochem 48(9):1195-1202, 2000). Regarding the function of CacyBP/SIP, there are some reports suggesting its role in cellular processes such as ubiquitination, proliferation, differentiation, tumorigenesis, cytoskeletal rearrangement or regulation of transcription. This review describes the properties of CacyBP/SIP and summarizes all findings concerning its cellular function.

  9. Matrix metalloproteinase 3 promotes cellular anti-dengue virus response via interaction with transcription factor NFκB in cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xiangyang; Pan, Wen; Feng, Tingting; Shi, Xiaohong; Dai, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV), the causative agent of human Dengue hemorrhagic fever, is a mosquito-borne virus of immense global health importance. Characterization of cellular factors promoting or inhibiting DENV infection is important for understanding the mechanism of DENV infection. In this report, MMP3 (stromelysin-1), a secretory endopeptidase that degrades extracellular matrices, has been shown promoting cellular antiviral response against DENV infection. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western Blot showed that the expression of MMP3 was upregulated in DENV-infected RAW264.7 cells. The intracellular viral loads were significantly higher in MMP3 silenced cells compared with controls. The expression level of selective anti-viral cytokines were decreased in MMP3 siRNA treated cells, and the transcription factor activity of NFκB was significantly impaired upon MMP3 silencing during DENV infection. Further, we found that MMP3 moved to cell nucleus upon DENV infection and colocalized with NFκB P65 in nucleus. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis suggested that MMP3 directly interacted with NFκB in nucleus during DENV infection and the C-terminal hemopexin-like domain of MMP3 was required for the interaction. This study suggested a novel role of MMP3 in nucleus during viral infection and provided new evidence for MMPs in immunomodulation.

  10. Targeted mitochondrial uncoupling beyond UCP1 - The fine line between death and metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Ost, Mario; Keipert, Susanne; Klaus, Susanne

    2017-03-01

    In the early 1930s, the chemical uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) was promoted for the very first time as a powerful and effective weight loss pill but quickly withdrawn from the market due to its lack of tissue-selectivity with resulting dangerous side effects, including hyperthermia and death. Today, novel mitochondria- or tissue-targeted chemical uncouplers with higher safety and therapeutic values are under investigation in order to tackle obesity, diabetes and fatty liver disease. Moreover, in the past 20 years, transgenic mouse models were generated to understand the molecular and metabolic consequences of targeted uncoupling, expressing functional uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) ectopically in white adipose tissue or skeletal muscle. Similar to the action of chemical mitochondrial uncouplers, UCP1 protein dissipates the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thus allowing maximum activity of the respiratory chain and compensatory increase in oxygen consumption, uncoupled from ATP synthesis. Consequently, targeted mitochondrial uncoupling in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of UCP1-transgenic mice increased substrate metabolism and ameliorates obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance. Further, muscle-specific decrease in mitochondrial efficiency promotes a cell-autonomous and cell-non-autonomous adaptive metabolic remodeling with increased oxidative stress tolerance. This review provides an overview of novel chemical uncouplers as well as the metabolic consequences and adaptive processes of targeted mitochondrial uncoupling on metabolic health and survival.

  11. Interaction of Actinide Species with Microorganisms & Microbial Chelators: Cellular Uptake, Toxicity, & Implications for Bioremediation of Soil & Ground Water.

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim Boukhalfa Mary, P. Neu Alvin Crumbliss

    2006-03-28

    Microorganisms influence the natural cycle of major elements, including C, N, P, S, and transition metals such as Mn and Fe. Bacterial processes can also influence the behavior of actinides in soil and ground water. While radionuclides have no known biological utility, they have the potential to interact with microorganisms and to interfere with processes involving other elements such as Fe and Mn. These interactions can transform radionuclides and affect their fate and transport. Organic acids, extruded by-products of cell metabolism, can solubilize radionuclides and facilitate their transport. The soluble complexes formed can be taken up by the cells and incorporated into biofilm structures. We have examined the interactions of Pu species with bacterial metabolites, studied Pu uptake by microorganisms and examined the toxicity of Pu and other toxic metals to environmentally relevant bacteria. We have also studied the speciation of Pu(IV) in the presence of natural and synthetic chelators.

  12. Manganese superoxide dismutase interacts with a large scale of cellular and mitochondrial proteins in low dose radiation-induced adaptive radioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Angela; Fan, Ming; Woloschak, Gayle; Grdina, David J.; Chromy, Brett A.; Li, Jian Jian

    2012-01-01

    Cellular adaptive response to certain low level genotoxic stresses including the exposure to low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) shows promise as a tool to enhance radioprotection in normal cells but not in tumor cells. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a fundamental mitochondrial antioxidant in mammalian cells plays a key role in LDIR-induced adaptive response. In this study, we aim to elucidate the signaling network associated with the MnSOD-induced radiation protection. A MnSOD-interacting protein profile was established in LDIR-treated human skin cells. Human skin keratinocytes (HK18) were irradiated with a single dose LDIR (10 cGy x-ray) and the cell lysates were immunoprecipitated using α-MnSOD and applied to two different gel-based proteomics followed by mass spectrometry for protein identification. Analysis of the profiles of MnSOD interacting partners before and after LDIR detected different patterns of MnSOD protein-protein interactions in response to LDIR. Interestingly, many of the MnSOD interacting proteins are known to have functions related to mitochondrial regulations on cell metabolism, apoptosis and DNA repair. These results provide the evidence indicating that in addition to the enzymatic action detoxifying superoxide, the antioxidant MnSOD may function as a signaling regulator in stress induced adaptive protection through cell survival pathways. PMID:23000060

  13. Analysis of A549 cell proteome alteration in response to recombinant influenza A virus nucleoprotein and its interaction with cellular proteins, a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D; Tiwari, K; Rajala, M S

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A virus undergoes frequent changes of antigenicity and contributes to seasonal epidemics or unpredictable pandemics. Nucleoprotein, encoded by gene segment 5, is an internal protein of the virus and is conserved among strains of different host origins. In the current study, we analyzed the differentially expressed proteins in A549 cells transiently transfected with the recombinant nucleoprotein of influenza A virus by 2D gel electrophoresis. The resolved protein spots on gel were identified by MALDI-TOF/Mass spectrometry analysis. The majority of the host proteins detected to be differentially abundant in recombinant nucleoprotein-expressing cells as compared to vector-transfected cells are the proteins of metabolic pathways, glycolytic enzymes, molecular chaperones and cytoskeletal proteins. We further demonstrated the interaction of virus nucleoprotein with some of the identified host cellular proteins. In vitro binding assay carried out using the purified recombinant nucleoprotein (pET29a+NP-His) and A549 cell lysate confirmed the interaction between nucleoprotein and host proteins, such as alpha enolase 1, pyruvate kinase and β-actin. The preliminary data of our study provides the information on virus nucleoprotein interaction with proteins involved in glycolysis. However, studies are ongoing to understand the significance of these interactions in modulating the host factors during virus replication.

  14. Interaction with polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin alters cellular distribution and RNA processing of huntingtin yeast two-hybrid protein A (HYPA).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ya-Jun; Che, Mei-Xia; Yuan, Jin-Qiao; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Yan, Xian-Zhong; Hu, Hong-Yu

    2011-07-15

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal inherited disorder that causes the deterioration of brain cells. The polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion of huntingtin (Htt) is implicated in the pathogenesis of HD via interaction with an RNA splicing factor, Htt yeast two-hybrid protein A/forming-binding protein 11 (HYPA/FBP11). Besides the pathogenic polyQ expansion, Htt also contains a proline-rich region (PRR) located exactly in the C terminus to the polyQ tract. However, how the polyQ expansion influences the PRR-mediated protein interaction and how this abnormal interaction leads to the biological consequence remain elusive. Our NMR structural analysis indicates that the PRR motif of Htt cooperatively interacts with the tandem WW domains of HYPA through domain chaperoning effect of WW1 on WW2. The polyQ-expanded Htt sequesters HYPA to the cytosolic location and then significantly reduces the efficiency of pre-mRNA splicing. We propose that the toxic gain-of-function of the polyQ-expanded Htt that causes dysfunction of cellular RNA processing contributes to the pathogenesis of HD.

  15. Surface interactions with compartmentalized cellular phosphates explain rare earth oxide nanoparticle hazard and provide opportunities for safer design.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruibin; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Dunphy, Darren R; Cai, Xiaoming; Meng, Huan; Zhang, Haiyuan; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Dong, Juyao; Lin, Sijie; Wang, Meiying; Liao, Yu-Pei; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Nel, Andre; Xia, Tian

    2014-02-25

    Growing international exploitation of rare earth oxides (REOs) for commercial and biological use has increased the possibility of human exposure and adverse health effects. Occupational exposure to rare earth materials in miners and polishers leads to a severe form of pneumoconiosis, while gadolinium-containing MRI contrast agents cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with renal impairment. The mechanisms for inducing these adverse pro-fibrogenic effects are of considerable importance for the safety assessment of REO particles as well as presenting opportunities for safer design. In this study, using a well-prepared REO library, we obtained a mechanistic understanding of how REOs induce cellular and pulmonary damage by a compartmentalized intracellular biotransformation process in lysosomes that results in pro-fibrogenic growth factor production and lung fibrosis. We demonstrate that rare earth oxide ion shedding in acidifying macrophage lysosomes leads to biotic phosphate complexation that results in organelle damage due to stripping of phosphates from the surrounding lipid bilayer. This results in nanoparticle biotransformation into urchin shaped structures and setting in motion a series of events that trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1β release, TGF-β1 and PDGF-AA production. However, pretreatment of REO nanoparticles with phosphate in a neutral pH environment prevents biological transformation and pro-fibrogenic effects. This can be used as a safer design principle for producing rare earth nanoparticles for biological use.

  16. The Hd, Hj, and Hz66 flagella variants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi modify host responses and cellular interactions.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Fernanda; Kay, Sally; Frankel, Gad; Clare, Simon; Goulding, David; van de Vosse, Esther; van Dissel, Jaap T; Strugnell, Richard; Thwaites, Guy; Kingsley, Robert A; Dougan, Gordon; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-22

    Salmonella Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, is a monophyletic, human-restricted bacterium that exhibits limited phenotypic variation. S. Typhi from Indonesia are a notable exception, with circulating strains expressing diverse flagella antigens including Hj, Hd and Hz66. Hypothesizing that S. Typhi flagella plays a key role during infection, we constructed an S. Typhi fliC mutant and otherwise isogenic S. Typhi strains expressing the Hj, Hd, Hz66 flagella antigens. Phenotyping revealed differences in flagellum structure, strain motility and immunogenicity, but not in the ability of flagellated isolates to induce TLR5 activity. Invasion assays using epithelial and macrophage cell lines revealed differences in the ability of these S. Typhi derivatives to invade cells or induce cellular restructuring in the form of ruffles. Notably, the Hj variant induced substantial ruffles that were not fully dependent on the GTPases that contribute to this process. These data highlight important differences in the phenotypic properties of S. Typhi flagella variation and how they impact on the pathogenesis of S. Typhi.

  17. "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation": an interactive learning laboratory that communicates basic principles of genetics and cellular biology.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J Michael

    2016-03-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients have the sickle cell genotype/phenotype using DNA and blood samples from wild-type and transgenic mice that carry a sickle cell mutation. The inquiry-based, problem-solving approach facilitates the students' understanding of the basic concepts of genetics and cellular and molecular biology and provides experience with contemporary tools of biotechnology. It also leads to students' appreciation of the causes and consequences of this genetic disease, which is relatively common in individuals of African descent, and increases their understanding of the first principles of genetics. This protocol provides optimal learning when led by well-trained facilitators (including the classroom teacher) and carried out in small groups (6:1 student-to-teacher ratio). This high-quality experience can be offered to a large number of students at a relatively low cost, and it is especially effective in collaboration with a local science museum and/or university. Over the past 15 yr, >12,000 students have completed this inquiry-based learning experience and demonstrated a consistent, substantial increase in their understanding of the disease and genetics in general.

  18. The cellular response to neuregulins is governed by complex interactions of the erbB receptor family.

    PubMed Central

    Riese, D J; van Raaij, T M; Plowman, G D; Andrews, G C; Stern, D F

    1995-01-01

    Deregulated signaling by the four members of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase family (erbB family) is implicated in the genesis or progression of human cancers. However, efforts to analyze signaling by these receptors have been hampered by the diversity of ligands and extensive interreceptor cross talk. We have expressed the four human erbB family receptors, singly and in pairwise combinations, in a pro-B-lymphocyte cell line (Ba/F3) and investigated the range of interactions activated by the epidermal growth factor homology domain of the agonist neuregulin beta. The results provide the first comprehensive analysis of the response of this receptor family to a single peptide agonist. This peptide induced complex patterns of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation and regulation of Ba/F3 cell survival and proliferation. These data demonstrate the existence of several previously undocumented receptor interactions driven by neuregulin. PMID:7565730

  19. Cellular interactions in bovine tuberculosis: release of active mycobacteria from infected macrophages by antigen‐stimulated T cells

    PubMed Central

    Liébana, E; Aranaz, A; Aldwell, F E; McNair, J; Neill, S D; Smyth, A J; Pollock, J M

    2000-01-01

    The outcome of Mycobacterium bovis infections depends on the interactions of infected macrophages with T lymphocytes. Several studies in humans and in mouse models have suggested an important role for cytotoxicity in the protective immune response to mycobacterial infections, and both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have been shown to elicit appropriate cytolytic activity. The present study investigated in vitro interactions of T cells with M. bovis‐infected macrophages in bovine tuberculosis. The results showed that following interaction with antigen‐stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from infected cattle, there was an increased presence of M. bovis in the extracellular compartment of infected macrophage cultures, as measured by incorporation of [3H]uracil into mycobacterial RNA. Furthermore, out of a panel of T‐cell clones from infected cattle, it was found that a higher proportion of CD8+ clones produced an increase in the number of metabolically active extracellular M. bovis organisms compared with CD4+ clones. Finally, a positive correlation between percentage of antigen‐dependent release of mycobacteria and total uracil uptake by M. bovis within culture systems was detected. This could be regarded as an indication of preferential intracellular control of mycobacteria by activated macrophages. PMID:10651937

  20. Seasonal uncoupling of demographic processes in a marine clonal plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaró, O.; Romero, J.; Pérez, M.

    2014-04-01

    In temperate regions, climatic factors impose a general seasonal pattern on seagrass growth that can be observed in leaf growth rates and, in small species, also in shoot density. Large variations in shoot density suggest a strong temporal uncoupling between shoot recruitment and shoot mortality, and the dependence of each of these processes on different drivers. Here we examine seasonal patterns of recruitment and mortality in the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, one of the species most sensitive to seasonal forcing in the Mediterranean. We sampled two local populations submitted to different nutrient availability in Alfacs Bay (NW Mediterranean) and determined recruitment and mortality rates, as well as other plant traits, on a monthly basis. Our results confirm the hypothesized uncoupling, with maximum mortality 2 months after maximum recruitment. Whereas timing of recruitment was associated with light availability, and was supported by carbohydrate remobilisation, mortality was related to high water temperatures and probably also to light limitation in late summer due to self-shading. In the high-nutrient population, algal overgrowth caused further light deprivation, with mortality rates higher than in the low-nutrient population. It is emphasised that the demographic balance of the studied populations was negative for most of the year, with the exception of August and September. Therefore, caution is necessary when overall population trends are inferred from single annual sampling events.

  1. The Mitochondrial Uncoupler DNP Triggers Brain Cell mTOR Signaling Network Reprogramming and CREB Pathway Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yongqing; Gharavi, Robert; Park, Hee Ra; Lee, Jaewon; Siddiqui, Sana; Telljohann, Richard; Nassar, Matthew R.; Cutler, Roy G.; Becker, Kevin G.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial metabolism is highly responsive to nutrient availability and ongoing activity in neuronal circuits. The molecular mechanisms by which brain cells respond to an increase in cellular energy expenditure are largely unknown. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling enhances cellular energy expenditure in mitochondria and can be induced with 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a proton ionophore previously used for weight loss. We found that DNP treatment reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, increases intracellular Ca2+ levels and reduces oxidative stress in cerebral cortical neurons. Gene expression profiling of the cerebral cortex of DNP-treated mice revealed reprogramming of signaling cascades that included suppression of the mTOR and insulin – PI3K – MAPK pathways, and up-regulation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2, a negative regulator of mTOR. Genes encoding proteins involved in autophagy processes were up-regulated in response to DNP. CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) signaling, Arc and BDNF, which play important roles in synaptic plasticity and adaptive cellular stress responses, were up-regulated in response to DNP, and DNP-treated mice exhibited improved performance in a test of learning and memory. Immunoblot analysis verified that key DNP-induced changes in gene expression resulted in corresponding changes at the protein level. Our findings suggest that mild mitochondrial uncoupling triggers an integrated signaling response in brain cells characterized by reprogramming of mTOR and insulin signaling, and up-regulation of pathways involved in adaptive stress responses, molecular waste disposal and synaptic plasticity. PMID:26010875

  2. Different types of interaction between PCNA and PIP boxes contribute to distinct cellular functions of Y-family DNA polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Yuji; Kanao, Rie; Kaji, Kentaro; Ohmori, Haruo; Hanaoka, Fumio; Masutani, Chikahide

    2015-01-01

    Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) by the Y-family DNA polymerases Polη, Polι and Polκ, mediated via interaction with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), is a crucial pathway that protects human cells against DNA damage. We report that Polη has three PCNA-interacting protein (PIP) boxes (PIP1, 2, 3) that contribute differentially to two distinct functions, stimulation of DNA synthesis and promotion of PCNA ubiquitination. The latter function is strongly associated with formation of nuclear Polη foci, which co-localize with PCNA. We also show that Polκ has two functionally distinct PIP boxes, like Polη, whereas Polι has a single PIP box involved in stimulation of DNA synthesis. All three polymerases were additionally stimulated by mono-ubiquitinated PCNA in vitro. The three PIP boxes and a ubiquitin-binding zinc-finger of Polη exert redundant and additive effects in vivo via distinct molecular mechanisms. These findings provide an integrated picture of the orchestration of TLS polymerases. PMID:26170230

  3. Graphene nanoplatelets spontaneously translocate into the cytosol and physically interact with cellular organelles in the fish cell line PLHC-1.

    PubMed

    Lammel, Tobias; Navas, José M

    2014-05-01

    Graphene and graphene derivatives constitute a novel class of carbon-based nanomaterials being increasingly produced and used in technical and consumer applications. Release of graphene nanoplatelets during the life cycle of these applications may result in human and environmental exposure calling for assessment of their potential to cause harm to humans and wildlife. This study aimed to assess the toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) and carboxyl graphene (CXYG) nanoplatelets to non-mammalian species using the fish cell line PLHC-1 as in vitro model. The cytotoxicity of GO and CXYG was assessed using different assays measuring alterations in plasma membrane integrity, metabolic activity, and lysosomal and mitochondrial function. The induction of oxidative stress was assessed by measuring intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Interaction with the plasma membrane and internalization of nanoplatelets were investigated by electron microscopy. Graphene nanoplatelets spontaneously penetrated through the plasma membrane and accumulated in the cytosol, where they further interacted with mitochondrial and nuclear membranes. PLHC-1 cells demonstrated significantly reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increased ROS levels at 16 μg/ml GO and CXYG (72 h), but barely any decrease in cell viability. The observation of intracellular graphene accumulations not enclosed by membranes suggests that GO and CXYG internalization in fish hepatoma cells occurs through an endocytosis-independent mechanism.

  4. Engineering a Therapeutic Lectin by Uncoupling Mitogenicity from Antiviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Michael D.; Boudreaux, Daniel M.; Salmon, Loïc; Chugh, Jeetender; Winter, Harry C.; Meagher, Jennifer L.; André, Sabine; Murphy, Paul V.; Oscarson, Stefan; Roy, René; King, Steven; Kaplan, Mark H.; Goldstein, Irwin J.; Tarbet, E. Bart; Hurst, Brett L.; Smee, Donald F.; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Hoffmann, Hans-Heinrich; Xue, Yi; Rice, Charles M.; Schols, Dominique; Garcia, J. Victor; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.; Markovitz, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A key effector route of the Sugar Code involves lectins that exert crucial regulatory controls by targeting distinct cellular glycans. We demonstrate that a single amino acid substitution in a banana lectin, replacing histidine 84 with a threonine, significantly reduces its mitogenicity while preserving its broad-spectrum antiviral potency. X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and glycocluster assays reveal that loss of mitogenicity is strongly correlated with loss of pi-pi stacking between aromatic amino acids H84 and Y83, which removes a wall separating two carbohydrate binding sites, thus diminishing multivalent interactions. On the other hand, monovalent interactions and antiviral activity are preserved by retaining other wild-type conformational features and possibly through unique contacts involving the T84 side chain. Through such fine-tuning, target selection and downstream effects of a lectin can be modulated so as to knock down one activity while preserving another, thus providing tools for therapeutics and for understanding the Sugar Code. PMID:26496612

  5. Metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids directly activate uncoupling protein 1 in brown-fat mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Shabalina, Irina G; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) can display fatty acid-like activity in biological systems. The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue is physiologically (re)activated by fatty acids, including octanoate. This leads to bioenergetically uncoupled energy dissipation (heat production, thermogenesis). We have examined here the possibility that PFOA/PFOS can directly (re)activate UCP1 in isolated mouse brown-fat mitochondria. In wild-type brown-fat mitochondria, PFOS and PFOA overcame GDP-inhibited thermogenesis, leading to increased oxygen consumption and dissipated membrane potential. The absence of this effect in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-ablated mice indicated that it occurred through activation of UCP1. A competitive type of inhibition by increased GDP concentrations indicated interaction with the same mechanistic site as that utilized by fatty acids. No effect was observed in heart mitochondria, i.e., in mitochondria without UCP1. The stimulatory effect of PFOA/PFOS was not secondary to non-specific mitochondrial membrane permeabilization or to ROS production. Thus, metabolic effects of perfluorinated fatty acids could include direct brown adipose tissue (UCP1) activation. The possibility that this may lead to unwarranted extra heat production and thus extra utilization of food resources, leading to decreased fitness in mammalian wildlife, is discussed, as well as possible negative effects in humans. However, a possibility to utilize PFOA-/PFOS-like substances for activating UCP1 therapeutically in obesity-prone humans may also be envisaged.

  6. VP8, the Major Tegument Protein of Bovine Herpesvirus 1, Interacts with Cellular STAT1 and Inhibits Interferon Beta Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Afroz, Sharmin; Brownlie, Robert; Fodje, Michel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The UL47 gene product, VP8, is the most abundant tegument protein of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Previously, we demonstrated that a UL47-deleted BoHV-1 mutant (BoHV1-ΔUL47) exhibits 100-fold-reduced virulence in vitro and is avirulent in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated that VP8 expression or BoHV-1 infection inhibits interferon beta (IFN-β) signaling by using an IFN-α/β-responsive plasmid in a luciferase assay. As transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) is an essential component in the IFN-signaling pathways, the effect of VP8 on STAT was investigated. An interaction between VP8 and STAT1 was established by coimmunoprecipitation assays in both VP8-transfected and BoHV-1-infected cells. Two domains of VP8, amino acids 259 to 482 and 632 to 686, were found to be responsible for its interaction with STAT1. The expression of VP8 did not induce STAT1 ubiquitination or degradation. Moreover, VP8 did not reduce STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation to downregulate IFN-β signaling. However, the expression of VP8 or a version of VP8 (amino acids 219 to 741) that contains the STAT1-interacting domains but not the nuclear localization signal prevented nuclear accumulation of STAT1. Inhibition of nuclear accumulation of STAT1 also occurred during BoHV-1 infection, while nuclear translocation of STAT1 was observed in BoHV1-ΔUL47-infected cells. During BoHV-1 infection, VP8 was detected in the cytoplasm at 2 h postinfection without any de novo protein synthesis, at which time STAT1 was already retained in the cytoplasm. These results suggest that viral VP8 downregulates IFN-β signaling early during infection, thus playing a role in overcoming the antiviral response of BoHV-1-infected cells. IMPORTANCE Since VP8 is the most abundant protein in BoHV-1 virions and thus may be released in large amounts into the host cell immediately upon infection, we proposed that it might have a function in the establishment of conditions suitable for viral replication

  7. Syndecan-1 Acts as an Important Regulator of CXCL1 Expression and Cellular Interaction of Human Endometrial Stromal and Trophoblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Altergot-Ahmad, Olga; Pour, Sarah Jean; Krüssel, Jan-Steffen; Markert, Udo Rudolf; Fehm, Tanja Natascha; Bielfeld, Alexandra Petra

    2017-01-01

    Successful implantation of the embryo into the human receptive endometrium is substantial for the establishment of a healthy pregnancy. This study focusses on the role of Syndecan-1 at the embryo-maternal interface, the multitasking coreceptor influencing ligand concentration, release and receptor presentation, and cellular morphology. CXC motif ligand 1, being involved in chemotaxis and angiogenesis during implantation, is of special interest as a ligand of Syndecan-1. Human endometrial stromal cells with and without Syndecan-1 knock-down were decidualized and treated with specific inhibitors to evaluate signaling pathways regulating CXC ligand 1 expression. Western blot analyses of MAPK and Wnt members were performed, followed by analysis of spheroid interactions between human endometrial cells and extravillous trophoblast cells. By mimicking embryo contact using IL-1β, we showed less ERK and c-Jun activation by depletion of Syndecan-1 and less Frizzled 4 production as part of the canonical Wnt pathway. Additionally, more beta-catenin was phosphorylated and therefore degraded after depletion of Syndecan-1. Secretion of CXC motif ligand 1 depends on MEK-1 with respect to Syndecan-1. Regarding the interaction of endometrial and trophoblast cells, the spheroid center-to-center distances were smaller after depletion of Syndecan-1. Therefore, Syndecan-1 seems to affect signaling processes relevant to signaling and intercellular interaction at the trophoblast-decidual interface. PMID:28293067

  8. D77, one benzoic acid derivative, functions as a novel anti-HIV-1 inhibitor targeting the interaction between integrase and cellular LEDGF/p75

    SciTech Connect

    Du Li; Zhao Yaxue; Chen, Jing; Yang Liumeng; Zheng Yongtang; Tang Yun Shen Xu Jiang Hualiang

    2008-10-10

    Integration of viral-DNA into host chromosome mediated by the viral protein HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an essential step in the HIV-1 life cycle. In this process, Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is discovered to function as a cellular co-factor for integration. Since LEDGF/p75 plays an important role in HIV integration, disruption of the LEDGF/p75 interaction with IN has provided a special interest for anti-HIV agent discovery. In this work, we reported that a benzoic acid derivative, 4-[(5-bromo-4-{l_brace}[2,4-dioxo-3-(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl) -1,3-thiazolidin-5-ylidene]methyl{r_brace}-2-ethoxyphenoxy)methyl]benzoic acid (D77) could potently inhibit the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction and affect the HIV-1 IN nuclear distribution thus exhibiting antiretroviral activity. Molecular docking with site-directed mutagenesis analysis and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding assays has clarified possible binding mode of D77 against HIV-1 integrase. As the firstly discovered small molecular compound targeting HIV-1 integrase interaction with LEDGF/p75, D77 might supply useful structural information for further anti-HIV agent discovery.

  9. Discovery of a small molecule that inhibits the interaction of anthrax edema factor with its cellular activator, calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Sam; Bergson, Pamela; He, Wei Song; Mrksich, Milan; Tang, Wei-Jen

    2004-08-01

    The catalytic efficiency of adenylyl cyclase activity of edema factor (EF) from Bacillus anthracis is enhanced by approximately 1000-fold upon its binding to mammalian protein calmodulin (CaM). A tandem cell-based and protein binding-based screen of a 10,000 member library identified a molecule that inhibits the EF-CaM interaction and therefore the adenylyl cyclase activity. A combination of fluorescence spectroscopy and photolabeling studies showed that the molecule targets the CaM binding region of EF. A series of related compounds were synthesized and evaluated to identify one compound, 4-[4-(4-nitrophenyl)-thiazolylamino]-benzenesulfonamide, that maintained activity against EF but showed minimal toxicity to two cultured cell lines. This compound represents an important reagent to study the role of EF in anthrax pathology and may represent a drug lead against anthrax infection.

  10. Proteomic analysis of silkworm midgut cellular proteins interacting with the 5' end of infectious flacherie virus genomic RNA.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingqian; He, Xinyi; Liu, Han; Fu, Zhangwuke; He, Xiangkang; Lu, Xingmeng

    2015-02-01

    The flacherie disease in the silkworm is caused by the infectious flacherie virus (IFV). IFV relies on its 5' region of genomic RNA to recruit host-related factors to implement viral translation and replication. To identify host proteins bound to the 5'-region of IFV RNA and identify proteins important for its function, mass spectrometry was used to identify proteins from silkworm midgut extracts that were obtained using RNA aptamer-labeled 5' region of IFV RNA. We found 325 protein groups (unique peptide≥2) bound to the 5' region of IFV RNA including translation-related factors (16 ribosomal subunits, 3 eukaryotic initiation factor subunits, 1 elongation factor subunit and 6 potential internal ribosome entry site trans-acting factors), cytoskeleton-related proteins, membrane-related proteins, metabolism enzymes, and other proteins. These results can be used to study the translation and replication related factors of IFV interacting with host silkworm and to control flacherie disease in silkworm.

  11. The influence of receptor-mediated interactions on reaction-diffusion mechanisms of cellular self-organisation.

    PubMed

    Klika, Václav; Baker, Ruth E; Headon, Denis; Gaffney, Eamonn A

    2012-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms governing and regulating self-organisation in the developing embryo is a key challenge that has puzzled and fascinated scientists for decades. Since its conception in 1952 the Turing model has been a paradigm for pattern formation, motivating numerous theoretical and experimental studies, though its verification at the molecular level in biological systems has remained elusive. In this work, we consider the influence of receptor-mediated dynamics within the framework of Turing models, showing how non-diffusing species impact the conditions for the emergence of self-organisation. We illustrate our results within the framework of hair follicle pre-patterning, showing how receptor interaction structures can be constrained by the requirement for patterning, without the need for detailed knowledge of the network dynamics. Finally, in the light of our results, we discuss the ability of such systems to pattern outside the classical limits of the Turing model, and the inherent dangers involved in model reduction.

  12. Uncoupled active transport mechanisms accounting for low selectivity in multidrug carriers: P-glycoprotein and SMR antiporters.

    PubMed

    Krupka, R M

    1999-11-15

    The extraordinarily low substrate specificity of P-glycoprotein conflicts with the notion that specific substrate interactions are required in the control of the reaction path in an active transport system. The difficulty is shown to be overcome by a half-coupled mechanism in which the ATP reaction is linked to carrier transformations, as in a fully coupled system, but in which the transported substrate plays a passive role. The mechanism, which requires no specific interaction with the substrate, brings about uphill transport. A half-coupled mechanism is directly supported by two observations: (i) almost completely uncoupled ATPase activity in purified P-glycoprotein, and (ii) a pattern of substrate specificity like that of passive systems, where maximum rates for different substrates vary little (unlike active systems, where maximum rates vary greatly). The mechanism accommodates other findings: partial inhibition of ATPase activity by an actively transported substrate; simultaneous binding and translocation of more than one substrate molecule; and stimulation or inhibition of the transport of one substrate molecule by another. A half-coupled system associated with an internal competitive inhibitor should behave as if tightly coupled, in agreement with the effects of the synthetic peptide, polytryptophan. The degree of coupling in the intact system is yet to be determined, however. A half-coupled ATPase mechanism could originally have evolved in a flippase, where immersion of the carrier in its substrate, the membrane lipid, precludes uncoupled ATP hydrolysis. These concepts may have wider application. An uncoupled antiport mechanism, driven by a proton gradient rather than ATP, can explain low selectivity in the SMR multidrug carriers of bacteria, and a half-coupled mechanism for the ion-driven cotransport of water (the substrate in which the carrier site is immersed) can explain a recently proposed uphill flow of water.

  13. Reciprocal Paracrine Interactions Between Normal Human Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cells Protect Cellular DNA from Radiation-Induced Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazawa, Yuka; Saenko, Vladimir Rogounovitch, Tatiana; Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Matsuse, Michiko; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To explore whether interactions between normal epithelial and mesenchymal cells can modulate the extent of radiation-induced DNA damage in one or both types of cells. Methods and Materials: Human primary thyrocytes (PT), diploid fibroblasts BJ, MRC-5, and WI-38, normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), and endothelial human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUV-EC-C), cultured either individually or in co-cultures or after conditioned medium transfer, were irradiated with 0.25 to 5 Gy of {gamma}-rays and assayed for the extent of DNA damage. Results: The number of {gamma}-H2AX foci in co-cultures of PT and BJ fibroblasts was approximately 25% lower than in individual cultures at 1 Gy in both types of cells. Reciprocal conditioned medium transfer to individual cultures before irradiation resulted in approximately a 35% reduction of the number {gamma}-H2AX foci at 1 Gy in both types of cells, demonstrating the role of paracrine soluble factors. The DNA-protected state of cells was achieved within 15 min after conditioned medium transfer; it was reproducible and reciprocal in several lines of epithelial cells and fibroblasts, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells but not in epithelial and endothelial cells. Unlike normal cells, human epithelial cancer cells failed to establish DNA-protected states in fibroblasts and vice versa. Conclusions: The results imply the existence of a network of reciprocal interactions between normal epithelial and some types of mesenchymal cells mediated by soluble factors that act in a paracrine manner to protect DNA from genotoxic stress.

  14. Monomethylated trivalent arsenic species disrupt steroid receptor interactions with their DNA response elements at non-cytotoxic cellular concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Gosse, Julie A.; Taylor, Vivien F.; Jackson, Brian P.; Hamilton, Joshua W.; Bodwell, Jack E.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is considered a top environmental chemical of human health because it has been linked to adverse health effects including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive and developmental problems. In several cell culture and animal models, As acts as an endocrine disruptor, which may underlie many of its health effects. Previous work showed that steroid receptor (SR)-driven gene expression is disrupted in cells treated with inorganic As (arsenite, iAs+3). In those studies, low iAs+3 concentrations (0.1–0.7 μM) stimulated hormone-inducible transcription, whereas somewhat higher but still non-cytotoxic levels (1–3 μM) inhibited transcription. This investigation focuses on the mechanisms underlying these inhibitory effects and evaluates the role of methylated trivalent As metabolites on SR function. Recent evidence suggests that, compared with iAs, methylated forms may have distinct biochemical effects. Here, fluorescence polarization (FP) experiments utilizing purified, hormone-bound human glucocorticoid (GR) and progesterone receptor (PR) have demonstrated that neither inorganic (iAs+3) nor dimethylated (DMA+3) species of trivalent As affect receptor interactions with glucocorticoid DNA response elements (GREs). However, monomethylated forms (monomethylarsenite, MMA+3 and monomethylarsonic diglutathione, MADG) strongly inhibit GR-GRE and PR-GRE binding. Additionally, speciation studies of iAs+3-treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells show that, under treatment conditions that cause inhibition of hormone-inducible gene transcription, the intracellular concentration of MADG is sufficient to inhibit GR-GRE and PR-GRE interactions in vivo. These results indicate that arsenic’s inhibitory endocrine disruption effects are probably caused in part by methylated metabolites’ disruption of SR ability to bind DNA response elements that are crucial to hormone-driven gene transcription. PMID:23765520

  15. Multifaceted interplay between lipophilicity, protein interaction and luminescence parameters of non-intercalative ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes controlling cellular imaging and cytotoxic properties.

    PubMed

    Mazuryk, Olga; Magiera, Katarzyna; Rys, Barbara; Suzenet, Franck; Kieda, Claudine; Brindell, Małgorzata

    2014-12-01

    Here, we examine the photophysical properties of five ruthenium(II) complexes comprising two 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dip) ligands and functionalized bipyridine (R₁bpy-R₂, where R₁= H or CH3, R₂= H, CH₃, COO⁻,4-[3-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl] or 1,3-dicyclohexyl-1-carbonyl-urea) towards development of luminescence probes for cellular imaging. These complexes have been shown to interact with albumin and the formed adducts exhibited up to eightfold increase in the luminescence quantum yield as well as the average lifetime of emission. It was demonstrated that they cannot bind to DNA through the intercalation mode and its luminescence in the presence of DNA is quenching. Cell viability experiments indicated that all complexes possess significant dose-dependent cytotoxicity (with IC₅₀ 5-19 μM) on 4T1 breast cancer cell line and their anti-proliferative activity correlates very well with their lipophilicity. Cellular uptake was studied by measuring the ruthenium content in cells using ICP-MS technique. As expected, the better uptake is directly related to higher lipophilicity of doubly charged ruthenium complexes while uptake of monocationic one is much lower in spite of the highest lipophilicity. Additionally staining properties were assessed using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. These experiments showed that complex with 1,3-dicyclohexyl-1-carbonyl-urea substituent exhibits the best staining properties in spite of the lowest luminescence quantum yield in buffered solution (pH 7.4). Our results point out that both the imaging and cytotoxic properties of the studied ruthenium complexes are strongly influence by the level of internalization and protein interaction.

  16. Changes in GDP binding to brown adipose tissue mitochondria and the uncoupling protein

    SciTech Connect

    Swick, A.G.; Swick, R.W. )

    1988-12-01

    Incubation in vitro of brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondria with divalent cations, spermine, or alkaline phosphatase led to a marked increase in the binding of ({sup 3}H)GDP. The effect of Mg{sup 2+} appeared to be the most specific and led to the largest increase in GDP binding. A simplified method was developed for measuring GDP binding to purified uncoupling protein from rat BAT mitochondria. Application of this method indicates that uncoupling protein from cold-acclimated rats binds twice as much GDP as uncoupling protein from cold-acclimated rats that were briefly returned to thermoneutrality, paralleling changes in GDP binding to the mitochondria. Incubation of BAT mitochondria with Mg{sup 2+} led to a smaller increase in GDP binding to the subsequently purified uncoupling protein, suggesting that divalent cations may somehow participate in the regulation of the activity of the uncoupling protein.

  17. Lotus japonicus symRK-14 uncouples the cortical and epidermal symbiotic program.

    PubMed

    Kosuta, Sonja; Held, Mark; Hossain, Md Shakhawat; Morieri, Giulia; Macgillivary, Amanda; Johansen, Christopher; Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Parniske, Martin; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Downie, Allan J; Karas, Bogumil; Szczyglowski, Krzysztof

    2011-09-01

    SYMRK is a leucine-rich-repeat (LRR)-receptor kinase that mediates intracellular symbioses of legumes with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. It participates in signalling events that lead to epidermal calcium spiking, an early cellular response that is typically considered as central for intracellular accommodation and nodule organogenesis. Here, we describe the Lotus japonicus symRK-14 mutation that alters a conserved GDPC amino-acid sequence in the SYMRK extracellular domain. Normal infection of the epidermis by fungal or bacterial symbionts was aborted in symRK-14. Likewise, epidermal responses of symRK-14 to bacterial signalling, including calcium spiking, NIN gene expression and infection thread formation, were significantly reduced. In contrast, no major negative effects on the formation of nodule primordia and cortical infection were detected. Cumulatively, our data show that the symRK-14 mutation uncouples the epidermal and cortical symbiotic program, while indicating that the SYMRK extracellular domain participates in transduction of non-equivalent signalling events. The GDPC sequence was found to be highly conserved in LRR-receptor kinases in legumes and non-legumes, including the evolutionarily distant bryophytes. Conservation of the GDPC sequence in nearly one-fourth of LRR-receptor-like kinases in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana suggests, however, that this sequence might also play an important non-symbiotic function in this plant.

  18. Interactions of Listeria monocytogenes with mammalian cells during entry and actin-based movement: bacterial factors, cellular ligands and signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Cossart, P; Lecuit, M

    1998-01-01

    Although <50 kb of its 3.3 megabase genome is known, Listeria monocytogenes has received much attention and an impressive amount of data has contributed in raising this bacterium among the best understood intracellular pathogens. The mechanisms that Listeria uses to enter cells, escape from the phagocytic vacuole and spread from one cell to another using an actin-based motility process have been analysed in detail. Several bacterial proteins contributing to these events have been identified, including the invasion proteins internalin A (InlA) and B (InlB), the secreted pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O (LLO) which promotes the escape from the phagocytic vacuole, and the surface protein ActA which is required for actin polymerization and bacterial movement. While LLO and ActA are critical for the infectious process and are not redundant with other listerial proteins, the precise role of InlA and InlB in vivo remains unclear. How InlA, InlB, LLO or ActA interact with the mammalian cells is beginning to be deciphered. The picture that emerges is that this bacterium uses general strategies also used by other invasive bacteria but has evolved a panel of specific tools and tricks to exploit mammalian cell functions. Their study may lead to a better understanding of important questions in cell biology such as ligand receptor signalling and dynamics of actin polymerization in mammalian cells. PMID:9669997

  19. Uncoupling primer and releaser responses to pheromone in honey bees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozinger, Christina M.; Fischer, Patrick; Hampton, Jacob E.

    2007-05-01

    Pheromones produce dramatic behavioral and physiological responses in a wide variety of species. Releaser pheromones elicit rapid responses within seconds or minutes, while primer pheromones produce long-term changes which may take days to manifest. Honeybee queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) elicits multiple distinct behavioral and physiological responses in worker bees, as both a releaser and primer, and thus produces responses on vastly different time scales. In this study, we demonstrate that releaser and primer responses to QMP can be uncoupled. First, treatment with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene leaves a releaser response (attraction to QMP) intact, but modulates QMP’s primer effects on sucrose responsiveness. Secondly, two components of QMP (9-ODA and 9-HDA) do not elicit a releaser response (attraction) but are as effective as QMP at modulating a primer response, downregulation of foraging-related brain gene expression. These results suggest that different responses to a single pheromone may be produced via distinct pathways.

  20. Molecular identity of uncoupling proteins in thermogenic skunk cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Hida, Yamato; Mori, Hitoshi; Inaba, Takehito

    2008-12-01

    Thermogenic skunk cabbage has been reported to have two types of uncoupling protein (UCP), a typical 6-transmembrane (TM) SrUCPA and an atypical 5-TM SrUCPB. To verify further the role of SrUCPs in thermogenic skunk cabbage, we examined the molecular identity of SrUCPs in more detail. Both mRNA and genomic analyses supported the presence of SrUCPA, but not SrUCPB. Furthermore, SrUCP protein purified from spadix mitochondria was identified as SrUCPA by mass spectrometry. These results clearly indicate that SrUCPA is the major expressed UCP in skunk cabbage, and the presence of atypical SrUCPB is unlikely to be associated with thermogenesis of skunk cabbage.

  1. Uncoupling the links between male mating tactics and female attractiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Ojanguren, Alfredo F; Magurran, Anne E

    2004-01-01

    Because not all females are equally attractive, and because mating reduces the chances of getting further copulations, males should prefer better-quality mates. In this paper, we use the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) to explore the effects of two non-correlated measures of female quality--size and reproductive status--on male mating decisions. All male guppies employ two alternative mating tactics. We found that large females, particularly those from a high predation site, were the target of most sneaky mating attempts. The response persisted in fish raised under standard conditions over several generations in the laboratory. In addition, non-pregnant females received more courtship displays. We conclude that males can discriminate among females and that they uncouple their mating tactics to track different axes of quality. PMID:15801594

  2. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins in human physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Hagen, T; Vidal-Puig, A

    2002-02-01

    Uncoupling proteins are mitochondrial carrier proteins that catalyse a regulated proton leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane, diverting free energy from ATP synthesis by the mitochondrial F0F1-ATP synthase to the production of heat. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is exclusively expressed in brown adipose tissue, is the mediator of thermogenesis in response to beta-adrenergic stimulation. Using gene a knockout mouse model, UCP1 has been shown to be required for cold acclimation. Two homologues of UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3, have been identified recently and show a much wider tissue distribution. UCP2 and UCP3 have been postulated to play a role in the regulation of cold acclimation, energy expenditure and diet-induced thermogenesis in humans, who, in contrast to rodents, have very little brown fat in adult life. However, evidence is accumulating that thermogenesis and regulation of body weight may not be the physiological functions of UCP2 and UCP3. For instance, mice deficient for UCP2 or UCP3 are not cold-intolerant and do not develop obesity. Alternative functions were suggested, primarily based on findings in UCP2 and UCP3 gene knockout mice. Both UCP2- and UCP3-deficient mice were found to overproduce reactive oxygen species and UCP2-deficient mice to hypersecrete insulin. Thus, the UCP1 homologues may play a role in regulating mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species and b-cell function. In this review, we discuss the role of UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 in human physiology and disease, primarily based on findings from the various animal models that have been generated.

  3. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial uncoupling in a murine cancer cachexia model.

    PubMed

    Tzika, A Aria; Fontes-Oliveira, Cibely Cristine; Shestov, Alexander A; Constantinou, Caterina; Psychogios, Nikolaos; Righi, Valeria; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Busquets, Silvia; Lopez-Soriano, Francisco J; Milot, Sylvain; Lepine, Francois; Mindrinos, Michael N; Rahme, Laurence G; Argiles, Josep M

    2013-09-01

    Approximately half of all cancer patients present with cachexia, a condition in which disease-associated metabolic changes lead to a severe loss of skeletal muscle mass. Working toward an integrated and mechanistic view of cancer cachexia, we investigated the hypothesis that cancer promotes mitochondrial uncoupling in skeletal muscle. We subjected mice to in vivo phosphorous-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy and subjected murine skeletal muscle samples to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The mice used in both experiments were Lewis lung carcinoma models of cancer cachexia. A novel 'fragmented mass isotopomer' approach was used in our dynamic analysis of 13C mass isotopomer data. Our 31P NMR and GC/MS results indicated that the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis rate and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux were reduced by 49% and 22%, respectively, in the cancer-bearing mice (p<0.008; t-test vs. controls). The ratio of ATP synthesis rate to the TCA cycle flux (an index of mitochondrial coupling) was reduced by 32% in the cancer-bearing mice (p=0.036; t-test vs. controls). Genomic analysis revealed aberrant expression levels for key regulatory genes and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed ultrastructural abnormalities in the muscle fiber, consistent with the presence of abnormal, giant mitochondria. Taken together, these data suggest that mitochondrial uncoupling occurs in cancer cachexia and thus point to the mitochondria as a potential pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cachexia. These findings may prove relevant to elucidating the mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle wasting observed in other chronic diseases, as well as in aging.

  4. Exploring Uncoupling Proteins and Antioxidant Mechanisms under Acute Cold Exposure in Brains of Fish

    PubMed Central

    Lucassen, Magnus; Schmidt, Maike M.; Dringen, Ralf; Abele, Doris; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to fluctuating temperatures accelerates the mitochondrial respiration and increases the formation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ectothermic vertebrates including fish. To date, little is known on potential oxidative damage and on protective antioxidative defense mechanisms in the brain of fish under cold shock. In this study, the concentration of cellular protein carbonyls in brain was significantly increased by 38% within 1 h after cold exposure (from 28°C to 18°C) of zebrafish (Danio rerio). In addition, the specific activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the mRNA level of catalase (CAT) were increased after cold exposure by about 60% (6 h) and by 60%–90% (1 and 24 h), respectively, while the specific glutathione content as well as the ratio of glutathione disulfide to glutathione remained constant and at a very low level. In addition, cold exposure increased the protein level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) by about 50% and the mRNA level of the glucose transporter zglut3 in brain by 50%–100%. To test for an involvement of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the cold adaptation of zebrafish, five UCP members were annotated and identified (zucp1-5). With the exception of zucp1, the mRNA levels of the other four zucps were significantly increased after cold exposure. In addition, the mRNA levels of four of the fish homologs (zppar) of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) were increased after cold exposure. These data suggest that PPARs and UCPs are involved in the alterations observed in zebrafish brain after exposure to 18°C. The observed stimulation of the PPAR-UCP axis may help to prevent oxidative damage and to maintain metabolic balance and cellular homeostasis in the brains of ectothermic zebrafish upon cold exposure. PMID:21464954

  5. Exploring uncoupling proteins and antioxidant mechanisms under acute cold exposure in brains of fish.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yung-Che; Chen, Ruo-Dong; Lucassen, Magnus; Schmidt, Maike M; Dringen, Ralf; Abele, Doris; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2011-03-25

    Exposure to fluctuating temperatures accelerates the mitochondrial respiration and increases the formation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ectothermic vertebrates including fish. To date, little is known on potential oxidative damage and on protective antioxidative defense mechanisms in the brain of fish under cold shock. In this study, the concentration of cellular protein carbonyls in brain was significantly increased by 38% within 1 h after cold exposure (from 28 °C to 18 °C) of zebrafish (Danio rerio). In addition, the specific activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the mRNA level of catalase (CAT) were increased after cold exposure by about 60% (6 h) and by 60%-90% (1 and 24 h), respectively, while the specific glutathione content as well as the ratio of glutathione disulfide to glutathione remained constant and at a very low level. In addition, cold exposure increased the protein level of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) by about 50% and the mRNA level of the glucose transporter zglut3 in brain by 50%-100%. To test for an involvement of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the cold adaptation of zebrafish, five UCP members were annotated and identified (zucp1-5). With the exception of zucp1, the mRNA levels of the other four zucps were significantly increased after cold exposure. In addition, the mRNA levels of four of the fish homologs (zppar) of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) were increased after cold exposure. These data suggest that PPARs and UCPs are involved in the alterations observed in zebrafish brain after exposure to 18°C. The observed stimulation of the PPAR-UCP axis may help to prevent oxidative damage and to maintain metabolic balance and cellular homeostasis in the brains of ectothermic zebrafish upon cold exposure.

  6. Single-Molecule Imaging Reveals that Small Amyloid-β1–42 Oligomers Interact with the Cellular Prion Protein (PrPC)

    PubMed Central

    Ganzinger, Kristina A; Narayan, Priyanka; Qamar, Seema S; Weimann, Laura; Ranasinghe, Rohan T; Aguzzi, Adriano; Dobson, Christopher M; McColl, James; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Klenerman, David

    2014-01-01

    Oligomers of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease and have been suggested to induce neurotoxicity by binding to a plethora of cell-surface receptors. However, the heterogeneous mixtures of oligomers of varying sizes and conformations formed by Aβ42 have obscured the nature of the oligomeric species that bind to a given receptor. Here, we have used single-molecule imaging to characterize Aβ42 oligomers (oAβ42) and to confirm the controversial interaction of oAβ42 with the cellular prion protein (PrPC) on live neuronal cells. Our results show that, at nanomolar concentrations, oAβ42 interacts with PrPC and that the species bound to PrPC are predominantly small oligomers (dimers and trimers). Single-molecule biophysical studies can thus aid in deciphering the mechanisms that underlie receptor-mediated oAβ-induced neurotoxicity, and ultimately facilitate the discovery of novel inhibitors of these pathways. PMID:25294384

  7. The relationship between ventricular-vascular uncoupling during exercise and impaired left ventricular longitudinal functional reserve in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Shim, Chi Young; Park, Sungha; Choi, Eui-Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo; Chung, Namsik

    2013-01-01

    Uncoupling between heart and vessel may be accompanied by left ventricular (LV) dysfunction during exercise. We investigated the association between ventricular-vascular uncoupling during exercise and impaired LV longitudinal functional reserve in hypertensive subjects. Supine bicycle exercise echocardiography (25-watt, 3-minute increments) was performed in 216 hypertensive patients (106 male; mean age, 58 ± 9 years). Arterial elastance (Ea), end-systolic ventricular elastance (Ees), and ventricular-vascular interaction (VVI) index (Ea/Ees) were calculated at rest and at each stage of exercise. The patients were divided into three groups according to the tertile value of VVI ratio. The VVI ratio was defined as the ratio of VVI index at 50 W exercise over VVI index at rest; normal VVI response (n = 72); borderline VVI response (n = 72); and abnormal VVI response (n = 72). There were no significant differences in conventional echo parameters, mitral inflow velocities, mitral annular early diastolic (E') velocity, and mitral annular systolic velocity (S') at rest among the three groups. However, E' velocities and S' velocities at 25 W and 50 W were significantly lower in patients with abnormal VVI response compared with those in the other groups (P = .010 at 25 W, P = .008 at 50 W in E' velocity; P = .022 at 25 W, P = .043 at 50 W in S' velocity). Longitudinal diastolic functional reserve index from rest to 50 W was significantly lower in patients with abnormal VVI response compared with the other groups. Ventricular-vascular uncoupling during exercise was related to impaired LV longitudinal functional reserve in hypertensive patients.

  8. Oncogenic activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway promotes cellular glucose uptake by downregulating the expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein.

    PubMed

    Hong, Shin Yee; Yu, Fa-Xing; Luo, Yan; Hagen, Thilo

    2016-05-01

    Oncogenic activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway is known to play an important role to promote glucose metabolism in cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism through which the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway promotes glucose utilisation in cancer cells is still not well understood. It has recently been shown that the oncogenic activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling in lung adenocarcinoma is important in promoting the localisation of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) at the plasma membrane. We thus hypothesised that the effect of constitutive activation of the PI3K/AKT signalling on glucose metabolism is mediated by thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), a known regulator of the GLUT1 plasma membrane localisation. Consistent with previous studies, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway decreased cellular glucose uptake. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K/Akt signalling in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines using clinically used tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) resulted in a decrease in GLUT1 membrane localisation. We also observed that inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway in various cell lines, including NSCLC cells, resulted in an increase in TXNIP expression. Importantly, knockdown of TXNIP using siRNA in the NSCLC cells promoted GLUT1 to be localised at the plasma membrane and reversed the effect of PI3K/Akt inhibitors. Together, our results suggest that the oncogenic activation of PI3K/Akt signalling promotes cellular glucose uptake, at least in part, through the regulation of TXNIP expression. This mechanism may contribute to the Warburg effect in cancer cells.

  9. Lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles as oral drug delivery vehicles for poorly water-soluble drugs: cellular interaction and in vivo absorption

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ni; Gao, Xiaoling; Hu, Quanyin; Song, Qingxiang; Xia, Huimin; Liu, Zhongyang; Gu, Guangzhi; Jiang, Mengyin; Pang, Zhiqing; Chen, Hongzhuan; Chen, Jun; Fang, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Background Lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNPs) have attracted growing interest as novel drug-delivery systems for improving the bioavailability of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. However, their cellular interaction and in vivo behavior have not been fully developed and characterized. Methods In this study, self-assembled LCNPs prepared from soy phosphatidylcholine and glycerol dioleate were developed as a platform for oral delivery of paclitaxel. The particle size of empty LCNPs and paclitaxel-loaded LCNPs was around 80 nm. The phase behavior of the liquid crystalline matrix was characterized using crossed polarized light microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering, and showed both reversed cubic and hexagonal phase in the liquid crystalline matrix. Transmission electron microscopy and cryofield emission scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed an inner winding water channel in LCNPs and a “ ball-like”/“hexagonal” morphology. Results Cellular uptake of LCNPs in Caco-2 cells was found to be concentration-dependent and time-dependent, with involvement of both clathrin and caveolae/lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. Under confocal laser scanning microscopy, soy phosphatidylcholine was observed to segregate from the internalized LCNPs and to fuse with the cell membrane. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study showed that the oral bioavailability of paclitaxel-loaded LCNPs (13.16%) was 2.1 times that of Taxol® (the commercial formulation of paclitaxel, 6.39%). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that this LCNP delivery system may be a promising candidate for improving the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble agents. PMID:22888230

  10. SR4 Uncouples Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation, Modulates AMP-dependent Kinase (AMPK)-Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling, and Inhibits Proliferation of HepG2 Hepatocarcinoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Figarola, James L.; Singhal, Jyotsana; Tompkins, Joshua D.; Rogers, George W.; Warden, Charles; Horne, David; Riggs, Arthur D.; Awasthi, Sanjay; Singhal, Sharad S.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation produces most of the energy in aerobic cells by coupling respiration to the production of ATP. Mitochondrial uncouplers, which reduce the proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane, create a futile cycle of nutrient oxidation without generating ATP. Regulation of mitochondrial dysfunction and associated cellular bioenergetics has been recently identified as a promising target for anticancer therapy. Here, we show that SR4 is a novel mitochondrial uncoupler that causes dose-dependent increase in mitochondrial respiration and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. These effects were reversed by the recoupling agent 6-ketocholestanol but not cyclosporin A and were nonexistent in mitochondrial DNA-depleted HepG2 cells. In isolated mouse liver mitochondria, SR4 similarly increased oxygen consumption independent of adenine nucleotide translocase and uncoupling proteins, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and promoted swelling of valinomycin-treated mitochondria in potassium acetate medium. Mitochondrial uncoupling in HepG2 cells by SR4 results in the reduction of cellular ATP production, increased ROS production, activation of the energy-sensing enzyme AMPK, and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Global analysis of SR4-associated differential gene expression confirms these observations, including significant induction of apoptotic genes and down-regulation of cell cycle, mitochondrial, and oxidative phosphorylation pathway transcripts at 24 h post-treatment. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that the previously reported indirect activation of AMPK and in vitro anticancer properties of SR4 as well as its beneficial effects in both animal xenograft and obese mice models could be a direct consequence of its mitochondrial uncoupling activity. PMID:26534958

  11. Investigation of Surface Flux Feedbacks for Coupled and Uncoupled Atmosphere-Ocean Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, F. R.

    2010-01-01

    Variability in the atmosphere and ocean are linked through coupled processes via the surface exchanges of heat, moisture, and momentum. This coupling can occur predominantly via one-way (ocean forcing atmosphere or atmosphere forcing ocean) or two-way interactions. The dominant type of interaction can vary both regionally and with season. The existence of the coupled variability can act to enhance the persistence of anomalies and therefore may be important to seasonal (and longer) forecasts. The leading components of surface exchange that regulate the damping of the atmospheric and oceanic anomalies most likely also varies regionally and seasonally. This study seeks to elucidate the roles of the various surface flux components using satellite based data sets. Using dynamical relationships expected for one-way forcing regimes, coupled and uncoupled variability is isolated and used in conjunction with composite-type analyses to reveal the nature of these coupling mechanisms and their variation in space and time. Results of this study can be useful in examining the veracity of general circulation model output by understanding how the coupling mechanisms are replicated as found in satellite based observations.

  12. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 interacts with cellular RNA export cofactors RBM15 and OTT3 to promote expression of viral ORF59.

    PubMed

    Majerciak, Vladimir; Uranishi, Hiroaki; Kruhlak, Michael; Pilkington, Guy R; Massimelli, Maria Julia; Bear, Jenifer; Pavlakis, George N; Felber, Barbara K; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2011-02-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes ORF57, which promotes the accumulation of specific KSHV mRNA targets, including ORF59 mRNA. We report that the cellular export NXF1 cofactors RBM15 and OTT3 participate in ORF57-enhanced expression of KSHV ORF59. We also found that ectopic expression of RBM15 or OTT3 augments ORF59 production in the absence of ORF57. While RBM15 promotes the accumulation of ORF59 RNA predominantly in the nucleus compared to the levels in the cytoplasm, we found that ORF57 shifted the nucleocytoplasmic balance by increasing ORF59 RNA accumulation in the cytoplasm more than in the nucleus. By promoting the accumulation of cytoplasmic ORF59 RNA, ORF57 offsets the nuclear RNA accumulation mediated by RBM15 by preventing nuclear ORF59 RNA from hyperpolyadenylation. ORF57 interacts directly with the RBM15 C-terminal portion containing the SPOC domain to reduce RBM15 binding to ORF59 RNA. Although ORF57 homologs Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EB2, herpes simplex virus (HSV) ICP27, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) IE4/ORF4, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) UL69 also interact with RBM15 and OTT3, EBV EB2, which also promotes ORF59 expression, does not function like KSHV ORF57 to efficiently prevent RBM15-mediated nuclear accumulation of ORF59 RNA and RBM15's association with polyadenylated RNAs. Collectively, our data provide novel insight elucidating a molecular mechanism by which ORF57 promotes the expression of viral intronless genes.

  13. Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein gM can interact with the cellular protein p32 and knockdown of p32 impairs virus.

    PubMed

    Changotra, Harish; Turk, Susan M; Artigues, Antonio; Thakur, Nagendra; Gore, Mindy; Muggeridge, Martin I; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M

    2016-02-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein complex gMgN has been implicated in assembly and release of fully enveloped virus, although the precise role that it plays has not been elucidated. We report here that the long predicted cytoplasmic tail of gM is not required for complex formation and that it interacts with the cellular protein p32, which has been reported to be involved in nuclear egress of human cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus. Although redistribution of p32 and colocalization with gM was not observed in virus infected cells, knockdown of p32 expression by siRNA or lentivirus-delivered shRNA recapitulated the phenotype of a virus lacking expression of gNgM. A proportion of virus released from cells sedimented with characteristics of virus lacking an intact envelope and there was an increase in virus trapped in nuclear condensed chromatin. The observations suggest the possibility that p32 may also be involved in nuclear egress of Epstein-Barr virus.

  14. TRAF-interacting protein with a forkhead-associated domain B (TIFAB) is a negative regulator of the TRAF6-induced cellular functions.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Takayuki; Kawamura-Tsuzuku, Junko; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Semba, Kentaro; Inoue, Jun-Ichiro

    2009-09-01

    Tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-interacting protein with a forkhead-associated domain (TIFA) activates TRAF6 to induce NF-kappaB activation. TIFA-related protein, TIFAB, is highly expressed in the spleen and inhibits TIFA-mediated TRAF6 activation. However, little is known about cell types that express TIFAB and its function in those cells. Here, we show that TIFAB is mainly expressed in B cells rather than T cells in the spleen and that the expression level was much higher in dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages than that in splenic lymphocytes. TIFAB expression was downregulated when B cells, DCs or macrophages were stimulated by TRAF6-mediated proliferative or maturation signals including those emanating from CD40, sIgM and TLRs. Furthermore, microinjection experiments using NIH3T3 cells revealed that TIFAB inhibited entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. Our results suggest that TIFAB could act as a negative regulator of the TRAF6-induced cellular function such as B cell proliferation and maturation of DCs and macrophages.

  15. Mitochondrial and cellular mechanisms for managing lipid excess

    PubMed Central

    Aon, Miguel A.; Bhatt, Niraj; Cortassa, Sonia C.

    2014-01-01

    Current scientific debates center on the impact of lipids and mitochondrial function on diverse aspects of human health, nutrition and disease, among them the association of lipotoxicity with the onset of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and with heart dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. Mitochondria play a fundamental role in aging and in prevalent acute or chronic diseases. Lipids are main mitochondrial fuels however these molecules can also behave as uncouplers and inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Knowledge about the functional composition of these contradictory effects and their impact on mitochondrial-cellular energetics/redox status is incomplete. Cells store fatty acids (FAs) as triacylglycerol and package them into cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs). New emerging data shows the LD as a highly dynamic storage pool of FAs that can be used for energy reserve. Lipid excess packaging into LDs can be seen as an adaptive response to fulfilling energy supply without hindering mitochondrial or cellular redox status and keeping low concentration of lipotoxic intermediates. Herein we review the mechanisms of action and utilization of lipids by mitochondria reported in liver, heart and skeletal muscle under relevant physiological situations, e.g., exercise. We report on perilipins, a family of proteins that associate with LDs in response to loading of cells with lipids. Evidence showing that in addition to physical contact, mitochondria and LDs exhibit metabolic interactions is presented and discussed. A hypothetical model of channeled lipid utilization by mitochondria is proposed. Direct delivery and channeled processing of lipids in mitochondria could represent a reliable and efficient way to maintain reactive oxygen species (ROS) within levels compatible with signaling while ensuring robust and reliable energy supply. PMID:25132820

  16. Uncoupling protein 2 from carp and zebrafish, ectothermic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Stuart, J A; Harper, J A; Brindle, K M; Brand, M D

    1999-09-01

    Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is of demonstrated importance in mammalian thermogenesis, and early hypotheses regarding the functions of the newly discovered UCP homologues, UCP2, UCP3 and others, have focused largely on their potential roles in thermogenesis. Here we report the amino acid sequences of two new UCPs from ectothermic vertebrates. UCPs from two fish species, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and carp (Cyprinus carpio), were identified in expressed sequence tag databases at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory. cDNAs from a C. carpio 'peritoneal exudate cell' cDNA library and from a D. rerio 'day 0 fin regeneration' cDNA library were obtained and fully sequenced. Each cDNA encodes a 310 amino acid protein with an average 82% sequence identity to mammalian UCP2s. The fish UCP2s are about 70% identical to mammalian UCP3s, and 60% identical to mammalian UCP1s. Carp and zebrafish are ectotherms--they do not raise their body temperatures above ambient by producing excess heat. The presence of UCP2 in these fish thus suggests the protein may have function(s) not related to thermogenesis.

  17. Stochastic calculus for uncoupled continuous-time random walks.

    PubMed

    Germano, Guido; Politi, Mauro; Scalas, Enrico; Schilling, René L

    2009-06-01

    The continuous-time random walk (CTRW) is a pure-jump stochastic process with several applications not only in physics but also in insurance, finance, and economics. A definition is given for a class of stochastic integrals driven by a CTRW, which includes the Itō and Stratonovich cases. An uncoupled CTRW with zero-mean jumps is a martingale. It is proved that, as a consequence of the martingale transform theorem, if the CTRW is a martingale, the Itō integral is a martingale too. It is shown how the definition of the stochastic integrals can be used to easily compute them by Monte Carlo simulation. The relations between a CTRW, its quadratic variation, its Stratonovich integral, and its Itō integral are highlighted by numerical calculations when the jumps in space of the CTRW have a symmetric Lévy alpha -stable distribution and its waiting times have a one-parameter Mittag-Leffler distribution. Remarkably, these distributions have fat tails and an unbounded quadratic variation. In the diffusive limit of vanishing scale parameters, the probability density of this kind of CTRW satisfies the space-time fractional diffusion equation (FDE) or more in general the fractional Fokker-Planck equation, which generalizes the standard diffusion equation, solved by the probability density of the Wiener process, and thus provides a phenomenologic model of anomalous diffusion. We also provide an analytic expression for the quadratic variation of the stochastic process described by the FDE and check it by Monte Carlo.

  18. The Role of Nitric Oxide Synthase Uncoupling in Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Rabender, Christopher S.; Alam, Asim; Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Cardnell, Robert J.; Yakovlev, Vasily A.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D.; Graves, Paul; Zweit, Jamal; Mikkelsen, Ross B.

    2015-01-01

    Here evidence suggests that nitric oxide synthases (NOS) of tumor cells, in contrast to normal tissues, synthesize predominantly superoxide and peroxynitrite. Based on HPLC analysis, the underlying mechanism for this uncoupling is a reduced tetrahydrobiopterin: dihydrobiopterin ratio (BH4:BH2) found in breast, colorectal, epidermoid and head and neck tumors compared to normal tissues. Increasing BH4:BH2 and reconstitution of coupled NOS activity in breast cancer cells with the BH4 salvage pathway precursor, sepiapterin, causes significant shifts in downstream signaling including increased cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) activity, decreased β-catenin expression and TCF4 promoter activity, and reduced NF-κB promoter activity. Sepiapterin inhibited breast tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo as measured by clonogenic assay, Ki67 staining and 18F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). In summary, using diverse tumor types, it is demonstrated that the BH4:BH2 ratio is lower in tumor tissues and as a consequence nitric oxide synthase activity generates more peroxynitrite and superoxide anion than nitric oxide resulting in important tumor growth promoting and anti-apoptotic signaling properties. Implications The synthetic BH4, Kuvan®, is used to elevate BH4:BH2 in some phenylketonuria patients and to treat diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction suggesting a novel, testable approach for correcting an abnormality of tumor metabolism to control tumor growth. PMID:25724429

  19. Stochastic calculus for uncoupled continuous-time random walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germano, Guido; Politi, Mauro; Scalas, Enrico; Schilling, René L.

    2009-06-01

    The continuous-time random walk (CTRW) is a pure-jump stochastic process with several applications not only in physics but also in insurance, finance, and economics. A definition is given for a class of stochastic integrals driven by a CTRW, which includes the Itō and Stratonovich cases. An uncoupled CTRW with zero-mean jumps is a martingale. It is proved that, as a consequence of the martingale transform theorem, if the CTRW is a martingale, the Itō integral is a martingale too. It is shown how the definition of the stochastic integrals can be used to easily compute them by Monte Carlo simulation. The relations between a CTRW, its quadratic variation, its Stratonovich integral, and its Itō integral are highlighted by numerical calculations when the jumps in space of the CTRW have a symmetric Lévy α -stable distribution and its waiting times have a one-parameter Mittag-Leffler distribution. Remarkably, these distributions have fat tails and an unbounded quadratic variation. In the diffusive limit of vanishing scale parameters, the probability density of this kind of CTRW satisfies the space-time fractional diffusion equation (FDE) or more in general the fractional Fokker-Planck equation, which generalizes the standard diffusion equation, solved by the probability density of the Wiener process, and thus provides a phenomenologic model of anomalous diffusion. We also provide an analytic expression for the quadratic variation of the stochastic process described by the FDE and check it by Monte Carlo.

  20. A new uncoupling protein: a potential component of the human body weight regulation system.

    PubMed

    Wolf, G

    1997-05-01

    A mitochondrial protein that uncouples the respiratory chain from oxidative phosphorylation and generates heat is found in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of rodents. Although humans have little BAT, a second uncoupling protein has been discovered that is widely distributed in human tissues. It is induced in mice by a high-fat diet and in mice with obese mutations, and may play a role in human body weight regulation.

  1. iCDI-PseFpt: identify the channel-drug interaction in cellular networking with PseAAC and molecular fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xuan; Min, Jian-Liang; Wang, Pu; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2013-11-21

    Many crucial functions in life, such as heartbeat, sensory transduction and central nervous system response, are controlled by cell signalings via various ion channels. Therefore, ion channels have become an excellent drug target, and study of ion channel-drug interaction networks is an important topic for drug development. However, it is both time-consuming and costly to determine whether a drug and a protein ion channel are interacting with each other in a cellular network by means of experimental techniques. Although some computational methods were developed in this regard based on the knowledge of the 3D (three-dimensional) structure of protein, unfortunately their usage is quite limited because the 3D structures for most protein ion channels are still unknown. With the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the post-genomic age, it is highly desirable to develop the sequence-based computational method to address this problem. To take up the challenge, we developed a new predictor called iCDI-PseFpt, in which the protein ion-channel sample is formulated by the PseAAC (pseudo amino acid composition) generated with the gray model theory, the drug compound by the 2D molecular fingerprint, and the operation engine is the fuzzy K-nearest neighbor algorithm. The overall success rate achieved by iCDI-PseFpt via the jackknife cross-validation was 87.27%, which is remarkably higher than that by any of the existing predictors in this area. As a user-friendly web-server, iCDI-PseFpt is freely accessible to the public at the website http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iCDI-PseFpt/. Furthermore, for the convenience of most experimental scientists, a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results without the need to follow the complicated math equations presented in the paper just for its integrity. It has not escaped our notice that the current approach can also be used to study other drug-target interaction networks.

  2. The interaction of hepatitis A virus (HAV) with soluble forms of its cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1) share the physiological requirements of infectivity in cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Erica; Konduru, Krishnamurthy; Kaplan, Gerardo G

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV), an atypical Picornaviridae that causes acute hepatitis in humans, usurps the HAV cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1) to infect cells. HAVCR1 is a class 1 integral membrane glycoprotein that contains two extracellular domains: a virus-binding immunoglobulin-like (IgV) domain and a mucin-like domain that extends the IgV from the cell membrane. Soluble forms of HAVCR1 bind, alter, and neutralize cell culture-adapted HAV, which is attenuated for humans. However, the requirements of the HAV-HAVCR1 interaction have not been fully characterized, and it has not been determined whether HAVCR1 also serves as a receptor for wild-type (wt) HAV. Here, we used HAV soluble receptor neutralization and alteration assays to study the requirements of the HAV-HAVCR1 interaction and to determine whether HAVCR1 is also a receptor for wt HAV. Results Treatment of HAV with a soluble form of HAVCR1 that contained the IgV and two-thirds of the mucin domain fused to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 (D1 muc-Fc), altered particles at 37°C but left a residual level of unaltered particles at 4°C. The kinetics of neutralization of HAV by D1 muc-Fc was faster at 37°C than at 4°C. Alteration of HAV particles by D1 muc-Fc required Ca, which could not be replaced by Li, Na, Mg, Mn, or Zn. Neutralization of HAV by D1 muc-Fc occurred at pH 5 to 8 but was more efficient at pH 6 to 7. D1 muc-Fc neutralized wt HAV as determined by a cell culture system that allows the growth of wt HAV. Conclusion The interaction of HAV with soluble forms of HAVCR1 shares the temperature, Ca, and pH requirements for infectivity in cell culture and therefore mimics the cell entry process of HAV. Since soluble forms of HAVCR1 also neutralized wt HAV, this receptor may play a significant role in pathogenesis of HAV. PMID:19860892

  3. The optimal dosage and window of opportunity to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis following traumatic brain injury using the uncoupler FCCP.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Jignesh D; Pauly, James R; Sullivan, Patrick G

    2009-08-01

    was then administered at 5 min, 3, 6, or 24 h post-injury and several parameters of mitochondrial function were used as outcome measures. The results demonstrate that a prolonged window of opportunity exists for targeting mitochondrial dysfunction using uncouplers following TBI and give insight into the cellular pathology associated with TBI.

  4. Targeting Cells With MR Imaging Probes: Cellular Interaction And Intracellular Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Uptake In Brain Capillary Endothelial and Choroidal Plexus Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambianica, I.; Bossi, M.; Gasco, P.; Gonzalez, W.; Idee, J. M.; Miserocchi, G.; Rigolio, R.; Chanana, M.; Morjan, I.; Wang, D.; Sancini, G.

    2010-10-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are considered for various diagnostic and therapeutic applications in brain including their use as contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. In delivery application, the critical step is the transport across cell layers and the internalization of NPs into specific cells, a process often limited by poor targeting specificity and low internalization efficiency. The development of the models of brain endothelial cells and choroidal plexus epithelial cells in culture has allowed us to investigate into these mechanisms. Our strategy is aimed at exploring different routes to the entrapment of iron oxide NPs in these brain related cells. Here we demonstrated that not only cells endowed with a good phagocytic activity like activated macrophages but also endothelial brain capillary and choroidal plexus epithelial cells do internalize iron oxide NPs. Our study of the intracellular trafficking of NPs by TEM, and confocal microscopy revealed that NPs are mainly internalized by the endocytic pathway. Iron oxide NPs were dispersed in water and coated with 3,4-dihydroxyl-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) using standard procedures. Magnetic lipid NPs were prepared by NANOVECTOR: water in oil in water (W/O/W) microemulsion process has been applied to directly coat different iron based NPs by lipid layer or to encapsulate them into Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs). By these coating/loading the colloidal stability was improved without strong alteration of the particle size distribution. Magnetic lipid NPs could be reconstituted after freeze drying without appreciable changes in stability. L-DOPA coated NPs are stable in PBS and in MEM (Modified Eagle Medium) medium. The magnetic properties of these NPs were not altered by the coating processes. We investigated the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and interaction of these NPs with rat brain capillary endothelial (REB4) and choroidal plexus epithelial (Z310) cells. By means of widefield, confocal

  5. Mitochondrial Uncoupling and the Reprograming of Intermediary Metabolism in Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Juliana; Hail Jr., Numsen; Konopleva, Marina; Zeng, Zhihong; Kojima, Kensuke; Samudio, Ismael; Andreeff, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 60 years ago Otto Warburg proposed, in a seminal publication, that an irreparable defect in the oxidative capacity of normal cells supported the switch to glycolysis for energy generation and the appearance of the malignant phenotype (Warburg, 1956). Curiously, this phenotype was also observed by Warburg in embryonic tissues, and recent research demonstrated that normal stem cells may indeed rely on aerobic glycolysis – fermenting pyruvate to lactate in the presence of ample oxygen – rather than on the complete oxidation of pyruvate in the Krebs cycle – to generate cellular energy (Folmes et al., 2012). However, it remains to be determined whether this phenotype is causative for neoplastic development, or rather the result of malignant transformation. In addition, in light of mounting evidence demonstrating that cancer cells can carry out electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, although in some cases predominantly using electrons from non-glucose carbon sources (Bloch-Frankenthal et al., 1965), Warburg’s hypothesis needs to be revisited. Lastly, recent evidence suggests that the leukemia bone marrow microenvironment promotes the Warburg phenotype adding another layer of complexity to the study of metabolism in hematological malignancies. In this review we will discuss some of the evidence for alterations in the intermediary metabolism of leukemia cells and present evidence for a concept put forth decades ago by lipid biochemist Feodor Lynen, and acknowledged by Warburg himself, that cancer cell mitochondria uncouple ATP synthesis from electron transport and therefore depend on glycolysis to meet their energy demands (Lynen, 1951; Warburg, 1956). PMID:23565503

  6. In vivo and in vitro effects of the mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP on microtubules.

    PubMed

    Maro, B; Marty, M C; Bornens, M

    1982-01-01

    FCCP (carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone), a potent uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, induces the complete disruption of cellular microtubules. A further analysis of this effect on BHK21 cells has shown that a decrease in the number of microtubules can be observed 15 min after adding FCCP and there is complete disruption after 60 min. Regrowth of microtubules was initiated 30 min after removal of FCCP, in marked contrast with the rapid reversion observed when microtubules are disrupted by nocodazole. A similar delay was required for the recovery of mitochondrial function as assessed by rhodamine 123 labelling. The effect of FCCP on microtubules was partially inhibited by preincubation of the cells with NaN3, suggesting that FCCP acts on microtubules through mitochondria. FCCP did not depolymerize microtubules of cells permeabilized with Triton X-100. In vitro polymerisation of microtubule protein was only slightly diminished by concentrations of FCCP which provoke complete disassembly in vivo. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the microtubules polymerized in vitro in the presence of FCCP showed a reduced amount of high mol. wt. proteins, mainly MAP 2, associated with them. In an attempt to reproduce the mitochondrial effects of FCCP in vitro, we checked the effects of alkaline pH and calcium on microtubule protein polymerization in the presence of FCCP. FCCP did not influence the calcium inhibitory effect but did significantly increase the inhibitory effect of alkaline pH. We conclude that FCCP could depolymerise microtubules in vivo through a dual operation: increasing the intracellular pH by the disruption of the mitochondrial H+ gradient and decreasing the stability of microtubules by impairing the binding of microtubule-associated proteins.

  7. In vivo and in vitro effects of the mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP on microtubules.

    PubMed Central

    Maro, B; Marty, M C; Bornens, M

    1982-01-01

    FCCP (carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone), a potent uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, induces the complete disruption of cellular microtubules. A further analysis of this effect on BHK21 cells has shown that a decrease in the number of microtubules can be observed 15 min after adding FCCP and there is complete disruption after 60 min. Regrowth of microtubules was initiated 30 min after removal of FCCP, in marked contrast with the rapid reversion observed when microtubules are disrupted by nocodazole. A similar delay was required for the recovery of mitochondrial function as assessed by rhodamine 123 labelling. The effect of FCCP on microtubules was partially inhibited by preincubation of the cells with NaN3, suggesting that FCCP acts on microtubules through mitochondria. FCCP did not depolymerize microtubules of cells permeabilized with Triton X-100. In vitro polymerisation of microtubule protein was only slightly diminished by concentrations of FCCP which provoke complete disassembly in vivo. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the microtubules polymerized in vitro in the presence of FCCP showed a reduced amount of high mol. wt. proteins, mainly MAP 2, associated with them. In an attempt to reproduce the mitochondrial effects of FCCP in vitro, we checked the effects of alkaline pH and calcium on microtubule protein polymerization in the presence of FCCP. FCCP did not influence the calcium inhibitory effect but did significantly increase the inhibitory effect of alkaline pH. We conclude that FCCP could depolymerise microtubules in vivo through a dual operation: increasing the intracellular pH by the disruption of the mitochondrial H+ gradient and decreasing the stability of microtubules by impairing the binding of microtubule-associated proteins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6765194

  8. Cellulose-Microtubule Uncoupling Proteins Prevent Lateral Displacement of Microtubules during Cellulose Synthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zengyu; Schneider, Rene; Kesten, Christopher; Zhang, Yi; Somssich, Marc; Zhang, Youjun; Fernie, Alisdair R; Persson, Staffan

    2016-08-08

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth and is the major contributor to plant morphogenesis. Cellulose is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). Nascent cellulose microfibrils become entangled in the cell wall, and further catalysis therefore drives the CSC forward through the membrane: a process guided by cortical microtubules via the protein CSI1/POM2. Still, it is unclear how the microtubules can withstand the forces generated by the motile CSCs to effectively direct CSC movement. Here, we identified a family of microtubule-associated proteins, the cellulose synthase-microtubule uncouplings (CMUs), that located as static puncta along cortical microtubules. Functional disruption of the CMUs caused lateral microtubule displacement and compromised microtubule-based guidance of CSC movement. CSCs that traversed the microtubules interacted with the microtubules via CSI1/POM2, which prompted the lateral microtubule displacement. Hence, we have revealed how microtubules can withstand the propulsion of the CSCs during cellulose biosynthesis and thus sustain anisotropic plant cell growth.

  9. Subunit-selective proteasome activity profiling uncovers uncoupled proteasome subunit activities during bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Misas-Villamil, Johana C; van der Burgh, Aranka M; Grosse-Holz, Friederike; Bach-Pages, Marcel; Kovács, Judit; Kaschani, Farnusch; Schilasky, Sören; Emon, Asif Emran Khan; Ruben, Mark; Kaiser, Markus; Overkleeft, Hermen S; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2017-01-24

    The proteasome is a nuclear - cytoplasmic proteolytic complex involved in nearly all regulatory pathways in plant cells. The three different catalytic activities of the proteasome can have different functions but tools to monitor and control these subunits selectively are not yet available in plant science. Here, we introduce subunit-selective inhibitors and dual-color fluorescent activity-based probes for studying two of the three active catalytic subunits of the plant proteasome. We validate these tools in two model plants and use this to study the proteasome during plant-microbe interactions. Our data reveals that Nicotiana benthamiana incorporates two different paralogs of each catalytic subunit into active proteasomes. Interestingly, both β1 and β5 activities are significantly increased upon infection with pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 lacking hopQ1-1 (PtoDC3000(ΔhQ)) whilst the activity profile of the β1 subunit changes. Infection with wild-type PtoDC3000 causes proteasome activities that range from strongly induced β1 and β5 activities to strongly suppressed β5 activities, revealing that β1 and β5 activities can be uncoupled during bacterial infection. These selective probes and inhibitors are now available to the plant science community and can be widely and easily applied to study the activity and role of the different catalytic subunits of the proteasome in different plant species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Rewiring of jasmonate and phytochrome B signalling uncouples plant growth-defense tradeoffs

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcelo L.; Yoshida, Yuki; Major, Ian T.; de Oliveira Ferreira, Dalton; Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Froehlich, John E.; Johnson, Brendan F.; Kramer, David M.; Jander, Georg; Sharkey, Thomas D.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2016-01-01

    Plants resist infection and herbivory with innate immune responses that are often associated with reduced growth. Despite the importance of growth-defense tradeoffs in shaping plant productivity in natural and agricultural ecosystems, the molecular mechanisms that link growth and immunity are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that growth-defense tradeoffs mediated by the hormone jasmonate are uncoupled in an Arabidopsis mutant (jazQ phyB) lacking a quintet of Jasmonate ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors and the photoreceptor phyB. Analysis of epistatic interactions between jazQ and phyB reveal that growth inhibition associated with enhanced anti-insect resistance is likely not caused by diversion of photoassimilates from growth to defense but rather by a conserved transcriptional network that is hardwired to attenuate growth upon activation of jasmonate signalling. The ability to unlock growth-defense tradeoffs through relief of transcription repression provides an approach to assemble functional plant traits in new and potentially useful ways. PMID:27573094

  11. ATF-1 Is a Hypoxia-responsive Transcriptional Activator of Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial-uncoupling Protein 3*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhongping; Sack, Michael N.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia induces oxidative damage in skeletal muscle. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is the skeletal muscle enriched uncoupling protein and has previously been shown to confer resistance against oxidative stress. We show that hypoxia robustly up-regulates skeletal muscle UCP3 and that the absence of UCP3 in primary skeletal myocytes exacerbates hypoxia-induced reactive oxygen species generation. In this context, we reasoned that the investigation of the regulation of UCP3 may identify novel hypoxia-responsive regulatory pathways that modulate intrinsic anti-oxidant defenses. By screening a transcription factor array of 704 full-length cDNAs in murine C2C12 myoblasts following cotransfection of a murine UCP3 promoter-luciferase construct and myoD we identified numerous candidate regulatory factors that up-regulate UCP3. Active transcription factor-1 (ATF-1) was identified, and as this transcription factor is a known component of a multiprotein hypoxia-induced regulatory complex, we explored its role in hypoxia-mediated UCP3 up-regulation. Site-directed mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays identify a 10-bp region required for ATF-1 induction of UCP3 promoter activity. Hypoxia promotes the phosphorylation of ATF-1, and the knockdown of ATF-1 by shRNA prevents hypoxia-mediated up-regulation of UCP3. Pharmacologic inhibition of p38 MAP kinase prevents both hypoxia-mediated ATF-1 phosphorylation and UCP3 up-regulation. PKA signaling does not modulate hypoxia-induced UCP3 up-regulation and neither does HIF-1α activation by cobalt chloride. In conclusion, ATF-1, via p38 MAP kinase activation, functions as a novel regulatory pathway driving UCP3 expression. These data reinforce the role of ATF-1 as a hypoxia-responsive trans-activator and identifies a novel regulatory program that may modulate cellular responses to oxygen-deficit. PMID:18579531

  12. Origins of cellular geometry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cells are highly complex and orderly machines, with defined shapes and a startling variety of internal organizations. Complex geometry is a feature of both free-living unicellular organisms and cells inside multicellular animals. Where does the geometry of a cell come from? Many of the same questions that arise in developmental biology can also be asked of cells, but in most cases we do not know the answers. How much of cellular organization is dictated by global cell polarity cues as opposed to local interactions between cellular components? Does cellular structure persist across cell generations? What is the relationship between cell geometry and tissue organization? What ensures that intracellular structures are scaled to the overall size of the cell? Cell biology is only now beginning to come to grips with these questions. PMID:21880160

  13. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantitative method for the cellular analysis of varying structures of gemini surfactants designed as nanomaterial drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Donkuru, McDonald; Michel, Deborah; Awad, Hanan; Katselis, George; El-Aneed, Anas

    2016-05-13

    Diquaternary gemini surfactants have successfully been used to form lipid-based nanoparticles that are able to compact, protect, and deliver genetic materials into cells. However, what happens to the gemini surfactants after they have released their therapeutic cargo is unknown. Such knowledge is critical to assess the quality, safety, and efficacy of gemini surfactant nanoparticles. We have developed a simple and rapid liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantitative determination of various structures of gemini surfactants in cells. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was employed allowing for a short simple isocratic run of only 4min. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) was 3ng/mL. The method was valid to 18 structures of gemini surfactants belonging to two different structural families. A full method validation was performed for two lead compounds according to USFDA guidelines. The HILIC-MS/MS method was compatible with the physicochemical properties of gemini surfactants that bear a permanent positive charge with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic elements within their molecular structure. In addition, an effective liquid-liquid extraction method (98% recovery) was employed surpassing previously used extraction methods. The analysis of nanoparticle-treated cells showed an initial rise in the analyte intracellular concentration followed by a maximum and a somewhat more gradual decrease of the intracellular concentration. The observed intracellular depletion of the gemini surfactants may be attributable to their bio-transformation into metabolites and exocytosis from the host cells. Obtained cellular data showed a pattern that grants additional investigations, evaluating metabolite formation and assessing the subcellular distribution of tested compounds.

  14. Small-Molecule Inhibition of the uPAR·uPA Interaction: Synthesis, Biochemical, Cellular, in vivo Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy Studies in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Timmy; Wang, Fang; Knabe, William Eric; Sinn, Anthony L.; Khanna, May; Jo, Inha; Sandusky, George E.; Sledge, George W.; Jones, David R.; Khanna, Rajesh; Pollok, Karen E.; Meroueh, Samy O.

    2013-01-01

    The uPAR·uPA protein-protein interaction (PPI) is involved in signaling and proteolytic events that promote tumor invasion and metastasis. A previous study had identified 4 (IPR-803) from computational screening of a commercial chemical library and shown that the compound inhibited uPAR·uPA PPI in competition biochemical assays and invasion cellular studies. Here, we synthesize 4 to evaluate in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) and efficacy studies in a murine breast cancer metastasis model. First, we show, using fluorescence polarization and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR, that 4 binds directly to uPAR with sub-micromolar affinity of 0.2 μM. We show that 4 blocks invasion of breast MDA-MB-231, and inhibits matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) breakdown of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Derivatives of 4 also inhibited MMP activity and blocked invasion in a concentration-dependent manner. 4 also impaired MDA-MB-231 cell adhesion and migration. Extensive in vivo PK studies in NOD-SCID mice revealed a half-life of nearly 5 hours and peak concentration of 5 μM. Similar levels of the inhibitor were detected in tumor tissue up to 10 hours. Female NSG mice inoculated with highly malignant TMD-MDA-MB-231 in their mammary fat pads showed that 4 impaired metastasis to the lungs with only four of the treated mice showing severe or marked metastasis compared to ten for the untreated mice. Compound 4 is a promising template for the development of compounds with enhanced PK parameters and greater efficacy. PMID:23411397

  15. Uncoupling protein 2 gene polymorphisms are associated with obesity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) gene polymorphisms have been reported as genetic risk factors for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined the association of commonly observed UCP2 G(−866)A (rs659366) and Ala55Val (C > T) (rs660339) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with obesity, high fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids in a Balinese population. Methods A total of 603 participants (278 urban and 325 rural subjects) were recruited from Bali Island, Indonesia. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) were measured. Obesity was determined based on WHO classifications for adult Asians. Participants were genotyped for G(−866)A and Ala55Val polymorphisms of the UCP2 gene. Results Obesity prevalence was higher in urban subjects (51%) as compared to rural subjects (23%). The genotype, minor allele (MAF), and heterozygosity frequencies were similar between urban and rural subjects for both SNPs. All genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A combined analysis of genotypes and environment revealed that the urban subjects carrying the A/A genotype of the G(−866)A SNP have higher BMI than the rural subjects with the same genotype. Since the two SNPs showed strong linkage disequilibrium (D’ = 0.946, r2 = 0.657), a haplotype analysis was performed. We found that the AT haplotype was associated with high BMI only when the urban environment was taken into account. Conclusions We have demonstrated the importance of environmental settings in studying the influence of the common UCP2 gene polymorphisms in the development of obesity in a Balinese population. PMID:22533685

  16. Uncoupling Proteins: Role in Insulin Resistance and Insulin Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Catherine B.; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are modulators of mitochondrial metabolism that have been implicated in the development of both insulin resistance and insulin insufficiency, the two major pathophysiological events associated with type 2 diabetes. UCP2 mRNA is expressed in a wide range of tissues; however UCP2 protein expression is restricted to fewer tissues, including the endocrine pancreas, spleen, stomach, brain and the lung. To date, its role in the pathophysiology of diabetes has been most strongly associated with impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the β-cell, particularly after its induction by free fatty acids. The physiological role of UCP2 remains controversial, but it may act as a downstream signal transducer of superoxide. UCP3 mRNA and protein are expressed in relatively few tissues, predominately skeletal muscle, brown adipose tissue and heart. Increased expression of UCP3 in skeletal muscle is associated with protection from diet-induced insulin resistance in mice. In patients with type 2 diabetes UCP3 protein in muscle is reduced by 50% compared to healthy controls. The primary physiological role of the novel UCPs does not appear to be protection against positive energy balance and obesity; this is based largely on findings from studies of UCP2 and UCP3 knockout mice and from observed increases in UCP3 expression with fasting. The mechanism(s) of action of UCP2 and UCP3 are poorly understood. However, findings support roles for UCP2 and UCP3 as modifiers of fatty acid metabolism and in mitigating damage from reactive oxygen species. PMID:18220632

  17. Uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by DNA gyrase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, M.; Weinberg, R.; Simpson, M.V.

    1986-05-01

    Supercoiled mtDNA and the swivel requirement for its replication suggest the existence of a mtDNA gyrase. The authors published studies on isolated mitochondria showing that novobiocin, coumermycin, nalidixic acid, and oxolinic acid promote relaxed DNA formation at the expense of supercoiled DNA are in accord with this view. However, their inability to directly detect the enzyme led them to ask whether these drugs act elsewhere. Their results with isolated rat liver mitochondria show that novo, nal, but not oxo, stimulate O/sub 2/ uptake as much as does 2.4-dinitrophenol (DNP). This possible uncoupling effect was confirmed by a standard (/sup 32/P) assay showing the following inhibitions of ATP synthesis: 0.2 mM novo, 95% (0.4 mM, 100%) 0.4 mM nal, 37%; oxo to at least 1.9 mM, 0%; (0.5 mM 2,4-DNP, 100%). Thus, oxo remains a useful tool for intact mitochondrial studies. Because these three drugs, especially novo, are being used to study the role of DNA superhelicity on pro- and eucaryotic (and mitochondrial) gene expression, the authors studied their effect on oxidative phosphorylation in such cells. In these cases the drugs did not affect DNP-sensitive (/sup 14/C)glutamine transport into E. coli cells (an established measure of ATP level), nor, in an S. cerevisiae mutant permeable to novo, did novo affect the steady state ATP level. Studies on cultured mammalian cells are in progress.

  18. Ca2+-induced uncoupling of Aplysia bag cell neurons.

    PubMed

    Dargaei, Zahra; Standage, Dominic; Groten, Christopher J; Blohm, Gunnar; Magoski, Neil S

    2015-02-01

    Electrical transmission is a dynamically regulated form of communication and key to synchronizing neuronal activity. The bag cell neurons of Aplysia are a group of electrically coupled neuroendocrine cells that initiate ovulation by secreting egg-laying hormone during a prolonged period of synchronous firing called the afterdischarge. Accompanying the afterdischarge is an increase in intracellular Ca2+ and the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). We used whole cell recording from paired cultured bag cell neurons to demonstrate that electrical coupling is regulated by both Ca2+ and PKC. Elevating Ca2+ with a train of voltage steps, mimicking the onset of the afterdischarge, decreased junctional current for up to 30 min. Inhibition was most effective when Ca2+ entry occurred in both neurons. Depletion of Ca2+ from the mitochondria, but not the endoplasmic reticulum, also attenuated the electrical synapse. Buffering Ca2+ with high intracellular EGTA or inhibiting calmodulin kinase prevented uncoupling. Furthermore, activating PKC produced a small but clear decrease in junctional current, while triggering both Ca2+ influx and PKC inhibited the electrical synapse to a greater extent than Ca2+ alone. Finally, the amplitude and time course of the postsynaptic electrotonic response were attenuated after Ca2+ influx. A mathematical model of electrically connected neurons showed that excessive coupling reduced recruitment of the cells to fire, whereas less coupling led to spiking of essentially all neurons. Thus a decrease in electrical synapses could promote the afterdischarge by ensuring prompt recovery of electrotonic potentials or making the neurons more responsive to current spreading through the network.

  19. SET overexpression in HEK293 cells regulates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins levels within a mitochondrial fission/reduced autophagic flux scenario.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luciana O; Goto, Renata N; Neto, Marinaldo P C; Sousa, Lucas O; Curti, Carlos; Leopoldino, Andréia M

    2015-03-06

    We hypothesized that SET, a protein accumulated in some cancer types and Alzheimer disease, is involved in cell death through mitochondrial mechanisms. We addressed the mRNA and protein levels of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 (S and L isoforms) by quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence as well as other mitochondrial involvements, in HEK293 cells overexpressing the SET protein (HEK293/SET), either in the presence or absence of oxidative stress induced by the pro-oxidant t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). SET overexpression in HEK293 cells decreased UCP1 and increased UCP2 and UCP3 (S/L) mRNA and protein levels, whilst also preventing lipid peroxidation and decreasing the content of cellular ATP. SET overexpression also (i) decreased the area of mitochondria and increased the number of organelles and lysosomes, (ii) increased mitochondrial fission, as demonstrated by increased FIS1 mRNA and FIS-1 protein levels, an apparent accumulation of DRP-1 protein, and an increase in the VDAC protein level, and (iii) reduced autophagic flux, as demonstrated by a decrease in LC3B lipidation (LC3B-II) in the presence of chloroquine. Therefore, SET overexpression in HEK293 cells promotes mitochondrial fission and reduces autophagic flux in apparent association with up-regulation of UCP2 and UCP3; this implies a potential involvement in cellular processes that are deregulated such as in Alzheimer's disease and cancer.

  20. Identification of a novel mitochondrial uncoupler that does not depolarize the plasma membrane☆

    PubMed Central

    Kenwood, Brandon M.; Weaver, Janelle L.; Bajwa, Amandeep; Poon, Ivan K.; Byrne, Frances L.; Murrow, Beverley A.; Calderone, Joseph A.; Huang, Liping; Divakaruni, Ajit S.; Tomsig, Jose L.; Okabe, Kohki; Lo, Ryan H.; Cameron Coleman, G.; Columbus, Linda; Yan, Zhen; Saucerman, Jeffrey J.; Smith, Jeffrey S.; Holmes, Jeffrey W.; Lynch, Kevin R.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.; Uchiyama, Seiichi; Santos, Webster L.; Rogers, George W.; Okusa, Mark D.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Hoehn, Kyle L.

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of oxidative phosphorylation is associated with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and some of the most prevalent human diseases including obesity, cancer, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and heart disease. Chemical 'mitochondrial uncouplers' are lipophilic weak acids that transport protons into the mitochondrial matrix via a pathway that is independent of ATP synthase, thereby uncoupling nutrient oxidation from ATP production. Mitochondrial uncouplers also lessen the proton motive force across the mitochondrial inner membrane and thereby increase the rate of mitochondrial respiration while decreasing production of reactive oxygen species. Thus, mitochondrial uncouplers are valuable chemical tools that enable the measurement of maximal mitochondrial respiration and they have been used therapeutically to decrease mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. However, the most widely used protonophore uncouplers such as carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol have off-target activity at other membranes that lead to a range of undesired effects including plasma membrane depolarization, mitochondrial inhibition, and cytotoxicity. These unwanted properties interfere with the measurement of mitochondrial function and result in a narrow therapeutic index that limits their usefulness in the clinic. To identify new mitochondrial uncouplers that lack off-target activity at the plasma membrane we screened a small molecule chemical library. Herein we report the identification and validation of a novel mitochondrial protonophore uncoupler (2-fluorophenyl){6-[(2-fluorophenyl)amino](1,2,5-oxadiazolo[3,4-e]pyrazin-5-yl)}amine, named BAM15, that does not depolarize the plasma membrane. Compared to FCCP, an uncoupler of equal potency, BAM15 treatment of cultured cells stimulates a higher maximum rate of mitochondrial respiration and is less cytotoxic. Furthermore, BAM15 is bioactive in vivo and dose

  1. Oxidative phosphorylation in Debaryomyces hansenii: physiological uncoupling at different growth phases.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Orefice, Alfredo; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Díaz-Ruíz, Rodrigo; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador

    2014-07-01

    Physiological uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) was studied in Debaryomyces hansenii. In other species, such as Yarrowia lipolytica and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, OxPhos can be uncoupled through differential expression of branched respiratory chain enzymes or by opening of a mitochondrial unspecific channel (ScMUC), respectively. However D. hansenii mitochondria, which contain both a branched respiratory chain and a mitochondrial unspecific channel (DhMUC), selectively uncouple complex I-dependent rate of oxygen consumption in the stationary growth phase. The uncoupled complex I-dependent respiration was only 20% of the original activity. Inhibition was not due to inactivation of complex I, lack of protein expression or to differential expression of alternative oxidoreductases. Furthermore, all other respiratory chain activities were normal. Decrease of complex I-dependent respiration was due to NAD(+) loss from the matrix, probably through an open of DhMUC. When NAD(+) was added back, coupled complex I-activity was recovered. NAD(+) re-uptake was independent of DhMUC opening and seemed to be catalyzed by a NAD(+)-specific transporter, which was sensitive to bathophenanthroline, bromocresol purple or pyridoxal-5'-phosphate as described for S. cerevisiae mitochondrial NAD(+) transporters. Loss of NAD(+) from the matrix through an open MUC is proposed as an additional mechanism to uncouple OxPhos.

  2. High membrane potential promotes alkenal-induced mitochondrial uncoupling and influences adenine nucleotide translocase conformation.

    PubMed

    Azzu, Vian; Parker, Nadeene; Brand, Martin D

    2008-07-15

    Mitochondria generate reactive oxygen species, whose downstream lipid peroxidation products, such as 4-hydroxynonenal, induce uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by increasing proton leak through mitochondrial inner membrane proteins such as the uncoupling proteins and adenine nucleotide translocase. Using mitochondria from rat liver, which lack uncoupling proteins, in the present study we show that energization (specifically, high membrane potential) is required for 4-hydroxynonenal to activate proton conductance mediated by adenine nucleotide translocase. Prolonging the time at high membrane potential promotes greater uncoupling. 4-Hydroxynonenal-induced uncoupling via adenine nucleotide translocase is prevented but not readily reversed by addition of carboxyatractylate, suggesting a permanent change (such as adduct formation) that renders the translocase leaky to protons. In contrast with the irreversibility of proton conductance, carboxyatractylate added after 4-hydroxynonenal still inhibits nucleotide translocation, implying that the proton conductance and nucleotide translocation pathways are different. We propose a model to relate adenine nucleotide translocase conformation to proton conductance in the presence or absence of 4-hydroxynonenal and/or carboxyatractylate.

  3. Thermodynamics of Anharmonic Systems: Uncoupled Mode Approximations for Molecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Pei; Bell, Alexis T; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-06-14

    The partition functions, heat capacities, entropies, and enthalpies of selected molecules were calculated using uncoupled mode (UM) approximations, where the full-dimensional potential energy surface for internal motions was modeled as a sum of independent one-dimensional potentials for each mode. The computational cost of such approaches scales the same with molecular size as standard harmonic oscillator vibrational analysis using harmonic frequencies (HO(hf)). To compute thermodynamic properties, a computational protocol for obtaining the energy levels of each mode was established. The accuracy of the UM approximation depends strongly on how the one-dimensional potentials of each modes are defined. If the potentials are determined by the energy as a function of displacement along each normal mode (UM-N), the accuracies of the calculated thermodynamic properties are not significantly improved versus the HO(hf) model. Significant improvements can be achieved by constructing potentials for internal rotations and vibrations using the energy surfaces along the torsional coordinates and the remaining vibrational normal modes, respectively (UM-VT). For hydrogen peroxide and its isotopologs at 300 K, UM-VT captures more than 70% of the partition functions on average. By contrast, the HO(hf) model and UM-N can capture no more than 50%. For a selected test set of C2 to C8 linear and branched alkanes and species with different moieties, the enthalpies calculated using the HO(hf) model, UM-N, and UM-VT are all quite accurate comparing with reference values though the RMS errors of the HO model and UM-N are slightly higher than UM-VT. However, the accuracies in entropy calculations differ significantly between these three models. For the same test set, the RMS error of the standard entropies calculated by UM-VT is 2.18 cal mol(-1) K(-1) at 1000 K. By contrast, the RMS error obtained using the HO model and UM-N are 6.42 and 5.73 cal mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. For a test set

  4. Calcitriol induced redox imbalance and DNA breakage in cells sharing a common metabolic feature of malignancies: Interaction with cellular copper (II) ions leads to the production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Asim; Rizvi, Ghazala; Naseem, Imrana

    2015-05-01

    Calcitriol is known to selectively kill malignant cells, however, not much is known about the mechanism by which it kills malignant cells and spares the "normal" cells. Since elevation of cellular copper is a metabolic condition common to all malignancies, we developed a mouse model to mimic this condition and treated the animals with calcitriol. It was observed that calcitriol-copper interaction in vivo causes severe fluctuations in cellular enzymatic and nonenzymatic scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Lipid peroxidation, a well-established marker of oxidative stress, was found to increase, and a substantial cellular DNA breakage was observed. Calcitriol-copper interaction in vivo was observed to lead the cells to an apoptosis like cell death. We propose that the interaction of calcitriol and copper within malignant cells and the consequent redox scavenger fluctuations and ROS-mediated DNA breakage may be one of the several mechanisms by which calcitriol causes selective cell death of malignant cells, while sparing normal cells.

  5. Uncoupling effect of fatty acids on heart muscle mitochondria and submitochondrial particles.

    PubMed

    Dedukhova, V I; Mokhova, E N; Skulachev, V P; Starkov, A A; Arrigoni-Martelli, E; Bobyleva, V A

    1991-12-16

    The effect of ATP/ADP-antiporter inhibitors on palmitate-induced uncoupling was studied in heart muscle mitochondria and inside-out submitochondrial particles. In both systems palmitate is found to decrease the respiration-generated membrane potential. In mitochondria, this effect is specifically abolished by carboxyatractylate (CAtr) a non-penetrating inhibitor of antiporter. In submitochondrial particles, CAtr does not abolish the palmitate-induced potential decrease. At the same time, bongkrekic acid, a penetrating inhibitor of the antiporter, suppresses the palmitate effect on the potential both in mitochondria and particles. Palmitoyl-CoA which is known to inhibit the antiporter in mitochondria as well as in particles decreases the palmitate uncoupling efficiency in both these systems. These data are in agreement with the hypothesis that the ATP/ADP-antiporter is involved in the action of free fatty acids as natural uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation.

  6. Effect of 6-ketocholestanol on FCCP- and DNP-induced uncoupling in plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Vianello, A; Macri, F; Braidot, E; Mokhova, E N

    1995-05-22

    Effect of 6-ketocholestanol on FCCP-induced and DNP-induced uncoupling in beef liver and pea stem mitochondria was studied, under experimental conditions at which this steroid abolished the effect of low concentrations of FCCP and other most potent uncouplers in rat mitochondria [Starkov et al. (1994) FEBS Lett., 355, 305-308]. It is shown that, in both types of mitochondria, 6-ketocholestanol prevents or reverses the uncoupling induced by low concentrations of FCCP, but not that caused by high concentrations of FCCP or by any concentration of DNP. Progesterone and male sex hormones, showing recoupling capability in animal mitochondria, appear to be ineffective in the plant system. Cholesterol does not recouple in both animal and plant mitochondria. Plant steroids, such as beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol, are also without effect.

  7. The mitochondrial uncoupler DNP triggers brain cell mTOR signaling network reprogramming and CREB pathway up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yongqing; Gharavi, Robert; Park, Hee Ra; Lee, Jaewon; Siddiqui, Sana; Telljohann, Richard; Nassar, Matthew R; Cutler, Roy G; Becker, Kevin G; Mattson, Mark P

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondrial metabolism is highly responsive to nutrient availability and ongoing activity in neuronal circuits. The molecular mechanisms by which brain cells respond to an increase in cellular energy expenditure are largely unknown. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling enhances cellular energy expenditure in mitochondria and can be induced with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a proton ionophore previously used for weight loss. We found that DNP treatment reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, increases intracellular Ca(2+) levels and reduces oxidative stress in cerebral cortical neurons. Gene expression profiling of the cerebral cortex of DNP-treated mice revealed reprogramming of signaling cascades that included suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and insulin--PI3K - MAPK pathways, and up-regulation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2, a negative regulator of mTOR. Genes encoding proteins involved in autophagy processes were up-regulated in response to DNP. CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) signaling, Arc and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which play important roles in synaptic plasticity and adaptive cellular stress responses, were up-regulated in response to DNP, and DNP-treated mice exhibited improved performance in a test of learning and memory. Immunoblot analysis verified that key DNP-induced changes in gene expression resulted in corresponding changes at the protein level. Our findings suggest that mild mitochondrial uncoupling triggers an integrated signaling response in brain cells characterized by reprogramming of mTOR and insulin signaling, and up-regulation of pathways involved in adaptive stress responses, molecular waste disposal, and synaptic plasticity. Physiological bioenergetic challenges such as exercise and fasting can enhance neuroplasticity and protect neurons against injury and neurodegeneration. Here, we show that the mitochondrial uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) elicits adaptive signaling responses in the

  8. Uncoupling protein expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in response to in vivo porcine somatotropin treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The uncoupling proteins are thought to be involved in waste heat production, reducing the energy efficiency of growth in animals. Previous studies have detected their presence in swine and their regulation by the endocrine system. This study attempted to determine whether the uncoupling proteins 2...

  9. Concentration of rat brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein may not be correlated with /sup 3/H-GDP binding

    SciTech Connect

    Henningfield, M.F.; Swick, A.G.; Swick, R.W.

    1986-03-01

    Rats fed diets low in protein or exposed to cold show an increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondrial /sup 3/H-GDP binding. To investigate this phenomenon further, the uncoupling protein associated with BAT function was measured immunochemically on nitrocellulose blots. Quantitation of uncoupling protein was achieved by densitometer scanning with a BioRad densitometer. Peaks were integrated with Chromatochart software and an Apple IIe computer. A standard curve of purified uncoupling protein (50 to 500 ng) was used to calculate uncoupling protein concentration. There is a 1.5-fold increase in uncoupling protein per mg of protein in BAT mitochondria from rats exposed to cold for 15 days. There was no decrease in uncoupling protein from rats exposed to the cold followed by 24 h at 27/sup 0/C although /sup 3/H-GDP binding had decreased by half. Rats fed diets containing either 5 or 15% lactalbumin for 3 weeks did not show differences in uncoupling protein concentration although /sup 3/H-GDP binding was 1.5-fold greater in BAT mitochondria from the low protein group. These results indicate that GDP binding does not necessarily reflect the concentration of uncoupling protein in BAT mitochondria.

  10. Interactive effects of CO₂ and trace metals on the proteasome activity and cellular stress response of marine bivalves Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria mercenaria.

    PubMed

    Götze, Sandra; Matoo, Omera B; Beniash, Elia; Saborowski, Reinhard; Sokolova, Inna M

    2014-04-01

    Increased anthropogenic emission of CO2 changes the carbonate chemistry and decreases the pH of the ocean. This can affect the speciation and the bioavailability of metals in polluted habitats such as estuaries. However, the effects of acidification on metal accumulation and stress response in estuarine organisms including bivalves are poorly understood. We studied the interactive effects of CO2 and two common metal pollutants, copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), on metal accumulation, intracellular ATP/ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, stress response and energy metabolism in two common estuarine bivalves-Crassostrea virginica (eastern oyster) and Mercenaria mercenaria (hard shell clam). Bivalves were exposed for 4-5 weeks to clean seawater (control) and to either 50 μg L(-1) Cu or 50 μg L(-1) Cd at one of three partial pressures of CO2 ( [Formula: see text] ∼ 395, ∼ 800 and ∼ 1500 μatm) representative of the present-day conditions and projections of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) for the years 2100 and 2250, respectively. Clams accumulated lower metal burdens than oysters, and elevated [Formula: see text] enhanced the Cd and Cu accumulation in mantle tissues in both species. Higher Cd and Cu burdens were associated with elevated mRNA expression of metal binding proteins metallothionein and ferritin. In the absence of added metals, proteasome activities of clams and oysters were robust to elevated [Formula: see text] , but [Formula: see text] modulated the proteasome response to metals. Cd exposure stimulated the chymotrypsin-like activity of the oyster proteasome at all CO2 levels. In contrast, trypsin- and caspase-like activities of the oyster proteasome were slightly inhibited by Cd exposure in normocapnia but this inhibition was reversed at elevated [Formula: see text] . Cu exposure inhibited the chymotrypsin-like activity of the oyster proteasome regardless of the exposure [Formula: see text] . The effects of metal exposure on

  11. Uncoupling Protein 2 and 4 Expression Pattern during Stem Cell Differentiation Provides New Insight into Their Putative Function

    PubMed Central

    Rupprecht, Anne; Sittner, Dana; Smorodchenko, Alina; Hilse, Karolina E.; Goyn, Justus; Moldzio, Rudolf; Seiler, Andrea E. M.; Bräuer, Anja U.; Pohl, Elena E.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the first family member, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), the functions of other UCPs (UCP2-UCP5) are still unknown. In analyzing our own results and those previously published by others, we have assumed that UCP's cellular expression pattern coincides with a specific cell metabolism and changes if the latter is altered. To verify this hypothesis, we analyzed the expression of UCP1-5 in mouse embryonic stem cells before and after their differentiation to neurons. We have shown that only UCP2 is present in undifferentiated stem cells and it disappears simultaneously with the initiation of neuronal differentiation. In contrast, UCP4 is simultaneously up-regulated together with typical neuronal marker proteins TUJ-1 and NeuN during mESC differentiation in vitro as well as during murine brain development in vivo. Notably, several tested cell lines express UCP2, but not UCP4. In line with this finding, neuroblastoma cells that display metabolic features of tumor cells express UCP2, but not UCP4. UCP2's occurrence in cancer, immunological and stem cells indicates that UCP2 is present in cells with highly proliferative potential, which have a glycolytic type of metabolism as a common feature, whereas UCP4 is strongly associated with non-proliferative highly differentiated neuronal cells. PMID:24523901

  12. Mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP activates proton conductance but does not block store-operated Ca(2+) current in liver cells.

    PubMed

    To, Minh-Son; Aromataris, Edoardo C; Castro, Joel; Roberts, Michael L; Barritt, Greg J; Rychkov, Grigori Y

    2010-03-15

    Uncouplers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, including carbonilcyanide p-triflouromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and carbonilcyanide m-cholorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), are widely used in experimental research to investigate the role of mitochondria in cellular function. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to interpret the results obtained in intact cells using FCCP and CCCP, as these agents not only inhibit mitochondrial potential, but may also affect membrane potential and cell volume. Here we show by whole-cell patch clamping that in primary rat hepatocytes and H4IIE liver cells, FCCP induced large proton currents across the plasma membrane, but did not activate any other observable conductance. In intact hepatocytes FCCP inhibits thapsigargin-activated store-operated Ca(2+) entry, but in patch clamping under the conditions of strong Ca(2+) buffering it has no effect on store-operated Ca(2+) current (I(SOC)). These results indicate that there is no direct connection between mitochondria and activation of I(SOC) in liver cells and support the notion of indirect regulation of I(SOC) by mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering.

  13. Mammea E/BB, an isoprenylated dihydroxycoumarin protonophore that potently uncouples mitochondrial electron transport, disrupts hypoxic signaling in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Lin; Mahdi, Fakhri; Jekabsons, Mika B; Nagle, Dale G; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2010-11-29

    The mammea-type coumarin mammea E/BB (1) was found to inhibit both hypoxia-induced and iron chelator-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) activation in human breast tumor T47D cells with IC(50) values of 0.96 and 0.89 μM, respectively. Compound 1 suppressed the hypoxic induction of secreted VEGF protein (T47D cells) and inhibited cell viability/proliferation in four human tumor cell lines. Compound 1 (at 5 and 20 μM) inhibited human breast tumor MDA-MB-231 cell migration. While the mechanisms that underlie their biological activities have remained unknown, prenylated mammea coumarins have been shown to be cytotoxic to human tumor cells, suppress tumor growth in animal models, and display a wide variety of antimicrobial effects. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 appears to exert an assemblage of cellular effects by functioning as an anionic protonophore that potently uncouples mitochondrial electron transport and disrupts mitochondrial signaling in human tumor cell lines.

  14. Mammea E/BB, An Isoprenylated Dihydroxycoumarin Protonophore that Potently Uncouples Mitochondrial Electron Transport Disrupts Hypoxic Signaling in Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lin; Mahdi, Fakhri; Jekabsons, Mika B.; Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2010-01-01

    The mammea-type coumarin mammea E/BB (1) was found to inhibit both hypoxia-induced and iron chelator-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) activation in human breast tumor T47D cells with IC50 values of 0.96 and 0.89 µM, respectively. Compound 1 suppressed the hypoxic induction of secreted VEGF protein (T47D cells) and inhibited cell viability/proliferation in four human tumor cell lines. Compound 1 (at 5 and 20 µM) inhibited human breast tumor MDA-MB-231 cell migration. While the mechanisms that underlay their biological activities have remained unknown, prenylated mammea coumarins have been shown to be cytotoxic to human tumor cells, suppress tumor growth in animal models, and display a wide variety of antimicrobial effects. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 appears to exert an assemblage of cellular effects by functioning as an anionic protonophore that potently uncouples mitochondrial electron transport and disrupts mitochondrial signaling in human tumor cell lines. PMID:20929261

  15. The development of structure-activity relationships for mitochondrial dysfunction: uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Naven, Russell T; Swiss, Rachel; Klug-McLeod, Jacquelyn; Will, Yvonne; Greene, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as an important factor in the development of idiosyncratic organ toxicity. An ability to predict mitochondrial dysfunction early in the drug development process enables the deselection of those drug candidates with potential safety liabilities, allowing resources to be focused on those compounds with the highest chance of success to the market. A database of greater than 2000 compounds was analyzed to identify structural and physicochemical features associated with the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (herein defined as an increase in basal respiration). Many toxicophores associated with potent uncoupling activity were identified, and these could be divided into two main mechanistic classes, protonophores and redox cyclers. For the protonophores, potent uncoupling activity was often promoted by high lipophilicity and apparent stabilization of the anionic charge resulting from deprotonation of the protonophore. The potency of redox cyclers did not appear to be prone to variations in lipophilicity. Only 11 toxicophores were of sufficient predictive performance that they could be incorporated into a structural-alert model. Each alert was associated with one of three confidence levels (high, medium, and low) depending upon the lipophilicity-activity profile of the structural class. The final model identified over 68% of those compounds with potent uncoupling activity and with a value for specificity above 99%. We discuss the advantages and limitations of this approach and conclude that although structural alert methodology is useful for identifying toxicophores associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, they are not a replacement for the mitochondrial dysfunction assays in early screening paradigms.

  16. Uncoupling of Energy-Linked Functions of Corn Mitochondria by Linoleic Acid and Monomethyldecenylsuccinic Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Baddeley, M. Susan; Hanson, J. B.

    1967-01-01

    Linoleic acid and monomethyldecenylsuccinic acid were tested as uncoupling agents for energy linked functions of corn mitochondria. 2,4-dinitrophenol was used as a standard for comparison. Both compounds uncoupled oxidative phosphorylation, released oligomycin-blocked respiration, and accelerated adenosine triphosphatase. Linoleic acid uncoupled calcium-activated phosphate accumulation and the increase in light scattering that accompanies the accumulation. Unlike dinitrophenol, linoleic acid at 0.1 mm had a destructive effect on membrane semipermeability. Kinetic studies indicated that dinitrophenol and linoleic acid compete with phosphate for active sites in oxidative phosphorylation. Some linoleic acid is taken up by respiring mitochondria and a major share of the uptake is incorporated into phospholipids. Calcium ion and oligomycin promote the uptake, but coenzyme A does not. It is deduced that fatty acid probably attacks the non-phosphorylated intermediate, I∼X, producing X∼acyl. Uncoupling results from breakdown of X∼acyl, but sufficient X∼acyl is maintained to serve as a source of activated fatty acid. PMID:16656708

  17. The mitochondrial consequences of uncoupling intact cells depend on the nature of the exogenous substrate.

    PubMed Central

    Sibille, B; Filippi, C; Piquet, M A; Leclercq, P; Fontaine, E; Ronot, X; Rigoulet, M; Leverve, X

    2001-01-01

    In isolated mitochondria the consequences of oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling are well defined, whereas in intact cells various effects have been described. Uncoupling liver cells with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in the presence of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and ethanol results in a marked decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane electrical potential (DeltaPsi), ATP/ADP ratios and gluconeogenesis (as an ATP-utilizing process), whereas the increased oxidation rate is limited and transient. Conversely, when DHA is associated with octanoate or proline, DNP addition results in a very large and sustained increase in oxidation rate, whereas the decreases in DeltaPsi, ATP/ADP ratios and gluconeogenesis are significantly less when compared with DHA and ethanol. Hence significant energy wastage (high oxidation rate) by uncoupling is achieved only with substrates that are directly oxidized in the mitochondrial matrix. Conversely in the presence of substrates that are first oxidized in the cytosol, uncoupling results in a profound decrease in mitochondrial DeltaPsi and ATP synthesis, whereas energy wastage is very limited. PMID:11256968

  18. Hyperthyroidism increases the uncoupled ATPase activity and heat production by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Ana Paula; Da-Silva, Wagner S; Carvalho, Denise P; De Meis, Leopoldo

    2003-01-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase is able to modulate the distribution of energy released during ATP hydrolysis, so that a portion of energy is used for Ca2+ transport (coupled ATPase activity) and a portion is converted into heat (uncoupled ATPase activity). In this report it is shown that T4 administration to rabbits promotes an increase in the rates of both the uncoupled ATPase activity and heat production in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, and that the degree of activation varies depending on the muscle type used. In white muscles hyperthyroidism promotes a 0.8-fold increase of the uncoupled ATPase activity and in red muscle a 4-fold increase. The yield of vesicles from hyperthyroid muscles is 3-4-fold larger than that obtained from normal muscles; thus the rate of heat production by the Ca2+-ATPase expressed in terms of g of muscle in hyperthyroidism is increased by a factor of 3.6 in white muscles and 12.0 in red muscles. The data presented suggest that the Ca2+-ATPase uncoupled activity may represent one of the heat sources that contributes to the enhanced thermogenesis noted in hyperthyroidism. PMID:12887329

  19. A novel amino acid and metabolomics signature in mice overexpressing muscle uncoupling protein 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is known to lower mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and promote fatty acid oxidation; however, the global impact of UCP3 activity on skeletal muscle and whole body metabolism has not been extensively studied. We utilized unt...

  20. SET overexpression in HEK293 cells regulates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins levels within a mitochondrial fission/reduced autophagic flux scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, Luciana O.; Goto, Renata N.; Neto, Marinaldo P.C.; Sousa, Lucas O.; Curti, Carlos; Leopoldino, Andréia M.

    2015-03-06

    We hypothesized that SET, a protein accumulated in some cancer types and Alzheimer disease, is involved in cell death through mitochondrial mechanisms. We addressed the mRNA and protein levels of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 (S and L isoforms) by quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence as well as other mitochondrial involvements, in HEK293 cells overexpressing the SET protein (HEK293/SET), either in the presence or absence of oxidative stress induced by the pro-oxidant t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). SET overexpression in HEK293 cells decreased UCP1 and increased UCP2 and UCP3 (S/L) mRNA and protein levels, whilst also preventing lipid peroxidation and decreasing the content of cellular ATP. SET overexpression also (i) decreased the area of mitochondria and increased the number of organelles and lysosomes, (ii) increased mitochondrial fission, as demonstrated by increased FIS1 mRNA and FIS-1 protein levels, an apparent accumulation of DRP-1 protein, and an increase in the VDAC protein level, and (iii) reduced autophagic flux, as demonstrated by a decrease in LC3B lipidation (LC3B-II) in the presence of chloroquine. Therefore, SET overexpression in HEK293 cells promotes mitochondrial fission and reduces autophagic flux in apparent association with up-regulation of UCP2 and UCP3; this implies a potential involvement in cellular processes that are deregulated such as in Alzheimer's disease and cancer. - Highlights: • SET, UCPs and autophagy prevention are correlated. • SET action has mitochondrial involvement. • UCP2/3 may reduce ROS and prevent autophagy. • SET protects cell from ROS via UCP2/3.

  1. Cellular automata for traffic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Dietrich E.

    1999-02-01

    Traffic phenomena such as the transition from free to congested flow, lane inversion and platoon formation can be accurately reproduced using cellular automata. Being computationally extremely efficient, they simulate large traffic systems many times faster than real time so that predictions become feasible. A riview of recent results is given. The presence of metastable states at the jamming transition is discussed in detail. A simple new cellular automation is introduced, in which the interaction between cars is Galilei-invariant. It is shown that this type of interaction accounts for metastable states in a very natural way.

  2. Chronic mitochondrial uncoupling treatment prevents acute cold-induced oxidative stress in birds.

    PubMed

    Stier, Antoine; Massemin, Sylvie; Criscuolo, François

    2014-12-01

    Endotherms have evolved two major types of thermogenesis that allow them to actively produce heat in response to cold exposure, either through muscular activity (i.e. shivering thermogenesis) or through futile electro-chemical cycles (i.e. non-shivering thermogenesis). Amongst the latter, mitochondrial uncoupling is of key importance because it is suggested to drive heat production at a low cost in terms of oxidative stress. While this has been experimentally shown in mammals, the oxidative stress consequences of cold exposure and mitochondrial uncoupling are clearly less understood in the other class of endotherms, the birds. We compared metabolic and oxidative stress responses of zebra finches chronically treated with or without a chemical mitochondrial uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol: DNP), undergoing an acute (24 h) and a chronic (4 weeks) cold exposure (12 °C). We predicted that control birds should present at least a transient elevation of oxidative stress levels in response to cold exposure. This oxidative stress cost should be more pronounced in control birds than in DNP-treated birds, due to their lower basal uncoupling state. Despite similar increase in metabolism, control birds presented elevated levels of DNA oxidative damage in response to acute (but not chronic) cold exposure, while DNP-treated birds did not. Plasma antioxidant capacity decreased overall in response to chronic cold exposure. These results show that acute cold exposure increases oxidative stress in birds. However, uncoupling mitochondrial functioning appears as a putative compensatory mechanism preventing cold-induced oxidative stress. This result confirms previous observations in mice and underlines non-shivering thermogenesis as a putative key mechanism for endotherms in mounting a response to cold at a low oxidative cost.

  3. Cyanide-induced death of dopaminergic cells is mediated by uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and reduced Bcl-2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Li, L.; Zhang, L.; Borowitz, J.L.; Isom, G.E.

    2009-07-01

    Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and produces mitochondria-mediated death of dopaminergic neurons and sublethal intoxications that are associated with a Parkinson-like syndrome. Cyanide toxicity is enhanced when mitochondrial uncoupling is stimulated following up-regulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). In this study, the role of a pro-survival protein, Bcl-2, in cyanide-mediated cell death was determined in a rat dopaminergic immortalized mesencephalic cell line (N27 cells). Following pharmacological up-regulation of UCP-2 by treatment with Wy14,643, cyanide reduced cellular Bcl-2 expression by increasing proteasomal degradation of the protein. The increased turnover of Bcl-2 was mediated by an increase of oxidative stress following UCP-2 up-regulation. The oxidative stress involved depletion of mitochondrial glutathione (mtGSH) and increased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation. Repletion of mtGSH by loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation and in turn blocked the cyanide-induced decrease of Bcl-2. To determine if UCP-2 mediated the response, RNAi knock down was conducted. The RNAi decreased cyanide-induced depletion of mtGSH, reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation, and inhibited down-regulation of Bcl-2, thus blocking cell death. To confirm the role of Bcl-2 down-regulation in the cell death, it was shown that over-expression of Bcl-2 by cDNA transfection attenuated the enhancement of cyanide toxicity after UCP-2 up-regulation. It was concluded that UCP-2 up-regulation sensitizes cells to cyanide by increasing cellular oxidative stress, leading to an increase of Bcl-2 degradation. Then the reduced Bcl-2 levels sensitize the cells to cyanide-mediated cell death.

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to mitochondrial uncoupling protein genes UCP2 and UCP3 affect mitochondrial metabolism and healthy aging in female nonagenarians.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangkyu; Myers, Leann; Ravussin, Eric; Cherry, Katie E; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2016-08-01

    Energy expenditure decreases with age, but in the oldest-old, energy demand for maintenance of body functions increases with declining health. Uncoupling proteins have profound impact on mitochondrial metabolic processes; therefore, we focused attention on mitochondrial uncoupling protein genes. Alongside resting metabolic rate (RMR), two SNPs in the promoter region of UCP2 were associated with healthy aging. These SNPs mark potential binding sites for several transcription factors; thus, they may affect expression of the gene. A third SNP in the 3'-UTR of UCP3 interacted with RMR. This UCP3 SNP is known to impact UCP3 expression in tissue culture cells, and it has been associated with body weight and mitochondrial energy metabolism. The significant main effects of the UCP2 SNPs and the interaction effect of the UCP3 SNP were also observed after controlling for fat-free mass (FFM) and physical-activity related energy consumption. The association of UCP2/3 with healthy aging was not found in males. Thus, our study provides evidence that the genetic risk factors for healthy aging differ in males and females, as expected from the differences in the phenotypes associated with healthy aging between the two sexes. It also has implications for how mitochondrial function changes during aging.

  5. Investigation of connexin 43 uncoupling and prolongation of the cardiac QRS complex in preclinical and marketed drugs

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, M P; Sharpe, P M; Garner, C; Hughes, R; Pollard, C E; Bowes, J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prolongation of the cardiac QRS complex is linked to increased mortality and may result from drug-induced inhibition of cardiac sodium channels (hNaV1.5). There has been no systematic evaluation of preclinical and marketed drugs for their additional potential to cause QRS prolongation via gap junction uncoupling. Experimental Approach Using the human cardiac gap junction connexin 43 (hCx43), a dye transfer ‘parachute’ assay to determine IC50 values for compound ranking was validated with compounds known to uncouple gap junctions. Uncoupling activity (and hNaV1.5 inhibition by automated patch clamp) was determined in a set of marketed drugs and preclinical candidate drugs, each with information regarding propensity to prolong QRS. Key Results The potency of known gap junction uncouplers to uncouple hCx43 was ranked (according to IC50) as phorbol ester>digoxin>meclofenamic acid>carbenoxolone>heptanol. Among the drugs associated with QRS prolongation, 29% were found to uncouple hCx43 (IC50 < 50 μM), whereas no uncoupling activity was observed in drugs not associated with QRS prolongation. In preclinical candidate drugs, hCx43 and hNaV1.5 IC50 values were similar (within threefold). No consistent margin over preclinical Cmax (free) was apparent for QRS prolongation associated with Cx43 inhibition. However, instances were found of QRS prolonging compounds that uncoupled hCx43 with significantly less activity at hNaV1.5. Conclusion and Implications These results demonstrate that off-target uncoupling activity is apparent in drug and drug-like molecules. Although the full ramifications of Cx inhibition remain to be established, screening for hCx43 off-target activity could reduce the likelihood of developing candidate drugs with a risk of causing QRS prolongation. PMID:24328991

  6. Blue native protein electrophoresis for studies of mouse polyomavirus morphogenesis and interactions between the major capsid protein VP1 and cellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Horníková, Lenka; Man, Petr; Forstová, Jitka

    2011-12-01

    Morphogenesis of the mouse polyomavirus virion is a complex and not yet well understood process. Nuclear lysates of infected cells and cells transiently producing the major capsid protein (VP1) of the mouse polyomavirus and whole-cell lysates were separated by blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) to characterize the participation of cellular proteins in virion precursor complexes. Several VP1-specific complexes were found by immunostaining with the anti-VP1 antibody. Some of these complexes contained proteins from the heat shock protein 70 family. The BN-PAGE was found to be a useful tool for the identification of protein complexes by immunostaining of separated cell lysates. However, whole-cell lysates and lysates of isolated nuclei of cells infected with polyomavirus appeared to be too complex for BN-PAGE separation followed by mass spectrometry. No distinct bands specific for cells infected with polyomavirus were detected by Coomassie blue stained gels, hence this method is not suitable for the discovery of new cellular proteins participating in virion assembly. Nevertheless, BN-PAGE can be valuable for the analyses of different types of complexes formed by proteins after their enrichment or isolation by affinity chromatography.

  7. Using lymph node transplantation as an approach to image cellular interactions between the skin and draining lymph nodes during parasitic infections☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Jennifer C.; Benson, Robert A.; Garside, Paul; Brewer, James M.

    2014-01-01

    The growing use of protozoan parasites expressing fluorescent reporter genes, together with advances in microscopy, is enabling visualisation of their behaviour and functions within the host from the very earliest stages of infection with previously unparalleled spatiotemporal resolution. These developments have begun to provide novel insights, which are informing our understanding of where host immune responses may be initiated, which cells are involved and the types of response that are elicited. Here we will review some of these recent observations that highlight the importance of cellular communication between the site of infection and the draining lymph node (dLN) in establishing infection and immunity. We also highlight a number of remaining challenges and unknowns that arise through our inability to follow and fate map the journey of a single cell between spatially separated tissue sites. In response to these challenges, we review a recently described experimental strategy that extends the spatial and temporal limits of previous imaging approaches, most significantly allowing longitudinal analysis of cellular migration between the skin and draining lymph nodes in vivo, without the requirement for invasive surgery. PMID:23892176

  8. Screening of cellular proteins that interact with the classical swine fever virus non-structural protein 5A by yeast two-hybrid analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengcheng; He, Lei; Kang, Kai; Chen, Heng; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Yanming

    2014-03-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), the pathogen of classical swine fever (CSF), causes severe hemorrhagic fever and vascular necrosis in domestic pigs and wild boar. A large number of evidence has proven that non-structural 5A (NS5A) is not only a very important part of viral replication complex, but also can regulate host cell's function; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the current study, aiming to find more clues in understanding the molecular mechanisms of CSFV NS5A's function, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was adopted to screen for CSFV NS5A interactive proteins in the cDNA library of the swine umbilical vein endothelial cell (SUVEC). Alignment with the NCBI database revealed 16 interactive proteins: DDX5, PSMC3, NAV1, PHF5A, GNB2L1, CSDE1, HSPA8, BRMS1, PPP2R3C, AIP, TMED10, POLR1C, TMEM70, METAP2, CHORDC1 and COPS6. These proteins are mostly related to gene transcription, protein folding, protein degradation and metabolism. The interactions detected by the Y2H system should be considered as preliminary results. Since identifying novel pathways and host targets, which play essential roles during infection, may provide potential targets for therapeutic development. The finding of proteins obtained from the SUVEC cDNA library that interact with the CSFV NS5A protein provide valuable information for better understanding the interactions between this viral protein and the host target proteins.

  9. Host Cellular Protein TRAPPC6AΔ Interacts with Influenza A Virus M2 Protein and Regulates Viral Propagation by Modulating M2 Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Pengyang; Liang, Libin; Shao, Xinyuan; Luo, Weiyu; Jiang, Shuitao; Zhao, Qingqing; Sun, Nan; Zhao, Yuhui; Li, Junping; Wang, Jinguang; Zhou, Yuan; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Guangwen; Jiang, Li

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A virus (IAV) matrix protein 2 (M2) plays multiple roles in the early and late phases of viral infection. Once synthesized, M2 is translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), travels to the Golgi apparatus, and is sorted at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) for transport to the apical plasma membrane, where it functions in virus budding. We hypothesized that M2 trafficking along with its secretory pathway must be finely regulated, and host factors could be involved in this process. However, no studies examining the role of host factors in M2 posttranslational transport have been reported. Here, we used a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system to screen for host proteins that interact with the M2 protein and identified transport protein particle complex 6A (TRAPPC6A) as a potential binding partner. We found that both TRAPPC6A and its N-terminal internal-deletion isoform, TRAPPC6A delta (TRAPPC6AΔ), interact with M2. Truncation and mutation analyses showed that the highly conserved leucine residue at position 96 of M2 is critical for mediating this interaction. The role of TRAPPC6AΔ in the viral life cycle was investigated by the knockdown of endogenous TRAPPC6AΔ with small interfering RNA (siRNA) and by generating a recombinant virus that was unable to interact with TRAPPC6A/TRAPPC6AΔ. The results indicated that TRAPPC6AΔ, through its interaction with M2, slows M2 trafficking to the apical plasma membrane, favors viral replication in vitro, and positively modulates virus virulence in mice. IMPORTANCE The influenza A virus M2 protein regulates the trafficking of not only other proteins but also itself along the secretory pathway. However, the host factors involved in the regulation of the posttranslational transport of M2 are largely unknown. In this study, we identified TRAPPC6A and its N-terminal internal-deletion isoform, TRAPPC6AΔ, as interacting partners of M2. We found that the leucine (L) residue at position 96 of M2 is critical for mediating

  10. Uncoupling of reading and IQ over time: empirical evidence for a definition of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Emilio; Shaywitz, Bennett A; Holahan, John M; Marchione, Karen; Shaywitz, Sally E

    2010-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is defined as an unexpected difficulty in reading in individuals who otherwise possess the intelligence and motivation considered necessary for fluent reading, and who also have had reasonable reading instruction. Identifying factors associated with normative and impaired reading development has implications for diagnosis, intervention, and prevention. We show that in typical readers, reading and IQ development are dynamically linked over time. Such mutual interrelationships are not perceptible in dyslexic readers, which suggests that reading and cognition develop more independently in these individuals. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first empirical demonstration of a coupling between cognition and reading in typical readers and a developmental uncoupling between cognition and reading in dyslexic readers. This uncoupling was the core concept of the initial description of dyslexia and remains the focus of the current definitional model of this learning disability.

  11. Effects of the uncoupling agents FCCP and CCCP on the saltatory movements of cytoplasmic organelles.

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, P J; Bray, D; Adams, R J

    1985-02-01

    Two potent uncoupling agents, carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) inhibit the movement of organelles in neurites of chick sensory neurones in culture. FCCP applied for 30 minutes at 10 microM reduces the number of moving organelles by 78% and a similar treatment with CCCP causes a reduction of 47%. At 100 microM either compound abolishes all directed movements both in neurites and in cultured 3T3 cells. These effects are probably not due to the discharge of proton gradients since 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), at concentrations shown to uncouple mitochondria by the discharge of the permeant cationic fluorescent probe rhodamine 123, fails to inhibit cytoplasmic movements. The inhibition of cytoplasmic movements by FCCP and CCCP is likely to be a consequence of their inhibitory action on a variety of enzymes, including dynein and myosin ATPases, through a reaction with sulfhydryl groups.

  12. Effect of Zingiber officinale Supplementation on Obesity Management with Respect to the Uncoupling Protein 1 -3826A>G and ß3-adrenergic Receptor Trp64Arg Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh Attari, Vahideh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Zemestani, Maryam; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) supplementation on some obesity-associated parameters, with nutrigenetics approach. Accordingly, 80 eligible obese women (aged 18-45 years) were randomly assigned to receive either ginger (2-g ginger rhizomes powder as two 1-g tablets per day) or placebo supplements (corn starch with the same amount) for 12 weeks. Subjects were tested for changes in body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, body composition, appetite score, and dietary intake. Moreover, participants were genotyped for the -3826A>G and Trp64Arg polymorphisms of uncoupling protein 1 and ß3-adrenergic receptor genes, respectively. Over 12 weeks, ginger supplementation resulted in a slight but statistically significant decrease in all anthropometric measurements and total appetite score as compared with placebo group, which were more pronounced in subjects with the AA genotype for uncoupling protein 1 and Trp64Trp genotype for ß3-adrenergic receptor gene. However, there was no significant difference in changes of body composition and total energy and macronutrients intake between groups. In conclusion, our findings suggest that ginger consumption has potential in managing obesity, accompanying with an intervention-genotype interaction effect. However, further clinical trials need to explore ginger's efficacy as an anti-obesity agent in the form of powder, extract, or its active components.

  13. Uncoupling effect of polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency in isolated rat hepatocytes:effect on glycerol metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Piquet, M A; Fontaine, E; Sibille, B; Filippi, C; Keriel, C; Leverve, X M

    1996-01-01

    The effects of a 4-week deficiency in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in isolated rat hepatocytes have been investigated for oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid, dihydroxyacetone (DHA) or glycerol metabolism. Oxygen uptake was significantly increased (by 20%) with or without fatty acid addition (octanoate or oleate) in the PUFA-deficient group compared with controls. The effect persisted after oligomycin addition but not after that of potassium cyanide, leading to the conclusion that, in these intact cells, the mitochondria were uncoupled. The PUFA-deficient group exhibited a significant decrease in the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio, whereas the mitochondrial ratio was not affected. PUFA deficiency led to a 16% decrease in DHA metabolism owing to a 34% decrease in glycerol kinase activity; the significant decrease in the ATP/ADP ratio was accompanied by an increase in the fractional glycolytic flux. In contrast, glycerol metabolism was significantly enhanced in the PUFA-deficient group. The role of the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase step in this stimulation was evidenced in hepatocytes perifused with glycerol and octanoate in the presence of increased concentrations of 2,4-dinitrophenol (Dnp): uncoupling with Dnp led to an enhancement of glycerol metabolism, as found in PUFA deficiency, although it was more pronounced than in controls. The matrix/cytosol gradients for redox potential and ATP/ADP ratio were lower in cells from PUFA-deficient rats, suggesting a decreased mitochondrial membrane potential in accordance with the uncoupling effect. Moreover, a doubling of the mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the PUFA-deficient group compared with controls led us to conclude that the activation of glycerol metabolism is the consequence of two mitochondrial effects: uncoupling and an increase in glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. PMID:8760348

  14. Interaction of Mycobacterium leprae with the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line: new frontiers in the cellular immunology of leprosy.

    PubMed

    Lyrio, Eloah C D; Campos-Souza, Ivy C; Corrêa, Luiz C D; Lechuga, Guilherme C; Verícimo, Maurício; Castro, Helena C; Bourguignon, Saulo C; Côrte-Real, Suzana; Ratcliffe, Norman; Declercq, Wim; Santos, Dilvani O

    2015-07-01

    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae affecting the skin and peripheral nerves. Despite M. leprae invasion of the skin and keratinocytes importance in innate immunity, the interaction of these cells in vitro during M. leprae infection is poorly understood. Conventional and fluorescence optical microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, flow cytometry and ELISA were used to study the in vitro interaction of M. leprae with the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. Keratinocytes uptake of M. leprae is described, and modulation of the surface expression of CD80 and CD209, cathelicidin expression and TNF-α and IL-1β production of human keratinocytes are compared with dendritic cells and macrophages during M. leprae interaction. This study demonstrated that M. leprae interaction with human keratinocytes enhanced expression of cathelicidin and greatly increased TNF-α production. The highest spontaneous expression of cathelicidin was by dendritic cells which are less susceptible to M. leprae infection. In contrast, keratinocytes displayed low spontaneous cathelicidin expression and were more susceptible to M. leprae infection than dendritic cells. The results show, for the first time, an active role for keratinocytes during infection by irradiated whole cells of M. leprae and the effect of vitamin D on this process. They also suggest that therapies which target cathelicidin modulation may provide novel approaches for treatment of leprosy.

  15. Uncoupling GP1 and GP2 Expression in the Lassa Virus Glycoprotein Complex: Implications for GP1 Ectodomain Shedding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-23

    BioMed CentralVirology Journal ssOpen AcceResearch Uncoupling GP1 and GP2 expression in the Lassa virus glycoprotein complex: implications for GP1...contributors Abstract Background: Sera from convalescent Lassa fever patients often contains antibodies to Lassa virus (LASV) glycoprotein 1 (GP1...uncoupled Lassa virus (LASV) glycoprotein 1 (GP1) and glycoprotein 2 (GP2) were established. Soluble GP1 was generated using either the native

  16. Uncoupling GP1 and GP2 Expression in the Lassa Virus Glycoprotein Complex: Implications for GPI Ectodomain Shedding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-23

    BioMed CentralVirology Journal ssOpen AcceResearch Uncoupling GP1 and GP2 expression in the Lassa virus glycoprotein complex: implications for GP1...contributors Abstract Background: Sera from convalescent Lassa fever patients often contains antibodies to Lassa virus (LASV) glycoprotein 1 (GP1...uncoupled Lassa virus (LASV) glycoprotein 1 (GP1) and glycoprotein 2 (GP2) were established. Soluble GP1 was generated using either the native

  17. Burn after feeding. An old uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation is redesigned for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fromenty, B

    2014-10-01

    Uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in brown adipose tissue can be used by hibernating animals to produce heat at the expense of their fat mass. In a recent work, Dr Shulman et al. generated a liver-targeted derivative of the prototypical OXPHOS uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol that alleviated steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in several models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes.

  18. Mitochondrial uncoupling as a regulator of life-history trajectories in birds: an experimental study in the zebra finch.

    PubMed

    Stier, Antoine; Bize, Pierre; Roussel, Damien; Schull, Quentin; Massemin, Sylvie; Criscuolo, François

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondria have a fundamental role in the transduction of energy from food into ATP. The coupling between food oxidation and ATP production is never perfect, but may nevertheless be of evolutionary significance. The 'uncoupling to survive' hypothesis suggests that 'mild' mitochondrial uncoupling evolved as a protective mechanism against the excessive production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because resource allocation and ROS production are thought to shape animal life histories, alternative life-history trajectories might be driven by individual variation in the degree of mitochondrial uncoupling. We tested this hypothesis in a small bird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), by treating adults with the artificial mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) over a 32-month period. In agreement with our expectations, the uncoupling treatment increased metabolic rate. However, we found no evidence that treated birds enjoyed lower oxidative stress levels or greater survival rates, in contrast to previous results in other taxa. In vitro experiments revealed lower sensitivity of ROS production to DNP in mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscles of zebra finch than mouse. In addition, we found significant reductions in the number of eggs laid and in the inflammatory immune response in treated birds. Altogether, our data suggest that the 'uncoupling to survive' hypothesis may not be applicable for zebra finches, presumably because of lower effects of mitochondrial uncoupling on mitochondrial ROS production in birds than in mammals. Nevertheless, mitochondrial uncoupling appeared to be a potential life-history regulator of traits such as fecundity and immunity at adulthood, even with food supplied ad libitum.

  19. Snf1-related kinase improves cardiac mitochondrial efficiency and decreases mitochondrial uncoupling

    PubMed Central

    Rines, Amy K.; Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Wu, Rongxue; Sato, Tatsuya; Khechaduri, Arineh; Kouzu, Hidemichi; Shapiro, Jason; Shang, Meng; Burke, Michael A.; Jiang, Xinghang; Chen, Chunlei; Rawlings, Tenley A.; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Schumacker, Paul T.; Abel, E. Dale; Ardehali, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease limits oxygen and metabolic substrate availability to the heart, resulting in tissue death. Here, we demonstrate that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related protein Snf1-related kinase (SNRK) decreases cardiac metabolic substrate usage and mitochondrial uncoupling, and protects against ischaemia/reperfusion. Hearts from transgenic mice overexpressing SNRK have decreased glucose and palmitate metabolism and oxygen consumption, but maintained power and function. They also exhibit decreased uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) and mitochondrial uncoupling. Conversely, Snrk knockout mouse hearts have increased glucose and palmitate oxidation and UCP3. SNRK knockdown in cardiac cells decreases mitochondrial efficiency, which is abolished with UCP3 knockdown. We show that Tribbles homologue 3 (Trib3) binds to SNRK, and downregulates UCP3 through PPARα. Finally, SNRK is increased in cardiomyopathy patients, and SNRK reduces infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion. SNRK also decreases cardiac cell death in a UCP3-dependent manner. Our results suggest that SNRK improves cardiac mitochondrial efficiency and ischaemic protection. PMID:28117339

  20. Uncoupling RARA transcriptional activation and degradation clarifies the bases for APL response to therapies.

    PubMed

    Ablain, Julien; Leiva, Magdalena; Peres, Laurent; Fonsart, Julien; Anthony, Elodie; de Thé, Hugues

    2013-04-08

    In PML/RARA-driven acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), retinoic acid (RA) induces leukemia cell differentiation and transiently clears the disease. Molecularly, RA activates PML/RARA-dependent transcription and also initiates its proteasome-mediated degradation. In contrast, arsenic, the other potent anti-APL therapy, only induces PML/RARA degradation by specifically targeting its PML moiety. The respective contributions of RA-triggered transcriptional activation and proteolysis to clinical response remain disputed. Here, we identify synthetic retinoids that potently activate RARA- or PML/RARA-dependent transcription, but fail to down-regulate RARA or PML/RARA protein levels. Similar to RA, these uncoupled retinoids elicit terminal differentiation, but unexpectedly fail to impair leukemia-initiating activity of PML/RARA-transformed cells ex vivo or in vivo. Accordingly, the survival benefit conferred by uncoupled retinoids in APL mice is dramatically lower than the one provided by RA. Differentiated APL blasts sorted from uncoupled retinoid-treated mice retain PML/RARA expression and reinitiate APL in secondary transplants. Thus, differentiation is insufficient for APL eradication, whereas PML/RARA loss is essential. These observations unify the modes of action of RA and arsenic and shed light on the potency of their combination in mice or patients.

  1. Inhibition of uncoupled respiration in tumor cells. A possible role of mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux.

    PubMed

    Gabai, V L

    1993-08-23

    Uncouplers CCCP (2-4 microM) or DNP (200-400 microM) when added to EL-4 thymoma or Ehrlich carcinoma ascites cells initially stimulated endogenous respiration about 2-fold but then inhibited it to a first-order rate 20-25% of controls. This inhibition was accelerated by intracellular acidification or by A23187, a Ca2+/H(+)-antiporter (i.e. when mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux was stimulated) whereas Ruthenium red, an inhibitor of uniporter-driven Ca2+ efflux, significantly slowed down the effect of uncouplers. The respiratory inhibition was associated with NAD(P)H oxidation and was partially reversed by exogenous substrates (glutamine or glucose). In the permeabilized cells, endogenous and glutamine-supported respiration was inhibited by EGTA, while succinate-supported respiration was Ca2+ independent. It is suggested that mitochondrial Ca2+ is necessary for NADH-dependent respiration of tumor cells, and uncouplers inhibit it by activation of mitochondrial Ca2+ efflux.

  2. Tuning the ion selectivity of glutamate transporter–associated uncoupled conductances

    PubMed Central

    Cater, Rosemary J.; Vandenberg, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The concentration of glutamate within a glutamatergic synapse is tightly regulated by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). In addition to their primary role in clearing extracellular glutamate, the EAATs also possess a thermodynamically uncoupled Cl− conductance. This conductance is activated by the binding of substrate and Na+, but the direction of Cl− flux is independent of the rate or direction of substrate transport; thus, the two processes are thermodynamically uncoupled. A recent molecular dynamics study of the archaeal EAAT homologue GltPh (an aspartate transporter from Pyrococcus horikoshii) identified an aqueous pore at the interface of the transport and trimerization domains, through which anions could permeate, and it was suggested that an arginine residue at the most restricted part of this pathway might play a role in determining anion selectivity. In this study, we mutate this arginine to a histidine in the human glutamate transporter EAAT1 and investigate the role of the protonation state of this residue on anion selectivity and transporter function. Our results demonstrate that a positive charge at this position is crucial for determining anion versus cation selectivity of the uncoupled conductance of EAAT1. In addition, because the nature of this residue influences the turnover rate of EAAT1, we reveal an intrinsic link between the elevator movement of the transport domain and the Cl− channel. PMID:27296367

  3. Uncoupling RARA transcriptional activation and degradation clarifies the bases for APL response to therapies

    PubMed Central

    Ablain, Julien; Leiva, Magdalena; Peres, Laurent; Fonsart, Julien; Anthony, Elodie

    2013-01-01

    In PML/RARA-driven acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), retinoic acid (RA) induces leukemia cell differentiation and transiently clears the disease. Molecularly, RA activates PML/RARA-dependent transcription and also initiates its proteasome-mediated degradation. In contrast, arsenic, the other potent anti-APL therapy, only induces PML/RARA degradation by specifically targeting its PML moiety. The respective contributions of RA-triggered transcriptional activation and proteolysis to clinical response remain disputed. Here, we identify synthetic retinoids that potently activate RARA- or PML/RARA-dependent transcription, but fail to down-regulate RARA or PML/RARA protein levels. Similar to RA, these uncoupled retinoids elicit terminal differentiation, but unexpectedly fail to impair leukemia-initiating activity of PML/RARA-transformed cells ex vivo or in vivo. Accordingly, the survival benefit conferred by uncoupled retinoids in APL mice is dramatically lower than the one provided by RA. Differentiated APL blasts sorted from uncoupled retinoid–treated mice retain PML/RARA expression and reinitiate APL in secondary transplants. Thus, differentiation is insufficient for APL eradication, whereas PML/RARA loss is essential. These observations unify the modes of action of RA and arsenic and shed light on the potency of their combination in mice or patients. PMID:23509325

  4. Dopamine-stimulated dephosphorylation of connexin 36 mediates AII amacrine cell uncoupling

    PubMed Central

    Kothmann, W. Wade; Massey, Stephen C.; O’Brien, John

    2010-01-01

    Gap junction proteins form the substrate for electrical coupling between neurons. These electrical synapses are widespread in the central nervous system and serve a variety of important functions. In the retina, connexin 36 (Cx36) gap junctions couple AII amacrine cells and are a requisite component of the high-sensitivity rod photoreceptor pathway. AII amacrine cell coupling strength is dynamically regulated by background light intensity, and uncoupling is thought to be mediated by dopamine signaling via D1-like receptors. One proposed mechanism for this uncoupling involves dopamine-stimulated phosphorylation of Cx36 at regulatory sites, mediated by protein kinase A. Here we provide evidence against this hypothesis and demonstrate a direct relationship between Cx36 phosphorylation and AII amacrine cell coupling strength. Dopamine receptor-driven uncoupling of the AII network results from protein kinase A activation of protein phosphatase 2A and subsequent dephosphorylation of Cx36. Protein phosphatase 1 activity negatively regulates this pathway. We also find that Cx36 gap junctions can exist in widely different phosphorylation states within a single neuron, implying that coupling is controlled at the level of individual gap junctions by locally assembled signaling complexes. This kind of synapse-by-synapse plasticity allows for precise control of neuronal coupling, as well as cell type-specific responses dependent on the identity of the signaling complexes assembled. PMID:19940186

  5. Molecular and Cellular Interactions of Allogenic and Autologus Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Innate and Acquired Immunity and Their Role in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinikia, Roghayeh; Nikbakht, Mohammad Reza; Moghaddam, Ali Asghar; Tajehmiri, Ahmad; Hosseinikia, Mahboobe; Oubari, Farhad; Nikougoftar Zarif, Mahin; Pasdar, Yahya; Mansouri, Kamran

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as major stem cells for cell therapy, have been studied from different aspects in preclinical and clinical settings for more than a decade. These cells modulate the immune system (humoral and cellular immune responses) in vitro by producing soluble factors (anti-inflammatory molecules) and/or making cell-cell contacts. Hence, they could be used in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and immune therapy. MSCs-based therapy have been recently used for treatment of cancer regarding the migratory potential of these cells towards tumor cells which makes them considerable candidates, also for cell therapy in both allogeneic and autologous settings. So, this review attempts to focus on the factors secreted by MSCs such as cytokines, their functional role in mounting and controlling immune responses mediated by different immune cell subpopulations and their significance in regenerative medicine in clinical trials. Although, further studies remain to be done to increase our knowledge of regulating development mechanisms, homeostasis and tissue repair in order to provide new tools to implement the efficacy of cell therapy trials. Although MSCs have been proved safe and effective for cell therapy, there are still challenges to overcome before widely applying MSCs in clinic. PMID:28286618

  6. Inverse-power-law behavior of cellular motility reveals stromal–epithelial cell interactions in 3D co-culture by OCT fluctuation spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburg, Amy L.; Yu, Xiao; Gilliss, Thomas; Alabi, Oluwafemi; Taylor, Russell M.; Troester, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    The progression of breast cancer is known to be affected by stromal cells within the local microenvironment. Here we study the effect of stromal fibroblasts on the in-place motions (motility) of mammary epithelial cells within organoids in 3D co-culture, inferred from the speckle fluctuation spectrum using optical coherence tomography (OCT). In contrast to Brownian motion, mammary cell motions exhibit an inverse power-law fluctuation spectrum. We introduce two complementary metrics for quantifying fluctuation spectra: the power-law exponent and a novel definition of the motility amplitude, both of which are signal- and position-independent. We find that the power-law exponent and motility amplitude are positively (p<0.001) and negatively (p<0.01) correlated with the density of stromal cells in 3D co-culture, respectively. We also show how the hyperspectral data can be visualized using these metrics to observe heterogeneity within organoids. This constitutes a simple and powerful tool for detecting and imaging cellular functional changes with OCT. PMID:26973862

  7. Cellular interaction of folic acid conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and its use as contrast agent for targeted magnetic imaging of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Gurpal; Arora, Vikas; Mewar, Sujeet; Sharma, Uma; Jagannathan, NR; Sapra, Sameer; Dinda, Amit K; Kharbanda, Surender; Singh, Harpal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop tumor specific, water dispersible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and evaluate their efficacy as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We have developed SPIONs capped with citric acid/2-bromo-2-methylpropionic acid which are compact, water dispersible, biocompatible having narrow range of size dispersity (8–10 nm), and relatively high T2 relaxivity (R2 = 222L · mmol−1 · sec−l). The targeting efficacy of unconjugated and folic acid-conjugated SPIONs (FA-SPIONS) was evaluated in a folic acid receptor overexpressing and negative tumor cell lines. Folic acid receptor-positive cells incubated with FA-SPIONs showed much higher intracellular iron content without any cytotoxicity. Ultrastructurally, SPIONs were seen as clustered inside the various stages of endocytic pathways without damaging cellular organelles and possible mechanism for their entry is via receptor mediated endocytosis. In vitro MRI studies on tumor cells showed better T2-weighted images in FA-SPIONs. These findings indicate that FA-SPIONs possess high colloidal stability with excellent sensitivity of imaging and can be a useful MRI contrast agent for the detection of cancer. PMID:22848174

  8. “Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation”: an interactive learning laboratory that communicates basic principles of genetics and cellular biology

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David

    2016-01-01

    “Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation” is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients have the sickle cell genotype/phenotype using DNA and blood samples from wild-type and transgenic mice that carry a sickle cell mutation. The inquiry-based, problem-solving approach facilitates the students' understanding of the basic concepts of genetics and cellular and molecular biology and provides experience with contemporary tools of biotechnology. It also leads to students' appreciation of the causes and consequences of this genetic disease, which is relatively common in individuals of African descent, and increases their understanding of the first principles of genetics. This protocol provides optimal learning when led by well-trained facilitators (including the classroom teacher) and carried out in small groups (6:1 student-to-teacher ratio). This high-quality experience can be offered to a large number of students at a relatively low cost, and it is especially effective in collaboration with a local science museum and/or university. Over the past 15 yr, >12,000 students have completed this inquiry-based learning experience and demonstrated a consistent, substantial increase in their understanding of the disease and genetics in general. PMID:26873898

  9. Genistein ameliorated endothelial nitric oxidase synthase uncoupling by stimulating sirtuin-1 pathway in ox-LDL-injured HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-ping; Zhao, Jia-hui; Yu, Hai-xia; Guo, Dong-xing

    2016-03-01

    Endothelial nitric oxidase synthase (eNOS) uncoupling plays a causal role in endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. Genistein consumption has been associated with the prevention of atherosclerosis. However, the effect of genistein on eNOS uncoupling has not been reported. A model of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced injury on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was established to evaluate the effect of genistein on eNOS uncoupling. We investigated the effect of genistein on NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production, NOX4 expression, BH4 synthesis and oxidation, the expression of GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The results showed that genistein decreased superoxide production and NOX4 expression, enhanced the ratio of BH4/BH2, augmented the expressions of GCH1 and DHFR. Accompanied with genistein ameliorating eNOS uncoupling, genistein elevated the expression of sirtuin-1; furthermore, the effects of genistein on eNOS uncoupling were blunted with sirtuin-1 siRNA. The present study indicated that genistein ameliorated eNOS uncoupling was concerned with sirtuin-1 pathway in ox-LDL-injured HUVECs.

  10. Evaluation of sludge reduction of three metabolic uncouplers in laboratory-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic process.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Li, Hechao; Li, Jin; Guo, Xuesong; Liu, Junxin; Xiao, Benyi

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the sludge reduction of three metabolic uncouplers (3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate (THPS)), we conducted continuous experiments on laboratory-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic processes. The three metabolic uncouplers were separately added in each oxic tank of the three systems, and a system without uncoupler addition was used as control. During the 85-day operation, sludge production and observed growth yields decreased to 38.6% and 16.98%, 43.4% and 17.55%, and 39.3% and 17.04% by the addition of TCS, DCP, and THPS, respectively. The addition of metabolic uncouplers slightly reduced the wastewater treatment efficiencies of the system (about 1.1-8.7%) and increased sludge SVIs (about 69.9-80.6%). Meanwhile, the differences among three metabolic uncouplers were little. Besides metabolic uncoupling and maintenance metabolism, which exist in the TCS- and DCP-added systems, lysis-cryptic growth also exists in the THPS-added system.

  11. UCP1, the mitochondrial uncoupling protein of brown adipocyte: A personal contribution and a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Ricquier, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    The present text summarizes what was my contribution, starting in 1975, to the research on the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), the mitochondrial uncoupler of brown adipocytes. The research on UCP1 aimed at identifying the mechanisms of heat production by brown adipocytes that occurs in mammals either at birth or during cold exposure and arousal in hibernators. With others and in particular Dr. David Nicholls, I participated in the first experiments that contributed to the identification of UCP1. Important steps were the obtention of UCP1 antibodies followed with my main collaborator and friend Frédéric Bouillaud with the initial cloning of the UCP1 cDNA and gene from rats and humans. These molecular tools were then used not only to analyse UCP1 uncoupling activity and to investigate the effects of mutagenesis on the uncoupling function of this protein, but also to decipher the transcriptional regulation of the UCP1 gene. In addition to experiments carried out in rodents, we could identify UCP1 and thermogenic brown adipocytes in humans. A more recent outcome of our research on this uncoupling protein was the identification of a second isoform of UCP, that we named UCP2, and of several UCP homologues in mammals, chicken and plants. UCP1 is certainly a unique mitochondrial transporter able to uncouple respiration from ADP phosphorylation in mitochondria. The discovery of this protein has opened new avenues for studying energy expenditure in relation to overweight, obesity and related pathologies.

  12. A primary phosphorus‐deficient skeletal phenotype in juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: the uncoupling of bone formation and mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Owen, M. A. G.; Fontanillas, R.; Soenens, M.; McGurk, C.; Obach, A.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the effect of low dietary phosphorus (P) intake on the vertebral column of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, a primary P deficiency was induced in post‐smolts. The dietary P provision was reduced by 50% for a period of 10 weeks under controlled conditions. The animal's skeleton was subsequently analysed by radiology, histological examination, histochemical detection of minerals in bones and scales and chemical mineral analysis. This is the first account of how a primary P deficiency affects the skeleton in S. salar at the cellular and at the micro‐anatomical level. Animals that received the P‐deficient diet displayed known signs of P deficiency including reduced growth and soft, pliable opercula. Bone and scale mineral content decreased by c. 50%. On radiographs, vertebral bodies appear small, undersized and with enlarged intervertebral spaces. Contrary to the X‐ray‐based diagnosis, the histological examination revealed that vertebral bodies had a regular size and regular internal bone structures; intervertebral spaces were not enlarged. Bone matrix formation was continuous and uninterrupted, albeit without traces of mineralization. Likewise, scale growth continues with regular annuli formation, but new scale matrix remains without minerals. The 10 week long experiment generated a homogeneous osteomalacia of vertebral bodies without apparent induction of skeletal malformations. The experiment shows that bone formation and bone mineralization are, to a large degree, independent processes in the fish examined. Therefore, a deficit in mineralization must not be the only cause of the alterations of the vertebral bone structure observed in farmed S. salar. It is discussed how the observed uncoupling of bone formation and mineralization helps to better diagnose, understand and prevent P deficiency‐related malformations in farmed S. salar. PMID:26707938

  13. A primary phosphorus-deficient skeletal phenotype in juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: the uncoupling of bone formation and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Witten, P E; Owen, M A G; Fontanillas, R; Soenens, M; McGurk, C; Obach, A

    2016-02-01

    To understand the effect of low dietary phosphorus (P) intake on the vertebral column of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, a primary P deficiency was induced in post-smolts. The dietary P provision was reduced by 50% for a period of 10 weeks under controlled conditions. The animal's skeleton was subsequently analysed by radiology, histological examination, histochemical detection of minerals in bones and scales and chemical mineral analysis. This is the first account of how a primary P deficiency affects the skeleton in S. salar at the cellular and at the micro-anatomical level. Animals that received the P-deficient diet displayed known signs of P deficiency including reduced growth and soft, pliable opercula. Bone and scale mineral content decreased by c. 50%. On radiographs, vertebral bodies appear small, undersized and with enlarged intervertebral spaces. Contrary to the X-ray-based diagnosis, the histological examination revealed that vertebral bodies had a regular size and regular internal bone structures; intervertebral spaces were not enlarged. Bone matrix formation was continuous and uninterrupted, albeit without traces of mineralization. Likewise, scale growth continues with regular annuli formation, but new scale matrix remains without minerals. The 10 week long experiment generated a homogeneous osteomalacia of vertebral bodies without apparent induction of skeletal malformations. The experiment shows that bone formation and bone mineralization are, to a large degree, independent processes in the fish examined. Therefore, a deficit in mineralization must not be the only cause of the alterations of the vertebral bone structure observed in farmed S. salar. It is discussed how the observed uncoupling of bone formation and mineralization helps to better diagnose, understand and prevent P deficiency-related malformations in farmed S. salar.

  14. Uncoupling of stem cell inhibition from monocyte chemoattraction in MIP-1alpha by mutagenesis of the proteoglycan binding site.

    PubMed

    Graham, G J; Wilkinson, P C; Nibbs, R J; Lowe, S; Kolset, S O; Parker, A; Freshney, M G; Tsang, M L; Pragnell, I B

    1996-12-02

    We have studied the role of proteoglycans in the function of Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha (MIP-1alpha), a member of the proteoglycan binding chemokine family. Sequence and peptide analysis has identified a basic region within MIP-1alpha which appears to be the major determinant of proteoglycan binding and we have now produced a mutant of MIP-1alpha lacking the basic charges on two of the amino acids within this proteoglycan binding site. This mutant (Hep Mut) appears to have lost the ability to bind to proteoglycans. Bioassay of Hep Mut indicates that it has retained stem cell inhibitory properties but has a compromised activity as a monocyte chemoattractant, thus suggesting uncoupling of these two properties of MIP-1alpha. Receptor studies have indicated that the inactivity of Hep Mut on human monocytes correlates with its inability to bind to CCR1, a cloned human MIP-1alpha receptor. In addition, studies using proteoglycan deficient cells transfected with CCR1 have indicated that the proteoglycan binding site in MIP-1alpha is a site that is also involved in the docking of MIP-1alpha to the monocyte receptor. The site for interaction with the stem cell receptor must therefore be distinct, suggesting that MIP-1alpha utilizes different receptors for these two different biological processes.

  15. Uncoupling of stem cell inhibition from monocyte chemoattraction in MIP-1alpha by mutagenesis of the proteoglycan binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, G J; Wilkinson, P C; Nibbs, R J; Lowe, S; Kolset, S O; Parker, A; Freshney, M G; Tsang, M L; Pragnell, I B

    1996-01-01

    We have studied the role of proteoglycans in the function of Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 alpha (MIP-1alpha), a member of the proteoglycan binding chemokine family. Sequence and peptide analysis has identified a basic region within MIP-1alpha which appears to be the major determinant of proteoglycan binding and we have now produced a mutant of MIP-1alpha lacking the basic charges on two of the amino acids within this proteoglycan binding site. This mutant (Hep Mut) appears to have lost the ability to bind to proteoglycans. Bioassay of Hep Mut indicates that it has retained stem cell inhibitory properties but has a compromised activity as a monocyte chemoattractant, thus suggesting uncoupling of these two properties of MIP-1alpha. Receptor studies have indicated that the inactivity of Hep Mut on human monocytes correlates with its inability to bind to CCR1, a cloned human MIP-1alpha receptor. In addition, studies using proteoglycan deficient cells transfected with CCR1 have indicated that the proteoglycan binding site in MIP-1alpha is a site that is also involved in the docking of MIP-1alpha to the monocyte receptor. The site for interaction with the stem cell receptor must therefore be distinct, suggesting that MIP-1alpha utilizes different receptors for these two different biological processes. Images PMID:8978677

  16. Microbial dissolution of hematite and associated cellular fossilization by reduced iron phases: a study of ancient microbe-mineral surface interactions.

    PubMed

    Kolo, Kamal; Konhauser, Kurt; Krumbein, Wolfgang Elisabeth; Ingelgem, Yves Van; Hubin, Annick; Claeys, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    We report here on magnetite- and wustite-encrusted and geometrically oriented microbial-like structures (MLS) attached to the surfaces of hematite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) crystals in a banded iron formation. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging showed a 3-D network of MLS arranged in 1 microm x approximately 20 microm coccoidal-like chains (CLC) of various geometrical shapes: dichotomous and budding-like protrusions, parallel, intersecting, triangular, or sinusoidal. Individual spheroidal forms ( approximately 1 mum in diameter), some displaying what appears to be division, were also abundant. In addition to their size, morphology, and preferred orientations, a microbial origin of these chains and single spheroidal forms is inferred by the presence of material that resembles extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extending from the base of the chains along the mineral surface: the attachment sites show circular dissolution pits of about 100 nm diameter. Other thin structures protruding from the CLC are reminiscent of bacterial "nanowires." We were, however, unable to find any extant cells, organic carbon, or even recover DNA from the MLS, which suggests that they, if microbial, are possibly mineralogically replaced casts or mineral encrustations of cells. It is further speculated that, given the nature of the substrate upon which the forms are attached and their preferential orientations, it seems plausible that the "original cells" may have been Fe(III)-reducing bacteria that exploited structural imperfections in the crystal lattice. Importantly, the preservation of the ancient microbial shapes in mineral casts of magnetite, wustite, or both may be an overlooked means by which cellular features in the rock record are retained.

  17. Protein Hit1, a novel box C/D snoRNP assembly factor, controls cellular concentration of the scaffolding protein Rsa1 by direct interaction

    PubMed Central

    Rothé, Benjamin; Saliou, Jean-Michel; Quinternet, Marc; Back, Régis; Tiotiu, Decebal; Jacquemin, Clémence; Loegler, Christine; Schlotter, Florence; Peña, Vlad; Eckert, Kelvin; Moréra, Solange; Dorsselaer, Alain Van; Branlant, Christiane; Massenet, Séverine; Sanglier-Cianférani, Sarah; Manival, Xavier; Charpentier, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Biogenesis of eukaryotic box C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles (C/D snoRNPs) involves conserved trans-acting factors, which are proposed to facilitate the assembly of the core proteins Snu13p/15.5K, Nop58p/NOP58, Nop56p/NOP56 and Nop1p/Fibrillarin on box C/D small nucleolar RNAs (C/D snoRNAs). In yeast, protein Rsa1 acts as a platform, interacting with both the RNA-binding core protein Snu13 and protein Pih1 of the Hsp82–R2TP chaperone complex. In this work, a proteomic approach coupled with functional and structural studies identifies protein Hit1 as a novel Rsa1p-interacting partner involved in C/D snoRNP assembly. Hit1p contributes to in vivo C/D snoRNA stability and pre-RNA maturation kinetics. It associates with U3 snoRNA precursors and influences its 3′-end processing. Remarkably, Hit1p is required to maintain steady-state levels of Rsa1p. This stabilizing activity is likely to be general across eukaryotic species, as the human protein ZNHIT3(TRIP3) showing sequence homology with Hit1p regulates the abundance of NUFIP1, the Rsa1p functional homolog. The nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of the Rsa1p317–352–Hit1p70–164 complex reveals a novel mode of protein–protein association explaining the strong stability of the Rsa1p–Hit1p complex. Our biochemical data show that C/D snoRNAs and the core protein Nop58 can interact with the purified Snu13p–Rsa1p–Hit1p heterotrimer. PMID:25170085

  18. Copper and Zinc Interactions with Cellular Prion Proteins Change Solubility of Full-Length Glycosylated Isoforms and Induce the Occurrence of Heterogeneous Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Brim, Svetlana; Groschup, Martin H.; Kuczius, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases are characterized biochemically by protein aggregation of infectious prion isoforms (PrPSc), which result from the conformational conversion of physiological prion proteins (PrPC). PrPC are variable post-translationally modified glycoproteins, which exist as full length and as aminoterminally truncated glycosylated proteins and which exhibit differential detergent solubility. This implicates the presence of heterogeneous phenotypes, which overlap as protein complexes at the same molecular masses. Although the biological function of PrPC is still enigmatic, evidence reveals that PrPC exhibits metal-binding properties, which result in structural changes and decreased solubility. In this study, we analyzed the yield of PrPC metal binding affiliated with low solubility and changes in protein banding patterns. By implementing a high-speed centrifugation step, the interaction of zinc ions with PrPC was shown to generate large quantities of proteins with low solubility, consisting mainly of full-length glycosylated PrPC; whereas unglycosylated PrPC remained in the supernatants as well as truncated glycosylated proteins which lack of octarepeat sequence necessary for metal binding. This effect was considerably lower when PrPC interacted with copper ions; the presence of other metals tested exhibited no effect under these conditions. The binding of zinc and copper to PrPC demonstrated differentially soluble protein yields within distinct PrPC subtypes. PrPC–Zn2+-interaction may provide a means to differentiate glycosylated and unglycosylated subtypes and offers detailed analysis of metal-bound and metal-free protein conversion assays. PMID:27093554

  19. Complex interactions between dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like compounds for in vitro cellular responses: implications for the identification of dioxin exposure biomarkers.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, Anthony A; Elliott, Chris T; Mooney, Mark H

    2014-02-17

    Despite considerable advances in reducing the production of dioxin-like toxicants in recent years, contamination of the food chain still occasionally occurs resulting in huge losses to the agri-food sector and risk to human health through exposure. Dioxin-like toxicity is exhibited by a range of stable and bioaccumulative compounds including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), produced by certain types of combustion, and man-made coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), as found in electrical transformer oils. While dioxinergic compounds act by a common mode of action making exposure detection biomarker based techniques a potentially useful tool, the influence of co-contaminating toxicants on such approaches needs to be considered. To assess the impact of possible interactions, the biological responses of H4IIE cells to challenge by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in combination with PCB-52 and benzo-a-pyrene (BaP) were evaluated by a number of methods in this study. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in TCDD exposed cells was suppressed by increasing concentrations of PCB-52, PCB-153, or BaP up to 10 μM. BaP levels below 1 μM suppressed TCDD stimulated EROD induction, but at higher concentrations, EROD induction was greater than the maximum observed when cells were treated with TCDD alone. A similar biphasic interaction of BaP with TCDD co-exposure was noted in the AlamarBlue assay and to a lesser extent with PCB-52. Surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF) profiling of peptidomic responses of cells exposed to compound combinations was compared. Cells co-exposed to TCDD in the presence of BaP or PCB-52 produced the most differentiated spectra with a substantial number of non-additive interactions observed. These findings suggest that interactions between dioxin and other toxicants create novel, additive, and non-additive effects, which may be more indicative

  20. Molecular Interaction and Cellular Location of RecA and CheW Proteins in Salmonella enterica during SOS Response and Their Implication in Swarming

    PubMed Central

    Irazoki, Oihane; Aranda, Jesús; Zimmermann, Timo; Campoy, Susana; Barbé, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its role in DNA damage repair and recombination, the RecA protein, through its interaction with CheW, is involved in swarming motility, a form of flagella-dependent movement across surfaces. In order to better understand how SOS response modulates swarming, in this work the location of RecA and CheW proteins within the swarming cells has been studied by using super-resolution microscopy. Further, and after in silico docking studies, the specific RecA and CheW regions associated with the RecA-CheW interaction have also been confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and immunoprecipitation techniques. Our results point out that the CheW distribution changes, from the cell poles to foci distributed in a helical pattern along the cell axis when SOS response is activated or RecA protein is overexpressed. In this situation, the CheW presents the same subcellular location as that of RecA, pointing out that the previously described RecA storage structures may be modulators of swarming motility. Data reported herein not only confirmed that the RecA-CheW pair is essential for swarming motility but it is directly involved in the CheW distribution change associated to SOS response activation. A model explaining not only the mechanism by which DNA damage modulates swarming but also how both the lack and the excess of RecA protein impair this motility is proposed. PMID:27766091

  1. Sub-Cellular Localization and Complex Formation by Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases in Cyanobacteria: Evidence for Interaction of Membrane-Anchored ValRS with ATP Synthase.

    PubMed

    Santamaría-Gómez, Javier; Ochoa de Alda, Jesús A G; Olmedo-Verd, Elvira; Bru-Martínez, Roque; Luque, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    tRNAs are charged with cognate amino acids by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and subsequently delivered to the ribosome to be used as substrates for gene translation. Whether aminoacyl-tRNAs are channeled to the ribosome by transit within translational complexes that avoid their diffusion in the cytoplasm is a matter of intense investigation in organisms of the three domains of life. In the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the valyl-tRNA synthetase (ValRS) is anchored to thylakoid membranes by means of the CAAD domain. We have investigated whether in this organism ValRS could act as a hub for the nucleation of a translational complex by attracting other aaRSs to the membranes. Out of the 20 aaRSs, only ValRS was found to localize in thylakoid membranes whereas the other enzymes occupied the soluble portion of the cytoplasm. To investigate the basis for this asymmetric distribution of aaRSs, a global search for proteins interacting with the 20 aaRSs was conducted. The interaction between ValRS and the FoF1 ATP synthase complex here reported is of utmost interest and suggests a functional link between elements of the gene translation and energy production machineries.

  2. Sub-Cellular Localization and Complex Formation by Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases in Cyanobacteria: Evidence for Interaction of Membrane-Anchored ValRS with ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Santamaría-Gómez, Javier; Ochoa de Alda, Jesús A. G.; Olmedo-Verd, Elvira; Bru-Martínez, Roque; Luque, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    tRNAs are charged with cognate amino acids by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and subsequently delivered to the ribosome to be used as substrates for gene translation. Whether aminoacyl-tRNAs are channeled to the ribosome by transit within translational complexes that avoid their diffusion in the cytoplasm is a matter of intense investigation in organisms of the three domains of life. In the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the valyl-tRNA synthetase (ValRS) is anchored to thylakoid membranes by means of the CAAD domain. We have investigated whether in this organism ValRS could act as a hub for the nucleation of a translational complex by attracting other aaRSs to the membranes. Out of the 20 aaRSs, only ValRS was found to localize in thylakoid membranes whereas the other enzymes occupied the soluble portion of the cytoplasm. To investigate the basis for this asymmetric distribution of aaRSs, a global search for proteins interacting with the 20 aaRSs was conducted. The interaction between ValRS and the FoF1 ATP synthase complex here reported is of utmost interest and suggests a functional link between elements of the gene translation and energy production machineries. PMID:27375579

  3. Antibiotic efficacy is linked to bacterial cellular respiration.

    PubMed

    Lobritz, Michael A; Belenky, Peter; Porter, Caroline B M; Gutierrez, Arnaud; Yang, Jason H; Schwarz, Eric G; Dwyer, Daniel J; Khalil, Ahmad S; Collins, James J

    2015-07-07

    Bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotic treatments result in two fundamentally different phenotypic outcomes--the inhibition of bacterial growth or, alternatively, cell death. Most antibiotics inhibit processes that are major consumers of cellular energy output, suggesting that antibiotic treatment may have important downstream consequences on bacterial metabolism. We hypothesized that the specific metabolic effects of bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics contribute to their overall efficacy. We leveraged the opposing phenotypes of bacteriostatic and bactericidal drugs in combination to investigate their activity. Growth inhibition from bacteriostatic antibiotics was associated with suppressed cellular respiration whereas cell death from most bactericidal antibiotics was associated with accelerated respiration. In combination, suppression of cellular respiration by the bacteriostatic antibiotic was the dominant effect, blocking bactericidal killing. Global metabolic profiling of bacteriostatic antibiotic treatment revealed that accumulation of metabolites involved in specific drug target activity was linked to the buildup of energy metabolites that feed the electron transport chain. Inhibition of cellular respiration by knockout of the cytochrome oxidases was sufficient to attenuate bactericidal lethality whereas acceleration of basal respiration by genetically uncoupling ATP synthesis from electron transport resulted in potentiation of the killing effect of bactericidal antibiotics. This work identifies a link between antibiotic-induced cellular respiration and bactericidal lethality and demonstrates that bactericidal activity can be arrested by attenuated respiration and potentiated by accelerated respiration. Our data collectively show that antibiotics perturb the metabolic state of bacteria and that the metabolic state of bacteria impacts antibiotic efficacy.

  4. Unique cellular events occurring during the initial interaction of macrophages with matrix-retained or methylated aggregated low density lipoprotein (LDL). Prolonged cell-surface contact during which ldl-cholesteryl ester hydrolysis exceeds ldl protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Buton, X; Mamdouh, Z; Ghosh, R; Du, H; Kuriakose, G; Beatini, N; Grabowski, G A; Maxfield, F R; Tabas, I

    1999-11-05

    A critical event in atherogenesis is the interaction of arterial wall macrophages with subendothelial lipoproteins. Although most studies have investigated this interaction by incubating cultured macrophages with monomeric lipoproteins dissolved in media, arterial wall macrophages encounter lipoproteins that are mostly bound to subendothelial extracellular matrix, and these lipoproteins are often aggregated or fused. Herein, we utilize a specialized cell-culture system to study the initial interaction of macrophages with aggregated low density lipoprotein (LDL) bound to extracellular matrix. The aggregated LDL remains extracellular for a relatively prolonged period of time and becomes lodged in invaginations in the surface of the macrophages. As expected, the degradation of the protein moiety of the LDL was very slow. Remarkably, however, hydrolysis of the cholesteryl ester (CE) moiety of the LDL was 3-7-fold higher than that of the protein moiety, in stark contrast to the situation with receptor-mediated endocytosis of acetyl-LDL. Similar results were obtained using another experimental system in which the degradation of aggregated LDL protein was delayed by LDL methylation rather than by retention on matrix. Additional experiments indicated the following properties of this interaction: (a) LDL-CE hydrolysis is catalyzed by lysosomal acid lipase; (b) neither scavenger receptors nor the LDL receptor appear necessary for the excess LDL-CE hydrolysis; and (c) LDL-CE hydrolysis in this system is resistant to cellular potassium depletion, which further distinguishes this process from receptor-mediated endocytosis. In summary, experimental systems specifically designed to mimic the in vivo interaction of arterial wall macrophages with subendothelial lipoproteins have demonstrated an initial period of prolonged cell-surface contact in which CE hydrolysis exceeds protein degradation.

  5. Cellular evidence for nano-scale exosome secretion and interactions with spermatozoa in the epididymis of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Yang, Ping; Chu, Xiaoya; Huang, Yufei; Liu, Tengfei; Zhang, Qian; Li, Quanfu; Hu, Lisi; Waqas, Yasir; Ahmed, Nisar; Chen, Qiusheng

    2016-01-01

    The epididymis is the location of sperm maturation and sperm storage. Recent studies have shown that nano-scale exosomes play a vital role during these complicated processes. Our aim was to analyze the secretory properties of epididymal exosomes and their ultrastructural interaction with maturing spermatozoa in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle. The exosome marker CD63 was primarily localized to the apices of principal cells throughout the epididymal epithelium. Identification of nano-scale exosomes and their secretory processes were further investigated via transmission electron microscopy. The epithelium secreted epididymal exosomes (50~300 nm in diameter) through apocrine secretion and the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway. Spermatozoa absorbed epididymal exosomes through endocytosis or membrane fusion pathways. This study shows, for the first time, that nano-scale exosomes use two secretion and two absorption pathways in the reptile, which may be contribute to long-term sperm storage. PMID:26992236

  6. Identification of a Protein Network Interacting with TdRF1, a Wheat RING Ubiquitin Ligase with a Protective Role against Cellular Dehydration1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Davide; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Lopez-Torrejon, Gema; Marzin, Stephan; Schweizer, Patrick; Stanca, Antonio Michele; del Pozo, Juan Carlos; Cattivelli, Luigi; Mazzucotelli, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Plants exploit ubiquitination to modulate the proteome with the final aim to ensure environmental adaptation and developmental plasticity. Ubiquitination targets are specifically driven to degradation through the action of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Genetic analyses have indicated wide functions of ubiquitination in plant life; nevertheless, despite the large number of predicted E3s, only a few of them have been characterized so far, and only a few ubiquitination targets are known. In this work, we characterized durum wheat (Triticum durum) RING Finger1 (TdRF1) as a durum wheat nuclear ubiquitin ligase. Moreover, its barley (Hordeum vulgare) homolog was shown to protect cells from dehydration stress. A protein network interacting with TdRF1 has been defined. The transcription factor WHEAT BEL1-TYPE HOMEODOMAIN1 (WBLH1) was degraded in a TdRF1-dependent manner through the 26S proteasome in vivo, the mitogen-activated protein kinase TdWNK5 [for Triticum durum WITH NO LYSINE (K)5] was able to phosphorylate TdRF1 in vitro, and the RING-finger protein WHEAT VIVIPAROUS-INTERACTING PROTEIN2 (WVIP2) was shown to have a strong E3 ligase activity. The genes coding for the TdRF1 interactors were all responsive to cold and/or dehydration stress, and a negative regulative function in dehydration tolerance was observed for the barley homolog of WVIP2. A role in the control of plant development was previously known, or predictable based on homology, for wheat BEL1-type homeodomain1(WBLH1). Thus, TdRF1 E3 ligase might act regulating the response to abiotic stress and remodeling plant development in response to environmental constraints. PMID:22167118

  7. Coupled and uncoupled hydrogeophysical inversions using ensemble Kalman filter assimilation of ERT-monitored tracer test data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporese, Matteo; Cassiani, Giorgio; Deiana, Rita; Salandin, Paolo; Binley, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in geophysical methods have been increasingly exploited as inverse modeling tools in groundwater hydrology. In particular, several attempts to constrain the hydrogeophysical inverse problem to reduce inversion errors have been made using time-lapse geophysical measurements through both coupled and uncoupled (also known as sequential) inversion approaches. Despite the appeal and popularity of coupled inversion approaches, their superiority over uncoupled methods has not been proved conclusively; the goal of this work is to provide an objective comparison between the two approaches within a specific inversion modeling framework based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). Using EnKF and a model of Lagrangian transport, we compare the performance of a fully coupled and uncoupled inversion method for the reconstruction of heterogeneous saturated hydraulic conductivity fields through the assimilation of ERT-monitored tracer test data. The two inversion approaches are tested in a number of different scenarios, including isotropic and anisotropic synthetic aquifers, where we change the geostatistical parameters used to generate the prior ensemble of hydraulic conductivity fields. Our results show that the coupled approach outperforms the uncoupled when the prior statistics are close to the ones used to generate the true field. Otherwise, the coupled approach is heavily affected by "filter inbreeding" (an undesired effect of variance underestimation typical of EnKF), while the uncoupled approach is more robust, being able to correct biased prior information, thanks to its capability of capturing the solute travel times even in presence of inversion artifacts such as the violation of mass balance. Furthermore, the coupled approach is more computationally intensive than the uncoupled, due to the much larger number of forward runs required by the electrical model. Overall, we conclude that the relative merit of the coupled versus the uncoupled approach cannot

  8. Hierarchical cellular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, L.J.

    1991-12-31

    In this paper a method for estimating the contributions of both the composite and the cellular microstructures to the overall material properties and the mechanical efficiency of natural cellular solids will be described. The method will be demonstrated by focusing on the Young`s modulus; similar techniques can be used for other material properties. The results suggest efficient microstructures for engineered cellular materials.

  9. Hierarchical cellular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a method for estimating the contributions of both the composite and the cellular microstructures to the overall material properties and the mechanical efficiency of natural cellular solids will be described. The method will be demonstrated by focusing on the Young's modulus; similar techniques can be used for other material properties. The results suggest efficient microstructures for engineered cellular materials.

  10. Plant viral nanoparticles-based HER2 vaccine: Immune response influenced by differential transport, localization and cellular interactions of particulate carriers.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Sourabh; Myers, Jay T; Woods, Sarah E; Gong, Xingjian; Czapar, Anna E; Commandeur, Ulrich; Huang, Alex Y; Levine, Alan D; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2017-03-01

    Cancer vaccines are designed to elicit an endogenous adaptive immune response that can successfully recognize and eliminate residual or recurring tumors. Such approaches can potentially overcome shortcomings of passive immunotherapies by generating long-lived therapeutic effects and immune memory while limiting systemic toxicities. A critical determinant of vaccine efficacy is efficient transport and delivery of tumor-associated antigens to professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). Plant viral nanoparticles (VNPs) with natural tropism for APCs and a high payload carrying capacity may be particularly effective vaccine carriers. The applicability of VNP platform technologies is governed by stringent structure-function relationships. We compare two distinct VNP platforms: icosahedral cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) and filamentous potato virus X (PVX). Specifically, we evaluate in vivo capabilities of engineered VNPs delivering human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) epitopes for therapy and prophylaxis of HER2(+) malignancies. Our results corroborate the structure-function relationship where icosahedral CPMV particles showed significantly enhanced lymph node transport and retention, and greater uptake by/activation of APCs compared to filamentous PVX particles. These enhanced immune cell interactions and transport properties resulted in elevated HER2-specific antibody titers raised by CPMV- vs. PVX-based peptide vaccine. The 'synthetic virology' field is rapidly expanding with numerous platforms undergoing development and preclinical testing; our studies highlight the need for systematic studies to define rules guiding the design and rational choice of platform, in the context of peptide-vaccine display technologies.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C interact with p73: Interplay between a viral oncoprotein and cellular tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Suchitra; Kumar, Amit; Kundu, Chanakya N; Verma, Subhash C; Choudhuri, Tathagata

    2014-01-05

    The p73 protein has structural and functional homology with the tumor suppressor p53, which plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. The p73 locus encodes both a tumor suppressor (TAp73) and a putative oncogene (ΔNp73). p73 May play a significant role in p53-deficient lymphomas infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV produces an asymptomatic infection in the majority of the global population, but it is associated with several human B-cell malignancies. The EBV-encoded Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is thought to disrupt the cell cycle checkpoint by interacting directly with p53 family proteins. Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, induces apoptosis through p53 and p73 signaling such that the lowΔNp73 level promotes the p73-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In this report, we investigated the mechanism by which EBV infection counters p73α-induced apoptosis through EBNA3C.

  12. Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C interact with p73: Interplay between a viral oncoprotein and cellular tumor suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Suchitra; Kumar, Amit; Kundu, Chanakya N.; Verma, Subhash C.; Choudhuri, Tathagata

    2014-01-05

    The p73 protein has structural and functional homology with the tumor suppressor p53, which plays an important role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. The p73 locus encodes both a tumor suppressor (TAp73) and a putative oncogene (ΔNp73). p73 May play a significant role in p53-deficient lymphomas infected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). EBV produces an asymptomatic infection in the majority of the global population, but it is associated with several human B-cell malignancies. The EBV-encoded Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) is thought to disrupt the cell cycle checkpoint by interacting directly with p53 family proteins. Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, induces apoptosis through p53 and p73 signaling such that the lowΔNp73 level promotes the p73-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In this report, we investigated the mechanism by which EBV infection counters p73α-induced apoptosis through EBNA3C. - Highlights: • EBV-encoded EBNA3C suppresses doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in B-cell lymphomas. • EBNA3C binds to p73 to suppress its apoptotic effect. • EBNA3C maintains latency by regulating downstream mitochondrial pathways.

  13. Mitochondrial uncoupling reduces exercise capacity despite several skeletal muscle metabolic adaptations.

    PubMed

    Schlagowski, A I; Singh, F; Charles, A L; Gali Ramamoorthy, T; Favret, F; Piquard, F; Geny, B; Zoll, J

    2014-02-15

    The effects of mitochondrial uncoupling on skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptation and maximal exercise capacity are unknown. In this study, rats were divided into a control group (CTL, n = 8) and a group treated with 2,4-dinitrophenol, a mitochondrial uncoupler, for 28 days (DNP, 30 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) in drinking water, n = 8). The DNP group had a significantly lower body mass (P < 0.05) and a higher resting oxygen uptake (Vo2, P < 0.005). The incremental treadmill test showed that maximal running speed and running economy (P < 0.01) were impaired but that maximal Vo2 (Vo2max) was higher in the DNP-treated rats (P < 0.05). In skinned gastrocnemius fibers, basal respiration (V0) was higher (P < 0.01) in the DNP-treated animals, whereas the acceptor control ratio (ACR, Vmax/V0) was significantly lower (P < 0.05), indicating a reduction in OXPHOS efficiency. In skeletal muscle, DNP activated the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway, as indicated by changes in the mRNA expression of PGC1-α and -β, NRF-1 and -2, and TFAM, and increased the mRNA expression of cytochrome oxidase 1 (P < 0.01). The expression of two mitochondrial proteins (prohibitin and Ndufs 3) was higher after DNP treatment. Mitochondrial fission 1 protein (Fis-1) was increased in the DNP group (P < 0.01), but mitofusin-1 and -2 were unchanged. Histochemical staining for NADH dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase activity in the gastrocnemius muscle revealed an increase in the proportion of oxidative fibers after DNP treatment. Our study shows that mitochondrial uncoupling induces several skeletal muscle adaptations, highlighting the role of mitochondrial coupling as a critical factor for maximal exercise capacities. These results emphasize the importance of investigating the qualitative aspects of mitochondrial function in addition to the amount of mitochondria.

  14. Exercise-induced cardioprotection: a role for eNOS uncoupling and NO metabolites.

    PubMed

    Farah, C; Kleindienst, A; Bolea, G; Meyer, G; Gayrard, S; Geny, B; Obert, P; Cazorla, O; Tanguy, S; Reboul, Cyril

    2013-11-01

    Exercise is an efficient strategy for myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Although endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is phosphorylated and activated during exercise, its role in exercise-induced cardioprotection remains unknown. This study investigated whether modulation of eNOS activation during IR could participate in the exercise-induced cardioprotection against IR injury. Hearts isolated from sedentary or exercised rats (5 weeks training) were perfused with a Langendorff apparatus and IR performed in the presence or absence of NOS inhibitors [N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME or N5-(1-iminoethyl)-L-ornithine, L-NIO] or tetrahydrobiopterin (BH₄). Exercise training protected hearts against IR injury and this effect was abolished by L-NAME or by L-NIO treatment, indicating that exercise-induced cardioprotection is eNOS dependent. However, a strong reduction of eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 (eNOS-PSer1177) and of eNOS coupling during early reperfusion was observed in hearts from exercised rats (which showed higher eNOS-PSer1177 and eNOS dimerization at baseline) in comparison to sedentary rats. Despite eNOS uncoupling, exercised hearts had more S-nitrosylated proteins after early reperfusion and also less nitro-oxidative stress, indexed by lower malondialdehyde content and protein nitrotyrosination compared to sedentary hearts. Moreover, in exercised hearts, stabilization of eNOS dimers by BH4 treatment increased nitro-oxidative stress and then abolished the exercise-induced cardioprotection, indicating that eNOS uncoupling during IR is required for exercise-induced myocardial cardioprotection. Based on these results, we hypothesize that in the hearts of exercised animals, eNOS uncoupling associated with the improved myocardial antioxidant capacity prevents excessive NO synthesis and limits the reaction between NO and O₂·- to form peroxynitrite (ONOO⁻), which is cytotoxic.

  15. Mitochondrial efficiency and exercise economy following heat stress: a potential role of uncoupling protein 3.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Roy M; Sheard, Ailish C; Vaughan, Roger A; Parker, Daryl L; Schneider, Suzanne M; Kenefick, Robert W; McCormick, James J; Gannon, Nicholas P; Van Dusseldorp, Trisha A; Kravitz, Len R; Mermier, Christine M

    2017-02-01

    Heat stress has been reported to reduce uncoupling proteins (UCP) expression, which in turn should improve mitochondrial efficiency. Such an improvement in efficiency may translate to the systemic level as greater exercise economy. However, neither the heat-induced improvement in mitochondrial efficiency (due to decrease in UCP), nor its potential to improve economy has been studied. Determine: (i) if heat stress in vitro lowers UCP3 thereby improving mitochondrial efficiency in C2C12 myocytes; (ii) whether heat acclimation (HA) in vivo improves exercise economy in trained individuals; and (iii) the potential improved economy during exercise at altitude. In vitro, myocytes were heat stressed for 24 h (40°C), followed by measurements of UCP3, mitochondrial uncoupling, and efficiency. In vivo, eight trained males completed: (i) pre-HA testing; (ii) 10 days of HA (40°C, 20% RH); and (iii) post-HA testing. Pre- and posttesting consisted of maximal exercise test and submaximal exercise at two intensities to assess exercise economy at 1600 m (Albuquerque, NM) and 4350 m. Heat-stressed myocytes displayed significantly reduced UCP3 mRNA expression and, mitochondrial uncoupling (77.1 ± 1.2%, P < 0.0001) and improved mitochondrial efficiency (62.9 ± 4.1%, P < 0.0001) compared to control. In humans, at both 1600 m and 4350 m, following HA, submaximal exercise economy did not change at low and moderate exercise intensities. Our findings indicate that while heat-induced reduction in UCP3 improves mitochondrial efficiency in vitro, this is not translated to in vivo improvement of exercise economy at 1600 m or 4350 m.

  16. Diesel exhaust exposure enhances venoconstriction via uncoupling of eNOS

    SciTech Connect

    Knuckles, Travis L.; Lund, Amie K.; Lucas, Selita N.; Campen, Matthew J.

    2008-08-01

    Environmental air pollution is associated with adverse cardiovascular events, including increased hospital admissions due to heart failure and myocardial infarction. The exact mechanism(s) by which air pollution affects the heart and vasculature is currently unknown. Recent studies have found that exposure to air pollution enhances arterial vasoconstriction in humans and animal models. Work in our laboratory has shown that diesel emissions (DE) enhance vasoconstriction of mouse coronary arteries. Thus, we hypothesized that DE could enhance vasoconstriction in arteries and veins through uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). To test this hypothesis, we first bubbled DE through a physiological saline solution and exposed isolated mesenteric veins. Second, we exposed animals, whole body, to DE at 350 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for 4 h, after which mesenteric arteries and veins were isolated. Results from these experiments show that saline bubbled with DE as well as inhaled DE enhances vasoconstriction in veins but not arteries. Exposure to several representative volatile organic compounds found in the DE-exposed saline did not enhance arterial constriction. L-nitro-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME), an eNOS inhibitor, normalized the control vessels to the DE-exposed vessels implicating an uncoupling of eNOS as a mechanism for enhanced vasoconstriction. The principal conclusions of this research are 1) veins exhibit endothelial dysfunction following in vivo and ex vivo exposures to DE, 2) veins appear to be more sensitive to DE effects than arteries, and 3) DE components most likely induce endothelial dysfunction through the uncoupling of eNOS.

  17. Modelling of the protonophoric uncoupling by phenoxyacetic acid of the plasma membrane potential of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, C M; Nielsen, J; Villadsen, J

    1998-12-20

    Physiological effects of phenoxyacetic acid, the penicillin V side-chain precursor, on steady-state continuous cultures of Penicillium chrysogenum have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical calculations show that at an extracellular pH of 6.50, phenoxyacetic acid has negligible influence on the growth energetics due to protonophoric uncoupling of membrane potentials by passive diffusive uptake. On the other hand, when the extracellular pH is lowered to 5.00, a severe maintenance-related uncoupling effect of phenoxyacetic acid is calculated. These findings were confirmed experimentally by steady-state continuous cultivations with a high-yielding penicillin strain of P. chrysogenum performed on a chemically defined and glucose-limited medium at pH 6.50 and pH 5.00, both with and without phenoxyacetic acid present. The yield and maintenance coefficients were determined from steady-state measurements of the specific uptake rates of glucose and oxygen and the specific production rate of carbon dioxide as functions of the specific growth rate. Combining these data with a simple stoichiometric model for the primary metabolism of P. chrysogenum allows quantitative information to be extracted on the growth energetics in terms of ATP spent in maintenance- and growth-related processes, i.e. mATP and YxATP. The increased maintenance-related ATP consumption when adding phenoxyacetic acid at pH 5.00 agrees with the theoretical calculations on the uncoupling effect of phenoxyacetic acid. When YxATP is compared with earlier reported values for the theoretical ATP requirement for biosynthesis of P. chrysogenum, i.e. YxATP, growth, it is found that YxATP,growth is only 40-50% of YxATP, which stresses that a large amount of ATP is wasted in turnover of macromolecules, leaks, and futile cycles.

  18. Nucleotide binding to human uncoupling protein-2 refolded from bacterial inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Jekabsons, Mika B; Echtay, Karim S; Brand, Martin D

    2002-09-01

    Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that recombinant human uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) ectopically expressed in bacterial inclusion bodies binds nucleotides in a manner identical with the nucleotide-inhibited uncoupling that is observed in kidney mitochondria. For this, sarkosyl-solubilized UCP2 inclusion bodies were treated with the polyoxyethylene ether detergent C12E9 and hydroxyapatite. Protein recovered from hydroxyapatite chromatography was approx. 90% pure UCP2, as judged by Coomassie Blue and silver staining of polyacrylamide gels. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, N-methylanthraniloyl-tagged purine nucleoside di- and tri-phosphates exhibited enhanced fluorescence with purified UCP2. Dissociation constants determined by least-squares non-linear regression indicated that the affinity of UCP2 for these fluorescently tagged nucleotides was 3-5 microM or perhaps an order of magnitude stronger, depending on the model used. Competition experiments with [8-14C]ATP demonstrated that UCP2 binds unmodified purine and pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates with 2-5 microM affinity. Affinities for ADP and GDP were approx. 10-fold lower. These data indicate that: UCP2 (a) is at least partially refolded from sarkosyl-solubilized bacterial inclusion bodies by a two-step treatment with C12E9 detergent and hydroxyapatite; (b) binds purine and pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates with low micromolar affinity; (c) binds GDP with the same affinity as GDP inhibits superoxide-stimulated uncoupling by kidney mitochondria; and (d) exhibits a different nucleotide preference than kidney mitochondria.

  19. Suppressing activity of tributyrin on hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with inhibiting the p53-CRM1 interaction and changing the cellular compartmentalization of p53 protein

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Juliana F.; de Conti, Aline; Tryndyak, Volodymyr; Furtado, Kelly S.; Heidor, Renato; Horst, Maria Aderuza; Fernandes, Laura Helena Gasparini; Tavares, Paulo Eduardo Latorre Martins; Pogribna, Marta; Shpyleva, Svitlana; Beland, Frederick A.; Pogribny, Igor P.; Moreno, Fernando Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), an aggressive and the fastest growing life-threatening cancer worldwide, is often diagnosed at intermediate or advanced stages of the disease, which substantially limits therapeutic approaches for its successful treatment. This indicates that the prevention of hepatocarcinogenesis is probably the most promising approach to reduce both the HCC incidence and cancer-related mortality. In previous studies, we demonstrated a potent chemopreventive effect of tributyrin, a butyric acid prodrug, on experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. The cancer-inhibitory effect of tributyrin was linked to the suppression of sustained cell proliferation and induction of apoptotic cell death driven by an activation of the p53 apoptotic signaling pathway. The goal of the present study was to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms linked to tributyrin-mediated p53 activation. Using in vivo and in vitro models of liver cancer, we demonstrate that an increase in the level of p53 protein in nuclei, a decrease in the level of cytoplasmic p53, and, consequently, an increase in the ratio of nuclear/cytoplasmic p53 in rat preneoplastic livers and in rat and human HCC cell lines caused by tributyrin or sodium butyrate treatments was associated with a marked increase in the level of nuclear chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) protein. Mechanistically, the increase in the level of nuclear p53 protein was associated with a substantially reduced binding interaction between CRM1 and p53. The results demonstrate that the cancer-inhibitory activity of sodium butyrate and its derivatives on liver carcinogenesis may be attributed to retention of p53 and CRM1 proteins in the nucleus, an event that may trigger activation of p53-mediated apoptotic cell death in neoplastic cells. PMID:27013579

  20. Suppressing activity of tributyrin on hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with inhibiting the p53-CRM1 interaction and changing the cellular compartmentalization of p53 protein.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Juliana F; de Conti, Aline; Tryndyak, Volodymyr; Furtado, Kelly S; Heidor, Renato; Horst, Maria Aderuza; Fernandes, Laura Helena Gasparini; Tavares, Paulo Eduardo Latorre Martins; Pogribna, Marta; Shpyleva, Svitlana; Beland, Frederick A; Pogribny, Igor P; Moreno, Fernando Salvador

    2016-04-26

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), an aggressive and the fastest growing life-threatening cancer worldwide, is often diagnosed at intermediate or advanced stages of the disease, which substantially limits therapeutic approaches for its successful treatment. This indicates that the prevention of hepatocarcinogenesis is probably the most promising approach to reduce both the HCC incidence and cancer-related mortality. In previous studies, we demonstrated a potent chemopreventive effect of tributyrin, a butyric acid prodrug, on experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. The cancer-inhibitory effect of tributyrin was linked to the suppression of sustained cell proliferation and induction of apoptotic cell death driven by an activation of the p53 apoptotic signaling pathway. The goal of the present study was to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms linked to tributyrin-mediated p53 activation. Using in vivo and in vitro models of liver cancer, we demonstrate that an increase in the level of p53 protein in nuclei, a decrease in the level of cytoplasmic p53, and, consequently, an increase in the ratio of nuclear/cytoplasmic p53 in rat preneoplastic livers and in rat and human HCC cell lines caused by tributyrin or sodium butyrate treatments was associated with a marked increase in the level of nuclear chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) protein. Mechanistically, the increase in the level of nuclear p53 protein was associated with a substantially reduced binding interaction between CRM1 and p53. The results demonstrate that the cancer-inhibitory activity of sodium butyrate and its derivatives on liver carcinogenesis may be attributed to retention of p53 and CRM1 proteins in the nucleus, an event that may trigger activation of p53-mediated apoptotic cell death in neoplastic cells.

  1. Cellular Selenoprotein mRNA Tethering via Antisense Interactions with Ebola and HIV-1 mRNAs May Impact Host Selenium Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ethan Will; Ruzicka, Jan A.; Premadasa, Lakmini; Zhao, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of protein expression by non-coding RNAs typically involves effects on mRNA degradation and/or ribosomal translation. The possibility of virus-host mRNA-mRNA antisense tethering interactions (ATI) as a gain-of-function strategy, via the capture of functional RNA motifs, has not been hitherto considered. We present evidence that ATIs may be exploited by certain RNA viruses in order to tether the mRNAs of host selenoproteins, potentially exploiting the proximity of a captured host selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element to enable the expression of virally-encoded selenoprotein modules, via translation of in-frame UGA stop codons as selenocysteine. Computational analysis predicts thermodynamically stable ATIs between several widely expressed mammalian selenoprotein mRNAs (e.g., isoforms of thioredoxin reductase) and specific Ebola virus mRNAs, and HIV-1 mRNA, which we demonstrate via DNA gel shift assays. The probable functional significance of these ATIs is further supported by the observation that, in both viruses, they are located in close proximity to highly conserved in-frame UGA stop codons at the 3′ end of open reading frames that encode essential viral proteins (the HIV-1 nef protein and the Ebola nucleoprotein). Significantly, in HIV/AIDS patients, an inverse correlation between serum selenium and mortality has been repeatedly documented, and clinical benefits of selenium in the context of multi-micronutrient supplementation have been demonstrated in several well-controlled clinical trials. Hence, in the light of our findings, the possibility of a similar role for selenium in Ebola pathogenesis and treatment merits serious investigation. PMID:26369818

  2. Uncoupling protein-3 is a molecular determinant for the regulation of resting metabolic rate by thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    de Lange, P; Lanni, A; Beneduce, L; Moreno, M; Lombardi, A; Silvestri, E; Goglia, F

    2001-08-01

    Thyroid hormones increase energy expenditure, partly by reducing metabolic efficiency. The control of specific genes at the transcriptional level is thought to be the major molecular mechanism. However, both the number and the identity of the thyroid hormone-controlled genes remain unknown, as do their relative contributions. Uncoupling protein-3, a recently identified member of the mitochondrial transporter superfamily and one that is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle, has the potential to be a molecular determinant for thyroid thermogenesis. However, changes in mitochondrial proton conductance and resting metabolic rate after physiologically mediated changes in uncoupling protein-3 levels have not been described. Here, in a study on hypothyroid rats given a single injection of T(3), we describe a strict correlation in terms of time course between the induced increase in uncoupling protein-3 expression (at mRNA and protein levels) and decrease in mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, on the one hand, and the increase in resting metabolic rate, on the other. First, we describe our finding that uncoupling protein-3 is present and regulated by T(3) only in metabolically relevant tissues (such as skeletal muscle and heart). Second, we follow the time course (at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 65, 96, and 144 h) of both uncoupling protein-3 mRNA levels and mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 density in gastrocnemius muscle and heart. In both tissues, the maximal (12-fold) increase in uncoupling protein-3 density was reached at 65 h. The resting metabolic rate [lO(2)(kg(0.75))(-1)h(-1)] showed the same time course, and at 65 h the increase vs. time zero was 45% (1.316 +/- 0.026 vs. 0.940 +/- 0.007; P < 0.001). At the same time point, gastrocnemius muscle mitochondria showed a significantly higher nonphosphorylating respiration rate (nanoatoms of oxygen per min/mg protein; increase vs. time zero, 40%; 118 +/- 4 vs. 85 +/- 9; P < 0.05), whereas the membrane potential decreased

  3. Carboxyatractylate inhibits the potentiating effect of lipophylic cation TPP+ on uncoupling activity of fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Dedukhova, V I; Mokhova, E N; Starkov, A A; Leikin YuN

    1993-08-01

    The effect of TPP+ on the fatty acid or FCCP-induced uncoupling in rat heart mitochondria was studied. It was found that (a) TPP+ increases the stimulation of oxygen consumption by palmitic acid or FCCP in the presence of oligomycin, (b) TPP+ greatly enhances the palmitic acid or FCCP-induced delta psi decrease. Both effects of TPP+ were strongly suppressed by carboxyatractylate in the case of palmitate but were not in the case of FCCP. The role of ATP/ADP-antiporter in the TPP+ and palmitic acid effects is discussed.

  4. Regulatory Interaction between the Cellular Restriction Factor IFI16 and Viral pp65 (pUL83) Modulates Viral Gene Expression and IFI16 Protein Stability

    PubMed Central

    Pautasso, Sara; von Einem, Jens; Marschall, Manfred; Plachter, Bodo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A key player in the intrinsic resistance against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the interferon-γ-inducible protein 16 (IFI16), which behaves as a viral DNA sensor in the first hours postinfection and as a repressor of viral gene transcription in the later stages. Previous studies on HCMV replication demonstrated that IFI16 binds to the viral protein kinase pUL97, undergoes phosphorylation, and relocalizes to the cytoplasm of infected cells. In this study, we demonstrate that the tegument protein pp65 (pUL83) recruits IFI16 to the promoter of the UL54 gene and downregulates viral replication, as shown by use of the HCMV mutant v65Stop, which lacks pp65 expression. Interestingly, at late time points of HCMV infection, IFI16 is stabilized by its interaction with pp65, which stood in contrast to IFI16 degradation, observed in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)-infected cells. Moreover, we found that its translocation to the cytoplasm, in addition to pUL97, strictly depends on pp65, as demonstrated with the HCMV mutant RV-VM1, which expresses a form of pp65 unable to translocate into the cytoplasm. Thus, these data reveal a dual role for pp65: during early infection, it modulates IFI16 activity at the promoter of immediate-early and early genes; subsequently, it delocalizes IFI16 from the nucleus into the cytoplasm, thereby stabilizing and protecting it from degradation. Overall, these data identify a novel activity of the pp65/IFI16 interactome involved in the regulation of UL54 gene expression and IFI16 stability during early and late phases of HCMV replication. IMPORTANCE The DNA sensor IFI16, a member of the PYHIN proteins, restricts HCMV replication by impairing viral DNA synthesis. Using a mutant virus lacking the tegument protein pp65 (v65Stop), we demonstrate that pp65 recruits IFI16 to the early UL54 gene promoter. As a putative counteraction to its restriction activity, pp65 supports the nucleocytoplasmic export of IFI16, which was demonstrated with the

  5. Uncoupler-reversible inhibition of mitochondrial ATPase by metal chelates of bathophenanthroline. II. Comparison with other inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, C; Ernster, L

    1981-12-14

    (1) Trisbathophenanthroline-Fe2+ (BPh3Fe2+)alters the hyperbolic relationship between concentration of ATP and reaction velocity of F1-ATPase to sigmoidal, with a simultaneous decrease in maximal velocity. (2) BPh3Fe2+ binds to the beta-subunit of F1 and competes with the binding of aurovertin. The reversal of this effect uncouplers in enhanced by ADP and diminished by ATP. BPh3Fe2+ also changes the hyperbolic concentration dependence of aurovertin binding to sigmoidal. (3) BPh3Fe2+ stabilizes F1 against the cold inactivation and cold dissociation in an uncoupler-reversible manner. (4) BPh3Fe2+ efficiently protects F1 against the light-induced inactivation occurring in the presence of Rose Bengal, and the effect is reversed by uncouplers. (5) The results are discussed in relation to the reaction mechanism of F1-ATPase and other enzymes catalyzing the reversible hydrolysis of pyrophosphate bonds.

  6. Uncoupling protein 1 in fish uncovers an ancient evolutionary history of mammalian nonshivering thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jastroch, Martin; Wuertz, Sven; Kloas, Werner; Klingenspor, Martin

    2005-07-14

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) increase proton leakage across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Thereby, UCP1 in brown adipose tissue dissipates proton motive force as heat. This mechanism of nonshivering thermogenesis is considered as a monophyletic trait of endothermic placental mammals that emerged about 140 million years ago and provided a crucial advantage for life in the cold. The paralogues UCP2 and UCP3 are probably not thermogenic proteins but convey mild uncoupling, which may serve to reduce the rate of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Both are present in endotherms (mammals and birds), but so far only UCP2 has been identified in ectothermic vertebrates (fish and amphibia). The evolution of UCPs is of general interest in the search for the origin of mammalian UCP1-mediated nonshivering thermogenesis. We here show the presence of UCP1 and UCP3 in ectothermic teleost fish species using comparative genomics, phylogenetic inference, and gene expression analysis. In the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), UCP1 is predominantly expressed in the liver and strongly diminished in response to cold exposure, thus contrasting the cold-induced expression of mammalian UCP1 in brown adipose tissue. UCP3 mRNA is only found in carp skeletal muscle with expression levels increased fivefold in response to fasting. Our findings disprove the monophyletic nature of UCP1 in placental mammals and demonstrate that all three members of the core UCP family were already present before the divergence of ray-finned and lobe-finned vertebrate lineages about 420 million years ago.

  7. The uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol improves mitochondrial homeostasis following striatal quinolinic acid injections.

    PubMed

    Korde, Amit S; Sullivan, Patrick G; Maragos, William F

    2005-10-01

    It is now generally accepted that excitotoxic cell death involves bioenergetic failure resulting from the cycling of Ca2+ and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria. Both Ca2+ cycling and ROS formation by mitochondria are dependent on the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)) that results from the proton gradient that is generated across the inner membrane. Mitochondrial uncoupling refers to a condition in which protons cross the inner membrane back into the matrix while bypassing the ATP synthase. As a consequence of this "short-circuit," there is a reduction in Deltapsi(m). We have previously demonstrated that animals treated with the classic uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) show significant protection against brain damage following striatal injections of the NMDA agonist quinolinic acid (QA). In an effort to elucidate the mechanism of neuroprotection, we have assessed the effects of DNP on several parameters of mitochondrial function caused by QA. The results presented herein demonstrate that treatment with DNP attenuates QA-induced increases in mitochondrial Ca2+ levels and ROS formation and also improves mitochondrial respiration. Our findings indicate that DNP may confer protection against acute brain injury involving excitotoxic pathways by mechanisms that maintain mitochondrial function.

  8. Characteristics of the turnover of uncoupling protein 3 by the ubiquitin proteasome system in isolated mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Mookerjee, Shona A; Brand, Martin D

    2011-11-01

    Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is implicated in mild uncoupling and the regulation of mitochondrial ROS production. We previously showed that UCP3 turns over rapidly in C2C12 myoblasts, with a half-life of 0.5-4h, and that turnover can be reconstituted in vitro. We show here that rapid degradation of UCP3 in vitro in isolated brown adipose tissue mitochondria required the 26S proteasome, ubiquitin, ATP, succinate to generate a high membrane potential, and a pH of 7.4 or less. Ubiquitin containing lysine-48 was both necessary and sufficient to support UCP3 degradation, implying a requirement for polyubiquitylation at this residue. The 20S proteasome did not support degradation. UCP3 degradation was prevented by simultaneously blocking matrix ATP generation and import, showing that ATP in the mitochondrial matrix was required. Degradation did not appear to require a transmembrane pH gradient, but was very sensitive to membrane potential: degradation was halved when membrane potential decreased 10-20mV from its resting value, and was not significant below about 120mV. We propose that matrix ATP and a high membrane potential are needed for UCP3 to be polyubiquitylated through lysine-48 of ubiquitin and exported to the cytosolic 26S proteasome, where it is de-ubiquitylated and degraded.

  9. Uncoupled transport of chlorofluorocarbons and anthropogenic carbon in the subpolar North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Marta; Gourcuff, Claire

    2010-07-01

    Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) 11 and 12 transports across the transoceanic World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) A25 section in the subpolar North Atlantic are derived from an inverse model using hydrographic and ADCP data ( Lherminier et al., 2007). CFC and anthropogenic carbon ( CANT) advective transports contrary to expected are uncoupled: CANT is transported northeastwards (82±39 kmol s -1) mainly within the overturning circulation, while CFC-11 and CFC-12 are transported southwestwards (-24±4 and -11±2 mol s -1, respectively) as part of the large-scale horizontal circulation. The main reason for this uncoupled behaviour is the complex CFC vs. CANT relation in the ocean, which stems from the contrasting temperature relation for both tracers: more CANT dissolves in warmer waters with a low Revelle factor, while CFC's solubility is higher in cold waters. These results point to CANT and CFC having different routes of uptake, accumulation and transport within the ocean, and hence: CANT transport would be more sensitive to changes in the overturning circulation strength, while CFC to changes in the East Greenland Current and Labrador Sea Water formation in the Irminger Sea. Additionally, CANT and CFCs would have different sensitivities to circulation and climate changes derived from global warming as the slowdown of the overturning circulation, increase stratification due to warming and changes in wind stress.

  10. Effect of high-fat diet, surrounding temperature, and enterostatin on uncoupling protein gene expression.

    PubMed

    Rippe, C; Berger, K; Böiers, C; Ricquier, D; Erlanson-Albertsson, C

    2000-08-01

    Nonshivering thermogenesis induced in brown adipose tissue (BAT) during high-fat feeding is mediated through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). UCP2 is a recently identified homologue found in many tissues. To determine the role of UCP1 and UCP2 in thermoregulation and energy balance, we investigated the long-term effect of high-fat feeding on mRNA levels in mice at two different ambient temperatures. We also treated mice with the anorectic peptide enterostatin and compared mRNA levels in BAT, white adipose tissue (WAT), stomach, and duodenum. Here, we report that high-fat feeding at 23 degrees C increased UCP1 and UCP2 levels in BAT four- and threefold, respectively, and increased UCP2 levels fourfold in WAT. However, at 29 degrees C, UCP1 decreased, whereas UCP2 remained unchanged in BAT and increased twofold in WAT. Enterostatin increased UCP1 and decreased UCP2 mRNA in BAT. In stomach and duodenum, high-fat feeding decreased UCP2 mRNA, whereas enterostatin increased it. Our results suggest that the regulation of uncoupling protein mRNA levels by high-fat feeding is dependent on ambient temperature and that enterostatin is able to modulate it.

  11. Overexpression of uncoupling protein 3 in skeletal muscle protects against fat-induced insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Cheol Soo; Fillmore, Jonathan J.; Kim, Jason K.; Liu, Zhen-Xiang; Kim, Sheene; Collier, Emily F.; Kulkarni, Ameya; Distefano, Alberto; Hwang, Yu-Jin; Kahn, Mario; Chen, Yan; Yu, Chunli; Moore, Irene K.; Reznick, Richard M.; Higashimori, Takamasa; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a major factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and is strongly associated with obesity. Increased concentrations of intracellular fatty acid metabolites have been postulated to interfere with insulin signaling by activation of a serine kinase cascade involving PKCθ in skeletal muscle. Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) has been postulated to dissipate the mitochondrial proton gradient and cause metabolic inefficiency. We therefore hypothesized that overexpression of UCP3 in skeletal muscle might protect against fat-induced insulin resistance in muscle by conversion of intramyocellular fat into thermal energy. Wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet were markedly insulin resistant, a result of defects in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and hepatic insulin resistance. Insulin resistance in these tissues was associated with reduced insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate 1– (IRS-1–) and IRS-2–associated PI3K activity in muscle and liver, respectively. In contrast, UCP3-overexpressing mice were completely protected against fat-induced defects in insulin signaling and action in these tissues. Furthermore, these changes were associated with a lower membrane-to-cytosolic ratio of diacylglycerol and reduced PKCθ activity in whole-body fat–matched UCP3 transgenic mice. These results suggest that increasing mitochondrial uncoupling in skeletal muscle may be an excellent therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:17571165

  12. Asiatic acid uncouples respiration in isolated mouse liver mitochondria and induces HepG2 cells death.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yapeng; Liu, Siyuan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Dang; Gao, Jing; Zhu, Li

    2016-09-05

    Asiatic acid, one of the triterpenoid components isolated from Centella asiatica, has received increasing attention due to a wide variety of biological activities. To date, little is known about its mechanisms of action. Here we examined the cytotoxic effect of asiatic acid on HepG2 cells and elucidated some of the underlying mechanisms. Asiatic acid induced rapid cell death, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) dissipation, ATP depletion and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol in HepG2 cells. In mitochondria isolated from mouse liver, asiatic acid treatment significantly stimulated the succinate-supported state 4 respiration rate, dissipated the MMP, increased Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria, decreased ATP content and promoted cytochrome c release, indicating the uncoupling effect of asiatic acid. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by succinate-supported mitochondrial respiration was also significantly inhibited by asiatic acid. In addition, asiatic acid inhibited Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling but did not induce mitochondrial swelling in hyposmotic potassium acetate medium which suggested that asiatic acid may not act as a protonophoric uncoupler. Inhibition of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) or blockade of adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT) attenuated the effect of asiatic acid on MMP dissipation, Ca(2+) release, mitochondrial respiration and HepG2 cell death. When combined inhibition of UCPs and ANT, asiatic acid-mediated uncoupling effect was noticeably alleviated. These results suggested that both UCPs and ANT partially contribute to the uncoupling properties of asiatic acid. In conclusion, asiatic acid is a novel mitochondrial uncoupler and this property is potentially involved in its toxicity on HepG2 cells.

  13. A Cellular Biophysics Textbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, Alan Joseph

    2011-12-01

    In the past two decades, great advances have been made in understanding of the biophysical mechanisms of the protein machines that carry out the fundamental processes of the cell. It is now known that all major eukaryotic cellular processes require a complicated assemblage of proteins acting via a series of concerted motions. In order to grasp current understanding of cellular mechanisms, the new generation of cell biologists needs to be trained in the general characteristics of these cellular properties and the methods with which to study them. This cellular biophysics textbook, to be used in conjunction with the cellular biophysics course (MCB143) at UC-Davis, provides a great tool in the instruction of the new generation of cellular biologists. It provides a hierarchical view of the cell, from atoms to protein machines and explains in depth the mechanisms of cytoskeletal force generators as an example of these principles.

  14. Pre- or post-treatment with the mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol attenuates striatal quinolinate lesions.

    PubMed

    Maragos, William F; Rockich, Kevin T; Dean, Jesse J; Young, Kristie L

    2003-03-21

    We have examined the neuroprotective efficacy of the mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in animals receiving striatal injections of the neurotoxin quinolinic acid. Animals administered DNP either 1 h before or 3 h following QA infusion developed lesions that were 25% smaller than control animals. Animals treated with the DNP analogue 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, which does not possess uncoupling activity in intact mitochondria, showed no neuroprotection. These results indicate that DNP, and other compounds that diminish the mitochondrial membrane potential, might provide a novel approach to the treatment of acute neurological injury.

  15. Neuron–Microglia Interactions in Mental Health Disorders: “For Better, and For Worse”

    PubMed Central

    Wohleb, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent cognitive and behavioral symptoms that characterize many mental health disorders arise from impaired neuroplasticity in several key corticolimbic brain regions. Recent evidence suggests that reciprocal neuron–microglia interactions shape neuroplasticity during physiological conditions, implicating microglia in the neurobiology of mental health disorders. Neuron–microglia interactions are modulated by several molecular and cellular pathways, and dysregulation of these pathways often have neurobiological consequences, including aberrant neuronal responses and microglia activation. Impaired neuron-microglia interactions are implicated in mental health disorders because rodent stress models lead to concomitant neuronal dystrophy and alterations in microglia morphology and function. In this context, functional changes in microglia may be indicative of an immune state termed parainflammation in which tissue-resident macrophages (i.e., microglia) respond to malfunctioning cells by initiating modest inflammation in an attempt to restore homeostasis. Thus, aberrant neuronal activity and release of damage-associated signals during repeated stress exposure may contribute to functional changes in microglia and resultant parainflammation. Furthermore, accumulating evidence shows that uncoupling neuron–microglia interactions may contribute to altered neuroplasticity and associated anxiety- or depressive-like behaviors. Additional work shows that microglia have varied phenotypes in specific brain regions, which may underlie divergent neuroplasticity observed in corticolimbic structures following stress exposure. These findings indicate that neuron–microglia interactions are critical mediators of the interface between adaptive, homeostatic neuronal function and the neurobiology of mental health disorders. PMID:27965671

  16. Differences between disease-associated endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) isoforms in cellular expression, interactions with tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) and regulation by cytokines.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, N; Low, W Y; Onipinla, A; Mein, C; Caulfield, M; Munroe, P B; Chernajovsky, Y

    2015-05-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) processes peptides for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I presentation and promotes cytokine receptor ectodomain shedding. These known functions of ERAP1 may explain its genetic association with several autoimmune inflammatory diseases. In this study, we identified four novel alternatively spliced variants of ERAP1 mRNA, designated as ΔExon-11, ΔExon-13, ΔExon-14 and ΔExon-15. We also observed a rapid and differential modulation of ERAP1 mRNA levels and spliced variants in different cell types pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We have studied three full-length allelic forms of ERAP1 (R127-K528, P127-K528, P127-R528) and one spliced variant (ΔExon-11) and assessed their interactions with tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) in transfected cells. We observed variation in cellular expression of different ERAP1 isoforms, with R127-K528 being expressed at a much lower level. Furthermore, the cellular expression of full-length P127-K528 and ΔExon-11 spliced variant was enhanced significantly when co-transfected with TNF-R1. Isoforms P127-K528, P127-R528 and ΔExon-11 spliced variant associated with TNF-R1, and this interaction occurred in a region within the first 10 exons of ERAP1. Supernatant-derived vesicles from transfected cells contained the full-length and ectodomain form of soluble TNF-R1, as well as carrying the full-length ERAP1 isoforms. We observed marginal differences between TNF-R1 ectodomain levels when co-expressed with individual ERAP1 isoforms, and treatment of transfected cells with tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 exerted variable effects on TNF-R1 ectodomain cleavage. Our data suggest that ERAP1 isoforms may exhibit differential biological properties and inflammatory mediators could play critical roles in modulating ERAP1 expression, leading to altered functional activities of this enzyme.

  17. Endogenously determined restriction of food intake overcomes excitation-contraction uncoupling in JP45KO mice with aging.

    PubMed

    Delbono, Osvaldo; Messi, Maria Laura; Wang, Zhong-Min; Treves, Susan; Mosca, Barbara; Bergamelli, Leda; Nishi, Miyuki; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong; Zorzato, Francesco

    2012-04-01

    The decline in muscular strength with age is disproportionate to the loss in total muscle mass that causes it. Knocking out JP45, an integral protein of the junctional face membrane of the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), results in decreased expression of the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel, Ca(v)1.1; excitation-contraction uncoupling (ECU); and loss of muscle force (Delbono et al., 2007). Here, we show that Ca(v)1.1 expression, charge movement, SR Ca(2+) release, in vitro contractile force, and sustained forced running remain stable in male JP45KO mice at 12 and 18 months. They also exhibit the level of ECU reported for 3-4-month mice (Delbono et al., 2007). No further decline at later ages was recorded. Preserved ECC was not related to increased expression of any protein that directly or indirectly interacts with JP45 at the triad junction. However, maintained muscle force and physical performance were associated with ablation of JP45 expression in the brain, spontaneous and significantly diminished food intake and less tendency toward obesity when exposed to a high-fat diet compared to WT. We propose that (1) endogenously generated restriction in food intake overcomes the deleterious effects of JP45 ablation on ECC and skeletal muscle force mainly through downregulation of neuropeptide-Y expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus; and (2) the JP45KO mouse constitutes an invaluable model to examine the mechanisms controlling food intake as well as skeletal muscle function with aging.

  18. Interactions of Rodent Coronaviruses with Cellular Receptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-08

    isolated, the MHV-JHM and MHV-A59 strains have been used extensively in research on the biology of coronaviruses and the pathogenesis of virus- induced...research has grown in the past four years. New biochemical techniques and the better understanding of the biology of the cell made possible the...O. (1987). Coronavirus: A jumping RNA transcription. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantative Biology 42, 359-365. Lapps, W., Hogue, B. G., and

  19. ADENOVIRUS INTERACTION WITH ITS CELLULAR RECEPTOR CAR.

    SciTech Connect

    HOWITT,J.; ANDERSON,C.W.; FREIMUTH,P.

    2001-08-01

    The mechanism of adenovirus attachment to the host cell plasma membrane has been revealed in detail by research over the past 10 years. It has long been known that receptor binding activity is associated with the viral fibers, trimeric spike proteins that protrude radially from the vertices of the icosahedral capsid (Philipson et al. 1968). In some adenovirus serotypes, fiber and other virus structural proteins are synthesized in excess and accumulate in the cell nucleus during late stages of infection. Fiber protein can be readily purified from lysates of cells infected with subgroup C viruses, for example Ad2 and Ad5 (Boulanger and Puvion 1973). Addition of purified fiber protein to virus suspensions during adsorption strongly inhibits infection, indicating that fiber and intact virus particles compete for binding sites on host cells (Philipson et al. 1968; Hautala et al. 1998). Cell binding studies using purified radiolabeled fiber demonstrated that fiber binds specifically and with high affinity to the cell plasma membrane, and that cell lines typically used for laboratory propagation of adenovirus have approximately 10{sup 4} high-affinity receptor sites per cell (Persson et al. 1985; Freimuth 1996). Similar numbers of high-affinity binding sites for radiolabeled intact virus particles also were observed (Seth et al. 1994).

  20. Cellular polarity and interactions in plant graviperception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, Fred D.

    1993-01-01

    Presented are results of studies on the mechanisms of gravitropic sensing in higher and lower plants. Gravitropic roots of the aquatic angiosperm, Limnobium, were found to have sedimented amyloplasts in their elongation zone but not in their rootcap; nuclei were found to sediment in the elongation zone as well. Another study attempted to understand how plastid sedimentation occurs in vertical Ceratodon cells and how this sedimentation is regulated. To determine whether the cytoskeleton restricts plastid sedimentation, the effects of amiprophos-methyl (APM) and cytochalasin (CD) on plastid position were qualified. Results suggest that microtubules restrict the sedimentation of plastids along the length of the cell and that microtubules are load-bearing for all the plastids in the apical cell, demonstrating the importance of the cytoskeleton in maintaining organelle position and cell organization against the force of gravity. Physcomitrella and Funaria were also studied. Results suggest that gravitropism may be relatively common in moss protonemata and reinforce the idea that amyloplast mass functions in gravitropic sensing.

  1. Optofluidic Detection for Cellular Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Yi-Chung; Huang, Nien-Tsu; Oh, Bo-Ram; Patra, Bishnubrata; Pan, Chi-Chun; Qiu, Teng; Paul, K. Chu; Zhang, Wenjun; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the output of processes and molecular interactions within a single cell is highly critical to the advancement of accurate disease screening and personalized medicine. Optical detection is one of the most broadly adapted measurement methods in biological and clinical assays and serves cellular phenotyping. Recently, microfluidics has obtained increasing attention due to several advantages, such as small sample and reagent volumes, very high throughput, and accurate flow control in the spatial and temporal domains. Optofluidics, which is the attempt to integrate optics with microfluidic, shows great promise to enable on-chip phenotypic measurements with high precision, sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity. This paper reviews the most recent developments of optofluidic technologies for cellular phenotyping optical detection. PMID:22854915

  2. Oxidase uncoupling in heme monooxygenases: Human cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 in Nanodiscs

    SciTech Connect

    Grinkova, Yelena V.; Denisov, Ilia G.; McLean, Mark A.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► Substantial reducing equivalents are lost in human P450 CYP3A4 via an oxidase channel. ► Substrate binding has a pronounced effect on uncoupling in cytochrome P450. ► Anionic phospholipids improve the overall coupling in CYP3A4 Nanodiscs. -- Abstract: The normal reaction mechanism of cytochrome P450 operates by utilizing two reducing equivalents to reduce atmospheric dioxygen, producing one molecule of water and an oxygenated product in an overall stoichiometry of 2 electrons:1 dioxygen:1 product. However, three alternate unproductive pathways exist where the intermediate iron–oxygen states in the catalytic cycle can yield reduced oxygen products without substrate metabolism. The first involves release of superoxide from the oxygenated intermediate while the second occurs after input of the second reducing equivalent. Superoxide rapidly dismutates and hence both processes produce hydrogen peroxide that can be cytotoxic to the organism. In both cases, the formation of hydrogen peroxide involves the same overall stoichiometry as oxygenases catalysis. The key step in the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450 involves scission of the oxygen–oxygen bond of atmospheric dioxygen to produce a higher valent iron-oxo state termed “Compound I”. This intermediate initiates a radical reaction in the oxygenase pathway but also can uptake two additional reducing equivalents from reduced pyridine nucleotide (NADPH) and the flavoprotein reductase to produce a second molecule of water. This non-productive decay of Compound I thus yields an overall oxygen to NADPH ratio of 1:2 and does not produce hydrocarbon oxidation. This water uncoupling reaction provides one of a limited means to study the reactivity of the critical Compound I intermediate in P450 catalysis. We measured simultaneously the rates of NADPH and oxygen consumption as a function of substrate concentration during the steady-state hydroxylation of testosterone catalyzed by human P450 CYP3A4

  3. Endothelial mitochondrial ROS, un-coupled from ATP synthesis, determine both physiological endothelial activation for recruitment of patrolling cells, and pathological recruitment of inflammatory cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinyuan; Fang, Pu; Yang, William Y.; Chan, Kylie; Lavallee, Muriel; Xu, Keman; Gao, Tracy; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) are signaling molecules, which drive inflammatory cytokine production and T cell activation. In addition, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and autoimmune diseases all share common feature of increased mtROS level. Both mtROS and ATP are produced as a result of electron transport chain activity, but it remains enigmatic whether mtROS could be generated independently from ATP synthesis. A recent study shed light to this important question and found that during endothelial cell (EC) activation, mtROS could be upregulated in a proton leak-coupled, but ATP synthesis-uncoupled manner. As a result, EC could upregulate mtROS production for physiological EC activation without compromising mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP generation, and consequently without causing mitochondrial damage and EC death. Thus, a novel pathophysiological role of proton leak in driving mtROS production was uncovered for low grade physiological EC activation, patrolling immunosurveillance cell trans-endothelial migration and other signaling events without compromising cellular survival. This new working model explains how mtROS could be increasingly generated independently from ATP synthesis and endothelial damage/death. Mapping the connections between mitochondrial metabolism, physiological EC activation, patrolling cell migration and pathological inflammation is significant towards the development of novel therapies for inflammatory diseases and cancers. PMID:27925481

  4. Transient inter-cellular polymeric linker.

    PubMed

    Ong, Siew-Min; He, Lijuan; Thuy Linh, Nguyen Thi; Tee, Yee-Han; Arooz, Talha; Tang, Guping; Tan, Choon-Hong; Yu, Hanry

    2007-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissue-engineered constructs with bio-mimicry cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are useful in regenerative medicine. In cell-dense and matrix-poor tissues of the internal organs, cells support one another via cell-cell interactions, supplemented by small amount of the extra-cellular matrices (ECM) secreted by the cells. Here we connect HepG2 cells directly but transiently with inter-cellular polymeric linker to facilitate cell-cell interaction and aggregation. The linker consists of a non-toxic low molecular-weight polyethyleneimine (PEI) backbone conjugated with multiple hydrazide groups that can aggregate cells within 30 min by reacting with the aldehyde handles on the chemically modified cell-surface glycoproteins. The cells in the cellular aggregates proliferated; and maintained the cortical actin distribution of the 3D cell morphology while non-aggregated cells died over 7 days of suspension culture. The aggregates lost distinguishable cell-cell boundaries within 3 days; and the ECM fibers became visible around cells from day 3 onwards while the inter-cellular polymeric linker disappeared from the cell surfaces over time. The transient inter-cellular polymeric linker can be useful for forming 3D cellular and tissue constructs without bulk biomaterials or extensive network of engineered ECM for various applications.

  5. Oxidative damage and phospholipid fatty acyl composition in skeletal muscle mitochondria from mice underexpressing or overexpressing uncoupling protein 3.

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Martin D; Pamplona, Reinald; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Requena, Jesús R; Roebuck, Stephen J; Buckingham, Julie A; Clapham, John C; Cadenas, Susana

    2002-01-01

    Five markers of different kinds of oxidative damage to proteins [glutamic semialdehyde, aminoadipic semialdehyde, N (epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, N (epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)lysine and N (epsilon)-(malondialdehyde)lysine] and phospholipid fatty acyl composition were identified and measured in skeletal muscle mitochondria isolated from mice genetically engineered to underexpress or overexpress uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3). Mitochondria from UCP3-underexpressing mice had significantly higher levels of oxidative damage than wild-type controls, suggesting that UCP3 functions in vivo as part of the antioxidant defences of the cell, but mitochondria from UCP3-overexpressing mice had unaltered oxidative damage, suggesting that mild uncoupling in vivo beyond the normal basal uncoupling provides little protection against oxidative stress. Mitochondria from UCP3-underexpressing mice showed little change, but mitochondria from UCP3-overexpressing mice showed marked changes in mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl composition. These changes were very similar to those previously found to correlate with basal proton conductance in mitochondria from a range of species and treatments, suggesting that high protein expression, or some secondary result of uncoupling, may cause the observed correlation between basal proton conductance and phospholipid fatty acyl composition. PMID:12193161

  6. Upregulation of uncoupling protein Ucp2 through acute cold exposure increases post-thaw sperm quality in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gongfa; Kang, Ning; Gong, Hongmei; Luo, Yan; Bai, Chenglian; Chen, Yuanhong; Ji, Xiaoping; Huang, Changjiang; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in sperm damage during cryopreservation. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling has been shown to reduce excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thus mitigate oxidative stress. Uncoupling protein (Ucp2) regulates mitochondrial uncoupling and can be induced by temperature fluctuation. In the present study, we explored a novel approach of acute cold exposure on Ucp2 activation and its association with oxidative damage and post-thaw sperm quality in zebrafish. Our study revealed that acute cold exposure of zebrafish at 18 °C for 24 h led to significant increase of ucp2 mRNA and Ucp2 protein in zebrafish fresh sperm as well as thawed sperm after cryopreservation. Although cold exposure had no effect on fresh sperm quality except for decreasing lipid peroxidation, sperm collected from cold-exposed zebrafish exhibited higher resistance to cryodamage, which was demonstrated by increased post-thaw motility, decreased lipid peroxidation, increased ATP production, and ultimately increased fertilization success. However, except for reduced lipid peroxidation, we did not observe any significant ROS reduction associated with increased Ucp2 activation in cold-exposed group, suggesting mechanisms other than mitochondrial uncoupling could have contributed to cold exposure associated benefits in post-thaw sperm survival. Nevertheless, our findings indicate that acute cold exposure prior to sperm cryopreservation is beneficial for post-thaw sperm survival in zebrafish, and this novel approach may be used to improve post-thaw sperm quality for other aquatic species.

  7. Relationship between expression of muscle-specific uncoupling protein 2 messenger RNA and genetic selection toward growth in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uncoupling protein 2 is a member of the mitochondrial channel proteins that regulate the flow of hydrogen ions and ATP generation. The relationship between UCP2 and nutrient metabolism has been well-defined in humans but unclear in fish. We hypothesized that increased muscle growth in channel catf...

  8. A Prototypical Small-Molecule Modulator Uncouples Mitochondria in Response to Endogenous Hydrogen Peroxide Production

    PubMed Central

    McQuaker, Stephen J; Quinlan, Casey L; Caldwell, Stuart T; Brand, Martin D; Hartley, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    A high membrane potential across the mitochondrial inner membrane leads to the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) implicated in aging and age-related diseases. A prototypical drug for the correction of this type of mitochondrial dysfunction is presented. MitoDNP-SUM accumulates in mitochondria in response to the membrane potential due to its mitochondria-targeting alkyltriphenylphosphonium (TPP) cation and is uncaged by endogenous hydrogen peroxide to release the mitochondrial uncoupler, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). DNP is known to reduce the high membrane potential responsible for the production of ROS. The approach potentially represents a general method for the delivery of drugs to the mitochondrial matrix through mitochondria targeting and H2O2-induced uncaging. PMID:23640856

  9. An uncoupling protein homologue putatively involved in facultative muscle thermogenesis in birds.

    PubMed Central

    Raimbault, S; Dridi, S; Denjean, F; Lachuer, J; Couplan, E; Bouillaud, F; Bordas, A; Duchamp, C; Taouis, M; Ricquier, D

    2001-01-01

    The cDNA of an uncoupling protein (UCP) homologue was obtained by screening a chicken skeletal-muscle library. The predicted 307-amino-acid sequence of avian UCP (avUCP) is 55, 70, 70 and 46% identical with mammalian UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 and plant UCP respectively. avUCP mRNA expression is restricted to skeletal muscle and its abundance was increased 1.3-fold in a chicken line showing diet-induced thermogenesis, and 3.6- and 2.6-fold in cold-acclimated and glucagon-treated ducklings developing muscle non-shivering thermogenesis respectively. The present data support the implication of avUCP in avian energy expenditure. PMID:11171038

  10. Design of an achromatic and uncoupled medical gantry for radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoupas, N.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.; MacKay, W.W.

    2011-03-28

    We are presenting the layout and the optics of a beam line to be used as a medical gantry in radiation therapy. The optical properties of the gantry's beam line are such as to make the beam line achromatic and uncoupled. These two properties make the beam spot size, which is delivered and focused by the gantry, on the tumor of the patient, independent of the angular orientation of the gantry. In this paper we present the layout of the magnetic elements of the gantry, and also present the theoretical basis for the optics design of such a gantry. A medical gantry, as it is used in the radiation treatment of cancer patients, is the last part of the beam optical system, of the accelerator complex, which delivers and focuses the beam on the tumor. The curved line shown in figure 1 is a schematic diagram of a gantry which can rotate about a horizontal axis. The particle beam (green arrow in fig. 1) enters the gantry, and is guided by the gantry on the tumor (red spot in fig. 1). As the gantry rotates about the axis shown in figure 1, the beam exiting the gantry always lies on a plane normal to the rotation axis at the point of the icocenter. Thus the gantry facilitates the ability of the beam delivery system, to deliver the beam at the tumor, which is placed at the icocenter, from any angle on this vertical plane, which is normal to the rotation angle of the gantry as stated earlier. The gantry consists of dipoles and quadrupoles elements whose median symmetry plane lies on a plane which contains the rotation axis of the gantry. In this paper we define this plane as the 'plane of the gantry'. As the beam is transported along the axis of rotation of the gantry and before it enters the gantry, it is focused by 'normal' quadrupoles and experiences no linear beam coupling. Subsequently the beam enters the gantry, and is transported by the gantry to the delivery point which is the tumor. The transported beam at the tumor is still linearly uncoupled as long as the plane of the

  11. An improved finite-difference analysis of uncoupled vibrations of tapered cantilever beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1983-01-01

    An improved finite difference procedure for determining the natural frequencies and mode shapes of tapered cantilever beams undergoing uncoupled vibrations is presented. Boundary conditions are derived in the form of simple recursive relations involving the second order central differences. Results obtained by using the conventional first order central differences and the present second order central differences are compared, and it is observed that the present second order scheme is more efficient than the conventional approach. An important advantage offered by the present approach is that the results converge to exact values rapidly, and thus the extrapolation of the results is not necessary. Consequently, the basic handicap with the classical finite difference method of solution that requires the Richardson's extrapolation procedure is eliminated. Furthermore, for the cases considered herein, the present approach produces consistent lower bound solutions.

  12. Coherent population transfer between uncoupled or weakly coupled states in ladder-type superconducting qutrits

    PubMed Central

    Xu, H. K.; Song, C.; Liu, W. Y.; Xue, G. M.; Su, F. F.; Deng, H.; Tian, Ye; Zheng, D. N.; Han, Siyuan; Zhong, Y. P.; Wang, H.; Liu, Yu-xi; Zhao, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage offers significant advantages for coherent population transfer between uncoupled or weakly coupled states and has the potential of realizing efficient quantum gate, qubit entanglement and quantum information transfer. Here we report on the realization of the process in the superconducting Xmon and phase qutrits—two ladder-type three-level systems in which the ground state population is coherently transferred to the second excited state via the dark state subspace. We demonstrate that the population transfer efficiency is no less than 96% and 67% for the two devices, which agree well with the numerical simulation of the master equation. Population transfer via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage is significantly more robust against variations of the experimental parameters compared with that via the conventional resonant π pulse method. Our work opens up a new venue for exploring the process for quantum information processing using the superconducting artificial atoms. PMID:27009972

  13. Effect of running training on uncoupling protein mRNA expression in rat brown adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Mikio; Sato, Yuzo; Izawa, Tetsuya; Komabayashi, Takao; Saito, Daizo; Ohno, Hideki

    1993-03-01

    The effect was investigated of endurance training on the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP) mRNA in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of rats. The exercised rats were trained on a rodent treadmill for 5 days per week and a total of 9 weeks. After the training programme, a marked decrease in BAT mass was found in terms of weight or weight per unit body weight; there was a corresponding decrease in DNA content and a downward trend in RNA and glycogen levels. The UCP mRNA was present at a markedly decreased level in BAT of trained animals. In consideration of the reduced levels of mRNAs for hormone-sensitive lipase and acylCoA synthetase, the brown adipose tissue investigated appeared to be in a relatively atrophied and thermogenically quiescent state.

  14. Application of an Uncoupled Elastic-plastic-creep Constitutive Model to Metals at High Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisler, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    A uniaxial, uncoupled constitutive model to predict the response of thermal and rate dependent elastic-plastic material behavior is presented. The model is based on an incremental classicial plasticity theory extended to account for thermal, creep, and transient temperature conditions. Revisions to he combined hardening rule of the theory allow for better representation of cyclic phenomenon including the high rate of strain hardening upon cyclic reyield and cyclic saturation. An alternative approach is taken to model the rate dependent inelastic deformation which utilizes hysteresis loops and stress relaxation test data at various temperatures. The model is evaluated and compared to experiments which involve various thermal and mechanical load histories on 5086 aluminum alloy, 304 stainless steel and Hastelloy-X.

  15. Spatial uncoupling of biodegradation, soil respiration, and PAH concentration in a creosote contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Göran; Törneman, Niklas; Yang, Xiuhong

    2010-09-01

    Hotspots and coldspots of concentration and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) marginally overlapped at the 0.5-100 m scale in a creosote contaminated soil in southern Sweden, suggesting that concentration and biodegradation had little spatial co-variation. Biodegradation was substantial and its spatial variability considerable and highly irregular, but it had no spatial autocorrelation. The soil concentration of PAHs explained only 20-30% of the variance of their biodegradation. Soil respiration was spatially autocorrelated. The spatial uncoupling between biodegradation and soil respiration seemed to be governed by the aging of PAHs in the soil, since biodegradation of added 13C phenanthrene covaried with both soil respiration and microbial biomass. The latter two were also correlated with high concentrations of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) that are common in gram-negative bacteria. However, several of the hotspots of biodegradation coincided with hotspots for the distribution of a PLFA indicative of fungal biomass.

  16. Evidence that bacteriophage λ lysogens may induce in response to the proton motive force uncoupler CCCP

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Lynn C.; Court, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a genetic β-galactoside reporter system using a disk diffusion assay on MacConkey Lactose agar petri plates to monitor maintenance of the bacteriophage λ prophage state and viral induction in Escherichia coli K-12. Evidence is presented that the phage λ major lytic promoters, pL and pR, are activated when cells containing the reporters are exposed to the energy poison carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine, CCCP. This uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation inhibits ATP synthesis by collapsing the proton motive force. Expression of the λ lytic promoters in response to CCCP requires host RecA function and an autocleavable CI repressor, as does SOS induction of the λ prophage that occurs by a DNA damage-dependent pathway. λ Cro function is required for CCCP-mediated activation of the λ lytic promoters. CCCP does not induce an sfi-lacZ SOS reporter. PMID:26705574

  17. Dynamic regulation of uncoupling protein 2 content in INS-1E insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Azzu, Vian; Affourtit, Charles; Breen, Eamon P; Parker, Nadeene; Brand, Martin D

    2008-10-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. UCP2 content, measured by calibrated immunoblot in INS-1E insulinoma cells (a pancreatic beta-cell model) grown in RPMI medium, and INS-1E mitochondria, was 2.0 ng/million cells (7.9 ng/mg mitochondrial protein). UCP2 content was lower in cells incubated without glutamine and higher in cells incubated with 20 mM glucose, and varied from 1.0-4.4 ng/million cells (2.7-14.5 ng/mg mitochondrial protein). This dynamic response to nutrients was achieved by varied expression rates against a background of a very short UCP2 protein half-life of about 1 h.

  18. The C-terminal domain of the long form of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIPL) inhibits the interaction of the caspase 8 prodomain with the receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) death domain and regulates caspase 8-dependent nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Iyo; Matsuo, Kentaro; Matsushita, Yuka; Haruna, Yasushi; Niwa, Masamitsu; Kataoka, Takao

    2014-02-14

    Caspase 8 plays an essential role in the regulation of apoptotic and non-apoptotic signaling pathways. The long form of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIPL) has been shown previously to regulate caspase 8-dependent nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation by receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2). In this study, the molecular mechanism by which c-FLIPL regulates caspase 8-dependent NF-κB activation was further explored in the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK 293 and variant cells barely expressing caspase 8. The caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone greatly diminished caspase 8-dependent NF-κB activation induced by Fas ligand (FasL) when c-FLIPL, but not its N-terminal fragment c-FLIP(p43), was expressed. The prodomain of caspase 8 was found to interact with the RIP1 death domain and to be sufficient to mediate NF-κB activation induced by FasL or c-FLIP(p43). The interaction of the RIP1 death domain with caspase 8 was inhibited by c-FLIPL but not c-FLIP(p43). Thus, these results reveal that the C-terminal domain of c-FLIPL specifically inhibits the interaction of the caspase 8 prodomain with the RIP1 death domain and, thereby, regulates caspase 8-dependent NF-κB activation.

  19. The C-terminal Domain of the Long Form of Cellular FLICE-inhibitory Protein (c-FLIPL) Inhibits the Interaction of the Caspase 8 Prodomain with the Receptor-interacting Protein 1 (RIP1) Death Domain and Regulates Caspase 8-dependent Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Iyo; Matsuo, Kentaro; Matsushita, Yuka; Haruna, Yasushi; Niwa, Masamitsu; Kataoka, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Caspase 8 plays an essential role in the regulation of apoptotic and non-apoptotic signaling pathways. The long form of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIPL) has been shown previously to regulate caspase 8-dependent nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation by receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2). In this study, the molecular mechanism by which c-FLIPL regulates caspase 8-dependent NF-κB activation was further explored in the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK 293 and variant cells barely expressing caspase 8. The caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone greatly diminished caspase 8-dependent NF-κB activation induced by Fas ligand (FasL) when c-FLIPL, but not its N-terminal fragment c-FLIP(p43), was expressed. The prodomain of caspase 8 was found to interact with the RIP1 death domain and to be sufficient to mediate NF-κB activation induced by FasL or c-FLIP(p43). The interaction of the RIP1 death domain with caspase 8 was inhibited by c-FLIPL but not c-FLIP(p43). Thus, these results reveal that the C-terminal domain of c-FLIPL specifically inhibits the interaction of the caspase 8 prodomain with the RIP1 death domain and, thereby, regulates caspase 8-dependent NF-κB activation. PMID:24398693

  20. Control of mitochondrial pH by uncoupling protein 4 in astrocytes promotes neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Perreten Lambert, Hélène; Zenger, Manuel; Azarias, Guillaume; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Magistretti, Pierre J; Lengacher, Sylvain

    2014-11-07

    Brain activity is energetically costly and requires a steady and highly regulated flow of energy equivalents between neural cells. It is believed that a substantial share of cerebral glucose, the major source of energy of the brain, will preferentially be metabolized in astrocytes via aerobic glycolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether uncoupling proteins (UCPs), located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, play a role in setting up the metabolic response pattern of astrocytes. UCPs are believed to mediate the transmembrane transfer of protons, resulting in the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation from ATP production. UCPs are therefore potentially important regulators of energy fluxes. The main UCP isoforms expressed in the brain are UCP2, UCP4, and UCP5. We examined in particular the role of UCP4 in neuron-astrocyte metabolic coupling and measured a range of functional metabolic parameters including mitochondrial electrical potential and pH, reactive oxygen species production, NAD/NADH ratio, ATP/ADP ratio, CO2 and lactate production, and oxygen consumption rate. In brief, we found that UCP4 regulates the intramitochondrial pH of astrocytes, which acidifies as a consequence of glutamate uptake, with the main consequence of reducing efficiency of mitochondrial ATP production. The diminished ATP production is effectively compensated by enhancement of glycolysis. This nonoxidative production of energy is not associated with deleterious H2O2 production. We show that astrocytes expressing more UCP4 produced more lactate, which is used as an energy source by neurons, and had the ability to enhance neuronal survival.

  1. Control of Mitochondrial pH by Uncoupling Protein 4 in Astrocytes Promotes Neuronal Survival*

    PubMed Central

    Perreten Lambert, Hélène; Zenger, Manuel; Azarias, Guillaume; Chatton, Jean-Yves; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Lengacher, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Brain activity is energetically costly and requires a steady and highly regulated flow of energy equivalents between neural cells. It is believed that a substantial share of cerebral glucose, the major source of energy of the brain, will preferentially be metabolized in astrocytes via aerobic glycolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether uncoupling proteins (UCPs), located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, play a role in setting up the metabolic response pattern of astrocytes. UCPs are believed to mediate the transmembrane transfer of protons, resulting in the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation from ATP production. UCPs are therefore potentially important regulators of energy fluxes. The main UCP isoforms expressed in the brain are UCP2, UCP4, and UCP5. We examined in particular the role of UCP4 in neuron-astrocyte metabolic coupling and measured a range of functional metabolic parameters including mitochondrial electrical potential and pH, reactive oxygen species production, NAD/NADH ratio, ATP/ADP ratio, CO2 and lactate production, and oxygen consumption rate. In brief, we found that UCP4 regulates the intramitochondrial pH of astrocytes, which acidifies as a consequence of glutamate uptake, with the main consequence of reducing efficiency of mitochondrial ATP production. The diminished ATP production is effectively compensated by enhancement of glycolysis. This nonoxidative production of energy is not associated with deleterious H2O2 production. We show that astrocytes expressing more UCP4 produced more lactate, which is used as an energy source by neurons, and had the ability to enhance neuronal survival. PMID:25237189

  2. Acceptably aware during general anaesthesia: 'dysanaesthesia'--the uncoupling of perception from sensory inputs.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Jaideep J

    2014-07-01

    This review makes the case for 'dysanaesthesia', a term encompassing states of mind that can arise in the course of anaesthesia during surgery, characterised by an uncoupling of sensation and perceptual experience. This is reflected in a macroscopic, functional model of anaesthetically-relevant consciousness. Patients in this state can be aware of events but in a neutral way, not in pain, sometimes personally dissociated from the experiences. This makes events associated with surgery peripheral to their whole experience, such that recall is less likely and if it exists, makes any spontaneous report of awareness unlikely. This state of perception-sensation uncoupling is therefore broadly acceptable (a minimum requirement for acceptable anaesthesia) but since it is likely a dose-related phenomenon, may also represent a precursor for awareness with adverse recall. This hypothesis uniquely explains the often inconsistent responses seen during the experimental paradigm of the 'isolated forearm technique', wherein apparently anaesthetised patients exhibit a positive motor response to verbal command, but no spontaneous movement to surgery. The hypothesis can also explain the relatively high incidence of positive response to relatively direct questions for recall (e.g., using the Brice questionnaire; ∼1:500; the vast majority of these being neutral reports) versus the very low incidence of spontaneous reports of awareness (∼1:15,000; a higher proportion of these being adverse recollections). The hypothesis is consistent with relevant notions from philosophical discussions of consciousness, and neuroscientific evidence. Dysanaesthesia has important implications for research and also for the development of appropriate monitoring.

  3. Prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1 from Homer1 and Gq Proteins.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Kalindi; Parihar, Raminder; Goswami, Satindra K; Walsh, Melissa; Friedman, Eitan; Wang, Hoau-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine exposure during gestation causes protracted neurobehavioral changes consistent with a compromised glutamatergic system. Although cocaine profoundly disrupts glutamatergic neurotransmission and in utero cocaine exposure negatively affects metabotropic glutamate receptor-type 1 (mGluR1) activity, the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on mGluR1 signaling and the underlying mechanism responsible for the prenatal cocaine effect remain elusive. Using brains of the 21-day-old (P21) prenatal cocaine-exposed rats, we show that prenatal cocaine exposure uncouples mGluR1s from their associated synaptic anchoring protein, Homer1 and signal transducer, Gq/11 proteins leading to markedly reduced mGluR1-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in frontal cortex (FCX) and hippocampus. This prenatal cocaine-induced effect is the result of a sustained protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of mGluR1 on the serine residues. In support, phosphatase treatment of prenatal cocaine-exposed tissues restores whereas PKC-mediated phosphorylation of saline-treated synaptic membrane attenuates mGluR1 coupling to both Gq/11 and Homer1. Expression of mGluR1, Homer1 or Gα proteins was not altered by prenatal cocaine exposure. Collectively, these data indicate that prenatal cocaine exposure trig