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Sample records for cellular microrna expression

  1. Epstein-Barr virus growth/latency III program alters cellular microRNA expression

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, Jennifer E. Fewell, Claire Yin, Qinyan McBride, Jane Wang Xia Lin Zhen

    2008-12-20

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with lymphoid and epithelial cancers. Initial EBV infection alters lymphocyte gene expression, inducing cellular proliferation and differentiation as the virus transitions through consecutive latency transcription programs. Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of signaling pathways and are implicated in carcinogenesis. The extent to which EBV exploits cellular miRNAs is unknown. Using micro-array analysis and quantitative PCR, we demonstrate differential expression of cellular miRNAs in type III versus type I EBV latency including elevated expression of miR-21, miR-23a, miR-24, miR-27a, miR-34a, miR-146a and b, and miR-155. In contrast, miR-28 expression was found to be lower in type III latency. The EBV-mediated regulation of cellular miRNAs may contribute to EBV signaling and associated cancers.

  2. A signature microRNA expression profile for the cellular response to thermal stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmink, Gerald J.; Roth, Caleb C.; Ketchum, Norma; Ibey, Bennett L.; Waterworth, Angela; Suarez, Maria; Roach, William P.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, an extensive layer of intra-cellular signals was discovered that was previously undetected by genetic radar. It is now known that this layer consists primarily of a class of short noncoding RNA species that are referred to as microRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs regulate protein synthesis at the post-transcriptional level, and studies have shown that they are involved in many fundamental cellular processes. In this study, we hypothesized that miRNAs may be involved in cellular stress response mechanisms, and that cells exposed to thermal stress may exhibit a signature miRNA expression profile indicative of their functional involvement in such mechanisms. To test our hypothesis, human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to an established hyperthermic protocol, and the ensuing miRNA expression levels were evaluated 4 hr post-exposure using microRNA microarray gene chips. The microarray data shows that 123 miRNAs were differentially expressed in cells exposed to thermal stress. We collectively refer to these miRNAs as thermalregulated microRNAs (TRMs). Since miRNA research is in its infancy, it is interesting to note that only 27 of the 123 TRMs are currently annotated in the Sanger miRNA registry. Prior to publication, we plan to submit the remaining novel 96 miRNA gene sequences for proper naming. Computational and thermodynamic modeling algorithms were employed to identify putative mRNA targets for the TRMs, and these studies predict that TRMs regulate the mRNA expression of various proteins that are involved in the cellular stress response. Future empirical studies will be conducted to validate these theoretical predictions, and to further examine the specific role that TRMs play in the cellular stress response.

  3. Viral Infection Induces Expression of Novel Phased MicroRNAs from Conserved Cellular MicroRNA Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiayao; Zhao, Shuqi; Zheng, Hong; Gao, Ge; Wei, Liping; Li, Yi

    2011-01-01

    RNA silencing, mediated by small RNAs including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), is a potent antiviral or antibacterial mechanism, besides regulating normal cellular gene expression critical for development and physiology. To gain insights into host small RNA metabolism under infections by different viruses, we used Solexa/Illumina deep sequencing to characterize the small RNA profiles of rice plants infected by two distinct viruses, Rice dwarf virus (RDV, dsRNA virus) and Rice stripe virus (RSV, a negative sense and ambisense RNA virus), respectively, as compared with those from non-infected plants. Our analyses showed that RSV infection enhanced the accumulation of some rice miRNA*s, but not their corresponding miRNAs, as well as accumulation of phased siRNAs from a particular precursor. Furthermore, RSV infection also induced the expression of novel miRNAs in a phased pattern from several conserved miRNA precursors. In comparison, no such changes in host small RNA expression was observed in RDV-infected rice plants. Significantly RSV infection elevated the expression levels of selective OsDCLs and OsAGOs, whereas RDV infection only affected the expression of certain OsRDRs. Our results provide a comparative analysis, via deep sequencing, of changes in the small RNA profiles and in the genes of RNA silencing machinery induced by different viruses in a natural and economically important crop host plant. They uncover new mechanisms and complexity of virus-host interactions that may have important implications for further studies on the evolution of cellular small RNA biogenesis that impact pathogen infection, pathogenesis, as well as organismal development. PMID:21901091

  4. Human cytomegalovirus latent infection alters the expression of cellular and viral microRNA.

    PubMed

    Fu, Miao; Gao, Yan; Zhou, Qiuju; Zhang, Qi; Peng, Ying; Tian, Kegang; Wang, Jinhua; Zheng, Xiaoqun

    2014-02-25

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating gene expression of plants, animals and viruses. Comprehensive characterization of host and viral miRNA will help uncover the molecular mechanisms that underlie the progression of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latent infection. To investigate the miRNA expression profile of HCMV and host cells during latent infection, we performed deep-sequencing analysis of the small RNAs isolated from HCMV-infected and mock-infected human monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1. We established a HCMV latent infection cell model using the THP-1 cells. High-throughput sequencing technology was used to sequence small RNA libraries of the HCMV-infected and mock-infected THP-1 and to investigate their small RNA transcriptomes. We found eight miRNAs including miR-US25-1, miR-US25-2-5p and miR-UL112 that were expressed by HCMV during latent infection. The expressions of the host miRNAs were also affected by HCMV latent infection. At least 49 cellular miRNAs were differentially expressed: 39 were up-regulated and 10 were down-regulated upon HCMV latent infection. The expression of the human miRNA hsa-miR-124-3p was significantly up-regulated in the HCMV latent infection library. In addition, we found 14 cellular novel miRNAs in the HCMV-infected and mock-infected THP-1 libraries. Functional annotation of the target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs suggested that the majority of the genes are involved in melanogenesis, pathways in cancer, endocytosis and wnt signaling pathway. The small RNA transcriptomes obtained in this study demonstrate the usefulness of the deep-sequencing combined with bioinformatics approach in understanding of the expression and function of host and viral small RNAs in HCMV latent infection. This approach can also be applied to the study of other kinds of viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. MicroRNA expression profiling using microarrays.

    PubMed

    Love, Cassandra; Dave, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which are able to regulate gene expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels. There is a growing recognition of the role of microRNAs in nearly every tissue type and cellular process. Thus there is an increasing need for accurate quantitation of microRNA expression in a variety of tissues. Microarrays provide a robust method for the examination of microRNA expression. In this chapter, we describe detailed methods for the use of microarrays to measure microRNA expression and discuss methods for the analysis of microRNA expression data.

  6. Torpor-responsive expression of novel microRNA regulating metabolism and other cellular pathways in the thirteen-lined ground squirrel, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus.

    PubMed

    Luu, Bryan E; Biggar, Kyle K; Wu, Cheng-Wei; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-10-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of microRNA in cold-tolerant animals, including their dynamic regulation throughout mammalian hibernation. In this study, we used small RNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods to identify novel microRNA regulating gene expression during hibernation in thirteen-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. A group of 17 novel microRNA was identified, and their relative expression was quantitated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in liver, skeletal muscle, and heart tissues over four experimental conditions that represent the torpor-arousal cycle. Predicted mRNA targets of these novel microRNA were found to be enriched in biological processes known to be regulated during hibernation, such as lipid metabolism, ion-transport ATPases, and various cellular signaling cascades. This study provides an analysis of several novel microRNA that may be crucial to adaptation during hibernation. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Dysregulated MicroRNA Expression Profiles and Potential Cellular, Circulating and Polymorphic Biomarkers in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Gabrielle; Sutherland, Heidi G.; Haupt, Larisa M.; Griffiths, Lyn R.

    2016-01-01

    A large number of studies have focused on identifying molecular biomarkers, including microRNAs (miRNAs) to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of the most common subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma and Follicular Lymphoma. NHL is difficult to diagnose and treat with many cases becoming resistant to chemotherapy, hence the need to identify improved biomarkers to aid in both diagnosis and treatment modalities. This review summarises more recent research on the dysregulated miRNA expression profiles found in NHL, as well as the regulatory role and biomarker potential of cellular and circulating miRNAs found in tissue and serum, respectively. In addition, the emerging field of research focusing on miRNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (miRSNPs) in genes of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, in miRNA genes themselves, and in their target sites may provide new insights on gene expression changes in these genes. These miRSNPs may impact miRNA networks and have been shown to play a role in a host of different cancer types including haematological malignancies. With respect to NHL, a number of SNPs in miRNA-binding sites in target genes have been shown to be associated with overall survival. PMID:27999330

  8. Alterations in microRNA Expression in Stress-induced Cellular Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guorong; Luna, Coralia; Qiu, Jianming; Epstein, David L.; Gonzalez, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Summary We investigated miRNA expression changes associated with stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) in primary cultures of human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) and human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells. Twenty-five miRNAs were identified by miRNA microarray analysis and their changes in expression were validated by TaqMan realtime RT-PCR in three independent cell lines of HTM and HDF. SIPS in both HTM and HDF cell types was associated with significant down-regulation of four members of the miR-15 family and five miRNAs of the miR-106b family located in the oncogenic clusters miR-17–92, miR-106a-363, and miR-106b-25. SIPS was also associated with up-regulation of two miRNAs (182 and 183) from the miR-183-96-182 cluster. Transfection with miR-106a agomir inhibited the up-regulation of p21CDKN1A associated with SIPS while transfection with miR-106a antagomir led to increased p21CDKN1A expression in senescent cells. In addition, we identified retinoic acid receptor gamma (RARG) as a target of miR-182 and showed that this protein was down-regulated during SIPS in HDF and HTM cells. These results suggest that changes in miRNA expression might contribute to phenotypic alterations of senescent cells by modulating the expression of key regulatory proteins such as p21CDKN1A as well as by targeting genes that are down-regulated in senescent cells such as RARG. PMID:19782699

  9. Expression of senescence-associated microRNAs and target genes in cellular aging and modulation by tocotrienol-rich fraction.

    PubMed

    Khee, Sharon Gwee Sian; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd; Makpol, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidences highlight the implication of microRNAs as a posttranscriptional regulator in aging. Several senescence-associated microRNAs (SA-miRNAs) are found to be differentially expressed during cellular senescence. However, the role of dietary compounds on SA-miRNAs remains elusive. This study aimed to elucidate the modulatory role of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on SA-miRNAs (miR-20a, miR-24, miR-34a, miR-106a, and miR-449a) and established target genes of miR-34a (CCND1, CDK4, and SIRT1) during replicative senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs). Primary cultures of HDFs at young and senescent were incubated with TRF at 0.5 mg/mL. Taqman microRNA assay showed significant upregulation of miR-24 and miR-34a and downregulation of miR-20a and miR-449a in senescent HDFs (P < 0.05). TRF reduced miR-34a expression in senescent HDFs and increased miR-20a expression in young HDFs and increased miR-449a expression in both young and senescent HDFs. Our results also demonstrated that ectopic expression of miR-34a reduced the expression of CDK4 significantly (P < 0.05). TRF inhibited miR-34a expression thus relieved its inhibition on CDK4 gene expression. No significant change was observed on the expression of CCND1, SIRT1, and miR-34a upstream transcriptional regulator, TP53. In conclusion tocotrienol-rich fraction prevented cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts via modulation of SA-miRNAs and target genes expression.

  10. Expression of Senescence-Associated microRNAs and Target Genes in Cellular Aging and Modulation by Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidences highlight the implication of microRNAs as a posttranscriptional regulator in aging. Several senescence-associated microRNAs (SA-miRNAs) are found to be differentially expressed during cellular senescence. However, the role of dietary compounds on SA-miRNAs remains elusive. This study aimed to elucidate the modulatory role of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on SA-miRNAs (miR-20a, miR-24, miR-34a, miR-106a, and miR-449a) and established target genes of miR-34a (CCND1, CDK4, and SIRT1) during replicative senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs). Primary cultures of HDFs at young and senescent were incubated with TRF at 0.5 mg/mL. Taqman microRNA assay showed significant upregulation of miR-24 and miR-34a and downregulation of miR-20a and miR-449a in senescent HDFs (P < 0.05). TRF reduced miR-34a expression in senescent HDFs and increased miR-20a expression in young HDFs and increased miR-449a expression in both young and senescent HDFs. Our results also demonstrated that ectopic expression of miR-34a reduced the expression of CDK4 significantly (P < 0.05). TRF inhibited miR-34a expression thus relieved its inhibition on CDK4 gene expression. No significant change was observed on the expression of CCND1, SIRT1, and miR-34a upstream transcriptional regulator, TP53. In conclusion tocotrienol-rich fraction prevented cellular senescence of human diploid fibroblasts via modulation of SA-miRNAs and target genes expression. PMID:25132913

  11. Cellular microRNA let-7c inhibits M1 protein expression of the H1N1 influenza A virus in infected human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yong-Jie; Yang, Jing; Fan, Xing-Liang; Zhao, Hai-Bao; Hu, Wei; Li, Zhen-Peng; Yu, Guang-Chuang; Ding, Xiao-Ran; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Bo, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Xiao-Fei; Zhou, Zhe; Wang, Sheng-Qi

    2012-10-01

    The influenza virus (IV) triggers a series of signalling events inside host cells and induces complex cellular responses. Studies have suggested that host factors play an essential role in IV replication. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNAs that target mRNAs, triggering either translation repression or RNA degradation. Emerging research suggests that host-derived cellular miRNAs are involved in mediating the host-IV interaction. Using miRNA microarrays, we identified several miRNAs aberrantly expressed in IV-infected human lung epithelial cells (A549). Specifically, miR-let-7c was highly up-regulated in IV-infected A549 cells. PITA and miRanda database screening indicated that the let-7c seed sequence is a perfect complementary sequence match to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of viral gene M1 (+) cRNA, but not to PB2 and PA. As detected by a luciferase reporter system, let-7c directly targeted the 3'-UTR of M1 (+) cRNA, but not PB2 and PA. To experimentally identify the function of cellular let-7c, precursor let-7c was transfected into A549 cells. Let-7c down-regulated IV M1 expression at both the (+) cRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, transfection with a let-7c inhibitor enhanced the expression of M1. Therefore, let-7c may reduce IV replication by degrading M1 (+) cRNA. This is the first report indicating that cellular miRNA regulates IV replication through the degradation of viral gene (+) cRNA by matching the 3'-UTR of the viral cRNA. These findings suggest that let-7c plays a role in protecting host cells from the virus in addition to its known cellular functions.

  12. Dynamic expression of viral and cellular microRNAs in infectious mononucleosis caused by primary Epstein-Barr virus infection in children.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liwei; Ai, Junhong; Xie, Zhengde; Zhou, Chen; Liu, Chunyan; Zhang, Hui; Shen, Kunling

    2015-12-03

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first virus identified to encode microRNAs (miRNAs). Both of viral and human cellular miRNAs are important in EBV infection. However, the dynamic expression profile of miRNAs during primary EBV infection was unknown. This study aimed to investigate the dynamic expression profile of viral and cellular miRNAs in infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by primary EBV infection. The levels of viral and cellular miRNAs were measured in fifteen pediatric IM patients at three different time-points. Fifteen healthy children who were seropositive for EBV were enrolled in the control group. Relative expression levels of miRNAs were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. EBV-miR-BHRF1-1, 1-2-3P, miR-BART13-1, 19-3p, 11-3P, 12-1, and 16-1 in IM patients of early phase were significantly higher than in healthy children. Most cellular miRNAs of B cells, such as hsa-miR-155-5p, -34a-5p, -18b-5p, -181a-5p, and -142-5p were up-regulated; while most of cellular miRNAs of CD8 + T cells, such as hsa-miR-223, -29c-3p, -181a, -200a-3p, miR-155-5p, -146a, and -142-5p were down-regulated in IM patients. With disease progression, nearly all of EBV-miRNAs decreased, especially miR-BHRF1, but at a slower rate than EBV DNA loads. Most of the cellular miRNAs of B cells, including hsa-miR-134-5p, -18b-5p, -34a-5p, and -196a-5p increased with time. However, most of the cellular miRNAs of CD8 + T cells, including hsa-let-7a-5p, -142-3p, -142-5p, and -155-5p decreased with time. Additionally, hsa-miR-155-5p of B cells and hsa-miR-18b-5p of CD8+ T cells exhibited a positive correlation with miR-BHRF1-2-5P and miR-BART2-5P (0.96 ≤ r ≤ 0.99, P < 0.05). Finally, hsa-miR-181a-5p of B cells had positive correlation with miR-BART4-3p, 4-5P, 16-1, and 22 (0.97 ≤ r ≤ 0.99, P < 0.05). Our study is the first to describe the expression profile of viral and cellular miRNAs in IM caused by primary EBV infection. These results might be the basis of

  13. Cellular Reprogramming Using Defined Factors and MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Takanori; Kuboki, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    Development of human bodies, organs, and tissues contains numerous steps of cellular differentiation including an initial zygote, embryonic stem (ES) cells, three germ layers, and multiple expertized lineages of cells. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been recently developed using defined reprogramming factors such as Nanog, Klf5, Oct3/4 (Pou5f1), Sox2, and Myc. This outstanding innovation is largely changing life science and medicine. Methods of direct reprogramming of cells into myocytes, neurons, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts have been further developed using modified combination of factors such as N-myc, L-myc, Sox9, and microRNAs in defined cell/tissue culture conditions. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are also emerging multipotent stem cells with particular microRNA expression signatures. It was shown that miRNA-720 had a role in cellular reprogramming through targeting the pluripotency factor Nanog and induction of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). This review reports histories, topics, and idea of cellular reprogramming. PMID:27382371

  14. Modeling Equilibrium of microRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lawrence W. C.

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of non-coding RNAs and the dysregulated expression of these short RNA molecules was frequently observed in cancer cells. The steady state level of microRNA concentration may differentiate the biological function of the cells between normal and impaired. To understand the steady state or equilibrium of microRNAs, their interactions with transcription factors and target genes need to be explored and visualized through prediction and network analysis algorithms. This article discusses the application of mathematical model for simulating the dynamics of network feedback loop so as to decipher the mechanism of microRNA regulation. PMID:22303331

  15. MicroRNA Expression Is Altered in an Ovalbumin-Induced Asthma Model and Targeting miR-155 with Antagomirs Reveals Cellular Specificity.

    PubMed

    Plank, Maximilian W; Maltby, Steven; Tay, Hock L; Stewart, Jessica; Eyers, Fiona; Hansbro, Philip M; Foster, Paul S

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that are differentially regulated during development and in inflammatory diseases. A role for miRNAs in allergic asthma is emerging and further investigation is required to determine whether they may serve as potential therapeutic targets. We profiled miRNA expression in murine lungs from an ovalbumin-induced allergic airways disease model, and compared expression to animals receiving dexamethasone treatment and non-allergic controls. Our analysis identified 29 miRNAs that were significantly altered during allergic inflammation. Target prediction analysis revealed novel genes with altered expression in allergic airways disease and suggests synergistic miRNA regulation of target mRNAs. To assess the impacts of one induced miRNA on pathology, we targeted miR-155-5p using a specific antagomir. Antagomir administration successfully reduced miR-155-5p expression with high specificity, but failed to alter the disease phenotype. Interestingly, further investigation revealed that antagomir delivery has variable efficacy across different immune cell types, effectively targeting myeloid cell populations, but exhibiting poor uptake in lymphocytes. Our findings demonstrate that antagomir-based targeting of miRNA function in the lung is highly specific, but highlights cell-specificity as a key limitation to be considered for antagomir-based strategies as therapeutics.

  16. Heterogeneity of microRNAs expression in cervical cancer cells: over-expression of miR-196a

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Ruiz, Vanessa; Juárez-Méndez, Sergio; Pérez-González, Oscar A; Arreola, Hugo; Paniagua-García, Lucero; Parra-Melquiadez, Miriam; Peralta-Rodríguez, Raúl; López-Romero, Ricardo; Monroy-García, Alberto; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Román-Bassaure, Edgar; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the study of microRNAs associated with neoplastic processes has increased. Patterns of microRNA expression in different cell lines and different kinds of tumors have been identified; however, little is known about the alterations in regulatory pathways and genes involved in aberrant set of microRNAs. The identification of these altered microRNAs in several cervical cancer cells and potentially deregulated pathways involved constitute the principal goals of the present study. In the present work, the expression profiles of cellular microRNAs in Cervical Cancer tissues and cell lines were explored using microRNA microarray, Affymetrix. The most over-expressed was miR-196a, which was evaluated by real time PCR, and HOXC8 protein as potential target by immunohistochemistry assay. One hundred and twenty three human microRNAs differentially expressed in the cell tumor, 64 (52%) over-expressed and 59 (48%) under-expressed were observed. Among the microRNAs over-expressed, we focused on miR-196a; at present this microRNA is poorly studied in CC. The expression of this microRNA was evaluated by qRT-PCR, and HOXC8 by immunohistochemistry assay. There is not a specific microRNA expression profile in the CC cells, neither a microRNA related to HPV presence. Furthermore, the miR-196a was over-expressed, while an absence of HOXC8 expression was observed. We suggest that miR-196a could be played as oncomiR in CC. PMID:24817935

  17. Heterogeneity of microRNAs expression in cervical cancer cells: over-expression of miR-196a.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Ruiz, Vanessa; Juárez-Méndez, Sergio; Pérez-González, Oscar A; Arreola, Hugo; Paniagua-García, Lucero; Parra-Melquiadez, Miriam; Peralta-Rodríguez, Raúl; López-Romero, Ricardo; Monroy-García, Alberto; Mantilla-Morales, Alejandra; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Román-Bassaure, Edgar; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the study of microRNAs associated with neoplastic processes has increased. Patterns of microRNA expression in different cell lines and different kinds of tumors have been identified; however, little is known about the alterations in regulatory pathways and genes involved in aberrant set of microRNAs. The identification of these altered microRNAs in several cervical cancer cells and potentially deregulated pathways involved constitute the principal goals of the present study. In the present work, the expression profiles of cellular microRNAs in Cervical Cancer tissues and cell lines were explored using microRNA microarray, Affymetrix. The most over-expressed was miR-196a, which was evaluated by real time PCR, and HOXC8 protein as potential target by immunohistochemistry assay. One hundred and twenty three human microRNAs differentially expressed in the cell tumor, 64 (52%) over-expressed and 59 (48%) under-expressed were observed. Among the microRNAs over-expressed, we focused on miR-196a; at present this microRNA is poorly studied in CC. The expression of this microRNA was evaluated by qRT-PCR, and HOXC8 by immunohistochemistry assay. There is not a specific microRNA expression profile in the CC cells, neither a microRNA related to HPV presence. Furthermore, the miR-196a was over-expressed, while an absence of HOXC8 expression was observed. We suggest that miR-196a could be played as oncomiR in CC.

  18. Next-generation sequencing of small RNAs from HIV-infected cells identifies phased microrna expression patterns and candidate novel microRNAs differentially expressed upon infection.

    PubMed

    Chang, Stewart T; Thomas, Matthew J; Sova, Pavel; Green, Richard R; Palermo, Robert E; Katze, Michael G

    2013-02-05

    HIV infection of CD4(+) T cells induces a range of host transcriptional changes in mRNAs as well as microRNAs that may coordinate changes in mRNAs. To survey these dynamic changes, we applied next-generation sequencing, analyzing the small RNA fraction of HIV-infected cells at 5, 12, and 24 h postinfection (RNA-Seq). These time points afforded a view of the transcriptomic changes occurring both before and during viral replication. In the resulting small RNA-Seq data set, we detected a phased pattern of microRNA expression. Largely distinct sets of microRNAs were found to be suppressed at 5 and 12 h postinfection, and both sets of changes rebounded later in infection. A larger set of microRNA changes was observed at 24 h postinfection. When integrated with mRNA expression data, the small RNA-Seq data indicated a role for microRNAs in transcriptional regulation, T cell activation, and cell cycle during HIV infection. As a unique benefit of next-generation sequencing, we also detected candidate novel host microRNAs differentially expressed during infection, including one whose downregulation at 24 h postinfection may allow full replication of HIV to proceed. Collectively, our data provide a uniquely comprehensive view of the changes in host microRNAs induced by HIV during cellular infection. IMPORTANCE New sequencing technologies allow unprecedented views into changes occurring in virus-infected cells, including comprehensive and largely unbiased measurements of different types of RNA. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to profile dynamic changes in cellular microRNAs occurring in HIV-infected cells. The sensitivity afforded by sequencing allowed us to detect changes in microRNA expression early in infection, before the onset of viral replication. A phased pattern of expression was evident among these microRNAs, and many that were initially suppressed were later overexpressed at the height of infection, providing unique signatures of infection. By

  19. Micro-RNA Expression and Function in Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Sukhinder K.; Croce, Carlo M.; Garzon, Ramiro

    2011-01-01

    The recent discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) has introduced a new layer of complexity to the process of gene regulation. MiRNAs are essential for cellular function, and their dysregulation often results in disease. Study of miRNA expression and function in animal models and human lymphomas has improved our knowledge of the pathogenesis of this heterogeneous disease. In this paper, we attempt to describe the expression of miRNAs and their function in lymphomas and discuss potential miRNA-based therapies in the diagnosis and treatment of lymphomas. PMID:21461378

  20. Regulation of mammalian microRNA processing and function by cellular signaling and subcellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Smalheiser, Neil R.

    2008-01-01

    For many microRNAs, in many normal tissues and in cancer cells, the cellular levels of mature microRNAs are not simply determined by transcription of microRNA genes. This mini-review will discuss how microRNA biogenesis and function can be regulated by various nuclear and cytoplasmic processing events, including emerging evidence that microRNA pathway components can be selectively regulated by control of their subcellular localization and by modifications that occur during dynamic cellular signaling. Finally, I will briefly summarize studies of microRNAs in synaptic fractions of adult mouse forebrain, which may serve as a model for other cell types as well. PMID:18433727

  1. MicroRNA expression profiling of the developing murine upper lip.

    PubMed

    Warner, Dennis R; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Brock, Guy; Webb, Cindy L; Michele Pisano, M; Greene, Robert M

    2014-08-01

    Clefts of the lip and palate are thought to be caused by genetic and environmental insults but the role of epigenetic mechanisms underlying this common birth defect are unknown. We analyzed the expression of over 600 microRNAs in the murine medial nasal and maxillary processes isolated on GD10.0-GD11.5 to identify those expressed during development of the upper lip and analyzed spatial expression of a subset. A total of 142 microRNAs were differentially expressed across gestation days 10.0-11.5 in the medial nasal processes, and 66 in the maxillary processes of the first branchial arch with 45 common to both. Of the microRNAs exhibiting the largest percent increase in both facial processes were five members of the Let-7 family. Among those with the greatest decrease in expression from GD10.0 to GD11.5 were members of the microRNA-302/367 family that have been implicated in cellular reprogramming. The distribution of expression of microRNA-199a-3p and Let-7i was determined by in situ hybridization and revealed widespread expression in both medial nasal and maxillary facial process, while that for microRNA-203 was much more limited. MicroRNAs are dynamically expressed in the tissues that form the upper lip and several were identified that target mRNAs known to be important for its development, including those that regulate the two main isoforms of p63 (microRNA-203 and microRNA-302/367 family). Integration of these data with corresponding proteomic datasets will lead to a greater appreciation of epigenetic regulation of lip development and provide a better understanding of potential causes of cleft lip.

  2. MicroRNA expression and virulence in pandemic influenza virus-infected mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Chan, Eric Y; Li, Jiangning; Ni, Chester; Peng, Xinxia; Rosenzweig, Elizabeth; Tumpey, Terrence M; Katze, Michael G

    2010-03-01

    The worst known H1N1 influenza pandemic in history resulted in more than 20 million deaths in 1918 and 1919. Although the underlying mechanism causing the extreme virulence of the 1918 influenza virus is still obscure, our previous functional genomics analyses revealed a correlation between the lethality of the reconstructed 1918 influenza virus (r1918) in mice and a unique gene expression pattern associated with severe immune responses in the lungs. Lately, microRNAs have emerged as a class of crucial regulators for gene expression. To determine whether differential expression of cellular microRNAs plays a role in the host response to r1918 infection, we compared the lung cellular "microRNAome" of mice infected by r1918 virus with that of mice infected by a nonlethal seasonal influenza virus, A/Texas/36/91. We found that a group of microRNAs, including miR-200a and miR-223, were differentially expressed in response to influenza virus infection and that r1918 and A/Texas/36/91 infection induced distinct microRNA expression profiles. Moreover, we observed significant enrichment in the number of predicted cellular target mRNAs whose expression was inversely correlated with the expression of these microRNAs. Intriguingly, gene ontology analysis revealed that many of these mRNAs play roles in immune response and cell death pathways, which are known to be associated with the extreme virulence of r1918. This is the first demonstration that cellular gene expression patterns in influenza virus-infected mice may be attributed in part to microRNA regulation and that such regulation may be a contributing factor to the extreme virulence of the r1918.

  3. The expanding horizon of MicroRNAs in cellular reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Adlakha, Yogita K; Seth, Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    Research over the last few years in cellular reprogramming has enlightened the magical potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) in changing the cell fate from somatic to pluripotent. Recent investigations on exploring the role(s) of miRNAs in somatic cell reprogramming revealed that they target a wide range of molecules and refine their protein output. This leads to fine tuning of distinct cellular processes including cell cycle, signalling pathways, transcriptional activation/silencing and epigenetic modelling. The concerted actions of miRNA on different pathways simultaneously strengthen the transition from a differentiated to de-differentiated state. Despite the well characterized transcriptional and epigenetic machinery underlying somatic cell reprogramming, the molecular circuitry for miRNA mediated cellular reprogramming is rather fragmented. This review summarizes recent findings addressing the role of miRNAs in inducing or suppressing reprogramming thus uncovering novel potentials of miRNAs as regulators of induced pluripotency maintenance, establishment and associated signalling pathways. Our bioinformatic analysis sheds light on various unexplored biological processes and pathways associated with reprogramming inducing miRNAs, thus helps in identifying roadblocks to full reprogramming. Specifically, the biological significance of highly conserved and most studied miRNA cluster, i.e. miR-302-367, in reprogramming is also highlighted. Further, roles of miRNAs in the differentiation of neurons from iPSCs are discussed. A recent approach of direct conversion or transdifferentiation of differentiated cells into neurons by miRNAs is also elaborated. This approach is now widely gaining impetus for the generation of neurological patient's brain cells directly from his/her somatic cells in an efficient and safe manner. Thus, decoding the intricate circuitry between miRNAs and other gene regulatory networks will not only uncover novel pathways in the direct reprogramming of

  4. MicroRNA Regulation of Oxidative Stress-Induced Cellular Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Wedel, Sophia; Cavinato, Maria; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder

    2017-01-01

    Aging is a time-related process of functional deterioration at cellular, tissue, organelle, and organismal level that ultimately brings life to end. Cellular senescence, a state of permanent cell growth arrest in response to cellular stress, is believed to be the driver of the aging process and age-related disorders. The free radical theory of aging, referred to as oxidative stress (OS) theory below, is one of the most studied aging promoting mechanisms. In addition, genetics and epigenetics also play large roles in accelerating and/or delaying the onset of aging and aging-related diseases. Among various epigenetic events, microRNAs (miRNAs) turned out to be important players in controlling OS, aging, and cellular senescence. miRNAs can generate rapid and reversible responses and, therefore, are ideal players for mediating an adaptive response against stress through their capacity to fine-tune gene expression. However, the importance of miRNAs in regulating OS in the context of aging and cellular senescence is largely unknown. The purpose of our article is to highlight recent advancements in the regulatory role of miRNAs in OS-induced cellular senescence. PMID:28593022

  5. Longitudinal Examination of the Intestinal Lamina Propria Cellular Compartment of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques Provides Broader and Deeper Insights into the Link between Aberrant MicroRNA Expression and Persistent Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinay; Torben, Workineh; Kenway, Carys S.; Schiro, Faith R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic immune activation/inflammation driven by factors like microbial translocation is a key determinant of human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) disease progression. Although extensive research on inflammation has focused on studying protein regulators, increasing evidence suggests a critical role for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating several aspects of the immune/inflammatory response and immune cell proliferation, differentiation, and activation. To understand their immunoregulatory role, we profiled miRNA expression sequentially in intestinal lamina propria leukocytes (LPLs) of eight macaques before and at 21, 90, and 180 days postinfection (dpi). At 21 dpi, ∼20 and 9 miRNAs were up- and downregulated, respectively. However, at 90 dpi (n = 60) and 180 dpi (n = 44), ≥75% of miRNAs showed decreased expression. Notably, the T-cell activation-associated miR-15b, miR-142-3p, miR-142-5p, and miR-150 expression was significantly downregulated at 90 and 180 dpi. Out of ∼10 downregulated miRNAs predicted to regulate CD69, we confirmed miR-92a to directly target CD69. Interestingly, the SIV-induced miR-190b expression was elevated at all time points. Additionally, elevated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsive miR-146b-5p expression at 180 dpi was confirmed in primary intestinal macrophages following LPS treatment in vitro. Further, reporter and overexpression assays validated IRAK1 (interleukin-1 receptor 1 kinase) as a direct miR-150 target. Furthermore, IRAK1 protein levels were markedly elevated in intestinal LPLs and epithelium. Finally, blockade of CD8+ T-cell activation/proliferation with delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) significantly prevented miR-150 downregulation and IRAK1 upregulation. Our findings suggest that miR-150 downregulation during T-cell activation disrupts the translational control of IRAK1, facilitating persistent gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. Finally, the ability of Δ9-THC to block the mi

  6. Microbiota modulate host gene expression via microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Dalmasso, Guillaume; Nguyen, Hang Thi Thu; Yan, Yutao; Laroui, Hamed; Charania, Moiz A; Ayyadurai, Saravanan; Sitaraman, Shanthi V; Merlin, Didier

    2011-04-29

    Microbiota are known to modulate host gene expression, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are importantly implicated in many cellular functions by post-transcriptionally regulating gene expression via binding to the 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of the target mRNAs. However, a role for miRNAs in microbiota-host interactions remains unknown. Here we investigated if miRNAs are involved in microbiota-mediated regulation of host gene expression. Germ-free mice were colonized with the microbiota from pathogen-free mice. Comparative profiling of miRNA expression using miRNA arrays revealed one and eight miRNAs that were differently expressed in the ileum and the colon, respectively, of colonized mice relative to germ-free mice. A computational approach was then employed to predict genes that were potentially targeted by the dysregulated miRNAs during colonization. Overlapping the miRNA potential targets with the microbiota-induced dysregulated genes detected by a DNA microarray performed in parallel revealed several host genes that were regulated by miRNAs in response to colonization. Among them, Abcc3 was identified as a highly potential miRNA target during colonization. Using the murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cell line, we demonstrated that mmu-miR-665, which was dysregulated during colonization, down-regulated Abcc3 expression by directly targeting the Abcc3 3'-UTR. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that microbiota modulate host microRNA expression, which could in turn regulate host gene expression.

  7. Induced Packaging of Cellular MicroRNAs into HIV-1 Virions Can Inhibit Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Bogerd, Hal P.; Kennedy, Edward M.; Whisnant, Adam W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Analysis of the incorporation of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) into highly purified HIV-1 virions revealed that this largely, but not entirely, mirrored the level of miRNA expression in the producer CD4+ T cells. Specifically, of the 58 cellular miRNAs detected at significant levels in the producer cells, only 5 were found in virions at a level 2- to 4-fold higher than that predicted on the basis of random cytoplasmic sampling. Of note, these included two miRNAs, miR-155 and miR-92a, that were reported previously to at least weakly bind HIV-1 transcripts. To test whether miRNA binding to the HIV-1 genome can induce virion incorporation, artificial miRNA target sites were introduced into the viral genome and a 10- to 40-fold increase in the packaging of the cognate miRNAs into virions was then observed, leading to the recruitment of up to 1.6 miRNA copies per virion. Importantly, this high level of incorporation significantly inhibited HIV-1 virion infectivity. These results suggest that target sites for cellular miRNAs can inhibit RNA virus replication at two distinct steps, i.e., during infection and during viral gene expression, thus explaining why a range of different RNA viruses appear to have evolved to avoid cellular miRNA binding to their genome. PMID:28096489

  8. [Significance of microRNA expression in body fluids in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors].

    PubMed

    Igaz, Iván; Topa, Lajos

    2014-01-05

    MicroRNAs are small, non-coding, single strained RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. They are involved in all major aspects of cellular functions, such as cell cycle, differentiation, migration, apoptosis etc. The role of microRNAs as potential biomarkers of several malignant diseases is being intensively investigated, since they can be found in the body fluids, too, besides their usual intracellular localisation. MicroRNAs have been detected in blood, saliva, stool, breast milk, urine, bile etc. In this review the authors discuss recent findings in the field of microRNAs in stool, bile and saliva, underlying their potential significance in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors.

  9. Differential expression of microRNAs in mouse embryonic bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Benchun; Cunha, Gerald R.; Baskin, Laurence S.

    2009-08-07

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in several biological processes including development, differentiation and proliferation. Analysis of miRNA expression patterns in the process of embryogenesis may have substantial value in determining the mechanism of embryonic bladder development as well as for eventual therapeutic intervention. The miRNA expression profiles are distinct among the cellular types and embryonic stages as demonstrated by microarray technology and validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR approach. Remarkably, the miRNA expression patterns suggested that unique miRNAs from epithelial and submucosal areas are responsible for mesenchymal cellular differentiation, especially regarding bladder smooth muscle cells. Our data show that miRNA expression patterns are unique in particular cell types of mouse bladder at specific developmental stages, reflecting the apparent lineage and differentiation status within the embryonic bladder. The identification of unique miRNAs expression before and after smooth muscle differentiation in site-specific area of the bladder indicates their roles in embryogenesis and may aid in future clinical intervention.

  10. Fluctuating expression of microRNAs in adenovirus infected cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxing; Chen, Maoshan; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Pettersson, Ulf

    2015-04-01

    The changes in cellular microRNA (miRNA) expression during the course of an adenovirus type 2 infection in human lung fibroblast were studied by deep RNA sequencing. Expressions of 175 miRNAs with over 100 transcripts per million nucleotides were changed more than 1.5-fold. The expression patterns of these miRNAs changed dramatically during the course of the infection, from upregulation of the miRNAs known as tumor suppressors (such as miR-22, miR-320, let-7, miR-181b, and miR-155) and down-regulation of oncogenic miRNAs (such as miR-21 and miR-31) early to downregulation of tumor suppressor miRNAs (such as let-7 family, mir-30 family, 23/27 cluster) and upregulation of oncogenic miRNAs (include miR-125, miR-27, miR-191) late after infection. The switch in miRNA expression pattern occurred when adenovirus DNA replication started. Furthermore, deregulation of cellular miRNA expression was a step-wise and special sets of miRNAs were deregulated in different phases of infection.

  11. Seasonal variation of urinary microRNA expression in male goats (Capra hircus) as assessed by next generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Longpre, Kristy M; Kinstlinger, Noah S; Mead, Edward A; Wang, Yongping; Thekkumthala, Austin P; Carreno, Katherine A; Hot, Azra; Keefer, Jennifer M; Tully, Luke; Katz, Larry S; Pietrzykowski, Andrzej Z

    2014-04-01

    Testosterone plays a key role in preparation of a male domesticated goat (Capra hircus) to breeding season including changes in the urogenital tract of a male goat (buck). microRNAs are important regulators of cellular metabolism, differentiation and function. They are powerful intermediaries of hormonal activity in the body, including the urogenital tract. We investigated seasonal changes in expression of microRNAs in goat buck urine and their potential consequences using next generation sequencing (microRNA-Seq). We determined the location of each microRNA gene in the goat genome. Testosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay and the androgen receptor binding sites (ARBS) in the promoters of the microRNA genes were determined by MatInspector. The overall impact of regulated microRNAs on cellular physiology was assessed by mirPath. We observed high testosterone levels during the breeding season and changes in the expression of forty microRNAs. Nineteen microRNAs were upregulated, while twenty-one were downregulated. We identified several ARBS in the promoters of regulated microRNAs. Notably, the mostly inhibited microRNA, miR-1246, has a unique set of several gene copy variants associated with a cluster of androgen receptor binding sites. Concomitant changes in regulated microRNA expression could promote transcription, proliferation and differentiation of urogenital tract cells. Together, these findings indicate that in a domesticated goat (Capra hircus), there are specific changes in the microRNA expression profile in buck urine during breeding season, which could be attributable to high testosterone levels during breeding, and could help in preparation of the urogenital tract for high metabolic demands of that season. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Opposite Prognostic Significance of Cellular and Serum Circulating MicroRNA-150 in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Stamatopoulos, Basile; Van Damme, Michaël; Crompot, Emerence; Dessars, Barbara; Housni, Hakim El; Mineur, Philippe; Meuleman, Nathalie; Bron, Dominique; Lagneaux, Laurence

    2015-01-09

    MicroRNAs (or miRs) play a crucial role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) physiopathology and prognosis. In addition, circulating microRNAs in body fluids have been proposed as new biomarkers. We investigated the expression of matched cellular and serum circulating microRNA-150 by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) from purified CD19(+) cells or from CLL serums obtained at diagnosis in a cohort of 273/252 CLL patients with a median follow-up of 78 months (range 7-380) and correlated it to other biological or clinical parameters. We showed that miR-150 was significantly overexpressed in CLL cells/serums compared with healthy subjects (P < 0.0001). Among CLL patients, a low cellular miR-150 expression level was associated with tumor burden, disease aggressiveness and poor prognostic factors. In contrast, a high level of serum miR-150 was associated with tumor burden markers and some markers of poor prognosis. Similarly, cellular and serum miR-150 also predicted treatment-free survival (TFS) and overall survival (OS) in an opposite manner: patients with low cellular/serum miR-150 levels have median TFS of 40/111 months compared with high-level patients who have a median TFS of 122/60 months (P < 0.0001/P = 0.0066). Similar results were observed for OS. We also found that cellular and serum miR-150 levels vary in an opposite manner during disease progression and that cellular miR-150 could be regulated by its release into the extracellular space. Cellular and serum levels of miR-150 are associated with opposite clinical prognoses and could be used to molecularly monitor disease evolution as a new prognostic factor in CLL.

  13. Cellular versus viral microRNAs in host–virus interaction

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Zhumur; Mallick, Bibekanand; Chakrabarti, Jayprokas

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mark a new paradigm of RNA-directed gene expression regulation in a wide spectrum of biological systems. These small non-coding RNAs can contribute to the repertoire of host-pathogen interactions during viral infection. This interplay has important consequences, both for the virus and the host. There have been reported evidences of host-cellular miRNAs modulating the expression of various viral genes, thereby playing a pivotal role in the host–pathogen interaction network. In the hide-and-seek game between the pathogens and the infected host, viruses have evolved highly sophisticated gene-silencing mechanisms to evade host-immune response. Recent reports indicate that virus too encode miRNAs that protect them against cellular antiviral response. Furthermore, they may exploit the cellular miRNA pathway to their own advantage. Nevertheless, our increasing knowledge of the host–virus interaction at the molecular level should lead us toward possible explanations to viral tropism, latency and oncogenesis along with the development of an effective, durable and nontoxic antiviral therapy. Here, we summarize the recent updates on miRNA-induced gene-silencing mechanism, modulating host–virus interactions with a glimpse of the miRNA-based antiviral therapy for near future. PMID:19095692

  14. Differential expression of microRNAs during allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Wei, L; Wang, M; Qu, X; Mah, A; Xiong, X; Harris, A G C; Phillips, L K; Martinez, O M; Krams, S M

    2012-05-01

    MicrorRNA are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate the posttranscriptional expression of target genes. In addition to being involved in many biologic processes, microRNAs are important regulators in innate and adaptive immune responses. Distinct sets of expressed microRNAs are found in different cell types and tissues and aberrant expression of microRNAs is associated with many disease states. MicroRNA expression was examined in a model of heterotopic heart transplantation by microarray analyses and a unique profile was detected in rejecting allogeneic transplants (BALB/c → C57BL/6) as compared to syngeneic transplants (C57BL/6 → C57BL/6). The microRNA miR-182 was significantly increased in rejecting cardiac allografts and in mononuclear cells that infiltrate the grafts. Forkhead box (FOX) proteins are a family of important transcription factors and FOXO1 is a target of miR-182. As miR-182 increases after transplant, there is a concomitant posttranscriptional decrease in FOXO1 expression in heart allografts that is localized to both the cardiomyocytes and CD3(+) T cells. The microRNA miR-182 is significantly increased in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma during graft rejection suggesting potential as a biomarker of graft status. Our results identify microRNAs that may regulate alloimmune responses and graft outcomes.

  15. Comparison of microRNA expression levels between initial and recurrent glioblastoma specimens.

    PubMed

    Ilhan-Mutlu, Aysegül; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Berghoff, Anna Sophie; Widhalm, Georg; Marosi, Christine; Wagner, Ludwig; Preusser, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    Glioblastoma is the most frequent primary brain tumour in adults. Recent therapeutic advances increased patient's survival, but tumour recurrence inevitably occurs. The pathobiological mechanisms involved in glioblastoma recurrence are still unclear. MicroRNAs are small RNAs proposed o have important roles for cancer including proliferation, aggressiveness and metastases development. There exist only few data on the involvement of microRNAs in glioblastoma recurrence. We selected the following 7 microRNAs with potential relevance for glioblastoma pathobiology by means of a comprehensive literature search: microRNA-10b, microRNA-21, microRNA-181b, microRNA-181c, microRNA-195, microRNA-221 and microRNA-222. We further selected 15 primary glioblastoma patients, of whom formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue (FFPE) of the initial and recurrence surgery were available. All patients had received first line treatment consisting of postoperative combined radiochemotherapy with temozolomide (n = 15). Non-neoplastic brain tissue samples from 3 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy served as control. The expression of the microRNAs were analysed by RT-qPCR. These were correlated with each other and with clinical parameters. All microRNAs showed detectable levels of expressions in glioblastoma group, whereas microRNA-10b was not detectable in epilepsy patients. MicroRNAs except microRNA-21 showed significantly higher levels in epilepsy patients when compared to the levels of first resection of glioblastoma. Comparison of microRNA levels between first and second resections revealed no significant change. Cox regression analyses showed no significant association of microRNA expression levels in the tumor tissue with progression free survival times. Expression levels of microRNA-10b, microRNA-21, microRNA-181b, microRNA-181c, microRNA-195, microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 do not differ significantly between initial and recurrent glioblastoma.

  16. MicroRNA expression profiling and DNA methylation signature for deregulated microRNA in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Juan; Díaz-Lagares, Angel; Salgado, Rocío; Servitje, Octavio; Climent, Fina; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L; Pérez-Ferriols, Amparo; Garcia-Muret, Maria P; Estrach, Teresa; Garcia, Mar; Nonell, Lara; Esteller, Manel; Pujol, Ramon M; Espinet, Blanca; Gallardo, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNAs usually regulate gene expression negatively, and aberrant expression has been involved in the development of several types of cancers. Microarray profiling of microRNA expression was performed to define a microRNA signature in a series of mycosis fungoides tumor stage (MFt, n=21) and CD30+ primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (CD30+ cALCL, n=11) samples in comparison with inflammatory dermatoses (ID, n=5). Supervised clustering confirmed a distinctive microRNA profile for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) with respect to ID. A 40 microRNA signature was found in MFt including upregulated onco-microRNAs (miR-146a, miR-142-3p/5p, miR-21, miR-181a/b, and miR-155) and downregulated tumor-suppressor microRNAs (miR-200ab/429 cluster, miR-10b, miR-193b, miR-141/200c, and miR-23b/27b). Regarding CD30+ cALCL, 39 differentially expressed microRNAs were identified. Particularly, overexpression of miR-155, miR-21, or miR-142-3p/5p and downregulation of the miR-141/200c clusters were observed. DNA methylation in microRNA gene promoters, as expression regulatory mechanism for deregulated microRNAs, was analyzed using Infinium 450K array and approximately one-third of the differentially expressed microRNAs showed significant DNA methylation differences. Two different microRNA methylation signatures for MFt and CD30+ cALCL were found. Correlation analysis showed an inverse relationship for microRNA promoter methylation and microRNA expression. These results reveal a subgroup-specific epigenetically regulated microRNA signatures for MFt and CD30+ cALCL patients.

  17. MicroRNA expression profiles differentiate chronic pain condition subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Ciszek, Brittney P.; Khan, Asma A.; Dang, Hong; Slade, Gary D.; Smith, Shad; Bair, Eric; Maixner, William; Zolnoun, Denniz; Nackley, Andrea G.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain is a significant healthcare problem, ineffectively treated due to its unclear etiology and heterogeneous clinical presentation. Emerging evidence demonstrates that microRNAs regulate the expression of pain-relevant genes, yet little is known about their role in chronic pain. Here, we evaluate the relationship between pain, psychological characteristics, plasma cytokines and whole blood microRNAs in 22 healthy controls (HC); 33 subjects with chronic pelvic pain (vestibulodynia: VBD); and 23 subjects with VBD and irritable bowel syndrome (VBD+IBS). VBD subjects were similar to HCs in self-reported pain, psychological profiles and remote bodily pain. VBD+IBS subjects reported decreased health and function; and an increase in headaches, somatization and remote bodily pain. Furthermore, VBD subjects exhibited a balance in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, while VBD+IBS subjects failed to exhibit a compensatory increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines. VBD subjects differed from controls in expression of 10 microRNAs of predicted importance for pain and estrogen signaling. VBD+IBS subjects differed from controls in expression of 11 microRNAs of predicted importance for pain, cell physiology and insulin signaling. MicroRNA expression was correlated with pain-relevant phenotypes and cytokine levels. These results suggest microRNAs represent a valuable tool for differentiating VBD subtypes (localized pain with apparent peripheral neurosensory disruption versus widespread pain with a central sensory contribution) that may require different treatment approaches. PMID:26166255

  18. Identification of microRNAs dysregulated in cellular senescence driven by endogenous genotoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Nidadavolu, Lolita S.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Khan, Saleem A.

    2013-01-01

    XFE progeroid syndrome, a disease of accelerated aging caused by deficiency in the DNA repair endonuclease XPF-ERCC1, is modeled by Ercc1 knockout and hypomorphic mice. Tissues and primary cells from these mice senesce prematurely, offering a unique opportunity to identify factors that regulate senescence and aging. We compared microRNA (miRNA) expression in Ercc1−/− primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and wild-type (WT) MEFs in different growth conditions to identify miRNAs that drive cellular senescence. Microarray analysis showed three differentially expressed miRNAs in passage 7 (P7) Ercc1−/− MEFs grown at 20% O2 compared to Ercc1−/− MEFs grown at 3% O2. Thirty-six differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in Ercc1−/− MEFs at P7 compared to early passage (P3) in 3% O2. Eight of these miRNAs (miR-449a, miR-455*, miR-128, miR-497, miR-543, miR-450b-3p, miR-872 and miR-10b) were similarly downregulated in the liver of progeroid Ercc1−/Δ and old WT mice compared to adult WT mice, a tissue that senesces with aging. Three miRNAs (miR-449a, miR-455* and miR-128) were also downregulated in Ercc1−/Δ and WT old mice kidneys compared to young WT mice. We also discovered that the miRNA expression regulator Dicer is significantly downregulated in tissues of old mice and late passage cells compared to young controls. Collectively these results support the conclusion that the miRNAs identified may play an important role in staving off cellular senescence and their altered expression could be indicative of aging. PMID:23852002

  19. microRNA expression in the biology, prognosis, and therapy of Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Roccaro, Aldo M; Sacco, Antonio; Chen, Changzhong; Runnels, Judith; Leleu, Xavier; Azab, Feda; Azab, Abdel Kareem; Jia, Xiaoying; Ngo, Hai T; Melhem, Molly R; Burwick, Nicholas; Varticovski, Lyuba; Novina, Carl D; Rollins, Barrett J; Anderson, Kenneth C; Ghobrial, Irene M

    2009-04-30

    Multilevel genetic characterization of Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is required to improve our understanding of the underlying molecular changes that lead to the initiation and progression of this disease. We performed microRNA-expression profiling of bone marrow-derived CD19(+) WM cells, compared with their normal cellular counterparts and validated data by quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We identified a WM-specific microRNA signature characterized by increased expression of microRNA-363*/-206/-494/-155/-184/-542-3p, and decreased expression of microRNA-9* (ANOVA; P < .01). We found that microRNA-155 regulates proliferation and growth of WM cells in vitro and in vivo, by inhibiting MAPK/ERK, PI3/AKT, and NF-kappaB pathways. Potential microRNA-155 target genes were identified using gene-expression profiling and included genes involved in cell-cycle progression, adhesion, and migration. Importantly, increased expression of the 6 miRNAs significantly correlated with a poorer outcome predicted by the International Prognostic Staging System for WM. We further demonstrated that therapeutic agents commonly used in WM alter the levels of the major miRNAs identified, by inducing downmodulation of 5 increased miRNAs and up-modulation of patient-downexpressed miRNA-9*. These data indicate that microRNAs play a pivotal role in the biology of WM; represent important prognostic marker; and provide the basis for the development of new microRNA-based targeted therapies in WM.

  20. Cellular microRNAs up-regulate transcription via interaction with promoter TATA-box motifs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yijun; Fan, Miaomiao; Zhang, Xue; Huang, Feng; Wu, Kang; Zhang, Junsong; Liu, Jun; Huang, Zhuoqiong; Luo, Haihua; Tao, Liang; Zhang, Hui

    2014-12-01

    The TATA box represents one of the most prevalent core promoters where the pre-initiation complexes (PICs) for gene transcription are assembled. This assembly is crucial for transcription initiation and well regulated. Here we show that some cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and TATA box-binding protein (TBP) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Among them, let-7i sequence specifically binds to the TATA-box motif of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene and elevates IL-2 mRNA and protein production in CD4(+) T-lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. Through direct interaction with the TATA-box motif, let-7i facilitates the PIC assembly and transcription initiation of IL-2 promoter. Several other cellular miRNAs, such as mir-138, mir-92a or mir-181d, also enhance the promoter activities via binding to the TATA-box motifs of insulin, calcitonin or c-myc, respectively. In agreement with the finding that an HIV-1-encoded miRNA could enhance viral replication through targeting the viral promoter TATA-box motif, our data demonstrate that the interaction with core transcription machinery is a novel mechanism for miRNAs to regulate gene expression.

  1. Principles of microRNA Regulation Revealed Through Modeling microRNA Expression Quantitative Trait Loci.

    PubMed

    Budach, Stefan; Heinig, Matthias; Marsico, Annalisa

    2016-08-01

    Extensive work has been dedicated to study mechanisms of microRNA-mediated gene regulation. However, the transcriptional regulation of microRNAs themselves is far less well understood, due to difficulties determining the transcription start sites of transient primary transcripts. This challenge can be addressed using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) whose regulatory effects represent a natural source of perturbation of cis-regulatory elements. Here we used previously published cis-microRNA-eQTL data for the human GM12878 cell line, promoter predictions, and other functional annotations to determine the relationship between functional elements and microRNA regulation. We built a logistic regression model that classifies microRNA/SNP pairs into eQTLs or non-eQTLs with 85% accuracy; shows microRNA-eQTL enrichment for microRNA precursors, promoters, enhancers, and transcription factor binding sites; and depletion for repressed chromatin. Interestingly, although there is a large overlap between microRNA eQTLs and messenger RNA eQTLs of host genes, 74% of these shared eQTLs affect microRNA and host expression independently. Considering microRNA-only eQTLs we find a significant enrichment for intronic promoters, validating the existence of alternative promoters for intragenic microRNAs. Finally, in line with the GM12878 cell line derived from B cells, we find genome-wide association (GWA) variants associated to blood-related traits more likely to be microRNA eQTLs than random GWA and non-GWA variants, aiding the interpretation of GWA results. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. Principles of microRNA Regulation Revealed Through Modeling microRNA Expression Quantitative Trait Loci

    PubMed Central

    Budach, Stefan; Heinig, Matthias; Marsico, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Extensive work has been dedicated to study mechanisms of microRNA-mediated gene regulation. However, the transcriptional regulation of microRNAs themselves is far less well understood, due to difficulties determining the transcription start sites of transient primary transcripts. This challenge can be addressed using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) whose regulatory effects represent a natural source of perturbation of cis-regulatory elements. Here we used previously published cis-microRNA-eQTL data for the human GM12878 cell line, promoter predictions, and other functional annotations to determine the relationship between functional elements and microRNA regulation. We built a logistic regression model that classifies microRNA/SNP pairs into eQTLs or non-eQTLs with 85% accuracy; shows microRNA-eQTL enrichment for microRNA precursors, promoters, enhancers, and transcription factor binding sites; and depletion for repressed chromatin. Interestingly, although there is a large overlap between microRNA eQTLs and messenger RNA eQTLs of host genes, 74% of these shared eQTLs affect microRNA and host expression independently. Considering microRNA-only eQTLs we find a significant enrichment for intronic promoters, validating the existence of alternative promoters for intragenic microRNAs. Finally, in line with the GM12878 cell line derived from B cells, we find genome-wide association (GWA) variants associated to blood-related traits more likely to be microRNA eQTLs than random GWA and non-GWA variants, aiding the interpretation of GWA results. PMID:27260304

  3. Cellular and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus microRNAs in sepsis and surgical trauma

    PubMed Central

    Tudor, S; Giza, D E; Lin, H Y; Fabris, L; Yoshiaki, K; D'Abundo, L; Toale, K M; Shimizu, M; Ferracin, M; Challagundla, K B; Angelica Cortez, M; Fuentes-Mattei, E; Tulbure, D; Gonzalez, C; Henderson, J; Row, M; Rice, T W; Ivan, C; Negrini, M; Fabbri, M; Morris, J S; Yeung, S-C J; Vasilescu, C; Calin, G A

    2014-01-01

    Once a patient is in septic shock, survival rates drop by 7.6% for every hour of delay in antibiotic therapy. Biomarkers based on the molecular mechanism of sepsis are important for timely diagnosis and triage. Here, we study the potential roles of a panel of cellular and viral miRNAs as sepsis biomarkers. We performed genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling in leukocytes from septic patients and nonseptic controls, combined with quantitative RT-PCR in plasmas from two cohorts of septic patients, two cohorts of nonseptic surgical patients and healthy volunteers. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, miRNA transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to study the effects of Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) miRNAs on interleukin's secretion. Differences related to sepsis etiology were noted for plasma levels of 10 cellular and 2 KSHV miRNAs (miR-K-10b and miR-K-12-12*) between septic and nonseptic patients. All the sepsis groups had high KSHV miRNAs levels compared with controls; Afro-American patients had higher levels of KSHV-miR-K12-12* than non-Afro-American patients. Both KSHV miRNAs were increased on postoperative day 1, but returned to baseline on day 7; they acted as direct agonists of Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8), which might explain the increased secretion of the IL-6 and IL-10. Cellular and KSHV miRNAs are differentially expressed in sepsis and early postsurgical patients and may be exploited for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Increased miR-K-10b and miR-K12-12* are functionally involved in sepsis as agonists of TLR8, forming a positive feedback that may lead to cytokine dysregulation. PMID:25476907

  4. Cellular and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus microRNAs in sepsis and surgical trauma.

    PubMed

    Tudor, S; Giza, D E; Lin, H Y; Fabris, L; Yoshiaki, K; D'Abundo, L; Toale, K M; Shimizu, M; Ferracin, M; Challagundla, K B; Cortez, M Angelica; Fuentes-Mattei, E; Tulbure, D; Gonzalez, C; Henderson, J; Row, M; Rice, T W; Ivan, C; Negrini, M; Fabbri, M; Morris, J S; Yeung, S-C J; Vasilescu, C; Calin, G A

    2014-12-04

    Once a patient is in septic shock, survival rates drop by 7.6% for every hour of delay in antibiotic therapy. Biomarkers based on the molecular mechanism of sepsis are important for timely diagnosis and triage. Here, we study the potential roles of a panel of cellular and viral miRNAs as sepsis biomarkers. We performed genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling in leukocytes from septic patients and nonseptic controls, combined with quantitative RT-PCR in plasmas from two cohorts of septic patients, two cohorts of nonseptic surgical patients and healthy volunteers. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, miRNA transfection and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to study the effects of Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) miRNAs on interleukin's secretion. Differences related to sepsis etiology were noted for plasma levels of 10 cellular and 2 KSHV miRNAs (miR-K-10b and miR-K-12-12*) between septic and nonseptic patients. All the sepsis groups had high KSHV miRNAs levels compared with controls; Afro-American patients had higher levels of KSHV-miR-K12-12* than non-Afro-American patients. Both KSHV miRNAs were increased on postoperative day 1, but returned to baseline on day 7; they acted as direct agonists of Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8), which might explain the increased secretion of the IL-6 and IL-10. Cellular and KSHV miRNAs are differentially expressed in sepsis and early postsurgical patients and may be exploited for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Increased miR-K-10b and miR-K12-12* are functionally involved in sepsis as agonists of TLR8, forming a positive feedback that may lead to cytokine dysregulation.

  5. MicroRNA expression analysis using the Affymetrix Platform.

    PubMed

    Dee, Suzanne; Getts, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Microarrays have been used extensively for messenger RNA expression monitoring. Recently, microarrays have been designed to interrogate expression levels of noncoding RNAs. Here, we describe methods for RNA labeling and the use of a miRNA array to identify and measure microRNA present in RNA samples.

  6. MicroRNA-29 induces cellular senescence in aging muscle through multiple signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhaoyong; Klein, Janet D.; Mitch, William E.; Zhang, Liping; Martinez, Ivan; Wang, Xiaonan H.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the development of aging-induced muscle atrophy are unclear. By microRNA array and individual qPCR analyses, we found significant up-regulation of miR-29 in muscles of aged rodents vs. results in young. With aging, p85α, IGF-1 and B-myb muscle levels were lower while the expression of certain cell arrest proteins (p53, p16 and pRB) increased. When miR-29 was expressed in muscle progenitor cells (MPC), their proliferation was impaired while SA-βgal expression increased signifying the development of senescence. Impaired MPC proliferation resulted from interactions between miR-29 and the 3'-UTR of p85a, IGF-1 and B-myb, suppressing the translation of these mediators of myoblast proliferation. In vivo, electroporation of miR-29 into muscles of young mice suppressed the proliferation and increased levels of cellular arrest proteins, recapitulating aging-induced responses in muscle. A potential stimulus of miR-29 expression is Wnt-3a since we found that exogenous Wnt-3a stimulated miR-29 expression 2.7-fold in primary cultures of MPCs. Thus, aging-induced muscle senescence results from activation of miR-29 by Wnt-3a leading to suppressed expression of several signaling proteins (p85α, IGF-1 and B-myb) that act coordinately to impair the proliferation of MPCs contributing to muscle atrophy. The increase in miR-29 provides a potential mechanism for aging-induced sarcopenia. PMID:24659628

  7. Identification of Cellular Genes Targeted by KSHV-Encoded MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Samols, Mark A; Skalsky, Rebecca L; Maldonado, Ann M; Riva, Alberto; Lopez, M. Cecilia; Baker, Henry V; Renne, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 19 to 23 nucleotide–long RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Human cells express several hundred miRNAs which regulate important biological pathways such as development, proliferation, and apoptosis. Recently, 12 miRNA genes have been identified within the genome of Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus; however, their functions are still unknown. To identify host cellular genes that may be targeted by these novel viral regulators, we performed gene expression profiling in cells stably expressing KSHV-encoded miRNAs. Data analysis revealed a set of 81 genes whose expression was significantly changed in the presence of miRNAs. While the majority of changes were below 2-fold, eight genes were down-regulated between 4- and 20-fold. We confirmed miRNA-dependent regulation for three of these genes and found that protein levels of thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) were decreased >10-fold. THBS1 has previously been reported to be down-regulated in Kaposi sarcoma lesions and has known activity as a strong tumor suppressor and anti-angiogenic factor, exerting its anti-angiogenic effect in part by activating the latent form of TGF-β. We show that reduced THBS1 expression in the presence of viral miRNAs translates into decreased TGF-β activity. These data suggest that KSHV-encoded miRNAs may contribute directly to pathogenesis by down-regulation of THBS1, a major regulator of cell adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis. PMID:17500590

  8. MicroRNA-29 induces cellular senescence in aging muscle through multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhaoyong; Klein, Janet D; Mitch, William E; Zhang, Liping; Martinez, Ivan; Wang, Xiaonan H

    2014-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying the development of aging-induced muscle atrophy are unclear. By microRNA array and individual qPCR analyses, we found significant up-regulation of miR-29 in muscles of aged rodents vs. results in young. With aging, p85α, IGF-1 and B-myb muscle levels were lower while the expression of certain cell arrest proteins (p53, p16 and pRB) increased. When miR-29 was expressed in muscle progenitor cells (MPC), their proliferation was impaired while SA-βgal expression increased signifying the development of senescence. Impaired MPC proliferation resulted from interactions between miR-29 and the 3'-UTR of p85a, IGF-1 and B-myb, suppressing the translation of these mediators of myoblast proliferation. In vivo, electroporation of miR-29 into muscles of young mice suppressed the proliferation and increased levels of cellular arrest proteins, recapitulating aging-induced responses in muscle. A potential stimulus of miR-29 expression is Wnt-3a since we found that exogenous Wnt-3a stimulated miR-29 expression 2.7-fold in primary cultures of MPCs. Thus, aging-induced muscle senescence results from activation of miR-29 by Wnt-3a leading to suppressed expression of several signaling proteins (p85α, IGF-1 and B-myb) that act coordinately to impair the proliferation of MPCs contributing to muscle atrophy. The increase in miR-29 provides a potential mechanism for aging-induced sarcopenia.

  9. MicroRNAs linking inflamm-aging, cellular senescence and cancer.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Fabiola; Rippo, Maria Rita; Monsurrò, Vladia; Salvioli, Stefano; Capri, Miriam; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data demonstrate a strong correlation between age-related chronic inflammation (inflamm-aging) and cancer development. However, a comprehensive approach is needed to clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms. Chronic inflammation has mainly been attributed to continuous immune cells activation, but the cellular senescence process, which may involve acquisition of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), can be another important contributor, especially in the elderly. MicroRNAs (miRs), a class of molecules involved in gene expression regulation, are emerging as modulators of some pathways, including NF-κB, mTOR, sirtuins, TGF-β and Wnt, that may be related to inflammation, cellular senescence and age-related diseases, cancer included. Interestingly, cancer development is largely avoided or delayed in centenarians, where changes in some miRs are found in plasma and leukocytes. We identified miRs that can be considered as senescence-associated (SA-miRs), inflammation-associated (inflamma-miRs) and cancer-associated (onco-miRs). Here we review recent findings concerning three of them, miR-21, -126 and -146a, which target mRNAs belonging to the NF-κB pathway; we discuss their ability to link cellular senescence, inflamm-aging and cancer and their changes in centenarians, and provide an update on the possibility of using miRs to block accumulation of senescent cells to prevent formation of a microenvironment favoring cancer development and progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential MicroRNA Expression Profile in Myxomatous Mitral Valve Prolapse and Fibroelastic Deficiency Valves

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yei-Tsung; Wang, Juan; Wee, Abby S. Y.; Yong, Quek-Wei; Tay, Edgar Lik-Wui; Woo, Chin Cheng; Sorokin, Vitaly; Richards, Arthur Mark; Ling, Lieng-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    Myxomatous mitral valve prolapse (MMVP) and fibroelastic deficiency (FED) are two common variants of degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD), which is a leading cause of mitral regurgitation worldwide. While pathohistological studies have revealed differences in extracellular matrix content in MMVP and FED, the molecular mechanisms underlying these two disease entities remain to be elucidated. By using surgically removed valvular specimens from MMVP and FED patients that were categorized on the basis of echocardiographic, clinical and operative findings, a cluster of microRNAs that expressed differentially were identified. The expressions of has-miR-500, -3174, -17, -1193, -646, -1273e, -4298, -203, -505, and -939 showed significant differences between MMVP and FED after applying Bonferroni correction (p < 0.002174). The possible involvement of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of DMVD were further suggested by the presences of in silico predicted target sites on a number of genes reported to be involved in extracellular matrix homeostasis and marker genes for cellular composition of mitral valves, including decorin (DCN), aggrecan (ACAN), fibromodulin (FMOD), α actin 2 (ACTA2), extracellular matrix protein 2 (ECM2), desmin (DES), endothelial cell specific molecule 1 (ESM1), and platelet/ endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM1), as well as inverse correlations of selected microRNA and mRNA expression in MMVP and FED groups. Our results provide evidence that distinct molecular mechanisms underlie MMVP and FED. Moreover, the microRNAs identified may be targets for the future development of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutics. PMID:27213335

  11. Differential MicroRNA Expression Profile in Myxomatous Mitral Valve Prolapse and Fibroelastic Deficiency Valves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yei-Tsung; Wang, Juan; Wee, Abby S Y; Yong, Quek-Wei; Tay, Edgar Lik-Wui; Woo, Chin Cheng; Sorokin, Vitaly; Richards, Arthur Mark; Ling, Lieng-Hsi

    2016-05-18

    Myxomatous mitral valve prolapse (MMVP) and fibroelastic deficiency (FED) are two common variants of degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD), which is a leading cause of mitral regurgitation worldwide. While pathohistological studies have revealed differences in extracellular matrix content in MMVP and FED, the molecular mechanisms underlying these two disease entities remain to be elucidated. By using surgically removed valvular specimens from MMVP and FED patients that were categorized on the basis of echocardiographic, clinical and operative findings, a cluster of microRNAs that expressed differentially were identified. The expressions of has-miR-500, -3174, -17, -1193, -646, -1273e, -4298, -203, -505, and -939 showed significant differences between MMVP and FED after applying Bonferroni correction (p < 0.002174). The possible involvement of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of DMVD were further suggested by the presences of in silico predicted target sites on a number of genes reported to be involved in extracellular matrix homeostasis and marker genes for cellular composition of mitral valves, including decorin (DCN), aggrecan (ACAN), fibromodulin (FMOD), α actin 2 (ACTA2), extracellular matrix protein 2 (ECM2), desmin (DES), endothelial cell specific molecule 1 (ESM1), and platelet/ endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM1), as well as inverse correlations of selected microRNA and mRNA expression in MMVP and FED groups. Our results provide evidence that distinct molecular mechanisms underlie MMVP and FED. Moreover, the microRNAs identified may be targets for the future development of diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutics.

  12. Distinct microRNA Expression in Human Airway Cells of Asthmatic Donors Identifies a Novel Asthma-associated Gene

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airway inflammation is the hallmark of asthma and suggests a dysregulation of homeostatic mechanisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression, necessary for the proper function of cellular processes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that differences between healthy...

  13. Distinct microRNA Expression in Human Airway Cells of Asthmatic Donors Identifies a Novel Asthma-associated Gene

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airway inflammation is the hallmark of asthma and suggests a dysregulation of homeostatic mechanisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression, necessary for the proper function of cellular processes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that differences between healthy...

  14. MicroRNAs Expressed during Viral Infection: Biomarker Potential and Therapeutic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Louten, Jennifer; Beach, Michael; Palermino, Kristina; Weeks, Maria; Holenstein, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short sequences of noncoding single-stranded RNAs that exhibit inhibitory effects on complementary target mRNAs. Recently, it has been discovered that certain viruses express their own miRNAs, while other viruses activate the transcription of cellular miRNAs for their own benefit. This review summarizes the viral and/or cellular miRNAs that are transcribed during infection, with a focus on the biomarker and therapeutic potential of miRNAs (or their antagomirs). Several human viruses of clinical importance are discussed, namely, herpesviruses, polyomaviruses, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, and human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:26819546

  15. Regulation of Gene Expression by Exercise-Related Micrornas.

    PubMed

    Masi, Laureane Nunes; Serdan, Tamires Duarte Afonso; Levada-Pires, Adriana Cristina; Hatanaka, Elaine; Silveira, Leonardo Dos Reis; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Curi, Rui; Gorjão, Renata; Hirabara, Sandro Massao

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression control by microRNAs (miRs) is an important mechanism for maintenance of cellular homeostasis in physiological and pathological conditions as well as in response to different stimuli including nutritional factors and exercise. MiRs are involved in regulation of several processes such as growth and development, fuel metabolism, insulin secretion, immune function, miocardium remodeling, cell proliferation, differenciation, survival, and death. These molecules have also been proposed to be potential biomarkers and/or therapeutical targets in obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. MiRs are released by most cells and potentially act on intercellular communication to borderer or distant cells. Various studies have been performed to elucidate the involvement of miRs in exercise-induced effects. The aims of this review are: 1) to bring up the main advances for the comprehension of the mechanisms of action of miRs; 2) to present the main results on miR involvement in physical exercise; 3) to discuss the physiological effects of miRs modified by exercise. The state of the art and the perspectives on miRs associated with physical exercise will be presented. Thus, this review is important for updating recent advances and driving further strategies and studies on the exercise-related miR research.

  16. Microarray analysis of microRNA expression in the developing mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Miska, Eric A; Alvarez-Saavedra, Ezequiel; Townsend, Matthew; Yoshii, Akira; Šestan, Nenad; Rakic, Pasko; Constantine-Paton, Martha; Horvitz, H Robert

    2004-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs are a large new class of tiny regulatory RNAs found in nematodes, plants, insects and mammals. MicroRNAs are thought to act as post-transcriptional modulators of gene expression. In invertebrates microRNAs have been implicated as regulators of developmental timing, neuronal differentiation, cell proliferation, programmed cell death and fat metabolism. Little is known about the roles of microRNAs in mammals. Results We isolated 18-26 nucleotide RNAs from developing rat and monkey brains. From the sequences of these RNAs and the sequences of the rat and human genomes we determined which of these small RNAs are likely to have derived from stem-loop precursors typical of microRNAs. Next, we developed a microarray technology suitable for detecting microRNAs and printed a microRNA microarray representing 138 mammalian microRNAs corresponding to the sequences of the microRNAs we cloned as well as to other known microRNAs. We used this microarray to determine the profile of microRNAs expressed in the developing mouse brain. We observed a temporal wave of expression of microRNAs, suggesting that microRNAs play important roles in the development of the mammalian brain. Conclusion We describe a microarray technology that can be used to analyze the expression of microRNAs and of other small RNAs. MicroRNA microarrays offer a new tool that should facilitate studies of the biological roles of microRNAs. We used this method to determine the microRNA expression profile during mouse brain development and observed a temporal wave of gene expression of sequential classes of microRNAs. PMID:15345052

  17. microRNA editing in seed region aligns with cellular changes in hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Nigita, Giovanni; Acunzo, Mario; Romano, Giulia; Veneziano, Dario; Laganà, Alessandro; Vitiello, Marika; Wernicke, Dorothee; Ferro, Alfredo; Croce, Carlo M

    2016-07-27

    RNA editing is a finely tuned, dynamic mechanism for post-transcriptional gene regulation that has been thoroughly investigated in the last decade. Nevertheless, RNA editing in non-coding RNA, such as microRNA (miRNA), have caused great debate and have called for deeper investigation. Until recently, in fact, inadequate methodologies and experimental contexts have been unable to provide detailed insights for further elucidation of RNA editing affecting miRNAs, especially in cancer.In this work, we leverage on recent innovative bioinformatics approaches applied to a more informative experimental context in order to analyze the variations in miRNA seed region editing activity during a time course of a hypoxia-exposed breast cancer cell line. By investigating its behavior in a dynamic context, we found that miRNA editing events in the seed region are not depended on miRNA expression, unprecedentedly providing insights on the targetome shifts derived from these modifications. This reveals that miRNA editing acts under the influence of environmentally induced stimuli.Our results show a miRNA editing activity trend aligning with cellular pathways closely associated to hypoxia, such as the VEGF and PI3K/Akt pathways, providing important novel insights on this poorly elucidated phenomenon.

  18. Cellular and viral microRNAs in sepsis: mechanisms of action and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Giza, Dana Elena; Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Bullock, Marc David; Tudor, Stefan; Goblirsch, Matthew Joseph; Fabbri, Muller; Lupu, Florea; Yeung, Sai-Ching Jim; Vasilescu, Catalin; Calin, George Adrian

    2016-12-01

    Regardless of its etiology, once septic shock is established, survival rates drop by 7.6% for every hour antibiotic therapy is delayed. The early identification of the cause of infection and prognostic stratification of patients with sepsis are therefore important clinical priorities. Biomarkers are potentially valuable clinical tools in this context, but to date, no single biomarker has been shown to perform adequately. Hence, in an effort to discover novel diagnostic and prognostic markers in sepsis, new genomic approaches have been employed. As a result, a number of small regulatory molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as key regulators of the inflammatory response. Although deregulated miRNA expression is increasingly well described, the pathophysiological roles of these molecules in sepsis have yet to be fully defined. Moreover, non-human miRNAs, including two Kaposi Sarcoma herpesvirus-encoded miRNAs, are implicated in sepsis and may drive enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines exacerbating sepsis. A better understanding of the mechanism of action of both cellular and viral miRNAs, and their interactions with immune and inflammatory cascades, may therefore identify novel therapeutic targets in sepsis and make biomarker-guided therapy a realistic prospect.

  19. Comparative MicroRNA Expression Patterns in Fibroblasts after Low and High Doses of Low-LET Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maes, Olivier C.; Xu, Suying; Hada, Megumi; Wu, Honglu; Wang, Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes DNA damage to cells, and provokes a plethora of cellular responses controlled by unique gene-directed signaling pathways. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (22-nucleotide), non-coding RNAs which functionally silence gene expression by either degrading the messages or inhibiting translation. Here we investigate radiation-dependent changes in these negative regulators by comparing the expression patterns of all 462 known human miRNAs in fibroblasts, after exposure to low (0.1 Gy) or high (2 Gy) doses of X-rays at 30 min, 2, 6 and 24 hrs post-treatment. The expression patterns of microRNAs after low and high doses of radiation show a similar qualitative down-regulation trend at early (0.5 hr) and late (24 hr) time points, with a quantitatively steeper slope following the 2 Gy exposures. Interestingly, an interruption of this downward trend is observed after the 2 Gy exposure, i.e. a significant up-regulation of microRNAs at 2 hrs, then reverting to the downward trend by 6 hrs; this interruption at the intermediate time point was not observed with the 0.1 Gy exposure. At the early time point (0.5 hr), candidate gene targets of selected down-regulated microRNAs, common to both 0.1 and 2 Gy exposures, were those functioning in chromatin remodeling. Candidate target genes of unique up-regulated microRNAs seen at a 2 hr intermediate time point, after the 2 Gy exposure only, are those involved in cell death signaling. Finally, putative target genes of down-regulated microRNAs seen at the late (24 hr) time point after either doses of radiation are those involved in the up-regulation of DNA repair, cell signaling and homeostasis. Thus we hypothesize that after radiation exposure, microRNAs acting as hub negative regulators for unique signaling pathways needed to be down-regulated so as to de-repress their target genes for the proper cellular responses, including DNA repair and cell maintenance. The unique microRNAs up-regulated at 2 hr after 2

  20. Extra-cellular release and blood diffusion of BART viral micro-RNAs produced by EBV-infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a human epithelial malignancy consistently associated with the Epstein-Barr virus. The viral genome is contained in the nuclei of all malignant cells with abundant transcription of a family of viral microRNAs called BART miRNAs. MicroRNAs are well known intra-cellular regulatory elements of gene expression. In addition, they are often exported in the extra-cellular space and sometimes transferred in recipient cells distinct from the producer cells. Extra-cellular transport of the microRNAs is facilitated by various processes including association with protective proteins and packaging in secreted nanovesicles called exosomes. Presence of microRNAS produced by malignant cells has been reported in the blood and saliva of tumor-bearing patients, especially patients diagnosed with glioblastoma or ovarian carcinoma. In this context, it was decided to investigate extra-cellular release of BART miRNAs by NPC cells and their possible detection in the blood of NPC patients. To address this question, we investigated by quantitative RT-PCR the status of 5 microRNAs from the BART family in exosomes released by NPC cells in vitro as well as in plasma samples from NPC xenografted nude mice and NPC patients. Results We report that the BART miRNAs are released in the extra-cellular space by NPC cells being associated, at least to a large extent, with secreted exosomes. They are detected with a good selectivity in plasma samples from NPC xenografted nude mice as well as NPC patients. Conclusions Viral BART miRNAs are secreted by NPC cells in vitro and in vivo. They have enough stability to diffuse from the tumor site to the peripheral blood. This study provides a basis to explore their potential as a source of novel tumor biomarkers and their possible role in communications between malignant and non-malignant cells. PMID:20950422

  1. The expression of a viral microRNA is regulated by clustering to allow optimal B cell transformation

    PubMed Central

    Haar, Janina; Contrant, Maud; Bernhardt, Katharina; Feederle, Regina; Diederichs, Sven; Pfeffer, Sébastien; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transforms B cells by expressing latent proteins and the BHRF1 microRNA cluster. MiR-BHRF1–3, its most transforming member, belongs to the recently identified group of weakly expressed microRNAs. We show here that miR-BHRF1–3 displays an unusually low propensity to form a stem–loop structure, an effect potentiated by miR-BHRF1–3's proximity to the BHRF1 polyA site. Cloning miR-BHRF1–2 or a cellular microRNA, but not a ribozyme, 5′ of miR-BHRF1–3 markedly enhanced its expression. However, a virus carrying mutated miR-BHRF1–2 seed regions expressed miR-BHRF1–3 at normal levels and was fully transforming. Therefore, miR-BHRF1–2's role during transformation is independent of its seed regions, revealing a new microRNA function. Increasing the distance between miR-BHRF1–2 and miR-BHRF1–3 in EBV enhanced miR-BHRF1–3's expression but decreased its transforming potential. Thus, the expression of some microRNAs must be restricted to a narrow range, as achieved by placing miR-BHRF1–3 under the control of miR-BHRF1–2. PMID:26635399

  2. Identification of Cellular Targets of MicroRNA-181a in HepG2 Cells: A New Approach for Functional Analysis of MicroRNAs.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jane Yi Lin; Habib, Nagy A; Chuah, York Wieo; Yau, Yin Hoe; Geifman-Shochat, Susana; Chen, Wei Ning

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play a part in regulating important cellular processes. They generally perform their regulatory function through their binding with mRNAs, ultimately leading to a repression of target protein expression levels. However, their roles in cellular processes are poorly understood due to the limited understanding of their specific cellular targets. Aberrant levels of miRNAs have been found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) including miR-181a. Using bioinformatics analysis, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1β) and transcriptional factor E2F7 were identified as potential targets of miR-181a. Validation analysis using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed a positive binding between miR-181a and the 3'UTRs of these two potential mRNA targets. In vivo luciferase assay further confirmed the positive miR-181a:mRNA bindings, where a significant decrease in luciferase activity was detected when HepG2 cells were co-transfected with the 3'UTR-containing reporter plasmids and miR-181a. The potential impact of miR-181a binding to its specific targets on the general cellular behavior was further investigated. Results showed that miR-181a significantly activated the MAPK/JNK pathway which regulates cell proliferation, supporting our recently reported findings. Inhibition of miR-181a, on the other hand, abolished the observed activation. Our findings open up a new approach in designing targeted functional analysis of miRNAs in cellular processes, through the identification of their cellular targets.

  3. Identification of Cellular Targets of MicroRNA-181a in HepG2 Cells: A New Approach for Functional Analysis of MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jane Yi Lin; Habib, Nagy A.; Chuah, York Wieo; Yau, Yin Hoe; Geifman-Shochat, Susana; Chen, Wei Ning

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play a part in regulating important cellular processes. They generally perform their regulatory function through their binding with mRNAs, ultimately leading to a repression of target protein expression levels. However, their roles in cellular processes are poorly understood due to the limited understanding of their specific cellular targets. Aberrant levels of miRNAs have been found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) including miR-181a. Using bioinformatics analysis, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1β) and transcriptional factor E2F7 were identified as potential targets of miR-181a. Validation analysis using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed a positive binding between miR-181a and the 3’UTRs of these two potential mRNA targets. In vivo luciferase assay further confirmed the positive miR-181a:mRNA bindings, where a significant decrease in luciferase activity was detected when HepG2 cells were co-transfected with the 3’UTR-containing reporter plasmids and miR-181a. The potential impact of miR-181a binding to its specific targets on the general cellular behavior was further investigated. Results showed that miR-181a significantly activated the MAPK/JNK pathway which regulates cell proliferation, supporting our recently reported findings. Inhibition of miR-181a, on the other hand, abolished the observed activation. Our findings open up a new approach in designing targeted functional analysis of miRNAs in cellular processes, through the identification of their cellular targets. PMID:25901570

  4. Comparison of microRNA expression profiles in K562-cells-derived microvesicles and parental cells, and analysis of their roles in leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaomei; Xiong, Wei; Li, Huiyu

    2016-01-01

    Microvesicles (MVs) are 30-1,000-nm extracellular vesicles that are released from a multitude of cell types and perform diverse cellular functions, including intercellular communication, antigen presentation, and transfer of proteins, messenger RNA and microRNA (also known as miR). MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in leukemia, and the overall microRNA expression profile may differentiate normal blood cells vs. leukemia cells. MVs containing microRNAs may enable intercellular cross-talk in vivo. This prompted us to investigate specific variations of microRNA expression patterns in MVs derived from leukemia cells. The present study examined the microRNA expression profile of MVs from chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells and that of MVs from normal human volunteers' peripheral blood cells. The potential targets of the differentially expressed microRNAs were predicted using computational searches. Bioinformatic analyses of the predicted target genes were performed for further evaluation. The present study analyzed microRNAs of MVs derived from leukemia and normal cells, and characterized specific microRNAs expression. The results revealed that MVs derived from K562 cells expressed 181 microRNAs of the 888 microRNAs assessed. Further analysis revealed that 16 microRNAs were downregulated, while 7 were upregulated in these MVs. In addition, significant differences in microRNA expression profiles between MVs derived from K562 cells and K562 cells were identified. The present results revealed that 77 and 122 microRNAs were only expressed in MVs derived from K562 cells and in K562 cells, respectively. There were 104 microRNAs co-expressed in MVs derived from K562 cells and in K562 cells. Target gene-related pathway analyses demonstrated that the majority of the dysregulated microRNAs were involved in pathways associated with leukemia, particularly the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the p53 signaling pathways. By further conducting

  5. Comparison of microRNA expression profiles in K562-cells-derived microvesicles and parental cells, and analysis of their roles in leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaomei; Xiong, Wei; Li, Huiyu

    2016-12-01

    Microvesicles (MVs) are 30-1,000-nm extracellular vesicles that are released from a multitude of cell types and perform diverse cellular functions, including intercellular communication, antigen presentation, and transfer of proteins, messenger RNA and microRNA (also known as miR). MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in leukemia, and the overall microRNA expression profile may differentiate normal blood cells vs. leukemia cells. MVs containing microRNAs may enable intercellular cross-talk in vivo. This prompted us to investigate specific variations of microRNA expression patterns in MVs derived from leukemia cells. The present study examined the microRNA expression profile of MVs from chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells and that of MVs from normal human volunteers' peripheral blood cells. The potential targets of the differentially expressed microRNAs were predicted using computational searches. Bioinformatic analyses of the predicted target genes were performed for further evaluation. The present study analyzed microRNAs of MVs derived from leukemia and normal cells, and characterized specific microRNAs expression. The results revealed that MVs derived from K562 cells expressed 181 microRNAs of the 888 microRNAs assessed. Further analysis revealed that 16 microRNAs were downregulated, while 7 were upregulated in these MVs. In addition, significant differences in microRNA expression profiles between MVs derived from K562 cells and K562 cells were identified. The present results revealed that 77 and 122 microRNAs were only expressed in MVs derived from K562 cells and in K562 cells, respectively. There were 104 microRNAs co-expressed in MVs derived from K562 cells and in K562 cells. Target gene-related pathway analyses demonstrated that the majority of the dysregulated microRNAs were involved in pathways associated with leukemia, particularly the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the p53 signaling pathways. By further conducting

  6. Altered expression profile of micrornas in gastric stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Wang, Qi-xian; Zhu, You-qing

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in carcinogenesis, but the global miRNA expression profile in gastric stromal tumor tissues remains unclear. This study was to examine the miRNA expression profile in gastric stromal tumor tissues and explore the function of dysregulated miRNAs by performing gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis. Total RNA was extracted and purified from 3 pairs of frozen gastric stromal tumor tissues and the adjacent non-tumor tissues by using mirVana™ miRNA isolation kit. The miRNA expression was analyzed with Affymetrix microarrays (version 4.0) containing 2578 human mature microRNA probes. The dysregulated microRNAs were validated by quantitative RT-PCR in 30 pairs of gastric stromal tumor tissues. The target gene of the dysregulated microRNAs was predicted by miRanda, TargetScan and PicTar. GO and pathway enrichment analysis was conducted to examine the potential function of miR-3178 and miR-193a-5p. The results showed that there were 12 differently expressed microRNAs in gastric stromal tumor tissues, among which 10 miRNAs were down-regulated, and 2 were up-regulated (P<0.05). The validation results by RT-PCR were in accordance with those by microRNA microarry. GO analysis found that the target genes of miR-3178 were involved in 5 GO terms and those of miR-193a-5p in 7 GO terms in level 2. Pathway enrichment analysis suggested that miR-3178 and miR-193a-5p were related to 57 and 122 signaling pathways, respectively. It was concluded that gastric stromal tumor displays a unique miRNA signature. This specific expression may become a new diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for gastric stromal tumor. miR-3178 and miR-193a-5p function as suppressive microRNAs, and they may also become diagnosis and treatment targets for gastric stromal tumor.

  7. Dose-dependent microRNA expression in human fibroblasts after LET irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, Olivier Charles; An, Jin; Wu, Honglu; Wang, Eugenia; Sarojini, Harshini

    Humans are exposed to various levels of radiation during spaceflight voyages. In cells, exposure to linear energy transfer (LET) radiation causes cellular damage and triggers responses controlled by unique gene-directed signaling pathways. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small ( 22- nucleotide) non-coding RNAs, which regulate gene expression generally by either degrading the messager RNA or inhibiting translation. Their implication in specific cellular response pathways is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of radiation-dependent changes in miRNA expression patterns after low (0.1 Gy) and high (2.0 Gy) doses of X-ray exposure in human fibroblasts, and correlated their predicted targets with the cells' genomics and proteomics profiles. A differential miRNA expression pattern was observed between low and high doses of irradiation, with early (0.5 and 2 hrs) significant changes mostly after a high dose and, late (6 and 24 hrs) significant changes after both low and high doses of irradiation. The results suggest that miRNAs may act as ‘hub' regulators of signaling pathways initially to derepress their target genes for cellular responses such as DNA repair, followed by up-regulation to suppress apoptosis, and finally down-regulation to reestablish cellular normalcy. Functional attributions are made to key microRNAs, potentially regulating known radiation biomarkers as well as radiation-responsive mechanisms of cell cycle checkpoint, proliferation and apoptosis. In summary, radiation-responsive miRNAs may have functional roles in the regulation of cell death or survival, and may become biodosimeters for radiation dose exposure. Specific microRNAs may exert a hormetic effect after low-dose radiation, and prove useful in future applications for radiation adaptive therapy and in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced damage. The confirmation of specific miRNAs as biodosimetry markers with therapeutic applications will be necessary in future functional

  8. Replication of many human viruses is refractory to inhibition by endogenous cellular microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Bogerd, Hal P; Skalsky, Rebecca L; Kennedy, Edward M; Furuse, Yuki; Whisnant, Adam W; Flores, Omar; Schultz, Kimberly L W; Putnam, Nicole; Barrows, Nicholas J; Sherry, Barbara; Scholle, Frank; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A; Griffin, Diane E; Cullen, Bryan R

    2014-07-01

    The issue of whether viruses are subject to restriction by endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) and/or by virus-induced small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in infected human somatic cells has been controversial. Here, we address this question in two ways. First, using deep sequencing, we demonstrate that infection of human cells by the RNA virus dengue virus (DENV) or West Nile virus (WNV) does not result in the production of any virus-derived siRNAs or viral miRNAs. Second, to more globally assess the potential of small regulatory RNAs to inhibit virus replication, we used gene editing to derive human cell lines that lack a functional Dicer enzyme and that therefore are unable to produce miRNAs or siRNAs. Infection of these cells with a wide range of viruses, including DENV, WNV, yellow fever virus, Sindbis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, measles virus, influenza A virus, reovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), failed to reveal any enhancement in the replication of any of these viruses, although HSV-1, which encodes at least eight Dicer-dependent viral miRNAs, did replicate somewhat more slowly in the absence of Dicer. We conclude that most, and perhaps all, human viruses have evolved to be resistant to inhibition by endogenous human miRNAs during productive replication and that dependence on a cellular miRNA, as seen with hepatitis C virus, is rare. How viruses have evolved to avoid inhibition by endogenous cellular miRNAs, which are generally highly conserved during metazoan evolution, remains to be determined. Importance: Eukaryotic cells express a wide range of small regulatory RNAs, including miRNAs, that have the potential to inhibit the expression of mRNAs that show sequence complementarity. Indeed, previous work has suggested that endogenous miRNAs have the potential to inhibit viral gene expression and replication. Here, we demonstrate that the replication of a wide range of

  9. Replication of Many Human Viruses Is Refractory to Inhibition by Endogenous Cellular MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Bogerd, Hal P.; Skalsky, Rebecca L.; Kennedy, Edward M.; Furuse, Yuki; Whisnant, Adam W.; Flores, Omar; Schultz, Kimberly L. W.; Putnam, Nicole; Barrows, Nicholas J.; Sherry, Barbara; Scholle, Frank; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Griffin, Diane E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The issue of whether viruses are subject to restriction by endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) and/or by virus-induced small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in infected human somatic cells has been controversial. Here, we address this question in two ways. First, using deep sequencing, we demonstrate that infection of human cells by the RNA virus dengue virus (DENV) or West Nile virus (WNV) does not result in the production of any virus-derived siRNAs or viral miRNAs. Second, to more globally assess the potential of small regulatory RNAs to inhibit virus replication, we used gene editing to derive human cell lines that lack a functional Dicer enzyme and that therefore are unable to produce miRNAs or siRNAs. Infection of these cells with a wide range of viruses, including DENV, WNV, yellow fever virus, Sindbis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, measles virus, influenza A virus, reovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, or herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), failed to reveal any enhancement in the replication of any of these viruses, although HSV-1, which encodes at least eight Dicer-dependent viral miRNAs, did replicate somewhat more slowly in the absence of Dicer. We conclude that most, and perhaps all, human viruses have evolved to be resistant to inhibition by endogenous human miRNAs during productive replication and that dependence on a cellular miRNA, as seen with hepatitis C virus, is rare. How viruses have evolved to avoid inhibition by endogenous cellular miRNAs, which are generally highly conserved during metazoan evolution, remains to be determined. IMPORTANCE Eukaryotic cells express a wide range of small regulatory RNAs, including miRNAs, that have the potential to inhibit the expression of mRNAs that show sequence complementarity. Indeed, previous work has suggested that endogenous miRNAs have the potential to inhibit viral gene expression and replication. Here, we demonstrate that the replication of a wide range of

  10. MicroRNA-15b Modulates Cellular ATP Levels and Degenerates Mitochondria via Arl2 in Neonatal Rat Cardiac Myocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Hitoo; Ono, Koh; Iwanaga, Yoshitaka; Horie, Takahiro; Nagao, Kazuya; Takemura, Genzou; Kinoshita, Minako; Kuwabara, Yasuhide; Mori, Rieko Takanabe; Hasegawa, Koji; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small, non-coding RNAs that modulate mRNA stability and post-transcriptional translation. A growing body of evidence indicates that specific miRNAs can affect the cellular function of cardiomyocytes. In the present study, miRNAs that are highly expressed in the heart were overexpressed in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, and cellular ATP levels were assessed. As a result, miR-15b, -16, -195, and -424, which have the same seed sequence, the most critical determinant of miRNA targeting, decreased cellular ATP levels. These results suggest that these miRNAs could specifically down-regulate the same target genes and consequently decrease cellular ATP levels. Through a bioinformatics approach, ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 (Arl2) was identified as a potential target of miR-15b. It has already been shown that Arl2 localizes to adenine nucleotide transporter 1, the exchanger of ADP/ATP in mitochondria. Overexpression of miR-15b, -16, -195, and -424 suppressed the activity of a luciferase reporter construct fused with the 3′-untranslated region of Arl2. In addition, miR-15b overexpression decreased Arl2 mRNA and protein expression levels. The effects of Arl2 siRNA on cellular ATP levels were the same as those of miR-15b, and the expression of Arl2 could restore ATP levels reduced by miR-15b. A loss-of-function study of miR-15b resulted in increased Arl2 protein and cellular ATP levels. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that mitochondria became degenerated in cardiomyocytes that had been transduced with miR-15b and Arl2 siRNA. The present results suggest that miR-15b may decrease mitochondrial integrity by targeting Arl2 in the heart. PMID:20007690

  11. Impact of gastro-oesophageal reflux on microRNA expression, location and function.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cameron M; Michael, Michael Z; Watson, David I; Tan, Grace; Astill, David St J; Hummel, Richard; Hussey, Damian J

    2013-01-08

    Ulceration of the oesophageal squamous mucosa (ulcerative oesophagitis) is a pathological manifestation of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, and is a major risk factor for the development of Barrett's oesophagus. Barrett's oesophagus is characterised by replacement of reflux-damaged oesophageal squamous epithelium with a columnar intestinal-like epithelium. We previously reported discovery of microRNAs that are differentially expressed between oesophageal squamous mucosa and Barrett's oesophagus mucosa. Now, to better understand early steps in the initiation of Barrett's oesophagus, we assessed the expression, location and function of these microRNAs in oesophageal squamous mucosa from individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to compare miR-21, 143, 145, 194, 203, 205 and 215 expression levels in oesophageal mucosa from individuals without pathological gastro-oesophageal reflux to individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. Correlations between microRNA expression and messenger RNA differentiation markers BMP-4, CK8 and CK14 were analyzed. The cellular localisation of microRNAs within the oesophageal mucosa was determined using in-situ hybridisation. microRNA involvement in proliferation and apoptosis was assessed following transfection of a human squamous oesophageal mucosal cell line (Het-1A). miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 levels were significantly higher in gastro-oesophageal reflux compared with controls. Elevated miR-143 expression correlated with BMP-4 and CK8 expression, and elevated miR-205 expression correlated negatively with CK14 expression. Endogenous miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 expression was localised to the basal layer of the oesophageal epithelium. Transfection of miR-143, 145 and 205 mimics into Het-1A cells resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Elevated miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 expression was observed in oesophageal squamous mucosa of individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. These mi

  12. MicroRNA expression in antiphospholipid syndrome: a systematic review and microRNA target genes analysis.

    PubMed

    Muhammad Shazwan, S; Muhammad Aliff, M; Asral Wirda, A A; Hayati, A R; Maizatul Azma, M; Nur Syahrina, A R; Nazefah, A H; Jameela, S; Nur Fariha, M M

    2016-12-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are autoantibodies that attack phospholipid through anti-beta 2-glycoprotein 1. The actions of aPL are associated with events leading to thrombosis and morbidity in pregnancy. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is diagnosed when a patient is persistently positive for aPL and also has recognised clinical manifestations such as recurrent pregnancy losses, arterial or venous thrombosis and in a catastrophic case, can result in death. Unfortunately, the pathogenesis of APS is still not well established. Recently, microRNA expressed in many types of diseased tissues were claimed to be involved in the pathological progression of diseases and has become a useful biomarker to indicate diseases, including APS. This systematic review aims to search for research papers that are focussing on microRNA expression profiles in APS. Three search engines (Ebcohost, ProQuest and Ovid) were used to identify papers related to expression of specific microRNA in antiphospholipid syndrome. A total of 357 papers were found and screened, out of which only one study fulfilled the requirement. In this particular study blood samples from APS patients were tested. The microRNAs found to be related to APS were miR-19b and miR-20a. No data was found on specific microRNA being expressed in obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome. Analysis on the microRNA target genes revealed that most genes targeted by miR-19b and miR-20a involve in TGF-Beta Signalling and VEGF, hypoxia and angiogenesis pathways. In view of the limited data on the expressions of microRNA in APS we recommend further research into this field. Characterization of microRNA profile in blood as well as in placenta tissue of patients with APS could be useful in identifying microRNAs involved in obstetric APS.

  13. EBNA1 regulates cellular gene expression by binding cellular promoters.

    PubMed

    Canaan, Allon; Haviv, Izhak; Urban, Alexander E; Schulz, Vincent P; Hartman, Steve; Zhang, Zhengdong; Palejev, Dean; Deisseroth, Albert B; Lacy, Jill; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark; Weissman, Sherman M

    2009-12-29

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several types of lymphomas and epithelial tumors including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), HIV-associated lymphoma, posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is expressed in all EBV associated tumors and is required for latency and transformation. EBNA1 initiates latent viral replication in B cells, maintains the viral genome copy number, and regulates transcription of other EBV-encoded latent genes. These activities are mediated through the ability of EBNA1 to bind viral-DNA. To further elucidate the role of EBNA1 in the host cell, we have examined the effect of EBNA1 on cellular gene expression by microarray analysis using the B cell BJAB and the epithelial 293 cell lines transfected with EBNA1. Analysis of the data revealed distinct profiles of cellular gene changes in BJAB and 293 cell lines. Subsequently, chromatin immune-precipitation revealed a direct binding of EBNA1 to cellular promoters. We have correlated EBNA1 bound promoters with changes in gene expression. Sequence analysis of the 100 promoters most enriched revealed a DNA motif that differs from the EBNA1 binding site in the EBV genome.

  14. Molecular, Cellular, and Structural Mechanisms of Cocaine Addiction: A Key Role for MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Jonkman, Sietse; Kenny, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    The rewarding properties of cocaine play a key role in establishing and maintaining the drug-taking habit. However, as exposure to cocaine increases, drug use can transition from controlled to compulsive. Importantly, very little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms that control this switch in drug use that defines addiction. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-protein coding RNA transcripts that can regulate the expression of messenger RNAs that code for proteins. Because of their highly pleiotropic nature, each miRNA has the potential to regulate hundreds or even thousands of protein-coding RNA transcripts. This property of miRNAs has generated considerable interest in their potential involvement in complex psychiatric disorders such as addiction, as each miRNA could potentially influence the many different molecular and cellular adaptations that arise in response to drug use that are hypothesized to drive the emergence of addiction. Here, we review recent evidence supporting a key role for miRNAs in the ventral striatum in regulating the rewarding and reinforcing properties of cocaine in animals with limited exposure to the drug. Moreover, we discuss evidence suggesting that miRNAs in the dorsal striatum control the escalation of drug intake in rats with extended cocaine access. These findings highlight the central role for miRNAs in drug-induced neuroplasticity in brain reward systems that drive the emergence of compulsive-like drug use in animals, and suggest that a better understanding of how miRNAs control drug intake will provide new insights into the neurobiology of drug addiction. PMID:22968819

  15. Changes in microRNAs expression profile of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in response to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection.

    PubMed

    Najib, Abdellaoui; Kim, Min Sun; Choi, Seung Hyuk; Kang, Yue Jai; Kim, Ki Hong

    2016-04-01

    To know the effect of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection on the cellular microRNA expression profile in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), fish were infected with VHSV, and cellular microRNAs expression was analyzed at 0 (control), 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection (h.p.i.) by the high-throughput sequencing. A total of 372 mature miRNAs were identified, and, among them, 63 miRNAs were differentially expressed during VHSV infection. The differentially expressed microRNAs number was greatly increased from 24 h.p.i. compared to the number at 6 and 12 h.p.i., suggesting that the alteration of microRNAs expression by VHSV infection may be related to the progression of VHSV disease. The target prediction analysis, the GO enrichment analysis, and the KEGG pathway analysis of the predicted target genes showed that various biological pathways could be affected by VHSV infection through the down-regulation or up-regulation of host miRNAs. The present results provide a basic information on the microRNAs related to VHSV infection in olive flounder. Considering broad effects of microRNAs on various biological pathways, data in this study can be used to interpret the mechanism of VHSV pathogenesis, which, vice versa, can be used to develop control measures against VHSV.

  16. Effects of short-term exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on microRNA expression in zebrafish embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Jenny, Matthew J.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Hahn, Mark E.

    2012-10-15

    Although many drugs and environmental chemicals are teratogenic, the mechanisms by which most toxicants disrupt embryonic development are not well understood. MicroRNAs, single-stranded RNA molecules of ∼ 22 nt that regulate protein expression by inhibiting mRNA translation and promoting mRNA sequestration or degradation, are important regulators of a variety of cellular processes including embryonic development and cellular differentiation. Recent studies have demonstrated that exposure to xenobiotics can alter microRNA expression and contribute to the mechanisms by which environmental chemicals disrupt embryonic development. In this study we tested the hypothesis that developmental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a well-known teratogen, alters microRNA expression during zebrafish development. We exposed zebrafish embryos to DMSO (0.1%) or TCDD (5 nM) for 1 h at 30 hours post fertilization (hpf) and measured microRNA expression using several methods at 36 and 60 hpf. TCDD caused strong induction of CYP1A at 36 hpf (62-fold) and 60 hpf (135-fold) as determined by real-time RT-PCR, verifying the effectiveness of the exposure. MicroRNA expression profiles were determined using microarrays (Agilent and Exiqon), next-generation sequencing (SOLiD), and real-time RT-PCR. The two microarray platforms yielded results that were similar but not identical; both showed significant changes in expression of miR-451, 23a, 23b, 24 and 27e at 60 hpf. Multiple analyses were performed on the SOLiD sequences yielding a total of 16 microRNAs as differentially expressed by TCDD in zebrafish embryos. However, miR-27e was the only microRNA to be identified as differentially expressed by all three methods (both microarrays, SOLiD sequencing, and real-time RT-PCR). These results suggest that TCDD exposure causes modest changes in expression of microRNAs, including some (miR-451, 23a, 23b, 24 and 27e) that are critical for hematopoiesis and cardiovascular

  17. Inferring data-specific micro-RNA function through the joint ranking of micro-RNA and pathways from matched micro-RNA and gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Ellis; Buckley, Michael; Müller, Samuel; Lin, David M; Yang, Jean Y H

    2015-09-01

    In practice, identifying and interpreting the functional impacts of the regulatory relationships between micro-RNA and messenger-RNA is non-trivial. The sheer scale of possible micro-RNA and messenger-RNA interactions can make the interpretation of results difficult. We propose a supervised framework, pMim, built upon concepts of significance combination, for jointly ranking regulatory micro-RNA and their potential functional impacts with respect to a condition of interest. Here, pMim directly tests if a micro-RNA is differentially expressed and if its predicted targets, which lie in a common biological pathway, have changed in the opposite direction. We leverage the information within existing micro-RNA target and pathway databases to stabilize the estimation and annotation of micro-RNA regulation making our approach suitable for datasets with small sample sizes. In addition to outputting meaningful and interpretable results, we demonstrate in a variety of datasets that the micro-RNA identified by pMim, in comparison to simpler existing approaches, are also more concordant with what is described in the literature. This framework is implemented as an R function, pMim, in the package sydSeq available from http://www.ellispatrick.com/r-packages. jean.yang@sydney.edu.au Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. MicroRNA evolution, expression, and function during short germband development in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Ninova, Maria; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Griffiths-Jones, Sam

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are well-established players in the development of multicellular animals. Most of our understanding of microRNA function in arthropod development comes from studies in Drosophila. Despite their advantages as model systems, the long germband embryogenesis of fruit flies is an evolutionary derived state restricted to several holometabolous insect lineages. MicroRNA evolution and expression across development in animals exhibiting the ancestral and more widespread short germband mode of embryogenesis has not been characterized. We sequenced small RNA libraries of oocytes and successive intervals covering the embryonic development of the short germband model organism, Tribolium castaneum. We analyzed the evolution and temporal expression of the microRNA complement and sequenced libraries of total RNA to investigate the relationships with microRNA target expression. We show microRNA maternal loading and sequence-specific 3' end nontemplate oligoadenylation of maternally deposited microRNAs that is conserved between Tribolium and Drosophila. We further uncover large clusters encoding multiple paralogs from several Tribolium-specific microRNA families expressed during a narrow interval of time immediately after the activation of zygotic transcription. These novel microRNAs, together with several early expressed conserved microRNAs, target a significant number of maternally deposited transcripts. Comparison with Drosophila shows that microRNA-mediated maternal transcript targeting is a conserved process in insects, but the number and sequences of microRNAs involved have diverged. The expression of fast-evolving and species-specific microRNAs in the early blastoderm of T. castaneum is consistent with previous findings in Drosophila and shows that the unique permissiveness for microRNA innovation at this stage is a conserved phenomenon.

  19. Expression of Cellular Oncogenes in Human Malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamon, Dennis J.; Dekernion, Jean B.; Verma, Inder M.; Cline, Martin J.

    1984-04-01

    Cellular oncogenes have been implicated in the induction of malignant transformation in some model systems in vitro and may be related to malignancies in vivo in some vertebrate species. This article describes a study of the expression of 15 cellular oncogenes in fresh human tumors from 54 patients, representing 20 different tumor types. More than one cellular oncogene was transcriptionally active in all of the tumors examined. In 14 patients it was possible to study normal and malignant tissue from the same organ. In many of these patients, the transcriptional activity of certain oncogenes was greater in the malignant than the normal tissue. The cellular fes (feline sarcoma) oncogene, not previously known to be transcribed in mammalian tissue, was found to be active in lung and hematopoietic malignancies.

  20. MicroRNA expression profiles associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and ampullary adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Nicolai A; Werner, Jens; Willenbrock, Hanni; Roslind, Anne; Giese, Nathalia; Horn, Thomas; Wøjdemann, Morten; Johansen, Julia S

    2012-12-01

    MicroRNAs have potential as diagnostic cancer biomarkers. The aim of this study was (1) to define microRNA expression patterns in formalin-fixed parafin-embedded tissue from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, ampullary adenocarcinoma, normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis without using micro-dissection and (2) to discover new diagnostic microRNAs and combinations of microRNAs in cancer tissue. The expression of 664 microRNAs in tissue from 170 pancreatic adenocarcinomas and 107 ampullary adenocarcinomas were analyzed using a commercial microRNA assay. Results were compared with chronic pancreatitis, normal pancreas and duodenal adenocarcinoma. In all, 43 microRNAs had higher and 41 microRNAs reduced expression in pancreatic cancer compared with normal pancreas. In all, 32 microRNAs were differently expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma compared with chronic pancreatitis (17 higher; 15 reduced). Several of these microRNAs have not before been related to diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (eg, miR-492, miR-614, miR-622). MiR-614, miR-492, miR-622, miR-135b and miR-196 were most differently expressed. MicroRNA profiles of pancreatic and ampullary adenocarcinomas were correlated (0.990). MicroRNA expression profiles for pancreatic cancer described in the literature were consistent with our findings, and the microRNA profile for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (miR-196b-miR-217) was validated. We identified a more significant expression profile, the difference between miR-411 and miR-198 (P=2.06 × 10(-54)) and a diagnostic LASSO classifier using 19 microRNAs (sensitivity 98.5%; positive predictive value 97.8%; accuracy 97.0%). We also identified microRNA profiles to subclassify ampullary adenocarcinomas into pancreatobiliary or intestinal type. In conclusion, we found that combinations of two microRNAs could roughly separate neoplastic from non-neoplastic samples. A diagnostic 19 microRNA classifier was constructed which without micro-dissection could discriminate pancreatic

  1. MicroRNA-31 is a transcriptional target of histone deacetylase inhibitors and a regulator of cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Cho, Joon-Ho; Dimri, Manjari; Dimri, Goberdhan P

    2015-04-17

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of tumorigenesis. Several miRNAs, which can function either as oncomiRs or tumor suppressive miRs are deregulated in cancer cells. The microRNA-31 (miR-31) has been shown to be overexpressed in metastatic breast cancer. It promotes multiple oncogenic phenotypes, including proliferation, motility, and invasion of cancer cells. Using a breast cancer-related miRNA array analysis, we identified miR-31 as a novel target of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) in breast cancer cells. Specifically, we show that sodium butyrate (NaB) and panobinostat (LBH589), two broad-spectrum HDAC inhibitors up-regulate hsa-miR-31 (miR-31). The up-regulation of miR-31 was accompanied by repression of the polycomb group (PcG) protein BMI1 and induction of cellular senescence. We further show that inhibition of miR-31 overcomes the senescence-inducing effect of HDACi, and restores expression of the PcG protein BMI1. Interestingly, BMI1 also acts as a repressor of miR-31 transcription, suggesting a cross-negative feedback loop between the expression of miR-31 and BMI1. Our data suggest that miR-31 is an important physiological target of HDACi, and that it is an important regulator of senescence relevant to cancer. These studies further suggest that manipulation of miR-31 expression can be used to modulate senescence-related pathological conditions such as cancer, and the aging process. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Tissue-Specific MicroRNA Expression Patterns in Four Types of Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Baker, Maria Angeles; Davis, Seth J; Liu, Pengyuan; Pan, Xiaoqing; Williams, Anna Marie; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Gallagher, Sean T; Bishop, Kaylee; Regner, Kevin R; Liu, Yong; Liang, Mingyu

    2017-10-01

    MicroRNAs contribute to the development of kidney disease. Previous analyses of microRNA expression in human kidneys, however, were limited by tissue heterogeneity or the inclusion of only one pathologic type. In this study, we used laser-capture microdissection to obtain glomeruli and proximal tubules from 98 human needle kidney biopsy specimens for microRNA expression analysis using deep sequencing. We analyzed specimens from patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN), FSGS, IgA nephropathy (IgAN), membranoproliferative GN (MPGN) (n=19-23 for each disease), and a control group (n=14). Compared with control glomeruli, DN, FSGS, IgAN, and MPGN glomeruli exhibited differential expression of 18, 12, two, and 17 known microRNAs, respectively. The expression of several microRNAs also differed between disease conditions. Specifically, compared with control or FSGS glomeruli, IgAN glomeruli exhibited downregulated expression of hsa-miR-3182. Furthermore, in combination, the expression levels of hsa-miR-146a-5p and hsa-miR-30a-5p distinguished DN from all other conditions except IgAN. Compared with control proximal tubules, DN, FSGS, IgAN, and MPGN proximal tubules had differential expression of 13, 14, eight, and eight microRNAs, respectively, but expression of microRNAs did not differ significantly between the disease conditions. The abundance of several microRNAs correlated with indexes of renal function. Finally, we validated the differential glomerular expression of select microRNAs in a second cohort of patients with DN (n=19) and FSGS (n=21). In conclusion, we identified tissue-specific microRNA expression patterns associated with several kidney pathologies. The identified microRNAs could be developed as biomarkers of kidney diseases and might be involved in disease mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Are microRNAs true sensors of ageing and cellular senescence?

    PubMed

    Williams, Justin; Smith, Flint; Kumar, Subodh; Vijayan, Murali; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2017-05-01

    All living beings are programmed to death due to aging and age-related processes. Aging is a normal process of every living species. While all cells are inevitably progressing towards death, many disease processes accelerate the aging process, leading to senescence. Pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and skin diseases have been associated with deregulated aging. Healthy aging can delay onset of all age-related diseases. Genetics and epigenetics are reported to play large roles in accelerating and/or delaying the onset of age-related diseases. Cellular mechanisms of aging and age-related diseases are not completely understood. However, recent molecular biology discoveries have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) are potential sensors of aging and cellular senescence. Due to miRNAs capability to bind to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNA of specific genes, miRNAs can prevent the translation of specific genes. The purpose of our article is to highlight recent advancements in miRNAs and their involvement in cellular changes in aging and senescence. Our article discusses the current understanding of cellular senescence, its interplay with miRNAs regulation, and how they both contribute to disease processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Selection of microRNA for providing tumor specificity of transgene expression in cancer gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Shepelev, M V; Kalinichenko, S V; Vikhreva, P N; Korobko, I V

    2016-01-01

    The use of tumor-specific microRNA loss to inhibit transgene expression in normal cells is considered as a way to increase the specificity of gene-therapeutic antitumor drugs. This method assumes the introduction of recognition sites of suppressed in tumor cells microRNAs into transgene transcipt. In the presented work, the efficiency of the strategy for providing the tumor specificity of transgene expression depending on parameters of microRNA expression in normal and tumor cells was studied. It was established that microRNA suppression in tumor cells and the determination of absolute microRNA levels in tumor and normal cells are not sufficient for the adequate estimation of the possibility of specific microRNA usage in the scheme of cancer gene therapy, and particularly do not allow to exclude a significant decrease in the efficiency of the gene-therapeutic drug upon the introduction of microRNA recognition sites. These parameters are only suitable for the preliminary selection of microRNA. The effect of introduction of microRNA recognition sites on transgene expression level in target tumor cells should be validated experimentally. It is suggested that this should be done directly in the cancer gene therapy scheme with monitoring of the therapeutic transgene activity.

  5. Expression of microRNA-146 in osteoarthritis cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Keiichiro; Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Miyaki, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Deie, Masataka; Adachi, Nobuo; Yasunaga, Yuji; Asahara, Hiroshi; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2009-01-01

    Objective A role of microRNAs, which are ∼22- nucleotide non coding RNAs, has recently been recognized in human diseases. The objective of this study was to identify the expression pattern of microRNA-146 (miR-146) in cartilage from patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Methods The expression of miR-146 in cartilage from 15 patients with OA was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by in situ hybridization. Induction of the expression of miR-146 by cultures of normal human articular chondrocytes following stimulation with interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was examined by quantitative RT-PCR. Results All cartilage samples were divided into three groups according to a modified Mankin scale; grade I: 0 - 5, grade II: 6 - 10, grade III: 11 - 14. In OA cartilage samples of grade I, the expression of miR-146a and Col2a1 was significantly higher than that of other groups (p<0.05). In OA cartilage of grades II and III, the expression of miR-146a and Col2a1 decreased while the expression of MMP13 was elevated in grade II. These data show that miR-146a is expressed intensely in cartilage with a low Mankin grade, and that miR-146a expression decreases in accordance with level of MMP13 expression. Section in situ hybridization of pri-miR-146a revealed that pri-miR-146a is expressed in chondrocytes in all layers, especially in the superficial layer where it is intensely expressed. The expression of miR-146 was markedly elevated by IL-1β stimulation in human chondrocytes in vitro. Conclusion This study shows that miR-146 is intensely expressed in low grade OA cartilage, and that its expression is induced by stimulation of IL-1β. MiR-146 might play a role in OA cartilage pathogenesis. PMID:19333945

  6. Genetic variants in microRNA genes: impact on microRNA expression, function, and disease

    PubMed Central

    Cammaerts, Sophia; Strazisar, Mojca; De Rijk, Peter; Del Favero, Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression and like any other gene, their coding sequences are subject to genetic variation. Variants in miRNA genes can have profound effects on miRNA functionality at all levels, including miRNA transcription, maturation, and target specificity, and as such they can also contribute to disease. The impact of variants in miRNA genes is the focus of the present review. To put these effects into context, we first discuss the requirements of miRNA transcripts for maturation. In the last part an overview of available databases and tools and experimental approaches to investigate miRNA variants related to human disease is presented. PMID:26052338

  7. Identification of differentially expressed microRNAs in human male breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The discovery of small non-coding RNAs and the subsequent analysis of microRNA expression patterns in human cancer specimens have provided completely new insights into cancer biology. Genetic and epigenetic data indicate oncogenic or tumor suppressor function of these pleiotropic regulators. Therefore, many studies analyzed the expression and function of microRNA in human breast cancer, the most frequent malignancy in females. However, nothing is known so far about microRNA expression in male breast cancer, accounting for approximately 1% of all breast cancer cases. Methods The expression of 319 microRNAs was analyzed in 9 primary human male breast tumors and in epithelial cells from 15 male gynecomastia specimens using fluorescence-labeled bead technology. For identification of differentially expressed microRNAs data were analyzed by cluster analysis and selected statistical methods. Expression levels were validated for the most up- or down-regulated microRNAs in this training cohort using real-time PCR methodology as well as in an independent test cohort comprising 12 cases of human male breast cancer. Results Unsupervised cluster analysis separated very well male breast cancer samples and control specimens according to their microRNA expression pattern indicating cancer-specific alterations of microRNA expression in human male breast cancer. miR-21, miR519d, miR-183, miR-197, and miR-493-5p were identified as most prominently up-regulated, miR-145 and miR-497 as most prominently down-regulated in male breast cancer. Conclusions Male breast cancer displays several differentially expressed microRNAs. Not all of them are shared with breast cancer biopsies from female patients indicating male breast cancer specific alterations of microRNA expression. PMID:20331864

  8. ADAR mediates differential expression of polycistronic microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Geetanjali; Sokol, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNAs (ADARs) convert adenosine residues to inosines in primary microRNA (pri-miRNA) transcripts to alter the structural conformation of these precursors and the subsequent functions of the encoded microRNAs (miRNAs). Here we show that RNA editing by Drosophila ADAR modulates the expression of three co-transcribed miRNAs encoded by the evolutionarily conserved let-7-Complex (let-7-C) locus. For example, a single A-to-I change at the −6 residue of pri-miR-100, the first miRNA in this let-7-C polycistronic transcript, leads to enhanced miRNA processing by Drosha and consequently enhanced functional miR-100 both in vitro as well as in vivo. In contrast, other editing events, including one at the +43 residue of the pri-miR-125, destabilize the primary transcript and reduce the levels of all three encoded miRNAs. Consequently, loss of adar in vivo leads to reduced miR-100 but increased miR-125. In wild-type animals, the destabilizing editing events in pri-let-7-C increase during the larval-to-adult transition and are critical for the normal downregulation of all three miRNAs seen late in metamorphosis. These findings unravel a new regulatory role for ADAR and raise the possibility that ADAR mediates the differential expression characteristic of many polycistronic miRNA clusters. PMID:24561617

  9. A micro-RNA expression signature for human NAFLD progression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan; Xiong, Yanhua; Sheng, Quanghu; Zhao, Shilin; Wattacheril, Julia; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2016-10-01

    The spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) describes disease conditions deteriorating from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to cirrhosis (CIR) to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). From a molecular and biochemical perspective, our understanding of the etiology of this disease is limited by the broad spectrum of disease presentations, the lack of a thorough understanding of the factors contributing to disease susceptibility, and ethical concerns related to repeat sampling of the liver. To better understand the factors associated with disease progression, we investigated by next-generation RNA sequencing the altered expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in liver biopsies of class III obese subjects (body mass index ≥40 kg/m(2)) biopsied at the time of elective bariatric surgery. Clinical characteristics and unbiased RNA expression profiles for 233 miRs, 313 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), and 392 miscellaneous small RNAs (snoRNAs, snRNAs, rRNAs) were compared among 36 liver biopsy specimens stratified by disease severity. The abundances of 3 miRNAs that were found to be differentially regulated (miR-301a-3p and miR-34a-5p increased and miR-375 decreased) with disease progression were validated by RT-PCR. No tRNAs or miscellaneous RNAs were found to be associated with disease severity. Similar patterns of increased miR-301a and decreased miR-375 expression were observed in 134 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples deposited in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Our analytical results suggest that NAFLD severity is associated with a specific pattern of altered hepatic microRNA expression that may drive the hallmark of this disorder: altered lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The three identified miRNAs can potentially be used as biomarkers to access the severity of NAFLD. The persistence of this miRNA expression pattern in an external validation cohort of HCC samples suggests that specific microRNA expression patterns may permit and

  10. Estrogen regulation of microRNAs, target genes, and microRNA expression associated with vitellogenesis in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Amit; Smith, Yoav

    2014-10-01

    Estrogen is a steroid hormone that has been implicated in a variety of cellular and physiological processes and in the development of diseases such as cancer. Here we show a remarkable widespread microRNA (miRNA) downregulation in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver following 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment. This unique miRNA expression signature in the fish liver was further supported by a combination of computational predictions with gene expression microarray data, showing a significant bias toward upregulation of miRNA target genes after E2 treatment. Using pathway analysis of target genes, their involvement in the processes of cell cycle, DNA replication, and proteasome was observed, suggesting that miRNAs are incorporated into robust regulatory networks controlled by estrogen. In oviparous vertebrates, including fish, the formation of yolky eggs during a process known as vitellogenesis is regulated by estrogen. Microarrays were used to compare miRNA expression profiles between the livers of vitellogenic and nonvitellogenic zebrafish females. Among the upregulated miRNAs in vitellogenic females, were five members of the miR-17-92, a polycistronic miRNA cluster with a role in cell proliferation and cancer. Furthermore, a number of miRNA target genes related to fish vitellogenesis were revealed, including vtg3, a putative target of miR-122; the most abundant miRNA in the liver. Moreover, several of the differentially expressed miRNAs were only conserved in oviparous animals, which suggest an additional novel level of regulation during vitellogenesis by miRNAs and consequently, improves our knowledge of the process of oocyte growth in egg-laying animals.

  11. A high-throughput microRNA expression profiling system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanwen; Mastriano, Stephen; Lu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    As small noncoding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate diverse biological functions, including physiological and pathological processes. The expression and deregulation of miRNA levels contain rich information with diagnostic and prognostic relevance and can reflect pharmacological responses. The increasing interest in miRNA-related research demands global miRNA expression profiling on large numbers of samples. We describe here a robust protocol that supports high-throughput sample labeling and detection on hundreds of samples simultaneously. This method employs 96-well-based miRNA capturing from total RNA samples and on-site biochemical reactions, coupled with bead-based detection in 96-well format for hundreds of miRNAs per sample. With low-cost, high-throughput, high detection specificity, and flexibility to profile both small and large numbers of samples, this protocol can be adapted in a wide range of laboratory settings.

  12. MicroRNA expression profiling of primary sheep testicular cells in response to bluetongue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Du, Junzheng; Gao, Shandian; Tian, Zhancheng; Xing, Shanshan; Huang, Dexuan; Zhang, Guorui; Zheng, Yadong; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Chang, Huiyun; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a member of the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae and causes a non-contagious, insect-transmitted disease in domestic and wild ruminants, mainly in sheep and occasionally in cattle and some species of deer. Virus infection can trigger the changes of the cellular microRNA (miRNA) expression profile, which play important post-transcriptional regulatory roles in gene expression and can greatly influence viral replication and pathogenesis. Here, we employed deep sequencing technology to determine which cellular miRNAs were differentially expressed in primary sheep testicular (ST) cells infected with BTV. A total of 25 known miRNAs and 240 novel miRNA candidates that were differentially expressed in BTV-infected and uninfected ST cells were identified, and 251 and 8428 predicted target genes were annotated, respectively. Nine differentially expressed miRNAs and their mRNA targets were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Targets prediction and functional analysis of these regulated miRNAs revealed significant enrichment for several signaling pathways including MAPK, PI3K-Akt, endocytosis, Hippo, NF-kB, viral carcinogenesis, FoxO, and JAK-STAT signaling pathways. This study provides a valuable basis for further investigation on the roles of miRNAs in BTV replication and pathogenesis.

  13. Insect MicroRNAs: Biogenesis, Expression Profiling and Biological Functions

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Keira; Raikhel, Alexander S.

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of endogenous regulatory RNA molecules 21-24 nucleotides in length that modulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level via base pairing to target sites within messenger RNAs (mRNA). Typically, the miRNA “seed sequence” (nucleotides 2-8 at the 5′ end) binds complementary seed match sites within the 3′ untranslated region of mRNAs, resulting in either translational inhibition or mRNA degradation. MicroRNAs were first discovered in Caenorhabditis elegans and were shown to be involved in the timed regulation of developmental events. Since their discovery in the 1990s, thousands of potential miRNAs have since been identified in various organisms through small RNA cloning methods and/or computational prediction, and have been shown to play functionally important roles of gene regulation in invertebrates, vertebrates, plants, fungi and viruses. Numerous functions of miRNAs identified in Drosophila melanogaster have demonstrated a great significance of these regulatory molecules. However, elucidation of miRNA roles in non-drosophilid insects presents a challenging and important task. PMID:23165178

  14. Environmental Contaminants and microRNA Regulation: Transcription Factors as Regulators of Toxicant-Altered microRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sollome, James; Martin, Elizabeth; Sethupathy, Praveen; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by binding mRNA transcripts and inhibiting translation and/or inducing degradation of the associated transcripts. Expression levels of miRNAs have been shown to be altered in response to environmental toxicants, thus impacting cellular function and influencing disease risk. Transcription factors (TFs) are known to be altered in response to environmental toxicants and play a critical role in the regulation of miRNA expression. To date, environmentally-responsive TFs that are important for regulating miRNAs remain understudied. In a state-of-the-art analysis, we utilized in silico bioinformatic analysis to characterize potential transcriptional regulators of environmentally-responsive miRNAs. Using the miRStart database, genomic sequences of promoter regions for all available human miRNAs (n=847) were identified and promoter regions were defined as −1000/+500 base pairs from the transcription start site. Subsequently, the promoter region sequences of environmentally-responsive miRNAs (n=128) were analyzed using enrichment analysis to determine overrepresented TF binding sites (TFBS). While most (56/73) TFs differed across environmental contaminants, a set of 17 TFs was enriched for promoter binding among miRNAs responsive to numerous environmental contaminants. Of these, one TF was common to miRNAs altered by the majority of environmental contaminants, namely SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily A, member 3 (SMARCA3). These identified TFs represent candidate common transcriptional regulators of miRNAs perturbed by environmental toxicants. PMID:27292125

  15. Identification and characterization of MicroRNAs expressed in chicken skeletal muscle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) encompass a class of small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression. MicroRNAs play an essential role in skeletal muscle, determining the proper development and maintenance of this tissue. In comparison to other organs and tissues, the full set of muscle miRNA...

  16. Expression patterns of micro-RNAs 146a, 181a, and 155 in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yiş, Uluç; Tüfekçi, Uğur Kemal; Genç, Şermin; Çarman, Kürşat Bora; Bayram, Erhan; Topçu, Yasemin; Kurul, Semra Hız

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is caused by persistent brain infection of mutated virus, showing inflammation, neurodegeneration, and demyelination. Although many factors are emphasized in the pathogenesis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, the exact mechanism of neurodegeneration remains unknown. Micro-RNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional levels. Micro-RNAs are essential for normal immune system development; besides they are also implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression patterns of micro-RNAs 146a, 181a, and 155 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. We enrolled 39 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and 41 healthy controls. Quantitative analysis of micro-RNAs 146a, 181a, and 155 were performed using specific stem-loop primers followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. All of 3 micro-RNAs were upregulated in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients. In addition, the level of micro-RNA 155 expression was higher in stage 3 patients. But, micro-RNA 146a and 181a expression levels showed no association or correlation with clinically relevant data. Alteration of peripheral blood mononuclear cell micro-RNAs in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may shed new light on the pathogenesis of disease and may contribute to the aberrant systemic rise in mRNA levels in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  17. Detecting microRNA activity from gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the messenger RNA (mRNA) of protein coding genes. They control gene expression by either inhibiting translation or inducing mRNA degradation. A number of computational techniques have been developed to identify the targets of miRNAs. In this study we used predicted miRNA-gene interactions to analyse mRNA gene expression microarray data to predict miRNAs associated with particular diseases or conditions. Results Here we combine correspondence analysis, between group analysis and co-inertia analysis (CIA) to determine which miRNAs are associated with differences in gene expression levels in microarray data sets. Using a database of miRNA target predictions from TargetScan, TargetScanS, PicTar4way PicTar5way, and miRanda and combining these data with gene expression levels from sets of microarrays, this method produces a ranked list of miRNAs associated with a specified split in samples. We applied this to three different microarray datasets, a papillary thyroid carcinoma dataset, an in-house dataset of lipopolysaccharide treated mouse macrophages, and a multi-tissue dataset. In each case we were able to identified miRNAs of biological importance. Conclusions We describe a technique to integrate gene expression data and miRNA target predictions from multiple sources. PMID:20482775

  18. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus microRNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in clinical samples can affect microRNA processing, level of expression, and silencing activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Soo-Jin; Marshall, Vickie; Barsov, Eugene; Quiñones, Octavio; Ray, Alex; Labo, Nazzarena; Trivett, Matthew; Ott, David; Renne, Rolf; Whitby, Denise

    2013-11-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes 12 pre-microRNAs that can produce 25 KSHV mature microRNAs. We previously reported single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KSHV-encoded pre-microRNA and mature microRNA sequences from clinical samples (V. Marshall et al., J. Infect. Dis., 195:645-659, 2007). To determine whether microRNA SNPs affect pre-microRNA processing and, ultimately, mature microRNA expression levels, we performed a detailed comparative analysis of (i) mature microRNA expression levels, (ii) in vitro Drosha/Dicer processing, and (iii) RNA-induced silencing complex-dependent targeting of wild-type (wt) and variant microRNA genes. Expression of pairs of wt and variant pre-microRNAs from retroviral vectors and measurement of KSHV mature microRNA expression by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) revealed differential expression levels that correlated with the presence of specific sequence polymorphisms. Measurement of KSHV mature microRNA expression in a panel of primary effusion lymphoma cell lines by real-time RT-PCR recapitulated some observed expression differences but suggested a more complex relationship between sequence differences and expression of mature microRNA. Furthermore, in vitro maturation assays demonstrated significant SNP-associated changes in Drosha/DGCR8 and/or Dicer processing. These data demonstrate that SNPs within KSHV-encoded pre-microRNAs are associated with differential microRNA expression levels. Given the multiple reports on the involvement of microRNAs in cancer, the biological significance of these phenotypic and genotypic variants merits further studies in patients with KSHV-associated malignancies.

  19. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus MicroRNA Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Identified in Clinical Samples Can Affect MicroRNA Processing, Level of Expression, and Silencing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Han, Soo-Jin; Marshall, Vickie; Barsov, Eugene; Quiñones, Octavio; Ray, Alex; Labo, Nazzarena; Trivett, Matthew; Ott, David; Renne, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes 12 pre-microRNAs that can produce 25 KSHV mature microRNAs. We previously reported single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KSHV-encoded pre-microRNA and mature microRNA sequences from clinical samples (V. Marshall et al., J. Infect. Dis., 195:645–659, 2007). To determine whether microRNA SNPs affect pre-microRNA processing and, ultimately, mature microRNA expression levels, we performed a detailed comparative analysis of (i) mature microRNA expression levels, (ii) in vitro Drosha/Dicer processing, and (iii) RNA-induced silencing complex-dependent targeting of wild-type (wt) and variant microRNA genes. Expression of pairs of wt and variant pre-microRNAs from retroviral vectors and measurement of KSHV mature microRNA expression by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) revealed differential expression levels that correlated with the presence of specific sequence polymorphisms. Measurement of KSHV mature microRNA expression in a panel of primary effusion lymphoma cell lines by real-time RT-PCR recapitulated some observed expression differences but suggested a more complex relationship between sequence differences and expression of mature microRNA. Furthermore, in vitro maturation assays demonstrated significant SNP-associated changes in Drosha/DGCR8 and/or Dicer processing. These data demonstrate that SNPs within KSHV-encoded pre-microRNAs are associated with differential microRNA expression levels. Given the multiple reports on the involvement of microRNAs in cancer, the biological significance of these phenotypic and genotypic variants merits further studies in patients with KSHV-associated malignancies. PMID:24006441

  20. Hantaviruses induce cell type- and viral species-specific host microRNA expression signatures.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ok Sarah; Kumar, Mukesh; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2013-11-01

    The mechanisms of hantavirus-induced modulation of host cellular immunity remain poorly understood. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of essential regulators of host immune response genes. To ascertain if differential host miRNA expression toward representative hantavirus species correlated with immune response genes, miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in human endothelial cells, macrophages and epithelial cells infected with pathogenic and nonpathogenic rodent- and shrew-borne hantaviruses. Distinct miRNA expression profiles were observed in a cell type- and viral species-specific pattern. A subset of miRNAs, including miR-151-5p and miR-1973, were differentially expressed between Hantaan virus and Prospect Hill virus. Pathway analyses confirmed that the targets of selected miRNAs were associated with inflammatory responses and innate immune receptor-mediated signaling pathways. Our data suggest that differential immune responses following hantavirus infection may be regulated in part by cellular miRNA through dysregulation of genes critical to the inflammatory process.

  1. Dehydration triggers differential microRNA expression in Xenopus laevis brain.

    PubMed

    Luu, Bryan E; Storey, Kenneth B

    2015-11-15

    African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis, although primarily aquatic, have a high tolerance for dehydration, being capable of withstanding the loss of up to 32-35% of total water body water. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs play a role in the response to dehydration by the liver, kidney and ventral skin of X. laevis. MicroRNAs act by modulating the expression of mRNA transcripts, thereby affecting diverse biochemical pathways. In this study, 43 microRNAs were assessed in frog brains comparing control and dehydrated (31.2±0.83% of total body water lost) conditions. MicroRNAs of interest were measured using a modified protocol which employs polyadenylation of microRNAs prior to reverse transcription and qPCR. Twelve microRNAs that showed a significant decrease in expression (to 41-77% of control levels) in brains from dehydrated frogs (xla-miR-15a, -150, -181a, -191, -211, -218, -219b, -30c, -30e, -31, -34a, and -34b) were identified. Genomic analysis showed that the sequences of these dehydration-responsive microRNAs were highly conserved as compared with the comparable microRNAs of mice (91-100%). Suppression of these microRNAs implies that translation of the mRNA transcripts under their control could be enhanced in response to dehydration. Bioinformatic analysis using the DIANA miRPath program (v.2.0) predicted the top two KEGG pathways that these microRNAs collectively regulate: 1. Axon guidance, and 2. Long-term potentiation. Previous studies indicated that suppression of these microRNAs promotes neuroprotective pathways by increasing the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and activating anti-apoptotic pathways. This suggests that similar actions may be triggered in X. laevis brains as a protective response to dehydration.

  2. Expression pattern analysis of microRNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Isik, Meltem; Berezikov, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ∼22 nucleotide single-stranded RNA molecules that originate from hairpin precursors and regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by basepairing with target messenger RNA and blocking its translation or inducing its degradation. miRNAs play important roles in a variety of biological processes, including development, proliferation, differentiation, cell fate determination, apoptosis, signal transduction, host-viral interactions, and tumorigenesis. Methodological advances in miRNA studies allowed identification of biological roles for many miRNAs, and establishing the spatiotemporal expression patterns of miRNAs is one of the approaches to elucidate their biological functions. Expression pattern analysis of miRNAs helps to identify potential genetic interactors that exhibit similar expression patterns and this, combined with further supporting experiments, helps to identify the genetic pathways in which the specific miRNAs are involved. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for the analysis of miRNA expression patterns in Caenorhabditis elegans.

  3. Expression of microRNAs miR-21 and miR-181c in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in canine meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Gaitero, L; Russell, S J; Monteith, G; LaMarre, J

    2016-10-01

    The potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers for canine meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin (MUO) was investigated by using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR to determine the expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and microRNA-181c (miR-181c) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of dogs. Dogs with MUO (n = 10) had higher levels of expression of miR-21 and miR-181c in the CSF than dogs with non-inflammatory neurological diseases (n = 8). There was a positive correlation between CSF cellularity and expression of miRNAs in the CSF, particularly for miR-21 in the MUO group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MicroRNAs Expression Profiles in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    The current search for new markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is explained by the high morbidity and mortality still observed in developed and developing countries due to cardiovascular events. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have emerged as potential new biomarkers and are small sequences of RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level by inhibiting translation or inducing degradation of the target mRNAs. Circulating miRNAs are involved in the regulation of signaling pathways associated to aging and can be used as novel diagnostic markers for acute and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular pathologies. This review summarizes the biogenesis, maturation, and stability of miRNAs and their use as potential biomarkers for coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), and heart failure (HF). PMID:25013816

  5. Expression profiling of microRNA using oligo DNA arrays

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang-Gong; Spizzo, Riccardo; Calin, George Adrian; Croce, Carlo Maria

    2012-01-01

    After 12 years from its first application, microarray technology has become the reference technique to monitor gene expression of thousands of genes in the same experiment. In the past few years an increasing amount of evidence showed the importance of non coding RNA (ncRNA) in different human diseases. The microRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the groups of ncRNA. They are small RNA fragments, 19–25 nucleotides long, with a main regulatory function on both protein coding genes and non-coding RNAs. The application of microarray platforms applied to miRNA profiling determined their deregulation in virtually all human diseases that have been studied. We previously developed a custom miRNA microarray platform, and here we describe the protocol we used to work with it including the oligo design strategy, the microaray printing protocol, the target-probe hybridization and the signal detection. PMID:18158129

  6. MicroRNA expression profiling in children with different asthma phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Midyat, Levent; Gulen, Figen; Karaca, Emin; Ozkinay, Ferda; Tanac, Remziye; Demir, Esen; Cogulu, Ozgur; Aslan, Asli; Ozkinay, Cihangir; Onay, Huseyin; Atasever, Mesude

    2016-06-01

    An improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms in asthma through exploring the role of microRNAs may offer promise to reveal new approaches for primary prevention and identification of new therapeutic targets in childhood asthma. The primary goal of this study is to identify the microRNAs that play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma in pediatric age group. The secondary goal is to analyze these microRNAs according to the asthma phenotype, atopic status, and severity of the disease exacerbation. To our knowledge, this is the first research project in the literature which studies the relationship between microRNA expression and the severity of childhood asthma. One hundred children between 6 and 18 years old with a diagnosis of asthma, and 100 age-matched healthy children were enrolled in this study, and the analyses of microRNA expression profiles were performed in the Medical Genetics Laboratories of Ege University between November 2009 and June 2010. The expression of 10 microRNAs were shown to be higher in patients with more severe asthma, and the expression of these microRNAs were also found to be higher in patients who present with more severe acute asthma exacerbation symptoms (P < 0.001). Also, five microRNAs were found to be expressed more than twofold in allergic patients when compared to non-allergic participants (P <0.001). Asthma is one of the best examples of complex genetic diseases, and further studies, which will investigate the relationship between these microRNA's and their target genes, are needed to learn more about the specific roles of microRNAs in respiratory diseases. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:582-587. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A microRNA expression signature predicts meningioma recurrence.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Feng; Zhou, Guangxin; Wang, Suinuan; Shi, Yimin; Peng, Ya; Shao, Naiyuan; Guan, Wei; Qu, Hongtao; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Changchun; Wang, Rong; Wu, Sujia; Xia, Xiwei; Yang, Yilin

    2013-01-01

    The aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with a variety of diseases, including cancer. In our study, we examined the miRNA expression profile of meningiomas, which is a common type of benign intracranial tumor derived from the protective meninges membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. To define a typical human meningioma miRNA profile, the expression of 200 miRNAs in a training sample set were screened using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, and then significantly altered miRNAs were validated in a secondary independent sample set. Kaplan-Meier and univariate/multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed to assess whether miRNA expression could predict the recurrence of meningioma after tumor resection. After a two-phase selection and validation process, 14 miRNAs were found to exhibit significantly different expression profiles in meningioma samples compared to normal adjacent tissue (NAT) samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis indicated that the 14-miRNA profile differed between tumor and NAT samples. Downregulation of miR-29c-3p and miR-219-5p were found to be associated with advanced clinical stages of meningioma. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that high expression of miR-190a and low expression of miR-29c-3p and miR-219-5p correlated significantly with higher recurrence rates in meningioma patients. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that miR-190a expression level is an important prognostic predictor that is independent of other clinicopathological factors. Our results suggest that the use of miRNA profiling has significant potential as an effective diagnostic and prognostic marker in defining the expression signature of meningiomas and in predicting postsurgical outcomes. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  8. Expression levels of microRNA-375 in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Shiduo; Zhou, Jian; He, Songbing; Zhu, Dongming; Zhang, Zixiang; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Yi; Li, Dechun

    2013-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs of endogenous origin that have been increasingly shown to have altered expressions in various cancer types. The expression levels of miR-375 have not been comprehensively investigated in pancreatic cancer. In this study, total RNA was extracted from 44 pairs of pancreatic cancer tissues and non-tumor adjacent tissues, as well as from four pancreatic cancer cell lines, Panc-1, SW1990, BxpC3 and Patu8988. Following polyadenylation and reverse transcription, the expression levels of miR-375 were determined by real-time PCR and the difference in expression was calculated using the 2(-ΔΔCt) method. The correlation between the expression levels of miR-375 and clinicopathological characteristics of pancreatic cancer was also assessed. miR-375 expression was frequently downregulated in the pancreatic cancer tissues compared to their non-tumor counterparts (P<0.05; paired t-test). Moreover, a significantly low expression of miR-375 was found in the pancreatic cancer cell lines (Panc-1, P=0.016; SW1990, P=0.016; BxPC3, P=0.018; Patu8988, P=0.017; paired t-test). However, no significant correlations were observed between the low expression of miR-375 and parameters including gender, age, tumor size, tumor location and histological grade (P>0.05). The low expression of miR-375 was correlated with pT stage, lymph node metastases and pTNM stage (P<0.05) (non-parametric test; Mann-Whitney U test between 2 groups and Kruskal-Wallis H test for ≥3 groups). In conclusion, miR-375 is potentially involved in the carcinogenesis of pancreatic cancers and serves as is a potential biomarker for pancreatic cancer.

  9. An Analysis of microRNA Expression in the Myelodysplastic Syndromes Using Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0082 TITLE: An Analysis of microRNA Expression in the Myelodysplastic Syndromes Using Hematopoietic Stem Cells...COVERED 15 Jul 2013 - 14 Jul 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER An Analysis of microRNA Expression in the Myelodysplastic Syndromes Using...in MDS hematopoietic stem cells (MDS HSCs) as compared with normal HSCs. MiRNAs differentially expressed between MDS HSCs and normal HSCs overlapped

  10. Interplay of microRNAs, transcription factors and target genes: linking dynamic expression changes to function.

    PubMed

    Nazarov, Petr V; Reinsbach, Susanne E; Muller, Arnaud; Nicot, Nathalie; Philippidou, Demetra; Vallar, Laurent; Kreis, Stephanie

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitously expressed small non-coding RNAs that, in most cases, negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs are involved in fine-tuning fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation, cell death and cell cycle control and are believed to confer robustness to biological responses. Here, we investigated simultaneously the transcriptional changes of miRNA and mRNA expression levels over time after activation of the Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/STAT) pathway by interferon-γ stimulation of melanoma cells. To examine global miRNA and mRNA expression patterns, time-series microarray data were analysed. We observed delayed responses of miRNAs (after 24-48 h) with respect to mRNAs (12-24 h) and identified biological functions involved at each step of the cellular response. Inference of the upstream regulators allowed for identification of transcriptional regulators involved in cellular reactions to interferon-γ stimulation. Linking expression profiles of transcriptional regulators and miRNAs with their annotated functions, we demonstrate the dynamic interplay of miRNAs and upstream regulators with biological functions. Finally, our data revealed network motifs in the form of feed-forward loops involving transcriptional regulators, mRNAs and miRNAs. Additional information obtained from integrating time-series mRNA and miRNA data may represent an important step towards understanding the regulatory principles of gene expression.

  11. Interplay of microRNAs, transcription factors and target genes: linking dynamic expression changes to function

    PubMed Central

    Nazarov, Petr V.; Reinsbach, Susanne E.; Muller, Arnaud; Nicot, Nathalie; Philippidou, Demetra; Vallar, Laurent; Kreis, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ubiquitously expressed small non-coding RNAs that, in most cases, negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. miRNAs are involved in fine-tuning fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation, cell death and cell cycle control and are believed to confer robustness to biological responses. Here, we investigated simultaneously the transcriptional changes of miRNA and mRNA expression levels over time after activation of the Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/STAT) pathway by interferon-γ stimulation of melanoma cells. To examine global miRNA and mRNA expression patterns, time-series microarray data were analysed. We observed delayed responses of miRNAs (after 24–48 h) with respect to mRNAs (12–24 h) and identified biological functions involved at each step of the cellular response. Inference of the upstream regulators allowed for identification of transcriptional regulators involved in cellular reactions to interferon-γ stimulation. Linking expression profiles of transcriptional regulators and miRNAs with their annotated functions, we demonstrate the dynamic interplay of miRNAs and upstream regulators with biological functions. Finally, our data revealed network motifs in the form of feed-forward loops involving transcriptional regulators, mRNAs and miRNAs. Additional information obtained from integrating time-series mRNA and miRNA data may represent an important step towards understanding the regulatory principles of gene expression. PMID:23335783

  12. Aging and microRNA expression in human skeletal muscle: a microarray and bioinformatics analysis.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Micah J; McCarthy, John J; Sinha, Mala; Spratt, Heidi M; Volpi, Elena; Esser, Karyn A; Rasmussen, Blake B

    2011-05-01

    A common characteristic of aging is loss of skeletal muscle (sarcopenia), which can lead to falls and fractures. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are novel posttranscriptional modulators of gene expression with potential roles as regulators of skeletal muscle mass and function. The purpose of this study was to profile miRNA expression patterns in aging human skeletal muscle with a miRNA array followed by in-depth functional and network analysis. Muscle biopsy samples from 36 men [young: 31 ± 2 (n = 19); older: 73 ± 3 (n = 17)] were 1) analyzed for expression of miRNAs with a miRNA array, 2) validated with TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR assays, and 3) identified (and later validated) for potential gene targets with the bioinformatics knowledge base software Ingenuity Pathways Analysis. Eighteen miRNAs were differentially expressed in older humans (P < 0.05 and >500 expression level). Let-7 family members Let-7b and Let-7e were significantly elevated and further validated in older subjects (P < 0.05). Functional and network analysis from Ingenuity determined that gene targets of the Let-7s were associated with molecular networks involved in cell cycle control such as cellular proliferation and differentiation. We confirmed with real-time PCR that mRNA expression of cell cycle regulators CDK6, CDC25A, and CDC34 were downregulated in older compared with young subjects (P < 0.05). In addition, PAX7 mRNA expression was lower in older subjects (P < 0.05). These data suggest that aging is characterized by a higher expression of Let-7 family members that may downregulate genes related to cellular proliferation. We propose that higher Let-7 expression may be an indicator of impaired cell cycle function possibly contributing to reduced muscle cell renewal and regeneration in older human muscle.

  13. MicroRNA expression profiling of cat and dog kidneys.

    PubMed

    Ichii, Osamu; Otsuka, Saori; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yabuki, Akira; Horino, Taro; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2014-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in the pathogenesis of certain diseases and may serve as biomarkers. Here, we present the first analysis of miRNA expression in the kidneys of healthy cats and dogs. Kidneys were divided into renal cortex (CO) and medulla (MD), and RNA sequence analysis was performed using the mouse genome as a reference. A total of 277, 276, 295, and 297 miRNAs were detected in cat CO, cat MD, dog CO, and dog MD, respectively. By comparing the expression ratio of CO to MD, we identified highly expressed miRNAs in each tissue as follows: 41 miRNAs including miR-192-5p in cat CO; 45 miRNAs including miR-323-3p in dog CO; 78 miRNAs including miR-20a-5p in cat MD; and 11 miRNAs including miR-132-5p in dog MD. Further, the target mRNAs of these miRNAs were identified. These data provide veterinary medicine critical information regarding renal miRNA expression.

  14. microRNA Expression Profiling: Technologies, Insights, and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Roden, Christine; Mastriano, Stephen; Wang, Nayi; Lu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Since the early days of microRNA (miRNA) research, miRNA expression profiling technologies have provided important tools toward both better understanding of the biological functions of miRNAs and using miRNA expression as potential diagnostics. Multiple technologies, such as microarrays, next-generation sequencing, bead-based detection system, single-molecule measurements, and quantitative RT-PCR, have enabled accurate quantification of miRNAs and the subsequent derivation of key insights into diverse biological processes. As a class of ~22 nt long small noncoding RNAs, miRNAs present unique challenges in expression profiling that require careful experimental design and data analyses. We will particularly discuss how normalization and the presence of miRNA isoforms can impact data interpretation. We will present one example in which the consideration in data normalization has provided insights that helped to establish the global miRNA expression as a tumor suppressor. Finally, we discuss two future prospects of using miRNA profiling technologies to understand single cell variability and derive new rules for the functions of miRNA isoforms.

  15. Patterns of microRNA expression characterize stages of human B-cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jenny; Jima, Dereje D.; Jacobs, Cassandra; Fischer, Randy; Gottwein, Eva; Huang, Grace; Lugar, Patricia L.; Lagoo, Anand S.; Rizzieri, David A.; Friedman, Daphne R.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Lipsky, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    Mature B-cell differentiation provides an important mechanism for the acquisition of adaptive immunity. Malignancies derived from mature B cells constitute the majority of leukemias and lymphomas. These malignancies often maintain the characteristics of the normal B cells that they are derived from, a feature that is frequently used in their diagnosis. The role of microRNAs in mature B cells is largely unknown. Through concomitant microRNA and mRNA profiling, we demonstrate a potential regulatory role for microRNAs at every stage of the mature B-cell differentiation process. In addition, we have experimentally identified a direct role for the microRNA regulation of key transcription factors in B-cell differentiation: LMO2 and PRDM1 (Blimp1). We also profiled the microRNA of B-cell tumors derived from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We found that, in contrast to many other malignancies, common B-cell malignancies do not down-regulate microRNA expression. Although these tumors could be distinguished from each other with use of microRNA expression, each tumor type maintained the expression of the lineage-specific microRNAs. Expression of these lineage-specific microRNAs could correctly predict the lineage of B-cell malignancies in more than 95% of the cases. Thus, our data demonstrate that microRNAs may be important in maintaining the mature B-cell phenotype in normal and malignant B cells. PMID:19202128

  16. MicroRNA Expression Analysis of Centenarians and Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Reveals a Common Expression Pattern.

    PubMed

    Balzano, Francesca; Deiana, Marta; Dei Giudici, Silvia; Oggiano, Annalisa; Pasella, Sara; Pinna, Sara; Mannu, Andrea; Deiana, Nicola; Porcu, Baingio; Masala, Antonio G E; Pileri, Piera V; Scognamillo, Fabrizio; Pala, Carlo; Zinellu, Angelo; Carru, Ciriaco; Deiana, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Micro-RNA (miRNA) are a family of small non-coding ribonucleic acids that inhibits post-transcriptionally the expression of their target messenger RNA (mRNA). We are interested in studying the involvement of miRNA in longevity and autoimmune diseases. In this study we compared the different expression of seven microRNAs between human plasma healthy controls, plasma samples of centenarians and samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We used the Life Technologies' protocol to quantify seven miRNAs from 62 plasma samples: 20 healthy human controls, 14 centenarians, 28 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. TaqMan MicroRNA assays were used to analyze the expression profiles of miR-125b-5p, miR-425-5p, miR-200b5p, miR-200c-3p, miR-579-3p, miR-212-3p, miR-21-5p and miR-126-3p. The relative expression of mature miRNAs was analyzed using software REST. Our results show that miR-425-5p, miR-21 and miR-212 significantly decreased in centenarians and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with controls. Furthermore in this work we highlight a connection between corticosteroid treatment and miRNAs expression.

  17. Composition and Expression of Conserved MicroRNA Genes in Diploid Cotton (Gossypium) Species

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lei; Kakrana, Atul; Arikit, Siwaret; Meyers, Blake C.; Wendel, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs are ubiquitous in plant genomes but vary greatly in their abundance within and conservation among plant lineages. To gain insight into the evolutionary birth/death dynamics of microRNA families, we sequenced small RNA and 5′-end PARE libraries generated from two closely related species of Gossypium. Here, we demonstrate that 33 microRNA families, with similar copy numbers and average evolutionary rates, are conserved in the two congeneric cottons. Analysis of the presence/absence of these microRNA families in other land plants sheds light on their depth of phylogenetic origin and lineage-specific loss/gain. Conserved microRNA families in Gossypium exhibit a striking interspecific asymmetry in expression, potentially connected to relative proximity to neighboring transposable elements. A complex correlated expression pattern of microRNA target genes with their controlling microRNAs indicates that possible functional divergence of conserved microRNA families can also exist even within a single plant genus. PMID:24281048

  18. Influenza A Virus Infection of Human Respiratory Cells Induces Primary MicroRNA Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Buggele, William A.; Johnson, Karen E.; Horvath, Curt M.

    2012-01-01

    The cellular response to virus infection is initiated by recognition of the invading pathogen and subsequent changes in gene expression mediated by both transcriptional and translational mechanisms. In addition to well established means of regulating antiviral gene expression, it has been demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi) can play an important role in antiviral responses. Virus-derived small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a primary antiviral response exploited by plants and invertebrate animals, and host-encoded microRNA (miRNA) species have been clearly implicated in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses in mammals and other vertebrates. Examination of miRNA abundance in human lung cell lines revealed endogenous miRNAs, including miR-7, miR-132, miR-146a, miR-187, miR-200c, and miR-1275, to specifically accumulate in response to infection with two influenza A virus strains, A/Udorn/72 and A/WSN/33. Known antiviral response pathways, including Toll-like receptor, RIG-I-like receptor, and direct interferon or cytokine stimulation did not alter the abundance of the tested miRNAs to the extent of influenza A virus infection, which initiates primary miRNA transcription via a secondary response pathway. Gene expression profiling identified 26 cellular mRNAs targeted by these miRNAs, including IRAK1, MAPK3, and other components of innate immune signaling systems. PMID:22822053

  19. MicroRNA expression in the aging mouse thymus.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yaqiong; Li, Daotong; Ouyang, Dan; Deng, Li; Zhang, Yuan; Ma, Yongjiang; Li, Yugu

    2014-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the process of aging in many model organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, and in many organs, such as the mouse lung and human epididymis. However, the role of miRNAs in the thymus tissues of the aging mouse remains unclear. To address this question, we investigated the miRNA expression profiles in the thymuses of 1-, 10- and 19-month-old mice using miRNA array and qRT-PCR assays. A total of 223 mouse miRNAs were screened, and the expression levels of those miRNAs exhibited gradual increases and decreases over the course of thymus aging. Fifty miRNAs in the 10-month-old thymus and 81 miRNAs in the 19-month-old thymus were defined as differentially expressed miRNAs (p<0.05) in comparison with their levels in the 1-month-old mouse, and approximately one-third of these miRNAs were grouped within 11 miRNA clusters. Each miRNA cluster contained 2 to 5 miRNA genes, and most of the cluster members displayed similar expression patterns, being either increased or decreased. In addition, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software and the IPA database were used to analyze the 12 miRNAs that exhibited significant expression changes, revealing that as many as 15 pathways may be involved. Thus, our current study determined the expression profiles of miRNAs in the mouse thymus during the process of aging. The results suggested that these miRNAs could become meaningful biomarkers for studying thymus aging and that the aging-related alternations in miRNA expression may be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, development and carcinogenesis/tumorigenesis.

  20. MicroRNA expression profiling in cancer from a bioinformatics prospective.

    PubMed

    Gusev, Yuriy; Brackett, Daniel J

    2007-11-01

    A new type of noncoding short single-stranded RNA molecules, microRNA (miRNA), has recently emerged as one of the most important new classes of cellular regulators. Recent advances in miRNA research have provided evidence that aberrant expression of specific miRNAs is associated with a broad spectrum of human diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, psychological disorders and others. Global microRNAome profiling has demonstrated drastic changes in expression of multiple miRNAs in many common human cancers. miRNA expression signatures have been shown to provide a more accurate method of classifying cancer subtypes than transcriptome profiling of an entire set of known protein-coding genes. miRNA profiling also allows classification of different stages in tumor progression and can predict disease outcome in some cases. Further characterization of these abnormal miRNA expression signatures and identification of the most significant and informative aberrantly expressed miRNAs could lead to the development of tissue- and biofluid-specific diagnostic markers, as well as a new type of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics. As researchers continue to study miRNA expression in cancer and focus on most relevant miRNAs, the further advancement of miRNA-detection technologies and bioinformatics algorithms is critical for successful identification of the most informative diagnostics markers among the tissue-specific miRNAs.

  1. Micro-RNA expression in cisplatin resistant germ cell tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Port, Matthias; Glaesener, Stephanie; Ruf, Christian; Riecke, Armin; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Meineke, Viktor; Honecker, Friedemann; Abend, Michael

    2011-05-15

    We compared microRNA expression patterns in three cisplatin resistant sublines derived from paternal cisplatin sensitive germ cell tumor cell lines in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of cisplatin resistance. Three cisplatin resistant sublines (NTERA-2-R, NCCIT-R, 2102EP-R) showing 2.7-11.3-fold increase in drug resistance after intermittent exposure to increasing doses of cisplatin were compared to their parental counterparts, three well established relatively cisplatin sensitive germ cell tumor cell lines (NTERA-2, NCCIT, 2102EP). Cells were cultured and total RNA was isolated from all 6 cell lines in three independent experiments. RNA was converted into cDNA and quantitative RT-PCR was run using 384 well low density arrays covering almost all (738) known microRNA species of human origin. Altogether 72 of 738 (9.8%) microRNAs appeared differentially expressed between sensitive and resistant cell line pairs (NTERA-2R/NTERA-2 = 43, NCCIT-R/NCCIT = 53, 2102EP-R/2102EP = 15) of which 46.7-95.3% were up-regulated (NTERA-2R/NTERA-2 = 95.3%, NCCIT-R/NCCIT = 62.3%, 2102EP-R/2102EP = 46.7%). The number of genes showing differential expression in more than one of the cell line pairs was 34 between NTERA-2R/NTERA-2 (79%) and NCCIT-R/NCCIT (64%), and 3 and 4, respectively, between these two cell lines and 2102EP-R/2102EP (about 27%). Only the has-miR-10b involved in breast cancer invasion and metastasis and has-miR-512-3p appeared to be up-regulated (2-3-fold) in all three cell lines. The hsa-miR-371-373 cluster (counteracting cellular senescence and linked with differentiation potency), as well as hsa-miR-520c/-520h (inhibiting the tumor suppressor p21) were 3.9-16.3 fold up-regulated in two of the three cisplatin resistant cell lines. Several new micro-RNA species missing an annotation towards cisplatin resistance could be identified. These were hsa-miR-512-3p/-515/-517/-518/-525 (up to 8.1-fold up-regulated) and hsa-miR-99a/-100/-145 (up to 10-fold

  2. Trasferrin receptor 2 gene regulation by microRNA 221 in SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP⁺ as Parkinson's disease cellular model.

    PubMed

    Asci, Roberta; Vallefuoco, Fara; Andolfo, Immacolata; Bruno, Mariasole; De Falco, Luigia; Iolascon, Achille

    2013-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most frequent human neurodegenerations. The neurodegeneration in PD is related to cellular iron increase but the mechanisms involved in iron accumulation remain unclear. Transferrin receptor type 2 (TFR2) is a protein expressed on cell membrane and involved in the cellular iron uptake. We hypothesized that microRNA 221 could regulate the expression of TfR2 in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease, SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP⁺. The miRNA 221 was selected by in silico analysis of several miRNAs predicted to target the TFR2 gene in SHSY5Y cells treated with MPP⁺. Taqman miRNA assay was used to evaluate the expression of the selected miRNAs. Using a luciferase assay we demonstrated the inhibition of TFR2 by miRNA 221. We show that in PD cellular model, TFR2 expression is regulated by miRNA 221. TFR2 and miR 221 are inversely correlated in SHSY5Y cells during the treatment with MPP⁺. Moreover, overexpression of miRNA 221 decreases the expression of TFR2, respectively, at the mRNA and protein levels. The inhibition of endogenous miRNA 221 also is able to regulate TFR2. These data suggest that miRNA 221 regulate TFR2 in PD model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  3. MicroRNA Expression Profiles as Biomarkers of Minor Salivary Gland Inflammation and Dysfunction in Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alevizos, Ilias; Alexander, Stefanie; Turner, R. James; Illei, Gabor G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective MicroRNA reflect physiologic and pathologic processes and may be used as biomarkers of concurrent pathophysiologic events in complex settings such as autoimmune diseases. We generated microRNA microarray profiles from the minor salivary glands of control subjects without Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and patients with SS who had low-grade or high-grade inflammation and impaired or normal saliva production, to identify microRNA patterns specific to salivary gland inflammation or dysfunction. Methods MicroRNA expression profiles were generated by Agilent microRNA arrays. We developed a novel method for data normalization by identifying housekeeping microRNA. MicroRNA profiles were compared by unsupervised mathematical methods to test how well they distinguish between control subjects and various subsets of patients with SS. Several bioinformatics methods were used to predict the messenger RNA targets of the differentially expressed microRNA. Results MicroRNA expression patterns accurately distinguished salivary glands from control subjects and patients with SS who had low-degree or high-degree inflammation. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we validated 2 microRNA as markers of inflammation in an independent cohort. Comparing microRNA from patients with preserved or low salivary flow identified a set of differentially expressed microRNA, most of which were up-regulated in the group with decreased salivary gland function, suggesting that the targets of microRNA may have a protective effect on epithelial cells. The predicted biologic targets of microRNA associated with inflammation or salivary gland dysfunction identified both overlapping and distinct biologic pathways and processes. Conclusion Distinct microRNA expression patterns are associated with salivary gland inflammation and dysfunction in patients with SS, and microRNA represent a novel group of potential biomarkers. PMID:21280008

  4. Identification of conserved and novel microRNAs in Manduca sexta and their possible roles in the expression regulation of immunity-related genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Zheng, Yun; Jagadeeswaran, Guru; Ren, Ren; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Jiang, Haobo

    2014-04-01

    The tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta has served as a model for insect biochemical and physiological research for decades. However, knowledge of the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNAs is still rudimentary in this species. Our previous study (Zhang et al., 2012) identified 163 conserved and 13 novel microRNAs in M. sexta, most of which were present at low levels in pupae. To identify additional M. sexta microRNAs and more importantly to examine their possible roles in the expression regulation of immunity-related genes, we constructed four small RNA libraries using fat body and hemocytes from naïve or bacteria-injected larvae and obtained 32.9 million reads of 18-31 nucleotides by Illumina sequencing. Mse-miR-929 and mse-miR-1b (antisense microRNA of mse-miR-1) were predicted in the previous study and now found to be conserved microRNAs in the tissue samples. We also found four novel microRNAs, two of which result from a gene cluster. Mse-miR-281-star, mse-miR-965-star, mse-miR-31-star, and mse-miR-9b-star were present at higher levels than their respective mature strands. Abundance changes of microRNAs were observed after the immune challenge. Based on the quantitative data of mRNA levels in control and induced fat body and hemocytes as well as the results of microRNA target site prediction, we suggest that certain microRNAs and microRNA*s regulate gene expression for pattern recognition, prophenoloxidase activation, cellular responses, antimicrobial peptide synthesis, and conserved intracellular signal transduction (Toll, IMD, JAK-STAT, MAPK-JNK-p38, and small interfering RNA pathways). In summary, this study has enriched our knowledge on M. sexta microRNAs and how some of them may participate in the expression regulation of immunity-related genes.

  5. MicroRNA regulation in extreme environments: differential expression of microRNAs in the intertidal snail Littorina littorea during extended periods of freezing and anoxia.

    PubMed

    Biggar, Kyle K; Kornfeld, Samantha F; Maistrovski, Yulia; Storey, Kenneth B

    2012-10-01

    Several recent studies of vertebrate adaptation to environmental stress have suggested roles for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating global suppression of protein synthesis and/or restructuring protein expression patterns. The present study is the first to characterize stress-responsive alterations in the expression of miRNAs during natural freezing or anoxia exposures in an invertebrate species, the intertidal gastropod Littorina littorea. These snails are exposed to anoxia and freezing conditions as their environment constantly fluctuates on both a tidal and seasonal basis. The expression of selected miRNAs that are known to influence the cell cycle, cellular signaling pathways, carbohydrate metabolism and apoptosis was evaluated using RT-PCR. Compared to controls, significant changes in expression were observed for miR-1a-1, miR-34a and miR-29b in hepatopancreas and for miR-1a-1, miR-34a, miR-133a, miR-125b, miR-29b and miR-2a in foot muscle after freezing exposure at -6 °C for 24 h (P<0.05). In addition, in response to anoxia stress for 24 h, significant changes in expression were also observed for miR-1a-1, miR-210 and miR-29b in hepatopancreas and for miR-1a-1, miR-34a, miR-133a, miR-29b and miR-2a in foot muscle (P<0.05). Moreover, protein expression of Dicer, an enzyme responsible for mature microRNA processing, was increased in foot muscle during freezing and anoxia and in hepatopancreas during freezing. Alterations in expression of these miRNAs in L. littorea tissues may contribute to organismal survival under freezing and anoxia.

  6. Cellular Localization and Processing of Primary Transcripts of Exonic MicroRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; Kluiver, Joost; de Jong, Debora; Kortman, Gertrud; Halsema, Nancy; Poppema, Sibrand; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Processing of miRNAs occurs simultaneous with the transcription and splicing of their primary transcripts. For the small subset of exonic miRNAs it is unclear if the unspliced and/or spliced transcripts are used for miRNA biogenesis. We assessed endogenous levels and cellular location of primary transcripts of three exonic miRNAs. The ratio between unspliced and spliced transcripts varied markedly, i.e. >1 for BIC, <1 for pri-miR-146a and variable for pri-miR-22. Endogenous unspliced transcripts were located almost exclusively in the nucleus and thus available for miRNA processing for all three miRNAs. Endogenous spliced pri-miRNA transcripts were present both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm and thus only partly available for miRNA processing. Overexpression of constructs containing the 5’ upstream exonic or intronic sequence flanking pre-miR-155 resulted in strongly enhanced miR-155 levels, indicating that the flanking sequence does not affect processing efficiency. Exogenously overexpressed full-length spliced BIC transcripts were present both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm, were bound by the Microprocessor complex and resulted in enhanced miR-155 levels. We conclude that both unspliced and spliced transcripts of exonic miRNAs can be used for pre-miRNA cleavage. Splicing and cytoplasmic transport of spliced transcripts may present a mechanism to regulate levels of exonic microRNAs. PMID:24073292

  7. MicroRNA Expression Signatures During Malignant Progression From Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ajay; Gupta, Vijayalaxmi; Wang, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    The rapid increase and poor survival of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) have led to significant efforts to promote early detection. Given that the premalignant lesion of Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the major known risk factor for EAC, multiple investigators have studied biomarker signatures that can predict malignant progression of BE to EAC. MicroRNAs, a novel class of gene regulators, are small non-coding RNAs and have been associated with carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs are ideal biomarkers because of their remarkable stability in fixed tissues, a common method for collection of clinical specimens, and in blood either within exosomes or as microRNA-protein complexes. Multiple studies show potential of microRNAs as tissue and blood biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of EAC but the results need confirmation in prospective studies. Although head-to-head comparisons are lacking, microRNA panels require less genes than messenger RNA panels for diagnosis of EAC in BE. MicroRNA diagnostic panels will need to be compared for accuracy against global measures of genome instability that were recently shown to be good predictors of progression but require sophisticated analytic techniques. Early studies on blood microRNA panels are promising but have found microRNA markers to be inconsistent among studies. MicroRNA expression in blood is different between various microRNA sub-compartments such as exosomes and microRNA-protein complexes and could affect blood microRNA measurements. Further standardization is needed to yield consistent results. We have summarized the current understanding of the tissue and blood microRNA signatures that may predict the development and progression of EAC.

  8. MicroRNA expression profiling identifies decreased expression of miR-205 in inflammatory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Huo, Lei; Wang, Yan; Gong, Yun; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Wang, Jing; Diao, Lixia; Liu, Chang-Gong; Liu, Xiuping; Lin, Feng; Symmans, William F; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xinna; Sun, Li; Alvarez, Ricardo H; Ueno, Naoto T; Fouad, Tamer M; Harano, Kenichi; Debeb, Bisrat G; Wu, Yun; Reuben, James; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Zuo, Zhuang

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer is the most aggressive form of breast cancer. Identifying new biomarkers to be used as therapeutic targets is in urgent need. Messenger RNA expression profiling studies have indicated that inflammatory breast cancer is a transcriptionally heterogeneous disease, and specific molecular targets for inflammatory breast cancer have not been well established. We performed microRNA expression profiling in inflammatory breast cancer in comparison with locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer in this study. Although many microRNAs were differentially expressed between normal breast tissue and tumor tissue, most of them did not show differential expression between inflammatory and noninflammatory tumor samples. However, by microarray analysis, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, and in situ hybridization, we showed that microRNA-205 expression was decreased not only in tumor compared with normal breast tissue, but also in inflammatory breast cancer compared with noninflammatory breast cancer. Lower expression of microRNA-205 correlated with worse distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival in our cohort. A small-scale immunohistochemistry analysis showed coexistence of decreased microRNA-205 expression and decreased E-cadherin expression in some ductal tumors. MicroRNA-205 may serve as a therapeutic target in advanced breast cancer including inflammatory breast cancer.

  9. MicroRNA-124 inhibits cellular proliferation and invasion by targeting Ets-1 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentao; Zang, Wenqiao; Liu, Pei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Du, Yuwen; Chen, Xiaonan; Deng, Meng; Sun, Wencong; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Guoqiang; Zhai, Baoping

    2014-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that, by targeting certain messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for translational repression or cleavage, can regulate the expression of these genes. In addition, miRNAs may also function as oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, as the abnormal expression of miRNAs is associated with various human tumors. However, the effects of the expression of miR-124 in breast cancer remain unclear. The present study was conducted to study the expression of miR-124 in breast cancer, paying particular attention to miR-124's relation to the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis in breast cancer cell MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to identify miR-124 that was down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. We also showed E26 transformation specific-1 (Ets-1) and miR-124 expression levels in breast cancer tissues that were associated with lymph node metastases. With transfected synthetic miR-124 agomir into MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and colony forming potential was observed after treatment with miR-124. Apoptosis and migration rates were found to be significantly higher in two breast-derived cell lines transfected with a miR-124 agomir (P < 0.05). Luciferase reporter assay and Western blot were used to verify Ets-1 as a potential major target gene of miR-124, and the result showed that miR-124 can bind to putative binding sites within the Ets-1 mRNA 3' untranslated region (UTR) to reduce its expression. Based on these findings, we propose that miR-124 and Ets-1 may serve as a therapeutic agent in breast cancer.

  10. Myogenic factors that regulate expression of muscle-specific microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Rao, Prakash K; Kumar, Roshan M; Farkhondeh, Mina; Baskerville, Scott; Lodish, Harvey F

    2006-06-06

    Since their discovery as key regulators of early animal development, microRNAs now are recognized as widespread regulators of gene expression. Despite their abundance, little is known regarding the regulation of microRNA biogenesis. We show that three highly conserved muscle-specific microRNAs, miR-1, miR-133 and miR-206, are robustly induced during the myoblast-myotube transition, both in primary human myoblasts and in the mouse mesenchymal C2C12 stem cell line. These microRNAs were not induced during osteogenic conversion of C2C12 cells. Moreover, both loci encoding miR-1, miR-1-1, and miR-1-2, and two of the three encoding miR-133, miR-133a-1 and miR-133a-2, are strongly induced during myogenesis. Some of the induced microRNAs are in intergenic regions, whereas two are transcribed in the opposite direction to the nonmuscle-specific gene in which they are embedded. By using CHIP analysis, we demonstrate that the myogenic factors Myogenin and MyoD bind to regions upstream of these microRNAs and, therefore, are likely to regulate their expression. Because miR-1 and miR-206 are predicted to repress similar mRNA targets, our work suggests that induction of these microRNAs is important in regulating the expression of muscle-specific proteins.

  11. The hibernating South American marsupial, Dromiciops gliroides, displays torpor-sensitive microRNA expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hadj-Moussa, Hanane; Moggridge, Jason A.; Luu, Bryan E.; Quintero-Galvis, Julian F.; Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Nespolo, Roberto F.; Storey, Kenneth B.

    2016-01-01

    When faced with adverse environmental conditions, the marsupial Dromiciops gliroides uses either daily or seasonal torpor to support survival and is the only known hibernating mammal in South America. As the sole living representative of the ancient Order Microbiotheria, this species can provide crucial information about the evolutionary origins and biochemical mechanisms of hibernation. Hibernation is a complex energy-saving strategy that involves changes in gene expression that are elicited in part by microRNAs. To better elucidate the role of microRNAs in orchestrating hypometabolism, a modified stem-loop technique and quantitative PCR were used to characterize the relative expression levels of 85 microRNAs in liver and skeletal muscle of control and torpid D. gliroides. Thirty-nine microRNAs were differentially regulated during torpor; of these, 35 were downregulated in liver and 11 were differentially expressed in skeletal muscle. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that the downregulated liver microRNAs were associated with activation of MAPK, PI3K-Akt and mTOR pathways, suggesting their importance in facilitating marsupial torpor. In skeletal muscle, hibernation-responsive microRNAs were predicted to regulate focal adhesion, ErbB, and mTOR pathways, indicating a promotion of muscle maintenance mechanisms. These tissue-specific responses suggest that microRNAs regulate key molecular pathways that facilitate hibernation, thermoregulation, and prevention of muscle disuse atrophy. PMID:27090740

  12. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Modulates MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma CNE2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin-Bin; Huang, Guo-Liang; Li, Hua-Hui; Kong, Xia; He, Zhi-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has exhibited antitumor properties in several types of cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but the molecular mechanisms underlying this function remain incompletely understood. The aim of the present study was to characterize the global impact of EGCG on the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in NPC cells. Methods: Using microarray analysis, the alterations of miRNA expression profiles were investigated in EGCG-treated CNE2 cells. Furthermore, the target genes and signaling pathways regulated by EGCG-specific miRNAs were identified using target prediction program and gene ontology analysis. Results: A total of 14 miRNAs exhibited >2-fold expression changes in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with 20 μmol/L and 40 μmol/L EGCG. Totally 43, 49, and 52 target genes from these differentially expressed miRNAs were associated with the apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, and cell proliferation, respectively. A total of 66 signaling pathways, primarily involved in cancer development and lipid and glucose metabolism, were shown to be regulated by EGCG-specific miRNAs. Conclusion: EGCG induces considerable alterations of miRNA expression profiles in CNE2 cells, which provides mechanistic insights into cellular responses and antitumor activity mediated by EGCG. PMID:28051030

  13. Efficient use of artificial micro-RNA to downregulate the expression of genes at the post-transcriptional level in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ud-Din, A; Rauf, M; Ghafoor, S; Khattak, M N K; Hameed, M W; Shah, H; Jan, S; Muhammad, K; Rehman, A; Inamullah

    2016-04-07

    Micro-RNAs are cellular components regulating gene expression at the post-transcription level. In the present study, artificial micro-RNAs were used to decrease the transcript level of two genes, AtExpA8 (encoding an expansin) and AHL25 (encoding an AT-hook motif nuclear localized protein) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The backbone of the Arabidopsis endogenous MIR319a micro-RNA was used in a site-directed mutagenesis approach for the generation of artificial micro-RNAs targeting two genes. The recombinant cassettes were expressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in individual A. thaliana plants. Transgenic lines of the third generation were tested by isolating total RNA and by subsequent cDNA synthesis using oligo-dT18 primers and mRNAs as templates. The expression of the two target genes was checked through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to confirm reduced transcript levels for AtExpA8 and AHL25. Downregulation of AtExpA8 resulted in the formation of short hypocotyls compared with those of the wild-type control in response to low pH and high salt concentration. This technology could be used to prevent the expression of exogenous and invading genes posing a threat to the normal cellular physiology of the host plant.

  14. High throughput approaches reveal splicing of primary microRNA transcripts and tissue specific expression of mature microRNAs in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Mica, Erica; Piccolo, Viviana; Delledonne, Massimo; Ferrarini, Alberto; Pezzotti, Mario; Casati, Cesare; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Valle, Giorgio; Policriti, Alberto; Morgante, Michele; Pesole, Graziano; Pè, M Enrico; Horner, David S

    2009-11-25

    MicroRNAs are short (approximately 21 base) single stranded RNAs that, in plants, are generally coded by specific genes and cleaved specifically from hairpin precursors. MicroRNAs are critical for the regulation of multiple developmental, stress related and other physiological processes in plants. The recent annotation of the genome of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) allowed the identification of many putative conserved microRNA precursors, grouped into multiple gene families. Here we use oligonucleotide arrays to provide the first indication that many of these microRNAs show differential expression patterns between tissues and during the maturation of fruit in the grapevine. Furthermore we demonstrate that whole transcriptome sequencing and deep-sequencing of small RNA fractions can be used both to identify which microRNA precursors are expressed in different tissues and to estimate genomic coordinates and patterns of splicing and alternative splicing for many primary miRNA transcripts. Our results show that many microRNAs are differentially expressed in different tissues and during fruit maturation in the grapevine. Furthermore, the demonstration that whole transcriptome sequencing can be used to identify candidate splicing events and approximate primary microRNA transcript coordinates represents a significant step towards the large-scale elucidation of mechanisms regulating the expression of microRNAs at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  15. Human cytomegalovirus microRNA miR-US25-1-5p inhibits viral replication by targeting multiple cellular genes during infection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shujuan; Qi, Ying; He, Rong; Huang, Yujing; Liu, Zhongyang; Ma, Yanping; Guo, Xin; Shao, Yaozhong; Sun, Zhengrong; Ruan, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating various cellular processes in plants, animals, and viruses. This mechanism is also utilized by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the process of infection and pathogenesis. The HCMV-encoded miRNA, hcmv-miR-US25-1-5p, was highly expressed during lytic and latent infections, and was found to inhibit viral replication. Identification of functional target genes of this microRNA is important in that it will enable a better understanding of the function of hcmv-miR-US25-1-5p during HCMV infection. In the present study, 35 putative cellular transcript targets of hcmv-miR-US25-1-5p were identified. Down-regulation of the targets YWHAE, UBB, NPM1, and HSP90AA1 by hcmv-miR-US25-1-5p was validated by luciferase reporter assay and Western blot analysis. In addition, we showed that hcmv-miR-US25-1-5p could inhibit viral replication by interacting with these targets, the existence of which may impact virus replication directly or indirectly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cellular MicroRNA Let-7a Suppresses KSHV Replication through Targeting MAP4K4 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaohua; Gao, Yuan; Nan, Yulong; Zhang, Jinxia; Di, Chunhong; Wang, Xiaobo; Lian, Fuzhi; Cao, Yifei; Hu, Yu; Xu, Liangwen; Ma, Haiyan; Hong, Yu; Liu, Tingjie; Wu, Yinyin; Xu, Xianrong; Yan, Yutao; Yang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of KS, the most common AIDS-related malignancy. The majority of KS tumor cells harbor latent KSHV virus but only a small percentage undergoes spontaneous lytic replication. Viral reactivation from latency is crucial for the pathogenesis and development of KS, but the cellular mechanisms underlying the switch between viral latency and replication are not well understood. Methods The level of let-7 miRNAs and MAP4K4 in KSHV infected 293T cells were quantified by real-time PCRs. Let-7 expression was silenced by the miRNA sponge technique. In let-7a transfected 293T cells, the expression of MAP4K4 was measured by real-time PCR and western blot. Luciferease expression was employed to examine the effect of let-7a on the 3’-untranslated region (UTR) of the MAP4K4 gene in 293T cells. Real-time PCR was used to quantify the KSHV copy numbers in BC-3 cells in which the expression of let-7a and/or MAP4K4 were altered. Finally, ERK, JNK and p38 protein production and their phosphorylation status were detected by western blots in let-7a or MAP4K4 transfected BCBL-1 cells. Results The expression of microRNA let-7 was dramatically decreased in KSHV infected 293T cells, but that of MAP4K4 was increased significantly. Let-7a is physically associated with and targets the MAP4K4 3’UTR, and inhibits MAP4K4 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. MAP4K4 stimulates KSHV reactivation from latency, whereas let-7a inhibits the function of MAP4K4 by reversing the function of MAP4K4 on JNK, phospho-JNK and phospho-ERK1/2 levels. Conclusion Our results establish that let-7a specifically suppresses MAP4K4 expression, and further inhibits KSHV reactivation by interfering with the function of MAP4K4 on the MAPK pathway, highlighting let-7a as a potential treatment for KS. PMID:26197270

  17. MicroRNA expression in canine mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Boggs, R Michelle; Wright, Zachary M; Stickney, Mark J; Porter, Weston W; Murphy, Keith E

    2008-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 18-22-nt noncoding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of genes. Oncomirs, a subclass of miRNAs, include genes whose expression, or lack thereof, are associated with cancers. Until the last decade, the domestic dog was an underused model for the study of various human diseases that have genetic components. The dog exhibits marked genetic and physiologic similarity to the human, thereby making it an excellent model for study and treatment of various hereditary diseases. Furthermore, because the dog presents with distinct, spontaneously occurring mammary tumors, it may serve as a model for genetic analysis and treatments of humans with malignant breast tumors. Because miRNAs have been found to act as both tumor suppressors and oncogenes in several different cancers, expression patterns of ten miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16, miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-29b, miR-125b, miR-145, miR-155, miR-181b, let-7f) known to be associated with human breast cancers were compared to malignant canine mammary tumors (n = 6) and normal canine mammary tissue (n = 10). Resulting data revealed miR-29b and miR-21 to have a statistically significant (p < 0.05 by MANOVA analysis) upregulation in cancerous samples. The ten canine miRNAs follow the same pattern of expression as in the human, except for miR-145 which does not show a difference in expression between the normal and cancerous canine samples. In addition, when analyzed according to specific cancer phenotypes, miR-15a and miR-16 show a significant downregulation in canine ductal carcinomas while miRsR-181b, -21, -29b, and let-7f show a significant upregulation in canine tubular papillary carcinomas.

  18. MicroRNAs form triplexes with double stranded DNA at sequence-specific binding sites; a eukaryotic mechanism via which microRNAs could directly alter gene expression

    DOE PAGES

    Paugh, Steven W.; Coss, David R.; Bao, Ju; ...

    2016-02-04

    MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, acting primarily by binding to sequence-specific locations on already transcribed messenger RNAs (mRNA). Recent studies indicate that microRNAs may also play a role in up-regulating mRNA transcription levels, although a definitive mechanism has not been established. Double-helical DNA is capable of forming triple-helical structures through Hoogsteen and reverse Hoogsteen interactions in the major groove of the duplex, and we show physical evidence that microRNAs form triple-helical structures with duplex DNA, and identify microRNA sequences that favor triplex formation. We developed an algorithm (Trident) to search genome-wide for potential triplex-forming sites and show thatmore » several mammalian and non-mammalian genomes are enriched for strong microRNA triplex binding sites. We show that those genes containing sequences favoring microRNA triplex formation are markedly enriched (3.3 fold, p<2.2 x 10-16) for genes whose expression is positively correlated with expression of microRNAs targeting triplex binding sequences. As a result, this work has thus revealed a new mechanism by which microRNAs can interact with gene promoter regions to modify gene transcription.« less

  19. MicroRNAs form triplexes with double stranded DNA at sequence-specific binding sites; a eukaryotic mechanism via which microRNAs could directly alter gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Paugh, Steven W.; Coss, David R.; Bao, Ju; Laudermilk, Lucas T.; Grace, Christy R.; Ferreira, Antonio M.; Waddell, M. Brett; Ridout, Granger; Naeve, Deanna; Leuze, Michael Rex; LoCascio, Philip F.; Panetta, John C.; Wilkinson, Mark R.; Pui, Ching -Hon; Naeve, Clayton W.; Uberbacher, Edward C.; Bonten, Erik J.; Evans, William E.

    2016-02-04

    MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, acting primarily by binding to sequence-specific locations on already transcribed messenger RNAs (mRNA). Recent studies indicate that microRNAs may also play a role in up-regulating mRNA transcription levels, although a definitive mechanism has not been established. Double-helical DNA is capable of forming triple-helical structures through Hoogsteen and reverse Hoogsteen interactions in the major groove of the duplex, and we show physical evidence that microRNAs form triple-helical structures with duplex DNA, and identify microRNA sequences that favor triplex formation. We developed an algorithm (Trident) to search genome-wide for potential triplex-forming sites and show that several mammalian and non-mammalian genomes are enriched for strong microRNA triplex binding sites. We show that those genes containing sequences favoring microRNA triplex formation are markedly enriched (3.3 fold, p<2.2 x 10-16) for genes whose expression is positively correlated with expression of microRNAs targeting triplex binding sequences. As a result, this work has thus revealed a new mechanism by which microRNAs can interact with gene promoter regions to modify gene transcription.

  20. MicroRNAs Form Triplexes with Double Stranded DNA at Sequence-Specific Binding Sites; a Eukaryotic Mechanism via which microRNAs Could Directly Alter Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Christy R.; Ferreira, Antonio M.; Waddell, M. Brett; Ridout, Granger; Naeve, Deanna; Leuze, Michael; LoCascio, Philip F.; Panetta, John C.; Wilkinson, Mark R.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Naeve, Clayton W.; Uberbacher, Edward C.; Bonten, Erik J.; Evans, William E.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, acting primarily by binding to sequence-specific locations on already transcribed messenger RNAs (mRNA) and typically down-regulating their stability or translation. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs may also play a role in up-regulating mRNA transcription levels, although a definitive mechanism has not been established. Double-helical DNA is capable of forming triple-helical structures through Hoogsteen and reverse Hoogsteen interactions in the major groove of the duplex, and we show physical evidence (i.e., NMR, FRET, SPR) that purine or pyrimidine-rich microRNAs of appropriate length and sequence form triple-helical structures with purine-rich sequences of duplex DNA, and identify microRNA sequences that favor triplex formation. We developed an algorithm (Trident) to search genome-wide for potential triplex-forming sites and show that several mammalian and non-mammalian genomes are enriched for strong microRNA triplex binding sites. We show that those genes containing sequences favoring microRNA triplex formation are markedly enriched (3.3 fold, p<2.2 × 10−16) for genes whose expression is positively correlated with expression of microRNAs targeting triplex binding sequences. This work has thus revealed a new mechanism by which microRNAs could interact with gene promoter regions to modify gene transcription. PMID:26844769

  1. MicroRNAs Form Triplexes with Double Stranded DNA at Sequence-Specific Binding Sites; a Eukaryotic Mechanism via which microRNAs Could Directly Alter Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Paugh, Steven W; Coss, David R; Bao, Ju; Laudermilk, Lucas T; Grace, Christy R; Ferreira, Antonio M; Waddell, M Brett; Ridout, Granger; Naeve, Deanna; Leuze, Michael; LoCascio, Philip F; Panetta, John C; Wilkinson, Mark R; Pui, Ching-Hon; Naeve, Clayton W; Uberbacher, Edward C; Bonten, Erik J; Evans, William E

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, acting primarily by binding to sequence-specific locations on already transcribed messenger RNAs (mRNA) and typically down-regulating their stability or translation. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs may also play a role in up-regulating mRNA transcription levels, although a definitive mechanism has not been established. Double-helical DNA is capable of forming triple-helical structures through Hoogsteen and reverse Hoogsteen interactions in the major groove of the duplex, and we show physical evidence (i.e., NMR, FRET, SPR) that purine or pyrimidine-rich microRNAs of appropriate length and sequence form triple-helical structures with purine-rich sequences of duplex DNA, and identify microRNA sequences that favor triplex formation. We developed an algorithm (Trident) to search genome-wide for potential triplex-forming sites and show that several mammalian and non-mammalian genomes are enriched for strong microRNA triplex binding sites. We show that those genes containing sequences favoring microRNA triplex formation are markedly enriched (3.3 fold, p<2.2 × 10(-16)) for genes whose expression is positively correlated with expression of microRNAs targeting triplex binding sequences. This work has thus revealed a new mechanism by which microRNAs could interact with gene promoter regions to modify gene transcription.

  2. TNF-α-Induced microRNAs Control Dystrophin Expression in Becker Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Fiorillo, Alyson A; Heier, Christopher R; Novak, James S; Tully, Christopher B; Brown, Kristy J; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Vila, Maria C; Ngheim, Peter P; Bello, Luca; Kornegay, Joe N; Angelini, Corrado; Partridge, Terence A; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Hoffman, Eric P

    2015-09-08

    The amount and distribution of dystrophin protein in myofibers and muscle is highly variable in Becker muscular dystrophy and in exon-skipping trials for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here, we investigate a molecular basis for this variability. In muscle from Becker patients sharing the same exon 45-47 in-frame deletion, dystrophin levels negatively correlate with microRNAs predicted to target dystrophin. Seven microRNAs inhibit dystrophin expression in vitro, and three are validated in vivo (miR-146b/miR-374a/miR-31). microRNAs are expressed in dystrophic myofibers and increase with age and disease severity. In exon-skipping-treated mdx mice, microRNAs are significantly higher in muscles with low dystrophin rescue. TNF-α increases microRNA levels in vitro whereas NFκB inhibition blocks this in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these data show that microRNAs contribute to variable dystrophin levels in muscular dystrophy. Our findings suggest a model where chronic inflammation in distinct microenvironments induces pathological microRNAs, initiating a self-sustaining feedback loop that exacerbates disease progression.

  3. Identification of differentially expressed microRNAs involved in non-traumatic osteonecrosis through microRNA expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xingjing; Zhang, Yongtao; Guo, Xiong; Xu, Hongguang; Xu, Zhujun; Duan, Dapeng; Wang, Kunzheng

    2015-07-01

    Accumulating evidence has recently indicated a vital role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the development of various bone diseases. However, the biological role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of non-traumatic osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) has not yet been investigated. The present study aimed to profile the differential miRNA expression between non-traumatic ONFH and femoral neck fracture and to develop further understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of non-traumatic ONFH. Femoral heads from 4 patients with non-traumatic ONFH and 4 with femoral neck fracture were used to analyze the miRNA expression profiles in bone tissue using the Exiqon miRCURY™ LNA Array (v.18.0). The results of miRNA microarray analysis were further confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The differentially expressed miRNA target genes and signaling pathways involved were predicted by bioinformatics analysis. MiRNA microarray chip analysis revealed that 22 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated and 17 were significantly down-regulated in the non-traumatic ONFH samples compared with the femoral neck fracture samples. The real-time qPCR also confirmed the microarray data. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that toll-like receptor (TLR), neurotrophin and NOD-like receptor signaling pathway were most likely to be regulated by these differential miRNAs. This miRNA microarray study reveals significant differences in miRNA expression between patients with non-traumatic ONFH and those with femoral neck fracture. Our data also manifests that the signaling pathways regulated by these differentially expressed miRNAs might be important in the pathogenesis of non-traumatic ONFH.

  4. Differentially expressed microRNAs in diapausing versus HCl-treated Bombyx embryos

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Mingyue; Lin, Bimin; Chen, Fangyan; Yan, Huichao; Li, Wenchu

    2017-01-01

    Differentially expressed microRNAs were detected to explore the molecular mechanisms of diapause termination. The total small RNA of diapause-destined silkworm eggs and HCl-treated eggs was extracted and then sequenced using HiSeq high-throughput method. 44 novel miRNAs were discovered. Compared to those in the diapause-destined eggs, 61 miRNAs showed significant changes in the acid-treated eggs, with 23 being up-regulated and 38 being down-regulated. The potential target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted by miRanda. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of these potential target genes revealed that they were mainly located within cells and organelles, involved in cellular and metabolic processes, and participated in protein production, processing and transportation. Two differentially expressed genes, Bombyx mori SDH and Bmo-miR-2761-3p, were further analyzed with qRT-PCR. BmSDH was significantly up-regulated in the HCl-treated eggs, while Bmo-miR-2761-3p was down-regulated. These results suggested that these two genes were well coordinated in silkworm eggs. Dual luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that Bmo-miR-2761-3p inhibited the expression of BmSDH. PMID:28700597

  5. Analysis of MicroRNA Expression in the Prepubertal Testis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2010-01-01

    Only thirteen microRNAs are conserved between D. melanogaster and the mouse; however, conditional loss of miRNA function through mutation of Dicer causes defects in proliferation of premeiotic germ cells in both species. This highlights the potentially important, but uncharacterized, role of miRNAs during early spermatogenesis. The goal of this study was to characterize on postnatal day 7, 10, and 14 the content and editing of murine testicular miRNAs, which predominantly arise from spermatogonia and spermatocytes, in contrast to prior descriptions of miRNAs in the adult mouse testis which largely reflects the content of spermatids. Previous studies have shown miRNAs to be abundant in the mouse testis by postnatal day 14; however, through Next Generation Sequencing of testes from a B6;129 background we found abundant earlier expression of miRNAs and describe shifts in the miRNA signature during this period. We detected robust expression of miRNAs encoded on the X chromosome in postnatal day 14 testes, consistent with prior studies showing their resistance to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Unexpectedly, we also found a similar positional enrichment for most miRNAs on chromosome 2 at postnatal day 14 and for those on chromosome 12 at postnatal day 7. We quantified in vivo developmental changes in three types of miRNA variation including 5′ heterogeneity, editing, and 3′ nucleotide addition. We identified eleven putative novel pubertal testis miRNAs whose developmental expression suggests a possible role in early male germ cell development. These studies provide a foundation for interpretation of miRNA changes associated with testicular pathology and identification of novel components of the miRNA editing machinery in the testis. PMID:21206922

  6. Analysis of microRNA expression in the prepubertal testis.

    PubMed

    Buchold, Gregory M; Coarfa, Cristian; Kim, Jong; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Matzuk, Martin M

    2010-12-29

    Only thirteen microRNAs are conserved between D. melanogaster and the mouse; however, conditional loss of miRNA function through mutation of Dicer causes defects in proliferation of premeiotic germ cells in both species. This highlights the potentially important, but uncharacterized, role of miRNAs during early spermatogenesis. The goal of this study was to characterize on postnatal day 7, 10, and 14 the content and editing of murine testicular miRNAs, which predominantly arise from spermatogonia and spermatocytes, in contrast to prior descriptions of miRNAs in the adult mouse testis which largely reflects the content of spermatids. Previous studies have shown miRNAs to be abundant in the mouse testis by postnatal day 14; however, through Next Generation Sequencing of testes from a B6;129 background we found abundant earlier expression of miRNAs and describe shifts in the miRNA signature during this period. We detected robust expression of miRNAs encoded on the X chromosome in postnatal day 14 testes, consistent with prior studies showing their resistance to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Unexpectedly, we also found a similar positional enrichment for most miRNAs on chromosome 2 at postnatal day 14 and for those on chromosome 12 at postnatal day 7. We quantified in vivo developmental changes in three types of miRNA variation including 5' heterogeneity, editing, and 3' nucleotide addition. We identified eleven putative novel pubertal testis miRNAs whose developmental expression suggests a possible role in early male germ cell development. These studies provide a foundation for interpretation of miRNA changes associated with testicular pathology and identification of novel components of the miRNA editing machinery in the testis.

  7. microRNA expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Klinefelter syndrome

    PubMed Central

    SUI, WEIGUO; OU, MINGLIN; CHEN, JIEJING; LI, HUAN; LIN, HUA; ZHANG, YUE; LI, WUXIAN; XUE, WEN; TANG, DONGE; GONG, WEIWEI; ZHANG, RUOHAN; LI, FENGYAN; DAI, YONG

    2012-01-01

    microRNAs are a type of small non-coding RNAs which play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation, and the characterization of microRNA expression profiling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with Klinefelter syndrome requires further investigation. In this study, PBMCs were obtained from patients with Klinefelter syndrome and normal controls. After preparation of small RNA libraries, the two groups of samples were sequenced simultaneously using next generation high-throughput sequencing technology, and novel and known microRNAs were analyzed. A total of 9,772,392 and 9,717,633 small RNA reads were obtained; 8,014,466 (82.01%) and 8,104,423 (83.40%) genome-matched reads, 64 and 49 novel microRNAs were identified in the library of Klinefelter syndrome and the library of healthy controls, respectively. There were 71 known microRNAs with differential expression levels between the two libraries. Clustering of over-represented gene ontology (GO) classes in predicted targets of novel microRNAs in the Klinefelter syndrome library showed that the most significant GO terms were genes involved in the endomembrane system, nucleotide binding and kinase activity. Our data revealed that there are a large number of microRNAs deregulated in PBMCs taken from patients with Klinefelter syndrome, of which certain novel and known microRNAs may be involved in the pathological process of Klinefelter syndrome. Further studies are necessary to determine the roles of microRNAs in the pathological process of Klinefelter syndrome in the future. PMID:23226734

  8. microRNA expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sui, Weiguo; Ou, Minglin; Chen, Jiejing; Li, Huan; Lin, Hua; Zhang, Yue; Li, Wuxian; Xue, Wen; Tang, Donge; Gong, Weiwei; Zhang, Ruohan; Li, Fengyan; Dai, Yong

    2012-11-01

    microRNAs are a type of small non-coding RNAs which play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation, and the characterization of microRNA expression profiling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with Klinefelter syndrome requires further investigation. In this study, PBMCs were obtained from patients with Klinefelter syndrome and normal controls. After preparation of small RNA libraries, the two groups of samples were sequenced simultaneously using next generation high-throughput sequencing technology, and novel and known microRNAs were analyzed. A total of 9,772,392 and 9,717,633 small RNA reads were obtained; 8,014,466 (82.01%) and 8,104,423 (83.40%) genome-matched reads, 64 and 49 novel microRNAs were identified in the library of Klinefelter syndrome and the library of healthy controls, respectively. There were 71 known microRNAs with differential expression levels between the two libraries. Clustering of over-represented gene ontology (GO) classes in predicted targets of novel microRNAs in the Klinefelter syndrome library showed that the most significant GO terms were genes involved in the endomembrane system, nucleotide binding and kinase activity. Our data revealed that there are a large number of microRNAs deregulated in PBMCs taken from patients with Klinefelter syndrome, of which certain novel and known microRNAs may be involved in the pathological process of Klinefelter syndrome. Further studies are necessary to determine the roles of microRNAs in the pathological process of Klinefelter syndrome in the future.

  9. MiR-422a as a potential cellular microRNA biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zheng; Moore, Benjamin T; Wang, Yang; Peng, Xian-Hao; Lappe, Joan M; Recker, Robert R; Xiao, Peng

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by targeting mRNAs. Recently, miRNAs have been shown to play important roles in the etiology of various diseases. However, little is known about their roles in the development of osteoporosis. Circulating monocytes are osteoclast precursors that also produce various factors important for osteoclastogenesis. Previously, we have identified a potential biomarker miR-133a in circulating monocytes for postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this study, we aimed to further identify significant miRNA biomarkers in human circulating monocytes underlying postmenopausal osteoporosis. We used ABI TaqMan miRNA array followed by qRT-PCR validation in human circulating monocytes from 10 high BMD and 10 low BMD postmenopausal Caucasian women to identify miRNA biomarkers. MiR-422a was up-regulated with marginal significance (P = 0.065) in the low compared with the high BMD group in the array analysis. However, a significant up-regulation of miR-422a was identified in the low BMD group by qRT-PCR analysis (P = 0.029). We also performed bioinformatic target gene analysis and found several potential target genes of miR-422a which are involved in osteoclastogenesis. Further qRT-PCR analyses of the target genes in the same study subjects showed that the expression of five of these genes (CBL, CD226, IGF1, PAG1, and TOB2) correlated negatively with miR-422a expression. Our study suggests that miR-422a in human circulating monocytes (osteoclast precursors) is a potential miRNA biomarker underlying postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  10. Dual role for argonautes in microRNA processing and posttranscriptional regulation of microRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Diederichs, Sven; Haber, Daniel A

    2007-12-14

    MicroRNAs are small endogenous noncoding RNAs involved in posttranscriptional gene regulation. During microRNA biogenesis, Drosha and Dicer process the primary transcript (pri-miRNA) through a precursor hairpin (pre-miRNA) to the mature miRNA. The miRNA is incorporated into the RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) with Argonaute proteins, the effector molecules in RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we show that all Argonautes elevate mature miRNA expression posttranscriptionally, independent of RNase activity. Also, we identify a role for the RISC slicer Argonaute2 (Ago2) in cleaving the pre-miRNA to an additional processing intermediate, termed Ago2-cleaved precursor miRNA or ac-pre-miRNA. This endogenous, on-pathway intermediate results from cleavage of the pre-miRNA hairpin 12 nucleotides from its 3'-end. By analogy to siRNA processing, Ago2 cleavage may facilitate removal of the nicked passenger strand from RISC after maturation. The multiple roles of Argonautes in the RNAi effector phase and miRNA biogenesis and maturation suggest coordinate regulation of microRNA expression and function.

  11. Expression of microRNA machinery proteins in different types of chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Na; Cao, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Xin-Hao; Lu, Xiang; Liu, Zheng

    2012-12-01

    Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has recently been shown in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), the biogenesis and function of which are modulated by miRNA machinery proteins. The expression of these proteins in inflammatory airway diseases is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of miRNA machinery components in CRS. Case-control experimental study. The mRNA expression levels of miRNA machinery components including Drosha, Dicer, protein activator of the interferon-induced protein kinase (PACT), human immunodeficiency virus transactivating response RNA-binding protein, fragile X mental retardation protein, and argonaute 2/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2C, 2 in nasal biopsies from control, CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), eosinophilic, and noneosinophilic CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) subjects were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical staining was employed to examine the protein expression of PACT and the cellular source of PACT. Among the tested components, only PACT mRNA expression was found to be altered in CRS, the levels of which were upregulated in CRSwNP as compared with control. In comparison with control and CRSsNP, PACT protein expression was also significantly upregulated in CRSwNP, with a further increase in eosinophilic CRSwNP. PACT was mainly expressed in CD138(+) plasma cells. A higher percentage of PACT-positive plasma cells in total plasma cells was detected in eosinophilic CRSwNP than in noneosinophilic CRSwNP. PACT protein expression correlated with disease severity and eosinophil infiltration. PACT may be associated with the plasma cell function and eosinophilic inflammation in CRSwNP. However, further experimentation is needed to clarify the functions of PACT. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. A multifunctional protein EWS regulates the expression of Drosha and microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Kim, K Y; Hwang, Y J; Jung, M-K; Choe, J; Kim, Y; Kim, S; Lee, C-J; Ahn, H; Lee, J; Kowall, N W; Kim, Y K; Kim, J-I; Lee, S B; Ryu, H

    2014-01-01

    EWS (Ewing's Sarcoma) gene encodes an RNA/DNA-binding protein that is ubiquitously expressed and involved in various cellular processes. EWS deficiency leads to impaired development and early senescence through unknown mechanisms. We found that EWS regulates the expression of Drosha and microRNAs (miRNAs). EWS deficiency resulted in increased expression of Drosha, a well-known microprocessor, and increased levels of miR-29b and miR-18b. Importantly, miR-29b and miR-18b were directly involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of collagen IV alpha 1 (Col4a1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in EWS knock-out (KO) mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. The upregulation of Drosha, miR-29b and miR-18b and the sequential downregulation of Col4a1 and CTGF contributed to the deregulation of dermal development in EWS KO mice. Otherwise, knockdown of Drosha rescued miRNA-dependent downregulation of Col4a1 and CTGF proteins. Taken together, our data indicate that EWS is involved in post-transcriptional regulation of Col4a1 and CTGF via a Drosha-miRNA-dependent pathway. This finding suggests that EWS has a novel role in dermal morphogenesis through the modulation of miRNA biogenesis.

  13. Differential expression of exosomal microRNAs in prefrontal cortices of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Banigan, Meredith G; Kao, Patricia F; Kozubek, James A; Winslow, Ashley R; Medina, Juan; Costa, Joan; Schmitt, Andrea; Schneider, Anja; Cabral, Howard; Cagsal-Getkin, Ozge; Vanderburg, Charles R; Delalle, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are cellular secretory vesicles containing microRNAs (miRNAs). Once secreted, exosomes are able to attach to recipient cells and release miRNAs potentially modulating the function of the recipient cell. We hypothesized that exosomal miRNA expression in brains of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) might differ from controls, reflecting either disease-specific or common aberrations in SZ and BD patients. The sources of the analyzed samples included McLean 66 Cohort Collection (Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center), BrainNet Europe II (BNE, a consortium of 18 brain banks across Europe) and Boston Medical Center (BMC). Exosomal miRNAs from frozen postmortem prefrontal cortices with well-preserved RNA were isolated and submitted to profiling by Luminex FLEXMAP 3D microfluidic device. Multiple statistical analyses of microarray data suggested that certain exosomal miRNAs were differentially expressed in SZ and BD subjects in comparison to controls. RT-PCR validation confirmed that two miRNAs, miR-497 in SZ samples and miR-29c in BD samples, have significantly increased expression when compared to control samples. These results warrant future studies to evaluate the potential of exosome-derived miRNAs to serve as biomarkers of SZ and BD.

  14. [MicroRNAs in neurobiology].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Yukio

    2008-12-01

    MicroRNAs have emerged as a new regulatory factor of gene expression. They mediate translational repression or degradation of their target mRNAs by RNA interference (RNAi). The expression of each microRNA is tightly regulated in a development- and cell-specific manner by various mechanisms such as blockade of let-7 family expression by Lin-28 or RNA editing. They also act as regulatory switches for development, organogenesis, and cellular differentiation or for controlling distinct functions that are required for the maintenance of each tissue and cell subtypes. The abundant expression of microRNAs as well as the exclusive expression of certain microRNAs in the central nervous system highlights their biological importance at all stages of neural development and in postmitotic and differentiated neurons. Further, some microRNAs, such as miRNA-134, and miRNA-132 are localized and are synthesized in part at synaptic sites in dendrites to regulate synaptic formation and plasticity. In addition to the imparting of basic knowledge about the biogenesis and mechanism of action of microRNAs, this review focuses on the recent advances in microRNA studies in neurobiology, including the expression pattern of microRNAs in the mammalian brain, the role of microRNAs in neural differentiation and maturation, formation and plasticity of synaptic connections, and maintenance of neural function such as the synthesis of the neurotransmitters in selected neurons. Finally, the possible connection between microRNA dysfunction and neurological diseases, and future implications for diagnosis, and treatment of defects in human brain development and neurodegenerative diseases are discussed.

  15. MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Cultured Human Fibroblasts in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu; Lu, Tao; Jeevarajan, John; Rohde, Larry; Zhang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Microgravity, or an altered gravity environment from the static 1g, has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in living organisms. However, it is unclear how these changes in gene and protein expressions are related to each other or are related to other factors regulating such changes. A different class of RNA, the small non-coding microRNA (miRNA), can have a broad effect on gene expression networks by mainly inhibiting the translation process. Previously, we investigated changes in the expression of miRNA and related genes under simulated microgravity conditions on the ground using the NASA invented bioreactor. In comparison to static 1 g, simulated microgravity altered a number of miRNAs in human lymphoblastoid cells. Pathway analysis with the altered miRNAs and RNA expressions revealed differential involvement of cell communication and catalytic activity, as well as immune response signaling and NGF activation of NF-kB pathways under simulated microgravity condition. The network analysis also identified several projected networks with c- Rel, ETS1 and Ubiquitin C as key factors. In a flight experiment on the International Space Station (ISS), we will investigate the effects of actual spaceflight on miRNA expressions in nondividing human fibroblast cells in mostly G1 phase of the cell cycle. A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework for tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing and other functions. In addition to miRNA expressions, we will investigate the effects of spaceflight on the cellular response to DNA damages from bleomycin treatment.

  16. Intratumoral Heterogeneity of MicroRNA Expression in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Rikke Fredslund; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Appelt, Ane Lindegaard; Jakobsen, Anders; Hansen, Torben Frøstrup

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An increasing number of studies have investigated microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential markers of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. So far, agreement between studies has been minimal, which may in part be explained by intratumoral heterogeneity of miRNA expression. The aim of the present study was to assess the heterogeneity of a panel of selected miRNAs in rectal cancer, using two different technical approaches. Materials and Methods The expression of the investigated miRNAs was analysed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) in tumour specimens from 27 patients with T3-4 rectal cancer. From each tumour, tissue from three different luminal localisations was examined. Inter- and intra-patient variability was assessed by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Correlations between RT-qPCR and ISH were evaluated using Spearman’s correlation. Results ICCsingle (one sample from each patient) was higher than 50% for miRNA-21 and miRNA-31. For miRNA-125b, miRNA-145, and miRNA-630, ICCsingle was lower than 50%. The ICCmean (mean of three samples from each patient) was higher than 50% for miRNA-21(RT-qPCR and ISH), miRNA-125b (RT-qPCR and ISH), miRNA-145 (ISH), miRNA-630 (RT-qPCR), and miRNA-31 (RT-qPCR). For miRNA-145 (RT-qPCR) and miRNA-630 (ISH), ICCmean was lower than 50%. Spearman correlation coefficients, comparing results obtained by RT-qPCR and ISH, respectively, ranged from 0.084 to 0.325 for the mean value from each patient, and from -0.085 to 0.515 in the section including the deepest part of the tumour. Conclusion Intratumoral heterogeneity may influence the measurement of miRNA expression and consequently the number of samples needed for representative estimates. Our findings with two different methods suggest that one sample is sufficient for adequate assessment of miRNA-21 and miRNA-31, whereas more samples would improve the assessment of miRNA-125b, miRNA-145, and miRNA-630

  17. Discovering conserved insect microRNAs from expressed sequence tags.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qidong; Lin, Kejian; Liang, Jingdong; Yu, Lun; Li, Fei

    2010-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) participate in regulating diverse biological pathways by translational repression in animals. They have attracted increasing attention recently. However, little work has been done on the miRNA genes in agriculturally important pests. Because the transcripts of most miRNA genes are the products of type-II RNA polymerase, pri-miRNA has a poly(A) tail and appears in expressed sequence tags (EST). We developed a computational pipeline to identify miRNA genes from insect ESTs. First, 980,697 ESTs from 63 insects were collected and used to search the nr database. The ESTs which did not share significant similarities with any known protein-coding genes were treated as non-coding ESTs. Next, known mature miRNAs were used to align with non-coding ESTs. The ESTs which contain the sequence of mature miRNA were treated as candidate ESTs. Finally, putative precursors were extracted flanking the mature miRNA region in candidate ESTs and evaluated by the Triplet-SVM algorithm. As a result, 86 miRNAs from 30 insect species were found based on a strict criterion while 330 miRNAs from 51 species were found based on a loose criterion. Evolution analysis indicated that mir-467, mir-297 and mir-466 were the highest conserved miRNA families in insects. To confirm the reliability of putative insect miRNAs, the expression profile of nine predicted miRNAs in Locusta migratoria was investigated. Eight miRNAs were successfully detected by RT-PCR. Most miRNAs were expressed ubiquitously at all examined tissues and developmental stages whereas Lmi-mir-509 was specifically expressed in the thorax of the 2nd, 4th and 5th instars and adult locust. In all, our work reported an efficient computational strategy for predicting miRNA genes from insect ESTs and presented tens of miRNAs in diverse insect species which are expected to participate in many important physiological processes.

  18. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is regulated by butyrate induced epigenetic modulation of gene expression in bovine cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We present evidence that butyrate induced histone acetylation regulates miRNA expression. MicroRNA expression microarray profiling revealed that 35 miRNA transcripts are significantly (p <0.05) differentially expressed after cells were treated with 10 mM butyrate. Among them, 11 transcripts are dif...

  19. Downregulation of microRNA expression in the lungs of rats exposed to cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Izzotti, Alberto; Calin, George A.; Arrigo, Patrizio; Steele, Vernon E.; Croce, Carlo M.; De Flora, Silvio

    2009-01-01

    Although microRNAs have been investigated extensively in cancer research, little is known regarding their response to noxious agents in apparently healthy tissues. We analyzed the expression of 484 miRNAs in the lungs of rats exposed to environmental cigarette smoke (ECS) for 28 days. ECS down-regulated 126 miRNAs (26.0%) at least 2-fold and 24 miRNAs more than 3-fold. We previously demonstrated that 107 of 4858 genes (2.9%) and 50 of 518 proteins (9.7%) were up-regulated by ECS in the same tissue, which is consistent with the role of microRNAs as negative regulators of gene expression. The most remarkably down-regulated microRNAs belonged to the families of let-7, miR-10, miR-26, miR-30, miR-34, miR-99, miR-122, miR-123, miR-124, miR-125, miR-140, miR-145, miR-146, miR-191, miR-192, miR-219, miR-222, and miR-223, which regulate stress response, apoptosis, proliferation, angiogenesis, and expression of genes. In contrast, miR-294, an inhibitor of transcriptional repressor genes, was up-regulated by ECS. There was a strong parallelism in dysregulation of rodent microRNAs and their human homologues, which are often transcribed from genes localized in fragile sites deleted in lung cancer. Five ECS-down-regulated microRNAs are known to be affected by single nucleotide polymorphisms. Thus, changes in microRNA expression are an early event following exposure to cigarette smoke.—Izzotti, A., Calin, G. A., Arrigo, P., Steele, V. E., Croce, C. M., De Flora, S. Downregulation of microRNA expression in the lungs of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. PMID:18952709

  20. [Changes of microRNA expression profiles in Vero cells induced by HSV-2 LAT overexpression].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Fan, Jianyong; Yang, Huilan; Chen, Jianyun

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the changes in the microRNA expression profile of Vero cells induced by HSV-2 LAT overexpression. The full-length open reading frame of HSV-2 LAT was synthesized and cloned into pRetroQ- AcGFP1-C1 vector, and the recombinant retrovirus expressing HSV-2 LAT was packaged. Using a microRNA microarray, the microRNA expression profile changes in Vero cells were analyzed after infection with the recombinant retrovirus. In Vero cells infected with the recombinant retrovirus for stable HSV-2 LAT overexpression, 5 microRNAs (hsa-miR-23a*, kshv-miR-K12-3, hsa-miR-943, hsa-miR-634, and hsa-miR-1270) were up-regulated and 5 (hsa-miR-181a-2*, hsa-miR-450b-5p, hsa-miR-31, hsa-miR-24, and kshv-miR-K12-12*) were down-regulated. The expression of HSV-2 LAT can induce changes in microRNA expression profile in Vero cells.

  1. Insights into psychosis risk from leukocyte microRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, C D; Perkins, D O; Chandler, S D; Stark, T; Yeo, E; Addington, J; Bearden, C E; Cadenhead, K S; Cannon, T D; Cornblatt, B A; Mathalon, D H; McGlashan, T H; Seidman, L J; Walker, E F; Woods, S W; Glatt, S J; Tsuang, M

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of immune system functions has been implicated in schizophrenia, suggesting that immune cells may be involved in the development of the disorder. With the goal of a biomarker assay for psychosis risk, we performed small RNA sequencing on RNA isolated from circulating immune cells. We compared baseline microRNA (miRNA) expression for persons who were unaffected (n=27) or who, over a subsequent 2-year period, were at clinical high risk but did not progress to psychosis (n=37), or were at high risk and did progress to psychosis (n=30). A greedy algorithm process led to selection of five miRNAs that when summed with +1 weights distinguished progressed from nonprogressed subjects with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.86. Of the five, miR-941 is human-specific with incompletely understood functions, but the other four are prominent in multiple immune system pathways. Three of those four are downregulated in progressed vs. nonprogressed subjects (with weight -1 in a classifier function that increases with risk); all three have also been independently reported as downregulated in monocytes from schizophrenia patients vs. unaffected subjects. Importantly, these findings passed stringent randomization tests that minimized the risk of conclusions arising by chance. Regarding miRNA–miRNA correlations over the three groups, progressed subjects were found to have much weaker miRNA orchestration than nonprogressed or unaffected subjects. If independently verified, the leukocytic miRNA biomarker assay might improve accuracy of psychosis high-risk assessments and eventually help rationalize preventative intervention decisions. PMID:27959328

  2. Cellular microRNA miR-181b inhibits replication of mink enteritis virus by repression of non-structural protein 1 translation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia-zeng; Wang, Jigui; Yuan, Daoli; Wang, Shuang; Li, Zhili; Yi, Bao; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Liu, Weiquan

    2013-01-01

    Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in the mink industry. Recent studies have showed that microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs of length ranging from 18-23 nucleotides (nt) participate in host-pathogen interaction networks; however, whether or not miRNAs are involved in MEV infection has not been reported. Our study revealed that miRNA miR-181b inhibited replication of MEV in the feline kidney (F81) cell line by targeting the MEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) messenger RNA (mRNA) coding region, resulting in NS1 translational repression, while MEV infection reduced miR-181b expression. This is the first description of cellular miRNAs modulating MEV infection in F81 cells, providing further insight into the mechanisms of viral infection, and may be useful in development of naturally-occurring miRNAs antiviral strategies.

  3. Cellular microRNA miR-181b Inhibits Replication of Mink Enteritis Virus by Repression of Non-Structural Protein 1 Translation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jia-zeng; Wang, Jigui; Yuan, Daoli; Wang, Shuang; Li, Zhili; Yi, Bao; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Liu, Weiquan

    2013-01-01

    Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in the mink industry. Recent studies have showed that microRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs of length ranging from 18–23 nucleotides (nt) participate in host-pathogen interaction networks; however, whether or not miRNAs are involved in MEV infection has not been reported. Our study revealed that miRNA miR-181b inhibited replication of MEV in the feline kidney (F81) cell line by targeting the MEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) messenger RNA (mRNA) coding region, resulting in NS1 translational repression, while MEV infection reduced miR-181b expression. This is the first description of cellular miRNAs modulating MEV infection in F81 cells, providing further insight into the mechanisms of viral infection, and may be useful in development of naturally-occurring miRNAs antiviral strategies. PMID:24349084

  4. MicroRNA-208b progressively declines after spinal cord injury in humans and is inversely related to myostatin expression

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Hanneke; Sjögren, Rasmus J O; Massart, Julie; Egan, Brendan; Kostovski, Emil; Iversen, Per O; Hjeltnes, Nils; Chibalin, Alexander V; Widegren, Ulrika; Zierath, Juleen R

    2015-01-01

    The effects of long-term physical inactivity on the expression of microRNAs involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in humans are largely unknown. MicroRNAs are short, noncoding RNAs that fine-tune target expression through mRNA degradation or by inhibiting protein translation. Intronic to the slow, type I, muscle fiber type genes MYH7 and MYH7b, microRNA-208b and microRNA-499-5p are thought to fine-tune the expression of genes important for muscle growth, such as myostatin. Spinal cord injured humans are characterized by both skeletal muscle atrophy and transformation toward fast-twitch, type II fibers. We determined the expression of microRNA-208b, microRNA-499-5p, and myostatin in human skeletal muscle after complete cervical spinal cord injury. We also determined whether these microRNAs altered myostatin expression in rodent skeletal muscle. A progressive decline in skeletal muscle microRNA-208b and microRNA-499-5p expression occurred in humans during the first year after spinal cord injury and with long-standing spinal cord injury. Expression of myostatin was inversely correlated with microRNA-208b and microRNA-499-5p in human skeletal muscle after spinal cord injury. Overexpression of microRNA-208b in intact mouse skeletal muscle decreased myostatin expression, whereas microRNA-499-5p was without effect. In conclusion, we provide evidence for an inverse relationship between expression of microRNA-208b and its previously validated target myostatin in humans with severe skeletal muscle atrophy. Moreover, we provide direct evidence that microRNA-208b overexpression decreases myostatin gene expression in intact rodent muscle. Our results implicate that microRNA-208b modulates myostatin expression and this may play a role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass following spinal cord injury. PMID:26603456

  5. MicroRNA-208b progressively declines after spinal cord injury in humans and is inversely related to myostatin expression.

    PubMed

    Boon, Hanneke; Sjögren, Rasmus J O; Massart, Julie; Egan, Brendan; Kostovski, Emil; Iversen, Per O; Hjeltnes, Nils; Chibalin, Alexander V; Widegren, Ulrika; Zierath, Juleen R

    2015-11-01

    The effects of long-term physical inactivity on the expression of microRNAs involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in humans are largely unknown. MicroRNAs are short, noncoding RNAs that fine-tune target expression through mRNA degradation or by inhibiting protein translation. Intronic to the slow, type I, muscle fiber type genes MYH7 and MYH7b, microRNA-208b and microRNA-499-5p are thought to fine-tune the expression of genes important for muscle growth, such as myostatin. Spinal cord injured humans are characterized by both skeletal muscle atrophy and transformation toward fast-twitch, type II fibers. We determined the expression of microRNA-208b, microRNA-499-5p, and myostatin in human skeletal muscle after complete cervical spinal cord injury. We also determined whether these microRNAs altered myostatin expression in rodent skeletal muscle. A progressive decline in skeletal muscle microRNA-208b and microRNA-499-5p expression occurred in humans during the first year after spinal cord injury and with long-standing spinal cord injury. Expression of myostatin was inversely correlated with microRNA-208b and microRNA-499-5p in human skeletal muscle after spinal cord injury. Overexpression of microRNA-208b in intact mouse skeletal muscle decreased myostatin expression, whereas microRNA-499-5p was without effect. In conclusion, we provide evidence for an inverse relationship between expression of microRNA-208b and its previously validated target myostatin in humans with severe skeletal muscle atrophy. Moreover, we provide direct evidence that microRNA-208b overexpression decreases myostatin gene expression in intact rodent muscle. Our results implicate that microRNA-208b modulates myostatin expression and this may play a role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass following spinal cord injury. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  6. MicroRNA Expression Signature in Degenerative Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis, characterized by narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart, has become the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the microRNA (miRNA) signature in degenerative AS. Through microarray analysis, we identified the miRNA expression signature in the tissue samples from healthy individuals (n = 4) and patients with degenerative AS (n = 4). Six miRNAs (hsa-miR-193a-3p, hsa-miR-29b-1-5p, hsa-miR-505-5p, hsa-miR-194-5p, hsa-miR-99b-3p, and hsa-miR-200b-3p) were overexpressed and 14 (hsa-miR-3663-3p, hsa-miR-513a-5p, hsa-miR-146b-5p, hsa-miR-1972, hsa-miR-718, hsa-miR-3138, hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-630, hsa-miR-575, hsa-miR-301a-3p, hsa-miR-636, hsa-miR-34a-3p, hsa-miR-21-3p, and hsa-miR-516a-5p) were downregulated in aortic tissue from AS patients. GeneSpring 13.1 was used to identify potential human miRNA target genes by comparing a 3-way comparison of predictions from TargetScan, PITA, and microRNAorg databases. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were performed to identify potential pathways and functional annotations associated with AS. Twenty miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between patients with AS samples and normal controls and identified potential miRNA targets and molecular pathways associated with this morbidity. This study describes the miRNA expression signature in degenerative AS and provides an improved understanding of the molecular pathobiology of this disease. PMID:27579316

  7. MicroRNA Expression Signature in Degenerative Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Liu, Hui; Wang, Hui; Kong, Xiangqing

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis, characterized by narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart, has become the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the microRNA (miRNA) signature in degenerative AS. Through microarray analysis, we identified the miRNA expression signature in the tissue samples from healthy individuals (n = 4) and patients with degenerative AS (n = 4). Six miRNAs (hsa-miR-193a-3p, hsa-miR-29b-1-5p, hsa-miR-505-5p, hsa-miR-194-5p, hsa-miR-99b-3p, and hsa-miR-200b-3p) were overexpressed and 14 (hsa-miR-3663-3p, hsa-miR-513a-5p, hsa-miR-146b-5p, hsa-miR-1972, hsa-miR-718, hsa-miR-3138, hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-630, hsa-miR-575, hsa-miR-301a-3p, hsa-miR-636, hsa-miR-34a-3p, hsa-miR-21-3p, and hsa-miR-516a-5p) were downregulated in aortic tissue from AS patients. GeneSpring 13.1 was used to identify potential human miRNA target genes by comparing a 3-way comparison of predictions from TargetScan, PITA, and microRNAorg databases. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were performed to identify potential pathways and functional annotations associated with AS. Twenty miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between patients with AS samples and normal controls and identified potential miRNA targets and molecular pathways associated with this morbidity. This study describes the miRNA expression signature in degenerative AS and provides an improved understanding of the molecular pathobiology of this disease.

  8. Overexpression of the microRNA miR-433 promotes resistance to paclitaxel through the induction of cellular senescence in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Weiner-Gorzel, Karolina; Dempsey, Eugene; Milewska, Malgorzata; McGoldrick, Aloysius; Toh, Valerie; Walsh, Aoibheann; Lindsay, Sinead; Gubbins, Luke; Cannon, Aoife; Sharpe, Daniel; O'Sullivan, Jacintha; Murphy, Madeline; Madden, Stephen F; Kell, Malcolm; McCann, Amanda; Furlong, Fiona

    2015-05-01

    Annually, ovarian cancer (OC) affects 240,000 women worldwide and is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. High-grade serous OC (HGSOC) is the most common and aggressive OC subtype, characterized by widespread genome changes and chromosomal instability and is consequently poorly responsive to chemotherapy treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the microRNA miR-433 in the cellular response of OC cells to paclitaxel treatment. We show that stable miR-433 expression in A2780 OC cells results in the induction of cellular senescence demonstrated by morphological changes, downregulation of phosphorylated retinoblastoma (p-Rb), and an increase in β-galactosidase activity. Furthermore, in silico analysis identified four possible miR-433 target genes associated with cellular senescence: cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6), MAPK14, E2F3, and CDKN2A. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that downregulation of p-Rb is attributable to a miR-433-dependent downregulation of CDK6, establishing it as a novel miR-433 associated gene. Interestingly, we show that high miR-433 expressing cells release miR-433 into the growth media via exosomes which in turn can induce a senescence bystander effect. Furthermore, in relation to a chemotherapeutic response, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that only PEO1 and PEO4 OC cells with the highest miR-433 expression survive paclitaxel treatment. Our data highlight how the aberrant expression of miR-433 can adversely affect intracellular signaling to mediate chemoresistance in OC cells by driving cellular senescence. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. MicroRNA expression profiles and networks in CXCL12-stimulated human endometrial stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Jie; Li, Ming-Qing; Li, Da-Jin; Sun, Hai-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12; CXCL12) is important in the recruitment of leukocytes to the peritoneal cavity and the regulation of endometriotic tissue growth in endometriosis patients. However, the alterations in microRNA (miRNA) expression induced by CXCL12 remain to be fully elucidated. The present study evaluated key miRNAs in CXCL12-stimulated endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), and investigated the underlying cellular regulatory mechanisms of CXCL12 in endometriosis by building networks between miRNAs, genes and gene ontologies (GOs). Differential expression of miRNAs and mRNAs induced by CXCL12 stimulation in ESCs was measured using miRNA and gene chips, and it was observed that 35 miRNAs and 1,671 mRNAs were differentially expressed. Using potential target genes of the 35 miRNAs, intersections of these genes were examined and 63 intersection genes were identified. A total of 39 GOs were obtained for these intersection genes, based on information from GO databases, including immune cell chemoattractants, inflammatory and immune responses, and pathological processes of endometriotic lesions in endometriosis. In addition, miRNA-gene networks were built according to the GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. The present study, to the best of our knowledge, provides the most complete miRNAome and mRNAome profiles, and the most detailed investigation of the underlying cellular regulatory mechanisms, of the effects of CXCL12 in endometriosis. These results may facilitate the complete elucidation of the role of CXCL12 in endometriosis, and its underlying epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:27959395

  10. Human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintain human iPS cell pluripotency via inhibited endogenous microRNA-145 and increased Sox2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Te; Cheng, Weiwei; Huang, Yongyi; Huang, Qin; Jiang, Lizhen; Guo, Lihe

    2012-02-15

    Currently, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from patient or disease-specific sources and share the same key properties as embryonic stem cells. This makes them attractive for personalized medicine, drug screens or cellular therapy. Long-term cultivation and maintenance of normal iPS cells in an undifferentiated self-renewing state are a major challenge. Our previous studies have shown that human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) could provide a good source of feeder cells for mouse and human embryonic stem cells, or spermatogonial stem cells, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of endogenous microRNA-145 regulation on Sox2 expression in human iPS cells by HuAECs feeder cells regulation, and in turn on human iPS cells pluripotency. We found that human IPS cells transfected with a microRNA-145 mutant expressed Sox2 at high levels, allowing iPS to maintain a high level of AP activity in long-term culture and form teratomas in SCID mice. Expression of stem cell markers was increased in iPS transfected with the microRNA-145 mutant, compared with iPS was transfected with microRNA-145. Besides, the expression of Drosha proteins of the microRNA-processor complex, required for the generation of precursor pre-miRNA, was significantly increased in human iPS cells cultured on MEF but not on HuAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that endogenous Sox2 expression may be regulated by microRNA-145 in human iPS cells with HuAECs feeder cells, and Sox2 is a crucial component required for maintenance of them in an undifferentiated, proliferative state capable of self-renewal. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 inhibits Sox2 expression in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 suppresses the self-renewal and pluripotency of human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs regulate expression of microRNA-145 and Sox2 in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs feeder

  11. Signature MicroRNA expression patterns identified in humans with 22q11.2 deletion/DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de la Morena, M. Teresa; Eitson, Jennifer L.; Dozmorov, Igor M.; Belkaya, Serkan; Hoover, Ashley R.; Anguiano, Esperanza; Pascual, M. Virginia; van Oers, Nicolai S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have heterogeneous clinical presentations including immunodeficiency, cardiac anomalies, and hypocalcemia. The syndrome arises from hemizygous deletions of up to 3 Mb on chromosome 22q11.2, a region that contains 60 genes and 4 microRNAs. MicroRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, with mutations in several microRNAs causal to specific human diseases. We characterized the microRNA expression patterns in the peripheral blood of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n=31) compared to normal controls (n=22). Eighteen microRNAs had a statistically significant differential expression (p<0.05), with miR-185 expressed at 0.4× normal levels. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome cohort exhibited microRNA expression hyper-variability and group dysregulation. Selected microRNAs distinguished patients with cardiac anomalies, hypocalcemia, and/or low circulating T cell counts. In summary, microRNA profiling of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome/DiGeorge patients revealed a signature microRNA expression pattern distinct from normal controls with clinical relevance. PMID:23454892

  12. Signature MicroRNA expression patterns identified in humans with 22q11.2 deletion/DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    de la Morena, M Teresa; Eitson, Jennifer L; Dozmorov, Igor M; Belkaya, Serkan; Hoover, Ashley R; Anguiano, Esperanza; Pascual, M Virginia; van Oers, Nicolai S C

    2013-04-01

    Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have heterogeneous clinical presentations including immunodeficiency, cardiac anomalies, and hypocalcemia. The syndrome arises from hemizygous deletions of up to 3Mb on chromosome 22q11.2, a region that contains 60 genes and 4 microRNAs. MicroRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, with mutations in several microRNAs causal to specific human diseases. We characterized the microRNA expression patterns in the peripheral blood of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n=31) compared to normal controls (n=22). Eighteen microRNAs had a statistically significant differential expression (p<0.05), with miR-185 expressed at 0.4× normal levels. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome cohort exhibited microRNA expression hyper-variability and group dysregulation. Selected microRNAs distinguished patients with cardiac anomalies, hypocalcemia, and/or low circulating T cell counts. In summary, microRNA profiling of chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome/DiGeorge patients revealed a signature microRNA expression pattern distinct from normal controls with clinical relevance.

  13. Latency-Associated Viral Interleukin-10 (IL-10) Encoded by Human Cytomegalovirus Modulates Cellular IL-10 and CCL8 Secretion during Latent Infection through Changes in the Cellular MicroRNA hsa-miR-92a

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Emma; Avdic, Selmir; Hodkinson, Jemima; Jackson, Sarah; Wills, Mark; Slobedman, Barry

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The UL111A gene of human cytomegalovirus encodes a viral homologue of the cellular immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin 10 (cIL-10), which, due to alternative splicing, results in expression of two isoforms designated LAcmvIL-10 (expressed during both lytic and latent infection) and cmvIL-10 (identified only during lytic infection). We have analyzed the functions of LAcmvIL-10 during latent infection of primary myeloid progenitor cells and found that LAcmvIL-10 is responsible, at least in part, for the known increase in secretion of cellular IL-10 and CCL8 in the secretomes of latently infected cells. This latency-associated increase in CCL8 expression results from a concomitant LAcmvIL-10-mediated suppression of the expression of the cellular microRNA (miRNA) hsa-miR-92a, which targets CCL8 directly. Taking the data together, we show that the previously observed downregulation of hsa-miR-92a and upregulation of CCL8 during HCMV latent infection of myeloid cells are intimately linked via the latency-associated expression of LAcmvIL-10. IMPORTANCE HCMV latency causes significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals, yet HCMV is carried silently (latently) in 50 to 90% of the population. Understanding how HCMV maintains infection for the lifetime of an infected individual is critical for the treatment of immunocompromised individuals suffering with disease as a result of HCMV. In this study, we analyze one of the proteins that are expressed during the “latent” phase of HCMV, LAcmvIL-10, and find that the expression of the gene modulates the microenvironment of the infected cell, leading to evasion of the immune system. PMID:25253336

  14. δ-Opioid Receptor Activation Modified MicroRNA Expression in the Rat Kidney under Prolonged Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaozhou; Yang, Yilin; Zhi, Feng; Moore, Meredith L.; Kang, Xuezhi; Chao, Dongman; Wang, Rong; Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Kim, Dong H.; Xia, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxic/ischemic injury to kidney is a frequently encountered clinical problem with limited therapeutic options. Since microRNAs are differentially involved in hypoxic/ischemic events and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) activation is known to protect against hypoxic/ischemic injury, we speculated on the involvement of DOR activation in altering the microRNA (miRNA) expression in kidney under hypoxic condition. We selected 31 miRNAs based on microarray data for quantitative PCR analysis. Among them, 14 miRNAs were significantly altered after prolonged hypoxia, DOR activation or a combination of both. We found that 1) DOR activation alters miRNA expression profiles in normoxic conditions; 2) hypoxia differentially alters miRNA expression depending on the duration of hypoxia; and 3) DOR activation can modify hypoxia-induced changes in miRNA expression. For example, 10-day hypoxia reduced the level of miR-212 by over 70%, while DOR activation could mimic such reduction even in normoxic kidney. In contrast, the same stress increased miR-29a by >100%, which was reversed following DOR activation. These first data suggest that hypoxia comprehensively modifies the miRNA profile within the kidney, which can be mimicked or modified by DOR activation. Ascertaining the targeted pathways that regulate the diverse cellular and molecular functions of miRNA may provide new insights into potential therapies for hypoxic/ischemic injury of the kidney. PMID:23596515

  15. MicroRNA miR124 is required for the expression of homeostatic synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Qingming; Ruan, Hongyu; Gilbert, James; Wang, Guan; Ma, Qi; Yao, Wei-Dong; Man, Heng-Ye

    2015-01-01

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity is a compensatory response to alterations in neuronal activity. Chronic deprivation of neuronal activity results in an increase in synaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) and postsynaptic currents. The biogenesis of GluA2-lacking, calcium-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs) plays a crucial role in the homeostatic response; however, the mechanisms leading to CP-AMPAR formation remain unclear. Here we show that the microRNA, miR124, is required for the generation of CP-AMPARs and homeostatic plasticity. miR124 suppresses GluA2 expression via targeting its 3′-UTR, leading to the formation of CP-AMPARs. Blockade of miR124 function abolishes the homeostatic response, whereas miR124 overexpression leads to earlier induction of homeostatic plasticity. miR124 transcription is controlled by an inhibitory transcription factor EVI1, acting by association with the deacetylase HDAC1. Our data support a cellular cascade in which inactivity relieves EVI1/HDAC-mediated inhibition of miR124 gene transcription, resulting in enhanced miR124 expression, formation of CP-AMPARs and subsequent induction of homeostatic synaptic plasticity. PMID:26620774

  16. Downregulation of microRNA-498 in colorectal cancers and its cellular effects

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalan, Vinod; Smith, Robert A.; Lam, Alfred K.-Y.

    2015-01-15

    miR-498 is a non-coding RNA located intergenically in 19q13.41. Due to its predicted targeting of several genes involved in control of cellular growth, we examined the expression of miR-498 in colon cancer cell lines and a large cohort of patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Two colon cancer cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW48) and one normal colonic epithelial cell line (FHC) were recruited. The expression of miR-498 was tested in these cell lines by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Tissues from 80 patients with surgical resection of colorectum (60 adenocarcinomas and 20 non-neoplastic tissues) were tested for miR-498 expression by qRT-PCR. In addition, an exogenous miR-498 (mimic) was used to detect the miRNA's effects on cell proliferation and cell cycle events in SW480 using MTT calorimetric assay and flow cytometry respectively. The colon cancer cell lines showed reduced expression of miR-498 compared to a normal colonic epithelial cell line. Mimic driven over expression of miR-498 in the SW480 cell line resulted in reduced cell proliferation and increased proportions of G2-M phase cells. In tissues, miR-498 expression was too low to be detected in all colorectal adenocarcinoma compared to non-neoplastic tissues. This suggests that the down regulation of miR-498 in colorectal cancer tissues and the direct suppressive cellular effect noted in cancer cell lines implies that miR-498 has some direct or indirect role in the pathogenesis of colorectal adenocarcinomas. - Highlights: • miR-498 is a non-coding RNA located in 19q13.41. • Colon cancer cell lines showed reduced expression of miR-498. • Mimic driven over expression of miR-498 in colon cancer cells resulted in lower cell proliferation. • miR-498 expression was down regulated in all colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues.

  17. Differential expression analysis of balding and nonbalding dermal papilla microRNAs in male pattern baldness with a microRNA amplification profiling method.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, H R; Abbasi, A; Saffari, M; Fazelzadeh Haghighi, M; Tabei, M B; Noori Daloii, M R

    2012-05-01

      Male pattern baldness or androgenetic alopecia is a common disorder affecting almost 50% of men throughout their lifetime, with androgens and genetics having significant contributing aetiologies. In contrast to the positive regulatory effect of androgens on body hair growth, they are thought to alter scalp hair follicle behaviour pathophysiologically, leading to male pattern baldness. However, the exact mechanisms of this paradoxical action have not yet been elucidated. The role of microRNAs, a novel group of noncoding RNAs impacting almost every aspect of biology, health and human diseases, has been documented in hair follicle formation. In addition, their deregulation in cancer of the prostate, a target organ of androgens, has also been well established. To investigate the possible contribution of microRNAs in the pathophysiology of male pattern baldness. We initially screened microRNA expression profiles of balding and nonbalding hair follicle papillae with a sensitive microRNA cloning method, microRNA amplification profiling, and statistically analysed significant differentially expressed microRNAs in balding relative to nonbalding dermal papillae, with real-time polymerase chain reaction as a confirmatory method to quantify expression in eight individuals affected with the disorder.   We detected the significant upregulation of miR-221, miR-125b, miR-106a and miR-410 in balding papilla cells.   We found four microRNAs that could participate in the pathogenesis of male pattern baldness. Regarding the strong therapeutic potential of microRNAs and the easy accessibility of hair follicles for gene therapy, microRNAs are possible candidates for a new generation of revolutionary treatments. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. [Effect of xenobiotics on microRNA expression in rat liver].

    PubMed

    Gulyaeva, L F; Chanyshev, M D; Kolmykov, S K; Ushakov, D S; Nechkin, S S

    2016-01-01

    Using bioinformatics analysis we selected microRNAs which could bind 3'-UTR-region of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. Three microRNA miR-21, -221, -222, their potential targets might be mRNA for CYP1A1, and two microRNA miR-143, miR-152 for CYP2B1 accordingly were selected for experimental verification. Expression level of these microRNAs in rat liver upon benzo(a)pyrene (BP), phenobarbital (PB), and DDT induction was determined using RT-qPCR method. In rats treated by both BP, and DDT the hepatic content of miR-21, -221, -222 significantly demonstrated a 2-3-fold decrease. The decrease in miR expression was accompanied by a considerable (5.5-8.7-fold) increase in the CYP1A1-mediated EROD activity. The expression of miR-143 remained unchanged after the PB treatment, while the expression of miR-152 increased by 2 times, however, the (10.5-fold) increase in PROD activity of CYP2B was much higher. In the DDT-treated liver PROD activity increased by 20 times, the expression of miR-152 didn't change, and the expression of miR-143 increased by 2 times. The bioinformatics analysis of interactions between microRNAs and targets showed that the studied miRs can potentially bind 3'-end of AhR, ESR1, GR, CCND1, PTEN mRNA. Thus, the expression profile of miR-21, -221, -222, -143, -152 might change under the xenobiotics exposure. In silico analysis confirmed, that microRNAs target not only cytochrome P450 mRNA but also other genes, including those involved in hormonal carcinogenesis, they also can be regulated with studied miRs.

  19. MicroRNA expression profile in human macrophages in response to Leishmania major infection.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Julien; Mkannez, Ghada; Guerfali, Fatma Z; Gustin, Cindy; Attia, Hanène; Sghaier, Rabiaa M; Dellagi, Koussay; Laouini, Dhafer; Renard, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania (L.) are intracellular protozoan parasites able to survive and replicate in the hostile phagolysosomal environment of infected macrophages. They cause leishmaniasis, a heterogeneous group of worldwide-distributed affections, representing a paradigm of neglected diseases that are mainly embedded in impoverished populations. To establish successful infection and ensure their own survival, Leishmania have developed sophisticated strategies to subvert the host macrophage responses. Despite a wealth of gained crucial information, these strategies still remain poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), an evolutionarily conserved class of endogenous 22-nucleotide non-coding RNAs, are described to participate in the regulation of almost every cellular process investigated so far. They regulate the expression of target genes both at the levels of mRNA stability and translation; changes in their expression have a profound effect on their target transcripts. We report in this study a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles in L. major-infected human primary macrophages of three healthy donors assessed at different time-points post-infection (three to 24 h). We show that expression of 64 out of 365 analyzed miRNAs was consistently deregulated upon infection with the same trends in all donors. Among these, several are known to be induced by TLR-dependent responses. GO enrichment analysis of experimentally validated miRNA-targeted genes revealed that several pathways and molecular functions were disturbed upon parasite infection. Finally, following parasite infection, miR-210 abundance was enhanced in HIF-1α-dependent manner, though it did not contribute to inhibiting anti-apoptotic pathways through pro-apoptotic caspase-3 regulation. Our data suggest that alteration in miRNA levels likely plays an important role in regulating macrophage functions following L. major infection. These results could contribute to better understanding of the dynamics of gene

  20. Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter genes up-regulation in untreated hepatocellular carcinoma is mediated by cellular microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Borel, Florie; Han, Ruiqi; Visser, Allerdien; Petry, Harald; van Deventer, Sander J H; Jansen, Peter L M; Konstantinova, Pavlina

    2012-03-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are drug efflux pumps responsible for the multidrug resistance phenotype causing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment failure. Here we studied the expression of 15 ABC transporters relevant for multidrug resistance in 19 paired HCC patient samples (16 untreated, 3 treated by chemotherapeutics). Twelve ABC transporters showed up-regulation in HCC compared with adjacent healthy liver. These include ABCA2, ABCB1, ABCB6, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3, ABCC4, ABCC5, ABCC10, ABCC11, ABCC12, and ABCE1. The expression profile and function of some of these transporters have not been associated with HCC thus far. Because cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in posttranscriptional gene silencing, we hypothesized that regulation of ABC expression in HCC might be mediated by miRNAs. To study this, miRNAs were profiled and dysregulation of 90 miRNAs was shown in HCC compared with healthy liver, including up-regulation of 11 and down-regulation of 79. miRNA target sites in ABC genes were bioinformatically predicted and experimentally verified in vitro using luciferase reporter assays. In total, 13 cellular miRNAs were confirmed that target ABCA1, ABCC1, ABCC5, ABCC10, and ABCE1 genes and mediate changes in gene expression. Correlation analysis between ABC and miRNA expression in individual patients revealed an inverse relationship, providing an indication for miRNA regulation of ABC genes in HCC. Up-regulation of ABC transporters in HCC occurs prior to chemotherapeutic treatment and is associated with miRNA down-regulation. Up-regulation of five ABC genes appears to be mediated by 13 cellular miRNAs in HCC patient samples. miRNA-based gene therapy may be a novel and promising way to affect the ABC profile and overcome clinical multidrug resistance. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. Identification of microRNAs expressed in the midgut of Aedes albopictus during dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianxin; Li, Chunxiao; Zhang, Yingmei; Yan, Ting; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Minghui; Xing, Dan; Dong, Yande; Guo, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Tongyan

    2017-02-03

    The midgut is the first barrier to dengue virus (DENV) infections of mosquitoes and therefore is a major bottleneck for the subsequent development of vector competence. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this barrier are unknown. We constructed three small RNA libraries from the midguts of adult Aedes albopictus females that had been fed on either sugar solution, an uninfected blood meal, or a blood meal infected with DENV-2, and112 conserved microRNAs represented by 173 miRNA sequences were identified, with 34 novel microRNAs predicted by Mireap, RNAfold and Sfold software. In addition, the expression of aal-miR-1174, aal-miR-2951 and aal-miR-956 was confirmed via stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Compared with microRNA expression profiles of mosquitoes that had ingested a regular blood meal, 43 microRNAs were upregulated and 4were downregulated in mosquitoes that had ingested a DENV-2-infected blood meal. Among the differentially expressed microRNAs, miR-1767, miR-276-3p, miR-4448 and miR-4728-5p were verified via stem-loop qRT-PCR. Analyses indicated that the changing patterns in miRNA expression during DENV-2 infection were significant and varied at different time points post infection. Most miRNA were upregulated at 24 h but were downregulated at 48 h post DENV-2 intake. The aal-miR-4728-5p was chosen for an in vitro transient transfection assay, and the results show that this miRNA enhances DENV replication in C6/36 cells. This study provides the first information on microRNAs expressed in the midgut of Ae. albopictus and describes species-specific changes in their expression levels following infection by DENV-2.

  2. Analysis of microRNA expression during the torpor-arousal cycle of a mammalian hibernator, the 13-lined ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Wei; Biggar, Kyle K; Luu, Bryan E; Szereszewski, Kama E; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-06-01

    Hibernation is a highly regulated stress response that is utilized by some mammals to survive harsh winter conditions and involves a complex metabolic reprogramming at the cellular level to maintain tissue protections at low temperature. In this study, we profiled the expression of 117 conserved microRNAs in the heart, muscle, and liver of the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) across four stages of the torpor-arousal cycle (euthermia, early torpor, late torpor, and interbout arousal) by real-time PCR. We found significant differential regulation of numerous microRNAs that were both tissue specific and torpor stage specific. Among the most significant regulated microRNAs was miR-208b, a positive regulator of muscle development that was found to be upregulated by fivefold in the heart during late torpor (13-fold during arousal), while decreased by 3.7-fold in the skeletal muscle, implicating a potential regulatory role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and skeletal muscle atrophy in the ground squirrels during torpor. In addition, the insulin resistance marker miR-181a was upregulated by 5.7-fold in the liver during early torpor, which supports previous suggestions of hyperinsulinemia in hibernators during the early stages of the hibernation cycle. Although microRNA expression profiles were largely unique between the three tissues, GO annotation analysis revealed that the putative targets of upregulated microRNAs tend to enrich toward suppression of progrowth-related processes in all three tissues. These findings implicate microRNAs in the regulation of both tissue-specific processes and general suppression of cell growth during hibernation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Curcumin inhibits cancer progression through regulating expression of microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Siying; Zhang, Sijie; Shen, Hongyu; Chen, Wei; Xu, Hanzi; Chen, Xiu; Sun, Dawei; Zhong, Shanliang; Zhao, Jianhua; Tang, Jinhai

    2017-02-01

    Curcumin, a major yellow pigment and spice in turmeric and curry, is a powerful anti-cancer agent. The anti-tumor activities of curcumin include inhibition of tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, induction of tumor apoptosis, increase of chemotherapy sensitivity, and regulation of cell cycle and cancer stem cell, indicating that curcumin maybe a strong therapeutic potential through modulating various cancer progression. It has been reported that microRNAs as small noncoding RNA molecules are related to cancer progression, which can be regulated by curcumin. Dysregulated microRNAs play vital roles in tumor biology via regulating expressions of target genes and then influencing multiple cancer-related signaling pathways. In this review, we focused on the inhibition effect of curcumin on various cancer progression by regulating expression of multiple microRNAs. Curcumin-induced dysregulation of microRNAs may activate or inactivate a set of signaling pathways, such as Akt, Bcl-2, PTEN, p53, Notch, and Erbb signaling pathways. A better understanding of the relation between curcumin and microRNAs may provide a potential therapeutic target for various cancers.

  4. In vivo expression of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) microRNAs during latency.

    PubMed

    Meshesha, Mesfin K; Bentwich, Zvi; Solomon, Semaria A; Avni, Yonat Shemer

    2016-01-01

    Viral encoded microRNAs play key roles in regulating gene expression and the life cycle of human herpes viruses. Latency is one of the hallmarks of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV or HHV5) life cycle, and its control may have immense practical applications. The present study aims to identify HCMV encoded microRNAs during the latency phase of the virus. We used a highly sensitive real time PCR (RTPCR) assay that involves a pre-amplification step before RTPCR. It can detect HCMV encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) during latency in purified monocytes and PBMCs from HCMV IgG positive donors and in latently infected monocytic THP-1 cell lines. During the latency phase, only eight HCMV encoded microRNAs were detected in PBMCs, monocytes and in the THP-1 cells. Five originated from the UL region of the virus genome and three from the US region. Reactivation of the virus from latency, in monocytes obtained from the same donor, using dexamethasone restored the expression of all known HCMV encoded miRNAs including those that were absent during latency. We observed a shift in the abundance of the two arms of mir-US29 between the productive and latency stages of the viral life cycle, suggesting that the star "passenger" form of this microRNA is preferentially expressed during latency. As a whole, our study demonstrates that HCMV expresses during the latency phase, both in vivo and in vitro, only a subset of its microRNAs, which may indicate that they play an important role in maintenance and reactivation of latency.

  5. [Analysis of microRNA expression profile in serum of patients with electrical burn or thermal burn].

    PubMed

    Ruan, Q F; Jiang, M J; Ye, Z Q; Zhao, C L; Xie, W G

    2017-01-20

    Objective: To explore the differential expression of microRNAs in the serum among patients with electrical burn or thermal burn and healthy persons and to explore the significance. Methods: In this study we included three patients with electrical burn and three patients with thermal burn, conforming to the inclusion criteria and hospitalized in our burn ward from June to August 2015, and three healthy adult volunteers. Their serum samples were separated from whole blood and divided into electrical burn group, thermal burn group, and normal control group. Total RNA was extracted from their serum samples using Trizol method. The differentially expressed microRNAs (with differential ratio larger than or equal to 2.000, less than or equal to 0.500) among the three groups were screened by microRNA chip technique. Then cluster and Venn diagram analysis of the differentially expressed microRNAs were performed. Enrichment analysis of Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) signaling pathway was performed on the distinctly changed microRNAs (with differential ratio larger than or equal to 5.000, less than or equal to 0.500). Results: There were 220 differentially expressed microRNAs among serum of the three groups. MicroRNA expression profiles in serum of electrical burn and thermal burn groups were different from that in serum of normal control group. Compared with those in serum of normal control group, the expressions of 59 microRNAs changed more than 2.000 times in serum of electrical burn group, with 50 up-regulated microRNAs and 9 down-regulated microRNAs; the expressions of 40 microRNAs changed more than 2.000 times in serum of thermal burn group, with 21 up-regulated microRNAs and 19 down-regulated microRNAs. Compared with those in serum of thermal burn group, the expressions of 167 microRNAs changed more than 2.000 times in serum of electrical burn group. There were 17 exclusively expressed microRNAs in serum of thermal burn group and 26 exclusively

  6. Cohort of estrogen-induced microRNAs regulate adrenomedullin expression

    PubMed Central

    Wetzel-Strong, Sarah E.; Li, Manyu; Espenschied, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen regulates the expression of many genes and has been correlated with differences in cardiac contraction; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Adrenomedullin (Adm = gene; AM = protein) is a multifunctional peptide with inotropic actions. Previous studies have demonstrated that estrogen enhances the expression of Adm, suggesting a relationship between AM and estrogen in cardiac contraction during physiological and pathological states. In this study, female mice in a mouse model of genetic Adm overexpression, abbreviated as Admhi/hi, were found to express 60 times more Adm in the heart than wild-type littermates, compared with the three-fold elevation of Adm previously reported in Admhi/hi male hearts. Thus, this study sought to further investigate any functional consequences of increased cardiac Adm expression and begin exploring the mechanisms that regulate Adm expression in an estrogen-dependent fashion. This study revealed that heart function is enhanced in Admhi/hi females, which along with Adm expression levels, was reversed following ovariectomization. Since the Admhi/hi line was generated by the displacement of the 3′ untranslated region (UTR), the native 3′UTR was examined for estrogen-induced microRNAs target sites to potentially explain the aberrant overexpression observed in Admhi/hi female hearts. Using a bioinformatic approach, it was determined that the mouse Adm 3′UTR contains many target sites for previously characterized estrogen-induced microRNAs. This study also determined that the novel microRNA, miR-879, is another estrogen-induced microRNA that interacts with the 3′UTR of Adm to destabilize the mRNA. Together, these studies revealed that estrogen-induced microRNAs are important for balancing cardiac Adm expression in females. PMID:26582637

  7. Adaptive expression of microRNA-125a in adipose tissue in response to obesity in mice and men.

    PubMed

    Diawara, Malika R; Hue, Christophe; Wilder, Steven P; Venteclef, Nicolas; Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Scott, James; Clément, Karine; Gauguier, Dominique; Calderari, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are emerging as new mediators in the regulation of adipose tissue biology and the development of obesity. An important role of microRNA-125a has been suggested in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR). Here, we characterized the function of microRNA-125a in adipose tissue in a context of experimentally-induced IR and obesity in mice and in obese patients. We showed time dependent overexpression of the microRNA in adipose tissue of BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice in response to high fat diet (HFD) feeding. MicroRNA-125a expression was downregulated in vitro in insulin resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes and ex vivo in adipose tissue of obese patients. In vitro modulation of microRNA-125a expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes did not affect glucose uptake. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) identified significantly altered expression patterns of predicted microRNA-125a gene targets in transcriptomic datasets of adipose tissue from HFD-fed mice and obese patients. Among genes that contributed to global enrichment of altered expression of microRNA-125a targets, Thyrotroph embryonic factor (Tef), Mannan-binding lectin serine peptidase 1, Reticulon 2 and Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2L3 were significantly differentially expressed in adipose tissue in these groups. We showed that Tef expression is reduced in adipose tissue of obese patients following gastric bypass surgery. Our findings indicate that microRNA-125a expression in adipose tissue adapts to IR and may play a role in the development of obesity in mice and obese subjects through uncoupled regulation of the expression of microRNA-125a and its targets.

  8. Differential expression of conserved and novel microRNAs during tail regeneration in the lizard Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Elizabeth D; Eckalbar, Walter L; Wolter, Justin M; Mangone, Marco; Kusumi, Kenro

    2016-05-05

    Lizards are evolutionarily the most closely related vertebrates to humans that can lose and regrow an entire appendage. Regeneration in lizards involves differential expression of hundreds of genes that regulate wound healing, musculoskeletal development, hormonal response, and embryonic morphogenesis. While microRNAs are able to regulate large groups of genes, their role in lizard regeneration has not been investigated. MicroRNA sequencing of green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis) regenerating tail and associated tissues revealed 350 putative novel and 196 known microRNA precursors. Eleven microRNAs were differentially expressed between the regenerating tail tip and base during maximum outgrowth (25 days post autotomy), including miR-133a, miR-133b, and miR-206, which have been reported to regulate regeneration and stem cell proliferation in other model systems. Three putative novel differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in the regenerating tail tip. Differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in the regenerating lizard tail, including known regulators of stem cell proliferation. The identification of 3 putative novel microRNAs suggests that regulatory networks, either conserved in vertebrates and previously uncharacterized or specific to lizards, are involved in regeneration. These findings suggest that differential regulation of microRNAs may play a role in coordinating the timing and expression of hundreds of genes involved in regeneration.

  9. Comparative analysis of microRNA expression profiles between A549, A549/DDP and their respective exosomes.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaobing; Yu, Shaorong; Xu, Xiaoyue; Shen, Bo; Feng, Jifeng

    2017-06-27

    Exosomes were reported to transport bioactive molecules and influence the biology behavior of recipient cells. In order to study the role of exosomal microRNAs in the mechanism of cisplatin resistance to lung cancer cells, we analyzed the expression profiles of microRNAs in A549, A549/DDP cells and their exosomes by microarray. The results showed that a certain proportion of microRNAs were co-expressed in the cells and exosomes. Linear regression analysis showed that the expression of microRNAs in A549 and A549/DDP cells were strongly correlated with those in their respective exosomes. The expression level of 5 microRNAs (miR-197-5p, miR-4443, miR-642a-3p, miR-27b-3p and miR-100-5p) with the most differential expression were verified by qRT-PCR. The results were consistent with those of the microarray. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis discovered that the microRNAs in the intersections may participate in drug resistance. And the prediction of their association with diseases found that most of these microRNAs was associated with lung cancer. We could draw a preliminary conclusion that microRNAs in exosomes may be involved in the drug resistance of lung cancer cells to cisplatin.

  10. Comparative analysis of microRNA expression profiles between A549, A549/DDP and their respective exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Shen, Bo; Feng, Jifeng

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes were reported to transport bioactive molecules and influence the biology behavior of recipient cells. In order to study the role of exosomal microRNAs in the mechanism of cisplatin resistance to lung cancer cells, we analyzed the expression profiles of microRNAs in A549, A549/DDP cells and their exosomes by microarray. The results showed that a certain proportion of microRNAs were co-expressed in the cells and exosomes. Linear regression analysis showed that the expression of microRNAs in A549 and A549/DDP cells were strongly correlated with those in their respective exosomes. The expression level of 5 microRNAs (miR-197-5p, miR-4443, miR-642a-3p, miR-27b-3p and miR-100-5p) with the most differential expression were verified by qRT-PCR. The results were consistent with those of the microarray. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis discovered that the microRNAs in the intersections may participate in drug resistance. And the prediction of their association with diseases found that most of these microRNAs was associated with lung cancer. We could draw a preliminary conclusion that microRNAs in exosomes may be involved in the drug resistance of lung cancer cells to cisplatin. PMID:28178672

  11. Chemoprevention of Cigarette Smoke–Induced Alterations of MicroRNA Expression in Rat Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Izzotti, Alberto; Calin, George A.; Steele, Vernon E.; Cartiglia, Cristina; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Croce, Carlo M.; De Flora, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that exposure to environmental cigarette smoke (ECS) for 28 days causes extensive downregulation of microRNA expression in the lungs of rats, resulting in the overexpression of multiple genes and proteins. In the present study, we evaluated by microarray the expression of 484 microRNAs in the lungs of either ECS-free or ECS-exposed rats treated with the orally administered chemopreventive agents N-acetylcysteine, oltipraz, indole-3-carbinol, 5,6-benzoflavone, and phenethyl isothiocyanate (as single agents or in combinations). This is the first study of microRNA modulation by chemopreventive agents in nonmalignant tissues. Scatterplot, hierarchical cluster, and principal component analyses of microarray and quantitative PCR data showed that none of the above chemopreventive regimens appreciably affected the baseline microRNA expression, indicating potential safety. On the other hand, all of them attenuated ECS-induced alterations but to a variable extent and with different patterns, indicating potential preventive efficacy. The main ECS-altered functions that were modulated by chemopreventive agents included cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, Ras activation, P53 functions, NF-κB pathway, transforming growth factor–related stress response, and angiogenesis. Some micro-RNAs known to be polymorphic in humans were downregulated by ECS and were protected by chemopreventive agents. This study provides proof-of-concept and validation of technology that we are further refining to screen and prioritize potential agents for continued development and to help elucidate their biological effects and mechanisms. Therefore, microRNA analysis may provide a new tool for predicting at early carcinogenesis stages both the potential safety and efficacy of cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:20051373

  12. Profiling Pre-MicroRNA and Mature MicroRNA Expressions Using a Single Microarray and Avoiding Separate Sample Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lin; Denecke, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Mature microRNA is a crucial component in the gene expression regulation network. At the same time, microRNA gene expression and procession is regulated in a precise and collaborated way. Pre-microRNAs mediate products during the microRNA transcription process, they can provide hints of microRNA gene expression regulation or can serve as alternative biomarkers. To date, little effort has been devoted to pre-microRNA expression profiling. In this study, three human and three mouse microRNA profile data sets, based on the Affymetrix miRNA 2.0 array, have been re-analyzed for both mature and pre-microRNA signals as a primary test of parallel mature/pre-microRNA expression profiling on a single platform. The results not only demonstrated a glimpse of pre-microRNA expression in human and mouse, but also the relationship of microRNA expressions between pre- and mature forms. The study also showed a possible application of currently available microRNA microarrays in profiling pre-microRNA expression in a time and cost effective manner. PMID:27605179

  13. Micro-RNA expression in muscle and fiber morphometry in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Fritegotto, Chiara; Ferrati, Chiara; Pegoraro, Valentina; Angelini, Corrado

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to explore the cellular action of micro-RNAs that are non-coding-RNAs modulating gene expression, whose expression is dysregulated in myotonic dystrophy (DM1). Basic procedure was to measure the levels of muscle-specific myo-miRNAs (miR-1, miR-133a/b, miR-206) in muscle of 12 DM1 patients. Muscle fiber morphometry and a new grading of histopathological severity score were used to compare specific myo-miRNA level and fiber atrophy. We found that the levels of miR-1 and miR-133a/b were significantly decreased, while miR-206 was significantly increased as compared to controls. The histopathological score did not significantly correlate with the levels of myo-miRNAs, even if the lowest levels of miRNA-1 and miRNA-133a/b, and the highest levels of miRNA-206 were observed in patients with either severe histopathological scores or long disease duration. The histopathological score was inversely correlated with disease duration. Nowadays that DM1 muscle biopsies are scanty, since patients are usually diagnosed by genetic analysis, our study offers a unique opportunity to present miRNA expression profiles in muscle and correlate them to muscle morphology in this rare multisystem disorder. Our molecular and morphologic data suggest a post-transcriptional regulatory action of myo-miRNA in DM1, highlighting their potential role as biomarkers of muscle plasticity.

  14. Differential expression of microRNAs following cardiopulmonary bypass in children with congenital heart diseases.

    PubMed

    Abu-Halima, Masood; Poryo, Martin; Ludwig, Nicole; Mark, Janine; Marsollek, Ina; Giebels, Christian; Petersen, Johannes; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim; Grundmann, Ulrich; Pickardt, Thomas; Keller, Andreas; Meese, Eckart; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim

    2017-05-30

    Children with congenital heart defects (CHDs) are at high risk for myocardial failure after operative procedures with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Recent studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the development of CHDs and myocardial failure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine alterations in the miRNA profile in heart tissue after cardiac surgery using CPB. In total, 14 tissue samples from right atrium were collected from patients before and after connection of the CPB. SurePrint™ 8 × 60K Human v21 miRNA array and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were employed to determine the miRNA expression profile from three patients before and after connection of the CPB. Enrichment analyses of altered miRNA expression were predicted using bioinformatic tools. According to miRNA array, a total of 90 miRNAs were significantly altered including 29 miRNAs with increased and 61 miRNAs with decreased expression after de-connection of CPB (n = 3) compared to before CPB (n = 3). Seven miRNAs had been validated using RT-qPCR in an independent cohort of 11 patients. Enrichment analyses applying the KEGG database displayed the highest correlation for signaling pathways, cellular community, cardiovascular disease and circulatory system. Our result identified the overall changes of the miRNome in right atrium tissue of patients with CHDs after CPB. The differentially altered miRNAs lay a good foundation for further understanding of the molecular function of changed miRNAs in regulating CHDs and after CPB in particular.

  15. MicroRNA-21 promotes cell proliferation and down-regulates the expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Qing; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2009-10-23

    MicroRNAs are involved in cancer-related processes. The microRNA-21(miR-21) has been identified as the only miRNA over-expressed in a wide variety of cancers, including cervical cancer. However, the function of miR-21 is unknown in cervical carcinomas. In this study, we found that the inhibition of miR-21 in HeLa cervical cancer cells caused profound suppression of cell proliferation, and up-regulated the expression of the tumor suppressor gene PDCD4. We also provide direct evidence that PDCD4-3'UTR is a functional target of miR-21 and that the 18 bp putative target site can function as the sole regulatory element in HeLa cells. These results suggest that miR-21 may play an oncogenic role in the cellular processes of cervical cancer and may serve as a target for effective therapies.

  16. RNA Helicase DDX5 Regulates MicroRNA Expression and Contributes to Cytoskeletal Reorganization in Basal Breast Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Daojing; Huang, Jing; Hu, Zhi

    2011-11-15

    RNA helicase DDX5 (also p68) is involved in all aspects of RNA metabolism and serves as a transcriptional co-regulator, but its functional role in breast cancer remains elusive. Here, we report an integrative biology study of DDX5 in breast cancer, encompassing quantitative proteomics, global MicroRNA profiling, and detailed biochemical characterization of cell lines and human tissues. We showed that protein expression of DDX5 increased progressively from the luminal to basal breast cancer cell lines, and correlated positively with that of CD44 in the basal subtypes. Through immunohistochemistry analyses of tissue microarrays containing over 200 invasive human ductal carcinomas, we observed that DDX5 was upregulated in the majority of malignant tissues, and its expression correlated strongly with those of Ki67 and EGFR in the triple-negative tumors. We demonstrated that DDX5 regulated a subset of MicroRNAs including miR-21 and miR-182 in basal breast cancer cells. Knockdown of DDX5 resulted in reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and reduction of cellular proliferation. The effects were accompanied by upregulation of tumor suppressor PDCD4 (a known miR-21 target); as well as upregulation of cofilin and profilin, two key proteins involved in actin polymerization and cytoskeleton maintenance, as a consequence of miR-182 downregulation. Treatment with miR-182 inhibitors resulted in morphologic phenotypes resembling those induced by DDX5 knockdown. Using bioinformatics tools for pathway and network analyses, we confirmed that the network for regulation of actin cytoskeleton was predominantly enriched for the predicted downstream targets of miR-182. Our results reveal a new functional role of DDX5 in breast cancer via the DDX5→miR-182→actin cytoskeleton pathway, and suggest the potential clinical utility of DDX5 and its downstream MicroRNAs in the theranostics of breast cancer.

  17. Machine learning-based identification of endogenous cellular microRNA sponges against viral microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soowon; Park, Seunghyun; Yoon, Sungroh; Min, Hyeyoung

    2017-03-18

    A "miRNA sponge" is an artificial oligonucleotide-based miRNA inhibitor containing multiple binding sites for a specific miRNA. Each miRNA sponge can bind and sequester several miRNA copies, thereby decreasing the cellular levels of the target miRNA. In addition to developing artificial miRNA sponges, scientists have sought endogenous RNA transcripts and found that long non-coding RNAs, competing endogenous RNAs, pseudogenes, circular RNAs, and coding RNAs could act as miRNA sponges under precise conditions. Here we present a computational approach for the prediction of endogenous human miRNA sponge candidates targeting viral miRNAs derived from pathogenic human viruses. Viral miRNA binding sites were predicted using a newly-developed machine learning-based method, and candidate interactions between miRNAs and sponge RNAs were experimentally validated using luciferase reporter assay, western blot analysis, and flow cytometry. We found that BX649188.1 functions as a potential natural miRNA sponge against kshv-miR-K12-7-3p.

  18. Translational control of FOG-2 expression in cardiomyocytes by microRNA-130a.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gene H; Samant, Sadhana A; Earley, Judy U; Svensson, Eric C

    2009-07-07

    MicroRNAs are increasingly being recognized as regulators of embryonic development; however, relatively few microRNAs have been identified to regulate cardiac development. FOG-2 (also known as zfpm2) is a transcriptional co-factor that we have previously shown is critical for cardiac development. In this report, we demonstrate that FOG-2 expression is controlled at the translational level by microRNA-130a. We identified a conserved region in the FOG-2 3' untranslated region predicted to be a target for miR-130a. To test the functional significance of this site, we generated an expression construct containing the luciferase coding region fused with the 3' untranslated region of FOG-2 or a mutant version lacking this microRNA binding site. When these constructs were transfected into NIH 3T3 fibroblasts (which are known to express miR-130a), we observed a 3.3-fold increase in translational efficiency when the microRNA target site was disrupted. Moreover, knockdown of miR-130a in fibroblasts resulted in a 3.6-fold increase in translational efficiency. We also demonstrate that cardiomyocytes express miR-130a and can attenuate translation of mRNAs with a FOG-2 3' untranslated region. Finally, we generated transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte over-expression of miR-130a. In the hearts of these mice, FOG-2 protein levels were reduced by as much as 80%. Histological analysis of transgenic embryos revealed ventricular wall hypoplasia and ventricular septal defects, similar to that seen in FOG-2 deficient hearts. These results demonstrate the importance of miR-130a for the regulation of FOG-2 protein expression and suggest that miR-130a may also play a role in the regulation of cardiac development.

  19. Small Nucleolar RNA-Derived MicroRNA hsa-miR-1291 Modulates Cellular Drug Disposition through Direct Targeting of ABC Transporter ABCC1

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yu-Zhuo; Zhou, Amy; Hu, Zihua

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance–associated protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) is an important membrane transporter that contributes to cellular disposition of many endobiotic and xenobiotic agents, and it can also confer multidrug resistance. This study aimed to investigate the role of human noncoding microRNA-1291 (hsa-miR-1291) in regulation of ABCC1 and drug disposition. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that hsa-miR-1291, localized within the small nucleolar RNA H/ACA box 34 (SNORA34), might target ABCC1 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). Using splinted ligation small RNA detection method, we found that SNORA34 was processed into hsa-miR-1291 in human pancreatic carcinoma PANC-1 cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that ABCC1 3′-UTR-luciferase activity was decreased by 20% in cells transfected with hsa-miR-1291 expression plasmid, and increased by 40% in cells transfected with hsa-miR-1291 antagomir. Furthermore, immunoblot study revealed that ABCC1 protein expression was sharply reduced in hsa-miR-1291–stably transfected PANC-1 cells, which was attenuated by hsa-miR-1291 antagomir. The change of ABCC1 protein expression was associated with an alternation in mRNA expression. In addition, hsa-miR-1291–directed downregulation of ABCC1 led to a greater intracellular drug accumulation and sensitized the cells to doxorubicin. Together, our results indicate that hsa-miR-1291 is derived from SNORA34 and modulates cellular drug disposition and chemosensitivity through regulation of ABCC1 expression. These findings shall improve the understanding of microRNA-controlled epigenetic regulatory mechanisms underlying multidrug resistance and interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics. PMID:23686318

  20. MicroRNA-33 promotes the replicative senescence of mouse embryonic fibroblasts by suppressing CDK6.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shun; Huang, Haijiao; Li, Nanhong; Zhang, Bing; Jia, Yubin; Yang, Yukun; Yuan, Yuan; Xiong, Xing-Dong; Wang, Dengchuan; Zheng, Hui-Ling; Liu, Xinguang

    2016-05-13

    MicroRNAs are a large class of tiny noncoding RNAs, which have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression, and thus are involved in multiple cellular processes, including cellular senescence. MicroRNA-33 has previously been established to exert crucial effect on cell proliferation, lipid metabolism and cholesterol metabolism. Nonetheless, the association between microRNA-33 and cellular senescence and its underlying molecular mechanism are far to be elucidated. The present study has attempted to probe into the effect of microRNA-33 on MEFs senescence. Our data unveiled that microRNA-33 was dramatically down-regulated in senescent MEFs compared to the young MEFs, and ectopic expression of microRNA-33 promoted MEFs senescence, while knock-down of microRNA-33 exhibited a protective effect against senescence phenotype. Moreover, we verified CDK6 as a direct target of microRNA-33 in mouse. Silencing of CDK6 induced the premature senescence phenotype of MEFs similarly as microRNA-33, while enforced expression of CDK6 significantly reverse the senescence-induction effect of microRNA-33. Taken together, our results suggested that microRNA-33 enhanced the replicative senescence of MEFs potentially by suppressing CDK6 expression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Matrigel Basement Membrane Matrix influences expression of microRNAs in cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Karina J.; Tsykin, Anna; Giles, Keith M.; Sladic, Rosemary T.; Epis, Michael R.; Ganss, Ruth; Goodall, Gregory J.; Leedman, Peter J.

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matrigel alters cancer cell line miRNA expression relative to culture on plastic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many identified Matrigel-regulated miRNAs are implicated in cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-1290, -210, -32 and -29b represent a Matrigel-induced miRNA signature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-32 down-regulates Integrin alpha 5 (ITGA5) mRNA. -- Abstract: Matrigel is a medium rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) components used for three-dimensional cell culture and is known to alter cellular phenotypes and gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and have roles in cancer. While miRNA profiles of numerous cell lines cultured on plastic have been reported, the influence of Matrigel-based culture on cancer cell miRNA expression is largely unknown. This study investigated the influence of Matrigel on the expression of miRNAs that might facilitate ECM-associated cancer cell growth. We performed miRNA profiling by microarray using two colon cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW620), identifying significant differential expression of miRNAs between cells cultured in Matrigel and on plastic. Many of these miRNAs have previously been implicated in cancer-related processes. A common Matrigel-induced miRNA signature comprised of up-regulated miR-1290 and miR-210 and down-regulated miR-29b and miR-32 was identified using RT-qPCR across five epithelial cancer cell lines (SW480, SW620, HT-29, A549 and MDA-MB-231). Experimental modulation of these miRNAs altered expression of their known target mRNAs involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and invasion, in colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, ITGA5 was identified as a novel putative target of miR-32 that may facilitate cancer cell interactions with the ECM. We propose that culture of cancer cell lines in Matrigel more accurately recapitulates miRNA expression and function in cancer than culture on plastic and thus is a

  2. A genomic portrait of the genetic architecture and regulatory impact of microRNA expression in response to infection

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Katherine J.; Deschamps, Matthieu; Tailleux, Ludovic; Nédélec, Yohann; Pothlichet, Julien; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Libri, Valentina; Gicquel, Brigitte; Neyrolles, Olivier; Laval, Guillaume; Patin, Etienne; Barreiro, Luis B.; Quintana-Murci, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of gene expression, and their role in a wide variety of biological processes, including host antimicrobial defense, is increasingly well described. Consistent with their diverse functional effects, miRNA expression is highly context dependent and shows marked changes upon cellular activation. However, the genetic control of miRNA expression in response to external stimuli and the impact of such perturbations on miRNA-mediated regulatory networks at the population level remain to be determined. Here we assessed changes in miRNA expression upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in dendritic cells from a panel of healthy individuals. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed that ∼40% of miRNAs are differentially expressed upon infection. We find that the expression of 3% of miRNAs is controlled by proximate genetic factors, which are enriched in a promoter-specific histone modification associated with active transcription. Notably, we identify two infection-specific response eQTLs, for miR-326 and miR-1260, providing an initial assessment of the impact of genotype-environment interactions on miRNA molecular phenotypes. Furthermore, we show that infection coincides with a marked remodeling of the genome-wide relationships between miRNA and mRNA expression levels. This observation, supplemented by experimental data using the model of miR-29a, sheds light on the role of a set of miRNAs in cellular responses to infection. Collectively, this study increases our understanding of the genetic architecture of miRNA expression in response to infection, and highlights the wide-reaching impact of altering miRNA expression on the transcriptional landscape of a cell. PMID:24482540

  3. Differential microRNA expression is associated with androgen receptor expression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yaqin; Yang, Fang; Sun, Zijia; Zhang, Wenwen; Gu, Jun; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2017-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is frequently expressed in breast cancer; however, its prognostic value remains unclear. AR expression in breast cancer has been associated with improved outcomes in estrogen receptor (ER)‑positive breast cancer compared with ER‑negative disease. Eliminating AR function in breast cancer is critically important for breast cancer progression. However, the mechanism underlying AR regulation remains poorly understood. The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) has provided important insights into the pathogenesis of hormone‑dependent cancer. To determine whether miRNAs function in the AR regulation of breast cancer, the present study performed miRNA expression profiling in AR‑positive and ‑negative breast cancer cell lines. A total of 153 miRNAs were differentially expressed in AR‑positive compared with AR‑negative breast cancer cells; 52 were upregulated and 101 were downregulated. A number of these have been extensively associated with breast cancer cell functions, including proliferation, invasion and drug‑resistance. Furthermore, through pathway enrichment analysis, signaling pathways associated with the prediction targets of the miRNAs were characterized, including the vascular endothelial growth factor and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that the expression of miRNAs may be involved in the mechanism underlying AR regulation of breast cancer, and may improve understanding of the role of AR in breast cancer.

  4. Differential microRNA expression is associated with androgen receptor expression in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yaqin; Yang, Fang; Sun, Zijia; Zhang, Wenwen; Gu, Jun; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2017-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is frequently expressed in breast cancer; however, its prognostic value remains unclear. AR expression in breast cancer has been associated with improved outcomes in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer compared with ER-negative disease. Eliminating AR function in breast cancer is critically important for breast cancer progression. However, the mechanism underlying AR regulation remains poorly understood. The study of microRNAs (miRNAs) has provided important insights into the pathogenesis of hormone-dependent cancer. To determine whether miRNAs function in the AR regulation of breast cancer, the present study performed miRNA expression profiling in AR-positive and -negative breast cancer cell lines. A total of 153 miRNAs were differentially expressed in AR-positive compared with AR-negative breast cancer cells; 52 were upregulated and 101 were downregulated. A number of these have been extensively associated with breast cancer cell functions, including proliferation, invasion and drug-resistance. Furthermore, through pathway enrichment analysis, signaling pathways associated with the prediction targets of the miRNAs were characterized, including the vascular endothelial growth factor and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that the expression of miRNAs may be involved in the mechanism underlying AR regulation of breast cancer, and may improve understanding of the role of AR in breast cancer. PMID:27959398

  5. Racial differences in microRNA and gene expression in hypertensive women

    PubMed Central

    Dluzen, Douglas F.; Noren Hooten, Nicole; Zhang, Yongqing; Kim, Yoonseo; Glover, Frank E.; Tajuddin, Salman M.; Jacob, Kimberly D.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension is an important cause of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. African Americans are disproportionately affected by hypertension, in fact the incidence, prevalence, and severity of hypertension is highest among African American (AA) women. Previous data suggests that differential gene expression influences individual susceptibility to selected diseases and we hypothesized that this phenomena may affect health disparities in hypertension. Transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AA or white, normotensive or hypertensive females identified thousands of mRNAs differentially-expressed by race and/or hypertension. Predominant gene expression differences were observed in AA hypertensive females compared to AA normotensives or white hypertensives. Since microRNAs play important roles in regulating gene expression, we profiled global microRNA expression and observed differentially-expressed microRNAs by race and/or hypertension. We identified novel mRNA-microRNA pairs potentially involved in hypertension-related pathways and differently-expressed, including MCL1/miR-20a-5p, APOL3/miR-4763-5p, PLD1/miR-4717-3p, and PLD1/miR-4709-3p. We validated gene expression levels via RT-qPCR and microRNA target validation was performed in primary endothelial cells. Altogether, we identified significant gene expression differences between AA and white female hypertensives and pinpointed novel mRNA-microRNA pairs differentially-expressed by hypertension and race. These differences may contribute to the known disparities in hypertension and may be potential targets for intervention. PMID:27779208

  6. Molecular crowding shapes gene expression in synthetic cellular nanosystems

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cheemeng; Saurabh, Saumya; Bruchez, Marcel; Schwartz, Russell; LeDuc, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Summary The integration of synthetic and cell-free biology has made tremendous strides towards creating artificial cellular nanosystems using concepts from solution-based chemistry: only the concentrations of reacting species modulate gene expression rates. However, it is known that macromolecular crowding, a key feature of natural cells, can dramatically influence biochemical kinetics by volume exclusion effects that reduce diffusion rates and enhance binding rates of macromolecules. Here, we demonstrate that macromolecular crowding can increase the robustness of gene expression through integrating synthetic cellular components of biological circuits and artificial cellular nanosystems. In addition, we reveal how ubiquitous cellular modules, including genetic components, a negative feedback loop, and the size of crowding molecules, can fine tune gene circuit response to molecular crowding. By bridging a key gap between artificial and living cells, our work has implications for efficient and robust control of both synthetic and natural cellular circuits. PMID:23851358

  7. Molecular crowding shapes gene expression in synthetic cellular nanosystems.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheemeng; Saurabh, Saumya; Bruchez, Marcel P; Schwartz, Russell; Leduc, Philip

    2013-08-01

    The integration of synthetic and cell-free biology has made tremendous strides towards creating artificial cellular nanosystems using concepts from solution-based chemistry, where only the concentrations of reacting species modulate gene expression rates. However, it is known that macromolecular crowding, a key feature in natural cells, can dramatically influence biochemical kinetics via volume exclusion effects, which reduce diffusion rates and enhance binding rates of macromolecules. Here, we demonstrate that macromolecular crowding can increase the robustness of gene expression by integrating synthetic cellular components of biological circuits and artificial cellular nanosystems. Furthermore, we reveal how ubiquitous cellular modules, including genetic components, a negative feedback loop and the size of the crowding molecules can fine-tune gene circuit response to molecular crowding. By bridging a key gap between artificial and living cells, our work has implications for efficient and robust control of both synthetic and natural cellular circuits.

  8. Expression analysis of multiple microRNAs in each patient with scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Koba, Shigeru; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kuniko; Nakayama, Wakana; Honda, Noritoshi; Makino, Katsunari; Kajihara, Ikko; Makino, Takamitsu; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we compared expression pattern of multiple microRNAs in individual patient with scleroderma with that in normal subject. Serum levels of six microRNAs (miR-7 g, miR-21, miR-29b, miR-125, miR-145 and miR-206) were evaluated using real-time PCR in 15 patients with scleroderma and 15 normal subjects. While levels of the six microRNAs were similar between the two groups, we found significant difference in the ranks between miRNAs in patients with scleroderma. Additionally, levels of let-7 g and miR-125b showed strong and significant correlation in normal subjects, but not in patients with scleroderma. Thus, miRNA expression pattern may be different in patients with scleroderma. We also found the combination of serum levels of miR-206 and miR-21 was more useful in distinguishing patients with scleroderma from normal subjects than either miR-206 or miR-21 alone. Our study is the first to demonstrate different expression profiles of multiple microRNAs in each patient with scleroderma and examine its clinical significance.

  9. [MicroRNA expression profiles in squamous cell carcinomas of the meso- and hypopharynx].

    PubMed

    Orosz, Eva; Gombos, Katalin; Révész, Péter; Kiss, István; Pytel, József; Gerlinger, Imre; Szanyi, István

    2014-07-06

    MicroRNAs play a role in carcinogenesis through their genome regulatory function. The aim of the authors was to identify and compare microRNA expression signatures of meso- and hypopharynx squamous cell cancers on the basis of the cancer field hypothesis. Using standard mapping biopsy (tumour tissue and macroscopically normal tissues obtained 1, 2 and 3 cm from margin) 13 snap frozen sample series were analysed for microRNA expression with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. MiR-221 was significantly overexpressed in mesopharynx cancers, whole miR-21, miR-143 and miR-155 showed significant overexpression in hypopharynx cancers. Using microRNA expression profiles the authors were able to distinguish peritumoural tissues according to distance from the primary tumour site. Future application of the method may prove to be useful in early detection of the altered epigenetic regulation in tissue fields representing normal phenotype. This may be helpful in cancer risk assessment and prevention.

  10. Combinatorial control of suicide gene expression by tissue-specific promoter and microRNA regulation for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunxiao; Lin, Jiakai; Hong, Michelle; Choudhury, Yukti; Balani, Poonam; Leung, Doreen; Dang, Lam H; Zhao, Ying; Zeng, Jieming; Wang, Shu

    2009-12-01

    Transcriptional targeting using a tissue-specific cellular promoter is proving to be a powerful means for restricting transgene expression in targeted tissues. In the context of cancer suicide gene therapy, this approach may lead to cytotoxic effects in both cancer and nontarget normal cells. Considering microRNA (miRNA) function in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, we have developed a viral vector platform combining cellular promoter-based transcriptional targeting with miRNA regulation for a glioma suicide gene therapy in the mouse brain. The therapy employed, in a single baculoviral vector, a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene promoter and the repeated target sequences of three miRNAs that are enriched in astrocytes but downregulated in glioblastoma cells to control the expression of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene. This resulted in significantly improved in vivo selectivity over the use of a control vector without miRNA regulation, enabling effective elimination of human glioma xenografts while producing negligible toxic effects on normal astrocytes. Thus, incorporating miRNA regulation into a transcriptional targeting vector adds an extra layer of security to prevent off-target transgene expression and should be useful for the development of gene delivery vectors with high targeting specificity for cancer therapy.

  11. MicroRNA Expression Profiling of Oligodendrocyte Differentiation from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Letzen, Brian S.; Liu, Cyndi; Thakor, Nitish V.; Gearhart, John D.; All, Angelo H.; Kerr, Candace L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cells of the oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage play a vital role in the production and maintenance of myelin, a multilamellar membrane which allows for saltatory conduction along axons. These cells may provide immense therapeutic potential for lost sensory and motor function in demyelinating conditions, such as spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and transverse myelitis. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling OL differentiation are largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are considered the “micromanagers” of gene expression with suggestive roles in cellular differentiation and maintenance. Although unique patterns of miRNA expression in various cell lineages have been characterized, this is the first report documenting their expression during oligodendrocyte maturation from human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Here, we performed a global miRNA analysis to reveal and identify characteristic patterns in the multiple stages leading to OL maturation from hES cells including those targeting factors involved in myelin production. Methodology/Principal Findings We isolated cells from 8 stages of OL differentiation. Total RNA was subjected to miRNA profiling and validations preformed using real-time qRT-PCR. A comparison of miRNAs from our cultured OLs and OL progenitors showed significant similarities with published results from equivalent cells found in the rat and mouse central nervous system. Principal component analysis revealed four main clusters of miRNA expression corresponding to early, mid, and late progenitors, and mature OLs. These results were supported by correlation analyses between adjacent stages. Interestingly, the highest differentially-expressed miRNAs demonstrated a similar pattern of expression throughout all stages of differentiation, suggesting that they potentially regulate a common target or set of targets in this process. The predicted targets of these miRNAs include those with known or suspected roles in oligodendrocyte development

  12. MicroRNAs as Mediators of Viral Immune Evasion

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Bryan R.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular microRNAs play a key role in the post-transcriptional regulation of almost every cellular gene regulatory pathway and it therefore is not surprising that viruses have found ways to subvert this process. Several viruses encode microRNAs that directly downregulate the expression of innate immune factors, including proteins involved in promoting apoptosis and recruiting immune effector cells. Viruses have also evolved the ability to downregulate or upregulate specific cellular miRNAs in order to enhance their replication. This perspective provides an overview of our current knowledge of the complex interplay of viruses with the microRNA machinery of cells. PMID:23416678

  13. MicroRNA Expression Profiling in CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis of Mus musculus

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Jeongeun; Park, Jungwook; Wang, Sihyung; Kim, Jieun; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Seo, Young-Su; Jung, Youngmi

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a major pathological feature of chronic liver diseases, including liver cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs, regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally and play important roles in various kinds of diseases; however, miRNA-associated hepatic fibrogenesis and its acting mechanisms are poorly investigated. Therefore, we performed an miRNA microarray in the fibrotic livers of Mus musculus treated with carbon-tetrachloride (CCl4) and analyzed the biological functions engaged by the target genes of differentially-expressed miRNAs through gene ontology (GO) and in-depth pathway enrichment analysis. Herein, we found that four miRNAs were upregulated and four miRNAs were downregulated more than two-fold in CCl4-treated livers compared to a control liver. Eight miRNAs were predicted to target a total of 4079 genes. GO analysis revealed that those target genes were located in various cellular compartments, including cytoplasm, nucleolus and cell surface, and they were involved in protein-protein or protein-DNA bindings, which influence the signal transductions and gene transcription. Furthermore, pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that the 72 subspecialized signaling pathways were associated with CCl4-induced liver fibrosis and were mostly classified into metabolic function-related pathways. These results suggest that CCl4 induces liver fibrosis by disrupting the metabolic pathways. In conclusion, we presented several miRNAs and their biological processes that might be important in the progression of liver fibrosis; these findings help increase the understanding of liver fibrogenesis and provide novel ideas for further studies of the role of miRNAs in liver fibrosis. PMID:27322257

  14. MicroRNA Expression Profiling in CCl₄-Induced Liver Fibrosis of Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Jeongeun; Park, Jungwook; Wang, Sihyung; Kim, Jieun; Lee, Hyun-Hee; Seo, Young-Su; Jung, Youngmi

    2016-06-17

    Liver fibrosis is a major pathological feature of chronic liver diseases, including liver cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small noncoding RNAs, regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally and play important roles in various kinds of diseases; however, miRNA-associated hepatic fibrogenesis and its acting mechanisms are poorly investigated. Therefore, we performed an miRNA microarray in the fibrotic livers of Mus musculus treated with carbon-tetrachloride (CCl₄) and analyzed the biological functions engaged by the target genes of differentially-expressed miRNAs through gene ontology (GO) and in-depth pathway enrichment analysis. Herein, we found that four miRNAs were upregulated and four miRNAs were downregulated more than two-fold in CCl₄-treated livers compared to a control liver. Eight miRNAs were predicted to target a total of 4079 genes. GO analysis revealed that those target genes were located in various cellular compartments, including cytoplasm, nucleolus and cell surface, and they were involved in protein-protein or protein-DNA bindings, which influence the signal transductions and gene transcription. Furthermore, pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that the 72 subspecialized signaling pathways were associated with CCl₄-induced liver fibrosis and were mostly classified into metabolic function-related pathways. These results suggest that CCl₄ induces liver fibrosis by disrupting the metabolic pathways. In conclusion, we presented several miRNAs and their biological processes that might be important in the progression of liver fibrosis; these findings help increase the understanding of liver fibrogenesis and provide novel ideas for further studies of the role of miRNAs in liver fibrosis.

  15. Microarray analysis of microRNA expression during axolotl limb regeneration.

    PubMed

    Holman, Edna C; Campbell, Leah J; Hines, John; Crews, Craig M

    2012-01-01

    Among vertebrates, salamanders stand out for their remarkable capacity to quickly regrow a myriad of tissues and organs after injury or amputation. The limb regeneration process in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) has been well studied for decades at the cell-tissue level. While several developmental genes are known to be reactivated during this epimorphic process, less is known about the role of microRNAs in urodele amphibian limb regeneration. Given the compelling evidence that many microRNAs tightly regulate cell fate and morphogenetic processes through development and adulthood by modulating the expression (or re-expression) of developmental genes, we investigated the possibility that microRNA levels change during limb regeneration. Using two different microarray platforms to compare the axolotl microRNA expression between mid-bud limb regenerating blastemas and non-regenerating stump tissues, we found that miR-21 was overexpressed in mid-bud blastemas compared to stump tissue. Mature A. mexicanum ("Amex") miR-21 was detected in axolotl RNA by Northern blot and differential expression of Amex-miR-21 in blastema versus stump was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. We identified the Amex Jagged1 as a putative target gene for miR-21 during salamander limb regeneration. We cloned the full length 3'UTR of Amex-Jag1, and our in vitro assays demonstrated that its single miR-21 target recognition site is functional and essential for the response of the Jagged1 gene to miR-21 levels. Our findings pave the road for advanced in vivo functional assays aimed to clarify how microRNAs such as miR-21, often linked to pathogenic cell growth, might be modulating the redeployment of developmental genes such as Jagged1 during regenerative processes.

  16. Microarray Analysis of microRNA Expression during Axolotl Limb Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Edna C.; Campbell, Leah J.; Hines, John; Crews, Craig M.

    2012-01-01

    Among vertebrates, salamanders stand out for their remarkable capacity to quickly regrow a myriad of tissues and organs after injury or amputation. The limb regeneration process in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) has been well studied for decades at the cell-tissue level. While several developmental genes are known to be reactivated during this epimorphic process, less is known about the role of microRNAs in urodele amphibian limb regeneration. Given the compelling evidence that many microRNAs tightly regulate cell fate and morphogenetic processes through development and adulthood by modulating the expression (or re-expression) of developmental genes, we investigated the possibility that microRNA levels change during limb regeneration. Using two different microarray platforms to compare the axolotl microRNA expression between mid-bud limb regenerating blastemas and non-regenerating stump tissues, we found that miR-21 was overexpressed in mid-bud blastemas compared to stump tissue. Mature A. mexicanum (“Amex”) miR-21 was detected in axolotl RNA by Northern blot and differential expression of Amex-miR-21 in blastema versus stump was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. We identified the Amex Jagged1 as a putative target gene for miR-21 during salamander limb regeneration. We cloned the full length 3′UTR of Amex-Jag1, and our in vitro assays demonstrated that its single miR-21 target recognition site is functional and essential for the response of the Jagged1 gene to miR-21 levels. Our findings pave the road for advanced in vivo functional assays aimed to clarify how microRNAs such as miR-21, often linked to pathogenic cell growth, might be modulating the redeployment of developmental genes such as Jagged1 during regenerative processes. PMID:23028429

  17. Profiling microRNA expression in Arabidopsis pollen using microRNA array and real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Carrie; Shuai, Bin

    2009-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~22-nt small non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of specific target genes in many eukaryotes. In higher plants, miRNAs are involved in developmental processes and stress responses. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants relies on pollen, the male gametophyte, to deliver sperm cells to fertilize the egg cell hidden in the embryo sac. Studies indicated that post-transcriptional processes are important for regulating gene expression during pollen function. However, we still have very limited knowledge on the involved gene regulatory mechanisms. Especially, the function of miRNAs in pollen remains unknown. Results Using miRCURY LNA array technology, we have profiled the expression of 70 known miRNAs (representing 121 miRBase IDs) in Arabidopsis mature pollen, and compared the expression of these miRNAs in pollen and young inflorescence. Thirty-seven probes on the array were identified using RNAs isolated from mature pollen, 26 of which showed significant differences in expression between mature pollen and inflorescence. Real-time PCR based on TaqMan miRNA assays confirmed the expression of 22 miRNAs in mature pollen, and identified 8 additional miRNAs that were expressed at low level in mature pollen. However, the expression of 11 miRNA that were identified on the array could not be confirmed by the Taqman miRNA assays. Analyses of transcriptome data for some miRNA target genes indicated that miRNAs are functional in pollen. Conclusion In summary, our results showed that some known miRNAs were expressed in Arabidopsis mature pollen, with most of them being low abundant. The results can be utilized in future research to study post-transcriptional gene regulation in pollen function. PMID:19591667

  18. Expression of Serum microRNAs is Altered During Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Crossland, Rachel E.; Norden, Jean; Juric, Mateja Kralj; Green, Kile; Pearce, Kim F.; Lendrem, Clare; Greinix, Hildegard T.; Dickinson, Anne M.

    2017-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is the most frequent and serious complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with a high mortality rate. A clearer understanding of the molecular pathogenesis may allow for improved therapeutic options or guide personalized prophylactic protocols. Circulating microRNAs are expressed in body fluids and have recently been associated with the etiology of aGvHD, but global expression profiling in a HSCT setting is lacking. This study profiled expression of n = 799 mature microRNAs in patient serum, using the NanoString platform, to identify microRNAs that showed altered expression at aGvHD diagnosis. Selected microRNAs (n = 10) were replicated in independent cohorts of serum samples taken at aGvHD diagnosis (n = 42) and prior to disease onset (day 14 post-HSCT, n = 47) to assess their prognostic potential. Sera from patients without aGvHD were used as controls. Differential microRNAs were investigated in silico for predicted networks and mRNA targets. Expression analysis identified 61 microRNAs that were differentially expressed at aGvHD diagnosis. miR-146a (p = 0.03), miR-30b-5p (p = 0.007), miR-374-5p (p = 0.02), miR-181a (p = 0.03), miR-20a (p = 0.03), and miR-15a (p = 0.03) were significantly verified in an independent cohort (n = 42). miR-146a (p = 0.01), miR-20a (p = 0.03), miR-18 (p = 0.03), miR-19a (p = 0.03), miR-19b (p = 0.01), and miR-451 (p = 0.01) were differentially expressed 14 days post-HSCT in patients who later developed aGvHD (n = 47). High miR-19b expression was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (p = 0.008), whereas high miR-20a and miR-30b-5p were associated with lower rates of non-relapse mortality (p = 0.05 and p = 0.008) and improved OS (p = 0.016 and p = 0.021). Pathway analysis associated the candidate microRNAs with hematological and inflammatory disease. Circulating

  19. Murine MicroRNA-214 regulates intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM1) gene expression in genital Chlamydia muridarum infection

    PubMed Central

    Arkatkar, Tanvi; Gupta, Rishein; Li, Weidang; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Wali, Shradha; Neal Guentzel, M; Chambers, James P; Christenson, Lane K; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2015-01-01

    The hallmark of chlamydial infection is the development of upper genital pathology in the form of hydrosalpinx and oviduct and/or tubal dilatation. Although molecular events leading to genital tissue presentation and cellular architectural remodelling are unclear, early-stage host immune responses are believed to contribute to these long-term sequelae. Recently, we reported the contribution of selected infection-associated microRNAs (miRs) in the generation of host immunity at early-stage infection (day 6 after intravaginal Chlamydia muridarum challenge in C57BL/6 mice). In this report, we describe the contribution of an infection-associated microRNA, i.e. miR-214, to host immunity. Chlamydia muridarum infection in the C57BL/6 mouse genital tract significantly down-regulated miR-214 while up-regulating intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) gene expression. These in vivo observations were confirmed by establishing direct regulation of ICAM-1 by miR-214 in ex vivo genital cell cultures in the presence of miR-214 mimic and inhibitor. Because, ICAM-1 contributes to recruitment of neutrophils following infection, we also demonstrated that alteration of ICAM1 by miR-214 in interleukin-17A-deficient (IL-17A−/−) mice correlated with reduction of neutrophils infiltrating genital tissue at day 6 after challenge. Additionally, these early-stage events resulted in significantly decreased genital pathology in IL-17A−/− mice compared with C57BL/6 mice. This report provides evidence for early-stage regulation of ICAM1 by microRNAs, resulting in reduction of genital pathology associated with chlamydial infection. PMID:25865776

  20. Role of microRNAs in the Regulation of α-Synuclein Expression: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Recasens, Ariadna; Perier, Celine; Sue, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that increased levels of α-synuclein might contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms underlying α-synuclein expression. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of gene expression involved in several diseases such as PD and other neurodegenerative disorders. A systematic literature search was performed here to identify microRNAs that directly or indirectly impact in α-synuclein expression/accumulation and describe its mechanism of action. A total of 27 studies were incorporated in the review article showing evidences that six microRNAs directly bind and regulate α-synuclein expression while several miRNAs impact on α-synuclein expression indirectly by targeting other genes. In turn, α-synuclein overexpression also impacts miRNAs expression, indicating the complex network between miRNAs and α-synuclein. From the current knowledge on the central role of α-synuclein in PD pathogenesis/progression, miRNAs are likely to play a crucial role at different stages of PD and might potentially be considered as new PD therapeutic approaches. PMID:27917109

  1. Stem cells and germ cells: microRNA and gene expression signatures.

    PubMed

    Dyce, Paul William; Toms, Derek; Li, Julang

    2010-04-01

    The study of primordial germ cell development in vivo is hampered by their low numbers and inaccessibility. Recent research has shown the ability of embryonic and adult stem cells to differentiate into primordial germ cells and more mature gametes and this generation of germ cells in vitro may be an attractive model for their study. One of the biggest challenges facing in vitro differentiation of stem cells into primordial germ cells is the lack of markers to clearly distinguish the two. As both cell types originate early in embryonic development they share many pluripotent markers such as OCT4, VASA, FRAGILIS, and NANOG. Genome wide microarray profiling has been used to identify transcriptome patterns unique to primordial germ cells. A more thorough analysis of the temporal and quantitative expression of a panel of genes may be more robust in distinguishing these two cell populations. MicroRNAs, short RNA molecules that have been shown to regulate translation through interactions with mRNA transcripts, have also recently come under investigation for the role they may play in pluripotency. Attempts to elucidate key microRNAs responsible for both stem cell and primordial germ cell characteristics have recently been undertaken. Unique microRNAs, either individually or as global profiles, may also help to distinguish differentiated primordial germ cells from stem cells in vitro. This review will examine gene expression and microRNA signatures in stem cells and germ cells as ways to distinguish these closely related cell types.

  2. Integrated microRNA and protein expression analysis reveals novel microRNA regulation of targets in fetal down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hua; Sui, Weiguo; Li, Wuxian; Tan, Qiupei; Chen, Jiejing; Lin, Xiuhua; Guo, Hui; Ou, Minglin; Xue, Wen; Zhang, Ruohan; Dai, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 and is associated with a number of deleterious phenotypes. To investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) in the regulation of DS, high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology and isobaric tagging for relative and absolute protein quantification analysis were utilized for simultaneous expression profiling of miRNA and protein in fetuses with DS and normal fetuses. A total of 344 miRNAs were associated with DS. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses were used to investigate the proteins found to be differentially expressed. Functionally important miRNAs were determined by identifying enriched or depleted targets in the transcript and the protein expression levels were consistent with miRNA regulation. The results indicated that GRB2, TMSB10, RUVBL2, the hsa-miR-329 and hsa-miR-27b, hsa-miR-27a targets, and MAPK1, PTPN11, ACTA2 and PTK2 or other differentially expressed proteins were connected with each other directly or indirectly. Integrative analysis of miRNAs and proteins provided an expansive view of the molecular signaling pathways in DS. PMID:27666924

  3. Integrative analysis of micro-RNA, gene expression, and survival of glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Tsung; Hsu, Thomas; Kelsey, Karl T; Lin, Chien-Ling

    2015-02-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common type of malignant brain tumor, is highly fatal. Limited understanding of its rapid progression necessitates additional approaches that integrate what is known about the genomics of this cancer. Using a discovery set (n = 348) and a validation set (n = 174) of GBM patients, we performed genome-wide analyses that integrated mRNA and micro-RNA expression data from GBM as well as associated survival information, assessing coordinated variability in each as this reflects their known mechanistic functions. Cox proportional hazards models were used for the survival analyses, and nonparametric permutation tests were performed for the micro-RNAs to investigate the association between the number of associated genes and its prognostication. We also utilized mediation analyses for micro-RNA-gene pairs to identify their mediation effects. Genome-wide analyses revealed a novel pattern: micro-RNAs related to more gene expressions are more likely to be associated with GBM survival (P = 4.8 × 10(-5)). Genome-wide mediation analyses for the 32,660 micro-RNA-gene pairs with strong association (false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.01%) identified 51 validated pairs with significant mediation effect. Of the 51 pairs, miR-223 had 16 mediation genes. These 16 mediation genes of miR-223 were also highly associated with various other micro-RNAs and mediated their prognostic effects as well. We further constructed a gene signature using the 16 genes, which was highly associated with GBM survival in both the discovery and validation sets (P = 9.8 × 10(-6)). This comprehensive study discovered mediation effects of micro-RNA to gene expression and GBM survival and provided a new analytic framework for integrative genomics.

  4. Secretin Stimulates Biliary Cell Proliferation by Regulating Expression of MicroRNA 125b and MicroRNA let7a in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Shannon; Meng, Fanyin; Han, Yuyan; Onori, Paolo; Chow, Billy K; Francis, Heather; Venter, Julie; McDaniel, Kelly; Marzioni, Marco; Invernizzi, Pietro; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Lai, Jia-ming; Huang, Li; Standeford, Holly; Alvaro, Domenico; Gaudio, Eugenio; Franchitto, Antonio; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Proliferating cholangiocytes secrete and respond to neuroendocrine hormones including secretin. We investigated whether secretin secreted by S cells and cholangiocytes stimulates biliary proliferation in mice. Methods Cholestasis was induced in secretin knockout (Sct−/−) and wild-type (control) mice by bile-duct ligation (BDL). At days 3 and 7 after BDL, control and Sct−/− mice received tail-vein injections of morpholinos against microRNA 125b or let7a. One week later, liver tissues and cholangiocytes were collected; immunohistochemical, immnoblot, luciferase reporter and real-time PCR assays were performed. Intrahepatic bile duct mass (IBDM) and proliferation were measured. Secretin secretion was measured in conditioned media from cholangiocytes and S cells, and in serum and bile. Results Secretin secretion was increased in supernatants from cholangiocytes and S cells and in serum and bile following BDL in control mice. BDL Sct−/− mice had lower IBDM, reduced proliferation, and reduced production of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and nerve growth factor (NGF) compared with BDL control. BDL and control mice given morpholinos against microRNA 125b or let7a had increased IBDM. Livers of mice given morpholinos against microRNA 125b had increased expression of VEGFA while those treated with morpholinos against microRNA let7a had increased expression of NGF. Secretin regulated VEGF and NGF expression that negatively correlated with microRNA 125b and let7a levels in liver tissue. Conclusions Following liver injury, secretin produced by cholangiocytes and S cells reduces microRNA 125b and let7a levels, resulting in upregulation of VEGF and NGF. Modulation of cholangiocyte expression of secretin could be a therapeutic approach for biliary diseases. PMID:24583060

  5. Roles of microRNAs in immunopathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease revealed by integrated analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Jun; Hu, Ying; Li, Jing; Chi, Yu-Jing; Jiang, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yu-Lan

    2017-02-01

    The integrative analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression profiles can elucidate microRNA-targeted gene function. We used this technique to elucidate insights into the immunological pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We analyzed differentially expressed microRNA and mRNA expression profiles of CD4+ T lymphocytes from the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of mice with NAFLD using microarrays and RNA sequencing. Normal mice were used as controls. The target genes of microRNAs were predicted by TargetScan. Integrative analysis showed that the mRNAs were overlapped with microRNAs. Furthermore, the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed to predict the key genes and pathways. Then, 16 microRNAs and 10 mRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Microarray analysis suggested that 170 microRNAs were significantly de-regulated in CD4+ T lymphocytes from the liver between the two groups. Eighty mRNAs corresponded with microRNA targeted genes. KEGG analysis indicated that the MAPK pathway was consistently augmented in the liver of NAFLD mice. miR-23b, let-7e, miR-128 and miR-130b possibly played significant parts in the MAPK pathways. Furthermore, between the two groups, 237 microRNAs were significantly de-regulated in CD4+ T lymphocytes from MLNs. 38 mRNAs coincided with microRNA target genes. The metabolic pathway was consistently enriched in the MLNs of NAFLD mice. miR-206-3p, miR-181a-5p, miR-29c-3p and miR-30d-5p likely play important roles in the regulation of metabolic pathways. The results of this study presented a new perspective on the application of integrative analysis to identify complex regulation means involved in the immunological pathogenesis of NAFLD.

  6. Regulation of mammalian gene expression by exogenous microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hongwei; Huang, Lei; Cao, Jingjing; Zen, Ke; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Communication between cells ensures coordination of behavior. In prokaryotes, this signaling is usually referred to as quorum sensing, while eukaryotic cells communicate through hormones. In recent years, a growing number of reports have shown that small signaling molecules produced by organisms from different kingdoms of nature can facilitate cross-talk, communication, or signal interference. This trans-kingdom communication (also termed as trans-kingdom signaling or inter-kingdom signaling) mediates symbiotic and pathogenic relationships between various organisms (e.g., microorganisms and their hosts). Strikingly, it has been discovered that microRNAs (miRNAs)--single-stranded noncoding RNAs with an average length of 22 nt--can be transmitted from one species to another, inducing posttranscriptional gene silencing in distant species, even in a cross-kingdom fashion. Here, we discuss several recent studies concerning miRNA-mediated cross-kingdom gene regulation.

  7. Identification of microRNAs expressed in two mosquito vectors, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression in a variety of organisms, including insects, vertebrates, and plants. miRNAs play important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as in the cellular response to stress and infection. To date, there are limited reports of miRNA identification in mosquitoes, insects that act as essential vectors for the transmission of many human pathogens, including flaviviruses. West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus, members of the Flaviviridae family, are primarily transmitted by Aedes and Culex mosquitoes. Using high-throughput deep sequencing, we examined the miRNA repertoire in Ae. albopictus cells and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Results We identified a total of 65 miRNAs in the Ae. albopictus C7/10 cell line and 77 miRNAs in Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, the majority of which are conserved in other insects such as Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae. The most highly expressed miRNA in both mosquito species was miR-184, a miRNA conserved from insects to vertebrates. Several previously reported Anopheles miRNAs, including miR-1890 and miR-1891, were also found in Culex and Aedes, and appear to be restricted to mosquitoes. We identified seven novel miRNAs, arising from nine different precursors, in C7/10 cells and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, two of which have predicted orthologs in An. gambiae. Several of these novel miRNAs reside within a ~350 nt long cluster present in both Aedes and Culex. miRNA expression was confirmed by primer extension analysis. To determine whether flavivirus infection affects miRNA expression, we infected female Culex mosquitoes with WNV. Two miRNAs, miR-92 and miR-989, showed significant changes in expression levels following WNV infection. Conclusions Aedes and Culex mosquitoes are important flavivirus vectors. Recent advances in both mosquito genomics and high-throughput sequencing technologies enabled

  8. MicroRNA function in mast cell biology: protocols to characterize and modulate microRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Maltby, Steven; Plank, Maximilian; Ptaschinski, Catherine; Mattes, Joerg; Foster, Paul S

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that can modulate mRNA levels through RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-mediated degradation. Recognition of target mRNAs occurs through imperfect base pairing between an miRNA and its target, meaning that each miRNA can target a number of different mRNAs to modulate gene expression. miRNAs have been proposed as novel therapeutic targets and many studies are aimed at characterizing miRNA expression patterns and functions within a range of cell types. To date, limited research has focused on the function of miRNAs specifically in mast cells; however, this is an emerging field. In this chapter, we will briefly overview miRNA synthesis and function and the current understanding of miRNAs in hematopoietic development and immune function, emphasizing studies related to mast cell biology. The chapter will conclude with fundamental techniques used in miRNA studies, including RNA isolation, real-time PCR and microarray approaches for quantification of miRNA expression levels, and antagomir design to interfere with miRNA function.

  9. KSHV MicroRNAs Mediate Cellular Transformation and Tumorigenesis by Redundantly Targeting Cell Growth and Survival Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Rosalie; Zhu, Ying; Huang, Yufei; Cui, Xiaodong; Jones, Tiffany; Bedolla, Roble; Lei, Xiufen; Bai, Zhiqiang; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is causally linked to several human cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease, malignancies commonly found in HIV-infected patients. While KSHV encodes diverse functional products, its mechanism of oncogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we determined the roles KSHV microRNAs (miRs) in cellular transformation and tumorigenesis using a recently developed KSHV-induced cellular transformation system of primary rat mesenchymal precursor cells. A mutant with a cluster of 10 precursor miRs (pre-miRs) deleted failed to transform primary cells, and instead, caused cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Remarkably, the oncogenicity of the mutant virus was fully restored by genetic complementation with the miR cluster or several individual pre-miRs, which rescued cell cycle progression and inhibited apoptosis in part by redundantly targeting IκBα and the NF-κB pathway. Genomic analysis identified common targets of KSHV miRs in diverse pathways with several cancer-related pathways preferentially targeted. These works define for the first time an essential viral determinant for KSHV-induced oncogenesis and identify NF-κB as a critical pathway targeted by the viral miRs. Our results illustrate a common theme of shared functions with hierarchical order among the KSHV miRs. PMID:24385912

  10. Sexually dimorphic effects of gestational endocrine-disrupting chemicals on microRNA expression in the developing rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Topper, Viktoria Y; Walker, Deena M; Gore, Andrea C

    2015-10-15

    This study examined developmental changes and sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic microRNAs, and whether gestational exposures to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) altered their expression patterns. Pregnant rat dams were treated on gestational days 16 and 18 with vehicle, estradiol benzoate, or a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Male and female offspring were euthanized on postnatal days (P) 15, 30, 45, or 90, and microRNA and mRNA targets were quantified in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) and ventromedial nucleus (VMN) of the hypothalamus. MicroRNAs showed robust developmental changes in both regions, and were sexually dimorphic in the MPN, but not VMN. Importantly, microRNAs in females were up-regulated by EDCs at P30, and down-regulated in males at P90. Few changes in mRNAs were found. Thus, hypothalamic microRNAs are sensitive to prenatal EDC treatment in a sex-, developmental age-, and brain region-specific manner.

  11. Impaired expression of DICER and some microRNAs in HBZ expressing cells from acute adult T-cell leukemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Gazon, Hélène; Belrose, Gildas; Terol, Marie; Meniane, Jean-Come; Mesnard, Jean-Michel; Césaire, Raymond; Peloponese, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Global dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of non-coding RNAs that regulate genes expression, is a common feature of human tumors. Profiling of cellular miRNAs on Adult T cell Leukemia (ATL) cells by Yamagishi et al. showed a strong decrease in expression for 96.7% of cellular miRNAs in ATL cells. However, the mechanisms that regulate the expression of miRNAs in ATL cells are still largely unknown. In this study, we compared the expression of 12 miRs previously described for being overexpress by Tax and the expression of several key components of the miRNAs biogenesis pathways in different HBZ expressing cell lines as well as in primary CD4 (+) cells from acute ATL patients. We showed that the expression of miRNAs and Dicer1 were downregulated in cells lines expressing HBZ as well as in fresh CD4 (+) cells from acute ATL patients. Using qRT-PCR, western blotting analysis and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, we showed that dicer transcription was regulated by c-Jun and JunD, two AP-1 transcription factors. We also demonstrated that HBZ affects the expression of Dicer by removing JunD from the proximal promoter. Furthermore, we showed that at therapeutic concentration of 1mM, Valproate (VPA) an HDAC inhibitors often used in cancer treatment, rescue Dicer expression and miRNAs maturation. These results might offer a rationale for clinical studies of new combined therapy in an effort to improve the outcome of patients with acute ATL. PMID:26849145

  12. High-Salt Intake Suppressed MicroRNA-133a Expression in Dahl SS Rat Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tong-Shuai; Zhang, Jie; Mu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Ren, Ke-Yu; Wang, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Salt-sensitive individuals show earlier and more serious cardiac damage than nonsalt-sensitive ones. Some studies have suggested that microRNA-133a could reduce cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. The current study aims to investigate the different functions of high-salt intake on salt-sensitive (SS) rats and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and the involvement of microRNA-133a in these roles. After high-salt intervention, the left ventricular mass (LVW) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of the salt-sensitive high salt (SHS) group were obviously higher than those of the salt-sensitive low salt (SLS) group. However, the difference between the Sprague-Dawley high salt (DHS) group and the Sprague-Dawley low salt (DLS) group was not significant. Compared with SLS group, collagen I and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the heart of SHS group were significantly higher, whereas no statistical difference was observed between the DHS group and the DLS group. Compared with low-salt diet, microRNA-133a in the heart of both strains were significantly decreased, but that in the SHS group decreased more significantly. These results suggest that high salt intervention could down-regulate the expression of myocardial microRNA-133a, which may be one of the mechanisms involved in myocardial fibrosis in salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:24937684

  13. Centenarians, but not octogenarians, up-regulate the expression of microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Serna, Eva; Gambini, Juan; Borras, Consuelo; Abdelaziz, Kheira M; Mohammed, Kheira; Belenguer, Angel; Sanchis, Paula; Avellana, Juan A; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Viña, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Centenarians exhibit extreme longevity and a remarkable compression of morbidity. They have a unique capacity to maintain homeostatic mechanisms. Since small non-coding RNAs (including microRNAs) are implicated in the regulation of gene expression, we hypothesised that longevity of centenarians may reflect alterations in small non-coding RNA expression. We report the first comparison of microRNAs expression profiles in mononuclear cells from centenarians, octogenarians and young individuals resident near Valencia, Spain. Principal Component Analysis of the expression of 15,644 mature microRNAs and, 2,334 snoRNAs and scaRNAs in centenarians revealed a significant overlap with profiles in young individuals but not with octogenarians and a significant up-regulation of 7 small non-coding RNAs in centenarians compared to young persons and notably 102 small non-coding RNAs when compared with octogenarians. We suggest that the small non-coding RNAs signature in centenarians may provide insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms endowing centenarians with extreme longevity.

  14. Centenarians, but not octogenarians, up-regulate the expression of microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Serna, Eva; Gambini, Juan; Borras, Consuelo; Mohammed, Kheira; Belenguer, Angel; Sanchis, Paula; Avellana, Juan A.; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Viña, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Centenarians exhibit extreme longevity and a remarkable compression of morbidity. They have a unique capacity to maintain homeostatic mechanisms. Since small non-coding RNAs (including microRNAs) are implicated in the regulation of gene expression, we hypothesised that longevity of centenarians may reflect alterations in small non-coding RNA expression. We report the first comparison of microRNAs expression profiles in mononuclear cells from centenarians, octogenarians and young individuals resident near Valencia, Spain. Principal Component Analysis of the expression of 15,644 mature microRNAs and, 2,334 snoRNAs and scaRNAs in centenarians revealed a significant overlap with profiles in young individuals but not with octogenarians and a significant up-regulation of 7 small non-coding RNAs in centenarians compared to young persons and notably 102 small non-coding RNAs when compared with octogenarians. We suggest that the small non-coding RNAs signature in centenarians may provide insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms endowing centenarians with extreme longevity. PMID:23233880

  15. Expression of microRNA-122 contributes to apoptosis in H9C2 myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Fang; Yang, Deye; Dong, Fengquan; Shi, Xiangxiang; Wang, Hongyu; Zhou, Xi; Wang, Suyun; Dai, Shengchuan

    2012-01-01

    The microRNAs (miRNAs) can post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and heart development. The Pax-8 gene knockout mice have apparent heart abnormalities. This study investigated the role of miRNAs in regulation of cardiac apoptosis and development in the knockout mice. MicroRNA microarrays demonstrated differential expression of microRNAs between Pax-8−/− and Pax-8+/− mice, confirmed by real-time PCR. The miR-122 was up-regulated by 1.92 folds in Pax-8−/− mice. There were ventricular septum defects in Pax-8−/− mice, and increased numbers of apoptotic cells in the left ventricular wall and interventricular septum in Pax-8−/− mice. In H9C2 myocytes, treatment with miR-122 mimics or miR-122 inhibitor affects the expression of CCK-8 and activity of Caspase-3. The miR-122 is up-regulated in the myocytes of Pax-8−/− mice and may participate in the apoptotic gene expression and pathogenesis of heart development defect. PMID:22453009

  16. Altered microRNA expression patterns in irradiated hematopoietic tissues suggest a sex-specific protective mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Zemp, Franz J.; Koturbash, Igor; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2008-12-05

    To investigate involvement of miRNAs in radiation responses we used microRNAome profiling to analyze the sex-specific response of radiation sensitive hematopoietic lymphoid tissues. We show that radiation exposure resulted in a significant and sex-specific deregulation of microRNA expression in murine spleen and thymus tissues. Among the regulated miRNAs, we found that changes in expression of miR-34a and miR-7 may be involved in important protective mechanisms counteracting radiation cytotoxicity. We observed a significant increase in the expression of tumor-suppressor miR-34a, paralleled by a decrease in the expression of its target oncogenes NOTCH1, MYC, E2F3 and cyclin D1. Additionally, we show that miR-7 targets the lymphoid-specific helicase LSH, a pivotal regulator of DNA methylation and genome stability. While miR-7 was significantly down-regulated LSH was significantly up-regulated. These cellular changes may constitute an attempt to counteract radiation-induced hypomethylation. Tissue specificity of miRNA responses and possible regulation of miRNA expression upon irradiation are discussed.

  17. MicroRNA-378 limits activation of hepatic stellate cells and liver fibrosis by suppressing Gli3 expression

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Jeongeun; Wang, Sihyung; Kim, Jieun; Rao, Kummara Madhusudana; Park, Soo Yong; Chung, Ildoo; Ha, Chang-Sik; Kim, Sang-Woo; Yun, Yang H.; Jung, Youngmi

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signalling regulates hepatic fibrogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mediate various cellular processes; however, their role in liver fibrosis is unclear. Here we investigate regulation of miRNAs in chronically damaged fibrotic liver. MiRNA profiling shows that expression of miR-378 family members (miR-378a-3p, miR-378b and miR-378d) declines in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated compared with corn-oil-treated mice. Overexpression of miR-378a-3p, directly targeting Gli3 in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), reduces expression of Gli3 and profibrotic genes but induces gfap, the inactivation marker of HSCs, in CCl4-treated liver. Smo blocks transcriptional expression of miR-378a-3p by activating the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The hepatic level of miR-378a-3p is inversely correlated with the expression of Gli3 in tumour and non-tumour tissues in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results demonstrate that miR-378a-3p suppresses activation of HSCs by targeting Gli3 and its expression is regulated by Smo-dependent NF-κB signalling, suggesting miR-378a-3p has therapeutic potential for liver fibrosis. PMID:27001906

  18. Expression of MicroRNA-146 in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Miyaki, Shigeru; Okubo, Atsuko; Hashimoto, Megumi; Nishida, Keiichiro; Ochi, Mitsuo; Asahara, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Objective Several microRNA, which are ~22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs, exhibit tissue-specific or developmental stage–specific expression patterns and are associated with human diseases. The objective of this study was to identify the expression pattern of microRNA-146 (miR-146) in synovial tissue from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods The expression of miR-146 in synovial tissue from 5 patients with RA, 5 patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and 1 normal subject was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry of tissue sections. Induction of miR-146 following stimulation with tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) of cultures of human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs) was examined by quantitative PCR and RT-PCR. Results Mature miR-146a and primary miR-146a/b were highly expressed in RA synovial tissue, which also expressed TNFα, but the 2 microRNA were less highly expressed in OA and normal synovial tissue. In situ hybridization showed primary miR-146a expression in cells of the superficial and sublining layers in synovial tissue from RA patients. Cells positive for miR-146a were primarily CD68+ macrophages, but included several CD3+ T cell subsets and CD79a+ B cells. Expression of miR-146a/b was markedly up-regulated in RASFs after stimulation with TNFα and IL-1β. Conclusion This study shows that miR-146 is expressed in RA synovial tissue and that its expression is induced by stimulation with TNFα and IL-1β. Further studies are required to elucidate the function of miR-146 in these tissues. PMID:18438844

  19. FANTOM4 EdgeExpressDB: an integrated database of promoters, genes, microRNAs, expression dynamics and regulatory interactions

    PubMed Central

    Severin, Jessica; Waterhouse, Andrew M; Kawaji, Hideya; Lassmann, Timo; van Nimwegen, Erik; Balwierz, Piotr J; de Hoon, Michiel JL; Hume, David A; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Suzuki, Harukazu; Daub, Carsten O; Forrest, Alistair RR

    2009-01-01

    EdgeExpressDB is a novel database and set of interfaces for interpreting biological networks and comparing large high-throughput expression datasets that requires minimal development for new data types and search patterns. The FANTOM4 EdgeExpress database summarizes gene expression patterns in the context of alternative promoter structures and regulatory transcription factors and microRNAs using intuitive gene-centric and sub-network views. This is an important resource for gene regulation in acute myeloid leukemia, monocyte/macrophage differentiation and human transcriptional networks. PMID:19374773

  20. Modulation of microRNAs expression in hematopoietic stem cells treated with sodium butyrate in inducing fetal hemoglobin expression.

    PubMed

    Tayebi, Behnoosh; Abrishami, Fatemeh; Alizadeh, Shaban; Minayi, Neda; Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Soleimani, Masoud; Dehghanifard, Ali; Atwan, Hossein; Ajami, Monireh; Ajami, Mansoureh

    2017-02-01

    Context Inherited hemoglobin diseases are the most common single-gene disorders. Induction of fetal hemoglobin in beta hemoglobin disorders compensate for abnormal chain and ameliorate the clinical complications. Sodium butyrate is used conventionally for fetal hemoglobin induction; it can be replaced by safer therapeutic tools like microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that control number of epigenetic mechanisms. Objective In this study, we compared the changes in the microRNAs of differentiated erythroid cells between control and sodium butyrate treated groups. The objective is to find significant association between these changes and gamma chain up regulation. Materials and methods First, CD133(+ ) hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from cord blood by magnetic cell sorting (MACS) technique. After proliferation, the cells were differentiated to erythroid lineage in culture medium by EPO, SCF, and IL3. Meanwhile, the test group was treated with sodium butyrate. Then, gamma chain upregulation was verified by qPCR technique. Finally, microRNA profiling was performed through microarray assay and some of them confirmed by qPCR. Result Results demonstrated that gamma chain was 5.9-fold upregulated in the treated group. Significant changes were observed at 76 microRNAs, in which 20 were up-regulated and 56 were down-regulated. Discussion Five of these microRNAs including U101, hsa-miR-4726-5p, hsa-miR7109 5p, hsa-miR3663, and hsa-miR940 had significant changes in expression and volume. Conclusion In conclusion, it can be assumed that sodium butyrate can up-regulate gamma chain gene, and change miRNAs expression. These results can be profitable in future studies to find therapeutic goal suitable for such disorders.

  1. Epigenetic Regulation of microRNA Expression: Targeting the Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Phenotype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    CTCE-9908 inhibits breast cancer metastasis to lung and bone, Oncol. Rep. 21 (2009) 761–767. [36] N.T. Holm, F. Abreo, L.W. Johnson, B.D. Li, Q.D. Chu...Kawai, T. Inoue, H. Ito, M. Oshimura, T. Ochiya, MicroRNA-143 regulates human osteosarcoma metastasis by regulating matrix metalloprotease-13...cancers with increased potential for metastasis and recurrence (2). Basal-like breast carcinomas express genes associated with an EMT phenotype and

  2. Effects of simulated-microgravity on zebrafish embryonic development and microRNA expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, Xiaoming; Sun, Yeqing; Zhang, Meng; Li, Hui

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity is a constant physical factor astronauts must meet during space flight. Therefore, the mechanism of microgravity-induced biological effects is one of the most important issues in space biological studies. In this research, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos at different development stages were exposed to simulated microgravity, respectively, using a rotary cell culture system (RCCS) designed by NASA. Biological effects of simulated microgravity on zebrafish embryos were investigated at the phenotypic and microRNA expression levels. Malformation rate and mortality rate were found increased after simulated microgravity exposure. Body length and heart rate were also increased during microgravity exposure and after a shot period of gravity recovery, but both returned to normal level after 10 days and 7 days of gravity recovery, respectively. Additionally, significant changes in microRNA expression profiles of zebrafish embryos were observed, depending on the development stages of embyos exposed to simulated microgravity and the exposure time. All together, nine miRNAs showed significant changes after three different microgravity exposures (8-72hpf, 24-72hpf and 24-48hpf). Four miRNAs, dre-miR-738, dre-miR-133a, dre-miR-133b and dre-miR-22a, were up-regulated. Two miRNAs, dre-miR-1 and dre-miR-16a, were down-regulated. The other three miRNAs, dre-miR-204, dre-miR-9* and dre-miR-429, were found up-regulated when microgravity exposures ended at 72hpf, but down-regulated when microgravity exposures ended at 48hpf. Above results demonstrated microRNA expression of zebrafish embryos could be induced by both embryonic development stage and simulated microgravity. Key Words: Danio rerio; Simulated-microgravity; embryonic devlopment; microRNA expression

  3. MicroRNA-122: a novel hepatocyte-enriched in vitro marker of drug-induced cellular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kia, Richard; Kelly, Lorna; Sison-Young, Rowena L C; Zhang, Fang; Pridgeon, Chris S; Heslop, James A; Metcalfe, Pete; Kitteringham, Neil R; Baxter, Melissa; Harrison, Sean; Hanley, Neil A; Burke, Zoë D; Storm, Mike P; Welham, Melanie J; Tosh, David; Küppers-Munther, Barbara; Edsbagge, Josefina; Starkey Lewis, Philip J; Bonner, Frank; Harpur, Ernie; Sidaway, James; Bowes, Joanne; Fenwick, Stephen W; Malik, Hassan; Goldring, Chris E P; Park, B Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Emerging hepatic models for the study of drug-induced toxicity include pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) and complex hepatocyte-non-parenchymal cellular coculture to mimic the complex multicellular interactions that recapitulate the niche environment in the human liver. However, a specific marker of hepatocyte perturbation, required to discriminate hepatocyte damage from non-specific cellular toxicity contributed by non-hepatocyte cell types or immature differentiated cells is currently lacking, as the cytotoxicity assays routinely used in in vitro toxicology research depend on intracellular molecules which are ubiquitously present in all eukaryotic cell types. In this study, we demonstrate that microRNA-122 (miR-122) detection in cell culture media can be used as a hepatocyte-enriched in vitro marker of drug-induced toxicity in homogeneous cultures of hepatic cells, and a cell-specific marker of toxicity of hepatic cells in heterogeneous cultures such as HLCs generated from various differentiation protocols and pluripotent stem cell lines, where conventional cytotoxicity assays using generic cellular markers may not be appropriate. We show that the sensitivity of the miR-122 cytotoxicity assay is similar to conventional assays that measure lactate dehydrogenase activity and intracellular adenosine triphosphate when applied in hepatic models with high levels of intracellular miR-122, and can be multiplexed with other assays. MiR-122 as a biomarker also has the potential to bridge results in in vitro experiments to in vivo animal models and human samples using the same assay, and to link findings from clinical studies in determining the relevance of in vitro models being developed for the study of drug-induced liver injury.

  4. MicroRNA-122: A Novel Hepatocyte-Enriched in vitro Marker of Drug-Induced Cellular Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kia, Richard; Kelly, Lorna; Sison-Young, Rowena L. C.; Zhang, Fang; Pridgeon, Chris S.; Heslop, James A.; Metcalfe, Pete; Kitteringham, Neil R.; Baxter, Melissa; Harrison, Sean; Hanley, Neil A.; Burke, Zoë D.; Storm, Mike P.; Welham, Melanie J.; Tosh, David; Küppers-Munther, Barbara; Edsbagge, Josefina; Starkey Lewis, Philip J.; Bonner, Frank; Harpur, Ernie; Sidaway, James; Bowes, Joanne; Fenwick, Stephen W.; Malik, Hassan; Goldring, Chris E. P.; Park, B. Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Emerging hepatic models for the study of drug-induced toxicity include pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) and complex hepatocyte-non-parenchymal cellular coculture to mimic the complex multicellular interactions that recapitulate the niche environment in the human liver. However, a specific marker of hepatocyte perturbation, required to discriminate hepatocyte damage from non-specific cellular toxicity contributed by non-hepatocyte cell types or immature differentiated cells is currently lacking, as the cytotoxicity assays routinely used in in vitro toxicology research depend on intracellular molecules which are ubiquitously present in all eukaryotic cell types. In this study, we demonstrate that microRNA-122 (miR-122) detection in cell culture media can be used as a hepatocyte-enriched in vitro marker of drug-induced toxicity in homogeneous cultures of hepatic cells, and a cell-specific marker of toxicity of hepatic cells in heterogeneous cultures such as HLCs generated from various differentiation protocols and pluripotent stem cell lines, where conventional cytotoxicity assays using generic cellular markers may not be appropriate. We show that the sensitivity of the miR-122 cytotoxicity assay is similar to conventional assays that measure lactate dehydrogenase activity and intracellular adenosine triphosphate when applied in hepatic models with high levels of intracellular miR-122, and can be multiplexed with other assays. MiR-122 as a biomarker also has the potential to bridge results in in vitro experiments to in vivo animal models and human samples using the same assay, and to link findings from clinical studies in determining the relevance of in vitro models being developed for the study of drug-induced liver injury. PMID:25527335

  5. Focus on RNA isolation: obtaining RNA for microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling analyses of neural tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wang-Xia; Rajeev, Bernard W.; Baldwin, Donald A.; Isett, R. Benjamin; Ren, Na; Stromberg, Arnold; Nelson, Peter T.

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are present in all known plant and animal tissues and appear to be somewhat concentrated in the mammalian nervous system. Many different miRNA expression profiling platforms have been described. However, relatively little research has been published to establish the importance of ‘upstream’ variables in RNA isolation for neural miRNA expression profiling. We tested whether apparent changes in miRNA expression profiles may be associated with tissue processing, RNA isolation techniques, or different cell types in the sample. RNA isolation was performed on a single brain sample using eight different RNA isolation methods, and results were correlated using a conventional miRNA microarray and then cross-referenced to Northern blots. Differing results were seen between samples obtained using different RNA isolation techniques and between microarray and Northern blot results. Another complication of miRNA microarrays is tissue-level heterogeneity of cellular composition. To investigate this phenomenon, miRNA expression profiles were determined and compared between highly-purified primary cerebral cortical cell preparations of rat primary E15–E18 neurons versus rat primary E15–E18 astrocytes. Finally, to assess the importance of dissecting human brain gray matter from subjacent white matter in cerebral cortical studies, miRNA expression profiles were compared between gray matter and immediately contiguous white matter. The results suggest that for microarray studies, cellular composition is important, and dissecting white matter from gray matter improves the specificity of the results. Based on these data, recommendations for miRNA expression profiling in neural tissues, and considerations worthy of further study, are discussed. PMID:18316046

  6. Global microRNA expression profiles in insulin target tissues in a spontaneous rat model of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, B. M.; Lockstone, H. E.; Taylor, J. M.; Ria, M.; Barrett, A.; Collins, S.; Kaisaki, P.; Argoud, K.; Fernandez, C.; Travers, M. E.; Grew, J. P.; Randall, J. C.; Gloyn, A. L.; Gauguier, D.; McCarthy, M. I.

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis MicroRNAs regulate a broad range of biological mechanisms. To investigate the relationship between microRNA expression and type 2 diabetes, we compared global microRNA expression in insulin target tissues from three inbred rat strains that differ in diabetes susceptibility. Methods Using microarrays, we measured the expression of 283 microRNAs in adipose, liver and muscle tissue from hyperglycaemic (Goto–Kakizaki), intermediate glycaemic (Wistar Kyoto) and normoglycaemic (Brown Norway) rats (n = 5 for each strain). Expression was compared across strains and validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, microRNA expression variation in adipose tissue was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to hyperglycaemic conditions. Results We found 29 significantly differentiated microRNAs (padjusted < 0.05): nine in adipose tissue, 18 in liver and two in muscle. Of these, five microRNAs had expression patterns that correlated with the strain-specific glycaemic phenotype. MiR-222 (padjusted = 0.0005) and miR-27a (padjusted = 0.006) were upregulated in adipose tissue; miR-195 (padjusted = 0.006) and miR-103 (padjusted = 0.04) were upregulated in liver; and miR-10b (padjusted = 0.004) was downregulated in muscle. Exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to increased glucose concentration upregulated the expression of miR-222 (p = 0.008), miR-27a (p = 0.02) and the previously reported miR-29a (p = 0.02). Predicted target genes of these differentially expressed microRNAs are involved in pathways relevant to type 2 diabetes. Conclusion The expression patterns of miR-222, miR-27a, miR-195, miR-103 and miR-10b varied with hyperglycaemia, suggesting a role for these microRNAs in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, as modelled by the Gyoto–Kakizaki rat. We observed similar patterns of expression of miR-222, miR-27a and miR-29a in adipocytes as a response to increased glucose levels, which supports our hypothesis that altered

  7. MicroRNA miR-196a controls melanoma-associated genes by regulating HOX-C8 expression.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Daniel W; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin

    2011-09-01

    Resulting from a screening for microRNAs differentially regulated in melanocytes and melanoma cells, we found expression of miR-196a to be significantly down-regulated in malignant melanoma cell lines and tissue samples. As it was stated before that miR-196a might negatively regulate expression of the transcription factor HOX-C8, we analyzed HOX-C8 levels in NHEMs and melanoma cells and found a strong up-regulation of HOX-C8 expression in malignant melanoma cell lines and tissue samples compared with melanocytes. Several HOX-C8 target genes are known to be involved in processes such as oncogenesis, cell adhesion, proliferation and apoptosis. We, therefore, aimed to further investigate a potential "miR-196a → HOX-C8 → HOX-C8 target gene" relationship. Stable transfection with an miR-196a expression plasmid led to strong down-regulation of HOX-C8 expression in melanoma cells. Luciferase assays using reporter plasmids containing different fragments of the HOX-C8 3'UTR confirmed direct interactions of miR-196a with the HOX-C8 mRNA. Focusing on target genes of HOX-C8, which might play an important role in melanomagenesis, we identified three genes (cadherin-11, calponin-1 and osteopontin) that are up- or down-regulated, respectively, by altered HOX-C8 expression in miR-196a expressing cell clones and are thus indirectly regulated by this microRNA. As those target genes are closely related to important cellular mechanisms such as cell adhesion, cytoskeleton remodeling, tumor formation and invasive behavior of tumor cells, altered miR-196a expression exerts strong effects contributing to tumor cell transformation and formation and progression of malignant melanoma. This fact is underlined by a strongly reduced invasive behavior of melanoma cells re-expressing miR-196a in vitro.

  8. Relationships of microRNA expression in mouse lung with age and exposure to cigarette smoke and light

    PubMed Central

    Izzotti, Alberto; Calin, George A.; Steele, Vernon E.; Croce, Carlo M.; De Flora, Silvio

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs provide a formidable tool not only in cancer research but also to investigate physiological mechanisms and to assess the effect of environmental exposures in healthy tissues. Collectively, cigarette smoke and sunlight have been estimated to account for 40% of all human cancers, and not only smoke but also, surprisingly, UV light induced genomic and postgenomic alterations in mouse lung. Here we evaluated by microarray the expression of 484 microRNAs in the lungs of CD-1 mice, including newborns, postweanling males and females, and their dams, either untreated or exposed to environmental cigarette smoke and/or UV-containing light. The results obtained highlighted age-related variations in microRNA profiles, especially during the weanling period, due to perinatal stress and postnatal maturation of the lung. UV light alone did not affect pulmonary microRNAs, whereas smoke produced dramatic changes, mostly in the sense of down-regulation, reflecting both adaptive mechanisms and activation of pathways involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases. Both gender and age affected smoke-related microRNA dysregulation in mice. The data presented provide supporting evidence that microRNAs play a fundamental role in both physiological and pathological changes occurring in mouse lung.—Izzotti, A., Calin, G. A., Vernon E. St., Croce, G. M., De Flora, S. Relationships of microRNA expression in mouse lung with age and exposure to cigarette smoke and light. PMID:19465468

  9. The different morphologies of urachal adenocarcinoma do not discriminate genomically by micro-RNA expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Bissonnette, Mei Lin Z; Kocherginsky, Masha; Tretiakova, Maria; Jimenez, Rafael E; Barkan, Güliz A; Mehta, Vikas; Sirintrapun, Sahussapont Joseph; Steinberg, Gary D; White, Kevin P; Stricker, Thomas; Paner, Gladell P

    2013-08-01

    Urachal adenocarcinoma has several morphologic presentations that include mucinous, enteric, signet ring cell, and not otherwise specified. Mixtures of these morphologies can occur, and percentage cut-offs are used for classification. The clinical significance of these morphologic types is currently unknown, and genetic analysis that could elucidate possible intertumoral differences has not been performed. In this study, we analyzed the micro-RNA expression profiles of 12 urachal adenocarcinomas classified using strict morphologic criteria (3 pure enteric, 3 pure mucinous, 2 signet ring cell [both 90% signet ring cell], 2 pure not otherwise specified, and 2 mixed cell types). Of 598 unique human micro-RNAs, 333 were expressed in more than 50% of the samples. Hierarchal clustering showed no distinct patterns in the genetic profiles of the morphologic types. However, there were individual micro-RNA differences when the different types were compared individually or grouped together, either by intracellular mucin production or by grouping enteric and signet ring cell together. In the later group, 13 messenger RNA species were differentially expressed (adjusted P value of ≤.05). However, these micro-RNA differences were small, suggesting more biologic similarity than differences among these entities. Thus, this study suggests that the different morphological subtypes may represent patterns of differentiation or a continuum of a single biological tumor type rather than several distinct types that arose from the urachal remnant epithelium. This finding, if further validated in larger studies, may have implications in future clinical therapeutic trials for urachal adenocarcinoma with regard to patient grouping and choice of therapy.

  10. Transcriptome-wide analysis of compression-induced microRNA expression alteration in breast cancer for mining therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Baek Gil; Kang, Suki; Han, Hyun Ho; Lee, Joo Hyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Sung Hwan; Cho, Nam Hoon

    2016-05-10

    Tumor growth-generated mechanical compression may increase or decrease expression of microRNAs, leading to tumor progression. However, little is known about whether mechanical compression induces aberrant expression of microRNAs in cancer and stromal cells. To investigate the relationship between compression and microRNA expression, microRNA array analysis was performed with breast cancer cell lines and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) exposed to different compressive conditions. In our study, mechanical compression induced alteration of microRNA expression level in breast cancer cells and CAFs. The alteration was greater in the breast cancer cells than CAFs. Mechanical compression mainly induced upregulation of microRNAs rather than downregulation. In a parallel mRNA array analysis, more than 25% of downregulated target genes were functionally involved in tumor suppression (apoptosis, cell adhesion, and cell cycle arrest), whereas generally less than 15% were associated with tumor progression (epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis). Of all cells examined, MDA-MB-231 cells showed the largest number of compression-upregulated microRNAs. miR-4769-5p and miR-4446-3p were upregulated by compression in both MDA-MB-231 cells and CAFs. Our results suggest that mechanical compression induces changes in microRNA expression level, which contribute to tumor progression. In addition, miR-4769-5p and miR-4446-3p may be potential therapeutic targets for incurable cancers, such as triple negative breast cancer, in that this would reduce or prevent downregulation of tumor-suppressing genes in both the tumor and its microenvironment simultaneously.

  11. Transcriptome-wide analysis of compression-induced microRNA expression alteration in breast cancer for mining therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Baek Gil; Kang, Suki; Han, Hyun Ho; Lee, Joo Hyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Sung Hwan; Cho, Nam Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Tumor growth–generated mechanical compression may increase or decrease expression of microRNAs, leading to tumor progression. However, little is known about whether mechanical compression induces aberrant expression of microRNAs in cancer and stromal cells. To investigate the relationship between compression and microRNA expression, microRNA array analysis was performed with breast cancer cell lines and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) exposed to different compressive conditions. In our study, mechanical compression induced alteration of microRNA expression level in breast cancer cells and CAFs. The alteration was greater in the breast cancer cells than CAFs. Mechanical compression mainly induced upregulation of microRNAs rather than downregulation. In a parallel mRNA array analysis, more than 25% of downregulated target genes were functionally involved in tumor suppression (apoptosis, cell adhesion, and cell cycle arrest), whereas generally less than 15% were associated with tumor progression (epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis). Of all cells examined, MDA-MB-231 cells showed the largest number of compression-upregulated microRNAs. miR-4769-5p and miR-4446-3p were upregulated by compression in both MDA-MB-231 cells and CAFs. Our results suggest that mechanical compression induces changes in microRNA expression level, which contribute to tumor progression. In addition, miR-4769-5p and miR-4446-3p may be potential therapeutic targets for incurable cancers, such as triple negative breast cancer, in that this would reduce or prevent downregulation of tumor-suppressing genes in both the tumor and its microenvironment simultaneously. PMID:27027350

  12. Regulation of hepatic microRNA expression by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hong; Lei, Xiaohong; Liu, Jerry; Klaassen, Curtis

    2017-01-01

    AIM To uncover the role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) in regulating hepatic expression of microRNAs. METHODS Microarray and real-time PCR were used to determine hepatic expression of microRNAs in young-adult mice lacking Hnf4α expression in liver (Hnf4α-LivKO). Integrative genomics viewer software was used to analyze the public chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing datasets for DNA-binding of HNF4α, RNA polymerase-II, and histone modifications to loci of microRNAs in mouse liver and human hepatoma cells. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was conducted to determine effects of HNF4α on the promoters of mouse and human microRNAs as well as effects of microRNAs on the untranslated regions (3’UTR) of two genes in human hepatoma cells. RESULTS Microarray data indicated that most microRNAs remained unaltered by Hnf4α deficiency in Hnf4α-LivKO mice. However, certain liver-predominant microRNAs were down-regulated similarly in young-adult male and female Hnf4α-LivKO mice. The down-regulation of miR-101, miR-192, miR-193a, miR-194, miR-215, miR-802, and miR-122 as well as induction of miR-34 and miR-29 in male Hnf4α-LivKO mice were confirmed by real-time PCR. Analysis of public chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing data indicates that HNF4α directly binds to the promoters of miR-101, miR-122, miR-194-2/miR-192 and miR-193, which is associated with histone marks of active transcription. Luciferase reporter assay showed that HNF4α markedly activated the promoters of mouse and human miR-101b/miR-101-2 and the miR-194/miR-192 cluster. Additionally, miR-192 and miR-194 significantly decreased activities of luciferase reporters for the 3’UTR of histone H3F3 and chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 1 (CHD1), respectively, suggesting that miR-192 and miR-194 might be important in chromosome remodeling through directly targeting H3F3 and CHD1. CONCLUSION HNF4α is essential for hepatic basal expression of a group of liver-enriched microRNAs

  13. Circulating micro-RNA expression profiles in early stage nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Heegaard, Niels H H; Schetter, Aaron J; Welsh, Judith A; Yoneda, Mitsuhiro; Bowman, Elise D; Harris, Curtis C

    2012-03-15

    Circulating micro-RNA (miR) profiles have been proposed as promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for cancer, including lung cancer. We have developed methods to accurately and reproducibly measure micro-RNA levels in serum and plasma. Here, we study paired serum and plasma samples from 220 patients with early stage nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 220 matched controls. We use qRT-PCR to measure the circulating levels of 30 different miRs that have previously been reported to be differently expressed in lung cancer tissue. Duplicate RNA extractions were performed for 10% of all samples, and micro-RNA measurements were highly correlated among those duplicates. This demonstrates high reproducibility of our assay. The expressions of miR-146b, miR-221, let-7a, miR-155, miR-17-5p, miR-27a and miR-106a were significantly reduced in the serum of NSCLC cases, while miR-29c was significantly increased. No significant differences were observed in plasma of patients compared with controls. Overall, expression levels in serum did not correlate well with levels in plasma. In secondary analyses, reduced plasma expression of let-7b was modestly associated with worse cancer-specific mortality in all patients, and reduced serum expression of miR-223 was modestly associated with cancer-specific mortality in stage IA/B patients. MiR profiles also showed considerable differences comparing African American and European Americans. In summary, we found significant differences in miR expression when comparing cases and controls and find evidence that expression of let-7b is associated with prognosis in NSCLC.

  14. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis is Associated With Altered Hepatic microRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Kerstien A.; Lan, Ruth Y.; Leung, Patrick C.; Lleo, Ana; Dawson, Kevin; Pfeiff, Janice; Mao, Tin K.; Coppel, Ross L.; Ansari, Aftab A.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that negatively regulate protein coding gene expression and are thought to play a critical role in many biological processes. Aberrant levels of miRNAs have been associated with numerous diseases and cancers, and as such, miRNAs have gain much interests as diagnostic biomarkers, and as therapeutic targets. However, their role in autoimmunity is largely unknown. The aims of this study are to: (1) identify differentially expressed miRNAs in human primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC); (2) validate these independently; and (3) indentify potential targets of differentially expressed miRNAs. We compared the expression of 377 miRNAs in explanted livers form subjects with PBC versus controls with normal liver histology. A total of 35 independent miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in PBC (p< 0.001). Quantitative PCR was employed to validate down-regulation of microRNA-122a (miR-122a) and miR-26a and the increased expression of miR-328 and miR-299-5p. The predicted targets of these miRNAs are known to affect cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolism. Our data are the first to demonstrate that PBC is characterized by altered expression of hepatic miRNA; however additional studies are required to demonstrate a causal link between those miRNA and the development of PBC. PMID:19345069

  15. MicroRNA Expression Analysis: Clinical Advantage of Propranolol Reveals Key MicroRNAs in Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenliang; Yang, Lei; Shan, Hongli; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Rui; Su, Zhe; Du, Zhimin

    2011-01-01

    Background As playing important roles in gene regulation, microRNAs (miRNAs) are believed as indispensable involvers in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction (MI) that causes significant morbidity and mortality. Working on a hypothesis that modulation of only some key members in the miRNA superfamily could benefit ischemic heart, we proposed a microarray based network biology approach to identify them with the recognized clinical effect of propranolol as a prompt. Methods A long-term MI model of rat was established in this study. The microarray technology was applied to determine the global miRNA expression change intervened by propranolol. Multiple network analyses were sequentially applied to evaluate the regulatory capacity, efficiency and emphasis of the miRNAs which dysexpression in MI were significantly reversed by propranolol. Results Microarray data analysis indicated that long-term propranolol administration caused 18 of the 31 dysregulated miRNAs in MI undergoing reversed expression, implying that intentional modulation of miRNA expression might show favorable effects for ischemic heart. Our network analysis identified that, among these miRNAs, the prime players in MI were miR-1, miR-29b and miR-98. Further finding revealed that miR-1 focused on regulation of myocyte growth, yet miR-29b and miR-98 stressed on fibrosis and inflammation, respectively. Conclusion Our study illustrates how a combination of microarray technology and functional protein network analysis can be used to identify disease-related key miRNAs. PMID:21386882

  16. MicroRNA expression signature and the therapeutic effect of the microRNA-21 antagomir in hypertrophic scarring

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Kai; Yan, Hongbo; Feng, Haifeng; Wang, Tao; Chai, Linlin; Xu, Guozheng

    2017-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HS) area fibroproliferative disorder of the skin, which causes aesthetic and functional impairment. However, the molecular pathogenesis of this disease remains largely unknown and currently no efficient treatment exists. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in a variety of pathophysiological processes, however the role of miRNAs in HS development remains unclear. To investigate the miRNA expression signature of HS, microarray analysis was performed and 152 miRNAs were observed to be differentially expressed in HS tissue compared with normal skin tissues. Of the miRNAs identified, miRNA-21 (miR-21) was significantly increased in HS tissues and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFBs) as determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. It was also observed that, when miR-21 in HSFBs was blocked through use of an antagomir, the phenotype of fibrotic fibroblasts in vitro was reversed, as demonstrated by growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis and suppressed expression of fibrosis-associated genes collagen type I α 1 chain (COL1A1), COL1A2 and fibronectin. Furthermore, miR-21 antagomir administration significantly reduced the severity of HS formation and decreased collagen deposition in a rabbit ear HS model. The total scar area and scar elevation index were calculated and were demonstrated to be significantly decreased in the treatment group compared with control rabbits. These results indicated that the miR-21 antagomir has a therapeutic effect on HS and suggests that targeting miRNAs may be a successful and novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of fibrotic diseases that are difficult to treat with existing methods. PMID:28075443

  17. MicroRNA expression profiling in male and female familial breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pinto, R; De Summa, S; Danza, K; Popescu, O; Paradiso, A; Micale, L; Merla, G; Palumbo, O; Carella, M; Tommasi, S

    2014-12-09

    Gender-associated epigenetic alterations are poorly investigated in male and female familial breast cancer (fBC). MicroRNAs may contribute to the different biology in men and women particularly related to RASSF1A pathways. Microarray technology was used to evaluate miRNA profile in 24 male and 43 female fBC. Key results were validated using RT-qPCR in an external samples set. In vitro studies were carried out to verify microRNA-target gene interaction. Pathway enrichment analysis with the 287 differentially expressed microRNAs revealed several signalling pathways differently regulated in male and female cases. Because we previously hypothesised a peculiar involvement of RASSF1A in male fBC pathogenesis, we focussed on the MAPK and the Hippo signalling pathways that are regulated by RASSF1A. Male miR-152 and miR-497 upregulation and RASSF1A and NORE1A interacting gene downregulation were observed, confirming a possible indirect interaction between miRNAs and the two genes. For the first time, a different microRNA expression pattern in male and female fBC has been shown. Moreover, the importance of RASSF1A pathway in male fBC carcinogenesis has been confirmed, highlighting a possible role for miR-152 and miR-497 in controlling MAPK and Hippo signalling pathways, regulated by RASSF1A.

  18. MicroRNA expression profiling in male and female familial breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, R; De Summa, S; Danza, K; Popescu, O; Paradiso, A; Micale, L; Merla, G; Palumbo, O; Carella, M; Tommasi, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gender-associated epigenetic alterations are poorly investigated in male and female familial breast cancer (fBC). MicroRNAs may contribute to the different biology in men and women particularly related to RASSF1A pathways. Methods: Microarray technology was used to evaluate miRNA profile in 24 male and 43 female fBC. Key results were validated using RT–qPCR in an external samples set. In vitro studies were carried out to verify microRNA–target gene interaction. Results: Pathway enrichment analysis with the 287 differentially expressed microRNAs revealed several signalling pathways differently regulated in male and female cases. Because we previously hypothesised a peculiar involvement of RASSF1A in male fBC pathogenesis, we focussed on the MAPK and the Hippo signalling pathways that are regulated by RASSF1A. Male miR-152 and miR-497 upregulation and RASSF1A and NORE1A interacting gene downregulation were observed, confirming a possible indirect interaction between miRNAs and the two genes. Conclusions: For the first time, a different microRNA expression pattern in male and female fBC has been shown. Moreover, the importance of RASSF1A pathway in male fBC carcinogenesis has been confirmed, highlighting a possible role for miR-152 and miR-497 in controlling MAPK and Hippo signalling pathways, regulated by RASSF1A. PMID:25393370

  19. Search of MicroRNAs Regulating the Receptor Status of Breast Cancer In Silico and Experimental Confirmation of Their Expression in Tumors.

    PubMed

    Chernyi, V S; Tarasova, P V; Kozlov, V V; Saik, O V; Kushlinskii, N E; Gulyaeva, L F

    2017-09-01

    MicroRNA whose expression depends on the receptor status of breast cancer were selected using bioinformatic analysis. The expression of 9 microRNAs (16, 17, 21, 27, 125, 146, 155, 200a, and 221) was analyzed in 76 samples of breast cancer with various receptor phenotypes. The expression of microRNAs 155, 27, and 200a did not differ in various types of breast cancer. The data on positive correlation between the expression of microRNA-21 and microRNA-221 and negative receptor status of the tumor were confirmed. The expression of the tumor suppressing microRNA-125b decreased in samples of breast cancer expressing HER2 and ER and in triple negative breast cancer, which characterizes it as a universal marker of breast cancer. An increase in the expression of microRNA-16 was shown in samples of breast cancer expressing HER2 and ER. The expression of microRNA-17 decreased in triple negative breast cancer and increased in ER(+), PR(+), and HER(+) types of breast cancer. MicroRNAs 16, 17, 21, 125b, 146b, and 221 can be promising markers for differential diagnostics of various phenotypes of breast cancer.

  20. MicroRNAs regulate CYP3A4 expression via direct and indirect targeting.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yu-Zhuo; Gao, Wenqing; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2009-10-01

    CYP3A4 metabolizes many drugs on the market. Although transcriptional regulation of CYP3A4 is known to be tightly controlled by some nuclear receptors (NR) including vitamin D receptor (VDR/NR1I1), posttranscriptional regulation of CYP3A4 remains elusive. In this study, we show that noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) may control posttranscriptional and transcriptional regulation of CYP3A4 by directly targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of CYP3A4 and indirectly targeting the 3'UTR of VDR, respectively. Luciferase reporter assays showed that CYP3A4 3'UTR-luciferase activity was significantly decreased in human embryonic kidney 293 cells transfected with plasmid that expressed microRNA-27b (miR-27b) or mouse microRNA-298 (mmu-miR-298), whereas the activity was unchanged in cells transfected with plasmid that expressed microRNA-122a or microRNA-328. Disruption of the corresponding miRNA response element (MRE) within CYP3A4 3'UTR led to a 2- to 3-fold increase in luciferase activity. Immunoblot analyses indicated that CYP3A4 protein was down-regulated over 30% by miR-27b and mmu-miR-298 in LS-180 and PANC1 cells. The decrease in CYP3A4 protein expression was associated with significantly decreased CYP3A4 mRNA levels, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analyses. Likewise, interactions of miR-27b or mmu-miR-298 with VDR 3'UTR were supported by luciferase reporter assays. The mmu-miR-298 MRE site is well conserved within the 3'UTR of mouse, rat, and human VDR. Down-regulation of VDR by the two miRNAs was supported by immunoblot and qPCR analyses. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-27b or mmu-miR-298 in PANC1 cells led to a lower sensitivity to cyclophosphamide. Together, these findings suggest that CYP3A4 gene expression may be regulated by miRNAs at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level.

  1. MicroRNAs: Clinical Relevance in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joe; Ohtsuka, Masahisa; Pichler, Martin; Ling, Hui

    2015-11-25

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer diagnoses and causes of mortality worldwide. MicroRNAs are a class of small, non-coding regulatory RNAs that have shown strong associations with colorectal cancer. Through the repression of target messenger RNAs, microRNAs modulate many cellular pathways, such as those involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. The utilization of microRNAs has shown significant promise in the diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer, owing to their unique expression profile associations with cancer types and malignancies. Moreover, microRNA therapeutics with mimics or antagonists show great promise in preclinical studies, which encourages further development of their clinical use for colorectal cancer patients. The unique ability of microRNAs to affect multiple downstream pathways represents a novel approach for cancer therapy. Although still early in its development, we believe that microRNAs can be used in the near future as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for colorectal cancer.

  2. Identification of Novel and Conserved microRNAs in Homalodisca vitripennis, the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter by Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Nandety, Raja Sekhar; Sharif, Almas; Kamita, Shizuo G.; Ramasamy, Asokan; Falk, Bryce W.

    2015-01-01

    The glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS) Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is a xylem-feeding leafhopper and an important vector of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa; the causal agent of Pierce’s disease of grapevines. MicroRNAs are a class of small RNAs that play an important role in the functional development of various organisms including insects. In H. vitripennis, we identified microRNAs using high-throughput deep sequencing of adults followed by computational and manual annotation. A total of 14 novel microRNAs that are not found in the miRBase were identified from adult H. vitripennis. Conserved microRNAs were also found in our datasets. By comparison to our previously determined transcriptome sequence of H. vitripennis, we identified the potential targets of the microRNAs in the transcriptome. This microRNA profile information not only provides a more nuanced understanding of the biological and physiological mechanisms that govern gene expression in H. vitripennis, but may also lead to the identification of novel mechanisms for biorationally designed management strategies through the use of microRNAs. PMID:26440407

  3. The impact of microRNAs on transcriptional heterogeneity and gene co-expression across single embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gambardella, Gennaro; Carissimo, Annamaria; Chen, Amy; Cutillo, Luisa; Nowakowski, Tomasz J.; di Bernardo, Diego; Blelloch, Robert

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs act posttranscriptionally to suppress multiple target genes within a cell population. To what extent this multi-target suppression occurs in individual cells and how it impacts transcriptional heterogeneity and gene co-expression remains unknown. Here we used single-cell sequencing combined with introduction of individual microRNAs. miR-294 and let-7c were introduced into otherwise microRNA-deficient Dgcr8 knockout mouse embryonic stem cells. Both microRNAs induce suppression and correlated expression of their respective gene targets. The two microRNAs had opposing effects on transcriptional heterogeneity within the cell population, with let-7c increasing and miR-294 decreasing the heterogeneity between cells. Furthermore, let-7c promotes, whereas miR-294 suppresses, the phasing of cell cycle genes. These results show at the individual cell level how a microRNA simultaneously has impacts on its many targets and how that in turn can influence a population of cells. The findings have important implications in the understanding of how microRNAs influence the co-expression of genes and pathways, and thus ultimately cell fate. PMID:28102192

  4. Long-term Neuroglial Cocultures as a Brain Aging Model: Hallmarks of Senescence, MicroRNA Expression Profiles, and Comparison With In Vivo Models.

    PubMed

    Bigagli, Elisabetta; Luceri, Cristina; Scartabelli, Tania; Dolara, Piero; Casamenti, Fiorella; Pellegrini-Giampietro, Domenico E; Giovannelli, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate long-term neuroglial cocultures as a model for investigating senescence in the nervous system and to assess its similarities with in vivo models. To this aim, we maintained the cultures from 15 days in vitro (mature cultures) up to 27 days in vitro (senescent cultures), measuring senescence-associated, neuronal, dendritic, and astrocytic markers. Whole microRNA expression profiles were compared with those measured in the cortex of 18- and 24-month-old C57Bl/6J aged mice and of transgenic TgCRND8 mice, a model of amyloid-β deposition. Neuroglial cocultures displayed features of cellular senescence (increased senescence-associated-β-galactosidase activity, oxidative stress, γ-H2AX expression, IL-6 production, astrogliosis) that were concentration dependently counteracted by the antiaging compound resveratrol (1-5 µM). Among the 1,080 microRNAs analyzed, 335 were downregulated or absent in 27 compared with 15 days in vitro and resveratrol reversed this effect. A substantial overlapping was found between age-associated changes in microRNA expression profiles in vitro and in TgCRND8 mice but not in physiologically aged mice, indicating that this culture model displays more similarities with pathological than physiological brain aging. Our results demonstrate that neuroglial cocultures aged in vitro can be useful for investigating the cellular and molecular mechanisms of brain aging and for preliminary testing of protective compounds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Stably Expressed Genes Involved in Basic Cellular Functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kejian; Vijay, Vikrant; Fuscoe, James C

    2017-01-01

    Stably Expressed Genes (SEGs) whose expression varies within a narrow range may be involved in core cellular processes necessary for basic functions. To identify such genes, we re-analyzed existing RNA-Seq gene expression profiles across 11 organs at 4 developmental stages (from immature to old age) in both sexes of F344 rats (n = 4/group; 320 samples). Expression changes (calculated as the maximum expression / minimum expression for each gene) of >19000 genes across organs, ages, and sexes ranged from 2.35 to >109-fold, with a median of 165-fold. The expression of 278 SEGs was found to vary ≤4-fold and these genes were significantly involved in protein catabolism (proteasome and ubiquitination), RNA transport, protein processing, and the spliceosome. Such stability of expression was further validated in human samples where the expression variability of the homologous human SEGs was significantly lower than that of other genes in the human genome. It was also found that the homologous human SEGs were generally less subject to non-synonymous mutation than other genes, as would be expected of stably expressed genes. We also found that knockout of SEG homologs in mouse models was more likely to cause complete preweaning lethality than non-SEG homologs, corroborating the fundamental roles played by SEGs in biological development. Such stably expressed genes and pathways across life-stages suggest that tight control of these processes is important in basic cellular functions and that perturbation by endogenous (e.g., genetics) or exogenous agents (e.g., drugs, environmental factors) may cause serious adverse effects.

  6. Stably Expressed Genes Involved in Basic Cellular Functions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kejian; Fuscoe, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Stably Expressed Genes (SEGs) whose expression varies within a narrow range may be involved in core cellular processes necessary for basic functions. To identify such genes, we re-analyzed existing RNA-Seq gene expression profiles across 11 organs at 4 developmental stages (from immature to old age) in both sexes of F344 rats (n = 4/group; 320 samples). Expression changes (calculated as the maximum expression / minimum expression for each gene) of >19000 genes across organs, ages, and sexes ranged from 2.35 to >109-fold, with a median of 165-fold. The expression of 278 SEGs was found to vary ≤4-fold and these genes were significantly involved in protein catabolism (proteasome and ubiquitination), RNA transport, protein processing, and the spliceosome. Such stability of expression was further validated in human samples where the expression variability of the homologous human SEGs was significantly lower than that of other genes in the human genome. It was also found that the homologous human SEGs were generally less subject to non-synonymous mutation than other genes, as would be expected of stably expressed genes. We also found that knockout of SEG homologs in mouse models was more likely to cause complete preweaning lethality than non-SEG homologs, corroborating the fundamental roles played by SEGs in biological development. Such stably expressed genes and pathways across life-stages suggest that tight control of these processes is important in basic cellular functions and that perturbation by endogenous (e.g., genetics) or exogenous agents (e.g., drugs, environmental factors) may cause serious adverse effects. PMID:28125669

  7. [microRNA expression in breast development and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Avril, S

    2013-11-01

    Profiling studies have identified specific miRNA signatures in hematological and solid malignancies, including breast cancer. This article reviews miRNA expression patterns in breast development and breast cancer focusing on two own previous studies. The first study characterized miRNA expression during postnatal mouse mammary gland development and the second study assessed intratumoral heterogeneity of miRNA expression in breast cancer.In mouse mammary glands the expression of 318 murine miRNAs was analyzed by bead-based flow-cytometric profiling throughout a 16-point developmental time course to derive a comprehensive tissue-specific miRNA expression profile. During breast development 102 miRNAs were expressed in 7 temporally coregulated clusters, which were significantly enriched for miRNA family members and breast cancer-associated miRNAs. None of the investigated single miRNAs or miRNA clusters were exclusively associated with a particular developmental stage.In human breast cancer the expression of 4 candidate miRNAs (miR-10b, miR-210, miR-31 and miR-335) was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR in 132 paraffin-embedded samples of 16 large primary invasive breast cancers including different tumor zones (peripheral, intermediate and central) as well as several axillary lymph node metastases from the same patient. The expression of all four miRNAs showed considerable intratumoral heterogeneity with a mean coefficient of variation of 40 % within the primary tumor and 40 % between different lymph node metastases from the same patient. In comparison, the variation among different patients showed a mean coefficient of variation of 80 % for primary tumors and 103 % for lymph node metastases. Intratumoral heterogeneity can lead to significant sampling bias and multiple areas of the primary tumor or several tumor-involved lymph nodes should be sampled when assessing miRNA profiles as prognostic or predictive biomarkers.

  8. Characterization and differential expression of microRNAs elicited by sulfur deprivation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play an essential role in the modulation of numerous biological processes in eukaryotes. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal model organism for the study of many metabolic processes including responses to sulfur-deprivation. We used a deep sequencing platform to extensively profile and identify changes in the miRNAs expression that occurred under sulfur-replete and sulfur-deprived conditions. The aim of our research was to characterize the differential expression of Chlamydomonas miRNAs under sulfur-deprived conditions, and subsequently, the target genes of miRNA involved in sulfur-deprivation were further predicted and analyzed. Results By using high-throughput sequencing, we characterized the microRNA transcriptomes under sulphur-replete and sulfur-deprived conditions in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We predicted a total of 310 miRNAs which included 85 known miRNAs and 225 novel miRNAs. 13 miRNAs were the specific to the sulfur-deprived conditions. 47 miRNAs showed significantly differential expressions responding to sulfur-deprivation, and most were up-regulated in the small RNA libraries with sulfur-deprivation. Using a web-based integrated system (Web MicroRNAs Designer 3) and combing the former information from a transcriptome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, 22 miRNAs and their targets involved in metabolism regulation with sulfur-deprivation were verified. Conclusions Our results indicate that sulfur-deprivation may have a significant influence on small RNA expression patterns, and the differential expressions of miRNAs and interactions between miRNA and its targets might further reveal the molecular mechanism responding to sulfur-deprivation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. PMID:22439676

  9. MicroRNA-7 Regulates the Function of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore by Targeting VDAC1 Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Amrita Datta; Choi, Doo Chul; Kabaria, Savan; Tran, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the major contributors to neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson disease. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore is a protein complex located on the mitochondrial membrane. Under cellular stress, the pore opens, increasing the release of pro-apoptotic proteins, and ultimately resulting in cell death. MicroRNA-7 (miR-7) is a small non-coding RNA that has been found to exhibit a protective role in the cellular models of Parkinson disease. In the present study, miR-7 was predicted to regulate the function of mitochondria, according to gene ontology analysis of proteins that are down-regulated by miR-7. Indeed, miR-7 overexpression inhibited mitochondrial fragmentation, mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release, reactive oxygen species generation, and release of mitochondrial calcium in response to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, several of these findings were confirmed in mouse primary neurons. Among the mitochondrial proteins identified by gene ontology analysis, the expression of voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), a constituent of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, was down-regulated by miR-7 through targeting 3′-untranslated region of VDAC1 mRNA. Similar to miR-7 overexpression, knockdown of VDAC1 also led to a decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and subsequent cellular protection against MPP+. Notably, overexpression of VDAC1 without the 3′-UTR significantly abolished the protective effects of miR-7 against MPP+-induced cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting that the protective effect of miR-7 is partly exerted through promoting mitochondrial function by targeting VDAC1 expression. These findings point to a novel mechanism by which miR-7 accomplishes neuroprotection by improving mitochondrial health. PMID:26801612

  10. Expression of circulating microRNA-1 and microRNA-133 in pediatric patients with tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ling; Sun, Shuo; Zeng, Shaoying; Li, Yufen; Pan, Wei; Zhang, Zhiwei

    2015-06-01

    Paroxysmal or persistent tachycardia in pediatric patients is a common disease. Certain circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been associated with arrhythmia. The present study investigated miRNAs in the plasma of pediatric patients with tachycardia. Forty pediatric subjects were included retrospectively: 24 with recurrent sustained tachycardia [seven cases of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and 17 cases of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)] and 16 healthy controls. Circulating miR‑1 and miR‑133 in the plasma were detected by fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction. miR‑1 levels were significantly decreased in the arrhythmia group compared with those in the controls (P=0.004) whilst miR‑133 expression levels were not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.456). Both miR‑1 and miR‑133 levels showed significant differences between the SVT and VT groups (P=0.004 and P=0.046, respectively), and a significant decrease in miR‑1 levels was observed in the SVT group as compared with the controls (P<0.001). No significant difference was observed in the expression levels of miR‑133. By contrast, miR‑133 levels were significantly increased in the VT group compared with those in the controls (P=0.024), whereas no statistically significant difference was observed in the expression levels of miR‑1. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that 1/miR‑1 was significant for the evaluation of tachycardia. Additionally, miR‑1 produced enhanced sensitivity and specificity for the evaluation of SVT compared with miR‑133, whereas miR‑133 was a better marker to assess VT. This study demonstrated that miRNAs may be appropriate markers for pediatric tachycardia; miR‑1 levels were decreased in the arrhythmia group compared with those in the healthy controls. Furthermore, patients with SVT had lower miR‑1 expression levels while those with VT had higher miR‑133 expression levels.

  11. Developmental MicroRNA Expression Profiling of Murine Embryonic Orofacial Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Brock, Guy; Pihur, Vasyl; Webb, Cynthia; Pisano, M. Michele; Greene, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Orofacial development is a multifaceted process involving precise, spatio-temporal expression of a panoply of genes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the largest family of noncoding RNAs involved in gene silencing, represent critical regulators of cell and tissue differentiation. MicroRNA gene expression profiling is an effective means of acquiring novel and valuable information regarding the expression and regulation of genes, under the control of miRNA, involved in mammalian orofacial development. METHODS To identify differentially expressed miRNAs during mammalian orofacial ontogenesis, miRNA expression profiles from gestation day (GD) -12, -13 and -14 murine orofacial tissue were compared utilizing miRXplore microarrays from Miltenyi Biotech. Quantitative real-time PCR was utilized for validation of gene expression changes. Cluster analysis of the microarray data was conducted with the clValid R package and the UPGMA clustering method. Functional relationships between selected miRNAs were investigated using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. RESULTS Expression of over 26% of the 588 murine miRNA genes examined was detected in murine orofacial tissues from GD-12–GD-14. Among these expressed genes, several clusters were seen to be developmentally regulated. Differential expression of miRNAs within such clusters were shown to target genes encoding proteins involved in cell proliferation, cell adhesion, differentiation, apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, all processes critical for normal orofacial development. CONCLUSIONS Using miRNA microarray technology, unique gene expression signatures of hundreds of miRNAs in embryonic orofacial tissue were defined. Gene targeting and functional analysis revealed that the expression of numerous protein-encoding genes, crucial to normal orofacial ontogeny, may be regulated by specific miRNAs. PMID:20589883

  12. Comparative aspects of MicroRNA Expression in Canine and Human Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sahabi, Kabiru; Selvarajah, Gayathri Thevi; Abdullah, Rasedee; Kqueen, Cheah Yoke; Chin, Tan Geok

    2017-09-20

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important players in all biological pathways in multicellular organisms. Over 1,400 human miRNAs have been identified, and many are conserved among vertebrates and invertebrates. MicroRNA regulation is the most abundant mode of post-transcriptional gene regulation. MicroRNAs that are involved in the initiation and progression of cancers are termed oncomiRs, several of which have been identified in canine and human cancer. Similarly, several miRNAs have been reported to be down-regulated in cancers of the two species. In this review, current information on the expression and roles of miRNAs in oncogenesis and the progression of human and canine cancer as well the roles miRNAs play in cancer stem cells' biology is highlighted. The potential for miRNAs as therapeutic targets for personalized cancer therapy in domestic dogs and their possible application in human cancer counterparts are also discussed.

  13. Glatiramer Acetate Treatment Normalizes Deregulated microRNA Expression in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Waschbisch, Anne; Atiya, Monika; Linker, Ralf A.; Potapov, Sergej; Schwab, Stefan; Derfuss, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    The expression of selected microRNAs (miRNAs) known to be involved in the regulation of immune responses was analyzed in 74 patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 32 healthy controls. Four miRNAs (miR-326, miR-155, miR-146a, miR-142-3p) were aberrantly expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from RRMS patients compared to controls. Although expression of these selected miRNAs did not differ between treatment-naïve (n = 36) and interferon-beta treated RRMS patients (n = 18), expression of miR-146a and miR-142-3p was significantly lower in glatiramer acetate (GA) treated RRMS patients (n = 20) suggesting that GA, at least in part, restores the expression of deregulated miRNAs in MS. PMID:21949733

  14. Cyclooxygenase-2 and microRNA-155 expression are elevated in asthmatic airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Comer, Brian S; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca; Kogut, Paul C; Halayko, Andrew J; Solway, Julian; Gerthoffer, William T

    2015-04-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and PGE2 secretion from human airway smooth muscle cells (hASMCs) may contribute to β2-adrenoceptor hyporesponsiveness, a clinical feature observed in some patients with asthma. hASMCs from patients with asthma exhibit elevated expression of cytokine-responsive genes, and in some instances this is attributable to an altered histone code and/or microRNA expression. We hypothesized that COX-2 expression and PGE2 secretion might be elevated in asthmatic hASMCs in response to proinflammatory signals in part due to altered histone acetylation and/or microRNA expression. hASMCs obtained from nonasthmatic and asthmatic human subjects were treated with cytomix (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ). A greater elevation of COX-2 mRNA, COX-2 protein, and PGE2 secretion was observed in the asthmatic cells. We investigated histone H3/H4-acetylation, transcription factor binding, mRNA stability, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and microRNA (miR)-155 expression as potential mechanisms responsible for the differential elevation of COX-2 expression. We found that histone H3/H4-acetylation and transcription factor binding to the COX-2 promoter were similar in both groups, and histone H3/H4-acetylation did not increase after cytomix treatment. Cytomix treatment elevated NF-κB and RNA polymerase II binding to similar levels in both groups. COX-2 mRNA stability was increased in asthmatic cells. MiR-155 expression was higher in cytomix-treated asthmatic cells, and we show it enhances COX-2 expression and PGE2 secretion in asthmatic and nonasthmatic hASMCs. Thus, miR-155 expression positively correlates with COX-2 expression in the asthmatic hASMCs and may contribute to the elevated expression observed in these cells. These findings may explain, at least in part, β2-adrenoceptor hyporesponsiveness in patients with asthma.

  15. A Mouse Polyomavirus-encoded microRNA Targets the Cellular Apoptosis Pathway through Smad2 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Chang Kyoo; Yim, Hyungshin; Andrews, Erik; Benjamin, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Some viruses and most eukaryotic cells have microRNAs that regulate the expression of many genes. Although many viral miRNAs have been identified, only a few have been included in in vivo functional studies. Here we show that a Py-encoded miRNA downregulates the expression of the pro-apoptotic factor Smad2, resulting in the suppression of the apoptosis pathway. To study the Py miRNA in an in vivo context, a miRNA-deficient mutant virus was created on the background of the LID virus strain which establishes a rapid and lethal infection in newborn mice. Apoptosis analysis on kidney tissues indicates that the pro-apoptotic pathway is targeted in the infected host as well. Suppression of apoptosis through targeting of Smad2 by the Py miRNA is expected to synergize with anti-apoptotic effects previously attributed to the polyoma tumor antigens in support of virus replication in the natural host. PMID:25146733

  16. MicroRNA expression profiles and networks in CXCL12‑stimulated human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jie; Li, Ming-Qing; Li, Da-Jin; Sun, Hai-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12; CXCL12) is important in the recruitment of leukocytes to the peritoneal cavity and the regulation of endometriotic tissue growth in endometriosis patients. However, the alterations in microRNA (miRNA) expression induced by CXCL12 remain to be fully elucidated. The present study evaluated key miRNAs in CXCL12‑stimulated endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), and investigated the underlying cellular regulatory mechanisms of CXCL12 in endometriosis by building networks between miRNAs, genes and gene ontologies (GOs). Differential expression of miRNAs and mRNAs induced by CXCL12 stimulation in ESCs was measured using miRNA and gene chips, and it was observed that 35 miRNAs and 1,671 mRNAs were differentially expressed. Using potential target genes of the 35 miRNAs, intersections of these genes were examined and 63 intersection genes were identified. A total of 39 GOs were obtained for these intersection genes, based on information from GO databases, including immune cell chemoattractants, inflammatory and immune responses, and pathological processes of endometriotic lesions in endometriosis. In addition, miRNA‑gene networks were built according to the GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. The present study, to the best of our knowledge, provides the most complete miRNAome and mRNAome profiles, and the most detailed investigation of the underlying cellular regulatory mechanisms, of the effects of CXCL12 in endometriosis. These results may facilitate the complete elucidation of the role of CXCL12 in endometriosis, and its underlying epigenetic mechanisms.

  17. Expression of microRNAs in tumors of the central nervous system in pediatric patients in México.

    PubMed

    Eguía-Aguilar, Pilar; Gutiérrez-Castillo, Lisette; Pérezpeña-Díazconti, Mario; García-Chéquer, Jeanette; García-Quintana, Jorge; Chico-Ponce de León, Fernando; Gordillo-Domínguez, Luis; Torres-García, Samuel; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco

    2017-08-16

    MicroRNAs were identified as molecules that participate in gene regulation; alterations in their expression characterize central nervous system (CNS). Information in pediatrics is scarce, so the objective of this work was to determine and then compare the patterns of expression of microRNAs in astrocytomas, ependymomas, and medulloblastomas, as well as in non-neoplastic brain. Low-density arrays were utilized to evaluate 756 microRNAs in three samples of each type of tumor and non-neoplastic brain. The relative expression was calculated in order to identify the three microRNAs whose expression was modified notably. This was verified using RT-qPCR in more number of tumor samples. The microRNAs selected for testing were miR-100-5p, miR-195-5p, and miR-770-5p. A higher expression of miR-100-5p was observed in the astrocytomas and ependymomas compared to the medulloblastomas: on average 3.8 times (p < 0.05). MiR-770-5p was expressed less in medulloblastomas compared to astrocytomas four times (p = 0.0162). MiR-195-5p had a low expression in medulloblastomas compared to non-neoplastic cerebellum (p = 0.049). In all three tumor types, expression of miR-770-5p was lower than in non-neoplastic brain (p < 0.001). These microRNAs may represent potential markers in these tumors.

  18. Role of microRNAs on HLA-G expression in human tumors.

    PubMed

    Seliger, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    The non-classical human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) known to protect the embryo from immune cell destruction leading to fetal maternal tolerance is often overexpressed in human tumors of distinct origin thereby leading to an escape from T and NK cell-mediated immune response. The molecular mechanisms controlling HLA-G expression are complex and involve deregulation at the transcriptional, epigenetic and posttranscriptional level. Using bioinformatics and high through put analyses a number of microRNAs (miRs) have been identified, which were able to bind to the 3' UTR of HLA-G with distinct efficacy. This caused by a downregulation of HLA-G surface expression, which was associated with an increased immune response thereby overcoming the HLA-G-mediated immune tolerance. Reduced expression of HLA-G-specific miRs was associated with tumor progression and metastases and appear to affect directly or indirectly tumor characteristics, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis and resistance to chemotherapy. Recently, an interaction between long non-coding RNAs, such as HOTAIR, and HLA-G-specific miRs has also been demonstrated. This review summarizes the control of HLA-G expression and function by microRNAs as well as its clinical significance.

  19. MicroRNA-181b inhibits cellular proliferation and invasion of glioma cells via targeting Sal-like protein 4.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Peng, Yong; Liu, Min; Jiang, Yugang

    2016-11-17

    MicroRNAs (miRs), a class of 18-25 nucleotides in length non-coding RNAs, are able to suppress gene expression by targeting complementary regions of mRNAs and inhibiting protein translation Recently, miR-181b was found to playa suppressive role in glioma, but the regulatory mechanism of miR-181b in the malignant phenotypes of glioma cells remains largely unclear. Here we found that miR-181b was significantly downregulated in glioma tissues when compared with normal brain tissues, and decreased miR-181b levels were significantly associated with high pathology grade and poor prognosis of patients with glioma. Moreover, miR-181b was also downregulated in glioma cell lines (U87, SHG44, U373, and U251) compared to normal astrocytes. Overexpression of miR-181b significantly decreased the proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma U251 cells. Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) was identified as a novel target gene of miR-181b in U251 cells. The expression of SALL4 was significantly upregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines, and an inverse correlation was observed between the miR-181b and SALL4 expression levels in glioma. Further investigation showed that the protein expression of SALL4 was negatively regulated by miR-181b in U251 cells. Knockdown of SALL4 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of U251 cells, while overexpression of SALL4 effectively reversed the suppressive effects of miR-181b on these malignant phenotypes of U251 cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that miR-181b has suppressive effects on the malignant phenotypes of glioma cells, partly at least, via directly targeting SALL4. Therefore, the miR-181b/SALL4 axis may become a potential therapeutic target for glioma.

  20. Rapamycin (Sirolimus) alters mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway regulation and microRNA expression in mouse meiotic spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Koli, S; Reddy, K V R

    2015-09-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a signal transduction pathway that modulates translation initiation in several animals including mammals. Rapamaycin, an allosteric inhibitor of mTOR pathway, is often used as an immunosuppressive drug following kidney transplantation and causes gonadal dysfunction and defects in spermatogenesis. The molecular mechanism behind rapamycin-mediated testicular dysfunction is not known. We have therefore explored the contribution of rapamycin in mTOR regulation and microRNA (miRNA) expression in mouse spermatocytes, the intermediate stage of spermatogenesis, where meiosis takes place. In the present study, we optimized the isolation of highly pure and viable spermatocytes by flow sorting, treated them with rapamycin, and investigated the expression of mTOR and downstream effector molecules. Western blot and immunocytochemical analysis confirm that rapamycin treatment suppresses mTOR and phopsphorylated P70S6 kinase activities in spermatocytes, but not that of phosphorylated 4E-binding protein 1. Also, rapamycin treatment modulates the expression of several spermatocyte-specific miRNAs. To complement these finding an in vivo study was also performed. In silico prediction of target genes of these miRNAs and their functional pathway analysis revealed that, several of them are involved in crucial biological process, cellular process and catalytic activities. miRNA-transcription factor (TF) network analysis enlisted different TFs propelling the transcription machineries of these miRNAs. In silico prediction followed by quatitative real-time PCR revealed two of these TFs namely, PU.1 and CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) are down and upregulated, respectively, which may be the reason of the altered expression of miRNAs following rapamycin treatment. In conclusion, for the first time, the present study provides insight into how rapamycin regulates mTOR pathway and spermatocyte-specific miRNA expression which in turn, regulate expression of

  1. Profiling the microRNA Expression in Human iPS and iPS-derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heuy-Ching; Greene, Whitney A; Kaini, Ramesh R; Shen-Gunther, Jane; Chen, Hung-I H; Cai, Hong; Wang, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-RPE). MiRNAs have been demonstrated to play critical roles in both maintaining pluripotency and facilitating differentiation. Gene expression networks accountable for maintenance and induction of pluripotency are linked and share components with those networks implicated in oncogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesize that miRNA expression profiling will distinguish iPS cells from their iPS-RPE progeny. To identify and analyze differentially expressed miRNAs, RPE was derived from iPS using a spontaneous differentiation method. MiRNA microarray analysis identified 155 probes that were statistically differentially expressed between iPS and iPS-RPE cells. Up-regulated miRNAs including miR-181c and miR-129–5p may play a role in promoting differentiation, while down-regulated miRNAs such as miR-367, miR-18b, and miR-20b are implicated in cell proliferation. Subsequent miRNA–target and network analysis revealed that these miRNAs are involved in cellular development, cell cycle progression, cell death, and survival. A systematic interrogation of temporal and spatial expression of iPS-RPE miRNAs and their associated target mRNAs will provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis, eye differentiation and development. PMID:25392691

  2. Aging-induced dysregulation of dicer1-dependent microRNA expression impairs angiogenic capacity of rat cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ungvari, Zoltan; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Sosnowska, Danuta; Toth, Peter; Gautam, Tripti; Podlutsky, Andrej; Csiszar, Agnes; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Valcarcel-Ares, M Noa; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna

    2013-08-01

    Age-related impairment of angiogenesis is likely to play a central role in cerebromicrovascular rarefaction and development of vascular cognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. To test the hypothesis that dysregulation of Dicer1 (ribonuclease III, a key enzyme of the microRNA [miRNA] machinery) impairs endothelial angiogenic capacity in aging, primary cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells (CMVECs) were isolated from young (3 months old) and aged (24 months old) Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats. We found an age-related downregulation of Dicer1 expression both in CMVECs and in small cerebral vessels isolated from aged rats. In aged CMVECs, Dicer1 expression was increased by treatment with polyethylene glycol-catalase. Compared with young cells, aged CMVECs exhibited altered miRNA expression profile, which was associated with impaired proliferation, adhesion to vitronectin, collagen and fibronectin, cellular migration (measured by a wound-healing assay using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing technology), and impaired ability to form capillary-like structures. Overexpression of Dicer1 in aged CMVECs partially restored miRNA expression profile and significantly improved angiogenic processes. In young CMVECs, downregulation of Dicer1 (siRNA) resulted in altered miRNA expression profile associated with impaired proliferation, adhesion, migration, and tube formation, mimicking the aging phenotype. Collectively, we found that Dicer1 is essential for normal endothelial angiogenic processes, suggesting that age-related dysregulation of Dicer1-dependent miRNA expression may be a potential mechanism underlying impaired angiogenesis and cerebromicrovascular rarefaction in aging.

  3. Differentially expressed plasma microRNAs and the potential regulatory function of Let-7b in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lijuan; Yang, Yuanhua; Liu, Jie; Wang, Lei; Li, Jifeng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yan; Gu, Song; Gan, Huili; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Jason X-J; Wang, Jun; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a progressive disease characterized by misguided thrombolysis and remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in multiple cell processes and functions. During CTEPH, circulating microRNA profile endued with characteristics of diseased cells could be identified as a biomarker, and might help in recognition of pathogenesis. Thus, in this study, we compared the differentially expressed microRNAs in plasma of CTEPH patients and healthy controls and investigated their potential functions. Microarray was used to identify microRNA expression profile and qRT-PCR for validation. The targets of differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in silico, and the Gene Ontology database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database were used for functional investigation of target gene profile. Targets of let-7b were validated by fluorescence reporter assay. Protein expression of target genes was determined by ELISA or western blotting. Cell migration was evaluated by wound healing assay. The results showed that 1) thirty five microRNAs were differentially expressed in CTEPH patients, among which, a signature of 17 microRNAs, which was shown to be related to the disease pathogenesis by in silico analysis, gave diagnostic efficacy of both sensitivity and specificity >0.9. 2) Let-7b, one of the down-regulated anti-oncogenic microRNAs in the signature, was validated to decrease to about 0.25 fold in CTEPH patients. 3) ET-1 and TGFBR1 were direct targets of let-7b. Altering let-7b level influenced ET-1 and TGFBR1 expression in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) as well as the migration of PAECs and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). These results suggested that CTEPH patients had aberrant microRNA signature which might provide some clue for pathogenesis study and biomarker screening. Reduced let-7b might be involved in the pathogenesis of CTEPH by

  4. Differentially Expressed Plasma MicroRNAs and the Potential Regulatory Function of Let-7b in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lijuan; Yang, Yuanhua; Liu, Jie; Wang, Lei; Li, Jifeng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yan; Gu, Song; Gan, Huili; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Jason X.-J.; Wang, Jun; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a progressive disease characterized by misguided thrombolysis and remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in multiple cell processes and functions. During CTEPH, circulating microRNA profile endued with characteristics of diseased cells could be identified as a biomarker, and might help in recognition of pathogenesis. Thus, in this study, we compared the differentially expressed microRNAs in plasma of CTEPH patients and healthy controls and investigated their potential functions. Microarray was used to identify microRNA expression profile and qRT-PCR for validation. The targets of differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in silico, and the Gene Ontology database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database were used for functional investigation of target gene profile. Targets of let-7b were validated by fluorescence reporter assay. Protein expression of target genes was determined by ELISA or western blotting. Cell migration was evaluated by wound healing assay. The results showed that 1) thirty five microRNAs were differentially expressed in CTEPH patients, among which, a signature of 17 microRNAs, which was shown to be related to the disease pathogenesis by in silico analysis, gave diagnostic efficacy of both sensitivity and specificity >0.9. 2) Let-7b, one of the down-regulated anti-oncogenic microRNAs in the signature, was validated to decrease to about 0.25 fold in CTEPH patients. 3) ET-1 and TGFBR1 were direct targets of let-7b. Altering let-7b level influenced ET-1 and TGFBR1 expression in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) as well as the migration of PAECs and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). These results suggested that CTEPH patients had aberrant microRNA signature which might provide some clue for pathogenesis study and biomarker screening. Reduced let-7b might be involved in the pathogenesis of CTEPH by

  5. Aberrant microRNA expression and its implications in the pathogenesis of leukemias.

    PubMed

    Babashah, Sadegh; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Tavirani, Mostafa Rezaei; Farivar, Shirin; Soleimani, Masoud

    2012-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding, endogenous, small RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by inducing degradation or translational inhibition of target mRNAs. Aberrant expression of miRNAs appears to be a common characteristic of hematological malignancies including leukemias. Here we review the available data supporting a role of aberrant expression of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of leukemias including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The expression signatures of miRNAs provide exciting opportunities in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of leukemia. Since miRNAs can function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in leukemogenesis, the potential of using these small RNAs as therapeutic targets opens up new opportunities for leukemia therapy by either inhibiting or augmenting their activity.

  6. Investigation of the effect of phytohormone on the expression of microRNA-159a in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings based on mimic enzyme catalysis systematic electrochemical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yunlei; Wang, Mo; Xu, Zhenning; Ni, Cailing; Yin, Huanshun; Ai, Shiyun

    2014-04-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play very important roles in plant growth and development as well as phytohormones. More importantly, microRNAs were recently found to be a new growth regulator involved in plant hormone signaling. Therefore, for investigating the expression change of microRNAs in plants exposed to phytohormones and understanding the effect of phytohormones on microRNAs expression, we developed a simple, sensitive, and label-free method for microRNAs biosensing based on mimic enzyme catalysis signal amplification, where carboxylic graphene-hemin hybrid nanosheets was synthesized and used to catalyze the oxidation reaction of hydroquinone in the presence of H2O2 due to the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of hemin on the carboxylic graphene surface. The electrochemical reduction current of the oxidative product of benzoquinone was depended on the hybridization amount of microRNAs and used to monitor the microRNAs hybridization event. Under optimal detection conditions, the current response was proportional to the logarithm concentration of microRNA-159a from 0.5 pM to 1.0 nM with the detection limit of 0.17 pM (S/N=3). The fabricated biosensor showed highly reproducible (Relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.53% for 10 biosensors fabricated independently) and detection selectivity (Even discriminating single-base mismatched microRNA sequence). We also found that abscisic acid, a kind of phytohormone, had greatly influence on microRNA-159a expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. With increasing abscisic acid concentration and prolonging incubation time, both the expression level of microRNA-159a increased. This graphene-hemin-based approach provides a novel avenue to detect microRNA with high sensitivity and selectivity while avoiding laborious label, disadvantages of bio-enzymes and complex operations for microRNAs separation and enrichment, which might be attractive for genetic analysis and clinic biomedical application.

  7. MicroRNA-33 promotes the replicative senescence of mouse embryonic fibroblasts by suppressing CDK6

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Shun; Huang, Haijiao; Li, Nanhong; Zhang, Bing; Jia, Yubin; Yang, Yukun; Yuan, Yuan; Xiong, Xing-dong; Wang, Dengchuan; Zheng, Hui-ling; Liu, Xinguang

    2016-05-13

    MicroRNAs are a large class of tiny noncoding RNAs, which have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression, and thus are involved in multiple cellular processes, including cellular senescence. MicroRNA-33 has previously been established to exert crucial effect on cell proliferation, lipid metabolism and cholesterol metabolism. Nonetheless, the association between microRNA-33 and cellular senescence and its underlying molecular mechanism are far to be elucidated. The present study has attempted to probe into the effect of microRNA-33 on MEFs senescence. Our data unveiled that microRNA-33 was dramatically down-regulated in senescent MEFs compared to the young MEFs, and ectopic expression of microRNA-33 promoted MEFs senescence, while knock-down of microRNA-33 exhibited a protective effect against senescence phenotype. Moreover, we verified CDK6 as a direct target of microRNA-33 in mouse. Silencing of CDK6 induced the premature senescence phenotype of MEFs similarly as microRNA-33, while enforced expression of CDK6 significantly reverse the senescence-induction effect of microRNA-33. Taken together, our results suggested that microRNA-33 enhanced the replicative senescence of MEFs potentially by suppressing CDK6 expression. -- Highlights: •MicroRNA-33 was dramatically down-regulated in senescent MEF cells. •Altered expression of microRNA-33 exerted a critical role in MEFs senescence. •MicroRNA-33 promoted the replicative senescence of MEFs via targeting of CDK6.

  8. Retracted: Differential expression of microRNAs in myometrium and leiomyomas and regulation by ovarian steroids.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The above article, published online on 20 December 2007 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Professor L Popescu and John Wiley and Sons Ltd. The retraction has been requested by the University of Florida, Office of Research, in response to their investigation which concluded fabrication of data in Figures 2, 3 and 4. Reference Pan Q, Luo X, Chegini N. Retracted: differential expression of microRNAs in myometrium and leiomyomas and regulation by ovarian steroids. J Cell Mol Med 12: 227-240. Doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2007.00207.x.

  9. MicroRNA-200c modulates DUSP-1 expression in diabetes-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurinder Bir; Raut, Satish K; Khanna, Sanskriti; Kumar, Akhilesh; Sharma, Saurabh; Prasad, Rishikesh; Khullar, Madhu

    2017-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38) are upregulated in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Dual-specific phosphatase-1 (DUSP-1) has been reported to regulate the activity of MAPKs in cardiac hypertrophy; however, the role of DUSP-1 in regulating MAPKs activity in DCM is not known. MicroRNAs have been reported to regulate the expression of several genes in hypertrophied failing hearts. However, little is known about the microRNAs regulating DUSP-1 expression in diabetes-related cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, we investigated the role of DUSP-1 and miR-200c in diabetes-induced cardiac hypertrophy. DCM was induced in Wistar rats by low-dose Streptozotocin high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Cardiac expression of ERK, p-38, JNK, DUSP-1, miR-200c, and hypertrophy markers (ANP and β-MHC) was studied in DCM in control rats and in high-glucose (HG)-treated rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. miR-200c inhibition was performed to validate DUSP-1 as target. A significant increase in phosphorylated ERK, p38, and JNK was observed in DCM model and in HG-treated cardiomyocytes (p < 0.05). Expression of DUSP-1 was significantly decreased in diabetes group and in HG-treated cardiomyocytes (p < 0.05). Increased expression of miR-200c was observed in DCM model and in HG-treated cardiomyocytes (p < 0.05). Inhibition of miR-200c induces the expression of the DUSP-1 causing decreased expression of phosphorylated ERK, p38, and JNK and attenuated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in HG-treated cardiomyocytes. miR-200c plays a role in diabetes-associated cardiac hypertrophy by modulating expression of DUSP-1.

  10. Expression and trafficking of placental microRNAs at the feto-maternal interface.

    PubMed

    Chang, Guojing; Mouillet, Jean-François; Mishima, Takuya; Chu, Tianjiao; Sadovsky, Elena; Coyne, Carolyn B; Parks, W Tony; Surti, Urvashi; Sadovsky, Yoel

    2017-07-01

    During pregnancy, placental trophoblasts at the feto-maternal interface produce a broad repertoire of microRNA (miRNA) species. These species include miRNA from the primate-specific chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC), which is expressed nearly exclusively in the placenta. Trafficking of these miRNAs among the maternal, placental, and fetal compartments is unknown. To determine miRNA expression and trafficking patterns during pregnancy, we sequenced miRNAs in triads of human placenta and of maternal and fetal blood and found large subject-to-subject variability, with C19MC exhibiting compartment-specific expression. We therefore created humanized mice that transgenically express the entire 160-kb human C19MC locus or lentivirally express C19MC miRNA members selectively in the placenta. C19MC transgenic mice expressed a low level of C19MC miRNAs in diverse organs. When pregnant, female C19MC mice exhibited a strikingly elevated (>40-fold) expression of C19MC miRNA in the placenta, compared with other organs, that resembled C19MC miRNAs patterns in humans. Our mouse models showed that placental miRNA traffic primarily to the maternal circulation and that maternal miRNA can traffic to the placenta and even into the fetal compartment. These findings define an extraordinary means of nonhormonal, miRNA-based communication between the placenta and feto-maternal compartments.-Chang, G., Mouillet, J.-F., Mishima, T., Chu, T., Sadovsky, E., Coyne, C. B., Parks, W. T., Surti, U., Sadovsky, Y. Expression and trafficking of placental microRNAs at the feto-maternal interface. © FASEB.

  11. Hepatic expression and cellular distribution of the glucose transporter family

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Sumera; Adams, David H; Lalor, Patricia F

    2012-01-01

    Glucose and other carbohydrates are transported into cells using members of a family of integral membrane glucose transporter (GLUT) molecules. To date 14 members of this family, also called the solute carrier 2A proteins have been identified which are divided on the basis of transport characteristics and sequence similarities into several families (Classes 1 to 3). The expression of these different receptor subtypes varies between different species, tissues and cellular subtypes and each has differential sensitivities to stimuli such as insulin. The liver is a contributor to metabolic carbohydrate homeostasis and is a major site for synthesis, storage and redistribution of carbohydrates. Situations in which the balance of glucose homeostasis is upset such as diabetes or the metabolic syndrome can lead metabolic disturbances that drive chronic organ damage and failure, confirming the importance of understanding the molecular regulation of hepatic glucose homeostasis. There is a considerable literature describing the expression and function of receptors that regulate glucose uptake and release by hepatocytes, the most import cells in glucose regulation and glycogen storage. However there is less appreciation of the roles of GLUTs expressed by non parenchymal cell types within the liver, all of which require carbohydrate to function. A better understanding of the detailed cellular distribution of GLUTs in human liver tissue may shed light on mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis. This review summarises the available literature on hepatocellular expression of GLUTs in health and disease and highlights areas where further investigation is required. PMID:23239915

  12. Impact of microRNA regulation on variation in human gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian; Clark, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously expressed small RNAs that regulate expression of mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level. The consequence of miRNA regulation is hypothesized to reduce the expression variation of target genes. However, it is possible that mutations in miRNAs and target sites cause rewiring of the miRNA regulatory networks resulting in increased variation in gene expression. By examining variation in gene expression patterns in human populations and between human and other primate species, we find that miRNAs have stabilized expression of a small number of target genes during primate evolution. Compared with genes not regulated by miRNAs, however, genes regulated by miRNAs overall have higher expression variation at the population level, and they display greater variation in expression among human ethnic groups or between human and other primate species. By integrating expression data with genotypes determined in the HapMap 3 and the 1000 Genomes Projects, we found that expression variation in miRNAs, genetic variants in miRNA loci, and mutations in miRNA target sites are important sources of elevated expression variation of miRNA target genes. A reasonable case can be made that natural selection is driving this pattern of variation. PMID:22456605

  13. MicroRNA-381 Regulates Chondrocyte Hypertrophy by Inhibiting Histone Deacetylase 4 Expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weishen; Sheng, Puyi; Huang, Zhiyu; Meng, Fangang; Kang, Yan; Huang, Guangxin; Zhang, Zhiqi; Liao, Weiming; Zhang, Ziji

    2016-08-23

    Chondrocyte hypertrophy, regulated by Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13), is a crucial step in cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. We previously demonstrated that microRNA-381 (miR-381) promotes MMP13 expression during chondrogenesis and contributes to cartilage degeneration; however, the mechanism underlying this process remained unclear. In this study, we observed divergent expression of miR-381 and histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), an enzyme that directly inhibits RUNX2 and MMP13 expression, during late-stage chondrogenesis of ATDC5 cells, as well as in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes during long bone development in E16.5 mouse embryos. We therefore investigated whether this miRNA regulates HDAC4 expression during chondrogenesis. Notably, overexpression of miR-381 inhibited HDAC4 expression but promoted RUNX2 expression. Moreover, transfection of SW1353 cells with an miR-381 mimic suppressed the activity of a reporter construct containing the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of HDAC4. Conversely, treatment with a miR-381 inhibitor yielded increased HDAC4 expression and decreased RUNX2 expression. Lastly, knockdown of HDAC4 expression resulted in increased RUNX2 and MMP13 expression in SW1353 cells. Collectively, our results indicate that miR-381 epigenetically regulates MMP13 and RUNX2 expression via targeting of HDAC4, thereby suggesting the possibilities of inhibiting miR-381 to control chondrocyte hypertrophy and cartilage degeneration.

  14. Hierarchical Generative Biclustering for MicroRNA Expression Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldas, José; Kaski, Samuel

    Clustering methods are a useful and common first step in gene expression studies, but the results may be hard to interpret. We bring in explicitly an indicator of which genes tie each cluster, changing the setup to biclustering. Furthermore, we make the indicators hierarchical, resulting in a hierarchy of progressively more specific biclusters. A non-parametric Bayesian formulation makes the model rigorous and yet flexible, and computations feasible. The formulation additionally offers a natural information retrieval relevance measure that allows relating samples in a principled manner. We show that the model outperforms other four biclustering procedures in a large miRNA data set. We also demonstrate the model's added interpretability and information retrieval capability in a case study that highlights the potential and novel role of miR-224 in the association between melanoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Software is publicly available.

  15. MicroRNA-33 suppresses CCL2 expression in chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Meng; Xie, Qingyun; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Fan; Cheng, Yue; Guo, Dongyang; Wang, Ying; Mo, Liweng; Wang, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    CCL2-mediated macrophage infiltration in articular tissues plays a pivotal role in the development of the osteoarthritis (OA). miRNAs regulate the onset and progression of diseases via controlling the expression of a series of genes. How the CCL2 gene was regulated by miRNAs was still not fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that the binding sites of miR-33 in the 3′UTR of CCL2 gene were conserved in human, mouse and rat species. By performing gain- or loss-of-function studies, we verified that miR-33 suppressed CCL2 expression in the mRNA and protein levels. We also found that miR-33 suppressed the CCL2 levels in the supernatant of cultured primary mouse chondrocytes. With reporter gene assay, we demonstrated that miR-33 targeted at AAUGCA in the 3′UTR of CCL2 gene. In transwell migration assays, we demonstrated that the conditional medium (CM) from miR-33 deficient chondrocytes potentiated the monocyte chemotaxis in a CCL2 dependent manner. Finally, we demonstrated that the level of miR-33 was decreased, whereas the CCL2 level was increased in the articular cartilage from the OA patients compared with the control group. In summary, we identified miR-33 as a novel suppressor of CCL2 in chondrocytes. The miR-33/CCL2 axis in chondrocytes regulates monocyte chemotaxis, providing a potential mechanism of macrophage infiltration in OA. PMID:27129293

  16. A bioinformatics tool for linking gene expression profiling results with public databases of microRNA target predictions

    PubMed Central

    Creighton, Chad J.; Nagaraja, Ankur K.; Hanash, Samir M.; Matzuk, Martin M.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short (∼22 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs that regulate the stability and translation of mRNA targets. A number of computational algorithms have been developed to help predict which microRNAs are likely to regulate which genes. Gene expression profiling of biological systems where microRNAs might be active can yield hundreds of differentially expressed genes. The commonly used public microRNA target prediction databases facilitate gene-by-gene searches. However, integration of microRNA–mRNA target predictions with gene expression data on a large scale using these databases is currently cumbersome and time consuming for many researchers. We have developed a desktop software application which, for a given target prediction database, retrieves all microRNA:mRNA functional pairs represented by an experimentally derived set of genes. Furthermore, for each microRNA, the software computes an enrichment statistic for overrepresentation of predicted targets within the gene set, which could help to implicate roles for specific microRNAs and microRNA-regulated genes in the system under study. Currently, the software supports searching of results from PicTar, TargetScan, and miRanda algorithms. In addition, the software can accept any user-defined set of gene-to-class associations for searching, which can include the results of other target prediction algorithms, as well as gene annotation or gene-to-pathway associations. A search (using our software) of genes transcriptionally regulated in vitro by estrogen in breast cancer uncovered numerous targeting associations for specific microRNAs—above what could be observed in randomly generated gene lists—suggesting a role for microRNAs in mediating the estrogen response. The software and Excel VBA source code are freely available at http://sigterms.sourceforge.net. PMID:18812437

  17. microRNA-92a expression in the sera and dermal fibroblasts increases in patients with scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Sing, Takaomi; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Yamane, Keitaro; Honda, Norihito; Makino, Kastunari; Kajihara, Ikko; Makino, Takamitsu; Sakai, Keisuke; Masuguchi, Shinichi; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2012-09-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play a part in various cellular activities. However, the role of miRNA in SSc is not fully understood. This study investigated the expression and role of miR-92a in SSc patients and evaluated the possibility that miR-92a is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. Serum samples were obtained from 61 SSc patients. mRNAs were purified from serum and levels of miR-92a and miR-135 were measured with quantitative real-time PCR. miR-92a expression in dermal fibroblasts was also determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Immunoblotting was performed to detect MMP-1 protein. The median serum levels of miR-92a, not miR-135, were significantly higher in SSc patients than normal subjects. The constitutive up-regulated miR-92a expression was also found in cultured dermal fibroblasts from SSc skin, which was decreased by the transfection with siRNA of TGF-β. Furthermore, the forced overexpression of miR-92a in normal dermal fibroblasts using miR-92a mimic resulted in the down-regulation of MMP-1 expression. The increase of miR-92a in SSc may be due to the stimulation of intrinsic TGF-β activation seen in this disease. There is also a possibility that MMP-1 is the target of miR-92a and that increased miR-92a expression therefore plays a role in excessive collagen accumulation in SSc via the down-regulation of MMP-1. Clarifying the role of miRNAs in SSc may result in a better understanding of this disease and the development of new therapeutic approaches.

  18. Profiling analysis of circulating microRNA expression in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Nagamitsu, Yuzo; Nishi, Hirotaka; Sasaki, Toru; Takaesu, Yotaro; Terauchi, Fumitoshi; Isaka, Keiichi

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is altered in cancer cells and is associated with the development and progression of various types of cancer. Accordingly, miRNAs may serve as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers in cancer patients. In this study, we attempted to analyze circulating exosomal miRNA in patients with cervical cancer. Total RNA was extracted from the serum of healthy subjects, subjects with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and patients with cervical cancer. We first investigated miRNA expression profiles in 6 serum samples from healthy subjects and patients with cervical cancer using the miRCURY LNA microRNA array. miRNAs with significant differences in expression were validated in a larger sample set by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, using TaqMan gene expression assays. The results of the miRCURY LNA microRNA array indicated that 6 of 1,223 miRNAs found in serum samples from cervical cancer patients and normal controls exhibited a >3.0-fold change in expression level in subjects with cervical cancer, with a P-value of <0.01. In a validation set (n=131) that investigated the expression of 4 of the 6 miRNAs (miR-483-5p, miR-1246, miR-1275 and miR-1290), miR-1290 was found to have significantly higher expression levels in cervical cancer samples (n=45) compared with control samples (n=31). We also found that the median levels of these miRNAs were significantly higher in subjects with cervical cancer (n=45) compared with those in subjects with CIN (n=55). Circulating miRNAs were not correlated with clinicopathological parameters. However, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested that these serum miRNAs may be useful diagnostic markers in cervical cancer. The expression of circulating miR-1290 was significantly higher in the blood of cervical cancer patients compared with that in controls and may thus serve as a useful biomarker in cervical cancer diagnosis. However, larger studies are required to fully

  19. WHIRLIN INCREASES TRPV1 CHANNEL EXPRESSION AND CELLULAR STABILITY

    PubMed Central

    Ciardo, Maria Grazia; Andrés-Bordería, Amparo; Cuesta, Natalia; Valente, Pierluigi; Camprubí-Robles, María; Yang, Jun; Planells-Cases, Rosa; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The expression and function of TRPV1 is influenced by its interaction with cellular proteins. Here, we identify whirlin, a cytoskeletal PDZ-scaffold protein implicated in hearing, vision and mechanosensory transduction, as an interacting partner of TRPV1. Whirlin associates with TRPV1 in cell lines and in primary cultures of rat nociceptors. Whirlin is expressed in 55% of mouse sensory C-fibers, including peptidergic and non-peptidergic nociceptors, and co-localizes with TRPV1 in 70% of them. Heterologous expression of Whirlin increased TRPV1 protein expression and trafficking to the plasma membrane, and promoted receptor clustering. Silencing Whirlin expression with siRNA or blocking protein translation resulted in a concomitant degradation of TRPV1 that could be prevented by inhibiting the proteasome. The degradation kinetics of TRPV1 upon arresting protein translation mirrored that of Whirlin in cells co-expressing both proteins, suggesting a parallel degradation mechanism. Noteworthy, Whirlin expression significantly reduced TRPV1 degradation induced by prolonged exposure to capsaicin. Thus, our findings indicate that Whirlin and TRPV1 are associated in a subset of nociceptors and that TRPV1 protein stability is increased through the interaction with the cytoskeletal scaffold protein. Our results suggest that the Whirlin-TRPV1 complex may represent a novel molecular target and its pharmacological disruption might be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of peripheral TRPV1-mediated disorders. PMID:26516054

  20. Tumour-expressed tissue factor inhibits cellular cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Colman, Lucy M; Collier, Mary E W; Dyer, Charlotte E; Greenman, John; Ettelaie, Camille

    2006-11-01

    The association between tissue factor (TF) expression and increased rate of tumour metastasis is well established. In this study, we have examined the hypothesis that the expression of TF by disseminated tumour cells confers protection against immune recognition and cytotoxicity. A hybrid EGFP-TF protein was expressed in HT29 colon carcinoma and K562 lymphoblast cell lines. To assess the cytotoxic activity against tumour cells over-expressing TF, a novel method was used, based on the direct measurement of fluorescently labelled HT29 or K562 target cells. Upon challenge with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), tumour cells expressing TF partially evaded cellular cytotoxicity (Delta=15-40% reduction in cytotoxicity). Moreover, the influence of TF was not primarily dependent on its procoagulant function, although the inclusion of 20% (v/v) plasma did lower the rate of cytotoxicity against untransfected cells. However, expression of a truncated form of TF, devoid of the cytoplasmic domain, did not mediate any degree of inhibition of cytotoxicity, suggesting that the protective function of TF is principally due to this domain. We conclude that TF can promote immune evasion in tumour cells expressing this protein leading to increased survival and therefore metastatic rate in such cells.

  1. Expression of MicroRNAs in Human Post-mortem Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Spinal Cords Provides Insight into Disease Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lunn, J. Simon; Paez-Colasante, Ximena; Bender, Diane E.; Yung, Raymond; Sakowski, Stacey A.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a late-onset and terminal neurodegenerative disease. The majority of cases are sporadic with unknown causes and only a small number of cases are genetically linked. Recent evidence suggests that post-transcriptional regulation and epigenetic mechanisms, such as microRNAs, underlie the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders; therefore, altered microRNA expression may result in the dysregulation of key genes and biological pathways that contribute to the development of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Using systems biology analyses on postmortem human spinal cord tissue, we identified dysregulated mature microRNAs and their potential targets previously implicated in functional process and pathways associated with the pathogenesis of ALS. Furthermore, we report a global reduction of mature microRNAs, alterations in microRNA processing, and support for a role of the nucleotide binding protein, TAR DNA binding protein 43, in regulating sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated microRNAs, thereby offering a potential underlying mechanism for sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:26704906

  2. Expression of microRNAs in human post-mortem amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cords provides insight into disease mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Romero, Claudia; Hur, Junguk; Lunn, J Simon; Paez-Colasante, Ximena; Bender, Diane E; Yung, Raymond; Sakowski, Stacey A; Feldman, Eva L

    2016-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a late-onset and terminal neurodegenerative disease. The majority of cases are sporadic with unknown causes and only a small number of cases are genetically linked. Recent evidence suggests that post-transcriptional regulation and epigenetic mechanisms, such as microRNAs, underlie the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders; therefore, altered microRNA expression may result in the dysregulation of key genes and biological pathways that contribute to the development of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Using systems biology analyses on postmortem human spinal cord tissue, we identified dysregulated mature microRNAs and their potential targets previously implicated in functional process and pathways associated with the pathogenesis of ALS. Furthermore, we report a global reduction of mature microRNAs, alterations in microRNA processing, and support for a role of the nucleotide binding protein, TAR DNA binding protein 43, in regulating sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated microRNAs, thereby offering a potential underlying mechanism for sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of Serum microRNA Expression Profiles and Comparison with Small Intestinal microRNA Expression Profiles in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xin; Xu, Ziwei; Men, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Weaning stress induces tissue injuries and impairs health and growth in piglets, especially during the first week post-weaning. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in regulating stresses and diseases. Our previous study found multiple differentially expressed miRNAs in small intestine of piglets at four days post-weaning. To better understand the roles of miRNAs during weaning stress, we analyzed the serum miRNA expressional profile in weaned piglets (at four days post-weaning) and in suckling piglets (control) of the same age using miRNA microarray technology. We detected a total of 300 expressed miRNAs, 179 miRNAs of which were differentially expressed between the two groups. The miRNA microarray results were validated by RT-qPCR. The biological functions of these differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted by GO terms and KEGG pathway annotations. We identified 10 highly expressed miRNAs in weaned piglets including miR-31, miR-205, and miR-21 (upregulated) and miR-144, miR-30c-5p, miR-363, miR-194a, miR-186, miR-150, and miR-194b-5p (downregulated). Additionally, miR-194b-5p expression was significantly downregulated in serum and small intestine of weaned piglets. Our results suggest that weaning stress affects serum miRNA profiles in piglets. And serum miR-194b-5p levels can reflect its expressional changes in small intestine of piglets by weaning stress. PMID:27632531

  4. Differential microRNA regulation of HLA-C expression and its association with HIV control

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Smita; Savan, Ram; Qi, Ying; Gao, Xiaojiang; Yuki, Yuko; Bass, Sara E.; Martin, Maureen P.; Hunt, Peter; Deeks, Steven G.; Telenti, Amalio; Pereyra, Florencia; Goldstein, David; Wolinsky, Steven; Walker, Bruce; Young, Howard A.; Carrington, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The HLA-C locus is distinct relative to the other classical HLA class I loci in that it has relatively limited polymorphism1, lower expression on the cell surface2,3, and more extensive ligand-receptor interactions with killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR)4. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 35Kb upstream of HLA-C (rs9264942; termed −35) associates with control of HIV5–7, and with levels of HLA-C mRNA transcripts8 and cell surface expression7, but the mechanism underlying its varied expression is unknown. We proposed that the −35 SNP is not the causal variant for differential HLA-C expression, but rather is marking another polymorphism that directly affects levels of HLA-C7. Here we show that variation within the 3′ untranslated region of HLA-C regulates binding of the microRNA Hsa-miR-148a to its target site, resulting in relatively low surface expression of alleles that bind this microRNA and high expression of HLA-C alleles that escape post-transcriptional regulation. The 3′UTR variant associates strongly with control of HIV, potentially adding to the effects of genetic variation encoding the peptide-binding region of the HLA class I loci. Variation in HLA-C expression adds another layer of diversity to this highly polymorphic locus that must be considered when deciphering the function of these molecules in health and disease. PMID:21499264

  5. MicroRNA-30b-Mediated Regulation of Catalase Expression in Human ARPE-19 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Rashidul; Chun, Eugene; Howell, Jennifer C.; Sengupta, Trisha; Chen, Dan; Kim, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Background Oxidative injury to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and retinal photoreceptors has been linked to a number of retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated gene expression has been extensively studied at transcriptional levels. Also, the post-transcriptional control of gene expression at the level of translational regulation has been recently reported. However, the microRNA (miRNA/miR)-mediated post-transcriptional regulation in human RPE cells has not been thoroughly looked at. Increasing evidence points to a potential role of miRNAs in diverse physiological processes. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrated for the first time in a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) that the post-transcriptional control of gene expression via miRNA modulation regulates human catalase, an important and potent component of cell's antioxidant defensive network, which detoxifies hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radicals. Exposure to several stress-inducing agents including H2O2 has been reported to alter miRNA expression profile. Here, we demonstrated that a sublethal dose of H2O2 (200 µM) up-regulated the expression of miR-30b, a member of the miR-30 family, which inhibited the expression of endogenous catalase both at the transcript and protein levels. However, antisense (antagomirs) of miR-30b was not only found to suppress the miR-30b mimics-mediated inhibitions, but also to dramatically increase the expression of catalase even under an oxidant environment. Conclusions/Significance We propose that a microRNA antisense approach could enhance cytoprotective mechanisms against oxidative stress by increasing the antioxidant defense system. PMID:22880027

  6. Integration of mRNA expression profile, copy number alterations, and microRNA expression levels in breast cancer to improve grade definition.

    PubMed

    Cava, Claudia; Bertoli, Gloria; Ripamonti, Marilena; Mauri, Giancarlo; Zoppis, Italo; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Defining the aggressiveness and growth rate of a malignant cell population is a key step in the clinical approach to treating tumor disease. The correct grading of breast cancer (BC) is a fundamental part in determining the appropriate treatment. Biological variables can make it difficult to elucidate the mechanisms underlying BC development. To identify potential markers that can be used for BC classification, we analyzed mRNAs expression profiles, gene copy numbers, microRNAs expression and their association with tumor grade in BC microarray-derived datasets. From mRNA expression results, we found that grade 2 BC is most likely a mixture of grade 1 and grade 3 that have been misclassified, being described by the gene signature of either grade 1 or grade 3. We assessed the potential of the new approach of integrating mRNA expression profile, copy number alterations, and microRNA expression levels to select a limited number of genomic BC biomarkers. The combination of mRNA profile analysis and copy number data with microRNA expression levels led to the identification of two gene signatures of 42 and 4 altered genes (FOXM1, KPNA4, H2AFV and DDX19A) respectively, the latter obtained through a meta-analytical procedure. The 42-based gene signature identifies 4 classes of up- or down-regulated microRNAs (17 microRNAs) and of their 17 target mRNA, and the 4-based genes signature identified 4 microRNAs (Hsa-miR-320d, Hsa-miR-139-5p, Hsa-miR-567 and Hsa-let-7c). These results are discussed from a biological point of view with respect to pathological features of BC. Our identified mRNAs and microRNAs were validated as prognostic factors of BC disease progression, and could potentially facilitate the implementation of assays for laboratory validation, due to their reduced number.

  7. MicroRNA expression profiling in Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhanyun; Shi, Qiguang; Huang, Wenhui; Xing, Chunye; Hao, Yanlei; Feng, Xungang; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Aimei; Kong, Qingxia; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Wang, Yuzhong

    2016-12-15

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory autoimmune disease affecting the peripheral nervous system. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that play critical roles in the process of various diseases. The miRNAs in GBS were less studied. In this study, using microarray technology, we found two miRNAs including has-miR-4717-5p and has-miR-642b-5p were upregulated in patients with GBS, which were further confirmed by PCR analysis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that the dysregulated miRNAs may be involved in the mechanism of GBS by affecting the cellular differentiation, cell survival and axonal outgrowth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Expression of microRNA-126 in myocardial tissue of rats in the early stage of severe burn injury and its relation with myocardial damage].

    PubMed

    Xie, Qionghui; Ye, Ziqing; Chen, Lan; Zhao, Chaoli; Ruan, Qiongfang; Xie, Weiguo

    2015-10-01

    To observe the changes in the expressions of microRNA-126 in myocardial tissue and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in serum of rats in the early stage of severe burn injury with analysis of their relationship, and to validate the relationship between microRNA-126 and myocardial damage in cellular level. (1) Forty-eight SD rats were divided into sham injury group (n=8, without fluid therapy after sham injury) and burn injury group (n=40, inflicted with 30% TBSA full-thickness scald on the back, hereinafter referred to as burn, and received intraperitoneally injection of lactic acid Ringer's solution) according to the random number table. Blood was collected from abdominal aorta of rats in sham injury group at post injury hour (PIH) 1, and then these 8 rats were sacrificed for obtaining left ventricular tissue. Blood was respectively collected from abdominal aorta of 8 rats in burn injury group at PIH 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48, and then they were sacrificed and the left ventricular tissue was obtained at each time point. The expression of microRNA-126 in myocardial tissue was assessed by real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR. Serum level of cTnI was assessed by ELISA. (2) Rat myocardial cell line H9C2 was divided into normal control group (NC, routinely cultured), stimulation group (S), negative transfection+stimulation group (NT+S), and transfection+stimulation group (T+S) according to the random number table. Cells in S group were treated with hypoxia for 24 h after being cultured with DMEM containing 10% burn serum obtained from rats in burn injury group at PIH 6 in experiment (1). Cells in NT+S group and T+S group were respectively transfected with the negative control of microRNA mimics and microRNA-126 mimics for 24 h, and then were given the same treatment as that of S group. The expression of microRNA-126 in myocardial cells was determined by real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR (with the sample number of 3). Cell counting kit 8 was used to examine the vitality

  9. MicroRNA-150-regulated vectors allow lymphocyte-sparing transgene expression in hematopoietic gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Lachmann, N; Jagielska, J; Heckl, D; Brennig, S; Pfaff, N; Maetzig, T; Modlich, U; Cantz, T; Gentner, B; Schambach, A; Moritz, T

    2012-09-01

    Endogenous microRNA (miRNA) expression can be exploited for cell type-specific transgene expression as the addition of miRNA target sequences to transgenic cDNA allows for transgene downregulation specifically in cells expressing the respective miRNAs. Here, we have investigated the potential of miRNA-150 target sequences to specifically suppress gene expression in lymphocytes and thereby prevent transgene-induced lymphotoxicity. Abundance of miRNA-150 expression specifically in differentiated B and T cells was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Mono- and bicistronic lentiviral vectors were used to investigate the effect of miRNA-150 target sequences on transgene expression in the lymphohematopoietic system. After in vitro studies demonstrated effective downregulation of transgene expression in murine B220(+) B and CD3(+) T cells, the concept was further verified in a murine transplant model. Again, marked suppression of transgene activity was observed in B220(+) B and CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells whereas expression in CD11b(+) myeloid cells, lin(-) and lin(-)/Sca1(+) progenitors, or lin(-)/Sca1(+)/c-kit(+) stem cells remained almost unaffected. No toxicity of miRNA-150 targeting in transduced lymphohematopoietic cells was noted. Thus, our results demonstrate the suitability of miRNA-150 targeting to specifically suppress transgene expression in lymphocytes and further support the concept of miRNA targeting for cell type-specific transgene expression in gene therapy approaches.

  10. MicroRNA expression and its association with DNA repair in preimplantation embryos

    PubMed Central

    TULAY, Pinar; SENGUPTA, Sioban B.

    2016-01-01

    Active DNA repair pathways are crucial for preserving genomic integrity and are likely among the complex mechanisms involved in the normal development of preimplantation embryos. MicroRNAs (miRNA), short non-coding RNAs, are key regulators of gene expression through the post-transcriptional and post-translational modification of mRNA. The association of miRNA expression with infertility or polycystic ovarian syndrome has been widely investigated; however, there are limited data regarding the importance of miRNA regulation in DNA repair during preimplantation embryo development. In this article, we review normal miRNA biogenesis and consequences of aberrant miRNA expression in the regulation of DNA repair in gametes and preimplantation embryos. PMID:26853522

  11. Expression of microRNAs is dynamically regulated during cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tatsuguchi, Mariko; Seok, Hee Young; Callis, Thomas E.; Thomson, J. Michael; Chen, Jian-Fu; Newman, Martin; Rojas, Mauricio; Hammond, Scott M.; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2007-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently discovered class of ∼22-nucleotide regulatory RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. We have recently demonstrated that muscle-specific miRNAs miR-1 and -133 play an important role in modulating muscle proliferation and differentiation. Here, we investigate the involvement of miRNAs in cardiac hypertrophy. We analyzed the global expression of miRNAs in agonist-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes as well as in pressure overload-induced hypertrophic hearts and found the miRNA expression profile altered in those hypertrophic conditions. We further show that inhibition of endogenous miR-21 or -18b augments hypertrophic growth. Conversely, introduction of functional miR-21 or -18b into cardiomyocytes represses myocyte hypertrophy. Together, our studies point to miRNAs as critical regulators of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:17498736

  12. Calcitriol increases Dicer expression and modifies the microRNAs signature in SiHa cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    González-Duarte, Ramiro José; Cázares-Ordoñez, Verna; Romero-Córdoba, Sandra; Díaz, Lorenza; Ortíz, Víctor; Freyre-González, Julio Augusto; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Larrea, Fernando; Avila, Euclides

    2015-08-01

    MicroRNAs play important roles in cancer biology. Calcitriol, the hormonal form of vitamin D3, regulates microRNAs expression in tumor cells. In the present study we asked if calcitriol would modify some of the components of the microRNA processing machinery, namely, Drosha and Dicer, in calcitriol-responsive cervical cancer cells. We found that calcitriol treatment did not affect Drosha mRNA; however, it significantly increased Dicer mRNA and protein expression in VDR-positive SiHa and HeLa cells. In VDR-negative C33-A cells, calcitriol had no effect on Dicer mRNA. We also found a vitamin D response element in Dicer promoter that interacts in vitro to vitamin D and retinoid X receptors. To explore the biological plausibility of these results, we asked if calcitriol alters the microRNA expression profile in SiHa cells. Our results revealed that calcitriol regulates the expression of a subset of microRNAs with potential regulatory functions in cancer pathways, such as miR-22, miR-296-3p, and miR-498, which exert tumor-suppressive effects. In summary, the data indicate that in SiHa cells, calcitriol stimulates the expression of Dicer possibly through the vitamin D response element located in its promoter. This may explain the calcitriol-dependent modulation of microRNAs whose target mRNAs are related to anticancer pathways, further adding to the various anticancer mechanisms of calcitriol.

  13. Endothelial microparticles reduce ICAM-1 expression in a microRNA-222-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Felix; Yang, Xiaoyan; Baumann, Katharina; Przybilla, David; Schmitz, Theresa; Flender, Anna; Paul, Kathrin; Alhusseiny, Adil; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMP) are released from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells (ECs) and can be taken up by adjacent ECs, but their effect on vascular inflammation after engulfment is largely unknown. We sought to determine the role of EMP in EC inflammation. In vitro, EMP treatment significantly reduced tumour necrosis factor-α-induced endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression on mRNA and protein level, whereas there was no effect on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Reduced ICAM-1 expression after EMP treatment resulted in diminished monocyte adhesion in vitro. In vivo, systemic treatment of ApoE−/− mice with EMP significantly reduced murine endothelial ICAM-1 expression. To explore the underlying mechanisms, Taqman microRNA array was performed and microRNA (miR)-222 was identified as the strongest regulated miR between EMP and ECs. Following experiments demonstrated that miR-222 was transported into recipient ECs by EMP and functionally regulated expression of its target protein ICAM-1 in vitro and in vivo. After simulating diabetic conditions, EMP derived from glucose-treated ECs contained significantly lower amounts of miR-222 and showed reduced anti-inflammatory capacity in vitro and in vivo. Finally, circulating miR-222 level was diminished in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to patients without CAD. EMPs promote anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo by reducing endothelial ICAM-1 expression via the transfer of functional miR-222 into recipient cells. In pathological hyperglycaemic conditions, EMP-mediated miR-222-dependent anti-inflammatory effects are reduced. PMID:26081516

  14. Expression signature of microRNA-155 in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection.

    PubMed

    Riad, Sarah Ehab; El-Ekiaby, Nada; Mekky, Radwa Yehia; Ahmed, Rasha; El Din, Mohammad Ahmed Mohey; El-Sayed, Mohammad; Abouelkhair, Mahmoud Mohammad; Salah, Ayman; Zekri, Abdel Rahman; Esmat, Gamal; Abdelaziz, Ahmed Ihab

    2015-01-01

    Hepatits C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (GT4) shows low treatment response rates and discrepancies when compared to other genotypes. However, the reason underlying these discrepancies remains unclear due to the limited number of studies on GT4. microRNA-155 (miR-155) is a noteworthy example of a discrepancy in GT4, as it was found to be upregulated in genotypes 1, 2 and 3 HCV infection, but downregulated in GT4-HCV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The present study aimed to investigate the expression of miR-155 in PBMCs, serum and liver tissues of GT4-HCV-infected patients. miR-155 expression was assessed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in GT4-HCV-infected PBMCs, serum and liver tissues, as well as GT2- and GT4-infected Huh7 cells, and compared to the healthy controls. There was no difference in miR-155 expression observed between naïve GT4-HCV patients and healthy controls in the PBMCs and serum. In HCV-infected liver tissues, however, a significant downregulation was observed. The unique miR-155 expression pattern during GT4 infection was confirmed in the infected Huh7 cell lines when compared to GT2 infection. Clinical data showed a positive correlation between liver transaminases and serum miR-155 expression. In addition, serum miR-155 expression was significantly lower in naïve non-responders (NRs) than naïve sustained virological responders (SVRs), and in post-treatment NRs compared to post-treatment SVRs. In conclusion, miR-155 was not only proven to be a genotype-specific microRNA that is not induced during GT4-HCV infection, but also a good prognostic factor and predictor of response to treatment enabling a non-invasive differentiation between NRs and SVRs during GT4-HCV infection.

  15. Endothelial microparticles reduce ICAM-1 expression in a microRNA-222-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Felix; Yang, Xiaoyan; Baumann, Katharina; Przybilla, David; Schmitz, Theresa; Flender, Anna; Paul, Kathrin; Alhusseiny, Adil; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2015-09-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMP) are released from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells (ECs) and can be taken up by adjacent ECs, but their effect on vascular inflammation after engulfment is largely unknown. We sought to determine the role of EMP in EC inflammation. In vitro, EMP treatment significantly reduced tumour necrosis factor-α-induced endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression on mRNA and protein level, whereas there was no effect on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Reduced ICAM-1 expression after EMP treatment resulted in diminished monocyte adhesion in vitro. In vivo, systemic treatment of ApoE-/- mice with EMP significantly reduced murine endothelial ICAM-1 expression. To explore the underlying mechanisms, Taqman microRNA array was performed and microRNA (miR)-222 was identified as the strongest regulated miR between EMP and ECs. Following experiments demonstrated that miR-222 was transported into recipient ECs by EMP and functionally regulated expression of its target protein ICAM-1 in vitro and in vivo. After simulating diabetic conditions, EMP derived from glucose-treated ECs contained significantly lower amounts of miR-222 and showed reduced anti-inflammatory capacity in vitro and in vivo. Finally, circulating miR-222 level was diminished in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to patients without CAD. EMPs promote anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo by reducing endothelial ICAM-1 expression via the transfer of functional miR-222 into recipient cells. In pathological hyperglycaemic conditions, EMP-mediated miR-222-dependent anti-inflammatory effects are reduced.

  16. MicroRNA-31 controls phenotypic modulation of human vascular smooth muscle cells by regulating its target gene cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jie; Yan, Cheng-Hui; Li, Yang; Xu, Kai; Tian, Xiao-Xiang; Peng, Cheng-Fei; Tao, Jie; Sun, Ming-Yu; Han, Ya-Ling

    2013-05-01

    Phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of a variety of proliferative vascular diseases. The cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG) has been shown to play an important role in phenotypic modulation of VSMCs. However, the mechanism regulating CREG upstream signaling remains unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been found to play a critical role in cell differentiation via target-gene regulation. This study aimed to identify a miRNA that binds directly to CREG, and may thus be involved in CREG-mediated VSMC phenotypic modulation. Computational analysis indicated that miR-31 bound to the CREG mRNA 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR). miR-31 was upregulated in quiescent differentiated VSMCs and downregulated in proliferative cells stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor and serum starvation, demonstrating a negative relationship with the VSMC differentiation marker genes, smooth muscle α-actin, calponin and CREG. Using gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, CREG and VSMC differentiation marker gene expression levels were shown to be suppressed by a miR-31 mimic, but increased by a miR-31 inhibitor at both protein and mRNA levels. Notably, miR-31 overexpression or inhibition affected luciferase expression driven by the CREG 3′-UTR containing the miR-31 binding site. Furthermore, miR-31-mediated VSMC phenotypic modulation was inhibited in CREG-knockdown human VSMCs. We also determined miR-31 levels in the serum of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), with or without in stent restenosis and in healthy controls. miR-31 levels were higher in the serum of CAD patients with restenosis compared to CAD patients without restenosis and in healthy controls. In summary, these data demonstrate that miR-31 not only directly binds to its target gene CREG and modulates the VSMC phenotype through this interaction, but also can be an important biomarker in diseases involving VSMC

  17. Distribution of cellular HSV-1 receptor expression in human brain.

    PubMed

    Lathe, Richard; Haas, Juergen G

    2016-12-15

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus linked to a range of acute and chronic neurological disorders affecting distinct regions of the brain. Unusually, HSV-1 entry into cells requires the interaction of viral proteins glycoprotein D (gD) and glycoprotein B (gB) with distinct cellular receptor proteins. Several different gD and gB receptors have been identified, including TNFRSF14/HVEM and PVRL1/nectin 1 as gD receptors and PILRA, MAG, and MYH9 as gB receptors. We investigated the expression of these receptor molecules in different areas of the adult and developing human brain using online transcriptome databases. Whereas all HSV-1 receptors showed distinct expression patterns in different brain areas, the Allan Brain Atlas (ABA) reported increased expression of both gD and gB receptors in the hippocampus. Specifically, for PVRL1, TNFRFS14, and MYH9, the differential z scores for hippocampal expression, a measure of relative levels of increased expression, rose to 2.9, 2.9, and 2.5, respectively, comparable to the z score for the archetypical hippocampus-enriched mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2, z = 3.1). These data were confirmed at the Human Brain Transcriptome (HBT) database, but HBT data indicate that MAG expression is also enriched in hippocampus. The HBT database allowed the developmental pattern of expression to be investigated; we report that all HSV1 receptors markedly increase in expression levels between gestation and the postnatal/adult periods. These results suggest that differential receptor expression levels of several HSV-1 gD and gB receptors in the adult hippocampus are likely to underlie the susceptibility of this brain region to HSV-1 infection.

  18. Cellular reprogramming of human amniotic fluid cells to express insulin.

    PubMed

    Gage, Blair K; Riedel, Michael J; Karanu, Francis; Rezania, Alireza; Fujita, Yukihiro; Webber, Travis D; Baker, Robert K; Wideman, Rhonda D; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2010-01-01

    Islet transplantation represents a potential cure for type 1 diabetes; however, a lack of sufficient donor material limits its clinical use. To address the shortfall of islet availability, surrogate insulin-producing cells are sought. Studies suggest that human amniotic fluid (hAF) contains multipotent progenitor cells capable of differentiating to all three germ layers. Here, we used high-content, live-cell imaging to assess the ability to reprogram hAF cells towards a beta cell phenotype. A fluorescent reporter system was developed where DsRed express (DSRE) expression is driven by the human insulin promoter. Using integrative lentiviral technology, we created stable reporter hAF cells that could be routinely monitored for insulin promoter activation. These cells were subjected to combinatorial high-content screening using adenoviral-mediated expression of up to six transcription factors important for beta cell development. Cells were monitored for DSRE expression which revealed an optimal combination of the transcription factors required to induce insulin gene expression in hAF cells. These optimally induced cells were examined for expression of additional beta cell transcription factors and proteins involved in glucose sensing and insulin processing. RT-qPCR revealed very low level expression of insulin that was ultimately insufficient to reverse streptozotocin-induced diabetes following sub-capsular kidney transplantation. High-content, live-cell imaging using fluorescent reporter cells provides a convenient method for repeated assessment of cellular reprogramming. hAF cells could be reprogrammed to express key beta cell proteins, however insulin gene expression was insufficient to reverse hyperglycemia in diabetic animals. Copyright © 2010 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fine-tuning the expression of microRNA-155 controls acetaminophen-induced liver inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Zhang, Xue; Lv, Lei; Zhang, Jiwei; Liang, Wei; Wang, Peng

    2016-11-01

    Treatment of acetaminophen (APAP) in overdose can cause a potentially serious and fatal liver injury. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155), a multifunctional microRNA, is known to mediate inflammatory responses via regulating various target genes. In this study, we aimed to study the role of miR-155 in APAP-induced liver injury, using miR-155-/- mice and miR-155 in vivo intervention. We noted that miR-155 expression was significantly increased in liver and blood after APAP treatment. Knockout of miR-155 deteriorated APAP-induced liver damage, with the elevated serum levels of AST and ALT. The levels of various inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and IL-6, were markedly augmented in livers in the absence of miR-155. Moreover, miR-155 deficiency aberrantly activated NF-kappa-B signaling via enhancing p65 and IKKε expression. Finally, in vivo administration of miR-155 agomir attenuated APAP-induced liver damage, reduced the serum levels of AST and ALT, and dampened the NF-kB signaling. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that miR-155 protects the mice against APAP-induced liver damage via mediating NF-KB signaling pathway, suggesting that miR-155 might be a potential pharmaceutic target for treatment of APAP-induced liver inflammation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MicroRNA-101 Regulates Amyloid Precursor Protein Expression in Hippocampal Neurons*

    PubMed Central

    Vilardo, Elisa; Barbato, Christian; Ciotti, MariaTeresa; Cogoni, Carlo; Ruberti, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its proteolytic product amyloid beta (Aβ) are associated with both familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer disease (AD). Aberrant expression and function of microRNAs has been observed in AD. Here, we show that in rat hippocampal neurons cultured in vitro, the down-regulation of Argonaute-2, a key component of the RNA-induced silencing complex, produced an increase in APP levels. Using site-directed mutagenesis, a microRNA responsive element (RE) for miR-101 was identified in the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of APP. The inhibition of endogenous miR-101 increased APP levels, whereas lentiviral-mediated miR-101 overexpression significantly reduced APP and Aβ load in hippocampal neurons. In addition, miR-101 contributed to the regulation of APP in response to the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-lβ). Thus, miR-101 is a negative regulator of APP expression and affects the accumulation of Aβ, suggesting a possible role for miR-101 in neuropathological conditions. PMID:20395292

  1. MicroRNA expression profiling altered by variant dosage of radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuei-Fang; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Liu, Ingrid Y; Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Various biological effects are associated with radiation exposure. Irradiated cells may elevate the risk for genetic instability, mutation, and cancer under low levels of radiation exposure, in addition to being able to extend the postradiation side effects in normal tissues. Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is the focus of rigorous research as it may promote the development of cancer even at low radiation doses. Alterations in the DNA sequence could not explain these biological effects of radiation and it is thought that epigenetics factors may be involved. Indeed, some microRNAs (or miRNAs) have been found to correlate radiation-induced damages and may be potential biomarkers for the various biological effects caused by different levels of radiation exposure. However, the regulatory role that miRNA plays in this aspect remains elusive. In this study, we profiled the expression changes in miRNA under fractionated radiation exposure in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. By utilizing publicly available microRNA knowledge bases and performing cross validations with our previous gene expression profiling under the same radiation condition, we identified various miRNA-gene interactions specific to different doses of radiation treatment, providing new insights for the molecular underpinnings of radiation injury.

  2. MicroRNA Expression Profiling Altered by Variant Dosage of Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuei-Fang; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Liu, Ingrid Y.; Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Various biological effects are associated with radiation exposure. Irradiated cells may elevate the risk for genetic instability, mutation, and cancer under low levels of radiation exposure, in addition to being able to extend the postradiation side effects in normal tissues. Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is the focus of rigorous research as it may promote the development of cancer even at low radiation doses. Alterations in the DNA sequence could not explain these biological effects of radiation and it is thought that epigenetics factors may be involved. Indeed, some microRNAs (or miRNAs) have been found to correlate radiation-induced damages and may be potential biomarkers for the various biological effects caused by different levels of radiation exposure. However, the regulatory role that miRNA plays in this aspect remains elusive. In this study, we profiled the expression changes in miRNA under fractionated radiation exposure in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. By utilizing publicly available microRNA knowledge bases and performing cross validations with our previous gene expression profiling under the same radiation condition, we identified various miRNA-gene interactions specific to different doses of radiation treatment, providing new insights for the molecular underpinnings of radiation injury. PMID:25313363

  3. Detecting pan-cancer conserved microRNA modules from microRNA expression profiles across multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaowen; Zhang, Junying; Yuan, Xiguo; Liu, Baobao; Liu, Yajun; Li, Aimin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Xiaohan; Tuo, Shouheng

    2015-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an indispensable role in cancer initiation and progression. Different cancers have some common hallmarks in general. Analyzing miRNAs that consistently contribute to different cancers can help us to discover the relationship between miRNAs and traits shared by cancers. Most previous works focus on analyzing single miRNA. However, dysregulation of a single miRNA is generally not sufficient to contribute to complex cancer processes. In this study, we put emphasis on analyzing cooperation of miRNAs across cancers. We assume that miRNAs can cooperatively regulate oncogenic pathways and contribute to cancer hallmarks. Such a cooperation is modeled by a miRNA module referred to as a pan-cancer conserved miRNA module. The module consists of miRNAs which simultaneously regulate cancers and are significantly intra-correlated. A novel computational workflow for the module discovery is presented. Multiple modules are discovered from miRNA expression profiles using the method. The function of top two ranked modules are analyzed using the mRNAs which correlate to all the miRNAs in a module across cancers, inferring that the two modules function in regulating the cell cycle which relates to cancer hallmarks as self sufficiency in growth signals and insensitivity to antigrowth signals. Additionally, two novel miRNAs mir-590 and mir-629 are found to cooperate with well-known onco-miRNAs in the modules to contribute to cancers. We also found that PTEN, which is a well known tumor suppressor that regulates the cell cycle, is a common target of miRNAs in the top-one module and cooperative control of PTEN can be a reason for the miRNAs' cooperation. We believe that analyzing the cooperative mechanism of the miRNAs in modules rather than focusing on only single miRNAs may help us know more about the complicated relationship between miRNAs and cancers and develop more effective treatment strategies for cancers.

  4. MicroRNA expression signature of castration-resistant prostate cancer: the microRNA-221/222 cluster functions as a tumour suppressor and disease progression marker

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Yusuke; Kojima, Satoko; Nishikawa, Rika; Kurozumi, Akira; Kato, Mayuko; Enokida, Hideki; Matsushita, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Kazuto; Ishida, Yasuo; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Naya, Yukio; Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Seki, Naohiko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Our present study of the microRNA (miRNA) expression signature in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) revealed that the clustered miRNAs microRNA-221 (miR-221) and microRNA-222 (miR-222) are significantly downregulated in cancer tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional roles of miR-221 and miR-222 in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. Methods: A CRPC miRNA signature was constructed by PCR-based array methods. Functional studies of differentially expressed miRNAs were analysed using PCa cells. The association between miRNA expression and overall survival was estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method. In silico database and genome-wide gene expression analyses were performed to identify molecular targets regulated by the miR-221/222 cluster. Results: miR-221 and miR-222 were significantly downregulated in PCa and CRPC specimens. Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed that low expression of miR-222 predicted a short duration of progression to CRPC. Restoration of miR-221 or miR-222 in cancer cells revealed that both miRNAs significantly inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. Ecm29 was directly regulated by the miR-221/222 cluster in PCa cells. Conclusions: Loss of the tumour-suppressive miR-221/222 cluster enhanced migration and invasion in PCa cells. Our data describing targets regulated by the tumour-suppressive miR-221/222 cluster provide insights into the mechanisms of PCa and CRPC progression. PMID:26325107

  5. MicroRNAs Regulate Cellular ATP Levels by Targeting Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism Genes during C2C12 Myoblast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Siengdee, Puntita; Trakooljul, Nares; Murani, Eduard; Schwerin, Manfred; Wimmers, Klaus; Ponsuksili, Siriluck

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, we identified an miRNA regulatory network involved in energy metabolism in porcine muscle. To better understand the involvement of miRNAs in cellular ATP production and energy metabolism, here we used C2C12 myoblasts, in which ATP levels increase during differentiation, to identify miRNAs modulating these processes. ATP level, miRNA and mRNA microarray expression profiles during C2C12 differentiation into myotubes were assessed. The results suggest 14 miRNAs (miR-423-3p, miR-17, miR-130b, miR-301a/b, miR-345, miR-15a, miR-16a, miR-128, miR-615, miR-1968, miR-1a/b, and miR-194) as cellular ATP regulators targeting genes involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism (Cox4i2, Cox6a2, Ndufb7, Ndufs4, Ndufs5, and Ndufv1) during C2C12 differentiation. Among these, miR-423-3p showed a high inverse correlation with increasing ATP levels. Besides having implications in promoting cell growth and cell cycle progression, its function in cellular ATP regulation is yet unknown. Therefore, miR-423-3p was selected and validated for the function together with its potential target, Cox6a2. Overexpression of miR-423-3p in C2C12 myogenic differentiation lead to decreased cellular ATP level and decreased expression of Cox6a2 compared to the negative control. These results suggest miR-423-3p as a novel regulator of ATP/energy metabolism by targeting Cox6a2.

  6. MicroRNAs Regulate Cellular ATP Levels by Targeting Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism Genes during C2C12 Myoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Siengdee, Puntita; Trakooljul, Nares; Murani, Eduard; Schwerin, Manfred; Wimmers, Klaus; Ponsuksili, Siriluck

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, we identified an miRNA regulatory network involved in energy metabolism in porcine muscle. To better understand the involvement of miRNAs in cellular ATP production and energy metabolism, here we used C2C12 myoblasts, in which ATP levels increase during differentiation, to identify miRNAs modulating these processes. ATP level, miRNA and mRNA microarray expression profiles during C2C12 differentiation into myotubes were assessed. The results suggest 14 miRNAs (miR-423-3p, miR-17, miR-130b, miR-301a/b, miR-345, miR-15a, miR-16a, miR-128, miR-615, miR-1968, miR-1a/b, and miR-194) as cellular ATP regulators targeting genes involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism (Cox4i2, Cox6a2, Ndufb7, Ndufs4, Ndufs5, and Ndufv1) during C2C12 differentiation. Among these, miR-423-3p showed a high inverse correlation with increasing ATP levels. Besides having implications in promoting cell growth and cell cycle progression, its function in cellular ATP regulation is yet unknown. Therefore, miR-423-3p was selected and validated for the function together with its potential target, Cox6a2. Overexpression of miR-423-3p in C2C12 myogenic differentiation lead to decreased cellular ATP level and decreased expression of Cox6a2 compared to the negative control. These results suggest miR-423-3p as a novel regulator of ATP/energy metabolism by targeting Cox6a2. PMID:26010876

  7. Oxidative Nanopatterning of Titanium Surface Influences mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in Human Alveolar Bone Osteoblastic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wimmers Ferreira, Maidy Rehder; Rodrigo Fernandes, Roger; Freire Assis, Amanda; Dernowsek, Janaína A.; Passos, Geraldo A.; Variola, Fabio; Fittipaldi Bombonato-Prado, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Titanium implants have been extensively used in orthopedic and dental applications. It is well known that micro- and nanoscale surface features of biomaterials affect cellular events that control implant-host tissue interactions. To improve our understanding of how multiscale surface features affect cell behavior, we used microarrays to evaluate the transcriptional profile of osteoblastic cells from human alveolar bone cultured on engineered titanium surfaces, exhibiting the following topographies: nanotexture (N), nano+submicrotexture (NS), and rough microtexture (MR), obtained by modulating experimental parameters (temperature and solution composition) of a simple yet efficient chemical treatment with a H2SO4/H2O2 solution. Biochemical assays showed that cell culture proliferation augmented after 10 days, and cell viability increased gradually over 14 days. Among the treated surfaces, we observed an increase of alkaline phosphatase activity as a function of the surface texture, with higher activity shown by cells adhering onto nanotextured surfaces. Nevertheless, the rough microtexture group showed higher amounts of calcium than nanotextured group. Microarray data showed differential expression of 716 mRNAs and 32 microRNAs with functions associated with osteogenesis. Results suggest that oxidative nanopatterning of titanium surfaces induces changes in the metabolism of osteoblastic cells and contribute to the explanation of the mechanisms that control cell responses to micro- and nanoengineered surfaces. PMID:27200092

  8. MicroRNA-21 Down-regulates Rb1 Expression by Targeting PDCD4 in Retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fengmei; Mo, Meng-Hsuan; Chen, Liang; An, Shejuan; Tan, Xiaohui; Fu, Yebo; Rezaei, Katayoon; Wang, Zuoren; Zhang, Lin; Fu, Sidney W

    2014-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is a children's ocular cancer caused by mutated retinoblastoma 1 (Rb1) gene on both alleles. Rb1 and other related genes could be regulated by microRNAs (miRNA) via complementarily pairing with their target sites. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) possesses the oncogenic potential to target several tumor suppressor genes, including PDCD4, and regulates tumor progression and metastasis. However, the mechanism of how miR-21 regulates PDCD4 is poorly understood in RB. We investigated the expression of miRNAs in RB cell lines and identified that miR-21 is one of the most deregulated miRNAs in RB. Using qRT-PCR, we verified the expression level of several miRNAs identified by independent microarray assays, and analyzed miRNA expression patterns in three RB cell lines, including Weri-Rb1, Y79 and RB355. We found that miR-19b, -21, -26a, -195 and -222 were highly expressed in all three cell lines, suggesting their potential role in RB tumorigenesis. Using the TargetScan program, we identified a list of potential target genes of these miRNAs, of which PDCD4 is one the targets of miR-21. In this study, we focused on the regulatory mechanism of miR-21 on PDCD4 in RB. We demonstrated an inverse correlation between miR-21 and PDCD4 expression in Weri-Rb1 and Y79 cells. These data suggest that miR-21 down-regulates Rb1 by targeting PDCD4 tumor suppressor. Therefore, miR-21 could serve as a therapeutic target for retinoblastoma.

  9. Spaceflight alters expression of microRNA during T-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Chang, Tammy T.; Martinez, Emily M.; Li, Chai-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Altered immune function has been demonstrated in astronauts during spaceflights dating back to Apollo and Skylab; this could be a major barrier to long-term space exploration. We tested the hypothesis that spaceflight causes changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression. Human leukocytes were stimulated with mitogens on board the International Space Station using an onboard normal gravity control. Bioinformatics showed that miR-21 was significantly up-regulated 2-fold during early T-cell activation in normal gravity, and gene expression was suppressed under microgravity. This was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR (n = 4). This is the first report that spaceflight regulates miRNA expression. Global microarray analysis showed significant (P < 0.05) suppression of 85 genes under microgravity conditions compared to normal gravity samples. EGR3, FASLG, BTG2, SPRY2, and TAGAP are biologically confirmed targets and are co-up-regulated with miR-21. These genes share common promoter regions with pre-mir-21; as the miR-21 matures and accumulates, it most likely will inhibit translation of its target genes and limit the immune response. These data suggest that gravity regulates T-cell activation not only by transcription promotion but also by blocking translation via noncoding RNA mechanisms. Moreover, this study suggests that T-cell activation itself may induce a sequence of gene expressions that is self-limited by miR-21.—Hughes-Fulford, M., Chang, T. T., Martinez, E. M., Li, C.-F. Spaceflight alters expression of microRNA during T-cell activation. PMID:26276131

  10. Microarray analysis reveals altered circulating microRNA expression in mice infected with Coxsackievirus B3

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chaoyu; Tong, Lei; Zhao, Wenran; Wang, Yan; Meng, Yuan; Lin, Lexun; Liu, Bingchen; Zhai, Yujia; Zhong, Zhaohua; Li, Xueqi

    2016-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a common causative agent in the development of inflammatory cardiomyopathy. However, whether the expression of peripheral blood microRNAs (miRNAs) is altered in this process is unknown. The present study investigated changes to miRNA expression in the peripheral blood of CVB3-infected mice. Utilizing miRNA microarray technology, differential miRNA expression was examined between normal and CVB3-infected mice. The present results suggest that specific miRNAs were differentially expressed in the peripheral blood of mice infected with CVB3, varying with infection duration. Using miRNA microarray analysis, a total of 96 and 89 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in the peripheral blood of mice infected with CVB3 for 3 and 6 days, respectively. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to validate differentially expressed miRNAs, revealing a consistency of these results with the miRNA microarray analysis results. The biological functions of the differentially expressed miRNAs were then predicted by bioinformatics analysis. The potential biological roles of differentially expressed miRNAs included hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. These results may provide important insights into the mechanisms responsible for the progression of CVB3 infection. PMID:27698715

  11. MicroRNA Expression Patterns in Human Astrocytes in Relation to Anatomical Location and Age.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vijayaraghava T S; Ludwin, Samuel K; Fuh, Shih-Chieh; Sawaya, Robin; Moore, Craig S; Ho, Ming-Kai; Bedell, Barry J; Sarnat, Harvey B; Bar-Or, Amit; Antel, Jack P

    2016-02-01

    Anatomic distribution and age are variables linked to functions of astrocytes under physiologic and pathologic conditions. We measured the relative expression of a panel of microRNAs (miRNAs) in astrocytes captured by laser micro-dissection from normal human adult white and grey matter, human fetal white matter and germinal matrix samples. Although expression of most miRNAs was comparable between adult and fetal samples, regional differences were observed. In the adult cerebral cortex, expression of miRNAs in morphologically distinct inter-laminar astrocytes underlying the glial limitans differed from those in deeper cortical layers, suggesting functional specialization possibly related to structural stability and defense from potentially harmful factors in the cerebrospinal fluid. Differences between adult white and grey matter miRNA expression included higher expression of pro-inflammatory miRNAs in the former, potentially contributing to differences in inflammation between grey and white matter plaques in multiple sclerosis. Lower expression of miRNAs in fetal versus adult white matter astrocytes likely reflects the immaturity of these migrating cells. Highly expressed miRNAs in the fetal germinal matrix are probably relevant in development and also recapitulate some responses to injury. Future studies can address regional alterations of miRNA expression in pathological conditions.

  12. Analysis of gene expression EGFR and KRAS, microRNA-21 and microRNA-203 in patients with colon and rectal cancer and correlation with clinical outcome and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Thais Inácio de; Novais, Paulo Cezar; Lizarte, Fermino Sanches; Sicchieri, Renata Danielle; Rosa, Marcella Suelma Torrecillas; Carvalho, Camila Albuquerque Mello de; Tirapelli, Daniela Pretti da Cunha; Peria, Fernanda Maris; Rocha, José Joaquim Ribeiro da; Féres, Omar

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the expression of EGFR, KRAS genes, microRNAs-21 and 203 in colon and rectal cancer samples, correlated with their age at diagnosis, histological subtype, value of pretreatment CEA, TNM staging and clinical outcome. Expression of genes and microRNAs by real time PCR in tumor and non-tumor samples obtained from surgical treatment of 50 patients. An increased expression of microRNAs-21 and 203 in tumor samples in relation to non-tumor samples was found. There was no statistically significant difference between the expression of these genes and microRNAs when compared to age at diagnosis and histological subtype. The EGFR gene showed higher expression in relation to the value of CEA diagnosis. The expression of microRNA-203 was progressively lower in relation to the TNM staging and was higher in the patient group in clinical remission. The therapy of colon and rectum tumors based on microRNAs remains under investigation reserving huge potential for future applications and clinical interventions in conjunction with existing therapies. We expect, based on the exposed data, to stimulate the development of new therapeutic possibilities, making the treatment of these tumors more effective.

  13. Suppression of microRNA-29 Expression by TGF-β1 Promotes Collagen Expression and Renal Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Komers, Radko; Carew, Rosemarie; Winbanks, Catherine E.; Xu, Bei; Herman-Edelstein, Michal; Koh, Philip; Thomas, Merlin; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin; Gregorevic, Paul; Cooper, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) within the glomerulus and interstitium characterizes renal fibrosis, but the mechanisms underlying this process are incompletely understood. The profibrotic cytokine TGF-β1 modulates the expression of certain microRNAs (miRNAs), suggesting that miRNAs may have a role in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. Here, we exposed proximal tubular cells, primary mesangial cells, and podocytes to TGF-β1 to examine its effect on miRNAs and subsequent collagen synthesis. TGF-β1 reduced expression of the miR-29a/b/c/family, which targets collagen gene expression, and increased expression of ECM proteins. In both resting and TGF-β1–treated cells, ectopic expression of miR-29 repressed the expression of collagens I and IV at both the mRNA and protein levels by targeting the 3′untranslated region of these genes. Furthermore, we observed low levels of miR-29 in three models of renal fibrosis representing early and advanced stages of disease. Administration of the Rho-associated kinase inhibitor fasudil prevented renal fibrosis and restored expression of miR-29. Taken together, these data suggest that TGF-β1 inhibits expression of the miR-29 family, thereby promoting expression of ECM components. Pharmacologic modulation of these miRNAs may have therapeutic potential for progressive renal fibrosis. PMID:22095944

  14. Downregulation of Gabra4 expression during alcohol withdrawal is mediated by specific microRNAs in cultured mouse cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Bekdash, Rola A; Harrison, Neil L

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence are a serious public health problem. A large number of alcohol-regulated genes, (ARGs) are known to be influenced by alcohol use and withdrawal (AW), and recent evidence suggests that neuroadaptation to alcohol may be due in part to epigenetic changes in the expression of ARGs. Gabra4, which encodes the α4 subunit of GABAA receptors (GABAARs), is one of a number of ARGs that show remarkable plasticity in response to alcohol, being rapidly upregulated by acute alcohol exposure. This study addressed the effects of AW on changes in the expression of Gabra4 and related genes that encode other subunits of GABAARs, and the potential regulation of Gabra4 by microRNAs. We studied gene and microRNAs expression, using RT-PCR and microRNA microarray in cultured cortical neurons treated with alcohol, which was then removed in order to simulate AW in vitro. We also used microRNA mimics or inhibitors, and a promoter-reporter construct carrying the 3'UTR of Gabra4. Eleven hours after removal of alcohol, Gabra4 was downregulated, with a modest increase in the expression of Gabrg2, but no change in the expression of Gabra1, Gabrd, or Gabrb2. microRNA profiling in neurons undergoing AW revealed upregulation in the expression of miR-155, miR-186, miR-24, and miR-375 after 8 h of AW. Transfection with molecular mimics of miR-186, miR-24, or miR-375 also downregulated Gabra4 expression, whereas transfection with the corresponding inhibitors of these microRNAs normalized Gabra4 expression in AW neurons to the level measured in control neurons. Promoter-reporter experiments supported the idea that miR-155, miR-186, miR-24, miR-27b, or miR-375 bind to the 3'UTR of Gabra4 and thereby inhibit protein production. Our data suggest that AW decreases Gabra4 expression, and that this may be mediated in part by the induction of specific microRNAs in cortical neurons during AW.

  15. Effects of Simulated Microgravity on the Expression Profile of Microrna in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Wu, Honglu; Ramesh, Govindarajan; Rohde, Larry; Story, Michael; Mangala, Lingegowda

    2012-07-01

    EFFECTS OF SIMULATED MICROGRAVITY ON THE EXPRESSION PROFILE OF MICRORNA IN HUMAN LYMPHOBLASTOID CELLS Lingegowda S. Mangala1,2, Ye Zhang1,3, Zhenhua He2, Kamal Emami1, Govindarajan T. Ramesh4, Michael Story 5, Larry H. Rohde2, and Honglu Wu1 1 NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, USA 2 University of Houston Clear Lake, Houston, Texas, USA 3 Wyle Integrated Science and Engineering Group, Houston, Texas, USA 4 Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA, USA 5 University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA This study explores the changes in expression of microRNA (miRNA) and related genes under simulated microgravity conditions. In comparison to static 1g, microgravity has been shown to alter global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells or animals. miRNA has recently emerged as an important regulator of gene expression, possibly regulating as many as one-third of all human genes. However, very little is known about the effect of altered gravity on miRNA expression. To test the hypothesis that the miRNA expression profile would be altered in zero gravity resulting in altered regulation of gene expression leading to metabolic or functional changes in cells, we cultured TK6 human lymphoblastoid cells in a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV; bioreactor) for 72 h either in the rotating condition to model microgravity in space or in the static condition as a control. Expression of several miRNA was changed significantly in the simulated microgravity condition including miR-150, miR-34a, miR-423-5p, miR-22 and miR-141, miR-618 and miR-222. To confirm whether this altered miRNA expression correlates with gene expression and functional changes of the cells, we performed DNA microarray and validated the related genes using q-RT PCR. Network and pathway analysis of gene and miRNA expression profiles indicates that the regulation of cell communication and catalytic activities, as well as pathways involved in immune response_IL-15

  16. Genome-wide analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression signatures in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-hui; Fu, Sheng-bo; Xiao, Hua-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is an extremely diverse and complex disease that results from various genetic and epigenetic changes such as DNA copy-number variations, mutations, and aberrant mRNA and/or protein expression caused by abnormal transcriptional regulation. The expression profiles of certain microRNAs (miRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are closely related to cancer progression stages. In the past few decades, DNA microarray and next-generation sequencing techniques have been widely applied to identify miRNA and mRNA signatures for cancers on a genome-wide scale and have provided meaningful insights into cancer diagnosis, prognosis and personalized medicine. In this review, we summarize the progress in genome-wide analysis of miRNAs and mRNAs as cancer biomarkers, highlighting their diagnostic and prognostic roles. PMID:26299954

  17. MicroRNA-181 targets Yin Yang 1 expression and inhibits cervical cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Yu; Chen, Jin-Chan; Jiao, Ting-Ting; Hui, Ning; Qi, Xuan

    2015-06-01

    Dysregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been observed in numerous types of human cancer, including cervical cancer (CC). The present study aimed to elucidate the expression and roles of miR‑181 in cervical cancer tissues and cells. HeLa cells with a stable overexpression of miR‑181 were generated and injected subcutaneously into the front legs of nude mice. Functional assays revealed a reduced rate of proliferation and an enhanced rate of apoptosis following transfection of CC cells with miR‑181 mimics. In addition, miR‑181 also suppressed tumor growth in the nude mice. At the molecular level, it was found that Yin Yang 1, an oncogene in several types of human cancer, was negatively regulated by miR‑181. Therefore, the findings of the present study suggest that exogenous overexpression of miR‑181 may be a potential approach for the treatment of CC in the future.

  18. Dysregulation of microRNA expression in human cervical preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Galamb, Ádám; Benczik, Márta; Zinner, Balázs; Vígh, Eszter; Baghy, Kornélia; Jeney, Csaba; Kiss, András; Lendvai, Gábor; Sobel, Gábor

    2015-07-01

    Data discussed in recent reviews demonstrated that dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles occurs during cervical carcinogenesis and characteristic up- or downregulation of certain miRNAs might be used as biomarkers. The majority of altered miRNAs, however were found to be inconsistent upon comparison with cancerous and normal cervical epithelia in the discussed studies due to several reasons. The results obtained in this present review suggest the need for further investigations on miRNAs on larger sample sizes in order to indicate sensitivity and specificity by means of well defined, "unified" methods. In addition, obtaining further data on the clinical course and outcome of patients in comparison to the dysregulation of miRNA expression profile could turn miRNAs into prognostic and/or progression markers. Inhibition of overexpressed miRNAs, as suggested by some authors, might even serve as target for cancer therapy.

  19. MicroRNA-203 induces apoptosis by upregulating Puma expression in colon and lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Funamizu, Naotake; Lacy, Curtis R; Kamada, Minori; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between microRNA-203 (miR-203) and the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma) in colon (HCT116) and lung cancer (A549) cells. Colon and lung cancer cell lines were selected for this study since a relationship between p53/miR-203 and p53/Puma has been established in both cancers. In the present study, adriamycin and nutlin-3 were used to activate p53, which induced both miR-203 and Puma expression in HCT116 cells. In contrast, HCT 116 cells with downregulated p53 showed decreased miR-203 and Puma expression. Importantly, we found that overexpressed miR-203 in HCT116 cells resulted in significantly increased Puma expression (P<0.05). Based on these findings, we hypothesized that another limb of the p53/Puma axis depends on miR-203 expression. To further validate this relationship, we used lung cancer cells (A549) and found that activated p53 increased both miR-203 and Puma expression. In addition, we found that Puma expression remained elevated in cells with overexpressed miR-203 in the presence of p53 downregulation. Cumulatively, our data purport that p53 not only increased Puma expression directly, but that it may also do so through miR-203. Additionally, functional studies revealed that miR-203 overexpression induced apoptosis and inhibited cell invasiveness.

  20. A Database of microRNA Expression Patterns in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Moxon, Simon; Lopez-Gomollon, Sara; Viaut, Camille; Tomlinson, Matthew L.; Patrushev, Ilya; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Dalmay, Tamas; Dotlic, Dario; Münsterberg, Andrea E.; Wheeler, Grant N.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs around 22 nucleotides long. They inhibit gene expression either by translational repression or by causing the degradation of the mRNAs they bind to. Many are highly conserved amongst diverse organisms and have restricted spatio-temporal expression patterns during embryonic development where they are thought to be involved in generating accuracy of developmental timing and in supporting cell fate decisions and tissue identity. We determined the expression patterns of 180 miRNAs in Xenopus laevis embryos using LNA oligonucleotides. In addition we carried out small RNA-seq on different stages of early Xenopus development, identified 44 miRNAs belonging to 29 new families and characterized the expression of 5 of these. Our analyses identified miRNA expression in many organs of the developing embryo. In particular a large number were expressed in neural tissue and in the somites. Surprisingly none of the miRNAs we have looked at show expression in the heart. Our results have been made freely available as a resource in both XenMARK and Xenbase. PMID:26506012

  1. A Database of microRNA Expression Patterns in Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ayisha; Ward, Nicole J; Moxon, Simon; Lopez-Gomollon, Sara; Viaut, Camille; Tomlinson, Matthew L; Patrushev, Ilya; Gilchrist, Michael J; Dalmay, Tamas; Dotlic, Dario; Münsterberg, Andrea E; Wheeler, Grant N

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, non-coding RNAs around 22 nucleotides long. They inhibit gene expression either by translational repression or by causing the degradation of the mRNAs they bind to. Many are highly conserved amongst diverse organisms and have restricted spatio-temporal expression patterns during embryonic development where they are thought to be involved in generating accuracy of developmental timing and in supporting cell fate decisions and tissue identity. We determined the expression patterns of 180 miRNAs in Xenopus laevis embryos using LNA oligonucleotides. In addition we carried out small RNA-seq on different stages of early Xenopus development, identified 44 miRNAs belonging to 29 new families and characterized the expression of 5 of these. Our analyses identified miRNA expression in many organs of the developing embryo. In particular a large number were expressed in neural tissue and in the somites. Surprisingly none of the miRNAs we have looked at show expression in the heart. Our results have been made freely available as a resource in both XenMARK and Xenbase.

  2. Detection of mammalian microRNA expression by in situ hybridization with RNA oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Deo, Monika; Yu, Jenn-Yah; Chung, Kwan-Ho; Tippens, Melissa; Turner, David L

    2006-09-01

    We have developed an in situ hybridization procedure for the detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) in tissue sections from mouse embryos and adult organs. The method uses highly specific washing conditions for RNA oligonucleotide probes conjugated to a fluorescein hapten. We show that this method detects predominantly mature miRNAs rather than the miRNA precursors or primary transcripts. We have determined expression patterns for several miRNAs expressed in the developing and adult nervous system, including miR-124a, miR-9, miR-92, and miR-204. Whereas miR-124a is expressed in neurons, miR-9 is expressed in neural progenitors and some neurons, and miR-204 is expressed in the choroid plexus, retinal pigment epithelium, and ciliary body. miR-204 is located in an intron of the TRPM3 gene, and the TRPM3 mRNA is coexpressed with miR-204 in the choroid plexus. We also find that primary transcripts for miR-124a and miR-9 genes are expressed in patterns similar to their respective mature miRNAs. The ability to visualize expression of specific miRNAs in embryos and tissues should aid studies on miRNA function.

  3. MicroRNA-520g Confers Drug Resistance by Regulating p21 Expression in Colorectal Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; Geng, Liying; Talmon, Geoffrey; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Development of drug resistance is one of the major causes of colorectal cancer recurrence, yet mechanistic understanding and therapeutic options remain limited. Here, we show that expression of microRNA (miR)-520g is correlated with drug resistance of colon cancer cells. Ectopic expression of miR-520g conferred resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)- or oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis in vitro and reduced the effectiveness of 5-FU in the inhibition of tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model in vivo. Further studies indicated that miR-520g mediated drug resistance through down-regulation of p21 expression. Moreover, p53 suppressed miR-520g expression, and deletion of p53 up-regulated miR-520g expression. Inhibition of miR-520g in p53−/− cells increased their sensitivity to 5-FU treatment. Importantly, studies of patient samples indicated that expression of miR-520g correlated with chemoresistance in colorectal cancer. These findings indicate that the p53/miR-520g/p21 signaling axis plays an important role in the response of colorectal cancer to chemotherapy. A major implication of our studies is that inhibition of miR-520g or restoration of p21 expression may have considerable therapeutic potential to overcome drug resistance in colorectal cancer patients, especially in those with mutant p53. PMID:25616665

  4. Metalloprotease-disintegrin ADAM12 expression is regulated by Notch signaling via microRNA-29.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Solomon, Emilia; Duhachek Muggy, Sara; Sun, Danqiong; Zolkiewska, Anna

    2011-06-17

    Metalloprotease-disintegrin ADAM12 is overexpressed and frequently mutated in breast cancer. We report here that ADAM12 expression in cultured mammalian cells is up-regulated by Notch signals. Expression of a constitutively active form of Notch1 in murine fibroblasts, myoblasts, or mammary epithelial cells or activation of the endogenous Notch signaling by co-culture with ligand-expressing cells increases ADAM12 protein and mRNA levels. Up-regulation of ADAM12 expression by Notch requires new transcription, is activated in a CSL-dependent manner, and is abolished upon inhibition of IκB kinase. Expression of a constitutively active Notch1 in NIH3T3 cells increases the stability of Adam12 mRNA. We further show that the microRNA-29 family, which has a predicted conserved site in the 3'-untranslated region of mouse Adam12, plays a critical role in mediating the stimulatory effect of Notch on ADAM12 expression. In human cells, Notch up-regulates the expression of the long form, but not the short form, of ADAM12 containing a divergent 3'-untranslated mRNA region. These studies uncover a novel paradigm in Notch signaling and establish Adam12 as a Notch-related gene.

  5. Methylation of microRNA genes regulates gene expression in bisexual flower development in andromonoecious poplar.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuepeng; Tian, Min; Ci, Dong; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies showed sex-specific DNA methylation and expression of candidate genes in bisexual flowers of andromonoecious poplar, but the regulatory relationship between methylation and microRNAs (miRNAs) remains unclear. To investigate whether the methylation of miRNA genes regulates gene expression in bisexual flower development, the methylome, microRNA, and transcriptome were examined in female and male flowers of andromonoecious poplar. 27 636 methylated coding genes and 113 methylated miRNA genes were identified. In the coding genes, 64.5% of the methylated reads mapped to the gene body region; by contrast, 60.7% of methylated reads in miRNA genes mainly mapped in the 5' and 3' flanking regions. CHH methylation showed the highest methylation levels and CHG showed the lowest methylation levels. Correlation analysis showed a significant, negative, strand-specific correlation of methylation and miRNA gene expression (r=0.79, P <0.05). The methylated miRNA genes included eight long miRNAs (lmiRNAs) of 24 nucleotides and 11 miRNAs related to flower development. miRNA172b might play an important role in the regulation of bisexual flower development-related gene expression in andromonoecious poplar, via modification of methylation. Gynomonoecious, female, and male poplars were used to validate the methylation patterns of the miRNA172b gene, implying that hyper-methylation in andromonoecious and gynomonoecious poplar might function as an important regulator in bisexual flower development. Our data provide a useful resource for the study of flower development in poplar and improve our understanding of the effect of epigenetic regulation on genes other than protein-coding genes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The 3'-5' exoribonuclease Dis3 regulates the expression of specific microRNAs in Drosophila wing imaginal discs

    PubMed Central

    Towler, Benjamin P; Jones, Christopher I; Viegas, Sandra C; Apura, Patricia; Waldron, Joseph A; Smalley, Sarah K; Arraiano, Cecilia M; Newbury, Sarah F

    2015-01-01

    Dis3 is a highly conserved exoribonuclease which degrades RNAs in the 3'-5' direction. Mutations in Dis3 are associated with a number of human cancers including multiple myeloma and acute myeloid leukemia. In this work, we have assessed the effect of a Dis3 knockdown on Drosophila imaginal disc development and on expression of mature microRNAs. We find that Dis3 knockdown severely disrupts the development of wing imaginal discs in that the flies have a “no wing” phenotype. Use of RNA-seq to quantify the effect of Dis3 knockdown on microRNA expression shows that Dis3 normally regulates a small subset of microRNAs, with only 11 (10.1%) increasing in level ≥2-fold and 6 (5.5%) decreasing in level ≥2-fold. Of these microRNAs, miR-252–5p is increased 2.1-fold in Dis3-depleted cells compared to controls while the level of the miR-252 precursor is unchanged, suggesting that Dis3 can act in the cytoplasm to specifically degrade this mature miRNA. Furthermore, our experiments suggest that Dis3 normally interacts with the exosomal subunit Rrp40 in the cytoplasm to target miR-252–5p for degradation during normal wing development. Another microRNA, miR-982–5p, is expressed at lower levels in Dis3 knockdown cells, while the miR-982 precursor remains unchanged, indicating that Dis3 is involved in its processing. Our study therefore reveals an unexpected specificity for this ribonuclease toward microRNA regulation, which is likely to be conserved in other eukaryotes and may be relevant to understanding its role in human disease. PMID:25892215

  7. A novel mechanism of LIN-28 regulation of let-7 microRNA expression revealed by in vivo HITS-CLIP in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Giovanni; Chen, Xiaowei; Zhao, Hongyu; Slack, Frank J

    2015-05-01

    The evolutionarily conserved gene lin-28 encodes an RNA-binding protein and is an important regulator of the proper temporal succession of several developmental events in both invertebrates and vertebrates. At the cellular level, LIN-28 promotes stemness and proliferation, and inhibits differentiation, a feature best illustrated by its ability to induce pluripotency when ectopically expressed in human fibroblasts in combination with NANOG, OCT4, and SOX2. Mammalian LIN28 functions in part by regulating processing of the let-7 microRNA through a GGAG binding site in the pre-let-7's distal loop region. However, many human and animal let-7 precursors lack the GGAG binding motif. In order to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying its biological functions in a living animal, we identified a map of LIN-28 interactions with the transcriptome by in vivo HITS-CLIP in Caenorhabditis elegans. LIN-28 binds a large pool of messenger RNAs, and a substantial fraction of the bona fide LIN-28 targets are involved in aspects of animal development. Furthermore, our data show that LIN-28 regulates the expression of the let-7 microRNA by binding its primary transcript in a previously unknown region, revealing a novel regulatory mechanism.

  8. MicroRNA 224 Regulates Ion Transporter Expression in Ameloblasts To Coordinate Enamel Mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yi; Zhou, Yachuan; Zhou, Xuedong; Sun, Feifei; Gao, Bo; Wan, Mian; Zhou, Xin; Sun, Jianxun; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei; Crane, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Enamel mineralization is accompanied by the release of protons into the extracellular matrix, which is buffered to regulate the pH value in the local microenvironment. The present study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA 224 (miR-224) as a regulator of SLC4A4 and CFTR, encoding the key buffering ion transporters, in modulating enamel mineralization. miR-224 was significantly downregulated as ameloblasts differentiated, in parallel with upregulation of SLC4A4 and CFTR. Overexpression of miR-224 downregulated SLC4A4 and CFTR expression in cultured human epithelial cells. A microRNA luciferase assay confirmed the specific binding of miR-224 to the 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of SLC4A4 and CFTR mRNAs, thereby inhibiting protein translation. miR-224 agomir injection in mouse neonatal incisors resulted in normal enamel length and thickness, but with disturbed organization of the prism structure and deficient crystal growth. Moreover, the enamel Ca/P ratio and microhardness were markedly reduced after miR-224 agomir administration. These results demonstrate that miR-224 plays a pivotal role in fine tuning enamel mineralization by modulating SLC4A4 and CFTR to maintain pH homeostasis and support enamel mineralization. PMID:26055330

  9. Deregulation of serum microRNA expression is associated with cigarette smoking and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinkun; Wu, Jianjun; Li, Yuanqi; Li, Xun; Yang, Ti; Yang, Qiaoyuan; Jiang, Yiguo

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death and cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for lung cancer. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are considered potential biomarkers of various cancers, including lung cancer. However, it is unclear whether changes in circulating miRNAs are associated with smoking and smoking-related lung cancer. In this study, we determined the serum miRNA profiles of 10 nonsmokers, 10 smokers, and 10 lung-cancer patients with miRCURY LNA microRNA arrays. The differentially expressed miRNAs were then confirmed in a larger sample. We found that let-7i-3p and miR-154-5p were significantly downregulated in the sera of smokers and lung-cancer patients, so the serum levels of let-7i-3p and miR-154-5p are associated with smoking and smoking-related lung cancer. The areas under receiver operating characteristic curves for let-7i-3p and miR-154-5p were approximately 0.892 and 0.957, respectively. In conclusion, our results indicate that changes in serum miRNAs are associated with cigarette smoking and lung cancer and that let-7i-3p and miR-154-5p are potential biomarkers of smoking-related lung cancer.

  10. Correlation between EGFR Amplification and the Expression of MicroRNA-200c in Primary Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Serna, Eva; Lopez-Gines, Concha; Monleon, Daniel; Muñoz-Hidalgo, Lisandra; Callaghan, Robert C.; Gil-Benso, Rosario; Martinetto, Horacio; Gregori-Romero, Aurelia; Gonzalez-Darder, Jose; Cerda-Nicolas, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Extensive infiltration of the surrounding healthy brain tissue is a critical feature in glioblastoma. Several miRNAs have been related to gliomagenesis, some of them related with the EGFR pathway. We have evaluated whole-genome miRNA expression profiling associated with different EGFR amplification patterns, studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization in tissue microarrays, of 30 cases of primary glioblastoma multiforme, whose clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features have also been analyzed. MicroRNA-200c showed a very significant difference between tumors having or not EGFR amplification. This microRNA plays an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, but its implication in the behavior of glioblastoma is largely unknown. With respect to EGFR status our cases were categorized into three groups: high level EGFR amplification, low level EGFR amplification, and no EGFR amplification. Our results showed that microRNA-200c and E-cadherin expression are down-regulated, while ZEB1 is up-regulated, when tumors showed a high level of EGFR amplification. Conversely, ZEB1 mRNA expression levels were significantly lower in the group of tumors without EGFR amplification. Tumors with a low level of EGFR amplification showed ZEB1 expression levels comparable to those detected in the group with a high level of amplification. In this study we provide what is to our knowledge the first report of association between microRNA-200c and EGFR amplification in glioblastomas. PMID:25058589

  11. Correlation between EGFR amplification and the expression of microRNA-200c in primary glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Serna, Eva; Lopez-Gines, Concha; Monleon, Daniel; Muñoz-Hidalgo, Lisandra; Callaghan, Robert C; Gil-Benso, Rosario; Martinetto, Horacio; Gregori-Romero, Aurelia; Gonzalez-Darder, Jose; Cerda-Nicolas, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Extensive infiltration of the surrounding healthy brain tissue is a critical feature in glioblastoma. Several miRNAs have been related to gliomagenesis, some of them related with the EGFR pathway. We have evaluated whole-genome miRNA expression profiling associated with different EGFR amplification patterns, studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization in tissue microarrays, of 30 cases of primary glioblastoma multiforme, whose clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features have also been analyzed. MicroRNA-200c showed a very significant difference between tumors having or not EGFR amplification. This microRNA plays an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, but its implication in the behavior of glioblastoma is largely unknown. With respect to EGFR status our cases were categorized into three groups: high level EGFR amplification, low level EGFR amplification, and no EGFR amplification. Our results showed that microRNA-200c and E-cadherin expression are down-regulated, while ZEB1 is up-regulated, when tumors showed a high level of EGFR amplification. Conversely, ZEB1 mRNA expression levels were significantly lower in the group of tumors without EGFR amplification. Tumors with a low level of EGFR amplification showed ZEB1 expression levels comparable to those detected in the group with a high level of amplification. In this study we provide what is to our knowledge the first report of association between microRNA-200c and EGFR amplification in glioblastomas.

  12. MicroRNAs Expression Profile in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under Nutrient Deficiency Stresses and Manganese Toxicity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in plants. The information on miRNAs in legumes is scarce. This work analyzes miRNAs in the agronomically important legume common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. A hybridization approach of miRNAs-macroarrays prin...

  13. Problem-Solving Test: The Role of a Micro-RNA in the Regulation of "fos" Gene Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    The "fos" proto-oncogene codes for a component of the AP1 transcription factor, an important regulator of gene expression and cell proliferation. Dysregulation of AP1 function may lead to the malignant transformation of the cell. The present test describes an experiment in which the role of a micro-RNA (miR-7b) in the regulation of "fos" gene…

  14. Problem-Solving Test: The Role of a Micro-RNA in the Regulation of "fos" Gene Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    The "fos" proto-oncogene codes for a component of the AP1 transcription factor, an important regulator of gene expression and cell proliferation. Dysregulation of AP1 function may lead to the malignant transformation of the cell. The present test describes an experiment in which the role of a micro-RNA (miR-7b) in the regulation of "fos" gene…

  15. Laser Capture Microdissection Assisted Identification of Epithelial MicroRNA Expression Signatures for Prognosis of Stage I NSCLC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    et al: A mammalian microRNA expression atlas based on small RNA library sequencing. Cell 129:1401-14, 2007 6. Sica A, Mantovani A: Macrophage plasticity and polarization: in vivo veritas. J Clin Invest 122:787-95, 2012  

  16. Larval stage Lymantria dispar microRNAs differentially expressed in response to parasitization by Glyptapanteles flavicoxis parasitoid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by targeting messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and causing mRNA cleavage or blockage of translational. MiRNAs have never been examined in relation to parasitism of a lepidopteran host by a parasitic wasp possessing a symbiotic polydnaviru...

  17. Differential expression of the microRNAs in superior and inferior spikelets in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Peng, Ting; Lv, Qiang; Zhang, Jing; Li, Junzhou; Du, Yanxiu; Zhao, Quanzhi

    2011-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in post-transcriptional gene regulation and have been shown to control many genes involved in various biological and metabolic processes. This work investigated miRNAs in rice (Oryza sativa), an important food crop. High-throughput sequencing technology was used to reveal expression differences in miRNAs between superior and inferior spikelets in rice (japonica cultivar Xinfeng 2) at 18 d after fertilization. Totals of 351 and 312 known miRNAs were obtained from the superior and inferior spikelets, respectively. Analysis of the expression profiles of these miRNAs showed that 189 miRNAs were differentially expressed between superior spikelets and inferior spikelets. In addition, 43 novel miRNAs were identified mostly by the accumulation of miRNA*s expressed differentially between the superior and inferior spikelets. Further analysis with bioinformatics software and comparison with existing databases showed that these differentially expressed miRNAs may individually participate in regulating hormone metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic pathways, and cell division during rice grain development. The results indicate that the slow grain-filling and low grain weight of rice inferior spikelets are attributed partly to differences in expression and function between superior and inferior spikelet miRNAs.

  18. Dynamic regulation of microRNA expression following interferon-γ-induced gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Reinsbach, Susanne; Nazarov, Petr V; Philippidou, Demetra; Schmitt, Martina; Wienecke-Baldacchino, Anke; Muller, Arnaud; Vallar, Laurent; Behrmann, Iris; Kreis, Stephanie

    2012-07-01

    MicroRNAs are major players in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Even small changes in miRNA levels may have profound consequences for the expression levels of target genes. Hence, miRNAs themselves need to be tightly, albeit dynamically, regulated. Here, we investigated the dynamic behavior of miRNAs over a wide time range following stimulation of melanoma cells with interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which activates the transcription factor STAT1. By applying several bioinformatic and statistical software tools for visualization and identification of differentially expressed miRNAs derived from time-series microarray experiments, 8.9% of 1105 miRNAs appeared to be directly or indirectly regulated by STAT1. Focusing on distinct dynamic expression patterns, we found that the majority of robust miRNA expression changes occurred in the intermediate time range (24-48 h). Three miRNAs (miR-27a, miR-30a, miR-34a) had a delayed regulation occurring at 72 h while none showed significant expression changes at early time points between 30 min and 6 h. Expression patterns of individual miRNAs were altered gradually over time or abruptly increased or decreased between two time points. Furthermore, we observed coordinated dynamic transcription of most miRNA clusters while few were found to be regulated independently of their genetic cluster. Most interestingly, several "star" or passenger strand sequences were specifically regulated over time while their "guide" strands were not.

  19. Correlation between hepatitis B virus protein and microRNA processor Drosha in cells expressing HBV.

    PubMed

    Ren, Min; Qin, Dongdong; Li, Kai; Qu, Jialin; Wang, Liying; Wang, Zengchan; Huang, Ailong; Tang, Hua

    2012-06-01

    Drosha regulates the biogenesis of microRNAs (miRNAs) and plays an essential role in the regulation of gene expression. Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. It is also a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. Emerging evidence suggests that HBV alters miRNA expression profiles, but the mechanisms underlying this process have not yet been fully elucidated. We therefore examined how HBV affected the production of miRNAs. We found that Drosha mRNA and protein expression were downregulated in cells expressing the HBV genome. This was associated with a reduction in the activity of the Drosha gene promoter. Gene silencing of HBx by RNA interference significantly restored the expression of Drosha. In conclusion, our data show that HBV could downregulate Drosha expression by inhibiting promoter activity, and the transcription factors SP1 and AP-2α may be involved in this process. This provides a new understanding of the mechanism of HBV-induced miRNAs dysregulation.

  20. Differential Expression Profile of MicroRNAs during Differentiation of Cardiomyocytes Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chun; Yu, Zhang-Bin; Zhu, Jin-Gai; Hu, Xiao-Shan; Chen, Yu-Lin; Qiu, Yu-Fang; Xu, Zheng-Feng; Qian, Lin-Mei; Han, Shu-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to persistent environmental pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is a risk factor for the development of congenital heart defects. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be involved in cardiac development. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in miRNA expression profiles during the differentiation of cardiomyocytes exposed to PCBs. For that purpose, PCBs (Aroclor 1254) at a concentration of 2.5 μmol/L were added on day 0 of differentiation of P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells into cardiac myocytes. The relative expression of miRNA genes was determined by miRNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) analyses. The microarray results revealed that 45 miRNAs, of which 14 were upregulated and 31 were downregulated, were differentially expressed in P19 cells treated with PCBs compared with control cells. The miRNA expression data was validated with real-time RT-PCR. The expression of certain potential target genes (Wnt1) was found to be reduced in P19 cells treated with PCBs, whereas the expression of other potential predicted target genes (GSK3β) was increased. Our results demonstrate a critical role of miRNAs in mediating the effect of PCBs during the differentiation of P19 cells into cardiac myocytes. PMID:23443104

  1. Effects of ubiquinol-10 on microRNA-146a expression in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Constance; Kitano, Mitsuaki; Rimbach, Gerald; Niklowitz, Petra; Menke, Thomas; Hosoe, Kazunori; Döring, Frank

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are involved in key biological processes via suppression of gene expression at posttranscriptional levels. According to their superior functions, subtle modulation of miR expression by certain compounds or nutrients is desirable under particular conditions. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a reactive oxygen species-/NF-kappaB-dependent pathway which increases the expression of the anti-inflammatory miR-146a. We hypothesized that this induction could be modulated by the antioxidant ubiquinol-10. Preincubation of human monocytic THP-1 cells with ubiquinol-10 reduced the LPS-induced expression level of miR-146a to 78.9 +/- 13.22%. In liver samples of mice injected with LPS, supplementation with ubiquinol-10 leads to a reduction of LPS-induced miR-146a expression to 78.12 +/- 21.25%. From these consistent in vitro and in vivo data, we conclude that ubiquinol-10 may fine-tune the inflammatory response via moderate reduction of miR-146a expression.

  2. Sexually Dimorphic Effects of Gestational Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals on MicroRNA Expression in the Developing Rat Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Topper, Viktoria Y.; Walker, Deena M.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined developmental changes and sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic microRNAs, and whether gestational exposures to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) altered their expression patterns. Pregnant rat dams were treated on gestational days 16 and 18 with vehicle, estradiol benzoate, or a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Male and female offspring were euthanized on postnatal days (P) 15, 30, 45, or 90, and microRNA and mRNA targets were quantified in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) and ventromedial nucleus (VMN) of the hypothalamus. MicroRNAs showed robust developmental changes in both regions, and were sexually dimorphic in the MPN, but not VMN. Importantly, microRNAs in females were up-regulated by EDCs at P30, and down-regulated in males at P90. Few changes in mRNAs were found. Thus, hypothalamic microRNAs are sensitive to prenatal EDC treatment in a sex-, developmental age-, and brain region-specific manner. PMID:26190835

  3. A differentially expressed set of microRNAs in cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) can diagnose CNS malignancies.

    PubMed

    Drusco, Alessandra; Bottoni, Arianna; Laganà, Alessandro; Acunzo, Mario; Fassan, Matteo; Cascione, Luciano; Antenucci, Anna; Kumchala, Prasanthi; Vicentini, Caterina; Gardiman, Marina P; Alder, Hansjuerg; Carosi, Mariantonia A; Ammirati, Mario; Gherardi, Stefano; Luscrì, Marilena; Carapella, Carmine; Zanesi, Nicola; Croce, Carlo M

    2015-08-28

    Central Nervous System malignancies often require stereotactic biopsy or biopsy for differential diagnosis, and for tumor staging and grading. Furthermore, stereotactic biopsy can be non-diagnostic or underestimate grading. Hence, there is a compelling need of new diagnostic biomarkers to avoid such invasive procedures. Several biological markers have been proposed, but they can only identify specific prognostic subtype of Central Nervous System tumors, and none of them has found a standardized clinical application.The aim of the study was to identify a Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA signature that could differentiate among Central Nervous System malignancies.CSF total RNA of 34 neoplastic and of 14 non-diseased patients was processed by NanoString. Comparison among groups (Normal, Benign, Glioblastoma, Medulloblastoma, Metastasis and Lymphoma) lead to the identification of a microRNA profile that was further confirmed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization.Hsa-miR-451, -711, 935, -223 and -125b were significantly differentially expressed among the above mentioned groups, allowing us to draw an hypothetical diagnostic chart for Central Nervous System malignancies.This is the first study to employ the NanoString technique for Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA profiling. In this article, we demonstrated that Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA profiling mirrors Central Nervous System physiologic or pathologic conditions. Although more cases need to be tested, we identified a diagnostic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid microRNA signature with good perspectives for future diagnostic clinical applications.

  4. MicroRNA Expression and Regulation in Human, Chimpanzee, and Macaque Brains

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jiang; Yan, Zheng; Fu, Ning; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Menzel, Corinna; Liang, Hongyu; Yang, Hongyi; Zhao, Min; Zeng, Rong; Chen, Wei; Pääbo, Svante; Khaitovich, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Among other factors, changes in gene expression on the human evolutionary lineage have been suggested to play an important role in the establishment of human-specific phenotypes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these expression changes are largely unknown. Here, we have explored the role of microRNA (miRNA) in the regulation of gene expression divergence among adult humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques, in two brain regions: prefrontal cortex and cerebellum. Using a combination of high-throughput sequencing, miRNA microarrays, and Q-PCR, we have shown that up to 11% of the 325 expressed miRNA diverged significantly between humans and chimpanzees and up to 31% between humans and macaques. Measuring mRNA and protein expression in human and chimpanzee brains, we found a significant inverse relationship between the miRNA and the target genes expression divergence, explaining 2%–4% of mRNA and 4%–6% of protein expression differences. Notably, miRNA showing human-specific expression localize in neurons and target genes that are involved in neural functions. Enrichment in neural functions, as well as miRNA–driven regulation on the human evolutionary lineage, was further confirmed by experimental validation of predicted miRNA targets in two neuroblastoma cell lines. Finally, we identified a signature of positive selection in the upstream region of one of the five miRNA with human-specific expression, miR-34c-5p. This suggests that miR-34c-5p expression change took place after the split of the human and the Neanderthal lineages and had adaptive significance. Taken together these results indicate that changes in miRNA expression might have contributed to evolution of human cognitive functions. PMID:22022286

  5. MicroRNA-433 Dampens Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling, Impacting Circadian Rhythm and Osteoblastic Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Smith, Spenser S; Dole, Neha S; Franceschetti, Tiziana; Hrdlicka, Henry C; Delany, Anne M

    2016-10-07

    Serum glucocorticoids play a critical role in synchronizing circadian rhythm in peripheral tissues, and multiple mechanisms regulate tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In the skeleton, circadian rhythm helps coordinate bone formation and resorption. Circadian rhythm is regulated through transcriptional and post-transcriptional feedback loops that include microRNAs. How microRNAs regulate circadian rhythm in bone is unexplored. We show that in mouse calvaria, miR-433 displays robust circadian rhythm, peaking just after dark. In C3H/10T1/2 cells synchronized with a pulse of dexamethasone, inhibition of miR-433 using a tough decoy altered the period and amplitude of Per2 gene expression, suggesting that miR-433 regulates rhythm. Although miR-433 does not directly target the Per2 3'-UTR, it does target two rhythmically expressed genes in calvaria, Igf1 and Hif1α. miR-433 can target the glucocorticoid receptor; however, glucocorticoid receptor protein abundance was unaffected in miR-433 decoy cells. Rather, miR-433 inhibition dramatically enhanced glucocorticoid signaling due to increased nuclear receptor translocation, activating glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional targets. Last, in calvaria of transgenic mice expressing a miR-433 decoy in osteoblastic cells (Col3.6 promoter), the amplitude of Per2 and Bmal1 mRNA rhythm was increased, confirming that miR-433 regulates circadian rhythm. miR-433 was previously shown to target Runx2, and mRNA for Runx2 and its downstream target, osteocalcin, were also increased in miR-433 decoy mouse calvaria. We hypothesize that miR-433 helps maintain circadian rhythm in osteoblasts by regulating sensitivity to glucocorticoid receptor signaling.

  6. Differential expression of microRNAs in postoperative radiotherapy sensitive and resistant patients with glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Wu, He-Ming; Wang, Han-Dong; Tang, Yong; Fan, You-Wu; Hu, Yue-Bing; Tohti, Mamatemin; Hao, Xiao-Ke; Wei, Wu-Ting; Wu, Yong

    2015-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant primary brain tumor and more resistant to radiotherapy. However, hetero-radiosensitivity occurs in different patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the initiation and progression of a multitude of tumors. The study aims to examine the different microRNAs expression profiles of postoperative radiotherapy sensitive and resistant patients with GBM, to make an inquiry about their potential role and discover a certain set of radio-sensitivity markers. Three paired samples from six GBM patients who had only been treated with postoperative radiotherapy were selected, and then, they were divided into radiotherapy sensitive group and resistant group according to their overall survivals, local recurrence rates, and Karnofsky Performance Scale scores. Expression profiles of miRNAs in these two groups were determined by the method of microarray assay. Comparing with resistant patients, 13 miRNAs were significantly upregulated and 10 miRNAs were greatly downregulated in sensitive group. Among them, four miRNAs were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. The differentially expressed miRNAs and their putative target genes were revealed by bioformatic analysis to play a role in cell signaling, proliferation, aging, and death. High-enrichment pathway analysis identified that some classical pathways participated in numerous metabolic processes, especially in cell cycle regulation, such as mTOR, MAPK, TGF-beta, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. Our research will contribute to identifying clinical diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets in the treatment of GBM by postoperative radiotherapy.

  7. Comprehensive characteristics of microRNA expression profile of equine sarcoids.

    PubMed

    Pawlina, Klaudia; Gurgul, Artur; Szmatoła, Tomasz; Koch, Christoph; Mählmann, Kathrin; Witkowski, Maciej; Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika

    2017-03-01

    Equine sarcoids are the most common neoplasms occurring in horses. Despite frequent occurrence, they are still not well described at the molecular level. Thus, in the present study, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of sarcoid miRNAome profile to identify aberrantly expressed microRNAs, along with their structural variants, potentially useful as biomarkers and, in a wider perspective, broaden the knowledge about this tumor and underlying mechanisms. To this end, we conducted next generation sequencing and as a result we identified both known and potentially novel miRNAs. Differential expression analysis revealed the existence of almost one hundred miRNAs being over- or underexpressed in sarcoids in comparison to healthy tissue (p-adj<0.05), of which many are known for their involvement in processes crucial for neoplastic transformation. Among upregulated miRNAs there were those associated with decreased cell adhesion abilities as well as engaged in global protein production, while downregulation of some miRs i.a. increased cell expansion abilities. Moreover, we identified altered expression levels of miRNA variants (isomiRs) between the investigated tissues. Further analysis revealed that 5' isomiRs comprise different seed sequences leading to target gene switching followed by activation of different biological pathways. Our results are the first which revealed the complexity of microRNA profiles in equine sarcoids and skin tissue, along with the dynamism of their growing in importance concomitants, namely isomiRs. They also showed miRNA molecules and biological pathways important from the sarcoid oncogenesis point of view.

  8. Modulation of microRNA Expression in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome and Decrease of Cholesterol Efflux from Macrophages via microRNA-33-Mediated Attenuation of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Expression by Statins

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Pei-Chi; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Lee, Wen-Jane; Chang, Pey-Jium; Chiang, An-Na

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complicated health problem that encompasses a variety of metabolic disorders. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the major biochemical parameters associated with MetS and circulating levels of microRNA (miR)-33, miR-103, and miR-155. We found that miRNA-33 levels were positively correlated with levels of fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol, but negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels. In the cellular study, miR-33 levels were increased in macrophages treated with high glucose and cholesterol-lowering drugs atorvastatin and pitavastatin. miR-33 has been reported to play an essential role in cholesterol homeostasis through ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) regulation and reverse cholesterol transport. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the linkage between miR-33 and statin treatment remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether atorvastatin and pitavastatin exert their functions through the modulation of miR-33 and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. The results showed that treatment of the statins up-regulated miR-33 expression, but down-regulated ABCA1 mRNA levels in RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. Statin-mediated ABCA1 regulation occurs at the post-transcriptional level through targeting of the 3′-UTR of the ABCA1 transcript by miR-33. Additionally, we found significant down-regulation of ABCA1 protein expression in macrophages treated with statins. Finally, we showed that high glucose and statin treatment significantly suppressed cholesterol efflux from macrophages. These findings have highlighted the complexity of statins, which may exert detrimental effects on metabolic abnormalities through regulation of miR-33 target genes. PMID:27139226

  9. Alteration of microRNA expression in cerebrospinal fluid of unconscious patients after traumatic brain injury and a bioinformatic analysis of related single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    You, Wen-Dong; Tang, Qi-Lin; Wang, Lei; Lei, Jin; Feng, Jun-Feng; Mao, Qing; Gao, Guo-Yi; Jiang, Ji-Yao

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that genetic factors play a role in traumatic brain injury (TBI), whether in modifying clinical outcome after TBI or determining susceptibility to it. MicroRNAs are small RNA molecules involved in various pathophysiological processes by repressing target genes at the post- transcriptional level, and TBI alters microRNA expression levels in the hippocampus and cortex. This study was designed to detect differentially expressed microRNAs in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of TBI patients remaining unconscious two weeks after initial injury and to explore related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used a microarray platform to detect differential microRNA expression levels in CSF samples from patients with post-traumatic coma compared with samples from controls. A bioinformatic scan was performed covering microRNA gene promoter regions to identify potential functional SNPs. Totally 26 coma patients and 21 controls were included in this study, with similar distribution of age and gender between the two groups. Microarray showed that fourteen microRNAs were differentially expressed, ten at higher and four at lower expression levels in CSF of traumatic coma patients compared with controls (p<0.05). One SNP (rs11851174 allele: C/T) was identified in the motif area of the microRNA hsa-miR-431-3P gene promoter region. The altered microRNA expression levels in CSF after brain injury together with SNP identified within the microRNA gene promoter area provide a new perspective on the mechanism of impaired consciousness after TBI. Further studies are needed to explore the association between the specific microRNAs and their related SNPs with post-traumatic unconsciousness.

  10. Reduced expression of microRNA-27a modulates cisplatin resistance in bladder cancer by targeting the cystine/glutamate exchanger SLC7A11

    PubMed Central

    Drayton, Ross M; Dudziec, Ewa; Peter, Stefan; Bertz, Simone; Hartmann, Arndt; Bryant, Helen E; Catto, James WF

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy is a major obstacle to bladder cancer treatment. We aimed to identify microRNAs that are dysregulated in cisplatin-resistant disease, ascertain how these contribute to a drug resistant phenotype and how this resistance might be overcome. Experimental Design MicroRNA expression in paired cisplatin resistant and sensitive cell lines was measured. Dysregulated microRNAs were further studied for their ability to mediate resistance. The nature of the cisplatin resistant phenotype was established by measurement of cisplatin/DNA adducts and intracellular glutathione. Candidate microRNAs were examined for their ability to (i) mediate resistance and (ii) alter the expression of a candidate target protein (SLC7A11); direct regulation of SLC7A11 was confirmed using a luciferase assay. SLC7A11 protein and mRNA, and microRNA-27a were quantified in patient tumour material. Results A panel of microRNAs were found to be dysregulated in cisplatin resistant cells. MicroRNA-27a was found to target the cystine/glutamate exchanger SLC7A11 and to contribute to cisplatin resistance through modulation of glutathione biosynthesis. In patients, SLC7A11 expression was inversely related to microRNA-27a expression, and those tumors with high mRNA expression or high membrane staining for SLC7A11 experienced poorer clinical outcomes. Resistant cell lines were resensitized by restoring microRNA-27a expression, or reducing SLC7A11 activity with an siRNA or with sulfasalazine. Conclusion Our findings indicate that microRNA-27a negatively regulates SLC7A11 in cisplatin-resistant bladder cancer, and shows promise as a marker for patients likely to benefit from cisplatin-based chemotherapy. SLC7A11 inhibition with sulfasalazine may be a promising therapeutic approach to the treatment of cisplatin-resistant disease. PMID:24516043

  11. MicroRNA miR-16-1 regulates CCNE1 (cyclin E1) gene expression in human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zubillaga-Guerrero, Ma Isabel; Alarcón-Romero, Luz del Carmen; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia; Bermúdez-Morales, Víctor Hugo; Deas, Jessica; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are involved in diverse biological processes through regulation of gene expression. The microRNA profile has been shown to be altered in cervical cancer (CC). MiR-16-1 belongs to the miR-16 cluster and has been implicated in various aspects of carcinogenesis including cell proliferation and regulation of apoptosis; however, its function and molecular mechanism in CC is not clear. Cyclin E1 (CCNE1) is a positive regulator of the cell cycle that controls the transition of cells from G1 to S phase. In CC, CCNE1 expression is frequently upregulated, and is an indicator for poor outcome in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Thus, in the present brief communication, we determine whether the CCNE1 gene is regulated by miR-16-1 in CC cells. To identify the downstream cellular target genes for upstream miR-16-1, we silenced endogenous miR-16-1 expression in cell lines derived from CC (C-33 A HPV-, CaSki HPV16+, SiHa HPV16+, and HeLa HPV18+ cells), using siRNAs expressed in plasmids. Using a combined bioinformatic analysis and RT-qPCR, we determined that the CCNE1 gene is targeted by miR-16-1 in CC cells. SiHa, CaSki, and HeLa cells demonstrated an inverse correlation between miR-16-1 expression and CCNE1 mRNA level. Thus, miR-16-1 post-transcriptionally down-regulates CCNE1 gene expression. These results, suggest that miR-16-1 plays a vital role in modulating cell cycle processes in CC. PMID:26629104

  12. MicroRNA miR-16-1 regulates CCNE1 (cyclin E1) gene expression in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zubillaga-Guerrero, Ma Isabel; Alarcón-Romero, Luz Del Carmen; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia; Bermúdez-Morales, Víctor Hugo; Deas, Jessica; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are involved in diverse biological processes through regulation of gene expression. The microRNA profile has been shown to be altered in cervical cancer (CC). MiR-16-1 belongs to the miR-16 cluster and has been implicated in various aspects of carcinogenesis including cell proliferation and regulation of apoptosis; however, its function and molecular mechanism in CC is not clear. Cyclin E1 (CCNE1) is a positive regulator of the cell cycle that controls the transition of cells from G1 to S phase. In CC, CCNE1 expression is frequently upregulated, and is an indicator for poor outcome in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Thus, in the present brief communication, we determine whether the CCNE1 gene is regulated by miR-16-1 in CC cells. To identify the downstream cellular target genes for upstream miR-16-1, we silenced endogenous miR-16-1 expression in cell lines derived from CC (C-33 A HPV-, CaSki HPV16+, SiHa HPV16+, and HeLa HPV18+ cells), using siRNAs expressed in plasmids. Using a combined bioinformatic analysis and RT-qPCR, we determined that the CCNE1 gene is targeted by miR-16-1 in CC cells. SiHa, CaSki, and HeLa cells demonstrated an inverse correlation between miR-16-1 expression and CCNE1 mRNA level. Thus, miR-16-1 post-transcriptionally down-regulates CCNE1 gene expression. These results, suggest that miR-16-1 plays a vital role in modulating cell cycle processes in CC.

  13. Genetic determinants and cellular constraints in noisy gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Golding, Ido

    2014-01-01

    In individual cells, transcription is a random process obeying single-molecule kinetics. Often, it occurs in a bursty, intermittent manner. The frequency and size of these bursts affect the magnitude of temporal fluctuations in mRNA and protein content within a cell, creating variation or “noise” in gene expression. It is still unclear to what degree transcriptional kinetics are specific to each gene and determined by its promoter sequence. Alternative scenarios have been proposed, where the kinetics of transcription are governed by cellular constraints and follow universal rules across the genome. Evidence from genome-wide noise studies and from systematic perturbations of promoter sequences suggest that both scenarios—namely gene-specific versus genome-wide regulation of transcription kinetics— may be present to different degrees in bacteria, yeast and animal cells. PMID:24311680

  14. Elevated expression of microRNA-19a predicts a poor prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Zou, Pingzhou; Ding, Jian; Fu, Shiping

    2017-03-01

    MicroRNA (miR)-19a, a member of the miR-17-92 cluster, functions as an oncomiRNA in multiple kinds of cancers. However, its involvement in human osteosarcomas remains unclear. In this study, to analyze the expression pattern of miR-19a and to investigate its clinical implication in human osteosarcomas, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect expression levels of miR-19a in 166 self-pairs of osteosarcoma and noncancerous bone tissues. Associations between miR-19a expression and various clinicopathological parameters and patients' prognosis of osteosarcomas were further evaluated. As a results, miR-19a expression in osteosarcoma tissues was significantly higher than that in corresponding noncancerous bone tissues (P<0.001). Osteosarcoma patients with high miR-19a expression more frequently had large tumor size (P=0.03), advanced clinical stage (P=0.01), positive distant metastasis (P=0.008) and poor response to chemotherapy (P=0.01) than those with low miR-19a expression. Additionally, kaplan-Meier analysis showed that both overall and disease-free survivals of osteosarcoma patients with high miR-19a expression were shorter than those with low miR-19a expression (both P<0.001). Further multivariate analysis identified miR-19a expression as an independent prognostic factor for both overall (P=0.001) and disease-free (P=0.006) survivals. In conclusion, the aberrant expression of miR-19a may play a crucial role in development and progression of human osteosarcomas. MiR-19a may act as a novel prognostic marker for patients with this malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. MicroRNA Expression Profiling of the Porcine Developing Hypothalamus and Pituitary Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lifan; Cai, Zhaowei; Wei, Shengjuan; Zhou, Huiyun; Zhou, Hongmei; Jiang, Xiaoling; Xu, Ningying

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNA molecules, play important roles in gene expressions at transcriptional and post-transcriptional stages in mammalian brain. So far, a growing number of porcine miRNAs and their function have been identified, but little is known regarding the porcine developing hypothalamus and pituitary. In the present study, Solexa sequencing analysis showed 14,129,397 yielded reads, 6,680,678 of which were related to 674 unique miRNAs. After a microarray assay, we detected 175 unique miRNAs in the hypothalamus, including 136 previously known miRNAs and 39 novel candidates, while a total of 140 miRNAs, including 104 known and 36 new candidate miRNAs, were discovered in pituitary. More importantly, 37 and 30 differentially expressed miRNAs from several developmental stages of hypothalamus and pituitary were revealed, respectively. The 37 differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus represented 6 different expression patterns, while the 30 differentially expressed miRNAs in pituitary represented 7 different expression patterns. To clarify potential target genes and specific functions of these differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus and pituitary, TargetScan and Gorilla prediction tools were then applied. The current functional analysis showed that the differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus and pituitary shared many biological processes, with the main differences being found in tissue-specific processes including: CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthetic/metabolic process; phosphatidic acid biosynthetic/metabolic process; energy reserve metabolic process for hypothalamus; adult behavior; sterol transport/homeostasis; and cholesterol/reverse cholesterol transport for pituitary. Overall, this study identified miRNA profiles and differentially expressed miRNAs among various developmental stages in hypothalamus and pituitary and indicated miRNA profiles change with age and brain location, enhancing our knowledge about spatial

  16. MicroRNA expression profiling of the porcine developing hypothalamus and pituitary tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifan; Cai, Zhaowei; Wei, Shengjuan; Zhou, Huiyun; Zhou, Hongmei; Jiang, Xiaoling; Xu, Ningying

    2013-10-14

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNA molecules, play important roles in gene expressions at transcriptional and post-transcriptional stages in mammalian brain. So far, a growing number of porcine miRNAs and their function have been identified, but little is known regarding the porcine developing hypothalamus and pituitary. In the present study, Solexa sequencing analysis showed 14,129,397 yielded reads, 6,680,678 of which were related to 674 unique miRNAs. After a microarray assay, we detected 175 unique miRNAs in the hypothalamus, including 136 previously known miRNAs and 39 novel candidates, while a total of 140 miRNAs, including 104 known and 36 new candidate miRNAs, were discovered in pituitary. More importantly, 37 and 30 differentially expressed miRNAs from several developmental stages of hypothalamus and pituitary were revealed, respectively. The 37 differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus represented 6 different expression patterns, while the 30 differentially expressed miRNAs in pituitary represented 7 different expression patterns. To clarify potential target genes and specific functions of these differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus and pituitary, TargetScan and Gorilla prediction tools were then applied. The current functional analysis showed that the differentially expressed miRNAs in hypothalamus and pituitary shared many biological processes, with the main differences being found in tissue-specific processes including: CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthetic/metabolic process; phosphatidic acid biosynthetic/metabolic process; energy reserve metabolic process for hypothalamus; adult behavior; sterol transport/homeostasis; and cholesterol/reverse cholesterol transport for pituitary. Overall, this study identified miRNA profiles and differentially expressed miRNAs among various developmental stages in hypothalamus and pituitary and indicated miRNA profiles change with age and brain location, enhancing our knowledge about spatial

  17. Characterization of novel Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) antisense transcripts by deep sequencing reveals constitutive expression in tumors and transcriptional interaction with viral microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Keith; Rosewick, Nicolas; Artesi, Maria; Hahaut, Vincent; Griebel, Philip; Arsic, Natasa; Burny, Arsène; Georges, Michel; Van den Broeke, Anne

    2016-05-03

    Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus closely related to the Human T cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1). Cattle are the natural host of BLV where it integrates into B-cells, producing a lifelong infection. Most infected animals remain asymptomatic but following a protracted latency period about 5 % develop an aggressive leukemia/lymphoma, mirroring the disease trajectory of HTLV-1. The mechanisms by which these viruses provoke cellular transformation remain opaque. In both viruses little or no transcription is observed from the 5'LTR in tumors, however the proviruses are not transcriptionally silent. In the case of BLV a cluster of RNA polymerase III transcribed microRNAs are highly expressed, while the HTLV-1 antisense transcript HBZ is consistently found in all tumors examined. Here, using RNA-seq, we demonstrate that the BLV provirus also constitutively expresses antisense transcripts in all leukemic and asymptomatic samples examined. The first transcript (AS1) can be alternately polyadenylated, generating a transcript of ~600 bp (AS1-S) and a less abundant transcript of ~2200 bp (AS1-L). Alternative splicing creates a second transcript of ~400 bp (AS2). The coding potential of AS1-S/L is ambiguous, with a small open reading frame of 264 bp, however the transcripts are primarily retained in the nucleus, hinting at a lncRNA-like role. The AS1-L transcript overlaps the BLV microRNAs and using high throughput sequencing of RNA-ligase-mediated (RLM) 5'RACE, we show that the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) cleaves AS1-L. Furthermore, experiments using altered BLV proviruses with the microRNAs either deleted or inverted point to additional transcriptional interference between the two viral RNA species. The identification of novel viral antisense transcripts shows the BLV provirus to be far from silent in tumors. Furthermore, the consistent expression of these transcripts in both leukemic and nonmalignant clones points to a vital role in the life cycle

  18. Cell-type-specific signatures of microRNAs on target mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Sood, Pranidhi; Krek, Azra; Zavolan, Mihaela; Macino, Giuseppe; Rajewsky, Nikolaus

    2006-02-21

    Although it is known that the human genome contains hundreds of microRNA (miRNA) genes and that each miRNA can regulate a large number of mRNA targets, the overall effect of miRNAs on mRNA tissue profiles has not been systematically elucidated. Here, we show that predicted human mRNA targets of several highly tissue-specific miRNAs are typically expressed in the same tissue as the miRNA but at significantly lower levels than in tissues where the miRNA is not present. Conversely, highly expressed genes are often enriched in mRNAs that do not have the recognition motifs for the miRNAs expressed in these tissues. Together, our data support the hypothesis that miRNA expression broadly contributes to tissue specificity of mRNA expression in many human tissues. Based on these insights, we apply a computational tool to directly correlate 3' UTR motifs with changes in mRNA levels upon miRNA overexpression or knockdown. We show that this tool can identify functionally important 3' UTR motifs without cross-species comparison.

  19. IsomiR expression patterns in canonical and Dicer-independent microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tingming; Yu, Jiafeng; Liu, Chang; Guo, Li

    2017-01-01

    Multiple microRNA (miRNA) variants, known as isomiRs, are extensively distributed in miRNA loci and predominantly derive from the alternative cleavage of Drosha/Dicer and 3′addition events. The present study aimed to investigate the expression patterns of multiple isomiRs in typical miRNA and Dicer-independent miRNA loci by conducting evolutionary and expression analysis using public datasets. Although different miRNA maturation processes exist, multiple isomiRs can be detected by similar expression distributions. However, isomiR expression in Dicer-independent miRNA loci tends to be at a moderate level, particularly for random distribution in the ends that are split by Dicer in the typical miRNA loci. Compared with the mature miRNA locus (dominant miRNA locus), the non-dominant miRNA locus indicates an expression distribution similar to that of the Dicer-independent miRNA locus. These results increase the understanding of multiple isomiRs in the progression of diseases. PMID:28098889

  20. Age-related changes in microRNA expression and pharmacogenes in human liver

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Kimberly S.; Philips, Santosh; Benson, Eric A.; Desta, Zeruesenay; Gaedigk, Andrea; Gaedigk, Roger; Segar, Matthew W.; Liu, Yunlong; Skaar, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental changes in the liver can significantly impact drug disposition. Due to the emergence of microRNAs (miRNAs) as important regulators of drug disposition gene expression, we studied age-dependent changes in miRNA expression. Expression of 533 miRNAs was measured in 90 human liver tissues (fetal, pediatric (1-17 years), and adult (28-80 years); n=30 each). 114 miRNAs were upregulated and 72 were downregulated from fetal to pediatric, and 2 and 3, respectively, from pediatric to adult. Among the developmentally changing miRNAs, 99 miRNA-mRNA interactions were predicted or experimentally validated (e.g. hsamiR-125b-5p-CYP1A1; hsa-miR-34a-5p-HNF4A). In human liver samples (n=10 each), analyzed by RNA-sequencing, significant negative correlations were observed between the expression of >1000 miRNAs and mRNAs of drug disposition and regulatory genes. Our data suggest a mechanism for the marked changes in hepatic gene expression between the fetal and pediatric developmental periods, and support a role for these age-dependent miRNAs in regulating drug disposition. PMID:25968989

  1. Downregulation of MicroRNA-152 contributes to high expression of DKK1 in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yinyin; Chen, Bingda; George, Suraj K; Liu, Beizhong

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) induced bone lesion is one of the most crippling characteristics, and the MM secreted Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) has been reported to play important role in this pathologic process. However, the underlying regulation mechanisms involved in DKK1 expression are still unclear. In this study, we validated the expression patterns of microRNA (miR) 15a, 34a, 152, and 223 in MM cells and identified that miR-152 was significantly downregulated in the MM group compared with the non-MM group, and that miR-152 level was negatively correlated with the expression of DKK1 in the MM cells. Mechanistic studies showed that manipulating miR-152 artificially in MM cells led to changes in DKK-1 expression, and miR-152 blocked DKK1 transcriptional activity by binding to the 3'UTR of DKK1 mRNA. Importantly, we revealed that MM cells stably expressing miR-152 improved the chemotherapy sensitivity, and counteracted the bone disruption in an intrabone-MM mouse model. Our study contributes better understanding of the regulation mechanism of DKK-1 in MM, and opens up the potential for developing newer therapeutic strategies in the MM treatment.

  2. Expression of let-7 microRNAs that are involved in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuanshuai; Shi, Zhiyi; Wang, Guyue; Zhang, Junling; Li, Wenjuan; Jia, Liang

    2013-06-01

    The let-7 microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small noncoding RNAs, are phylogenetically conserved and temporally expressed and control the proper timing of events during development as heterochronic genes in many animals. Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) undergoes a metamorphosis from the larval to juvenile form. Here, we identified 21 let-7 miRNA precursors from different genome loci in Japanese flounder. P. olivaceus let-7 miRNAs are widely expressed in adult tissues, highly expressed during metamorphosis, but weakly during embryonic development. Exogenous thyroid hormone (0.1 mg/L), which induces premature metamorphosis, significantly promotes the expression of let-7 miRNAs, while thiourea (30 mg/L), which affects metamorphic arrest, inhibits the expression of let-7 miRNAs in metamorphosis in P. olivaceus. These results show that let-7 miRNAs widely participate in tissue development and metabolism during development and are also involved in regulation of temporal transitions associated with cell proliferation and differentiation during metamorphosis, in P. olivaceus. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. GmDREB1 overexpression affects the expression of microRNAs in GM wheat seeds.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiyan; Sun, Xianjun; Niu, Fengjuan; Hu, Zheng; Chen, Rui; Zhang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulators of gene expression that act on many different molecular and biochemical processes in eukaryotes. To date, miRNAs have not been considered in the current evaluation system for GM crops. In this study, small RNAs from the dry seeds of a GM wheat line overexpressing GmDREB1 and non-GM wheat cultivars were investigated using deep sequencing technology and bioinformatic approaches. As a result, 23 differentially expressed miRNAs in dry seeds were identified and confirmed between GM wheat and a non-GM acceptor. Notably, more differentially expressed tae-miRNAs between non-GM wheat varieties were found, indicating that the degree of variance between non-GM cultivars was considerably higher than that induced by the transgenic event. Most of the target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs between GM wheat and a non-GM acceptor were associated with abiotic stress, in accordance with the product concept of GM wheat in improving drought and salt tolerance. Our data provided useful information and insights into the evaluation of miRNA expression in edible GM crops.

  4. MicroRNA29a regulates the expression of the nuclear oncogene Ski.

    PubMed

    Teichler, Sabine; Illmer, Thomas; Roemhild, Josephine; Ovcharenko, Dmitriy; Stiewe, Thorsten; Neubauer, Andreas

    2011-08-18

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate growth and differentiation. miRNAs are frequently located at cancer-specific fragile sites in the human genome, such as chromosome 7q. The nuclear oncogene SKI is up-regulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with -7/del7q. Here we asked whether loss of miRNAs on chromosome 7q may explain this up-regulation. miR-29a expression was found to be down-regulated in AML with -7/del7q. Forced expression of miR-29a down-regulated Ski and its target gene, Nr-CAM, whereas miR-29a inhibition induced Ski expression. Luciferase assays validated a functional binding site for miR-29a in the 3' untranslated region of SKI. Finally, in samples of AML patients, we observed an inverse correlation of Ski and miR-29a expression, respectively. In conclusion, up-regulation of Ski in AML with -7/del7q is caused by loss of miR-29a. miR-29a may therefore function as an important tumor suppressor in AML by restraining expression of the SKI oncogene.

  5. Analysis of microRNA expression by in situ hybridization with RNA oligonucleotide probes

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Robert C.; Deo, Monika; Turner, David L.

    2007-01-01

    In situ hybridization is an important tool for analyzing gene expression and developing hypotheses about gene functions. The discovery of hundreds of microRNA (miRNA) genes in animals has provided new challenges for analyzing gene expression and functions. The small size of the mature miRNAs (∼20-24 nucleotides in length) presents difficulties for conventional in situ hybridization methods. However, we have developed a modified in situ hybridization method for detection of mammalian miRNAs in tissue sections, based upon the use of RNA oligonucleotide probes in combination with highly specific wash conditions. Here we present detailed procedures for detection of miRNAs in tissue sections or cultured cells. The methods described can utilize either nonradioactive hapten-conjugated probes that are detected by enzyme-coupled antibodies, or radioactively labeled probes that are detected by autoradiography. The ability to visualize miRNA expression patterns in tissue sections provides an additional tool for the analyses of miRNA expression and function. In addition, the use of radioactively labeled probes should facilitate quantitative analyses of changes in miRNA gene expression. PMID:17889803

  6. MicroRNA-218 inhibits melanogenesis by directly suppressing microphthalmia-associated transcription factor expression

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jia; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Wang, Wei-Mao; Cheung, Florence Wing-ki; Lu, Ying-fei; Ng, Chi-fai; Kung, Hsiang-fu; Liu, Wing-keung

    2014-01-01

    The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is a pivotal regulator of melanogenic enzymes for melanogenesis, and its expression is modulated by many transcriptional factors at the transcriptional level or post-transcriptional level through microRNAs (miRNAs). Although several miRNAs modulate melanogenic activities, there is no evidence of their direct action on MITF expression. Out of eight miRNAs targeting the 3′-UTR of Mitf predicted by bioinformatic programs, our results show miR-218 to be a novel candidate for direct action on MITF expression. Ectopic miR-218 dramatically reduced MITF expression, suppressed tyrosinase activity, and induced depigmentation in murine immortalized melan-a melanocytes. MiR-218 also suppressed melanogenesis in human pigmented skin organotypic culture (OTC) through the repression of MITF. An inverse correlation between MITF and miR-218 expression was found in human primary skin melanocytes and melanoma cell lines. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism involving miR-218 in the regulation of the MITF pigmentary process and its potential application for skin whitening therapy. PMID:24824743

  7. Preliminary examination of microRNA expression profiling in bipolar disorder I patients during antipsychotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chor Hong; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Kanagasundram, Sharmilla; Zain, Shamsul Mohd; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2016-09-01

    Although major progress has been achieved in research and development of antipsychotic medications for bipolar disorder (BPD), knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder and the action of atypical antipsychotics remains incomplete. The levels of microRNAs (miRNAs)-small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression, including genes involved in neuronal function and plasticity-are frequently altered in psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to examine changes in miRNA expression in bipolar mania patients after treatment with asenapine and risperidone. Using a miRNA microarray, we analyzed miRNA expression in the blood of 10 bipolar mania patients following 12 weeks of treatment with asenapine or risperidone. Selected miRNAs were validated by using real-time PCR. A total of 16 miRNAs were differentially expressed after treatment in the asenapine group, 14 of which were significantly upregulated and the other two significantly downregulated. However, all three differentially expressed miRNAs in the risperidone group were downregulated. MiRNA target gene prediction and gene ontology analysis revealed significant enrichment for pathways associated with immune system response and regulation of programmed cell death and transcription. Our results suggest that candidate miRNAs may be involved in the mechanism of action of both antipsychotics in bipolar mania. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Determinants of effective lentivirus-driven microRNA expression in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Takuya; Sadovsky, Elena; Gegick, Margaret E.; Sadovsky, Yoel

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of microRNA (miRNA) levels, including overexpression of mature species, has become an important biological tool, even motivating miRNA-based therapeutics. To assess key determinants of miRNA overexpression in a mammalian system in vivo, we sought to bypass the laborious generation of a transgenic animal by exploiting placental trophoblast-specific gene manipulation using lentiviral vectors, which has been instrumental in elucidating trophoblast biology. We examined the impact of several key components of miRNA stem loops and their flanking sequences on the efficiency of mature miRNA expression in vivo. By combining established and novel approaches for miRNA expression, we engineered lentivirus-driven miRNA expression plasmids, which we tested in the mouse placenta. We found that reverse sense inserts minimized single-strand splicing and degradation, and that maintaining longer, poly-A-containing arms flanking the miRNA stem-loop markedly enhanced transgenic miRNA expression. Additionally, we accomplished overexpression of diverse mammalian, drosophila, or C. elegans miRNAs, either based on native context or using a “cassette” replacement of the mature miRNA sequence. Together, we have identified primary miRNA sequences that are paramount for effective expression of mature miRNAs, and validated their role in mice. Principles established by our findings may guide the design of efficient miRNA vectors for in vivo use. PMID:27627961

  9. Development of a micro-array to detect human and mouse microRNAs and characterization of expression in human organs

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yingqing; Koo, Seongjoon; White, Neill; Peralta, Eigen; Esau, Christine; Dean, Nicholas M.; Perera, Ranjan J.

    2004-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are believed to play important roles in developmental and other cellular processes by hybridizing to complementary target mRNA transcripts. This results in either cleavage of the hybridized transcript or negative regulation of translation. Little is known about the regulation or pattern of miRNA expression. The predicted presence of numerous miRNA sequences in higher eukaryotes makes it highly likely that the expression levels of individual miRNA molecules themselves should play an important role in regulating multiple cellular processes. Therefore, determining the pattern of global miRNA expression levels in mammals and other higher eukaryotes is essential to help understand both the mechanism of miRNA transcriptional regulation as well as to help identify miRNA regulated gene expression. Here, we describe a novel method to detect global processed miRNA expression levels in higher eukaryotes, including human, mouse and rats, by using a high-density oligonucleotide array. Array results have been validated by subsequent confirmation of mir expression using northern-blot analysis. Major differences in mir expression have been detected in samples from diverse sources, suggesting highly regulated mir expression, and specific gene regulatory functions for individual miRNA transcripts. For example, five different miRNAs were found to be preferentially expressed in human kidney compared with other human tissues. Comparative analysis of surrounding genomic sequences of the kidney-specific miRNA clusters revealed the occurrence of specific transcription factor binding sites located in conserved phylogenetic foot prints, suggesting that these may be involved in regulating mir expression in kidney. PMID:15616155

  10. Development of a micro-array to detect human and mouse microRNAs and characterization of expression in human organs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yingqing; Koo, Seongjoon; White, Neill; Peralta, Eigen; Esau, Christine; Dean, Nicholas M; Perera, Ranjan J

    2004-12-22

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are believed to play important roles in developmental and other cellular processes by hybridizing to complementary target mRNA transcripts. This results in either cleavage of the hybridized transcript or negative regulation of translation. Little is known about the regulation or pattern of miRNA expression. The predicted presence of numerous miRNA sequences in higher eukaryotes makes it highly likely that the expression levels of individual miRNA molecules themselves should play an important role in regulating multiple cellular processes. Therefore, determining the pattern of global miRNA expression levels in mammals and other higher eukaryotes is essential to help understand both the mechanism of miRNA transcriptional regulation as well as to help identify miRNA regulated gene expression. Here, we describe a novel method to detect global processed miRNA expression levels in higher eukaryotes, including human, mouse and rats, by using a high-density oligonucleotide array. Array results have been validated by subsequent confirmation of mir expression using northern-blot analysis. Major differences in mir expression have been detected in samples from diverse sources, suggesting highly regulated mir expression, and specific gene regulatory functions for individual miRNA transcripts. For example, five different miRNAs were found to be preferentially expressed in human kidney compared with other human tissues. Comparative analysis of surrounding genomic sequences of the kidney-specific miRNA clusters revealed the occurrence of specific transcription factor binding sites located in conserved phylogenetic foot prints, suggesting that these may be involved in regulating mir expression in kidney.

  11. The Effect of Gravity Fields on Cellular Gene Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    1999-01-01

    Early theoretical analysis predicted that microgravity effects on the isolated cell would be minuscule at the subcellular level; however, these speculations have not proven true in the real world. Astronauts experience a significant bone and muscle loss in as little as 2 weeks of spaceflight and changes are seen at the cellular level soon after exposure to microgravity. Changes in biological systems may be primarily due to the lack of gravity and the resulting loss of mechanical stress on tissues and cells. Recent ground and flight studies examining the effects of gravity or mechanical stress on cells demonstrate marked changes in gene expression when relatively small changes in mechanical forces or gravity fields were made. Several immediate early genes (IEG) like c-fos and c-myc are induced by mechanical stimulation within minutes. In contrast, several investigators report that the absence of mechanical forces during space flight result in decreased sera response element (SRE) activity and attenuation of expression of IEGs such as c-fos, c-jun and cox-2 mRNAs. Clearly, these early changes in gene expression may have long term consequences on mechanically sensitive cells. In our early studies on STS-56, we reported four major changes in the osteoblast; 1) prostaglandin synthesis in flight, 2) changes in cellular morphology, 3) altered actin cytoskeleton and 4) reduced osteoblast growth after four days exposure to microgravity. Initially, it was believed that changes in fibronectin (FN) RNA, FN protein synthesis or subsequent FN matrix formation might account for the changes in cytoskeleton and/ or reduction of growth. However our recent studies on Biorack (STS-76, STS-81 and STS-84), using ground and in-flight 1-G controls, demonstrated that fibronectin synthesis and matrix formation were normal in microgravity. In addition, in our most recent Biorack paper, our laboratory has documented that relative protein synthesis and mRNA synthesis are not changed after 24

  12. The Effect of Gravity Fields on Cellular Gene Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    1999-01-01

    Early theoretical analysis predicted that microgravity effects on the isolated cell would be minuscule at the subcellular level; however, these speculations have not proven true in the real world. Astronauts experience a significant bone and muscle loss in as little as 2 weeks of spaceflight and changes are seen at the cellular level soon after exposure to microgravity. Changes in biological systems may be primarily due to the lack of gravity and the resulting loss of mechanical stress on tissues and cells. Recent ground and flight studies examining the effects of gravity or mechanical stress on cells demonstrate marked changes in gene expression when relatively small changes in mechanical forces or gravity fields were made. Several immediate early genes (IEG) like c-fos and c-myc are induced by mechanical stimulation within minutes. In contrast, several investigators report that the absence of mechanical forces during space flight result in decreased sera response element (SRE) activity and attenuation of expression of IEGs such as c-fos, c-jun and cox-2 mRNAs. Clearly, these early changes in gene expression may have long term consequences on mechanically sensitive cells. In our early studies on STS-56, we reported four major changes in the osteoblast; 1) prostaglandin synthesis in flight, 2) changes in cellular morphology, 3) altered actin cytoskeleton and 4) reduced osteoblast growth after four days exposure to microgravity. Initially, it was believed that changes in fibronectin (FN) RNA, FN protein synthesis or subsequent FN matrix formation might account for the changes in cytoskeleton and/ or reduction of growth. However our recent studies on Biorack (STS-76, STS-81 and STS-84), using ground and in-flight 1-G controls, demonstrated that fibronectin synthesis and matrix formation were normal in microgravity. In addition, in our most recent Biorack paper, our laboratory has documented that relative protein synthesis and mRNA synthesis are not changed after 24

  13. Effects of simulated microgravity on microRNA and mRNA expression profile of rat soleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hongjie; Wu, Feng; Cao, Hongqing; Kan, Guanghan; Zhang, Hongyu; Yeung, Ella W.; Shang, Peng; Dai, Zhongquan; Li, Yinghui

    2015-02-01

    Spaceflight induces muscle atrophy but mechanism is not well understood. Here, we quantified microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNA shifts of rat soleus in response to microgravity. MiRNAs and mRNA microarray of soleus after tail suspension (TS) for 7 and 14 days were performed followed by target gene and function annotation analysis and qRT-PCR. Relative muscle mass lost by 37.0% in TS-7 but less than 10% in the following three weeks. TS altered 23 miRNAs and 1313 mRNAs with at least 2-fold. QRT-PCR confirmed some of these changes. MiR-214, miR-486-5p and miR-221 continuously decreased. MiR-674 and Let-7e decreased only in TS-7, while miR-320b and miR-187 decreased only in TS-14. But there was no alteration of miR-320 and miR-206 in both time point. For mRNA detection, actn3 (5.1-fold and 13.8-fold) and myh4 (38-fold and 51.6-fold) increased abundantly and a3galt2 decreased. Predicted targeted genes (whyz, ywhaz and SFRP2) of altered miRNAs decreased. GO terms and cellular pathway of these alteration showed enrichment in regulation of muscle metabolism. Integration analysis of the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles confirmed that eleven genes were differently regulated by four miRNAs. This is the first study that showed expression pattern and synergistical regulation of miRNA and mRNA in rat soleus of TS for up to 14 days.

  14. Altered microRNA expression profile in synovial fluid from patients with knee osteoarthritis with treatment of hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji-Feng; Zhang, Shui-Jun; Zhao, Chen; Qiu, Bin-Song; Gu, Hai-Feng; Hong, Jian-Fei; Cao, Li; Chen, Yu; Xia, Bing; Bi, Qin; Wang, Ya-Ping

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microRNA (miRNA) expression pattern in synovial fluid from patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) after treatment with intra-articular injection of hyaluronan (HA). Twelve OA patients were enrolled in accordance with the Kellgren-Lawrence classification of knee OA. All patients received intra-articular injection of HA once a week for 5 weeks and were evaluated with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) index at baseline. TaqMan miRNA assay profiling was performed on synovial fluid RNAs extracted from OA patients pre-injection and after 5 weeks of treatment with HA. Validation was performed using independent samples, including ten healthy controls and ten matched OA patients. Forty-three miRNAs (21 overexpressed miRNAs and 22 underexpressed miRNAs) were differentially expressed in OA patients before and after treatment with HA (P < 0.05, false discovery rate corrected). Further bioinformatics prediction by mirPath indicated that the differential miRNA signatures in synovial fluid extracted from the OA patients demonstrated primarily upregulation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, regulation of autophagy, mRNA surveillance pathway, and B cell receptor signaling pathway. In addition, TaqMan real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed for validation on miR-146a, miR-155, let-7a, miR-181a, miR-454, and let-7b, which were significantly changed in abundance, using an independent cohort of ten healthy controls and ten OA patients as compared with those with intra-articular injection of HA. Our results demonstrated that dysregulation in miRNAs in synovial fluid from OA patients and their affected biologic cellular processes might play important role in OA pathogenesis and HA-mediated therapeutics.

  15. Increase of microRNA-210, Decrease of Raptor Gene Expression and Alteration of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Regulated Proteins following Mithramycin Treatment of Human Erythroid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Nicoletta; Finotti, Alessia; Ferracin, Manuela; Lampronti, Ilaria; Zuccato, Cristina; Breveglieri, Giulia; Brognara, Eleonora; Fabbri, Enrica; Borgatti, Monica; Negrini, Massimo; Gambari, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Expression and regulation of microRNAs is an emerging issue in erythroid differentiation and globin gene expression in hemoglobin disorders. In the first part of this study microarray analysis was performed both in mithramycin-induced K562 cells and erythroid precursors from healthy subjects or β-thalassemia patients producing low or high levels of fetal hemoglobin. We demonstrated that: (a) microRNA-210 expression is higher in erythroid precursors from β-thalassemia patients with high production of fetal hemoglobin; (b) microRNA-210 increases as a consequence of mithramycin treatment of K562 cells and human erythroid progenitors both from healthy and β-thalassemia subjects; (c) this increase is associated with erythroid induction and elevated expression of γ-globin genes; (d) an anti-microRNA against microRNA-210 interferes with the mithramycin-induced changes of gene expression. In the second part of the study we have obtained convergent evidences suggesting raptor mRNA as a putative target of microRNA-210. Indeed, microRNA-210 binding sites of its 3’-UTR region were involved in expression and are targets of microRNA-210-mediated modulation in a luciferase reporter assays. Furthermore, (i) raptor mRNA and protein are down-regulated upon mithramycin-induction both in K562 cells and erythroid progenitors from healthy and β-thalassemia subjects. In addition, (ii) administration of anti-microRNA-210 to K562 cells decreased endogenous microRNA-210 and increased raptor mRNA and protein expression. Finally, (iii) treatment of K562 cells with premicroRNA-210 led to a decrease of raptor mRNA and protein. In conclusion, microRNA-210 and raptor are involved in mithramycin-mediated erythroid differentiation of K562 cells and participate to the fine-tuning and control of γ-globin gene expression in erythroid precursor cells. PMID:25849663

  16. Expression patterns of conserved microRNAs in the male gametophyte of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda).

    PubMed

    Quinn, Christina R; Iriyama, Rie; Fernando, Danilo D

    2014-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that regulate genes involved in various aspects of plant development, but their presence and expression patterns in the male gametophytes of gymnosperms have not yet been established. Therefore, this study identified and compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs from two stages of the male gametophyte of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), which are the mature (ungerminated) and germinated pollen. Microarray was used to identify conserved miRNAs that varied in expression between these two stages of the loblolly pine male gametophyte. Forty-seven conserved miRNAs showed significantly different expression levels between mature and germinated loblolly pine pollen. In particular, miRNAs representing 14 and 8 families were up- and down-regulated in germinated loblolly pine pollen, respectively. qRT-PCR was used to validate their expression patterns using representative miRNAs. Target genes and proteins were identified using psRNATarget program. Predicted targets of the 22 miRNA families belong mostly to classes of genes involved in defense/stress response, metabolism, regulation, and signaling. qRT-PCR was also used to validate the expression patterns of representative target genes. This study shows that conserved miRNAs are expressed in mature and germinated loblolly pine pollen. Many of these miRNAs are differentially expressed, which indicates that the two stages of the male gametophyte examined are regulated at the miRNA level. This study also expands our knowledge of the male gametophytes of seed plants by providing insights on some similarities and differences in the types and expression patterns of conserved miRNAs between loblolly pine with those of rice and Arabidopsis.

  17. Retinoic Acid Induces Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation by Altering Both Encoding RNA and microRNA Expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingcheng; Gao, Yang; Yu, Mengying; Wu, Haibo; Ai, Zhiying; Wu, Yongyan; Liu, Hongliang; Du, Juan; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a vitamin A metabolite that is essential for early embryonic development and promotes stem cell neural lineage specification; however, little is known regarding the impact of RA on mRNA transcription and microRNA levels on embryonic stem cell differentiation. Here, we present mRNA microarray and microRNA high-output sequencing to clarify how RA regulates gene expression. Using mRNA microarray analysis, we showed that RA repressed pluripotency-associated genes while activating ectoderm markers in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Moreover, RA modulated the DNA methylation of mESCs by altering the expression of epigenetic-associated genes such as Dnmt3b and Dnmt3l. Furthermore, H3K4me2, a pluripotent histone modification, was repressed by RA stimulation. From microRNA sequence data, we identified two downregulated microRNAs, namely, miR-200b and miR-200c, which regulated the pluripotency of stem cells. We found that miR-200b or miR-200c deficiency suppressed the expression of pluripotent genes, including Oct4 and Nanog, and activated the expression of the ectodermal marker gene Nestin. These results demonstrate that retinoid induces mESCs to differentiate by regulating miR-200b/200c. Our findings provide the landscapes of mRNA and microRNA gene networks and indicate the crucial role of miR-200b/200c in the RA-induced differentiation of mESCs.

  18. Modulation of MicroRNA Cluster miR-183-96-182 Expression by Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Oussaief, Lassad; Fendri, Ali; Chane-Woon-Ming, Béatrice; Poirey, Remy; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Joab, Irène

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic human herpesvirus involved in the pathogenesis of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and various other lymphoproliferative disorders. In BL, EBV protein expression is restricted to EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1), but small noncoding RNAs such as EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) can also be detected. miRNAs play major roles in crucial processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. It has recently become clear that alterations in the expression profile of miRNAs contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of malignancies. During latent infection, EBV expresses 25 viral pre-miRNAs and modulates the expression of specific cellular miRNAs, such as miR-155 and miR-146, which potentially play a role in oncogenesis. Here, we established the small-RNA expression profiles of three BL cell lines. Using large-scale sequencing coupled to Northern blotting and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis validation, we demonstrated the differential expression of some cellular and viral miRNAs. High-level expression of the miR-183-96-182 cluster and EBV miR-BamHI A rightward transcript (miR-BART) cluster was significantly associated with EBV type I latency. This expression was not affected by viral reactivation since transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) stimulation did not significantly change the miRNA profiles. However, using several approaches, including de novo infection with a mutant virus, we present evidence that the expression of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) triggered downregulation of the expression of the miR-183-96-182 cluster. We further show that this effect involves the Akt signaling pathway. IMPORTANCE In addition to expressing their own miRNAs, herpesviruses also impact the expression levels of cellular miRNAs. This regulation can be either positive or negative and usually results in the perturbation of pathways to create a cellular environment that is more

  19. The Role of microRNA Expression in Cortical Development During Conversion to Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Zheutlin, Amanda B; Jeffries, Clark D; Perkins, Diana O; Chung, Yoonho; Chekroud, Adam M; Addington, Jean; Bearden, Carrie E; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Mathalon, Daniel H; McGlashan, Thomas H; Seidman, Larry J; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Tsuang, Ming; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2017-02-10

    In a recent report of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS), clinical high-risk individuals who converted to psychosis showed a steeper rate of cortical gray matter reduction compared with non-converters and healthy controls, and the rate of cortical thinning was correlated with levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines at baseline. These findings suggest a critical role for microglia, the resident macrophages in the brain, in perturbations of cortical maturation processes associated with onset of psychosis. Elucidating gene expression pathways promoting microglial action prior to disease onset would inform potential preventative intervention targets. Here we used a forward stepwise regression algorithm to build a classifier of baseline microRNA expression in peripheral leukocytes associated with annualized rate of cortical thinning in a subsample of the NAPLS cohort (N=74). Our cortical thinning classifier included nine microRNAs, p=3.63 × 10(-08), R(2)=0.358, permutation-based p=0.039, the gene targets of which were enriched for intracellular signaling pathways that are important to coordinating inflammatory responses within immune cells (p<0.05, Benjamini-Hochberg corrected). The classifier was also related to pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in serum (p=0.038). Furthermore, miRNAs that predicted conversion status were found to do so in a manner partially mediated by rate of cortical thinning (point estimate=0.078 [95% CIs: 0.003, 0.168], p=0.03). Many of the miRNAs identified here have been previously implicated in brain development, synaptic plasticity, immune function and/or schizophrenia, showing some convergence across studies and methodologies. Altered intracellular signaling within the immune system may interact with cortical maturation in individuals at high risk for schizophrenia promoting disease onset.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 10 February 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.34.

  20. An Integrated mRNA and microRNA Expression Signature for Glioblastoma Multiforme Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jie; Bing, Zhitong; Su, Yanlin; Deng, Defeng; Peng, Xiaoning

    2014-01-01

    Although patients with Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) have grave prognosis, significant variability in patient outcome is observed. The objective of this study is to identify a molecular signature for GBM prognosis. We subjected 355 mRNA and microRNA expression profiles to elastic net-regulated Cox regression for identification of an integrated RNA signature for GBM prognosis. A prognostic index (PI) was generated for patient stratification. Survival comparison was conducted by Kaplan-Meier method and a general multivariate Cox regression procedure was applied to evaluate the independence of the PI. The abilities and efficiencies of signatures to predict GBM patient outcome was assessed and compared by the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC). An integrated RNA prognostic signature consisted by 4 protective mRNAs, 12 risky mRNAs, and 1 risky microRNA was identified. Decreased survival was associated with being in the high-risk group (hazard ratio = 2.864, P<0.0001). The prognostic value of the integrated signature was validated in five independent GBM expression datasets (n = 201, hazard ratio = 2.453, P<0.0001). The PI outperformed the known clinical factors, mRNA-only, and miRNA-only prognostic signatures for GBM prognosis (area under the ROC curve for the integrated RNA, mRNA-only, and miRNA-only signatures were 0.828, 0.742, and 0.757 at 3 years of overall survival, respectively, P<0.0001 by permutation test). We describe the first, to our knowledge, robust transcriptome-based integrated RNA signature that improves the current GBM prognosis based on clinical variables, mRNA-only, and miRNA-only signatures. PMID:24871302

  1. Deficiency of the purine metabolic gene HPRT dysregulates microRNA-17 family cluster and guanine-based cellular functions: a role for EPAC in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guibinga, Ghiabe-Henri; Murray, Fiona; Barron, Nikki; Pandori, William; Hrustanovic, Gorjan

    2013-01-01

    Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the purine metabolic enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). A series of motor, cognitive and neurobehavioral anomalies characterize this disease phenotype, which is still poorly understood. The clinical manifestations of this syndrome are believed to be the consequences of deficiencies in neurodevelopmental pathways that lead to disordered brain function. We have used microRNA array and gene ontology analysis to evaluate the gene expression of differentiating HPRT-deficient human neuron-like cell lines. We set out to identify dysregulated genes implicated in purine-based cellular functions. Our approach was based on the premise that HPRT deficiency affects preeminently the expression and the function of purine-based molecular complexes, such as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and small GTPases. We found that several microRNAs from the miR-17 family cluster and genes encoding GEF are dysregulated in HPRT deficiency. Most notably, our data show that the expression of the exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) is blunted in HPRT-deficient human neuron-like cell lines and fibroblast cells from LNS patients, and is altered in the cortex, striatum and midbrain of HPRT knockout mouse. We also show a marked impairment in the activation of small GTPase RAP1 in the HPRT-deficient cells, as well as differences in cytoskeleton dynamics that lead to increased motility for HPRT-deficient neuron-like cell lines relative to control. We propose that the alterations in EPAC/RAP1 signaling and cell migration in HPRT deficiency are crucial for neuro-developmental events that may contribute to the neurological dysfunctions in LNS. PMID:23804752

  2. Deficiency of the purine metabolic gene HPRT dysregulates microRNA-17 family cluster and guanine-based cellular functions: a role for EPAC in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guibinga, Ghiabe-Henri; Murray, Fiona; Barron, Nikki; Pandori, William; Hrustanovic, Gorjan

    2013-11-15

    Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the purine metabolic enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). A series of motor, cognitive and neurobehavioral anomalies characterize this disease phenotype, which is still poorly understood. The clinical manifestations of this syndrome are believed to be the consequences of deficiencies in neurodevelopmental pathways that lead to disordered brain function. We have used microRNA array and gene ontology analysis to evaluate the gene expression of differentiating HPRT-deficient human neuron-like cell lines. We set out to identify dysregulated genes implicated in purine-based cellular functions. Our approach was based on the premise that HPRT deficiency affects preeminently the expression and the function of purine-based molecular complexes, such as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and small GTPases. We found that several microRNAs from the miR-17 family cluster and genes encoding GEF are dysregulated in HPRT deficiency. Most notably, our data show that the expression of the exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) is blunted in HPRT-deficient human neuron-like cell lines and fibroblast cells from LNS patients, and is altered in the cortex, striatum and midbrain of HPRT knockout mouse. We also show a marked impairment in the activation of small GTPase RAP1 in the HPRT-deficient cells, as well as differences in cytoskeleton dynamics that lead to increased motility for HPRT-deficient neuron-like cell lines relative to control. We propose that the alterations in EPAC/RAP1 signaling and cell migration in HPRT deficiency are crucial for neuro-developmental events that may contribute to the neurological dysfunctions in LNS.

  3. Epigallocatechin Gallate-Mediated Alteration of the MicroRNA Expression Profile in 5α-Dihydrotestosterone-Treated Human Dermal Papilla Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Shanghun; Kim, Karam; Lee, Myung Joo; Lee, Jeongju; Choi, Sungjin; Kim, Kyung-Suk; Ko, Jung-Min; Han, Hyunjoo; Kim, Su Young; Youn, Hae Jeong; Ahn, Kyu Joong; An, In-Sook; An, Sungkwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induces androgenic alopecia by shortening the hair follicle growth phase, resulting in hair loss. We previously demonstrated how changes in the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile influenced DHT-mediated cell death, cell cycle arrest, cell viability, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and senescence. Protective effects against DHT have not, however, been elucidated at the genome level. Objective We showed that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, protects DHT-induced cell death by regulating the cellular miRNA expression profile. Methods We used a miRNA microarray to identify miRNA expression levels in human dermal papilla cells (DPCs). We investigated whether the miRNA expression influenced the protective effects of EGCG against DHT-induced cell death, growth arrest, intracellular ROS levels, and senescence. Results EGCG protected against the effects of DHT by altering the miRNA expression profile in human DPCs. In addition, EGCG attenuated DHT-mediated cell death and growth arrest and decreased intracellular ROS levels and senescence. A bioinformatics analysis elucidated the relationship between the altered miRNA expression and EGCG-mediated protective effects against DHT. Conclusion Overall, our results suggest that EGCG ameliorates the negative effects of DHT by altering the miRNA expression profile in human DPCs. PMID:27274631

  4. A non-invasive method to determine the pluripotent status of stem cells by culture medium microRNA expression detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Feng, Gui-Hai; Xu, Kai; Wang, Libin; Cui, Peng; Li, Yuhuan; Wang, Chenxin; Teng, Fei; Hao, Jie; Wan, Hai-Feng; Tan, Yuanqing; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Zhou, Qi

    2016-03-01

    To precisely determine the type and status of cells is an important prerequisite for basic researches and regenerative medicine involving stem cells or differentiated cells. However, the traditional destructive cell status examination methods have many limitations, mainly due to the heterogeneity of cells under the reprogramming or differentiation/trans-differentiation process. Here we present a new method to non-destructively determine the pluripotent level of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), or the types of differentiated cells. The method is achieved by examining the expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cell culture medium, which show consistent abundance trend as those of the cellular miRNAs. Therefore, the method enables status examination and afterward application being achieved on the same population of cells, which will greatly facilitate cell reprogramming or differentiation/trans-differentiation related based research and clinical therapy.

  5. Expression of herpes simplex virus 1 microRNAs in cell culture models of quiescent and latent infection.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Igor; Hackenberg, Michael; Kim, Ju Youn; Pesola, Jean M; Everett, Roger D; Preston, Chris M; Wilson, Angus C; Coen, Donald M

    2014-02-01

    To facilitate studies of herpes simplex virus 1 latency, cell culture models of quiescent or latent infection have been developed. Using deep sequencing, we analyzed the expression of viral microRNAs (miRNAs) in two models employing human fibroblasts and one using rat neurons. In all cases, the expression patterns differed from that in productively infected cells, with the rat neuron pattern most closely resembling that found in latently infected human or mouse ganglia in vivo.

  6. Mice lacking microRNAs in Pax8-expressing cells develop hypothyroidism and end-stage renal failure.

    PubMed

    Bartram, Malte P; Amendola, Elena; Benzing, Thomas; Schermer, Bernhard; de Vita, Gabriella; Müller, Roman-Ulrich

    2016-04-18

    Non-coding RNAs have gained increasing attention during the last decade. The first large group of non-coding RNAs to be characterized systematically starting at the beginning of the 21st century were small oligonucleotides--the so-called microRNAs (miRNAs). By now we have learnt that microRNAs are indispensable for most biological processes including organogenesis and maintenance of organ structure and function. The role of microRNAs has been studied extensively in the development of a number of organs, so far most studies focussed on e.g. the heart or the brain whilst the role of microRNAs in the development and maintenance of complex epithelial organs is less well understood. Furthermore most analyses regarding microRNA function in epithelial organs employed conditional knockout mouse models of the RNAse III Dicer to abrogate microRNA biogenesis. However, there is increasing evidence for Dicer to have multiple functions independent from microRNA maturation. Therefore Dicer independent models are needed to gain further insight into the complex biology of miRNA dependent processes. Here we analyze the contribution of microRNA-dependent transcriptional control in Pax8-expressing epithelial cells. Pax8 is a transcription factor that is crucial to the development of epithelial organs. The miRNA machinery was disrupted by crossing conditional DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 (Dgcr8) fl/fl mice to Pax8Cre mice. The Dgcr8/Drosha complex processes pri-miRNAs in the nucleus before they are exported as pre-miRNAs for further maturation by Dicer in the cytoplasm. Dgcr8 fl/fl; Pax8Cre+ knockout mice died prematurely, developed massive hypothyroidism and end stage renal disease due to a loss of miRNAs in Pax8 expressing tissue. Pax8Cre-mediated conditional loss of DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 (Dgcr8), an essential component of the nuclear machinery that is required for microRNA biogenesis, resulted in severe hypothyroidism, massively reduced body weight and

  7. Expression signature of microRNA-155 in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection

    PubMed Central

    RIAD, SARAH EHAB; EL-EKIABY, NADA; MEKKY, RADWA YEHIA; AHMED, RASHA; EL DIN, MOHAMMAD AHMED MOHEY; EL-SAYED, MOHAMMAD; ABOUELKHAIR, MAHMOUD MOHAMMAD; SALAH, AYMAN; ZEKRI, ABDEL RAHMAN; ESMAT, GAMAL; ABDELAZIZ, AHMED IHAB

    2015-01-01

    Hepatits C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (GT4) shows low treatment response rates and discrepancies when compared to other genotypes. However, the reason underlying these discrepancies remains unclear due to the limited number of studies on GT4. microRNA-155 (miR-155) is a noteworthy example of a discrepancy in GT4, as it was found to be upregulated in genotypes 1, 2 and 3 HCV infection, but downregulated in GT4-HCV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The present study aimed to investigate the expression of miR-155 in PBMCs, serum and liver tissues of GT4-HCV-infected patients. miR-155 expression was assessed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in GT4-HCV-infected PBMCs, serum and liver tissues, as well as GT2- and GT4-infected Huh7 cells, and compared to the healthy controls. There was no difference in miR-155 expression observed between naïve GT4-HCV patients and healthy controls in the PBMCs and serum. In HCV-infected liver tissues, however, a significant downregulation was observed. The unique miR-155 expression pattern during GT4 infection was confirmed in the infected Huh7 cell lines when compared to GT2 infection. Clinical data showed a positive correlation between liver transaminases and serum miR-155 expression. In addition, serum miR-155 expression was significantly lower in naïve non-responders (NRs) than naïve sustained virological responders (SVRs), and in post-treatment NRs compared to post-treatment SVRs. In conclusion, miR-155 was not only proven to be a genotype-specific microRNA that is not induced during GT4-HCV infection, but also a good prognostic factor and predictor of response to treatment enabling a non-invasive differentiation between NRs and SVRs during GT4-HCV infection. PMID:25469255

  8. Radiation-Induced Micro-RNA Expression Changes in Peripheral Blood Cells of Radiotherapy Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Templin, Thomas; Paul, Sunirmal; Amundson, Sally A.; Young, Erik F.; Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Smilenov, Lubomir B.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of noncoding small RNAs that regulate gene expression, are involved in numerous physiologic processes in normal and malignant cells. Our in vivo study measured miRNA and gene expression changes in human blood cells in response to ionizing radiation, to develop miRNA signatures that can be used as biomarkers for radiation exposure. Methods and Materials: Blood from 8 radiotherapy patients in complete remission 1 or 2 was collected immediately before and 4 hours after total body irradiation with 1.25 Gy x-rays. Both miRNA and gene expression changes were measured by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction and microarray hybridization, respectively. Hierarchic clustering, multidimensional scaling, class prediction, and gene ontology analysis were performed to investigate the potential of miRNAs to serve as radiation biomarkers and to elucidate their likely physiologic roles in the radiation response. Results: The expression levels of 45 miRNAs were statistically significantly upregulated 4 hours after irradiation with 1.25 Gy x-rays, 27 of them in every patient. Nonirradiated and irradiated samples form separate clusters in hierarchic clustering and multidimensional scaling. Out of 223 differentially expressed genes, 37 were both downregulated and predicted targets of the upregulated miRNAs. Paired and unpaired miRNA-based classifiers that we developed can predict the class membership of a sample with unknown irradiation status, with accuracies of 100% when all 45 upregulated miRNAs are included. Both miRNA control of and gene involvement in biologic processes such as hemopoiesis and the immune response are increased after irradiation, whereas metabolic processes are underrepresented among all differentially expressed genes and the genes controlled by miRNAs. Conclusions: Exposure to ionizing radiation leads to the upregulation of the expression of a considerable proportion of the human miRNAome of peripheral blood cells

  9. Propofol suppresses proliferation and invasion of glioma cells by upregulating microRNA-218 expression

    PubMed Central

    XU, JINQUAN; XU, WEIYUN; ZHU, JIAQUN

    2015-01-01

    Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is a commonly used intravenous anesthetic agent. The present study aimed to assess the effect of propofol on the proliferation and invasion of human glioma cells, and to determine the potential underlying molecular mechanisms. The effects of propofol on U373 glioblastoma cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion were detected by an MTT assay, caspase-3 activity measurement and a Matrigel™ invasion assay, respectively. MicroRNA (miR)-218 expression and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 protein expression levels were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. In addition, miR-218 precursor was transfected into the cells to assess whether overexpression of miR-218 could affect MMP-2 expression. Anti-miR-218 was transfected into the cells to evaluate the role of miR-218 in the effects of propofol on the biological behavior of glioma cells. The results of the present study demonstrated that propofol significantly increased the expression levels of miR-218, inhibited U373 cell proliferation and invasion, and facilitated apoptosis. In addition, treatment with propofol efficiently reduced MMP-2 protein expression levels, and overexpression of miR-218 also decreased MMP-2 protein expression levels. Whereas, neutralization of miR-218 using the anti-miR-218 antibody reversed the effects of propofol on the biological behavior of U373 cells, and on the inhibition of MMP-2 protein expression. In conclusion, propofol may effectively suppress proliferation and invasion, and induce the apoptosis of glioma cells, at least partially through upregulation of miR-218 expression. PMID:26133092